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Sample records for advanced candle filters

  1. ADVANCED SECOND GENERATION CERAMIC CANDLE FILTERS

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Alvin

    2002-01-31

    Through sponsorship from the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL), development and manufacture of advanced second generation candle filters was undertaken in the early 1990's. Efforts were primarily focused on the manufacture of fracture toughened, 1.5 m, continuous fiber ceramic composite (CFCC) and filament wound candle filters by 3M, McDermott, DuPont Lanxide Composites, and Techniweave. In order to demonstrate long-term thermal, chemical, and mechanical stability of the advanced second generation candle filter materials, Siemens Westinghouse initiated high temperature, bench-scale, corrosion testing of 3M's CVI-SiC and DuPont's PRD-66 mini-candles, and DuPont's CFCC SiC-SiC and IF&P Fibrosic{sup TM} coupons under simulated, pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) conditions. This effort was followed by an evaluation of the mechanical and filtration performance of the advanced second generation filter elements in Siemens Westinghouse's bench-scale PFBC test facility in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Arrays of 1.4-1.5 m 3M CVI-SiC, DuPont PRD-66, DuPont SiC-SiC, and IF&P Fibrosic{sup TM} candles were subjected to steady state process operating conditions, increased severity thermal transients, and accelerated pulse cycling test campaigns which represented {approx}1760 hours of equivalent filter operating life. Siemens Westinghouse subsequently participated in early material surveillance programs which marked entry of the 3M CVI-SiC and DuPont PRD-66 candle filters in Siemens Westinghouse Advanced Particulate Filtration (APF) system at the American Electric Power (AEP) Tidd Demonstration Plant in Brilliant, Ohio. Siemens Westinghouse then conducted an extended, accelerated life, qualification program, evaluating the performance of the 3M, McDermott, and Techniweave oxide-based CFCC filter elements, modified DuPont PRD-66 elements, and the Blasch, Scapa Cerafil{sup TM}, and Specific Surface monolithic candles for use in the APF

  2. Advanced lightweight ceramic candle filter module

    SciTech Connect

    Zievers, J.F.; Eggerstedt, P.

    1992-01-01

    To determine the economic effect of light weight ceramics, several sizes of filters were cost estimated for operation at 217.5 psi (15 bar) based on the use of all light weight ceramics (Fibro/Fibro) vs. the use of cooled alloy (RA300) tubesheets and silicon carbide candles (Alloy/SiC). A jet pulse delivery system was included in both estimates. The Fibro/Fibro system was estimated with the plenum design while the Alloy/SiC system was based on header/nozzle design. Battery limits were the filters and jet pulse delivery systems, Ex-works, with no main valves or dust removal systems. It was found that the cost of Fibro/Fibro components were consistently lower than the cost of the Alloy/SiC components; this comparison is illustrated in Figure 8.

  3. Advanced lightweight ceramic candle filter module

    SciTech Connect

    Zievers, J.F.; Eggerstedt, P.

    1992-11-01

    To determine the economic effect of light weight ceramics, several sizes of filters were cost estimated for operation at 217.5 psi (15 bar) based on the use of all light weight ceramics (Fibro/Fibro) vs. the use of cooled alloy (RA300) tubesheets and silicon carbide candles (Alloy/SiC). A jet pulse delivery system was included in both estimates. The Fibro/Fibro system was estimated with the plenum design while the Alloy/SiC system was based on header/nozzle design. Battery limits were the filters and jet pulse delivery systems, Ex-works, with no main valves or dust removal systems. It was found that the cost of Fibro/Fibro components were consistently lower than the cost of the Alloy/SiC components; this comparison is illustrated in Figure 8.

  4. Assessment of the advanced clay bonded silicon carbide candle filter materials. Topical report, September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Alvin, M.A.

    1995-07-01

    Advancements have been made during the past five years to not only increase the strength of the as-manufactured clay bonded silicon carbide candle filter materials, but also to improve their high temperature creep resistance properties. This report reviews these developments, and describes the results of preliminary qualification testing which has been conducted at Westinghouse prior to utilizing the advanced clay bonded silicon carbide filters in high temperature, pressurized, coal-fired combustion and/or gasification applications.

  5. Performance and stability of advanced monolithic and fiber reinforced composite candle filters during PCFBC operation

    SciTech Connect

    Alvin, M.A.

    1996-12-31

    Advanced clay bonded silicon carbide, alumina/mullite and CVI-SiC fiber reinforced composite porous ceramic candle filters have been identified for use in pressurized circulating fluidized-bed combustion (PCFBC) systems where operating temperatures approach 870--900 C. In this paper the author will discuss the performance of these filter elements, and explore the response and stability of the advanced filter materials after 540 hours of operation in Foster Wheeler`s PCFBC system in Karhula, Finland. The potential use of the advanced filter materials for extended operating life in high temperature, pressurized, coal-fired process applications will also be addressed.

  6. Novel Backup Filter Device for Candle Filters

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, B.; Goldsmith, R.; Dunham, G.; Henderson, A.

    2002-09-18

    The currently preferred means of particulate removal from process or combustion gas generated by advanced coal-based power production processes is filtration with candle filters. However, candle filters have not shown the requisite reliability to be commercially viable for hot gas clean up for either integrated gasifier combined cycle (IGCC) or pressurized fluid bed combustion (PFBC) processes. Even a single candle failure can lead to unacceptable ash breakthrough, which can result in (a) damage to highly sensitive and expensive downstream equipment, (b) unacceptably low system on-stream factor, and (c) unplanned outages. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized the need to have fail-safe devices installed within or downstream from candle filters. In addition to CeraMem, DOE has contracted with Siemens-Westinghouse, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) at the University of North Dakota, and the Southern Research Institute (SRI) to develop novel fail-safe devices. Siemens-Westinghouse is evaluating honeycomb-based filter devices on the clean-side of the candle filter that can operate up to 870 C. The EERC is developing a highly porous ceramic disk with a sticky yet temperature-stable coating that will trap dust in the event of filter failure. SRI is developing the Full-Flow Mechanical Safeguard Device that provides a positive seal for the candle filter. Operation of the SRI device is triggered by the higher-than-normal gas flow from a broken candle. The CeraMem approach is similar to that of Siemens-Westinghouse and involves the development of honeycomb-based filters that operate on the clean-side of a candle filter. The overall objective of this project is to fabricate and test silicon carbide-based honeycomb failsafe filters for protection of downstream equipment in advanced coal conversion processes. The fail-safe filter, installed directly downstream of a candle filter, should have the capability for stopping essentially all particulate

  7. Properties of ceramic candle filters

    SciTech Connect

    Pontius, D.H.; Starrett, H.S.

    1994-10-01

    The objectives of this program have been: (1) the post-test evaluation of candle filters, (2) to measure the material properties of current filter materials, destructively and non-destructively, and to relate these properties and behaviors to in-service performance, (3) to develop an understanding of the material requirements for hot gas filter elements, (4) to develop material property goals for filter materials, and (5) to establish test matrices and a protocol to evaluate candidate filter materials.

  8. FILTER COMPONENT ASSESSMENT--CERAMIC CANDLES--

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Alvin

    2004-04-23

    Efforts at Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (SWPC) have been focused on development of hot gas filter systems as an enabling technology for advanced coal and biomass-based gas turbine power generation applications. SWPC has been actively involved in the development of advanced filter materials and component configuration, has participated in numerous surveillance programs characterizing the material properties and microstructure of field tested filter elements, and has undertaken extended, accelerated filter life testing programs. This report summarizes the results of SWPC's filter component assessment efforts, identifying the performance and stability of porous monolithic, fiber reinforced, and filament wound ceramic hot gas candle filters, potentially for {ge}3 years of viable pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) service operating life.

  9. Properties of ceramic candle filters

    SciTech Connect

    Pontius, D.H.

    1995-06-01

    The mechanical integrity of ceramic filter elements is a key issue for hot gas cleanup systems. To meet the demands of the advanced power systems, the filter components must sustain the thermal stresses of normal operations (pulse cleaning), of start-up and shut-down conditions, and of unanticipated process upsets such as excessive ash accumulation without catastrophic failure. They must also survive the various mechanical loads associated with handling and assembly, normal operation, and process upsets. For near-term filter systems, these elements must survive at operating temperatures of 1650{degrees}F for three years.

  10. Candle filter fabrication using combustion synthesis method

    SciTech Connect

    Hanus, G.J.; Uznanski, K.T.; DeCoursin, D.G.; Hickel, S.D.; Shtessel, E.

    1996-12-31

    Using self-propagating, high-temperature synthesis fabrication techniques, unique combinations of materials were studied for use in candle filter development. Materials suitable for corrosive atmospheres with improved filtration and mechanical properties were identified within the context of manufacturing simplicity, versatility and cost-effectiveness. Material combinations suitable for combustion synthesis were identified which match the temperature, strength and corrosion resistance requirements of operation in pressurized, fluidized-bed combustion environments. Tests on porosity, permeability and strength indicated the ability of the method to process porous filter material which matches or surpasses the performance levels of current, production candle filter material samples.

  11. Filter holder and gasket assembly for candle or tube filters

    DOEpatents

    Lippert, T.E.; Alvin, M.A.; Bruck, G.J.; Smeltzer, E.E.

    1999-03-02

    A filter holder and gasket assembly are disclosed for holding a candle filter element within a hot gas cleanup system pressure vessel. The filter holder and gasket assembly includes a filter housing, an annular spacer ring securely attached within the filter housing, a gasket sock, a top gasket, a middle gasket and a cast nut. 9 figs.

  12. Filter holder and gasket assembly for candle or tube filters

    DOEpatents

    Lippert, Thomas Edwin; Alvin, Mary Anne; Bruck, Gerald Joseph; Smeltzer, Eugene E.

    1999-03-02

    A filter holder and gasket assembly for holding a candle filter element within a hot gas cleanup system pressure vessel. The filter holder and gasket assembly includes a filter housing, an annular spacer ring securely attached within the filter housing, a gasket sock, a top gasket, a middle gasket and a cast nut.

  13. NONDESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION OF CERAMIC CANDLE FILTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Roger H.L. Chen, Ph.D.; Alejandro Kiriakidis

    1999-09-01

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques have been used to reduce the potential mechanical failures and to improve the reliability of a structure. Failure of a structure is usually initiated at some type of flaw in the material. NDE techniques have been developed to determine the presence of flaws larger than an acceptable size and to estimate the remaining stiffness of a damaged structure (Chen, et. al, 1995). Ceramic candle filters have been tested for use in coal-fueled gas turbine systems. They protect gas turbine components from damage due to erosion. A total of one hundred and one candle filters were nondestructively evaluated in this study. Ninety-eight ceramic candle filters and three ceramic composite filters have been nondestructively inspected using dynamic characterization technique. These ceramic filters include twelve unused Coors alumina/mullite, twenty-four unused and fifteen used Schumacher-Dia-Schumalith TF-20, twenty-five unused and nine used Refractron 326, eight unused and three used Refractron 442T, one new Schumacher-T 10-20, and one used Schumacher-Dia-Schumalith F-40. All filters were subjected to a small excitation and the dynamic response was picked up by a piezoelectric accelerometer. The evaluation of experimental results was processed using digital signal analysis technique including various forms of data transformation. The modal parameters for damage assessment for the unexposed (unused) vs. exposed (used) specimen were based on two vibration parameters: natural frequencies and mode shapes. Finite Element models were built for each specimen type to understand its dynamic response. Linear elastic modal analysis was performed using eight nodes, three-dimensional isotropic solid elements. Conclusions based on our study indicate that dynamic characterization is a feasible NDE technique in studying structural properties of ceramic candle filters. It has been shown that the degradation of the filters due to long working hours (or

  14. Qualifications of Candle Filters for Combined Cycle Combustion Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasz Wiltowski

    2008-08-31

    The direct firing of coal produces particulate matter that has to be removed for environmental and process reasons. In order to increase the current advanced coal combustion processes, under the U.S. Department of Energy's auspices, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (SWPC) has developed ceramic candle filters that can operate at high temperatures. The Coal Research Center of Southern Illinois University (SIUC), in collaboration with SWPC, developed a program for long-term filter testing at the SIUC Steam Plant followed by experiments using a single-filter reactor unit. The objectives of this program funded by the U.S. Department of Energy were to identify and demonstrate the stability of porous candle filter elements for use in high temperature atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion (AFBC) process applications. These verifications were accomplished through extended time slipstream testing of a candle filter array under AFBC conditions using SIUC's existing AFBC boiler. Temperature, mass flow rate, and differential pressure across the filter array were monitored for a duration of 45 days. After test exposure at SIUC, the filter elements were characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy and BET surface area analyses. In addition, a single-filter reactor was built and utilized to study long term filter operation, the permeability exhibited by a filter element before and after the slipstream test, and the thermal shock resilience of a used filter by observing differential pressure changes upon rapid heating and cooling of the filter. The data acquired during the slipstream test and the post-test evaluations demonstrated the suitability of filter elements in advanced power generation applications.

  15. Thermal/chemical degradation of ceramic candle filter materials. Final report, September 1988--October 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    High-temperature ceramic candle filters are being developed for use in advanced power generation systems such as the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC), Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustor (PFBC), and Direct Coal-Fired Turbine (DCFT). The direct firing of coal produces particulate matter which must be removed to meet both environmental and process limitations. The ceramic candles increase the efficiency of the advanced power generation systems and protect downstream equipment from erosion and impingement of particulate matter in the hot exhaust gases. Ceramic candle filters are rigid, closed-ended (capped on one side) porous cylinders which generally have a flange on the open-ended side. The flange at the open end allows the candle to be suspended by a tubesheet in the filter vessel. Candle filters have shown promise, but have also encountered durability problems during use in hostile, high-temperature environments. Limitations in the candle lifetime lower the economic advantages of using candle filters for this application. Candles typically fail by cracking at the flange or in the body of the candle. The objective of this project was to test and analyze ceramic candle filter materials and to evaluate the degradation mechanisms. The tests were conducted such that the effects of each degradation mechanism could be examined. Separately. The overall objective of the project was to: (a) develop a better understanding of the thermal and chemical degradation mechanisms of ceramic candle filter materials in advanced coal utilization projects, (b) develop test procedures, and (c) recommend changes to increase filter lifetime. 15 refs., 67 figs., 17 tabs.

  16. A Simple Candle Filter Safeguard Device

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, J.P.; Henderson, A.K.; Swanson, M.L.

    2002-09-18

    In order to reach the highest possible efficiencies in a coal-fired turbine-based power system, the turbine should be directly fired with the products of coal utilization. Two main designs employ these turbines: those based on pressurized fluidized-bed combustors (PFBCs) and those based on integrated gasification combined cycles (IGCCs). In both designs, the suspended particulates, or dust, must be cleaned from the gas before it enters the turbine to prevent fouling and erosion of the blades. To produce the cleanest gas, barrier filters are being developed and are in commercial use. Barrier filters are composed of porous, high-temperature materials that allow the hot gas to pass but collect the dust on the surface. The three main configurations are candle, cross-flow, and tube. Both candle and tube filters have been tested extensively. They are primarily composed of coarsely porous ceramic that serves as a structural support, overlain with a thin, microporous ceramic layer o n the dirty gas side that serves as the primary filter surface. They are highly efficient at removing particulate matter from the gas stream and, because of their ceramic construction, are resistant to gas and ash corrosion. However, ceramics are brittle, and individual elements can fail, allowing the particulates to pass through the hole left by the filter element and erode the turbine. Because of the possibility of occasional filter breakage, safeguard devices (SGDs) must be employed to prevent the dust streaming through broken filters from reaching the turbine. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) safeguard device is composed of three main parts: the ceramic substrate, the adhesive coating, and the safeguard device housing. This report describes the development and laboratory testing of each of those parts as well as the bench-scale performance of both types of complete SGDs.

  17. Nondestructive evaluation of ceramic candle filter with various boundary conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.L.; Kiriakidis, A.C.

    2005-06-01

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) using a dynamic characterization technique was conducted to study ceramic candle filters. Ceramic candle filters are hollow cylindrical structures made of porous ceramic materials used to protect gas turbine in coal-fired power plants. Deterioration and failure of ceramic filters occurs after being exposed to high-temperature and high-pressure operational environment over a period of time. This paper focuses on the development of an NDE method that can predict the in-situ structural stiffness of the candle filters while still being attached to the plenum. A combination of laboratory testing, theoretical analysis, and finite element method (FEM) simulations are presented. The candle filters were tested using a laser vibrometer/accelerometer setup with variable boundary restraints. A variable end-restraint Timoshenko beam equation was derived to determine the dynamic response of the candle filters with simulated in-situ boundary conditions. Results from the FEM simulation were verified with the analysis to determine the stiffness degradation of the candle filters as well as the boundary conditions. Results from this study show that the vibration characteristics can be used effectively to evaluate both the structural stiffness and the in-situ boundary restraints of the ceramic candle filters during field inspections.

  18. OPTIMIZATION OF ADVANCED FILTER SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    R.A. Newby; M.A. Alvin; G.J. Bruck; T.E. Lippert; E.E. Smeltzer; M.E. Stampahar

    2002-06-30

    Two advanced, hot gas, barrier filter system concepts have been proposed by the Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation to improve the reliability and availability of barrier filter systems in applications such as PFBC and IGCC power generation. The two hot gas, barrier filter system concepts, the inverted candle filter system and the sheet filter system, were the focus of bench-scale testing, data evaluations, and commercial cost evaluations to assess their feasibility as viable barrier filter systems. The program results show that the inverted candle filter system has high potential to be a highly reliable, commercially successful, hot gas, barrier filter system. Some types of thin-walled, standard candle filter elements can be used directly as inverted candle filter elements, and the development of a new type of filter element is not a requirement of this technology. Six types of inverted candle filter elements were procured and assessed in the program in cold flow and high-temperature test campaigns. The thin-walled McDermott 610 CFCC inverted candle filter elements, and the thin-walled Pall iron aluminide inverted candle filter elements are the best candidates for demonstration of the technology. Although the capital cost of the inverted candle filter system is estimated to range from about 0 to 15% greater than the capital cost of the standard candle filter system, the operating cost and life-cycle cost of the inverted candle filter system is expected to be superior to that of the standard candle filter system. Improved hot gas, barrier filter system availability will result in improved overall power plant economics. The inverted candle filter system is recommended for continued development through larger-scale testing in a coal-fueled test facility, and inverted candle containment equipment has been fabricated and shipped to a gasifier development site for potential future testing. Two types of sheet filter elements were procured and assessed in the program

  19. Nondestructive Evaluation of Ceramic Candle Filters Using Vibration Response

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Roger H. L.; Kiriakidis, Alejandro C.; Peng, Steve W.

    1997-07-01

    This study aims at the development of an effective nondestructive evaluation technique to predict the remaining useful life of a ceramic candle filter during a power plant's annual maintenance shutdown. The objective of the present on-going study is to establish the vibration signatures of ceramic candle filters at varying degradation levels due to different operating hours, and to study the various factors involving the establishment of the signatures.

  20. Evaluating structural deterioration of ceramic candle filters using dynamic response

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, R.H.L.; Parthasarathy, B.

    1996-12-31

    Ceramic candle filters used in the recent demonstration plant have experienced degradation and fracturing. Preliminary examination of these ceramic filters indicated that damage of the filters may have resulted from strength degradation. This study proposes a nondestructive evaluation of the structural properties of the ceramic candle filters. A virgin Refraction filter and twelve Schumacher filters which were previously tested under high pressure and high temperature at the demonstration power plant were evaluated. The vibration signatures of the ceramic filters at different degradation levels are established using transient impact response technique. Results from this study indicate that the natural frequencies of the filters can be used as an index to quantify the damage condition of the filters. The results of this study also indicate the feasibility of using the vibration mode shapes to predict the damage location of the filters.

  1. Nondestructive Degradation Evaluation of Ceramic Candle Filters Using Vibration Signatures

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, R.H.L.; Parthasarathy, B.

    1996-12-31

    The structural integrity of ceramic candle filters is a key element for hot gas cleanup systems, They protect the heat exchanger and gas turbine components from getting clogged and also prevent erosion. Ceramic candle filters used in the recent demonstration plant have experienced degradation and fracturing. Preliminary examination of these ceramic filters indicated that damage of the filters may have resulted from strength degradation at consistent high temperature operation, thermal transient events, excessive ash accumulation and bridging and pulse cleaning. The ceramic candle filter is a slender structure made of layers of porous materials. The structure has high acoustic attenuation which has greatly limited the conventional ultrasonic detection capability. In general, stiffness reduction of a structure will cause the change of the modal parameters of the structure. This study proposes a nondestructive approach for evaluating the structural properties of the ceramic filters using dynamic characterization method. The vibration signatures of the ceramic filters at different degradation levels are established using transient impact-response technique. Results from this study indicate that the vibration signatures of the filters can be used as an index to quantify the darnage condition of the filters. The results also indicate the feasibility of using the vibration mode shapes to predict the damage location. The application of this study can be implemented to develop a nondestructive evaluation method for future in-situ inspection of the ceramic filters.

  2. Testing of Westinghouse hot gas candle filter at Foster Wheeler Karhula R and D Center

    SciTech Connect

    Eriksson, T.; Sellakumar, K.M.; Lippert, T.; Dennis, R.; Feldmann, H.; Brown, R.

    1996-12-31

    The main objectives of the project are to provide performance and environmental data to the design of a PCFB Demonstration project and evaluate Westinghouse advanced ceramic barrier filter system and candle materials. A total test duration of 1,000 to 1,500 hrs in three segments of 500 hrs each has been planned for evaluating the filter unit. A single cluster Westinghouse hot gas candle filter is being tested. The filter system, which houses 112 ceramic candles in three plenums, takes the full flue gas flow from the PCFB combustor. At full load operation (10 MW load, 10 Bar, 850 C), the nominal filtration velocity is 4.3 cm/s. FWEI and WEC have selected a set of advanced ceramic candle materials based on a state of the art evaluation of the material characteristics in the WEC facilities and earlier test experience at many coal-fired test sites including the 2000 hour testing at the Karhula PCFB pilot plant. The selection comprises the following four types of advanced ceramic candles: Schumacher FT-20; 3M SiCoNeX; Pall 326; and Coors mullite. The ICB has supplied coal and the sorbent. Tests have been in progress since November 1995 and are scheduled for completion by the middle of 1996. The filter unit performance so far has been very satisfactory at the nominal design conditions--10 to 12 bar (150 to 175 psis), 800 to 850 C (1,500 to 1,575 F), and nearly 100% dust removal. There was no visible evidence of any dust carry over into the clean side. This paper describes the performance of the filter including the pulse system and the mechanical package.

  3. Granular-bed and ceramic candle filters in commercial plants: A comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, K.B.; Haas, J.C.; Eshelman, M.B.

    1993-04-01

    Advanced coal fired power cycles require the removal of coal ash at high temperature and pressure. Granular-bed and ceramic candle filters can be used for this service. Conceptual designs for commercial size applications are made for each type of filter. The filters are incorporated in the design of a Foster Wheeler 450 MWe second generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion plant which contains a pressurized fluidized combustor and carbonizer. In a second application, the inters are incorporated in the design of a 100 MWe KRW (air) gasifier based power plant. The candle filter design is state of the art as determined from the open literature with an effort to minimize the cost. The granular-bed filter design is based on test work performed at high temperature and low pressure, tests at New York University performed at high pressure and temperate, and new analysis used to simplify the scale up of the filter and reduce overall cost. The incorporation of chemically reactive granites in the granular-bed filter for the removal of additional coal derived contaminants such as alkali or sulfur is considered. The conceptual designs of the granular-bed inter and the ceramic candle filter are compared in terms of the cost of electricity, capital cost, and operating and maintenance costs for each application.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF A CANDLE FILTER FAILURE SAFEGUARD DEVICE

    SciTech Connect

    Todd R. Snyder

    2002-03-29

    The full-flow mechanical safeguard device (FFMSGD) has been developed under contract to the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to address problems with the reliability of ceramic candle filter elements installed on high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) Hot Gas Cleanup (HGCU) filters. Although systems candle filters are expected to perform satisfactorily when in good operating condition, the failure of even a single filter element can increase the filter system outlet dust loading enough to potentially damage gas turbine blades, contaminate other downstream processes, and limit the availability of the power system. Filter failure safeguard devices that are installed on each individual candle filter element are envisioned as a guarantee of a candle filter system's ability to withstand some number of element failures and continue operation without these negative consequences. The intention of the FFMSGD is to provide this guarantee without incurring any significant pressure drop penalty or constraining the filter system's reverse-pulse cleaning procedures. The FFMSGD provides a clear flow path for filtered and reverse-flow cleaning gases when its filter element is intact, and activates to provide a positive mechanical seal against gas flow in either direction when its filter element breaks or fails. This activation is induced by the increase in the flow rate of gas through the device in event of filter failure. The FFMSGD is designed to be easily removed and reconditioned when the filter system is taken off line for routine maintenance. This report is intended to be issued with a companion appendix. As instructed in Section J.12 of Contract No. DE-AC26-99FT40678, all the restricted, proprietary, and patentable information (not yet disclosed through the patent application process) related to the FFMSGD and its evaluation under this contract has been included only in the appendix. This Final Report, which is available to the public, contains background

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ADHESIVE CANDLE FILTER SAFEGUARD DEVICE

    SciTech Connect

    John P. Hurley; Ann K. Henderson; Jan W. Nowok; Michael L. Swanson

    2002-01-01

    In order to reach the highest possible efficiencies in a coal-fired turbine-based power system, the turbine should be directly fired with the products of coal conversion. Two main types of systems employ these turbines: those based on pressurized fluidized-bed combustors and those based on integrated gasification combined cycles. In both systems, suspended particulates must be cleaned from the gas stream before it enters the turbine so as to prevent fouling and erosion of the turbine blades. To produce the cleanest gas, barrier filters are being developed and are in use in several facilities. Barrier filters are composed of porous, high-temperature materials that allow the hot gas to pass but collect the particulates on the surface. The three main configurations of the barrier filters are candle, cross-flow, and tube filters. Both candle and tube filters have been tested extensively. They are composed of coarsely porous ceramic that serves as a structural support, overlain with a thin, microporous ceramic layer on the dirty gas side that serves as the primary filter surface. They are highly efficient at removing particulate matter from the gas stream and, because of their ceramic construction, are resistant to gas and ash corrosion. However, ceramics are brittle and individual elements can fail, allowing particulates to pass through the hole left by the filter element and erode the turbine. Preventing all failure of individual ceramic filter elements is not possible at the present state of development of the technology. Therefore, safeguard devices (SGDs) must be employed to prevent the particulates streaming through occasional broken filters from reaching the turbine. However, the SGD must allow for the free passage of gas when it is not activated. Upon breaking of a filter, the SGD must either mechanically close or quickly plug with filter dust to prevent additional dust from reaching the turbine. Production of a dependable rapidly closing autonomous mechanical

  6. Axial and transverse characterizations of ceramic candle filters

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.-E.; Nishihama, Y.; Yue, P.C.

    2008-09-01

    Ceramic candle filters are stiff composite tubes used in particle-removal during hot-gas filtration in coal energy generation. These filters are designed to withstand high temperature and pressure gradients. To determine the consistency in manufactured qualities of these filters, dynamic characterization method is recommended as a nondestructive evaluation technique. Six filters of the same manufactured batch were tested dynamically to establish the baseline properties of these filters. The test results are compared to theoretical values and are used to identify the variation in the manufactured products. This paper reports the frequencies in both transverse and axial directions indicating acceptable variations between all filters that are compatible to variations in measured physical parameters including density, stiffness and elastic modulus.

  7. Quantitative analysis of CT scans of ceramic candle filters

    SciTech Connect

    Ferer, M.V.; Smith, D.H.

    1996-12-31

    Candle filters are being developed to remove coal ash and other fine particles (<15{mu}m) from hot (ca. 1000 K) gas streams. In the present work, a color scanner was used to digitize hard-copy CT X-ray images of cylindrical SiC filters, and linear regressions converted the scanned (color) data to a filter density for each pixel. These data, with the aid of the density of SiC, gave a filter porosity for each pixel. Radial averages, density-density correlation functions, and other statistical analyses were performed on the density data. The CT images also detected the presence and depth of cracks that developed during usage of the filters. The quantitative data promise to be a very useful addition to the color images.

  8. DEVELOPMENT AND UTILIZATION OF TEST FACILITY FOR THE STUDY OF CANDLE FILTER SURFACE REGENERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce S. Kang; Eric K. Johnson

    2003-07-14

    Hot gas particulate filtration is a basic component in advanced power generation systems such as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC). These systems require effective particulate removal to protect the downstream gas turbine and also to meet environmental emission requirements. The ceramic barrier filter is one of the options for hot gas filtration. Hot gases flow through ceramic candle filters leaving ash deposited on the outer surface of the filter. A process known as surface regeneration removes the deposited ash periodically by using a high pressure pulse of gas to back flush the filter. After this cleaning process has been completed there may be some residual ash on the filter surface. This residual ash may grow and this may then lead to mechanical failure of the filter. A Room Temperature Test Facility (RTTF) and a High Temperature Test Facility (HTTF) were built to investigate the ash characteristics during surface regeneration at room and selected high temperatures. The RTTF system was used to gain experience with the selected instrumentation and develop an operating procedure to be used later at elevated temperatures. The HTTF system is capable of conducting surface regeneration tests of a single candle filter at temperatures up to 1500 F. In order to obtain sequential digital images of ash particle distribution during the surface regeneration process, a high resolution, high speed image acquisition system was integrated into the HTTF system. The regeneration pressure and the transient pressure difference between the inside of the candle filter and the chamber during regeneration were measured using a high speed PC data acquisition system. The control variables for the high temperature regeneration tests were (1) face velocity, (2) pressure of the back pulse, and (3) cyclic ash built-up time. Coal ash sample obtained from the Power System Development Facility (PSDF) at Wilsonville, AL was used at the

  9. A HIGH TEMPERATURE TEST FACILITY FOR STUDYING ASH PARTICLE CHARACTERISTICS OF CANDLE FILTER DURING SURFACE REGENERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, B.S-J.; Johnson, E.K.; Rincon, J.

    2002-09-19

    Hot gas particulate filtration is a basic component in advanced power generation systems such as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC). These systems require effective particulate removal to protect the downstream gas turbine and also to meet environmental emission requirements. The ceramic barrier filter is one of the options for hot gas filtration. Hot gases flow through ceramic candle filters leaving ash deposited on the outer surface of the filter. A process known as surface regeneration removes the deposited ash periodically by using a high pressure back pulse cleaning jet. After this cleaning process has been done there may be some residual ash on the filter surface. This residual ash may grow and this may lead to mechanical failure of the filter. A High Temperature Test Facility (HTTF) was built to investigate the ash characteristics during surface regeneration at high temperatures. The system is capable of conducting surface regeneration tests of a single candle filter at temperatures up to 1500 F. Details of the HTTF apparatus as well as some preliminary test results are presented in this paper. In order to obtain sequential digital images of ash particle distribution during the surface regeneration process, a high resolution, high speed image acquisition system was integrated into the HTTF system. The regeneration pressure and the transient pressure difference between the inside of the candle filter and the chamber during regeneration were measured using a high speed PC data acquisition system. The control variables for the high temperature regeneration tests were (1) face velocity, (2) pressure of the back pulse, and (3) cyclic ash built-up time.

  10. OPTIMIZATION OF ADVANCED FILTER SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    R.A. Newby; G.J. Bruck; M.A. Alvin; T.E. Lippert

    1998-04-30

    Reliable, maintainable and cost effective hot gas particulate filter technology is critical to the successful commercialization of advanced, coal-fired power generation technologies, such as IGCC and PFBC. In pilot plant testing, the operating reliability of hot gas particulate filters have been periodically compromised by process issues, such as process upsets and difficult ash cake behavior (ash bridging and sintering), and by design issues, such as cantilevered filter elements damaged by ash bridging, or excessively close packing of filtering surfaces resulting in unacceptable pressure drop or filtering surface plugging. This test experience has focused the issues and has helped to define advanced hot gas filter design concepts that offer higher reliability. Westinghouse has identified two advanced ceramic barrier filter concepts that are configured to minimize the possibility of ash bridge formation and to be robust against ash bridges should they occur. The ''inverted candle filter system'' uses arrays of thin-walled, ceramic candle-type filter elements with inside-surface filtering, and contains the filter elements in metal enclosures for complete separation from ash bridges. The ''sheet filter system'' uses ceramic, flat plate filter elements supported from vertical pipe-header arrays that provide geometry that avoids the buildup of ash bridges and allows free fall of the back-pulse released filter cake. The Optimization of Advanced Filter Systems program is being conducted to evaluate these two advanced designs and to ultimately demonstrate one of the concepts in pilot scale. In the Base Contract program, the subject of this report, Westinghouse has developed conceptual designs of the two advanced ceramic barrier filter systems to assess their performance, availability and cost potential, and to identify technical issues that may hinder the commercialization of the technologies. A plan for the Option I, bench-scale test program has also been developed based

  11. Sintered metal candle filter for hot gas cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Jinhu; Xu Yifeng; Cheng Hanshi; Zhang Jianmin; Ding Guishan

    1997-12-31

    A kind of sintered metal candle filter has been developed to enable the performance testing for use in hot coal gas clean-up. The intention of this paper is to provide a brief overview of development of the filter, and to provide a summary of experimental results that have been gained in testing at a pilot gasifier. Two different types of stainless steel were chosen as the material to build the filter. The operational temperature range is 460--650 C. The typical inlet dust concentration is 1.0--37.71g/Nm{sup 3}. Results show the average collection efficiency is higher than 99%, the outlet dust concentration is lower than 10mg/Nm{sup 3}, which reaches the requirement of gas turbines in IGCC. The pressure drop is about 8,300--17,400Pa, and the back blowing of the filter proves to be very good. At present only single-tube testing was conducted. The multi-tube testing facility will be established, and the authors will perform the tests under the condition of high pressure to obtain more experience for design and operation.

  12. ADVANCED HOT GAS FILTER DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    E.S. Connolly; G.D. Forsythe

    2000-09-30

    DuPont Lanxide Composites, Inc. undertook a sixty-month program, under DOE Contract DEAC21-94MC31214, in order to develop hot gas candle filters from a patented material technology know as PRD-66. The goal of this program was to extend the development of this material as a filter element and fully assess the capability of this technology to meet the needs of Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) and Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power generation systems at commercial scale. The principal objective of Task 3 was to build on the initial PRD-66 filter development, optimize its structure, and evaluate basic material properties relevant to the hot gas filter application. Initially, this consisted of an evaluation of an advanced filament-wound core structure that had been designed to produce an effective bulk filter underneath the barrier filter formed by the outer membrane. The basic material properties to be evaluated (as established by the DOE/METC materials working group) would include mechanical, thermal, and fracture toughness parameters for both new and used material, for the purpose of building a material database consistent with what is being done for the alternative candle filter systems. Task 3 was later expanded to include analysis of PRD-66 candle filters, which had been exposed to actual PFBC conditions, development of an improved membrane, and installation of equipment necessary for the processing of a modified composition. Task 4 would address essential technical issues involving the scale-up of PRD-66 candle filter manufacturing from prototype production to commercial scale manufacturing. The focus would be on capacity (as it affects the ability to deliver commercial order quantities), process specification (as it affects yields, quality, and costs), and manufacturing systems (e.g. QA/QC, materials handling, parts flow, and cost data acquisition). Any filters fabricated during this task would be used for product qualification tests

  13. Fail save shut off valve for filtering systems employing candle filters

    DOEpatents

    VanOsdol, John

    2006-01-03

    The invention relates to an apparatus that acts as a fail save shut off valve. More specifically, the invention relates to a fail save shut off valve that allows fluid flow during normal operational conditions, but prevents the flow of fluids in the event of system failure upstream that causes over-pressurization. The present invention is particularly well suited for use in conjunction with hot gas filtering systems, which utilize ceramic candle filters. Used in such a hot gas system the present invention stops the flow of hot gas and prevents any particulate laden gas from entering the clean side of the system.

  14. Fail Save Shut Off Valve for Filtering Systems Employing Candle Filters

    SciTech Connect

    VanOsdol, John

    2006-01-03

    The invention relates to an apparatus that acts as a fail save shut off valve. More specifically, the invention relates to a fail save shut off valve that allows fluid flow during normal operational conditions, but prevents the flow of fluids in the event of system failure upstream that causes over-pressurization. The present invention is particularly well suited for use in conjunction with hot gas filtering systems, which utilize ceramic candle filters. Used in such a hot gas system the present invention stops the flow of hot gas and prevents any particulate laden gas from entering the clean side of the system.

  15. Nondestructive Evaluation of Stiffness and Stresses of Ceramic Candle Filters at Elevated Temperature under Vibrational Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, R.H.L.; Kiriakidia, A.

    2002-09-19

    In recent years a significant amount of effort has been devoted to develop damage-tolerant hot gas filter elements, which can withstand chemical, high pressure and extreme thermal cyclic loading in the coal-based environment (Alvin 1999, Spain and Starrett 1999). Ceramic candle filters have proven to be an effective filter for the ash laden gas streams, protecting the gas turbine components from exposure to particulate matter (Lippert et al. 1994). Ceramic candle filters need to sustain extreme thermal environment and vibration-induced stresses over a great period of time. Destructive tests have been used to describe physical, mechanical and thermal properties of the filters and to relate these properties and behaviors to in-service performance, and ultimately to predict the useful life of the filter materials (Pontius and Starrett 1994, Alvin et al. 1994). Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques have been developed to determine the deterioration or the presence of damage and to estimate the remaining stiffness of ceramic candle filters (Chen and Kiriakidis 2001). This paper presents a study of parameters involved in the prediction of remaining life of ceramic candle filters under service conditions. About one hundred ceramic candle filters from previous studies (Chen and Kiriakidis 2000) and forty-six filters received during this project have been nondestructively evaluated. They are divided in Pall Vitropore, Schumacher and Coors filters. Forty-six of these filters were used having various in-service exposure times at the PSDF and the rest were unused filters. Dynamic characterization tests were employed to investigate the material properties of ceramic candle filters. The vibration frequency changes due to exposure hours, dust cake accumulation, candle's axisymmetry, boundary conditions and elevated temperatures are studied. Investigations on fatigue stresses of the filters due to vibration of the plenum and back pulse shaking are also studied. Finite element

  16. Material characterization of the clay bonded silicon carbide candle filters and ash formations in the W-APF system after 500 hours of hot gas filtration at AEP. Appendix to Advanced Particle Filter: Technical progress report No. 11, January--March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Alvin, M.A.

    1993-04-05

    (1) After 500 hours of operation in the pressurized fluidized-bed combustion gas environment, the fibrous outer membrane along the clay bonded silicon carbide Schumacher Dia Schumalith candles remained intact. The fibrous outer membrane did not permit penetration of fines through the filter wall. (2) An approximate 10-15% loss of material strength occurred within the intact candle clay bonded silicon carbide matrix after 500 hours of exposure to the PFBC gas environment. A relatively uniform strength change resulted within the intact candles throughout the vessel (i.e., top to bottom plenums), as well as within the various cluster ring positions (i.e., outer versus inner ring candle filters). A somewhat higher loss of material strength, i.e., 25% was detected in fractured candle segments removed from the W-APF ash hopper. (3) Sulfur which is present in the pressurized fluidized-bed combustion gas system induced phase changes along the surface of the binder which coats the silicon carbide grains in the Schumacher Dia Schumalith candle filter matrix.

  17. Preliminary evaluation of FIBROSIC{trademark} candle filter for particulate control in PFBC

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.H.D.; Eggersedt, P.; Zievers, J.F.; Honea, F.I.

    1994-07-01

    The FIBROSIC{trademark} candle filter is made by vacuum-forming a select blend of aluminosilicate fibers with silica and alumina binders and is potentially useful as a hot-gas cleanup device for particulate control in pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC). It has the advantages of lighter weight, lower cost, and lower tendency for thermal shock breakage over the more widely studied SiC candle filter. Both filter types were tested with Illinois No. 6 high-sulfur coal in a laboratory-scale PFBC/alkali sorber facility for (1) particulate collection efficiency, (2) permeability characteristics, and (3) physical and mechanical strength and integrity. Tests were conducted at 800--825{degrees}C and a system pressure of 9.2 atm. Filter face velocities were 5.1 and 10.2 cm/s (10 and 20 ft/min) during test periods of 8 and 9.5 h for SiC and FIBROSIC{trademark} candle filters, respectively. The filters were periodically cleaned by a reverse jet pulse of N{sub 2} gas. Both filter types achieved particulate collection efficiencies >99.9% and exhibited comparable permeability characteristics. Although the FIBROSIC{trademark} candle filter has inherently lower bursting strength than the SiC, its physical and mechanical strengths were demonstrated to be sufficient to maintain the integrity of the filter element under PFBC conditions.

  18. New materials and manufacturing options for low-cost candle filter production

    SciTech Connect

    Hanus, G.J.; Uznanski, K.T.; Decoursin, D.G.; Shtessel, E.

    1997-07-01

    Using self-propagating, high-temperature synthesis fabrication techniques, unique combinations of materials were studied for use in candle filter development. Materials suitable for corrosive atmospheres with improved filtration and mechanical properties were identified within the context of manufacturing simplicity, versatility and cost-effectiveness. Material combinations suitable for combustion synthesis were identified which match the temperature, strength and corrosion resistance requirements of operation in pressurized, fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) environments. Tests on porosity, permeability and strength indicated the ability of the method to process porous filter material which matches or surpasses the performance levels of current, production candle filter material samples.

  19. Development of 3M`s oxide/oxide candle filter

    SciTech Connect

    Visser, L.; Smith, R.G.

    1996-12-31

    3M has had a silicon carbide, SiC, matrix/oxide fiber, ceramic composite, candle filter in test and on the market for several years. Because of the effects of some corrosive environments, 3M is developing an oxide matrix/oxide fiber hot gas candle filter which will be better suited for some of the environments which can degrade SiC. This paper will discuss the progress of the development of the oxide/oxide candle filter. Composite panels using three different Nextel{trademark} fibers but the same matrix material have been exposed to different simulated environmental conditions in the laboratory. Data will be presented on the effects of these environments on the composite panels. Also prototype candles have been made from the oxide/oxide system and data will be presented on the filtration characteristics, construction, and laboratory environmental exposures of these filters. Finally, if available, data will be presented on 12-in candle filters which have been exposed in an industrial test facility.

  20. A STUDY ON ASH PARTICLE DISTRIBUTION CHARACTERISITICS OF CANDLE FILTER SURFACE REGENERATION AT ROOM TEMPERATURE

    SciTech Connect

    Vasudevan, V.; Kang, B.S-J.; Johnson, E.K.

    2002-09-19

    Ceramic barrier filtration is a leading technology employed in hot gas filtration. Hot gases loaded with ash particle flow through the ceramic candle filters and deposit ash on their outer surface. The deposited ash is periodically removed using back pulse cleaning jet, known as surface regeneration. The cleaning done by this technique still leaves some residual ash on the filter surface, which over a period of time sinters, forms a solid cake and leads to mechanical failure of the candle filter. A room temperature testing facility (RTTF) was built to gain more insight into the surface regeneration process before testing commenced at high temperature. RTTF was instrumented to obtain pressure histories during the surface regeneration process and a high-resolution high-speed imaging system was integrated in order to obtain pictures of the surface regeneration process. The objective of this research has been to utilize the RTTF to study the surface regeneration process at the convenience of room temperature conditions. The face velocity of the fluidized gas, the regeneration pressure of the back pulse and the time to build up ash on the surface of the candle filter were identified as the important parameters to be studied. Two types of ceramic candle filters were used in the study. Each candle filter was subjected to several cycles of ash build-up followed by a thorough study of the surface regeneration process at different parametric conditions. The pressure histories in the chamber and filter system during build-up and regeneration were then analyzed. The size distribution and movement of the ash particles during the surface regeneration process was studied. Effect of each of the parameters on the performance of the regeneration process is presented. A comparative study between the two candle filters with different characteristics is presented.

  1. ASSESSMENT OF THE PCFBC-EXPOSED AND ACCELERATED LIFE-TESTED CANDLE FILTERS

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Alvin

    1999-09-30

    Development of the hot gas filtration technology has been the focus of DOE/FETC and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation during the past twenty years. Systems development during this time has successfully lead to the generation and implementation of high temperature Siemens Westinghouse particulate filtration systems that are currently installed and are operational at Demonstration Plant sites, and which are ready for installation at commercial plant sites. Concurrently, materials development has advanced the use of commercially available oxide- and nonoxide-based monoliths, and has fostered the manufacture and use of second generation, oxide-based, continuous fiber reinforced ceramic composites and filament wound materials. This report summarizes the material characterization results for commercially available and second generation filter materials tested in Siemens Westinghouse's advanced, high temperature, particulate removal system at the Foster Wheeler, pressurized circulating fluidized-bed combustion, pilot-scale test facility in Karhula, Finland, and subsequent extended accelerated life testing of aged elements in Siemens Westinghouse pressurized fluidized-bed combustion simulator test facility in Pittsburgh, PA. The viability of operating candle filters successfully for over 1 year of service life has been shown in these efforts. Continued testing to demonstrate the feasibility of acquiring three years of service operation on aged filter elements is recommended.

  2. Ceramic candle filter performance at the Grimethorpe (UK) Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Stringer, J. ); Leitch, A.J. )

    1992-04-01

    A pilot hot-gas particulate removal system, based on positive porous ceramic filters, has been tested on the Grimethorpe Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustor facility. The filters are in the form of closed-ended tubes, 1.5 m long: These are generally called candles. The dust accumulates on the outside of the cradles, and is periodically removed by a pulse of air into the candle interior, which then flows outward through the candle wall in the reverse direction to the normal flow of the combustion gas. The EPRI system contained a maximum of 130 candles, which is approximately equivalent to the requirement for 7 MW(e) capacity, depending on the filter-operating parameters. The filter unit operated for a total of 860 h under PFBC conditions, of which 790 h were at defined process conditions, typically 850{degrees}C and 10 bar. The amount of gas flowing through each filter element was varied, and the time between cleaning pulses also was varied. The pressure drop through each filter element rose as the dust accumulated on the outer wall, and recovered after the cleaning pulse.

  3. Operation Behavior of a Multi-Candle Filter with Coupled Pressure Pulse Recleaning during Normal Operation and in the Case of a Filter Candle Failure

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, R.; Leibold, H. Seifert, H.; Heidenreich, S.; Haag, W.

    2002-09-18

    A pilot filter with the CPP recleaning system was installed and commissioned during the first half year of 2000 in ''PYDRA'', the pyrolytic rotary tube facility of the Institute for Technical Chemistry, Research Center Karlsruhe. The filter, with a rated throughput of 50 std.m{sup 3}/h, is equipped with two clusters of three filter candles each (DIA-SCHUMALITH{reg_sign} T 10-20, 1 = 1500 mm), and has been designed for a maximum operating temperature of 550 C. After commissioning, the filter was run in the stand-alone mode, first without pyrolysis, to filter sticky inorganic dust of the type which can arise in waste incineration in the temperature range above 400 C.

  4. Baseline and optional bench-scale testing of a chemical candle filter safeguard device

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, J.P.; Swanson, M.L.

    2000-11-01

    This project was undertaken by the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) to design, construct, and test the feasibility of a hot-gas filter safeguard device (SGD) to prevent the release of dust in the event of candle filter failure under both pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) (oxidizing) and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) (reducing) operating conditions. The SGD must use existing filter system seals, gaskets, fixtures, and assemblies as much as possible. It must also activate quickly when a candle filter has failed, preferably preventing dust concentrations downstream of the SGD from exceeding 1 ppmw. In addition, the SGD must be able to operate in an inactive mode with minimal pressure drop, and its operation cannot be affected by repeated backpulse cleaning events of up to 3 psia and 1/2 second in duration.

  5. Performance of PRD-66 hot gas candle filters in the AEP/TIDD PFBC facility

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, J.A.

    1996-12-31

    The performance of PRD-66 hot gas filters in American Electric Power`s TIDD PFBC facility is described. PRD-66 hot gas filters are made of an all-oxide composition with a unique layered microstructure which lends corrosion resistance, high temperature stability and excellent resistance to thermal shock damage. The development of the PRD-66 material into a hot gas candle filter is recounted. Testing which guided filter development prior to exposure in the AEP/TIDD PFBC system is discussed. Future plans for testing in coal combustion and other industrial applications are described.

  6. Evaluating the performance of ceramic candle filters in a hot particulate-laden stream

    SciTech Connect

    Zeh, C.M.; Chiang, T.K.; Ayers, W.J.

    1990-05-01

    A series of tests was conducted to evaluate the performance of ceramic candle filters at elevated temperatures and pressures using the hot product of a combustion stream, laden with resuspended particulate, from a bench-scale pressurized entrained combustor. Four tests using 1 m length, grade 50/10, silicon carbide candle filters from Industrial Filter and Pump (IF P) were evaluated at three face velocities with two cleaning techniques. Tests 1, 2, and 3 were operated at nominally 1.550{degree}F, 8.5 atm, with particulate loadings of 775 to 840-ppMw. Test 4 was operated at 1,370{degree}F, 9.9 atm, with a 838-ppMw particulate loading. Gas flow rates for Tests 1, 2, 3, and 4 were nominally 43, 68, 68, and 27 actual cubic feet per minute (acfm), respectively. During steady operating conditions, the specific resistance coefficient (K{sub 2}) for each of the four tests was within the range of 16 to 22 in. H{sub 2}O{center dot}ft{center dot}min/lb. Candle filter permeability varied with face velocity and cleaning technique used. Permeability decreased with increasing face velocity when temperature and pressure were held constant, and increased with off-line versus on-line cleaning when face velocity was held constant. 6 refs., 32 figs., 10 tabs.

  7. ADVANCED HOT GAS FILTER DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    E.S. Connolly; G.D. Forsythe

    1998-12-22

    Advanced, coal-based power plants will require durable and reliable hot gas filtration systems to remove particulate contaminants from the gas streams to protect downstream components such as turbine blades from erosion damage. It is expected that the filter elements in these systems will have to be made of ceramic materials to withstand goal service temperatures of 1600 F or higher. Recent demonstration projects and pilot plant tests have indicated that the current generation of ceramic hot gas filters (cross-flow and candle configurations) are failing prematurely. Two of the most promising materials that have been extensively evaluated are clay-bonded silicon carbide and alumina-mullite porous monoliths. These candidates, however, have been found to suffer progressive thermal shock fatigue damage, as a result of rapid cooling/heating cycles. Such temperature changes occur when the hot filters are back-pulsed with cooler gas to clean them, or in process upset conditions, where even larger gas temperature changes may occur quickly and unpredictably. In addition, the clay-bonded silicon carbide materials are susceptible to chemical attack of the glassy binder phase that holds the SiC particles together, resulting in softening, strength loss, creep, and eventual failure.

  8. Development of a Candle Filter Failure Safeguard Device

    SciTech Connect

    Sanjana, Z.; Bruck, G.; Smeltzer, E.; Alvin, M.A.; Newby, R.; Foote, J.

    2002-09-18

    The objective of the program was to develop an SGD which would essentially eliminate ash or char leakage. The quantitative target was arrived at based on detailed estimates of gas turbine and combustor performance degradation due to particle erosion and deposition. An SGD capable of limiting particle leakage to <0.5 ppmw will be needed to achieve highest system availability, commensurate with annual maintenance outage. Our advanced SGD concepts were selected to achieve the goal of >16,000 hours cleaning interval.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF A CANDLE FILTER FAILURE SAFEGUARD DEVICE

    SciTech Connect

    G.J. Bruck; E.E. Smeltzer; Z.N. Sanjana

    2002-06-06

    Development, testing and optimization of advanced metal and ceramic, barrier and fiber safeguard devices (SGDs) is described. Metal barrier devices are found prone to manufacturing defects and premature blinding. Fiber devices are found to be satisfactory if fine fibers are used. Durable alloys are identified for both oxidation and gasification conditions. Ceramic honeycomb SGDs were found to perform as excellent barrier devices. Optimization has shown such devices to be durable. Field testing of ceramic honeycomb SGDs from two different manufacturers is being pursued.

  10. Westinghouse advanced particle filter system

    SciTech Connect

    Lippert, T.E.; Bruck, G.J.; Sanjana, Z.N.; Newby, R.A.

    1994-10-01

    Integrated Gasification Combined Cycles (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) are being developed and demonstrated for commercial, power generation application. Hot gas particulate filters are key components for the successful implementation of IGCC and PFBC in power generation gas turbine cycles. The objective of this work is to develop and qualify through analysis and testing a practical hot gas ceramic barrier filter system that meets the performance and operational requirements of PFBC and IGCC systems. This paper updates the assessment of the Westinghouse hot gas filter design based on ongoing testing and analysis. Results are summarized from recent computational fluid dynamics modeling of the plenum flow during back pulse, analysis of candle stressing under cleaning and process transient conditions and testing and analysis to evaluate potential flow induced candle vibration.

  11. Applications of moving granular-bed filters to advanced systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, K.W.; Haas, J.C.; Eshelman, M.B.

    1993-09-01

    The contract is arranged as a base contract with three options. The objective of the base contract is to develop conceptual design(s) of moving granular bed filter and ceramic candle filter technology for control of particles from integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems, pressurized fluidized-bed combustors (PFBC), and direct coal fueled turbine (DCFT) environments. The conceptual design(s) of these filter technologies are compared, primarily from an economic perspective. The granular bed filter was developed through low pressure, high temperature (1600{degree}F) testing in the late 1970`s and early 1980`s. Collection efficiencies over 99% were obtained. In 1988, high pressure, high temperature testing was completed at New York University, Westbury, N.Y., utilizing a two advanced power generating plants were chosen for developing conceptual designs and cost estimates of the commercial sized filters. One is the 450 MWe, second generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion plant defined by Foster Wheeler. This plant originally included cross-flow filters for hot gas cleanup. The other plant under study is a 100 MWe, KRW air blown gasifier. A cross-flow filter was utilized for gas stream cleanup in this study also. Granular bed and ceramic candle filters were substituted for the cross-flow filters in both these plants, and the resulting costs were compared.

  12. Westinghouse advanced particle filter system

    SciTech Connect

    Lippert, T.E.; Bruck, G.J.; Sanjana, Z.N.; Newby, R.A.

    1995-11-01

    Integrated Gasification Combined Cycles (IGCC), Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) and Advanced PFBC (APFB) are being developed and demonstrated for commercial power generation application. Hot gas particulate filters are key components for the successful implementation of IGCC, PFBC and APFB in power generation gas turbine cycles. The objective of this work is to develop and qualify through analysis and testing a practical hot gas ceramic barrier filter system that meets the performance and operational requirements of these advanced, solid fuel power generation cycles.

  13. Advances in Collaborative Filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koren, Yehuda; Bell, Robert

    The collaborative filtering (CF) approach to recommenders has recently enjoyed much interest and progress. The fact that it played a central role within the recently completed Netflix competition has contributed to its popularity. This chapter surveys the recent progress in the field. Matrix factorization techniques, which became a first choice for implementing CF, are described together with recent innovations. We also describe several extensions that bring competitive accuracy into neighborhood methods, which used to dominate the field. The chapter demonstrates how to utilize temporal models and implicit feedback to extend models accuracy. In passing, we include detailed descriptions of some the central methods developed for tackling the challenge of the Netflix Prize competition.

  14. Advanced simulation of digital filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, G. S.

    1980-09-01

    An Advanced Simulation of Digital Filters has been implemented on the IBM 360/67 computer utilizing Tektronix hardware and software. The program package is appropriate for use by persons beginning their study of digital signal processing or for filter analysis. The ASDF programs provide the user with an interactive method by which filter pole and zero locations can be manipulated. Graphical output on both the Tektronix graphics screen and the Versatec plotter are provided to observe the effects of pole-zero movement.

  15. Gas cleaning, gas conditioning and tar abatement by means of a catalytic filter candle in a biomass fluidized-bed gasifier.

    PubMed

    Rapagnà, Sergio; Gallucci, Katia; Di Marcello, Manuela; Matt, Muriel; Nacken, Manfred; Heidenreich, Steffen; Foscolo, Pier Ugo

    2010-09-01

    A bench-scale fluidized-bed biomass gasification plant, operating at atmospheric pressure and temperature within the range 800-820 degrees C, has been used to test an innovative gas cleaning device: a catalytic filter candle fitted into the bed freeboard. This housing of the gas conditioning system within the gasifier itself results in a very compact unit and greatly reduced thermal losses. Long term (22h) tests were performed on the gasifier both with and without the catalytic candle filter, under otherwise identical conditions. Analysis of the product gas for the two cases showed the catalytic filtration to give rise to notable improvements in both gas quality and gas yield: an increase in hydrogen yield of 130% and an overall increase in gas yield of 69% - with corresponding decreases in methane and tar content of 20% and 79%, respectively. HPLC/UV analysis was used to characterize the tar compounds. PMID:20413303

  16. Cutting Candles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranucci, Ernest R.

    1973-01-01

    Different regular-polygon-shaped candles wound with a sheet of paper are cut through obliquely. When the papers are unwound, unique patterns are revealed. Investigation of these patterns leads to the discovery of geometric concepts. (JP)

  17. Westinghouse Advanced Particle Filter System

    SciTech Connect

    Lippert, T.E.; Bruck, G.J.; Sanjana, Z.N.; Newby, R.A.; Bachovchin, D.M.

    1996-12-31

    Integrated Gasification Combined Cycles (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) are being developed and demonstrated for commercial, power generation application. Hot gas particulate filters are key components for the successful implementation of IGCC and PFBC in power generation gas turbine cycles. The objective of this work is to develop and qualify through analysis and testing a practical hot gas ceramic barrier filter system that meets the performance and operational requirements of PFBC and IGCC systems. This paper reports on the development and status of testing of the Westinghouse Advanced Hot Gas Particle Filter (W-APF) including: W-APF integrated operation with the American Electric Power, 70 MW PFBC clean coal facility--approximately 6000 test hours completed; approximately 2500 hours of testing at the Hans Ahlstrom 10 MW PCFB facility located in Karhula, Finland; over 700 hours of operation at the Foster Wheeler 2 MW 2nd generation PFBC facility located in Livingston, New Jersey; status of Westinghouse HGF supply for the DOE Southern Company Services Power System Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama; the status of the Westinghouse development and testing of HGF`s for Biomass Power Generation; and the status of the design and supply of the HGF unit for the 95 MW Pinon Pine IGCC Clean Coal Demonstration.

  18. ADVANCED HOT GAS FILTER DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    RICHARD A. WAGNER

    1998-09-04

    This report describes the fabrication and testing of continuous fiber ceramic composite (CFCC) based hot gas filters. The fabrication approach utilized a modified filament winding method that combined both continuous and chopped fibers into a novel microstructure. The work was divided into five primary tasks. In the first task, a preliminary set of compositions was fabricated in the form of open end tubes and characterized. The results of this task were used to identify the most promising compositions for sub-scale filter element fabrication and testing. In addition to laboratory measurements of permeability and strength, exposure testing in a coal combustion environment was performed to asses the thermo-chemical stability of the CFCC materials. Four candidate compositions were fabricated into sub-scale filter elements with integral flange and a closed end. Following the 250 hour exposure test in a circulating fluid bed combustor, the retained strength ranged from 70 t 145 percent of the as-fabricated strength. The post-test samples exhibited non-catastrophic failure behavior in contrast to the brittle failure exhibited by monolithic materials. Filter fabrication development continued in a filter improvement and cost reduction task that resulted in an improved fiber architecture, the production of a net shape flange, and an improved low cost bond. These modifications were incorporated into the process and used to fabricate 50 full-sized filter elements for testing in demonstration facilities in Karhula, Finland and at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) in Wilsonville, AL. After 581 hours of testing in the Karhula facility, the elements retained approximately 87 percent of their as-fabricated strength. In addition, mechanical response testing at Virginia Tech provided a further demonstration of the high level of strain tolerance of the vacuum wound filter elements. Additional testing in the M. W. Kellogg unit at the PSDF has accumulated over 1800 hours of

  19. Burning Candles in the Microgravity of Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, Daniel; Ross, Howard; Tien, James

    1997-01-01

    The Candle Flames in Microgravity (CFM) experiment was designed to study how long candle flames can be sustained in microgravity, how the flames behave prior to extinction, and the how two closely spaced candle flames behave. The scientists hope that one day the results will help resolve age-old questions regarding the effects of gravity on certain types of flames (low momentum diffusion flames, or candle flames) and their ability to burn without the presence of gravity. This information will provide a better understanding of fires on spacecraft and could lead to advances in fire detection and extinction techniques.

  20. Advanced hot-gas filter development. Topical report, September 30, 1994--May 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, J.E.; LeCostaouec, J.F.; Painter, C.J.; Sue, W.A.; Radford, K.C.

    1996-12-31

    The application of high-performance, high-temperature particulate control devices is considered to be beneficial to advanced fossil fuel processing technology, to selected high-temperature industrial processes, and to waste incineration concepts. Ceramic rigid filters represent the most attractive technology for these applications due to their capability to withstand high-temperature corrosive environments. However, current generation monolithic filters have demonstrated poor resistance to crack propagation and can experience catastrophic failure during use. To address this problem, ceramic fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composite (CMC) filter materials are needed for reliable damage tolerant candle filters. This program is focused on the development of an oxide-fiber reinforced oxide material composite filter material that is cost competitive with prototype next generation filters. This goal would be achieved through the development of a low cost sol-gel fabrication process and a three-dimensional fiber architecture optimized for high volume filter manufacturing. The 3D continuous fiber reinforcement provides a damage tolerant structure which is not subject to delamination-type failures. This report documents the Phase 1, Filter Material Development and Evaluation, results. Section 2 provides a program summary. Technical results, including experimental procedures, are presented and discussed in Section 3. Section 4 and 5 provide the Phase 1 conclusions and recommendations, respectively. The remaining sections cover acknowledgements and references.

  1. ADVANCED HOT GAS FILTER DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Matthew R. June; John L. Hurley; Mark W. Johnson

    1999-04-01

    Iron aluminide hot gas filters have been developed using powder metallurgy techniques to form seamless cylinders. Three alloys were short-term corrosion tested in simulated IGCC atmospheres with temperatures between 925 F and 1200 F with hydrogen sulfide concentrations ranging from 783 ppm{sub v} to 78,300 ppm{sub v}. Long-term testing was conducted for 1500 hours at 925 F with 78,300 ppm{sub v}. The FAS and FAL alloys were found to be corrosion resistant in the simulated environments. The FAS alloy has been commercialized.

  2. Ceramic fiber ceramic matrix filter development

    SciTech Connect

    Judkins, R.R.; Stinton, D.P.; Smith, R.G.; Fischer, E.M.

    1994-09-01

    The objectives of this project were to develop a novel type of candle filter based on a ceramic fiber-ceramic matrix composite material, and to extend the development to full-size, 60-mm OD by 1-meter-long candle filters. The goal is to develop a ceramic filter suitable for use in a variety of fossil energy system environments such as integrated coal gasification combined cycles (IGCC), pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC), and other advanced coal combustion environments. Further, the ceramic fiber ceramic matrix composite filter, hereinafter referred to as the ceramic composite filter, was to be inherently crack resistant, a property not found in conventional monolithic ceramic candle filters, such as those fabricated from clay-bonded silicon carbide. Finally, the adequacy of the filters in the fossil energy system environments is to be proven through simulated and in-plant tests.

  3. Properties of Ceramic Filters

    SciTech Connect

    Spain, J.D.

    1996-12-31

    The mechanical integrity of ceramic filter elements is a key issue for hot gas cleanup systems. To meet the demands of advanced power systems, the filter components sustain thermal stresses of normal operations (pulse cleaning), of start-up and shut-down, and of process upsets such as excessive ash accumulation without catastrophic failure. They must also survive various mechanical loads associated with handling and assembly, normal operation, and process upsets. For near-term filter systems, the elements must also survive operating temperature of 1650{degrees}F for three years. Objectives of the testing conducted were as follows: (1) measure basic physical, mechanical and thermal properties of candle filter materials and relate these properties to in-service performance, (2) perform post-exposure testing of candle-filter materials after service at Tidd and Karhula and compare post-exposure results to as-manufactured results to evaluate property degradation, (3) based on measured properties and in-service performance, develop an understanding of material requirements for candle-filter materials and help establish property goals, and (4) establish a test protocol for evaluation of candle filter materials.

  4. Filter holder assembly having extended collar spacer ring

    DOEpatents

    Alvin, Mary Anne; Bruck, Gerald J.

    2002-01-01

    A filter holder assembly is provided that utilizes a fail-safe regenerator unit with an annular spacer ring having an extended metal collar for containment and positioning of a compliant ceramic gasket used in the assembly. The filter holder assembly is disclosed for use with advanced composite, filament wound, and metal candle filters.

  5. Bactericidal activity and silver release of porous ceramic candle filter prepared by sintering silica with silver nanoparticles/zeolite for water disinfection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinh Nguyen, Thuy Ai; Phu Dang, Van; Duy Nguyen, Ngoc; Le, Anh Quoc; Thanh Nguyen, Duc; Hien Nguyen, Quoc

    2014-09-01

    Porous ceramic candle filters (PCCF) were prepared by sintering silica from rice husk with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)/zeolite A at about 1050 °C to create bactericidal PCCF/AgNPs for water disinfection. The silver content in PCCF/AgNPs was of 300-350 mg kg-1 determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and the average pore size of PCCF/AgNPs was of 50-70 Å measured by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method. The bactericidal activity and silver release of PCCF/AgNPs have been investigated by flow test with water flow rate of 5 L h-1 and initial inoculation of E. coli in inlet water of 106 CFU/100 mL. The volume of filtrated water was collected up to 500 L. Results showed that the contamination of E. coli in filtrated water was <1 CFU/100 mL and the content of silver released from PCCF/AgNPs into filtrated water was <1 μg L-1, it is low, far under the WHO guideline of 100 μg L-1 at maximum for drinking water. Based on the content of silver in PCCF/AgNPs and in filtrated water, it was estimated that one PCCF/AgNPs could be used to filtrate of ˜100 m3 water. Thus, as-prepared PCCF/AgNPs releases low content of silver into water and shows effectively bactericidal activity that is promising to apply as point-of-use water treatment technology for drinking water disinfection.

  6. Fracture behavior of advanced ceramic hot-gas filters

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, J.P.; Majumdar, S.; Sutaria, M.; Bielke, W.

    1996-05-01

    We have evaluated the microstructural/mechanical, and thermal shock/fatigue behavior and have conducted stress analyses of hot-gas candle filters made by various manufacturers. These filters include both monolithic and composite ceramics. Mechanical-property measurement of the composite filters included diametral compression testing with O-ring specimens and burst testing of short filter segments using rubber plug. In general, strength values obtained by burst testing were lower than those obtained by O-ring compression testing. During single-cycle thermal-shock tests, the composite filters showed little or no strength degradation when quenched from temperatures between 900 and 1000{degrees}C. At higher quenching temperatures, slow strength degradation was observed. The monolithic SiC filters showed no strength degradation when quenched from temperatures of up to {approx}700-900{degrees}C, but displayed decreased strength at a relatively sharp rate when quenched from higher temperatures. On the other hand, a recrystallized monolithic SiC filter showed higher initial strength and retained this strength to higher quenching temperatures than did regular SiC filters. This may be related to the difference in strength of grain boundary phases in the two cases. In thermal cycles between room temperature and 800- 1000{degrees}C, both monolithic and composite filters show a small strength degradation up to three cycles, beyond which the strength remained unchanged. Results of rubber-plug burst testing on composite filters were analyzed to determine the anisotropic elastic constants of the composite in the hoop direction. When these results are combined with axial elastic constants determined from axial tensile tests, the composite can be analyzed for stress due to mechanical (e. g., internal pressure) or thermal loading (thermal shock during pulse cleaning). The stresses can be compared with the strength of the composite to predict filter performance.

  7. Candle Synchrotron Light Source Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsakanov, V. M.

    CANDLE - Center for the Advancement of Natural Discoveries using Light Emission - is a 3 GeV energy synchrotron light facility project in the Republic of Armenia. The main design features of the new facility are given. The results of the beam physics study in the future facility is overviewed including the machine impedance, single and multi-bunch instabilities, ion trapping and beam lifetime. The preliminary list of first group beamlines is discussed.

  8. LEAD IN CANDLE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The candle-using public should be made aware that the core of candle wicks may contain lead. Used as a stiffening agent to keep the wick out of the molten wax, lead can be emitted as particulate to the air and then deposited on indoor surfaces. To define the problem, 100 sets of ...

  9. Candle flames in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, D. L.; Ross, H. D.; Tien, J. S.

    1995-01-01

    The candle flame in both normal and microgravity is non-propagating. In microgravity, however, the candle flame is also non-convective where (excepting Stefan flow) pure diffusion is the only transport mode. It also shares many characteristics with another classical problem, that of isolated droplet combustion. Given their qualitatively similar flame shapes and the required heat feedback to condensed-phase fuels, the gas-phase flow and temperature fields should be relatively similar for a droplet and a candle in reduced gravity. Unless the droplet diameter is maintained somehow through non-intrusive replenishment of fuel, the quasi-steady burning characteristics of a droplet can be maintained for only a few seconds. In contrast, the candle flame in microgravity may achieve a nearly steady state over a much longer time and is therefore ideal for examining a number of combustion-related phenomena. In this paper, we examine candle flame behavior in both short-duration and long-duration, quiescent, microgravity environments. Interest in this type of flame, especially 'candle flames in weightlessness', is demonstrated by very frequent public inquiries. The question is usually posed as 'will a candle flame burn in zero gravity', or, 'will a candle burn indefinitely (or steadily) in zero gravity in a large volume of quiescent air'. Intuitive speculation suggests to some that, in the absence of buoyancy, the accumulation of products in the vicinity of the flame will cause flame extinction. The classical theory for droplet combustion with its spherically-shaped diffusion flame, however, shows that steady combustion is possible in the absence of buoyancy if the chemical kinetics are fast enough. Previous experimental studies of candle flames in reduced and microgravity environments showed the flame could survive for at least 5 seconds, but did not reach a steady state in the available test time.

  10. 3-D woven ceramic composite hot gas filter development

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, Jay E.; LeCostaouec, Jean-Francois; LeCostaouec, J.F., Westinghouse

    1998-01-01

    Westinghouse, with Techniweave as a major subcontractor, is conducting a three-phase program aimed at providing advanced candle filters for a 1997 pilot-scale demonstration in one of the two hot- gas filter systems at Southern Company Service`s Wilsonville PSD Facility. The Base Program (Phases I and 11) goal is to develop and demonstrate the suitability of the Westinghouse/ Techniweave next- generation, composite, candle filter for use in Pressurized Fluidized- Bed Combustion (PFBC) and/or Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle (IGCC) power generation systems. The Optional Task (Phase 111, Task 5) objective is to fabricate, inspect, and ship to Wilsonville 50 advanced candle filters for pilot-scale testing.

  11. Filter component assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Alvin, M.A.; Lippert, T.E.; Diaz, E.S.; Smeltzer, E.W.

    1995-11-01

    The objectives of this program are to provide a more ruggedized filter system that utilizes porous ceramic filters which have improved resistance to damage resulting from crack propagation, thermal fatigue and/or thermal excursions during plant or process transient conditions, and/or mechanical ash bridging events within the candle filter array. As part of the current Phase 1, Task 1, effort of this program, Westinghouse is evaluating the filtration characteristics, mechanical integrity, and corrosion resistance of the following advanced or second generation candle filters for use in advanced coal-fired process applications: 3M CVI-SiC composite--chemical vapor infiltration of silicon carbide into an aluminosilicate Nextel{trademark} 312 fiber preform; DuPont PRD-66--filament wound candle filter structure containing corundum, cordierite, cristobalite, and mullite; DuPont SiC-SiC--chemical infiltration of silicon carbide into a silicon carbide Nicalon{trademark} fiber mat or felt preform; and IF and P Fibrosic{trademark}--vacuum infiltrated oxide-based chopped fibrous matrix. Results to date are presented.

  12. Lightweight ceramic filter components: Evaluation and application

    SciTech Connect

    Eggerstedt, P.M.

    1995-11-01

    Ceramic candle filtration is an attractive technology for particulate removal at high temperatures. The primary objective of this SBIR research program is to increase the performance, durability, and corrosion resistance of lightweight filter candles and filter tubesheet components (Fibrosic{trademark}), fabricated from vacuum formed chopped ceramic fiber (VFCCF), for use in advanced coal utilization applications. Phase 1 results proved that significant gains in material strength and particle retentivity are possible by treatment of VFCCF materials with colloidal ceramic oxides. Phase 2 effort will show how these treated materials tolerate high temperature and vapor-phase alkali species, on a long-term basis. With good durability and corrosion resistance, high temperature capability, and a low installed and replacement cost, these novel materials will help promote commercial acceptance of ceramic candle filter technology, as well as increase the efficiency and reliability of coal utilization processes in general.

  13. Candle Flames in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, D. L.; Ross, H. D.; T'ien, J. S.; Chang, P.; Shu, Y.

    1999-01-01

    This work is a study of a candle flame in a microgravity environment. The purpose of the work is to determine if a steady (or quasi-steady) flame can exist in a microgravity environment, study the characteristics of the steady flame, investigate the pre-extinction flame oscillations observed in a previous experiment in more detail, and finally, determine the nature of the interactions between two closely spaced candle flames. The candle flame in microgravity is used as a model of a non-propagating, steady-state, pure diffusion flame. The present work is a continuation of two small-scale, space-based experiments on candle flames, one on the Shuttle and the other on the Mir OS. The previous studies showed nearly steady dim blue flames with flame lifetimes as high as 45 minutes, and 1 Hz spontaneous flame oscillations prior to extinction. The present paper summarizes the results of the modeling efforts to date.

  14. Religious Candles Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... windows where a blind or curtain could catch fire. KKK Candles placed on, or near tables, altars, ... in a deep basin filled with water. General Fire Safety • Matches and lighters should be stored out ...

  15. Candle Flames in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, D. L.; Ross, H. D.; Chang, P.; T'ien, J. S.

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this work is to study both experimentally and numerically the behavior of a candle flame burning in a microgravity environment. Two space experiments (Shuttle and Mir) have shown the candle flame in microgravity to be small (approximately 1.5 cm diameter), dim blue, and hemispherical. Near steady flames with very long flame lifetimes (up to 45 minutes in some tests) existed for many of the tests. Most of the flames spontaneously oscillated with a period of approximately 1 Hz just prior to extinction). In a previous model of candle flame in microgravity, a porous sphere wetted with liquid fuel simulated the evaporating wick. The sphere, with a temperature equal to the boiling temperature of the fuel, was at the end of an inert cone that had a prescribed temperature. This inert cone produces the quenching effect of the candle wax in the real configuration. Although the computed flame shape resembled that observed in the microgravity experiment, the model was not able to differentiate the effect of wick geometry, e.g., a long vs. a short wick. This paper presents recent developments in the numerical model of the candle flame. The primary focus has been to more realistically account for the actual shape of the candle.

  16. Advanced astronomical interference filters from SCHOTT technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, Anthony B.; Reichel, Steffen; Brauneck, Ulf; Bourquin, Sebastien; Marin-Franch, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    Developing precision interference filters for astronomical radiometry often requires simultaneous solutions to very difficult requirements. SCHOTT's 80-year legacy methods with interference filters and 9,200-m2 facility dedicated to filters and optical fabrication bring multiple disciplines together to simultaneously solve requirements that include: narrow-band high-transmission, steep-edge bandpasses, extremely high out-of-band rejection across Si response, sizes accommodating large fields-of-view, precision mechanical filter assemblies and both spectral uniformity and excellent transmitted wavefront across the field. We discuss solutions as satisfied for Spain's state-of-the-art new fast LOCAL UNIVERSE 3° wide-field survey telescope.

  17. Candle Flames in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, Daniel L.; Ross, Howard D.; Frate, David T.; Tien, James S.; Shu, Yong

    1997-01-01

    This work is a study of a candle flame in a microgravity environment. The purpose of the work is to determine if a steady (or quasi-steady) flame can exist in a microgravity environment, study the characteristics of the steady flame, investigate the pre-extinction flame oscillations observed in a previous experiment in more detail, and finally, determine the nature of the interactions between two closely spaced candle flames. The candle flame is used as a model combustion system, in that in microgravity it is one of the only examples of a non-propagating, steady-state, pure diffusion flame. Others have used the candle to study a number of combustion phenomena including flame flicker, flame oscillations, electric field effects and enhanced and reduced gravitational effects in flames. The present work is a continuation of a small-scale Shuttle experiment on candle flames. That study showed that the candle flame lifetimes were on the order of 40 seconds, the flames were dim blue after a transient ignition period, and that just prior to extinction the flames oscillated spontaneously for about five seconds at a frequency of 1 Hz. The authors postulated that the gas phase in the immediate vicinity of the flame was quasi-steady. Further away from the flame, however, the assertion of a quasi-steady flame was less certain, thus the authors did not prove that a steady flame could exist. They also speculated that the short lifetime of the candle flame was due to the presence of the small, weakly perforated box that surrounded the candle. The Candle Flames in Microgravity (CFM) experiment, with revised hardware, was recently flown aboard the Mir orbiting station, and conducted inside the glovebox facility by Dr. Shannon Lucid. In addition to the purposes described above, the experiments were NASA's first ability to ascertain the merits of the Mir environment for combustion science studies. In this article, we present the results of that experiment. We are also in the process

  18. Advanced Filter Technology For Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castillon, Erick

    2015-01-01

    The Scrubber System focuses on using HEPA filters and carbon filtration to purify the exhaust of a Nuclear Thermal Propulsion engine of its aerosols and radioactive particles; however, new technology may lend itself to alternate filtration options, which may lead to reduction in cost while at the same time have the same filtering, if not greater, filtering capabilities, as its predecessors. Extensive research on various types of filtration methods was conducted with only four showing real promise: ionization, cyclonic separation, classic filtration, and host molecules. With the four methods defined, more research was needed to find the devices suitable for each method. Each filtration option was matched with a device: cyclonic separators for the method of the same name, electrostatic separators for ionization, HEGA filters, and carcerands for the host molecule method. Through many hours of research, the best alternative for aerosol filtration was determined to be the electrostatic precipitator because of its high durability against flow rate and its ability to cleanse up to 99.99% of contaminants as small as 0.001 micron. Carcerands, which are the only alternative to filtering radioactive particles, were found to be non-existent commercially because of their status as a "work in progress" at research institutions. Nevertheless, the conclusions after the research were that HEPA filters is recommended as the best option for filtering aerosols and carbon filtration is best for filtering radioactive particles.

  19. Advanced optical interference filters based on metal and dielectric layers.

    PubMed

    Begou, Thomas; Lemarchand, Fabien; Lumeau, Julien

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate the design and the fabrication of an advanced optical interference filter based on metal and dielectric layers. This filter respects the specifications of the 2016 OIC manufacturing problem contest. We study and present all the challenges and solutions that allowed achieving a low deviation between the fabricated prototype and the target. PMID:27607695

  20. Cross flow filter development for advanced fossil power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Lippert, T.E.; Alvin, M.A.; Bachovchin, D.M.; Haldipur, G.B.; Newby, R.A.; Smeltzer, E.E. )

    1990-01-01

    The porous ceramic cross flow filter has been under development at Westinghouse in conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE/METC) for advanced fossil power generation. The ceramic cross flow filter is capable of high temperature operation, and is basically an absolute filter on ash. The cross flow filter can be operated at high flow capacity, while simultaneously exhibiting relatively low pressure drop flow characteristics. This paper describes the cross flow filter development at Westinghouse, and reviews the results of many in-house and field test programs. Testing has included operation of the filter in subpilot pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and coal gasification applications. Testing is also being conducted at Westinghouse to evaluate filter characteristics over long-term operation (3,000 hours) utilizing dedicated test facilities.

  1. Fracture behavior of advanced ceramic hot gas filters: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, J.P.; Majumdar, S.; Sutaria, M.; Bielke, W.

    1997-03-01

    This report presents the results of mechanical/microstructural evaluation, thermal shock/fatigue testing, and stress analyses of advanced hot-gas filters obtained from different manufacturers. These filters were fabricated from both monolithic ceramics and composites. The composite filters, made of both oxide and nonoxide materials, were in both as-fabricated and exposed conditions, whereas the monolithic filters were made only of nonoxide materials. Mechanical property measurement of composite filters included diametral compression testing with O-ring specimens and burst-testing of short filter segments with rubber plugs. In-situ strength of fibers in the composite filters was evaluated by microscopic technique. Thermal shock/fatigue resistance was estimated by measuring the strengths of filter specimens before and after thermal cycling from an air environment at elevated temperatures to a room temperature oil bath. Filter performance during mechanical and thermal shock/fatigue loadings was correlated with microstructural observations. Micromechanical models were developed to derive properties of composite filter constituents on the basis of measured mechanical properties of the filters. Subsequently, these properties were used to analytically predict the performance of composite filters during thermal shock loading.

  2. 3D Oxide/Oxide Composite Filter

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, J.E.; LeCostaouec, J.; Painter, C.J.; Su, Wei-Fang A.; Radford, K.C.

    1996-12-31

    Hot gas particulate filters are key components for the successful commercialization of advanced coal-based power-generation systems such as Pressurized Fluidized-bed Combustion (PFBC), including second- generation PFBC, and Integrated Gasification Combined Cycles (IGCC). Current generation monolithic ceramic filters are subject to catastrophic failure because they have very low resistance to crack propagation. To overcome this problem, a damage -tolerant ceramic filter element is needed. Westinghouse, with Techniweave as a major subcontractor, is conducting a three-phase program aimed at providing advanced candle filters for a 1996 pilot scale demonstration in one of the two hot gas filter systems at Southern Company Service`s Wilsonville PSD Facility. The Base Program (Phases I and II) objective is to develop and demonstrate the suitability of the Westinghouse/Techniweave next generation composite candle filter for use PFBC and/or IGCC power generation systems. The optional Task (Phase III, Task 5) objective is to fabricate, inspect and ship to Wilsonville 50 advanced candle filters for pilot scale testing.

  3. Hot-gas filter testing with a transport reactor development unit

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, M.L.; Ness, R.O. Jr.; Mann, M.D.

    1996-12-31

    The objective of the hot-gas cleanup work on the transport reactor development unit (TRDU) located at the Energy and Environmental Research Center is to demonstrate acceptable performance of hot-gas filter elements in a pilot-scale system prior to long-term demonstration tests. The primary focus of the experimental effort in the 2-year project will be the testing of hot-gas filter elements as a function of particulate collection efficiency, filter pressure differential, filter cleanability, and durability during relatively short-term operation (100--200 hours). The selected hot-gas filter elements currently being tested include a Fibroplate{trademark} ceramic tube sheet and Fibrosic{trademark} candle filters from industrial Filter and Pump Mfg.; silicon carbide fiber ceramic candle filters from 3M; and metal and Vitropore ceramic candle filters from Pall Advanced Separation Systems. These elements will be used in three 200-hour filter tests under gasification conditions using the TRDU at filter temperatures of approximately 540 C at 9.3 bar and face velocities ranging from 1.4 to 3.8 cm/s. Changes in filter face velocity are achieved by removing six candles between each test. Results from the first 200-hour test are presented.

  4. Advanced Techniques for Removal of Retrievable Inferior Vena Cava Filters

    SciTech Connect

    Iliescu, Bogdan; Haskal, Ziv J.

    2012-08-15

    Inferior vena cava (IVC) filters have proven valuable for the prevention of primary or recurrent pulmonary embolism in selected patients with or at high risk for venous thromboembolic disease. Their use has become commonplace, and the numbers implanted increase annually. During the last 3 years, in the United States, the percentage of annually placed optional filters, i.e., filters than can remain as permanent filters or potentially be retrieved, has consistently exceeded that of permanent filters. In parallel, the complications of long- or short-term filtration have become increasingly evident to physicians, regulatory agencies, and the public. Most filter removals are uneventful, with a high degree of success. When routine filter-retrieval techniques prove unsuccessful, progressively more advanced tools and skill sets must be used to enhance filter-retrieval success. These techniques should be used with caution to avoid damage to the filter or cava during IVC retrieval. This review describes the complex techniques for filter retrieval, including use of additional snares, guidewires, angioplasty balloons, and mechanical and thermal approaches as well as illustrates their specific application.

  5. Candles in Our Windows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Kathryn

    2005-01-01

    "Candles in Our Windows"--also titled "Nightlights"--is a play developed for elementary and middle school students about how residents in Billings, Montana, took a stand against hate. Last March, the 6th-grade students of Woodland Elementary School in New Jersey performed an early version of the play based on a children's book, "The Christmas…

  6. Catalyzed sodium chlorate candles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malich, C. W.; Wydeven, T.

    1972-01-01

    The catalytic effect of cobalt powder on chlorate decomposition has been confirmed. Catalysis is enhanced by oxidation of the metal during burning. Catalysts other than cobalt compounds should also be effective; the complete elimination of fuel has shown that the oxidation of cobalt during decomposition is not a vital factor in the improved performance of catalyzed candles.

  7. Recent Advances on Endocrine Disrupting Effects of UV Filters

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiaying; Pan, Liumeng; Wu, Shenggan; Lu, Liping; Xu, Yiwen; Zhu, Yanye; Guo, Ming; Zhuang, Shulin

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) filters are used widely in cosmetics, plastics, adhesives and other industrial products to protect human skin or products against direct exposure to deleterious UV radiation. With growing usage and mis-disposition of UV filters, they currently represent a new class of contaminants of emerging concern with increasingly reported adverse effects to humans and other organisms. Exposure to UV filters induce various endocrine disrupting effects, as revealed by increasing number of toxicological studies performed in recent years. It is necessary to compile a systematic review on the current research status on endocrine disrupting effects of UV filters toward different organisms. We therefore summarized the recent advances on the evaluation of the potential endocrine disruptors and the mechanism of toxicity for many kinds of UV filters such as benzophenones, camphor derivatives and cinnamate derivatives. PMID:27527194

  8. Recent Advances on Endocrine Disrupting Effects of UV Filters.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiaying; Pan, Liumeng; Wu, Shenggan; Lu, Liping; Xu, Yiwen; Zhu, Yanye; Guo, Ming; Zhuang, Shulin

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) filters are used widely in cosmetics, plastics, adhesives and other industrial products to protect human skin or products against direct exposure to deleterious UV radiation. With growing usage and mis-disposition of UV filters, they currently represent a new class of contaminants of emerging concern with increasingly reported adverse effects to humans and other organisms. Exposure to UV filters induce various endocrine disrupting effects, as revealed by increasing number of toxicological studies performed in recent years. It is necessary to compile a systematic review on the current research status on endocrine disrupting effects of UV filters toward different organisms. We therefore summarized the recent advances on the evaluation of the potential endocrine disruptors and the mechanism of toxicity for many kinds of UV filters such as benzophenones, camphor derivatives and cinnamate derivatives. PMID:27527194

  9. 16 CFR 501.7 - Candles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Candles. 501.7 Section 501.7 Commercial... 500 § 501.7 Candles. Tapered candles and irregularly shaped decorative candles which are either hand... extent that diameter of such candles need not be expressed. The requirements of § 500.7 of this...

  10. 16 CFR 501.7 - Candles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Candles. 501.7 Section 501.7 Commercial... 500 § 501.7 Candles. Tapered candles and irregularly shaped decorative candles which are either hand... extent that diameter of such candles need not be expressed. The requirements of § 500.7 of this...

  11. 16 CFR 501.7 - Candles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Candles. 501.7 Section 501.7 Commercial... 500 § 501.7 Candles. Tapered candles and irregularly shaped decorative candles which are either hand... extent that diameter of such candles need not be expressed. The requirements of § 500.7 of this...

  12. 16 CFR 501.7 - Candles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Candles. 501.7 Section 501.7 Commercial... 500 § 501.7 Candles. Tapered candles and irregularly shaped decorative candles which are either hand... extent that diameter of such candles need not be expressed. The requirements of § 500.7 of this...

  13. 16 CFR 501.7 - Candles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Candles. 501.7 Section 501.7 Commercial... 500 § 501.7 Candles. Tapered candles and irregularly shaped decorative candles which are either hand... extent that diameter of such candles need not be expressed. The requirements of § 500.7 of this...

  14. A CANDLE for a deeper in vivo insight.

    PubMed

    Coupé, Pierrick; Munz, Martin; Manjón, Jose V; Ruthazer, Edward S; Collins, D Louis

    2012-05-01

    A new Collaborative Approach for eNhanced Denoising under Low-light Excitation (CANDLE) is introduced for the processing of 3D laser scanning multiphoton microscopy images. CANDLE is designed to be robust for low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conditions typically encountered when imaging deep in scattering biological specimens. Based on an optimized non-local means filter involving the comparison of filtered patches, CANDLE locally adapts the amount of smoothing in order to deal with the noise inhomogeneity inherent to laser scanning fluorescence microscopy images. An extensive validation on synthetic data, images acquired on microspheres and in vivo images is presented. These experiments show that the CANDLE filter obtained competitive results compared to a state-of-the-art method and a locally adaptive optimized non-local means filter, especially under low SNR conditions (PSNR<8dB). Finally, the deeper imaging capabilities enabled by the proposed filter are demonstrated on deep tissue in vivo images of neurons and fine axonal processes in the Xenopus tadpole brain. PMID:22341767

  15. Low background techniques in CANDLES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, K.; Iida, T.; Kishimoto, T.; Matsuoka, K.; Nomachi, M.; Umehara, S.; Chan, W. M.; Kakubata, H.; Li, X.; Maeda, T.; Ohata, T.; Temuge, B.; Tetsuno, K.; Trang, V. T. T.; Uehara, T.; Yoshida, S.; Morishita, K.; Ogawa, I.; Sakamoto, K.; Tamagawa, Y.; Yoshizawa, M.; Fushimi, K.; Hazama, R.; Naktani, N.; Suzuki, K.

    2015-08-01

    CANDLES is a double beta decay experiment using 48Ca in CaF2 crystals. The measurement is being performed with prototype detector (CANDLES III) for high sensitive measurement in the future. Recent status of detector improvements and background reduction techniques are described in this paper.

  16. Low background techniques in CANDLES

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajima, K. E-mail: nkyohei@u-fukui.ac.jp; Iida, T.; Matsuoka, K.; Nomachi, M.; Umehara, S.; Kishimoto, T.; Chan, W. M.; Kakubata, H.; Li, X.; Maeda, T.; Ohata, T.; Temuge, B.; Tetsuno, K.; Trang, V. T. T.; Uehara, T.; Yoshida, S.; Morishita, K.; Ogawa, I.; Sakamoto, K.; Tamagawa, Y.; and others

    2015-08-17

    CANDLES is a double beta decay experiment using {sup 48}Ca in CaF{sub 2} crystals. The measurement is being performed with prototype detector (CANDLES III) for high sensitive measurement in the future. Recent status of detector improvements and background reduction techniques are described in this paper.

  17. Properties and characterization of an oxide/oxide composite filter

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, J.E.; Painter, C.J.; Su, W.F.A.; Radford, K.C.; LeCostaouec, J.F.

    1996-12-31

    Westinghouse, with Techniweave as a major subcontractor, is conducting a three-phase program aimed at providing advanced candle filters for a 1997 pilot scale demonstration in one of the two hot gas filter system at Southern Company Service`s Wilsonville PSD Facility. This program`s objective is to develop an oxide CFCC (continuous fiber ceramic composite) candle filter that is cost competitive with prototype next generation filters through the development of a low cost sol-gel fabrication process and a 3D fiber architecture optimized for high volume filter manufacturing. Phase 1, Filter Material Development and Evaluation, results will be presented. Phase 1 activities included laboratory-scale development, characterization, and testing of a mullite matrix 3D fiber-reinforced (Nextel 550) ceramic composite filter material. Eleven 3D architectures were designed, preforms and ceramic matrix composite (CMC) filter materials were made, tested and evaluated. The CMC fabrication process was optimized for reduced cost and acceptable filter performance. Permeability, 4-pt bend and microstructural evaluation results, previously presented, were used to downselect to one 3D architecture and CMC processing method. The downselected filter material was fabricated and tested via permeability and 4-pt bend; Weibull modulus was determined. High-temperature flow-through corrosion tests and thermal aging tests in static air up to 5,000 h were conducted. SEM and XRD have been used to characterize microstructural and phase changes, if any, from high temperature exposure testing. Weaving feasibility studies for the flange and the closed end of a candle filter have been conducted in order to develop a low cost weaving method to make a single piece candle filter fiber preform. Results and conclusions for the evaluation of the downselected filter material above will be presented and discussed.

  18. Single layer spectro-polarimetric filter for advanced LWIR FPAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. M.; Kemme, S. A.; Scrymgeour, D. A.; Norwood, R. A.

    2012-06-01

    We explore the spectral and angular selectivity of near surface normal transmission of grating modified metallic surfaces and their ultimate potential for application as narrow-band spectro-polarimetric planar filter components in the development of advanced infrared focal plane arrays. The developed photonic microstructures exhibit tailored spectral transmission characteristics in the long wavelength infrared, and can be fabricated to preferentially transmit a given linear polarization within the design band. Modification of the material and structural properties of the diffractive optical element enables sub-pixel tuning of the spectro-polarimetric response of the device allowing for intelligent engineering of planar filter components for development of advanced focal plane arrays in the long wavelength infrared. The planar nature of the developed components leaves them immune to fabrication issues that typically plague thin film interference filters used for similar applications in the infrared, namely, deposition of multiple low-stress quarter-wavelength films and modification of the film thicknesses for each pixel. The solution developed here presents the opportunity for subpixel modification of the spectral response leading to an efficient, versatile filter component suitable for direct integration with commercially available focal plane array technologies via standard fabrication techniques. We will discuss the theoretical development and analysis of the described components and compare the results to the current state-of-the-art.

  19. Deinterlacing algorithm with an advanced non-local means filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin; Jeon, Gwanggil; Jeong, Jechang

    2012-04-01

    The authors introduce an efficient intra-field deinterlacing algorithm using an advanced non-local means filter. The non-local means (NLM) method has received considerable attention due to its high performance and simplicity. The NLM method adaptively obtains the missing pixel by the weighted average of the gray values of all pixels within the image, and then automatically eliminates unrelated neighborhoods from the weighted average. However, spatial location distance is another important issue for the deinterlacing method. Therefore we introduce an advanced NLM (ANLM) filter while consider neighborhood similarity and patch distance. Moreover, the search region of the conventional NLM is the whole image, while, the ANLM can just utilize the limited search region and achieve good performance and high efficiency. When compared with existing deinterlacing algorithms, the proposed algorithm improves the peak signal-to-noise-ratio while maintaining high efficiency.

  20. Argon flash candle. Quarterly report, April--June 1964

    SciTech Connect

    Rigdon, J.K.

    1997-09-01

    Several additional argon flash candles have been fired during the quarter. Several shots both straight-in and at 45{degrees} with and without the prism were fired. Some interesting data were obtained from pseudo-spectrograph shots performed by interposing filters in the light path of the camera and using both glass and Plexiglas simultaneously on the candle front. From these shots, we were able to better illustrate some of the differences in glass and Plexiglas with regard to diffusion and light scattering, as well as spectral transmission characteristics.

  1. Westinghouse filter update

    SciTech Connect

    Lippert, T.E.; Bruck, G.J.; Smeltzer, E.E.; Newby, R.A.; Bachovchin, D.M.

    1993-09-01

    Hot gas filters have been implemented and operated in four different test facilities: Subpilot scale entrained gasifier, located at the Texaco Montebello Research facilities in California, Foster Wheeler Advanced Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion pilot plant facilities, located in Livingston, New Jersey, Slipstream of the American Electric Power (AEP) 70 MW (electric) Tidd-PFBC, located in Brilliant, Ohio, and in the Ahlstrom 10 MW (thermal) Circulating PFBC facility, located in Karhula, Finland. Candle filter testing has occurred at all four facilities; cross flow filter testing has occurred at the Texaco and Foster Wheeler facilities. Table 1 identifies and summarizes the key operating characteristics of these facilities and the type and scale of filter unit tested. A brief description of each project is given.

  2. Performance of ceramic membrane filters

    SciTech Connect

    Ahluwalia, R.K.; Im, K.H.; Geyer, H.K.; Shelleman, D.L.; Tressler, R.E.

    1996-08-01

    CeraMem Corp.`s ceramic-membrane coated, dead-end ceramic filters offer a promising alternative to ceramic candle filters providing long-term operational and reliability issues are resolved: regenerability of filter passages by back pulse cleaning, tolerance to alkali-containing combustion gas and thermal/chemical aging. ANL is responsible for analytical modeling of filtration and pulse cleaning operations, flow-through testing, and prediction of filter response to thermal cycling under realistic service conditions. A test apparatus was built to expose ceramic filter specimens to chemical environments simulating operation of pressurized fluidized bed and integrated gasification combined cycle plants. Four long-duration tests have been conducted in which 100-cpsi channel filters were exposed to ash collected downstream of the cyclone separator at the PFBC plant at Tidd. Results are discussed. Focus has now shifted to exposing the advanced candle filter specimens to reducing gas environments containing NaCl, H{sub 2}S, H{sub 2}O, and gasification ash.

  3. The First Group of CANDLE Beamlines

    SciTech Connect

    Aghasyan, M.; Grigoryan, A.; Mikaelyan, R.

    2004-05-12

    The Center for the Advancement of Natural Discoveries using Light Emission (CANDLE) is a 3 GeV intermediate energy light source project in Armenia. The paper presents the study and design futures of the first group of beamlines that are planed to run among with the facility operation scheduled for year 2007. Presented beamlines will cover the experimental researches based on diffraction and powder diffraction, XAS, Soft X-ray spectroscopy and microscopy, Small angle X-ray scattering, X-ray Imaging techniques and LIGA.

  4. International Space Station (ISS) Advanced Recycle Filter Tank Assembly (ARFTA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nasrullah, Mohammed K.

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Recycle Filter Tank Assembly (RFTA) provides the following three primary functions for the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA): volume for concentrating/filtering pretreated urine, filtration of product distillate, and filtration of the Pressure Control and Pump Assembly (PCPA) effluent. The RFTAs, under nominal operations, are to be replaced every 30 days. This poses a significant logistical resupply problem, as well as cost in upmass and new tanks purchase. In addition, it requires significant amount of crew time. To address and resolve these challenges, NASA required Boeing to develop a design which eliminated the logistics and upmass issues and minimize recurring costs. Boeing developed the Advanced Recycle Filter Tank Assembly (ARFTA) that allowed the tanks to be emptied on-orbit into disposable tanks that eliminated the need for bringing the fully loaded tanks to earth for refurbishment and relaunch, thereby eliminating several hundred pounds of upmass and its associated costs. The ARFTA will replace the RFTA by providing the same functionality, but with reduced resupply requirements

  5. Design and Development of a Ceramic Hot-Gas Filter for Fossil Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Vaubert, V.

    2001-02-14

    Advanced coal-fueled, power generation systems utilizing pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technologies are currently being developed for high-efficiency, low emissions, and low-cost power generation. In spite of the advantages of these promising technologies, the severe operating environment often leads to material degradation and loss of performance in the barrier filters used for particle entrapment. To address this problem a monolithic cross-flow ceramic hot-gas filter is being designed and developed. Because of testing necessities, a hot-gas candle-filter which integrates the requirements of the cross-flow filter will be fabricated first. As a result, a high-purity, stoichiometric mullite, nine inch long, closed-end, candle-filter prototype was fabricated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) using gelcasting technology.

  6. Application of advanced filtering methods to the determination of the interplanetary orbit of Mariner '71.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rourke, K. H.; Jordan, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the applications of advanced filtering methods to the determination of the interplanetary orbit of the Mariner '71 spacecraft. The advanced techniques are specific extensions of the Kalman filter. The special problems associated with applying these techniques are discussed and the particular algorithmic implementations are outlined. The advanced methods are compared against the weighted least squares filters of conventional application. The results reveal that relatively simple advanced filter configurations yield solutions superior to those of the conventional methods when applied to the Mariner '71 radio measurements.

  7. LED solution for E14 candle lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yun; Liu, Ye; Boonekamp, Erik P.; Shi, Lei; Mei, Yi; Jiang, Tan; Guo, Qing; Wu, Huarong

    2009-08-01

    On a short to medium term, energy efficient retrofit LED products can offer an attractive solution for traditional lamps replacement in existing fixtures. To comply with user expectations, LED retrofit lamps should not only have the same mechanical interface to fit (socket and shape), but also have the similar light effect as the lamps they replace. The decorative lighting segment shows the best conditions to meet these requirements on short term. In 2008, Philips Lighting Shanghai started with the development of an LED candle lamp for the replacement of a 15W Candle shape (B35 E14) incandescent bulb, which is used in e.g. chandeliers. In this decorative application the main objective is not to generate as much light as possible, but the application requires the lamp to have a comparable look and, primarily, the same light effect as the incandescent candle lamp. This effect can be described as sparkling light, and it has to be directed sufficiently downwards (i.e., in the direction of the base of the lamp). These requirements leave very limited room for optics, electronics, mechanics and thermal design to play with in the small outline of this lamp. The main voltage AC LED concept is chosen to save the space for driver electronics. However the size of the AC LED is relatively big, which makes the optical design challenging. Several optical solutions to achieve the required light effect, to improve the optical efficiency, and to simplify the system are discussed. A novel prismatic lens has been developed which is capable of transforming the Lambertian light emission from typical high power LEDs into a butter-fly intensity distribution with the desired sparkling light effect. Thanks to this lens no reflecting chamber is needed, which improves the optical efficiency up to 70%, while maintaining the compact feature of the original optics. Together with advanced driver solution and thermal solution, the resulting LED candle lamp operates at 230V, consumes 1.8W, and

  8. Lighting that One Little Candle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarnati, James T.; Tice, Craig J.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a lesson in which fifth graders made observations of candles. Discusses the progress of the lesson and the necessity of instructing students in what and how to watch and measure. Stresses that this can be easily accomplished inexpensively with imagination. (CW)

  9. Advanced distortion-invariant minimum average correlation energy (MACE) filters.

    PubMed

    Casasent, D; Ravichandran, G

    1992-03-10

    The original minimum average correlation energy (MACE) filter is addressed by using a new database (strategic relocatable objects, missile launchers) and including noise performance, depression angle, and resolution effects on the number of training set images that are required. Major attention is given to our new MACE filter algorithms for distortion-invariant pattern recognition: shifted-MACE filters (to suppress large false correlation peaks), minimum variance-MACE filters (for improved noise performance), multiple symbolic encoded filters (to reduce the effect of false correlation peaks), and Gaussian-MACE filters (to improve noise performance and intraclass recognition and reduce the training set size). PMID:20720728

  10. Advanced distortion-invariant minimum average correlation energy (MACE) filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casasent, David; Ravichandran, Gopalan

    1992-03-01

    The original minimum average correlation energy (MACE) filter is addressed by using a new database (strategic relocatable objects and missile launchers) and including noise performance, depression angle, and resolution effects on the number of training set images that are required. Major attention is given to new MACE filter algorithms for distortion-invariant pattern recognition: shifted-MACE filters to suppress large false correlation peaks, minimum variance-MACE filters for improved noise performance, multiple symbolic encoded filters to reduce the effect of false correlation peaks, and Gaussian-MACE filters to improve noise performance and intraclass recognition and reduce the training set size.

  11. 3-D woven, mullite matrix, composite filter

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, J.E.; Painter, C.J.; Radford, K.C. LeCostaouec, J.F.

    1995-12-01

    Westinghouse, with Techniweave as a major subcontractor, is conducting a three-phase program aimed at providing advanced candle filters for a 1996 pilot scale demonstration in one of the two hot gas filter systems at Southern Company Service`s Wilsonville PSD Facility. The Base Program (Phases I and II) objective is to develop and demonstrate the suitability of the Westinghouse/Techniweave next generation composite candle filter for use in Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) and/or Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power generation systems. The Optional Task (Phase M, Task 5) objective is to fabricate, inspect and ship to Wilsonville Hot gas particulate filters are key components for the successful commercializaion of advanced coal-based power-generation systems such as Pressurized Fluidized-bed Combustion (PFBC), including second-generation PFBC, and Integrated Gasification Combined Cycles (IGCC). Current generation monolithic ceramic filters are subject to catastrophic failure because they have very low resistance to crack propagation. To overcome this problem, a damage-tolerant ceramic filter element is needed.

  12. Advanced configuration of hybrid passive filter for reactive power and harmonic compensation.

    PubMed

    Kececioglu, O Fatih; Acikgoz, Hakan; Sekkeli, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Harmonics is one of the major power quality problems for power systems. The harmonics can be eliminated by power filters such as passive, active, and hybrid. In this study, a new passive filter configuration has been improved in addition to the existing passive filter configurations. Conventional hybrid passive filters are not successful to compensate rapidly changing reactive power demand. The proposed configure are capable of compensating both harmonics and reactive power at the same time. Simulation results show that performance of reactive power and harmonic compensation with advanced hybrid passive filter is better than conventional hybrid passive filters. PMID:27536512

  13. Filter system cost comparison for IGCC and PFBC power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, R.A.; McDaniel, H.M.; Buchanan, T.

    1995-12-01

    A cost comparison was conducted between the filter systems for two advanced coal-based power plants. The results from this study are presented. The filter system is based on a Westinghouse advanced particulate filter concept, which is designed to operate with ceramic candle filters. The Foster Wheeler second-generation 453 MWe (net) pressurized fluidized-bed combustor (PFBC) and the KRW 458 MWe (net) integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants are used for the comparison. The comparison presents the general differences of the two power plants and the process-related filtration conditions for PFBC and IGCC systems. The results present the conceptual designs for the PFBC and IGCC filter systems as well as a cost summary comparison. The cost summary comparison includes the total plant cost, the fixed operating and maintenance cost, the variable operating and maintenance cost, and the effect on the cost of electricity (COE) for the two filter systems.

  14. Candle and candle wax containing metathesis and metathesis-like products

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Timothy A; Tupy, Michael J; Abraham, Timothy W; Shafer, Andy

    2014-04-01

    A wax comprises a metathesis product and/or a product that resembles, at least in part, a product which may be formed from a metathesis reaction. The wax may be used to form articles, for example, candles (container candles, votive candles, and/or a pillar candles), crayons, fire logs, or tarts. The wax commonly includes other components in addition to the metathesis product.

  15. Candle and candle wax containing metathesis and metathesis-like products

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, Timothy A; Tupy, Michael J; Abraham, Timothy W; Shafer, Andy

    2014-12-16

    A wax comprises a metathesis product and/or a product that resembles, at least in part, a product which may be formed from a metathesis reaction. The wax may be used to form articles for example, candles (container candles, votive candles, and/or a pillar candles), crayons, fire logs or tarts. The wax commonly includes other components in addition to the metathesis product.

  16. Candle Flames in Microgravity Video

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This video of a candle flame burning in space was taken by the Candle Flames in Microgravity (CFM) experiment on the Russian Mir space station. It is actually a composite of still photos from a 35mm camera since the video images were too dim. The images show a hemispherically shaped flame, primarily blue in color, with some yellow early int the flame lifetime. The actual flame is quite dim and difficult to see with the naked eye. Nearly 80 candles were burned in this experiment aboard Mir. NASA scientists have also studied how flames spread in space and how to detect fire in microgravity. Researchers hope that what they learn about fire and combustion from the flame ball experiments will help out here on Earth. Their research could help create things such as better engines for cars and airplanes. Since they use very weak flames, flame balls require little fuel. By studying how this works, engineers may be able to design engines that use far less fuel. In addition, microgravity flame research is an important step in creating new safety precautions for astronauts living in space. By understanding how fire works in space, the astronauts can be better prepared to fight it.

  17. Development of NDE methods for hot gas filters.

    SciTech Connect

    Deemer, C.; Ellingson, W. A.; Koehl, E. R.; Lee, H.; Spohnholtz, T.; Sun, J. G.

    1999-07-21

    Ceramic hot gas candle filters are currently under development for hot gas particulate cleanup in advanced coal-based power systems. The ceramic materials for these filters include nonoxide monolithic, nonoxide-fiber-reinforced composites, and nonoxide reticulated foam. A concern is the lack of reliable data on which to base decisions for reusing or replacing hot gas filters during plant shutdowns. The work in this project is aimed at developing nondestructive evaluation (FIDE) technology to allow detection, and determination of extent, of life-limiting characteristics such as thermal fatigue, oxidation, damage from ash bridging such as localized cracking, damage from local burning, and elongation at elevated temperature. Although in-situ NDE methods are desirable in order to avoid disassembly of the candle filter vessels, the current vessel designs, the presence of filter cakes and possible ash bridging, and the state of NDE technology prevent this. Candle filter producers use a variety of NDE methods to ensure as-produced quality. While impact acoustic resonance offers initial promise for examining new as-produced filters and for detecting damage in some monolithic filters when removed from service, it presents difficulties in data interpretation, it lacks localization capability, and its applicability to composites has yet to be demonstrated. Additional NDE technologies being developed and evaluated in this program and whose applicability to both monolithics and composites has been demonstrated include (a) full-scale thermal imaging for analyzing thermal property variations; (b) fret, high-spatial-resolution X-ray imaging for detecting density variations and dimensional changes; (c) air-coupled ultrasonic methods for determining through-thickness compositional variations; and (d) acoustic emission technology with mechanical loading for detecting localized bulk damage. New and exposed clay-bonded SiC filters and CVI-SiC composite filters have been tested with

  18. Assessment of Metal Media Filters for Advanced Coal-Based Power Generation Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Alvin, M.A.

    2002-09-19

    Advanced coal and biomass-based gas turbine power generation technologies (IGCC, PFBC, PCFBC, and Hipps) are currently under development and demonstration. Efforts at Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (SWPC) have been focused on the development and demonstration of hot gas filter systems as an enabling technology for power generation. This paper reviews SWPC's material and component assessment efforts, identifying the performance, stability, and life of porous metal, advanced alloy, and intermetallic filters under simulated, pressurized fluidized-bed combustion conditions.

  19. Advanced Energy-Efficient Filtration: Fan Filter Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tengfang

    2005-10-01

    The objective of this project is to provide assistance in development of a standard test procedure for fan-filter units, which are gaining popularity for use in California cleanrooms. In particular, LBNL carried out collaboration with various stakeholders in the industry and took a lead in developing a draft standard method for testing the energy performance of fan-filter units, and provided assistance to California public utility companies by testing the draft method in PG&E's testing facility. Through testing more units in the future with a robust standard method, baseline performance information can be developed for use in possible energy incentive programs.

  20. Multispectral Filter Arrays: Recent Advances and Practical Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Lapray, Pierre-Jean; Wang, Xingbo; Thomas, Jean-Baptiste; Gouton, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Thanks to some technical progress in interferencefilter design based on different technologies, we can finally successfully implement the concept of multispectral filter array-based sensors. This article provides the relevant state-of-the-art for multispectral imaging systems and presents the characteristics of the elements of our multispectral sensor as a case study. The spectral characteristics are based on two different spatial arrangements that distribute eight different bandpass filters in the visible and near-infrared area of the spectrum. We demonstrate that the system is viable and evaluate its performance through sensor spectral simulation. PMID:25407904

  1. Iron Aluminide Hot Gas Filters

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, J.; Brosious, S.; Johnson, M.

    1996-12-31

    Currently, high temperature filter systems are in the demonstration phase with the first commercial scale hot filter systems being installed on integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and pressurized fluid bed combustion cycle (PBFC) systems (70 MW). They are dependent on the development of durable and economic high temperature filter systems. These filters are mostly ceramic tubes or candles. Ceramic filter durability has not been high. Failure is usually attributed to mechanical or thermal shock: they can also undergo significant changes due to service conditions. The overall objective of this project is to commercialize weldable, crack resistant filters which will provide several years service in advanced power processes. The specific objectives of this project are to develop corrosion resistant alloys and manufacturing processes to make Iron Aluminide filter media, and to use a ``short term`` exposure apparatus supported by other tests to identify the most promising candidate (alloy plus sintering cycle). The objectives of the next phases are to demonstrate long term corrosion stability for the best candidate followed by the production of fifty filters (optional).

  2. CANDLE: The New Burnup Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Sekimoto, Hiroshi; Ryu, Kouichi; Yoshimura, Yoshikane

    2001-11-15

    The new burnup strategy CANDLE (Constant Axial shape of Neutron flux, nuclide densities and power shape During Life of Energy production) is proposed. With this burnup strategy, distributions of fuel nuclide densities, neutron flux, and power density move with the same constant speed and without any change in their shapes. The excess reactivity is constant during the burnup. Therefore, any control mechanisms for the burnup are not required. Calculation procedures are presented to find these shapes and the speed of the burning region with the neutron multiplication factor of a reactor employing this burnup strategy.To demonstrate the CANDLE burnup strategy, it is applied to a fast reactor with excellent neutron economy. Only the initially built reactor requires some fissile material such as plutonium or enriched uranium for the nuclear ignition region of its core, but only natural uranium or depleted uranium is required for the other region. Succeeding reactors require only natural or depleted uranium since the burning region of the previous reactor can be utilized for the ignition region. The life of a reactor can be made longer by elongating the core height. The drift speed of the burning region for the presented fast reactor design is {approx}4 cm/yr, which is a preferable value for designing a long-life reactor. The burnup of spent fuel is {approx}40%. It is equivalent to 40% utilization of natural uranium without reprocessing and enrichment.

  3. Advanced Trickling Filters. Training Module 2.112.4.77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layton, Ronald F.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with operation and maintenance of a trickling filter wastewater treatment plant. Included are objectives, instructor guides, student handouts and transparency masters. This is the third level of a three module series and considers…

  4. Ceramem filters for removal of particles from hot gas streams

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, B.A.; Goldsmith, R.L.

    1994-11-01

    The need for hot gas cleanup in the power, advanced coal conversion, process and incineration industries is well documented and extensive development is being undertaken to develop and demonstrate suitable filtration technologies. In general, process conditions include (a) oxidizing or reducing atmospheres, (b) temperatures to 1800{degree}F, (c) pressures to 300 psi, and (d) potentially corrosive components in the gas stream. The most developed technologies entail the use of candle or tube filters, which suffer from fragility, lack of oxidation/corrosion resistance, and high cost. The ceramic membrane filter described below offers the potential to eliminate these limitations.

  5. Lifted linear phase filter banks and the polyphase-with-advance representation

    SciTech Connect

    Brislawn, C. M.; Wohlberg, B. E.

    2004-01-01

    A matrix theory is developed for the noncausal polyphase-with-advance representation that underlies the theory of lifted perfect reconstruction filter banks and wavelet transforms as developed by Sweldens and Daubechies. This theory provides the fundamental lifting methodology employed in the ISO/IEC JPEG-2000 still image coding standard, which the authors helped to develop. Lifting structures for polyphase-with-advance filter banks are depicted in Figure 1. In the analysis bank of Figure 1(a), the first lifting step updates x{sub 0} with a filtered version of x{sub 1} and the second step updates x{sub 1} with a filtered version of x{sub 0}; gain factors 1/K and K normalize the lowpass- and highpass-filtered output subbands. Each of these steps is inverted by the corresponding operations in the synthesis bank shown in Figure 1(b). Lifting steps correspond to upper- or lower-triangular matrices, S{sub i}(z), in a cascade-form decomposition of the polyphase analysis matrix, H{sub a}(z). Lifting structures can also be implemented reversibly (i.e., losslessly in fixed-precision arithmetic) by rounding the lifting updates to integer values. Our treatment of the polyphase-with-advance representation develops an extensive matrix algebra framework that goes far beyond the results of. Specifically, we focus on analyzing and implementing linear phase two-channel filter banks via linear phase lifting cascade schemes. Whole-sample symmetric (WS) and half-sample symmetric (HS) linear phase filter banks are characterized completely in terms of the polyphase-with-advance representation. The theory benefits significantly from a number of new group-theoretic structures arising in the polyphase-with-advance matrix algebra from the lifting factorization of linear phase filter banks.

  6. When a Standard Candle Flickers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Cherry, M. L.; Beklen, E.; Bhat, P. N.; Briggs, M. S.; Camero-Arranz, A.; Case, G. L.; Chaplin, V.; Connaughton, V.; Finger, M. H.; Greiner, J.; Jahoda, K.; Jenke, P.; Kippen, R. M.; Kouveliotou, C.; Kuulkers, E.; Meegan, C. A.; Natalucci, L.; Paciesas, W. S.; Preece, R.; Rodi, J. C.; Shaposhnikov, N.; Swartz, D.; von Kienlin, A.

    2010-01-01

    The Crab is the only bright steady source in the X-ray sky. The Crab consists of a pulsar wind nebula, a synchrotron nebula, and a cloud of expanding ejecta. On small scales, the Crab is extremely complex and turbulent. X-ray astronomers have often used the Crab as a standard candle to calibrate instruments, assuming its spectrum and overall flux remains constant over time. Four instruments (Fermi/GBM, RXTE/PCA, Swift/BAT, INTEGRAL/ISGRI) show a approx.5% (50 m Crab) decline in the Crab from 2008-2010. This decline appears to be larger with increasing energy and is not present in the pulsed flux, implying changes in the shock acceleration, electron population or magnetic field in the nebula. The Crab is known to be dynamic on small scales, so it is not too surprising that its total flux varies as well. Caution should be taken when using the Crab for in-orbit calibrations.

  7. Ceramic fiber filter technology

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, B.L.; Janney, M.A.

    1996-06-01

    Fibrous filters have been used for centuries to protect individuals from dust, disease, smoke, and other gases or particulates. In the 1970s and 1980s ceramic filters were developed for filtration of hot exhaust gases from diesel engines. Tubular, or candle, filters have been made to remove particles from gases in pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and gasification-combined-cycle power plants. Very efficient filtration is necessary in power plants to protect the turbine blades. The limited lifespan of ceramic candle filters has been a major obstacle in their development. The present work is focused on forming fibrous ceramic filters using a papermaking technique. These filters are highly porous and therefore very lightweight. The papermaking process consists of filtering a slurry of ceramic fibers through a steel screen to form paper. Papermaking and the selection of materials will be discussed, as well as preliminary results describing the geometry of papers and relative strengths.

  8. Assessment of ceramic membrane filters

    SciTech Connect

    Ahluwalia, R.K.; Geyer, H.K.; Im, K.H.

    1995-08-01

    The objectives of this project include the development of analytical models for evaluating the fluid mechanics of membrane coated, dead-end ceramic filters, and to determine the effects of thermal and thermo-chemical aging on the material properties of emerging ceramic hot gas filters. A honeycomb cordierite monolith with a thin ceramic coating and a rigid candle filter were evaluated.

  9. Testing of the Westinghouse hot gas filter at Ahlstrom Pyropower Corporation

    SciTech Connect

    Lippert, T.; Alvin, M.A.; Bruck, G.J.; Isaksson, J.; Dennis, R.A.; Brown, R.A.

    1995-12-31

    A single cluster Westinghouse hot gas filter has been tested for over 2050 hours on Ahlstrom Pyropower Corporation`s Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed (PCFB) 10 MW test facility at Karhula, Finland. This filter system, which houses 128 ceramic candles in three plenums, takes the full flow from the PCFB. Two candle types, an alumina/mullite candle manufactured by Coors Ceramics and a clay bonded SiC candle manufactured by Refractron Corporation were evaluated over a range of filtration face velocities, dust loadings, coal types and temperatures. Both candle systems allowed less than 3 ppmw to exit the candles with inlet dust loadings as high as 18,000 ppm. Stable pressure drop across the filter in the steady state was achieved with less than 60 in wg (150 mbar) for either candle system. Pulse cleaning air pressure was less than 435 psi (30 bar) when the plant was operated at 145 to 175 psi (10 to 12 bar). Improvements to the flow distribution in the filter housing and fine tuning of the pulsing system were incorporated. The alumina/mullite candles accumulated around 750 hours at operating temperatures to 1,650 F (900 C). The SiC accumulated about 1,300 hours at temperatures to 1,560 F (850 C). Strength measurements and SEM examination of the candle material have been conducted to help evaluate long-term ceramic candle filter material stability. All metal structures within the filter assembly performed as designed.

  10. Recent advance in application of acousto-optic tunable filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khansuvarov, Ruslan A.; Shakin, Oleg V.; Vaganov, Mikhail A.; Zhdanov, Arseniy Y.; Prokashev, Vadim N.

    2014-09-01

    This paper aims to inform those interested in the scientific work of a large group of scientists: workers of the Department of Electronics and Optical communications of St. Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation in collaboration with workers of the Department of Quantum Electronics of St. Petersburg State Technical University in the area of researches and development of acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTF). Paper discusses the important features of the AOTF structure and their parameters that affect its work, such as: spectral range of optical radiation, spectral resolution, active aperture of the optical radiation, optical transmission of the working spectral range, optical radiation polarization (linear, circular or arbitrary) , diffraction efficiency, contrast, distortion of the optical radiation's front, frequency range of elastic waves, switching time, maximum electric control power, impedance. Also the AOTF using is considered: AOTF's implications for control of laser radiation, AOTF's application to determine the counterfeit money. The last part of the report focuses on materials that act as antireflection thin films. Spectral characteristics of "clean" and enlightened substrates of ZnSe and Ge are shown. As seen from the examples in the report, antireflection thin films increase transmittance of optical elements.

  11. Phase Advance for Wideband Dampers With Notch Filters

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, Dave; /Fermilab

    2000-02-01

    Consider a simple damper system shown in Figure 1. The phase advance between pickup and kicker is {phi}{sub k}. Assume a particle passes through the pickup at time t=0 with a complex betatron amplitude: {rvec A}{sub pu} = A{sub o}. When the particle passes through the kicker, the betatron amplitude of the particle will be: {rvec A}{sub kr} = A{sub o}e{sup j{phi}k}. Assume that the damper is timed so that the delay through the electronics matches the time of flight for the particle between pickup to kicker. The difference in phase between the kicker betatron amplitude and the pickup amplitude must be: arg({rvec A}{sub kr})-arg({rvec A}{sub pu}) = (2n + 1) {pi}/2 and {phi}{sub k} = (2n+1) {pi}/2 because the pickup measures the position and the kicker corrects an angle.

  12. Recent advances on distributed filtering for stochastic systems over sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Derui; Wang, Zidong; Shen, Bo

    2014-05-01

    Sensor networks comprising of tiny, power-constrained nodes with sensing, computation, and wireless communication capabilities are gaining popularity due to their potential application in a wide variety of environments like monitoring of environmental attributes and various military and civilian applications. Considering the limited power and communication resources of the sensor nodes, the strategy of the distributed information processing is widely exploited. Therefore, it would be interesting to examine how the topology, network-induced phenomena, and power constraints influence the distributed filtering performance and to obtain some suitable schemes in order to solve the addressed distributed filter design problem. In this paper, we aim to survey some recent advances on the distributed filtering and distributed state estimation problems over the sensor networks with various performance requirements and/or randomly occurring network-induced phenomena. First, some practical filter structures are addressed in detail. Then, the developments of the distributed Kalman filtering, distributed state estimation based on the stability or mean-square error analysis, and distributed ? filtering are systematically reviewed. In addition, latest results on the distributed filtering or state estimation over sensor networks are discussed in great detail and some challenges are highlighted. Finally, some concluding remarks are given and some possible future research directions are pointed out.

  13. Design and Specification of Optical Bandpass Filters for Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B.; Tsevetanov, Zlatan; Woodruff, Bob; Mooney, Thomas A.

    1998-01-01

    Advanced optical bandpass filters for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) have been developed on a filter-by-filter basis through detailed studies which take into account the instrument's science goals, available optical filter fabrication technology, and developments in ACS's charge-coupled-device (CCD) detector technology. These filters include a subset of filters for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) which are optimized for astronomical photometry using today's charge-coupled-devices (CCD's). In order for ACS to be truly advanced, these filters must push the state-of-the-art in performance in a number of key areas at the same time. Important requirements for these filters include outstanding transmitted wavefront, high transmittance, uniform transmittance across each filter, spectrally structure-free bandpasses, exceptionally high out of band rejection, a high degree of parfocality, and immunity to environmental degradation. These constitute a very stringent set of requirements indeed, especially for filters which are up to 90 mm in diameter. The highly successful paradigm in which final specifications for flight filters were derived through interaction amongst the ACS Science Team, the instrument designer, the lead optical engineer, and the filter designer and vendor is described. Examples of iterative design trade studies carried out in the context of science needs and budgetary and schedule constraints are presented. An overview of the final design specifications for the ACS bandpass and ramp filters is also presented.

  14. Burns and injuries resulting from the use of gel candles.

    PubMed

    Pickus, E J; Lionelli, G T; Parmele, J B; Lawrence, W T; Korentager, R A

    2001-01-01

    Scented gel candles are common decorative household items composed of gelled mineral oil, fragrances, and dye. Like traditional wax candles, they have an open flame. Because of defective design, there have been several burns and injuries caused by these products. Here we report our experience with a scald burn from a gel candle and describe 34 additional injuries attributed to gel candles previously unreported in the medical literature. PMID:11403248

  15. WHEN A STANDARD CANDLE FLICKERS

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Jenke, Peter; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Cherry, Michael L.; Case, Gary L.; Baumgartner, Wayne H.; Krimm, Hans A.; Bhat, P. Narayana; Briggs, Michael S.; Chaplin, Vandiver; Connaughton, Valerie; Camero-Arranz, Ascension; Finger, Mark H.; Gehrels, Neil; Jahoda, Keith; Greiner, Jochen; Kippen, R. Marc; Kuulkers, Erik; Lund, Niels

    2011-02-01

    The Crab Nebula is the only hard X-ray source in the sky that is both bright enough and steady enough to be easily used as a standard candle. As a result, it has been used as a normalization standard by most X-ray/gamma-ray telescopes. Although small-scale variations in the nebula are well known, since the start of science operations of the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) in 2008 August, a {approx}7% (70 mCrab) decline has been observed in the overall Crab Nebula flux in the 15-50 keV band, measured with the Earth occultation technique. This decline is independently confirmed in the {approx}15-50 keV band with three other instruments: the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (Swift/BAT), the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array (RXTE/PCA), and the Imager on-Board the INTEGRAL Satellite (IBIS). A similar decline is also observed in the {approx}3-15 keV data from the RXTE/PCA and in the 50-100 keV band with GBM, Swift/BAT, and INTEGRAL/IBIS. The pulsed flux measured with RXTE/PCA since 1999 is consistent with the pulsar spin-down, indicating that the observed changes are nebular. Correlated variations in the Crab Nebula flux on a {approx}3 year timescale are also seen independently with the PCA, BAT, and IBIS from 2005 to 2008, with a flux minimum in 2007 April. As of 2010 August, the current flux has declined below the 2007 minimum.

  16. When A Standard Candle Flickers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Cherry, Michael L.; Case, Gary L.; Baumgartner, Wayne H.; Beklen Elif; Bhat, P. Narayana; Briggs, Michael S.; Camero-Arranz, Ascension; Chaplin, Vandiver; Connaughton, Valerie; Finger, Mark H.; Gehrels, Neil; Greiner, Jochen; Jahoda, Keith; Jenke, Peter; Kippen, R. Marc; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Krimm, Hans A.; Kuulkers, Erik; Lund, Niels; Meegan, Charles A.; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Paciesas, William S.; Preece, Robert; Rodi, James C.

    2011-01-01

    The Crab Nebula is the only hard X-ray source in the sky that is both bright enough and steady enough to be easily used as a standard candle. As a result, it has been used as a normalization standard by most X-ray/gamma ray telescopes. Although small-scale variations in the nebula are well-known, since the start of science operations of the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) in August 2008 a 7% (70 mcrab) decline has been observed in the overall Crab Nebula flux in the 15-50 keV band, measured with the Earth occultation technique. This decline is independently confirmed in the 15-50 keV band with three other instruments: the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (Swift/BAT), the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array (RXTE/PCA), and the INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory Imager on Board INTEGRAL (IBIS). A similar decline is also observed in the 3 - 15 keV data from the RXTE/PCA and in the 50 - 100 keV band with GBM, Swift/BAT, and INTEGRAL/IBIS. The change in the pulsed flux measured with RXTE/PCA since 1999 is consistent with the pulsar spin-down, indicating that the observed changes are nebular. Correlated variations in the Crab Nebula flux on a 3 year timescale are also seen independently with the PCA, BAT, and IBIS from 2005 to 2008, with a flux minimum in April 2007. As of August 2010, the current flux has declined below the 2007 minimum.

  17. Chaotic dynamics of a candle oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Mary Elizabeth; Byrne, Greg; Fenton, Flavio

    The candle oscillator is a simple, fun experiment dating to the late nineteenth century. It consists of a candle with a rod that is transverse to its long axis, around which it is allowed to pivot. When both ends of the candle are lit, an oscillatory motion will initiate due to different mass loss as a function of the flame angle. Stable oscillations can develop due to damping when the system has friction between the rod and the base where the rod rests. However, when friction is minimized, it is possible for chaos to develop. In this talk we will show periodic orbits found in the system as well as calculated, maximal Lyapunov exponents. We show that the system can be described by three ordinary differential equations (one each for angle, angular velocity and mass loss) that can reproduce the experimental data and the transition from stable oscillations to chaotic dynamics as a function of damping.

  18. Advanced spatio-temporal filtering techniques for photogrammetric image sequence analysis in civil engineering material testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebold, F.; Maas, H.-G.

    2016-01-01

    The paper shows advanced spatial, temporal and spatio-temporal filtering techniques which may be used to reduce noise effects in photogrammetric image sequence analysis tasks and tools. As a practical example, the techniques are validated in a photogrammetric spatio-temporal crack detection and analysis tool applied in load tests in civil engineering material testing. The load test technique is based on monocular image sequences of a test object under varying load conditions. The first image of a sequence is defined as a reference image under zero load, wherein interest points are determined and connected in a triangular irregular network structure. For each epoch, these triangles are compared to the reference image triangles to search for deformations. The result of the feature point tracking and triangle comparison process is a spatio-temporally resolved strain value field, wherein cracks can be detected, located and measured via local discrepancies. The strains can be visualized as a color-coded map. In order to improve the measuring system and to reduce noise, the strain values of each triangle must be treated in a filtering process. The paper shows the results of various filter techniques in the spatial and in the temporal domain as well as spatio-temporal filtering techniques applied to these data. The best results were obtained by a bilateral filter in the spatial domain and by a spatio-temporal EOF (empirical orthogonal function) filtering technique.

  19. 75 FR 38121 - Petroleum Wax Candles From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... petroleum wax candles from China (70 FR 56890, September 29, 2005). The Commission is now conducting a third... COMMISSION Petroleum Wax Candles From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on petroleum wax candles from...

  20. Christmas-candle Senna:An ornamental and pharmaceutical plant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Christmas candle (Senna alata L.) is an underutilized legume. The USDA, ARS, PGRCU curates only 2 accessions of Christmas candle. Christmas candle plants were transplanted from about 21 day-old seedlings with further transplanting to larger pots containing potting soil as the plants grew larger. Ho...

  1. Social and Economic Impact of the Candle Light Source Project Candle project impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baghiryan, M.

    Social and economic progress related to the realization of the CANDLE synchrotron light source creation project in Armenia is discussed. CANDLE service is multidisciplinary and long-lasting. Its impacts include significant improvement in science capacities, education quality, industrial capabilities, investment climate, country image, international relations, health level, restraining the "brain-drain", new workplaces, etc. CANDLE will serve as a universal national infrastructure assuring Armenia as a country with knowledge-based economy, a place for doing high-tech business, and be a powerful tool in achieving the country's jump forward in general.

  2. Thermo-mechanical analysis of a user filter assembly for undulator/wiggler operations at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Nian, H.L.T.; Kuzay, T.M.; Collins, J.; Shu, D.; Benson, C.; Dejus, R.

    1996-12-31

    This paper reports a thermo-mechanical study of a beamline filter (user filter) for undulator/wiggler operations. It is deployed in conjunction with the current commissioning window assembly on the APS insertion device (ID) front ends. The beamline filter at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) will eventually be used in windowless operations also. Hence survival and reasonable life expectancy of the filters under intense insertion device (ID) heat flu are crucial to the beamline operations. To accommodate various user requirements, the filter is configured to be a multi-choice type and smart to allow only those filter combinations that will be safe to operate with a given ring current and beamline insertion device gap. However, this paper addresses only the thermo-mechanical analysis of individual filter integrity and safety in all combinations possible. The current filter design is configured to have four filter frames in a cascade with each frame holding five filters. This allows a potential 625 total filter combinations. Thermal analysis for all of these combinations becomes a mammoth task considering the desired choices for filter materials (pyrolitic graphite and metallic filters), filter thicknesses, undulator gaps, and the beam currents. The paper addresses how this difficult task has been reduced to a reasonable effort and computational level. Results from thermo-mechanical analyses of the filter combinations are presented both in tabular and graphical format.

  3. Contact binary stars as standard candles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klagyivik, P.; Csizmadia, Sz.

    2004-06-01

    Rucinski (1996) suggested to use contact binary stars as standard candles. We investigated the properties of contact binary stars in order to search for possibility of their using as standard candles. For this purpose a catalogue of their light curve solution was compiled and on the basis of the catalogue data we calculated the rate of energy transfer between the two components. This allowed us to determine the mass-luminosity relation of the primary as well as secondary components in a contact binary and using Kepler's third law and the strict geometry a very reliable distance determination method was developed.

  4. 75 FR 44224 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Yankee Candle Corporation (Candles and Gift Sets); Whately...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ... the Federal Register (75 FR 3705-3706, 1-22-2010) and the application has been processed pursuant to... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Yankee Candle Corporation (Candles and... application to the Board for authority to establish a special-purpose subzone at the candle and gift...

  5. 75 FR 3705 - Foreign-Trade Zone 201-Holyoke, MA; Application for Subzone; Yankee Candle Corporation (Candles...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-22

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 201--Holyoke, MA; Application for Subzone; Yankee Candle Corporation (Candles and Gift Sets); Whately and South Deerfield, MA An application has been submitted to the..., grantee of FTZ 201, requesting special-purpose subzone status for the candle and gift set...

  6. FINE PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS FROM CANDLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives reulst of testing five types of candles, purchased from local stores, for fine particulate matter (PM) emissions under close-to-realistic conditions in a research house. The test method allows for determination of both the emission and deposition rates. Most tes...

  7. Improved chlorate candle provides concentrated oxygen source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haug, R. D.; Myers, D. A.; Tanzar, G. F.

    1967-01-01

    Improved chlorate candle is used as a solid, portable source of oxygen in emergency situations. It contains sodium chlorate, iron, barium peroxide, and glass mixed in powdered form. The oxygen evolves from the decomposition of the sodium chlorate when an ignition pellet is electrically initiated.

  8. Progress in research on chlorate candle technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littman, J.

    1970-01-01

    Research and development program improves sodium chlorate candle formulation, production method, and igniter design. Cobalt is used as the fuel, dry processing methods are used to lower the water content, and a device based on pyrotechnic heater concepts is used as the igniter.

  9. Candle soot nanoparticles-polydimethylsiloxane composites for laser ultrasound transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Wei-Yi; Huang, Wenbin; Kim, Jinwook; Li, Sibo; Jiang, Xiaoning

    2015-10-01

    Generation of high power laser ultrasound strongly demands the advanced materials with efficient laser energy absorption, fast thermal diffusion, and large thermoelastic expansion capabilities. In this study, candle soot nanoparticles-polydimethylsiloxane (CSNPs-PDMS) composite was investigated as the functional layer for an optoacoustic transducer with high-energy conversion efficiency. The mean diameter of the collected candle soot carbon nanoparticles is about 45 nm, and the light absorption ratio at 532 nm wavelength is up to 96.24%. The prototyped CSNPs-PDMS nano-composite laser ultrasound transducer was characterized and compared with transducers using Cr-PDMS, carbon black (CB)-PDMS, and carbon nano-fiber (CNFs)-PDMS composites, respectively. Energy conversion coefficient and -6 dB frequency bandwidth of the CSNPs-PDMS composite laser ultrasound transducer were measured to be 4.41 × 10-3 and 21 MHz, respectively. The unprecedented laser ultrasound transduction performance using CSNPs-PDMS nano-composites is promising for a broad range of ultrasound therapy applications.

  10. ELECTROSTATICALLY ENHANCED BARRIER FILTER COLLECTION

    SciTech Connect

    John Erjavec; Michael D. Mann; Ryan Z. Knutson; Michael L. Swanson; Michael E. Collings

    2003-06-01

    This work was performed through the University of North Dakota (UND) Chemical Engineering Department with assistance from UND's Energy & Environmental Research Center. This research was undertaken in response to the U.S. Department of Energy Federal Technology Center Program Solicitation No. DE-PS26-99FT40479, Support of Advanced Coal Research at U.S. Universities and Colleges. Specifically, this research was in support of the UCR Core Program and addressees Topic 1, Improved Hot-Gas Contaminant and Particulate Removal Techniques, introducing an advanced design for particulate removal. Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) offers the potential for very high efficiency and clean electric generation. In IGCC, the product gas from the gasifier needs to be cleaned of particulate matter to avoid erosion and high-temperature corrosion difficulties arising with the turbine blades. Current methods involve cooling the gases to {approx}100 C to condense alkalis and remove sulfur and particulates using conventional scrubber technology. This ''cool'' gas is then directed to a turbine for electric generation. While IGCC has the potential to reach efficiencies of over 50%, the current need to cool the product gas for cleaning prior to firing it in a turbine is keeping IGCC from reaching its full potential. The objective of the current project was to develop a highly reliable particulate collector system that can meet the most stringent turbine requirements and emission standards, can operate at temperatures above 1500 F, is applicable for use with all U.S. coals, is compatible with various sorbent injection schemes for sulfur and alkali control, can be integrated into a variety of configurations for both pressurized gasification and combustion, increases allowable face velocity to reduce filter system capital cost, and is cost-competitive with existing technologies. The collector being developed is a new concept in particulate control called electrostatically enhanced

  11. Fabrication of full-scale fiber reinforced hot-gas filters by chemical vapor deposition. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.G.

    1994-04-01

    The goal of this program was to develop and fabricate an initial set of ceramic fiber reinforced, ceramic matrix composite, hot gas candle filters for testing in a simulated pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) environment. Four full-scale ceramic fiber reinforced candle filters were fabricated in a multi step process. The substrate was filament wound using Nextel{trademark} 312 yarn and then coated with silicon carbide by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) to form a ceramic composite shape that provides the candle`s structural shape, toughness, and strength. Filter layer material was applied over the surface and then bonded with silicon carbide in a chemical vapor infiltration, CVI, step.

  12. Modeling Candle Flame Behavior In Variable Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alsairafi, A.; Tien, J. S.; Lee, S. T.; Dietrich, D. L.; Ross, H. D.

    2003-01-01

    The burning of a candle, as typical non-propagating diffusion flame, has been used by a number of researchers to study the effects of electric fields on flame, spontaneous flame oscillation and flickering phenomena, and flame extinction. In normal gravity, the heat released from combustion creates buoyant convection that draws oxygen into the flame. The strength of the buoyant flow depends on the gravitational level and it is expected that the flame shape, size and candle burning rate will vary with gravity. Experimentally, there exist studies of candle burning in enhanced gravity (i.e. higher than normal earth gravity, g(sub e)), and in microgravity in drop towers and space-based facilities. There are, however, no reported experimental data on candle burning in partial gravity (g < g(sub e)). In a previous numerical model of the candle flame, buoyant forces were neglected. The treatment of momentum equation was simplified using a potential flow approximation. Although the predicted flame characteristics agreed well with the experimental results, the model cannot be extended to cases with buoyant flows. In addition, because of the use of potential flow, no-slip boundary condition is not satisfied on the wick surface. So there is some uncertainty on the accuracy of the predicted flow field. In the present modeling effort, the full Navier-Stokes momentum equations with body force term is included. This enables us to study the effect of gravity on candle flames (with zero gravity as the limiting case). In addition, we consider radiation effects in more detail by solving the radiation transfer equation. In the previous study, flame radiation is treated as a simple loss term in the energy equation. Emphasis of the present model is on the gas-phase processes. Therefore, the detailed heat and mass transfer phenomena inside the porous wick are not treated. Instead, it is assumed that a thin layer of liquid fuel coated the entire wick surface during the burning process

  13. Development of an Advanced Recycle Filter Tank Assembly for the ISS Urine Processor Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Link, Dwight E., Jr.; Carter, Donald Layne; Higbie, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Recovering water from urine is a process that is critical to supporting larger crews for extended missions aboard the International Space Station. Urine is collected, preserved, and stored for processing into water and a concentrated brine solution that is highly toxic and must be contained to avoid exposure to the crew. The brine solution is collected in an accumulator tank, called a Recycle Filter Tank Assembly (RFTA) that must be replaced monthly and disposed in order to continue urine processing operations. In order to reduce resupply requirements, a new accumulator tank is being developed that can be emptied on orbit into existing ISS waste tanks. The new tank, called the Advanced Recycle Filter Tank Assembly (ARFTA) is a metal bellows tank that is designed to collect concentrated brine solution and empty by applying pressure to the bellows. This paper discusses the requirements and design of the ARFTA as well as integration into the urine processor assembly.

  14. CANDLE syndrome: a recently described autoinflammatory syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tüfekçi, Özlem; Bengoa, ŞebnemYilmaz; Karapinar, Tuba Hilkay; Ataseven, Eda Büke; İrken, Gülersu; Ören, Hale

    2015-05-01

    CANDLE syndrome (chronic atypical neutrophilic dermatosis with lipodystrophy and elevated temperature) is a recently described autoinflammatory syndrome characterized by early onset, recurrent fever, skin lesions, and multisystemic inflammatory manifestations. Most of the patients have been shown to have mutation in PSMB8 gene. Herein, we report a 2-year-old patient with young onset recurrent fever, atypical facies, widespread skin lesions, generalized lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, joint contractures, hypertrglyceridemia, lipodystrophy, and autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Clinical features together with the skin biopsy findings were consistent with the CANDLE syndrome. The pathogenesis and treatment of this syndrome have not been fully understood. Increased awareness of this recently described syndrome may lead to recognition of new cases and better understanding of its pathogenesis which in turn may help for development of an effective treatment. PMID:25036278

  15. The paradox of the floating candle that continues to burn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodorakis, Stavros; Aristidou, Charalambos

    2012-08-01

    What happens after lighting a paraffin candle that is barely floating in water and kept upright with the aid of an appropriately weighted nail attached to its bottom? Presumably, it should sink because the buoyant force will decrease more than the weight. Surprisingly, the candle will continue to burn, rising slowly above the surface of the water. The reason for this is that the flame forms a well around the wick filled with molten paraffin, while the water keeps the outer walls of the candle cool and unscathed. Thus, the buoyancy hardly changes while the weight is reduced through burning, resulting in a floating candle that will rise above water. We present a quantitative model that describes the formation of the well and verify it experimentally, examining first the case of a candle in the air and then the case of a candle immersed in water.

  16. Candle Flames in Non-Buoyant Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, D. L.; Ross, H. D.; Shu, Y.; Tien, J. S.

    1999-01-01

    This paper addresses the behavior of a candle flame in a long-duration, quiescent microgravity environment both on the space Shuttle and the Mir Orbiting Station (OS). On the Shuttle, the flames became dim blue after an initial transient where there was significant yellow (presumably soot) in the flame. The flame lifetimes were typically less than 60 seconds. The safety-mandated candlebox that contained the candle flame inhibited oxygen transport to the flame and thus limited the flame lifetime. 'Me flames on the Mir OS were similar, except that the yellow luminosity persisted longer into the flame lifetime because of a higher initial oxygen concentration. The Mir flames burned for as long as 45 minutes. The difference in the flame lifetime between the Shuttle and Mir flames was primarily the redesigned candlebox that did not inhibit oxygen transport to the flame. In both environments, the flame intensity and the height-to-width ratio gradually decreased as the ambient oxygen content in the sealed chamber slowly decreased. Both sets of experiments showed spontaneous, axisymmetric flame oscillations just prior to extinction. The paper also presents a numerical model of candle flame. The model is detailed in the gas-phase, but uses a simplified liquid/wick phase. 'Me model predicts a steady flame with a shape and size quantitatively similar to the Shuttle and Mir flames. ne model also predicts pre-extinction flame oscillations if the decrease in ambient oxygen is small enough.

  17. CANDLE Syndrome: orodfacial manifestations and dental implications.

    PubMed

    Roberts, T; Stephen, L; Scott, C; di Pasquale, T; Naser-Eldin, A; Chetty, M; Shaik, S; Lewandowski, L; Beighton, P

    2015-01-01

    A South African girl with CANDLE Syndrome is reported with emphasis on the orodental features and dental management. Clinical manifestations included short stature, wasting of the soft tissue of the arms and legs, erythematous skin eruptions and a prominent abdomen due to hepatosplenomegaly. Generalized microdontia, confirmed by tooth measurement and osteopenia of her jaws, confirmed by digitalized radiography, were previously undescribed syndromic components. Intellectual impairment posed problems during dental intervention. The carious dental lesions and poor oral hygiene were treated conservatively under local anaesthetic. Prophylactic antibiotics were administered an hour before all procedures.Due to the nature of her general condition, invasive dental procedures were minimal. Regular follow-ups were scheduled at six monthly intervals. During this period, her overall oral health status had improved markedly.The CANDLE syndrome is a rare condition with grave complications including immunosuppression and diabetes mellitus. As with many genetic disorders, the dental manifestations are often overshadowed by other more conspicuous and complex syndromic features. Recognition of both the clinical and oral changes that occur in the CANDLE syndrome facilitates accurate diagnosis and appropriate dental management of this potentially lethal condition. PMID:26711936

  18. Difficulties in Using GRBs as Standard Candles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Gamma-Ray Bursts have been detected uniformly all over the observable universe, ranging in comoving distance from a few hundred Mpc to a few thousand Mpc, representing the farthest observable objects in the universe. This large distance coverage is highly attractive to those who study cosmology and the history of the early universe since there are no other observed objects that represent such a deep and comprehensive probe of the history of the universe. For this reason, there have been extensive studies into the possibility of using GRBs as standard candles much like Type Ia Supernovae, even though little is known about the physical mechanism that produces the observed burst of gamma-rays. We discuss the attempts at defining GRBs as standard candles, such as the search for a robust luminosity indicator, pseudo-redshift predictions, the complications that emission collimation introduces into the estimation of the rest-frame energetics, and the difficulty introduced by the widely varying observed properties of GRBs. These topics will be examined with supporting data and analyses from both Fermi and Swift observations. Problems with current studies using GRBs as standard candles will be noted as well as potential paths forward to solve these problems.

  19. Indoor protection against mosquito and sand fly bites: a comparison between citronella, linalool, and geraniol candles.

    PubMed

    Müller, Günter C; Junnila, Amy; Kravchenko, Vasiliy D; Revay, Edita E; Butlers, Jerry; Schlein, Yosef

    2008-03-01

    The repellent effect of 3 essential-oil-based candles was evaluated in a high biting pressure environment in Israel. In human landing assays, the repellency rate of 5% citronella candles against mosquitoes was 29.0%, of 5% linalool candles was 71.1%, and of 5% geraniol candles was 85.4%. The candles with geraniol were about twice as effective as those with linalool and were about 5 times as effective as citronella candles in protecting a person from being bitten indoors by mosquitoes. The repellency rate of 5% citronella candles towards sand flies was 24.7%, of 5% linalool candles was 55.2%, and of 5% geraniol candles was 79.7%. A geraniol candle was almost 5 times as effective as a citronella candle and about twice as effective as a linalool candle in protecting a person from being bitten indoors by sand flies. PMID:18437831

  20. Hot-gas filter manufacturing assessments: Volume 5. Final report, April 15, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Boss, D.E.

    1997-12-31

    The development of advanced filtration media for advanced fossil-fueled power generating systems is a critical step in meeting the performance and emissions requirements for these systems. While porous metal and ceramic candle-filters have been available for some time, the next generation of filters will include ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs), intermetallic alloys, and alternate filter geometries. The goal of this effort was to perform a cursory review of the manufacturing processes used by 5 companies developing advanced filters from the perspective of process repeatability and the ability for their processes to be scale-up to production volumes. It was found that all of the filter manufacturers had a solid understanding of the product development path. Given that these filters are largely developmental, significant additional work is necessary to understand the process-performance relationships and projecting manufacturing costs. While each organization had specific needs, some common among all of the filter manufacturers were access to performance testing of the filters to aide process/product development, a better understanding of the stresses the filters will see in service for use in structural design of the components, and a strong process sensitivity study to allow optimization of processing.

  1. Optical Metrology for the Filter Set for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B.; Boucarut, Rene A.; Content, David A.; Keski-Kuha, Ritva A.; Krebs, Carolyn A.; Miner, Linda A.; Norton, Todd A.; Mehalick, Kimberly; Petrone, Peter; Bush, Frank D.; Puc, Bernard; Standley, Clive; Tsvetanov, Zlatan; Kral, Catherine

    1998-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) will employ a wide variety of spectral filtration components including narrow band, medium band, wide band, and far ultraviolet (FUV) long pass filters, spatially- variable filters (ramp filters), VIS/IR polarizers, NUV polarizers, FUV prisms, and a grism. These components are spread across ACS's Wide Field, High Resolution, and Solar Blind channels which provide diffraction-limited imaging of astronomical targets using aberration-correcting optics which remove most aberrations from HST's Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA). In order for ACS to be truly advanced, these filters must push the state-of-the-art in performance in a number of key areas at the same time. Important requirements which these filters must meet include outstanding transmitted wavefront, high transmittance, uniform transmittance across each filter, spectrally structure-free bandpasses, exceptionally high out of band rejection, and a high degree of parfocality. These constitute a very stringent set of requirements indeed, especially for filters which are up to 90 mm in diameter. The development of optical metrology stations used to demonstrate that each ACS filter will meet its design specifications is discussed. Of particular note are specially-designed spectral transmissometers and interferometers.

  2. 7 CFR 3201.79 - Candles and wax melts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Candles and wax melts. 3201.79 Section 3201.79... Designated Items § 3201.79 Candles and wax melts. (a) Definition. Products composed of a solid mass and... wax melts. By that date, Federal agencies that have the responsibility for drafting or...

  3. 7 CFR 3201.79 - Candles and wax melts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Candles and wax melts. 3201.79 Section 3201.79... Designated Items § 3201.79 Candles and wax melts. (a) Definition. Products composed of a solid mass and... wax melts. By that date, Federal agencies that have the responsibility for drafting or...

  4. 75 FR 80843 - Petroleum Wax Candles From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... COMMISSION Petroleum Wax Candles From China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... antidumping duty order on petroleum wax candles from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry in the United States within a reasonably foreseeable time....

  5. Sharing the Arts of the Blue Ridge Mountains. Candles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holman, Martha; Gailey, Lamar

    This module on candles is one of eight modules designed to provide instruction on authentic Blue Ridge Mountain crafts to adult basic education students at a low cost. Contents include notes on the history of candle making; process used, including equipment and materials, as well as method described narratively and graphically; and the followup,…

  6. Candle Flames in Non-Buoyant Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, D. L.; Ross, H. D.; Shu, Y.; Chang, P.; Tien, J. S.

    2000-01-01

    This paper addresses the behavior of a candle flame in a long-duration, quiescent microgravity environment both on the space Shuttle and the Mir Orbiting Station. On the Shuttle, the flames became dim blue after an initial transient where there was significant yellow (presumably soot) in the flame. The flame lifetimes were typically less than 60 seconds. The safety-mandated candlebox that contained the candle flame inhibited oxygen transport to the flame and thus limited the flame lifetime. The flames on the Mir were similar, except that the yellow luminosity persisted longer into the flame lifetime because of a higher initial oxygen concentration, The Mir flames burned for as long as 45 minutes. The difference in the flame lifetime between the Shuttle and Mir flames was primarily the redesigned candlebox that did not inhibit oxygen transport to the flame. In both environments, the flame intensity and the height-to-width ratio gradually decreased as the ambient oxygen content in the sealed chamber slowly decreased. Both sets of experiments showed spontaneous, axisymmetric flame oscillations just prior to extinction. The paper also presents a numerical model of a candle flame. The formulation is two-dimensional and time-dependent in the gas phase with constant specific heats, thermal conductivity and Lewis number (although different species can have different Lewis numbers), one-step finite-rate kinetics, and gas-phase radiative losses from CO2 and H2O. The treatment of the liquid/wick phase assumes that the, fuel evaporates from a constant diameter sphere connected to an inert cone. The model predicts a steady flame with a shape and size quantitatively similar to the Shuttle and Mir flames. The computation predicts that the flame size will increase slightly with increasing ambient oxygen mole fraction. The model also predicts pre-extinction flame oscillations if the rate of decrease in ambient oxygen is small enough, such as that which would occur for a flame

  7. Philips' 2nd generation Novallure LED candle lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yun; Pei, Zhigang; Yuan, Chuan; Jiang, Tan; Lu, Zhengsong; Wang, Yuqian; Duan, Xiaoqing; Xiong, Yan; Zhong, Hong; Liu, Ye

    2010-08-01

    Finding an energy efficient replacement of incandescent candle lamp has been a technical challenge. Compact fluorescent lamps, for example, can be miniaturized to fit the form factor of a candle lamp but they fail to reproduce its "sparkle" effect. Empowered by solid state lighting technology along with original optical design, Philips has successfully developed LED-powered candle lamps "Novallure" with great energy savings (2W power consumption with lumen output of 55 lumen) and the "butterfly" radiation pattern that mimics the sparkle effect from an incandescent candle lamp. With new high performance LED packages, novel under-cut prismatic optics and state-of-the-art electronic driver solution and thermal solution, we have developed a 2nd generation Novallure with breakthrough performance: a dimmable 2700K 136 lumen LED candle lamp with CRI 90.

  8. Characterization and Failure Analysis of Ceramic Filters Utilized for Emission Control Coal Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel Mei; Jianren Zhou; Ziaul Huque

    1998-03-01

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) power system requires both hot gas desulfurization and particulate filtration to improve system thermal efficiency and overall performance. Therefore, effective high temperature ceramic filters are indispensable key component in both of the advanced IGCC and PFBC coal based power systems to perform hot gas cleanup work. To meet the environmental particulate emission requirements and improve thermal efficiency, ceramic filters are mainly utilized to cleanup the hot gas particulate to protect downstream heat exchanger and gas turbine components from fouling and corrosion. The mechanical integrity of ceramic filters and an efficient dust cake removal system are the key issues for hot gas cleanup systems. The filters must survive combined stresses due to mechanical, thermal, chemical and steam attack throughout normal operations (cold back pulse cleaning jets), unexpected excessive ash accumulation, and the start up and shut down conditions. To evaluate the design and performance of ceramic filters, different long term filter testing programs were conducted. To fulfill this purpose, two Advanced Particle Filter (APF) systems were complete at Tidd PFBC Demonstration Plant, in Brilliant, Ohio in late 1990 as part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Program. But the most undesirable thing ever happened was the sudden functional and physical failures of filters prior to its designed life time. In Tidd APF filter vessel, twenty eight (28) filters failed one time. Significant research effort has been carried out to find out the causes that led to the early failure of filters. In this work, the studies are emphasized on the possible failure causes analysis of rigid ceramic candle filters. The objectives of this program were to provide an systematic study on the characterization of filters, material laboratory analysis on filter micro-structure, the dust

  9. Advanced Kalman Filter for Real-Time Responsiveness in Complex Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, Gregory Francis

    2014-06-10

    Complex engineering systems pose fundamental challenges in real-time operations and control because they are highly dynamic systems consisting of a large number of elements with severe nonlinearities and discontinuities. Today’s tools for real-time complex system operations are mostly based on steady state models, unable to capture the dynamic nature and too slow to prevent system failures. We developed advanced Kalman filtering techniques and the formulation of dynamic state estimation using Kalman filtering techniques to capture complex system dynamics in aiding real-time operations and control. In this work, we looked at complex system issues including severe nonlinearity of system equations, discontinuities caused by system controls and network switches, sparse measurements in space and time, and real-time requirements of power grid operations. We sought to bridge the disciplinary boundaries between Computer Science and Power Systems Engineering, by introducing methods that leverage both existing and new techniques. While our methods were developed in the context of electrical power systems, they should generalize to other large-scale scientific and engineering applications.

  10. Long-term evaluation of the performance of four point-of-use water filters.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Vidal, Andrea; Diaz-Gómez, Jaime; Castellanos-Rozo, Jose; Usaquen-Perilla, Olga Lucía

    2016-07-01

    Despite technological advances water supply quality and poor access to safe water remain a major problem in developing countries, especially in rural areas. Point-of-use (POU) water treatment has been shown to be a viable option to produce safe drinking water quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate, under laboratory conditions over 14 months, the performance of four household filtration systems: membrane filter (MF), one-candle ceramic filter (1CCF), two-candle ceramic filter (2CCF) and pot ceramic filter (PCF). The evaluation was made using spiked water having the required concentrations of turbidity, Escherichia coli and Total Dissolved Solids (TDS). The results show that all systems have high removal efficiencies for turbidity (98-99%), and E. coli 4-5 Log Reduction Value (LRV). The poorest efficiency was for TDS (9-18%). The MF and the CCF displayed no significant difference in efficiencies for these parameters. The PCF had less significant differences for turbidity removal than the other systems. The average filtration rate for all systems decreased during the operation time. The CPF showed the major potential to be used in rural communities mainly for its low operational level and maintenance requirements as well as its local craftsmanship. It was observed that the efficiency of the systems is highly sensitive to cleaning and maintenance activities and therefore, the system sustainability will depend considerably on the training and education of the potential users. PMID:27105031

  11. High temperature corrosion of advanced ceramic materials for hot gas filters. Topical report for part 1 of high temperature corrosion of advanced ceramic materials for hot gas filters and heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Spear, K.E.; Crossland, C.E.; Shelleman, D.L.; Tressler, R.E.

    1997-12-11

    This program consists of two separate research areas. Part 1, for which this report is written, studied the high temperature corrosion of advanced ceramic hot gas filters, while Part 2 studied the long-term durability of ceramic heat exchangers to coal combustion environments. The objectives of Part 1 were to select two candidate ceramic filter materials for flow-through hot corrosion studies and subsequent corrosion and mechanical properties characterization. In addition, a thermodynamic database was developed so that thermochemical modeling studies could be performed to simulate operating conditions of laboratory reactors and existing coal combustion power plants, and to predict the reactions of new filter materials with coal combustion environments. The latter would make it possible to gain insight into problems that could develop during actual operation of filters in coal combustion power plants so that potential problems could be addressed before they arise.

  12. Status and Highlights of CANDLE Synchrotron Light Source Project in Armenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsakanov, V. M.

    2007-01-01

    CANDLE — Center for the Advancement of Natural Discoveries using Light Emission — is a 3 GeV energy synchrotron light facility project in the Republic of Armenia. The facility has the potential to provide more than 40 beamlines from bends, undulators and wigglers in wide spectral range from ultraviolet to hard X-Rays. The project is supposed to be an international facility for advanced studies in life and material sciences. The main features and the status of the project are presented. The preliminary list of first group beamlines is discussed.

  13. Status and Highlights of CANDLE Synchrotron Light Source Project in Armenia

    SciTech Connect

    Tsakanov, V. M.

    2007-01-19

    CANDLE - Center for the Advancement of Natural Discoveries using Light Emission - is a 3 GeV energy synchrotron light facility project in the Republic of Armenia. The facility has the potential to provide more than 40 beamlines from bends, undulators and wigglers in wide spectral range from ultraviolet to hard X-Rays. The project is supposed to be an international facility for advanced studies in life and material sciences. The main features and the status of the project are presented. The preliminary list of first group beamlines is discussed.

  14. Ceramic Hot Gas Filter with Integrated Failsafe System

    SciTech Connect

    Heidenreich, S.; Haag, W.; Walch, A.; Scheibner, B.; Mai, R.; Leibold, H.; Seifert, H.

    2002-09-18

    In order to integrate a failsafe system and to improve the cleaning intensity a new cleaning method was recently developed, the CPP (coupled pressure pulse) cleaning (Heidenreich et al. 2001). For the CPP method the cleaning system is directly coupled with the filter candles. One feature of this new technique is that the cleaning gas pressure exceeds the system pressure only by 0.05 to 0.1 MPa, whereas in case of conventional jet pulse systems two times the system pressure (at least 0.6 MPa) is standard. The key advantage of the coupled pressure pulse cleaning is that a safety filter for each filter candle can be integrated in the clean gas side of the filter. Thus, a candle failure is not longer a serious problem. The integrated safety filter enables the operation of the filter system also in case a filter candle breaks. This increases the availability of the filter and prevents an unscheduled costly shut-down of the system. In this paper the design of the ceramic filter wit h the failsafe system and the CPP cleaning will be described. The new developed safety filter elements, their pressure drop and their filtration and clogging behavior will be shown. Tests of single system components, of the whole filter system and first experiences of operating this system will be reported.

  15. Characterization and failure analysis of ceramic filters utilized for emission control during coal gasification. Topical report, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Huque, Ziaul, Mei, D.; Zhou, J.

    1998-12-31

    Ceramic filters for pollutant emission control from coal gasification have been evaluated. The following were investigated: permeability, cleaning, back pulse pressure distribution measurement within candle filter without dust cake, and optimization on back pulse system design.

  16. Study of the light guide system for CANDLES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsubota, Y.; CANDLES Collaboration

    2008-07-01

    We are trying to observe the neutrinoless double beta decay at Osaka University with the detector system named CANDLES III that uses CaF2(pure) crystals and liquid scintillator. CANDLES III has the photo-coverage of about 30% now. We will install the mirror light guide system to improve this photo-coverage. This means the improvement of the energy resolution. We will report on the result of the experiment to evaluate the performance of this light guide system.

  17. Candle Flames in Microgravity: USML-1 Results - 1 Year Later

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, H. D.; Dietrich, D. L.; Tien, J. S.

    1994-01-01

    We report on the sustained behavior of a candle flame in microgravity determined in the glovebox facility aboard the First United States Microgravity Labomtofy. In a quiescent, microgmvjfy environment, diffusive transport becomes the dominant mode of heat and mass transfer; whether the diffusive transport rate is fast enough to sustain low-gravity candle flames in air was unknown to this series of about 70 tests. After an initial transient in which soot is observed, the microgravity candle flame in air becomes and remains hemispherical and blue (apparently soot-Ne) with a large flame standoff distance. Near flame extinction, spontaneous flame oscillations are regularly observed; these are explained as a flashback of flame through a premixed combustible gas followed by a retreat owed to flame quenching. The frequency of oscillations can be related to diffusive transport rates, and not to residual buoyant convective flow. The fact that the flame tip is the last point of the flame to survive suggests that it is the location of maximum fuel reactivity; this is unlike normal gravity, where the location of maximum fuel reactivity is the flame base. The flame color, size, and shape behaved in a quasi-steady manner; the finite size of the glovebox, combined with the restricted passages of the candlebox, inhibited the observation of true steady-state burning. Nonetheless, through calculations, and inference from the series of shuttle tests, if is concluded that a candle can burn indefinitely in a large enough ambient of air in microgravity. After igniting one candle, a second candle in close pximity could not be lit. This may be due to wax coating the wick and/or local oxygen depletion around the second, unlit candle. Post-mission testing suggests that simultaneous ignition may overcome these behaviors and enable both candles to be ignited.

  18. Preliminary engineering design of sodium-cooled CANDLE core

    SciTech Connect

    Takaki, Naoyuki; Namekawa, Azuma; Yoda, Tomoyuki; Mizutani, Akihiko; Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    2012-06-06

    The CANDLE burning process is characterized by the autonomous shifting of burning region with constant reactivity and constant spacial power distribution. Evaluations of such critical burning process by using widely used neutron diffusion and burning codes under some realistic engineering constraints are valuable to confirm the technical feasibility of the CANDLE concept and to put the idea into concrete core design. In the first part of this paper, it is discussed that whether the sustainable and stable CANDLE burning process can be reproduced even by using conventional core analysis tools such as SLAROM and CITATION-FBR. As a result, it is certainly possible to demonstrate it if the proper core configuration and initial fuel composition required as CANDLE core are applied to the analysis. In the latter part, an example of a concrete image of sodium cooled, metal fuel, 2000MWt rating CANDLE core has been presented by assuming an emerging inevitable technology of recladding. The core satisfies engineering design criteria including cladding temperature, pressure drop, linear heat rate, and cumulative damage fraction (CDF) of cladding, fast neutron fluence and sodium void reactivity which are defined in the Japanese FBR design project. It can be concluded that it is feasible to design CANDLE core by using conventional codes while satisfying some realistic engineering design constraints assuming that recladding at certain time interval is technically feasible.

  19. Combined processes of two-stage Fenton-biological anaerobic filter-biological aerated filter for advanced treatment of landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojun; Han, Jijun; Chen, Zhiwei; Jian, Lei; Gu, Xiaoyang; Lin, Che-Jen

    2012-12-01

    There are numerous non-biodegradable organic materials in the mature landfill leachate. To meet the new discharge standard of China, additional advanced treatment is needed for the effluent from the biological treatment processes of leachate. In this study, a combined process including two stages of "Fenton-biological anaerobic filter (BANF)-biological aerated filter (BAF)" was evaluated to address the advanced treatment need. The Fenton oxidation was applied to reduce chemical oxygen demand (COD) and enhance biodegradability of refractory organics, and the BANF-BAF process was then applied to remove the total nitrogen (TN). The treatment achieved effluent concentrations of COD<70 mg/L, TN<40 mg/L and NH(3)-N<10 mg/L. The removal efficiency of COD and TN were 96.1% and 95.9%, respectively. The effluent quality met the new discharge standard for Pollution Control on the Landfill Site of Municipal Solid of PR China (GB16889-2008). The operation cost of these processes was about 36.1CHY/t (5.70USD/t). PMID:22841597

  20. New ion-assisted filtered cathodic arc deposition (IFCAD) technology for producing advanced thin films on temperature-sensitive substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulton, Michael L.

    1999-10-01

    An innovative Ion-Assisted Filtered Cathodic Arc Deposition (IFCAD) system has been developed for low temperature production of thin-film coatings. The IFCAD system employs electro-magnetic and mechanical filtering techniques to remove unwanted macroparticles and neutral atoms from the plasma stream. Therefore, only ions within a defined energy range arrive at the substrate surface, depositing thin-films with excellent mechanical and optical properties. Ion- Assisted-Deposition is coupled with Filtered Cathodic Arc technology to enhance and modify the arc deposited thin- films. Using an advanced computer controlled plasma beam scanning system, high quality, large area, uniform IFCAD multi-layer film structures are attained. Amorphous Diamond- Like-Carbon films (up to 85% sp3 bonded carbon; and micro- hardness greater than 50 GPa) have been deposited in multi- layer thin-film combinations with other IFCAD source materials (such as: Al2O3) for optical and tribological applications. Rutile TiO2 (refractive index of 2.8 at 500 nm) has been deposited with this technology for advanced optical filter applications. The new IFCAD technology has been included in development programs, such as: plastic and glass lens coatings for optical systems; wear resistant coatings on various metal substrates, ultra smooth, durable, surface hydrophobic coatings for aircraft windows; EUV coatings for space instrumentation; transparent conductive coatings; and UV protective coatings for solar cell concentrator plastic Fresnel lens elements for space power.

  1. Multi-frequency aluminum nitride micro-filters for advanced RF communications.

    SciTech Connect

    Nordquist, Christopher Daniel; Stevens, James E.; Olsson, Roy H., III; Wojciechowski, Kenneth E.; Tuck, Melanie R.

    2010-03-01

    An AlN MEMS resonator technology has been developed, enabling massively parallel filter arrays on a single chip. Low-loss filter banks covering the 10 MHz--10-GHz frequency range have been demonstrated, as has monolithic integration with inductors and CMOS circuitry. The high level of integration enables miniature multi-bandm spectrally aware, and cognitive radios.

  2. Advanced testing method to evaluate the performance of respirator filter media.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang; Golshahi, Laleh; Chen, Da-Ren

    2016-10-01

    Filter media for respirator applications are typically exposed to the cyclic flow condition, which is different from the constant flow condition adopted in filter testing standards. To understand the real performance of respirator filter media in the field it is required to investigate the penetration of particles through respirator filters under cyclic flow conditions representing breathing flow patterns of human beings. This article reports a new testing method for studying the individual effect of breathing frequency (BF) and peak inhalation flow rate (PIFR) on the particle penetration through respirator filter media. The new method includes the use of DMA (Differential Mobility Analyzer)-classified particles having the most penetrating particle size, MPPS (at the constant flowrate of equivalent mean inhalation flow rate, MIFR) as test aerosol. Two condensation particle counters (CPCs) are applied to measure the particle concentrations at the upstream and downstream of test filter media at the same time. Given the 10 Hz sampling time of CPCs, close-to-instantaneous particle penetration could be measured. A pilot study was performed to demonstrate the new testing method. It is found that the effect of BF on the particle penetration of test respirator filter media is of importance at all the tested peak inhalation flow rates (PIFRs), which is different from those reported in the previous work. PMID:27104915

  3. Development of a filter regeneration system for advanced spacecraft fluid systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behrend, A. F., Jr.; Descamp, V. A.

    1974-01-01

    The development of a filter regeneration system for efficiently cleaning fluid particulate filters is presented. Based on a backflush/jet impingement technique, the regeneration system demonstrated a cleaning efficiency of 98.7 to 100%. The operating principles and design features are discussed with emphasis on the primary system components that include a regenerable filter, vortex particle separator, and zero-g particle trap. Techniques and equipment used for ground and zero-g performance tests are described. Test results and conclusions, as well as possible areas for commercial application, are included.

  4. Comparison of Removed Fuel Compositions of CANDLE, PWR, and FBR

    SciTech Connect

    Nagata, Akito; Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    2007-07-01

    A new reactor burnup strategy CANDLE was proposed, where shapes of neutron flux, nuclide densities and power density distributions remain constant but move to an axial direction. Application of this burnup strategy to neutron rich fast reactors makes excellent performances. Only natural or depleted uranium is required for the replaced fresh fuels. About 40% of natural or depleted uranium undergoes fission. In this paper, spent fuels of PWR, FBR and CANDLE reactor are compared. Fresh fuels of PWR, FBR and CANDLE reactor are 4.1% enriched uranium (UO{sub 2}), MOX with 18.5% plutonium enrichment and natural uranium nitride (natural-UN), respectively. In once-through fuel cycle point of view, low disposal amount for high energy is better and CANDLE reactor can decrease this amount more than other reactors, especially it is only one-tenth of PWR fuel. Also, it can decrease MA and this amount is 0.4 times of PWR. Total FP amount of each reactor is nearly same. However, LLFP amount of CANDLE reactor is the largest. (authors)

  5. Preliminary engineering design of sodium-cooled CANDLE core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaki, Naoyuki; Namekawa, Azuma; Yoda, Tomoyuki; Mizutani, Akihiko; Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    2012-06-01

    The CANDLE burning process is characterized by the autonomous shifting of burning region with constant reactivity and constant spacial power distribution. Evaluations of such critical burning process by using widely used neutron diffusion and burning codes under some realistic engineering constraints are valuable to confirm the technical feasibility of the CANDLE concept and to put the idea into concrete core design. In the first part of this paper, it is discussed that whether the sustainable and stable CANDLE burning process can be reproduced even by using conventional core analysis tools such as SLAROM and CITATION-FBR. As a result, it is certainly possible to demonstrate it if the proper core configuration and initial fuel composition required as CANDLE core are applied to the analysis. In the latter part, an example of a concrete image of sodium cooled, metal fuel, 2000MWt rating CANDLE core has been presented by assuming an emerging inevitable technology of recladding. The core satisfies engineering design criteria including cladding temperature, pressure drop, linear heat rate, and cumulative damage fraction (CDF) of cladding, fast neutron fluence and sodium void reactivity which are defined in the Japanese FBR design project. It can be concluded that it is feasible to design CADLE core by using conventional codes while satisfying some realistic engineering design constraints assuming that recladding at certain time interval is technically feasible.

  6. Impacts of backwashing on granular activated carbon filters for advanced wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Frank, Joshua; Ruhl, Aki Sebastian; Jekel, Martin

    2015-12-15

    The use of granular activated carbon (GAC) in fixed bed filters is a promising option for the removal of organic micropollutants (OMP) from wastewater treatment plant effluents. Frequent backwashing of the filter bed is inevitable, but its effect on potential filter stratification is not well understood yet and thus has been evaluated in the present study for two commercial GAC products. Backwashing of GAC filters was simulated with 10 or 100 filter bed expansions of 20 or 100% at backwash velocities of 12 and 40 m/h, respectively. Five vertical fractions were extracted and revealed a vertical stratification according to grain sizes and material densities. Sieve analyses indicated increasing grain sizes towards the bottom for one GAC while grain sizes of the other GAC were more homogeneously distributed throughout the filter bed. The apparent densities of the top sections were significantly lower than that of the bottom sections of both products. Comparative long term fixed bed adsorption experiments with the top and bottom sections of the stratified GAC showed remarkable differences in breakthrough curves of dissolved organic carbon, UV light absorption at 254 nm wavelength (UVA254) and OMP. GAC from the upper section showed constantly better removal efficiencies than GAC from the bottom section, especially for weakly adsorbing OMP such as sulfamethoxazole. Furthermore correlations between UVA254 reductions and OMP removals were found. PMID:26405842

  7. Brightest cluster galaxies as standard candles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Postman, Marc; Lauer, Tod R.

    1995-01-01

    We investigate the use of brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) as standard candles for measuring galaxy peculiar velocities on large scales. We have obtained precise large-format CCD surface photometry and redshifts for an all-sky, volume-limited (z less than or = 0.05) sample of 199 BCG. We reinvestigate the Hoessel (1980) relationship between the metric luminosity, L(sub m), within the central 10 kpc/h of the BCGs and the logarithmic slope of the surface brightness profile, alpha. The L(sub m)-alpha relationship reduces the cosmic scatter in L(sub m) from 0.327 mag to 0.244 mag, yielding a typical distance accuracy of 17% per BCG. Residuals about the L(sub m)-alpha relationship are independent of BCG luminosity, BCG B - R(sub c) color, BCG location within the host cluster, and richness of the host cluster. The metric luminosity is independent of cluster richness even before correcting for its dependence on alpha, which provides further evidence for the unique nature of the BCG luminosity function. Indeed, the BCG luminosity function, both before and after application of the alpha-correction, is consistent with a single Gaussian distribution. Half the BCGs in the sample show some evidence of small color gradients as a function of radius within their central 50 kpc/h regions but with almost equal numbers becoming redder as becoming bluer. However, with the central 10 kpc/h the colors are remarkably constant -- the mean B - R(sub c) color is 1.51 with a dispersion of only 0.06 mag. The narrow photometric and color distributions of the BCGs, the lack of 'second-parameter' effects, as well as the unique rich cluster environment of BCGs, argue that BCGs are the most homogeneous distance indicators presently available for large-scale structure research.

  8. Far Ultraviolet Refractive Index of Optical Materials for Solar Blind Channel (SBC) Filters for HST Advanced Camera for Surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B.; Madison, Timothy J.; Petrone, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Refractive index measurements using the minimum deviation method have been carried out for prisms of a variety of far ultraviolet optical materials used in the manufacture of Solar Blind Channel (SBC) filters for the HST Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS). Some of the materials measured are gaining popularity in a variety of high technology applications including high power excimer lasers and advanced microlithography optics operating in a wavelength region where high quality knowledge of optical material properties is sparse. Our measurements are of unusually high accuracy and precision for this wavelength region owing to advanced instrumentation in the large vacuum chamber of the Diffraction Grating Evaluation Facility (DGEF) at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Index values for CaF2, BaF2, LiF, and far ultraviolet grades of synthetic sapphire and synthetic fused silica are reported and compared with values from the literature.

  9. Study of 48Ca double beta decay by CANDLES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, I.; Kishimoto, T.; Umehara, S.; Ito, G.; Yasuda, K.; Kakubata, H.; Miyashita, M.; Takubo, K.; Matsuoka, K.; Nomachi, M.; Saka, M.; Seki, K.; Fushimi, K.; Hazama, R.; Ohsumi, H.; Okada, K.; Tamagawa, Y.; Jinno, T.; Fujiwara, N.; Yoshida, S.; CANDLES Collaboration

    2012-07-01

    CANDLES is the project to search for double beta decay (DBD) of 48Ca by using CaF2 scintillators. The Q-value of 48Ca, which is the highest (4.27 MeV) among potential DBD nuclei, is far above energies of γ-rays from natural radioactivities (maximum 2.615 MeV from 208Tl decay), therefore we can naturally expect small backgrounds in the energy region we are interested in. We have constructed the prototype detector, CANDLES III in our laboratory (Osaka U.) at sea level and studied the basic performance of the system, including the light collection, position reconstruction and background rejection. After R&D study we moved the detector system to new experimental room at Kamioka underground laboratory. Herein the expected performances and current status of the CANDLES system are described.

  10. Advanced fluorescence imaging endoscopy using an acousto-optic tuneable filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whelan, Maurice P.; Bouhifd, Mounir; Aprahamian, Marc

    2004-07-01

    Two novel prototype instruments for in vivo fluorescence-based medical diagnostics are described. The devices are based on an acousto-optic tuneable filter (AOTF) and can be easily attached to the eyepiece of most commercially available endoscopes. The instruments developed offer significant advantages over typical fixed-filter or filter-wheel fluorescence imaging systems in terms of flexibility, performance and diagnostic potential. Any filtering center-wavelength in the range from 450 to 700 nm can be rapidly selected either by random access or sequential tuning using simple commands delivered over a PC serial interface. In addition, both filtered and unfiltered light can be imaged to facilitate the direct association of fluorescence signals with specific anatomical sites. To demonstrate the system in vivo, a study of the diagnostic potential of fluorescence imaging for pancreatitis was conducted on rats. The aim was to detect extremely low-levels of endogenous protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) that has been shown to accumulate in early-stage diseased tissue undergoing an inflammatory response. Results show clearly that the device is effective in diagnosing mild pancreatitis in rats without the necessity of administering PpIX promoting agents such as ALA. Planning of human clinical trials is currently underway to demonstrate its potential as a tool for non-invasive early diagnosis of gastroenterological diseases.

  11. Automated nondestructive evaluation method for characterizing ceramic and metallic hot gas filters.

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingson, W. A.; Koehl, E. R.; Deemer, C.; Pastilla, P.; Wheeler, B.; Forster, G. A.

    2002-06-03

    In advanced coal-fired power generation, one technology under development to clean up hot gases before their use as fuel for gas turbines is rigid ceramic candle filters. These porous filters are typically 1.5 m long and 60 mm in diameter and are made of various ceramic materials, including clay-bonded SiC. The high costs of downtime in a large utility demands that nondestructive evaluation/characterization (NDE/C) methods be available. At shutdowns, data from such analysis are needed to decide which filters are still usable and which need to be replaced, and if possible, to estimate the remaining lifetimes. Thus our objective was to develop reliable low-cost NDE technology for these filters. Our approach was to develop NDE/C technology, referred to as acousto-ultrasonics (AU), for application to hot gas filters. Lamb waves generated by the AU method were analyzed to derive a stress wave factor (SWF). This technology was tested by comparing SWF data with the measured strength for a variety of rigid ceramic filters and was shown to work on iron-aluminide filters as well but no strength data have been obtained on the iron-aluminides at this time.

  12. Technical note: Improving the AWAT filter with interpolation schemes for advanced processing of high resolution data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Andre; Nehls, Thomas; Wessolek, Gerd

    2016-06-01

    Weighing lysimeters with appropriate data filtering yield the most precise and unbiased information for precipitation (P) and evapotranspiration (ET). A recently introduced filter scheme for such data is the AWAT (Adaptive Window and Adaptive Threshold) filter (Peters et al., 2014). The filter applies an adaptive threshold to separate significant from insignificant mass changes, guaranteeing that P and ET are not overestimated, and uses a step interpolation between the significant mass changes. In this contribution we show that the step interpolation scheme, which reflects the resolution of the measuring system, can lead to unrealistic prediction of P and ET, especially if they are required in high temporal resolution. We introduce linear and spline interpolation schemes to overcome these problems. To guarantee that medium to strong precipitation events abruptly following low or zero fluxes are not smoothed in an unfavourable way, a simple heuristic selection criterion is used, which attributes such precipitations to the step interpolation. The three interpolation schemes (step, linear and spline) are tested and compared using a data set from a grass-reference lysimeter with 1 min resolution, ranging from 1 January to 5 August 2014. The selected output resolutions for P and ET prediction are 1 day, 1 h and 10 min. As expected, the step scheme yielded reasonable flux rates only for a resolution of 1 day, whereas the other two schemes are well able to yield reasonable results for any resolution. The spline scheme returned slightly better results than the linear scheme concerning the differences between filtered values and raw data. Moreover, this scheme allows continuous differentiability of filtered data so that any output resolution for the fluxes is sound. Since computational burden is not problematic for any of the interpolation schemes, we suggest always using the spline scheme.

  13. An advanced static var compensator based on a three level IGBT inverter modelling analysis and active power filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draou, Azeddine

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents the dynamic performance analysis of an Advanced Static Var Compensator (ASVC) using three-level neutral point-clamped voltage source inverter. The paper presents the principles of operating and the method of reference currents generation. The dynamic behaviour of the system is further analysed using Matlab/Simulink with SimPower Systems toolbox through a set of simulation tests. The results obtained have been applied to an active power filter which might lead to the design of a robust controller for current harmonics and reactive power applications

  14. Advanced analysis of auditory evoked potentials in hyperthyroid patients: the effect of filtering.

    PubMed

    Güven, Ayşegül; Altınkaynak, Miray; Dolu, Nazan; Ünlühızarcı, Kürşat

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate Auditory Evoked Potentials (AEPs) in patients with hyperthyroidism and to compare their frequency components with those of healthy subjects. In this study the AEPs in hyperthyroidism were studied both in time and frequency domains rather than studying just in the time domain by peak scoring. This paper presents a method for filtering auditory oddball standard and target AEPs by using singular spectrum analysis (SSA) and feature extraction in the frequency domain via spectral analysis. AEPs were recorded during an auditory oddball paradigm in 25 newly diagnosed hyperthyroid patients and 15 healthy subjects. The signals are captured in the presence of ongoing background EEG activity so they are often contaminated by artifacts. This paper presents a method for filtering auditory odd-ball standard and target AEPs by using Singular spectrum analysis and feature extraction in frequency domain via spectral analysis. Information about the frequency composition of the signal is then used to compare normal and hyperthyroid states. While there was no significant difference either in the target or standard unfiltered signals between the hyperthyroid patients and the control group (p > 0.05), there was a significant difference in the filtered signals between the two groups (p < 0.01). In conclusion, our results revealed that SSA is an effective filtering method for AEPs. Thus, a much more objective and specific examination method was developed. PMID:25637540

  15. Advanced development of the Nested Fiber Filter: Phase 1, Evaluation of cleaning methods. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Litt, R.D.; Conkle, H.N.; Glover, R.C.; Jordan, H.

    1990-08-01

    Battelle has completed Phase I of the DOE program to evaluate cleaning methods for the Nested Fiber Filter (NFF). The results of the investigations into fly ash bonding mechanisms, and mechanical vibration and acoustic vibration techniques led to the conclusion that acoustic cleaning with a pulse combustor is the preferred integrated system for high-temperature, high-pressure applications.

  16. Advanced development of the Nested Fiber Filter: Phase 1, Evaluation of cleaning methods

    SciTech Connect

    Litt, R.D.; Conkle, H.N.; Glover, R.C.; Jordan, H.

    1990-08-01

    Battelle has completed Phase I of the DOE program to evaluate cleaning methods for the Nested Fiber Filter (NFF). The results of the investigations into fly ash bonding mechanisms, and mechanical vibration and acoustic vibration techniques led to the conclusion that acoustic cleaning with a pulse combustor is the preferred integrated system for high-temperature, high-pressure applications.

  17. Gamma-ray burst supernovae as standardizable candles

    SciTech Connect

    Cano, Z.

    2014-10-20

    A long-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB) marks the violent end of a massive star. GRBs are rare in the universe, and their progenitor stars are thought to possess unique physical properties such as low metal content and rapid rotation, while the supernovae (SNe) that are associated with GRBs are expected to be highly aspherical. To date, it has been unclear whether GRB-SNe could be used as standardizable candles, with contrasting conclusions found by different teams. In this paper, I present evidence that GRB-SNe have the potential to be used as standardizable candles and show that a statistically significant relation exists between the brightness and width of their decomposed light curves relative to a template SN. Every single nearby spectroscopically identified GRB-SN for which the rest frame and host contributions have been accurately determined follows this relation. Additionally, it is shown that not only GRB-SNe, but perhaps all SNe whose explosions are powered by a central engine may eventually be used as a standardizable candle. Finally, I suggest that the use of GRB-SNe as standardizable candles likely arises from a combination of the viewing angle and similar explosion geometry in each event, the latter of which is influenced by the explosion mechanism of GRB-SNe.

  18. The Persistence of the Candle-and-Cylinder Misconception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birk, James P.; Lawson, Anton E.

    1999-01-01

    Argues that the candle-and-cylinder demonstration does not show that air is composed of 21% oxygen. Finds that the heating of air results in a partial expulsion of air, and that the flame is extinguished by a local, rather than a complete, consumption of oxygen. (WRM)

  19. I Wish We Could Be Together: The Candle Ceremony.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Caroline V.

    1999-01-01

    Notes that young children need to express joys and sadness; discusses candle ceremony designed for discussions of grief. Suggests teachers inform parents of the ceremony and solicit their help in preparing children, resolve not to try to solve all problems that may be discussed, inform children the moments are private, and plan for difficult…

  20. Demonstrating Sound Wave Propagation with Candle Flame and Loudspeaker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hrepic, Zdeslav; Nettles, Corey; Bonilla, Chelsea

    2013-01-01

    The motion of a candle flame in front of a loudspeaker has been suggested as a productive demonstration of the longitudinal wave nature of sound. The demonstration has been used also as a research tool to investigate students' understanding about sound. The underpinning of both applications is the expectation of a horizontal, back-and-forth…

  1. Gamma-Ray Burst Supernovae as Standardizable Candles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cano, Z.

    2014-10-01

    A long-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB) marks the violent end of a massive star. GRBs are rare in the universe, and their progenitor stars are thought to possess unique physical properties such as low metal content and rapid rotation, while the supernovae (SNe) that are associated with GRBs are expected to be highly aspherical. To date, it has been unclear whether GRB-SNe could be used as standardizable candles, with contrasting conclusions found by different teams. In this paper, I present evidence that GRB-SNe have the potential to be used as standardizable candles and show that a statistically significant relation exists between the brightness and width of their decomposed light curves relative to a template SN. Every single nearby spectroscopically identified GRB-SN for which the rest frame and host contributions have been accurately determined follows this relation. Additionally, it is shown that not only GRB-SNe, but perhaps all SNe whose explosions are powered by a central engine may eventually be used as a standardizable candle. Finally, I suggest that the use of GRB-SNe as standardizable candles likely arises from a combination of the viewing angle and similar explosion geometry in each event, the latter of which is influenced by the explosion mechanism of GRB-SNe.

  2. Characterizing the performances of an advanced acousto-optical filter exploiting the collinear calcium molybdate crystalline cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbakov, Alexandre S.; Maximov, Je.; Sanchez Lucero, Daniel; Sanchez Perez, Karla J.

    2011-03-01

    In 1970 - 80s, novel optical spectral devices, electronically tunable acousto-optical filters (AOFs) had been proposed and developed. During the years gone AOFs have been remarkably progressed, and now they are widely exploited, for instance, in astrophysical observations. Schematically, AOFs can be separated on collinear and non-collinear filters, depending on the relative directions of passing the waves through crystalline cell, as well as on sequential and parallel ones, depending on the algorithm of spectrum analysis. Their features are characterized by the amplitude and spectral parameters. Here, we consider a few estimations of an advanced collinear AOF based on calcium molybdate single-crystal. In principle, this new AOF with a 15-microsecond time-aperture operates over all the visible range exhibiting 60%-efficiency at the electric power 1.0 W. Direct square-law dependence for crystal's length and inverse square-law dependence for its bandwidth on this minimal size make possible optimizing this advanced collinear AOF.

  3. Advanced texture filtering: a versatile framework for reconstructing multi-dimensional image data on heterogeneous architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zellmann, Stefan; Percan, Yvonne; Lang, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Reconstruction of 2-d image primitives or of 3-d volumetric primitives is one of the most common operations performed by the rendering components of modern visualization systems. Because this operation is often aided by GPUs, reconstruction is typically restricted to first-order interpolation. With the advent of in situ visualization, the assumption that rendering algorithms are in general executed on GPUs is however no longer adequate. We thus propose a framework that provides versatile texture filtering capabilities: up to third-order reconstruction using various types of cubic filtering and interpolation primitives; cache-optimized algorithms that integrate seamlessly with GPGPU rendering or with software rendering that was optimized for cache-friendly "Structure of Array" (SoA) access patterns; a memory management layer (MML) that gracefully hides the complexities of extra data copies necessary for memory access optimizations such as swizzling, for rendering on GPGPUs, or for reconstruction schemes that rely on pre-filtered data arrays. We prove the effectiveness of our software architecture by integrating it into and validating it using the open source direct volume rendering (DVR) software DeskVOX.

  4. Recovering bioactive compounds from olive oil filter cake by advanced extraction techniques.

    PubMed

    Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Castro-Puyana, María; Mendiola, Jose A; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Ibáñez, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The potential of by-products generated during extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) filtration as a natural source of phenolic compounds (with demonstrated bioactivity) has been evaluated using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and considering mixtures of two GRAS (generally recognized as safe) solvents (ethanol and water) at temperatures ranging from 40 to 175 °C. The extracts were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to diode array detection (DAD) and electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-TOF/MS) to determine the phenolic-composition of the filter cake. The best isolation procedure to extract the phenolic fraction from the filter cake was accomplished using ethanol and water (50:50, v/v) at 120 °C. The main phenolic compounds identified in the samples were characterized as phenolic alcohols or derivatives (hydroxytyrosol and its oxidation product), secoiridoids (decarboxymethylated and hydroxylated forms of oleuropein and ligstroside aglycones), flavones (luteolin and apigenin) and elenolic acid derivatives. The PLE extraction process can be applied to produce enriched extracts with applications as bioactive food ingredients, as well as nutraceuticals. PMID:25226536

  5. Recovering Bioactive Compounds from Olive Oil Filter Cake by Advanced Extraction Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Castro-Puyana, María; Mendiola, Jose A.; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Ibáñez, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The potential of by-products generated during extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) filtration as a natural source of phenolic compounds (with demonstrated bioactivity) has been evaluated using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and considering mixtures of two GRAS (generally recognized as safe) solvents (ethanol and water) at temperatures ranging from 40 to 175 °C. The extracts were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to diode array detection (DAD) and electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-TOF/MS) to determine the phenolic-composition of the filter cake. The best isolation procedure to extract the phenolic fraction from the filter cake was accomplished using ethanol and water (50:50, v/v) at 120 °C. The main phenolic compounds identified in the samples were characterized as phenolic alcohols or derivatives (hydroxytyrosol and its oxidation product), secoiridoids (decarboxymethylated and hydroxylated forms of oleuropein and ligstroside aglycones), flavones (luteolin and apigenin) and elenolic acid derivatives. The PLE extraction process can be applied to produce enriched extracts with applications as bioactive food ingredients, as well as nutraceuticals. PMID:25226536

  6. High temperature corrosion of advanced ceramic materials for hot gas filters and heat exchangers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kupp, E.R.; Trubelja, K.E.; Spear, K.E.; Tressler, R.E.

    1995-08-01

    Experimental corrosion studies of hot gas filter materials and heat exchanger materials in oxidizing combustion environments have been initiated. Filter materials from 3M Co. and DuPont Lanxide Composites Inc. are being tested over a range of temperatures, times and gas flows. It has been demonstrated that morphological and phase changes due to corrosive effects occur after exposure of these materials to a simulated coal combustion environment for relatively short periods of time (10-50 hours). Heat exchanger tubes from DuPont Lanxide Composite Inc. were cut and infiltrated with Cr by heating in a Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder bed. This resulted in continuous Cr-rich layers with thicknesses ranging from 20 to 250 {mu}m. The Cr-free and the Cr-infiltrated specimens were reacted with the molten Illinois No. 6 slag for 2 and 20 h at 1260{degrees}C, and the reaction layers examined with SEM and EDX. In the Cr-free specimens, the segregation of Fe and the precipitation of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} were detected near the liquid/gas interface, but no evidence of corrosion was present. In the Cr-infiltrate specimens, corrosion was evident, since a rearrangement and segregation of the Cr-rich grains occurred toward the surface of the molten slag. In addition, evidence of the diffusion of major quantities of Fe was observed from the liquid slag into the Cr-rich layer formed by infiltration.

  7. High temperature corrosion of advanced ceramic materials for hot-gas filters and heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Kupp, E.R.; Trubelja, M.F.; Spear, K.E.; Tressler, R.E.

    1995-08-01

    Experimental corrosion studies of hot gas filter materials and heat exchanger materials in oxidizing combustion environments have been initiated. Filter materials from 3M Co. and DuPont Lanxide Composites Inc. are being tested over a range of temperatures, times and gas flows. It has been demonstrated that morphological and phase changes due to corrosive effects occur after exposure of the 3M material to a combustion environment for as little as 25 hours at 800{degrees}C. The study of heat exchanger materials has focused on enhancing the corrosion resistance of DuPont Lanxide Dimox{trademark} composite tubes by adding chromium to its surfaces by (1) heat treatments in a Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder bed, or (2) infiltrating surface porosity with molten chromium nitrate. Each process is followed by a surface homogenization at 1500{degrees}C. The powder bed method has been most successful, producing continuous Cr-rich layers with thicknesses ranging from 20 to 250 {mu}m. As-received and Cr-modified DuPont Lanxide Dimox{trademark} samples will be reacted with commonly encountered coal-ash slags to determine the Cr effects on corrosion resistance.

  8. Advanced hot gas filter development. Topical report, May 1995--December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, J.L.; June, M.R.

    1997-12-31

    Porous iron aluminide was evaluated for use as a particulate filter in pressurized fluid-bed combustion (PFBC) and integrated gasification combined cycles (IGCC) with a short term test. Three alloy compositions were tested: Fe{sub 3}Al 5% chromium (FAL), Fe{sub 3}Al 2% chromium (FAS) and FeAl 0% chromium. The test conditions simulated air blown (Tampa Electric) and oxygen blown (Sierra Pacific) gasifiers with one test gas composition. Four test conditions were used with hydrogen sulfide levels varying from 783 ppm to 78,3000 ppm at 1 atmosphere along with temperatures ranging between 925 F and 1200 F. The iron aluminide was found capable of withstanding the proposed operating conditions and capable of giving years of service. The production method and preferred composition were established as seamless cylinders of Fe{sub 3}Al 2% chromium with a preoxidation of seven hours at 1472 F.

  9. High temperature corrosion of advanced ceramic materials for hot gas filters and heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Crossland, C.E.; Shelleman, D.L.; Spear, K.E.

    1996-08-01

    A vertical flow-through furnace has been built to study the effect of corrosion on the morphology and mechanical properties of ceramic hot gas filters. Sections of 3M Type 203 and DuPont Lanxide SiC-SiC filter tubes were sealed at one end and suspended in the furnace while being subjected to a simulated coal combustion environment at 870{degrees}C. X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy is used to identify phase and morphology changes due to corrosion while burst testing determines the loss of mechanical strength after exposure to the combustion gases. Additionally, a thermodynamic database of gaseous silicon compounds is currently being established so that calculations can be made to predict important products of the reaction of the environment with the ceramics. These thermodynamic calculations provide useful information concerning the regimes where the ceramic may be degraded by material vaporization. To verify the durability and predict lifetime performance of ceramic heat exchangers in coal combustion environments, long-term exposure testing of stressed (internally pressurized) tubes must be performed in actual coal combustion environments. The authors have designed a system that will internally pressurize 2 inch OD by 48 inch long ceramic heat exchanger tubes to a maximum pressure of 200 psi while exposing the outer surface of the tubes to coal combustion gas at the Combustion and Environmental Research Facility (CERF) at the Pittsburgh Energy and Technology Center. Water-cooled, internal o-ring pressure seals were designed to accommodate the existing 6 inch by 6 inch access panels of the CERF. Tubes will be exposed for up to a maximum of 500 hours at temperatures of 2500 and 2600{degrees}F with an internal pressure of 200 psi. If the tubes survive, their retained strength will be measured using the high temperature tube burst test facility at Penn State University. Fractographic analysis will be performed to identify the failure source(s) for the tubes.

  10. How Real Detector Thresholds Create False Standard Candles

    SciTech Connect

    Shahmoradi, Amir; Nemiroff, Robert

    2009-05-25

    GRB satellites are relatively inefficient detectors of dim hard bursts. For example, given two bursts of identical peak luminosity near the detection threshold, a dim soft burst will be preferentially detected over a dim hard burst. This means that a high E{sub peak} burst will need a higher peak luminosity to be detected than a low E{sub peak} GRB. This purely detector-created attribute will appear as a correlation between E{sub peak} and luminosity, and should not be interpreted as a real standard candle effect. This result derives from Monte Carlo simulations utilizing a wide range of initial GRB spectra, and retriggering to create a final ''detected'' sample. In sum, E{sub peak} is not a good standard candle, and its appearance as such in seeming correlations such as the Amati and other L{sub iso} vs. E{sub peak} relations is likely a ghost of real energy-related detection thresholds.

  11. Flow Characteristics of Pulse Cleaning System in Ceramic Filter

    SciTech Connect

    Zhongli, J.; Peng, S.; Chen, H.; Shi, M.

    2002-09-19

    The rigid ceramic filters have been recognized to be a most promising kind of equipment for the gas-solid separation and the cleaning of hot gases due to their unique properties and higher separation efficiency for larger than 5 {micro}m particles, which will well meet downstream system component protection and environmental standards. They have potential for increased efficiency in advanced coal-fired power generation systems like pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) process, and petrochemical process such as fluid catalyst cracking (FCC) Process. In the commercial utilization of rigid ceramic filters, the performance of pulse cleaning systems has crucial effects on the long-term structural durability and reliability of the entire design. In order to get a clear insight into the nature of this cleaning process and provide a solid basis for the industrial applications, the transient flow characteristics of the rigid ceramic candle filter during the whole pulse cleaning process should be completely analyzed.

  12. A chlorate candle/lithium hydroxide personal breathing apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, F. E.

    1972-01-01

    A portable coal mine rescue and survival equipment is reported that consists of a chlorate candle with a lithium hydroxide carbon-dioxide absorbent for oxygen generation, a breathing bag and tubing to conduct breathing to and from the man. A plastic hood incorporating a mouth piece for communication provides also eye protection and prevents inhalation through the nose. Manned testing of a prototype system demonstrated the feasibility of this closed circuit no-maintenance breathing apparatus that provides for good voice communication.

  13. Comparison of cosmological models using standard rulers and candles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao-Lei; Cao, Shuo; Zheng, Xiao-Gang; Li, Song; Biesiada, Marek

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we used standard rulers and standard candles (separately and jointly) to explore five popular dark energy models under the assumption of the spatial flatness of the Universe. As standard rulers, we used a data set comprised of 118 galactic scale strong lensing systems (individual standard rulers if properly calibrated for the mass density profile) combined with BAO diagnostics (statistical standard ruler). Type Ia supernovae served as standard candles. Unlike most previous statistical studies involving strong lensing systems, we relaxed the assumption of a singular isothermal sphere (SIS) in favor of its generalization: the power-law mass density profile. Therefore, along with cosmological model parameters, we fitted the power law index and its first derivative with respect to the redshift (thus allowing for mass density profile evolution). It turned out that the best fitted γ parameters are in agreement with each other, irrespective of the cosmological model considered. This demonstrates that galactic strong lensing systems may provide a complementary probe to test the properties of dark energy. The fits for cosmological model parameters which we obtained are in agreement with alternative studies performed by other researchers. Because standard rulers and standard candles have different parameter degeneracies, a combination of standard rulers and standard candles gives much more restrictive results for cosmological parameters. Finally, we attempted an analysis based on model selection using information theoretic criteria (AIC and BIC). Our results support the claim that the cosmological constant model is still best and there is no (at least statistical) reason to prefer any other more complex model.

  14. Incorporating advanced language models into the P300 speller using particle filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speier, W.; Arnold, C. W.; Deshpande, A.; Knall, J.; Pouratian, N.

    2015-08-01

    Objective. The P300 speller is a common brain-computer interface (BCI) application designed to communicate language by detecting event related potentials in a subject’s electroencephalogram signal. Information about the structure of natural language can be valuable for BCI communication, but attempts to use this information have thus far been limited to rudimentary n-gram models. While more sophisticated language models are prevalent in natural language processing literature, current BCI analysis methods based on dynamic programming cannot handle their complexity. Approach. Sampling methods can overcome this complexity by estimating the posterior distribution without searching the entire state space of the model. In this study, we implement sequential importance resampling, a commonly used particle filtering (PF) algorithm, to integrate a probabilistic automaton language model. Main result. This method was first evaluated offline on a dataset of 15 healthy subjects, which showed significant increases in speed and accuracy when compared to standard classification methods as well as a recently published approach using a hidden Markov model (HMM). An online pilot study verified these results as the average speed and accuracy achieved using the PF method was significantly higher than that using the HMM method. Significance. These findings strongly support the integration of domain-specific knowledge into BCI classification to improve system performance.

  15. Recent advances in polarized 3 He based neutron spin filter development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wangchun; Gentile, Thomas; Erwin, Ross; Watson, Shannon; Krycka, Kathryn; Ye, Qiang; NCNR NIST Team; University of Maryland Team

    2015-04-01

    Polarized 3 He neutron spin filters (NSFs) are based on the strong spin-dependence of the neutron absorption cross section by 3 He. NSFs can polarize large area, widely divergent, and broadband neutron beams effectively and allow for combining a neutron polarizer and a spin flipper into a single polarizing device. The last capability utilizes 3 He spin inversion based on the adiabatic fast passage (AFP) nuclear magnetic resonance technique. Polarized 3 He NSFs are significantly expanding the polarized neutron measurement capabilities at the NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCNR). Here we present an overview of 3 He NSF applications to small-angle neutron scattering, thermal triple axis spectrometry, and wide-angle polarization analysis. We discuss a recent upgrade of our spin-exchange optical pumping (SEOP) systems that utilize chirped volume holographic gratings for spectral narrowing. The new capability allows us to polarize rubidium/potassium hybrid SEOP cells over a liter in volume within a day, with 3 He polarizations up to 88%, Finally we discuss how we can achieve nearly lossless 3 He polarization inversion with AFP.

  16. Incorporating advanced language models into the P300 speller using particle filtering

    PubMed Central

    Speier, W; Arnold, CW; Deshpande, A; Knall, J

    2015-01-01

    Objective The P300 speller is a common brain–computer interface (BCI) application designed to communicate language by detecting event related potentials in a subject’s electroencephalogram (EEG) signal. Information about the structure of natural language can be valuable for BCI communication, but attempts to use this information have thus far been limited to rudimentary n-gram models. While more sophisticated language models are prevalent in natural language processing literature, current BCI analysis methods based on dynamic programming cannot handle their complexity. Approach Sampling methods can overcome this complexity by estimating the posterior distribution without searching the entire state space of the model. In this study, we implement sequential importance resampling, a commonly used particle filtering (PF) algorithm, to integrate a probabilistic automaton language model. Main Result This method was first evaluated offline on a dataset of 15 healthy subjects, which showed significant increases in speed and accuracy when compared to standard classification methods as well as a recently published approach using a hidden Markov model (HMM). An online pilot study verified these results as the average speed and accuracy achieved using the PF method was significantly higher than that using the HMM method. Significance These findings strongly support the integration of domain-specific knowledge into BCI classification to improve system performance. PMID:26061188

  17. Candle light-style OLED: a plausibly human-friendly safe night light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jou, Jwo-Huei; Chen, Po-Wei; Hsieh, Chun-Yu; Wang, Ching-Chiun; Chen, Chien-Chih; Tung, F.-C.; Chen, Szu-Hao; Wang, Yi-Shan

    2013-09-01

    Candles emit sensationally-warm light with a very-low color-temperature, comparatively most suitable for use at night. In response to the need for such a human-friendly night light, we demonstrate the employment of a high number of candle light complementary organic emitters to generate mimic candle light based on organic light emitting diode (OLED). One resultant candle light-style OLED shows a very-high color rendering index, with an efficacy at least 300 times that of candles or twice that of an incandescent bulb. The device can be fabricated, for example, by using four candle light complementary emitters, namely: red, yellow, green, and sky-blue phosphorescent dyes, vacuum-deposited into two emission layers, separated by a nano-layer of carrier modulation material to maximize both the desirable very-high color rendering index and energy efficiency, while keeping the blue emission very low and red emission high to obtain the desirable low color temperature. With different layer structures, the OLEDs can also show color tunable between that of candle light and dusk-hue. Importantly, a romantic sensation giving and supposedly physiologically-friendly candle light-style emission can hence be driven by electricity in lieu of the hydrocarbon-burning and greenhouse gas releasing candles that were invented 5,000 years ago.

  18. Scientific Observation and the Learning Cycle: Burning the Candle at Both Ends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Kevin; Bluhm, William J.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a twist on the basic "Science 101" investigation of having students observe a birthday candle before, during, and after burning. It engages students in exploring the attributes of a candle, introduces them to the concepts of empirical observation and investigation, and involves them in developing and conducting a burning…

  19. Low radioactivity CaF{sub 2} scintillator crystals for CANDLES

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, I.; Umehara, S.; Ito, G.; Yasuda, K.; Kakubata, H.; Miyashita, M.; Matsuoka, K.; Nomachi, M.; Kishimoto, T.; Fushimi, K.; Hazama, R.; Ohsumi, H.; Okada, K.; Tamagawa, Y.; Yoshida, S.

    2011-04-27

    CANDLES is the project to search for neutrinoless double beta (0{nu}{beta}{beta}) decay of {sup 48}Ca by using CaF{sub 2} scintillators. The observation of 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay will prove the existence of massive Majorana neutrinos. Expected performances and current status of the CANDLES system are described.

  20. Demonstrating Sound Wave Propagation with Candle Flame and Loudspeaker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrepic, Zdeslav; Nettles, Corey; Bonilla, Chelsea

    2013-01-01

    The motion of a candle flame in front of a loudspeaker has been suggested as a productive demonstration of the longitudinal wave nature of sound. The demonstration has been used also as a research tool to investigate students' understanding about sound.2-4 The underpinning of both applications is the expectation of a horizontal, back-and-forth vibration of the flame around its upright position. Unlike experts, who regularly anticipate this outcome, students with no previous formal knowledge typically anticipate that the flame will lean away from the speaker.

  1. Fuel-Cycle of 'CANDLE' Burnup with Depleted Uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Hiroshi, Sekimoto

    2006-07-01

    A new reactor burnup strategy CANDLE (Constant Axial shape of Neutron flux, nuclide densities and power shape During Life of Energy producing reactor) was proposed, where shapes of neutron flux, nuclide densities and power density distributions remain constant but move upward (or downward) along its core axis. This burnup strategy can derive many merits, especially from safety point of view. The change of excess reactivity along burnup is theoretically zero, and the core characteristics, such as power feedback coefficients and power peaking factor, are not changed along burnup. Application of this burnup strategy to neutron rich fast reactors makes excellent performances. Only natural or depleted uranium is required for the replacing fuels. About 40 % of natural or depleted uranium undergoes fission without the conventional reprocessing and enrichment. If the LWR produced energy of X Joules, the CANDLE reactor can produce about 50 X Joules from the depleted uranium left at the enrichment facility for the LWR fuel. If we can say LWRs have produced energy sufficient for full 20 years, we can produce the energy for 1000 years by using the CANDLE reactors with depleted uranium. We need not mine any uranium ore, and do not need reprocessing facility. The burnup of spent fuel becomes 10 times. Therefore, the spent fuel amount per produced energy is also reduced to one-tenth. The equilibrium core contains a lot of instable materials such as higher actinides and fission products, the enough amounts of which can not be obtained easily. The construction of the initial core is a difficult problem. However, by using enriched uranium substituted for actinides in the equilibrium core, we can construct the initial core whose power profile is similar to the equilibrium one and will reach the equilibrium state without any big change during transient. At present we do not have any material standing for such a high burnup. However, the CANDLE burnup can be realized by employing

  2. Five Requirements for Nuclear Energy and CANDLE Fast Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    2010-06-01

    The Center for Research into Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems (CRINES) was established in order to succeed the COE-INES mission after finishing this program in Tokyo Tech. CRINES considers nuclear energy should satisfy 5 requirements; sustainability as basic energy, solving 3 problems inherent to accidents, radioactive waste and nuclear bomb, and economical acceptance. Characteristics of CANDLE fast reactor are discussed for these requirements. It satisfies 4 requirements; sustainability and solving 3 inherent problems. For the remaining requirement for economy, a high potential to satisfy this requirement is also shown.

  3. Beam dynamics of CANDLE storage ring low alpha operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargsyan, A.; Amatuni, G.; Sahakyan, V.; Tsakanov, V.; Zanyan, G.

    2015-10-01

    The generation of the coherent THz radiation and short pulse synchrotron radiation in dedicated electron storage rings requires the study of non-standard magnetic lattices which provide low momentum compaction factor (alpha) of the ring. In the present paper two low alpha operation lattices based on modification of the original beam optics and implementation of inverse bend magnets are studied for CANDLE storage ring. For considered cases an analysis of transverse and longitudinal beam dynamics is given and the feasibility of lattices is discussed.

  4. On Calibrations Using the Crab Nebula as a Standard Candle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin; Guainazzi, Matteo; Jahoda, Keith; Shaposhnikov, Nikolai; ODell, Stephen; Zavlin, Vyacheslav; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen; Elsner, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    Inspired by a recent paper (Kirsch et al. 2005) on possible use of the Crab Nebula as a standard candle for calibrating X-ray response func tions, we examine possible consequences of intrinsic departures from a single (absorbed) power law upon such calibrations. We limited our analyses to three more modern X-ray instruments -- the ROSAT/PSPC, th e RXTE/PCA, and the XMM-Newton/EPIC-pn. The results are unexpected an d indicate a need to refine two of the three response functions studi ed. The implications for Chandra will be discussed.

  5. Five Requirements for Nuclear Energy and CANDLE Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    2010-06-22

    The Center for Research into Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems (CRINES) was established in order to succeed the COE-INES mission after finishing this program in Tokyo Tech. CRINES considers nuclear energy should satisfy 5 requirements; sustainability as basic energy, solving 3 problems inherent to accidents, radioactive waste and nuclear bomb, and economical acceptance. Characteristics of CANDLE fast reactor are discussed for these requirements. It satisfies 4 requirements; sustainability and solving 3 inherent problems. For the remaining requirement for economy, a high potential to satisfy this requirement is also shown.

  6. 76 FR 773 - Petroleum Wax Candles From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-06

    ... a reasonably foreseeable future. See Petroleum Wax Candles From China Determination, 75 FR 80843... International Trade Administration Petroleum Wax Candles From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of... the antidumping duty order on petroleum wax candles from the People's Republic of China...

  7. Hot-Gas Filter Testing with a Transport Reactor Development Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, M.L.; Ness, R.O., Jr.

    1996-12-31

    The objective of the hot-gas cleanup (HGC) work on the transport reactor demonstration unit (TRDU) located at the Environmental Research Center is to demonstrate acceptable performance of hot-gas filter elements in a pilot-scale system prior to long-term demonstration tests. The primary focus of the experimental effort in the 2-year project will be the testing of hot- gas filter elements as a function of particulate collection efficiency, filter pressure differential, filter cleanability, and durability during relatively short-term operation (100-200 hours). A filter vessel will be used in combination with the TRDU to evaluate the performance of selected hot- gas filter elements under gasification operating conditions. This work will directly support the Power Systems Development Facility utilizing the M.W. Kellogg transport reactor located at Wilsonville, Alabama and indirectly the Foster Wheeler advanced pressurized fluid-bed combustor, also located at Wilsonville and the Clean Coal IV Pinon Pine IGCC Power Project. This program has a phased approach involving modification and upgrades to the TRDU and the fabrication, assembly, and operation of a hot-gas filter vessel (HGFV) capable of operating at the outlet design conditions of the TRDU. Phase 1 upgraded the TRDU based upon past operating experiences. Additions included a nitrogen supply system upgrade, upgraded LASH auger and 1807 coal feed lines, the addition of a second pressurized coal feed hopper and a dipleg ash hopper, and modifications to spoil the performance of the primary cyclone. Phase 2 included the HGFV design, procurement, and installation. Phases 3 through 5 consist of 200-hour hot-gas filter tests under gasification conditions using the TRDU at temperatures of 540-650{degrees}C (1000-1200{degrees}F), 9.3 bar, and face velocities of 1.4, 2. and 3.8 cm/s, respectively. The increased face velocities are achieved by removing candles between each test.

  8. Facile preparation of superhydrophobic candle soot coating and its wettability under condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Zhiqing; Huang, Juan; Peng, Chaoyi; Wang, Menglei; Wang, Xian; Bin, Jiping; Xing, Suli; Xiao, Jiayu; Zeng, Jingcheng; Xiao, Ximei; Fu, Xin; Gong, Huifang; Zhao, Dejian; Chen, Hong

    2016-02-01

    A facile method was developed to prepare a superhydrophobic candle soot coating by burning candle and simple deposition on a low-density polyethylene substrate. The water contact angle and sliding angle of the as-prepared superhydrophobic candle soot coating were, respectively, 160 ± 2° and 1° under common condition. ESEM images showed that the superhydrophobic candle soot coating was comprised of many nanoparticles with the size range of about 30-50 nm. After condensation for 30 min, the average contact angle of the condensed water droplets was 150° ± 2°, showing excellent superhydrophobicity under condensation. The mechanism of the candle soot coating remaining superhydrophobicity under condensation was analyzed. This work is helpful for the design and preparation of superhydrophobic surface which can remain superhydrophobicity in future.

  9. PRD-66 Gas Filter Development

    SciTech Connect

    Forsythe, G.D.; Connolly, E.S.

    1997-07-01

    The PRD-66 manufacturing process offers a unique approach to the production of hot gas candle filters for application in Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustors (PFBC) and Integrated Gas Combined Cycle (IGCC) power systems. Fabricated from readily available and inexpensive raw materials, the PRD-66 process uses an admixture of textile and ceramic concepts to produce an all-oxide filter element containing no refractor ceramic fiber (RCF) residues in the finished products. The use demonstration of textile grade glass yarn as a consumable reactant gives the advantages of fabrication versatility and shape control and a unique micro-layered phase structure in the fired product, resulting in unsurpassed thermal shock resistance and operating temperature capability of greater than 1200{degrees}C in a low-cost package. This high throughput, adaptable process allows tailoring of filter element dimensions and operating properties to specific system needs with short lead times and low cost penalties.

  10. Examinations of Chemical Resistance and Thermal Behaviour of Ceramic Filter Materials for Hot-Gas Cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Angermann, J.; Meyer, B.; Horlbeck, W.

    2002-09-19

    Increasing prosperity and the steady growth of the world population lead to a strongly rising energy requirement. Therefore the saving of the available resources as well as the limitation of CO{sub 2}-emission are the main reasons for developing highly efficient power stations. The use of combined cycle technology for advanced coal fired power plants allow a significantly higher conversion efficiency than it is possible in an only steam power plant. In order to increase the gas turbine inlet temperature, the filtration of fine particles is necessary. Therefore the filtration unit is one of the key components of the circulating pressurized fluidized bed combustion technology (PFBC). To use this technology more effectively, gas cleaning at high temperatures or in an reducing atmosphere is necessary. A possibility of the effective gas cleaning at high temperatures is the use of porous ceramic candle filters. The structure of such filter elements usually consists of a highly porous sup port which ensures the mechanical strength and a layer which operates as the functional part for the particle removal. To ensure a guaranteed lifetime of about 16000 h the effect of combustion or gasification atmosphere and temperature on the thermal and mechanical properties of the filter material has to be studied. The examinations and results, described in this article, are part of some previous work. This paper focuses especially on the chemical resistance and the thermal behaviour of the used ceramic filter materials.

  11. From CANDLE reactor to pebble-bed reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, X. N.; Maschek, W.

    2006-07-01

    This paper attempts to reveal theoretically, by studying a diffusion-burn-up coupled neutronic model, that a so-called CANDLE reactor and a pebble-bed type reactor have a common burn-up feature. As already known, a solitary burn-up wave that can develop in the common U-Pu and Th-U conversion processes is the basic mechanism of the CANDLE reactor. In this paper it is demonstrated that a family of burn-up wave solution exists in the boundary value problem characterizing a pebble bed reactor, in which the fuel is loaded from above into the core and unloaded from bottom. Among this solution family there is a particular case, namely, a partial solitary wave solution, which begins from the fuel entrance side and extends into infinity on the exit side, and has a maximal bum-up rate in this family. An example dealing with the {sup 232}Th-{sup 233}U conversion chain is studied and the solutions are presented in order to show the mechanism of the burn-up wave. (authors)

  12. A study on effect of point-of-use filters on defect reduction for advanced 193nm processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitorino, Nelson; Wolfer, Elizabeth; Cao, Yi; Lee, DongKwan; Wu, Aiwen

    2009-03-01

    Bottom Anti-Reflective Coatings (BARCs) have been widely used in the lithography process for decades. BARCs play important roles in controlling reflections and therefore improving swing ratios, CD variations, reflective notching, and standing waves. The implementation of BARC processes in 193nm dry and immersion lithography has been accompanied by defect reduction challenges on fine patterns. Point-of-Use filters are well known among the most critical components on a track tool ensuring low wafer defects by providing particle-free coatings on wafers. The filters must have very good particle retention to remove defect-causing particulate and gels while not altering the delicate chemical formulation of photochemical materials. This paper describes a comparative study of the efficiency and performance of various Point-of-Use filters in reducing defects observed in BARC materials. Multiple filter types with a variety of pore sizes, membrane materials, and filter designs were installed on an Entegris Intelligent(R) Mini dispense pump which is integrated in the coating module of a clean track. An AZ(R) 193nm organic BARC material was spin-coated on wafers through various filter media. Lithographic performance of filtered BARCs was examined and wafer defect analysis was performed. By this study, the effect of filter properties on BARC process related defects can be learned and optimum filter media and design can be selected for BARC material to yield the lowest defects on a coated wafer.

  13. Military efficacy of individual water purification filters. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Schaub, S.A.; Hargett, H.T.

    1990-12-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the effectiveness of Katadyn TM Pocket Filters (KPF) to remove enteric bacteria (Klebsiella terrigena), protozoan cysts (Cryptosporidium parvum), and cyst simulants. Studies used the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Guide Standard and Protocol for Testing Microbiological Purifiers for guidance. Results showed that cysts were effectively removed by the filters over a typical 100 gallon use life of the ceramic filter candles used in the KPF. Bacterial removals were shown to also meet the criteria when improvements to end seal gaskets of the ceramic filters were made.

  14. Improvement of Sulphur Resistance of a Nickel-modified Catalytic Filter for Tar Removal from Biomass Gasification Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.; Draelants, D.J.; Engelen, K.; Baron, G.V.

    2002-09-19

    This work focuses on the development of catalytic candle filters for the simultaneous removal of tars and particles from the biomass gasification gas at high temperature. An improvement of sulphur resistance of the nickel-activated catalytic filter was developed by the addition of CaO. The influences of preparation procedure of catalytic filter, the ratio of Ni/CaO and the loading of Ni and CaO on the performance of the catalytic filter were investigated.

  15. Development and commercialization of hot gas filters for power generation applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lippert, T.E.; Bruck, G.J.; Alvin, M.A.; Bachovchin, D.M.; Newby, R.A.

    1995-12-31

    Westinghouse is conducting a broad development program under US Department of Energy (DOE) and corporate program initiatives to commercialize hot gas filtration (HGF) for power generation. Coal and biomass gasification combined cycles (GCC), and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) are advanced power generation cycles that will use HGF to achieve maximum performance. Westinghouse, in conjunction with DOE are participating in several pilot and demonstration test programs in which hot gas filter systems are integrated and operated in coal derived gas streams. This paper reports on HGF testing conducted over the past year in the following pilot plant facilities: At the PFBC Hot Gas Clean Slipstream facility installed at the Tidd 70-MWe bubbling-PFBC Clean Coal Demonstration Plant; at the Ahlstrom 10 Mwt Circulating-PFBC facility located in Karhula, Finland; at the Advanced-PFBC subpilot facility located at the Foster Wheeler Development Corporation Livingston, NJ site; at the Biomass subpilot gasification facility located at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT). Test results include operating experience on both conventional and advanced candle filter elements.

  16. Characterization of hazardous and odorous volatiles emitted from scented candles before lighting and when lit.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jeong-Hyeon; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Bo-Won

    2015-04-01

    Scented candles are known to release various volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including both pleasant aromas and toxic components both before lighting (off) and when lit (on). In this study, we explored the compositional changes of volatiles from scented candles under various settings to simulate indoor use. Carbonyl compounds and other VOCs emitted from six different candle types were analyzed under 'on/off' conditions. The six candle types investigated were: (1) Clean cotton (CT), (2) Floral (FL), (3) Kiwi melon (KW), (4) Strawberry (SB), (5) Vanilla (VN), and (6) Plain (PL). Although a large number of chemicals were released both before lighting and when lit, their profiles were noticeably distinguishable. Before lighting, various esters (n = 30) showed the most dominant emissions. When lit, formaldehyde was found to have the highest emission concentration of 2098 ppb (SB), 1022 ppb (CT), and 925 ppb (PL). In most lit scented candles, there was a general tendency to show increased concentrations of low boiling point compounds. For some scented candle products, the emission of volatiles occurred strongly both before lighting and when lit. For instance, in terms of TVOC (ppbC), the highest concentrations were observed from the KW product with their values of 12,742 (on) and 2766 ppbC (off). As such, the results suggest that certain scented candle products should act as potent sources of VOC emission in indoor environment, regardless of conditions--whether being lit or not. PMID:25588193

  17. Assessment of a membrane drinking water filter in an emergency setting.

    PubMed

    Ensink, Jeroen H J; Bastable, Andy; Cairncross, Sandy

    2015-06-01

    The performance and acceptability of the Nerox(TM) membrane drinking water filter were evaluated among an internally displaced population in Pakistan. The membrane filter and a control ceramic candle filter were distributed to over 3,000 households. Following a 6-month period, 230 households were visited and filter performance and use were assessed. Only 6% of the visited households still had a functioning filter, and the removal performance ranged from 80 to 93%. High turbidity in source water (irrigation canals), together with high temperatures and large family size were likely to have contributed to poor performance and uptake of the filters. PMID:26042969

  18. How Beatrice Tinsley Destroyed Sandage's Quest for a Standard Candle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitton, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The goal of cosmology and most extragalactic optical astronomy during the heroic period spanning the half century from Hubble to Sandage (1920s - 1970s) was a search for two numbers, the Hubble constant and the deceleration parameter. Standard candles were needed to establish the measure of the universe. In 1968, Beatrice Tinsley, then a postdoctoral fellow in the astronomy department of the University of Texas at Austin showed that the great enterprise at Palomar of calibrating the galaxies was in need of major revision. At the 132nd AAS Meeting (June 1970, Boulder, Colorado) she presented a paper on galactic evolution on the magnitude-redshift relation. In her Abstract she boldly wrote: "My present conclusion is opposite to that reached by most cosmologists." In fact her claims caused great consternation among cosmologists. In 1972 she published eight papers on the evolution of galaxies, and the effects of that evolution for observational cosmology and the origin of structure.

  19. Ceramic hot-gas filter

    DOEpatents

    Connolly, E.S.; Forsythe, G.D.; Domanski, D.M.; Chambers, J.A.; Rajendran, G.P.

    1999-05-11

    A ceramic hot-gas candle filter is described having a porous support of filament-wound oxide ceramic yarn at least partially surrounded by a porous refractory oxide ceramic matrix, and a membrane layer on at least one surface thereof. The membrane layer may be on the outer surface, the inner surface, or both the outer and inner surface of the porous support. The membrane layer may be formed of an ordered arrangement of circularly wound, continuous filament oxide ceramic yarn, a ceramic filler material which is less permeable than the filament-wound support structure, or some combination of continuous filament and filler material. A particularly effective membrane layer features circularly wound filament with gaps intentionally placed between adjacent windings, and a filler material of ceramic particulates uniformly distributed throughout the gap region. The filter can withstand thermal cycling during back pulse cleaning and is resistant to chemical degradation at high temperatures.

  20. Ceramic hot-gas filter

    DOEpatents

    Connolly, Elizabeth Sokolinski; Forsythe, George Daniel; Domanski, Daniel Matthew; Chambers, Jeffrey Allen; Rajendran, Govindasamy Paramasivam

    1999-01-01

    A ceramic hot-gas candle filter having a porous support of filament-wound oxide ceramic yarn at least partially surrounded by a porous refractory oxide ceramic matrix, and a membrane layer on at least one surface thereof. The membrane layer may be on the outer surface, the inner surface, or both the outer and inner surface of the porous support. The membrane layer may be formed of an ordered arrangement of circularly wound, continuous filament oxide ceramic yarn, a ceramic filler material which is less permeable than the filament-wound support structure, or some combination of continuous filament and filler material. A particularly effective membrane layer features circularly wound filament with gaps intentionally placed between adjacent windings, and a filler material of ceramic particulates uniformly distributed throughout the gap region. The filter can withstand thermal cycling during backpulse cleaning and is resistant to chemical degradation at high temperatures.

  1. Illumination-tolerant face verification of low-bit-rate JPEG2000 wavelet images with advanced correlation filters for handheld devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijaya, Surya Li; Savvides, Marios; Vijaya Kumar, B. V. K.

    2005-02-01

    Face recognition on mobile devices, such as personal digital assistants and cell phones, is a big challenge owing to the limited computational resources available to run verifications on the devices themselves. One approach is to transmit the captured face images by use of the cell-phone connection and to run the verification on a remote station. However, owing to limitations in communication bandwidth, it may be necessary to transmit a compressed version of the image. We propose using the image compression standard JPEG2000, which is a wavelet-based compression engine used to compress the face images to low bit rates suitable for transmission over low-bandwidth communication channels. At the receiver end, the face images are reconstructed with a JPEG2000 decoder and are fed into the verification engine. We explore how advanced correlation filters, such as the minimum average correlation energy filter [Appl. Opt. 26, 3633 (1987)] and its variants, perform by using face images captured under different illumination conditions and encoded with different bit rates under the JPEG2000 wavelet-encoding standard. We evaluate the performance of these filters by using illumination variations from the Carnegie Mellon University's Pose, Illumination, and Expression (PIE) face database. We also demonstrate the tolerance of these filters to noisy versions of images with illumination variations.

  2. Advanced collinear LiNbO3 acousto-optical filter for astrophysical spectroscopy in the near-ultraviolet: exploring high-spectral resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbakov, Alexandre S.; Arellanes, Adán Omar; Bertone, Emanuele

    2015-10-01

    We explore the potentiality of using an advanced collinear LiNbO3 acousto-optical filter as a dispersive element for a high-resolution optical spectrograph. Our analysis is focused on weak optical signals in the blue to near-ultraviolet range accessible to ground-based facilities. We examine the phenomenon affecting the filter transmission efficiency and its spectral resolution, namely, the light-induced absorption and photorefraction. A new nonlinear approach is used to determine the performance of this collinear LiNbO3 filter governed by acoustic waves of finite amplitude. The highest available spectral resolution attains δλ=0.15 Å at λ=370 nm (the resolving power R˜25,000), with an efficiency of 11%, or δλ=0.18 Å at λ=532 nm (R˜30,000), with an efficiency of 33%. A slight decrease in the spectral resolution would imply a significant increase in transmission efficiency. Then, we carried out proof of principle experiments with the collinear filter based on the congruent LiNbO3 crystal of 6.3-cm length at λ=405 and 440 nm to verify our analysis and estimations. Potential applications are tackling many issues in astronomy, from detailed abundance analysis in a variety of targets to precise radial velocity measurement.

  3. Mechanical behavior of ceramic composite hot-gas filters after exposure to severe environments

    SciTech Connect

    Pysher, D.J.; Weaver, B.L.; Smith, R.G.

    1995-08-01

    A novel type of hot-gas filter based on a ceramic fiber reinforced ceramic matrix has been developed, as reported at previous Fossil Energy Materials Conferences, through research activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and at the 3M Company. Simulated testing has been done at the Westinghouse Science and Technology Center. This filter technology has been extended to full size, 60 mm OD by 1.5 meter long candle filters and a commercially viable process for producing the filters has been developed filters are undergoing testing and demonstration use throughout the world for applications in pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants. Demonstration tests of this ceramic composite filter along with other filters are in progress at the Tidd PFBC plant Mechanical tests were performed on the 3 M brand Ceramic Composite Candle Filter after exposure to various corrosive environments in order to assess its ability to function as a hot gas filter in coal-fired applications. Due to the different construction of ceramic composite filters and the thin composite wall versus the typical thick-walled monolithic filter, standard mechanical property tests had to be refined or modified to accurately determine the filters properties. These tests and filter property results will be described Longitudinal tensile and diametral O-ring compression tests were performed on as-produced candle filters as well as on filters which had been exposed to various environments. The exposures were for 1000 hrs at 850{degrees}C in wet air, in wet air containing Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, and in wet air containing NaCl. In addition, a filter which bad been coated with ash (Old Grimethorpe) was exposed to wet air at 850{degrees}C for 1000 hours.

  4. Study of Double Beta Decay of {sup 48}Ca by CANDLES

    SciTech Connect

    Umehara, S.; Kishimoto, T.; Ogawa, I.; Matsuoka, K.; Ito, G.; Yasuda, K.; Kakubata, H.; Miyashita, M.; Nomachi, M.; Ajimura, S.; Tamagawa, Y.; Fushimi, K.; Hazama, R.; Ohsumi, H.; Okada, K.; Yoshida, S.; Fujii, Y.

    2010-05-12

    CANDLES is the project to search for neutrino-less double beta decay (0nubetabeta) of {sup 48}Ca. The observation of 0nubetabeta will prove existence of a massive Majorana neutrino. We have developed the new detector system CANDLES which features CaF{sub 2}(pure) scintillators. Here expected performances of the system for background rejection are presented. It is also described current status of development for the detector system.

  5. [PFBC Hot Gas Cleanup Test Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    Four hundred and fifty four clay bonded silicon carbide Schumacher Dia Schumalith candle filters were purchased for installation in the Westinghouse Advanced Particle Filtration (APF) system at the American Electric Power (AEP) plant in Brilliant, Ohio. A surveillance effort has been identified which will monitor candle filter performance and life during hot gas cleaning in AEP's pressurized fluidized-bed combustion system. A description of the candle surveillance program, strategy for candle filter location selection, as well as candle filter post-test characterization is provided in this memo. The period of effort for candle filter surveillance monitoring is planned through March 1994.

  6. [PFBC Hot Gas Cleanup Test Program]. Third Quarterly technical progress report, July--September 1992, CY 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    Four hundred and fifty four clay bonded silicon carbide Schumacher Dia Schumalith candle filters were purchased for installation in the Westinghouse Advanced Particle Filtration (APF) system at the American Electric Power (AEP) plant in Brilliant, Ohio. A surveillance effort has been identified which will monitor candle filter performance and life during hot gas cleaning in AEP`s pressurized fluidized-bed combustion system. A description of the candle surveillance program, strategy for candle filter location selection, as well as candle filter post-test characterization is provided in this memo. The period of effort for candle filter surveillance monitoring is planned through March 1994.

  7. Advances in analytical methods and occurrence of organic UV-filters in the environment--A review.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Sara; Homem, Vera; Alves, Arminda; Santos, Lúcia

    2015-09-01

    UV-filters are a group of compounds designed mainly to protect skin against UVA and UVB radiation, but they are also included in plastics, furniture, etc., to protect products from light damage. Their massive use in sunscreens for skin protection has been increasing due to the awareness of the chronic and acute effects of UV radiation. Some organic UV-filters have raised significant concerns in the past few years for their continuous usage, persistent input and potential threat to ecological environment and human health. UV-filters end up in wastewater and because wastewater treatment plants are not efficient in removing them, lipophilic compounds tend to sorb onto sludge and hydrophilics end up in river water, contaminating the existing biota. To better understand the risk associated with UV-filters in the environment a thorough review regarding their physicochemical properties, toxicity and environmental degradation, analytical methods and their occurrence was conducted. Higher UV-filter concentrations were found in rivers, reaching 0.3mg/L for the most studied family, the benzophenone derivatives. Concentrations in the ng to μg/L range were also detected for the p-aminobenzoic acid, cinnamate, crylene and benzoyl methane derivatives in lake and sea water. Although at lower levels (few ng/L), UV-filters were also found in tap and groundwater. Swimming pool water is also a sink for UV-filters and its chlorine by-products, at the μg/L range, highlighting the benzophenone and benzimidazole derivatives. Soils and sediments are not frequently studied, but concentrations in the μg/L range have already been found especially for the benzophenone and crylene derivatives. Aquatic biota is frequently studied and UV-filters are found in the ng/g-dw range with higher values for fish and mussels. It has been concluded that more information regarding UV-filter degradation studies both in water and sediments is necessary and environmental occurrences should be monitored more

  8. Human health risk evaluation of selected VOC, SVOC and particulate emissions from scented candles.

    PubMed

    Petry, Thomas; Vitale, Danielle; Joachim, Fred J; Smith, Ben; Cruse, Lynn; Mascarenhas, Reuben; Schneider, Scott; Singal, Madhuri

    2014-06-01

    Airborne compounds in the indoor environment arise from a wide variety of sources such as environmental tobacco smoke, heating and cooking, construction materials as well as outdoor sources. To understand the contribution of scented candles to the indoor load of airborne substances and particulate matter, candle emission testing was undertaken in environmentally controlled small and large emission chambers. Candle emission rates, calculated on the basis of measured chamber concentrations of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds (VOC, SVOC) and particulate matter (PM), were used to predict their respective indoor air concentrations in a standard EU-based dwelling using 2 models: the widely accepted ConsExpo 1-box inhalation model and the recently developed RIFM 2-box indoor air dispersion model. The output from both models has been used to estimate more realistic consumer exposure concentrations of specific chemicals and PM in candle emissions. Potential consumer health risks associated with the candle emissions were characterized by comparing the exposure concentrations with existing indoor or ambient air quality guidelines or, where not existent, to established toxicity thresholds. On the basis of this investigation it was concluded that under normal conditions of use scented candles do not pose known health risks to the consumer. PMID:24582651

  9. Characterization and failure analysis of ceramic filters utilized for emission control during coal gasification. Quarterly report, July 1--September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Huque, Z.; Mei, D.; Zhou, J.

    1996-12-31

    The research activities performed during the report period include: evaluation of filter samples as well as different type of filters; providing test data as a data base to verify gas stream flow numerical simulation of a filter test chamber; and characterization of the physical properties of ceramic candle filter gas flow properties in the newly completed test facility. The test facility sub-assemblies are described and test data are presented.

  10. Near-Infrared Hubble Diagrams and The Effectiveness of Using Type Ia Supernovae as Standard Candles In The Near-Infrared.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gooding, Samuel D.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Marion, G. H.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N. B.

    2009-12-01

    We use a combination of near-infrared and optical data to study the diversity in intrinsic brightness of Type Ia supernovae and to learn how better to correct for the systematic errors involved in using them as standard candles. Our sample includes light curves of 29 nearby Type Ia SNe from the Carnegie Supernova Project (CSP) at Las Campanas observatory in Chile, which observes in both optical (uBVgri) and near-IR (YJHK) filters, and other well observed nearby Type Ia SNe having light curves with both optical and near-IR data published in the literature. We also use more than forty near-IR spectra from the Marion/IRTF data set plus eleven near-IR spectra of SN 1999ee from Hamuy et al. (2002). The combined set of near-IR spectra consists of many different SNe and covers the epoch range from -13 days to +76 days with respect to V-band maximum. We are working on deriving a set of near-IR, K-corrected, and extinction-corrected YJHK light curve templates and new methods for fitting future YJHK light curve data. From observations of 20 Type Ia supernovae obtained by the CSP collaboration, along with previously published results, I will present near-IR Hubble diagrams and derived absolute magnitudes at maximum brightness for the objects that have well observed near-IR light curves. Type Ia supernovae appear to be standard candles in the near-IR to ±0.15 mag or better and there is much less extinction by dust in the near-IR compared to the optical. A better understanding of the Standard Candle nature of SNe will enable us to improve their usefulness as precise distance indicators and enter deeper into the era of precision cosmology.

  11. Type II Supernovae: Model Light Curves and Standard Candle Relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasen, Daniel; Woosley, S. E.

    2009-10-01

    A survey of Type II supernovae explosion models has been carried out to determine how their light curves and spectra vary with their mass, metallicity, and explosion energy. The presupernova models are taken from a recent survey of massive stellar evolution at solar metallicity supplemented by new calculations at subsolar metallicity. Explosions are simulated by the motion of a piston near the edge of the iron core and the resulting light curves and spectra are calculated using full multi-wavelength radiation transport. Formulae are developed that describe approximately how the model observables (light curve luminosity and duration) scale with the progenitor mass, explosion energy, and radioactive nucleosynthesis. Comparison with observational data shows that the explosion energy of typical supernovae (as measured by kinetic energy at infinity) varies by nearly an order of magnitude—from 0.5 to 4.0 × 1051 ergs, with a typical value of ~0.9 × 1051 ergs. Despite the large variation, the models exhibit a tight relationship between luminosity and expansion velocity, similar to that previously employed empirically to make SNe IIP standardized candles. This relation is explained by the simple behavior of hydrogen recombination in the supernova envelope, but we find a sensitivity to progenitor metallicity and mass that could lead to systematic errors. Additional correlations between light curve luminosity, duration, and color might enable the use of SNe IIP to obtain distances accurate to ~20% using only photometric data.

  12. Casting light on BSM physics with SM standard candles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtin, David; Jaiswal, Prerit; Meade, Patrick; Tien, Pin-Ju

    2013-08-01

    The Standard Model (SM) has had resounding success in describing almost every measurement performed by the ATLAS and CMS experiments. In particular, these experiments have put many beyond the SM models of natural Electroweak Symmetry Breaking into tension with the data. It is therefore remarkable that it is still the LEP experiment, and not the LHC, which often sets the gold standard for understanding the possibility of new color-neutral states at the electroweak (EW) scale. Recently, ATLAS and CMS have started to push beyond LEP in bounding heavy new EW states, but a gap between the exclusions of LEP and the LHC typically remains. In this paper we show that measurements of SM Standard Candles can be repurposed to set entirely complementary constraints on new physics. To demonstrate this, we use W + W -cross section measurements to set bounds on a set of slepton-based simplified models which fill in the gaps left by LEP and dedicated LHC searches. Having demonstrated the sensitivity of the W + W -measurement to light sleptons, we also find regions where sleptons can improve the fit of the data compared to the NLO SM W + W -prediction alone. Remarkably, in those regions the sleptons also provide for the right relic-density of Bino-like Dark Matter and provide an explanation for the longstanding 3 σ discrepancy in the measurement of ( g - 2) μ.

  13. TYPE II SUPERNOVAE: MODEL LIGHT CURVES AND STANDARD CANDLE RELATIONSHIPS

    SciTech Connect

    Kasen, Daniel; Woosley, S. E.

    2009-10-01

    A survey of Type II supernovae explosion models has been carried out to determine how their light curves and spectra vary with their mass, metallicity, and explosion energy. The presupernova models are taken from a recent survey of massive stellar evolution at solar metallicity supplemented by new calculations at subsolar metallicity. Explosions are simulated by the motion of a piston near the edge of the iron core and the resulting light curves and spectra are calculated using full multi-wavelength radiation transport. Formulae are developed that describe approximately how the model observables (light curve luminosity and duration) scale with the progenitor mass, explosion energy, and radioactive nucleosynthesis. Comparison with observational data shows that the explosion energy of typical supernovae (as measured by kinetic energy at infinity) varies by nearly an order of magnitude-from 0.5 to 4.0 x 10{sup 51} ergs, with a typical value of approx0.9 x 10{sup 51} ergs. Despite the large variation, the models exhibit a tight relationship between luminosity and expansion velocity, similar to that previously employed empirically to make SNe IIP standardized candles. This relation is explained by the simple behavior of hydrogen recombination in the supernova envelope, but we find a sensitivity to progenitor metallicity and mass that could lead to systematic errors. Additional correlations between light curve luminosity, duration, and color might enable the use of SNe IIP to obtain distances accurate to approx20% using only photometric data.

  14. THE STANDARDIZED CANDLE METHOD FOR TYPE II PLATEAU SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Olivares E, Felipe; Hamuy, Mario; Pignata, Giuliano; Maza, Jose; Bersten, Melina; Phillips, Mark M.; Morrel, Nidia I.; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Matheson, Thomas

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, we study the 'standardized candle method' using a sample of 37 nearby (redshift z < 0.06) Type II plateau supernovae having BVRI photometry and optical spectroscopy. An analytic procedure is implemented to fit light curves, color curves, and velocity curves. We find that the V-I color toward the end of the plateau can be used to estimate the host-galaxy reddening with a precision of {sigma}(A{sub V}) = 0.2 mag. The correlation between plateau luminosity and expansion velocity previously reported in the literature is recovered. Using this relation and assuming a standard reddening law (R{sub V} = 3.1), we obtain Hubble diagrams (HDs) in the BVI bands with dispersions of {approx}0.4 mag. Allowing R{sub V} to vary and minimizing the spread in the HDs, we obtain a dispersion range of 0.25-0.30 mag, which implies that these objects can deliver relative distances with precisions of 12%-14%. The resulting best-fit value of R{sub V} is 1.4 {+-} 0.1.

  15. Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels - Diesel Emissions Project (APBF-DEC): 2,000-Hour Performance of a NOx Adsorber Catalyst and Diesel Particle Filter System for a Medium-Duty, Pick-Up Diesel Engine Platform; Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-03-01

    Presents the results of a 2,000-hour test of an emissions control system consisting of a nitrogen oxides adsorber catalyst in combination with a diesel particle filter, advanced fuels, and advanced engine controls in an SUV/pick-up truck vehicle platform.

  16. Impact of supplemental firing of tire-derived fuel (TDF) on mercury species and mercury capture with the advanced hybrid filter in a western subbituminous coal flue gas

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller

    2006-05-15

    Pilot-scale experimental studies were carried out to evaluate the impacts of cofiring tire-derived fuel and a western subbituminous coal on mercury species in flue gas. Mercury samples were collected at the inlet and outlet of the Advanced Hybrid filter to determine mercury concentrations in the flue gas with and without TDF cofiring, respectively. Cofiring of TDF with a subbituminous coal had a significant effect on mercury speciation in the flue gas. With 100% coal firing, there was only 16.8% oxidized mercury in the flue gas compared to 47.7% when 5% TDF (mass basis) was fired and 84.8% when 10% TDF was cofired. The significantly enhanced mercury oxidation may be the result of additional homogeneous gas reactions between Hg{sup 0} and the reactive chlorine generated in the TDF-cofiring flue gas and the in situ improved reactivity of unburned carbon in ash by the reactive chlorine species. Although the cofiring of TDF demonstrated limited improvement on mercury-emission control with the Advanced Hybrid filter, it proved to be a very cost-effective mercury control approach for power plants equipped with wet or dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems because of the enhanced mercury oxidation. 15 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Moving Granular Bed Filter Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, K.B.; Haas, J.C.; Gupta, R.P.; Turk, B.S.

    1996-12-31

    For coal-fired power plants utilizing a gas turbine, the removal of ash particles is necessary to protect the turbine and to meet emission standards. Advantages are also evident for a filter system that can remove other coal-derived contaminants such as alkali, halogens, and ammonia. With most particulates and other contaminants removed, erosion and corrosion of turbine materials, as well as deposition of particles within the turbine, are reduced to acceptable levels. The granular bed filter is suitable for this task in a pressurized gasification or combustion environment. The objective of the base contract was to develop conceptual designs of moving granular bed filter (GBF) and ceramic candle filter technologies for control of particles from integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC), and direct coal-fueled turbine (DCFT) systems. The results of this study showed that the GBF design compared favorably with the candle filter. Three program options followed the base contract. The objective of Option I, Component Testing, was to identify and resolve technical issues regarding GBF development for IGCC and PFBC environments. This program was recently completed. The objective of Option II, Filter Proof Tests, is to test and evaluate the moving GBF system at a government-furnished hot-gas cleanup test facility. This facility is located at Southern Company Services (SCS), Inc., Wilsonville, Alabama. The objective of Option III, Multicontaminant Control Using a GBF, is to develop a chemically reactive filter material that will remove particulates plus one or more of the following coal-derived contaminants: alkali, halogens, and ammonia.

  18. Hot-Gas Filter Ash Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, M.L.; Hurley, J.P.; Dockter, B.A.; O`Keefe, C.A.

    1997-07-01

    Large-scale hot-gas filter testing over the past 10 years has revealed numerous cases of cake buildup on filter elements that has been difficult, if not impossible, to remove. At times, the cake can blind or bridge between candle filters, leading to filter failure. Physical factors, including particle-size distribution, particle shape, the aerodynamics of deposition, and system temperature, contribute to the difficulty in removing the cake, but chemical factors such as surface composition and gas-solid reactions also play roles in helping to bond the ash to the filters or to itself. This project is designed to perform the research necessary to determine the fuel-, sorbent-, and operations-related conditions that lead to blinding or bridging of hot-gas particle filters. The objectives of the project are threefold: (1) Determine the mechanisms by which a difficult-to-clean ash is formed and how it bridges hot-gas filters (2) Develop a method to determine the rate of bridging based on analyses of the feed coal and sorbent, filter properties, and system operating conditions and (3) Suggest and test ways to prevent filter bridging.

  19. Assessment of filter dust characteristics that cause filter failure during hot-gas filtration

    SciTech Connect

    John P. Hurley; Biplab Mukherjee; Michael D. Mann

    2006-08-15

    The high-temperature filtration of particulates from gases is greatly limited because of the development of dust cakes that are difficult to remove and can bridge between candle filters, causing them to break. Understanding the conditions leading to the formation of cohesive dust can prevent costly filter failures and ensure higher efficiency of solid fuel, direct-fired turbine power generation systems. The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center is working with the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization and the U.S. Department of Energy to perform research to characterize and determine the factors that cause the development of such dust cakes. Changes in the tensile strength, bridging propensity, and plasticity of filter dust cakes were measured as a function of the temperature and a filter pressure drop for a coal and a biomass filter dust. The biomass filter dust indicated that potential filtering problems can exist at temperatures as low as 400{sup o}C, while the coal filter dust showed good filtering characteristics up to 750{sup o}C. A statistically valid model that can indicate the propensity of filters to fail with system operating conditions was developed. A detailed analysis of the chemical aspect of dusts is also presented in order to explore the causes of such stickiness. 16 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. 75 FR 70713 - Petroleum Wax Candles From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited Third...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    ... Act''). See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 75 FR 39494 (July 9, 2010). On July 16, 2010... International Trade Administration Petroleum Wax Candles From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of... petroleum wax candles from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). On the basis of a timely notice...

  1. 75 FR 49475 - Petroleum Wax Candles From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... Order: Petroleum Wax Candles from the People's Republic of China, 51 FR 30686 (August 28, 1996) (``Order... International Trade Administration Petroleum Wax Candles From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary... International (``SI''); the Retail Industry Leaders of America (``RILA''); and Trade Associates Group,...

  2. 16 CFR Table 2 to Part 1512 - Minimum Candlepower per Incident Foot-Candle for Clear Reflector 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum Candlepower per Incident Foot-Candle for Clear Reflector 1 2 Table 2 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION... 1512—Minimum Candlepower per Incident Foot-Candle for Clear Reflector 1 Observation angle Front,...

  3. 16 CFR Table 1 to Part 1512 - Minimum Candlepower per Incident Foot-Candle for Clear Reflector 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum Candlepower per Incident Foot-Candle for Clear Reflector 1 1 Table 1 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION... 1512—Minimum Candlepower per Incident Foot-Candle for Clear Reflector 1 Observation angle Front,...

  4. 16 CFR Table 2 to Part 1512 - Minimum Candlepower per Incident Foot-Candle for Clear Reflector 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minimum Candlepower per Incident Foot-Candle for Clear Reflector 1 2 Table 2 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION... 1512—Minimum Candlepower per Incident Foot-Candle for Clear Reflector 1 Observation angle Front,...

  5. 16 CFR Table 1 to Part 1512 - Minimum Candlepower per Incident Foot-Candle for Clear Reflector 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minimum Candlepower per Incident Foot-Candle for Clear Reflector 1 1 Table 1 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION... 1512—Minimum Candlepower per Incident Foot-Candle for Clear Reflector 1 Observation angle Front,...

  6. 16 CFR Table 2 to Part 1512 - Minimum Candlepower per Incident Foot-Candle for Clear Reflector 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minimum Candlepower per Incident Foot-Candle for Clear Reflector 1 2 Table 2 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION... 1512—Minimum Candlepower per Incident Foot-Candle for Clear Reflector 1 Observation angle Front,...

  7. 16 CFR Table 1 to Part 1512 - Minimum Candlepower per Incident Foot-Candle for Clear Reflector 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minimum Candlepower per Incident Foot-Candle for Clear Reflector 1 1 Table 1 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION... 1512—Minimum Candlepower per Incident Foot-Candle for Clear Reflector 1 Observation angle Front,...

  8. 16 CFR Table 1 to Part 1512 - Minimum Candlepower per Incident Foot-Candle for Clear Reflector 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minimum Candlepower per Incident Foot-Candle for Clear Reflector 1 1 Table 1 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION... 1512—Minimum Candlepower per Incident Foot-Candle for Clear Reflector 1 Observation angle Front,...

  9. 16 CFR Table 1 to Part 1512 - Minimum Candlepower per Incident Foot-Candle for Clear Reflector 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minimum Candlepower per Incident Foot-Candle for Clear Reflector 1 1 Table 1 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION... 1512—Minimum Candlepower per Incident Foot-Candle for Clear Reflector 1 Observation angle Front,...

  10. 16 CFR Table 2 to Part 1512 - Minimum Candlepower per Incident Foot-Candle for Clear Reflector 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minimum Candlepower per Incident Foot-Candle for Clear Reflector 1 2 Table 2 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION... 1512—Minimum Candlepower per Incident Foot-Candle for Clear Reflector 1 Observation angle Front,...

  11. 16 CFR Table 2 to Part 1512 - Minimum Candlepower per Incident Foot-Candle for Clear Reflector 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minimum Candlepower per Incident Foot-Candle for Clear Reflector 1 2 Table 2 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION... 1512—Minimum Candlepower per Incident Foot-Candle for Clear Reflector 1 Observation angle Front,...

  12. Pilot study on the advanced treatment of landfill leachate using a combined coagulation, fenton oxidation and biological aerated filter process.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojun; Chen, Sili; Gu, Xiaoyang; Wang, Kaiyan

    2009-04-01

    Mature landfill leachate is typically non-biodegradable. A combination process was developed that includes coagulation, Fenton oxidation, and biological aerated filtering to treat biologically-produced effluent. In this process, coagulation and Fenton oxidation were applied in order to reduce chemical oxygen demand (COD) organic load, and enhance biodegradability. Poly-ferric sulfate (PFS) at 600 mgl(-1) was found to be a suitable dosage for coagulation. For Fenton oxidation, an initial pH of 5, a total reaction time of 3h, and an H(2)O(2) dosage of 5.4mmoll(-1), with a (H(2)O(2))/n(Fe(2+)) ratio of 1.2 and two-step dosing were selected to achieve optimal oxidation. Under these optimal coagulation and Fenton oxidation conditions, the COD removal ratios were found to be 66.67% and 56%, respectively. Following pretreatment with coagulation and Fenton oxidation, the landfill leachate was further treated using a biological aerated filter (BAF). Our results show that COD was reduced to 75mgl(-1), and the color was less than 10 degrees. PMID:19081237

  13. Emission of air pollutants from burning candles with different composition in indoor environments.

    PubMed

    Derudi, Marco; Gelosa, Simone; Sliepcevich, Andrea; Cattaneo, Andrea; Cavallo, Domenico; Rota, Renato; Nano, Giuseppe

    2014-03-01

    Candle composition is expected to influence the air pollutants emissions, possibly leading to important differences in the emissions of volatile organic compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In this regard, the purity of the raw materials and additives used can play a key role. Consequently, in this work emission factors for some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, aromatic species, short-chain aldehydes and particulate matter have been determined for container candles constituted by different paraffin waxes burning in a test chamber. It has been found that wax quality strongly influences the air pollutant emissions. These results could be used, at least at a first glance, to foresee the expected pollutant concentration in a given indoor environment with respect to health safety standards, while the test chamber used for performing the reported results could be useful to estimate the emission factors of any other candle in an easy-to-build standardised environment. PMID:24318837

  14. Nondestructive quality assurance of ceramic filters using noncontact dynamic characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, P.; Chen, S.E.; Nishihama, Y.

    2005-06-01

    Ceramic candle filters are stiff cylindrical structures arranged in rosettes in a hot gas vessel. Custom-made with strong composite materials, these filters are designed to withstand heating and cooling cycles of very high temperature gradients during coal energy production processes. To ensure consistency in the manufactured filters, noncontact dynamic characterization using laser vibrometry is proposed as a factory quality control technique. To evaluate the proposed technique, a sensitivity study using both contact and noncontact vibration measurements is first conducted. The shift in natural vibration frequencies is used as a quality indicator for likely manufacturing variables. Six candle filters are tested using dynamic impact tests. Contact and noncontact results are compared with theoretical natural frequency values, which show that laser results were 'noisier' due to dropout from speckle noises. The results are used to establish the sensitivity of the technique, which indicates that dynamic characterization is a valid nondestructive testing technique for quality assurance of the ceramic filters, provided that the manufactured filters have a quality variation greater than 3.21%.

  15. Westinghouse filter update

    SciTech Connect

    Bruck, G.J.; Smeltzer, E.E.; Newby, R.A.; Bachovchin, D.M.

    1993-06-01

    The Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE/METC), with Westinghouse are developing high temperature particulate filters for application in integrated, coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) power generation systems. Development of these IGCC and PFBC advanced power cycles using subpilot and pilot scale facilities include the integrated operation of a high temperature particulate filter. This testing provides the basis for evaluating filter design, performance and operation characteristics in the actual process gas environment. This operating data is essential for the specification of components and materials and successful scaleup of the filter systems for demonstration and commercial application.

  16. DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF A CERIA-ZIRCONIA TOUGHENED ALUMINA PROTOTYPE FILTER ELEMENT MADE OF RETICULATED CERAMIC FOAM COATED WITH A CERAMIC MEMBRANE ACTING AS BARRIER FILTER FOR FLY ASH

    SciTech Connect

    Guilio A. Rossi; Kenneth R. Butcher; Stacia M. Wagner

    1999-02-19

    The objective of this work was to fabricate subscale candle filters using a Ce-ZTA reticulated foam material. Specifically Selee fabricated 60mm diameter cylinders with one closed end and one flanged end. Selee Corporation developed a small pore size (5-10 {micro}m) filtration membrane which was applied to the reticulated foam surface to provide a barrier filter surface. The specific tasks to be performed were as follows: (Task 1) Filter Element Development--To fabricate subscale filter elements from zirconia toughened alumina using the reticulated foam manufacturing process. The filter elements were required to meet dimensional tolerances specified by an appropriate filter system supplier. The subscale filter elements were fabricated with integral flanges and end caps, that is, with no glued joints. (Task 2) Membrane Development--To develop a small pore filtration membrane that is to be applied to the reticulated foam material. This membrane was to provide filtration characteristics that meet gas turbine requirements and pressure drop or permeability requirements specified by the filter system supplier. (Task 3) Subscale Filter Element Fabrication--To fabricate six subscale filter elements with integral flanges and closed ends, as well as fine pore size filtration membranes. Three filters were to have a central clean gas channel, while three would have no central channel. The filters were to be provided to FETC for testing in laboratory systems or pilot scale exposure systems as appropriate. The candles were to meet dimensional tolerances as provided by filter system suppliers.

  17. Stack filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendt, P. D.; Coyle, E. J.; Gallagher, N. C., Jr.

    1986-08-01

    A large class of easily implemented nonlinear filters called stack filters are discussed which includes the rank order operators in addition to the compositions of morphological operators. Techniques similar to those used to determine the root signal behavior of median filters are employed to study the convergence properties of the filters, and necessary conditions for a stack filter to preserve monotone regions or edges in signals, and the output distribution of the filters, are obtained. Among the stack filters of window width three are found asymmetric median filters in which one removes only positive going edges, the other removes only negative going edges, while the median filter removes impulses of both signs.

  18. Development of ceramic composite hot-gas filters

    SciTech Connect

    Judkins, R.R.; Stinton, D.P.; Smith, R.G.; Fischer, E.M.; Eaton, J.H.; Weaver, B.L.; Kahnke, J.L.; Pysher, D.J.

    1995-04-01

    A novel type of hot-gas filter based on a ceramic fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix was developed and extended to fullsize, 60-mm OD by 1.5-meter-long, candle filters. A commercially viable process for producing the filters was developed, and the filters are undergoing testing and demonstration throughout the world for applications in pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants. Development activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and at the 3M Company, and testing at the Westinghouse Science and Technology Center (STC) are presented. Demonstration tests at the Tidd PFBC are underway. Issues identified during the testing and demonstration phases of the development are discussed. Resolution of the issues and the status of commercialization of the filters are described.

  19. Combination of ozonation, activated carbon, and biological aerated filter for advanced treatment of dyeing wastewater for reuse.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiao-Ling

    2015-06-01

    Laboratorial scale experiments were performed to investigate and evaluate the performance and removal characteristics of organics, color, and genotoxicity by an integrated process including ozonation, activated carbon (AC), and biological aerated filter (BAF) for recycling biotreated dyeing wastewater (BTDW) collected from a cotton textile factory. Influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the range of 156 - 252 mg/L, 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) of 13.5 - 21.7 mg/L, and color of 58 - 76° were observed during the 20-day continuous operation. Outflows with average COD of 43 mg/L, BOD5 of 6.6 mg/L, and color of 5.6° were obtained after being decontaminated by the hybrid system with ozone dosage of 0.25 mg O3applied/mg COD0, 40 min ozonation contact time, 30 min hydraulic retention time (HRT) for AC treatment, and 2.5 h HRT for BAF treatment. More than 82 % of the genotoxicity of BTDW was eliminated in the ozonation unit. The genotoxicity of the BAF effluent was less than 1.33 μg 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide/L. Ozonation could change the organics molecular structures, destroy chromophores, increase the biodegradability, and obviously reduce the genotoxicity of BTDW. Results showed that the combined process could guarantee water reuse with high quality. PMID:25843826

  20. Advanced optical correlation and digital methods for pattern matching—50th anniversary of Vander Lugt matched filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millán, María S.

    2012-10-01

    On the verge of the 50th anniversary of Vander Lugt’s formulation for pattern matching based on matched filtering and optical correlation, we acknowledge the very intense research activity developed in the field of correlation-based pattern recognition during this period of time. The paper reviews some domains that appeared as emerging fields in the last years of the 20th century and have been developed later on in the 21st century. Such is the case of three-dimensional (3D) object recognition, biometric pattern matching, optical security and hybrid optical-digital processors. 3D object recognition is a challenging case of multidimensional image recognition because of its implications in the recognition of real-world objects independent of their perspective. Biometric recognition is essentially pattern recognition for which the personal identification is based on the authentication of a specific physiological characteristic possessed by the subject (e.g. fingerprint, face, iris, retina, and multifactor combinations). Biometric recognition often appears combined with encryption-decryption processes to secure information. The optical implementations of correlation-based pattern recognition processes still rely on the 4f-correlator, the joint transform correlator, or some of their variants. But the many applications developed in the field have been pushing the systems for a continuous improvement of their architectures and algorithms, thus leading towards merged optical-digital solutions.

  1. Moving Granular Bed Filter Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, K.B.; Haas, J.C.; Eshelman, M.B.

    1992-01-01

    The granular bed filter was developed through low pressure, high temperature (1600[degrees]F) testing in the late 1970's and early 1980's'. Collection efficiencies over 99% were obtained. In 1988, high pressure, high temperature testing was completed at New York University, Westbury, N.Y., utilizing a coal-fired pressurized, fluidized bed combustor. High particulate removal efficiencies were confirmed as it was shown that both New Source Performance Standards and turbine tolerance limits could be met. The early scale-up work of the granular bed filter indicated potential limitations due to size, cost, and mechanical complexity. These limitations were addressed in the present program by utilizing the information gained from the filter development up through the NYU test program to reassess the commercial approach. Two studies were chosen for developing conceptual designs and cost estimates of the commercial sized filters. One is the economic study of the 250 MWe, second generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion plant defined by Foster Wheeler. This plant originally included cross-flow filters for hot gas cleanup. The other plant under study is a 100 MWe, airblown KRW gasifier. A cross-flow inter was utilized for gas stream cleanup in this study also. Granular bed and ceramic candle filters were substituted for the cross-flow filters in both these plants, and the resulting cost of electricity (COE) is compared.

  2. Moving Granular Bed Filter Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, K.B.; Haas, J.C.; Eshelman, M.B.

    1992-11-01

    The granular bed filter was developed through low pressure, high temperature (1600{degrees}F) testing in the late 1970`s and early 1980`s`. Collection efficiencies over 99% were obtained. In 1988, high pressure, high temperature testing was completed at New York University, Westbury, N.Y., utilizing a coal-fired pressurized, fluidized bed combustor. High particulate removal efficiencies were confirmed as it was shown that both New Source Performance Standards and turbine tolerance limits could be met. The early scale-up work of the granular bed filter indicated potential limitations due to size, cost, and mechanical complexity. These limitations were addressed in the present program by utilizing the information gained from the filter development up through the NYU test program to reassess the commercial approach. Two studies were chosen for developing conceptual designs and cost estimates of the commercial sized filters. One is the economic study of the 250 MWe, second generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion plant defined by Foster Wheeler. This plant originally included cross-flow filters for hot gas cleanup. The other plant under study is a 100 MWe, airblown KRW gasifier. A cross-flow inter was utilized for gas stream cleanup in this study also. Granular bed and ceramic candle filters were substituted for the cross-flow filters in both these plants, and the resulting cost of electricity (COE) is compared.

  3. Preliminary Strength Measurements of High Temperature Ash Filter Deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, B.S.; Johnson, E.K.; Mallela, R.; Barberio, J.F.

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this study is to develop and evaluate preliminary strength measurement techniques for high temperature candle filter ash deposits. The efficient performance of a high temperature gas filtering system is essential for many of the new thermal cycles being proposed for power plants of the future. These new cycles hold the promise of higher thermal efficiency and lower emissions of pollutants. Many of these cycles involve the combustion or gasification of coal to produce high temperature gases to eventually be used in gas turbines. These high temperature gases must be relatively free of particulates. Today, the candle filter appears to be the leading candidate for high temperature particulate removal. The performance of a candle filter depends on the ash deposits shattering into relatively large particles during the pulse cleaning (back flushing) of the filters. These relatively large particles fall into the ash hopper and are removed from the system. Therefore, these 1247 particles must be sufficiently large so that they will not be re-entrained by the gas flow. The shattering process is dictated by the strength characteristics of the ash deposits. Consequently, the objective of this research is to develop measurements for the desired strength characteristics of the ash deposits. Experimental procedures were developed to measure Young`s modulus of the ash deposit at room temperature and the failure tensile strain of ash deposits from room temperature to elevated temperatures. Preliminary data has been obtained for both soft and hard ash deposits. The qualifier ``preliminary`` is used to indicate that these measurements are a first for this material, and consequently, the measurement techniques are not perfected. In addition, the ash deposits tested are not necessarily uniform and further tests are needed in order to obtain meaningful average data.

  4. Burning a Candle in a Vessel, a Simple Experiment with a Long History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vera, Francisco; Rivera, Rodrigo; Nunez, Cesar

    2011-01-01

    The experiment in which a candle is burned inside an inverted vessel partially immersed in water has a history of more than 2,200 years, but even nowadays it is common that students and teachers relate the change in volume of the enclosed air to its oxygen content. Contrary to what many people think, Lavoisier concluded that any change in volume…

  5. CANDLES - Search for Neutrino-less Double Beta Decay of 48Ca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umehara, Saori; Candles Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    CANDLES is the project to search for neutrino-less double beta decay (0 νββ) of 48Ca. The CANDLES system aims at a high sensitive measurement by a characteristic detector system and 48Ca enrichment. The system realizes a complete 4 π active shield by immersing the CaF2 scintillators in liquid scintillator. The active shield by the liquid scintillator will effectively reject background events from external origins. On the other band, we have studied 48Ca enrichment and succeeded in obtaining enriched 48Ca although it is a small amount. Now we have developed the CANDLES III system, which contained 350 g of 48Ca without enrichment, at the Kamioka underground laboratory. Two improvements, a light-concentration system and a new DAQ system, were installed for the CANDLES III system. The light-concentration system improved a energy resolution by increasing a PMT photo-coverage by 80%. The new DAQ system, which is a dead time less system, improved a rejection efficiency for a characteristic background origin. We checked detector performance with the light-concentration system and the new DAQ system. Here we will report the detector performance for background rejection and the expected sensitivity with the two improvements.

  6. Shall We Continue to Teach the Candle Burning Experiment at Lower Secondary Level?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhindsa, Harkirat S.

    2005-01-01

    The candle burning experiment is usually conducted in lower secondary classes to prove the (about) 20% oxygen in air. The aim of this paper is to show that teachers misinterpret the results of the experiment to satisfy the objectives of teaching this experiment. However, when the results of this experiment are interpreted correctly, the objectives…

  7. 9 CFR 590.508 - Candling and transfer-room operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Candling and transfer-room operations. 590.508 Section 590.508 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT)...

  8. 9 CFR 590.508 - Candling and transfer-room operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Candling and transfer-room operations. 590.508 Section 590.508 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT)...

  9. ANALYSIS OF LEAD IN CANDLE PARTICULATE EMISSIONS BY XRF USING UNIQUANT 4

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of an extensive program to study the small combustion sources of indoor fine particulate matter (PM), candles with lead-core wicks were burned in a 46-L glass flow- through chamber. The particulate emissions with aerodynamic diameters <10 micrometers (PM10) were captured ...

  10. At what distance can the human eye detect a candle flame?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krisciunas, Kevin; Carona, Don W.

    2015-01-01

    Various claims in television commercials and on the web suggest that the human eye can detect a candle flame 3.5 to 30 miles away. These claims are wrong, in large part because the background light of the sky is not taken into account. Even at a dark sky site, the V-band sky brightness on a moonless night varies from 21.0 to 22.0 mag/sec2 (136 to 54 nL) over the course of the 11 year solar cycle. One calculation on the web sets the background to 0.1 nL, as if one had a photographic dark room miles in extent. The most direct way to estimate the maximum distance at which a candle can be seen is to first determine how far one has to be situated from a candle such that it is comparable in brightness to a star of magnitude V = 0, such as Vega or Rigel. We find that this distance is 160 to 200 m. This can be double checked with a CCD imager. A candle flame equivalent to a star of magnitude V = 6 would be 15.85 times more distant, or roughly 2.85 km. We present the results of our own experiments and discuss formulations that take into account the background light.

  11. CANDLES AND INCENSE AS POTENTIAL SOURCES OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION: MARKET ANALYSIS AND LITERATURE SEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes available information on candles and incense as potential sources of indoor air pollution. It covers market information and a review of the scientific literature. The market information collected focuses on production and sales data, typical uses in the U.S....

  12. Realisation and advanced engineering of true optical rugate filters based on nanoporous anodic alumina by sinusoidal pulse anodisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Abel; Yoo, Jeong Ha; Rohatgi, Charu Vashisth; Kumeria, Tushar; Wang, Ye; Losic, Dusan

    2016-01-01

    This study is the first realisation of true optical rugate filters (RFs) based on nanoporous anodic alumina (NAA) by sinusoidal waves. An innovative and rationally designed sinusoidal pulse anodisation (SPA) approach in galvanostatic mode is used with the aim of engineering the effective medium of NAA in a sinusoidal fashion. A precise control over the different anodisation parameters (i.e. anodisation period, anodisation amplitude, anodisation offset, number of pulses, anodisation temperature and pore widening time) makes it possible to engineer the characteristic reflection peaks and interferometric colours of NAA-RFs, which can be finely tuned across the UV-visible-NIR spectrum. The effect of the aforementioned anodisation parameters on the photonic properties of NAA-RFs (i.e. characteristic reflection peaks and interferometric colours) is systematically assessed in order to establish for the first time a comprehensive rationale towards NAA-RFs with fully controllable photonic properties. The experimental results are correlated with a theoretical model (Looyenga-Landau-Lifshitz - LLL), demonstrating that the effective medium of these photonic nanostructures can be precisely described by the effective medium approximation. NAA-RFs are also demonstrated as chemically selective photonic platforms combined with reflectometric interference spectroscopy (RIfS). The resulting optical sensing system is used to assess the reversible binding affinity between a model drug (i.e. indomethacin) and human serum albumin (HSA) in real-time. Our results demonstrate that this system can be used to determine the overall pharmacokinetic profile of drugs, which is a critical aspect to be considered for the implementation of efficient medical therapies.This study is the first realisation of true optical rugate filters (RFs) based on nanoporous anodic alumina (NAA) by sinusoidal waves. An innovative and rationally designed sinusoidal pulse anodisation (SPA) approach in galvanostatic

  13. A five-year performance review of field-scale, slow-release permanganate candles with recommendations for second-generation improvements.

    PubMed

    Christenson, Mark; Kambhu, Ann; Reece, James; Comfort, Steve; Brunner, Laurie

    2016-05-01

    In 2009, we identified a TCE plume at an abandoned landfill that was located in a low permeable silty-clay aquifer. To treat the TCE, we manufactured slow-release potassium permanganate cylinders (oxidant candles) that had diameters of either 5.1 or 7.6 cm and were 91.4 cm long. In 2010, we compared two methods of candle installation by inserting equal masses of the oxidant candles (7.6-cm vs 5.1-cm dia). The 5.1-cm dia candles were inserted with direct-push rods while the 7.6-cm candles were housed in screens and lowered into 10 permanent wells. Since installation, the 7.6-cm oxidant candles have been refurbished approximately once per year by gently scraping off surface oxides. In 2012, we reported initial results; in this paper, we provide a 5-yr performance review since installation. Temporal sampling shows oxidant candles placed in wells have steadily reduced migrating TCE concentrations. Moreover, these candles still maintain an inner core of oxidant that has yet to contribute to the dissolution front and should provide several more years of service. Oxidant candles inserted by direct-push have stopped reducing TCE concentrations because a MnO2 scale developed on the outside of the candles. To counteract oxide scaling, we fabricated a second generation of oxidant candles that contain sodium hexametaphosphate. Laboratory experiments (batch and flow-through) show that these second-generation permanganate candles have better release characteristics and are less prone to oxide scaling. This improvement should reduce the need to perform maintenance on candles placed in wells and provide greater longevity for candles inserted by direct-push. PMID:26901481

  14. Effects of operating conditions on dust cake behavior in filters with high surface-to-volume ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, Ta-Kuan; Dennis, R.A.

    1993-09-01

    Generally, new filter elements with large S/V ratios typically have inlet passages with a small cross sectional area to reach a large filter surface area internal to the filter element. To prevent plugging of the inlet passages, or to prevent the filter passage inlet velocity from becoming dangerously high causing cake disturbance, the high S/V filter can only accommodate a very thin cake. The conventional backpulse cleaning technique may not be able to dislodge this thin cake. The multi-tier design using ceramic candles can tolerate a thick dust cake. The conventional back-pulse cleaning technique could then be used to remove the dust cake. However, due to the proximity of the neighboring tiers, the large-volume flow of the back-pulse mixing with a huge quantity of dislodged dust cake could potentially perturb the local flow distribution from its initially well-mixed uniform flow and dust concentration. As soon as one spot or patch of dust cake forms on the neighboring candle surface due to this redistributed nonuniform flow and dust concentration, patching dust redeposition will occur on the neighboring tiers, leading eventually to ash bridging. This is because the rigid ceramic candle, unlike the fabric filter, does not flex during back-pulse cleaning; therefore, it cannot tolerate the uneven flow distribution. The back-pulse flow universally seeks the least resistance path, resulting in an uneven or patchy cleaning. Ash bridging is known to cause ceramic candle breakage due to the pulse ratchet problem. To understand the back-pulse cleaning problem caused by the use of high S/V rigid filter elements or the implementation of a multi-tier design, a bench-scale, two-dimensional (2-D) cold flow filter test facility is being constructed, and is scheduled for shakedown and testing in July 1993.

  15. Start-up fuel and power flattening of sodium-cooled candle core

    SciTech Connect

    Takaki, Naoyuki; Sagawa, Yu; Umino, Akitake; Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    2013-07-01

    The hard neutron spectrum and unique power shape of CANDLE enable its distinctive performances such as achieving high burnup more than 30% and exempting necessity of both enrichment and reprocessing. On the other hand, they also cause several challenging problems. One is how the initial fuel can be prepared to start up the first CANDLE reactor because the equilibrium fuel composition that enables stable CANDLE burning is complex both in axial and radial directions. Another prominent problem is high radial power peaking factor that worsens averaged burnup, namely resource utilization factor in once-through mode and shorten the life time of structure materials. The purposes of this study are to solve these two problems. Several ideas for core configurations and startup fuel using single enrichment uranium and iron as a substitute of fission products are studied. As a result, it is found that low enriched uranium is applicable to ignite the core but all concepts examined here exceeded heat limits. Adjustment in enrichment and height of active and burnt zone is opened for future work. Sodium duct assemblies and thorium fuel assemblies loaded in the center region are studied as measures to reduce radial power peaking factor. Replacing 37 fuels by thorium fuel assemblies in the zeroth to third row provides well-balanced performance with flattened radial power distribution. The CANDLE core loaded with natural uranium in the outer and thorium in the center region achieved 35.6% of averaged burnup and 7.0 years of cladding life time owing to mitigated local fast neutron irradiation at the center. Using thorium with natural or depleted uranium in CANDLE reactor is also beneficial to diversifying fission resource and extending available term of fission energy without expansion of needs for enrichment and reprocessing.

  16. Process for making ceramic hot gas filter

    DOEpatents

    Connolly, Elizabeth Sokolinski; Forsythe, George Daniel; Domanski, Daniel Matthew; Chambers, Jeffrey Allen; Rajendran, Govindasamy Paramasivam

    2001-01-01

    A ceramic hot-gas candle filter having a porous support of filament-wound oxide ceramic yarn at least partially surrounded by a porous refractory oxide ceramic matrix, and a membrane layer on at least one surface thereof. The membrane layer may be on the outer surface, the inner surface, or both the outer and inner surface of the porous support. The membrane layer may be formed of an ordered arrangement of circularly wound, continuous filament oxide ceramic yarn, a ceramic filler material which is less permeable than the filament-wound support structure, or some combination of continuous filament and filler material. A particularly effective membrane layer features circularly wound filament with gaps intentionally placed between adjacent windings, and a filler material of ceramic particulates uniformly distributed throughout the gap region. The filter can withstand thermal cycling during backpulse cleaning and is resistant to chemical degradation at high temperatures.

  17. A recursive solution for a fading memory filter derived from Kalman filter theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statman, J. I.

    1986-01-01

    A simple recursive solution for a class of fading memory tracking filters is presented. A fading memory filter provides estimates of filter states based on past measurements, similar to a traditional Kalman filter. Unlike a Kalman filter, an exponentially decaying weight is applied to older measurements, discounting their effect on present state estimates. It is shown that Kalman filters and fading memory filters are closely related solutions to a general least squares estimator problem. Closed form filter transfer functions are derived for a time invariant, steady state, fading memory filter. These can be applied in loop filter implementation of the Deep Space Network (DSN) Advanced Receiver carrier phase locked loop (PLL).

  18. Development and characterization of Textron continuous fiber ceramic composite hot gas filter materials. Final report, September 30, 1994--October 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    DiPietro, S.G.; Alvin, M.A.

    1997-12-31

    Uncertainties about the long-term ability of monolithic ceramics to survive in the IGCC or PFBC hot gas filter environment led DOE/METC to consider the merits of using continuous fiber reinforced ceramic composites (CFCCs) as potential next-generation high temperature filter elements. This seems to be a logical strategy to pursue in light of the fact that properly-engineered CFCC materials have shown much-improved damage tolerance and thermal shock behavior as compared to existing monolithic ceramic materials. Textron`s Advanced Hot Gas Filter Development Program was intended to be a two year, two phase program which transitioned developmental materials R and D into prototype filter element fabrication. The first phase was to demonstrate the technical feasibility of fabricating CFCC hot gas filter elements which could meet the pressure drop specifications of less than ten inches of water (iwg) at a face velocity of ten feet per minute (fpm), while showing sufficient integrity to survive normal mechanical loads and adequate environmental resistance to steam/alkali corrosion conditions at a temperature of approximately 870 C (1600 F). The primary objective of the second phase of the program was to scale up fabrication methods developed in Phase 1 to produce full-scale CFCC candle filters for validation testing. Textron encountered significant process-related and technical difficulties in merely meeting the program permeability specifications, and much effort was expended in showing that this could indeed be achieved. Thus, by the time the Phase 1 program was completed, expenditure of program funds precluded continuing on with Phase 2, and Textron elected to terminate their program after Phase 1. This allowed Textron to be able to focus technical and commercialization efforts on their largely successful DOE CFCC Program.

  19. Disk filter

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, Werner

    1986-01-01

    An electric disk filter provides a high efficiency at high temperature. A hollow outer filter of fibrous stainless steel forms the ground electrode. A refractory filter material is placed between the outer electrode and the inner electrically isolated high voltage electrode. Air flows through the outer filter surfaces through the electrified refractory filter media and between the high voltage electrodes and is removed from a space in the high voltage electrode.

  20. Disk filter

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, W.

    1985-01-09

    An electric disk filter provides a high efficiency at high temperature. A hollow outer filter of fibrous stainless steel forms the ground electrode. A refractory filter material is placed between the outer electrode and the inner electrically isolated high voltage electrode. Air flows through the outer filter surfaces through the electrified refractory filter media and between the high voltage electrodes and is removed from a space in the high voltage electrode.

  1. Water Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Aquaspace H2OME Guardian Water Filter, available through Western Water International, Inc., reduces lead in water supplies. The filter is mounted on the faucet and the filter cartridge is placed in the "dead space" between sink and wall. This filter is one of several new filtration devices using the Aquaspace compound filter media, which combines company developed and NASA technology. Aquaspace filters are used in industrial, commercial, residential, and recreational environments as well as by developing nations where water is highly contaminated.

  2. The Candle and the Mirror: One Author's Journey as an Outsider.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreillon, Judi

    1999-01-01

    Chronicles the author's journey as an outsider who authored a book for children about the harvest traditions of the Tohono O'odham people. Describes how her concern about the lack of literature to serve as a mirror and a candle to reflect and illuminate the lives of Tohono O'odham children led her on a journey that was both painful and affirming.…

  3. Biological Filters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klemetson, S. L.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. The review is concerned with biological filters, and it covers: (1) trickling filters; (2) rotating biological contractors; and (3) miscellaneous reactors. A list of 14 references is also presented. (HM)

  4. Modifying candle soot with FeP nanoparticles into high-performance and cost-effective catalysts for the electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution reaction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhe; Hao, Jinhui; Yang, Wenshu; Lu, Baoping; Tang, Jilin

    2015-03-14

    Developing inexpensive and highly efficient non-precious-metal electrocatalysts has been proposed as a promising alternative to platinum-based catalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Herein, we report novel FeP NPs supported on inexpensive and available candle soot (FeP-CS) derived from Fe3O4-CS hybrid precursors obtained after a phosphidation reaction. As HER electrocatalysts, the FeP-CS hybrids exhibit high electrocatalytic ability for HER with a Tafel slope of 58 mV dec(-1), a low onset overpotential of 38 mV, a large exchange current density of 2.2 × 10(-1) mA cm(-2) and an overpotential of 112 mV to obtain a current of 10 mA cm(-2). The present work shows significant advance in designing and developing non-precious-metal electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction. PMID:25685982

  5. Status and future prospect of 48Ca double beta decay search in CANDLES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iida, T.; Nakajima, K.; Ajimura, S.; Batpurev, T.; Chan, W. M.; Fushimi, K.; Hazama, R.; Kakubata, H.; Khai, B. T.; Kishimoto, T.; Li, X.; Maeda, T.; Masuda, A.; Matsuoka, K.; Morishita, K.; Nakatani, N.; Nomachi, M.; Noshiro, S.; Ogawa, I.; Ohata, T.; Osumi, H.; Suzuki, K.; Tamagawa, Y.; Tesuno, K.; Trang, V. T. T.; Uehara, T.; Umehara, S.; Yoshida, S.

    2016-05-01

    The observation of neutrino-less double beta decay (0vßß) would be the most practical way to prove the Majorana nature of the neutrino and lepton number violation. CANDLES studies 48Ca double beta decay using CaF2 scintillator. The main advantage of 48Ca is that it has the highest Q-value (4.27 MeV) among all the isotope candidates for 0vßß. The CANDLES III detector is currently operating with 300kg CaF2 crystals in the Kamioka underground observatory, Japan. In 2014, a detector cooling system and a magnetic cancellation coil was installed with the aim to increase light emission of CaF2 scintillator and photo-electron collection efficiency of the photo-multipliers. After this upgrade, light yield was increased to 1000 p.e./MeV which is 1.6 times larger than before. According to data analysis and simulation, main background source in CANDLES is turned out to be high energy external gamma-ray originating neutron capture on the surrounding materials, so called (n,γ). Upgrading the detector by installing neutron and gamma-ray shield can reduce the remaining main backgrounds by two order magnitude. In this report, we discuss the detail of (n,γ) and background reduction by additional shielding.

  6. Histologic and Immunohistochemical Features of the Skin Lesions in CANDLE Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Torrelo, Antonio; Colmenero, Isabel; Requena, Luis; Paller, Amy S; Ramot, Yuval; Richard Lee, Chyi-Chia; Vera, Angel; Zlotogorski, Abraham; Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela; Kutzner, Heinz

    2015-07-01

    Chronic atypical neutrophilic dermatosis with lipodystrophy and elevated temperature (CANDLE) syndrome is a newly characterized autoinflammatory disorder, caused by mutations in PSMB8. It is characterized by early-onset fevers, accompanied by a widespread, violaceous, and often annular cutaneous eruption. Although the exact pathogenesis of this syndrome is still obscure, it is postulated that the inflammatory disease manifestations stem from excess secretion of interferons. Based on preliminary blood cytokine and gene expression studies, the signature seems to come mostly from type I interferons, which are proposed to lead to the recruitment of immature myeloid cells into the dermis and subcutis. In this study, we systematically analyzed skin biopsies from 6 patients with CANDLE syndrome by routine histopathology and immunohistochemistry methods. Skin lesions showed the presence of extensive mixed dermal and subcutaneous inflammatory infiltrate, composed of mononuclear cells, atypical myeloid cells, neutrophils, eosinophils, and some mature lymphocytes. Positive LEDER and myeloperoxidase staining supported the presence of myeloid cells. Positive CD68/PMG1 and CD163 staining confirmed the existence of histiocytes and monocytic macrophages in the inflammatory infiltrate. CD123 staining was positive, demonstrating the presence of plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Uncovering the unique histopathological and immunohistochemical features of CANDLE syndrome provides tools for rapid and specific diagnosis of this disorder and further insight into the pathogenesis of this severe life-threatening condition. PMID:26091509

  7. Metallic Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Filtration technology originated in a mid 1960's NASA study. The results were distributed to the filter industry, an HR Textron responded, using the study as a departure for the development of 421 Filter Media. The HR system is composed of ultrafine steel fibers metallurgically bonded and compressed so that the pore structure is locked in place. The filters are used to filter polyesters, plastics, to remove hydrocarbon streams, etc. Several major companies use the product in chemical applications, pollution control, etc.

  8. Filter Component Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Alvin, M.A.; Lippert, T.E.; Diaz, E.S.; Smeltzer, E.E.

    1996-12-31

    Advanced particulate filtration systems are currently being developed at Westinghouse for use in both coal-fired Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) systems. To date, Westinghouse has demonstrated 5855 hours of successful operation of first generation monolithic filter elements in PFBC applications when ash bridging or process thermal transient excursions are avoided. Alternate advanced monolithic and second generation fiber reinforced, filament wound and vacuum infiltrated filters are also being developed which are considered to have enhanced high temperature creep resistance, improved fracture toughness, or enhanced thermal shock characteristics, respectively. Mechanical and component fabrication improvements, as well as degradation mechanisms for each filter element have been identified by Westinghouse during exposure to simulated PFBC operating conditions and alkali-containing steam/air environments. Additional effort is currently being focused on determining the stability of the advanced monolithic high temperature creep resistant clay bonded silicon carbide (SiC) materials, alumina/mullite, and chemically vapor infiltrated (CVI) SiC materials during operation in the Westinghouse Advanced Particulate Filtration (W-APF) system at Foster Wheeler`s pressurized circulating fluidized-bed combustion (PCFBC) test facility in Karhula, Finland. Select advanced filter materials are being defined for additional long-term exposure in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) gas streams. The results of these efforts are summarized in this paper. 6 refs., 7 figs., 11 tabs.

  9. Water Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A compact, lightweight electrolytic water filter generates silver ions in concentrations of 50 to 100 parts per billion in the water flow system. Silver ions serve as effective bactericide/deodorizers. Ray Ward requested and received from NASA a technical information package on the Shuttle filter, and used it as basis for his own initial development, a home use filter.

  10. FILTER TREATMENT

    DOEpatents

    Sutton, J.B.; Torrey, J.V.P.

    1958-08-26

    A process is described for reconditioning fused alumina filters which have become clogged by the accretion of bismuth phosphate in the filter pores, The method consists in contacting such filters with faming sulfuric acid, and maintaining such contact for a substantial period of time.

  11. The development of a color-magnitude diagram for active galactic nuclei (AGN): hope for a new standard candle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGinnis, G.; Chung, S.; Gonzales, E. V.; Gorjian, V.; Pruett, L.

    2015-12-01

    Of the galaxies in our universe, only a small percentage currently have Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). These galaxies tend to be further out in the universe and older, and are different from inactive galaxies in that they emit high amounts of energy from their central black holes. These AGN can be classified as either Seyferts or quasars, depending on the amount of energy emitted from the center (less or more). We are studying the correlation between the ratio of dust emission and accretion disk emission to luminosities of AGN in order to determine if there is a relationship strong enough to act as a predictive model for distance within the universe. This relationship can be used as a standard candle if luminosity is found to determine distances in space. We have created a color-magnitude diagram depicting this relationship between luminosity and wavelengths, similar to the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram. The more luminous the AGN, the more dust surface area over which to emit energy, which results in a greater near-infrared (NIR) luminosity. This differs from previous research because we use NIR to differentiate accretion from dust emission. Using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), we analyzed over one thousand Type 1 Seyferts and quasars. We studied data at different wavelengths in order to show the relationship between color (the ratio of one wavelength to another) and luminosity. It was found that plotting filters i-K (the visible and mid-infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum) against the magnitude absolute K (luminosity) showed a strong correlation. Furthermore, the redshift range between 0.14 and 0.15 was the most promising, with an R2 of 0.66.

  12. CANDLES project for the study of neutrino-less double beta decay of 48Ca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Sei

    2014-09-01

    There is, presently, strong evidence that neutrinos undergo flavor oscillations,and hence must have finite masses. Neutrino-less double beta (0 νββ) decay measurement offers a realistic opportunity to establish the Majorana nature of neutrinos and gives the absolute scale of the effective neutrino mass. CANDLES is the project to search for 0 νββ decay of 48Ca. A distinctive characteristic of 48Ca is the highest Q value (4.3 MeV) among 0 νββ isotopes. Therefore it enables us to measure 0 νββ decay signals in background free contribution. The CANDLES system consists of undoped CaF2 scintillators (CaF2),liquid scintillator (LS), and large photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). A large number of CaF2 crystals in the form of 10 cm cubes are immersed in the LS. Scintillating CaF2 crystals work as an active source detector for 0 νββ decay of 48Ca, together with LS as a multi-purpose detector component to both reject backgrounds and to propagate scintillation photons. PMTs are placed around the LS vessel to detect photons from both scintillators. The simple design concept of CANDLES enables us to increase the 48Ca source amount. 48Ca enrichment is also effective for the high sensitive measurement, because natural abundance of 48Ca is very low (0.19%). We have studied 48Ca enrichment and succeeded in obtaining enriched 48Ca although it is a small amount. Now we have developed the CANDLES III system, which contained with 300kg CaF2 crystals without enrichment, at the Kamioka underground laboratory. New light collection system was installed in 2012, and accordingly photo-coverage has been enlarged by about 80%. Further improvement will be expected in 2014 by installing a detector cooling system in order to increase light emission from CaF2 crystals. The detail of the latest CANDLES III (U.G.) system and its performance will be presented. Recently, we found that gamma rays from neutron captures on materials surrounding detector could be dominant background. These

  13. A multireader diagnostic performance study of low-contrast detectability on a third-generation dual-source CT scanner: filtered back projection versus advanced modeled iterative reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Justin; Mileto, Achille; Ramirez-Giraldo, Juan Carlos; Samei, Ehsan

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to compare CT low-contrast detectability between two reconstruction algorithms, filtered back-projection (FBP) and advanced modeled iterative reconstruction (ADMIRE). A phantom was designed with a range of low-contrast circular inserts representing 5 contrast levels and 3 sizes. The phantom was imaged on a third-generation dual-source CT scanner (SOMATOM Definition Force, Siemens Healthcare) under various dose levels (0.74 - 5.8 mGy CTDIVol). Images were reconstructed using different settings of slice thickness (0.6 - 5 mm) and reconstruction algorithms (FBP and ADMIRE with strength of 3-5) and were assessed by eleven blinded and independent readers using a two alternative forced choice (2AFC) detection experiment. A second observer experiment was further performed in which observers scored the images based on the total number of visible object groups. Detection performance increased with increasing contrast, size, dose, with accuracy ranging from 50% (i.e., guessing) to 87% with an average inter-observer variability of ±7%. The use of ADMIRE-3 increased performance by 5.2% resulting in an estimated dose reduction potential of 56-60%. The results from the second experiment also showed increased number of visible object groups for increasing dose, slice thickness, and ADMIRE strength. The score difference between FBP and ADMIRE was 0.9, 1.3, and 2.1 for ADMIRE strengths of 3, 4, and 5, respectively, resulting in estimated dose reduction potentials between 4-80%. Overall, the data indicated potential to image at reduced doses while maintaining comparable image quality when using ADMIRE compared to FBP.

  14. Analysis of bending wave transmission using beam tracing with advanced statistical energy analysis for periodic box-like structures affected by spatial filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, D.; Hopkins, C.

    2015-04-01

    For bending wave transmission across periodic box-like arrangements of plates, the effects of spatial filtering can be significant and this needs to be considered in the choice of prediction model. This paper investigates the errors that can occur with Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) and the potential of using Advanced SEA (ASEA) to improve predictions. The focus is on the low- and mid-frequency range where plates only support local modes with low mode counts and the in situ modal overlap is relatively high. To increase the computational efficiency when using ASEA on large systems, a beam tracing method is introduced which groups together all rays with the same heading into a single beam. Based on a diffuse field on the source plate, numerical experiments are used to determine the angular distribution of incident power on receiver plate edges on linear and cuboid box-like structures. These show that on receiver plates which do not share a boundary with the source plate, the angular distribution on the receiver plate boundaries differs significantly from a diffuse field. SEA and ASEA predictions are assessed through comparison with finite element models. With rain-on-the-roof excitation on the source plate, the results show that compared to SEA, ASEA provides significantly better estimates of the receiver plate energy, but only where there are at least one or two bending modes in each one-third octave band. Whilst ASEA provides better accuracy than SEA, discrepancies still exist which become more apparent when the direct propagation path crosses more than three nominally identical structural junctions.

  15. Characteristics of emissions of air pollutants from mosquito coils and candles burning in a large environmental chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. C.; Wang, B.

    The objective of this study was to characterize the emissions of air pollutants from mosquito coils and candles burning in a large environmental test chamber. The target pollutants included particulate matters (PM 10, PM 2.5), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO x), methane (CH 4), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbonyl compounds. The average PM 10 concentrations for all tested mosquito coils exceeded Excellent and Good Classes objectives specified by Indoor Air Quality Objectives for Office Buildings and Public Places (IAQO) [ HKEPD, 2003. Guidance Notes for the Management of Indoor Air Quality in Offices and Public Places. Indoor Air Quality Management Group, The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region]. The emission factors (mg g -1 mosquito coil) of mosquito coils combustion were: PM 2.5, 20.3-47.8; PM 10, 15.9-50.8; CO, 74.6-89.1; NO, 0.1-0.5; NO 2, n.d.-0.1; NO x, 0.1-0.5; CH 4, n.d.-4.7; NMHC, 0.1-5.7. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were the most abundant carbonyls species in the coil smoke. The average concentrations of formaldehyde and benzene of all tested mosquito coils exceeded Good Class of IAQO. Nitrogen oxides were the most abundant gas pollutants relating to candle burning among all target air pollutants. The candle made of gel (CAN 4) would emit more air pollutants than the paraffin candles (CAN 1, 2 and 3) and beeswax candle (CAN 5). Among five candles tested, CAN 5, the one made of beeswax, generated relatively smaller amount of air pollutants. It was noted that the concentrations of most VOCs from candles combustion were below the detection limit.

  16. Ceramic fiber reinforced filter

    DOEpatents

    Stinton, David P.; McLaughlin, Jerry C.; Lowden, Richard A.

    1991-01-01

    A filter for removing particulate matter from high temperature flowing fluids, and in particular gases, that is reinforced with ceramic fibers. The filter has a ceramic base fiber material in the form of a fabric, felt, paper of the like, with the refractory fibers thereof coated with a thin layer of a protective and bonding refractory applied by chemical vapor deposition techniques. This coating causes each fiber to be physically joined to adjoining fibers so as to prevent movement of the fibers during use and to increase the strength and toughness of the composite filter. Further, the coating can be selected to minimize any reactions between the constituents of the fluids and the fibers. A description is given of the formation of a composite filter using a felt preform of commercial silicon carbide fibers together with the coating of these fibers with pure silicon carbide. Filter efficiency approaching 100% has been demonstrated with these filters. The fiber base material is alternately made from aluminosilicate fibers, zirconia fibers and alumina fibers. Coating with Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 is also described. Advanced configurations for the composite filter are suggested.

  17. Cosmology with AGN: can we use quasars as standard candles?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risaliti, G.

    2016-06-01

    The non-linear relation between X-ray and UV luminosity in quasars can be used to estimate their distance. Recently, we have shown that despite the large dispersion of the relation, a Hubble Diagram made of large samples of quasars can provide unique constraints on cosmology at high redshift. Furthermore, the dispersion of the relation is heavily affected by measurement errors: until now we have used serendipitous X-ray observations, but dedicated observations would significantly increase the precision of the distance estimates. I discuss the future role of XMM in this new field, showing (1) the fundamental contribution of the Serendipitous Source Catalogue and of large surveys, and (2) the breakthrough advancements we may achieve with the observation of a large number of SDSS quasars at high redshift: every 12-15 quasars observed at z~3 would be equivalent to discovering a supernova at that redshift.

  18. Fabrication of full-scale fiber-reinforced hot-gas filters by chemical vapor depostion. Final report, November 1, 1994 -- December 32, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.G.; Eaton, J.H.; Pysher, D.J.; Leitheiser, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    The overall goal of this contract and its extensions has been to develop a hot gas candle filter which is light weight, has a thin wall, resists mechanical and thermal shock, and is resistive to alkali attack. A ceramic fiber reinforced, ceramic matrix composite approach has been followed to fabricate this new candle filter. Past reports covered the first test results of two ceramic composite candle filters at the Westinghouse Science and Technology Center in March of 1993, subsequent improvements made in the filters construction and fabrication processing, and the testing of six improved full size, 60 mm diameter by 1575 mm length, filters that met or exceeded performance requirements set for them. Completion of the 172 hours of simulated PFBC testing and thermal transients plus maintaining less than 4 ppm clean side ash concentration provided a basis for moving to the next step of testing in the Tidd PFBCC Demonstration Project. In this contract extension 3M fabricated 110 filters to be used for tests in demonstration power plant facilities and other tests that become available. The filters were tested to meet all quality assurance specifications and inventoried for Oak Ridge National Laboratory, ORNL. The filters are being shipped to various industrial, university, and national laboratory test facilities as requested by ORNL. Ten ceramic composite filters were installed in December, 1994 in the Tidd PFBC Demonstration Project filter vessel for their test period No. 5. Five filters were installed in a top cluster and five in a bottom cluster. The filters were removed in May 1995 after operating for 1 1 1 0 hours in a temperature range of 760{degrees}C to 843{degrees}C, with 80% of the run above 815{degrees}C.

  19. Volumetric Modulation Arc Radiotherapy With Flattening Filter-Free Beams Compared With Static Gantry IMRT and 3D Conformal Radiotherapy for Advanced Esophageal Cancer: A Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Nicolini, Giorgia; Ghosh-Laskar, Sarbani; Shrivastava, Shyam Kishore; Banerjee, Sushovan; Chaudhary, Suresh; Agarwal, Jai Prakash; Munshi, Anusheel; Clivio, Alessandro; Fogliata, Antonella; Mancosu, Pietro; Vanetti, Eugenio; Cozzi, Luca

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: A feasibility study was performed to evaluate RapidArc (RA), and the potential benefit of flattening filter-free beams, on advanced esophageal cancer against intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT). Methods and Materials: The plans for 3D-CRT and IMRT with three to seven and five to seven fixed beams were compared against double-modulated arcs with avoidance sectors to spare the lungs for 10 patients. All plans were optimized for 6-MV photon beams. The RA plans were studied for conventional and flattening filter-free (FFF) beams. The objectives for the planning target volume were the volume receiving {>=}95% or at most 107% of the prescribed dose of <1% with a dose prescription of 59.4 Gy. For the organs at risk, the lung volume (minus the planning target volume) receiving {>=}5 Gy was <60%, that receiving 20 Gy was <20%-30%, and the mean lung dose was <15.0 Gy. The heart volume receiving 45 Gy was <20%, volume receiving 30 Gy was <50%. The spinal dose received by 1% was <45 Gy. The technical delivery parameters for RA were assessed to compare the normal and FFF beam characteristics. Results: RA and IMRT provided equivalent coverage and homogeneity, slightly superior to 3D-CRT. The conformity index was 1.2 {+-} 0.1 for RA and IMRT and 1.5 {+-} 0.2 for 3D-CRT. The mean lung dose was 12.2 {+-} 4.5 for IMRT, 11.3 {+-} 4.6 for RA, and 10.8 {+-} 4.4 for RA with FFF beams, 18.2 {+-} 8.5 for 3D-CRT. The percentage of volume receiving {>=}20 Gy ranged from 23.6% {+-} 9.1% to 21.1% {+-} 9.7% for IMRT and RA (FFF beams) and 39.2% {+-} 17.0% for 3D-CRT. The heart and spine objectives were met by all techniques. The monitor units for IMRT and RA were 457 {+-} 139, 322 {+-} 20, and 387 {+-} 40, respectively. RA with FFF beams showed, compared with RA with normal beams, a {approx}20% increase in monitor units per Gray, a 90% increase in the average dose rate, and 20% reduction in beam on time (owing to different

  20. Filtering apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Haldipur, Gaurang B.; Dilmore, William J.

    1992-01-01

    A vertical vessel having a lower inlet and an upper outlet enclosure separated by a main horizontal tube sheet. The inlet enclosure receives the flue gas from a boiler of a power system and the outlet enclosure supplies cleaned gas to the turbines. The inlet enclosure contains a plurality of particulate-removing clusters, each having a plurality of filter units. Each filter unit includes a filter clean-gas chamber defined by a plate and a perforated auxiliary tube sheet with filter tubes suspended from each tube sheet and a tube connected to each chamber for passing cleaned gas to the outlet enclosure. The clusters are suspended from the main tube sheet with their filter units extending vertically and the filter tubes passing through the tube sheet and opening in the outlet enclosure. The flue gas is circulated about the outside surfaces of the filter tubes and the particulate is absorbed in the pores of the filter tubes. Pulses to clean the filter tubes are passed through their inner holes through tubes free of bends which are aligned with the tubes that pass the clean gas.

  1. Filtering apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Haldipur, G.B.; Dilmore, W.J.

    1992-09-01

    A vertical vessel is described having a lower inlet and an upper outlet enclosure separated by a main horizontal tube sheet. The inlet enclosure receives the flue gas from a boiler of a power system and the outlet enclosure supplies cleaned gas to the turbines. The inlet enclosure contains a plurality of particulate-removing clusters, each having a plurality of filter units. Each filter unit includes a filter clean-gas chamber defined by a plate and a perforated auxiliary tube sheet with filter tubes suspended from each tube sheet and a tube connected to each chamber for passing cleaned gas to the outlet enclosure. The clusters are suspended from the main tube sheet with their filter units extending vertically and the filter tubes passing through the tube sheet and opening in the outlet enclosure. The flue gas is circulated about the outside surfaces of the filter tubes and the particulate is absorbed in the pores of the filter tubes. Pulses to clean the filter tubes are passed through their inner holes through tubes free of bends which are aligned with the tubes that pass the clean gas. 18 figs.

  2. Hot-Gas Filter Ash Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Dockter, B.A.; Hurley, J.P.; Watne, T.A.; Katrinak, K.A.; O`Keefe, C.A.

    1996-12-31

    Large-scale hot-gas testing over the past several years has revealed numerous cases of cake buildup on filter elements that have been difficult, if not impossible to remove. At times, the cake can bridge between candle filters, leading to high filter failure rates. Physical factors, including particle-size distribution, particle shape, the aerodynamics of deposition, and system temperature contribute to difficulty in removing the cake. It is speculated that chemical as well as physical effects are playing a role in leading the ash to bond to the filter or to itself. The Energy and Environmental research Center (EERC) at the University of North Dakota is working with Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and a consortium of companies in partnership with the US Department of Energy (DOE) to perform the research necessary to determine the factors that cause hot-gas cleanup filters to be blinded by ash or to develop deposits that can bridge the filters and cause them to fail. The objectives of this overall project are threefold: first, to determine the mechanisms by which difficult-to-clean ash is formed; second, to develop a method to determine the rate of blinding/bridging based on fuel and sorbent properties and operating conditions; finally, to provide suggestions fro ways to prevent filter blinding by the troublesome ash. The projects consists of four tasks: field sampling and archive sample analyses, laboratory-scale testing, bench-scale testing, and model and database development testing. This paper present preliminary data from Task 2 on determining the tensile strengths of coal ash particles at elevated temperatures and simulated combustor gas conditions.

  3. Subpilot scale gasifier evaluation of ceramic cross flow filter. Final report, February 1, 1988--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Lippert, T.E.; Alvin, M.A.; Smeltzer, E.E.; Bachovchin, D.M.; Meyer, J.H.

    1993-08-01

    The operating characteristics, performance and durability of a hot gas cross flow filter system were evaluated at the Texaco 15 tpd, entrained-bed gasifier pilot plant facility that is located at their Montebello Research Facilities (MRL) in California. A candle filter unit was also tested for comparative purposes. A wide range of operating test conditions were experienced. This report summarizes the results of eleven different test runs that occurred from April 1989 through August 1992. Differences between filter operation on the entrained gasifier and prior experience on fluid bed combustion are discussed.

  4. On Picturing a Candle: The Prehistory of Imagery Science.

    PubMed

    MacKisack, Matthew; Aldworth, Susan; Macpherson, Fiona; Onians, John; Winlove, Crawford; Zeman, Adam

    2016-01-01

    The past 25 years have seen a rapid growth of knowledge about brain mechanisms involved in visual mental imagery. These advances have largely been made independently of the long history of philosophical - and even psychological - reckoning with imagery and its parent concept 'imagination'. We suggest that the view from these empirical findings can be widened by an appreciation of imagination's intellectual history, and we seek to show how that history both created the conditions for - and presents challenges to - the scientific endeavor. We focus on the neuroscientific literature's most commonly used task - imagining a concrete object - and, after sketching what is known of the neurobiological mechanisms involved, we examine the same basic act of imagining from the perspective of several key positions in the history of philosophy and psychology. We present positions that, firstly, contextualize and inform the neuroscientific account, and secondly, pose conceptual and methodological challenges to the scientific analysis of imagery. We conclude by reflecting on the intellectual history of visualization in the light of contemporary science, and the extent to which such science may resolve long-standing theoretical debates. PMID:27148124

  5. On Picturing a Candle: The Prehistory of Imagery Science

    PubMed Central

    MacKisack, Matthew; Aldworth, Susan; Macpherson, Fiona; Onians, John; Winlove, Crawford; Zeman, Adam

    2016-01-01

    The past 25 years have seen a rapid growth of knowledge about brain mechanisms involved in visual mental imagery. These advances have largely been made independently of the long history of philosophical – and even psychological – reckoning with imagery and its parent concept ‘imagination’. We suggest that the view from these empirical findings can be widened by an appreciation of imagination’s intellectual history, and we seek to show how that history both created the conditions for – and presents challenges to – the scientific endeavor. We focus on the neuroscientific literature’s most commonly used task – imagining a concrete object – and, after sketching what is known of the neurobiological mechanisms involved, we examine the same basic act of imagining from the perspective of several key positions in the history of philosophy and psychology. We present positions that, firstly, contextualize and inform the neuroscientific account, and secondly, pose conceptual and methodological challenges to the scientific analysis of imagery. We conclude by reflecting on the intellectual history of visualization in the light of contemporary science, and the extent to which such science may resolve long-standing theoretical debates. PMID:27148124

  6. Cosmokinetics: a joint analysis of standard candles, rulers and cosmic clocks

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, Remya; Jhingan, Sanjay; Jain, Deepak E-mail: sjhingan@jmi.ac.in

    2012-01-01

    We study the accelerated expansion of the Universe by using the kinematic approach. In this context, we parameterize the deceleration parameter, q(z), in a model independent way. Assuming three simple parameterizations we reconstruct q(z). We do the joint analysis with combination of latest cosmological data consisting of standard candles (Supernovae Union2 sample), standard ruler (CMB/BAO), cosmic clocks (age of passively evolving galaxies) and Hubble (H(z)) data. Our results support the accelerated expansion of the Universe.

  7. Planetary nebulae in the NGC 3379 group - Testing a new standard candle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciardullo, Robin; Jacoby, George H.; Ford, Holland C.

    The forbidden O III 5007 A planetary nebula luminosity function (PNLF) of three early type galaxies in the Leo Cloud are compared and used to estimate distances. The shape of the PNLF, in particular the sharp bright end cutoff, is found to be the same in each galaxy and identical to that observed in M31, implying that this shape is universal and an excellent standard candle. From maximum likelihood analyses, the most probable distances to NGC 3377, NGC 3379, and NGC 3384 are 9.7, 9.1, and 9.4 Mpc, respectively, with 1 sigma errors of about 12 percent.

  8. LED lighting module design based on a prescribed candle-power distribution for uniform illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jin-Jia; Huang, Kuang-Lung; Wang, Te-Yuan; Wang, Yi-Chih; Wang, Chuen-Ching; Guo, Tsung-Yi

    2010-11-01

    A simple approach is presented to design an LED lighting module to provide a uniform illumination. The reflector of the module is designed using a prescribed candle-power distribution to achieve a uniform illumination on a target surface. Both the design methodology and the construction of the reflector are stated in detail. The optical efficiency and uniformity of the module are calculated according to a ray-tracing result. In addition, the effects of the reflector's aperture and the LED chip size on the optical efficiency and uniformity are also investigated that the result can provide a reference to LED-luminaire designers and manufacturers.

  9. Planetary nebulae as standard candles. III - The distance to M81

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacoby, George H.; Ciardullo, Robin; Booth, John; Ford, Holland C.

    1989-01-01

    The results of a survey for PN in the nearby Sb galaxy M81 are reported, including the identification of 185 PN candidates. A distance to M81 of 3.50 + or - 0.40 Mpc is derived using the methods outlined by Ciardullo, et al. (1989). This value compares very well with values derived using traditional methods. Based on this agreement, it is concluded that PN are as good as, or better than, other standard candles for deriving distances to galaxies beyond 10 Mpc.

  10. Characterization of Carbon Deposits Formed During Plasma Pyrolysis of Xinjiang Candle Coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Guilin; Meng, Yuedong; Shu, Xingsheng; Fang, Shidong

    2009-08-01

    Carbon deposits were formed on the reactor wall during plasma pyrolysis of the Xinjiang candle coal in our V-style plasma pyrolysis pilot-plant. The carbon deposits were studied using a scanning electronic microscope (SEM) and the X-ray diffraction (XRD) method. It was found that carbon deposits located at different parts in the reactor exhibited different microscopic patterns. The formation mechanism of the carbon deposits was deduced. The downward increase in the graphitization degree of the carbon deposits was found and interpreted.

  11. Comparison of the egg flotation and egg candling techniques for estimating incubation day of Canada Goose nests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reiter, M.E.; Andersen, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    Both egg flotation and egg candling have been used to estimate incubation day (often termed nest age) in nesting birds, but little is known about the relative accuracy of these two techniques. We used both egg flotation and egg candling to estimate incubation day for Canada Geese (Branta canadensis interior) nesting near Cape Churchill, Manitoba, from 2000 to 2007. We modeled variation in the difference between estimates of incubation day using each technique as a function of true incubation day, as well as, variation in error rates with each technique as a function of the true incubation day. We also evaluated the effect of error in the estimated incubation day on estimates of daily survival rate (DSR) and nest success using simulations. The mean difference between concurrent estimates of incubation day based on egg flotation minus egg candling at the same nest was 0.85 ?? 0.06 (SE) days. The positive difference in favor of egg flotation and the magnitude of the difference in estimates of incubation day did not vary as a function of true incubation day. Overall, both egg flotation and egg candling overestimated incubation day early in incubation and underestimated incubation day later in incubation. The average difference between true hatch date and estimated hatch date did not differ from zero (days) for egg flotation, but egg candling overestimated true hatch date by about 1 d (true - estimated; days). Our simulations suggested that error associated with estimating the incubation day of nests and subsequently exposure days using either egg candling or egg flotation would have minimal effects on estimates of DSR and nest success. Although egg flotation was slightly less biased, both methods provided comparable and accurate estimates of incubation day and subsequent estimates of hatch date and nest success throughout the entire incubation period. ?? 2008 Association of Field Ornithologists.

  12. Temperature Distribution in a Demonstration-Scale Filter Vessel With and Without Ash Bridging

    SciTech Connect

    Mazaheri, A.R.; Ahmadi, G.; Gamwo, I.K.

    2008-04-01

    The influence of ash bridging on the temperature distribution of the ceramic filters of a demonstration-scale filter vessel is analyzed. The Reynolds stress turbulence model of FLUENT™ code is used to study the gas flow behavior inside the filter vessel. Particle equations of motions are employed, and transport and deposition of the micron-size aerosols are studied. Computational results predict that ash bridging leads to a non-uniform temperature distribution along the ceramic candle filters in the bridging region. The analyses of ash bridging deposition on the internal surfaces of the filter show that the absence of ash bridging tends to promote the deposition of particles of 10 μm on the surfaces.

  13. Comparison of advanced DSP techniques for spectrally efficient Nyquist-WDM signal generation using digital FIR filters at transmitters based on higher-order modulation formats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Yi; Wang, Junyi; Pan, Zhongqi

    2016-02-01

    To support the ever-increasing demand for high-speed optical communications, Nyquist spectral shaping serves as a promising technique to improve spectral efficiency (SE) by generating near-rectangular spectra with negligible crosstalk and inter-symbol interference in wavelength-division-multiplexed (WDM) systems. Compared with specially-designed optical methods, DSP-based electrical filters are more flexible as they can generate different filter shapes and modulation formats. However, such transmitter-side pre-filtering approach is sensitive to the limited taps of finite-impulse-response (FIR) filter, for the complexity of the required DSP and digital-to-analog converter (DAC) is limited by the cost and power consumption of optical transponder. In this paper, we investigate the performance and complexity of transmitter-side FIR-based DSP with polarization-division-multiplexing (PDM) high-order quadrature-amplitude-modulation (QAM) formats. Our results show that Nyquist 64-QAM, 16-QAM and QPSK WDM signals can be sufficiently generated by digital FIR filters with 57, 37, and 17 taps respectively. Then we explore the effects of the required spectral pre-emphasis, bandwidth and resolution on the performance of Nyquist-WDM systems. To obtain negligible OSNR penalty with a roll-off factor of 0.1, two-channel-interleaved DAC requires a Gaussian electrical filter with the bandwidth of 0.4-0.6 times of the symbol rate for PDM-64QAM, 0.35-0.65 times for PDM-16QAM, and 0.3-0.8 times for PDM-QPSK, with required DAC resolutions as 8, 7, 6 bits correspondingly. As a tradeoff, PDM-64QAM can be a promising candidate for SE improvement in next-generation optical metro networks.

  14. Unbiased constraints on the clumpiness of the Universe from standard candles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhengxiang; Ding, Xuheng; Zhu, Zong-Hong

    2015-04-01

    We perform unbiased tests for the clumpiness of the Universe by confronting the Zel'dovich-Kantowski-Dyer-Roeder luminosity distance, which describes the effect of local inhomogeneities on the propagation of light with the observational one estimated from measurements of standard candles, i.e., type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Methodologically, we first determine the light-curve fitting parameters which account for distance estimation in SNe Ia observations and the luminosity/energy relations which are responsible for distance estimation of GRBs in the global fit to reconstruct the Hubble diagrams in the context of a clumpy Universe. Subsequently, these Hubble diagrams allow us to achieve unbiased constraints on the matter density parameter Ωm , as well as the clumpiness parameter η which quantifies the fraction of homogeneously distributed matter within a given light cone. At a 1 σ confidence level, the constraints are Ωm=0.34 ±0.02 and η =1.0 0-0.02+0.00 from the joint analysis. The results suggest that the Universe full of Friedman-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker fluid is favored by observations of standard candles with very high statistical significance. On the other hand, they may also indicate that the Zel'dovich-Kantowski-Dyer-Roeder approximation is a sufficiently accurate form to describe the effects of local homogeneity on the expanding Universe.

  15. Effect of Fuel Fraction on Small Modified CANDLE Burn-up Based Gas Cooled Fast Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ariani, Menik; Su'ud, Zaki; Waris, Abdul; Asiah, Nur; Shafii, M. Ali; Khairurrijal

    2010-12-23

    A conceptual design study of Gas Cooled Fast Reactors with Modified CANDLE Burn-up has been performed. The objective of this research is to get optimal design parameters of such type reactors. The parameters of nuclear design including the critical condition, conversion ratio, and burn-up level were compared. These parameters are calculated by variation in the fuel fraction 47.5% up to 70%. Two dimensional full core multi groups diffusion calculations was performed by CITATION code. Group constant preparations are performed by using SRAC code system with JENDL-3.2 nuclear data library. In this design the reactor cores with cylindrical cell two dimensional R-Z core models are subdivided into several parts with the same volume in the axial directions. The placement of fuel in core arranged so that the result of plutonium from natural uranium can be utilized optimally for 10 years reactor operation. Modified CANDLE burn-up was established successfully in a core radial width 1.4 m. Total thermal power output for reference core is 550 MW. Study on the effect of fuel to coolant ratio shows that effective multiplication factor (k{sub eff}) is in almost linear relations with the change of the fuel volume to coolant ratio.

  16. Effect of Fuel Fraction on Small Modified CANDLE Burn-up Based Gas Cooled Fast Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariani, Menik; Su'ud, Zaki; Waris, Abdul; Khairurrijal, Asiah, Nur; Shafii, M. Ali

    2010-12-01

    A conceptual design study of Gas Cooled Fast Reactors with Modified CANDLE Burn-up has been performed. The objective of this research is to get optimal design parameters of such type reactors. The parameters of nuclear design including the critical condition, conversion ratio, and burn-up level were compared. These parameters are calculated by variation in the fuel fraction 47.5% up to 70%. Two dimensional full core multi groups diffusion calculations was performed by CITATION code. Group constant preparations are performed by using SRAC code system with JENDL-3.2 nuclear data library. In this design the reactor cores with cylindrical cell two dimensional R-Z core models are subdivided into several parts with the same volume in the axial directions. The placement of fuel in core arranged so that the result of plutonium from natural uranium can be utilized optimally for 10 years reactor operation. Modified CANDLE burn-up was established successfully in a core radial width 1.4 m. Total thermal power output for reference core is 550 MW. Study on the effect of fuel to coolant ratio shows that effective multiplication factor (keff) is in almost linear relations with the change of the fuel volume to coolant ratio.

  17. Void effect analysis of Pb-208 of fast reactors with modified CANDLE burn-up scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widiawati, Nina; Su'ud, Zaki

    2015-09-01

    Void effect analysis of Pb-208 as coolant of fast reactors with modified candle burn-up scheme has been conducted. Lead cooled fast reactor (LFR) is one of the fourth-generation reactor designs. The reactor is designed with a thermal power output of 500 MWt. Modified CANDLE burn-up scheme allows the reactor to have long life operation by supplying only natural uranium as fuel cycle input. This scheme introducing discrete region, the fuel is initially put in region 1, after one cycle of 10 years of burn up it is shifted to region 2 and region 1 is filled by fresh natural uranium fuel. The reactor is designed for 100 years with 10 regions arranged axially. The results of neutronic calculation showed that the void coefficients ranged from -0.6695443 % at BOC to -0.5273626 % at EOC for 500 MWt reactor. The void coefficients of Pb-208 more negative than Pb-nat. The results showed that the reactors with Pb-208 coolant have better level of safety than Pb-nat.

  18. Development of a new 48Ca enrichment method and the CANDLES experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishimoto, Tadafumi

    2015-10-01

    CANDLES is a project to study double beta decay of 48Ca. CANDLES could become the most competitive experiment if we could have an efficient method to enrich 48Ca. We developed a new method for enrichment of large amount of calcium isotopes. The method is called Multi-Channel Counter-Current Electrophoresis (MCCCE) which can be found elsewhre. Essential point is the increase of the power density in the migration path. In MCCCE, ions migrate in multi-channels on a boron nitride (BN) plate by which substantial increase of the power density was achieved. We made a tiny prototype instrument with a 10 mm thick BN plate and obtained 3 for an enrichment factor for the ratio of abundance of 48Ca to 43Ca over that of natural abundance. It corresponds to 6 for the enrichment factor of 48Ca to 40Ca. Recently we obtained 10 for the enrichment factor by using 20 mm BN plate. This remarkably large enrichment factor demonstrates that the MCCCE is a realistic and promising method for the enrichment of large amount of ions. This method can be applied to many other elements and compounds. I will describe MCCCE and its effect on the study of double beta decay and other fields.

  19. A Double Candle-Flame-Shaped Solar Flare Observed by SDO and STEREO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gou, T.; Liu, R.; Wang, Y.; Liu, K.; Zhuang, B.; Zhang, Q.; Liu, J.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate an M1.4 flare occurring on 2011 January 28 near the northwest solar limb. The flare loop system exhibits a double candle-flame configuration in SDO/AIA's hot passbands, sharing a much larger cusp-shaped structure. The results of DEM analysis show that each candle flame has a similar temperature distribution as the famous Tsuneta flare. STEREO-A provides us a view from directly above the flare, and in SECCHI/EUVI 195 Å the post-flare loops are observed to propagate eastward. We performed a 3D reconstruction of the pos-flare loops with AIA and EUVI data. With the aid of the squashing factor Q based on a potential extrapolation of the photospheric field, we recognized that the footpoints of the post-flare loops were slipping along high-Q lines on the photosphere, and the reconstructed loops share similarity with the filed lines that are traced starting from the high-Q lines. The heights of the loops increase as they slip horizontally eastward, giving the loop-top a velocity of about 10 km/s. An extremely large EUV late phase in Fe XVI 33.5 nm observed by SDO/EVE is suggested to be related to the slipping magnetic reconnection occurring in the quasi-separatrix layers (QSLs) whose photosheric footprints are featured by the high-Q lines.

  20. Enabling a blue-hazard free general lighting based on candle light-style OLED.

    PubMed

    Jou, Jwo-Huei; Kumar, Sudhir; An, Chih-Chia; Singh, Meenu; Yu, Huei-Huan; Hsieh, Chun-Yu; Lin, You-Xing; Sung, Chao-Feng; Wang, Ching-Wu

    2015-06-01

    Increasing studies report blue light to possess a potential hazard to the retina of human eyes, secretion of melatonin and artworks. To devise a human- and artwork-friendly light source and to also trigger a "Lighting Renaissance", we demonstrate here how to enable a quality, blue-hazard free general lighting source on the basis of low color-temperature organic light emitting diodes. With the use of multiple candlelight complementary emitters, the sensationally warm candle light-style emission is proven to be also drivable by electricity. To be energy-saving, highly efficient candle-light emission is demanded. The device shows, at 100 cd m-2 for example, an efficacy of 85.4 lm W-1, an external quantum efficiency of 27.4%, with a 79 spectrum resemblance index and 2,279 K color temperature. The high efficiency may be attributed to the candlelight emitting dyes with a high quantum yield, and the host molecules facilitating an effective host-to-guest energy transfer, as well as effective carrier injection balance. PMID:26072882

  1. Do All Candle-Flame-Shaped Flares Have the Same Temperature Distribution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gou, Tingyu; Liu, Rui; Wang, Yuming

    2015-08-01

    We performed a differential emission measure (DEM) analysis of candle-flame-shaped flares observed with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly onboard the Solar Dynamic Observatory. The DEM profile of flaring plasmas generally exhibits a double peak distribution in temperature, with a cold component around log T≈6.2 and a hot component around log T≈7.0. Attributing the cold component mainly to the coronal background, we propose a mean temperature weighted by the hot DEM component as a better representation of flaring plasma than the conventionally defined mean temperature, which is weighted by the whole DEM profile. Based on this corrected mean temperature, the majority of the flares studied, including a confined flare with a double candle-flame shape sharing the same cusp-shaped structure, resemble the famous Tsuneta flare in temperature distribution, i.e., the cusp-shaped structure has systematically higher temperatures than the rounded flare arcade underneath. However, the M7.7 flare on 19 July 2012 poses a very intriguing violation of this paradigm: the temperature decreases with altitude from the tip of the cusp toward the top of the arcade; the hottest region is slightly above the X-ray loop-top source that is co-spatial with the emission-measure-enhanced region at the top of the arcade. This signifies that a different heating mechanism from the slow-mode shocks attached to the reconnection site operates in the cusp region during the flare decay phase.

  2. Study of hyperspectral characteristics of different types of flares and smoke candles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farley, Vincent; Chamberland, Martin; Lagueux, Philippe; Kastek, Mariusz; Piatkowski, Tadeusz; Dulski, Rafal

    2012-06-01

    Modern infrared camouflage and countermeasure technologies used in the context of military operations have evolved rapidly over the last decade. Indeed, some infrared seekers and decoy/flares tend to have spectral sensitivity tailored to closely match the emission signatures of military vehicles (such as aircrafts, tanks) and reject other sources. Similarly, some candles (or smoke bombs) are developed to generate large area screens with very high absorption in the infrared. The Military University of Technology has conducted an intensive field campaign where various types of flares and smoke candles were deployed in different conditions and measured. The high spectral, spatial and temporal resolution acquisition of these thermodynamic events was recorded with the Telops Hyper-Cam. The Hyper-Cam enables simultaneous acquisition of spatial and spectral information at high resolutions in both domains. The ability to study combustion systems with high resolution, co-registered imagery and spectral data is made possible. This paper presents the test campaign concept and definition and the analysis of the recorded measurements.

  3. Multispectral and hyperspectral measurements of smoke candles and soldier's camouflage equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagueux, Philippe; Gagnon, Marc-André; Kastek, Mariusz; PiÄ tkowski, Tadeusz; Dulski, Rafał; Trzaskawka, Piotr

    2012-09-01

    The emergence of new infrared camouflage and countermeasure technologies in the context of military operations has paved the way to enhanced detection capabilities. Camouflage devices such as candles (or smoke bombs) and flares are developed to generate either large area or localized screens with very high absorption in the infrared. Similarly, soldier's camouflage devices such as clothing have evolved in design to dissolve their infrared characteristics with that of the background. In all cases, the analysis of the targets infrared images needs to be conducted in both multispectral and hyperspectral domains to assess their capability to efficiently provide visible and infrared camouflage. The Military University of Technology has conducted several intensive field campaigns where various types of smoke candles and camouflage uniforms were deployed in different conditions and were measured both in the multispectral and hyperspectral domains. Cooled broadband infrared cameras were used for the multispectral analysis whereas the high spectral, spatial and temporal resolution acquisition of these thermodynamic events was recorded with the Telops Hyper-Cam sensor. This paper presents the test campaign concept and the analysis of the recorded measurements.

  4. Void effect analysis of Pb-208 of fast reactors with modified CANDLE burn-up scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Widiawati, Nina Su’ud, Zaki

    2015-09-30

    Void effect analysis of Pb-208 as coolant of fast reactors with modified candle burn-up scheme has been conducted. Lead cooled fast reactor (LFR) is one of the fourth-generation reactor designs. The reactor is designed with a thermal power output of 500 MWt. Modified CANDLE burn-up scheme allows the reactor to have long life operation by supplying only natural uranium as fuel cycle input. This scheme introducing discrete region, the fuel is initially put in region 1, after one cycle of 10 years of burn up it is shifted to region 2 and region 1 is filled by fresh natural uranium fuel. The reactor is designed for 100 years with 10 regions arranged axially. The results of neutronic calculation showed that the void coefficients ranged from −0.6695443 % at BOC to −0.5273626 % at EOC for 500 MWt reactor. The void coefficients of Pb-208 more negative than Pb-nat. The results showed that the reactors with Pb-208 coolant have better level of safety than Pb-nat.

  5. Electric filter with movable belt electrode

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, W.

    1983-09-20

    A method and apparatus for removing airborne contaminants entrained in a gas or airstream includes an electric filter characterized by a movable endless belt electrode, a grounded electrode, and a filter medium sandwiched there between. Inclusion of the movable, endless belt electrode provides the driving force for advancing the filter medium through the filter, and reduces frictional drag on the filter medium, thereby permitting a wide choice of filter medium materials. Additionally, the belt electrode includes a plurality of pleats in order to provide maximum surface area on which to collect airborne contaminants. 4 figs.

  6. Electric filter with movable belt electrode

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, Werner

    1983-01-01

    A method and apparatus for removing airborne contaminants entrained in a gas or airstream includes an electric filter characterized by a movable endless belt electrode, a grounded electrode, and a filter medium sandwiched therebetween. Inclusion of the movable, endless belt electrode provides the driving force for advancing the filter medium through the filter, and reduces frictional drag on the filter medium, thereby permitting a wide choice of filter medium materials. Additionally, the belt electrode includes a plurality of pleats in order to provide maximum surface area on which to collect airborne contaminants.

  7. Electric filter with movable belt electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, W.

    1982-02-23

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for removing airborne contaminants entrained in a gas or airstream. The apparatus includes an electric filter characterized by a movable endless belt electrode, a grounded electrode, and a filter medium sandwiched therebetween. Inclusion of the movable, endless belt electrode provides the driving force for advancing the filter medium through the filter, and reduces frictional drag on the filter medium, thereby permitting a wide choice of filter medium materials. Additionally, the belt electrode includes a plurality of pleats in order to provide maximum surface area on which to collect airborne contaminants.

  8. High temperature filter materials

    SciTech Connect

    Alvin, M.A.; Lippert, T.E.; Bachovchin, D.M.; Tressler, R.E.

    1992-12-01

    Objectives of this program are to identify the potential long-term thermal/chemical effects that advanced coal-based power generating system environments have on the stability of porous ceramic filter materials, as well as to assess the influence of these effects on filter operating performance and life. We have principally focused our efforts on developing an understanding of the stability of the alumina/mullite filter material at high temperature (i.e., 870, 980, and 1100{degrees}C) under oxidizing conditions which contain gas phase alkali species. Testing has typically been performed in two continuous flow-through, high temperature test facilities at the Westinghouse Science and Technology Center, using 7 cm diameter {times} 6.4 mm thick discs. (Alvin, 1992) Each disc of ceramic filter material is exposed for periods of 100 to 3,000 hours in duration. Additional efforts have been performed at Westinghouse to broaden our understanding of the stability of cordierite, cordierite-silicon nitride, reaction and sintered silicon nitride, and clay bonded silicon carbide under similar simulated advanced coal fired process conditions. The results of these efforts are presented in this paper.

  9. High temperature filter materials

    SciTech Connect

    Alvin, M.A.; Lippert, T.E.; Bachovchin, D.M. . Science and Technology Center); Tressler, R.E. )

    1992-01-01

    Objectives of this program are to identify the potential long-term thermal/chemical effects that advanced coal-based power generating system environments have on the stability of porous ceramic filter materials, as well as to assess the influence of these effects on filter operating performance and life. We have principally focused our efforts on developing an understanding of the stability of the alumina/mullite filter material at high temperature (i.e., 870, 980, and 1100[degrees]C) under oxidizing conditions which contain gas phase alkali species. Testing has typically been performed in two continuous flow-through, high temperature test facilities at the Westinghouse Science and Technology Center, using 7 cm diameter [times] 6.4 mm thick discs. (Alvin, 1992) Each disc of ceramic filter material is exposed for periods of 100 to 3,000 hours in duration. Additional efforts have been performed at Westinghouse to broaden our understanding of the stability of cordierite, cordierite-silicon nitride, reaction and sintered silicon nitride, and clay bonded silicon carbide under similar simulated advanced coal fired process conditions. The results of these efforts are presented in this paper.

  10. 76 FR 46277 - Petroleum Wax Candles From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Request for Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-02

    ... Republic of China Antidumping Duty Order, 75 FR 49475 (August 13, 2010) (``Preliminary Results''). \\2\\ See Antidumping Duty Order: Petroleum Wax Candles from the People's Republic of China, 51 FR 30686 (August 28... Determinations, 74 FR 42230 (August 21, 2009). In that notice, interested parties were presented two options...

  11. Study on core radius minimization for long life Pb-Bi cooled CANDLE burnup scheme based fast reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afifah, Maryam; Miura, Ryosuke; Su'ud, Zaki; Takaki, Naoyuki; Sekimoto, H.

    2015-09-01

    Fast Breeder Reactor had been interested to be developed over the world because it inexhaustible source energy, one of those is CANDLE reactor which is have strategy in burn-up scheme, need not control roads for control burn-up, have a constant core characteristics during energy production and don't need fuel shuffling. The calculation was made by basic reactor analysis which use Sodium coolant geometry core parameter as a reference core to study on minimum core reactor radius of CANDLE for long life Pb-Bi cooled, also want to perform pure coolant effect comparison between LBE and sodium in a same geometry design. The result show that the minimum core radius of Lead Bismuth cooled CANDLE is 100 cm and 500 MWth thermal output. Lead-Bismuth coolant for CANDLE reactor enable to reduce much reactor size and have a better void coefficient than Sodium cooled as the most coolant for FBR, then we will have a good point in safety analysis.

  12. First Report of Veronica Rust by Puccinia veronicae-longifoliae in Minnesota on Veronica spicata Royal Candles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In September 2008, Veronica spicata Royal Candles plants showing foliar symptoms typical of a rust infection were brought to the Plant Disease Clinic at the University of Minnesota by a commercial nursery. A dark brown discoloration was apparent on the upper surface of the leaf with lighter brown pu...

  13. Study on core radius minimization for long life Pb-Bi cooled CANDLE burnup scheme based fast reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Afifah, Maryam Su’ud, Zaki; Miura, Ryosuke; Takaki, Naoyuki; Sekimoto, H.

    2015-09-30

    Fast Breeder Reactor had been interested to be developed over the world because it inexhaustible source energy, one of those is CANDLE reactor which is have strategy in burn-up scheme, need not control roads for control burn-up, have a constant core characteristics during energy production and don’t need fuel shuffling. The calculation was made by basic reactor analysis which use Sodium coolant geometry core parameter as a reference core to study on minimum core reactor radius of CANDLE for long life Pb-Bi cooled, also want to perform pure coolant effect comparison between LBE and sodium in a same geometry design. The result show that the minimum core radius of Lead Bismuth cooled CANDLE is 100 cm and 500 MWth thermal output. Lead-Bismuth coolant for CANDLE reactor enable to reduce much reactor size and have a better void coefficient than Sodium cooled as the most coolant for FBR, then we will have a good point in safety analysis.

  14. Strength testing of hot gas filters: Volume 6. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Faber, K.T.

    1998-06-09

    The strength of various ceramic hot gas filter materials has been evaluated by four laboratories: Argonne National Laboratory, DuPont Lanxide, Southern Research Institute and Babcock and Wilcox. The filter materials under study include (a) a Nextel{trademark}/SiC composite filter (from 3M), (b) PRD-66, an all oxide layered microstructure of alumina, mullite, cordierite and some amorphous material by DuPont Lanxide, (c) a Babcock and Wilcox material consisting of an oxide composite of chopped fibers (Saffil) and continuous Nextel fibers, (d-f) monolithic and recrystallized SiC materials and an alumino/aluminosilicate material by IFPM, and (g) a monolithic SiC by the Pall Corporation. Not all four organizations tested each of the materials. PRD-66 was tested by three of the four. Four tests were used to evaluate properties of the candle filter materials. They included (a) the C-ring test, (b) the O-ring test, (c) the burst test and (d) the axial compression test. Each organization identified above did not perform all four tests. The objective of the study described here was to (a) provide an evaluation of the test methods used for hot gas filters to determine which is best for hot gas filter evaluation and (b) evaluate the discrepancies in results from tests run at different laboratories. No material ranking was made here, nor requested.

  15. Using slow-release permanganate candles to remove TCE from a low permeable aquifer at a former landfill.

    PubMed

    Christenson, Mark D; Kambhu, Ann; Comfort, Steve D

    2012-10-01

    Past disposal of industrial solvents into unregulated landfills is a significant source of groundwater contamination. In 2009, we began investigating a former unregulated landfill with known trichloroethene (TCE) contamination. Our objective was to pinpoint the location of the plume and treat the TCE using in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO). We accomplished this by using electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) to survey the landfill and map the subsurface lithology. We then used the ERI survey maps to guide direct push groundwater sampling. A TCE plume (100-600 μg L(-1)) was identified in a low permeable silty-clay aquifer (K(h)=0.5 md(-1)) that was within 6m of ground surface. To treat the TCE, we manufactured slow-release potassium permanganate candles (SRPCs) that were 91.4 cm long and either 5. cm or 7.6 cm in dia. For comparison, we inserted equal masses of SRPCs (7.6-cm versus 5.1-cm dia) into the low permeable aquifer in staggered rows that intersected the TCE plume. The 5.1-cm dia candles were inserted using direct push rods while the 7.6-cm SRPCs were placed in 10 permanent wells. Pneumatic circulators that emitted small air bubbles were placed below the 7.6-cm SRPCs in the second year. Results 15 months after installation showed significant TCE reductions in the 7.6-cm candle treatment zone (67-85%) and between 10% and 66% decrease in wells impacted by the direct push candles. These results support using slow-release permanganate candles as a means of treating chlorinated solvents in low permeable aquifers. PMID:22784864

  16. Initial Failure Analysis of Ceramic Filters

    SciTech Connect

    Huque, Z.; Mei, D.; Zhou, J.

    1996-12-31

    Effective high temperature ceramic filters are indispensable in the advanced, coal based power systems (IGCC and PFBC). To meet the environmental particulate emission requirements and improve thermal efficiency, ceramic filters are utilized to cleanup the hot gas particulate to protect downstream heat exchanger and gas turbine components from fouling and corrosion. The mechanical integrity of ceramic filters and an efficient dust cake removal system are the key issues for hot gas cleanup systems. The filters must survive combined stresses due to mechanical, thermal, chemical and steam attack throughout normal operations (cold back pulse cleaning jets), unexpected excessive ash accumulation, and the start up and shut down conditions. To evaluate the design and performance of ceramic filters, different long term filter testing programs were conducted. To fulfill this purpose, two Advanced Particle Filter (APF) systems were complete at Tidd PFBC Demonstration Plant in Brilliant, Ohio in late 1990 as part of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Program. However, many filter failures 1649 were reported prior to its desired life time. In Tidd APF vessel, 28 filters failed one time, The objectives of this program were to provide an understanding of the factors pertinent to the failures of ceramic filters by characterizing filter properties and the dust cake removal mechanism, Researches were emphasized on understanding of changes of filter properties and back pulse cleaning mechanism to resolve the issues relating to filter permeability variations, ash bridging and micro-thermal cracks induced during cold back pulse cleaning. To perform failure analysis of ceramic filters, thermal numerical simulation, material laboratory analysis on filter materials and dust cake, and measurements on filter properties and back pulse intensity along filter axis within a bench scale filter chamber were conducted.

  17. Spatial filtering with photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Maigyte, Lina; Staliunas, Kestutis

    2015-03-15

    Photonic crystals are well known for their celebrated photonic band-gaps—the forbidden frequency ranges, for which the light waves cannot propagate through the structure. The frequency (or chromatic) band-gaps of photonic crystals can be utilized for frequency filtering. In analogy to the chromatic band-gaps and the frequency filtering, the angular band-gaps and the angular (spatial) filtering are also possible in photonic crystals. In this article, we review the recent advances of the spatial filtering using the photonic crystals in different propagation regimes and for different geometries. We review the most evident configuration of filtering in Bragg regime (with the back-reflection—i.e., in the configuration with band-gaps) as well as in Laue regime (with forward deflection—i.e., in the configuration without band-gaps). We explore the spatial filtering in crystals with different symmetries, including axisymmetric crystals; we discuss the role of chirping, i.e., the dependence of the longitudinal period along the structure. We also review the experimental techniques to fabricate the photonic crystals and numerical techniques to explore the spatial filtering. Finally, we discuss several implementations of such filters for intracavity spatial filtering.

  18. Biometric verification with correlation filters.

    PubMed

    Vijaya Kumar, B V K; Savvides, Marios; Xie, Chunyan; Venkataramani, Krithika; Thornton, Jason; Mahalanobis, Abhijit

    2004-01-10

    Using biometrics for subject verification can significantly improve security over that of approaches based on passwords and personal identification numbers, both of which people tend to lose or forget. In biometric verification the system tries to match an input biometric (such as a fingerprint, face image, or iris image) to a stored biometric template. Thus correlation filter techniques are attractive candidates for the matching precision needed in biometric verification. In particular, advanced correlation filters, such as synthetic discriminant function filters, can offer very good matching performance in the presence of variability in these biometric images (e.g., facial expressions, illumination changes, etc.). We investigate the performance of advanced correlation filters for face, fingerprint, and iris biometric verification. PMID:14735958

  19. Biometric verification with correlation filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijaya Kumar, B. V. K.; Savvides, Marios; Xie, Chunyan; Venkataramani, Krithika; Thornton, Jason; Mahalanobis, Abhijit

    2004-01-01

    Using biometrics for subject verification can significantly improve security over that of approaches based on passwords and personal identification numbers, both of which people tend to lose or forget. In biometric verification the system tries to match an input biometric (such as a fingerprint, face image, or iris image) to a stored biometric template. Thus correlation filter techniques are attractive candidates for the matching precision needed in biometric verification. In particular, advanced correlation filters, such as synthetic discriminant function filters, can offer very good matching performance in the presence of variability in these biometric images (e.g., facial expressions, illumination changes, etc.). We investigate the performance of advanced correlation filters for face, fingerprint, and iris biometric verification.

  20. Smart structures for application in ceramic barrier filter technology. Final report, August 1991--August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, S.J.; Lippert, T.E

    1994-12-01

    High temperature optical fiber sensors were developed to measure the in-service stressing that occurs in ceramic barrier filter systems. The optical fiber sensors were based on improvements to the sensor design developed under the DOE/METC Smart Structures for Fossil Energy Applications contract no. DE-AC21-89MC25159. In-house application testing of these sensors on both candle and cross-flow filters were performed in the Westinghouse Science and Technology Center High-Temperature, High-Pressure Filter Test Facility and the results analyzed. This report summarizes the sensor developments, methods to apply the sensors to the filters for in-situ testing, and the test results from the four in-house tests that were performed.

  1. Water Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Seeking to find a more effective method of filtering potable water that was highly contaminated, Mike Pedersen, founder of Western Water International, learned that NASA had conducted extensive research in methods of purifying water on board manned spacecraft. The key is Aquaspace Compound, a proprietary WWI formula that scientifically blends various types of glandular activated charcoal with other active and inert ingredients. Aquaspace systems remove some substances; chlorine, by atomic adsorption, other types of organic chemicals by mechanical filtration and still others by catalytic reaction. Aquaspace filters are finding wide acceptance in industrial, commercial, residential and recreational applications in the U.S. and abroad.

  2. Planetary nebulae as standard candles. IV - A test in the Leo I group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciardullo, Robin; Jacoby, George H.; Ford, Holland C.

    1989-09-01

    In this paper, PN are used to determine accurate distances to three galaxies in the Leo I group - The E0 giant elliptical NGC 3379, its optical companion, the SB0 spiral NGC 3384, and the smaller E6 elliptical NGC 3377. In all three galaxies, the luminosity-specific PN number densities are roughly the same, and the derived stellar death rates are in remarkable agreement with the predictions of stellar evolution theory. It is shown that the shape of the forbidden O III 5007 A PN luminosity function is the same in each galaxy and indistinguishable from that observed in M31 and M81. It is concluded that the PN luminosity function is an excellent standard candle for early-type galaxies.

  3. Power flattening on modified CANDLE small long life gas-cooled fast reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Monado, Fiber; Su'ud, Zaki; Waris, Abdul; Basar, Khairul; Ariani, Menik; Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    2014-09-30

    Gas-cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) is one of the candidates of next generation Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) that expected to be operated commercially after 2030. In this research conceptual design study of long life 350 MWt GFR with natural uranium metallic fuel as fuel cycle input has been performed. Modified CANDLE burn-up strategy with first and second regions located near the last region (type B) has been applied. This reactor can be operated for 10 years without refuelling and fuel shuffling. Power peaking reduction is conducted by arranging the core radial direction into three regions with respectively uses fuel volume fraction 62.5%, 64% and 67.5%. The average power density in the modified core is about 82 Watt/cc and the power peaking factor decreased from 4.03 to 3.43.

  4. Planetary nebulae as standard candles. IV - A test in the Leo I group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciardullo, Robin; Jacoby, George H.; Ford, Holland C.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, PN are used to determine accurate distances to three galaxies in the Leo I group - The E0 giant elliptical NGC 3379, its optical companion, the SB0 spiral NGC 3384, and the smaller E6 elliptical NGC 3377. In all three galaxies, the luminosity-specific PN number densities are roughly the same, and the derived stellar death rates are in remarkable agreement with the predictions of stellar evolution theory. It is shown that the shape of the forbidden O III 5007 A PN luminosity function is the same in each galaxy and indistinguishable from that observed in M31 and M81. It is concluded that the PN luminosity function is an excellent standard candle for early-type galaxies.

  5. The Hubble relation for nonstandard candles and the origin of the redshift of quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrosian, V.

    1974-01-01

    It is shown that the magnitude-log (redshift) relation for brightest quasars can have a slope different from the value expected for standard candles. The value of this slope depends on the luminosity function and its evolution. Therefore the difference of this slope from the expected value cannot be used as evidence against the cosmological origin of the redshift of the quasars. It is shown that the observed variation of the luminosity of the brightest objects with redshift is consistent with the cosmological hypothesis and that it agrees with (and perhaps could be used to complement) the luminosity function obtained from V/Vm analysis. It is also shown that the nonzero slope of the magnitude-log (redshift) relation rules out the local quasar hypothesis, where it is assumed that the sources are nearby (less than 500 Mpc), that the bulk of their redshift is intrinsic, and that there is no dependence on distance of the intrinsic properties of the sources.

  6. Demonstration of a candle powered radio using GaSb thermophotovoltaic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, D.J.; Fraas, L.M.

    1996-02-01

    We have discovered that the flame from a single candle when surrounded by a bracelet-sized ring of GaSb cells can provide enough power to operate a transistor radio. Spectral measurements of the flame show that a large fraction of the flame energy is in the infrared in a blackbody-like emission band centered at 1.3 microns. GaSb cells capture infrared energy out to 1.7 microns, providing enough energy to power the radio. Traditional silicon solar cells only capture energy out to 1.1 microns and produce less than 30{percent} of the power of GaSb cells, which is not enough to operate the radio. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. The luminosity function of galactic X-ray sources - A cutoff and a 'standard candle'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margon, B.; Ostriker, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    Analysis of the 2- to 10-kev luminosity distribution of 36 X-ray sources in the Local Group having known or estimated distances, showing that there exists a luminosity cutoff of approximately 10 to the 37.7th ergs/sec in agreement with the theoretical (Eddington) limit for the luminosity of an approximately 1 solar mass star. Furthermore, among the complete sample of high-luminosity sources, there appears to be a statistically significant group of X-ray 'standard candles' at (within less than 0.8 mag) the critical luminosity. This finding (which is in agreement with the self-consistent mass flow accretion models) presents the possibility that X-ray sources may be used as extragalactic distance indicators in the next generation of X-ray astronomy experiments.

  8. Power flattening on modified CANDLE small long life gas-cooled fast reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monado, Fiber; Su'ud, Zaki; Waris, Abdul; Basar, Khairul; Ariani, Menik; Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    2014-09-01

    Gas-cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) is one of the candidates of next generation Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) that expected to be operated commercially after 2030. In this research conceptual design study of long life 350 MWt GFR with natural uranium metallic fuel as fuel cycle input has been performed. Modified CANDLE burn-up strategy with first and second regions located near the last region (type B) has been applied. This reactor can be operated for 10 years without refuelling and fuel shuffling. Power peaking reduction is conducted by arranging the core radial direction into three regions with respectively uses fuel volume fraction 62.5%, 64% and 67.5%. The average power density in the modified core is about 82 Watt/cc and the power peaking factor decreased from 4.03 to 3.43.

  9. Load following capability of CANDLE reactor by adjusting coolant operation condition

    SciTech Connect

    Sekimoto, Hiroshi; Nakayama, Sinsuke

    2012-06-06

    The load following capability of CANDLE reactor is investigated in the condition that the control rods are unavailable. Both sodium cooled metallic fuel fast reactor (SFR) and {sup 208}Pb cooled metallic fuel fast reactor (LFR) are investigated for their performance in power rate changing by changing its coolant operation condition; either coolant flow rate or coolant inlet temperature. The change by coolant flow rate is difficult especially for SFR because the maximum temperature criteria on cladding material may be violated. The power rate can be changed for its full range easily by changing the coolant temperature at the core inlet. LFR can reduce the same amount of power rate by smaller change of temperature than SFR. However, the coolant output temperature is generally decreased for this method and the thermal efficiency becomes worse.

  10. Load following capability of CANDLE reactor by adjusting coolant operation condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekimoto, Hiroshi; Nakayama, Sinsuke

    2012-06-01

    The load following capability of CANDLE reactor is investigated in the condition that the control rods are unavailable. Both sodium cooled metallic fuel fast reactor (SFR) and 208Pb cooled metallic fuel fast reactor (LFR) are investigated for their performance in power rate changing by changing its coolant operation condition; either coolant flow rate or coolant inlet temperature. The change by coolant flow rate is difficult especially for SFR because the maximum temperature criteria on cladding material may be violated. The power rate can be changed for its full range easily by changing the coolant temperature at the core inlet. LFR can reduce the same amount of power rate by smaller change of temperature than SFR. However, the coolant output temperature is generally decreased for this method and the thermal efficiency becomes worse.

  11. Candle soot-based super-amphiphobic coatings resist protein adsorption.

    PubMed

    Schmüser, Lars; Encinas, Noemi; Paven, Maxime; Graham, Daniel J; Castner, David G; Vollmer, Doris; Butt, Hans Jürgen; Weidner, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Super nonfouling surfaces resist protein adhesion and have a broad field of possible applications in implant technology, drug delivery, blood compatible materials, biosensors, and marine coatings. A promising route toward nonfouling surfaces involves liquid repelling architectures. The authors here show that soot-templated super-amphiphobic (SAP) surfaces prepared from fluorinated candle soot structures are super nonfouling. When exposed to bovine serum albumin or blood serum, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry analysis showed that less than 2 ng/cm(2) of protein was adsorbed onto the SAP surfaces. Since a broad variety of substrate shapes can be coated by soot-templated SAP surfaces, those are a promising route toward biocompatible materials design. PMID:27460261

  12. Polymer-based candle-shaped microneedle electrodes for electroencephalography on hairy skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Miyako; Kudo, Yuta; Miki, Norihisa

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we report on the optimization of the shape of dry microneedle electrodes for electroencephalography (EEG) on hairy locations and compare the electrodes we developed with conventional wet electrodes. We propose the use of SU-8-based candle-shaped microneedle electrodes (CMEs), which have pillars of 1.0 mm height and 0.4 mm diameter with a gap of 0.43 mm between pillars. Microneedles are formed on the top of the pillars. The shape was determined by how well the pillars can avoid hairs and support the microneedles to penetrate through the stratum corneum. The skin–electrode contact impedances of the fabricated CMEs were found to be higher and less stable than those of conventional wet electrodes. However, the CMEs successfully acquired signals with qualities as good as those of conventional wet electrodes. Given the usability of the CMEs, which do not require skin preparation or gel, they are promising alternatives to conventional wet electrodes.

  13. TEMPERATURE AND ELECTRON DENSITY DIAGNOSTICS OF A CANDLE-FLAME-SHAPED FLARE

    SciTech Connect

    Guidoni, S. E.; Plowman, J. E.

    2015-02-10

    Candle-flame-shaped flares are archetypical structures that provide indirect evidence of magnetic reconnection. A flare resembling Tsuneta's famous 1992 candle-flame flare occurred on 2011 January 28; we present its temperature and electron density diagnostics. This flare was observed with Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO/AIA), Hinode/X-Ray Telescope (XRT), and Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory Ahead (STEREO-A)/Extreme Ultraviolet Imager, resulting in high-resolution, broad temperature coverage, and stereoscopic views of this iconic structure. The high-temperature images reveal a brightening that grows in size to form a tower-like structure at the top of the posteruption flare arcade, a feature that has been observed in other long-duration events. Despite the extensive work on the standard reconnection scenario, there is no complete agreement among models regarding the nature of this high-intensity elongated structure. Electron density maps reveal that reconnected loops that are successively connected at their tops to the tower develop a density asymmetry of about a factor of two between the two legs, giving the appearance of ''half-loops''. We calculate average temperatures with a new fast differential emission measure (DEM) method that uses SDO/AIA data and analyze the heating and cooling of salient features of the flare. Using STEREO observations, we show that the tower and the half-loop brightenings are not a line-of-sight projection effect of the type studied by Forbes and Acton. This conclusion opens the door for physics-based explanations of these puzzling, recurrent solar flare features, previously attributed to projection effects. We corroborate the results of our DEM analysis by comparing them with temperature analyses from Hinode/XRT.

  14. Temperature and Electron Density Diagnostics of a Candle-flame-shaped Flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidoni, S. E.; McKenzie, D. E.; Longcope, D. W.; Plowman, J. E.; Yoshimura, K.

    2015-02-01

    Candle-flame-shaped flares are archetypical structures that provide indirect evidence of magnetic reconnection. A flare resembling Tsuneta's famous 1992 candle-flame flare occurred on 2011 January 28; we present its temperature and electron density diagnostics. This flare was observed with Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO/AIA), Hinode/X-Ray Telescope (XRT), and Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory Ahead (STEREO-A)/Extreme Ultraviolet Imager, resulting in high-resolution, broad temperature coverage, and stereoscopic views of this iconic structure. The high-temperature images reveal a brightening that grows in size to form a tower-like structure at the top of the posteruption flare arcade, a feature that has been observed in other long-duration events. Despite the extensive work on the standard reconnection scenario, there is no complete agreement among models regarding the nature of this high-intensity elongated structure. Electron density maps reveal that reconnected loops that are successively connected at their tops to the tower develop a density asymmetry of about a factor of two between the two legs, giving the appearance of "half-loops." We calculate average temperatures with a new fast differential emission measure (DEM) method that uses SDO/AIA data and analyze the heating and cooling of salient features of the flare. Using STEREO observations, we show that the tower and the half-loop brightenings are not a line-of-sight projection effect of the type studied by Forbes & Acton. This conclusion opens the door for physics-based explanations of these puzzling, recurrent solar flare features, previously attributed to projection effects. We corroborate the results of our DEM analysis by comparing them with temperature analyses from Hinode/XRT.

  15. Signal interference RF photonic bandstop filter.

    PubMed

    Aryanfar, Iman; Choudhary, Amol; Shahnia, Shayan; Pagani, Mattia; Liu, Yang; Marpaung, David; Eggleton, Benjamin J

    2016-06-27

    In the microwave domain, signal interference bandstop filters with high extinction and wide stopbands are achieved through destructive interference of two signals. Implementation of this filtering concept using RF photonics will lead to unique filters with high performance, enhanced tuning range and reconfigurability. Here we demonstrate an RF photonic signal interference filter, achieved through the combination of precise synthesis of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) loss with advanced phase and amplitude tailoring of RF modulation sidebands. We achieve a square-shaped, 20-dB extinction RF photonic filter over a tunable bandwidth of up to 1 GHz with a central frequency tuning range of 16 GHz using a low SBS loss of ~3 dB. Wideband destructive interference in this novel filter leads to the decoupling of the filter suppression from its bandwidth and shape factor. This allows the creation of a filter with all-optimized qualities. PMID:27410650

  16. Water Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A compact, lightweight electrolytic water sterilizer available through Ambassador Marketing, generates silver ions in concentrations of 50 to 100 parts per billion in water flow system. The silver ions serve as an effective bactericide/deodorizer. Tap water passes through filtering element of silver that has been chemically plated onto activated carbon. The silver inhibits bacterial growth and the activated carbon removes objectionable tastes and odors caused by addition of chlorine and other chemicals in municipal water supply. The three models available are a kitchen unit, a "Tourister" unit for portable use while traveling and a refrigerator unit that attaches to the ice cube water line. A filter will treat 5,000 to 10,000 gallons of water.

  17. Eyeglass Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Biomedical Optical Company of America's suntiger lenses eliminate more than 99% of harmful light wavelengths. NASA derived lenses make scenes more vivid in color and also increase the wearer's visual acuity. Distant objects, even on hazy days, appear crisp and clear; mountains seem closer, glare is greatly reduced, clouds stand out. Daytime use protects the retina from bleaching in bright light, thus improving night vision. Filtering helps prevent a variety of eye disorders, in particular cataracts and age related macular degeneration.

  18. Surface brightness, standard candles and q/0/. [universe deceleration parameter determination by redshift-magnitude relation of extragalactic sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrosian, V.

    1977-01-01

    The most direct way to determine the deceleration parameter, q(0), of the universe is through the study of the redshift-magnitude relation of extragalactic sources. Progress has been slow because the necessary sources for this study must be standard candles, which have identical absolute total luminosity (balometric or monochromatic). The present paper shows, first of all, that, although necessary, this is not a sufficient condition for nonpoint-like (or resolved) sources. A modification of the redshift-magnitude relation is then described for a certain class of nonstandard candles using measurements of isophotal surface brightness. It is noted that such measurements can be used to standardize the central surface brightness of galaxies, but the standardization of the scale parameter remains beyond observations.

  19. The impact of candle burning during All Saints' Day ceremonies on ambient alkyl-substituted benzene concentrations.

    PubMed

    Olszowski, Tomasz; Kłos, Andrzej

    2013-11-01

    Research findings concerning benzene, toluene, ethylobenzene, meta-, para- and ortho-xylene as well as styrene (BTEXS) emission at public cemeteries during All Saints' Day are presented here. Tests were carried out at town-located cemeteries in Opole and Grodków (southern Poland) and, as a benchmark, at the centres of those same towns. The purpose of the study was to estimate BTEXS emissions caused by the candle burning and, equally important to examine, whether emissions generated by the tested sources were similar to the BTEXS emissions generated by road transport. During the festive period, significant increases in benzene concentrations, by 200 % and 144 %, were noted at the cemeteries in Opole and Grodków, as well as in toluene, by 366 % and 342 %, respectively. Styrene concentrations also increased. It was demonstrated that the ratio of toluene to benzene concentrations from emissions caused by the burning candles are comparable to the ratio established for transportation emissions. PMID:24052143

  20. A statistical rain attenuation prediction model with application to the advanced communication technology satellite project. 3: A stochastic rain fade control algorithm for satellite link power via non linear Markow filtering theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    The dynamic and composite nature of propagation impairments that are incurred on Earth-space communications links at frequencies in and above 30/20 GHz Ka band, i.e., rain attenuation, cloud and/or clear air scintillation, etc., combined with the need to counter such degradations after the small link margins have been exceeded, necessitate the use of dynamic statistical identification and prediction processing of the fading signal in order to optimally estimate and predict the levels of each of the deleterious attenuation components. Such requirements are being met in NASA's Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) Project by the implementation of optimal processing schemes derived through the use of the Rain Attenuation Prediction Model and nonlinear Markov filtering theory.

  1. Effects of Burnup and Temperature Distributions to CANDLE Burnup of Block-Type High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Yasunori Ohoka; Ismile; Hiroshi Sekimoto

    2004-07-01

    The CANDLE burnup strategy is a new reactor burnup concept, where the distributions of fuel nuclide densities, neutron flux, and power density move with the same constant speed along the core axis from bottom to top or from top to bottom of the core and without any change in their shapes. It can be applied easily to the block-type high temperature gas cooled reactor using an appropriate burnable poison mixed with uranium oxide fuel. In the present study, the burnup distribution and the temperature distribution in the core are investigated and their effects on the CANDLE burnup core characteristics are studied. In this study, the natural gadolinium is used as the burnable poison. With the fuel enrichment of 15%, the natural gadolinium concentration of 3.0% and the fuel pin pitch of 6.6 cm, the CANDLE burnup is realized with the burning region moving speed of 29 cm/year and the axial half width of power density distribution of 1.5 m for uniform group constant case at 900 K. When the effect of nuclide change by burnup is considered, the burning region speed becomes 25 cm/year and the axial half-width of power density distribution becomes 1.25 m. When the temperature distributions effect is considered, the effects on the core characteristics are smaller than the burnup distribution effect. The maximum fuel temperature of the parallel flow case is higher than the counter flow case. (authors)

  2. Laboratory Testing of the Boundary Layer Momentum Transfer Rotational Filter Systems, NETL-Innovatech, Inc., CRADA 98-F026, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2000-08-22

    A patented dynamic mechanical filter developed by InnovaTech was previously shown to remove fine particulate matter from industrial process gas streams at ambient temperatures and pressures. An all-metal, high-temperature version of this novel media-less filter was fabricated under this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with DOE/NETL-Morgantown for hot gas testing of the device. The technology is entirely different in both concept and design from conventional vortex separators, cyclones, or porous media filters. This new filtration concept is capable of separating heavy loading of fine particles without blinding, fouling or bridging, and would require minimal operational costs over its anticipated multi-year service life. The all-metal filter design eliminates thermal stress cracking and premature failure prevalent in conventional porous ceramic filters. In contrast, conventional porous media filters (i.e., ceramic cross-flow or candles) easily foul, require periodic cleaning (typically backpulsing), frequent replacement and subsequent disposal.

  3. Ceramic filters

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, B.L.; Janney, M.A.

    1995-12-31

    Filters were formed from ceramic fibers, organic fibers, and a ceramic bond phase using a papermaking technique. The distribution of particulate ceramic bond phase was determined using a model silicon carbide system. As the ceramic fiber increased in length and diameter the distance between particles decreased. The calculated number of particles per area showed good agreement with the observed value. After firing, the papers were characterized using a biaxial load test. The strength of papers was proportional to the amount of bond phase included in the paper. All samples exhibited strain-tolerant behavior.

  4. Cancer Driver Log (CanDL): Catalog of Potentially Actionable Cancer Mutations.

    PubMed

    Damodaran, Senthilkumar; Miya, Jharna; Kautto, Esko; Zhu, Eliot; Samorodnitsky, Eric; Datta, Jharna; Reeser, Julie W; Roychowdhury, Sameek

    2015-09-01

    Massively parallel sequencing technologies have enabled characterization of genomic alterations across multiple tumor types. Efforts have focused on identifying driver mutations because they represent potential targets for therapy. However, because of the presence of driver and passenger mutations, it is often challenging to assign the clinical relevance of specific mutations observed in patients. Currently, there are multiple databases and tools that provide in silico assessment for potential drivers; however, there is no comprehensive resource for mutations with functional characterization. Therefore, we created an expert-curated database of potentially actionable driver mutations for molecular pathologists to facilitate annotation of cancer genomic testing. We reviewed scientific literature to identify variants that have been functionally characterized in vitro or in vivo as driver mutations. We obtained the chromosome location and all possible nucleotide positions for each amino acid change and uploaded them to the Cancer Driver Log (CanDL) database with associated literature reference indicating functional driver evidence. In addition to a simple interface, the database allows users to download all or selected genes as a comma-separated values file for incorporation into their own analysis pipeline. Furthermore, the database includes a mechanism for third-party contributions to support updates for novel driver mutations. Overall, this freely available database will facilitate rapid annotation of cancer genomic testing in molecular pathology laboratories for mutations. PMID:26320871

  5. A Detailed Investigation into the Use of Planetary Nebulae as Standard Candles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciardullo, Robin

    2000-01-01

    The program's goal was to understand the physics underlying the [O III] (lambda)5007 planetary nebula luminosity function (PNLF) and evaluate its accuracy as an extragalactic distance indicator. Work under the grant concentrated in two areas. The first major goal was to extensively test the PNLF method to find its limits. We did this performing yet another internal test of the method in the core galaxies of the Fornax Cluster, performing external comparisons of PNLF distances with distances derived from Cepheids and the Surface Brightness Fluctuation method (SBF), and, in general, examining the PNLF in as many different galactic environments as possible, including the disks of late-type spirals. Because of the difficulty distinguishing planetary nebulae (PNe) from H II regions, and because spiral galaxies have uneven internal extinction, the process of identifying "statistical" samples of PNe in these objects is extremely complicated. Nevertheless, by using the ratio of [O III] (lambda)5007 to H(alpha) as a diagnostic, we were able to effectively discriminate PNe from most H II regions, and apply the method to systems such as NGC 300, M101, M51, and M96. The second goal of this research was to determine theoretically, why the PNLF is such an excellent standard candle.

  6. Design Study of Small Pb-Bi Cooled Modified Candle Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Su'ud, Zaki; Sekimoto, H.

    2010-06-22

    In this study application of modified CANDLE burnup scheme based long life Pb-Bi Cooled Fast Reactors for small long life reactors with natural Uranium as Fuel Cycle Input has been performed. The reactor cores are subdivided into several parts with the same volume in the axial directions. The natural uranium is initially put in region 1, after one cycle of 10 years of burn-up it is shifted to region 2, and 10 years after that it is shifted to region 3. This concept is applied to all regions, i.e. shifted the core of I'th region into I+1 region after the end of 10 years burn-up cycle. The first region 1 is filled by fresh natural uranium fuel. Compared to the previous works, in a smaller reactor core the criticality need to be considered more carefully especially at the beginning of life. As an optimized design, a core of 85 cm radius and 150 cm height with 300 MWt power are selected. This core can be operated 10 years without refueling or fuel shuffling. The average discharge burn-up is 350 GWd/ton HM.

  7. Design Study of Small Pb-Bi Cooled Modified Candle Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su'ud, Zaki; Sekimoto, H.

    2010-06-01

    In this study application of modified CANDLE burnup scheme based long life Pb-Bi Cooled Fast Reactors for small long life reactors with natural Uranium as Fuel Cycle Input has been performed. The reactor cores are subdivided into several parts with the same volume in the axial directions. The natural uranium is initially put in region 1, after one cycle of 10 years of burn-up it is shifted to region 2, and 10 years after that it is shifted to region 3. This concept is applied to all regions, i.e. shifted the core of I'th region into I+1 region after the end of 10 years burn-up cycle. The first region 1 is filled by fresh natural uranium fuel. Compared to the previous works, in a smaller reactor core the criticality need to be considered more carefully especially at the beginning of life. As an optimized design, a core of 85 cm radius and 150 cm height with 300 MWt power are selected. This core can be operated 10 years without refueling or fuel shuffling. The average discharge burn-up is 350 GWd/ton HM.

  8. From a Better Understanding of GRB Prompt Emission to a New Type of Standard Candles?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guiriec, Sylvain

    2016-07-01

    Recent results revealed the simultaneous existence of multiple components in the prompt emission of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) leading to a unified spectro-temporal model for the broadband spectrum from the optical regime up to higher gamma rays. Unexpectedly, we discovered a relation intrinsic to one specific component of this model: its luminosity is strongly and tightly correlated to its spectral break energy. This new luminosity-hardness relation has the same index for all GRBs when fitted to a power law. In addition, this relation seems to have the same normalization for all GRBs; therefore, this is a promising and physically motivated tool that may establish GRBs as cosmological standard candles. During this presentation, I will introduce this new relation, which might eventually be used to (i) estimate GRB distances, (ii) to support searches for gravitational waves and cosmic high-energy neutrinos, and (iii) constrain the cosmological parameters. I will give a few examples of GRB redshift estimates using this relation and I will show why this new result cannot solely be explain by instrumental selection effects and/or measurement/analysis biases.

  9. The charge-asymmetric nonlocally determined local-electric (CANDLE) solvation model.

    PubMed

    Sundararaman, Ravishankar; Goddard, William A

    2015-02-14

    Many important applications of electronic structure methods involve molecules or solid surfaces in a solvent medium. Since explicit treatment of the solvent in such methods is usually not practical, calculations often employ continuum solvation models to approximate the effect of the solvent. Previous solvation models either involve a parametrization based on atomic radii, which limits the class of applicable solutes, or based on solute electron density, which is more general but less accurate, especially for charged systems. We develop an accurate and general solvation model that includes a cavity that is a nonlocal functional of both solute electron density and potential, local dielectric response on this nonlocally determined cavity, and nonlocal approximations to the cavity-formation and dispersion energies. The dependence of the cavity on the solute potential enables an explicit treatment of the solvent charge asymmetry. With four parameters per solvent, this "CANDLE" model simultaneously reproduces solvation energies of large datasets of neutral molecules, cations, and anions with a mean absolute error of 1.8 kcal/mol in water and 3.0 kcal/mol in acetonitrile. PMID:25681887

  10. Calibration of Post-AGB Supergiants as Standard Extragalactic Candles for HST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, Howard E.

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes activities carried out with support from the NASA Ultraviolet, Visible, and Gravitational Astrophysics Research and Analysis Program. The aim of the program is to calibrate the absolute magnitudes of post-asymptotic-giant-branch (post-AGB or PAGB) stars, which we believe will be an excellent new "standard candle" for measuring extragalactic distances. The reason for this belief is that in old populations, the stars that are evolving through the PAGB region of the HR (Hertzsprung-Russell) diagram arise from only a single main-sequence turnoff mass. In addition, the theoretical PAGB evolutionary tracks show that they evolve through this region at constant luminosity; hence the PAGB stars should have an extremely narrow luminosity function. Moreover, as the PAGB stars evolve through spectral types F and A (en route from the AGB to hot stellar remnants and white dwarfs), they have the highest luminosities attained by old stars (both bolometrically and in the visual band). Finally, the PAGB stars of these spectral types are very easily identified, due to their large Balmer jumps, which are due to their very low surface gravities.

  11. Neutrino-less Double Beta Decay of {sup 48}Ca-CANDLES

    SciTech Connect

    Kishimoto, T.; Nomachi, M.; Yoshida, S.; Matsuoka, K.; Ichimura, K.; Ito, G.; Yasuda, K.; Kakubata, H.; Miyashita, M.; Takubo, K.; Saka, M.; Seki, K.; Ajimura, S.; Umehara, S.; Nakatani, N.; Tamagawa, Y.; Ogawa, I.; Fushimi, K.; Hazama, R.; Ohsumi, H.

    2011-10-21

    Neutrino-less double beta decay (0{nu}{beta}{beta}) is currently known to be an only experiment to verify whether lepton number is conserved or not. The lepton number non-conservation is the key to create matter dominated universe with CP violation. The so-called leptogenesys scenario presents a way to create the matter dominated universe by these violations. If neutrinos have Majorana mass, transition from a particle to an anti-particle is possible and the left-handed and right-handed neutrinos could have different masses. It is highly likely that the neutrinos are Majorana particles. We have been studying double beta decay of {sup 48}Ca. Our first stage experiment using the ELEGANT VI detector system gave the best lower limit of the half life of 0{nu}{beta}{beta} of {sup 48}Ca. We have been working on CANDLES detector system to sense much longer lifetime region. We have developed techniques to reduce backgrounds. The CADLES detector system was installed at Kamioka underground laboratory. Here I describe a schematic view of the system.

  12. PIGC™ - A low cost fugitive emissions and methane detection system using advanced gas filter correlation techniques for local and wide area monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachance, R. L.; Gordley, L. L.; Marshall, B. T.; Fisher, J.; Paxton, G.; Gubeli, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Currently there is no efficient and affordable way to monitor gas releases over small to large areas. We have demonstrated the ability to accurately measure key greenhouse and pollutant gasses with low cost solar observations using the breakthrough sensor technology called the "Pupil Imaging Gas Correlation", PIGC™, which provides size and complexity reduction while providing exceptional resolution and coverage for various gas sensing applications. It is a practical implementation of the well-known Gas Filter Correlation Radiometry (GFCR) technique used for the HALOE and MOPITT satellite instruments that were flown on successful NASA missions in the early 2000s. This strong space heritage brings performance and reliability to the ground instrument design. A methane (CH4) abundance sensitivity of 0.5% or better of ambient column with uncooled microbolometers has been demonstrated with 1 second direct solar observations. These under $10 k sensors can be deployed in precisely balanced autonomous grids to monitor the flow of chosen gasses, and infer their source locations. Measureable gases include CH4, 13CO2, N2O, NO, NH3, CO, H2S, HCN, HCl, HF, HDO and others. A single instrument operates in a dual operation mode, at no additional cost, for continuous (real-time 24/7) local area perimeter monitoring for the detection of leaks for safety & security needs, looking at an artificial light source (for example a simple 60 W light bulb placed 100 m away), while simultaneously allowing solar observation for quasi-continuous wide area total atmospheric column scanning (3-D) for environmental monitoring (fixed and mobile configurations). The second mode of operation continuously quantifies the concentration and flux of specific gases over different ground locations, determined the amount of targeted gas being released from the area or getting into the area from outside locations, allowing better tracking of plumes and identification of sources. This paper reviews the

  13. Generation of soluble microbial products by bio-activated carbon filter during drinking water advanced treatment and its influence on spectral characteristics.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hong; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Dong; Chen, Hong-Bin

    2016-11-01

    In order to improve our understanding of bio-activated carbon (BAC) filter, the water quality of influent and effluent treated with BAC in a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) of Shanghai during 2015 was valued. Combining the results from UV254, SUVA254, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and scanning electron microscopic (SEM), it is found that performance of BAC treatment will be affected by characteristics of activated carbon (AC), which is relevant to the type of activated carbon (including shape and operating time) in this study. Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (FEEM) shows that the humification index (HIX) and index of recent autochthonous contribution (BIX) is a reliable indicator to descript the variation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) during BAC process. The pattern of variation in BIX and HIX implies that soluble microbial products (SMPs) are formed and humic-like substances are removed during BAC treatment, which is also confirmed by the change of peaks of FEEM in BAC effluent. Large, positive correlations between SUVA254 and disinfection by-products formation potential yield (DBPFP yield) demonstrate that UV-absorbing DOM is directly related to the generation of DBPs. Poor correlations of HIX with DBPFP suggest that non-humic substances with UV-absorbing properties play an important role in the generation of DBPs in water with low SUVA254. Finally, strong but negative correlations between BIX and DBPFP suggest that vigorous microbial metabolism of BAC results in a decrease in DBPFP. However, the DBPFP yield will be enhanced for the generation of SMPs by BAC, especially in summer. PMID:27436775

  14. The Archimedes Plasma Mass Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, R. L.; Ohkawa, T.; Agnew, S. F.; Cluggish, B. P.; Freeman, R. L.; Gilleland, J.; Putvinski, S.; Sevier, L.; Umstadter, K. R.

    2001-10-01

    Archimedes Technology Group is developing a plasma technology, called the Archimedes Plasma Mass Filter, which can separate a waste mixture ion by ion into mass groups and as such represents a major advance in waste separations technology. The filter is a plasma device employing a magnetic and electric field configuration that acts as a low-mass-pass filter for ions. Ions with mass above a tunable “cutoff mass” are expelled from the plasma. The Archimedes Plasma Mass Filter satisfies all of the requirements of an economic mass separator system: good single-pass separation, acceptable energy cost per ion, and high material throughput. This technology could significantly reduce the volume of radioactive waste at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, which is storing sixty percent of the nation’s defense nuclear waste. The potential waste reduction is dramatic because 82 wtpresently scheduled to be vitrified (immobilized and stored in glass) at Hanford are below mass number 60 while 99.9the radioactivity comes from atoms above mass number 89. We will present the plasma physics basis for the filter effect, the fundamental parameter constraints, and modeling results of filter operation.

  15. Standard Rulers, Candles, and Clocks from the Low-Redshift Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heavens, Alan; Jimenez, Raul; Verde, Licia

    2014-12-01

    We measure the length of the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) feature, and the expansion rate of the recent Universe, from low-redshift data only, almost model independently. We make only the following minimal assumptions: homogeneity and isotropy, a metric theory of gravity, a smooth expansion history, and the existence of standard candles (supernovæ) and a standard BAO ruler. The rest is determined by the data, which are compilations of recent BAO and type IA supernova results. Making only these assumptions, we find for the first time that the standard ruler has a length of 103.9 ±2.3 h-1 Mpc . The value is a measurement, in contrast to the model-dependent theoretical prediction determined with model parameters set by Planck data (99.3 ±2.1 h-1 Mpc ). The latter assumes the cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant, and that the ruler is the sound horizon at radiation drag. Adding passive galaxies as standard clocks or a local Hubble constant measurement allows the absolute BAO scale to be determined (142.8 ±3.7 Mpc ), and in the former case the additional information makes the BAO length determination more precise (101.9 ±1.9 h-1 Mpc ). The inverse curvature radius of the Universe is weakly constrained and consistent with zero, independently of the gravity model, provided it is metric. We find the effective number of relativistic species to be Neff=3.53 ±0.32 , independent of late-time dark energy or gravity physics.

  16. Stereoscopic Observation of Slipping Reconnection in a Double Candle-flame-shaped Solar Flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gou, Tingyu; Liu, Rui; Wang, Yuming; Liu, Kai; Zhuang, Bin; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Quanhao; Liu, Jiajia

    2016-04-01

    The 2011 January 28 M1.4 flare exhibits two side-by-side candle-flame-shaped flare loop systems underneath a larger cusp-shaped structure during the decay phase, as observed at the northwestern solar limb by the Solar Dynamics Observatory. The northern loop system brightens following the initiation of the flare within the southern loop system, but all three cusp-shaped structures are characterized by ∼10 MK temperatures, hotter than the arch-shaped loops underneath. The “Ahead” satellite of the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory provides a top view, in which the post-flare loops brighten sequentially, with one end fixed while the other apparently slipping eastward. By performing stereoscopic reconstruction of the post-flare loops in EUV and mapping out magnetic connectivities, we found that the footpoints of the post-flare loops are slipping along the footprint of a hyperbolic flux tube (HFT) separating the two loop systems and that the reconstructed loops share similarity with the magnetic field lines that are traced starting from the same HFT footprint, where the field lines are relatively flexible. These results argue strongly in favor of slipping magnetic reconnection at the HFT. The slipping reconnection was likely triggered by the flare and manifested as propagative dimmings before the loop slippage is observed. It may contribute to the late-phase peak in Fe xvi 33.5 nm, which is even higher than its main-phase counterpart, and may also play a role in the density and temperature asymmetry observed in the northern loop system through heat conduction.

  17. Stereoscopic Observation of Slipping Reconnection in a Double Candle-flame-shaped Solar Flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gou, Tingyu; Liu, Rui; Wang, Yuming; Liu, Kai; Zhuang, Bin; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Quanhao; Liu, Jiajia

    2016-04-01

    The 2011 January 28 M1.4 flare exhibits two side-by-side candle-flame-shaped flare loop systems underneath a larger cusp-shaped structure during the decay phase, as observed at the northwestern solar limb by the Solar Dynamics Observatory. The northern loop system brightens following the initiation of the flare within the southern loop system, but all three cusp-shaped structures are characterized by ˜10 MK temperatures, hotter than the arch-shaped loops underneath. The “Ahead” satellite of the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory provides a top view, in which the post-flare loops brighten sequentially, with one end fixed while the other apparently slipping eastward. By performing stereoscopic reconstruction of the post-flare loops in EUV and mapping out magnetic connectivities, we found that the footpoints of the post-flare loops are slipping along the footprint of a hyperbolic flux tube (HFT) separating the two loop systems and that the reconstructed loops share similarity with the magnetic field lines that are traced starting from the same HFT footprint, where the field lines are relatively flexible. These results argue strongly in favor of slipping magnetic reconnection at the HFT. The slipping reconnection was likely triggered by the flare and manifested as propagative dimmings before the loop slippage is observed. It may contribute to the late-phase peak in Fe xvi 33.5 nm, which is even higher than its main-phase counterpart, and may also play a role in the density and temperature asymmetry observed in the northern loop system through heat conduction.

  18. Ultra long period Cepheids: a primary standard candle out to the Hubble flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorentino, G.; Clementini, G.; Marconi, M.; Musella, I.; Saha, A.; Tosi, M.; Contreras Ramos, R.; Annibali, F.; Aloisi, A.; van der Marel, R.

    2012-09-01

    The cosmological distance ladder crucially depends on classical Cepheids (with P=3-80 days), which are primary distance indicators up to 33 Mpc. Within this volume, very few SNe Ia have been calibrated through classical Cepheids, with uncertainty related to the non-linearity and the metallicity dependence of their period-luminosity (PL) relation. Although a general consensus on these effects is still not achieved, classical Cepheids remain the most used primary distance indicators. A possible extension of these standard candles to further distances would be important. In this context, a very promising new tool is represented by the ultra-long period (ULP) Cepheids ( P≳80 days), recently identified in star-forming galaxies. Only a small number of ULP Cepheids have been discovered so far. Here we present and analyse the properties of an updated sample of 37 ULP Cepheids observed in galaxies within a very large metallicity range of 12+log(O/H) from ˜7.2 to 9.2 dex. We find that their location in the colour-magnitude ( V- I, V) diagram as well as their Wesenheit ( V- I) index-period (WP) relation suggests that they are the counterparts at high luminosity of the shorter-period ( P≲80 days) classical Cepheids. However, a complete pulsation and evolutionary theoretical scenario is needed to properly interpret the true nature of these objects. We do not confirm the flattening in the studied WP relation suggested by Bird et al. (Astrophys. J. 695:874, 2009). Using the whole sample, we find that ULP Cepheids lie around a WP relation similar to that of the LMC, although with a large spread (˜ 0.4 mag).

  19. Standard rulers, candles, and clocks from the low-redshift universe.

    PubMed

    Heavens, Alan; Jimenez, Raul; Verde, Licia

    2014-12-12

    We measure the length of the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) feature, and the expansion rate of the recent Universe, from low-redshift data only, almost model independently. We make only the following minimal assumptions: homogeneity and isotropy, a metric theory of gravity, a smooth expansion history, and the existence of standard candles (supernovæ) and a standard BAO ruler. The rest is determined by the data, which are compilations of recent BAO and type IA supernova results. Making only these assumptions, we find for the first time that the standard ruler has a length of 103.9±2.3h⁻¹ Mpc. The value is a measurement, in contrast to the model-dependent theoretical prediction determined with model parameters set by Planck data (99.3±2.1h⁻¹ Mpc). The latter assumes the cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant, and that the ruler is the sound horizon at radiation drag. Adding passive galaxies as standard clocks or a local Hubble constant measurement allows the absolute BAO scale to be determined (142.8±3.7 Mpc), and in the former case the additional information makes the BAO length determination more precise (101.9±1.9h⁻¹ Mpc). The inverse curvature radius of the Universe is weakly constrained and consistent with zero, independently of the gravity model, provided it is metric. We find the effective number of relativistic species to be N(eff)=3.53±0.32, independent of late-time dark energy or gravity physics. PMID:25541763

  20. A Fast Network Flow Model is used in conjunction with Measurements of Filter Permeability to calculate the Performance of Hot Gas Filters

    SciTech Connect

    VanOsdol, J.G.; Chiang, T-K.

    2002-09-19

    Two different technologies that are being considered for generating electric power on a large scale by burning coal are Pressurized Fluid Bed Combustion (PFBC) systems and Integrated Gasification and Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. Particulate emission regulations that have been proposed for future systems may require that these systems be fitted with large scale Hot Gas Clean-Up (HGCU) filtration systems that would remove the fine particulate matter from the hot gas streams that are generated by PFBC and IGCC systems. These hot gas filtration systems are geometrically and aerodynamically complex. They typically are constructed with large arrays of ceramic candle filter elements (CFE). The successful design of these systems require an accurate assessment of the rate at which mechanical energy of the gas flow is dissipated as it passes through the filter containment vessel and the individual candle filter elements that make up the system. Because the filtration medium is typically made of a porous ceramic material having open pore sizes that are much smaller than the dimensions of the containment vessel, the filtration medium is usually considered to be a permeable medium that follows Darcy's law. The permeability constant that is measured in the lab is considered to be a function of the filtration medium only and is usually assumed to apply equally to all the filters in the vessel as if the flow were divided evenly among all the filter elements. In general, the flow of gas through each individual CFE will depend not only on the geometrical characteristics of the filtration medium, but also on the local mean flows in the filter containment vessel that a particular filter element sees. The flow inside the CFE core, through the system manifolds, and inside the containment vessel itself will be coupled to the flow in the filter medium by various Reynolds number effects. For any given filter containment vessel, since the mean flows are different in different locations

  1. Near-infrared observations of Type Ia supernovae: the best known standard candle for cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barone-Nugent, R. L.; Lidman, C.; Wyithe, J. S. B.; Mould, J.; Howell, D. A.; Hook, I. M.; Sullivan, M.; Nugent, P. E.; Arcavi, I.; Cenko, S. B.; Cooke, J.; Gal-Yam, A.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Maguire, K.; Ofek, E.; Poznanski, D.; Xu, D.

    2012-09-01

    We present an analysis of the Hubble diagram for 12 normal Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) observed in the near-infrared (NIR) J and H bands. We select SNe exclusively from the redshift range 0.03 < z < 0.09 to reduce uncertainties coming from peculiar velocities while remaining in a cosmologically well-understood region. All of the SNe in our sample exhibit no spectral or B-band light-curve peculiarities and lie in the B-band stretch range of 0.8-1.15. Our results suggest that SNe Ia observed in the NIR are the best known standard candles. We fit previously determined NIR light-curve templates to new high-precision data to derive peak magnitudes and to determine the scatter about the Hubble line. Photometry of the 12 SNe is presented in the natural system. Using a standard cosmology of (H0, Ωm, ΩΛ) = (70, 0.27, 0.73), we find a median J-band absolute magnitude of MJ = -18.39 with a scatter of σJ = 0.116 and a median H-band absolute magnitude of MH = -18.36 with a scatter of σH = 0.085. The scatter in the H band is the smallest yet measured. We search for correlations between residuals in the J- and H-band Hubble diagrams and SN properties, such as SN colour, B-band stretch and the projected distance from the centre of the host galaxy. The only significant correlation is between the J-band Hubble residual and the J - H pseudo-colour. We also examine how the scatter changes when fewer points in the NIR are used to constrain the light curve. With a single point in the H band taken anywhere from 10 d before to 15 d after B-band maximum light and a prior on the date of H-band maximum set from the date of B-band maximum, we find that we can measure distances to an accuracy of 6 per cent. The precision of SNe Ia in the NIR provides new opportunities for precision measurements of both the expansion history of the universe and peculiar velocities of nearby galaxies.

  2. Comparison of standard ruler and standard candle constraints on dark energy models

    SciTech Connect

    Lazkoz, R; Nesseris, S; Perivolaropoulos, L E-mail: snesseris@grads.uoi.gr

    2008-07-15

    We compare the dark energy model constraints obtained by using recent standard ruler data (baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) at z = 0.2 and 0.35 and cosmic microwave background (CMB) shift parameters R and l{sub a}) with the corresponding constraints obtained by using recent type Ia supernovae (SnIa) standard candle data (ESSENCE+SNLS+HST from astro-ph/0701510). We find that, even though both classes of data are consistent with {Lambda}CDM (CDM: cold dark matter) at the 2{sigma} level, there is a systematic difference between the two classes of data. In particular, we find that for practically all values of the parameters ({Omega}{sub 0m},{Omega}{sub b}) in the 2{sigma} range of the three-year WMAP data (WMAP3) best fit, {Lambda}CDM is significantly more consistent with the SnIa data than with the CMB+BAO data. For example for ({Omega}{sub 0m},{Omega}{sub b}) = (0.24,0.042) corresponding to the best fit values of WMAP3, the dark energy equation of state parameterization w(z) = w{sub 0}+w{sub 1}(z/1+z) best fit is at a 0.5{sigma} distance from {Lambda}CDM (w{sub 0} = -1,w{sub 1} = 0) using the SnIa data and 1.7{sigma} away from {Lambda}CDM using the CMB+BAO data. There is a similar trend in the earlier data (SNLS versus CMB+BAO at z = 0.35). This trend is such that the standard ruler CMB+BAO data show a mild preference for crossing of the phantom divide line w = -1, while the recent SnIa data favor {Lambda}CDM. Despite this mild difference in trends, we find no statistically significant evidence for violation of the cosmic distance duality relation {eta} {identical_to} d{sub L}(z)/d{sub A}(z)(1+z){sup 2}=1. For example, using a prior of {Omega}{sub 0m} = 0.24, we find {eta} = 0.95 {+-} 0.025 in the redshift range 0

  3. AREAL test facility for advanced accelerator and radiation source concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsakanov, V. M.; Amatuni, G. A.; Amirkhanyan, Z. G.; Aslyan, L. V.; Avagyan, V. Sh.; Danielyan, V. A.; Davtyan, H. D.; Dekhtiarov, V. S.; Gevorgyan, K. L.; Ghazaryan, N. G.; Grigoryan, B. A.; Grigoryan, A. H.; Hakobyan, L. S.; Haroutiunian, S. G.; Ivanyan, M. I.; Khachatryan, V. G.; Laziev, E. M.; Manukyan, P. S.; Margaryan, I. N.; Markosyan, T. M.; Martirosyan, N. V.; Mehrabyan, Sh. A.; Mkrtchyan, T. H.; Muradyan, L. Kh.; Nikogosyan, G. H.; Petrosyan, V. H.; Sahakyan, V. V.; Sargsyan, A. A.; Simonyan, A. S.; Toneyan, H. A.; Tsakanian, A. V.; Vardanyan, T. L.; Vardanyan, A. S.; Yeremyan, A. S.; Zakaryan, S. V.; Zanyan, G. S.

    2016-09-01

    Advanced Research Electron Accelerator Laboratory (AREAL) is a 50 MeV electron linear accelerator project with a laser driven RF gun being constructed at the CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute. In addition to applications in life and materials sciences, the project aims as a test facility for advanced accelerator and radiation source concepts. In this paper, the AREAL RF photoinjector performance, the facility design considerations and its highlights in the fields of free electron laser, the study of new high frequency accelerating structures, the beam microbunching and wakefield acceleration concepts are presented.

  4. HEPA filter dissolution process

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, K.N.; Murphy, J.A.

    1992-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a process for dissolution of spent high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and then combining the complexed filter solution with other radioactive wastes prior to calcining the mixed and blended waste feed. The process is an alternate to a prior method of acid leaching the spent filters which is an inefficient method of treating spent HEPA filters for disposal.

  5. Recirculating electric air filter

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, Werner

    1986-01-01

    An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage eleode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

  6. Hepa filter dissolution process

    DOEpatents

    Brewer, Ken N.; Murphy, James A.

    1994-01-01

    A process for dissolution of spent high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and then combining the complexed filter solution with other radioactive wastes prior to calcining the mixed and blended waste feed. The process is an alternate to a prior method of acid leaching the spent filters which is an inefficient method of treating spent HEPA filters for disposal.

  7. HEPA filter dissolution process

    DOEpatents

    Brewer, K.N.; Murphy, J.A.

    1994-02-22

    A process is described for dissolution of spent high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and then combining the complexed filter solution with other radioactive wastes prior to calcining the mixed and blended waste feed. The process is an alternate to a prior method of acid leaching the spent filters which is an inefficient method of treating spent HEPA filters for disposal. 4 figures.

  8. Recirculating electric air filter

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, W.

    1985-01-09

    An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage electrode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

  9. Properties of multilayer filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, P. W.

    1973-01-01

    New methods were investigated of using optical interference coatings to produce bandpass filters for the spectral region 110 nm to 200 nm. The types of filter are: triple cavity metal dielectric filters; all dielectric reflection filters; and all dielectric Fabry Perot type filters. The latter two types use thorium fluoride and either cryolite films or magnesium fluoride films in the stacks. The optical properties of the thorium fluoride were also measured.

  10. "It Is Better to Light a Candle than to Curse the Darkness": Ethel Thompson Overby and Democratic Schooling in Richmond, Virginia, 1910-1958

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward Randolph, Adah L.

    2012-01-01

    In 1933, Ethel Thompson Overby became the first African American female principal in Richmond, Virginia. Her motto was "It is better to light a candle than to curse the darkness" (Overby 1975, 1). Before becoming principal, Overby had been a teacher in the southern urban "de jure" segregated schools of the city. How did the racially segregated…

  11. CANDLES AND INCENSE AS POTENTIAL SOURCES OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION: MARKET ANALYSIS AND LITERATURE SEARCH (EPA/600/R-01/001)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes available information on candles and incense as potential sources of indoor air pollution. It covers market information and a review of the scientific literature. The market information collected focuses on production and sales data, typical uses in the U.S....

  12. CANDLES AND INCENSE AS POTENTIAL SOURCES OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION: MARKET ANALYSIS AND LITERATURE REVIEW (EPA/600/R-01/001)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes available information on candles and incense as potential sources of indoor air pollution. It covers market information and a review of the scientific literature. The market information collected focuses on production and sales data, typical uses in the U.S...

  13. PROJECT SUMMARY -CANDLES AND INCENSE AS POTENTIAL SOURCES OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION: MARKET ANALYSIS AND LITERATURE REVIEW (EPA/600/SR-01/001)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes available information on candles and incense as potential sources ofindoor air pollution. It covers (1) market information and (2) a scientific literature review. The market information collected focuses on production and sales data, typical uses in the US,...

  14. Metal filter materials in combustion environments

    SciTech Connect

    Judkins, R.R.; Tortorelli, P.F.; Wright, I.G.

    1996-09-01

    Hot gas filtration in pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) systems has been proven below 750 C (1400 F). Advanced PFBC designs, focused on operational and efficiency improvements, will require filtration at higher temperatures. E.g., in first-generation advanced PFBCs, the filters will have to perform at 870 C (1600 F), while second-generation units, with both carbonizers for fuel-gas production and fluidized-bed combustors, will eventually require filters to operate up to 930 and 870 C (1700 and 1600 F). Results from the final test campaign at the Tidd PFBC Demonstration Project showed that at these higher temperatures, ceramic filter reliability may be problematical, so it will be of interest to re-examine the possibility of using advanced metal hot-gas filters for these advanced PFBC applications in view of the exceptional corrosion resistance of Fe aluminides in high-temperature sulfur-bearing atmospheres. For the second-generation PFBCs, performance criteria for the carbonizer filters are essentially the same as those for integrated gasification combined cycle systems (reducing environments). For the combustor, issues are similar to those of advanced first-generation units (oxidizing) except that the fuel (byproduct char from carbonizer) should be somewhat clearer and filter performance requirements less demanding than for PFBC systems such as the Tidd plant. For the carbonizer system, the nearer term (market entry) goals are to develop filter materials that will perform at 650-760 C (1200-1400 F), with an increase to 800-930 C (1500-1700 F) for improved cycle efficiency.

  15. ARRANGEMENT FOR REPLACING FILTERS

    DOEpatents

    Blomgren, R.A.; Bohlin, N.J.C.

    1957-08-27

    An improved filtered air exhaust system which may be continually operated during the replacement of the filters without the escape of unfiltered air is described. This is accomplished by hermetically sealing the box like filter containers in a rectangular tunnel with neoprene covered sponge rubber sealing rings coated with a silicone impregnated pneumatic grease. The tunnel through which the filters are pushed is normal to the exhaust air duct. A number of unused filters are in line behind the filters in use, and are moved by a hydraulic ram so that a fresh filter is positioned in the air duct. The used filter is pushed into a waiting receptacle and is suitably disposed. This device permits a rapid and safe replacement of a radiation contaminated filter without interruption to the normal flow of exhaust air.

  16. Directional Joint Bilateral Filter for Depth Images

    PubMed Central

    Le, Anh Vu; Jung, Seung-Won; Won, Chee Sun

    2014-01-01

    Depth maps taken by the low cost Kinect sensor are often noisy and incomplete. Thus, post-processing for obtaining reliable depth maps is necessary for advanced image and video applications such as object recognition and multi-view rendering. In this paper, we propose adaptive directional filters that fill the holes and suppress the noise in depth maps. Specifically, novel filters whose window shapes are adaptively adjusted based on the edge direction of the color image are presented. Experimental results show that our method yields higher quality filtered depth maps than other existing methods, especially at the edge boundaries. PMID:24971470

  17. Directional joint bilateral filter for depth images.

    PubMed

    Le, Anh Vu; Jung, Seung-Won; Won, Chee Sun

    2014-01-01

    Depth maps taken by the low cost Kinect sensor are often noisy and incomplete. Thus, post-processing for obtaining reliable depth maps is necessary for advanced image and video applications such as object recognition and multi-view rendering. In this paper, we propose adaptive directional filters that fill the holes and suppress the noise in depth maps. Specifically, novel filters whose window shapes are adaptively adjusted based on the edge direction of the color image are presented. Experimental results show that our method yields higher quality filtered depth maps than other existing methods, especially at the edge boundaries. PMID:24971470

  18. Corrosion resistant filter unit

    SciTech Connect

    Gentry, J.M.

    1992-02-18

    This patent describes a fluid filter assembly adapted for the filtration of corrosive fluid to be injected into a well bore at pressure levels which may exceed 10,000 pounds per square. It comprises: a frame assembly for the mounting of a portion of the fluid filter assembly therein, the frame assembly; filter pods, the plurality of filter pods forming at least two banks of filter pods, each bank having at least two filter pods therein, each bank of the filter pods being supported by one or more the supports of the plurality of supports secured to selected struts of the frame assembly; an inlet manifold to direct the corrosive fluid to the plurality of filter pods, the inlet manifold being interconnected to the banks of filter pods formed by the filter pods whereby flow of the corrosive fluid can be directed to each bank of the filter pods; an outlet manifold to direct the corrosive fluid from the filter pods, the outlet manifold being interconnected to the banks of filter pods formed by the filter pods; a first valve means to control the flow of the corrosive fluid between banks of filter pods formed by the filter pods whereby the flow of the corrosive fluid can be selectively directed to each bank of the filter pods; a second valve means to selectively control the flow of the corrosive fluid between the inlet manifold and the outlet manifold; and union means for interconnecting the filter pods, inlet manifold and outlet manifold, each of the union means including mechanical connection means and internal seal means for isolating the corrosive fluids from the mechanical connection means.

  19. Rigid porous filter

    DOEpatents

    Chiang, Ta-Kuan; Straub, Douglas L.; Dennis, Richard A.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention involves a porous rigid filter including a plurality of concentric filtration elements having internal flow passages and forming external flow passages there between. The present invention also involves a pressure vessel containing the filter for the removal of particulates from high pressure particulate containing gases, and further involves a method for using the filter to remove such particulates. The present filter has the advantage of requiring fewer filter elements due to the high surface area-to-volume ratio provided by the filter, requires a reduced pressure vessel size, and exhibits enhanced mechanical design properties, improved cleaning properties, configuration options, modularity and ease of fabrication.

  20. Improving Type Ia Supernova Standard Candle Cosmology Measurements Using Observations of Early-Type Host Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyers, Joshua Evan

    than E(B - V ) < 0.06. Hence, the early-type-hosted SNe Ia identified here occupy a more favorable environment to use as well-characterized high-redshift standard candles than other SNe Ia. The second half of this thesis analyzes a sample of 40 deep, very high signal-to-noise ratio spectra of nearby SN Ia host galaxies. These host galaxies are chosen from the Nearby Supernova Factory, the SDSS-II SN Survey, and Swift-observed SNe, with the requirement that they have passive stellar populations suitable for detailed absorption line measurements. From these spectra, ages and the abundances of multiple elements, including Fe, Mg, C, N, and Ca are derived. The correlation between SN decline rate and host galaxy age is rediscovered at high significance. SN decline rate is also shown to be correlated with host [Fe/H], [C/Fe], and [N/Fe]. In contrast to studies of mixed-host samples, however, no evidence is found supporting a correlation with SN Hubble residuals and host galaxy properties. The wide range in age spanned by the sample, in particular, suggests that age is not responsible for the host-mass - Hubble residual relation reported in the literature.

  1. Filter type gas sampler with filter consolidation

    DOEpatents

    Miley, Harry S.; Thompson, Robert C.; Hubbard, Charles W.; Perkins, Richard W.

    1997-01-01

    Disclosed is an apparatus for automatically consolidating a filter or, more specifically, an apparatus for drawing a volume of gas through a plurality of sections of a filter, whereafter the sections are subsequently combined for the purpose of simultaneously interrogating the sections to detect the presence of a contaminant.

  2. Filter type gas sampler with filter consolidation

    DOEpatents

    Miley, H.S.; Thompson, R.C.; Hubbard, C.W.; Perkins, R.W.

    1997-03-25

    Disclosed is an apparatus for automatically consolidating a filter or, more specifically, an apparatus for drawing a volume of gas through a plurality of sections of a filter, where after the sections are subsequently combined for the purpose of simultaneously interrogating the sections to detect the presence of a contaminant. 5 figs.

  3. Cordierite silicon nitride filters

    SciTech Connect

    Sawyer, J.; Buchan, B. ); Duiven, R.; Berger, M. ); Cleveland, J.; Ferri, J. )

    1992-02-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a silicon nitride based crossflow filter. This report summarizes the findings and results of the project. The project was phased with Phase I consisting of filter material development and crossflow filter design. Phase II involved filter manufacturing, filter testing under simulated conditions and reporting the results. In Phase I, Cordierite Silicon Nitride (CSN) was developed and tested for permeability and strength. Target values for each of these parameters were established early in the program. The values were met by the material development effort in Phase I. The crossflow filter design effort proceeded by developing a macroscopic design based on required surface area and estimated stresses. Then the thermal and pressure stresses were estimated using finite element analysis. In Phase II of this program, the filter manufacturing technique was developed, and the manufactured filters were tested. The technique developed involved press-bonding extruded tiles to form a filter, producing a monolithic filter after sintering. Filters manufactured using this technique were tested at Acurex and at the Westinghouse Science and Technology Center. The filters did not delaminate during testing and operated and high collection efficiency and good cleanability. Further development in areas of sintering and filter design is recommended.

  4. Preliminary safety analysis of Pb-Bi cooled 800 MWt modified CANDLE burn-up scheme based fast reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Su'ud, Zaki; Sekimoto, H.

    2014-09-30

    Pb-Bi Cooled fast reactors with modified CANDLE burn-up scheme with 10 regions and 10 years cycle length has been investigated from neutronic aspects. In this study the safety aspect of such reactors have been investigated and discussed. Several condition of unprotected loss of flow (ULOF) and unprotected rod run-out transient over power (UTOP) have been simulated and the results show that the reactors excellent safety performance. At 80 seconds after unprotected loss of flow condition, the core flow rate drop to about 25% of its initial flow and slowly move toward its natural circulation level. The maximum fuel temperature can be managed below 1000°C and the maximum cladding temperature can be managed below 700°C. The dominant reactivity feedback is radial core expansion and Doppler effect, followed by coolant density effect and fuel axial expansion effect.

  5. Conceptual Design study of Small Long-life Gas Cooled Fast Reactor With Modified CANDLE Burn-up Scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Nur Asiah, A.; Su'ud, Zaki; Ferhat, A.; Sekimoto, H.

    2010-06-22

    In this paper, conceptual design study of Small Long-life Gas Cooled Fast Reactors with Natural Uranium as Fuel Cycle Input has been performed. In this study Gas Cooled Fast Reactor is slightly modified by employing modified CANDLE burn-up scheme so that it can use Natural Uranium as fuel cycle input. Due to their hard spectrum, GCFR in this study showed very good performance in converting U-238 to plutonium in order to maintain the operation condition requirement of long-life reactors. Due to the limitation of thermal hydraulic aspects, the average power density of the proposed design is selected about 70 W/cc. With such condition we got an optimal design of 325 MWt reactors which can be operated 10 years without refueling and fuel shuffling and just need natural uranium as fuel cycle input. The average discharge burn-up is about 290 GWd/ton HM.

  6. Conceptual Design study of Small Long-life Gas Cooled Fast Reactor With Modified CANDLE Burn-up Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nur Asiah, A.; Su'ud, Zaki; Ferhat, A.; Sekimoto, H.

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, conceptual design study of Small Long-life Gas Cooled Fast Reactors with Natural Uranium as Fuel Cycle Input has been performed. In this study Gas Cooled Fast Reactor is slightly modified by employing modified CANDLE burn-up scheme so that it can use Natural Uranium as fuel cycle input. Due to their hard spectrum, GCFR in this study showed very good performance in converting U-238 to plutonium in order to maintain the operation condition requirement of long-life reactors. Due to the limitation of thermal hydraulic aspects, the average power density of the proposed design is selected about 70 W/cc. With such condition we got an optimal design of 325 MWt reactors which can be operated 10 years without refueling and fuel shuffling and just need natural uranium as fuel cycle input. The average discharge burn-up is about 290 GWd/ton HM.

  7. Preliminary safety analysis of Pb-Bi cooled 800 MWt modified CANDLE burn-up scheme based fast reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su'ud, Zaki; Sekimoto, H.

    2014-09-01

    Pb-Bi Cooled fast reactors with modified CANDLE burn-up scheme with 10 regions and 10 years cycle length has been investigated from neutronic aspects. In this study the safety aspect of such reactors have been investigated and discussed. Several condition of unprotected loss of flow (ULOF) and unprotected rod run-out transient over power (UTOP) have been simulated and the results show that the reactors excellent safety performance. At 80 seconds after unprotected loss of flow condition, the core flow rate drop to about 25% of its initial flow and slowly move toward its natural circulation level. The maximum fuel temperature can be managed below 1000°C and the maximum cladding temperature can be managed below 700°C. The dominant reactivity feedback is radial core expansion and Doppler effect, followed by coolant density effect and fuel axial expansion effect.

  8. New mass limit for white dwarfs: super-Chandrasekhar type ia supernova as a new standard candle.

    PubMed

    Das, Upasana; Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata

    2013-02-15

    Type Ia supernovae, sparked off by exploding white dwarfs of mass close to the Chandrasekhar limit, play the key role in understanding the expansion rate of the Universe. However, recent observations of several peculiar type Ia supernovae argue for its progenitor mass to be significantly super-Chandrasekhar. We show that strongly magnetized white dwarfs not only can violate the Chandrasekhar mass limit significantly, but exhibit a different mass limit. We establish from a foundational level that the generic mass limit of white dwarfs is 2.58 solar mass. This explains the origin of overluminous peculiar type Ia supernovae. Our finding further argues for a possible second standard candle, which has many far reaching implications, including a possible reconsideration of the expansion history of the Universe. PMID:25166364

  9. Bag filters for TPP

    SciTech Connect

    L.V. Chekalov; Yu.I. Gromov; V.V. Chekalov

    2007-05-15

    Cleaning of TPP flue gases with bag filters capable of pulsed regeneration is examined. A new filtering element with a three-dimensional filtering material formed from a needle-broached cloth in which the filtration area, as compared with a conventional smooth bag, is increased by more than two times, is proposed. The design of a new FRMI type of modular filter is also proposed. A standard series of FRMI filters with a filtration area ranging from 800 to 16,000 m{sup 2} is designed for an output more than 1 million m{sub 3}/h of with respect to cleaned gas. The new bag filter permits dry collection of sulfur oxides from waste gases at TPP operating on high-sulfur coals. The design of the filter makes it possible to replace filter elements without taking the entire unit out of service.

  10. HEPA filter monitoring program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchner, K. N.; Johnson, C. M.; Aiken, W. F.; Lucerna, J. J.; Barnett, R. L.; Jensen, R. T.

    1986-07-01

    The testing and replacement of HEPA filters, widely used in the nuclear industry to purify process air, are costly and labor-intensive. Current methods of testing filter performance, such as differential pressure measurement and scanning air monitoring, allow determination of overall filter performance but preclude detection of incipient filter failure such as small holes in the filters. Using current technology, a continual in-situ monitoring system was designed which provides three major improvements over current methods of filter testing and replacement. The improvements include: cost savings by reducing the number of intact filters which are currently being replaced unnecessarily; more accurate and quantitative measurement of filter performance; and reduced personnel exposure to a radioactive environment by automatically performing most testing operations.

  11. Additive loss-of-function proteasome subunit mutations in CANDLE/PRAAS patients promote type I IFN production.

    PubMed

    Brehm, Anja; Liu, Yin; Sheikh, Afzal; Marrero, Bernadette; Omoyinmi, Ebun; Zhou, Qing; Montealegre, Gina; Biancotto, Angelique; Reinhardt, Adam; Almeida de Jesus, Adriana; Pelletier, Martin; Tsai, Wanxia L; Remmers, Elaine F; Kardava, Lela; Hill, Suvimol; Kim, Hanna; Lachmann, Helen J; Megarbane, Andre; Chae, Jae Jin; Brady, Jilian; Castillo, Rhina D; Brown, Diane; Casano, Angel Vera; Gao, Ling; Chapelle, Dawn; Huang, Yan; Stone, Deborah; Chen, Yongqing; Sotzny, Franziska; Lee, Chyi-Chia Richard; Kastner, Daniel L; Torrelo, Antonio; Zlotogorski, Abraham; Moir, Susan; Gadina, Massimo; McCoy, Phil; Wesley, Robert; Rother, Kristina I; Rother, Kristina; Hildebrand, Peter W; Brogan, Paul; Krüger, Elke; Aksentijevich, Ivona; Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela

    2015-11-01

    Autosomal recessive mutations in proteasome subunit β 8 (PSMB8), which encodes the inducible proteasome subunit β5i, cause the immune-dysregulatory disease chronic atypical neutrophilic dermatosis with lipodystrophy and elevated temperature (CANDLE), which is classified as a proteasome-associated autoinflammatory syndrome (PRAAS). Here, we identified 8 mutations in 4 proteasome genes, PSMA3 (encodes α7), PSMB4 (encodes β7), PSMB9 (encodes β1i), and proteasome maturation protein (POMP), that have not been previously associated with disease and 1 mutation in PSMB8 that has not been previously reported. One patient was compound heterozygous for PSMB4 mutations, 6 patients from 4 families were heterozygous for a missense mutation in 1 inducible proteasome subunit and a mutation in a constitutive proteasome subunit, and 1 patient was heterozygous for a POMP mutation, thus establishing a digenic and autosomal dominant inheritance pattern of PRAAS. Function evaluation revealed that these mutations variably affect transcription, protein expression, protein folding, proteasome assembly, and, ultimately, proteasome activity. Moreover, defects in proteasome formation and function were recapitulated by siRNA-mediated knockdown of the respective subunits in primary fibroblasts from healthy individuals. Patient-isolated hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells exhibited a strong IFN gene-expression signature, irrespective of genotype. Additionally, chemical proteasome inhibition or progressive depletion of proteasome subunit gene transcription with siRNA induced transcription of type I IFN genes in healthy control cells. Our results provide further insight into CANDLE genetics and link global proteasome dysfunction to increased type I IFN production. PMID:26524591

  12. Additive loss-of-function proteasome subunit mutations in CANDLE/PRAAS patients promote type I IFN production

    PubMed Central

    Brehm, Anja; Liu, Yin; Sheikh, Afzal; Marrero, Bernadette; Omoyinmi, Ebun; Zhou, Qing; Montealegre, Gina; Biancotto, Angelique; Reinhardt, Adam; Almeida de Jesus, Adriana; Pelletier, Martin; Tsai, Wanxia L.; Remmers, Elaine F.; Kardava, Lela; Hill, Suvimol; Kim, Hanna; Lachmann, Helen J.; Megarbane, Andre; Chae, Jae Jin; Brady, Jilian; Castillo, Rhina D.; Brown, Diane; Casano, Angel Vera; Gao, Ling; Chapelle, Dawn; Huang, Yan; Stone, Deborah; Chen, Yongqing; Sotzny, Franziska; Lee, Chyi-Chia Richard; Kastner, Daniel L.; Torrelo, Antonio; Zlotogorski, Abraham; Moir, Susan; Gadina, Massimo; McCoy, Phil; Wesley, Robert; Rother, Kristina; Hildebrand, Peter W.; Brogan, Paul; Krüger, Elke; Aksentijevich, Ivona; Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela

    2015-01-01

    Autosomal recessive mutations in proteasome subunit β 8 (PSMB8), which encodes the inducible proteasome subunit β5i, cause the immune-dysregulatory disease chronic atypical neutrophilic dermatosis with lipodystrophy and elevated temperature (CANDLE), which is classified as a proteasome-associated autoinflammatory syndrome (PRAAS). Here, we identified 8 mutations in 4 proteasome genes, PSMA3 (encodes α7), PSMB4 (encodes β7), PSMB9 (encodes β1i), and proteasome maturation protein (POMP), that have not been previously associated with disease and 1 mutation in PSMB8 that has not been previously reported. One patient was compound heterozygous for PSMB4 mutations, 6 patients from 4 families were heterozygous for a missense mutation in 1 inducible proteasome subunit and a mutation in a constitutive proteasome subunit, and 1 patient was heterozygous for a POMP mutation, thus establishing a digenic and autosomal dominant inheritance pattern of PRAAS. Function evaluation revealed that these mutations variably affect transcription, protein expression, protein folding, proteasome assembly, and, ultimately, proteasome activity. Moreover, defects in proteasome formation and function were recapitulated by siRNA-mediated knockdown of the respective subunits in primary fibroblasts from healthy individuals. Patient-isolated hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells exhibited a strong IFN gene-expression signature, irrespective of genotype. Additionally, chemical proteasome inhibition or progressive depletion of proteasome subunit gene transcription with siRNA induced transcription of type I IFN genes in healthy control cells. Our results provide further insight into CANDLE genetics and link global proteasome dysfunction to increased type I IFN production. PMID:26524591

  13. High temperature gas cleaning using honeycomb barrier filter on a coal-fired circulating fluidized bed combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, B.; Raskin, N.

    1996-12-31

    An efficient particulate hot gas cleaning equipment is a must for the successful commercialization of high efficiency pressurized coal-fired energy conversion systems. Many types of ceramic barrier filter systems are under development during the past decade. Significant progress has been made on the mechanical packaging of ceramic materials at high temperature (up to 900 C) environment. However, there is still considerable difficulty in operating the candle type filters at temperatures close to 900 C. CeraFilter Systems, Inc., and CeraMem Corporation are developing a new type of monolith honeycomb filters for high temperature and high pressure applications. The honeycomb filters have been tested downstream of a coal-fired atmospheric circulating fluidized bed combustor. Coal was fired with limestone as the SO{sub 2} control sorbent. Two test runs were conducted, each at 870 C and at a filtration velocity of 2.2--2.3 cm/s. The testing included both high speed and conventional data acquisition to monitor effects of the cleaning pulses and long term pressure drop characteristics. Dust loadings were measured before and after the filter by the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) of Grand Forks, North Dakota. The dust capture efficiency of the Filter was very high and could easily meet the strict particulate emission level requirements and the allowable dust loading into a gas turbine stream.

  14. MST Filterability Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M. R.; Burket, P. R.; Duignan, M. R.

    2015-03-12

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently treating radioactive liquid waste with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). The low filter flux through the ARP has limited the rate at which radioactive liquid waste can be treated. Recent filter flux has averaged approximately 5 gallons per minute (gpm). Salt Batch 6 has had a lower processing rate and required frequent filter cleaning. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has a desire to understand the causes of the low filter flux and to increase ARP/MCU throughput. In addition, at the time the testing started, SRR was assessing the impact of replacing the 0.1 micron filter with a 0.5 micron filter. This report describes testing of MST filterability to investigate the impact of filter pore size and MST particle size on filter flux and testing of filter enhancers to attempt to increase filter flux. The authors constructed a laboratory-scale crossflow filter apparatus with two crossflow filters operating in parallel. One filter was a 0.1 micron Mott sintered SS filter and the other was a 0.5 micron Mott sintered SS filter. The authors also constructed a dead-end filtration apparatus to conduct screening tests with potential filter aids and body feeds, referred to as filter enhancers. The original baseline for ARP was 5.6 M sodium salt solution with a free hydroxide concentration of approximately 1.7 M.3 ARP has been operating with a sodium concentration of approximately 6.4 M and a free hydroxide concentration of approximately 2.5 M. SRNL conducted tests varying the concentration of sodium and free hydroxide to determine whether those changes had a significant effect on filter flux. The feed slurries for the MST filterability tests were composed of simple salts (NaOH, NaNO2, and NaNO3) and MST (0.2 – 4.8 g/L). The feed slurry for the filter enhancer tests contained simulated salt batch 6 supernate, MST, and filter enhancers.

  15. Survey of digital filtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagle, H. T., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A three part survey is made of the state-of-the-art in digital filtering. Part one presents background material including sampled data transformations and the discrete Fourier transform. Part two, digital filter theory, gives an in-depth coverage of filter categories, transfer function synthesis, quantization and other nonlinear errors, filter structures and computer aided design. Part three presents hardware mechanization techniques. Implementations by general purpose, mini-, and special-purpose computers are presented.

  16. Nonlinear optimal semirecursive filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daum, Frederick E.

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes a new hybrid approach to filtering, in which part of the filter is recursive but another part in non-recursive. The practical utility of this notion is to reduce computational complexity. In particular, if the non- recursive part of the filter is sufficiently small, then such a filter might be cost-effective to run in real-time with computer technology available now or in the future.

  17. The ribosome filter redux.

    PubMed

    Mauro, Vincent P; Edelman, Gerald M

    2007-09-15

    The ribosome filter hypothesis postulates that ribosomes are not simply translation machines but also function as regulatory elements that differentially affect or filter the translation of particular mRNAs. On the basis of new information, we take the opportunity here to review the ribosome filter hypothesis, suggest specific mechanisms of action, and discuss recent examples from the literature that support it. PMID:17890902

  18. Filter service system

    DOEpatents

    Sellers, Cheryl L.; Nordyke, Daniel S.; Crandell, Richard A.; Tomlins, Gregory; Fei, Dong; Panov, Alexander; Lane, William H.; Habeger, Craig F.

    2008-12-09

    According to an exemplary embodiment of the present disclosure, a system for removing matter from a filtering device includes a gas pressurization assembly. An element of the assembly is removably attachable to a first orifice of the filtering device. The system also includes a vacuum source fluidly connected to a second orifice of the filtering device.

  19. HEPA filter encapsulation

    DOEpatents

    Gates-Anderson, Dianne D.; Kidd, Scott D.; Bowers, John S.; Attebery, Ronald W.

    2003-01-01

    A low viscosity resin is delivered into a spent HEPA filter or other waste. The resin is introduced into the filter or other waste using a vacuum to assist in the mass transfer of the resin through the filter media or other waste.

  20. Nonlinear Attitude Filtering Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Crassidis, John L.; Cheng, Yang

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a survey of modern nonlinear filtering methods for attitude estimation. Early applications relied mostly on the extended Kalman filter for attitude estimation. Since these applications, several new approaches have been developed that have proven to be superior to the extended Kalman filter. Several of these approaches maintain the basic structure of the extended Kalman filter, but employ various modifications in order to provide better convergence or improve other performance characteristics. Examples of such approaches include: filter QUEST, extended QUEST, the super-iterated extended Kalman filter, the interlaced extended Kalman filter, and the second-order Kalman filter. Filters that propagate and update a discrete set of sigma points rather than using linearized equations for the mean and covariance are also reviewed. A two-step approach is discussed with a first-step state that linearizes the measurement model and an iterative second step to recover the desired attitude states. These approaches are all based on the Gaussian assumption that the probability density function is adequately specified by its mean and covariance. Other approaches that do not require this assumption are reviewed, including particle filters and a Bayesian filter based on a non-Gaussian, finite-parameter probability density function on SO(3). Finally, the predictive filter, nonlinear observers and adaptive approaches are shown. The strengths and weaknesses of the various approaches are discussed.

  1. Practical Active Capacitor Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuler, Robert L., Jr. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described that filters an electrical signal. The filtering uses a capacitor multiplier circuit where the capacitor multiplier circuit uses at least one amplifier circuit and at least one capacitor. A filtered electrical signal results from a direct connection from an output of the at least one amplifier circuit.

  2. The intractable cigarette ‘filter problem’

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    production. The synthetic plastic cellulose acetate became the fundamental cigarette filter material. By the mid-1960s, the meaning of the phrase ‘filter problem’ changed, such that the effort to develop effective filters became a campaign to market cigarette designs that would sustain the myth of cigarette filter efficacy. Conclusions This study indicates that cigarette designers at Philip Morris, British-American Tobacco, Lorillard and other companies believed for a time that they might be able to reduce some of the most dangerous substances in mainstream smoke through advanced engineering of filter tips. In their attempts to accomplish this, they developed the now ubiquitous cellulose acetate cigarette filter. By the mid-1960s cigarette designers realised that the intractability of the ‘filter problem’ derived from a simple fact: that which is harmful in mainstream smoke and that which provides the smoker with ‘satisfaction’ are essentially one and the same. Only in the wake of this realisation did the agenda of cigarette designers appear to transition away from mitigating the health hazards of smoking and towards the perpetuation of the notion that cigarette filters are effective in reducing these hazards. Filters became a marketing tool, designed to keep and recruit smokers as consumers of these hazardous products. PMID:21504917

  3. Regenerative particulate filter development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Descamp, V. A.; Boex, M. W.; Hussey, M. W.; Larson, T. P.

    1972-01-01

    Development, design, and fabrication of a prototype filter regeneration unit for regenerating clean fluid particle filter elements by using a backflush/jet impingement technique are reported. Development tests were also conducted on a vortex particle separator designed for use in zero gravity environment. A maintainable filter was designed, fabricated and tested that allows filter element replacement without any leakage or spillage of system fluid. Also described are spacecraft fluid system design and filter maintenance techniques with respect to inflight maintenance for the space shuttle and space station.

  4. METAL FILTERS FOR PRESSURIZED FLUID BED COMBUSTION (PFBC) APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Alvin

    2004-01-02

    Advanced coal and biomass-based gas turbine power generation technologies (IGCC, PFBC, PCFBC, and Hipps) are currently under development and demonstration. Efforts at the Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (SWPC) have been focused on the development and demonstration of hot gas filter systems as an enabling technology for power generation. As part of the demonstration effort, SWPC has been actively involved in the development of advanced filter materials and component configuration, has participated in numerous surveillance programs characterizing the material properties and microstructure of field-tested filter elements, and has undertaken extended, accelerated filter life testing programs. This report reviews SWPC's material and component assessment efforts, identifying the performance, stability, and life of porous commercial metal, advanced alloy, and intermetallic filters under simulated, pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) conditions.

  5. Compact planar microwave blocking filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    U-Yen, Kongpop (Inventor); Wollack, Edward J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A compact planar microwave blocking filter includes a dielectric substrate and a plurality of filter unit elements disposed on the substrate. The filter unit elements are interconnected in a symmetrical series cascade with filter unit elements being organized in the series based on physical size. In the filter, a first filter unit element of the plurality of filter unit elements includes a low impedance open-ended line configured to reduce the shunt capacitance of the filter.

  6. X-ray metal film filters at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keski-Kuha, Ritva A. M.

    1989-01-01

    Thin aluminum foil filters have been evaluated at cryogenic temperatures. The results of the test program, including cold cycling and vibration testing, indicate that these filters are fully successful at cryogenic temperatures and can provide the high X-ray transmittance and high background rejection required for the blocking filters which are being developed for the X-Ray Spectrometer, one of the focal plane instruments on the Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility.

  7. Desensitized Optimal Filtering and Sensor Fusion Toolkit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karlgaard, Christopher D.

    2015-01-01

    Analytical Mechanics Associates, Inc., has developed a software toolkit that filters and processes navigational data from multiple sensor sources. A key component of the toolkit is a trajectory optimization technique that reduces the sensitivity of Kalman filters with respect to model parameter uncertainties. The sensor fusion toolkit also integrates recent advances in adaptive Kalman and sigma-point filters for non-Gaussian problems with error statistics. This Phase II effort provides new filtering and sensor fusion techniques in a convenient package that can be used as a stand-alone application for ground support and/or onboard use. Its modular architecture enables ready integration with existing tools. A suite of sensor models and noise distribution as well as Monte Carlo analysis capability are included to enable statistical performance evaluations.

  8. How advances in light technology have shaped ENT.

    PubMed

    Mozaffari, M; Fishman, J M; Tolley, N S

    2016-02-01

    The development of light technologies, allowing anatomical visualisation of otherwise hidden structures, led to significant advances in ENT in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Natural light from the sun, and from candles, was initially harnessed using mirrors. Later, the invention of limelight and electricity preceded the emergence of the modern-day endoscope, which, in tandem with the discovery of coherent fibre-optics in the 1950s, significantly expanded the surgical repertoire available to otolaryngologists. This study aimed to trace the rich history of ENT through the specialty's use of light. PMID:26669735

  9. Nitride-bonded silicon carbide composite filter

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, B.N.; DiPietro, S.G.

    1995-12-01

    The objective of this program is to develop and demonstrate an advanced hot gas filter, using ceramic component technology, with enhanced durability to provide increased resistance to thermal fatigue and crack propagation. The material is silicon carbide fiber reinforced nitride bonded silicon carbide.

  10. Fabric filter blinding mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Notestein, J.E.; Shang, J.Y.

    1982-08-01

    This discussion of various bag/cloth filter degradation mechanisms is mostly common sense. However, this information is occasionally lost in the subtleties of real-system operation. Although this paper is written with reference to fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) applications, the insights are generally applicable. For enumeration of particular filter fabric and baghouse experiences in FBC applications, the reader is referred to a report by Davy McKee Corporatin (no date). A fabric filter is a composite matrix of fibers oriented to retain the dust particles from dust-laden gas. The cleaned gas passes through the fabric filter; the retained dust particles are deposited on the surface of (and within) the fiber matrix. The retained dust can be later removed through mechanical means. The fabric may be made of any fibrous material, spun in yarn, and then woven, impacted, needled, or bonded into a felt. Deep penetration of aggregated fine particles, lack of dust removal during filter cleaning, and chars or condensed aerosols may contribute to the increase in pressure drop across the filter. This increases the filter operation power consumption and, consequently, reduces the filtration capacity. The phenomenon of building a high-pressure drop in spite of filter cleaning provisions is known as blinding. In order to maintain an acceptable gas throughput, blinding problems must be addressed. Recommendations are given: maintain temperature above dew point, use filter aids, by-pass filter during start-up or operational upsets, etc.

  11. Filtering separators having filter cleaning apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Margraf, A.

    1984-08-28

    This invention relates to filtering separators of the kind having a housing which is subdivided by a partition, provided with parallel rows of holes or slots, into a dust-laden gas space for receiving filter elements positioned in parallel rows and being impinged upon by dust-laden gas from the outside towards the inside, and a clean gas space. In addition, the housing is provided with a chamber for cleansing the filter element surfaces of a row by counterflow action while covering at the same time the partition holes or slots leading to the adjacent rows of filter elements. The chamber is arranged for the supply of compressed air to at least one injector arranged to feed compressed air and secondary air to the row of filter elements to be cleansed. The chamber is also reciprocatingly displaceable along the partition in periodic and intermittent manner. According to the invention, a surface of the chamber facing towards the partition covers at least two of the rows of holes or slots of the partition, and the chamber is closed upon itself with respect to the clean gas space, and is connected to a compressed air reservoir via a distributor pipe and a control valve. At least one of the rows of holes or slots of the partition and the respective row of filter elements in flow communication therewith are in flow communication with the discharge side of at least one injector acted upon with compressed air. At least one other row of the rows of holes or slots of the partition and the respective row of filter elements is in flow communication with the suction side of the injector.

  12. Corpora Processing and Computational Scaffolding for a Web-Based English Learning Environment: The CANDLE Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liou, Hsien-Chin; Chang, Jason S; Chen, Hao-Jan; Lin, Chih-Cheng; Liaw, Meei-Ling; Gao, Zhao-Ming; Jang, Jyh-Shing Roger; Yeh, Yuli; Chuang, Thomas C.; You, Geeng-Neng

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an innovative web-based environment for English language learning with advanced data-driven and statistical approaches. The project uses various corpora, including a Chinese-English parallel corpus ("Sinorama") and various natural language processing (NLP) tools to construct effective English learning tasks…

  13. Generic Kalman Filter Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lisano, Michael E., II; Crues, Edwin Z.

    2005-01-01

    The Generic Kalman Filter (GKF) software provides a standard basis for the development of application-specific Kalman-filter programs. Historically, Kalman filters have been implemented by customized programs that must be written, coded, and debugged anew for each unique application, then tested and tuned with simulated or actual measurement data. Total development times for typical Kalman-filter application programs have ranged from months to weeks. The GKF software can simplify the development process and reduce the development time by eliminating the need to re-create the fundamental implementation of the Kalman filter for each new application. The GKF software is written in the ANSI C programming language. It contains a generic Kalman-filter-development directory that, in turn, contains a code for a generic Kalman filter function; more specifically, it contains a generically designed and generically coded implementation of linear, linearized, and extended Kalman filtering algorithms, including algorithms for state- and covariance-update and -propagation functions. The mathematical theory that underlies the algorithms is well known and has been reported extensively in the open technical literature. Also contained in the directory are a header file that defines generic Kalman-filter data structures and prototype functions and template versions of application-specific subfunction and calling navigation/estimation routine code and headers. Once the user has provided a calling routine and the required application-specific subfunctions, the application-specific Kalman-filter software can be compiled and executed immediately. During execution, the generic Kalman-filter function is called from a higher-level navigation or estimation routine that preprocesses measurement data and post-processes output data. The generic Kalman-filter function uses the aforementioned data structures and five implementation- specific subfunctions, which have been developed by the user on

  14. Moving granular-bed filter development program. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Newby, R.A.; Yang, W.C.; Smeltzer, E.E.; Lippert, T.E.

    1994-04-01

    Advanced, coal-based, power plants, such as IGCC and Advanced-PFBC, are currently nearing commercial demonstration. These power plant technologies require hot gas filtration as part of their gas cleaning trains. Ceramic barrier filters are the major filter candidates being developed for these hot gas cleaning applications. While ceramic barrier filters achieve high levels of particle removal, concerns exist for their reliability and operability in these applications. An alternative hot gas filtration technology is the moving granular bed filter. An advanced, moving granular bed filter has been conceived, and early development activities performed by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Science and Technology Center. This document reports on the Base Contract tasks performed to resolve the barrier technical issues for this technology. The concept, the Standleg Moving Granular Bed Filter (SMGBF) has a concurrent downward, gas and bed media flow configuration that results in simplified features and improved scaleup feasibility compared to alternative designs. Two modes of bed media operation were assessed in the program: once-through using pelletized power plant waste as bed media, and recycle of bed media via standleg and pneumatic transport techniques. Cold Model testing; high-temperature, high-pressure testing; and pelletization testing using advanced power plant wastes, have been conducted in the program. A commercial, economic assessment of the SMGBF technology was performed for IGCC and Advanced-PFBC applications. The evaluation shows that the barrier technical issues can be resolved, and that the technology is potentially competitive with ceramic barrier filters.

  15. Development of Simulation System for Hot Gas Filtration by Ceramic Candle Filters on High Temperature and/or High Pressure Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Park, S.J.; Lim, J.H.; Kim, S.D.; Choi, H.K.; Park, H,S.; Park, Y.O.

    2002-09-19

    Hot gas filtration from industrial processes offers various advantages in terms of improvement of process efficiencies, heat recovery and protection of plant installation. Especially hot gas filtration is an essential technology for pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC).

  16. Concentric Split Flow Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stapleton, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A concentric split flow filter may be configured to remove odor and/or bacteria from pumped air used to collect urine and fecal waste products. For instance, filter may be designed to effectively fill the volume that was previously considered wasted surrounding the transport tube of a waste management system. The concentric split flow filter may be configured to split the air flow, with substantially half of the air flow to be treated traveling through a first bed of filter media and substantially the other half of the air flow to be treated traveling through the second bed of filter media. This split flow design reduces the air velocity by 50%. In this way, the pressure drop of filter may be reduced by as much as a factor of 4 as compare to the conventional design.

  17. Optically tunable optical filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Robert T. B.; Wah, Christopher; Iizuka, Keigo; Shimotahira, Hiroshi

    1995-12-01

    We experimentally demonstrate an optically tunable optical filter that uses photorefractive barium titanate. With our filter we implement a spectrum analyzer at 632.8 nm with a resolution of 1.2 nm. We simulate a wavelength-division multiplexing system by separating two semiconductor laser diodes, at 1560 nm and 1578 nm, with the same filter. The filter has a bandwidth of 6.9 nm. We also use the same filter to take 2.5-nm-wide slices out of a 20-nm-wide superluminescent diode centered at 840 nm. As a result, we experimentally demonstrate a phenomenal tuning range from 632.8 to 1578 nm with a single filtering device.

  18. Contactor/filter improvements

    DOEpatents

    Stelman, D.

    1988-06-30

    A contactor/filter arrangement for removing particulate contaminants from a gaseous stream is described. The filter includes a housing having a substantially vertically oriented granular material retention member with upstream and downstream faces, a substantially vertically oriented microporous gas filter element, wherein the retention member and the filter element are spaced apart to provide a zone for the passage of granular material therethrough. A gaseous stream containing particulate contaminants passes through the gas inlet means as well as through the upstream face of the granular material retention member, passing through the retention member, the body of granular material, the microporous gas filter element, exiting out of the gas outlet means. A cover screen isolates the filter element from contact with the moving granular bed. In one embodiment, the granular material is comprised of porous alumina impregnated with CuO, with the cover screen cleaned by the action of the moving granular material as well as by backflow pressure pulses. 6 figs.

  19. Machinability of drilling T700/LT-03A carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) composite laminates using candle stick drill and multi-facet drill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cheng-Dong; Qiu, Kun-Xian; Chen, Ming; Cai, Xiao-Jiang

    2015-03-01

    Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) composite laminates are widely used in aerospace and aircraft structural components due to their superior properties. However, they are regarded as difficult-to-cut materials because of bad surface quality and low productivity. Drilling is the most common hole making process for CFRP composite laminates and drilling induced delamination damage usually occurs severely at the exit side of drilling holes, which strongly deteriorate holes quality. In this work, the candle stick drill and multi-facet drill are employed to evaluate the machinability of drilling T700/LT-03A CFRP composite laminates in terms of thrust force, delamination, holes diameter and holes surface roughness. S/N ratio is used to characterize the thrust force while an ellipse-shaped delamination model is established to quantitatively analyze the delamination. The best combination of drilling parameters are determined by full consideration of S/N ratios of thrust force and the delamination. The results indicate that candle stick drill will induce the unexpected ellipse-shaped delamination even at its best drilling parameters of spindle speed of 10,000 rpm and feed rate of 0.004 mm/tooth. However, the multi-facet drill cutting at the relative lower feed rate of 0.004 mm/tooth and lower spindle speed of 6000 rpm can effectively prevent the delamination. Comprehensively, holes quality obtained by multi-facet drill is much more superior to those obtained by candle stick drill.

  20. Hybrid Filter Membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laicer, Castro; Rasimick, Brian; Green, Zachary

    2012-01-01

    Cabin environmental control is an important issue for a successful Moon mission. Due to the unique environment of the Moon, lunar dust control is one of the main problems that significantly diminishes the air quality inside spacecraft cabins. Therefore, this innovation was motivated by NASA s need to minimize the negative health impact that air-suspended lunar dust particles have on astronauts in spacecraft cabins. It is based on fabrication of a hybrid filter comprising nanofiber nonwoven layers coated on porous polymer membranes with uniform cylindrical pores. This design results in a high-efficiency gas particulate filter with low pressure drop and the ability to be easily regenerated to restore filtration performance. A hybrid filter was developed consisting of a porous membrane with uniform, micron-sized, cylindrical pore channels coated with a thin nanofiber layer. Compared to conventional filter media such as a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter, this filter is designed to provide high particle efficiency, low pressure drop, and the ability to be regenerated. These membranes have well-defined micron-sized pores and can be used independently as air filters with discreet particle size cut-off, or coated with nanofiber layers for filtration of ultrafine nanoscale particles. The filter consists of a thin design intended to facilitate filter regeneration by localized air pulsing. The two main features of this invention are the concept of combining a micro-engineered straight-pore membrane with nanofibers. The micro-engineered straight pore membrane can be prepared with extremely high precision. Because the resulting membrane pores are straight and not tortuous like those found in conventional filters, the pressure drop across the filter is significantly reduced. The nanofiber layer is applied as a very thin coating to enhance filtration efficiency for fine nanoscale particles. Additionally, the thin nanofiber coating is designed to promote capture of

  1. Filter vapor trap

    DOEpatents

    Guon, Jerold

    1976-04-13

    A sintered filter trap is adapted for insertion in a gas stream of sodium vapor to condense and deposit sodium thereon. The filter is heated and operated above the melting temperature of sodium, resulting in a more efficient means to remove sodium particulates from the effluent inert gas emanating from the surface of a liquid sodium pool. Preferably the filter leaves are precoated with a natrophobic coating such as tetracosane.

  2. Independent task Fourier filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caulfield, H. John

    2001-11-01

    Since the early 1960s, a major part of optical computing systems has been Fourier pattern recognition, which takes advantage of high speed filter changes to enable powerful nonlinear discrimination in `real time.' Because filter has a task quite independent of the tasks of the other filters, they can be applied and evaluated in parallel or, in a simple approach I describe, in sequence very rapidly. Thus I use the name ITFF (independent task Fourier filter). These filters can also break very complex discrimination tasks into easily handled parts, so the wonderful space invariance properties of Fourier filtering need not be sacrificed to achieve high discrimination and good generalizability even for ultracomplex discrimination problems. The training procedure proceeds sequentially, as the task for a given filter is defined a posteriori by declaring it to be the discrimination of particular members of set A from all members of set B with sufficient margin. That is, we set the threshold to achieve the desired margin and note the A members discriminated by that threshold. Discriminating those A members from all members of B becomes the task of that filter. Those A members are then removed from the set A, so no other filter will be asked to perform that already accomplished task.

  3. Filter construction and design.

    PubMed

    Jornitz, Maik W

    2006-01-01

    Sterilizing and pre-filters are manufactured in different formats and designs. The criteria for the specific designs are set by the application and the specifications of the filter user. The optimal filter unit or even system requires evaluation, such as flow rate, throughput, unspecific adsorption, steam sterilizability and chemical compatibility. These parameters are commonly tested within a qualification phase, which ensures that an optimal filter design and combination finds its use. If such design investigations are neglected it could be costly in the process scale. PMID:16570863

  4. Nanofiber Filters Eliminate Contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    With support from Phase I and II SBIR funding from Johnson Space Center, Argonide Corporation of Sanford, Florida tested and developed its proprietary nanofiber water filter media. Capable of removing more than 99.99 percent of dangerous particles like bacteria, viruses, and parasites, the media was incorporated into the company's commercial NanoCeram water filter, an inductee into the Space Foundation's Space Technology Hall of Fame. In addition to its drinking water filters, Argonide now produces large-scale nanofiber filters used as part of the reverse osmosis process for industrial water purification.

  5. Linear phase compressive filter

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1995-06-06

    A phase linear filter for soliton suppression is in the form of a laddered series of stages of non-commensurate low pass filters with each low pass filter having a series coupled inductance (L) and a reverse biased, voltage dependent varactor diode, to ground which acts as a variable capacitance (C). L and C values are set to levels which correspond to a linear or conventional phase linear filter. Inductance is mapped directly from that of an equivalent nonlinear transmission line and capacitance is mapped from the linear case using a large signal equivalent of a nonlinear transmission line. 2 figs.

  6. Linear phase compressive filter

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1995-01-01

    A phase linear filter for soliton suppression is in the form of a laddered series of stages of non-commensurate low pass filters with each low pass filter having a series coupled inductance (L) and a reverse biased, voltage dependent varactor diode, to ground which acts as a variable capacitance (C). L and C values are set to levels which correspond to a linear or conventional phase linear filter. Inductance is mapped directly from that of an equivalent nonlinear transmission line and capacitance is mapped from the linear case using a large signal equivalent of a nonlinear transmission line.

  7. Uneven-order decentered Shapiro filters for boundary filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falissard, F.

    2015-07-01

    This paper addresses the use of Shapiro filters for boundary filtering. A new class of uneven-order decentered Shapiro filters is proposed and compared to classical Shapiro filters and even-order decentered Shapiro filters. The theoretical analysis shows that the proposed boundary filters are more accurate than the centered Shapiro filters and more robust than the even-order decentered boundary filters usable at the same distance to the boundary. The benefit of the new boundary filters is assessed for computations using the compressible Euler equations.

  8. TYPE II-P SUPERNOVAE FROM THE SDSS-II SUPERNOVA SURVEY AND THE STANDARDIZED CANDLE METHOD

    SciTech Connect

    D'Andrea, Chris B.; Sako, Masao; Dilday, Benjamin; Jha, Saurabh; Frieman, Joshua A.; Kessler, Richard; Holtzman, Jon; Konishi, Kohki; Yasuda, Naoki; Schneider, D. P.; Sollerman, Jesper; Wheeler, J. Craig; Cinabro, David; Nichol, Robert C.; Lampeitl, Hubert; Smith, Mathew; Atlee, David W.; Bassett, Bruce; Castander, Francisco J.; Goobar, Ariel

    2010-01-01

    We apply the Standardized Candle Method (SCM) for Type II Plateau supernovae (SNe II-P), which relates the velocity of the ejecta of a SN to its luminosity during the plateau, to 15 SNe II-P discovered over the three season run of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II Supernova Survey. The redshifts of these SNe-0.027 < z < 0.144-cover a range hitherto sparsely sampled in the literature; in particular, our SNe II-P sample contains nearly as many SNe in the Hubble flow (z > 0.01) as all of the current literature on the SCM combined. We find that the SDSS SNe have a very small intrinsic I-band dispersion (0.22 mag), which can be attributed to selection effects. When the SCM is applied to the combined SDSS-plus-literature set of SNe II-P, the dispersion increases to 0.29 mag, larger than the scatter for either set of SNe separately. We show that the standardization cannot be further improved by eliminating SNe with positive plateau decline rates, as proposed in Poznanski et al. We thoroughly examine all potential systematic effects and conclude that for the SCM to be useful for cosmology, the methods currently used to determine the Fe II velocity at day 50 must be improved, and spectral templates able to encompass the intrinsic variations of Type II-P SNe will be needed.

  9. Urinary Microbiota Associated with Preterm Birth: Results from the Conditions Affecting Neurocognitive Development and Learning in Early Childhood (CANDLE) Study.

    PubMed

    Ollberding, Nicholas J; Völgyi, Eszter; Macaluso, Maurizio; Kumar, Ranjit; Morrow, Casey; Tylavsky, Frances A; Piyathilake, Chandrika J

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is the leading cause of infant morbidity and mortality. Genitourinary infection is implicated in the initiation of spontaneous PTB; however, examination of the urinary microbiota in relation to preterm delivery using next-generation sequencing technologies is lacking. In a case-control study nested within the Conditions Affecting Neurocognitive Development and Learning in Early Childhood (CANDLE) study, we examined associations between the urinary microbiota and PTB. A total of 49 cases (delivery < 37 weeks gestation) and 48 controls (delivery ≥ 37 weeks gestation) balanced on health insurance type were included in the present analysis. Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene V4 region was performed on urine samples collected during the second trimester. We observed no difference in taxa richness, evenness, or community composition between cases and controls or for gestational age modeled as a continuous variable. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) classified to Prevotella, Sutterella, L. iners, Blautia, Kocuria, Lachnospiraceae, and S.marcescens were enriched among cases (FDR corrected p≤ 0.05). A urinary microbiota clustering partition dominated by S. marcescens was also associated with PTB (OR = 3.97, 95% CI: 1.19-13.24). These data suggest a limited role for the urinary microbiota in PTB when measured during the second trimester by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The enrichment among cases in several organisms previously reported to be associated with genitourinary pathology requires confirmation in future studies to rule out the potential for false positive findings. PMID:27611781

  10. Downflow dust filter

    SciTech Connect

    Richard, K.L.

    1986-09-09

    This patent describes an industrial dust filter apparatus comprising: a housing including upper, intermediate and lower sections, the upper section having a top opening inlet for particulate laden gases and the lower section tapering downwardly to a particulate outlet; a plurality of vertically arranged substantially cylindrical filters supported in substantially parallel relationship to each other in the intermediate section of the housing, the filters being closed at their upper ends and having their exterior filter surfaces exposed to particulate laden gases from the inlet; at least one horizontal duct extending across the housing beneath the filters, closed at one end and opening at its other end to a clean gas outlet through a side wall of the intermediate housing section; means communicating the lower open end of the filters through the upper walls of the duct so that the duct functions as a clean gas plenum; a plurality of verturis, vertically supported in the duct, on aligned with each filter; and means in the duct for pulse firing a jet of air upwardly through the venturis into the interior of the filters to remove particulates from the outer surfaces thereof.

  11. Filtering reprecipitated slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Morrissey, M.F.

    1992-12-31

    As part of the Late Washing Demonstration at Savannah River Technology Center, Interim Waste Technology has filtered reprecipitated and non reprecipitated slurry with the Experimental Laboratory Filter (ELF) at TNX. Reprecipitated slurry generates higher permeate fluxes than non reprecipitated slurry. Washing reprecipitated slurry may require a defoamer because reprecipitation encourages foaming.

  12. Filtering reprecipitated slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Morrissey, M.F.

    1992-01-01

    As part of the Late Washing Demonstration at Savannah River Technology Center, Interim Waste Technology has filtered reprecipitated and non reprecipitated slurry with the Experimental Laboratory Filter (ELF) at TNX. Reprecipitated slurry generates higher permeate fluxes than non reprecipitated slurry. Washing reprecipitated slurry may require a defoamer because reprecipitation encourages foaming.

  13. Active rejector filter

    SciTech Connect

    Kuchinskii, A.G.; Pirogov, S.G.; Savchenko, V.M.; Yakushev, A.K.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes an active rejector filter for suppressing noise signals in the frequency range 50-100 Hz and for extracting a vlf information signal. The filter has the following characteristics: a high input impedance, a resonant frequency of 75 Hz, a Q of 1.25, and an attenuation factor of 53 dB at resonant frequency.

  14. Sintered composite filter

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, W.

    1986-05-02

    A particulate filter medium formed of a sintered composite of 0.5 micron diameter quartz fibers and 2 micron diameter stainless steel fibers is described. Preferred composition is about 40 vol.% quartz and about 60 vol.% stainless steel fibers. The media is sintered at about 1100/sup 0/C to bond the stainless steel fibers into a cage network which holds the quartz fibers. High filter efficiency and low flow resistance are provided by the smaller quartz fibers. High strength is provided by the stainless steel fibers. The resulting media has a high efficiency and low pressure drop similar to the standard HEPA media, with tensile strength at least four times greater, and a maximum operating temperature of about 550/sup 0/C. The invention also includes methods to form the composite media and a HEPA filter utilizing the composite media. The filter media can be used to filter particles in both liquids and gases.

  15. Sub-micron filter

    DOEpatents

    Tepper, Frederick; Kaledin, Leonid

    2009-10-13

    Aluminum hydroxide fibers approximately 2 nanometers in diameter and with surface areas ranging from 200 to 650 m.sup.2/g have been found to be highly electropositive. When dispersed in water they are able to attach to and retain electronegative particles. When combined into a composite filter with other fibers or particles they can filter bacteria and nano size particulates such as viruses and colloidal particles at high flux through the filter. Such filters can be used for purification and sterilization of water, biological, medical and pharmaceutical fluids, and as a collector/concentrator for detection and assay of microbes and viruses. The alumina fibers are also capable of filtering sub-micron inorganic and metallic particles to produce ultra pure water. The fibers are suitable as a substrate for growth of cells. Macromolecules such as proteins may be separated from each other based on their electronegative charges.

  16. Implicit Kalman filtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skliar, M.; Ramirez, W. F.

    1997-01-01

    For an implicitly defined discrete system, a new algorithm for Kalman filtering is developed and an efficient numerical implementation scheme is proposed. Unlike the traditional explicit approach, the implicit filter can be readily applied to ill-conditioned systems and allows for generalization to descriptor systems. The implementation of the implicit filter depends on the solution of the congruence matrix equation (A1)(Px)(AT1) = Py. We develop a general iterative method for the solution of this equation, and prove necessary and sufficient conditions for convergence. It is shown that when the system matrices of an implicit system are sparse, the implicit Kalman filter requires significantly less computer time and storage to implement as compared to the traditional explicit Kalman filter. Simulation results are presented to illustrate and substantiate the theoretical developments.

  17. Multidimensional synthetic estimation filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monroe, Stanley E., Jr.; Juday, Richard D.

    1990-01-01

    The synthetic estimation filter (SEF) crafts an affine variation into its response to a changing parameter (e.g. scale or rotation). Sets of such filters are used in an estimation correlator to reduce the number of filters required for a given tracking accuracy. By overspecifying the system (one more SEF than parameters to be tracked), the ratio of correlation responses between filters forms a robust estimator into the spanned domain of the parameters. Previous results dealt with a laboratory correlator which could track a single parameter. This paper explores the SEF and the estimator's extension to more dimensions. A 2D example is given in which a reduction of filters from 25 to 3 is demonstrated to span a 4-degree square portion of pose space.

  18. Information geometric nonlinear filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, Nigel J.

    2015-06-01

    This paper develops information geometric representations for nonlinear filters in continuous time. The posterior distribution associated with an abstract nonlinear filtering problem is shown to satisfy a stochastic differential equation on a Hilbert information manifold. This supports the Fisher metric as a pseudo-Riemannian metric. Flows of Shannon information are shown to be connected with the quadratic variation of the process of posterior distributions in this metric. Apart from providing a suitable setting in which to study such information-theoretic properties, the Hilbert manifold has an appropriate topology from the point of view of multi-objective filter approximations. A general class of finite-dimensional exponential filters is shown to fit within this framework, and an intrinsic evolution equation, involving Amari's -1-covariant derivative, is developed for such filters. Three example systems, one of infinite dimension, are developed in detail.

  19. Molecular circuits for dynamic noise filtering.

    PubMed

    Zechner, Christoph; Seelig, Georg; Rullan, Marc; Khammash, Mustafa

    2016-04-26

    The invention of the Kalman filter is a crowning achievement of filtering theory-one that has revolutionized technology in countless ways. By dealing effectively with noise, the Kalman filter has enabled various applications in positioning, navigation, control, and telecommunications. In the emerging field of synthetic biology, noise and context dependency are among the key challenges facing the successful implementation of reliable, complex, and scalable synthetic circuits. Although substantial further advancement in the field may very well rely on effectively addressing these issues, a principled protocol to deal with noise-as provided by the Kalman filter-remains completely missing. Here we develop an optimal filtering theory that is suitable for noisy biochemical networks. We show how the resulting filters can be implemented at the molecular level and provide various simulations related to estimation, system identification, and noise cancellation problems. We demonstrate our approach in vitro using DNA strand displacement cascades as well as in vivo using flow cytometry measurements of a light-inducible circuit in Escherichia coli. PMID:27078094

  20. Development and Behavior of Metallic Filter Element and Numerical Simulation of Transport Phenomena during Filter Regeneration Process

    SciTech Connect

    Kuang, C.; Zhang, J.; Wang, F.; Chen, J.

    2002-09-19

    Ceramic filters have revealed to have good thermal resistance and chemical corrosion resistance, but they are brittle and lack of toughness, and liable to rupture under large temperature swings. Metallic filters with their high strength and toughness and good heat conduction ability have showed good thermal shock resistance, 310S and FeAl intermetallic filter elements have exhibited additionally good chemical corrosion resistance in oxidizing and sulfidizing atmosphere( Sawada 1999 and Sunil et al. 1999). The behavior of metallic filter elements at high temperature was investigated and the filtration efficiency of the filter units for hot gas from a coal gasifier unit was tested. Pulse-jet cleaning of filter elements is a key component in the operation of the filtration unit. The pulse-jet is introduced into the filter element cavities from the clean side, and the dust cakes on the outer surfaces of the filter elements are detached and fall into the filter vessel. Sequential on-line cleaning of filter element groups yields a filter operation with no shutdown for filter regeneration. Development of advanced technologies in the design and operation of the pulse cleaning is one of the important tasks in order to increase the system reliability, to improve the filter life and to increase the filtering performance. The regeneration of filter element in gas filtration at high temperature plays a very important role for the operation of the process. Based on experimental observation and field operation, a numerical model is set up to numerically simulate the momentum and heat transport phenomena in the regeneration process, which is essential for understanding of the process, the optimization of process parameters and improvement of the design of the structure of venturi nozzle and the configuration of the apparatus.

  1. Maximum yields might improve public health—if filter vents were banned: a lesson from the history of vented filters

    PubMed Central

    Kozlowski, L T; O'Connor, R J; Giovino, G A; Whetzel, C A; Pauly, J; Cummings, K M

    2006-01-01

    Filter ventilation is the dominant design feature of the modern cigarette that determines yields of tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide on smoking machine tests. The commercial use of filter ventilation was precipitated by the 1964 United States Surgeon‐General's report, further advanced by the adoption of an official Federal Trade Commission test in 1967, and still further advanced by the inclusion of a gas phase (carbon monoxide) measure in 1979. The first vented‐filter brand on the market in the United States (Carlton) in 1964 and the second major vented‐filter brand (True) in 1966 illustrate this. Ultimately, filter ventilation became a virtually required way to make very low tar cigarettes (less than 10 mg or, even more so, less than 5 mg tar). The key to the lower tar cigarette was not, in effect, the advanced selective filtration design characteristics or sophisticated tobacco selection or processing as envisioned by experts (although these techniques were and are used); the key to the very much lower tar cigarette was simply punching holes in the filter. We propose that the banning of filter vents, coupled with low maximum standard tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide yields, would contribute to making cigarettes much less palatable and foster smoking cessation or the use of clearly less hazardous nicotine delivery systems. It may be necessary to link low maximum yields with the banning of filter ventilation to achieve public health benefit from such maxima. PMID:16728759

  2. Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues. Quarterly report, January 1--March 31, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    The analyses of Hot Gas Stream Cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance studied under this contract are designed to address problems with filter operation that are apparently linked to characteristics of the collected ash. Task 1 is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters (APFs) and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters and their components. APF operations have also been limited by the strength and durability of the ceramic materials that have served as barrier filters for the capture of entrained HGCU ashes. Task 2 concerns testing and failure analyses of ceramic filter elements currently used in operating APFs and the characterization and evaluation of new ceramic materials. Task 1 research activities during the past quarter included characterizations of samples collected during a site visit on January 20 to the Department of Energy/Southern Company Services Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF). Comparisons were made between laboratory analyses of these PSDF ashes and field data obtained from facility operation. In addition, selected laboratory techniques were reviewed to assess their reproducibility and the influence of non-ideal effects and differences between laboratory and filter conditions on the quantities measured. Further work on the HGCU data base is planned for the next quarter. Two Dupont PRD-66 candle filters, one McDermott candle filter, one Blasch candle filter, and one Specific Surfaces candle filter were received at SRI for testing. A test plan and cutting plan for these candles was developed. Acquisition of two of the Dupont PRD-66 candle filters will allow candle-to-candle variability to be examined.

  3. METC/3M Cooperative Agreement CRADA 94-024 high temperature high pressure filter materials exposure test program. Volume 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    In conjunction with shakedown, operation, and desulfurization testing at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) 10 in. Fluid Bed Gasification and Cleanup facility, a series of tests was completed in cooperation with the Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company (3M). This cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) between METC and 3M was to evaluate exposure of 3M SICONEX{trademark} fiber-reinforced ceramic and NEXTEL{trademark} 312 and 550 ceramic fabric materials to a gasifying environment at high temperatures (1000--1100{degree}F) and high pressure (300 psia). Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company (3M) provided two 60 mm I.D. {times} 0.5 m SICONEX{trademark} spools and one each of the NEXTEL{trademark} 312 and 550 ceramic fabrics for exposure to coal gas from the METC gasifier. METC installed the materials in a vessel existing in the METC Cleanup Facility and provided process data in exchange for ceramic filter and ash/char characterization. Details of the CRADA are found in CRADA 94-024. This report contains METC`s contribution to CRADA 94-024. Four gasifier runs were conducted over a five month period to accumulate 483 hours of operation. During this time, 2 LayCer{trademark} 70/3 filters were used for filtering the coal gas while the SICONEX{trademark} and NEXTEL{trademark} were exposed along side of the filters. During one 89 hour test, one Laycer{trademark} 70/3 candle was installed with a 3M ceramic composite filter. The face velocity through the candles was maintained nominally at 2.5 ft/min throughout the testing.

  4. Method of filtering

    SciTech Connect

    White, H.R.

    1985-04-09

    This invention provides a non-fibrous combustible filter aid for vacuum pre-coat filter units which is effective to maintain a filter bed coating on rotary filter drums just sufficiently porous to pass the liquid of a slurry while retaining the slurry solids thereon and is capable of being scraped off the bed in thin film form with the slurry solids thereon. The filter aid comprises relatively non-compressible non-fibrous granular charcoal or nut shell particles having a dry bulk density from about 0.3 to about 0.6 grams per cubic centimeter, a particle density of about 1.4 to 1.7 grams per cubis centimeter and a particle size range of 30 to 125 microns. The filter aid of this invention is capable of being burned with the solids deposited thereon to recover the heat value thereof or to dispose of the solids, is free from silicates or other non-combustible ingredients, and is devoid of fibers which will interfere with the proper operation of the filter unit.

  5. Advanced capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ennis, J. B.; Buritz, R. S.

    1984-10-01

    This report describes an experimental program to develop and test advanced dielectric materials for capacitors for airborne power systems. Five classes of capacitors were considered: high rep rate and low rep rate pulse capacitors for use in pulse-forming networks, high voltage filter capacitors, high frequency AC capacitors for series resonant inverters, and AC filter capacitors. To meet these requirements, existing dielectric materials were modified, and new materials were developed. The initial goal was to develop an improved polysulfone film with fewer imperfections that could operate at significantly higher electrical stresses. It was shown that contaminants enter the film via the resin and solvent, and that they can be partially removed. As far as developed, however, these treatments did not significantly improved the breakdown characteristics. The technique of casting films on a roughened drum was demonstrated, and found useful in preparing textured films -- the first step toward a replacement for Kraft paper. A new material, Ultem, was proposed for use in high energy density capacitors. This new polyetherimide resin has properties similar to polysulfone and polyimide, with improvement in breakdown characteristics and temperature capability. This material was selected for further study in model capacitor designs.

  6. Solc filter engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, W. J.; Title, A. M.

    1982-01-01

    A Solc (1965) filter configuration is presented which is both tunable and spectrally variable, since it possesses an adjustable bandwidth, and which although less efficient than a Lyot filter is attractive because of its spectral versatility. The lossless design, using only an entrance and exit polarizer, improves throughput generally and especially in the IR, where polarizers are less convenient than dichroic sheet polarizers. Attention is given to the transmission profiles of Solc filters with different numbers of elements and split elements, as well as their mechanical design features.

  7. Multilevel filtering elliptic preconditioners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuo, C. C. Jay; Chan, Tony F.; Tong, Charles

    1989-01-01

    A class of preconditioners is presented for elliptic problems built on ideas borrowed from the digital filtering theory and implemented on a multilevel grid structure. They are designed to be both rapidly convergent and highly parallelizable. The digital filtering viewpoint allows the use of filter design techniques for constructing elliptic preconditioners and also provides an alternative framework for understanding several other recently proposed multilevel preconditioners. Numerical results are presented to assess the convergence behavior of the new methods and to compare them with other preconditioners of multilevel type, including the usual multigrid method as preconditioner, the hierarchical basis method and a recent method proposed by Bramble-Pasciak-Xu.

  8. Parallel Subconvolution Filtering Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, Andrew A.

    2003-01-01

    These architectures are based on methods of vector processing and the discrete-Fourier-transform/inverse-discrete- Fourier-transform (DFT-IDFT) overlap-and-save method, combined with time-block separation of digital filters into frequency-domain subfilters implemented by use of sub-convolutions. The parallel-processing method implemented in these architectures enables the use of relatively small DFT-IDFT pairs, while filter tap lengths are theoretically unlimited. The size of a DFT-IDFT pair is determined by the desired reduction in processing rate, rather than on the order of the filter that one seeks to implement. The emphasis in this report is on those aspects of the underlying theory and design rules that promote computational efficiency, parallel processing at reduced data rates, and simplification of the designs of very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuits needed to implement high-order filters and correlators.

  9. Improved optical filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Title, A. M.

    1978-01-01

    Filter includes partial polarizer between birefrigent elements. Plastic film on partial polarizer compensates for any polarization rotation by partial polarizer. Two quarter-wave plates change incident, linearly polarized light into elliptically polarized light.

  10. Active-R filter

    DOEpatents

    Soderstrand, Michael A.

    1976-01-01

    An operational amplifier-type active filter in which the only capacitor in the circuit is the compensating capacitance of the operational amplifiers, the various feedback and coupling elements being essentially solely resistive.

  11. HEPA air filter (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... pet dander and other irritating allergens from the air. Along with other methods to reduce allergens, such ... controlling the amount of allergens circulating in the air. HEPA filters can be found in most air ...

  12. Anti-Glare Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Glare from CRT screens has been blamed for blurred vision, eyestrain, headaches, etc. Optical Coating Laboratory, Inc. (OCLI) manufactures a coating to reduce glare which was used to coat the windows on the Gemini and Apollo spacecraft. In addition, OCLI offers anti-glare filters (Glare Guard) utilizing the same thin film coating technology. The coating minimizes brightness, provides enhanced contrast and improves readability. The filters are OCLI's first consumer product.

  13. Switching power supply filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Prithvi R. (Inventor); Abare, Wayne (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A filter for a switching power supply. The filter includes a common mode inductor with coil configurations allowing differential mode current from a dc source to pass through but attenuating common mode noise from the power supply so that the noise does not reach the dc source. The invention also includes the use of feed through capacitors at the switching power supply input terminals to provide further high-frequency noise attenuation.

  14. Using multiple continuous fine particle monitors to characterize tobacco, incense, candle, cooking, wood burning, and vehicular sources in indoor, outdoor, and in-transit settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, Wayne R.; Siegmann, Hans C.

    This study employed two continuous particle monitors operating on different measurement principles to measure concentrations simultaneously from common combustion sources in indoor, outdoor, and in-transit settings. The pair of instruments use (a) photo-charging (PC) operating on the principle ionization of fine particles that responds to surface particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PPAHs), and (b) diffusion charging (DC) calibrated to measure the active surface area of fine particles. The sources studied included: (1) secondhand smoke (cigarettes, cigars, and pipes), (2) incense (stick and cone), (3) candles used as food warmers, (4) cooking (toasting bread and frying meat), (5) fireplaces and ambient wood smoke, and (6) in-vehicle exposures traveling on California arterials and interstate highways. The ratio of the PC to the DC readings, or the PC/DC ratio, was found to be different for major categories of sources. Cooking, burning toast, and using a "canned heat" food warmer gave PC/DC ratios close to zero. Controlled experiments with 10 cigarettes averaged 0.15 ng mm -2 (ranging from 0.11 to 0.19 ng mm -2), which was similar to the PC/DC ratio for a cigar, although a pipe was slightly lower (0.09 ng mm -2). Large incense sticks had PC/DC ratios similar to those of cigarettes and cigars. The PC/DC ratios for ambient wood smoke averaged 0.29 ng mm -2 on 6 dates, or about twice those of cigarettes and cigars, reflecting a higher ratio of PAH to active surface area. The smoke from two artificial logs in a residential fireplace had a PC/DC ratio of 0.33-0.35 ng mm -2. The emissions from candles were found to vary, depending on how the candles were burned. If the candle flickered and generated soot, a higher PC/DC ratio resulted than if the candle burned uniformly in still air. Inserting piece of metal into the candle's flame caused high PPAH emissions with a record PC/DC reading of 1.8 ng mm -2. In-vehicle exposures measured on 43- and 50-min drives on a

  15. Preliminary geology, mineral chemistry and diamond results from the C29/30 Candle Lake volcanic complex, Saskatchewan, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verigeanu, D.; Hetman, C. M.; Jellicoe, B.; Baumgartner, M. C.

    2009-11-01

    The C29/30 kimberlite is one of two diamondiferous kimberlites in the Candle Lake cluster located in east-central Saskatchewan, Canada, approximately 70 km from the Fort á la Corne kimberlite field. The kimberlites are hosted by a Cretaceous sequence of marine mudstone and shale of the Lower Colorado Group, and underlying siltstone and sandstone of the Mannville Group. This sequence overlies Paleozoic carbonates that were deposited over the Proterozoic crystalline basement. Based on the country rock stratigraphy and morphology of the body, C29/30 is inferred to be Cretaceous in age. The elongated kimberlite body has a lateral extent of approximately 2 km with the long axis oriented in a south-east to north-west direction and an estimated surface expression of 75.3 ha. The investigation of 47 drill cores suggests that this body is a single volcanic complex dominated by a single phase of volcaniclastic kimberlite that is characterised by absent to rare phlogopite within the groundmass of preserved juvenile clasts. Minor amounts of at least one other phase of kimberlite containing conspicuous groundmass phlogopite have also been documented. The subsurface shape of C29/30 is complex and is interpreted to result from a combination of explosive volcanic activity that formed two craters from separate feeder vents. The formation of the elongated trough is poorly understood. It may have formed by a fissure style eruption, or erosive processes related to the mass flow of material away from one of the craters or possible the collapse of an eruption column. The C29/30 kimberlite is similar to bodies of the Fort á la Corne kimberlite field with respect to country rock setting, pipe morphology and the dominant textural varieties present. This contribution presents a preliminary geological model of C29/30 based on data obtained from the drilling programmes completed in 2006, 2007 and 2008.

  16. Contactor/filter improvements

    DOEpatents

    Stelman, David

    1989-01-01

    A contactor/filter arrangement for removing particulate contaminants from a gaseous stream includes a housing having a substantially vertically oriented granular material retention member with upstream and downstream faces, a substantially vertically oriented microporous gas filter element, wherein the retention member and the filter element are spaced apart to provide a zone for the passage of granular material therethrough. The housing further includes a gas inlet means, a gas outlet means, and means for moving a body of granular material through the zone. A gaseous stream containing particulate contaminants passes through the gas inlet means as well as through the upstream face of the granular material retention member, passing through the retention member, the body of granular material, the microporous gas filter element, exiting out of the gas outlet means. Disposed on the upstream face of the filter element is a cover screen which isolates the filter element from contact with the moving granular bed and collects a portion of the particulates so as to form a dust cake having openings small enough to exclude the granular material, yet large enough to receive the dust particles. In one embodiment, the granular material is comprised of prous alumina impregnated with CuO, with the cover screen cleaned by the action of the moving granular material as well as by backflow pressure pulses.

  17. Remotely serviced filter and housing

    DOEpatents

    Ross, Maurice J.; Zaladonis, Larry A.

    1988-09-27

    A filter system for a hot cell comprises a housing adapted for input of air or other gas to be filtered, flow of the air through a filter element, and exit of filtered air. The housing is tapered at the top to make it easy to insert a filter cartridge using an overhead crane. The filter cartridge holds the filter element while the air or other gas is passed through the filter element. Captive bolts in trunnion nuts are readily operated by electromechanical manipulators operating power wrenches to secure and release the filter cartridge. The filter cartridge is adapted to make it easy to change a filter element by using a master-slave manipulator at a shielded window station.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF METALLIC HOT GAS FILTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, I.E.; Gleeson, B.; Terpstra, R.L.

    2003-04-23

    Successful development of metallic filters with high temperature oxidation/corrosion resistance for fly ash capture is a key to enabling advanced coal combustion and power generation technologies. Compared to ceramic filters, metallic filters can offer increased resistance to impact and thermal fatigue, greatly improving filter reliability. A beneficial metallic filter structure, composed of a thin-wall (0.5mm) tube with uniform porosity (about 30%), is being developed using a unique spherical powder processing and partial sintering approach, combined with porous sheet rolling and resistance welding. Alloy choices based on modified superalloys, e.g., Ni-16Cr-4.5Al-3Fe (wt.%), are being tested in porous and bulk samples for oxide (typically alumina) scale stability in simulated oxidizing/sulfidizing atmospheres found in PFBC and IGCC systems at temperatures up to 850 C. Recent ''hanging o-ring'' exposure tests in actual combustion systems at a collaborating DOE site (EERC) have been initiated to study the combined corrosive effects from particulate deposits and hot exhaust gases. New studies are exploring the correlation between sintered microstructure, tensile strength, and permeability of porous sheet samples.

  19. Filter and method of fabricating

    DOEpatents

    Janney, Mark A.

    2006-02-14

    A method of making a filter includes the steps of: providing a substrate having a porous surface; applying to the porous surface a coating of dry powder comprising particles to form a filter preform; and heating the filter preform to bind the substrate and the particles together to form a filter.

  20. [Advance in imaging spectropolarimeter].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-quan; Xiangli, Bin; Huang, Min; Hu, Liang; Zhou, Jin-song; Jing, Juan-juan

    2011-07-01

    Imaging spectropolarimeter (ISP) is a type of novel photoelectric sensor which integrated the functions of imaging, spectrometry and polarimetry. In the present paper, the concept of the ISP is introduced, and the advances in ISP at home and abroad in recent years is reviewed. The principles of ISPs based on novel devices, such as acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) and liquid crystal tunable filter (LCTF), are illustrated. In addition, the principles of ISPs developed by adding polarized components to the dispersing-type imaging spectrometer, spatially modulated Fourier transform imaging spectrometer, and computer tomography imaging spectrometer are introduced. Moreover, the trends of ISP are discussed too. PMID:21942063