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Sample records for advanced carbon capture

  1. Recent Advances in Carbon Capture with Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    PubMed

    Stylianou, Kyriakos C; Queen, Wendy L

    2015-01-01

    The escalating level of CO(2) in the atmosphere is one of the most critical environmental issues of our age. The carbon capture and storage from pilot test plants represents an option for reducing CO(2) emissions, however, the energy cost associated with post-combustion carbon capture process alone is ∼30% of the total energy generated by the power plant. Thus, the generation of carbon capture adsorbents with high uptake capacities, great separation performance and low cost is of paramount importance. Metal-organic frameworks are infinite networks of metal-containing nodes bridged by organic ligands through coordination bonds into porous extended structures and several reports have revealed that they are ideal candidates for the selective capture of CO(2). In this review we summarize recent advances related to the synthesis of porous MOFs and the latest strategies to enhance the CO(2) adsorption enthalpies and capacities at low-pressures, increase hydrolytic and mechanical stabilities, and improve the ease of regeneration. Although they show great promise for post-combustion carbon capture, there are still major challenges that must be overcome before they can be used for such a large-scale application.

  2. Advanced modeling to accelerate the scale up of carbon capture technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, David C.; Sun, XIN; Storlie, Curtis B.; Bhattacharyya, Debangsu

    2015-06-01

    In order to help meet the goals of the DOE carbon capture program, the Carbon Capture Simulation Initiative (CCSI) was launched in early 2011 to develop, demonstrate, and deploy advanced computational tools and validated multi-scale models to reduce the time required to develop and scale-up new carbon capture technologies. This article focuses on essential elements related to the development and validation of multi-scale models in order to help minimize risk and maximize learning as new technologies progress from pilot to demonstration scale.

  3. IMPACCT: Carbon Capture Technology

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    IMPACCT Project: IMPACCT’s 15 projects seek to develop technologies for existing coal-fired power plants that will lower the cost of carbon capture. Short for “Innovative Materials and Processes for Advanced Carbon Capture Technologies,” the IMPACCT Project is geared toward minimizing the cost of removing carbon dioxide (CO2) from coal-fired power plant exhaust by developing materials and processes that have never before been considered for this application. Retrofitting coal-fired power plants to capture the CO2 they produce would enable greenhouse gas reductions without forcing these plants to close, shifting away from the inexpensive and abundant U.S. coal supply.

  4. Advanced computational tools for optimization and uncertainty quantification of carbon capture processes

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, David C.; Ng, Brenda; Eslick, John

    2014-01-01

    Advanced multi-scale modeling and simulation has the potential to dramatically reduce development time, resulting in considerable cost savings. The Carbon Capture Simulation Initiative (CCSI) is a partnership among national laboratories, industry and universities that is developing, demonstrating, and deploying a suite of multi-scale modeling and simulation tools. One significant computational tool is FOQUS, a Framework for Optimization and Quantification of Uncertainty and Sensitivity, which enables basic data submodels, including thermodynamics and kinetics, to be used within detailed process models to rapidly synthesize and optimize a process and determine the level of uncertainty associated with the resulting process. The overall approach of CCSI is described with a more detailed discussion of FOQUS and its application to carbon capture systems.

  5. Using Advanced Modeling to Accelerate the Scale-Up of Carbon Capture Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, David; Sun, Xin; Storlie, Curtis; Bhattacharyya, Debangsu

    2015-06-18

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is one of many approaches that are critical for significantly reducing domestic and global CO2 emissions. The U.S. Department of Energy’s Clean Coal Technology Program Plan envisions 2nd generation CO2 capture technologies ready for demonstration-scale testing around 2020 with the goal of enabling commercial deployment by 2025 [1]. Third generation technologies have a similarly aggressive timeline. A major challenge is that the development and scale-up of new technologies in the energy sector historically takes up to 15 years to move from the laboratory to pre-deployment and another 20 to 30 years for widespread industrial scale deployment. In order to help meet the goals of the DOE carbon capture program, the Carbon Capture Simulation Initiative (CCSI) was launched in early 2011 to develop, demonstrate, and deploy advanced computational tools and validated multi-scale models to reduce the time required to develop and scale up new carbon capture technologies. The CCSI Toolset (1) enables promising concepts to be more quickly identified through rapid computational screening of processes and devices, (2) reduces the time to design and troubleshoot new devices and processes by using optimization techniques to focus development on the best overall process conditions and by using detailed device-scale models to better understand and improve the internal behavior of complex equipment, and (3) provides quantitative predictions of device and process performance during scale up based on rigorously validated smaller scale simulations that take into account model and parameter uncertainty[2]. This article focuses on essential elements related to the development and validation of multi-scale models in order to help minimize risk and maximize learning as new technologies progress from pilot to demonstration scale.

  6. Carbon Smackdown: Carbon Capture

    ScienceCinema

    Jeffrey Long

    2016-07-12

    In this July 9, 2010 Berkeley Lab summer lecture, Lab scientists Jeff Long of the Materials Sciences and Nancy Brown of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division discuss their efforts to fight climate change by capturing carbon from the flue gas of power plants, as well as directly from the air

  7. Carbon Smackdown: Carbon Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey Long

    2010-07-12

    In this July 9, 2010 Berkeley Lab summer lecture, Lab scientists Jeff Long of the Materials Sciences and Nancy Brown of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division discuss their efforts to fight climate change by capturing carbon from the flue gas of power plants, as well as directly from the air

  8. CFD Simulations of a Regenerative Process for Carbon Dioxide Capture in Advanced Gasification Based Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Arastoopour, Hamid; Abbasian, Javad

    2014-07-31

    estimated cost of carbon v capture is in the range of $31-$44/ton, suggesting that a regenerative MgO-Based process can be a viable option for pre-combustion carbon dioxide capture in advanced gasification based power systems.

  9. Carbon Dioxide Capture and Disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lackner, K. S.

    2002-05-01

    Unless carbon dioxide from fossil fuel combustion is captured and disposed of safely and permanently, the concerns over climate change will eventually lead to the demise of fossil fuels. Because of their importance in today's energy market the phasing out of fossil fuels would likely precipitate a major energy crisis. Mineral sequestration and extraction of carbon dioxide from the air are two advanced technologies for carbon sequestration that aim at maintaining access to the vast fossil energy resources for centuries to come. While it is straightforward to dispose of carbon dioxide in limited amounts and for a limited time, permanent disposal of trillions of tons of carbon poses serious challenges. The formation of solid mineral carbonates from readily available minerals would provide safe and permanent storage. Capture of carbon dioxide from air makes it possible to sequester carbon dioxide emissions from sources other than power plants. This is important considering that even the relatively minor reductions suggested by the Kyoto Accord would have required the US to eliminate carbon dioxide emissions comparable to those of the entire 1990 coal fired power plant fleet. Capture of carbon dioxide from the air, would make it possible to close the carbon cycle in the transportation sector without phasing out liquid hydrocarbon fuels. It eliminates the need for long distance transport of carbon dioxide and allows the continued use of the existing energy infrastructure. Mineral sequestration at remote sites combined with on site carbon dioxide capture from air, would allow for long term stabilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. I will outline the current state of the technology and point to advances required before these approaches are ready for large-scale implementation.

  10. Demonstrating carbon capture

    SciTech Connect

    Qader, A.; Hooper, B.; Stevens, G.

    2009-11-15

    Australia is at the forefront of advancing CCS technology. The CO2CRC's H3 (Post-combustion) and Mulgrave (pre-combustion) capture projects are outlined. The capture technologies for these 2 demonstration projects are described. 1 map., 2 photos.

  11. Advanced Telemetry Data Capturing

    SciTech Connect

    Paschke, G.A.

    2000-05-16

    This project developed a new generation or advanced data capturing process specifically designed for use in future telemetry test systems at the Kansas City Plant (KCP). Although similar data capturing processes are performed both commercially and at other DOE weapon facilities, the equipment used is not specifically designed to perform acceptance testing requirements unique to the KCP. Commercially available equipment, despite very high cost (up to $125,000), is deficient in reliability and long-term maintainability necessary in test systems at this facility. There are no commercial sources for some requirements, specifically Terminal Data Analyzer (TDA) data processing. Although other custom processes have been developed to satisfy these test requirements, these designs have become difficult to maintain and upgrade.

  12. Expansion of Michigan EOR Operations Using Advanced Amine Technology at a 600 MW Project Wolverine Carbon Capture and Storage Project

    SciTech Connect

    H Hoffman; Y kishinevsky; S. Wu; R. Pardini; E. Tripp; D. Barnes

    2010-06-16

    corrosive nature of the typical amine-based separation process leads to high plant capital investment. According to recent DOE-NETL studies, MEA-based CCS will increase the cost of electricity of a new pulverized coal plant by 80-85% and reduce the net plant efficiency by about 30%. Non-power industrial facilities will incur similar production output and efficiency penalties when implementing conventional carbon capture systems. The proposed large scale demonstration project combining advanced amine CO{sub 2} capture integrated with commercial EOR operations significantly advances post-combustion technology development toward the DOE objectives of reducing the cost of energy production and improving the efficiency of CO{sub 2} Capture technologies. WPC has assembled a strong multidisciplinary team to meet the objectives of this project. WPC will provide the host site and Hitachi will provide the carbon capture technology and advanced solvent. Burns and Roe bring expertise in overall engineering integration and plant design to the team. Core Energy, an active EOR producer/operator in the State of Michigan, is committed to support the detailed design, construction and operation of the CO{sub 2} pipeline and storage component of the project. This team has developed a Front End Engineering Design and Cost Estimate as part of Phase 1 of DOE Award DE-FE0002477.

  13. Advancing adsorption and membrane separation processes for the gigaton carbon capture challenge.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Jennifer; Haghpanah, Reza; Rupp, Erik C; He, Jiajun; Lee, Kyoungjin

    2014-01-01

    Reducing CO2 in the atmosphere and preventing its release from point-source emitters, such as coal and natural gas-fired power plants, is a global challenge measured in gigatons. Capturing CO2 at this scale will require a portfolio of gas-separation technologies to be applied over a range of applications in which the gas mixtures and operating conditions will vary. Chemical scrubbing using absorption is the current state-of-the-art technology. Considerably less attention has been given to other gas-separation technologies, including adsorption and membranes. It will take a range of creative solutions to reduce CO2 at scale, thereby slowing global warming and minimizing its potential negative environmental impacts. This review focuses on the current challenges of adsorption and membrane-separation processes. Technological advancement of these processes will lead to reduced cost, which will enable subsequent adoption for practical scaled-up application. PMID:24702296

  14. Advancing adsorption and membrane separation processes for the gigaton carbon capture challenge.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Jennifer; Haghpanah, Reza; Rupp, Erik C; He, Jiajun; Lee, Kyoungjin

    2014-01-01

    Reducing CO2 in the atmosphere and preventing its release from point-source emitters, such as coal and natural gas-fired power plants, is a global challenge measured in gigatons. Capturing CO2 at this scale will require a portfolio of gas-separation technologies to be applied over a range of applications in which the gas mixtures and operating conditions will vary. Chemical scrubbing using absorption is the current state-of-the-art technology. Considerably less attention has been given to other gas-separation technologies, including adsorption and membranes. It will take a range of creative solutions to reduce CO2 at scale, thereby slowing global warming and minimizing its potential negative environmental impacts. This review focuses on the current challenges of adsorption and membrane-separation processes. Technological advancement of these processes will lead to reduced cost, which will enable subsequent adoption for practical scaled-up application.

  15. Capturing carbon and saving coal

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.

    2007-10-15

    Electric utilities face a tangle of choices when figuring how to pull CO{sub 2} from coal-fired plants. The article explains the three basic approaches to capturing CO{sub 2} - post-combustion, oxyfuel combustion and pre-combustion. Researchers at US DOE labs and utilities are investigating new solvents that capture CO{sub 2} more efficiently than amines and take less energy. Ammonium carbonate has been identified by EPRI as one suitable solvent. Field research projects on this are underway in the USA. Oxyfuel combustion trials are also being planned. Pre-combustion, or gasification is a completely different way of pulling energy from coal and, for electricity generation, this means IGCC systems. AEP, Southern Cinergy and Xcel are considering IGCC plants but none will capture CO{sub 2}. Rio Tinto and BP are planning a 500 MW facility to gasify coke waste from petroleum refining and collect and sequester CO{sub 2}. However, TECO recently dropped a project to build a 789 MW IGCC coal fired plant even though it was to receive a tax credit to encourage advanced coal technologies. The plant would not have captured CO{sub 2}. The company said that 'with uncertainty of carbon capture and sequestration regulations being discussed at the federal and state levels, the timing was not right'. 4 figs.

  16. Recent advances in carbon dioxide capture, fixation, and activation by using N-heterocyclic carbenes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Longhua; Wang, Hongming

    2014-04-01

    In the last two decades, CO2 emission has caused a lot of environmental problems. To mitigate the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere, various strategies have been implemented, one of which is the use of N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) and related complexes to accomplish the capture, fixation, and activation of CO2 effectively. In this review, we summarize CO2 capture, fixation, and activation by utilizing NHCs and related complexes; homogeneous reactions and their reaction mechanisms are discussed. Free NHCs and NHC salts can capture CO2 in both direct and indirect ways to form imidazolium carboxylates, and they can also catalyze the reaction of aromatic aldehydes with CO2 to form carboxylic acids and derivatives. Moreover, associated with transition metals (TMs), NHCs can form NHC-TM complexes to transform CO2 into industrial acid or esters. Non-metal-NHC complexes can also catalyze the reactions of silicon and boron complexes with CO2 . In addition, catalytic cycloaddition of epoxides with CO2 is another effective function of NHC complexes, and NHC ionic liquids perform excellently in this aspect.

  17. Carbon Capture and Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Friedmann, S

    2007-10-03

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is the long-term isolation of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through physical, chemical, biological, or engineered processes. This includes a range of approaches including soil carbon sequestration (e.g., through no-till farming), terrestrial biomass sequestration (e.g., through planting forests), direct ocean injection of CO{sub 2} either onto the deep seafloor or into the intermediate depths, injection into deep geological formations, or even direct conversion of CO{sub 2} to carbonate minerals. Some of these approaches are considered geoengineering (see the appropriate chapter herein). All are considered in the 2005 special report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC 2005). Of the range of options available, geological carbon sequestration (GCS) appears to be the most actionable and economic option for major greenhouse gas reduction in the next 10-30 years. The basis for this interest includes several factors: (1) The potential capacities are large based on initial estimates. Formal estimates for global storage potential vary substantially, but are likely to be between 800 and 3300 Gt of C (3000 and 10,000 Gt of CO{sub 2}), with significant capacity located reasonably near large point sources of the CO{sub 2}. (2) GCS can begin operations with demonstrated technology. Carbon dioxide has been separated from large point sources for nearly 100 years, and has been injected underground for over 30 years (below). (3) Testing of GCS at intermediate scale is feasible. In the US, Canada, and many industrial countries, large CO{sub 2} sources like power plants and refineries lie near prospective storage sites. These plants could be retrofit today and injection begun (while bearing in mind scientific uncertainties and unknowns). Indeed, some have, and three projects described here provide a great deal of information on the operational needs and field implementation of CCS. Part of this interest comes from several

  18. Cryogenic Carbon Capture

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-15

    IMPACCT Project: SES is developing a process to capture CO2 from the exhaust gas of coal-fired power plants by desublimation - the conversion of a gas to a solid. Capturing CO2 as a solid and delivering it as a liquid avoids the large energy cost of CO2 gas compression. SES’ capture technology facilitates the prudent use of available energy resources. Coal is our most abundant energy resource and is an excellent fuel for baseline power production. SES capture technology can capture 99% of the CO2 emissions in addition to a wide range of other pollutants more efficiently and at lower costs than existing capture technologies. SES’ capture technology can be readily added to our existing energy infrastructure.

  19. Toward transformational carbon capture systems

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, David C.; Litynski, John T.; Brickett, Lynn A.; Morreale, Bryan D.

    2015-10-28

    This paper will briefly review the history and current state of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) research and development and describe the technical barriers to carbon capture. it will argue forcefully for a new approach to R&D, which leverages both simulation and physical systems at the laboratory and pilot scales to more rapidly move the best technoogies forward, prune less advantageous approaches, and simultaneously develop materials and processes.

  20. Carbon Capture and Storage, 2008

    SciTech Connect

    2009-03-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy is researching the safe implementation of a technology called carbon sequestration, also known as carbon capture and storage, or CCS. Based on an oilfield practice, this approach stores carbon dioxide, or CO2 generated from human activities for millennia as a means to mitigate global climate change. In 2003, the Department of Energys National Energy Technology Laboratory formed seven Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships to assess geologic formations suitable for storage and to determine the best approaches to implement carbon sequestration in each region. This video describes the work of these partnerships.

  1. Carbon Capture and Storage, 2008

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy is researching the safe implementation of a technology called carbon sequestration, also known as carbon capture and storage, or CCS. Based on an oilfield practice, this approach stores carbon dioxide, or CO2 generated from human activities for millennia as a means to mitigate global climate change. In 2003, the Department of Energys National Energy Technology Laboratory formed seven Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships to assess geologic formations suitable for storage and to determine the best approaches to implement carbon sequestration in each region. This video describes the work of these partnerships.

  2. Natural materials for carbon capture.

    SciTech Connect

    Myshakin, Evgeniy M.; Romanov, Vyacheslav N.; Cygan, Randall Timothy

    2010-11-01

    Naturally occurring clay minerals provide a distinctive material for carbon capture and carbon dioxide sequestration. Swelling clay minerals, such as the smectite variety, possess an aluminosilicate structure that is controlled by low-charge layers that readily expand to accommodate water molecules and, potentially, carbon dioxide. Recent experimental studies have demonstrated the efficacy of intercalating carbon dioxide in the interlayer of layered clays but little is known about the molecular mechanisms of the process and the extent of carbon capture as a function of clay charge and structure. A series of molecular dynamics simulations and vibrational analyses have been completed to assess the molecular interactions associated with incorporation of CO2 in the interlayer of montmorillonite clay and to help validate the models with experimental observation.

  3. Synthesis of optimal adsorptive carbon capture processes.

    SciTech Connect

    chang, Y.; Cozad, A.; Kim, H.; Lee, A.; Vouzis, P.; Konda, M.; Simon, A.; Sahinidis, N.; Miller, D.

    2011-01-01

    Solid sorbent carbon capture systems have the potential to require significantly lower regeneration energy compared to aqueous monoethanol amine (MEA) systems. To date, the majority of work on solid sorbents has focused on developing the sorbent materials themselves. In order to advance these technologies, it is necessary to design systems that can exploit the full potential and unique characteristics of these materials. The Department of Energy (DOE) recently initiated the Carbon Capture Simulation Initiative (CCSI) to develop computational tools to accelerate the commercialization of carbon capture technology. Solid sorbents is the first Industry Challenge Problem considered under this initiative. An early goal of the initiative is to demonstrate a superstructure-based framework to synthesize an optimal solid sorbent carbon capture process. For a given solid sorbent, there are a number of potential reactors and reactor configurations consisting of various fluidized bed reactors, moving bed reactors, and fixed bed reactors. Detailed process models for these reactors have been modeled using Aspen Custom Modeler; however, such models are computationally intractable for large optimization-based process synthesis. Thus, in order to facilitate the use of these models for process synthesis, we have developed an approach for generating simple algebraic surrogate models that can be used in an optimization formulation. This presentation will describe the superstructure formulation which uses these surrogate models to choose among various process alternatives and will describe the resulting optimal process configuration.

  4. Realistic costs of carbon capture

    SciTech Connect

    Al Juaied, Mohammed . Belfer Center for Science and International Affiaris); Whitmore, Adam )

    2009-07-01

    There is a growing interest in carbon capture and storage (CCS) as a means of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. However there are substantial uncertainties about the costs of CCS. Costs for pre-combustion capture with compression (i.e. excluding costs of transport and storage and any revenue from EOR associated with storage) are examined in this discussion paper for First-of-a-Kind (FOAK) plant and for more mature technologies, or Nth-of-a-Kind plant (NOAK). For FOAK plant using solid fuels the levelised cost of electricity on a 2008 basis is approximately 10 cents/kWh higher with capture than for conventional plants (with a range of 8-12 cents/kWh). Costs of abatement are found typically to be approximately US$150/tCO2 avoided (with a range of US$120-180/tCO2 avoided). For NOAK plants the additional cost of electricity with capture is approximately 2-5 cents/kWh, with costs of the range of US$35-70/tCO2 avoided. Costs of abatement with carbon capture for other fuels and technologies are also estimated for NOAK plants. The costs of abatement are calculated with reference to conventional SCPC plant for both emissions and costs of electricity. Estimates for both FOAK and NOAK are mainly based on cost data from 2008, which was at the end of a period of sustained escalation in the costs of power generation plant and other large capital projects. There are now indications of costs falling from these levels. This may reduce the costs of abatement and costs presented here may be 'peak of the market' estimates. If general cost levels return, for example, to those prevailing in 2005 to 2006 (by which time significant cost escalation had already occurred from previous levels), then costs of capture and compression for FOAK plants are expected to be US$110/tCO2 avoided (with a range of US$90-135/tCO2 avoided). For NOAK plants costs are expected to be US$25-50/tCO2. Based on these considerations a likely representative range of costs of abatement from CCS excluding

  5. Advances in Neutron Capture Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Soloway, A.H.; Barth, R.F.; Carpenter, D.E.

    1993-12-31

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Neutron Capture Therapy held September 14--17, 1992 in Columbus, Ohio. Individual papers were separately abstracted and indexed for the database.

  6. Annual Report: Carbon Capture (30 September 2012)

    SciTech Connect

    Luebke, David; Morreale, Bryan; Richards, George; Syamlal, Madhava

    2014-04-16

    Capture of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is a critical component in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel-based processes. The Carbon Capture research to be performed is aimed at accelerating the development of efficient, cost-effective technologies which meet the post-combustion programmatic goal of capture of 90% of the CO{sub 2} produced from an existing coal-fired power plant with less than a 35% increase in the cost of electricity (COE), and the pre-combustion goal of 90% CO{sub 2} capture with less than a 10% increase in COE. The specific objective of this work is to develop innovative materials and approaches for the economic and efficient capture of CO{sub 2} from coal-based processes, and ultimately assess the performance of promising technologies at conditions representative of field application (i.e., slip stream evaluation). The Carbon Capture research includes seven core technical research areas: post-combustion solvents, sorbents, and membranes; pre-combustion solvents, sorbents, and membranes; and oxygen (O{sub 2}) production. The goal of each of these tasks is to develop advanced materials and processes that are able to reduce the energy penalty and cost of CO{sub 2} (or O{sub 2}) separation over conventional technologies. In the first year of development, materials will be examined by molecular modeling, and then synthesized and experimentally characterized at lab scale. In the second year, they will be tested further under ideal conditions. In the third year, they will be tested under realistic conditions. The most promising materials will be tested at the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) using actual flue or fuel gas. Systems analyses will be used to determine whether or not materials developed are likely to meet the Department of Energy (DOE) COE targets. Materials which perform well and appear likely to improve in performance will be licensed for further development outside of the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL

  7. Virtually simulating the next generation of clean energy technologies: NETL's AVESTAR Center is dedicated to the safe, reliable and efficient operation of advanced energy plants with carbon capture

    SciTech Connect

    Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01

    Imagine using a real-time virtual simulator to learn to fly a space shuttle or rebuild your car's transmission without touching a piece of equipment or getting your hands dirty. Now, apply this concept to learning how to operate and control a state-of-the-art, electricity-producing power plant capable of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture. That's what the National Energy Technology Laboratory's (NETL) Advanced Virtual Energy Simulation Training and Research (AVESTAR) Center (www.netl.doe.gov/avestar) is designed to do. Established as part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) initiative to advance new clean energy technology for power generation, the AVESTAR Center focuses primarily on providing simulation-based training for process engineers and energy plant operators, starting with the deployment of a first-of-a-kind operator training simulator for an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant with CO{sub 2} capture. The IGCC dynamic simulator builds on, and reaches beyond, conventional power plant simulators to merge, for the first time, a 'gasification with CO{sub 2} capture' process simulator with a 'combined-cycle' power simulator. Based on Invensys Operations Management's SimSci-Esscor DYNSIM software, the high-fidelity dynamic simulator provides realistic training on IGCC plant operations, including normal and faulted operations, as well as plant start-up, shutdown and power demand load changes. The highly flexible simulator also allows for testing of different types of fuel sources, such as petcoke and biomass, as well as co-firing fuel mixtures. The IGCC dynamic simulator is available at AVESTAR's two locations, NETL (Figure 1) and West Virginia University's National Research Center for Coal and Energy (www.nrcce.wvu.edu), both in Morgantown, W.Va. By offering a comprehensive IGCC training program, AVESTAR aims to develop a workforce well prepared to operate, control and manage commercial-scale gasification-based power plants with CO{sub 2

  8. Encapsulated liquid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture.

    PubMed

    Vericella, John J; Baker, Sarah E; Stolaroff, Joshuah K; Duoss, Eric B; Hardin, James O; Lewicki, James; Glogowski, Elizabeth; Floyd, William C; Valdez, Carlos A; Smith, William L; Satcher, Joe H; Bourcier, William L; Spadaccini, Christopher M; Lewis, Jennifer A; Aines, Roger D

    2015-02-05

    Drawbacks of current carbon dioxide capture methods include corrosivity, evaporative losses and fouling. Separating the capture solvent from infrastructure and effluent gases via microencapsulation provides possible solutions to these issues. Here we report carbon capture materials that may enable low-cost and energy-efficient capture of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Polymer microcapsules composed of liquid carbonate cores and highly permeable silicone shells are produced by microfluidic assembly. This motif couples the capacity and selectivity of liquid sorbents with high surface area to facilitate rapid and controlled carbon dioxide uptake and release over repeated cycles. While mass transport across the capsule shell is slightly lower relative to neat liquid sorbents, the surface area enhancement gained via encapsulation provides an order-of-magnitude increase in carbon dioxide absorption rates for a given sorbent mass. The microcapsules are stable under typical industrial operating conditions and may be used in supported packing and fluidized beds for large-scale carbon capture.

  9. Encapsulated liquid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vericella, John J.; Baker, Sarah E.; Stolaroff, Joshuah K.; Duoss, Eric B.; Hardin, James O.; Lewicki, James; Glogowski, Elizabeth; Floyd, William C.; Valdez, Carlos A.; Smith, William L.; Satcher, Joe H.; Bourcier, William L.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.; Lewis, Jennifer A.; Aines, Roger D.

    2015-02-01

    Drawbacks of current carbon dioxide capture methods include corrosivity, evaporative losses and fouling. Separating the capture solvent from infrastructure and effluent gases via microencapsulation provides possible solutions to these issues. Here we report carbon capture materials that may enable low-cost and energy-efficient capture of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Polymer microcapsules composed of liquid carbonate cores and highly permeable silicone shells are produced by microfluidic assembly. This motif couples the capacity and selectivity of liquid sorbents with high surface area to facilitate rapid and controlled carbon dioxide uptake and release over repeated cycles. While mass transport across the capsule shell is slightly lower relative to neat liquid sorbents, the surface area enhancement gained via encapsulation provides an order-of-magnitude increase in carbon dioxide absorption rates for a given sorbent mass. The microcapsules are stable under typical industrial operating conditions and may be used in supported packing and fluidized beds for large-scale carbon capture.

  10. Thermodynamic assessment of microencapsulated sodium carbonate slurry for carbon capture

    SciTech Connect

    Stolaroff, Joshuah K.; Bourcier, William L.

    2014-01-01

    Micro-encapsulated Carbon Sorbents (MECS) are a new class of carbon capture materials consisting of a CO₂- absorbing liquid solvent contained within solid, CO₂-permeable, polymer shells. MECS enhance the rate of CO₂ absorption for solvents with slow kinetics and prevent solid precipitates from scaling and fouling equipment, two factors that have previously limited the use of sodium carbonate solution for carbon capture. Here, we examine the thermodynamics of sodium carbonate slurries for carbon capture. We model the vapour-liquid-solid equilibria of sodium carbonate and find several features that can contribute to an energy-efficient capture process: very high CO₂ pressures in stripping conditions, relatively low water vapour pressures in stripping conditions, and good swing capacity. The potential energy savings compared with an MEA system are discussed.

  11. Thermodynamic assessment of microencapsulated sodium carbonate slurry for carbon capture

    DOE PAGES

    Stolaroff, Joshuah K.; Bourcier, William L.

    2014-01-01

    Micro-encapsulated Carbon Sorbents (MECS) are a new class of carbon capture materials consisting of a CO₂- absorbing liquid solvent contained within solid, CO₂-permeable, polymer shells. MECS enhance the rate of CO₂ absorption for solvents with slow kinetics and prevent solid precipitates from scaling and fouling equipment, two factors that have previously limited the use of sodium carbonate solution for carbon capture. Here, we examine the thermodynamics of sodium carbonate slurries for carbon capture. We model the vapour-liquid-solid equilibria of sodium carbonate and find several features that can contribute to an energy-efficient capture process: very high CO₂ pressures in stripping conditions,more » relatively low water vapour pressures in stripping conditions, and good swing capacity. The potential energy savings compared with an MEA system are discussed.« less

  12. Carbon Capture in the Cement Industry: Technologies, Progress, and Retrofitting.

    PubMed

    Hills, Thomas; Leeson, Duncan; Florin, Nicholas; Fennell, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Several different carbon-capture technologies have been proposed for use in the cement industry. This paper reviews their attributes, the progress that has been made toward their commercialization, and the major challenges facing their retrofitting to existing cement plants. A technology readiness level (TRL) scale for carbon capture in the cement industry is developed. For application at cement plants, partial oxy-fuel combustion, amine scrubbing, and calcium looping are the most developed (TRL 6 being the pilot system demonstrated in relevant environment), followed by direct capture (TRL 4-5 being the component and system validation at lab-scale in a relevant environment) and full oxy-fuel combustion (TRL 4 being the component and system validation at lab-scale in a lab environment). Our review suggests that advancing to TRL 7 (demonstration in plant environment) seems to be a challenge for the industry, representing a major step up from TRL 6. The important attributes that a cement plant must have to be "carbon-capture ready" for each capture technology selection is evaluated. Common requirements are space around the preheater and precalciner section, access to CO2 transport infrastructure, and a retrofittable preheater tower. Evidence from the electricity generation sector suggests that carbon capture readiness is not always cost-effective. The similar durations of cement-plant renovation and capture-plant construction suggests that synchronizing these two actions may save considerable time and money.

  13. Carbon Capture in the Cement Industry: Technologies, Progress, and Retrofitting.

    PubMed

    Hills, Thomas; Leeson, Duncan; Florin, Nicholas; Fennell, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Several different carbon-capture technologies have been proposed for use in the cement industry. This paper reviews their attributes, the progress that has been made toward their commercialization, and the major challenges facing their retrofitting to existing cement plants. A technology readiness level (TRL) scale for carbon capture in the cement industry is developed. For application at cement plants, partial oxy-fuel combustion, amine scrubbing, and calcium looping are the most developed (TRL 6 being the pilot system demonstrated in relevant environment), followed by direct capture (TRL 4-5 being the component and system validation at lab-scale in a relevant environment) and full oxy-fuel combustion (TRL 4 being the component and system validation at lab-scale in a lab environment). Our review suggests that advancing to TRL 7 (demonstration in plant environment) seems to be a challenge for the industry, representing a major step up from TRL 6. The important attributes that a cement plant must have to be "carbon-capture ready" for each capture technology selection is evaluated. Common requirements are space around the preheater and precalciner section, access to CO2 transport infrastructure, and a retrofittable preheater tower. Evidence from the electricity generation sector suggests that carbon capture readiness is not always cost-effective. The similar durations of cement-plant renovation and capture-plant construction suggests that synchronizing these two actions may save considerable time and money. PMID:26630247

  14. Carbon Capture (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema

    Smit, Berend

    2016-07-12

    Berend Smit speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 3, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  15. Last chance for carbon capture and storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Vivian; Gilfillan, Stuart; Markusson, Nils; Chalmers, Hannah; Haszeldine, R. Stuart

    2013-02-01

    Anthropogenic energy-related CO2 emissions are higher than ever. With new fossil-fuel power plants, growing energy-intensive industries and new sources of fossil fuels in development, further emissions increase seems inevitable. The rapid application of carbon capture and storage is a much heralded means to tackle emissions from both existing and future sources. However, despite extensive and successful research and development, progress in deploying carbon capture and storage has stalled. No fossil-fuel power plants, the greatest source of CO2 emissions, are using carbon capture and storage, and publicly supported demonstration programmes are struggling to deliver actual projects. Yet, carbon capture and storage remains a core component of national and global emissions-reduction scenarios. Governments have to either increase commitment to carbon capture and storage through much more active market support and emissions regulation, or accept its failure and recognize that continued expansion of power generation from burning fossil fuels is a severe threat to attaining objectives in mitigating climate change.

  16. Subsurface capture of carbon dioxide

    DOEpatents

    Blount, Gerald; Siddal, Alvin A.; Falta, Ronald W.

    2014-07-22

    A process and apparatus of separating CO.sub.2 gas from industrial off-gas source in which the CO.sub.2 containing off-gas is introduced deep within an injection well. The CO.sub.2 gases are dissolved in the, liquid within the injection well while non-CO.sub.2 gases, typically being insoluble in water or brine, are returned to the surface. Once the CO.sub.2 saturated liquid is present within the injection well, the injection well may be used for long-term geologic storage of CO.sub.2 or the CO.sub.2 saturated liquid can be returned to the surface for capturing a purified CO.sub.2 gas.

  17. Membrane-based systems for carbon capture and hydrogen purification

    SciTech Connect

    Berchtold, Kathryn A

    2010-11-24

    This presentation describes the activities being conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory to develop carbon capture technologies for power systems. This work is aimed at continued development and demonstration of a membrane based pre- and post-combustion carbon capture technology and separation schemes. Our primary work entails the development and demonstration of an innovative membrane technology for pre-combustion capture of carbon dioxide that operates over a broad range of conditions relevant to the power industry while meeting the US DOE's Carbon Sequestration Program goals of 90% CO{sub 2} capture at less than a 10% increase in the cost of energy services. Separating and capturing carbon dioxide from mixed gas streams is a first and critical step in carbon sequestration. To be technically and economically viable, a successful separation method must be applicable to industrially relevant gas streams at realistic temperatures and pressures as well as be compatible with large gas volumes. Our project team is developing polymer membranes based on polybenzimidazole (PBI) chemistries that can purify hydrogen and capture CO{sub 2} at industrially relevant temperatures. Our primary objectives are to develop and demonstrate polymer-based membrane chemistries, structures, deployment platforms, and sealing technologies that achieve the critical combination of high selectivity, high permeability, chemical stability, and mechanical stability all at elevated temperatures (> 150 C) and packaged in a scalable, economically viable, high area density system amenable to incorporation into an advanced Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle (IGCC) plant for pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture. Stability requirements are focused on tolerance to the primary synthesis gas components and impurities at various locations in the IGCC process. Since the process stream compositions and conditions (temperature and pressure) vary throughout the IGCC process, the project is focused on the

  18. Wyoming Carbon Capture and Storage Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Nealon, Teresa

    2014-06-30

    This report outlines the accomplishments of the Wyoming Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Technology Institute (WCTI), including creating a website and online course catalog, sponsoring technology transfer workshops, reaching out to interested parties via news briefs and engaging in marketing activities, i.e., advertising and participating in tradeshows. We conclude that the success of WCTI was hampered by the lack of a market. Because there were no supporting financial incentives to store carbon, the private sector had no reason to incur the extra expense of training their staff to implement carbon storage. ii

  19. CO2 capture in different carbon materials.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Vicente; Ramírez-Lucas, Ana; Díaz, José Antonio; Sánchez, Paula; Romero, Amaya

    2012-07-01

    In this work, the CO(2) capture capacity of different types of carbon nanofibers (platelet, fishbone, and ribbon) and amorphous carbon have been measured at 26 °C as at different pressures. The results showed that the more graphitic carbon materials adsorbed less CO(2) than more amorphous materials. Then, the aim was to improve the CO(2) adsorption capacity of the carbon materials by increasing the porosity during the chemical activation process. After chemical activation process, the amorphous carbon and platelet CNFs increased the CO(2) adsorption capacity 1.6 times, whereas fishbone and ribbon CNFs increased their CO(2) adsorption capacity 1.1 and 8.2 times, respectively. This increase of CO(2) adsorption capacity after chemical activation was due to an increase of BET surface area and pore volume in all carbon materials. Finally, the CO(2) adsorption isotherms showed that activated amorphous carbon exhibited the best CO(2) capture capacity with 72.0 wt % of CO(2) at 26 °C and 8 bar.

  20. Engineering and Economic Analysis of an Advanced Ultra-Supercritical Pulverized Coal Power Plant with and without Post-Combustion Carbon Capture Task 7. Design and Economic Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Booras, George; Powers, J.; Riley, C.; Hendrix, H.

    2015-09-01

    This report evaluates the economics and performance of two A-USC PC power plants; Case 1 is a conventionally configured A-USC PC power plant with superior emission controls, but without CO2 removal; and Case 2 adds a post-combustion carbon capture (PCC) system to the plant from Case 1, using the design and heat integration strategies from EPRI’s 2015 report, “Best Integrated Coal Plant.” The capture design basis for this case is “partial,” to meet EPA’s proposed New Source Performance Standard, which was initially proposed as 500 kg-CO2/MWh (gross) or 1100 lb-CO2/MWh (gross), but modified in August 2015 to 635 kg-CO2/MWh (gross) or 1400 lb-CO2/MWh (gross). This report draws upon the collective experience of consortium members, with EPRI and General Electric leading the study. General Electric provided the steam cycle analysis as well as v the steam turbine design and cost estimating. EPRI performed integrated plant performance analysis using EPRI’s PC Cost model.

  1. Recent Advances in Characterizing Depositional Facies and Pore Network Modeling in Context of Carbon Capture Storage: An Example from the Cambrian Mt. Simon Sandstone in the Illinois Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freiburg, J. T.; Nathan, W.; Best, J.; Reesink, A.; Ritzi, R. W., Jr.; Pendleton, J.; Dominic, D. F.; Tudek, J.; Kohanpur, A. H.

    2015-12-01

    In order to understand subsurface flow dynamics, including CO2 plume migration and capillary trapping, a diverse set of geologic properties within the reservoir, from the pore scale to the basin scale, must be understood and quantified. The uncertainty about site-specific geology stems from the inherent variation in rock types, depositional environments, and diagenesis. In collaboration with geocellular and multiphase modeling, detailed characterization of the Lower Mt. Simon Sandstone (LMSS), a reservoir utilized for carbon capture storage, is supporting data-driven conceptual models to better understand reservoir heterogeneity and its relationship to reservoir properties. This includes characterization of sedimentary facies and pore scale modeling of the reservoir The Cambrian-age Lower Mt. Simon Sandstone (LMSS) is a reservoir utilized for two-different carbon capture storage projects in the Illinois Basin, USA. The LMSS is interpreted to have formed in a braided river environment comprising a hierarchy of stratification, with larger scale depositional facies comprising assemblages of smaller scale facies. The proportions, geometries, length scales, and petrophysical attributes of the depositional facies, and of the textural facies they comprise, are being quantified. Based on examination of core and analog outcrop in adjacent areas, the LMSS is comprised of five dominant depositional facies, the most abundant facies being planar to trough cross-bedded sandstones produced by subaqueous sand dunes. This facies has the best reservoir conditions with porosity up to 27% and permeability up to 470 mD. Three-dimensional pore network modeling via micro computed tomography of this facies shows well-connected and unobstructed pore throats and pore space. This presentation will outline the depositional heterogeneity of the LMSS, its relationship to diagenetic fabrics, and its influence on fluid movement within the reservoir.

  2. Basic Research Needs for Carbon Capture: Beyond 2020

    SciTech Connect

    Alivisatos, Paul; Buchanan, Michelle

    2010-03-04

    that contains many other gaseous components. The related processes of precombustion capture and oxycombustion pose similar challenges. It is this nexus of high-speed capture with high selectivity and minimal energy loss that makes this a true grand challenge problem, far beyond any of today’s artificial molecular manipulation technologies, and one whose solution will drive the advancement of molecular science to a new level of sophistication. We have only to look to nature, where such chemical separations are performed routinely, to imagine what may be achieved. The hemoglobin molecule transports oxygen in the blood rapidly and selectively and releases it with minimal energy penalty. Despite our improved understanding of how this biological system works, we have yet to engineer a molecular capture system that uses the fundamental cooperativity process that lies at the heart of the functionality of hemoglobin. While such biological examples provide inspiration, we also note that newly developed theoretical and computational capabilities; the synthesis of new molecules, materials, and membranes; and the remarkable advances in characterization techniques enabled by the Department of Energy’s measurement facilities all create a favorable environment for a major new basic research push to solve the carbon capture problem within the next decade. The Department of Energy has established a comprehensive strategy to meet the nation’s needs in the carbon capture arena. This framework has been developed following a series of workshops that have engaged all the critical stakeholder communities. The strategy that has emerged is based upon a tiered approach, with Fossil Energy taking the lead in a series of applied research programs that will test and extend our current systems. ARPA-E (Advanced Research Projects Agency–Energy) is supporting potential breakthroughs based upon innovative proposals to rapidly harness today’s technical capabilities in ways not previously

  3. Advanced Docking System With Magnetic Initial Capture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, James L.; Carroll, Monty B.; Morales, Ray; Le, Thang

    2004-01-01

    An advanced docking system is undergoing development to enable softer, safer docking than was possible when using prior docking systems. This system is intended for original use in docking of visiting spacecraft and berthing the Crew Return Vehicle at the International Space Station (ISS). The system could also be adapted to a variety of other uses in outer space and on Earth, including mating submersible vehicles, assembling structures, and robotic berthing/handling of payloads and cargo. Heretofore, two large spacecraft have been docked by causing the spacecraft to approach each other at a speed sufficient to activate capture latches - a procedure that results in large docking loads and is made more difficult because of the speed. The basic design and mode of operation of the present advanced docking system would eliminate the need to rely on speed of approach to activate capture latches, thereby making it possible to reduce approach speed and thus docking loads substantially. The system would comprise an active subsystem on one spacecraft and a passive subsystem on another spacecraft with which the active subsystem will be docked. The passive subsystem would include an extensible ring containing magnetic striker plates and guide petals. The active subsystem would include mating guide petals and electromagnets containing limit switches and would be arranged to mate with the magnetic striker plates and guide petals of the passive assembly. The electromagnets would be carried on (but not rigidly attached to) a structural ring that would be instrumented with load sensors. The outputs of the sensors would be sent, along with position information, as feedback to an electronic control subsystem. The system would also include electromechanical actuators that would extend or retract the ring upon command by the control subsystem.

  4. Active chemisorption sites in functionalized ionic liquids for carbon capture.

    PubMed

    Cui, Guokai; Wang, Jianji; Zhang, Suojiang

    2016-07-25

    Development of novel technologies for the efficient and reversible capture of CO2 is highly desired. In the last decade, CO2 capture using ionic liquids has attracted intensive attention from both academia and industry, and has been recognized as a very promising technology. Recently, a new approach has been developed for highly efficient capture of CO2 by site-containing ionic liquids through chemical interaction. This perspective review focuses on the recent advances in the chemical absorption of CO2 using site-containing ionic liquids, such as amino-based ionic liquids, azolate ionic liquids, phenolate ionic liquids, dual-functionalized ionic liquids, pyridine-containing ionic liquids and so on. Other site-containing liquid absorbents such as amine-based solutions, switchable solvents, and functionalized ionic liquid-amine blends are also investigated. Strategies have been discussed for how to activate the existent reactive sites and develop novel reactive sites by physical and chemical methods to enhance CO2 absorption capacity and reduce absorption enthalpy. The carbon capture mechanisms of these site-containing liquid absorbents are also presented. Particular attention has been paid to the latest progress in CO2 capture in multiple-site interactions by amino-free anion-functionalized ionic liquids. In the last section, future directions and prospects for carbon capture by site-containing ionic liquids are outlined.

  5. Active chemisorption sites in functionalized ionic liquids for carbon capture.

    PubMed

    Cui, Guokai; Wang, Jianji; Zhang, Suojiang

    2016-07-25

    Development of novel technologies for the efficient and reversible capture of CO2 is highly desired. In the last decade, CO2 capture using ionic liquids has attracted intensive attention from both academia and industry, and has been recognized as a very promising technology. Recently, a new approach has been developed for highly efficient capture of CO2 by site-containing ionic liquids through chemical interaction. This perspective review focuses on the recent advances in the chemical absorption of CO2 using site-containing ionic liquids, such as amino-based ionic liquids, azolate ionic liquids, phenolate ionic liquids, dual-functionalized ionic liquids, pyridine-containing ionic liquids and so on. Other site-containing liquid absorbents such as amine-based solutions, switchable solvents, and functionalized ionic liquid-amine blends are also investigated. Strategies have been discussed for how to activate the existent reactive sites and develop novel reactive sites by physical and chemical methods to enhance CO2 absorption capacity and reduce absorption enthalpy. The carbon capture mechanisms of these site-containing liquid absorbents are also presented. Particular attention has been paid to the latest progress in CO2 capture in multiple-site interactions by amino-free anion-functionalized ionic liquids. In the last section, future directions and prospects for carbon capture by site-containing ionic liquids are outlined. PMID:27243042

  6. Measurement of carbon capture efficiency and stored carbon leakage

    SciTech Connect

    Keeling, Ralph F.; Dubey, Manvendra K.

    2013-01-29

    Data representative of a measured carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) concentration and of a measured oxygen (O.sub.2) concentration at a measurement location can be used to determine whether the measured carbon dioxide concentration at the measurement location is elevated relative to a baseline carbon dioxide concentration due to escape of carbon dioxide from a source associated with a carbon capture and storage process. Optionally, the data can be used to quantify a carbon dioxide concentration increase at the first location that is attributable to escape of carbon dioxide from the source and to calculate a rate of escape of carbon dioxide from the source by executing a model of gas-phase transport using at least the first carbon dioxide concentration increase. Related systems, methods, and articles of manufacture are also described.

  7. Electron capture in carbon dwarf supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazurek, T. J.; Truran, J. W.; Cameron, A. G. W.

    1974-01-01

    The rates of electron capture on heavier elements under the extreme conditions predicted for dwarf star supernovae have been computed, incorporating modifications that seem to be indicated by present experimental results. An estimate of the maximum possible value of such rates is also given. The distribution of nuclei in nuclear statistical equilibrium has been calculated for the range of expected supernovae conditions, including the effects of the temperature dependence of nuclear partition functions. These nuclide abundance distributions are then used to compute nuclear equilibrium thermodynamic properties. The effects of the electron capture on such equilibrium matter are discussed. In the context of the 'carbon detonation' supernova model, the dwarf central density required to ensure core collapse to a neutron star configuration is found to be slightly higher than that obtained by Bruenn (1972) with the electron capture rates of Hansen (1966).-

  8. Application of ultraviolet, ozone, and advanced oxidation treatments to washwaters to destroy nitrosamines, nitramines, amines, and aldehydes formed during amine-based carbon capture.

    PubMed

    Shah, Amisha D; Dai, Ning; Mitch, William A

    2013-03-19

    Although amine-based CO(2) absorption is a leading contender for full-scale postcombustion CO(2) capture at power plants, concerns have been raised about the potential release of carcinogenic N-nitrosamines and N-nitramines formed by reaction of exhaust gas NO(x) with the amines. Experiments with a laboratory-scale pilot unit suggested that washwater units meant to scrub contaminants from absorber unit exhaust could potentially serve as a source of N-nitrosamines via reactions of residual NO(x) with amines accumulating in the washwater. Dosage requirements for the continuous treatment of the washwater recycle line with ultraviolet (UV) light for destruction of N-nitrosamines and N-nitramines, and with ozone or hydroxyl radical-based advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) for destruction of amines and aldehydes, were evaluated. Although <1000 mJ/cm(2) UV fluence was generally needed for 90% removal of a series of model N-nitrosamines and N-nitramines, 280-1000 mJ/cm(2) average fluence was needed for 90% removal of total N-nitrosamines in pilot washwaters associated with two different solvents. While AOPs were somewhat more efficient than ozone for acetaldehyde destruction, ozone was more efficient for amine destruction. Ozone achieved 90% amine removal in washwaters at 5-12 molar excess of ozone, indicating transferred dosage levels of ∼100 mg/L for 90% removal in a first-stage washwater unit, but likely only ∼10 mg/L if applied to a second-stage washwater. Accurate dosage and cost estimates would require pilot testing to capture synergies between UV and ozone treatments.

  9. Layered solid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Bingyun; Jiang, Bingbing; Gray, McMahan L; Fauth, Daniel J; Pennline, Henry W; Richards, George A

    2014-11-18

    A solid sorbent for the capture and the transport of carbon dioxide gas is provided having at least one first layer of a positively charged material that is polyethylenimine or poly(allylamine hydrochloride), that captures at least a portion of the gas, and at least one second layer of a negatively charged material that is polystyrenesulfonate or poly(acryclic acid), that transports the gas, wherein the second layer of material is in juxtaposition to, attached to, or crosslinked with the first layer for forming at least one bilayer, and a solid substrate support having a porous surface, wherein one or more of the bilayers is/are deposited on the surface of and/or within the solid substrate. A method of preparing and using the solid sorbent is provided.

  10. Prospects for carbon capture and storage technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Soren Anderson; Richard Newell

    2003-01-15

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies remove carbon dioxide from flue gases for storage in geologic formations or the ocean. The study found that CCS is technically feasible and economically attractive within the range of carbon policies discussed domestically and internationally. Current costs are about $200 to $250 per ton of carbon, although costs are sensitive to fuel prices and other assumptions and could be reduced significantly through technical improvements. Near-term prospects favor CCS for certain industrial sources and electric power plants, with storage in depleted oil and gas reservoirs. Deep aquifers may provide an attractive longer-term storage option, whereas ocean storage poses greater technical and environmental uncertainty. Vast quantities of economically recoverable fossil fuels, sizable political obstacles to their abandonment, and inherent delay associated with developing alternative energy sources suggest that CCS should be seriously considered in the portfolio of options for addressing climate change, alongside energy efficiency and carbon-free energy. 61 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Capture of carbon dioxide by hybrid sorption

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivasachar, Srivats

    2014-09-23

    A composition, process and system for capturing carbon dioxide from a combustion gas stream. The composition has a particulate porous support medium that has a high volume of pores, an alkaline component distributed within the pores and on the surface of the support medium, and water adsorbed on the alkaline component, wherein the proportion of water in the composition is between about 5% and about 35% by weight of the composition. The process and system contemplates contacting the sorbent and the flowing gas stream together at a temperature and for a time such that some water remains adsorbed in the alkaline component when the contact of the sorbent with the flowing gas ceases.

  12. Materials design for electrocatalytic carbon capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Xin; Tahini, Hassan A.; Smith, Sean C.

    2016-05-01

    We discuss our philosophy for implementation of the Materials Genome Initiative through an integrated materials design strategy, exemplified here in the context of electrocatalytic capture and separation of CO2 gas. We identify for a group of 1:1 X-N graphene analogue materials that electro-responsive switchable CO2 binding behavior correlates with a change in the preferred binding site from N to the adjacent X atom as negative charge is introduced into the system. A reconsideration of conductive N-doped graphene yields the discovery that the N-dopant is able to induce electrocatalytic binding of multiple CO2 molecules at the adjacent carbon sites.

  13. Designed amyloid fibers as materials for selective carbon dioxide capture.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; Deng, Hexiang; Liu, Cong; Yaghi, Omar M; Eisenberg, David S

    2014-01-01

    New materials capable of binding carbon dioxide are essential for addressing climate change. Here, we demonstrate that amyloids, self-assembling protein fibers, are effective for selective carbon dioxide capture. Solid-state NMR proves that amyloid fibers containing alkylamine groups reversibly bind carbon dioxide via carbamate formation. Thermodynamic and kinetic capture-and-release tests show the carbamate formation rate is fast enough to capture carbon dioxide by dynamic separation, undiminished by the presence of water, in both a natural amyloid and designed amyloids having increased carbon dioxide capacity. Heating to 100 °C regenerates the material. These results demonstrate the potential of amyloid fibers for environmental carbon dioxide capture.

  14. Risk-Based Comparison of Carbon Capture Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, David W.; Dalton, Angela C.; Dale, Crystal; Jones, Edward

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we describe an integrated probabilistic risk assessment methodological framework and a decision-support tool suite for implementing systematic comparisons of competing carbon capture technologies. Culminating from a collaborative effort among national laboratories under the Carbon Capture Simulation Initiative (CCSI), the risk assessment framework and the decision-support tool suite encapsulate three interconnected probabilistic modeling and simulation components. The technology readiness level (TRL) assessment component identifies specific scientific and engineering targets required by each readiness level and applies probabilistic estimation techniques to calculate the likelihood of graded as well as nonlinear advancement in technology maturity. The technical risk assessment component focuses on identifying and quantifying risk contributors, especially stochastic distributions for significant risk contributors, performing scenario-based risk analysis, and integrating with carbon capture process model simulations and optimization. The financial risk component estimates the long-term return on investment based on energy retail pricing, production cost, operating and power replacement cost, plan construction and retrofit expenses, and potential tax relief, expressed probabilistically as the net present value distributions over various forecast horizons.

  15. Enhanced Carbonate Weathering: Helping Nature Capture and Sequester Carbon Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rau, G. H.; Rau, G. H.; Knauss, K. G.; Caldeira, K.

    2001-12-01

    Various methods have been proposed for mitigating anthropogenic CO2 release to the atmosphere, including ocean storage via enhanced biological uptake and via deep-sea injection of captured CO2. We propose an alternate capture and sequestration method that we believe would be less expensive and more environmentally friendly than the proceeding methods. Specifically, it is suggested that CO2-rich power-plant gases be hydrated with seawater to produce a carbonic acid solution that in turn is reacted on-site with limestone to form Ca2+ and HCO3-. This calcium bicarbonate solution is then released and diluted in the ocean where it would add minimally to the existing, large pool of these ions in the sea. Such a process simply speeds up natural carbonate weathering and dissolution which will otherwise consume anthropogenic CO2, but over many millennia. Using a schematic model of ocean chemistry and transport we show that this process would increase ocean alkalinity, effectively neutralizing CO2 acidity and isolating anthropogenic carbon from the atmosphere. Relative to atmospheric release or direct CO2 injection, this method would greatly expand the capacity of the ocean to store anthropogenic carbon while minimizing environmental impacts of this carbon on ocean biota. This technique also is less energy intensive and less expensive than other abiotic CO2 capture and sequestration schemes. We calculate an energy penalty that may be <2% with a CO2 capture efficiency which may exceed 50%. Estimated sequestration costs could be as low as \\12 per tonne CO_{2} sequestered, dependent on reactor configuration and on limestone and water availability and transport. These compare with \\90 to \\180/tonne CO_{2} and >>20% energy penalties estimated for direct ocean CO_{2}$ injection.

  16. Policy Needs for Carbon Capture & Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peridas, G.

    2007-12-01

    Climate change is one of the most pressing environmental problems of our time. The widespread consensus that exists on climate science requires deep cuts in greenhouse gas emissions, on the order of 50-80% globally from current levels. Reducing energy demand, increasing energy efficiency and sourcing our energy from renewable sources will, and should, play a key role in achieving these cuts. Fossil fuels however are abundant, relatively inexpensive, and still make up the backbone of our energy system. Phasing out fossil fuel use will be a gradual process, and is likely to take far longer than the timeframe dictated by climate science for reducing emissions. A reliable way of decarbonizing the use of fossil fuels is needed. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) has already proven to be a technology that can safely and effectively accomplish this task. The technological know-how and the underground capacity exist to store billions of tons of carbon dioxide in mature oil and gas fields, and deep saline formations. Three large international commercial projects and several other applications have proved this, but substantial barriers remain to be overcome before CCS becomes the technology of choice in all major emitting sectors. Government has a significant role to play in surmounting these barriers. Without mandatory limits on greenhouse gas emissions and a price on carbon, CCS is likely to linger in the background. The expected initial carbon price levels and their potential volatility under such a scheme dictates that further policies be used in the early years in order for CCS to be implemented. Such policies could include a new source performance standard for power plants, and a low carbon generation obligation that would relieve first movers by spreading the additional cost of the technology over entire sectors. A tax credit for capturing and permanently sequestering anthropogenic CO2 would aid project economics. Assistance in the form of loan guarantees for components

  17. Carbon dioxide capture using polyethylenimine-loaded mesoporous carbons.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jitong; Chen, Huichao; Zhou, Huanhuan; Liu, Xiaojun; Qiao, Wenming; Long, Donghui; Ling, Licheng

    2013-01-01

    A high efficiency sorbent for CO2 capture was developed by loading polyethylenimine (PEI) on mesoporous carbons which possessed well-developed mesoporous structures and large pore volume. The physicochemical properties of the sorbent were characterized by N2 adsorption/desorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermal gravimetric analysis (TG) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) techniques followed by testing for CO2 capture. Factors that affected the sorption capacity of the sorbent were studied. The sorbent exhibited extraordinary capture capacity with CO2 concentration ranging from 5% to 80%. The optimal PEI loading was determined to be 65 wt.% with a CO2 sorption capacity of 4.82 mmol-CO2/g-sorbent in 15% CO2/N2 at 75 degrees C, owing to low mass-transfer resistance and a high utilization ratio of the amine compound (63%). Moisture had a promoting effect on the sorption separation of CO2. In addition, the developed sorbent could be regenerated easily at 100 degrees C, and it exhibited excellent regenerability and stability. These results indicate that this PEI-loaded mesoporous carbon sorbent should have a good potential for CO2 capture in the future.

  18. Biochemical Capture and Removal of Carbon Dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trachtenberg, Michael C.

    1998-01-01

    We devised an enzyme-based facilitated transport membrane bioreactor system to selectively remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from the space station environment. We developed and expressed site-directed enzyme mutants for CO2 capture. Enzyme kinetics showed the mutants to be almost identical to the wild type save at higher pH. Both native enzyme and mutant enzymes were immobilized to different supports including nylons, glasses, sepharose, methacrylate, titanium and nickel. Mutant enzyme could be attached and removed from metal ligand supports and the supports reused at least five times. Membrane systems were constructed to test CO2 selectivity. These included proteic membranes, thin liquid films and enzyme-immobilized teflon membranes. Selectivity ratios of more than 200:1 were obtained for CO2 versus oxygen with CO2 at 0.1%. The data indicate that a membrane based bioreactor can be constructed which could bring CO2 levels close to Earth.

  19. Is Carbon Capture and Storage Really Needed?

    SciTech Connect

    Tsouris, Costas; Williams, Kent Alan; Aaron, D

    2010-01-01

    Two of the greatest contemporary global challenges are anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and energy sustainability. A popular proposed solution to the former problem is carbon capture and storage (CCS). Unfortunately, CCS has little benefit for energy sustainability and introduces significant long-term costs and risks. Thus, we propose the adoption of 'virtual CCS' by directing the resources that would have been spent on CCS to alternative energy technologies. (The term 'virtual' is used here because the concept described in this work satisfies the Merriam-Webster Dictionary definition of virtual: 'being such in essence or effect though not formally recognized or admitted.') In this example, we consider wind and nuclear power and use the funds that would have been required by CCS to invest in installation and operation of these technologies. Many other options exist in addition to wind and nuclear power including solar, biomass, geothermal, and others. These additional energy technologies can be considered in future studies. While CCS involves spending resources to concentrate CO{sub 2} in sinks, such as underground reservoirs, low-carbon alternative energy produces power, which will displace fossil fuel use while simultaneously generating revenues. Thus, these alternative energy technologies achieve the same objective as that of CCS, namely, the avoidance of atmospheric CO{sub 2} emissions.

  20. Yeast-based microporous carbon materials for carbon dioxide capture.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wenzhong; He, Yue; Zhang, Shouchun; Li, Junfen; Fan, Weibin

    2012-07-01

    A hierarchical microporous carbon material with a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area of 1348 m(2) g(-1) and a pore volume of 0.67 cm(3) g(-1) was prepared from yeast through chemical activation with potassium hydroxide. This type of material contains large numbers of nitrogen-containing groups (nitrogen content >5.3 wt%), and, consequently, basic sites. As a result, this material shows a faster adsorption rate and a higher adsorption capacity of CO(2) than the material obtained by directly carbonizing yeast under the same conditions. The difference is more pronounced in the presence of N(2) or H(2)O, showing that chemical activation of discarded yeast with potassium hydroxide could afford high-performance microporous carbon materials for the capture of CO(2).

  1. Computational Tools for Accelerating Carbon Capture Process Development

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, David

    2013-01-01

    The goals of the work reported are: to develop new computational tools and models to enable industry to more rapidly develop and deploy new advanced energy technologies; to demonstrate the capabilities of the CCSI Toolset on non-proprietary case studies; and to deploy the CCSI Toolset to industry. Challenges of simulating carbon capture (and other) processes include: dealing with multiple scales (particle, device, and whole process scales); integration across scales; verification, validation, and uncertainty; and decision support. The tools cover: risk analysis and decision making; validated, high-fidelity CFD; high-resolution filtered sub-models; process design and optimization tools; advanced process control and dynamics; process models; basic data sub-models; and cross-cutting integration tools.

  2. Recent advances in neutron capture therapy (NCT)

    SciTech Connect

    Fairchild, R.G.

    1985-01-01

    The application of the /sup 10/B(n,..cap alpha..)/sup 7/Li reaction to cancer radiotherapy (Neutron Capture therapy, or NCT) has intrigued investigators since the discovery of the neutron. This paper briefly summarizes data describing recently developed boronated compounds with evident tumor specificity and extended biological half-lives. The implication of these compounds to NCT is evaluated in terms of Therapeutic Gain (TG). The optimization of NCT using band-pass filtered beams is described, again in terms of TG, and irradiation times with these less intense beams are estimated. 24 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Better Enzymes for Carbon Capture: Low-Cost Biological Catalyst to Enable Efficient Carbon Dioxide Capture

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-01

    IMPACCT Project: Codexis is developing new and efficient forms of enzymes known as carbonic anhydrases to absorb CO2 more rapidly and under challenging conditions found in the gas exhaust of coal-fired power plants. Carbonic anhydrases are common and are among the fastest enzymes, but they are not robust enough to withstand the harsh environment found in the power plant exhaust steams. In this project, Codexis will be using proprietary technology to improve the enzymes’ ability to withstand high temperatures and large swings in chemical composition. The project aims to develop a carbon-capture process that uses less energy and less equipment than existing approaches. This would reduce the cost of retrofitting today’s coal-fired power plants.

  4. Designed amyloid fibers as materials for selective carbon dioxide capture

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dan; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; Deng, Hexiang; Liu, Cong; Yaghi, Omar M.; Eisenberg, David S.

    2014-01-01

    New materials capable of binding carbon dioxide are essential for addressing climate change. Here, we demonstrate that amyloids, self-assembling protein fibers, are effective for selective carbon dioxide capture. Solid-state NMR proves that amyloid fibers containing alkylamine groups reversibly bind carbon dioxide via carbamate formation. Thermodynamic and kinetic capture-and-release tests show the carbamate formation rate is fast enough to capture carbon dioxide by dynamic separation, undiminished by the presence of water, in both a natural amyloid and designed amyloids having increased carbon dioxide capacity. Heating to 100 °C regenerates the material. These results demonstrate the potential of amyloid fibers for environmental carbon dioxide capture. PMID:24367077

  5. Biorefineries of carbon dioxide: From carbon capture and storage (CCS) to bioenergies production.

    PubMed

    Cheah, Wai Yan; Ling, Tau Chuan; Juan, Joon Ching; Lee, Duu-Jong; Chang, Jo-Shu; Show, Pau Loke

    2016-09-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions have several adverse environmental effects, like pollution and climate change. Currently applied carbon capture and storage (CCS) methods are not cost effective and have not been proven safe for long term sequestration. Another attractive approach is CO2 valorization, whereby CO2 can be captured in the form of biomass via photosynthesis and is subsequently converted into various form of bioenergy. This article summarizes the current carbon sequestration and utilization technologies, while emphasizing the value of bioconversion of CO2. In particular, CO2 sequestration by terrestrial plants, microalgae and other microorganisms are discussed. Prospects and challenges for CO2 conversion are addressed. The aim of this review is to provide comprehensive knowledge and updated information on the current advances in biological CO2 sequestration and valorization, which are essential if this approach is to achieve environmental sustainability and economic feasibility. PMID:27090405

  6. Biorefineries of carbon dioxide: From carbon capture and storage (CCS) to bioenergies production.

    PubMed

    Cheah, Wai Yan; Ling, Tau Chuan; Juan, Joon Ching; Lee, Duu-Jong; Chang, Jo-Shu; Show, Pau Loke

    2016-09-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions have several adverse environmental effects, like pollution and climate change. Currently applied carbon capture and storage (CCS) methods are not cost effective and have not been proven safe for long term sequestration. Another attractive approach is CO2 valorization, whereby CO2 can be captured in the form of biomass via photosynthesis and is subsequently converted into various form of bioenergy. This article summarizes the current carbon sequestration and utilization technologies, while emphasizing the value of bioconversion of CO2. In particular, CO2 sequestration by terrestrial plants, microalgae and other microorganisms are discussed. Prospects and challenges for CO2 conversion are addressed. The aim of this review is to provide comprehensive knowledge and updated information on the current advances in biological CO2 sequestration and valorization, which are essential if this approach is to achieve environmental sustainability and economic feasibility.

  7. Carbon dioxide capture process with regenerable sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Pennline, Henry W.; Hoffman, James S.

    2002-05-14

    A process to remove carbon dioxide from a gas stream using a cross-flow, or a moving-bed reactor. In the reactor the gas contacts an active material that is an alkali-metal compound, such as an alkali-metal carbonate, alkali-metal oxide, or alkali-metal hydroxide; or in the alternative, an alkaline-earth metal compound, such as an alkaline-earth metal carbonate, alkaline-earth metal oxide, or alkaline-earth metal hydroxide. The active material can be used by itself or supported on a substrate of carbon, alumina, silica, titania or aluminosilicate. When the active material is an alkali-metal compound, the carbon-dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate bicarbonate. When the active material is an alkaline-earth metal, the carbon dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate carbonate. Spent sorbent containing the bicarbonate or carbonate is moved to a second reactor where it is heated or treated with a reducing agent such as, natural gas, methane, carbon monoxide hydrogen, or a synthesis gas comprising of a combination of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The heat or reducing agent releases carbon dioxide gas and regenerates the active material for use as the sorbent material in the first reactor. New sorbent may be added to the regenerated sorbent prior to subsequent passes in the carbon dioxide removal reactor.

  8. Bicarbonate produced from carbon capture for algae culture.

    PubMed

    Chi, Zhanyou; O'Fallon, James V; Chen, Shulin

    2011-11-01

    Using captured CO(2) to grow microalgae is limited by the high cost of CO(2) capture and transportation, as well as significant CO(2) loss during algae culture. Moreover, algae grow poorly at night, but CO(2) cannot be temporarily stored until sunrise. To address these challenges, we discuss a process where CO(2) is captured as bicarbonate and used as feedstock for algae culture, and the carbonate regenerated by the culture process is used as an absorbent to capture more CO(2). This process would significantly reduce carbon capture costs because it does not require additional energy for carbonate regeneration. Furthermore, not only would transport of the aqueous bicarbonate solution cost less than for that of compressed CO(2), but using bicarbonate would also provide a superior alternative for CO(2) delivery to an algae culture system.

  9. Mountaineer Commerical Scale Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Project

    SciTech Connect

    Deanna Gilliland; Matthew Usher

    2011-12-31

    The Final Technical documents all work performed during the award period on the Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture & Storage project. This report presents the findings and conclusions produced as a consequence of this work. As identified in the Cooperative Agreement DE-FE0002673, AEP's objective of the Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture and Storage (MT CCS II) project is to design, build and operate a commercial scale carbon capture and storage (CCS) system capable of treating a nominal 235 MWe slip stream of flue gas from the outlet duct of the Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system at AEP's Mountaineer Power Plant (Mountaineer Plant), a 1300 MWe coal-fired generating station in New Haven, WV. The CCS system is designed to capture 90% of the CO{sub 2} from the incoming flue gas using the Alstom Chilled Ammonia Process (CAP) and compress, transport, inject and store 1.5 million tonnes per year of the captured CO{sub 2} in deep saline reservoirs. Specific Project Objectives include: (1) Achieve a minimum of 90% carbon capture efficiency during steady-state operations; (2) Demonstrate progress toward capture and storage at less than a 35% increase in cost of electricity (COE); (3) Store CO{sub 2} at a rate of 1.5 million tonnes per year in deep saline reservoirs; and (4) Demonstrate commercial technology readiness of the integrated CO{sub 2} capture and storage system.

  10. Carbon dioxide capture and use: organic synthesis using carbon dioxide from exhaust gas.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung Hyo; Kim, Kwang Hee; Hong, Soon Hyeok

    2014-01-13

    A carbon capture and use (CCU) strategy was applied to organic synthesis. Carbon dioxide (CO2) captured directly from exhaust gas was used for organic transformations as efficiently as hyper-pure CO2 gas from a commercial source, even for highly air- and moisture-sensitive reactions. The CO2 capturing aqueous ethanolamine solution could be recycled continuously without any diminished reaction efficiency.

  11. Impact of sulfur oxides on mercury capture by activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Presto, Albert A; Granite, Evan J

    2007-09-15

    Recent field tests of mercury removal with activated carbon injection (ACI) have revealed that mercury capture is limited in flue gases containing high concentrations of sulfur oxides (SOx). In order to gain a more complete understanding of the impact of SOx on ACl, mercury capture was tested under varying conditions of SO2 and SO3 concentrations using a packed bed reactor and simulated flue gas (SFG). The final mercury content of the activated carbons is independent of the SO2 concentration in the SFG, but the presence of SO3 inhibits mercury capture even at the lowest concentration tested (20 ppm). The mercury removal capacity decreases as the sulfur content of the used activated carbons increases from 1 to 10%. In one extreme case, an activated carbon with 10% sulfur, prepared by H2SO4 impregnation, shows almost no mercury capacity. The results suggest that mercury and sulfur oxides are in competition for the same binding sites on the carbon surface.

  12. Impact of Sulfur Oxides on Mercury Capture by Activated Carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Presto, A.A.; Granite, E.J.

    2007-09-15

    Recent field tests of mercury removal with activated carbon injection (ACI) have revealed that mercury capture is limited in flue gases containing high concentrations of sulfur oxides (SOx). In order to gain a more complete understanding of the impact of SOx on ACI, mercury capture was tested under varying conditions of SO2 and SO3 concentrations using a packed bed reactor and simulated flue gas (SFG). The final mercury content of the activated carbons is independent of the SO2 concentration in the SFG, but the presence of SO3 inhibits mercury capture even at the lowest concentration tested (20 ppm). The mercury removal capacity decreases as the sulfur content of the used activated carbons increases from 1 to 10%. In one extreme case, an activated carbon with 10% sulfur, prepared by H2SO4 impregnation, shows almost no mercury capacity. The results suggest that mercury and sulfur oxides are in competition for the same binding sites on the carbon surface.

  13. Microalgal biomass for carbon capture and reuse

    SciTech Connect

    Zeiler, K.G.; Brown, L.M.

    1994-12-31

    The technology for growing microalgae as a renewable biomass source can be applied to the production of fuels and chemicals. Microalgae are of interest because of their high growth rates and tolerance to varying environmental conditions, and because the oils (lipids) they produce can be extracted and converted to substitute petroleum fuels. Since the primary nutrient for microalgal growth is carbon dioxide, operation of microalgal biomass farms has emerged as a promising candidate in the search for approaches to ameliorate global change due to the accumulation of carbon dioxide. In areas where microalgae fuel farms operate in tandem with fossil fuel plants to scrub carbon dioxide from flue gases, the release of carbon dioxide could be significantly reduced. If the microalgae are used to produce fuel, either as liquid transportation or boiler fuel, a mass culture facility reduces by approximately 50% the carbon dioxide emissions from the power plant per unit energy delivered. For example, although coal is ordinarily considered to be the most polluting fossil fuel on the basis of carbon dioxide emitted per amount of energy produced, the integration of microalgal ponds with a coal-fired plant would make this fossil fuel less polluting than existing oil and natural-gas-fired plants. Similar advantages can be achieved for oil and gas-fired plants. The use of other carbon dioxide sources such as carbon dioxide from fuel-ethanol plants or other technologies that produce CO{sub 2} as a byproduct could provide other sources of CO{sub 2}. If commodity chemicals are produced from algae instead of fields, the net carbon dioxide reduction is significantly greater. Commodity chemicals can be used to produce goods with long-term uses such as building materials. Such uses would result in the sequestering of carbon dioxide for long periods.

  14. Unusual ultra-hydrophilic, porous carbon cuboids for atmospheric-water capture.

    PubMed

    Hao, Guang-Ping; Mondin, Giovanni; Zheng, Zhikun; Biemelt, Tim; Klosz, Stefan; Schubel, René; Eychmüller, Alexander; Kaskel, Stefan

    2015-02-01

    There is significant interest in high-performance materials that can directly and efficiently capture water vapor, particularly from air. Herein, we report a class of novel porous carbon cuboids with unusual ultra-hydrophilic properties, over which the synergistic effects between surface heterogeneity and micropore architecture is maximized, leading to the best atmospheric water-capture performance among porous carbons to date, with a water capacity of up to 9.82 mmol g(-1) at P/P0 =0.2 and 25 °C (20% relative humidity or 6000 ppm). Benefiting from properties, such as defined morphology, narrow pore size distribution, and high heterogeneity, this series of functional carbons may serve as model materials for fundamental research on carbon chemistry and the advance of new types of materials for water-vapor capture as well as other applications requiring combined highly hydrophilic surface chemistry, developed hierarchical porosity, and excellent stability.

  15. Enhancing the detector for advanced neutron capture experiments

    DOE PAGES

    Couture, A.; Mosby, S.; Baramsai, B.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Jandel, M.; Macon, K.; O’Donnell, J. M.; Rusev, G.; Taddeucci, T. N; Ullmann, J. L.; et al

    2015-05-28

    The Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) has been used for extensive studies of neutron capture, gamma decay, photon strength functions, and prompt and delayed fission-gamma emission. Despite these successes, the potential measurements have been limited by the data acquisition hardware. We report on a major upgrade of the DANCE data acquisition that simultaneously enables strait-forward coupling to auxiliary detectors, including high-resolution high-purity germanium detectors and neutron tagging array. The upgrade will enhance the time domain accessible for time-of-flight neutron measurements as well as improve the resolution in the DANCE barium fluoride crystals for photons.

  16. Enhancing the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couture, A.; Mosby, S.; Baramsai, B.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Jandel, M.; Macon, K.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rusev, G.; Taddeucci, T. N.; Ullmann, J. L.; Walker, C. L.

    2015-05-01

    The Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) has been used for extensive studies of neutron capture, gamma decay, photon strength functions, and prompt and delayed fission-gamma emission. Despite these successes, the potential measurements have been limited by the data acquisition hardware. We report on a major upgrade of the DANCE data acquisition that simultaneously enables strait-forward coupling to auxiliary detectors, including high-resolution high-purity germanium detectors and neutron tagging array. The upgrade will enhance the time domain accessible for time-of-flight neutron measurements as well as improve the resolution in the DANCE barium fluoride crystals for photons.

  17. The Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments at LANSCE

    SciTech Connect

    Ullmann, J.L.; Reifarth, R.; Haight, R.C.; Hunt, L.; O'Donnell, J.M.; Rundberg, R.S.; Bredeweg, T.A.; Wilhelmy, J.B.; Fowler, M.M.; Vieira, D.J.; Wouters, J.M.; Strottman, D.D.; Kaeppeler, F.; Heil, M.; Chamberlin, E.P.

    2003-08-26

    The Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) is a 159-element 4{pi} barium fluoride array designed to study neutron capture on small quantities, 1 mg or less, of radioactive nuclides. It is being built on a 20 m neutron flight path which views the 'upper tier' water moderator at the Manuel J. Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The detector design is based on Monte Carlo calculations which have suggested ways to minimize backgrounds due to neutron scattering events. A data acquisition system based on fast transient digitizers is being implemented.

  18. Detector for advanced neutron capture experiments at LANSCE

    SciTech Connect

    Ullmann, J. L.; Reifarth, R.; Haight, Robert C.; Hunt, L. F.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Fowler, Malcolm M.; Vieira, D. J.; Wouters, J. M.; Strottman, D.; Kaeppeler, F.; Heil, M.; Chamberlin, E. P.

    2002-01-01

    The Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) is a 159-element 4x barium fluoride array designed to study neutron capture on small quantities, 1 mg or less, of radioactive nuclides. It is being built on a 20 m neutron flight path which views the 'upper tier' water moderator at the Manuel J. Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The detector design is based on Monte Carlo calculations which have suggested ways to minimize backgrounds due to neutron scattering events. A data acquisition system based on fast transient digitizers is bcing implemented

  19. Progress and new developments in carbon capture and storage

    SciTech Connect

    Plasynski, S.I.; Litynski, J.T.; McIlvried, H.G.; Srivastava, R.D.

    2009-07-01

    Growing concern over the impact on global climate change of the buildup of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere has resulted in proposals to capture carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) at large point sources and store it in geologic formations, such as oil and gas reservoirs, unmineable coal seams, and saline formations, referred to as carbon capture and storage (CCS). There are three options for capturing CO{sub 2} from point sources: post-combustion capture, pre-combustion capture, and oxy-combustion. Several processes are available to capture CO{sub 2}, and new or improved processes are under development. However, CO{sub 2} capture is the most expensive part of CCS, typically accounting for 75% of overall cost. CCS will benefit significantly from the development of a lower cost post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture process that can be retrofitted to existing power plants. Once captured, the CO{sub 2} is compressed to about 150 atm and pipelined at supercritical conditions to a suitable storage site. Oil and gas reservoirs, because they have assured seals and are well characterized, are promising early opportunity sites. Saline formations are much more extensive and have a huge potential storage capacity, but are much less characterized. Several commercial and a number of pilot CCS projects are underway around the world.

  20. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir P. Gupta; Alejandro Lopez-Ortiz; Douglas P. Harrison; Ya Liang

    2001-07-01

    Sodium based sorbents including sodium carbonate may be used to capture carbon dioxide from flue gas. A relatively concentrated carbon dioxide stream may be recoverable for sequestration when the sorbent is regenerated. Electrobalance tests indicated that sodium carbonate monohydrate was formed in a mixture of helium and water vapor at temperatures below 65 C. Additional compounds may also form, but this could not be confirmed. In the presence of carbon dioxide and water vapor, both the initial reaction rate of sodium carbonate with carbon dioxide and water and the sorbent capacity decreased with increasing temperature, consistent with the results from the previous quarter. Increasing the carbon dioxide concentration at constant temperature and water vapor concentration produced a measurable increase in rate, as did increasing the water vapor concentration at constant carbon dioxide concentration and temperature. Runs conducted with a flatter TGA pan resulted in a higher initial reaction rate, presumably due to improved gas-solid contact, but after a short time, there was no significant difference in the rates measured with the different pans. Analyses of kinetic data suggest that the surface of the sodium carbonate particles may be much hotter than the bulk gas due to the highly exothermic reaction with carbon dioxide and water, and that the rate of heat removal from the particle may control the reaction rate. A material and energy balance was developed for a cyclic carbonation/calcination process which captures about 26 percent of the carbon dioxide present in flue gas available at 250 C.

  1. CO(2) capture from dilute gases as a component of modern global carbon management.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christopher W

    2011-01-01

    The growing atmospheric CO(2) concentration and its impact on climate have motivated widespread research and development aimed at slowing or stemming anthropogenic carbon emissions. Technologies for carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) employing mass separating agents that extract and purify CO(2) from flue gas emanating from large point sources such as fossil fuel-fired electricity-generating power plants are under development. Recent advances in solvents, adsorbents, and membranes for postcombust- ion CO(2) capture are described here. Specifically, room-temperature ionic liquids, supported amine materials, mixed matrix and facilitated transport membranes, and metal-organic framework materials are highlighted. In addition, the concept of extracting CO(2) directly from ambient air (air capture) as a means of reducing the global atmospheric CO(2) concentration is reviewed. For both conventional CCS from large point sources and air capture, critical research needs are identified and discussed.

  2. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Thomas Nelson

    2004-07-01

    This report describes research conducted between April 1, 2004 and June 30, 2004 on the preparation and use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Support materials and supported sorbents were prepared by spray drying. Sorbents consisting of 20 to 50% sodium carbonate on a ceramic support were prepared by spray drying in batches of approximately 300 grams. The supported sorbents exhibited greater carbon dioxide capture rates than unsupported calcined sodium bicarbonate in laboratory tests. Preliminary process design and cost estimation for a retrofit application suggested that costs of a dry regenerable sodium carbonate-based process could be lower than those of a monoethanolamine absorption system. In both cases, the greatest part of the process costs come from power plant output reductions due to parasitic consumption of steam for recovery of carbon dioxide from the capture medium.

  3. Capturing King Coal: deploying carbon capture and storage systems in the US at scale

    SciTech Connect

    Fernando, H.; Venezia, J.; Rigdon, C.; Verma, P.

    2008-05-15

    This paper examines the challenges in the deployment of carbon capture and storage (CCS) systems in the USA under the four broad categories of technology, policy, legal and regulatory framework, and investment, and their implications for CCS as part of the solution to mitigate adverse climate change impacts.

  4. Chromosome Conformation Capture Carbon Copy (5C) in Budding Yeast.

    PubMed

    Belton, Jon-Matthew; Dekker, Job

    2015-06-01

    Chromosome conformation capture carbon copy (5C) is a high-throughput method for detecting ligation products of interest in a chromosome conformation capture (3C) library. 5C uses ligation-mediated amplification (LMA) to generate carbon copies of 3C ligation product junctions using single-stranded oligonucleotide probes. This procedure produces a 5C library of short DNA molecules which represent the interactions between the corresponding restriction fragments. The 5C library can be amplified using universal primers containing the Illumina paired-end adaptor sequences for subsequent high-throughput sequencing.

  5. New Technical Risk Management Development for Carbon Capture Process

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, David W.; Letellier, Bruce; Edwards, Brian; Leclaire, Rene; Jones, Edward

    2012-04-30

    The basic CCSI objective of accelerating technology development and commercial deployment of carbon capture technologies through the extensive use of numerical simulation introduces a degree of unfamiliarity and novelty that potentially increases both of the traditional risk elements. In order to secure investor confidence and successfully accelerate the marketability of carbon capture technologies, it is critical that risk management decision tools be developed in parallel with numerical simulation capabilities and uncertainty quantification efforts. The focus of this paper is on the development of a technical risk model that incorporates the specific technology maturity development (level).

  6. The mechanism of selective molecular capture in carbon nanotube networks.

    PubMed

    Wan, Yu; Guan, Jun; Yang, Xudong; Zheng, Quanshui; Xu, Zhiping

    2014-07-28

    Recently, air pollution issues have drawn significant attention to the development of efficient air filters, and one of the most promising materials for this purpose is nanofibers. We explore here the mechanism of selective molecular capture of volatile organic compounds in carbon nanotube networks by performing atomistic simulations. The results are discussed with respect to the two key parameters that define the performance of nanofiltration, i.e. the capture efficiency and flow resistance, which demonstrate the advantages of carbon nanotube networks with high surface-to-volume ratio and atomistically smooth surfaces. We also reveal the important roles of interfacial adhesion and diffusion that govern selective gas transport through the network.

  7. Capture of green-house carbon dioxide in Portland cement

    SciTech Connect

    Wagh, A.S.; Singh, D.; Pullockaran, J.; Knox, L.

    1993-12-31

    A novel process has been developed to sequester green-house carbon dioxide produced by the cement industry in precast cement products. Typically, 10--24 wt % of CO{sub 2} produced by calcination of calcium carbonate during clinkering of the cement may be captured. The carbonation process also cures the cement paste within minutes into hard bodies. The process maintains high pH conditions during curing, to allow conventional steel reinforcement of concrete. The process will save time and money to the cement industry, and at the same time, help them to comply with the Clean Air Act by sequestering the green-house carbon dioxide.

  8. Chemically modified carbonic anhydrases useful in carbon capture systems

    SciTech Connect

    Novick, Scott; Alvizo, Oscar

    2013-01-15

    The present disclosure relates to chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides and soluble compositions, homogenous liquid formulations comprising them. The chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides have improved properties relative to the same carbonic anhydrase polypeptide that is not chemically modified including the improved properties of increased activity and/or stability in the presence of amine compounds, ammonia, or carbonate ion. The present disclosure also provides methods of preparing the chemically modified polypeptides and methods of using the chemically modified polypeptides for accelerating the absorption of carbon dioxide from a gas stream into a solution as well as for the release of the absorbed carbon dioxide for further treatment and/or sequestering.

  9. Annual Report: Carbon Capture Simulation Initiative (CCSI) (30 September 2013)

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, David C.; Syamlal, Madhava; Cottrell, Roger; Kress, Joel D.; Sundaresan, S.; Sun, Xin; Storlie, C.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Tong, Charles; Zitney, Stephen E; Dale, Crystal; Engel, Dave; Agarwal, Deb; Calafiura, Paolo; Shinn, John

    2014-03-05

    -ANOVA-UQ) for calibration and validation of CFD models. 8. A new basic data submodel in Aspen Plus format for a representative high viscosity capture solvent, 2-MPZ system. 9. An updated RM tool for CFD (REVEAL) that can create a RM from MFIX. A new lightweight, stand-alone version will be available in late 2013. 10. An updated RM integration tool to convert the RM from REVEAL into a CAPE-OPEN or ACM model for use in a process simulator. 11. An updated suite of unified steady-state and dynamic process models for solid sorbent carbon capture included bubbling fluidized bed and moving bed reactors. 12. An updated and unified set of compressor models including steady-state design point model and dynamic model with surge detection. 13. A new framework for the synthesis and optimization of coal oxycombustion power plants using advanced optimization algorithms. This release focuses on modeling and optimization of a cryogenic air separation unit (ASU). 14. A new technical risk model in spreadsheet format. 15. An updated version of the sorbent kinetic/equilibrium model for parameter estimation for the 1st generation sorbent model. 16. An updated process synthesis superstructure model to determine optimal process configurations utilizing surrogate models from ALAMO for adsorption and regeneration in a solid sorbent process. 17. Validation models for NETL Carbon Capture Unit utilizing sorbent AX. Additional validation models will be available for sorbent 32D in 2014. 18. An updated hollow fiber membrane model and system example for carbon capture. 19. An updated reference power plant model in Thermoflex that includes additional steam extraction and reinjection points to enable heat integration module. 20. An updated financial risk model in spreadsheet format.

  10. Recent advances in CO2 capture and utilization.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kai Man Kerry; Curcic, Igor; Gabriel, Joseph; Tsang, Shik Chi Edman

    2008-01-01

    Energy and the environment are two of the most important issues this century. More than 80 % of our energy comes from the combustion of fossil fuels, which will still remain the dominant energy source for years to come. It is agreed that carbon dioxide produced from the combustion process to be the most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas leading to global warming. Atmospheric CO(2) concentrations have indeed increased by almost 100 ppm since their pre-industrial level, reaching 384 ppm in 2007 with a total annual emission of over 35 Gt. Prompt global action to resolve the CO(2) crisis is therefore needed. To pursue such an action, we are urged to save energy without the unnecessary production of carbon emissions and to use energy in more efficient ways, but alternative methods to mitigate the greenhouse gas have to be considered. This Minireview highlights some recent promising research activities and their prospects in the areas of carbon capture and storage and chemical fixation of CO(2) in constructing a future low-carbon global economy with reference to energy source, thermodynamic considerations, net carbon emissions and availability of reagents. PMID:18985640

  11. Recent advances in CO2 capture and utilization.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kai Man Kerry; Curcic, Igor; Gabriel, Joseph; Tsang, Shik Chi Edman

    2008-01-01

    Energy and the environment are two of the most important issues this century. More than 80 % of our energy comes from the combustion of fossil fuels, which will still remain the dominant energy source for years to come. It is agreed that carbon dioxide produced from the combustion process to be the most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas leading to global warming. Atmospheric CO(2) concentrations have indeed increased by almost 100 ppm since their pre-industrial level, reaching 384 ppm in 2007 with a total annual emission of over 35 Gt. Prompt global action to resolve the CO(2) crisis is therefore needed. To pursue such an action, we are urged to save energy without the unnecessary production of carbon emissions and to use energy in more efficient ways, but alternative methods to mitigate the greenhouse gas have to be considered. This Minireview highlights some recent promising research activities and their prospects in the areas of carbon capture and storage and chemical fixation of CO(2) in constructing a future low-carbon global economy with reference to energy source, thermodynamic considerations, net carbon emissions and availability of reagents.

  12. Energy department pulls out of carbon-capture project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2015-03-01

    A project aiming to demonstrate carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) from a coal-fired power plant is set to be cancelled after the US Department of Energy (DOE) announced it will withdraw its 1bn in support for the initiative.

  13. Sorbents for CO2 capture from high carbon fly ashes.

    PubMed

    Maroto-Valer, M Mercedes; Lu, Zhe; Zhang, Yinzhi; Tang, Zhong

    2008-11-01

    Fly ashes with high-unburned-carbon content, referred to as fly ash carbons, are an increasing problem for the utility industry, since they cannot be marketed as a cement extender and, therefore, have to be disposed. Previous work has explored the potential development of amine-enriched fly ash carbons for CO2 capture. However, their performance was lower than that of commercially available sorbents, probably because the samples investigated were not activated prior to impregnation and, therefore, had a very low surface area. Accordingly, the work described here focuses on the development of activated fly ash derived sorbents for CO2 capture. The samples were steam activated at 850 degrees C, resulting in a significant increase of the surface area (1075 m2/g). The activated samples were impregnated with different amine compounds, and the resultant samples were tested for CO2 capture at different temperatures. The CO2 adsorption of the parent and activated samples is typical of a physical adsorption process. The impregnation process results in a decrease of the surface areas, indicating a blocking of the porosity. The highest adsorption capacity at 30 and 70 degrees C for the amine impregnated activated carbons was probably due to a combination of physical adsorption inherent from the parent sample and chemical adsorption of the loaded amine groups. The CO2 adsorption capacities for the activated amine impregnated samples are higher than those previously published for fly ash carbons without activation (68.6 vs. 45 mg CO2/g sorbent).

  14. Rapid setting of portland cement by greenhouse carbon dioxide capture

    SciTech Connect

    Wagh, A.S.; Singh, D.; Knox, L.J.

    1994-04-01

    Following the work by Berger et al. on rapid setting of calcium silicates by carbonation, a method of high-volume capture of CO{sub 2} in portland cement has been developed. Typically, 10--24 wt. % of CO{sub 2} produced by the calcination of calcium carbonate during clinkering, may be captured, and the set cement acquires most of its full strength in less than a day. The approach will have economic advantages in fabrication of precast structures, in emergency development of infrastructure during natural disasters, and in defense applications. Moreover, it will help the cement industry comply with the Clean Air Act of 1990 by sequestering the greenhouse carbon dioxide.

  15. Self-Assembled Enzyme Nanoparticles for Carbon Dioxide Capture.

    PubMed

    Shanbhag, Bhuvana Kamath; Liu, Boyin; Fu, Jing; Haritos, Victoria S; He, Lizhong

    2016-05-11

    Enzyme-based processes have shown promise as a sustainable alternative to amine-based processes for carbon dioxide capture. In this work, we have engineered carbonic anhydrase nanoparticles that retain 98% of hydratase activity in comparison to their free counterparts. Carbonic anhydrase was fused with a self-assembling peptide that facilitates the noncovalent assembly of the particle and together were recombinantly expressed from a single gene construct in Escherichia coli. The purified enzymes, when subjected to a reduced pH, form 50-200 nm nanoparticles. The CO2 capture capability of enzyme nanoparticles was demonstrated at ambient (22 ± 2 °C) and higher (50 °C) temperatures, under which the nanoparticles maintain their assembled state. The carrier-free enzymatic nanoparticles demonstrated here offer a new approach to stabilize and reuse enzymes in a simple and cost-effective manner.

  16. Modeling Carbon Dioxide Capture by Monoethanolamine Solvent with ASPEN Plus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Tianyi

    Fossil fuels provide approximately 80% of the world's energy demands. Methods for reducing CO2 emissions resulting from fossil fuels include increasing the efficiency of power plants and production processes, decreasing energy demands, in combination with CO2 capture and long term storage (CCS). CO2 capture technologies include post-combustion, pre-combustion, and oxyfuel combustion. The amine-based post-combustion CO2 capture from a coal-fired power plant was studied in this thesis. In case of post-combustion capture, CO2 can be captured by Monoethanolamine solvent (MEA), a primary ethanolamine. MEA can associate with H3O+ to form an ion MEAH+, and can react with CO2 to form a carbonate ion MEACOO-. Commercial code ASPEN Plus was used to simulate the process of CO2 capture and optimize the process parameters and required energy duty. The major part of thermal energy requirement is from the Absorber and Stripper columns. This suggests that process optimization should focus on the Absorption/Desorption process. Optimization results show that the gas-liquid reaction equilibrium is affected by several operating parameters including solvent flow rate, stream temperature, column operating pressure, flue gas composition, solvent concentration and absorber design. With optimized CO2 capture, the energy consumption for solvent regeneration (reboiler thermal duty) was decreased from 5.76 GJ/ton captured CO2 to 4.56 GJ/t CO2. On the other hand, the cost of CO2 capture (and sequestration) could be reduced by limiting size of the Absorber column and operating pressure.

  17. Development Trends in Porous Adsorbents for Carbon Capture.

    PubMed

    Sreenivasulu, Bolisetty; Sreedhar, Inkollu; Suresh, Pathi; Raghavan, Kondapuram Vijaya

    2015-11-01

    Accumulation of greenhouse gases especially CO2 in the atmosphere leading to global warming with undesirable climate changes has been a serious global concern. Major power generation in the world is from coal based power plants. Carbon capture through pre- and post- combustion technologies with various technical options like adsorption, absorption, membrane separations, and chemical looping combustion with and without oxygen uncoupling have received considerable attention of researchers, environmentalists and the stake holders. Carbon capture from flue gases can be achieved with micro and meso porous adsorbents. This review covers carbonaceous (organic and metal organic frameworks) and noncarbonaceous (inorganic) porous adsorbents for CO2 adsorption at different process conditions and pore sizes. Focus is also given to noncarbonaceous micro and meso porous adsorbents in chemical looping combustion involving insitu CO2 capture at high temperature (>400 °C). Adsorption mechanisms, material characteristics, and synthesis methods are discussed. Attention is given to isosteric heats and characterization techniques. The options to enhance the techno-economic viability of carbon capture techniques by integrating with CO2 utilization to produce industrially important chemicals like ammonia and urea are analyzed. From the reader's perspective, for different classes of materials, each section has been summarized in the form of tables or figures to get a quick glance of the developments.

  18. Carbon fibre composite for ventilation air methane (VAM) capture.

    PubMed

    Thiruvenkatachari, Ramesh; Su, Shi; Yu, Xin Xiang

    2009-12-30

    Coal mine methane (CMM) is not only a hazardous greenhouse gas but is also a wasted energy resource, if not utilised. This paper evaluates a novel adsorbent material developed for capturing methane from ventilation air methane (VAM) gas in underground coal mines. The adsorbent material is a honeycomb monolithic carbon fibre composite (HMCFC) consisting of multiple parallel flow-through channels and the material exhibits unique features including low pressure drop, good mechanical properties, ability to handle dust-containing gas streams, good thermal and electrical conductivity and selective adsorption of gases. During this study, a series of HMCFC adsorbents (using different types of carbon fibres) were successfully fabricated. Experimental data demonstrated the proof-of-concept of using the HMCFC adsorbent to capture methane from VAM gas. The adsorption capacity of the HMCFC adsorbent was twice that of commercial activated carbon. Methane concentration of 0.56% in the inlet VAM gas stream is reduced to about 0.011% after it passes through the novel carbon fibre composite adsorbent material at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure. This amounts to a maximum capture efficiency of 98%. These encouraging laboratory scale studies have prompted further large scale trials and economic assessment.

  19. Carbon fibre composite for ventilation air methane (VAM) capture.

    PubMed

    Thiruvenkatachari, Ramesh; Su, Shi; Yu, Xin Xiang

    2009-12-30

    Coal mine methane (CMM) is not only a hazardous greenhouse gas but is also a wasted energy resource, if not utilised. This paper evaluates a novel adsorbent material developed for capturing methane from ventilation air methane (VAM) gas in underground coal mines. The adsorbent material is a honeycomb monolithic carbon fibre composite (HMCFC) consisting of multiple parallel flow-through channels and the material exhibits unique features including low pressure drop, good mechanical properties, ability to handle dust-containing gas streams, good thermal and electrical conductivity and selective adsorption of gases. During this study, a series of HMCFC adsorbents (using different types of carbon fibres) were successfully fabricated. Experimental data demonstrated the proof-of-concept of using the HMCFC adsorbent to capture methane from VAM gas. The adsorption capacity of the HMCFC adsorbent was twice that of commercial activated carbon. Methane concentration of 0.56% in the inlet VAM gas stream is reduced to about 0.011% after it passes through the novel carbon fibre composite adsorbent material at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure. This amounts to a maximum capture efficiency of 98%. These encouraging laboratory scale studies have prompted further large scale trials and economic assessment. PMID:19733967

  20. Carbon dioxide capture from atmospheric air using sodium hydroxide spray.

    PubMed

    Stolaroff, Joshuah K; Keith, David W; Lowry, Gregory V

    2008-04-15

    In contrast to conventional carbon capture systems for power plants and other large point sources, the system described in this paper captures CO2 directly from ambient air. This has the advantages that emissions from diffuse sources and past emissions may be captured. The objective of this research is to determine the feasibility of a NaOH spray-based contactor for use in an air capture system by estimating the cost and energy requirements per unit CO2 captured. A prototype system is constructed and tested to measure CO2 absorption, energy use, and evaporative water loss and compared with theoretical predictions. A numerical model of drop collision and coalescence is used to estimate operating parameters for a full-scale system, and the cost of operating the system per unit CO2 captured is estimated. The analysis indicates that CO2 capture from air for climate change mitigation is technically feasible using off-the-shelf technology. Drop coalescence significantly decreases the CO2 absorption efficiency; however, fan and pump energy requirements are manageable. Water loss is significant (20 mol H2O/mol CO2 at 15 degrees C and 65% RH) but can be lowered by appropriately designing and operating the system. The cost of CO2 capture using NaOH spray (excluding solution recovery and CO2 sequestration, which may be comparable) in the full-scale system is 96 $/ton-CO2 in the base case, and ranges from 53 to 127 $/ton-CO2 under alternate operating parameters and assumptions regarding capital costs and mass transfer rate. The low end of the cost range is reached by a spray with 50 microm mean drop diameter, which is achievable with commercially available spray nozzles.

  1. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Thomas Nelson

    2004-11-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted to investigate dry, regenerable, alkali carbonate-based sorbents for the capture of CO{sub 2} from power plant flue gas. Electrobalance, fixed-bed and fluid-bed reactors were used to examine both the CO{sub 2} capture and sorbent regeneration phases of the process. Sodium carbonate-based sorbents (calcined sodium bicarbonate and calcined trona) were the primary focus of the testing. Supported sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate sorbents were also tested. Sodium carbonate reacts with CO{sub 2} and water vapor contained in flue gas at temperatures between 60 and 80 C to form sodium bicarbonate, or an intermediate salt (Wegscheider's salt). Thermal regeneration of this sorbent produces an off-gas containing equal molar quantities of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. The low temperature range in which the carbonation reaction takes place is suited to treatment of coal-derived flue gases following wet flue gas desulfurization processes, but limits the concentration of water vapor which is an essential reactant in the carbonation reaction. Sorbent regeneration in an atmosphere of CO{sub 2} and water vapor can be carried out at a temperature of 160 C or higher. Pure CO{sub 2} suitable for use or sequestration is available after condensation of the H{sub 2}O. Flue gas contaminants such as SO{sub 2} react irreversibly with the sorbent so that upstream desulfurization will be required when sulfur-containing fossil fuels are used. Approximately 90% CO{sub 2} capture from a simulated flue gas was achieved during the early stages of fixed-bed reactor tests using a nominal carbonation temperature of 60 C. Effectively complete sorbent carbonation is possible when the fixed-bed test is carried out to completion. No decrease in sorbent activity was noted in a 15-cycle test using the above carbonation conditions coupled with regeneration in pure CO{sub 2} at 160 C. Fluidized-bed reactor tests of up to five cycles were conducted. Carbonation of sodium

  2. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry Regenerable Sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Thomas Nelson; Santosh Gangwal; Ya Liang; Tyler Moore; Margaret Williams; Douglas P. Harrison

    2004-09-30

    Laboratory studies were conducted to investigate dry, regenerable, alkali carbonate-based sorbents for the capture of CO{sub 2} from power plant flue gas. Electrobalance, fixed-bed and fluid-bed reactors were used to examine both the CO{sub 2} capture and sorbent regeneration phases of the process. Sodium carbonate-based sorbents (calcined sodium bicarbonate and calcined trona) were the primary focus of the testing. Supported sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate sorbents were also tested. Sodium carbonate reacts with CO{sub 2} and water vapor contained in flue gas at temperatures between 60 and 80 C to form sodium bicarbonate, or an intermediate salt (Wegscheider's salt). Thermal regeneration of this sorbent produces an off-gas containing equal molar quantities of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. The low temperature range in which the carbonation reaction takes place is suited to treatment of coal-derived flue gases following wet flue gas desulfurization processes, but limits the concentration of water vapor which is an essential reactant in the carbonation reaction. Sorbent regeneration in an atmosphere of CO{sub 2} and water vapor can be carried out at a temperature of 160 C or higher. Pure CO{sub 2} suitable for use or sequestration is available after condensation of the H{sub 2}O. Flue gas contaminants such as SO{sub 2} react irreversibly with the sorbent so that upstream desulfurization will be required when sulfur-containing fossil fuels are used. Approximately 90% CO{sub 2} capture from a simulated flue gas was achieved during the early stages of fixed-bed reactor tests using a nominal carbonation temperature of 60 C. Effectively complete sorbent carbonation is possible when the fixed-bed test is carried out to completion. No decrease in sorbent activity was noted in a 15-cycle test using the above carbonation conditions coupled with regeneration in pure CO{sub 2} at 160 C. Fluidized-bed reactor tests of up to five cycles were conducted. Carbonation of sodium

  3. Amine reclaiming technologies in post-combustion carbon dioxide capture.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tielin; Hovland, Jon; Jens, Klaus J

    2015-01-01

    Amine scrubbing is the most developed technology for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture. Degradation of amine solvents due to the presence of high levels of oxygen and other impurities in flue gas causes increasing costs and deterioration in long term performance, and therefore purification of the solvents is needed to overcome these problems. This review presents the reclaiming of amine solvents used for post combustion CO2 capture (PCC). Thermal reclaiming, ion exchange, and electrodialysis, although principally developed for sour gas sweetening, have also been tested for CO2 capture from flue gas. The three technologies all have their strengths and weaknesses, and further development is needed to reduce energy usage and costs. An expected future trend for amine reclamation is to focus on process integration of the current reclaiming technologies into the PCC process in order to drive down costs.

  4. Thermokinetic/mass-transfer analysis of carbon capture for reuse/sequestration.

    SciTech Connect

    Stechel, Ellen Beth; Brady, Patrick Vane; Staiger, Chad Lynn; Luketa, Anay Josephine

    2010-09-01

    Effective capture of atmospheric carbon is a key bottleneck preventing non bio-based, carbon-neutral production of synthetic liquid hydrocarbon fuels using CO{sub 2} as the carbon feedstock. Here we outline the boundary conditions of atmospheric carbon capture for recycle to liquid hydrocarbon fuels production and re-use options and we also identify the technical advances that must be made for such a process to become technically and commercially viable at scale. While conversion of atmospheric CO{sub 2} into a pure feedstock for hydrocarbon fuels synthesis is presently feasible at the bench-scale - albeit at high cost energetically and economically - the methods and materials needed to concentrate large amounts of CO{sub 2} at low cost and high efficiency remain technically immature. Industrial-scale capture must entail: (1) Processing of large volumes of air through an effective CO{sub 2} capture media and (2) Efficient separation of CO{sub 2} from the processed air flow into a pure stream of CO{sub 2}.

  5. High Temperature Polybenzimidazole Hollow Fiber Membranes for Hydrogen Separation and Carbon Dioxide Capture from Synthesis Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Rajinder P.; Dahe, Ganpat J.; Dudeck, Kevin W.; Welch, Cynthia F.; Berchtold, Kathryn A.

    2014-12-31

    Sustainable reliance on hydrocarbon feedstocks for energy generation requires CO₂ separation technology development for energy efficient carbon capture from industrial mixed gas streams. High temperature H₂ selective glassy polymer membranes are an attractive option for energy efficient H₂/CO₂ separations in advanced power production schemes with integrated carbon capture. They enable high overall process efficiencies by providing energy efficient CO₂ separations at process relevant operating conditions and correspondingly, minimized parasitic energy losses. Polybenzimidazole (PBI)-based materials have demonstrated commercially attractive H₂/CO₂ separation characteristics and exceptional tolerance to hydrocarbon fuel derived synthesis (syngas) gas operating conditions and chemical environments. To realize a commercially attractive carbon capture technology based on these PBI materials, development of high performance, robust PBI hollow fiber membranes (HFMs) is required. In this work, we discuss outcomes of our recent efforts to demonstrate and optimize the fabrication and performance of PBI HFMs for use in pre-combustion carbon capture schemes. These efforts have resulted in PBI HFMs with commercially attractive fabrication protocols, defect minimized structures, and commercially attractive permselectivity characteristics at IGCC syngas process relevant conditions. The H₂/CO₂ separation performance of these PBI HFMs presented in this document regarding realistic process conditions is greater than that of any other polymeric system reported to-date.

  6. High Temperature Polybenzimidazole Hollow Fiber Membranes for Hydrogen Separation and Carbon Dioxide Capture from Synthesis Gas

    DOE PAGES

    Singh, Rajinder P.; Dahe, Ganpat J.; Dudeck, Kevin W.; Welch, Cynthia F.; Berchtold, Kathryn A.

    2014-12-31

    Sustainable reliance on hydrocarbon feedstocks for energy generation requires CO₂ separation technology development for energy efficient carbon capture from industrial mixed gas streams. High temperature H₂ selective glassy polymer membranes are an attractive option for energy efficient H₂/CO₂ separations in advanced power production schemes with integrated carbon capture. They enable high overall process efficiencies by providing energy efficient CO₂ separations at process relevant operating conditions and correspondingly, minimized parasitic energy losses. Polybenzimidazole (PBI)-based materials have demonstrated commercially attractive H₂/CO₂ separation characteristics and exceptional tolerance to hydrocarbon fuel derived synthesis (syngas) gas operating conditions and chemical environments. To realize a commerciallymore » attractive carbon capture technology based on these PBI materials, development of high performance, robust PBI hollow fiber membranes (HFMs) is required. In this work, we discuss outcomes of our recent efforts to demonstrate and optimize the fabrication and performance of PBI HFMs for use in pre-combustion carbon capture schemes. These efforts have resulted in PBI HFMs with commercially attractive fabrication protocols, defect minimized structures, and commercially attractive permselectivity characteristics at IGCC syngas process relevant conditions. The H₂/CO₂ separation performance of these PBI HFMs presented in this document regarding realistic process conditions is greater than that of any other polymeric system reported to-date.« less

  7. Water challenges for geologic carbon capture and sequestration.

    PubMed

    Newmark, Robin L; Friedmann, Samuel J; Carroll, Susan A

    2010-04-01

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) has been proposed as a means to dramatically reduce greenhouse gas emissions with the continued use of fossil fuels. For geologic sequestration, the carbon dioxide is captured from large point sources (e.g., power plants or other industrial sources), transported to the injection site and injected into deep geological formations for storage. This will produce new water challenges, such as the amount of water used in energy resource development and utilization and the "capture penalty" for water use. At depth, brine displacement within formations, storage reservoir pressure increases resulting from injection, and leakage are potential concerns. Potential impacts range from increasing water demand for capture to contamination of groundwater through leakage or brine displacement. Understanding these potential impacts and the conditions under which they arise informs the design and implementation of appropriate monitoring and controls, important both for assurance of environmental safety and for accounting purposes. Potential benefits also exist, such as co-production and treatment of water to both offset reservoir pressure increase and to provide local water for beneficial use.

  8. Water Challenges for Geologic Carbon Capture and Sequestration

    PubMed Central

    Friedmann, Samuel J.; Carroll, Susan A.

    2010-01-01

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) has been proposed as a means to dramatically reduce greenhouse gas emissions with the continued use of fossil fuels. For geologic sequestration, the carbon dioxide is captured from large point sources (e.g., power plants or other industrial sources), transported to the injection site and injected into deep geological formations for storage. This will produce new water challenges, such as the amount of water used in energy resource development and utilization and the “capture penalty” for water use. At depth, brine displacement within formations, storage reservoir pressure increases resulting from injection, and leakage are potential concerns. Potential impacts range from increasing water demand for capture to contamination of groundwater through leakage or brine displacement. Understanding these potential impacts and the conditions under which they arise informs the design and implementation of appropriate monitoring and controls, important both for assurance of environmental safety and for accounting purposes. Potential benefits also exist, such as co-production and treatment of water to both offset reservoir pressure increase and to provide local water for beneficial use. PMID:20127328

  9. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Green; Thomas Nelson; Brian S. Turk; Paul Box; Weijiong Li; Raghubir P. Gupta

    2005-07-01

    This report describes research conducted between April 1, 2005 and June 30, 2005 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas from coal combustion and synthesis gas from coal gasification. Supported sodium carbonate sorbents removed up to 76% of the carbon dioxide from simulated flue gas in a downflow cocurrent flow reactor system, with an approximate 15 second gas-solid contact time. This reaction proceeds at temperatures as low as 25 C. Lithium silicate sorbents remove carbon dioxide from high temperature simulated flue gas and simulated synthesis gas. Both sorbent types can be thermally regenerated and reused. The lithium silicate sorbent was tested in a thermogravimetric analyzer and in a 1-in quartz reactor at atmospheric pressure; tests were also conducted at elevated pressure in a 2-in diameter high temperature high pressure reactor system. The lithium sorbent reacts rapidly with carbon dioxide in flue gas at 350-500 C to absorb about 10% of the sorbent weight, then continues to react at a lower rate. The sorbent can be essentially completely regenerated at temperatures above 600 C and reused. In atmospheric pressure tests with synthesis gas of 10% initial carbon dioxide content, the sorbent removed over 90% of the carbon dioxide. An economic analysis of a downflow absorption process for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas with a supported sodium carbonate sorbent suggests that a 90% efficient carbon dioxide capture system installed at a 500 MW{sub e} generating plant would have an incremental capital cost of $35 million ($91/kWe, assuming 20 percent for contingencies) and an operating cost of $0.0046/kWh. Assuming capital costs of $1,000/kW for a 500 MWe plant the capital cost of the down flow absorption process represents a less than 10% increase, thus meeting DOE goals as set forth in its Carbon Sequestration Technology Roadmap and Program Plan.

  10. A hybrid absorption–adsorption method to efficiently capture carbon

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huang; Liu, Bei; Lin, Li-Chiang; Chen, Guangjin; Wu, Yuqing; Wang, Jin; Gao, Xueteng; Lv, Yining; Pan, Yong; Zhang, Xiaoxin; Zhang, Xianren; Yang, Lanying; Sun, Changyu; Smit, Berend; Wang, Wenchuan

    2014-01-01

    Removal of carbon dioxide is an essential step in many energy-related processes. Here we report a novel slurry concept that combines specific advantages of metal-organic frameworks, ion liquids, amines and membranes by suspending zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 in glycol-2-methylimidazole solution. We show that this approach may give a more efficient technology to capture carbon dioxide compared to conventional technologies. The carbon dioxide sorption capacity of our slurry reaches 1.25 mol l−1 at 1 bar and the selectivity of carbon dioxide/hydrogen, carbon dioxide/nitrogen and carbon dioxide/methane achieves 951, 394 and 144, respectively. We demonstrate that the slurry can efficiently remove carbon dioxide from gas mixtures at normal pressure/temperature through breakthrough experiments. Most importantly, the sorption enthalpy is only −29 kJ mol−1, indicating that significantly less energy is required for sorbent regeneration. In addition, from a technological point of view, unlike solid adsorbents slurries can flow and be pumped. This allows us to use a continuous separation process with heat integration. PMID:25296559

  11. Polyurethane Foam-Based Ultramicroporous Carbons for CO2 Capture.

    PubMed

    Ge, Chao; Song, Jian; Qin, Zhangfeng; Wang, Jianguo; Fan, Weibin

    2016-07-27

    A series of sustainable porous carbon materials were prepared from waste polyurethane foam and investigated for capture of CO2. The effects of preparation conditions, such as precarbonization, KOH to carbon precursor weight ratio, and activation temperature, on the porous structure and CO2 adsorption properties were studied for the purpose of controlling pore sizes and nitrogen content and developing high-performance materials for capture of CO2. The sample prepared at optimum conditions shows CO2 adsorption capacities of 6.67 and 4.33 mmol·g(-1) at 0 and 25 °C under 1 bar, respectively, which are comparable to those of the best reported porous carbons prepared from waste materials. The HCl treatment experiment reveals that about 80% of CO2 adsorption capacity arises from physical adsorption, while the other 20% is due to the chemical adsorption originated from the interaction of basic N groups and CO2 molecules. The relationship between CO2 uptake and pore size at different temperatures indicates that the micropores with pore size smaller than 0.86 and 0.70 nm play a dominant role in the CO2 adsorption at 0 and 25 °C, respectively. It was found that the obtained carbon materials exhibited high recyclability and high selectivity to adsorption of CO2 from the CO2 and N2 mixture. PMID:27376177

  12. Hunt for improved carbon capture picks up speed

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    A high-throughput metal-organic framework synthesis instrument in action. Berkeley Lab chemist Jeffrey Long's lab will soon host a round-the-clock, robotically choreographed hunt for carbon-hungry materials. The Berkeley Lab chemist leads a diverse team of scientists whose goal is to quickly discover materials that can efficiently strip carbon dioxide from a power plant's exhaust, before it leaves the smokestack and contributes to climate change. They're betting on a recently discovered class of materials called metal-organic frameworks, which boast a record-shattering internal surface area. A sugar cube-sized piece, if unfolded and flattened, would more than blanket a football field. The crystalline material can also be tweaked to absorb specific molecules. More: http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2010/05/26/carbon-capture-search/

  13. THE NATIONAL CARBON CAPTURE CENTER AT THE POWER SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2011-05-11

    The Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) is a state-of-the-art test center sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and dedicated to the advancement of clean coal technology. In addition to the development of advanced coal gasification processes, the PSDF features the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) to study CO2 capture from coal-derived syngas and flue gas. The NCCC includes multiple, adaptable test skids that allow technology development of CO2 capture concepts using coal-derived syngas and flue gas in industrial settings. Because of the ability to operate under a wide range of flow rates and process conditions, research at the NCCC can effectively evaluate technologies at various levels of maturity. During the Budget Period Two reporting period, efforts at the PSDF/NCCC focused on new technology assessment and test planning; designing and constructing post-combustion CO2 capture facilities; testing of pre-combustion CO2 capture and related processes; and operating the gasification process to develop gasification related technologies and for syngas generation to test syngas conditioning technologies.

  14. The national carbon capture center at the power systems development facility

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2012-09-01

    The Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) is a state-of-the-art test center sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and dedicated to the advancement of clean coal technology. In addition to the development of advanced coal gasification processes, the PSDF features the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) to study CO2 capture from coal-derived syngas and flue gas. The NCCC includes multiple, adaptable test skids that allow technology development of CO2 capture concepts using coal-derived syngas and flue gas in industrial settings. Because of the ability to operate under a wide range of flow rates and process conditions, research at the NCCC can effectively evaluate technologies at various levels of maturity. During the Budget Period Three reporting period, efforts at the NCCC/PSDF focused on testing of pre-combustion CO2 capture and related processes; commissioning and initial testing at the post-combustion CO2 capture facilities; and operating the gasification process to develop gasification related technologies and for syngas generation to test syngas conditioning technologies.

  15. The National Carbon Capture Center at the Power Systems Development Facility

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2014-12-30

    The National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) at the Power Systems Development Facility supports the Department of Energy (DOE) goal of promoting the United States’ energy security through reliable, clean, and affordable energy produced from coal. Work at the NCCC supports the development of new power technologies and the continued operation of conventional power plants under CO2 emission constraints. The NCCC includes adaptable slipstreams that allow technology development of CO2 capture concepts using coal-derived syngas and flue gas in industrial settings. Because of the ability to operate under a wide range of flow rates and process conditions, research at the NCCC can effectively evaluate technologies at various levels of maturity and accelerate their development path to commercialization. During its first contract period, from October 1, 2008, through December 30, 2014, the NCCC designed, constructed, and began operation of the Post-Combustion Carbon Capture Center (PC4). Testing of CO2 capture technologies commenced in 2011, and through the end of the contract period, more than 25,000 hours of testing had been achieved, supporting a variety of technology developers. Technologies tested included advanced solvents, enzymes, membranes, sorbents, and associated systems. The NCCC continued operation of the existing gasification facilities, which have been in operation since 1996, to support the advancement of technologies for next-generation gasification processes and pre-combustion CO2 capture. The gasification process operated for 13 test runs, supporting over 30,000 hours combined of both gasification and pre-combustion technology developer testing. Throughout the contract period, the NCCC incorporated numerous modifications to the facilities to accommodate technology developers and increase test capabilities. Preparations for further testing were ongoing to continue advancement of the most promising technologies for

  16. In silico screening of carbon-capture materials

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, LC; Berger, AH; Martin, RL; Kim, J; Swisher, JA; Jariwala, K; Rycroft, CH; Bhown, AS; Deem, MW; Haranczyk, M; Smit, B

    2012-05-27

    One of the main bottlenecks to deploying large-scale carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) in power plants is the energy required to separate the CO2 from flue gas. For example, near-term CCS technology applied to coal-fired power plants is projected to reduce the net output of the plant by some 30% and to increase the cost of electricity by 60-80%. Developing capture materials and processes that reduce the parasitic energy imposed by CCS is therefore an important area of research. We have developed a computational approach to rank adsorbents for their performance in CCS. Using this analysis, we have screened hundreds of thousands of zeolite and zeolitic imidazolate framework structures and identified many different structures that have the potential to reduce the parasitic energy of CCS by 30-40% compared with near-term technologies.

  17. In silico screening of carbon-capture materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Li-Chiang; Berger, Adam H.; Martin, Richard L.; Kim, Jihan; Swisher, Joseph A.; Jariwala, Kuldeep; Rycroft, Chris H.; Bhown, Abhoyjit S.; Deem, Michael W.; Haranczyk, Maciej; Smit, Berend

    2012-07-01

    One of the main bottlenecks to deploying large-scale carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) in power plants is the energy required to separate the CO2 from flue gas. For example, near-term CCS technology applied to coal-fired power plants is projected to reduce the net output of the plant by some 30% and to increase the cost of electricity by 60-80%. Developing capture materials and processes that reduce the parasitic energy imposed by CCS is therefore an important area of research. We have developed a computational approach to rank adsorbents for their performance in CCS. Using this analysis, we have screened hundreds of thousands of zeolite and zeolitic imidazolate framework structures and identified many different structures that have the potential to reduce the parasitic energy of CCS by 30-40% compared with near-term technologies.

  18. In silico screening of carbon-capture materials.

    PubMed

    Lin, Li-Chiang; Berger, Adam H; Martin, Richard L; Kim, Jihan; Swisher, Joseph A; Jariwala, Kuldeep; Rycroft, Chris H; Bhown, Abhoyjit S; Deem, Michael W; Haranczyk, Maciej; Smit, Berend

    2012-07-01

    One of the main bottlenecks to deploying large-scale carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) in power plants is the energy required to separate the CO(2) from flue gas. For example, near-term CCS technology applied to coal-fired power plants is projected to reduce the net output of the plant by some 30% and to increase the cost of electricity by 60-80%. Developing capture materials and processes that reduce the parasitic energy imposed by CCS is therefore an important area of research. We have developed a computational approach to rank adsorbents for their performance in CCS. Using this analysis, we have screened hundreds of thousands of zeolite and zeolitic imidazolate framework structures and identified many different structures that have the potential to reduce the parasitic energy of CCS by 30-40% compared with near-term technologies. PMID:22635045

  19. Enzyme-based CO2 capture for advanced life support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ge, Jijun; Cowan, Robert M.; Tu, Chingkuang; McGregor, Martin L.; Trachtenberg, Michael C.

    2002-01-01

    Elevated CO2 levels in air can lead to impaired functioning and even death to humans. Control of CO2 is critical in confined spaces that have little physical or biological buffering capacity (e.g., spacecraft, submarines, or aircraft). A novel enzyme-based contained liquid membrane bioreactor was designed for CO2 capture and certain application cases are reported in this article. The results show that the liquid layer accounts for the major transport resistance. With addition of carbonic anhydrase, the transport resistance decreased by 71%. Volatile organic compounds of the type and concentration expected to be present in either the crew cabin or a plant growth chamber did not influence carbonic anhydrase activity or reactor operation during 1-day operation. Alternative sweep method studies, examined as a means of eliminating consumables, showed that the feed gas could be used successfully in a bypass mode when combined with medium vacuum pressure (-85 kPa) to achieve CO2 separation comparable to that with an inert sweep gas. The reactor exhibited a selectivity for CO2 versus N2 of 1400:1 and CO2 versus O2 is 866:1. The CO2 permeance was 1.44 x 10(-7) mol m-2 Pa-1 s-1 (4.3 x 10(-4) cm3 cm-2 s-1 cmHg-1) at a feed concentration of 0.1% CO2. These data show that the enzyme-based contained liquid membrane is a promising candidate technology that may be suitable for NASA applications to control CO2 in the crew or plant chambers.

  20. [Carbon capture and storage (CCS) and its potential role to mitigate carbon emission in China].

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Ying; Wu, Zong-Xin; Wang, Wei-Zhong

    2007-06-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) has been widely recognized as one of the options to mitigate carbon emission to eventually stabilize carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere. Three parts of CCS, which are carbon capture, transport, and storage are assessed in this paper, covering comparisons of techno-economic parameters for different carbon capture technologies, comparisons of storage mechanism, capacity and cost for various storage formations, and etc. In addition, the role of CCS to mitigate global carbon emission is introduced. Finally, China MARKAL model is updated to include various CCS technologies, especially indirect coal liquefaction and poly-generation technologies with CCS, in order to consider carbon emission reduction as well as energy security issue. The model is used to generate different scenarios to study potential role of CCS to mitigate carbon emissions by 2050 in China. It is concluded that application of CCS can decrease marginal abatement cost and the decrease rate can reach 45% for the emission reduction rate of 50%, and it can lessen the dependence on nuclear power development for stringent carbon constrains. Moreover, coal resources can be cleanly used for longer time with CCS, e.g., for the scenario C70, coal share in the primary energy consumption by 2050 will increase from 10% when without CCS to 30% when with CCS. Therefore, China should pay attention to CCS R&D activities and to developing demonstration projects. PMID:17674718

  1. CO2 CAPTURE BY ABSORPTION WITH POTASSIUM CARBONATE

    SciTech Connect

    Gary T. Rochelle; A. Frank Seibert; J. Tim Cullinane; Terraun Jones

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. Progress has been made in this reporting period on three subtasks. The rigorous Electrolyte Non-Random Two-Liquid (electrolyte-NRTL) model has been regressed to represent CO{sub 2} solubility in potassium carbonate/bicarbonate solutions. An analytical method for piperazine has been developed using a gas chromatograph. Funding has been obtained and equipment has been donated to provide for modifications of the existing pilot plant system with stainless steel materials.

  2. Annual Report: Carbon Capture Simulation Initiative (CCSI) (30 September 2012)

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, David C.; Syamlal, Madhava; Cottrell, Roger; Kress, Joel D.; Sun, Xin; Sundaresan, S.; Sahinidis, Nikolaos V.; Zitney, Stephen E.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Agarwal, Deb; Tong, Charles; Lin, Guang; Dale, Crystal; Engel, Dave; Calafiura, Paolo; Beattie, Keith; Shinn, John

    2012-09-30

    The Carbon Capture Simulation Initiative (CCSI) is a partnership among national laboratories, industry and academic institutions that is developing and deploying state-of-the-art computational modeling and simulation tools to accelerate the commercialization of carbon capture technologies from discovery to development, demonstration, and ultimately the widespread deployment to hundreds of power plants. The CCSI Toolset will provide end users in industry with a comprehensive, integrated suite of scientifically validated models, with uncertainty quantification (UQ), optimization, risk analysis and decision making capabilities. The CCSI Toolset incorporates commercial and open-source software currently in use by industry and is also developing new software tools as necessary to fill technology gaps identified during execution of the project. Ultimately, the CCSI Toolset will (1) enable promising concepts to be more quickly identified through rapid computational screening of devices and processes; (2) reduce the time to design and troubleshoot new devices and processes; (3) quantify the technical risk in taking technology from laboratory-scale to commercial-scale; and (4) stabilize deployment costs more quickly by replacing some of the physical operational tests with virtual power plant simulations. CCSI is organized into 8 technical elements that fall under two focus areas. The first focus area (Physicochemical Models and Data) addresses the steps necessary to model and simulate the various technologies and processes needed to bring a new Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology into production. The second focus area (Analysis & Software) is developing the software infrastructure to integrate the various components and implement the tools that are needed to make quantifiable decisions regarding the viability of new CCS technologies. CCSI also has an Industry Advisory Board (IAB). By working closely with industry from the inception of the project to identify

  3. Selective and Regenerative Carbon Dioxide Capture by Highly Polarizing Porous Carbon Nitride.

    PubMed

    Oh, Youngtak; Le, Viet-Duc; Maiti, Uday Narayan; Hwang, Jin Ok; Park, Woo Jin; Lim, Joonwon; Lee, Kyung Eun; Bae, Youn-Sang; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Sang Ouk

    2015-09-22

    Energy-efficient CO2 capture is a stringent demand for green and sustainable energy supply. Strong adsorption is desirable for high capacity and selective capture at ambient conditions but unfavorable for regeneration of adsorbents by a simple pressure control process. Here we present highly regenerative and selective CO2 capture by carbon nitride functionalized porous reduced graphene oxide aerogel surface. The resultant structure demonstrates large CO2 adsorption capacity at ambient conditions (0.43 mmol·g(-1)) and high CO2 selectivity against N2 yet retains regenerability to desorb 98% CO2 by simple pressure swing. First-principles thermodynamics calculations revealed that microporous edges of graphitic carbon nitride offer the optimal CO2 adsorption by induced dipole interaction and allows excellent CO2 selectivity as well as facile regenerability. This work identifies a customized route to reversible gas capture using metal-free, two-dimensional carbonaceous materials, which can be extended to other useful applications.

  4. Application of halloysite nanotubes for carbon dioxide capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jinsoo; Rubino, Ilaria; Lee, Joo-Youp; Choi, Hyo-Jick

    2016-04-01

    Halloysite is a naturally occurring clay, with physical structure represented by halloysite nanotubes (HNTs). We investigated the potential applicability of HNTs for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture, using two amine-functionalized HNTs: (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTES)-grafted HNTs and polyethylenimine (PEI)-impregnated HNTs. APTES-HNTs and PEI-HNTs resulted in 5.6 and 30 wt. % (in sorbent) in functionalization onto HNTs, respectively. Capture efficiency was higher in APTES-HNTs at lower temperatures, while it was maximum in PEI-HNTs at 70°C-75 °C. At 75 °C, adsorption/desorption tests showed that 95% of the two reactions occurred within 30 min, and exhibited 0.15 and 0.21 millimole of CO2 adsorption capacity per millimole of amine group for APTES-HNTs and PEI-HNTs, respectively. During 10 cycles of CO2 adsorption/desorption, there was no significant decrease in sorbent weight and adsorption capacity in both HNTs. These results show that inherent structural features of HNTs can be easily tailored for the development of operational condition-specific CO2 capture system.

  5. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Ya Liang; Tyler Moore; Douglas P. Harrison

    2003-08-01

    This report describes research conducted between April 1, 2003 and June 30, 2003 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for concentration of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Grade 1 sodium bicarbonate performed similarly to grade 5 sodium bicarbonate in fixed bed testing in that activity improved after the first carbonation cycle and did not decline over the course of 5 cycles. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that sodium bicarbonate sorbents produced by calcination of sodium bicarbonate are superior to either soda ash or calcined trona. Energy requirements for regeneration of carbon dioxide sorbents (either wet or dry) is of primary importance in establishing the economic feasibility of carbon dioxide capture processes. Recent studies of liquid amine sorption processes were reviewed and found to incorporate conflicting assumptions of energy requirements. Dry sodium based processes have the potential to be less energy intensive and thus less expensive than oxygen inhibited amine based systems. For dry supported sorbents, maximizing the active fraction of the sorbent is of primary importance in developing an economically feasible process.

  6. The National Carbon Capture Center at the Power Systems Development Facility: Topical Report

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2011-03-01

    The Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) is a state-of-the-art test center sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and dedicated to the advancement of clean coal technology. In addition to the development of advanced coal gasification processes, the PSDF features the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) to study CO2 capture from coal-derived syngas and flue gas. The newly established NCCC will include multiple, adaptable test skids that will allow technology development of CO2 capture concepts using coal-derived syngas and flue gas in industrial settings. Because of the ability to operate under a wide range of flow rates and process conditions, research at the NCCC can effectively evaluate technologies at various levels of maturity. During the Budget Period One reporting period, efforts at the PSDF/NCCC focused on developing a screening process for testing consideration of new technologies; designing and constructing pre- and post-combustion CO2 capture facilities; developing sampling and analytical methods; expanding fuel flexibility of the Transport Gasification process; and operating the gasification process for technology research and for syngas generation to test syngas conditioning technologies.

  7. Advancing Climate and Carbon Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, S

    2004-12-14

    We use a recently developed integrated climate/carbon model to perform breakthrough studies of the climate. Two major studies are carried out--namely the effects of CO{sub 2}-fertilized vegetation on global climate and carbon dynamics, and the effect of climate sensitivity on carbon cycle feedback. We have also begun development of a next-generation climate/carbon modeling capability.

  8. MCNP speed advances for boron neutron capture therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Goorley, J.T.; McKinney, G.; Adams, K.; Estes, G.

    1998-04-01

    The Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) treatment planning process of the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center-M.I.T team relies on MCNP to determine dose rates in the subject`s head for various beam orientations. In this time consuming computational process, four or five potential beams are investigated. Of these, one or two final beams are selected and thoroughly evaluated. Recent advances greatly decreased the time needed to do these MCNP calculations. Two modifications to the new MCNP4B source code, lattice tally and tracking enhancements, reduced the wall-clock run times of a typical one million source neutrons run to one hour twenty five minutes on a 200 MHz Pentium Pro computer running Linux and using the GNU FORTRAN compiler. Previously these jobs used a special version of MCNP4AB created by Everett Redmond, which completed in two hours two minutes. In addition to this 30% speedup, the MCNP4B version was adapted for use with Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM) on personal computers running the Linux operating system. MCNP, using PVM, can be run on multiple computers simultaneously, offering a factor of speedup roughly the same as the number of computers used. With two 200 MHz Pentium Pro machines, the run time was reduced to forty five minutes, a 1.9 factor of improvement over the single Linux computer. While the time of a single run was greatly reduced, the advantages associated with PVM derive from using computational power not already used. Four possible beams, currently requiring four separate runs, could be run faster when each is individually run on a single machine under Windows NT, rather than using Linux and PVM to run one after another with each multiprocessed across four computers. It would be advantageous, however, to use PVM to distribute the final two beam orientations over four computers.

  9. Microbial Electrolytic Carbon Capture for Carbon Negative and Energy Positive Wastewater Treatment.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lu; Huang, Zhe; Rau, Greg H; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2015-07-01

    Energy and carbon neutral wastewater management is a major goal for environmental sustainability, but current progress has only reduced emission rather than using wastewater for active CO2 capture and utilization. We present here a new microbial electrolytic carbon capture (MECC) approach to potentially transform wastewater treatment to a carbon negative and energy positive process. Wastewater was used as an electrolyte for microbially assisted electrolytic production of H2 and OH(-) at the cathode and protons at the anode. The acidity dissolved silicate and liberated metal ions that balanced OH(-), producing metal hydroxide, which transformed CO2 in situ into (bi)carbonate. Results using both artificial and industrial wastewater show 80-93% of the CO2 was recovered from both CO2 derived from organic oxidation and additional CO2 injected into the headspace, making the process carbon-negative. High rates and yields of H2 were produced with 91-95% recovery efficiency, resulting in a net energy gain of 57-62 kJ/mol-CO2 captured. The pH remained stable without buffer addition and no toxic chlorine-containing compounds were detected. The produced (bi)carbonate alkalinity is valuable for wastewater treatment and long-term carbon storage in the ocean. Preliminary evaluation shows promising economic and environmental benefits for different industries.

  10. Microbial Electrolytic Carbon Capture for Carbon Negative and Energy Positive Wastewater Treatment.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lu; Huang, Zhe; Rau, Greg H; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2015-07-01

    Energy and carbon neutral wastewater management is a major goal for environmental sustainability, but current progress has only reduced emission rather than using wastewater for active CO2 capture and utilization. We present here a new microbial electrolytic carbon capture (MECC) approach to potentially transform wastewater treatment to a carbon negative and energy positive process. Wastewater was used as an electrolyte for microbially assisted electrolytic production of H2 and OH(-) at the cathode and protons at the anode. The acidity dissolved silicate and liberated metal ions that balanced OH(-), producing metal hydroxide, which transformed CO2 in situ into (bi)carbonate. Results using both artificial and industrial wastewater show 80-93% of the CO2 was recovered from both CO2 derived from organic oxidation and additional CO2 injected into the headspace, making the process carbon-negative. High rates and yields of H2 were produced with 91-95% recovery efficiency, resulting in a net energy gain of 57-62 kJ/mol-CO2 captured. The pH remained stable without buffer addition and no toxic chlorine-containing compounds were detected. The produced (bi)carbonate alkalinity is valuable for wastewater treatment and long-term carbon storage in the ocean. Preliminary evaluation shows promising economic and environmental benefits for different industries. PMID:26076212

  11. The National Carbon Capture Center at the Power Systems Development Facility

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2014-07-14

    The Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) is a state-of-the-art test center sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and dedicated to the advancement of clean coal technology. In addition to the development of high efficiency coal gasification processes, the PSDF features the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) to promote new technologies for CO2 capture from coal-derived flue gas and syngas. The NCCC includes multiple, adaptable test skids that allow technology development of CO2 capture concepts using coal-derived flue gas and syngas in industrial settings. Because of the ability to operate under a wide range of flow rates and process conditions, research at the NCCC can effectively evaluate technologies at various levels of maturity and accelerate their development paths to commercialization. During the calendar year 2013 portion of the Budget Period Four reporting period, efforts at the NCCC focused on post-combustion CO2 capture, gasification, and pre-combustion CO2 capture technology testing. Preparations for future testing were on-going as well, and involved facility upgrades and collaboration with numerous technology developers. In the area of post-combustion, testing was conducted on an enzyme-based technology, advanced solvents from two major developers, and a gas separation membrane. During the year, the gasification process was operated for three test runs, supporting development of water-gas shift and COS hydrolysis catalysts, a mercury sorbent, and several gasification support technologies. Syngas produced during gasification operation was also used for pre-combustion capture technologies, including gas separation membranes from three different technology developers, a CO2 sorbent, and CO2 solvents.

  12. Carbon Dioxide Capture and Transportation Options in the Illinois Basin

    SciTech Connect

    M. Rostam-Abadi; S. S. Chen; Y. Lu

    2004-09-30

    This report describes carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture options from large stationary emission sources in the Illinois Basin, primarily focusing on coal-fired utility power plants. The CO{sub 2} emissions data were collected for utility power plants and industrial facilities over most of Illinois, southwestern Indiana, and western Kentucky. Coal-fired power plants are by far the largest CO{sub 2} emission sources in the Illinois Basin. The data revealed that sources within the Illinois Basin emit about 276 million tonnes of CO2 annually from 122 utility power plants and industrial facilities. Industrial facilities include 48 emission sources and contribute about 10% of total emissions. A process analysis study was conducted to review the suitability of various CO{sub 2} capture technologies for large stationary sources. The advantages and disadvantages of each class of technology were investigated. Based on these analyses, a suitable CO{sub 2} capture technology was assigned to each type of emission source in the Illinois Basin. Techno-economic studies were then conducted to evaluate the energy and economic performances of three coal-based power generation plants with CO{sub 2} capture facilities. The three plants considered were (1) pulverized coal (PC) + post combustion chemical absorption (monoethanolamine, or MEA), (2) integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) + pre-combustion physical absorption (Selexol), and (3) oxygen-enriched coal combustion plants. A conventional PC power plant without CO2 capture was also investigated as a baseline plant for comparison. Gross capacities of 266, 533, and 1,054 MW were investigated at each power plant. The economic study considered the burning of both Illinois No. 6 coal and Powder River Basin (PRB) coal. The cost estimation included the cost for compressing the CO{sub 2} stream to pipeline pressure. A process simulation software, CHEMCAD, was employed to perform steady-state simulations of power generation systems

  13. Carbon cycle in advanced coal chemical engineering.

    PubMed

    Yi, Qun; Li, Wenying; Feng, Jie; Xie, Kechang

    2015-08-01

    This review summarizes how the carbon cycle occurs and how to reduce CO2 emissions in highly efficient carbon utilization from the most abundant carbon source, coal. Nowadays, more and more attention has been paid to CO2 emissions and its myriad of sources. Much research has been undertaken on fossil energy and renewable energy and current existing problems, challenges and opportunities in controlling and reducing CO2 emission with technologies of CO2 capture, utilization, and storage. The coal chemical industry is a crucial area in the (CO2 value chain) Carbon Cycle. The realization of clean and effective conversion of coal resources, improving the utilization and efficiency of resources, whilst reducing CO2 emissions is a key area for further development and investigation by the coal chemical industry. Under a weak carbon mitigation policy, the value and price of products from coal conversion are suggested in the carbon cycle.

  14. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Gary T. Rochelle; Eric Chen; Babatunde Oyenekan; Andrew Sexton; Jason Davis; Marcus Hilliard; Amorvadee Veawab

    2006-07-28

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. The pilot plant data have been reconciled using 17% inlet CO{sub 2}. A rate-based model demonstrates that the stripper is primarily controlled by liquid film mast transfer resistance, with kinetics at vacuum and diffusion of reactants and products at normal pressure. An additional major unknown ion, probably glyoxylate, has been observed in MEA degradation. Precipitation of gypsum may be a feasible approach to removing sulphate from amine solutions and providing for simultaneous removal of CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2}. Corrosion of carbon steel in uninhibited MEA solution is increased by increased amine concentration, by addition of piperazine, and by greater CO{sub 2} loading.

  15. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Gary T. Rochelle; Eric Chen; Babatunde Oyenekan; Andrew Sexton; Jason Davis; Marcus Hilliard; Amornvadee Veawab

    2006-09-30

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. Ethylenediamine was detected in a degraded solution of MEA/PZ solution, suggesting that piperazine is subject to oxidation. Stripper modeling has demonstrated that vacuum strippers will be more energy efficient if constructed short and fat rather than tall and skinny. The matrix stripper has been identified as a configuration that will significantly reduce energy use. Extensive measurements of CO{sub 2} solubility in 7 m MEA at 40 and 60 C have confirmed the work by Jou and Mather. Corrosion of carbon steel without inhibitors increases from 19 to 181 mpy in lean solutions of 6.2 m MEA/PZ as piperazine increases from 0 to 3.1 m.

  16. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry Regenerable Sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Nelson; David Green; Paul Box; Raghubir Gupta; Gennar Henningsen

    2007-06-30

    Regenerable sorbents based on sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) can be used to separate carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from coal-fired power plant flue gas. Upon thermal regeneration and condensation of water vapor, CO{sub 2} is released in a concentrated form that is suitable for reuse or sequestration. During the research project described in this report, the technical feasibility and economic viability of a thermal-swing CO{sub 2} separation process based on dry, regenerable, carbonate sorbents was confirmed. This process was designated as RTI's Dry Carbonate Process. RTI tested the Dry Carbonate Process through various research phases including thermogravimetric analysis (TGA); bench-scale fixed-bed, bench-scale fluidized-bed, bench-scale co-current downflow reactor testing; pilot-scale entrained-bed testing; and bench-scale demonstration testing with actual coal-fired flue gas. All phases of testing showed the feasibility of the process to capture greater than 90% of the CO{sub 2} present in coal-fired flue gas. Attrition-resistant sorbents were developed, and these sorbents were found to retain their CO{sub 2} removal activity through multiple cycles of adsorption and regeneration. The sodium carbonate-based sorbents developed by RTI react with CO{sub 2} and water vapor at temperatures below 80 C to form sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and/or Wegscheider's salt. This reaction is reversed at temperatures greater than 120 C to release an equimolar mixture of CO{sub 2} and water vapor. After condensation of the water, a pure CO{sub 2} stream can be obtained. TGA testing showed that the Na{sub 2}CO3 sorbents react irreversibly with sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and hydrogen chloride (HCl) (at the operating conditions for this process). Trace levels of these contaminants are expected to be present in desulfurized flue gas. The sorbents did not collect detectable quantities of mercury (Hg). A process was designed for the Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-based sorbent that includes a co

  17. Directed evolution of an ultrastable carbonic anhydrase for highly efficient carbon capture from flue gas

    PubMed Central

    Alvizo, Oscar; Nguyen, Luan J.; Savile, Christopher K.; Bresson, Jamie A.; Lakhapatri, Satish L.; Solis, Earl O. P.; Fox, Richard J.; Broering, James M.; Benoit, Michael R.; Zimmerman, Sabrina A.; Novick, Scott J.; Liang, Jack; Lalonde, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is one of nature’s fastest enzymes and can dramatically improve the economics of carbon capture under demanding environments such as coal-fired power plants. The use of CA to accelerate carbon capture is limited by the enzyme’s sensitivity to the harsh process conditions. Using directed evolution, the properties of a β-class CA from Desulfovibrio vulgaris were dramatically enhanced. Iterative rounds of library design, library generation, and high-throughput screening identified highly stable CA variants that tolerate temperatures of up to 107 °C in the presence of 4.2 M alkaline amine solvent at pH >10.0. This increase in thermostability and alkali tolerance translates to a 4,000,000-fold improvement over the natural enzyme. At pilot scale, the evolved catalyst enhanced the rate of CO2 absorption 25-fold compared with the noncatalyzed reaction. PMID:25368146

  18. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS): Overview, Developments, and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busch, Andreas; Amann, Alexandra; Kronimus, Alexander; Kühn, Michael

    2010-05-01

    Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) is a technology that will allow the continued combustion of fossil fuels (coal, oil, gas) for e.g. power generation, transportation and industrial processes for the next decades. It therefore facilitates to bridge to a more renewable energy dominated world, enhances the stability and security of energy systems and at the same time reduces global carbon emissions as manifested by many western countries. Geological media suitable for CO2 storage are mainly saline aquifers due to the large storage volumes associated with them, but also depleted oil and gas reservoirs or deep unminable coal beds. Lately, CO2 storage into mafic- to ultramafic rocks, associated with subsequent mineral carbonation are within the R&D scope and first demonstration projects are being executed. For all these storage options various physical and chemical trapping mechanisms must reveal the necessary capacity and injectivity, and must confine the CO2 both, vertically (through an effective seal) or horizontally (through a confining geological structure). Confinement is the prime prerequisite to prevent leakage to other strata, shallow potable groundwater, soils and/or atmosphere. Underground storage of gases (e.g. CO2, H2S, CH4) in these media has been demonstrated on a commercial scale by enhanced oil recovery operations, natural gas storage and acid gas disposal. Some of the risks associated with CO2 capture and geological storage are comparable with any of these industrial activities for which extensive safety and regulatory frameworks are in place. Specific risks associated with CO2 storage relate to the operational (injection) phase and to the post-operational phase. In both phases the risks of most concern are those posed by the potential for acute or chronic CO2 leakage from the storage site. Currently there are only few operations worldwide where CO2 is injected and stored in the subsurface. Some are related to oil production enhancement but the

  19. Carbon Capture and Sequestration: A Regulatory Gap Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln Davies; Kirsten Uchitel; John Ruple; Heather Tanana

    2012-04-30

    Though a potentially significant climate change mitigation strategy, carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) remains mired in demonstration and development rather than proceeding to full-scale commercialization. Prior studies have suggested numerous reasons for this stagnation. This Report seeks to empirically assess those claims. Using an anonymous opinion survey completed by over 200 individuals involved in CCS, it concludes that there are four primary barriers to CCS commercialization: (1) cost, (2) lack of a carbon price, (3) liability risks, and (4) lack of a comprehensive regulatory regime. These results largely confirm previous work. They also, however, expose a key barrier that prior studies have overlooked: the need for comprehensive, rather than piecemeal, CCS regulation. The survey data clearly show that the CCS community sees this as one of the most needed incentives for CCS deployment. The community also has a relatively clear idea of what that regulation should entail: a cooperative federalism approach that directly addresses liability concerns and that generally does not upset traditional lines of federal-state authority.

  20. The National Carbon Capture Center at the Power Systems Development Facility

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2012-12-31

    The Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) is a state-of-the-art test center sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and dedicated to the advancement of clean coal technology. In addition to the development of high efficiency coal gasification processes, the PSDF features the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) to promote new technologies for CO2 capture from coal-derived syngas and flue gas. The NCCC includes multiple, adaptable test skids that allow technology development of CO2 capture concepts using coal-derived syngas and flue gas in industrial settings. Because of the ability to operate under a wide range of flow rates and process conditions, research at the NCCC can effectively evaluate technologies at various levels of maturity and accelerate their development path to commercialization. During the calendar year 2012 portion of the Budget Period Four reporting period, efforts at the NCCC focused on testing of pre- and post-combustion CO2 capture processes and gasification support technologies. Preparations for future testing were on-going as well, and involved facility upgrades and collaboration with numerous technology developers. In the area of pre-combustion, testing was conducted on a new water-gas shift catalyst, a CO2 solvent, and gas separation membranes from four different technology developers, including two membrane systems incorporating major scale-ups. Post-combustion tests involved advanced solvents from three major developers, a gas separation membrane, and two different enzyme technologies. An advanced sensor for gasification operation was evaluated, operation with biomass co-feeding with coal under oxygen-blown conditions was achieved, and progress continued on refining several gasification support technologies.

  1. Analysis and Comparison of Carbon Capture & Sequestration Policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, E.; Ezzedine, S. M.; Reed, J.; Beyer, J. H.; Wagoner, J. L.

    2010-12-01

    Several states and countries have adopted or are in the process of crafting policies to enable geologic carbon sequestration projects. These efforts reflect the recognition that existing statutory and regulatory frameworks leave ambiguities or gaps that elevate project risk for private companies considering carbon sequestration projects, and/or are insufficient to address a government’s mandate to protect the public interest. We have compared the various approaches that United States’ state and federal governments have taken to provide regulatory frameworks to address carbon sequestration. A major purpose of our work is to inform the development of any future legislation in California, should it be deemed necessary to meet the goals of Assembly Bill 1925 (2006) to accelerate the adoption of cost-effective geologic sequestration strategies for the long-term management of industrial carbon dioxide in the state. Our analysis shows a diverse issues are covered by adopted and proposed carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) legislation and that many of the new laws focus on defining regulatory frameworks for underground injection of CO2, ambiguities in property issues, or assigning legal liability. While these approaches may enable the progress of early projects, future legislation requires a longer term and broader view that includes a quantified integration of CCS into a government’s overall climate change mitigation strategy while considering potentially counterproductive impacts on CCS of other climate change mitigation strategies. Furthermore, legislation should be crafted in the context of a vision for CCS as an economically viable and widespread industry. While an important function of new CCS legislation is enabling early projects, it must be kept in mind that applying the same laws or protocols in the future to a widespread CCS industry may result in business disincentives and compromise of the public interest in mitigating GHG emissions. Protection of the

  2. Asphalt-derived high surface area activated porous carbons for carbon dioxide capture.

    PubMed

    Jalilov, Almaz S; Ruan, Gedeng; Hwang, Chih-Chau; Schipper, Desmond E; Tour, Josiah J; Li, Yilun; Fei, Huilong; Samuel, Errol L G; Tour, James M

    2015-01-21

    Research activity toward the development of new sorbents for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture have been increasing quickly. Despite the variety of existing materials with high surface areas and high CO2 uptake performances, the cost of the materials remains a dominant factor in slowing their industrial applications. Here we report preparation and CO2 uptake performance of microporous carbon materials synthesized from asphalt, a very inexpensive carbon source. Carbonization of asphalt with potassium hydroxide (KOH) at high temperatures (>600 °C) yields porous carbon materials (A-PC) with high surface areas of up to 2780 m(2) g(-1) and high CO2 uptake performance of 21 mmol g(-1) or 93 wt % at 30 bar and 25 °C. Furthermore, nitrogen doping and reduction with hydrogen yields active N-doped materials (A-NPC and A-rNPC) containing up to 9.3% nitrogen, making them nucleophilic porous carbons with further increase in the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface areas up to 2860 m(2) g(-1) for A-NPC and CO2 uptake to 26 mmol g(-1) or 114 wt % at 30 bar and 25 °C for A-rNPC. This is the highest reported CO2 uptake among the family of the activated porous carbonaceous materials. Thus, the porous carbon materials from asphalt have excellent properties for reversibly capturing CO2 at the well-head during the extraction of natural gas, a naturally occurring high pressure source of CO2. Through a pressure swing sorption process, when the asphalt-derived material is returned to 1 bar, the CO2 is released, thereby rendering a reversible capture medium that is highly efficient yet very inexpensive.

  3. Deployment models for commercialized carbon capture and storage.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Richard A; Monroe, Larry S; Friedman, Julio S

    2011-01-01

    Even before technology matures and the regulatory framework for carbon capture and storage (CCS) has been developed, electrical utilities will need to consider the logistics of how widespread commercial-scale operations will be deployed. The framework of CCS will require utilities to adopt business models that ensure both safe and affordable CCS operations while maintaining reliable power generation. Physical models include an infrastructure with centralized CO(2) pipelines that focus geologic sequestration in pooled regional storage sites or supply CO(2) for beneficial use in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and a dispersed plant model with sequestration operations which take place in close proximity to CO(2) capture. Several prototypical business models, including hybrids of these two poles, will be in play including a self-build option, a joint venture, and a pay at the gate model. In the self-build model operations are vertically integrated and utility owned and operated by an internal staff of engineers and geologists. A joint venture model stresses a partnership between the host site utility/owner's engineer and external operators and consultants. The pay to take model is turn-key external contracting to a third party owner/operator with cash positive fees paid out for sequestration and cash positive income for CO(2)-EOR. The selection of a business model for CCS will be based in part on the desire of utilities to be vertically integrated, source-sink economics, and demand for CO(2)-EOR. Another element in this decision will be how engaged a utility decides to be and the experience the utility has had with precommercial R&D activities. Through R&D, utilities would likely have already addressed or at least been exposed to the many technical, regulatory, and risk management issues related to successful CCS. This paper provides the framework for identifying the different physical and related prototypical business models that may play a role for electric utilities in

  4. Deployment models for commercialized carbon capture and storage.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Richard A; Monroe, Larry S; Friedman, Julio S

    2011-01-01

    Even before technology matures and the regulatory framework for carbon capture and storage (CCS) has been developed, electrical utilities will need to consider the logistics of how widespread commercial-scale operations will be deployed. The framework of CCS will require utilities to adopt business models that ensure both safe and affordable CCS operations while maintaining reliable power generation. Physical models include an infrastructure with centralized CO(2) pipelines that focus geologic sequestration in pooled regional storage sites or supply CO(2) for beneficial use in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and a dispersed plant model with sequestration operations which take place in close proximity to CO(2) capture. Several prototypical business models, including hybrids of these two poles, will be in play including a self-build option, a joint venture, and a pay at the gate model. In the self-build model operations are vertically integrated and utility owned and operated by an internal staff of engineers and geologists. A joint venture model stresses a partnership between the host site utility/owner's engineer and external operators and consultants. The pay to take model is turn-key external contracting to a third party owner/operator with cash positive fees paid out for sequestration and cash positive income for CO(2)-EOR. The selection of a business model for CCS will be based in part on the desire of utilities to be vertically integrated, source-sink economics, and demand for CO(2)-EOR. Another element in this decision will be how engaged a utility decides to be and the experience the utility has had with precommercial R&D activities. Through R&D, utilities would likely have already addressed or at least been exposed to the many technical, regulatory, and risk management issues related to successful CCS. This paper provides the framework for identifying the different physical and related prototypical business models that may play a role for electric utilities in

  5. The environmental and economic sustainability of carbon capture and storage.

    PubMed

    Hardisty, Paul E; Sivapalan, Mayuran; Brooks, Peter

    2011-05-01

    For carbon capture and storage (CCS) to be a truly effective option in our efforts to mitigate climate change, it must be sustainable. That means that CCS must deliver consistent environmental and social benefits which exceed its costs of capital, energy and operation; it must be protective of the environment and human health over the long term; and it must be suitable for deployment on a significant scale. CCS is one of the more expensive and technically challenging carbon emissions abatement options available, and CCS must first and foremost be considered in the context of the other things that can be done to reduce emissions, as a part of an overall optimally efficient, sustainable and economic mitigation plan. This elevates the analysis beyond a simple comparison of the cost per tonne of CO(2) abated--there are inherent tradeoffs with a range of other factors (such as water, NOx, SOx, biodiversity, energy, and human health and safety, among others) which must also be considered if we are to achieve truly sustainable mitigation. The full life-cycle cost of CCS must be considered in the context of the overall social, environmental and economic benefits which it creates, and the costs associated with environmental and social risks it presents. Such analysis reveals that all CCS is not created equal. There is a wide range of technological options available which can be used in a variety of industries and applications-indeed CCS is not applicable to every industry. Stationary fossil-fuel powered energy and large scale petroleum industry operations are two examples of industries which could benefit from CCS. Capturing and geo-sequestering CO(2) entrained in natural gas can be economic and sustainable at relatively low carbon prices, and in many jurisdictions makes financial sense for operators to deploy now, if suitable secure disposal reservoirs are available close by. Retrofitting existing coal-fired power plants, however, is more expensive and technically

  6. The environmental and economic sustainability of carbon capture and storage.

    PubMed

    Hardisty, Paul E; Sivapalan, Mayuran; Brooks, Peter

    2011-05-01

    For carbon capture and storage (CCS) to be a truly effective option in our efforts to mitigate climate change, it must be sustainable. That means that CCS must deliver consistent environmental and social benefits which exceed its costs of capital, energy and operation; it must be protective of the environment and human health over the long term; and it must be suitable for deployment on a significant scale. CCS is one of the more expensive and technically challenging carbon emissions abatement options available, and CCS must first and foremost be considered in the context of the other things that can be done to reduce emissions, as a part of an overall optimally efficient, sustainable and economic mitigation plan. This elevates the analysis beyond a simple comparison of the cost per tonne of CO(2) abated--there are inherent tradeoffs with a range of other factors (such as water, NOx, SOx, biodiversity, energy, and human health and safety, among others) which must also be considered if we are to achieve truly sustainable mitigation. The full life-cycle cost of CCS must be considered in the context of the overall social, environmental and economic benefits which it creates, and the costs associated with environmental and social risks it presents. Such analysis reveals that all CCS is not created equal. There is a wide range of technological options available which can be used in a variety of industries and applications-indeed CCS is not applicable to every industry. Stationary fossil-fuel powered energy and large scale petroleum industry operations are two examples of industries which could benefit from CCS. Capturing and geo-sequestering CO(2) entrained in natural gas can be economic and sustainable at relatively low carbon prices, and in many jurisdictions makes financial sense for operators to deploy now, if suitable secure disposal reservoirs are available close by. Retrofitting existing coal-fired power plants, however, is more expensive and technically

  7. The Environmental and Economic Sustainability of Carbon Capture and Storage

    PubMed Central

    Hardisty, Paul E.; Sivapalan, Mayuran; Brooks, Peter

    2011-01-01

    For carbon capture and storage (CCS) to be a truly effective option in our efforts to mitigate climate change, it must be sustainable. That means that CCS must deliver consistent environmental and social benefits which exceed its costs of capital, energy and operation; it must be protective of the environment and human health over the long term; and it must be suitable for deployment on a significant scale. CCS is one of the more expensive and technically challenging carbon emissions abatement options available, and CCS must first and foremost be considered in the context of the other things that can be done to reduce emissions, as a part of an overall optimally efficient, sustainable and economic mitigation plan. This elevates the analysis beyond a simple comparison of the cost per tonne of CO2 abated—there are inherent tradeoffs with a range of other factors (such as water, NOx, SOx, biodiversity, energy, and human health and safety, among others) which must also be considered if we are to achieve truly sustainable mitigation. The full life-cycle cost of CCS must be considered in the context of the overall social, environmental and economic benefits which it creates, and the costs associated with environmental and social risks it presents. Such analysis reveals that all CCS is not created equal. There is a wide range of technological options available which can be used in a variety of industries and applications—indeed CCS is not applicable to every industry. Stationary fossil-fuel powered energy and large scale petroleum industry operations are two examples of industries which could benefit from CCS. Capturing and geo-sequestering CO2 entrained in natural gas can be economic and sustainable at relatively low carbon prices, and in many jurisdictions makes financial sense for operators to deploy now, if suitable secure disposal reservoirs are available close by. Retrofitting existing coal-fired power plants, however, is more expensive and technically

  8. Development of improved coating for advanced carbon-carbon components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamaki, Y. R.; Brown, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    Reaction sintered silicon nitride (RSSN) was studied as a substitute coating material on the carbon-carbon material (RCC) presently used as a heat shield on the space shuttle, and on advanced carbon-carbon (ACC), a later development. On RCC, RSSN showed potential in a 538 C (1000 F) screening test in which silicon carbide coated material exhibits its highest oxidation rate; RSSN afforded less protection to ACC because of a larger thermal expansion mismatch. Organosilicon densification and metallic silicon sealing methods were studied as means of further increasing the oxidation resistance of the coating, and some improvement was noted when these methods were employed.

  9. Selective and Regenerative Carbon Dioxide Capture by Highly Polarizing Porous Carbon Nitride.

    PubMed

    Oh, Youngtak; Le, Viet-Duc; Maiti, Uday Narayan; Hwang, Jin Ok; Park, Woo Jin; Lim, Joonwon; Lee, Kyung Eun; Bae, Youn-Sang; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Sang Ouk

    2015-09-22

    Energy-efficient CO2 capture is a stringent demand for green and sustainable energy supply. Strong adsorption is desirable for high capacity and selective capture at ambient conditions but unfavorable for regeneration of adsorbents by a simple pressure control process. Here we present highly regenerative and selective CO2 capture by carbon nitride functionalized porous reduced graphene oxide aerogel surface. The resultant structure demonstrates large CO2 adsorption capacity at ambient conditions (0.43 mmol·g(-1)) and high CO2 selectivity against N2 yet retains regenerability to desorb 98% CO2 by simple pressure swing. First-principles thermodynamics calculations revealed that microporous edges of graphitic carbon nitride offer the optimal CO2 adsorption by induced dipole interaction and allows excellent CO2 selectivity as well as facile regenerability. This work identifies a customized route to reversible gas capture using metal-free, two-dimensional carbonaceous materials, which can be extended to other useful applications. PMID:26267150

  10. Valuation of carbon capture and sequestration under Greenhouse gas regulations: CCS as an offsetting activity

    SciTech Connect

    Lokey, Elizabeth

    2009-08-15

    When carbon capture and sequestration is conducted by entities that are not regulated, it could be counted as an offset that is fungible in the market or sold to a voluntary market. This paper addresses the complications that arise in accounting for carbon capture and sequestration as an offset, and methodologies that exist for accounting for CCS in voluntary and compliance markets. (author)

  11. An advanced carbon reactor subsystem for carbon dioxide reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noyes, Gary P.; Cusick, Robert J.

    1986-01-01

    An evaluation is presented of the development status of an advanced carbon-reactor subsystem (ACRS) for the production of water and dense, solid carbon from CO2 and hydrogen, as required in physiochemical air revitalization systems for long-duration manned space missions. The ACRS consists of a Sabatier Methanation Reactor (SMR) that reduces CO2 with hydrogen to form methane and water, a gas-liquid separator to remove product water from the methane, and a Carbon Formation Reactor (CFR) to pyrolize methane to carbon and hydrogen; the carbon is recycled to the SMR, while the produce carbon is periodically removed from the CFR. A preprototype ACRS under development for the NASA Space Station is described.

  12. Composite Membranes for CO2 Capture: High Performance Metal Organic Frameworks/Polymer Composite Membranes for Carbon Dioxide Capture

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-01

    IMPACCT Project: A team of six faculty members at Georgia Tech are developing an enhanced membrane by fitting metal organic frameworks, compounds that show great promise for improved carbon capture, into hollow fiber membranes. This new material would be highly efficient at removing CO2 from the flue gas produced at coal-fired power plants. The team is analyzing thousands of metal organic frameworks to identify those that are most suitable for carbon capture based both on their ability to allow coal exhaust to pass easily through them and their ability to select CO2 from that exhaust for capture and storage. The most suitable frameworks would be inserted into the walls of the hollow fiber membranes, making the technology readily scalable due to their high surface area. This composite membrane would be highly stable, withstanding the harsh gas environment found in coal exhaust.

  13. Mercury capture by native fly ash carbons in coal-fired power plants

    PubMed Central

    Hower, James C.; Senior, Constance L.; Suuberg, Eric M.; Hurt, Robert H.; Wilcox, Jennifer L.; Olson, Edwin S.

    2013-01-01

    The control of mercury in the air emissions from coal-fired power plants is an on-going challenge. The native unburned carbons in fly ash can capture varying amounts of Hg depending upon the temperature and composition of the flue gas at the air pollution control device, with Hg capture increasing with a decrease in temperature; the amount of carbon in the fly ash, with Hg capture increasing with an increase in carbon; and the form of the carbon and the consequent surface area of the carbon, with Hg capture increasing with an increase in surface area. The latter is influenced by the rank of the feed coal, with carbons derived from the combustion of low-rank coals having a greater surface area than carbons from bituminous- and anthracite-rank coals. The chemistry of the feed coal and the resulting composition of the flue gas enhances Hg capture by fly ash carbons. This is particularly evident in the correlation of feed coal Cl content to Hg oxidation to HgCl2, enhancing Hg capture. Acid gases, including HCl and H2SO4 and the combination of HCl and NO2, in the flue gas can enhance the oxidation of Hg. In this presentation, we discuss the transport of Hg through the boiler and pollution control systems, the mechanisms of Hg oxidation, and the parameters controlling Hg capture by coal-derived fly ash carbons. PMID:24223466

  14. Helmet Exhalation Capture System (HECS) Sizing Evaluation for an Advanced Space Suit Portable Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.; Waguespack, Glenn M.; Paul, Thomas H.; Conger, Bruce C.

    2008-01-01

    As part of NASA s initiative to develop an advanced portable life support system (PLSS), a baseline schematic has been chosen that includes gaseous oxygen in a closed circuit ventilation configuration. Supply oxygen enters the suit at the back of the helmet and return gases pass over the astronaut s body to be extracted at the astronaut s wrists and ankles through the liquid cooling and ventilation garment (LCVG). The extracted gases are then treated using a rapid cycling amine (RCA) system for carbon dioxide and water removal and activated carbon for trace gas removal before being mixed with makeup oxygen and reintroduced into the helmet. Thermal control is provided by a suit water membrane evaporator (SWME). As an extension of the original schematic development, NASA evaluated several Helmet Exhalation Capture System (HECS) configurations as alternatives to the baseline. The HECS configurations incorporate the use of full contact masks or non-contact masks to reduce flow requirements within the PLSS ventilation subsystem. The primary scope of this study was to compare the alternatives based on mass and volume considerations; however other design issues were also briefly investigated. This paper summarizes the results of this sizing analysis task.

  15. Mercury capture by selected Bulgarian fly ashes: Influence of coal rank and fly ash carbon pore structure on capture efficiency

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kostova, I.J.; Hower, J.C.; Mastalerz, Maria; Vassilev, S.V.

    2011-01-01

    Mercury capture by fly ash C was investigated at five lignite- and subbituminous-coal-burning Bulgarian power plants (Republika, Bobov Dol, Maritza East 2, Maritza East 3, and Sliven). Although the C content of the ashes is low, never exceeding 1.6%, the Hg capture on a unit C basis demonstrates that the low-rank-coal-derived fly ash carbons are more efficient in capturing Hg than fly ash carbons from bituminous-fired power plants. While some low-C and low-Hg fly ashes do not reveal any trends of Hg versus C, the 2nd and, in particular, the 3rd electrostatic precipitator (ESP) rows at the Republika power plant do have sufficient fly ash C range and experience flue gas sufficiently cool to capture measurable amounts of Hg. The Republika 3rd ESP row exhibits an increase in Hg with increasing C, as observed in other power plants, for example, in Kentucky power plants burning Appalachian-sourced bituminous coals. Mercury/C decreases with an increase in fly ash C, suggesting that some of the C is isolated from the flue gas stream and does not contribute to Hg capture. Mercury capture increases with an increase in Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and micropore surface area. The differences in Hg capture between the Bulgarian plants burning low-rank coal and high volatile bituminous-fed Kentucky power plants suggests that the variations in C forms resulting from the combustion of the different ranks also influence the efficiency of Hg capture. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Post combustion carbon dioxide capture using amine functionalized carbon nanotubes: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, Sukanta K.

    2016-04-01

    Many technological viable options available for post combustion CO2 capture (PCC) from fossil fuel based power plants, such as amine absorption, adsorption, membrane separation, cryogenic separation processes. Out of these technological pathways adsorption using carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has shown potential advantages compared to other techniques for CO2 capture from flue gas streams which is evident form published literature from various research groups. Considering the recent developments, this work presents a state-of-the-art review on CO2 capture process using CNTs, amine functionalized CNTs and membrane based CNTs. One of the major challenges in developing CNT adsorption technology lies in the choice and development of an adsorbent material that can efficiently adsorb and also easily desorb and concentrate the captured CO2 with low energy input. This review work consists of a number of interdisciplinary research activities that are focused on the feasibility of developing a small scale carbon capture and storage (CCS) based on the adsorption properties of chemically functionalized CNTs. Another recent development for CO2 separation from flue gas is the application of membrane-based CNTs. Membrane based CO2 separation invites several advantages such as no need of an additional chemical or physical solvent; low energy use; simple process, hence easy to operate. In this work analysis and literature reviews carried out in the recent development in CNTs and membrane based CNTs for CO2 adsorption and separation to update the recent progress in this area. Finally a comparison with amine absorption process and retrofitting option has been discussed with few recommendations.

  17. Biocatalytic carbon capture via reversible reaction cycle catalyzed by isocitrate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Xia, Shunxiang; Frigo-Vaz, Benjamin; Zhao, Xueyan; Kim, Jungbae; Wang, Ping

    2014-09-12

    The practice of carbon capture and storage (CCS) requires efficient capture and separation of carbon dioxide from its gaseous mixtures such as flue gas, followed by releasing it as a pure gas which can be subsequently compressed and injected into underground storage sites. This has been mostly achieved via reversible thermochemical reactions which are generally energy-intensive. The current work examines a biocatalytic approach for carbon capture using an NADP(H)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) which catalyzes reversibly carboxylation and decarboxylation reactions. Different from chemical carbon capture processes that rely on thermal energy to realize purification of carbon dioxide, the biocatalytic strategy utilizes pH to leverage the reaction equilibrium, thereby realizing energy-efficient carbon capture under ambient conditions. Results showed that over 25 mol of carbon dioxide could be captured and purified from its gas mixture for each gram of ICDH applied for each carboxylation/decarboxylation reaction cycle by varying pH between 6 and 9. This work demonstrates the promising potentials of pH-sensitive biocatalysis as a green-chemistry route for carbon capture.

  18. Thermodynamic screening of metal-substituted MOFs for carbon capture.

    PubMed

    Koh, Hyun Seung; Rana, Malay Kumar; Hwang, Jinhyung; Siegel, Donald J

    2013-04-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have emerged as promising materials for carbon capture applications due to their high CO2 capacities and tunable properties. Amongst the many possible MOFs, metal-substituted compounds based on M-DOBDC and M-HKUST-1 have demonstrated amongst the highest CO2 capacities at the low pressures typical of flue gasses. Here we explore the possibility for additional performance tuning of these compounds by computationally screening 36 metal-substituted variants (M = Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, W, Sn, and Pb) with respect to their CO2 adsorption enthalpy, ΔH(T=300K). Supercell calculations based on van der Waals density functional theory (vdW-DF) yield enthalpies in good agreement with experimental measurements, out-performing semi-empirical (DFT-D2) and conventional (LDA & GGA) functionals. Our screening identifies 13 compounds having ΔH values within the targeted thermodynamic window -40 ≤ ΔH ≤ -75 kJ mol(-1): 8 are based on M-DODBC (M = Mg, Ca, Sr, Sc, Ti, V, Mo, and W), and 5 on M-HKUST-1 (M = Be, Mg, Ca, Sr and Sc). Variations in the electronic structure and the geometry of the structural building unit are examined and used to rationalize trends in CO2 affinity. In particular, the partial charge on the coordinatively unsaturated metal sites is found to correlate with ΔH, suggesting that this property may be used as a simple performance descriptor. The ability to rapidly distinguish promising MOFs from those that are "thermodynamic dead-ends" will be helpful in guiding synthesis efforts towards promising compounds.

  19. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Gary T. Rochelle; Eric Chen; Babatunde Oyenekan; Andrew Sexton; Jason Davis; Marus Hiilliard; Qing Xu; David Van Wagener; Jorge M. Plaza

    2006-12-31

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. The best solvent and process configuration, matrix with MDEA/PZ, offers 22% and 15% energy savings over the baseline and improved baseline, respectively, with stripping and compression to 10 MPa. The energy requirement for stripping and compression to 10 MPa is about 20% of the power output from a 500 MW power plant with 90% CO{sub 2} removal. The stripper rate model shows that a ''short and fat'' stripper requires 7 to 15% less equivalent work than a ''tall and skinny'' one. The stripper model was validated with data obtained from pilot plant experiments at the University of Texas with 5m K{sup +}/2.5m PZ and 6.4m K{sup +}/1.6m PZ under normal pressure and vacuum conditions using Flexipac AQ Style 20 structured packing. Experiments with oxidative degradation at low gas rates confirm the effects of Cu{sup +2} catalysis; in MEA/PZ solutions more formate and acetate is produced in the presence of Cu{sup +2}. At 150 C, the half life of 30% MEA with 0.4 moles CO{sub 2}/mole amine is about 2 weeks. At 100 C, less than 3% degradation occurred in two weeks. The solubility of potassium sulfate in MEA solution increases significantly with CO{sub 2} loading and decreases with MEA concentration. The base case corrosion rate in 5 M MEA/1,2M PZ is 22 mpy. With 1 wt% heat stable salt, the corrosion rate increases by 50% to 160% in the order: thiosulfate< oxalatecarbonate is ineffective in the absence of oxygen, but 50 to 250 ppm reduces corrosion to less than 2 mpy in the presence of oxygen.

  20. Four advances in carbon-carbon materials technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maahs, Howard G.; Vaughn, Wallace L.; Kowbel, Witold

    1994-01-01

    Carbon-carbon composites are a specialty class of materials having many unique properties making these composites attractive for a variety of demanding engineering applications. Chief among these properties are exceptional retention of mechanical properties at temperatures as high as 4000 F, excellent creep resistance, and low density (1.6 to 1.8 g/cu cm). Although carbon-carbon composites are currently in service in a variety of applications, much development work remains to be accomplished before these materials can be considered to be fully mature, realizing their full potential. Four recent technology advances holding particular promise for overcoming current barriers to the wide-spread commercialization of carbon-carbon composites are described. These advances are: markedly improved interlaminar strengths (more than doubled) of two dimensional composites achieved by whiskerization of the fabric reinforcing plies, simultaneously improved oxidation resistance and mechanical properties achieved by the incorporation of matrix-phase oxidation inhibitors based on carborane chemistry, improved oxidation resistance achieved by compositionally graded oxidation protective coatings, and markedly reduced processing times (hours as opposed to weeks or months) accomplished through a novel process of carbon infiltration and coatings deposition based on the use of liquid-phase precursor materials.

  1. Inorganic membranes for carbon capture and power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snider, Matthew T.

    Inorganic membranes are under consideration for cost-effective reductions of carbon emissions from coal-fired power plants, both in the capture of pollutants post-firing and in the direct electrochemical conversion of coal-derived fuels for improved plant efficiency. The suitability of inorganic membrane materials for these purposes stems as much from thermal and chemical stability in coal plant operating conditions as from high performance in gas separations and power generation. Hydrophilic, micro-porous zeolite membrane structures are attractive for separating CO2 from N2 in gaseous waste streams due to the attraction of CO2 to the membrane surface and micropore walls that gives the advantage to CO2 transport. Recent studies have indicated that retention of the templating agent used in zeolite synthesis can further block N2 from the micropore interior and significantly improve CO2/N2 selectivity. However, the role of the templating agent in micro-porous transport has not been well investigated. In this work, gas sorption studies were conducted by high-pressure thermo-gravimetric analysis on Zeolite Y membrane materials to quantify the effect of the templating agent on CO2, N2, and H2O adsorption/desorption, as well as to examine the effect of humidification on overall membrane performance. In equilibrium conditions, the N2 sorption enthalpy was nearly unchanged by the presence of the templating agent, but the N2 pore occupation was reduced ˜1000x. Thus, the steric nature of the blocking of N2 from the micropores by the templating agent was confirmed. CO2 and H2O sorption enthalpies were similarly unaffected by the templating agent, and the micropore occupations were only reduced as much as the void volume taken up by the templating agent. Thus, the steric blocking effect did not occur for molecules more strongly attracted to the micropore walls. Additionally, in time-transient measurements the CO 2 and H2O mobilities were significantly enhanced by the presence

  2. Inorganic membranes for carbon capture and power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snider, Matthew T.

    Inorganic membranes are under consideration for cost-effective reductions of carbon emissions from coal-fired power plants, both in the capture of pollutants post-firing and in the direct electrochemical conversion of coal-derived fuels for improved plant efficiency. The suitability of inorganic membrane materials for these purposes stems as much from thermal and chemical stability in coal plant operating conditions as from high performance in gas separations and power generation. Hydrophilic, micro-porous zeolite membrane structures are attractive for separating CO2 from N2 in gaseous waste streams due to the attraction of CO2 to the membrane surface and micropore walls that gives the advantage to CO2 transport. Recent studies have indicated that retention of the templating agent used in zeolite synthesis can further block N2 from the micropore interior and significantly improve CO2/N2 selectivity. However, the role of the templating agent in micro-porous transport has not been well investigated. In this work, gas sorption studies were conducted by high-pressure thermo-gravimetric analysis on Zeolite Y membrane materials to quantify the effect of the templating agent on CO2, N2, and H2O adsorption/desorption, as well as to examine the effect of humidification on overall membrane performance. In equilibrium conditions, the N2 sorption enthalpy was nearly unchanged by the presence of the templating agent, but the N2 pore occupation was reduced ˜1000x. Thus, the steric nature of the blocking of N2 from the micropores by the templating agent was confirmed. CO2 and H2O sorption enthalpies were similarly unaffected by the templating agent, and the micropore occupations were only reduced as much as the void volume taken up by the templating agent. Thus, the steric blocking effect did not occur for molecules more strongly attracted to the micropore walls. Additionally, in time-transient measurements the CO 2 and H2O mobilities were significantly enhanced by the presence

  3. Atmospheric CO2 capture by algae: Negative carbon dioxide emission path.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Diana; Pires, José C M

    2016-09-01

    Carbon dioxide is one of the most important greenhouse gas, which concentration increase in the atmosphere is associated to climate change and global warming. Besides CO2 capture in large emission point sources, the capture of this pollutant from atmosphere may be required due to significant contribution of diffuse sources. The technologies that remove CO2 from atmosphere (creating a negative balance of CO2) are called negative emission technologies. Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Storage may play an important role for CO2 mitigation. It represents the combination of bioenergy production and carbon capture and storage, keeping carbon dioxide in geological reservoirs. Algae have a high potential as the source of biomass, as they present high photosynthetic efficiencies and high biomass yields. Their biomass has a wide range of applications, which can improve the economic viability of the process. Thus, this paper aims to assess the atmospheric CO2 capture by algal cultures.

  4. Atmospheric CO2 capture by algae: Negative carbon dioxide emission path.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Diana; Pires, José C M

    2016-09-01

    Carbon dioxide is one of the most important greenhouse gas, which concentration increase in the atmosphere is associated to climate change and global warming. Besides CO2 capture in large emission point sources, the capture of this pollutant from atmosphere may be required due to significant contribution of diffuse sources. The technologies that remove CO2 from atmosphere (creating a negative balance of CO2) are called negative emission technologies. Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Storage may play an important role for CO2 mitigation. It represents the combination of bioenergy production and carbon capture and storage, keeping carbon dioxide in geological reservoirs. Algae have a high potential as the source of biomass, as they present high photosynthetic efficiencies and high biomass yields. Their biomass has a wide range of applications, which can improve the economic viability of the process. Thus, this paper aims to assess the atmospheric CO2 capture by algal cultures. PMID:27005790

  5. Pre-Combustion Carbon Dioxide Capture by a New Dual Phase Ceramic-Carbonate Membrane Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jerry

    2014-09-30

    This report documents synthesis, characterization and carbon dioxide permeation and separation properties of a new group of ceramic-carbonate dual-phase membranes and results of a laboratory study on their application for water gas shift reaction with carbon dioxide separation. A series of ceramic-carbonate dual phase membranes with various oxygen ionic or mixed ionic and electronic conducting metal oxide materials in disk, tube, symmetric, and asymmetric geometric configurations was developed. These membranes, with the thickness of 10 μm to 1.5 mm, show CO2 permeance in the range of 0.5-5×10-7 mol·m-2·s-1·Pa-1 in 500-900oC and measured CO2/N2 selectivity of up to 3000. CO2 permeation mechanism and factors that affect CO2 permeation through the dual-phase membranes have been identified. A reliable CO2 permeation model was developed. A robust method was established for the optimization of the microstructures of ceramic-carbonate membranes. The ceramic-carbonate membranes exhibit high stability for high temperature CO2 separations and water gas shift reaction. Water gas shift reaction in the dual-phase membrane reactors was studied by both modeling and experiments. It is found that high temperature syngas water gas shift reaction in tubular ceramic-carbonate dual phase membrane reactor is feasible even without catalyst. The membrane reactor exhibits good CO2 permeation flux, high thermal and chemical stability and high thermal shock resistance. Reaction and separation conditions in the membrane reactor to produce hydrogen of 93% purity and CO2 stream of >95% purity, with 90% CO2 capture have been identified. Integration of the ceramic-carbonate dual-phase membrane reactor with IGCC process for carbon dioxide capture was analyzed. A methodology was developed to identify optimum operation conditions for a membrane tube of given dimensions that would treat coal syngas with targeted performance. The calculation results show that the dual-phase membrane reactor could

  6. Early atmospheric detection of carbon dioxide from carbon capture and storage sites

    PubMed Central

    Pak, Nasrin Mostafavi; Rempillo, Ofelia; Norman, Ann-Lise; Layzell, David B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The early atmospheric detection of carbon dioxide (CO2) leaks from carbon capture and storage (CCS) sites is important both to inform remediation efforts and to build and maintain public support for CCS in mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. A gas analysis system was developed to assess the origin of plumes of air enriched in CO2, as to whether CO2 is from a CCS site or from the oxidation of carbon compounds. The system measured CO2 and O2 concentrations for different plume samples relative to background air and calculated the gas differential concentration ratio (GDCR = −ΔO2/ΔCO2). The experimental results were in good agreement with theoretical calculations that placed GDCR values for a CO2 leak at 0.21, compared with GDCR values of 1–1.8 for the combustion of carbon compounds. Although some combustion plume samples deviated in GDCR from theoretical, the very low GDCR values associated with plumes from CO2 leaks provided confidence that this technology holds promise in providing a tool for the early detection of CO2 leaks from CCS sites.  Implications: This work contributes to the development of a cost-effective technology for the early detection of leaks from sites where CO2 has been injected into the subsurface to enhance oil recovery or to permanently store the gas as a strategy for mitigating climate change. Such technology will be important in building public confidence regarding the safety and security of carbon capture and storage sites. PMID:27111469

  7. Designing and Demonstrating a Master Student Project to Explore Carbon Dioxide Capture Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asherman, Florine; Cabot, Gilles; Crua, Cyril; Estel, Lionel; Gagnepain, Charlotte; Lecerf, Thibault; Ledoux, Alain; Leveneur, Sebastien; Lucereau, Marie; Maucorps, Sarah; Ragot, Melanie; Syrykh, Julie; Vige, Manon

    2016-01-01

    The rise in carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]) concentration in the Earth's atmosphere, and the associated strengthening of the greenhouse effect, requires the development of low carbon technologies. New carbon capture processes are being developed to remove CO[subscript 2] that would otherwise be emitted from industrial processes and fossil fuel…

  8. Synergistic Carbon Dioxide Capture and Conversion in Porous Materials.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yugen; Lim, Diane S W

    2015-08-24

    Global climate change and excessive CO2 emissions have caused widespread public concern in recent years. Tremendous efforts have been made towards CO2 capture and conversion. This has led to the development of numerous porous materials as CO2 capture sorbents. Concurrently, the conversion of CO2 into value-added products by chemical methods has also been well-documented recently. However, realizing the attractive prospect of direct, in situ chemical conversion of captured CO2 into other chemicals remains a challenge.

  9. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Gary T. Rochelle; Andrew Sexton; Jason Davis; Marcus Hilliard; Qing Xu; David Van Wagener; Jorge M. Plaza

    2007-03-31

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. The best K{sup +}/PZ solvent, 4.5 m K{sup +}/4.5 m PZ, requires equivalent work of 31.8 kJ/mole CO{sub 2} when used with a double matrix stripper and an intercooled absorber. The oxidative degradation of piperazine or organic acids is reduced significantly by inhibitor A, but the production of ethylenediamine is unaffected. The oxidative degradation of piperazine in 7 m MEA/2 m PZ is catalyzed by Cu{sup ++}. The thermal degradation of MEA becomes significant at 120 C. The solubility of potassium sulfate in MEA/PZ solvents is increased at greater CO{sub 2} loading. The best solvent and process configuration, matrix with MDEA/PZ, offers 22% and 15% energy savings over the baseline and improved baseline, respectively, with stripping and compression to 10 MPa. The energy requirement for stripping and compression to 10 MPa is about 20% of the power output from a 500 MW power plant with 90% CO{sub 2} removal. The stripper rate model shows that a ''short and fat'' stripper requires 7 to 15% less equivalent work than a ''tall and skinny'' one. The stripper model was validated with data obtained from pilot plant experiments at the University of Texas with 5m K{sup +}/2.5m PZ and 6.4m K{sup +}/1.6m PZ under normal pressure and vacuum conditions using Flexipac AQ Style 20 structured packing. Experiments with oxidative degradation at low gas rates confirm the effects of Cu{sup +2} catalysis; in MEA/PZ solutions more formate and acetate is produced in the presence of Cu{sup +2}. At 150 C, the half life of 30% MEA with 0.4 moles CO{sub 2}/mole amine is about 2 weeks. At 100 C, less than 3% degradation occurred in two weeks. The solubility of potassium sulfate in MEA solution increases significantly with CO{sub 2} loading and decreases with MEA concentration. The base case corrosion

  10. Direct Electrochemical Capture and Release of Carbon Dioxide Using an Industrial Organic Pigment: Quinacridone**

    PubMed Central

    Apaydin, Dogukan Hazar; Głowacki, Eric Daniel; Portenkirchner, Engelbert; Sariciftci, Niyazi Serdar

    2014-01-01

    Limiting anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions constitutes a major issue faced by scientists today. Herein we report an efficient way of controlled capture and release of carbon dioxide using nature inspired, cheap, abundant and non-toxic, industrial pigment namely, quinacridone. An electrochemically reduced electrode consisting of a quinacridone thin film (ca. 100 nm thick)on an ITO support forms a quinacridone carbonate salt. The captured CO2 can be released by electrochemical oxidation. The amount of captured CO2 was quantified by FT-IR. The uptake value for electrochemical release process was 4.61 mmol g−1. This value is among the highest reported uptake efficiencies for electrochemical CO2 capture. For comparison, the state-of-the-art aqueous amine industrial capture process has an uptake efficiency of ca. 8 mmol g−1. PMID:24849072

  11. Direct electrochemical capture and release of carbon dioxide using an industrial organic pigment: quinacridone.

    PubMed

    Apaydin, Dogukan Hazar; Głowacki, Eric Daniel; Portenkirchner, Engelbert; Sariciftci, Niyazi Serdar

    2014-06-23

    Limiting anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions constitutes a major issue faced by scientists today. Herein we report an efficient way of controlled capture and release of carbon dioxide using nature inspired, cheap, abundant and non-toxic, industrial pigment namely, quinacridone. An electrochemically reduced electrode consisting of a quinacridone thin film (ca. 100 nm thick) on an ITO support forms a quinacridone carbonate salt. The captured CO2 can be released by electrochemical oxidation. The amount of captured CO2 was quantified by FT-IR. The uptake value for electrochemical release process was 4.61 mmol g(-1). This value is among the highest reported uptake efficiencies for electrochemical CO2 capture. For comparison, the state-of-the-art aqueous amine industrial capture process has an uptake efficiency of ca. 8 mmol g(-1).

  12. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Douglas P. Harrison; Ya Liang

    2002-04-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a simple, inexpensive process to separate CO{sub 2} as an essentially pure stream from a fossil fuel combustion system using a regenerable, sodium-based sorbent. The sorbents being investigated in this project are primarily alkali carbonates, and particularly sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate, which are converted to bicarbonates, through reaction with carbon dioxide and water vapor. Bicarbonates are regenerated to carbonates when heated, producing a nearly pure CO{sub 2} stream after condensation of water vapor. This quarter, electrobalance tests conducted at LSU indicated that exposure of sorbent to water vapor prior to contact with carbonation gas does not significantly increase the reaction rate. Calcined fine mesh trona has a greater initial carbonation rate than calcined sodium bicarbonate, but appears to be more susceptible to loss of reactivity under severe calcination conditions. The Davison attrition indices for Grade 5 sodium bicarbonate, commercial grade sodium carbonate and extra fine granular potassium carbonate were, as tested, outside of the range suitable for entrained bed reactor testing. Fluidized bed testing at RTI indicated that in the initial stages of reaction potassium carbonate removed 35% of the carbon dioxide in simulated flue gas, and is reactive at higher temperatures than sodium carbonate. Removals declined to 6% when 54% of the capacity of the sorbent was exhausted. Carbonation data from electrobalance testing was correlated using a shrinking core reaction model. The activation energy of the reaction of sodium carbonate with carbon dioxide and water vapor was determined from nonisothermal thermogravimetry.

  13. High-Performance Sorbents for Carbon Dioxide Capture from Air

    SciTech Connect

    Sholl, David; Jones, Christopher

    2013-03-13

    This project has focused on capture of CO{sub 2} from ambient air (“air capture”). If this process is technically and economically feasible, it could potentially contribute to net reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions in ways that are complementary to better developed techniques for CO{sub 2} from concentrated point sources. We focused on cyclic adsorption processes for CO{sub 2} capture from air in which the entire cycle is performed at moderate temperatures. The project involved both experimental studies of sorbent materials and process level modeling of cyclic air capture processes. In our experimental work, a series of amine-functionalized silica adsorbents were prepared and characterized to determine the impact of molecular architecture on CO{sub 2} capture. Some key findings were: • Amine functionalized silicas can be prepared with high enough CO{sub 2} capacities under ambient conditions to merit consideration for use in air capture processes. • Primary amines are better candidates for CO{sub 2} capture than secondary or tertiary amines, both in terms of amine efficiency for CO{sub 2} adsorption and enhanced water affinity. • Mechanistic understanding of degradation of these materials can enable control of molecular architecture to significantly improve material stability. Our process modeling work provided the first publically available cost and energy estimates for cyclic adsorption processes for air capture of CO{sub 2}. Some key findings were: • Cycles based on diurnal ambient heating and cooling cannot yield useful purities or amounts of captured CO{sub 2}. • Cycles based on steam desorption at 110 oC can yield CO{sub 2} purities of ~88%. • The energy requirements for cycles using steam desorption are dominated by needs for thermal input, which results in lower costs than energy input in the form of electricity. Cyclic processes with operational costs of less than $100 tCO{sub 2}-net were described, and these results point to process and

  14. The Role of Carbon Capture, Sequestration and Emissions Trading in Achieving Short-Term Carbon Emissions Reductions

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, James J. ); Kim, Son H. ); Runci, Paul J. ); D. Williams

    2001-08-10

    The near- to mid-term deployment of carbon capture and sequestration technologies can accelerate the process of significantly reducing emissions of carbon dioxide under a wide range of policy scenarios and reduce significantly the costs of complying with a climate change mitigation protocol -- by as much as$1 trillion over the period 2005-2050. These carbon capture and sequestration technologies also allow the continued use of fossil fuels, while reducing their carbon emissions and keeping the cost of electricity generated from fossil fuels competitive with other generation technologies.

  15. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P.Gupta; William J. McMichael; Ya Liang; Douglas P. Harrison

    2002-10-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a simple and inexpensive process to separate CO{sub 2} as an essentially pure stream from a fossil fuel combustion system using a regenerable sorbent. The sorbents being investigated in this project are primarily alkali carbonates, and particularly sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate, which are converted to bicarbonates through reaction with carbon dioxide and water vapor. Bicarbonates are regenerated to carbonates when heated, producing a nearly pure CO{sub 2} stream after condensation of water vapor. This quarter, electrobalance tests suggested that higher temperature calcination of trona leds to reduced carbonation activity in subsequent cycles, but that calcination in dry carbon dioxide did not result in decreased activity relative to calcination in helium. Following higher temperature calcination, sodium bicarbonate (SBC) No.3 has greater activity than either coarse or fine grades of trona. Fixed bed testing of calcined SBC No.3 at 70 C confirmed that high rates of carbon dioxide absorption are possible and that the resulting product is a mixture of Wegscheider's salt and sodium carbonate. In fluidized bed testing of supported potassium carbonate, very rapid carbonation rates were observed. Activity of the support material complicated the data analysis. A milled, spherical grade of SBC appeared to be similar in attrition and abrasion characteristics to an unmilled, less regularly shaped SBC. The calcination behavior, at 107 C, for the milled and unmilled materials was also similar.

  16. Updated ice core record captures industrial era carbon variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-09-01

    In 1999, researchers published data from ice cores collected at Law Dome, a research site in East Antarctica. These data are distinguished by their high time resolution and by their overlap with modern measurements, providing one of the most important records of how the atmosphere's chemical composition changed over the past 1000 years. Air trapped in bubbles in the ice core let researchers measure the concentration of carbon dioxide and other gases and analyze the ratio of carbon-13 to carbon-12 isotopes in the atmospheric carbon dioxide. Burning fossil fuel releases carbon dioxide that is depleted in carbon-13 isotopes, and the Law Dome record provided evidence that modern increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide are due to anthropogenic activity. In a new study, Rubino et al., a team that includes some of the authors from the original analysis, use novel tools and techniques to update their ice core record.

  17. ADVANCED OXYFUEL BOILERS AND PROCESS HEATERS FOR COST EFFECTIVE CO{sub 2} CAPTURE AND SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; G. Maxwell Christie

    2003-07-01

    This annual technical progress report summarizes the work accomplished during the first year of the program, January-December 2002, in the following task areas: Task 1--Conceptual Design, Task 2--Laboratory Scale Evaluations, Task 3--OTM Development, Task 4--Economic Evaluation and Commercialization Planning and Task 5--Program Management. The program has experienced significant delays due to several factors. The budget has also been significantly under spent. Based on recent technical successes significant future progress is expected. A number of concepts for integrating Oxygen Transport Membranes (OTMs) into boilers and process heaters to facilitate oxy-fuel combustion have been proposed. A detailed modeling plan has been proposed and early modeling work has focused on developing spreadsheet based models for quick engineering calculations. Combustion reactor laboratory scale evaluations efforts have been delayed due to the closing of Praxair's Tarrytown facility in December 2001. Experimental facilities and personnel have been relocated to Praxair's facility in Tonawanda. The facilities have recently been re-commissioned. Work with the OTM development task has also been delayed as early material selections were discarded. More recently, more promising OTM material compositions have been identified. Economic evaluation commenced. Information was acquired that quantified the attractiveness of the advanced oxygen-fired boiler. CO{sub 2} capture and compression are still estimated to be much less than $10/ton carbon.

  18. Carbon dioxide capture using Escherichia coli expressing carbonic anhydrase in a foam bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Watson, Stuart K; Han, Zhenlin; Su, Wei Wen; Deshusses, Marc A; Kan, Eunsung

    2016-12-01

    The present study reports CO2 capture and conversion to bicarbonate using Escherichia coli expressing carbonic anhydrase (CA) on its cell surface in a novel foam bioreactor. The very large gas-liquid interfacial area in the foam bioreactor promoted rapid CO2 absorption while the CO2 in the aqueous phase was subsequently converted to bicarbonate ions by the CA. CO2 gas removal in air was investigated at various conditions such as gas velocity, cell density and CO2 inlet concentration. Regimes for kinetic and mass transfer limitations were defined. Very high removal rates of CO2 were observed: 9570 g CO2 m(-3) bioreactor h(-1) and a CO2 removal efficiency of 93% at 4% inlet CO2 when the gas retention time was 24 s, and cell concentration was 4 gdw L(-1). These performances are superior to earlier reports of experimental bioreactors using CA for CO2 capture. Overall, this bioreactor system has significant potential as an alternative CO2 capture technology.

  19. Carbon Capture by a Continuous, Regenerative Ammonia-Based Scrubbing Process

    SciTech Connect

    Resnik, K.P.; Yeh, J.T.; Pennline, H.W.

    2006-10-01

    Overview: To develop a knowledge/data base to determine whether an ammonia-based scrubbing process is a viable regenerable-capture technique that can simultaneously remove carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, nitric oxides, and trace pollutants from flue gas.

  20. Advances on interdisciplinary approaches to urban carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero-Lankao, P.

    2015-12-01

    North American urban areas are emerging as climate policy and technology innovators, urbanization process laboratories, fonts of carbon relevant experiments, hubs for grass-roots mobilization, and centers for civil-society experiments to curb carbon emissions and avoid widespread and irreversible climate impacts. Since SOCCR diverse lines of inquiry on urbanization, urban areas and the carbon cycle have advanced our understanding of some of the societal processes through which energy and land uses affect carbon. This presentation provides an overview of these diverse perspectives. It suggests the need for approaches that complement and combine the plethora of existing insights into interdisciplinary explorations of how different urbanization processes, and socio-ecological and technological components of urban areas affect the spatial and temporal patterns of carbon emissions, differentially over time and within and across cities. It also calls for a more holistic approach to examining the carbon implications of urbanization and urban areas as places, based not only on demographics or income, but also on such other interconnected features of urban development pathways as urban form, economic function, economic growth policies and climate policies.

  1. Performance assessment of natural gas and biogas fueled molten carbonate fuel cells in carbon capture configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barelli, Linda; Bidini, Gianni; Campanari, Stefano; Discepoli, Gabriele; Spinelli, Maurizio

    2016-07-01

    The ability of MCFCs as carbon dioxide concentrator is an alternative solution among the carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies to reduce the CO2 emission of an existing plant, providing energy instead of implying penalties. Moreover, the fuel flexibility exhibited by MCFCs increases the interest on such a solution. This paper provides the performance characterization of MCFCs operated in CCS configuration and fed with either natural gas or biogas. Experimental results are referred to a base CCS unit constituted by a MCFC stack fed from a reformer and integrated with an oxycombustor. A comparative analysis is carried out to evaluate the effect of fuel composition on energy efficiency and CO2 capture performance. A higher CO2 removal ability is revealed for the natural feeding case, bringing to a significant reduction in MCFC total area (-11.5%) and to an increase in produced net power (+13%). Moreover, the separated CO2 results in 89% (natural gas) and 86.5% (biogas) of the CO2 globally delivered by the CCS base unit. Further investigation will be carried out to provide a comprehensive assessment of the different solutions eco-efficiency considering also the biogas source and availability.

  2. Carbon dioxide capturing technologies: a review focusing on metal organic framework materials (MOFs).

    PubMed

    Sabouni, Rana; Kazemian, Hossein; Rohani, Sohrab

    2014-04-01

    In this study, a relevant literature has been reviewed focusing on the carbon dioxide capture technologies in general, such as amine-based absorption as conventional carbon dioxide capturing technology, aqueous ammonia-based absorption, membranes, and adsorption material (e.g., zeolites, and activated carbons). In more details, metal organic frameworks (MOFs) as new emerging technologies for carbon dioxide adsorption are discussed. The MOFs section is intended to provide a comprehensive overview of MOFs including material characteristics and synthesis, structural features, CO2 adsorption capacity, heat of adsorption and selectivity of CO2. PMID:24338107

  3. Carbon-Based Adsorbents for Postcombustion CO2 Capture: A Critical Review.

    PubMed

    Creamer, Anne Elise; Gao, Bin

    2016-07-19

    The persistent increase in atmospheric CO2 from anthropogenic sources makes research directed toward carbon capture and storage imperative. Current liquid amine absorption technology has several drawbacks including hazardous byproducts and a high-energy requirement for regeneration; therefore, research is ongoing to develop more practical methods for capturing CO2 in postcombustion scenarios. The unique properties of carbon-based materials make them specifically promising for CO2 adsorption at low temperature and moderate to high partial pressure. This critical review aims to highlight the development of carbon-based solid sorbents for postcombustion CO2 capture. Specifically, it provides an overview of postcombustion CO2 capture processes with solid adsorbents and discusses a variety of carbon-based materials that could be used. This review focuses on low-cost pyrogenic carbon, activated carbon (AC), and metal-carbon composites for CO2 capture. Further, it touches upon the recent progress made to develop metal organic frameworks (MOFs) and carbon nanomaterials and their general CO2 sorption potential.

  4. Carbon-Based Adsorbents for Postcombustion CO2 Capture: A Critical Review.

    PubMed

    Creamer, Anne Elise; Gao, Bin

    2016-07-19

    The persistent increase in atmospheric CO2 from anthropogenic sources makes research directed toward carbon capture and storage imperative. Current liquid amine absorption technology has several drawbacks including hazardous byproducts and a high-energy requirement for regeneration; therefore, research is ongoing to develop more practical methods for capturing CO2 in postcombustion scenarios. The unique properties of carbon-based materials make them specifically promising for CO2 adsorption at low temperature and moderate to high partial pressure. This critical review aims to highlight the development of carbon-based solid sorbents for postcombustion CO2 capture. Specifically, it provides an overview of postcombustion CO2 capture processes with solid adsorbents and discusses a variety of carbon-based materials that could be used. This review focuses on low-cost pyrogenic carbon, activated carbon (AC), and metal-carbon composites for CO2 capture. Further, it touches upon the recent progress made to develop metal organic frameworks (MOFs) and carbon nanomaterials and their general CO2 sorption potential. PMID:27257991

  5. A scalable infrastructure model for carbon capture and storage: SimCCS

    SciTech Connect

    Middleton, Richard S; Bielicki, Jeffrey M

    2009-01-01

    In the carbon capture and storage (CCS) process, CO2 sources and geologic reservoirs may be spatially dispersed and need to be connected through a CO2 pipeline network. The full potential of CCS to mitigate CO2 will only be realized through comprehensive planning of CCS infrastructure. We introduce a scalable infrastructure model for CCS (simCCS), the first model to generate an integrated, cost-minimizing CCS system. SimCCS determines where and how much CO2 to capture and store, and where to build and connect pipelines of different sizes, by minimizing the total cost of sequestering a given amount of CO2. SimCCS can aggregate CO2 flows between several sources and reservoirs into trunk pipelines the costs and routing of which incorporate several social and physical factors that take advantage of economies of scale. SimCCS' deployment of a realistic, capacitated pipeline network is a major advancement for planning CCS infrastructure. We demonstrate simCCS using a set of 37 CO2 sources and 14 reservoirs for the state of California. The results highlight the importance of systematic planning for CCS infrastructure by examining the sensitivity of CCS infrastructure, as optimized by simCCS, to varying CO2 targets. We finish by identifying future research areas for CCS infrastructure.

  6. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Thomas Nelson; Raghubir P. Gupta

    2005-01-01

    This report describes research conducted between October 1, 2004 and December 31, 2004 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Two supported sorbents were tested in a bench scale fluidized bed reactor system. The sorbents were prepared by impregnation of sodium carbonate on to an inert support at a commercial catalyst manufacturing facility. One sorbent, tested through five cycles of carbon dioxide sorption in an atmosphere of 3% water vapor and 0.8 to 3% carbon dioxide showed consistent reactivity with sodium carbonate utilization of 7 to 14%. A second, similarly prepared material, showed comparable reactivity in one cycle of testing. Batches of 5 other materials were prepared in laboratory scale quantities (primarily by spray drying). These materials generally have significantly greater surface areas than calcined sodium bicarbonate. Small scale testing showed no significant adsorption of mercury on representative carbon dioxide sorbent materials under expected flue gas conditions.

  7. Perspectives on Carbon Capture and Sequestration in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle Mei-Ling

    Overall, this dissertation examines a sequence of important interconnected issues: the perspectives of potential and actual CCS host communities, the perspectives of the environmental community on the rationality of CCS as viable mitigation solution for the United States, and strategies for engaging with the public on CCS. Much of the research in this dissertation is original work addressing major interdisciplinary gaps in existing literature as well as in industry and government public engagement practice. Each of the chapters is a stand-alone paper that provides a unique contribution to a series of different types of carbon management technologies and academic disciplines. They are assembled together to provide a unique integrated evaluation of these related problems. Collectively, these chapters capture some of the major challenges facing mitigation technology engagement from the potentially time consuming need for careful social site characterization to the opportunities for using citizen-guided marketing methods to identify factors that may enhance effective public engagement. Chapters 2 and 3 are essays on the perspectives of potential and actual CCS host communities. Chapter 2 finds that host communities in California's Central Valley are more concerned with the social risks of hosting a CCS project (e.g. fear of neglect should something go wrong) rather than with the technical risks of the technology. Chapter 3 finds that host communities across the US are more concerned with social risks, and want a say in how those risks should be mitigated. This Chapter concludes with a discussion of how a 'social site characterization' conducted along side a traditional site characterization when evaluating the potential for a CCS project may be a good way to both encourage positive relationships with community members and mitigate potential concerns. Chapter 4 is an essay on the perspectives of the environmental community towards the potential of CCS as a viable

  8. Capturing carbon dioxide as a polymer from natural gas.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Chih-Chau; Tour, Josiah J; Kittrell, Carter; Espinal, Laura; Alemany, Lawrence B; Tour, James M

    2014-06-03

    Natural gas is considered the cleanest and recently the most abundant fossil fuel source, yet when it is extracted from wells, it often contains 10-20 mol% carbon dioxide (20-40 wt%), which is generally vented to the atmosphere. Efforts are underway to contain this carbon dioxide at the well-head using inexpensive and non-corrosive methods. Here we report nucleophilic porous carbons are synthesized from simple and inexpensive carbon-sulphur and carbon-nitrogen precursors. Infrared, Raman and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance signatures substantiate carbon dioxide fixation by polymerization in the carbon channels to form poly(CO2) under much lower pressures than previously required. This growing chemisorbed sulphur- or nitrogen-atom-initiated poly(CO2) chain further displaces physisorbed hydrocarbon, providing a continuous carbon dioxide selectivity. Once returned to ambient conditions, the poly(CO2) spontaneously depolymerizes, leading to a sorbent that can be easily regenerated without the thermal energy input that is required for traditional sorbents.

  9. Capturing carbon dioxide as a polymer from natural gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Chih-Chau; Tour, Josiah J.; Kittrell, Carter; Espinal, Laura; Alemany, Lawrence B.; Tour, James M.

    2014-06-01

    Natural gas is considered the cleanest and recently the most abundant fossil fuel source, yet when it is extracted from wells, it often contains 10-20 mol% carbon dioxide (20-40 wt%), which is generally vented to the atmosphere. Efforts are underway to contain this carbon dioxide at the well-head using inexpensive and non-corrosive methods. Here we report nucleophilic porous carbons are synthesized from simple and inexpensive carbon-sulphur and carbon-nitrogen precursors. Infrared, Raman and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance signatures substantiate carbon dioxide fixation by polymerization in the carbon channels to form poly(CO2) under much lower pressures than previously required. This growing chemisorbed sulphur- or nitrogen-atom-initiated poly(CO2) chain further displaces physisorbed hydrocarbon, providing a continuous carbon dioxide selectivity. Once returned to ambient conditions, the poly(CO2) spontaneously depolymerizes, leading to a sorbent that can be easily regenerated without the thermal energy input that is required for traditional sorbents.

  10. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Ya Liang; Douglas P. Harrison

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a simple and inexpensive process to separate CO{sub 2} as an essentially pure stream from a fossil fuel combustion system using a regenerable sorbent. The sorbents being investigated in this project are primarily alkali carbonates, and particularly sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate, which are converted to bicarbonates or intermediate salts through reaction with carbon dioxide and water vapor. Bicarbonates are regenerated to carbonates when heated, producing a nearly pure CO{sub 2} stream after condensation of water vapor. This quarter, electrobalance tests suggested that high calcination temperatures decrease the activity of sodium bicarbonate Grade 1 (SBC No.1) during subsequent carbonation cycles, but there is little or no progressive decrease in activity in successive cycles. SBC No.1 appears to be more active than SBC No.3. As expected, the presence of SO{sub 2} in simulated flue gas results in a progressive loss of sorbent capacity with increasing cycles. This is most likely due to an irreversible reaction to produce Na{sub 2}SO{sub 3}. This compound appears to be stable at calcination temperatures as high as 200 C. Tests of 40% supported potassium carbonate sorbent and plain support material suggest that some of the activity observed in tests of the supported sorbent may be due to adsorption by the support material rather than to carbonation of the sorbent.

  11. Marine ecotoxicity of nitramines, transformation products of amine-based carbon capture technology.

    PubMed

    Coutris, Claire; Macken, Ailbhe L; Collins, Andrew R; El Yamani, Naouale; Brooks, Steven J

    2015-09-15

    In the context of reducing CO2 emissions to the atmosphere, chemical absorption with amines is emerging as the most advanced technology for post-combustion CO2 capture from exhaust gases of fossil fuel power plants. Despite amine solvent recycling during the capture process, degradation products are formed and released into the environment, among them aliphatic nitramines, for which the environmental impact is unknown. In this study, we determined the acute and chronic toxicity of two nitramines identified as important transformation products of amine-based carbon capture, dimethylnitramine and ethanolnitramine, using a multi-trophic suite of bioassays. The results were then used to produce the first environmental risk assessment for the marine ecosystem. In addition, the in vivo genotoxicity of nitramines was studied by adapting the comet assay to cells from experimentally exposed fish. Overall, based on the whole organism bioassays, the toxicity of both nitramines was considered to be low. The most sensitive response to both compounds was found in oysters, and dimethylnitramine was consistently more toxic than ethanolnitramine in all bioassays. The Predicted No Effect Concentrations for dimethylnitramine and ethanolnitramine were 0.08 and 0.18 mg/L, respectively. The genotoxicity assessment revealed contrasting results to the whole organism bioassays, with ethanolnitramine found to be more genotoxic than dimethylnitramine by three orders of magnitude. At the lowest ethanolnitramine concentration (1mg/L), 84% DNA damage was observed, whereas 100mg/L dimethylnitramine was required to cause 37% DNA damage. The mechanisms of genotoxicity were also shown to differ between the two compounds, with oxidation of the DNA bases responsible for over 90% of the genotoxicity of dimethylnitramine, whereas DNA strand breaks and alkali-labile sites were responsible for over 90% of the genotoxicity of ethanolnitramine. Fish exposed to >3mg/L ethanolnitramine had virtually no DNA

  12. Marine ecotoxicity of nitramines, transformation products of amine-based carbon capture technology.

    PubMed

    Coutris, Claire; Macken, Ailbhe L; Collins, Andrew R; El Yamani, Naouale; Brooks, Steven J

    2015-09-15

    In the context of reducing CO2 emissions to the atmosphere, chemical absorption with amines is emerging as the most advanced technology for post-combustion CO2 capture from exhaust gases of fossil fuel power plants. Despite amine solvent recycling during the capture process, degradation products are formed and released into the environment, among them aliphatic nitramines, for which the environmental impact is unknown. In this study, we determined the acute and chronic toxicity of two nitramines identified as important transformation products of amine-based carbon capture, dimethylnitramine and ethanolnitramine, using a multi-trophic suite of bioassays. The results were then used to produce the first environmental risk assessment for the marine ecosystem. In addition, the in vivo genotoxicity of nitramines was studied by adapting the comet assay to cells from experimentally exposed fish. Overall, based on the whole organism bioassays, the toxicity of both nitramines was considered to be low. The most sensitive response to both compounds was found in oysters, and dimethylnitramine was consistently more toxic than ethanolnitramine in all bioassays. The Predicted No Effect Concentrations for dimethylnitramine and ethanolnitramine were 0.08 and 0.18 mg/L, respectively. The genotoxicity assessment revealed contrasting results to the whole organism bioassays, with ethanolnitramine found to be more genotoxic than dimethylnitramine by three orders of magnitude. At the lowest ethanolnitramine concentration (1mg/L), 84% DNA damage was observed, whereas 100mg/L dimethylnitramine was required to cause 37% DNA damage. The mechanisms of genotoxicity were also shown to differ between the two compounds, with oxidation of the DNA bases responsible for over 90% of the genotoxicity of dimethylnitramine, whereas DNA strand breaks and alkali-labile sites were responsible for over 90% of the genotoxicity of ethanolnitramine. Fish exposed to >3mg/L ethanolnitramine had virtually no DNA

  13. New Adsorption Cycles for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Concentration

    SciTech Connect

    James Ritter; Armin Ebner; Steven Reynolds Hai Du; Amal Mehrotra

    2008-07-31

    The objective of this three-year project was to study new pressure swing adsorption (PSA) cycles for CO{sub 2} capture and concentration at high temperature. The heavy reflux (HR) PSA concept and the use of a hydrotalcite like (HTlc) adsorbent that captures CO{sub 2} reversibly at high temperatures simply by changing the pressure were two key features of these new PSA cycles. Through the completion or initiation of nine tasks, a bench-scale experimental and theoretical program has been carried out to complement and extend the process simulation study that was carried out during Phase I (DE-FG26-03NT41799). This final report covers the entire project from August 1, 2005 to July 31, 2008. This program included the study of PSA cycles for CO{sub 2} capture by both rigorous numerical simulation and equilibrium theory analysis. The insight gained from these studies was invaluable toward the applicability of PSA for CO{sub 2} capture, whether done at ambient or high temperature. The rigorous numerical simulation studies showed that it is indeed possible to capture and concentrate CO{sub 2} by PSA. Over a wide range of conditions it was possible to achieve greater than 90% CO{sub 2} purity and/or greater than 90% CO{sub 2} recovery, depending on the particular heavy reflux (HR) PSA cycle under consideration. Three HR PSA cycles were identified as viable candidates for further study experimentally. The equilibrium theory analysis, which represents the upper thermodynamic limit of the performance of PSA process, further validated the use of certain HR PSA cycles for CO{sub 2} capture and concentration. A new graphical approach for complex PSA cycle scheduling was also developed during the course of this program. This new methodology involves a priori specifying the cycle steps, their sequence, and the number of beds, and then following a systematic procedure that requires filling in a 2-D grid based on a few simple rules, some heuristics and some experience. It has been

  14. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Green; Thomas Nelson; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P. Gupta

    2005-04-01

    This report describes research conducted between January 1, 2005 and March 31, 2005 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Engineered sorbents composed of sodium carbonate on a ceramic support were tested in a laboratory fluidized bed reactor system and found to be capable of essentially complete removal of carbon dioxide at 60 C in a short residence time. Upon breakthrough the sorbents can be thermally regenerated to recover essentially all of the absorbed carbon dioxide. An optimized supported sorbent tested in a pilot-scale entrained bed absorber retained its reactivity in multicycle tests and experienced no attrition. Removal of >90% of carbon dioxide in simulated flue gas was achieved in an entrained bed reactor.

  15. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir P. Gupta; Douglas P. Harrison; Ya Liang

    2001-10-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a simple, inexpensive process to separate CO{sub 2} as an essentially pure stream from a fossil fuel combustion system using a regenerable, sodium-based sorbent. The sorbent being used in this project is sodium carbonate which is converted to sodium bicarbonate, ''baking soda,'' through reaction with carbon dioxide and water vapor. Sodium bicarbonate is regenerated to sodium carbonate when heated, producing a nearly pure CO{sub 2} stream after condensation of water vapor. Testing conducted previously confirmed that the reaction rate and achievable CO{sub 2} capacity of sodium carbonate decreased with increasing temperature, and that the global rate of reaction of sodium carbonate to sodium bicarbonate increased with an increase in both CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O concentrations. Energy balance calculations indicated that the rate of heat removal from the particle surface may determine the reaction rate for a particular particle system. This quarter, thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) were conducted which indicated that calcination of sodium bicarbonate at temperatures as high as 200 C did not cause a significant decrease in activity in subsequent carbonation testing. When sodium bicarbonate was subjected to a five cycle calcination/carbonation test, activity declined slightly over the first two cycles but was constant thereafter. TGA tests were also conducted with two other potential sorbents. Potassium carbonate was found to be less active than sodium carbonate, at conditions of interest in preliminary TGA tests. Sodium carbonate monohydrate showed negligible activity. Testing was also conducted in a 2-inch internal diameter quartz fluidized-bed reactor system. A five cycle test demonstrated that initial removals of 10 to 15 percent of the carbon dioxide in a simulated flue gas could be achieved. The carbonation reaction proceeded at temperatures as low as 41 C. Future work by TGA and in fixed-bed, fluidized-bed, and transport

  16. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Douglas P. Harrison; Ya Liang

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a simple, inexpensive process to separate CO{sub 2} as an essentially pure stream from a fossil fuel combustion system using a regenerable, sodium-based sorbent. The sorbent being used in this project is sodium carbonate which is converted to sodium bicarbonate, or ''baking soda,'' through reaction with carbon dioxide and water vapor. Sodium bicarbonate is regenerated to sodium carbonate when heated, producing a nearly pure CO{sub 2} stream after condensation of water vapor. This quarter, five cycle thermogravimetric tests were conducted at the Louisiana State University (LSU) with sodium bicarbonate Grade 3 (SBC{number_sign}3) which showed that carbonation activity declined slightly over 5 cycles following severe calcination conditions of 200 C in pure CO{sub 2}. Three different sets of calcination conditions were tested. Initial carbonation activity (as measured by extent of reaction in the first 25 minutes) was greatest subsequent to calcination at 120 C in He, slightly less subsequent to calcination in 80% CO{sub 2}/20% H{sub 2}O, and lowest subsequent to calcination in pure CO{sub 2} at 200 C. Differences in the extent of reaction after 150 minutes of carbonation, subsequent to calcination under the same conditions followed the same trend but were less significant. The differences between fractional carbonation under the three calcination conditions declined with increasing cycles. A preliminary fixed bed reactor test was also conducted at LSU. Following calcination, the sorbent removed approximately 19% of the CO{sub 2} in the simulated flue gas. CO{sub 2} evolved during subsequent calcination was consistent with an extent of carbonation of approximately 49%. Following successful testing of SBC{number_sign}3 sorbent at RTI reported in the last quarter, a two cycle fluidized bed reactor test was conducted with trona as the sorbent precursor, which was calcined to sodium carbonate. In the first carbonation cycle, CO

  17. Generation, capture, and utilization of industrial carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Andrew J; Sin, Emily H K; Marriott, Ray; Clark, James H

    2010-03-22

    As a carbon-based life form living in a predominantly carbon-based environment, it is not surprising that we have created a carbon-based consumer society. Our principle sources of energy are carbon-based (coal, oil, and gas) and many of our consumer goods are derived from organic (i.e., carbon-based) chemicals (including plastics, fabrics and materials, personal care and cleaning products, dyes, and coatings). Even our large-volume inorganic-chemicals-based industries, including fertilizers and construction materials, rely on the consumption of carbon, notably in the form of large amounts of energy. The environmental problems which we now face and of which we are becoming increasingly aware result from a human-induced disturbance in the natural carbon cycle of the Earth caused by transferring large quantities of terrestrial carbon (coal, oil, and gas) to the atmosphere, mostly in the form of carbon dioxide. Carbon is by no means the only element whose natural cycle we have disturbed: we are transferring significant quantities of elements including phosphorus, sulfur, copper, and platinum from natural sinks or ores built up over millions of years to unnatural fates in the form of what we refer to as waste or pollution. However, our complete dependence on the carbon cycle means that its disturbance deserves special attention, as is now manifest in indicators such as climate change and escalating public concern over global warming. As with all disturbances in materials balances, we can seek to alleviate the problem by (1) dematerialization: a reduction in consumption; (2) rematerialization: a change in what we consume; or (3) transmaterialization: changing our attitude towards resources and waste. The "low-carbon" mantra that is popularly cited by organizations ranging from nongovernmental organizations to multinational companies and from local authorities to national governments is based on a combination of (1) and (2) (reducing carbon consumption though greater

  18. Generation, capture, and utilization of industrial carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Andrew J; Sin, Emily H K; Marriott, Ray; Clark, James H

    2010-03-22

    As a carbon-based life form living in a predominantly carbon-based environment, it is not surprising that we have created a carbon-based consumer society. Our principle sources of energy are carbon-based (coal, oil, and gas) and many of our consumer goods are derived from organic (i.e., carbon-based) chemicals (including plastics, fabrics and materials, personal care and cleaning products, dyes, and coatings). Even our large-volume inorganic-chemicals-based industries, including fertilizers and construction materials, rely on the consumption of carbon, notably in the form of large amounts of energy. The environmental problems which we now face and of which we are becoming increasingly aware result from a human-induced disturbance in the natural carbon cycle of the Earth caused by transferring large quantities of terrestrial carbon (coal, oil, and gas) to the atmosphere, mostly in the form of carbon dioxide. Carbon is by no means the only element whose natural cycle we have disturbed: we are transferring significant quantities of elements including phosphorus, sulfur, copper, and platinum from natural sinks or ores built up over millions of years to unnatural fates in the form of what we refer to as waste or pollution. However, our complete dependence on the carbon cycle means that its disturbance deserves special attention, as is now manifest in indicators such as climate change and escalating public concern over global warming. As with all disturbances in materials balances, we can seek to alleviate the problem by (1) dematerialization: a reduction in consumption; (2) rematerialization: a change in what we consume; or (3) transmaterialization: changing our attitude towards resources and waste. The "low-carbon" mantra that is popularly cited by organizations ranging from nongovernmental organizations to multinational companies and from local authorities to national governments is based on a combination of (1) and (2) (reducing carbon consumption though greater

  19. Orbiter Reinforced Carbon-Carbon Advanced Sealant Systems: Screening Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, Donald M.; Lewis, Ronad K.; Norman, Ignacio; Chao, Dennis; Nicholson, Leonard S. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Oxidation protection for the Orbiter reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC consists of three components: silicon carbide coating, tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) impregnated into the carbon substrate and a silicon based surface sealant (designated Type A). The Orbiter Type A sealant is being consumed each mission, which results in increased carbon-carbon substrate mass loss, which adversely impacts the mission life of the RCC components. In addition, the sealant loss in combination with launch pad contamination (salt deposit and zinc oxide) results in RCC pinholes. A sealant refurbishment schedule to maintain mission life and minimize affects of pin hole formation has been implemented in the Orbiter maintenance schedule. The objective of this investigation is to develop an advanced sealant system for the RCC that extends the refurbishment schedule by reducing sealant loss/pin hole formation and that can be applied to existing Orbiter RCC components. This paper presents the results of arc jet screening tests conducted on several sealants that are being considered for application to the Orbiter RCC.

  20. Carbon Capture Simulation Initiative: A Case Study in Multi-Scale Modeling and New Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, David; Syamlal, Madhava; Mebane, David; Storlie, Curtis; Bhattacharyya, Debangsu; Sahinidis, Nikolaos V.; Agarwal, Deborah A.; Tong, Charles; Zitney, Stephen E.; Sarkar, Avik; Sun, Xin; Sundaresan, Sankaran; Ryan, Emily M.; Engel, David W.; Dale, Crystal

    2014-04-01

    Advanced multi-scale modeling and simulation has the potential to dramatically reduce development time, resulting in considerable cost savings. The Carbon Capture Simulation Initiative is a partnership among national laboratories, industry and universities that is developing and deploying a suite of multi-scale modeling and simulation tools including basic data submodels, steady-state and dynamic process models, process optimization and uncertainty quantification tools, an advanced dynamic process control framework, high-resolution filtered computational-fluid-dynamic (CFD) submodels, validated high-fidelity device-scale CFD models with quantified uncertainty, and a risk analysis framework. These tools and models enable basic data submodels, including thermodynamics and kinetics, to be used within detailed process models to synthesize and optimize a process. The resulting process informs the development of process control systems and more detailed simulations of potential equipment to improve the design and reduce scale-up risk. Quantification and propagation of uncertainty across scales is an essential part of these tools and models.

  1. Carbon Capture Simulation Initiative: A Case Study in Multi-Scale Modeling and New Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, David C; Syamlal, Madhava; Zitney, Stephen E.

    2014-06-07

    Abstract: Advanced multi-scale modeling and simulation has the potential to dramatically reduce development time, resulting in considerable cost savings. The Carbon Capture Simulation Initiative is a partnership among national laboratories, industry and universities that is developing and deploying a suite of multi-scale modeling and simulation tools including basic data submodels, steady-state and dynamic process models, process optimization and uncertainty quantification tools, an advanced dynamic process control framework, high-resolution filtered computational-fluid-dynamic (CFD) submodels, validated high-fidelity device-scale CFD models with quantified uncertainty, and a risk analysis framework. These tools and models enable basic data submodels, including thermodynamics and kinetics, to be used within detailed process models to synthesize and optimize a process. The resulting process informs the development of process control systems and more detailed simulations of potential equipment to improve the design and reduce scale-up risk. Quantification and propagation of uncertainty across scales is an essential part of these tools and models.

  2. Sustainability: The capacity of smokeless biomass pyrolysis for energy production, global carbon capture and sequestration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Application of modern smokeless biomass pyrolysis for biochar and biofuel production is potentially a revolutionary approach for global carbon capture and sequestration at gigatons of carbon (GtC) scales. A conversion of about 7% of the annual terrestrial gross photosynthetic product (120 GtC y-1) i...

  3. IN-FLIGHT CAPTURE OF ELEMENTAL MERCURY BY A CHLORINE-IMPREGNATED ACTIVATED CARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the in-flight capture of elemental mercury (Hgo) by a chlorine (C1)-impregnated activated carbon. Efforts to develop sorbents for the control of Hg emissions have demonstrated that C1-impregnation of virgin activated carbons using dilute solutions of hydrogen ...

  4. Development of a dynamic simulator for a natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) power plant with post-combustion carbon capture

    SciTech Connect

    Liese, E.; Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01

    The AVESTAR Center located at the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory and West Virginia University is a world-class research and training environment dedicated to using dynamic process simulation as a tool for advancing the safe, efficient and reliable operation of clean energy plants with CO{sub 2} capture. The AVESTAR Center was launched with a high-fidelity dynamic simulator for an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant with pre-combustion carbon capture. The IGCC dynamic simulator offers full-scope Operator Training Simulator (OTS) Human Machine Interface (HMI) graphics for realistic, real-time control room operation and is integrated with a 3D virtual Immersive Training Simulator (ITS), thus allowing joint control room and field operator training. The IGCC OTS/ITS solution combines a “gasification with CO{sub 2} capture” process simulator with a “combined cycle” power simulator into a single high-performance dynamic simulation framework. This presentation will describe progress on the development of a natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) dynamic simulator based on the syngas-fired combined cycle portion of AVESTAR’s IGCC dynamic simulator. The 574 MW gross NGCC power plant design consisting of two advanced F-class gas turbines, two heat recovery steam generators (HRSGs), and a steam turbine in a multi-shaft 2x2x1 configuration will be reviewed. Plans for integrating a post-combustion carbon capture system will also be discussed.

  5. Carbon dioxide capture from a cement manufacturing process

    DOEpatents

    Blount, Gerald C.; Falta, Ronald W.; Siddall, Alvin A.

    2011-07-12

    A process of manufacturing cement clinker is provided in which a clean supply of CO.sub.2 gas may be captured. The process also involves using an open loop conversion of CaO/MgO from a calciner to capture CO.sub.2 from combustion flue gases thereby forming CaCO.sub.3/CaMg(CO.sub.3).sub.2. The CaCO.sub.3/CaMg(CO.sub.3).sub.2 is then returned to the calciner where CO.sub.2 gas is evolved. The evolved CO.sub.2 gas, along with other evolved CO.sub.2 gases from the calciner are removed from the calciner. The reactants (CaO/MgO) are feed to a high temperature calciner for control of the clinker production composition.

  6. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir P. Gupta; Alejandro Lopez-Ortiz; Douglas P. Harrison; Ya Liang

    2001-05-01

    Electrobalance studies of calcination and carbonation of sodium bicarbonate materials were conducted at Louisiana State University. Calcination in an inert atmosphere was rapid and complete at 120 C. Carbonation was temperature dependent, and both the initial rate and the extent of reaction were found to decrease as temperature was increased between 60 and 80 C. A fluidization test apparatus was constructed at RTI and two sodium bicarbonate materials were fluidized in dry nitrogen at 22 C. The bed was completely fluidized at between 9 and 11 in. of water pressure drop. Kinetic rate expression derivations and thermodynamic calculations were conducted at RTI. Based on literature data, a simple reaction rate expression, which is zero order in carbon dioxide and water, was found to provide the best fit against reciprocal temperature. Simulations based on process thermodynamics suggested that approximately 26 percent of the carbon dioxide in flue gas could be recovered using waste heat available at 240 C.

  7. Amine enriched solid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture

    DOEpatents

    Gray, McMahan L.; Soong, Yee; Champagne, Kenneth J.

    2003-04-15

    A new method for making low-cost CO.sub.2 sorbents that can be used in large-scale gas-solid processes. The new method entails treating a solid substrate with acid or base and simultaneous or subsequent treatment with a substituted amine salt. The method eliminates the need for organic solvents and polymeric materials for the preparation of CO.sub.2 capture systems.

  8. Capturing and sequestering carbon by enhancing the natural carbon cycle: Prelimary identification of basic science needs and opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, S.M.

    1997-07-01

    This document summarizes proceedings and conclusions of a US DOE workshop. The purpose of the workshop was to identify the underlying research needed to answer the following questions: (1) Can the natural carbon cycle be used to aid in stabilizing or decreasing atmospheric CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} by: (a) Increasing carbon capture; (b) Preventing carbon from returning to the atmosphere through intermediate (<100 years) to long-term sequestration (> 100 years)?; and (2) What kind of ecosystem management practices could be used to achieve this? Three working groups were formed to discuss the terrestrial biosphere, oceans, and methane. Basic research needs identified included fundamental understanding of carbon cycling and storage in soils, influence of climate change and anthropogenic emissions on the carbon cycle, and carbon capture and sequestration in oceans. 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Synthesis of polybenzoxazine based nitrogen-rich porous carbons for carbon dioxide capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Liu; Wang, Jianlong; Feng, Chong; Sun, Yahui; Li, Kaixi

    2015-04-01

    Nitrogen-rich porous carbons (NPCs) were synthesized from 1,5-dihydroxynaphthalene, urea, and formaldehyde based on benzoxazine chemistry by a soft-templating method with KOH chemical activation. They possess high surface areas of 856.8-1257.8 m2 g-1, a large pore volume of 0.15-0.65 cm3 g-1, tunable pore structure, high nitrogen content (5.21-5.32 wt%), and high char yields. The amount of the soft-templating agent F127 has multiple influences on the textural and chemical properties of the carbons, affecting the surface area and pore structure, impacting the compositions of nitrogen species and resulting in an improvement of the CO2 capture performance. At 1 bar, high CO2 uptake of 4.02 and 6.35 mmol g-1 at 25 and 0 °C was achieved for the sample NPC-2 with a molar ratio of F127 : urea = 0.010 : 1. This can be attributed to its well-developed micropore structure and abundant pyridinic nitrogen, pyrrolic nitrogen and pyridonic nitrogen functionalities. The sample NPC-2 also exhibits a remarkable selectivity for CO2/N2 separation and a fast adsorption/desorption rate and can be easily regenerated. This suggests that the polybenzoxazine-based NPCs are desirable for CO2 capture because of possessing a high micropore surface area, a large micropore volume, appropriate pore size distribution, and a large number of basic nitrogen functionalities.Nitrogen-rich porous carbons (NPCs) were synthesized from 1,5-dihydroxynaphthalene, urea, and formaldehyde based on benzoxazine chemistry by a soft-templating method with KOH chemical activation. They possess high surface areas of 856.8-1257.8 m2 g-1, a large pore volume of 0.15-0.65 cm3 g-1, tunable pore structure, high nitrogen content (5.21-5.32 wt%), and high char yields. The amount of the soft-templating agent F127 has multiple influences on the textural and chemical properties of the carbons, affecting the surface area and pore structure, impacting the compositions of nitrogen species and resulting in an improvement of the

  10. Pre-Combustion Carbon Capture by a Nanoporous, Superhydrophobic Membrane Contactor Process

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Howard; Zhou, S James; Ding, Yong; Bikson, Ben

    2012-03-31

    This report summarizes progress made during Phase I and Phase II of the project: "Pre-Combustion Carbon Capture by a Nanoporous, Superhydrophobic Membrane Contactor Process," under contract DE-FE-0000646. The objective of this project is to develop a practical and cost effective technology for CO{sub 2} separation and capture for pre-combustion coal-based gasification plants using a membrane contactor/solvent absorption process. The goals of this technology development project are to separate and capture at least 90% of the CO{sub 2} from Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plants with less than 10% increase in the cost of energy services. Unlike conventional gas separation membranes, the membrane contactor is a novel gas separation process based on the gas/liquid membrane concept. The membrane contactor is an advanced mass transfer device that operates with liquid on one side of the membrane and gas on the other. The membrane contactor can operate with pressures that are almost the same on both sides of the membrane, whereas the gas separation membranes use the differential pressure across the membrane as driving force for separation. The driving force for separation for the membrane contactor process is the chemical potential difference of CO{sub 2} in the gas phase and in the absorption liquid. This process is thus easily tailored to suit the needs for pre-combustion separation and capture of CO{sub 2}. Gas Technology Institute (GTI) and PoroGen Corporation (PGC) have developed a novel hollow fiber membrane technology that is based on chemically and thermally resistant commercial engineered polymer poly(ether ether ketone) or PEEK. The PEEK membrane material used in the membrane contactor during this technology development program is a high temperature engineered plastic that is virtually non-destructible under the operating conditions encountered in typical gas absorption applications. It can withstand contact with most of the common treating

  11. MULTI-PHASE CFD MODELING OF A SOLID SORBENT CARBON CAPTURE SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, Emily M.; Xu, Wei; DeCroix, David; Saha, Kringan; Huckaby, E. D.; Darteville, Sebastien; Sun, Xin

    2012-05-01

    Post-combustion solid sorbent carbon capture systems are being studied via computational modeling as part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Carbon Capture Simulation Initiative (CCSI). The work focuses on computational modeling of device-scale multi-phase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations for given carbon capture reactor configurations to predict flow properties, outlet compositions, temperature and pressure. The detailed outputs of the device-scale models provide valuable insight into the operation of new carbon capture devices and will help in the design and optimization of carbon capture systems. As a first step in this project we have focused on modeling a 1 kWe solid sorbent carbon capture system using the commercial CFD software ANSYS FLUENT®. Using the multi-phase models available in ANSYS FLUENT®, we are investigating the use of Eulerian-Eulerian and Eulerian-Lagrangian methods for modeling a fluidized bed carbon capture design. The applicability of the dense discrete phase method (DDPM) is being considered along with the more traditional Eulerian-Eulerian multi-phase model. In this paper we will discuss the design of the 1 kWe solid sorbent system and the setup of the DDPM and Eulerian-Eulerian models used to simulate the system. The results of the hydrodynamics in the system will be discussed and the predictions of the DDPM and Eulerian-Eulerian simulations will be compared. A discussion of the sensitivity of the model to boundary and initial conditions, computational meshing, granular pressure, and drag sub-models will also be presented.

  12. Novel Application of Carbonate Fuel Cell for Capturing Carbon Dioxide from Flue Gas Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Jolly, Stephen; Ghezel-Ayagh, Hossein; Willman, Carl; Patel, Dilip; DiNitto, M.; Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Steen, William A.

    2015-09-30

    To address concerns about climate change resulting from emission of CO2 by coal-fueled power plants, FuelCell Energy, Inc. has developed the Combined Electric Power and Carbon-dioxide Separation (CEPACS) system concept. The CEPACS system utilizes Electrochemical Membrane (ECM) technology derived from the Company’s Direct FuelCell® products. The system separates the CO2 from the flue gas of other plants and produces electric power using a supplementary fuel. FCE is currently evaluating the use of ECM to cost effectively separate CO2 from the flue gas of Pulverized Coal (PC) power plants under a U.S. Department of Energy contract. The overarching objective of the project is to verify that the ECM can achieve at least 90% CO2 capture from the flue gas with no more than 35% increase in the cost of electricity. The project activities include: 1) laboratory scale operational and performance tests of a membrane assembly, 2) performance tests of the membrane to evaluate the effects of impurities present in the coal plant flue gas, in collaboration with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 3) techno-economic analysis for an ECM-based CO2 capture system applied to a 550 MW existing PC plant, in partnership with URS Corporation, and 4) bench scale (11.7 m2 area) testing of an ECM-based CO2 separation and purification system.

  13. The Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments: A 4{pi} BaF2 Detector for Neutron Capture Measurements at LANSCE

    SciTech Connect

    Ullmann, J.L.; Esch, E.-I.; Haight, R.C.; Hunt, L.; O'Donnell, J.M.; Reifarth, R.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Alpizar, A.; Hatarik, R.; Bond, E.M.; Bredeweg, T.A.; Kronenberg, A.; Rundberg, R.S.; Vieira, D.J.; Wilhelmy, J.B.; Folden, C.M.; Hoffman, D.C.; Greife, U.; Schwantes, J.M.; Strottman, D.D.

    2005-05-24

    The Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) is a 162-element 4{pi} BaF2 array designed to make neutron capture cross-section measurements on rare or radioactive targets with masses as little as one milligram. Accurate capture cross sections are needed in many research areas, including stellar nucleosynthesis, advanced nuclear fuel cycles, waste transmutation, and other applied programs. These cross sections are difficult to calculate accurately and must be measured. The design and initial performance results of DANCE is discussed.

  14. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Thomas Nelson

    2004-04-01

    This report describes research conducted between January 1, 2004 and March 31, 2004 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas. RTI has produced laboratory scale batches (approximately 300 grams) of supported sorbents (composed of 20 to 40% sodium carbonate) with high surface area and acceptable activity. Initial rates of weight gain of the supported sorbents when exposed to a simulated flue gas exceeded that of 100% calcined sodium bicarbonate. One of these sorbents was tested through six cycles of carbonation/calcination by thermogravimetric analysis and found to have consistent carbonation activity. Kinetic modeling of the regeneration cycle on the basis of diffusion resistance at the particle surface is impractical, because the evolving gases have an identical composition to those assumed for the bulk fluidization gas. A kinetic model of the reaction has been developed on the basis of bulk motion of water and carbon dioxide at the particle surface (as opposed to control by gas diffusion). The model will be used to define the operating conditions in future laboratory- and pilot-scale testing.

  15. Carbon dioxide capture from power or process plant gases

    SciTech Connect

    Bearden, Mark D; Humble, Paul H

    2014-06-10

    The present invention are methods for removing preselected substances from a mixed flue gas stream characterized by cooling said mixed flue gas by direct contact with a quench liquid to condense at least one preselected substance and form a cooled flue gas without substantial ice formation on a heat exchanger. After cooling additional process methods utilizing a cryogenic approach and physical concentration and separation or pressurization and sorbent capture may be utilized to selectively remove these materials from the mixed flue gas resulting in a clean flue gas.

  16. CO2 CAPTURE BY ABSORPTION WITH POTASSIUM CARBONATE

    SciTech Connect

    Gary T. Rochelle; Eric Chen; J. Tim Cullinane; Marcus Hillard; Babatunde Oyenekan

    2003-10-31

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. A rigorous thermodynamic model has been further developed with a standalone FORTRAN code to represent the CO{sub 2} vapor pressure and speciation of the new solvent. The welding work has initiated and will be completed for a revised startup of the pilot plant in February 2004.

  17. CO2 CAPTURE BY ABSORPTION WITH POTASSIUM CARBONATE

    SciTech Connect

    Gary T. Rochelle; Eric Chen; J. Tim Cullinane; Marcus Hilliard; Babatunde Oyenekan; Terraun Jones

    2003-07-28

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. A rigorous thermodynamic model has been further developed with a standalone FORTRAN code to represent the CO{sub 2} vapor pressure and speciation of the new solvent. Gas chromatography has been used to measure the oxidative degradation of piperazine. The heat exchangers for the pilot plant have been received. The modifications are on schedule for start-up in November 2003.

  18. Inherent Tracers for Carbon Capture and Storage in Sedimentary Formations: Composition and Applications.

    PubMed

    Flude, Stephanie; Johnson, Gareth; Gilfillan, Stuart M V; Haszeldine, R Stuart

    2016-08-01

    Inherent tracers-the "natural" isotopic and trace gas composition of captured CO2 streams-are potentially powerful tracers for use in CCS technology. This review outlines for the first time the expected carbon isotope and noble gas compositions of captured CO2 streams from a range of feedstocks, CO2-generating processes, and carbon capture techniques. The C-isotope composition of captured CO2 will be most strongly controlled by the feedstock, but significant isotope fractionation is possible during capture; noble gas concentrations will be controlled by the capture technique employed. Comparison with likely baseline data suggests that CO2 generated from fossil fuel feedstocks will often have δ(13)C distinguishable from storage reservoir CO2. Noble gases in amine-captured CO2 streams are likely to be low concentration, with isotopic ratios dependent on the feedstock, but CO2 captured from oxyfuel plants may be strongly enriched in Kr and Xe which are potentially valuable subsurface tracers. CO2 streams derived from fossil fuels will have noble gas isotope ratios reflecting a radiogenic component that will be difficult to distinguish in the storage reservoir, but inheritance of radiogenic components will provide an easily recognizable signature in the case of any unplanned migration into shallow aquifers or to the surface. PMID:27379462

  19. Inherent Tracers for Carbon Capture and Storage in Sedimentary Formations: Composition and Applications.

    PubMed

    Flude, Stephanie; Johnson, Gareth; Gilfillan, Stuart M V; Haszeldine, R Stuart

    2016-08-01

    Inherent tracers-the "natural" isotopic and trace gas composition of captured CO2 streams-are potentially powerful tracers for use in CCS technology. This review outlines for the first time the expected carbon isotope and noble gas compositions of captured CO2 streams from a range of feedstocks, CO2-generating processes, and carbon capture techniques. The C-isotope composition of captured CO2 will be most strongly controlled by the feedstock, but significant isotope fractionation is possible during capture; noble gas concentrations will be controlled by the capture technique employed. Comparison with likely baseline data suggests that CO2 generated from fossil fuel feedstocks will often have δ(13)C distinguishable from storage reservoir CO2. Noble gases in amine-captured CO2 streams are likely to be low concentration, with isotopic ratios dependent on the feedstock, but CO2 captured from oxyfuel plants may be strongly enriched in Kr and Xe which are potentially valuable subsurface tracers. CO2 streams derived from fossil fuels will have noble gas isotope ratios reflecting a radiogenic component that will be difficult to distinguish in the storage reservoir, but inheritance of radiogenic components will provide an easily recognizable signature in the case of any unplanned migration into shallow aquifers or to the surface.

  20. Technologies for CO{sub 2}-capture from advanced power-generation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wolsky, A.M.; Daniels, E.J.; Jody, B.J.

    1993-06-01

    The US power-generation industry generated about 1.5 billion metric tons of CO{sub 2} in 1990, with over 95% of that CO{sub 2} being generated by coal-fired utility boilers. Extensive use of coal for power generation is expected to continue for many years to come. Therefore, should capture and sequestration of CO{sub 2} be necessary, coal-fired power plants are likely to be primary targets for CO{sub 2} capture. This paper discusses opportunities and techniques for the capture of CO{sub 2} from the advanced power-generation systems that appear to be the leading candidates for widespread commercialization in the next two decades: integrated coal gasification-combined cycle (IGCC) and fuel cells. Retrofitting of conventional power plants for burning coal with O{sub 2} to facilitate CO{sub 2} capture was also investigated. A brief discussion of the impact of the CO{sub 2}-capture technology on the cost of power generation is also presented. Research and development needs of the CO{sub 2}-capture technologies are also identified. The results indicate that CO{sub 2} recovery from IGCC and fuel-cell plants is less complicated, less energy-intensive, and less costly than its recovery from conventional coal-fired power stations.

  1. An early deployment strategy for carbon capture, utilisation, and storage

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, L.D.

    2012-11-01

    This report describes the current use of CO2 for EOR, and discusses potential expansion of EOR using CO2 from power plants. Analysis of potential EOR development in the USA, where most current CO2-based EOR production takes place, indicates that relatively low cost, traditional sources of CO2 for EOR (CO2 domes and CO2 from natural gas processing plants) are insufficient to exploit the full potential of EOR. To achieve that full potential will require use of CO2 from combustion and gasification systems, such as fossil fuel power plants, where capture of CO2 is more costly. The cost of current CCUS systems, even with the revenue stream for sale of the CO2 for EOR, is too high to result in broad deployment of the technology in the near term. In the longer term, research and development may be sufficient to reduce CO2 capture costs to a point where CCUS would be broadly deployed. This report describes a case study of conditions in the USA to explore a financial incentive to promote early deployment of CCUS, providing a range of immediate benefits to society, greater likelihood of reducing the long-term cost of CCUS, and greater likelihood of broad deployment of CCUS and CCS in the long term. Additionally, it may be possible to craft such an incentive in a manner that its cost is more than offset by taxes flowing from increased domestic oil production. An example of such an incentive is included in this report.

  2. Feasibility study of algae-based Carbon Dioxide capture

    EPA Science Inventory

    SUMMARY: The biomass of microalgae contains approximately 50% carbon, which is commonly obtained from the atmosphere, but can also be taken from commercial sources that produce CO2, such as coal-fired power plants. A study of operational demonstration projects is being undertak...

  3. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry, Regenerable Sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Green; Thomas O. Nelson; Brian S. Turk; Paul D. Box; Andreas Weber; Raghubir P. Gupta

    2006-01-01

    This report describes research conducted between October 1, 2005, and December 31, 2005, on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from flue gas from coal combustion. A field test was conducted to examine the extent to which RTI's supported sorbent can be regenerated in a heated, hollow screw conveyor. This field test was conducted at the facilities of a screw conveyor manufacturer. The sorbent was essentially completely regenerated during this test, as confirmed by thermal desorption and mass spectroscopy analysis of the regenerated sorbent. Little or no sorbent attrition was observed during 24 passes through the heated screw conveyor system. Three downflow contactor absorption tests were conducted using calcined sodium bicarbonate as the absorbent. Maximum carbon dioxide removals of 57 and 91% from simulated flue gas were observed at near ambient temperatures with water-saturated gas. These tests demonstrated that calcined sodium carbonate is not as effective at removing CO{sub 2} as are supported sorbents containing 10 to 15% sodium carbonate. Delivery of the hollow screw conveyor for the laboratory-scale sorbent regeneration system was delayed; however, construction of other components of this system continued during the quarter.

  4. Computational Tools for Accelerating Carbon Capture Process Development

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, David; Sahinidis, N V; Cozad, A; Lee, A; Kim, H; Morinelly, J; Eslick, J; Yuan, Z

    2013-06-04

    This presentation reports development of advanced computational tools to accelerate next generation technology development. These tools are to develop an optimized process using rigorous models. They include: Process Models; Simulation-Based Optimization; Optimized Process; Uncertainty Quantification; Algebraic Surrogate Models; and Superstructure Optimization (Determine Configuration).

  5. Advanced Amine Solvent Formulations and Process Integration for Near-Term CO2 Capture Success

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Kevin S.; Searcy, Katherine; Rochelle, Gary T.; Ziaii, Sepideh; Schubert, Craig

    2007-06-28

    This Phase I SBIR project investigated the economic and technical feasibility of advanced amine scrubbing systems for post-combustion CO2 capture at coal-fired power plants. Numerous combinations of advanced solvent formulations and process configurations were screened for energy requirements, and three cases were selected for detailed analysis: a monoethanolamine (MEA) base case and two “advanced” cases: an MEA/Piperazine (PZ) case, and a methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) / PZ case. The MEA/PZ and MDEA/PZ cases employed an advanced “double matrix” stripper configuration. The basis for calculations was a model plant with a gross capacity of 500 MWe. Results indicated that CO2 capture increased the base cost of electricity from 5 cents/kWh to 10.7 c/kWh for the MEA base case, 10.1 c/kWh for the MEA / PZ double matrix, and 9.7 c/kWh for the MDEA / PZ double matrix. The corresponding cost per metric tonne CO2 avoided was 67.20 $/tonne CO2, 60.19 $/tonne CO2, and 55.05 $/tonne CO2, respectively. Derated capacities, including base plant auxiliary load of 29 MWe, were 339 MWe for the base case, 356 MWe for the MEA/PZ double matrix, and 378 MWe for the MDEA / PZ double matrix. When compared to the base case, systems employing advanced solvent formulations and process configurations were estimated to reduce reboiler steam requirements by 20 to 44%, to reduce derating due to CO2 capture by 13 to 30%, and to reduce the cost of CO2 avoided by 10 to 18%. These results demonstrate the potential for significant improvements in the overall economics of CO2 capture via advanced solvent formulations and process configurations.

  6. Advanced CO{sub 2} Capture Technology for Low Rank Coal IGCC System

    SciTech Connect

    Alptekin, Gokhan

    2013-09-30

    The overall objective of the project is to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of a new Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant designed to efficiently process low rank coals. The plant uses an integrated CO{sub 2} scrubber/Water Gas Shift (WGS) catalyst to capture over90 percent capture of the CO{sub 2} emissions, while providing a significantly lower cost of electricity (COE) than a similar plant with conventional cold gas cleanup system based on SelexolTM technology and 90 percent carbon capture. TDA’s system uses a high temperature physical adsorbent capable of removing CO{sub 2} above the dew point of the synthesis gas and a commercial WGS catalyst that can effectively convert CO in The overall objective of the project is to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of a new Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant designed to efficiently process low rank coals. The plant uses an integrated CO{sub 2} scrubber/Water Gas Shift (WGS) catalyst to capture over90 percent capture of the CO{sub 2} emissions, while providing a significantly lower cost of electricity (COE) than a similar plant with conventional cold gas cleanup system based on SelexolTM technology and 90 percent carbon capture. TDA’s system uses a high temperature physical adsorbent capable of removing CO{sub 2} above the dew point of the synthesis gas and a commercial WGS catalyst that can effectively convert CO in bituminous coal the net plant efficiency is about 2.4 percentage points higher than an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant equipped with SelexolTM to capture CO{sub 2}. We also previously completed two successful field demonstrations: one at the National Carbon Capture Center (Southern- Wilsonville, AL) in 2011, and a second demonstration in fall of 2012 at the Wabash River IGCC plant (Terra Haute, IN). In this project, we first optimized the sorbent to catalyst ratio used in the combined WGS and CO{sub 2} capture

  7. CO2 CAPTURE BY ABSORPTION WITH POTASSIUM CARBONATE

    SciTech Connect

    Gary T. Rochelle; Marcus Hilliard; Eric Chen; Babatunde Oyenekan; Ross Dugas; John McLees

    2005-07-31

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. The baseline campaign with 30% MEA has given heat duties from 40 to 70 kcal/gmol CO{sub 2} as predicted by the stripper model. The Flexipak 1Y structured packing gives significantly better performance than IMTP 40 duped packing in the absorber, but in the stripper the performance of the two packings is indistinguishable. The FTIR analyzer measured MEA volatility in the absorber represented by an activity coefficient of 0.7. In the MEA campaign the material balance closed with an average error of 3.5% and the energy balance had an average error of 5.9.

  8. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Gary T. Rochelle; Marcus Hilliard; Eric Chen; Babatunde Oyenekan; Ross Dugas; John McLees; Andrew Sexton; Amorvadee Veawab

    2005-01-26

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. In Campaign 3 of the pilot plant, the overall mass transfer coefficient for the stripper with 7 m MEA decreased from 0.06 to 0.01 mol/(m{sup 3}.s.kPa) as the rich loading increased from 0.45 to 0.6 mol CO{sub 2}/mol MEA. Anion chromatography has demonstrated that nitrate and nitrite are major degradation products of MEA and PZ with pure oxygen. In measurements with the high temperature FTIR in 7 m MEA the MEA vapor pressure varied from 2 to 20 Pa at 35 to 70 C. In 2.5 m PZ the PZ vapor pressure varied from 0.2 to 1 Pa from 37 to 70 C.

  9. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Gary T. Rochelle; Eric Chen; Babatunde Oyenekan; Andrew Sexton; Amorvadee Veawab

    2006-04-28

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. The final campaign of the pilot plant was completed in February 2006 with 5m K{sup +}/2.5m PZ and 6.4m K{sup +}/1.6m PZ using Flexipac AQ Style 20. The new cross-exchanger reduced the approach temperature to less than 9 C. Stripper modeling has demonstrated that a configuration with a ''Flashing Feed'' requires 6% less work that a simple stripper. The oxidative degradation of piperazine proceeds more slowly than that of monoethanolamine and produces ethylenediamine and other products. Uninhibited 5 m KHCO{sub 3}/2.5 m PZ corrodes 5 to 6 times faster that 30% MEA with 0.2 mol CO{sub 2}/mol MEA.

  10. Technologies to reduce or capture and store carbon dioxide emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, G.; Mueller, M.; McCall, M.; Knipp, R.

    2007-06-15

    The report focuses on a broad suite of technologies to reduce, capture and store CO{sub 2} emissions, primarily as they relate to direct coal combustion and also coal gasification and liquefaction. The report surveys and summarizes existing research, discusses relevant federal programs, makes recommendations regarding additional research opportunities and public policy objectives, and recommends a technology-based framework for mitigating CO{sub 2} emissions from coal-based electricity generation plants. The US Department of Energy is already at work to foster the development of these technologies. The report recognizes the scope of that work and in essence, concludes that much work still remains. A summary of the report is published in hard copy and on the CD-ROM. The full 160 page report is on the CD-ROM.

  11. CO2 CAPTURE BY ABSORPTION WITH POTASSIUM CARBONATE

    SciTech Connect

    Gary T. Rochelle; Eric Chen; Jennifer Lu; Babatunde Oyenekan; Ross Dugas

    2005-04-29

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. Stripper modeling suggests the energy requirement with a simple stripper will be about the same for 5 m K{sup +}/2.5 m PZ and 7 m MEA. Modeling with a generic solvent shows that the optimum heat of CO{sub 2} desorption to minimize heat duty lies between 15 and 25 kcal/gmol. On-line pH and density measurements are effective indicators of loading and total alkalinity for the K+/PZ solvent. The baseline pilot plant campaign with 30% MEA has been started.

  12. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Gary T. Rochelle; Marcus Hilliard; Eric Chen; Babatunde Oyenekan; Ross Dugas; John McLees; Andrew Sexton; Daniel Ellenberger

    2005-10-26

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. Modeling of stripper performance suggests that vacuum stripping may be an attractive configuration for all solvents. Flexipac 1Y structured packing performs in the absorber as expected. It provides twice as much mass transfer area as IMTP No.40 dumped packing. Independent measurements of CO{sub 2} solubility give a CO{sub 2} loading that is 20% lower than that Cullinane's values with 3.6 m PZ at 100-120 C. The effective mass transfer coefficient (K{sub G}) in the absorber with 5 m K/2.5 m PZ appears to be 0 to 30% greater than that of 30 wt% MEA.

  13. Regenerable immobilized aminosilane sorbents for carbon dioxide capture applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, McMahan; Choi, Sunho; Jones, Christopher W

    2014-09-16

    A method for the separation of carbon dioxide from ambient air and flue gases is provided wherein a phase separating moiety with a second moiety are simultaneously coupled and bonded onto an inert substrate to create a mixture which is subsequently contacted with flue gases or ambient air. The phase-separating moiety is an amine whereas the second moiety is an aminosilane, or a Group 4 propoxide such as titanium (IV) propoxide (tetrapropyl orthotitanate, C.sub.12H.sub.28O.sub.4Ti). The second moiety makes the phase-separating moiety insoluble in the pores of the inert substrate. The new sorbents have a high carbon dioxide loading capacity and considerable stability over hundreds of cycles. The synthesis method is readily scalable for commercial and industrial production.

  14. An international partnership approach to clean energy technology innovation: Carbon capture and storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaoliang

    Is a global research partnership effective in developing, deploying, and diffusing clean energy technologies? Drawing on and extending innovation system studies, this doctoral dissertation elaborates an analytical model for a global technology learning system; examines the rationales, mechanisms, and effectiveness of the United States-- China Clean Energy Research Center Advanced Coal Technology Consortium (CERC-ACTC); and analyzes government's role in developing and implementing carbon capture and storage technologies in the United States (U.S.) and China. Studies have shown that successful technology innovation leads to economic prosperity and national competence, and prove that technology innovation does not happen in isolation but rather within interactive systems among stakeholders. However, the innovation process itself remains unclear, particularly with regard to interactive learning among and between major institutional actors, including technology developers, regulators, and financial organizations. This study seeks to advance scholarship on the interactive learning from the angle of global interactive learning. This dissertation research project seeks, as well, to inform policy-makers of how to strengthen international collaboration in clean energy technology development. The U.S.--China CERC-ACTC announced by Presidents Obama and Hu in 2009, provided a unique opportunity to close this scholarly gap. ACTC aimed to "advance the coal technology needed to safely, effectively, and efficiently utilize coal resources including the ability to capture, store, and utilize the emissions from coal use in both nations " through the joint research and development by U.S. and Chinese scientists and engineers. This dissertation project included one-year field research in the two countries, with in-depth interviews of key stakeholders, a survey of Consortium participants, analysis of available data, and site visits to collaborative research projects from 2013-2014. This

  15. A framework for optimization and quantification of uncertainty and sensitivity for developing carbon capture systems

    DOE PAGES

    Eslick, John C.; Ng, Brenda; Gao, Qianwen; Tong, Charles H.; Sahinidis, Nikolaos V.; Miller, David C.

    2014-12-31

    Under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Carbon Capture Simulation Initiative (CCSI), a Framework for Optimization and Quantification of Uncertainty and Sensitivity (FOQUS) has been developed. This tool enables carbon capture systems to be rapidly synthesized and rigorously optimized, in an environment that accounts for and propagates uncertainties in parameters and models. FOQUS currently enables (1) the development of surrogate algebraic models utilizing the ALAMO algorithm, which can be used for superstructure optimization to identify optimal process configurations, (2) simulation-based optimization utilizing derivative free optimization (DFO) algorithms with detailed black-box process models, and (3) rigorous uncertainty quantification throughmore » PSUADE. FOQUS utilizes another CCSI technology, the Turbine Science Gateway, to manage the thousands of simulated runs necessary for optimization and UQ. Thus, this computational framework has been demonstrated for the design and analysis of a solid sorbent based carbon capture system.« less

  16. A framework for optimization and quantification of uncertainty and sensitivity for developing carbon capture systems

    SciTech Connect

    Eslick, John C.; Ng, Brenda; Gao, Qianwen; Tong, Charles H.; Sahinidis, Nikolaos V.; Miller, David C.

    2014-12-31

    Under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Carbon Capture Simulation Initiative (CCSI), a Framework for Optimization and Quantification of Uncertainty and Sensitivity (FOQUS) has been developed. This tool enables carbon capture systems to be rapidly synthesized and rigorously optimized, in an environment that accounts for and propagates uncertainties in parameters and models. FOQUS currently enables (1) the development of surrogate algebraic models utilizing the ALAMO algorithm, which can be used for superstructure optimization to identify optimal process configurations, (2) simulation-based optimization utilizing derivative free optimization (DFO) algorithms with detailed black-box process models, and (3) rigorous uncertainty quantification through PSUADE. FOQUS utilizes another CCSI technology, the Turbine Science Gateway, to manage the thousands of simulated runs necessary for optimization and UQ. Thus, this computational framework has been demonstrated for the design and analysis of a solid sorbent based carbon capture system.

  17. Carbon Capture and Sequestration from a Hydrogen Production Facility in an Oil Refinery

    SciTech Connect

    Engels, Cheryl; Williams, Bryan, Valluri, Kiranmal; Watwe, Ramchandra; Kumar, Ravi; Mehlman, Stewart

    2010-06-21

    The project proposed a commercial demonstration of advanced technologies that would capture and sequester CO2 emissions from an existing hydrogen production facility in an oil refinery into underground formations in combination with Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). The project is led by Praxair, Inc., with other project participants: BP Products North America Inc., Denbury Onshore, LLC (Denbury), and Gulf Coast Carbon Center (GCCC) at the Bureau of Economic Geology of The University of Texas at Austin. The project is located at the BP Refinery at Texas City, Texas. Praxair owns and operates a large hydrogen production facility within the refinery. As part of the project, Praxair would construct a CO2 capture and compression facility. The project aimed at demonstrating a novel vacuum pressure swing adsorption (VPSA) based technology to remove CO2 from the Steam Methane Reformers (SMR) process gas. The captured CO2 would be purified using refrigerated partial condensation separation (i.e., cold box). Denbury would purchase the CO2 from the project and inject the CO2 as part of its independent commercial EOR projects. The Gulf Coast Carbon Center at the Bureau of Economic Geology, a unit of University of Texas at Austin, would manage the research monitoring, verification and accounting (MVA) project for the sequestered CO2, in conjunction with Denbury. The sequestration and associated MVA activities would be carried out in the Hastings field at Brazoria County, TX. The project would exceed DOE?s target of capturing one million tons of CO2 per year (MTPY) by 2015. Phase 1 of the project (Project Definition) is being completed. The key objective of Phase 1 is to define the project in sufficient detail to enable an economic decision with regard to proceeding with Phase 2. This topical report summarizes the administrative, programmatic and technical accomplishments completed in Phase 1 of the project. It describes the work relative to project technical and design activities

  18. An Integrated, Low Temperature Process to Capture and Sequester Carbon Dioxide from Industrial Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendlandt, R. F.; Foremski, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    Laboratory experiments show that it is possible to integrate (1) the chemistry of serpentine dissolution, (2) capture of CO2 gas from the combustion of natural gas and coal-fired power plants using aqueous amine-based solvents, (3) long-term CO2 sequestration via solid phase carbonate precipitation, and (4) capture solvent regeneration with acid recycling in a single, continuous process. In our process, magnesium is released from serpentine at 300°C via heat treatment with ammonium sulfate salts or at temperatures as low as 50°C via reaction with sulfuric acid. We have also demonstrated that various solid carbonate phases can be precipitated directly from aqueous amine-based (NH3, MEA, DMEA) CO2 capture solvent solutions at room temperature. Direct precipitation from the capture solvent enables regenerating CO2 capture solvent without the need for heat and without the need to compress the CO2 off gas. We propose that known low-temperature electrochemical methods can be integrated with this process to regenerate the aqueous amine capture solvent and recycle acid for dissolution of magnesium-bearing mineral feedstocks and magnesium release. Although the direct precipitation of magnesite at ambient conditions remains elusive, experimental results demonstrate that at temperatures ranging from 20°C to 60°C, either nesquehonite Mg(HCO3)(OH)●2H2O or a double salt with the formula [NH4]2Mg(CO3)2●4H2O or an amorphous magnesium carbonate precipitate directly from the capture solvent. These phases are less desirable for CO2 sequestration than magnesite because they potentially remove constituents (water, ammonia) from the reaction system, reducing the overall efficiency of the sequestration process. Accordingly, the integrated process can be accomplished with minimal energy consumption and loss of CO2 capture and acid solvents, and a net generation of 1 to 4 moles of H2O/6 moles of CO2 sequestered (depending on the solid carbonate precipitate and amount of produced H2

  19. Molecular simulation of carbon dioxide adsorption for carbon capture and storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenney, Craig M.

    Capture of CO2 from fossil fuel power plants and sequestration in unmineable coal seams are achievable methods for reducing atmospheric emissions of this greenhouse gas. To aid the development of effective CO2 capture and sequestration technologies, a series of molecular simulation studies were conducted to study the adsorption of CO2 and related species onto heterogeneous, solid adsorbents. To investigate the influence of surface heterogeneity upon adsorption behavior in activated carbons and coal, isotherms were generated via grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulation for CO2 adsorption in slit-shaped pores with several variations of chemical and structural heterogeneity. Adsorption generally increased with increasing oxygen content and the presence of holes or furrows, which acted as preferred binding sites. To investigate the potential use of the flexible metal organic framework (MOF) Cu(BF4)2(bpy)2 (bpy=bipyridine) for CO2 capture, pure- and mixed-gas adsorption was simulated at conditions representative of power plant process streams. This MOF was chosen because it displays a novel behavior in which the crystal structure reversibly transitions from an empty, zero porosity state to a saturated, expanded state at the "gate pressure". Estimates of CO2 capacity above the gate pressure from GCMC simulations using a rigid MOF model showed good agreement with experiment. The CO2 adsorption capacity and estimated heats of adsorption are comparable to common physi-adsorbents under similar conditions. Mixed-gas simulations predicted CO2/N2 and CO2/H 2selectivities higher than typical microporous materials. To more closely investigate this gating effect, hybrid Monte-Carlo/molecular-dynamics (MCMD) was used to simulate adsorption using a flexible MOF model. Simulation cell volumes remained relatively constant at low gas pressures before increasing at higher pressure. Mixed-gas simulations predicted CO2/N 2 selectivities comparable to other microporous adsorbents. To

  20. Comparative study of metal-organic frameworks for carbon capture applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Jason; Zhou, Wei; Wu, Hui; Yildirim, Taner

    2010-03-01

    With the current prevalence of hydrocarbon-based energy sources, carbon capture and sequestration are essential technologies for minimizing the emission of carbon dioxide and the resulting increased atmospheric concentration of CO2. Current technologies based on absorption require high temperature regeneration of the solvent, ultimately leading to significantly decreased efficiency and increased cost. Development of an adsorption-based technology, based on physical adsorption in optimized porous media, would greatly reduce the regeneration costs. Here we discuss the carbon capture performance of a range of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), including both high surface area materials as well as those with sites that have been engineered to have enhanced binding. In particular, we demonstrate that MOFs can capture significant amounts of CO2 and that the CO2 can be readily removed from the MOF using standard pressure/vacuum swing techniques, yielding cyclic capture capacities in excess of 5 mmol/g. Further, we discuss the role of pore geometry and surface chemistry in the capacity of CO2 that can be removed in order to best optimize these materials. Lastly, we will address the effect of flue gas impurities on the carbon capture performance of these MOFs.

  1. CO2 CAPTURE BY ABSORPTION WITH POTASSIUM CARBONATE

    SciTech Connect

    Gary T. Rochelle; Eric Chen; Jennifer Lu; Babatunde Oyenekan; Ross Dugas

    2004-11-08

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. The stripper model with Aspen Custom Modeler and careful optimization of solvent rate suggests that 7 m MEA and 5 m K+/2.5 m PZ will be practically equivalent in energy requirement and optimum solution capacity. The multipressure stripper reduces energy consumption by 15% with a maximum pressure of 5 atm. The use of vanadium as a corrosion inhibitor will carry little risk of long-term environmental or health effects liability, but the disposal of solvent with vanadium will be subject to regulation, probably as a hazardous waste. Analysis of the pilot plant data from Campaign 1 has given values of the mass transfer coefficient consistent with the rate data from the wetted wall column. With a rich end pinch, 30% MEA should provide a capacity of 1.3-1.4 mole CO{sub 2}/kg solvent.

  2. Multi-phase CFD modeling of solid sorbent carbon capture system

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, E. M.; DeCroix, D.; Breault, Ronald W.; Xu, W.; Huckaby, E. David

    2013-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are used to investigate a low temperature post-combustion carbon capture reactor. The CFD models are based on a small scale solid sorbent carbon capture reactor design from ADA-ES and Southern Company. The reactor is a fluidized bed design based on a silica-supported amine sorbent. CFD models using both Eulerian–Eulerian and Eulerian–Lagrangian multi-phase modeling methods are developed to investigate the hydrodynamics and adsorption of carbon dioxide in the reactor. Models developed in both FLUENT® and BARRACUDA are presented to explore the strengths and weaknesses of state of the art CFD codes for modeling multi-phase carbon capture reactors. The results of the simulations show that the FLUENT® Eulerian–Lagrangian simulations (DDPM) are unstable for the given reactor design; while the BARRACUDA Eulerian–Lagrangian model is able to simulate the system given appropriate simplifying assumptions. FLUENT® Eulerian–Eulerian simulations also provide a stable solution for the carbon capture reactor given the appropriate simplifying assumptions.

  3. Multi-Phase CFD Modeling of Solid Sorbent Carbon Capture System

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, Emily M.; DeCroix, David; Breault, Ronald W.; Xu, Wei; Huckaby, E. D.; Saha, Kringan; Darteville, Sebastien; Sun, Xin

    2013-07-30

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are used to investigate a low temperature post-combustion carbon capture reactor. The CFD models are based on a small scale solid sorbent carbon capture reactor design from ADA-ES and Southern Company. The reactor is a fluidized bed design based on a silica-supported amine sorbent. CFD models using both Eulerian-Eulerian and Eulerian-Lagrangian multi-phase modeling methods are developed to investigate the hydrodynamics and adsorption of carbon dioxide in the reactor. Models developed in both FLUENT® and BARRACUDA are presented to explore the strengths and weaknesses of state of the art CFD codes for modeling multi-phase carbon capture reactors. The results of the simulations show that the FLUENT® Eulerian-Lagrangian simulations (DDPM) are unstable for the given reactor design; while the BARRACUDA Eulerian-Lagrangian model is able to simulate the system given appropriate simplifying assumptions. FLUENT® Eulerian-Eulerian simulations also provide a stable solution for the carbon capture reactor given the appropriate simplifying assumptions.

  4. Challenges of oxyfuel combustion modeling for carbon capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kangwanpongpan, T.; Klatt, M.; Krautz, H. J.

    2012-04-01

    From the policies scenario from Internal Energy Agency (IEA) in 2010, global energy demand for coal climbs from 26% in 2006 to 29% in 2030 and most of demands for coal comes from the power-generation sector [1]. According to the new Copenhagen protocol [3], Global CO2 emission is rising from power generation due to an increasing world demand of electricity. For Energy-related CO2 emission in 2009, 43% of CO2 emissions from fuel combustion were produced from coal, 37% from oil and 20% from gas [4]. Therefore, CO2 capture from coal is the key factor to reduce greenhouse gas emission. Oxyfuel combustion is one of the promising technologies for capturing CO2 from power plants and subsequent CO2 transportation and storage in a depleted oil or gas field or saline-aquifer. The concept of Oxyfuel combustion is to remove N2 from the combustion process and burn the fuel with a mixture composed of O2 and CO2 together with recycled flue gas back into combustion chamber in order to produce a flue gas consisting mainly of CO2. This flue gas can be easily purified, compressed and transported to storage sites. However, Oxyfuel plants are still in the phase of pilot-scaled projects [5] and combustion in Oxyfuel conditions must be further investigated for a scale-up plant. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) serves as an efficient tool for many years in Oxyfuel combustion researches [6-12] to provide predictions of temperature, heat transfer, and product species from combustion process inside furnace. However, an insight into mathematical models for Oxyfuel combustion is still restricted due to many unknown parameters such as devolatilization rate, reaction mechanisms of volatile reactions, turbulent gaseous combustion of volatile products, char heterogeneous reactions, radiation properties of gaseous mixtures and heat transfer inside and through furnace's wall. Heat transfer drastically changes due to an increasing proportion of H2O and CO2 in these Oxyfuel conditions and the degree

  5. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir Gupta; Alejandro Lopez-Ortiz

    2001-01-01

    Four grades of sodium bicarbonate and two grades of trona were characterized in terms of particle size distribution, surface area, pore size distribution, and attrition. Surface area and pore size distribution determinations were conducted after calcination of the materials. The sorbent materials were subjected to thermogravimetric testing to determine comparative rates and extent of calcination (in inert gas) and sorption (in a simulated coal combustion flue gas mixture). Selected materials were exposed to five calcination/sorption cycles and showed no decrease in either sorption capacity or sorption rate. Process simulations were conducted involving different heat recovery schemes. The process is thermodynamically feasible. The sodium-based materials appear to have suitable physical properties for use as regenerable sorbents and, based on thermogravimetric testing, are likely to have sorption and calcination rates that are rapid enough to be of interest in full-scale carbon sequestration processes.

  6. Microbial carbon capture cell using cyanobacteria for simultaneous power generation, carbon dioxide sequestration and wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Soumya; Nayak, Bikram Kumar; Das, Debabrata

    2012-03-01

    Microbial carbon capture cells (MCCs) were constructed with cyanobacteria growing in a photo biocathode in dual-chambered flat plate mediator-less MFCs separated by an anion exchange membrane from the anode compartment containing Shewanella putrefaciens. The performance of the MCC with Anabaena sparged with CO(2)-air mixture was compared with that of a conventional cathode sparged with air only. The power densities achieved were 57.8 mW/m(2) for Anabaena sparged with a CO(2)-air mixture, 39.2 mW/m(2) for CO(2)-air mixture sparging only, 29.7 mW/m(2) for Anabaena sparged with air, and 19.6 mW/m(2) for air sparging only. The pH of the cathode containing Anabaena gradually increased from 7 to 9.12 and power generation decreased from 34.7 to 23.8 mW/m(2) 17 due to pH imbalance associated voltage losses without CO(2)-air mixture sparging. Sparging with a 5% CO(2)-air mixture produced maximum power of 100.1 mW/m(2). In addition, the power density of MCC increased by 31% when nitrate was added into the catholyte.

  7. Bench Scale Thin Film Composite Hollow Fiber Membranes for Post-Combustion Carbon Dioxide Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, Paul; Bhandari, Dhaval; Narang, Kristi; McCloskey, Pat; Singh, Surinder; Ananthasayanam, Balajee; Howson, Paul; Lee, Julia; Wroczynski, Ron; Stewart, Frederick; Orme, Christopher; Klaehn, John; McNally, Joshua; Rownaghi, Ali; Lu, Liu; Koros, William; Goizueta, Roberto; Sethi, Vijay

    2015-04-01

    GE Global Research, Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech), and Western Research Institute (WRI) proposed to develop high performance thin film polymer composite hollow fiber membranes and advanced processes for economical post-combustion carbon dioxide (CO2) capture from pulverized coal flue gas at temperatures typical of existing flue gas cleanup processes. The project sought to develop and then optimize new gas separations membrane systems at the bench scale, including tuning the properties of a novel polyphosphazene polymer in a coating solution and fabricating highly engineered porous hollow fiber supports. The project also sought to define the processes needed to coat the fiber support to manufacture composite hollow fiber membranes with high performance, ultra-thin separation layers. Physical, chemical, and mechanical stability of the materials (individual and composite) towards coal flue gas components was considered via exposure and performance tests. Preliminary design, technoeconomic, and economic feasibility analyses were conducted to evaluate the overall performance and impact of the process on the cost of electricity (COE) for a coal-fired plant including capture technologies. At the onset of the project, Membranes based on coupling a novel selective material polyphosphazene with an engineered hollow fiber support was found to have the potential to capture greater than 90% of the CO2 in flue gas with less than 35% increase in COE, which would achieve the DOE-targeted performance criteria. While lab-scale results for the polyphosphazene materials were very promising, and the material was incorporated into hollow-fiber modules, difficulties were encountered relating to the performance of these membrane systems over time. Performance, as measured by both flux of and selectivity for CO2 over other flue gas constituents was found to deteriorate over time, suggesting a system that was

  8. Polymer-encapsulated carbon capture liquids that tolerate precipitation of solids for increased capacity

    DOEpatents

    Aines, Roger D; Bourcier, William L; Spadaccini, Christopher M; Stolaroff, Joshuah K

    2015-02-03

    A system for carbon dioxide capture from flue gas and other industrial gas sources utilizes microcapsules with very thin polymer shells. The contents of the microcapsules can be liquids or mixtures of liquids and solids. The microcapsules are exposed to the flue gas and other industrial gas and take up carbon dioxide from the flue gas and other industrial gas and eventual precipitate solids in the capsule.

  9. Feasibility study of using brine for carbon dioxide capture and storage from fixed sources

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel Dziedzic; Kenneth B. Gross; Robert A. Gorski; John T. Johnson

    2006-12-15

    A laboratory-scale reactor was developed to evaluate the capture of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from a gas into a liquid as an approach to control greenhouse gases emitted from fixed sources. CO{sub 2} at 5-50% concentrations was passed through a gas-exchange membrane and transferred into liquid media - tap water or simulated brine. When using water, capture efficiencies exceeded 50% and could be enhanced by adding base (e.g., sodium hydroxide) or the combination of base and carbonic anhydrase, a catalyst that speeds the conversion of CO{sub 2} to carbonic acid. The transferred CO{sub 2} formed ions, such as bicarbonate or carbonate, depending on the amount of base present. Adding precipitating cations, like Ca{sup ++}, produced insoluble carbonate salts. Simulated brine proved nearly as efficient as water in absorbing CO{sub 2}, with less than a 6% reduction in CO{sub 2} transferred. The CO{sub 2} either dissolved into the brine or formed a mixture of gas and ions. If the chemistry was favorable, carbonate precipitate spontaneously formed. Energy expenditure of pumping brine up and down from subterranean depths was modeled. We concluded that using brine in a gas-exchange membrane system for capturing CO{sub 2} from a gas stream to liquid is technically feasible and can be accomplished at a reasonable expenditure of energy. 24 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs., 1 app.

  10. Alkali-Doped Lithium Orthosilicate Sorbents for Carbon Dioxide Capture.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xinwei; Liu, Wenqiang; Sun, Jian; Hu, Yingchao; Wang, Wenyu; Chen, Hongqiang; Zhang, Yang; Li, Xian; Xu, Minghou

    2016-09-01

    New alkali-doped (Na2 CO3 and K2 CO3 ) Li4 SiO4 sorbents with excellent performance at low CO2 concentrations were synthesized. We speculate that alkali doping breaks the orderly arrangement of the Li4 SiO4 crystals, hence increasing its specific surface area and the number of pores. It was shown that 10 wt % Na2 CO3 and 5 wt % K2 CO3 are the optimal additive ratios for doped sorbents to attain the highest conversions. Moreover, under 15 vol % CO2 , the doped sorbents present clearly faster absorption rates and exhibit stable cyclic durability with impressive conversions of about 90 %, at least 20 % higher than that of non-doped Li4 SiO4 . The attained conversions are also 10 % higher than the reported highest conversion of 80 % on doped Li4 SiO4 . The performance of Li4 SiO4 is believed to be enhanced by the eutectic melt, and it is the first time that the existence of eutectic Li/Na or Li/K carbonate on doped sorbents when absorbing CO2 at high temperature is confirmed; this was done using systematical analysis combining differential scanning calorimetry with in situ powder X-ray diffraction. PMID:27531239

  11. Combining geothermal energy capture with geologic carbon dioxide sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randolph, Jimmy B.; Saar, Martin O.

    2011-05-01

    Geothermal energy offers clean, renewable, reliable electric power with no need for grid-scale energy storage, yet its use has been constrained to the few locations worldwide with naturally high geothermal heat resources and groundwater availability. We present a novel approach with the potential to permit expansion of geothermal energy utilization: heat extraction from naturally porous, permeable formations with CO2 as the injected subsurface working fluid. Fluid-mechanical simulations reveal that the significantly higher mobility of CO2, compared to water, at the temperature/pressure conditions of interest makes CO2 an attractive heat exchange fluid. We show numerically that, compared to conventional water-based and engineered geothermal systems, the proposed approach provides up to factors of 2.9 and 5.0, respectively, higher geothermal heat energy extraction rates. Consequently, more regions worldwide could be economically used for geothermal electricity production. Furthermore, as the injected CO2 is eventually geologically sequestered, such power plants would have negative carbon footprints.

  12. Preliminary carbon dioxide capture technical and economic feasibility study evaluation of carbon dioxide capture from existing fired plants by hybrid sorption using solid sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, Steven; Envergex, Srivats; Browers, Bruce; Thumbi, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Barr Engineering Co. was retained by the Institute for Energy Studies (IES) at University of North Dakota (UND) to conduct a technical and economic feasibility analysis of an innovative hybrid sorbent technology (CACHYS™) for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and separation from coal combustion–derived flue gas. The project team for this effort consists of the University of North Dakota, Envergex LLC, Barr Engineering Co., and Solex Thermal Science, along with industrial support from Allete, BNI Coal, SaskPower, and the North Dakota Lignite Energy Council. An initial economic and feasibility study of the CACHYS™ concept, including definition of the process, development of process flow diagrams (PFDs), material and energy balances, equipment selection, sizing and costing, and estimation of overall capital and operating costs, is performed by Barr with information provided by UND and Envergex. The technology—Capture from Existing Coal-Fired Plants by Hybrid Sorption Using Solid Sorbents Capture (CACHYS™)—is a novel solid sorbent technology based on the following ideas: reduction of energy for sorbent regeneration, utilization of novel process chemistry, contactor conditions that minimize sorbent-CO2 heat of reaction and promote fast CO2 capture, and a low-cost method of heat management. The technology’s other key component is the use of a low-cost sorbent.

  13. Postcombustion Capture of CO2 with CaO in a Circulating Fluidized Bed Carbonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, M.; Rodriguez, N.; González, B.; Grasa, G.; Murillo, R.; Abanades, J. C.

    There is an emerging postcombustion capture technology that uses CaO to capture CO2 from combustion flue gases in a circulating fluidized bed reactor. This paper summarizes recent work conducted at CSIC to understand and develop this technology. The paper includes experimental results at conditions close to those expected in the real system, carried out in continuous mode in a 30kW test facility made up of two interconnected circulating fluidized bed reactors. In one of the reactors, CO2 is captured from the gas phase by the CaO continuously circulating from a calciner. In the second reactor, the CaCO3 formed in the carbonator is regenerated to CaO and CO2 by calcination. Modeling of the system at process level, at reactor level (in particular the CFB carbonator), and at particle level (decay in capture capability of CaO) is also outlined. The work carried out so far confirms that the carbonator reactors can be designed to attain capture efficiencies between 70-90%, operating at fluid dynamic conditions close to those present in circulating fluidized bed combustors.

  14. Kinetic and economic analysis of reactive capture of dilute carbon dioxide with Grignard reagents.

    PubMed

    Dowson, G R M; Dimitriou, I; Owen, R E; Reed, D G; Allen, R W K; Styring, P

    2015-01-01

    Carbon Dioxide Utilisation (CDU) processes face significant challenges, especially in the energetic cost of carbon capture from flue gas and the uphill energy gradient for CO2 reduction. Both of these stumbling blocks can be addressed by using alkaline earth metal compounds, such as Grignard reagents, as sacrificial capture agents. We have investigated the performance of these reagents in their ability to both capture and activate CO2 directly from dried flue gas (essentially avoiding the costly capture process entirely) at room temperature and ambient pressures with high yield and selectivity. Naturally, to make the process sustainable, these reagents must then be recycled and regenerated. This would potentially be carried out using existing industrial processes and renewable electricity. This offers the possibility of creating a closed loop system whereby alcohols and certain hydrocarbons may be carboxylated with CO2 and renewable electricity to create higher-value products containing captured carbon. A preliminary Techno-Economic Analysis (TEA) of an example looped process has been carried out to identify the electrical and raw material supply demands and hence determine production costs. These have compared broadly favourably with existing market values.

  15. Micrometeorological Technique for Monitoring of Geological Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage: Methodology, Workflow and Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burba, G. G.; Madsen, R.; Feese, K.

    2013-12-01

    The eddy covariance (EC) method is a micrometeorological technique for direct high-speed measurements of the transport of gases and energy between land or water surfaces and the atmosphere [1]. This method allows for observations of gas transport scales from 20-40 times per second to multiple years, represents gas exchange integrated over a large area, from hundreds of square meters to tens of square kilometres, and corresponds to gas exchange from the entire surface, including canopy, and soil or water layers. Gas fluxes, emission and exchange rates are characterized from single-point in situ measurements using permanent or mobile towers, or moving platforms such as automobiles, helicopters, airplanes, etc. Presently, over 600 eddy covariance stations are in operation in over 120 countries [1]. EC is now recognized as an effective method in regulatory and industrial applications, including CCUS [2-10]. Emerging projects utilize EC to continuously monitor large areas before and after the injections, to locate and quantify leakages where CO2 may escape from the subsurface, to improve storage efficiency, and for other CCUS characterizations [5-10]. Although EC is one of the most direct and defensible micrometeorological techniques measuring gas emission and transport, and complete automated stations and processing are readily available, the method is mathematically complex, and requires careful setup and execution specific to the site and project. With this in mind, step-by-step instructions were created in [1] to introduce a novice to the EC method, and to assist in further understanding of the method through more advanced references. In this presentation we provide brief highlights of the eddy covariance method, its application to geological carbon capture, utilization and storage, key requirements, instrumentation and software, and review educational resources particularly useful for carbon sequestration research. References: [1] Burba G. Eddy Covariance Method

  16. Advanced Low Energy Enzyme Catalyzed Solvent for CO{sub 2} Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Zaks, Alex; Reardon, John

    2013-09-30

    A proof-of-concept biocatalyst enhanced solvent process was developed and demonstrated in an integrated bench-scale system using coal post combustion flue gas. The biocatalyst was deployed as a coating on M500X structured packing. Rate enhancement was evaluated using a non-volatile and non- toxic 20 wt% potassium carbonate solution. Greater than 500-fold volumetric scale-up from laboratory to bench scale was demonstrated in this project. Key technical achievements included: 10-fold mass transfer enhancement demonstrated in laboratory testing relative to blank potassium carbonate at 45°C; ~ 7-fold enhancement over blank in bench-scale field testing at National Carbon Capture Center; aerosol emissions were below detection limits (< 0.8 ppm); 90% capture was demonstrated at ~19.5 Nm{sup 3}/hr (dry basis); and ~ 80% CO{sub 2} capture was demonstrated at ~ 30 Nm{sup 3}/hr (dry basis) for more than 2800-hrs on flue gas with minimal detectible decline in activity. The regeneration energy requirement was 3.5 GJ/t CO{sub 2} for this solvent, which was below the target of <2.1 GJ/t CO{sub 2}. Bench unit testing revealed kinetic limitations in the un-catalyzed stripper at around 85°C, but process modeling based on bench unit data showed that equivalent work of less than 300 kWh/t CO{sub 2} including all CO{sub 2} compression can be achieved at lower temperature stripping conditions. Cost analysis showed that 20% potassium carbonate in a basic solvent flow sheet with biocatalyst coated packing has economic performance comparable to the reference NETL Case-12, 30% MEA. A detailed techno-economic analysis indicated that addition of catalyst in the stripper could reduce the cost of capture by ~6% and cost of avoided CO{sub 2} by ~10% below reference NETL Case-12. Based on these results, a directional plan was identified to reduce the cost of CO{sub 2} capture in future work.

  17. Electrocatalytically switchable CO2 capture: first principle computational exploration of carbon nanotubes with pyridinic nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Yan; Zheng, Yao; Smith, Sean C; Du, Aijun; Zhu, Zhonghua

    2014-02-01

    Carbon nanotubes with specific nitrogen doping are proposed for controllable, highly selective, and reversible CO2 capture. Using density functional theory incorporating long-range dispersion corrections, we investigated the adsorption behavior of CO2 on (7,7) single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with several nitrogen doping configurations and varying charge states. Pyridinic-nitrogen incorporation in CNTs is found to induce an increasing CO2 adsorption strength with electron injecting, leading to a highly selective CO2 adsorption in comparison with N2 . This functionality could induce intrinsically reversible CO2 adsorption as capture/release can be controlled by switching the charge carrying state of the system on/off. This phenomenon is verified for a number of different models and theoretical methods, with clear ramifications for the possibility of implementation with a broader class of graphene-based materials. A scheme for the implementation of this remarkable reversible electrocatalytic CO2 -capture phenomenon is considered.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of functional thienyl-phosphine microporous polymers for carbon dioxide capture.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xianghui; Qiao, Shanlin; Du, Zhengkun; Zhou, Yuanhang; Yang, Renqiang

    2013-07-25

    A novel kind of functional organic microporous polymer is designed by introducing polar organic groups (P=O and P=S) and electron-rich heterocyclic into the framework to obtain high carbon dioxide capture capacity. The estimated Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface areas of these polymers are about 600 m(2) g(-1) and the highest CO2 uptake is 2.26 mmol g(-1) (1.0 bar/273 K). Interestingly, the polymer containing P=O groups shows greater CO2 capture capacity than that containing P=S groups at the same temperature. In addition, these polymers show high isosteric heats of CO2 adsorption (28.6 kJ mol(-1) ), which can be competitive with some nitrogen-rich networks. Therefore, these microporous polymers are promising candidates for carbon dioxide capture.

  19. Calcifying Cyanobacteria - The potential of biomineralization for Carbon Capture and Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Jansson, Christer G; Northen, Trent

    2010-03-26

    Employment of cyanobacteria in biomineralization of carbon dioxide by calcium carbonate precipitation offers novel and self-sustaining strategies for point-source carbon capture and sequestration. Although details of this process remain to be elucidated, a carbon-concentrating mechanism, and chemical reactions in exopolysaccharide or proteinaceous surface layers are assumed to be of crucial importance. Cyanobacteria can utilize solar energy through photosynthesis to convert carbon dioxide to recalcitrant calcium carbonate. Calcium can be derived from sources such as gypsum or industrial brine. A better understanding of the biochemical and genetic mechanisms that carry out and regulate cynaobacterial biomineralization should put us in a position where we can further optimize these steps by exploiting the powerful techniques of genetic engineering, directed evolution, and biomimetics.

  20. Calcifying cyanobacteria--the potential of biomineralization for carbon capture and storage.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Christer; Northen, Trent

    2010-06-01

    Employment of cyanobacteria in biomineralization of carbon dioxide by calcium carbonate precipitation offers novel and self-sustaining strategies for point-source carbon capture and sequestration. Although details of this process remain to be elucidated, a carbon-concentrating mechanism, and chemical reactions in exopolysaccharide or proteinaceous surface layers are assumed to be of crucial importance. Cyanobacteria can utilize solar energy through photosynthesis to convert carbon dioxide to recalcitrant calcium carbonate. Calcium can be derived from sources such as gypsum or industrial brine. A better understanding of the biochemical and genetic mechanisms that carry out and regulate cynaobacterial biomineralization should put us in a position where we can further optimize these steps by exploiting the powerful techniques of genetic engineering, directed evolution, and biomimetics.

  1. Economic and environmental evaluation of flexible integrated gasification polygeneration facilities with carbon capture and storage

    EPA Science Inventory

    One innovative option for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions involves pairing carbon capture and storage (CCS) with the production of synthetic fuels and electricity from co-processed coal and biomass. In this scheme, the feedstocks are first converted to syngas, from which ...

  2. 75 FR 6087 - A Comprehensive Federal Strategy on Carbon Capture and Storage

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ...'s goals of providing clean energy, supporting American jobs, and reducing emissions of carbon... capture and storage (CCS), will help position the United States as a leader in the global clean energy... private capital. The Department of Energy is conducting a comprehensive clean coal technology...

  3. Conductive Graphitic Carbon Nitride as an Ideal Material for Electrocatalytically Switchable CO2 Capture

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Xin; Kou, Liangzhi; Tahini, Hassan A.; Smith, Sean C.

    2015-01-01

    Good electrical conductivity and high electron mobility of the sorbent materials are prerequisite for electrocatalytically switchable CO2 capture. However, no conductive and easily synthetic sorbent materials are available until now. Here, we examined the possibility of conductive graphitic carbon nitride (g-C4N3) nanosheets as sorbent materials for electrocatalytically switchable CO2 capture. Using first-principle calculations, we found that the adsorption energy of CO2 molecules on g-C4N3 nanosheets can be dramatically enhanced by injecting extra electrons into the adsorbent. At saturation CO2 capture coverage, the negatively charged g-C4N3 nanosheets achieve CO2 capture capacities up to 73.9 × 1013 cm−2 or 42.3 wt%. In contrast to other CO2 capture approaches, the process of CO2 capture/release occurs spontaneously without any energy barriers once extra electrons are introduced or removed, and these processes can be simply controlled and reversed by switching on/off the charging voltage. In addition, these negatively charged g-C4N3 nanosheets are highly selective for separating CO2 from mixtures with CH4, H2 and/or N2. These predictions may prove to be instrumental in searching for a new class of experimentally feasible high-capacity CO2 capture materials with ideal thermodynamics and reversibility. PMID:26621618

  4. Reassessing the Efficiency Penalty from Carbon Capture in Coal-Fired Power Plants.

    PubMed

    Supekar, Sarang D; Skerlos, Steven J

    2015-10-20

    This paper examines thermal efficiency penalties and greenhouse gas as well as other pollutant emissions associated with pulverized coal (PC) power plants equipped with postcombustion CO2 capture for carbon sequestration. We find that, depending on the source of heat used to meet the steam requirements in the capture unit, retrofitting a PC power plant that maintains its gross power output (compared to a PC power plant without a capture unit) can cause a drop in plant thermal efficiency of 11.3-22.9%-points. This estimate for efficiency penalty is significantly higher than literature values and corresponds to an increase of about 5.3-7.7 US¢/kWh in the levelized cost of electricity (COE) over the 8.4 US¢/kWh COE value for PC plants without CO2 capture. The results follow from the inclusion of mass and energy feedbacks in PC power plants with CO2 capture into previous analyses, as well as including potential quality considerations for safe and reliable transportation and sequestration of CO2. We conclude that PC power plants with CO2 capture are likely to remain less competitive than natural gas combined cycle (without CO2 capture) and on-shore wind power plants, both from a levelized and marginal COE point of view.

  5. Conductive Graphitic Carbon Nitride as an Ideal Material for Electrocatalytically Switchable CO2 Capture.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xin; Kou, Liangzhi; Tahini, Hassan A; Smith, Sean C

    2015-12-01

    Good electrical conductivity and high electron mobility of the sorbent materials are prerequisite for electrocatalytically switchable CO2 capture. However, no conductive and easily synthetic sorbent materials are available until now. Here, we examined the possibility of conductive graphitic carbon nitride (g-C4N3) nanosheets as sorbent materials for electrocatalytically switchable CO2 capture. Using first-principle calculations, we found that the adsorption energy of CO2 molecules on g-C4N3 nanosheets can be dramatically enhanced by injecting extra electrons into the adsorbent. At saturation CO2 capture coverage, the negatively charged g-C4N3 nanosheets achieve CO2 capture capacities up to 73.9 × 10(13) cm(-2) or 42.3 wt%. In contrast to other CO2 capture approaches, the process of CO2 capture/release occurs spontaneously without any energy barriers once extra electrons are introduced or removed, and these processes can be simply controlled and reversed by switching on/off the charging voltage. In addition, these negatively charged g-C4N3 nanosheets are highly selective for separating CO2 from mixtures with CH4, H2 and/or N2. These predictions may prove to be instrumental in searching for a new class of experimentally feasible high-capacity CO2 capture materials with ideal thermodynamics and reversibility.

  6. Reassessing the Efficiency Penalty from Carbon Capture in Coal-Fired Power Plants.

    PubMed

    Supekar, Sarang D; Skerlos, Steven J

    2015-10-20

    This paper examines thermal efficiency penalties and greenhouse gas as well as other pollutant emissions associated with pulverized coal (PC) power plants equipped with postcombustion CO2 capture for carbon sequestration. We find that, depending on the source of heat used to meet the steam requirements in the capture unit, retrofitting a PC power plant that maintains its gross power output (compared to a PC power plant without a capture unit) can cause a drop in plant thermal efficiency of 11.3-22.9%-points. This estimate for efficiency penalty is significantly higher than literature values and corresponds to an increase of about 5.3-7.7 US¢/kWh in the levelized cost of electricity (COE) over the 8.4 US¢/kWh COE value for PC plants without CO2 capture. The results follow from the inclusion of mass and energy feedbacks in PC power plants with CO2 capture into previous analyses, as well as including potential quality considerations for safe and reliable transportation and sequestration of CO2. We conclude that PC power plants with CO2 capture are likely to remain less competitive than natural gas combined cycle (without CO2 capture) and on-shore wind power plants, both from a levelized and marginal COE point of view. PMID:26422409

  7. Lignin-Derived Advanced Carbon Materials.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sabornie; Saito, Tomonori

    2015-12-01

    Lignin is a highly abundant source of renewable carbon that can be considered as a valuable sustainable source of biobased materials. By applying specific pretreatments and manufacturing methods, lignin can be converted into a variety of value-added carbon materials. However, the physical and chemical heterogeneities of lignin complicate its use as a feedstock. Herein lignin manufacturing process, the effects of pretreatments and manufacturing methods on the properties of product lignin, and structure-property relationships in various applications of lignin-derived carbon materials, such as carbon fibers, carbon mats, activated carbons, carbon films, and templated carbon, are discussed.

  8. Lignin-Derived Advanced Carbon Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Sabornie; Saito, Tomonori

    2015-11-16

    Lignin is a highly abundant source of renewable carbon that can be considered as a valuable sustainable source of biobased materials. By applying specific pretreatments and manufacturing methods, it has been found that lignin can be converted into a variety of value-added carbon materials. However, the physical and chemical heterogeneities of lignin complicate its use as a feedstock. Herein, we discuss the lignin manufacturing process, the effects of pretreatments and manufacturing methods on the properties of product lignin, and structure–property relationships in various applications of lignin-derived carbon materials, such as carbon fibers, carbon mats, activated carbons, carbon films, and templated carbon.

  9. Pilot-Scale Silicone Process for Low-Cost Carbon Dioxide Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Surinder; Spiry, Irina; Wood, Benjamin; Hancu, Dan; Chen, Wei

    2014-07-01

    This report presents system and economicanalysis for a carbon-capture unit which uses an aminosilicone-based solvent for CO₂ capture in a pulverized coal (PC) boiler. The aminosilicone solvent is a 60/40 wt/wt mixture of 3-aminopropyl end-capped polydimethylsiloxane (GAP-1m) with tri-ethylene glycol (TEG) as a co-solvent. Forcomparison purposes, the report also shows results for a carbon-capture unit based on a conventional approach using mono-ethanol amine (MEA). The first year removal cost of CO₂ for the aminosilicone-based carbon-capture process is $46.04/ton of CO₂ as compared to $60.25/ton of CO₂ when MEA is used. The aminosilicone- based process has <77% of the CAPEX of a system using MEA solvent. The lower CAPEX is due to several factors, including the higher working capacity of the aminosilicone solvent compared the MEA, which reduces the solvent flow rate required, reducing equipment sizes. If it is determined that carbon steel can be used in the rich-lean heat exchanger in the carbon capture unit, the first year removal cost of CO₂ decreases to $44.12/ton. The aminosilicone-based solvent has a higherthermal stability than MEA, allowing desorption to be conducted at higher temperatures and pressures, decreasing the number of compressor stages needed. The aminosilicone-based solvent also has a lowervapor pressure, allowing the desorption to be conducted in a continuous-stirred tank reactor versus a more expensive packed column. The aminosilicone-based solvent has a lowerheat capacity, which decreases the heat load on the desorber. In summary, the amino-silicone solvent has significant advantages overconventional systems using MEA.

  10. Process analysis of CO{sub 2} capture from flue gas using carbonation/calcination cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Z.S.; Cai, N.S.; Croiset, E.

    2008-07-15

    Process analysis of CO{sub 2} capture from flue gas using Ca-based carbonation/calcination cycles is presented here. A carbonation/calcination system is composed essentially of two reactors (an absorber and a regenerator) with Ca-based sorbent circulating between the two reactors (assumed here as fluidized beds). CO{sub 2} is, therefore, transferred from the absorber to the regenerator. Because of the endothermicity of the calcination reaction, a certain amount of coal is burned with pure oxygen in the regenerator. Detailed mass balance, heat balance and cost of electricity and CO{sub 2} mitigation for the carbonation/calcination cycles with three Ca-based sorbents in dual fluidized beds were calculated and analyzed to study the effect of the Ca-based sorbent activity decay on CO{sub 2} capture from flue gas. The three sorbents considered were: limestone, dolomite and CaO/Ca{sub 12}Al{sub 14}O{sub 33} (75/25 wt %) sorbent. All results, including the amount of coal and oxygen required, are presented with respect to the difference in calcium oxide conversion between the absorber and the regenerator, which is an important design parameter. Finally, costs of electricity and CO{sub 2} mitigation costs using carbonation/calcination cycles for the three sorbents were estimated. The results indicate that the economics of the carbonation/calcination process compare favorably with competing technologies for capturing CO{sub 2}.

  11. Novel Sorption/Desorption Process for Carbon Dioxide Capture (Feasibility Study)

    SciTech Connect

    William Tuminello; Maciej Radosz; Youqing Shen

    2008-11-01

    Western Research Institute and the University of Wyoming Enhanced Oil Recovery Institute have tested a novel approach to carbon dioxide capture in power plants and industrial operations. This approach is expected to provide considerable cost savings, in terms of regeneration of the sorbent. It is proposed that low molecular weight, low volatility liquid fluorocarbons be utilized to absorb CO{sub 2} due to their unusual affinity for the gas. The energy savings would be realized by cooling the fluorocarbon liquids below their melting point where the CO{sub 2} would be released even at elevated pressure. Thus, the expense of heating currently used sorbents, saturated with CO{sub 2}, under low pressure conditions and then having to compress the released gas would not be realized. However, these fluorinated materials have been shown to be poor carbon dioxide absorbers under conditions currently required for carbon capture. The project was terminated.

  12. Examining the role of carbon capture and storage through an ethical lens.

    PubMed

    Medvecky, Fabien; Lacey, Justine; Ashworth, Peta

    2014-12-01

    The risk posed by anthropogenic climate change is generally accepted, and the challenge we face to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to a tolerable limit cannot be underestimated. Reducing GHG emissions can be achieved either by producing less GHG to begin with or by emitting less GHG into the atmosphere. One carbon mitigation technology with large potential for capturing carbon dioxide at the point source of emissions is carbon capture and storage (CCS). However, the merits of CCS have been questioned, both on practical and ethical grounds. While the practical concerns have already received substantial attention, the ethical concerns still demand further consideration. This article aims to respond to this deficit by reviewing the critical ethical challenges raised by CCS as a possible tool in a climate mitigation strategy and argues that the urgency stemming from climate change underpins many of the concerns raised by CCS.

  13. Advanced Oxyfuel Boilers and Process Heaters for Cost Effective CO2 Capture and Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Max Christie; Rick Victor; Bart van Hassel; Nagendra Nagabushana; Juan Li; Joseph Corpus; Jamie Wilson

    2007-03-31

    The purpose of the advanced boilers and process heaters program is to assess the feasibility of integrating Oxygen Transport Membranes (OTM) into combustion processes for cost effective CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration. Introducing CO{sub 2} capture into traditional combustion processes can be expensive, and the pursuit of alternative methods, like the advanced boiler/process heater system, may yield a simple and cost effective solution. In order to assess the integration of an advanced boiler/process heater process, this program addressed the following tasks: Task 1--Conceptual Design; Task 2--Laboratory Scale Evaluation; Task 3--OTM Development; Task 4--Economic Evaluation and Commercialization Planning; and Task 5--Program Management. This Final report documents and summarizes all of the work performed for the DOE award DE-FC26-01NT41147 during the period from January 2002-March 2007. This report outlines accomplishments for the following tasks: conceptual design and economic analysis, oxygen transport membrane (OTM) development, laboratory scale evaluations, and program management.

  14. EVALUATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM EXISTING COAL FIRED PLANTS BY HYBRID SORPTION USING SOLID SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, Steven; Browers, Bruce; Srinivasachar, Srivats; Laudal, Daniel

    2014-12-31

    Under contract DE-FE0007603, the University of North Dakota conducted the project Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Capture from Existing Coal Fired Plants by Hybrid Sorption Using Solid Sorbents. As an important element of this effort, a Technical and Economic Feasibility Study was conducted by Barr Engineering Co. (Barr) in association with the University of North Dakota. The assessment developed a process flow diagram, major equipment list, heat balances for the SCPC power plant, capital cost estimate, operating cost estimate, levelized cost of electricity, cost of CO2 capture ($/ton) and three sensitivity cases for the CACHYS™ process.

  15. Carbon capture and sequestration: identifying and managing risks - article no. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandra B. Klass; Elizabeth J. Wilson

    2009-07-01

    Carbon capture and geologic sequestration (CCS) technology promises to provide deep emissions cuts, particularly from coal power generation, but deploying CCS creates risks of its own. This article first considers the risks associated with CCS, which involves capturing CO{sub 2} emissions from industrial sources and power plants, transporting the CO{sub 2} by pipeline, and injecting it underground for permanent sequestration. The article then suggests ways in which these risks can be minimized and managed and considers more broadly when or if CCS should be deployed or whether its use should be limited or rejected in favor of other solutions.

  16. The thiocyanate anion is a primary driver of carbon dioxide capture by ionic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaban, Vitaly

    2015-01-01

    Carbon dioxide, CO2, capture by room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) is a vivid research area featuring both accomplishments and frustrations. This work employs the PM7-MD method to simulate adsorption of CO2 by 1,3-dimethylimidazolium thiocyanate at 300 K. The obtained result evidences that the thiocyanate anion plays a key role in gas capture, whereas the impact of the 1,3-dimethylimidazolium cation is mediocre. Decomposition of the computed wave function on the individual molecular orbitals confirms that CO2-SCN binding extends beyond just expected electrostatic interactions in the ion-molecular system and involves partial sharing of valence orbitals.

  17. Method and system for capturing carbon dioxide and/or sulfur dioxide from gas stream

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Shih-Ger; Li, Yang; Zhao, Xinglei

    2014-07-08

    The present invention provides a system for capturing CO.sub.2 and/or SO.sub.2, comprising: (a) a CO.sub.2 and/or SO.sub.2 absorber comprising an amine and/or amino acid salt capable of absorbing the CO.sub.2 and/or SO.sub.2 to produce a CO.sub.2- and/or SO.sub.2-containing solution; (b) an amine regenerator to regenerate the amine and/or amino acid salt; and, when the system captures CO.sub.2, (c) an alkali metal carbonate regenerator comprising an ammonium catalyst capable catalyzing the aqueous alkali metal bicarbonate into the alkali metal carbonate and CO.sub.2 gas. The present invention also provides for a system for capturing SO.sub.2, comprising: (a) a SO.sub.2 absorber comprising aqueous alkali metal carbonate, wherein the alkali metal carbonate is capable of absorbing the SO.sub.2 to produce an alkali metal sulfite/sulfate precipitate and CO.sub.2.

  18. Integration of CO2 capture and mineral carbonation by using recyclable ammonium salts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaolong; Maroto-Valer, M Mercedes

    2011-09-19

    A new approach to capture and store CO(2) by mineral carbonation using recyclable ammonium salts was studied. This process integrates CO(2) capture with mineral carbonation by employing NH(3), NH(4)HSO(4), and NH(4)HCO(3) in the capture, mineral dissolution, and carbonation steps, respectively. NH(4)HSO(4) and NH(3) can then be regenerated by thermal decomposition of (NH(4))(2)SO(4). The use of NH(4)HCO(3) as the source of CO(2) can avoid desorption and compression of CO(2). The mass ratio of Mg/NH(4)HCO(3)/NH(3) is the key factor controlling carbonation and the optimum ratio of 1:4:2 gives a conversion of Mg ions to hydromagnesite of 95.5%. Thermogravimetric analysis studies indicated that the regeneration efficiency of NH(4)HSO(4) and NH(3) in this process is 95%. The mass balance of the process shows that about 2.63 tonnes of serpentine, 0.12 tonnes of NH(4)HSO(4), 7.48 tonnes of NH(4)HCO(3), and 0.04 tonnes of NH(3) are required to sequester 1 tonne of CO(2) as hydromagnesite. PMID:21732542

  19. Facile Synthesis of Magnetic Mesoporous Hollow Carbon Microspheres for Rapid Capture of Low-Concentration Peptides

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Mesoporous and hollow carbon microspheres embedded with magnetic nanoparticles (denoted as MHM) were prepared via a facile self-sacrificial method for rapid capture of low-abundant peptides from complex biological samples. The morphology, structure, surface property, and magnetism were well-characterized. The hollow magnetic carbon microspheres have a saturation magnetization value of 130.2 emu g–1 at room temperature and a Brunauer–Emmett–Teller specific surface area of 48.8 m2 g–1 with an average pore size of 9.2 nm for the mesoporous carbon shell. The effectiveness of these MHM affinity microspheres for capture of low-concentration peptides was evaluated by standard peptides, complex protein digests, and real biological samples. These multifunctional hollow carbon microspheres can realize rapid capture and convenient separation of low-concentration peptides. They were validated to have better performance than magnetic mesoporous silica and commercial peptide-enrichment products. In addition, they can be easily recycled and present excellent reusability. Therefore, it is expected that this work may provide a promising tool for high-throughput discovery of peptide biomarkers from biological samples for disease diagnosis and other biomedical applications. PMID:24992375

  20. Facile synthesis of magnetic mesoporous hollow carbon microspheres for rapid capture of low-concentration peptides.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Gong; Zhou, Ming-Da; Zheng, Si-Yang

    2014-08-13

    Mesoporous and hollow carbon microspheres embedded with magnetic nanoparticles (denoted as MHM) were prepared via a facile self-sacrificial method for rapid capture of low-abundant peptides from complex biological samples. The morphology, structure, surface property, and magnetism were well-characterized. The hollow magnetic carbon microspheres have a saturation magnetization value of 130.2 emu g(-1) at room temperature and a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface area of 48.8 m(2) g(-1) with an average pore size of 9.2 nm for the mesoporous carbon shell. The effectiveness of these MHM affinity microspheres for capture of low-concentration peptides was evaluated by standard peptides, complex protein digests, and real biological samples. These multifunctional hollow carbon microspheres can realize rapid capture and convenient separation of low-concentration peptides. They were validated to have better performance than magnetic mesoporous silica and commercial peptide-enrichment products. In addition, they can be easily recycled and present excellent reusability. Therefore, it is expected that this work may provide a promising tool for high-throughput discovery of peptide biomarkers from biological samples for disease diagnosis and other biomedical applications. PMID:24992375

  1. Facile synthesis of magnetic mesoporous hollow carbon microspheres for rapid capture of low-concentration peptides.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Gong; Zhou, Ming-Da; Zheng, Si-Yang

    2014-08-13

    Mesoporous and hollow carbon microspheres embedded with magnetic nanoparticles (denoted as MHM) were prepared via a facile self-sacrificial method for rapid capture of low-abundant peptides from complex biological samples. The morphology, structure, surface property, and magnetism were well-characterized. The hollow magnetic carbon microspheres have a saturation magnetization value of 130.2 emu g(-1) at room temperature and a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface area of 48.8 m(2) g(-1) with an average pore size of 9.2 nm for the mesoporous carbon shell. The effectiveness of these MHM affinity microspheres for capture of low-concentration peptides was evaluated by standard peptides, complex protein digests, and real biological samples. These multifunctional hollow carbon microspheres can realize rapid capture and convenient separation of low-concentration peptides. They were validated to have better performance than magnetic mesoporous silica and commercial peptide-enrichment products. In addition, they can be easily recycled and present excellent reusability. Therefore, it is expected that this work may provide a promising tool for high-throughput discovery of peptide biomarkers from biological samples for disease diagnosis and other biomedical applications.

  2. Electro-osmotic-based catholyte production by Microbial Fuel Cells for carbon capture.

    PubMed

    Gajda, Iwona; Greenman, John; Melhuish, Chris; Santoro, Carlo; Li, Baikun; Cristiani, Pierangela; Ieropoulos, Ioannis

    2015-12-01

    In Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs), the recovery of water can be achieved with the help of both active (electro-osmosis), and passive (osmosis) transport pathways of electrolyte through the semi-permeable selective separator. The electrical current-dependent transport, results in cations and electro-osmotically dragged water molecules reaching the cathode. The present study reports on the production of catholyte on the surface of the cathode, which was achieved as a direct result of electricity generation using MFCs fed with wastewater, and employing Pt-free carbon based cathode electrodes. The highest pH levels (>13) of produced liquid were achieved by the MFCs with the activated carbon cathodes producing the highest power (309 μW). Caustic catholyte formation is presented in the context of beneficial cathode flooding and transport mechanisms, in an attempt to understand the effects of active and passive diffusion. Active transport was dominant under closed circuit conditions and showed a linear correlation with power performance, whereas osmotic (passive) transport was governing the passive flux of liquid in open circuit conditions. Caustic catholyte was mineralised to a mixture of carbonate and bicarbonate salts (trona) thus demonstrating an active carbon capture mechanism as a result of the MFC energy-generating performance. Carbon capture would be valuable for establishing a carbon negative economy and environmental sustainability of the wastewater treatment process.

  3. Electro-osmotic-based catholyte production by Microbial Fuel Cells for carbon capture.

    PubMed

    Gajda, Iwona; Greenman, John; Melhuish, Chris; Santoro, Carlo; Li, Baikun; Cristiani, Pierangela; Ieropoulos, Ioannis

    2015-12-01

    In Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs), the recovery of water can be achieved with the help of both active (electro-osmosis), and passive (osmosis) transport pathways of electrolyte through the semi-permeable selective separator. The electrical current-dependent transport, results in cations and electro-osmotically dragged water molecules reaching the cathode. The present study reports on the production of catholyte on the surface of the cathode, which was achieved as a direct result of electricity generation using MFCs fed with wastewater, and employing Pt-free carbon based cathode electrodes. The highest pH levels (>13) of produced liquid were achieved by the MFCs with the activated carbon cathodes producing the highest power (309 μW). Caustic catholyte formation is presented in the context of beneficial cathode flooding and transport mechanisms, in an attempt to understand the effects of active and passive diffusion. Active transport was dominant under closed circuit conditions and showed a linear correlation with power performance, whereas osmotic (passive) transport was governing the passive flux of liquid in open circuit conditions. Caustic catholyte was mineralised to a mixture of carbonate and bicarbonate salts (trona) thus demonstrating an active carbon capture mechanism as a result of the MFC energy-generating performance. Carbon capture would be valuable for establishing a carbon negative economy and environmental sustainability of the wastewater treatment process. PMID:26343045

  4. Development of a Cl-impregnated activated carbon for entrained-flow capture of elemental mercury.

    PubMed

    Ghorishi, S Behrooz; Keeney, Robert M; Serre, Shannon D; Gullett, Brian K; Jozewicz, Wojciech S

    2002-10-15

    Efforts to discern the role of an activated carbon's surface functional groups on the adsorption of elemental mercury (Hg0) and mercuric chloride demonstrated that chlorine (Cl) impregnation of a virgin activated carbon using dilute solutions of hydrogen chloride leads to increases (by a factor of 2-3) in fixed-bed capture of these mercury species. A commercially available activated carbon (DARCO FGD, NORITAmericas Inc. [FGD])was Cl-impregnated (Cl-FGD) [5 lb (2.3 kg) per batch] and tested for entrained-flow, short-time-scale capture of Hg0. In an entrained flow reactor, the Cl-FGD was introduced in Hg0-laden flue gases (86 ppb of Hg0) of varied compositions with gas/solid contact times of about 3-4 s, resulting in significant Hg0 removal (80-90%), compared to virgin FGD (10-15%). These levels of Hg0 removal were observed across a wide range of very low carbon-to-mercury weight ratios (1000-5000). Variation of the natural gas combustion flue gas composition, by doping with nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide, and the flow reactor temperature (100-200 degrees C) had minimal effects on Hg0 removal bythe Cl-FGD in these carbon-to-mercury weight ratios. These results demonstrate significant enhancement of activated carbon reactivity with minimal treatment and are applicable to combustion facilities equipped with downstream particulate matter removal such as an electrostatic precipitator.

  5. Lignin-Derived Advanced Carbon Materials

    DOE PAGES

    Chatterjee, Sabornie; Saito, Tomonori

    2015-11-16

    Lignin is a highly abundant source of renewable carbon that can be considered as a valuable sustainable source of biobased materials. By applying specific pretreatments and manufacturing methods, it has been found that lignin can be converted into a variety of value-added carbon materials. However, the physical and chemical heterogeneities of lignin complicate its use as a feedstock. Herein, we discuss the lignin manufacturing process, the effects of pretreatments and manufacturing methods on the properties of product lignin, and structure–property relationships in various applications of lignin-derived carbon materials, such as carbon fibers, carbon mats, activated carbons, carbon films, and templatedmore » carbon.« less

  6. A national look at carbon capture and storage-National carbon sequestration database and geographical information system (NatCarb)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, T.R.; Iqbal, A.; Callaghan, N.; ,; Look, K.; Saving, S.; Nelson, K.

    2009-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (RCSPs) are responsible for generating geospatial data for the maps displayed in the Carbon Sequestration Atlas of the United States and Canada. Key geospatial data (carbon sources, potential storage sites, transportation, land use, etc.) are required for the Atlas, and for efficient implementation of carbon sequestration on a national and regional scale. The National Carbon Sequestration Database and Geographical Information System (NatCarb) is a relational database and geographic information system (GIS) that integrates carbon storage data generated and maintained by the RCSPs and various other sources. The purpose of NatCarb is to provide a national view of the carbon capture and storage potential in the U.S. and Canada. The digital spatial database allows users to estimate the amount of CO2 emitted by sources (such as power plants, refineries and other fossil-fuel-consuming industries) in relation to geologic formations that can provide safe, secure storage sites over long periods of time. The NatCarb project is working to provide all stakeholders with improved online tools for the display and analysis of CO2 carbon capture and storage data. NatCarb is organizing and enhancing the critical information about CO2 sources and developing the technology needed to access, query, model, analyze, display, and distribute natural resource data related to carbon management. Data are generated, maintained and enhanced locally at the RCSP level, or at specialized data warehouses, and assembled, accessed, and analyzed in real-time through a single geoportal. NatCarb is a functional demonstration of distributed data-management systems that cross the boundaries between institutions and geographic areas. It forms the first step toward a functioning National Carbon Cyberinfrastructure (NCCI). NatCarb provides access to first-order information to evaluate the costs, economic potential and societal issues of

  7. Carbon Capture and Storage Database (CCS) from DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL)

    DOE Data Explorer

    NETL's Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Database includes active, proposed, canceled, and terminated CCS projects worldwide. Information in the database regarding technologies being developed for capture, evaluation of sites for carbon dioxide (CO2) storage, estimation of project costs, and anticipated dates of completion is sourced from publically available information. The CCS Database provides the public with information regarding efforts by various industries, public groups, and governments towards development and eventual deployment of CCS technology. The database contains more than 260 CCS projects worldwide in more than 30 countries across 6 continents. Access to the database requires use of Google Earth, as the NETL CCS database is a layer in Google Earth. Or, users can download a copy of the database in MS-Excel directly from the NETL website.

  8. Self-propelled carbon nanotube based microrockets for rapid capture and isolation of circulating tumor cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Shashwat S.; Jalota-Badhwar, Archana; Zope, Khushbu R.; Todkar, Kiran J.; Mascarenhas, Russel R.; Chate, Govind P.; Khutale, Ganesh V.; Bharde, Atul; Calderon, Marcelo; Khandare, Jayant J.

    2015-05-01

    Here, we report a non-invasive strategy for isolating cancer cells by autonomously propelled carbon nanotube (CNT) microrockets. H2O2-driven oxygen (O2) bubble-propelled microrockets were synthesized using CNT and Fe3O4 nanoparticles in the inner surface and covalently conjugating transferrin on the outer surface. Results show that self-propellant microrockets can specifically capture cancer cells.Here, we report a non-invasive strategy for isolating cancer cells by autonomously propelled carbon nanotube (CNT) microrockets. H2O2-driven oxygen (O2) bubble-propelled microrockets were synthesized using CNT and Fe3O4 nanoparticles in the inner surface and covalently conjugating transferrin on the outer surface. Results show that self-propellant microrockets can specifically capture cancer cells. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01797a

  9. High-efficiency power production from natural gas with carbon capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Thomas A.; Barton, Paul I.

    A unique electricity generation process uses natural gas and solid oxide fuel cells at high electrical efficiency (74%HHV) and zero atmospheric emissions. The process contains a steam reformer heat-integrated with the fuel cells to provide the heat necessary for reforming. The fuel cells are powered with H 2 and avoid carbon deposition issues. 100% CO 2 capture is achieved downstream of the fuel cells with very little energy penalty using a multi-stage flash cascade process, where high-purity water is produced as a side product. Alternative reforming techniques such as CO 2 reforming, autothermal reforming, and partial oxidation are considered. The capital and energy costs of the proposed process are considered to determine the levelized cost of electricity, which is low when compared to other similar carbon capture-enabled processes.

  10. Toluene vapor capture by activated carbon particles in a dual gas-solid cyclone system.

    PubMed

    Lim, Yun Hui; Ngo, Khanh Quoc; Park, Young Koo; Jo, Young Min

    2012-08-01

    Capturing of odorous compounds such as toluene vapor by a particulate-activated carbon adsorbent was investigated in a gas-solid cyclone, which is one type of mobile beds. The test cyclone was early modified with the post cyclone (PoC) and a spiral flow guide to the vortex finder. The proposed process may contribute to the reduction of gases and dust from industrial exhausts, especially when dealing with a low concentration of odorous elements and a large volume ofdust flow. In this device, the toluene capturing efficiency at a 400 ppm concentration rose up to 77.4% when using activated carbon (AC) particles with a median size of 27.03 microm. A maximum 96% of AC particles could be collected for reuse depending on the size and flow rate. The AC regenerated via thermal treatment showed an adsorption potential up to 66.7% throughout repeated tests.

  11. Final Scientific/Technical Report Carbon Capture and Storage Training Northwest - CCSTNW

    SciTech Connect

    Workman, James

    2013-09-30

    This report details the activities of the Carbon Capture and Storage Training Northwest (CCSTNW) program 2009 to 2013. The CCSTNW created, implemented, and provided Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) training over the period of the program. With the assistance of an expert advisory board, CCSTNW created curriculum and conducted three short courses, more than three lectures, two symposiums, and a final conference. The program was conducted in five phases; 1) organization, gap analysis, and form advisory board; 2) develop list serves, website, and tech alerts; 3) training needs survey; 4) conduct lectures, courses, symposiums, and a conference; 5) evaluation surveys and course evaluations. This program was conducted jointly by Environmental Outreach and Stewardship Alliance (dba. Northwest Environmental Training Center – NWETC) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL).

  12. Highly stable beta-class carbonic anhydrases useful in carbon capture systems

    DOEpatents

    Alvizo, Oscar; Benoit, Mike; Novick, Scott

    2013-04-16

    The present disclosure relates to .beta.-class carbonic anhydrase polypeptides having improved properties including increased thermostability and/or stability in the presence of amine compounds, ammonia, or carbonate ion. The present disclosure also provides formulations and uses of the polypeptides for accelerating the absorption of carbon dioxide from a gas stream into a solution as well as for the release of the absorbed carbon dioxide for further treatment and/or sequestering. Also provided are polynucleotides encoding the carbonic anhydrase polypeptides and host cells capable of expressing them.

  13. Highly stable beta-class carbonic anhydrases useful in carbon capture systems

    SciTech Connect

    Alvizo, Oscar; Benoit, Michael R; Novick, Scott J

    2013-08-20

    The present disclosure relates to .beta.-class carbonic anhydrase polypeptides having improved properties including increased thermostability and/or stability in the presence of amine compounds, ammonia, or carbonate ion. The present disclosure also provides formulations and uses of the polypeptides for accelerating the absorption of carbon dioxide from a gas stream into a solution as well as for the release of the absorbed carbon dioxide for further treatment and/or sequestering. Also provided are polynucleotides encoding the carbonic anhydrase polypeptides and host cells capable of expressing them.

  14. Neutron capture nuclei-containing carbon nanoparticles for destruction of cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kuo Chu; Lai, Po Dong; Chiang, Chi-Shiun; Wang, Pei-Jen; Yuan, Chiun-Jye

    2010-11-01

    HeLa cells were incubated with neutron capture nuclei (boron-10 and gadolinium)-containing carbon nanoparticles, followed by irradiation of slow thermal neutron beam. Under a neutron flux of 6 x 10(11) n/cm(2) (or 10 min irradiation at a neutron flux of 1 x 10(9) n/cm(2) s), the percentages of acute cell death at 8 h after irradiation are 52, 55, and 28% for HeLa cells fed with BCo@CNPs, GdCo@CNPs, and Co@CNPs, respectively. The proliferation capability of the survived HeLa cells was also found to be significantly suppressed. At 48 h after neutron irradiation, the cell viability further decreases to 35 +/- 5% as compared to the control set receiving the same amount of neutron irradiation dose but in the absence of carbon nanoparticles. This work demonstrates "proof-of-concept" examples of neutron capture therapy using (10)B-, (157)Gd-, and (59)Co-containing carbon nanoparticles for effective destruction of cancer cells. It will also be reported the preparation and surface functionalization of boron or gadolinium doped core-shell cobalt/carbon nanoparticles (BCo@CNPs, GdCo@CNPs and Co@CNPs) using a modified DC pulsed arc discharge method, and their characterization by various spectroscopic measurements, including TEM, XRD, SQUID, FT-IR, etc. Tumor cell targeting ability was introduced by surface modification of these carbon nanoparticles with folate moieties.

  15. Made-to-order metal-organic frameworks for trace carbon dioxide removal and air capture

    PubMed Central

    Shekhah, Osama; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Chen, Zhijie; Guillerm, Vincent; Cairns, Amy; Adil, Karim; Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Direct air capture is regarded as a plausible alternate approach that, if economically practical, can mitigate the increasing carbon dioxide emissions associated with two of the main carbon polluting sources, namely stationary power plants and transportation. Here we show that metal-organic framework crystal chemistry permits the construction of an isostructural metal-organic framework (SIFSIX-3-Cu) based on pyrazine/copper(II) two-dimensional periodic 44 square grids pillared by silicon hexafluoride anions and thus allows further contraction of the pore system to 3.5 versus 3.84 Å for the parent zinc(II) derivative. This enhances the adsorption energetics and subsequently displays carbon dioxide uptake and selectivity at very low partial pressures relevant to air capture and trace carbon dioxide removal. The resultant SIFSIX-3-Cu exhibits uniformly distributed adsorption energetics and offers enhanced carbon dioxide physical adsorption properties, uptake and selectivity in highly diluted gas streams, a performance, to the best of our knowledge, unachievable with other classes of porous materials. PMID:24964404

  16. Integrated Mid-Continent Carbon Capture, Sequestration & Enhanced Oil Recovery Project

    SciTech Connect

    Brian McPherson

    2010-08-31

    A consortium of research partners led by the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration and industry partners, including CAP CO2 LLC, Blue Source LLC, Coffeyville Resources, Nitrogen Fertilizers LLC, Ash Grove Cement Company, Kansas Ethanol LLC, Headwaters Clean Carbon Services, Black & Veatch, and Schlumberger Carbon Services, conducted a feasibility study of a large-scale CCS commercialization project that included large-scale CO{sub 2} sources. The overall objective of this project, entitled the 'Integrated Mid-Continent Carbon Capture, Sequestration and Enhanced Oil Recovery Project' was to design an integrated system of US mid-continent industrial CO{sub 2} sources with CO{sub 2} capture, and geologic sequestration in deep saline formations and in oil field reservoirs with concomitant EOR. Findings of this project suggest that deep saline sequestration in the mid-continent region is not feasible without major financial incentives, such as tax credits or otherwise, that do not exist at this time. However, results of the analysis suggest that enhanced oil recovery with carbon sequestration is indeed feasible and practical for specific types of geologic settings in the Midwestern U.S.

  17. Made-to-order metal-organic frameworks for trace carbon dioxide removal and air capture.

    PubMed

    Shekhah, Osama; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Chen, Zhijie; Guillerm, Vincent; Cairns, Amy; Adil, Karim; Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2014-06-25

    Direct air capture is regarded as a plausible alternate approach that, if economically practical, can mitigate the increasing carbon dioxide emissions associated with two of the main carbon polluting sources, namely stationary power plants and transportation. Here we show that metal-organic framework crystal chemistry permits the construction of an isostructural metal-organic framework (SIFSIX-3-Cu) based on pyrazine/copper(II) two-dimensional periodic 4(4) square grids pillared by silicon hexafluoride anions and thus allows further contraction of the pore system to 3.5 versus 3.84 Å for the parent zinc(II) derivative. This enhances the adsorption energetics and subsequently displays carbon dioxide uptake and selectivity at very low partial pressures relevant to air capture and trace carbon dioxide removal. The resultant SIFSIX-3-Cu exhibits uniformly distributed adsorption energetics and offers enhanced carbon dioxide physical adsorption properties, uptake and selectivity in highly diluted gas streams, a performance, to the best of our knowledge, unachievable with other classes of porous materials.

  18. Electrocatalytically switchable CO2 capture: first principle computational exploration of carbon nanotubes with pyridinic nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Yan; Zheng, Yao; Smith, Sean C; Du, Aijun; Zhu, Zhonghua

    2014-02-01

    The front cover artwork for issue 12/2013 is provided by the group of Prof. Zhonghua Zhu, in collaboration with Prof. Sean C. Smith of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Prof. Aijun Du from Queensland University of Technology. The image shows how carbon nanotubes and/or graphene with doped pyridinic nitrogen could be applied for controllable, highly selective, and reversible CO2 capture. The Full Paper itself is available at 10.1002/cssc.201300624.

  19. Carbon Dioxide Capture and Separation Techniques for Gasification-based Power Generation Point Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Pennline, H.W.; Luebke, D.R.; Jones, K.L.; Morsi, B.I.; Heintz, Y.J.; Ilconich, J.B.

    2007-06-01

    The capture/separation step for carbon dioxide (CO2) from large-point sources is a critical one with respect to the technical feasibility and cost of the overall carbon sequestration scenario. For large-point sources, such as those found in power generation, the carbon dioxide capture techniques being investigated by the in-house research area of the National Energy Technology Laboratory possess the potential for improved efficiency and reduced costs as compared to more conventional technologies. The investigated techniques can have wide applications, but the research has focused on capture/separation of carbon dioxide from flue gas (post-combustion from fossil fuel-fired combustors) and from fuel gas (precombustion, such as integrated gasification combined cycle or IGCC). With respect to fuel gas applications, novel concepts are being developed in wet scrubbing with physical absorption; chemical absorption with solid sorbents; and separation by membranes. In one concept, a wet scrubbing technique is being investigated that uses a physical solvent process to remove CO2 from fuel gas of an IGCC system at elevated temperature and pressure. The need to define an ideal solvent has led to the study of the solubility and mass transfer properties of various solvents. Pertaining to another separation technology, fabrication techniques and mechanistic studies for membranes separating CO2 from the fuel gas produced by coal gasification are also being performed. Membranes that consist of CO2-philic ionic liquids encapsulated into a polymeric substrate have been investigated for permeability and selectivity. Finally, dry, regenerable processes based on sorbents are additional techniques for CO2 capture from fuel gas. An overview of these novel techniques is presented along with a research progress status of technologies related to membranes and physical solvents.

  20. Optimization of carbon capture systems using surrogate models of simulated processes.

    SciTech Connect

    Cozad, A.; Chang, Y.; Sahinidis, N.; Miller, D.

    2011-01-01

    With increasing demand placed on power generation plants to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, processes to separate and capture CO2 for eventual sequestration are highly sought after. Carbon capture processes impart a parasitic load on the power plants; it is estimated that this would increase the cost of electricity from existing pulverized coal plants anywhere from 71-85 percent [1]. The National Energy and Technology Lab (NETL) is working to lower this to below a 30 percent increase. To reach this goal, work is being done not only to accurately simulate these processes, but also to leverage those accurate and detailed simulations to design optimal carbon capture processes. The major challenges include the lack of accurate algebraic models of the processes, computationally costly simulations, and insufficiently robust simulations. The first challenge bars the use of provable derivative-based optimization algorithms. The latter two can either lead to difficult or impossible direct derivative-free optimization. To overcome these difficulties, we take a more indirect method to solving this problem by, first, generating an accurate set of algebraic surrogate models from the simulation then using derivative-based solvers to optimize the surrogate models. We developed a method that uses derivative-based and derivative-free optimization alongside machine learning and statistical techniques to generate the set of low-complexity surrogate models using data sampled from detailed simulations. The models are validated and improved through the use of derivative-free solvers to adaptively sample new simulation points. The resulting surrogate models can then be used in a superstructure-based process synthesis and solved using derivative-based methods to optimize carbon capture processes.

  1. Self-propelled carbon nanotube based microrockets for rapid capture and isolation of circulating tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Shashwat S; Jalota-Badhwar, Archana; Zope, Khushbu R; Todkar, Kiran J; Mascarenhas, Russel R; Chate, Govind P; Khutale, Ganesh V; Bharde, Atul; Calderon, Marcelo; Khandare, Jayant J

    2015-05-21

    Here, we report a non-invasive strategy for isolating cancer cells by autonomously propelled carbon nanotube (CNT) microrockets. H2O2-driven oxygen (O2) bubble-propelled microrockets were synthesized using CNT and Fe3O4 nanoparticles in the inner surface and covalently conjugating transferrin on the outer surface. Results show that self-propellant microrockets can specifically capture cancer cells.

  2. 41 CFR 301-71.303 - What data must we capture in our travel advance accounting system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... capture in our travel advance accounting system? 301-71.303 Section 301-71.303 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 71-AGENCY TRAVEL ACCOUNTABILITY REQUIREMENTS Accounting for Travel Advances § 301-71.303 What...

  3. 41 CFR 301-71.303 - What data must we capture in our travel advance accounting system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... capture in our travel advance accounting system? 301-71.303 Section 301-71.303 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 71-AGENCY TRAVEL ACCOUNTABILITY REQUIREMENTS Accounting for Travel Advances § 301-71.303 What...

  4. Real-time monitoring of emissions from monoethanolamine-based industrial scale carbon capture facilities.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liang; Schade, Gunnar Wolfgang; Nielsen, Claus Jørgen

    2013-12-17

    We demonstrate the capabilities and properties of using Proton Transfer Reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS) to real-time monitor gaseous emissions from industrial scale amine-based carbon capture processes. The benchmark monoethanolamine (MEA) was used as an example of amines needing to be monitored from carbon capture facilities, and to describe how the measurements may be influenced by potentially interfering species in CO2 absorber stack discharges. On the basis of known or expected emission compositions, we investigated the PTR-ToF-MS MEA response as a function of sample flow humidity, ammonia, and CO2 abundances, and show that all can exhibit interferences, thus making accurate amine measurements difficult. This warrants a proper sample pretreatment, and we show an example using a dilution with bottled zero air of 1:20 to 1:10 to monitor stack gas concentrations at the CO2 Technology Center Mongstad (TCM), Norway. Observed emissions included many expected chemical species, dominantly ammonia and acetaldehyde, but also two new species previously not reported but emitted in significant quantities. With respect to concerns regarding amine emissions, we show that accurate amine quantifications in the presence of water vapor, ammonia, and CO2 become feasible after proper sample dilution, thus making PTR-ToF-MS a viable technique to monitor future carbon capture facility emissions, without conventional laborious sample pretreatment.

  5. Moisture-swing sorption for carbon dioxide capture from ambient air: a thermodynamic analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Lackner, Klaus S; Wright, Allen B

    2013-01-14

    An ideal chemical sorbent for carbon dioxide capture from ambient air (air capture) must have a number of favourable properties, such as environmentally benign behaviour, a high affinity for CO(2) at very low concentration (400 ppm), and a low energy cost for regeneration. The last two properties seem contradictory, especially for sorbents employing thermal swing adsorption. On the other hand, thermodynamic analysis shows that the energy cost of an air capture device need only be slightly larger than that of a flue gas scrubber. The moisture swing separation process studied in this paper provides a novel approach to low cost CO(2) capture from air. The anionic exchange resin sorbent binds CO(2) when dry and releases it when wet. A thermodynamic model with coupled phase and chemical equilibria is developed to study the complex H(2)O-CO(2)-resin system. The moisture swing behaviour is compatible with hydration energies changing with the activity of water on the resin surfaces. This activity is in turn set by the humidity. The rearrangement of hydration water on the resin upon the sorption of a CO(2) molecule is predicted as a function of the humidity and temperature. Using water as fuel to drive the moisture swing enables an economical, large-scale implementation of air capture. By generating CO(2) with low partial pressures, the present technology has implications for in situ CO(2) utilizations which require low pressure CO(2) gas rather than liquid CO(2). PMID:23172123

  6. Development of moving bed simulation model for carbon capture from fossil energy systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, H.; Miller, D.

    2011-01-01

    The capture and separation of carbon dioxide (CO2) has been identified as a high-priority topic to cope with global climate change. Fossil fuels currently supply the most of the world's energy needs, and their utilization is the major source of the anthropogenic CO2 emission [1]. Particularly, the existing coal-fired power plants annually emit about 2 billion tons of CO2 which is equivalent to two-thirds of the total emissions from U.S. power sector [2]. Therefore, it is critical to develop the cost-effective technologies to mitigate this problem. There are three options for capture for capturing CO2 from fossil energy system: post-combustion capture, pre-combustion capture, and oxy-combustion. Among them, post-combustion capture has the greatest near-term potential for reducing CO2 emission, because it can be applied to the existing coal-fired power plant with relative ease through a retrofit. The current commercially available solvent-based processes have advantages of fast kinetics and strong reactions, however only at a significant cost and efficiency penalty. Recently, various solid sorbents are being explored for one of promising CO2 capture technology, which are expected to reduce energy requirement and water usage with the approaches of fluidized or moving bed. However, solids are inherently more difficult to work with than liquids and no large scale system has yet been commercialized. In this study, we developed the rigorous 1-D PDE model for moving beds in Aspen Custom Modeler; the entire system consists of adsorbers, regenerators, and auxiliary equipment. The simulation result will be expected to compare with those of other post-combustion processes. We will deal with not only advantages of lower capital costs and power requirements but also problems associated with pressure drop and heat transfer.

  7. Recent advances in planar tetracoordinate carbon chemistry.

    PubMed

    Merino, Gabriel; Méndez-Rojas, Miguel A; Vela, Alberto; Heine, Thomas

    2007-01-15

    We summarize our contributions on the quest of new planar tetracoordinate carbon entities (new carbon molecules with exotic chemical structures and strange bonding schemes). We give special emphasis on the rationalization why in this type of molecules the planar configuration is favored over the tetrahedral one. We will concentrate on the latter and will show that molecules containing planar tetracoordinate carbons have a stabilizing system of delocalized pi electrons, which shows similar properties as pi systems in aromatic molecules.

  8. Selectivity and limitations of carbon sorption tubes for capturing siloxanes in biogas during field sampling.

    PubMed

    Tansel, Berrin; Surita, Sharon C

    2016-06-01

    Siloxane levels in biogas can jeopardize the warranties of the engines used at the biogas to energy facilities. The chemical structure of siloxanes consists of silicon and oxygen atoms, alternating in position, with hydrocarbon groups attached to the silicon side chain. Siloxanes can be either in cyclic (D) or linear (L) configuration and referred with a letter corresponding to their structure followed by a number corresponding to the number of silicon atoms present. When siloxanes are burned, the hydrocarbon fraction is lost and silicon is converted to silicates. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the adequacy of activated carbon gas samplers for quantitative analysis of siloxanes in biogas samples. Biogas samples were collected from a landfill and an anaerobic digester using multiple carbon sorbent tubes assembled in series. One set of samples was collected for 30min (sampling 6-L gas), and the second set was collected for 60min (sampling 12-L gas). Carbon particles were thermally desorbed and analyzed by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). The results showed that biogas sampling using a single tube would not adequately capture octamethyltrisiloxane (L3), hexamethylcyclotrisiloxane (D3), octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) and dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6). Even with 4 tubes were used in series, D5 was not captured effectively. The single sorbent tube sampling method was adequate only for capturing trimethylsilanol (TMS) and hexamethyldisiloxane (L2). Affinity of siloxanes for activated carbon decreased with increasing molecular weight. Using multiple carbon sorbent tubes in series can be an appropriate method for developing a standard procedure for determining siloxane levels for low molecular weight siloxanes (up to D3). Appropriate quality assurance and quality control procedures should be developed for adequately quantifying the levels of the higher molecular weight siloxanes in biogas with sorbent tubes.

  9. Selectivity and limitations of carbon sorption tubes for capturing siloxanes in biogas during field sampling.

    PubMed

    Tansel, Berrin; Surita, Sharon C

    2016-06-01

    Siloxane levels in biogas can jeopardize the warranties of the engines used at the biogas to energy facilities. The chemical structure of siloxanes consists of silicon and oxygen atoms, alternating in position, with hydrocarbon groups attached to the silicon side chain. Siloxanes can be either in cyclic (D) or linear (L) configuration and referred with a letter corresponding to their structure followed by a number corresponding to the number of silicon atoms present. When siloxanes are burned, the hydrocarbon fraction is lost and silicon is converted to silicates. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the adequacy of activated carbon gas samplers for quantitative analysis of siloxanes in biogas samples. Biogas samples were collected from a landfill and an anaerobic digester using multiple carbon sorbent tubes assembled in series. One set of samples was collected for 30min (sampling 6-L gas), and the second set was collected for 60min (sampling 12-L gas). Carbon particles were thermally desorbed and analyzed by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). The results showed that biogas sampling using a single tube would not adequately capture octamethyltrisiloxane (L3), hexamethylcyclotrisiloxane (D3), octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) and dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6). Even with 4 tubes were used in series, D5 was not captured effectively. The single sorbent tube sampling method was adequate only for capturing trimethylsilanol (TMS) and hexamethyldisiloxane (L2). Affinity of siloxanes for activated carbon decreased with increasing molecular weight. Using multiple carbon sorbent tubes in series can be an appropriate method for developing a standard procedure for determining siloxane levels for low molecular weight siloxanes (up to D3). Appropriate quality assurance and quality control procedures should be developed for adequately quantifying the levels of the higher molecular weight siloxanes in biogas with sorbent tubes

  10. Global warming and the future of coal carbon capture and storage

    SciTech Connect

    Ken Berlin; Robert M. Sussman

    2007-05-15

    The paper considers how best to change the economic calculus of power plant developers so they internalize CCS costs when selecting new generation technologies. Five policy tools are analyzed: establishing a greenhouse gas cap-and-trade program; imposing carbon taxes; defining CCS systems as a so-called Best Available Control Technology for new power plants under the USA Clean Air Act's New Source Review program; developing a 'low carbon portfolio' standard that requires utilities to provide an increasing proportion of power from low-carbon generation sources over time; and requiring all new coal power plants to meet an 'emission performance' standard that limits CO{sub 2} emissions to levels achievable with CCS systems. Each of these tools has advantages and drawbacks but an emission performance standard for new power plants is likely to be most effective in spurring broad-scale adoption of CCS systems. Chapter headings are: global warming and the future of coal; new coal-fired power plants threaten all other efforts to combat global warming; a potential path to zero emissions through carbon capture and storage; CO{sub 2} capture at coal plants: the promise of IGCC and other technologies; barriers to commercialization of IGCC technology; crossing the chasm: a new policy framework to push ccs implementation forward; encouraging CCS systems with carbon caps and trading programs; using the existing Clean Air Act to require CCS systems for new coal plants; retail low carbon portfolio standard; carbon tax; emission performance standards for new coal power plants; and conclusions. 16 figs.

  11. Carbon export algorithm advancements in models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çağlar Yumruktepe, Veli; Salihoğlu, Barış

    2015-04-01

    The rate at which anthropogenic CO2 is absorbed by the oceans remains a critical question under investigation by climate researchers. Construction of a complete carbon budget, requires better understanding of air-sea exchanges and the processes controlling the vertical and horizontal transport of carbon in the ocean, particularly the biological carbon pump. Improved parameterization of carbon sequestration within ecosystem models is vital to better understand and predict changes in the global carbon cycle. Due to the complexity of processes controlling particle aggregation, sinking and decomposition, existing ecosystem models necessarily parameterize carbon sequestration using simple algorithms. Development of improved algorithms describing carbon export and sequestration, suitable for inclusion in numerical models is an ongoing work. Existing unique algorithms used in the state-of-the art ecosystem models and new experimental results obtained from mesocosm experiments and open ocean observations have been inserted into a common 1D pelagic ecosystem model for testing purposes. The model was implemented to the timeseries stations in the North Atlantic (BATS, PAP and ESTOC) and were evaluated with datasets of carbon export. Targetted topics of algorithms were PFT functional types, grazing and vertical movement of zooplankton, and remineralization, aggregation and ballasting dynamics of organic matter. Ultimately it is intended to feed improved algorithms to the 3D modelling community, for inclusion in coupled numerical models.

  12. Energy-efficient stirred-tank photobioreactors for simultaneous carbon capture and municipal wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, K; Ahammad, S Z; Sallis, P J; Mota, C R

    2014-01-01

    Algal based wastewater treatment (WWT) technologies are attracting renewed attention because they couple energy-efficient sustainable treatment with carbon capture, and reduce the carbon footprint of the process. A low-cost energy-efficient mixed microalgal culture-based pilot WWT system, coupled with carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration, was investigated. The 21 L stirred-tank photobioreactors (STPBR) used light-emitting diodes as the light source, resulting in substantially reduced operational costs. The STPBR were operated at average optimal light intensity of 582.7 μmol.s(-1).m(-2), treating synthetic municipal wastewater containing approximately 250, 90 and 10 mg.L(-1) of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), ammonium (NH4-N), and phosphate, respectively. The STPBR were maintained for 64 days without oxygen supplementation, but had a supply of CO2 (25 mL.min(-1), 25% v/v in N2). Relatively high SCOD removal efficiency (>70%) was achieved in all STPBR. Low operational cost was achieved by eliminating the need for mechanical aeration, with microalgal photosynthesis providing all oxygenation. The STPBR achieved an energy saving of up to 95%, compared to the conventional AS system. This study demonstrates that microalgal photobioreactors can provide effective WWT and carbon capture, simultaneously, in a system with potential for scaling-up to municipal WWT plants.

  13. Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture and Storage Project Topical Report: Preliminary Public Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Guy Cerimele

    2011-09-30

    This Preliminary Public Design Report consolidates for public use nonproprietary design information on the Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture & Storage project. The report is based on the preliminary design information developed during the Phase I - Project Definition Phase, spanning the time period of February 1, 2010 through September 30, 2011. The report includes descriptions and/or discussions for: (1) DOE's Clean Coal Power Initiative, overall project & Phase I objectives, and the historical evolution of DOE and American Electric Power (AEP) sponsored projects leading to the current project; (2) Alstom's Chilled Ammonia Process (CAP) carbon capture retrofit technology and the carbon storage and monitoring system; (3) AEP's retrofit approach in terms of plant operational and integration philosophy; (4) The process island equipment and balance of plant systems for the CAP technology; (5) The carbon storage system, addressing injection wells, monitoring wells, system monitoring and controls logic philosophy; (6) Overall project estimate that includes the overnight cost estimate, cost escalation for future year expenditures, and major project risks that factored into the development of the risk based contingency; and (7) AEP's decision to suspend further work on the project at the end of Phase I, notwithstanding its assessment that the Alstom CAP technology is ready for commercial demonstration at the intended scale.

  14. Chemically Accelerated Carbon Mineralization: Chemical and Biological Catalytic Enhancement of Weathering of Silicate Minerals as Novel Carbon Capture and Storage

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-01

    IMPACCT Project: Columbia University is developing a process to pull CO2 out of the exhaust gas of coal-fired power plants and turn it into a solid that can be easily and safely transported, stored above ground, or integrated into value-added products (e.g. paper filler, plastic filler, construction materials, etc.). In nature, the reaction of CO2 with various minerals over long periods of time will yield a solid carbonate—this process is known as carbon mineralization. The use of carbon mineralization as a CO2 capture and storage method is limited by the speeds at which these minerals can be dissolved and CO2 can be hydrated. To facilitate this, Columbia University is using a unique process and a combination of chemical catalysts which increase the mineral dissolution rate, and the enzymatic catalyst carbonic anhydrase which speeds up the hydration of CO2.

  15. Flue-gas carbon capture on carbonaceous sorbents: Toward a low-cost multifunctional Carbon Filter for 'Green' energy producers

    SciTech Connect

    Radosz, M.; Hu, X.D.; Krutkramelis, K.; Shen, Y.Q.

    2008-05-15

    A low-pressure Carbon Filter Process (patent pending) is proposed to capture carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from flue gas. This filter is filled with a low-cost carbonaceous sorbent, such as activated carbon or charcoal, which has a high affinity (and, hence, high capacity) to CO{sub 2} but not to nitrogen (N{sub 2}). This, in turn, leads to a high CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity, especially at low pressures. The Carbon Filter Process proposed in this work can recover at least 90% of flue-gas CO{sub 2} of 90%+ purity at a fraction of the cost normally associated with the conventional amine absorption process. The Carbon Filter Process requires neither expensive materials nor flue-gas compression or refrigeration, and it is easy to heat integrate with an existing or grassroots power plant without affecting the cost of the produced electricity too much. An abundant supply of low-cost CO{sub 2} from electricity producers is good news for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and enhanced coal-bed methane recovery (ECBMR) operators, because it will lead to higher oil and gas recovery rates in an environmentally sensitive manner. A CO{sub 2}-rich mixture that contains some nitrogen is much less expensive to separate from flue-gas than pure CO{sub 2}; therefore, mixed CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2}-EOR and CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2}-ECBMR methods are proposed to maximize the overall carbon capture and utilization efficiency.

  16. Two-Dimensional Covalent Organic Frameworks for Carbon Dioxide Capture through Channel-Wall Functionalization

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ning; Chen, Xiong; Krishna, Rajamani; Jiang, Donglin

    2015-01-01

    Ordered open channels found in two-dimensional covalent organic frameworks (2D COFs) could enable them to adsorb carbon dioxide. However, the frameworks’ dense layer architecture results in low porosity that has thus far restricted their potential for carbon dioxide adsorption. Here we report a strategy for converting a conventional 2D COF into an outstanding platform for carbon dioxide capture through channel-wall functionalization. The dense layer structure enables the dense integration of functional groups on the channel walls, creating a new version of COFs with high capacity, reusability, selectivity, and separation productivity for flue gas. These results suggest that channel-wall functional engineering could be a facile and powerful strategy to develop 2D COFs for high-performance gas storage and separation. PMID:25613010

  17. Synthesis of High-Surface-Area Nitrogen-Doped Porous Carbon Microflowers and Their Efficient Carbon Dioxide Capture Performance.

    PubMed

    Li, Yao; Cao, Minhua

    2015-07-01

    Sustainable carbon materials have received particular attention in CO2 capture and storage owing to their abundant pore structures and controllable pore parameters. Here, we report high-surface-area hierarchically porous N-doped carbon microflowers, which were assembled from porous nanosheets by a three-step route: soft-template-assisted self-assembly, thermal decomposition, and KOH activation. The hydrazine hydrate used in our experiment serves as not only a nitrogen source, but also a structure-directing agent. The activation process was carried out under low (KOH/carbon=2), mild (KOH/carbon=4) and severe (KOH/carbon=6) activation conditions. The mild activated N-doped carbon microflowers (A-NCF-4) have a hierarchically porous structure, high specific surface area (2309 m(2)  g(-1)), desirable micropore size below 1 nm, and importantly large micropore volume (0.95 cm(3)  g(-1)). The remarkably high CO2 adsorption capacities of 6.52 and 19.32 mmol g(-1) were achieved with this sample at 0 °C (273 K) and two pressures, 1 bar and 20 bar, respectively. Furthermore, this sample also exhibits excellent stability during cyclic operations and good separation selectivity for CO2 over N2.

  18. Effects of carbonization parameters of Moso-bamboo-based porous charcoal on capturing carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pei-Hsing; Jhan, Jhih-Wei; Cheng, Yi-Ming; Cheng, Hau-Hsein

    2014-01-01

    This study experimentally analyzed the carbon dioxide adsorption capacity of Moso-bamboo- (Phyllostachys edulis-) based porous charcoal. The porous charcoal was prepared at various carbonization temperatures and ground into powders with 60, 100, and 170 meshes, respectively. In order to understand the adsorption characteristics of porous charcoal, its fundamental properties, namely, charcoal yield, ash content, pH value, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, iodine number, pore volume, and powder size, were analyzed. The results show that when the carbonization temperature was increased, the charcoal yield decreased and the pH value increased. Moreover, the bamboo carbonized at a temperature of 1000(°)C for 2 h had the highest iodine sorption value and BET surface area. In the experiments, charcoal powders prepared at various carbonization temperatures were used to adsorb 1.854% CO2 for 120 h. The results show that the bamboo charcoal carbonized at 1000(°)C and ground with a 170 mesh had the best adsorpt on capacity, significantly decreasing the CO2 concentration to 0.836%. At room temperature and atmospheric pressure, the Moso-bamboo-based porous charcoal exhibited much better CO2 adsorption capacity compared to that of commercially available 350-mesh activated carbon.

  19. Effects of Carbonization Parameters of Moso-Bamboo-Based Porous Charcoal on Capturing Carbon Dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Jhan, Jhih-Wei; Cheng, Yi-Ming; Cheng, Hau-Hsein

    2014-01-01

    This study experimentally analyzed the carbon dioxide adsorption capacity of Moso-bamboo- (Phyllostachys edulis-) based porous charcoal. The porous charcoal was prepared at various carbonization temperatures and ground into powders with 60, 100, and 170 meshes, respectively. In order to understand the adsorption characteristics of porous charcoal, its fundamental properties, namely, charcoal yield, ash content, pH value, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, iodine number, pore volume, and powder size, were analyzed. The results show that when the carbonization temperature was increased, the charcoal yield decreased and the pH value increased. Moreover, the bamboo carbonized at a temperature of 1000°C for 2 h had the highest iodine sorption value and BET surface area. In the experiments, charcoal powders prepared at various carbonization temperatures were used to adsorb 1.854% CO2 for 120 h. The results show that the bamboo charcoal carbonized at 1000°C and ground with a 170 mesh had the best adsorption capacity, significantly decreasing the CO2 concentration to 0.836%. At room temperature and atmospheric pressure, the Moso-bamboo-based porous charcoal exhibited much better CO2 adsorption capacity compared to that of commercially available 350-mesh activated carbon. PMID:25225639

  20. Global carbon management using air capture and geosequestration at remote locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lackner, K. S.; Goldberg, D.

    2014-12-01

    CO2 emissions need not only stop; according the IPCC, emissions need to turn negative. This requires means to remove CO2 from air and store it safely and permanently. We outline a combination of secure geosequestration and direct capture of CO2 from ambient air to create negative emissions at remote locations. Operation at remote sites avoids many difficulties associated with capture at the source, where space for added equipment is limited, good storage sites are in short supply, and proximity to private property engenders resistance. Large Igneous Provinces have been tested as secure CO2 reservoirs. CO2 and water react with reservoir rock to form stable carbonates, permanently sequestering the carbon. Outfitting reservoirs in large igneous provinces far from human habitation with ambient air capture systems creates large CO2 sequestration sites. Their remoteness offers advantages in environmental security and public acceptance and, thus, can smooth the path toward CO2 stabilization. Direct capture of CO2 from ambient air appears energetically and economically viable and could be scaled up quickly. Thermodynamic energy requirements are very small and a number of approaches have shown to be energy efficient in practice. Sorbent technologies include supported organoamines, alkaline brines, and quaternary ammonium based ion-exchange resins. To demonstrate that the stated goals of low cost and low energy consumption can be reached at scale, public research and demonstration projects are essential. We suggest co-locating air capture and geosequestration at sites where renewable energy resources can power both activities. Ready renewable energy would also allow for the co-production of synthetic fuels. Possible locations with large wind and basalt resources include Iceland and Greenland, the north-western United States, the Kerguelen plateau, Siberia and Morocco. Capture and sequestration in these reservoirs could recover all of the emissions of the 20th century and

  1. A Novel System for Carbon Dioxide Capture Utilizing Electrochemical Membrane Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Ghezel-Ayagh, Hossein; Jolly, Stephen; Patel, Dilip; Hunt, Jennifer; Steen, William A.; Richardson, Carl F.; Marina, Olga A.

    2013-06-03

    FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE), in collaboration with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and URS Corporation, is developing a novel Combined Electric Power and Carbon-Dioxide Separation (CEPACS) system, under a contract from the U.S. Department of Energy (DE-FE0007634), to efficiently and cost effectively separate carbon dioxide from the emissions of existing coal fired power plants. The CEPACS system is based on FCE’s electrochemical membrane (ECM) technology utilizing the Company’s internal reforming carbonate fuel cell products carrying the trade name of Direct FuelCell® (DFC®). The unique chemistry of carbonate fuel cells offers an innovative approach for separation of CO2 from existing fossil-fuel power plant exhaust streams (flue gases). The ECM-based CEPACS system has the potential to become a transformational CO2-separation technology by working as two devices in one: it separates the CO2 from the exhaust of other plants such as an existing coal-fired plant and simultaneously produces clean and environmentally benign (green) electric power at high efficiency using a supplementary fuel. The overall objective of this project is to successfully demonstrate the ability of FCE’s electrochemical membrane-based CEPACS system technology to separate ≥ 90% of the CO2 from a simulated Pulverized Coal (PC) power plant flue-gas stream and to compress the captured CO2 to a state that can be easily transported for sequestration or beneficial use. Also, a key project objective is to show, through a Technical and Economic Feasibility Study and bench scale testing (11.7 m2 area ECM), that the electrochemical membrane-based CEPACS system is an economical alternative for CO2 capture in PC power plants, and that it meets DOE objectives for the incremental cost of electricity (COE) for post-combustion CO2 capture.

  2. The Black Lake (Quebec, Canada) mineral carbonation experimental station: CO2 capture in mine waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaudoin, G.; Constantin, M.; Duchesne, J.; Dupuis, C.; Entrazi, A.; Gras, A.; Huot, F.; Fortier, R.; Hebert, R.; Larachi, F.; Lechat, K.; Lemieux, J. M.; Molson, J. W. H.; Maldague, X.; Therrien, R.; Assima, G. P.

    2014-12-01

    Passive mineral carbonation of chrysotile mining and milling waste was discovered at the Black Lake mine, southern Québec, 10 years ago. Indurated crusts were found at the surface and within waste piles where mineral and rock fragments are cemented by hydrated magnesium carbonates. A long-term research program has yielded significant insight into the process of CO2 capture from the atmosphere, and how it can be implemented during mining operations. Laboratory experiments show that the waste mineralogy is crucial, brucite being more reactive than serpentine. Partial water saturation, circa 40%, is also critical to dissolve magnesium from minerals, and transport aqueous CO2 to precipitation sites. Grain armoring by iron oxidation induced by dissolved oxygen prevents further reaction. Two experimental cells constructed with milling waste and fitted with various monitoring probes (T, H2O content, leachate) and gas sampling ports, have been monitored for more than 3 years, along with environmental conditions. The interstitial gas in the cells remains depleted in CO2 indicating continuous capture of ambient atmospheric CO2 at rates faster than advection to reaction sites. The energy released by the exothermic mineral carbonation reactions has been observed both in laboratory experiments (up to 4 °C) and in the field. Warm air, depleted to 10 ppmv CO2, vents at the surface of the waste piles, indicating reaction with atmospheric CO2 deep inside the piles. A thermal anomaly, detected by airborne infrared and coincident with a known venting area, was selected for locating a 100 m deep borehole fitted with sensor arrays to monitor active mineral carbonation within the pile. The borehole has intersected areas where mineral carbonation has indurated the milling waste. The borehole will be monitored for the next 3 years to better understand the mineral carbonation process, and its potential to yield recoverable geothermal energy in mining environments.

  3. Development of Novel Carbon Sorbents for CO{sub 2} Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, Gopala; Hornbostel, Marc; Bao, Jianer; Perez, Jordi; Nagar, Anoop; Sanjurjo, Angel

    2013-11-30

    An innovative, low-cost, and low-energy-consuming carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture technology was developed, based on CO{sub 2}adsorption on a high-capacity and durable carbon sorbent. This report describes the (1) performance of the concept on a bench-scale system; (2) results of parametric tests to determine the optimum operating conditions; (3) results of the testing with a flue gas from coal-fired boilers; and (4) evaluation of the technical and economic viability of the technology. The process uses a falling bed of carbon sorbent microbeads to separate the flue gas into two streams: a CO{sub 2} -lean flue gas stream from which > 90% of the CP{sub 2} is removed and a pure stream of CO{sub 2} that is ready for compression and sequestration. The carbo sorbent microbeads have several unique properties such as high CO{sub 2} capacity, low heat of adsorption and desorption (25 to 28 kJ/mole), mechanically robust, and rapid adsorption and desorption rates. The capture of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas is performed at near ambient temperatures in whic the sorbent microbeads flow down by gravity counter-current with the up-flow of the flue gas. The adsorbed CO{sub 2} is stripped by heating the CO{sub 2}-loaded sorbent to - 100°C, in contact with low-pressure (- 5 psig) steam in a section at the bottom of the adsorber. The regenerated sorben is dehydrated of adsorbed moisture, cooled, and lifted back to the adsorber. The CO{sub 2} from the desorber is essentially pure and can be dehydrated, compressed, and transported to a sequestration site. Bench-scale tests using a simulated flue gas showed that the integrated system can be operated to provide > 90% CO{sub 2} capture from a 15% CO{sub 2} stream in the adsorber and produce > 98% CO{sub 2} at the outlet of the stripper. Long-term tests ( 1,000 cycles) showed that the system can be operated reliably without sorbent agglomeration or attrition. The bench-scale reactor was also operated using a flue gas stream from a coal

  4. Implications of ammonia emissions from post-combustion carbon capture for airborne particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Heo, Jinhyok; McCoy, Sean T; Adams, Peter J

    2015-04-21

    Amine scrubbing, a mature post-combustion carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology, could increase ambient concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) due to its ammonia emissions. To capture 2.0 Gt CO2/year, for example, it could emit 32 Gg NH3/year in the United States given current design targets or 15 times higher (480 Gg NH3/year) at rates typical of current pilot plants. Employing a chemical transport model, we found that the latter emission rate would cause an increase of 2.0 μg PM2.5/m(3) in nonattainment areas during wintertime, which would be troublesome for PM2.5-burdened areas, and much lower increases during other seasons. Wintertime PM2.5 increases in nonattainment areas were fairly linear at a rate of 3.4 μg PM2.5/m(3) per 1 Tg NH3, allowing these results to be applied to other CCS emissions scenarios. The PM2.5 impacts are modestly uncertain (±20%) depending on future emissions of SO2, NOx, and NH3. The public health costs of CCS NH3 emissions were valued at $31-68 per tonne CO2 captured, comparable to the social cost of carbon itself. Because the costs of solvent loss to CCS operators are lower than the social costs of CCS ammonia, there is a regulatory interest to limit ammonia emissions from CCS.

  5. A new class of single-component absorbents for reversible carbon dioxide capture under mild conditions.

    PubMed

    Barzagli, Francesco; Lai, Sarah; Mani, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Some inexpensive and commercially available secondary amines reversibly react with CO2 at room temperature and ambient pressure to yield carbonated species in the liquid phase in the absence of any additional solvent. These solvent-free absorbents have a high CO2 capture capacity (0.63-0.65 mol CO2 /mol amine) at 1.0 bar (=100 kPa), combined with low-temperature reversibility at ambient pressure. (13) C NMR spectroscopy analysis identified the carbonated species as the carbamate salts and unexpected carbamic acids. These absorbents were used for CO2 (15 and 40 % in air) capture in continuous cycles of absorption-desorption carried out in packed columns, yielding an absorption efficiency of up to 98.5 % at absorption temperatures of 40-45 °C and desorption temperatures of 70-85 °C at ambient pressure. The absence of any parasitic solvent that requires to be heated and stability towards moisture and heating could result in some of these solvent-free absorbents being a viable alternative to aqueous amines for CO2 chemical capture.

  6. Promising porous carbon derived from celtuce leaves with outstanding supercapacitance and CO₂ capture performance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rutao; Wang, Peiyu; Yan, Xingbin; Lang, Junwei; Peng, Chao; Xue, Qunji

    2012-11-01

    Business costs and energy/environmental concerns have increased interested in biomass materials for production of activated carbons, especially as electrode materials for supercapacitors or as solid-state adsorbents in CO₂ adsorption area. In this paper, waste celtuce leaves were used to prepare porous carbon by air-drying, pyrolysis at 600 °C in argon, followed by KOH activation. The as-prepared porous carbon have a very high specific surface area of 3404 m²/g and a large pore volume of 1.88 cm³/g. As an electroactive material, the porous carbon exhibits good capacitive performance in KOH aqueous electrolyte, with the specific capacitances of 421 and 273 F/g in three and two-electrode systems, respectively. As a solid-state adsorbent, the porous carbon has an excellent CO₂ adsorption capacity at ambient pressures of up to 6.04 and 4.36 mmol/g at 0 and 25 °C, respectively. With simple production process, excellent recyclability and regeneration stability, the porous carbon that was derived from celtuce leaves is among the most promising materials for high-performance supercapacitors and CO₂ capture.

  7. Applications of carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies in reducing emissions from fossil-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Balat, M.; Balat, H.; Oz, C.

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the global contribution of carbon capture and storage technologies to mitigating climate change. Carbon capture and storage is a technology that comprises the separation of from carbon dioxide industrial- and energy-related sources, transport to a storage location (e.g., saline aquifers and depleted hydrocarbon fields), and long-term isolation from the atmosphere. The carbon dioxides emitted directly at the power stations are reduced by 80 to 90%. In contrast, the life cycle assessment shows substantially lower reductions of greenhouse gases in total (minus 65 to 79%).

  8. Molecular simulation studies of CO2 adsorption by carbon model compounds for carbon capture and sequestration applications.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yangyang; Wilcox, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Effects of oxygen-containing surface functionalities on the adsorption of mixtures including CO(2)/CH(4), CO(2)/N(2), and CO(2)/H(2)O have been investigated in the current work. Together with Bader charge analysis, electronic structure calculations have provided the initial framework comprising both the geometry and corresponding charge information required to carry out statistical-based molecular simulations. The adsorption isotherms and selectivity of CO(2) from CO(2)/N(2), CO(2)/CH(4), and CO(2)/H(2)O gas mixtures were determined by grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations at temperature/pressure conditions relevant to carbon capture and sequestration applications. The interactions between the surfaces with induced polarity and nonpolar/polar molecules have been investigated. It has been observed that, due to the induced polarity of the surface functionalization, the selectivity of CO(2) over CH(4) increases from approximately 2 to higher than 5, and the selectivity of CO(2) over N(2) increases from approximately 5 to 20, especially in the low-pressure regime. However, water vapor will always preferentially adsorb over CO(2) in carbon-based systems containing oxygen functionalized surfaces at conditions relevant to carbon capture application. Molecular simulation results indicate that the surface chemistry in micropores is tunable thereby influencing the selectivity for enhanced uptake of CO(2).

  9. Advanced virtual energy simulation training and research: IGCC with CO2 capture power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Zitney, S.; Liese, E.; Mahapatra, P.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Provost, G.

    2011-01-01

    In this presentation, we highlight the deployment of a real-time dynamic simulator of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant with CO{sub 2} capture at the Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory's (NETL) Advanced Virtual Energy Simulation Training and Research (AVESTARTM) Center. The Center was established as part of the DOE's accelerating initiative to advance new clean coal technology for power generation. IGCC systems are an attractive technology option, generating low-cost electricity by converting coal and/or other fuels into a clean synthesis gas mixture in a process that is efficient and environmentally superior to conventional power plants. The IGCC dynamic simulator builds on, and reaches beyond, conventional power plant simulators to merge, for the first time, a 'gasification with CO{sub 2} capture' process simulator with a 'combined-cycle' power simulator. Fueled with coal, petroleum coke, and/or biomass, the gasification island of the simulated IGCC plant consists of two oxygen-blown, downward-fired, entrained-flow, slagging gasifiers with radiant syngas coolers and two-stage sour shift reactors, followed by a dual-stage acid gas removal process for CO{sub 2} capture. The combined cycle island consists of two F-class gas turbines, steam turbine, and a heat recovery steam generator with three-pressure levels. The dynamic simulator can be used for normal base-load operation, as well as plant start-up and shut down. The real-time dynamic simulator also responds satisfactorily to process disturbances, feedstock blending and switchovers, fluctuations in ambient conditions, and power demand load shedding. In addition, the full-scope simulator handles a wide range of abnormal situations, including equipment malfunctions and failures, together with changes initiated through actions from plant field operators. By providing a comprehensive IGCC operator training system, the AVESTAR Center is poised to develop a

  10. Carbon Capture and Storage in the Permian Basin, a Regional Technology Transfer and Training Program

    SciTech Connect

    Rychel, Dwight

    2013-09-30

    The Permian Basin Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage (CCUS) Training Center was one of seven regional centers formed in 2009 under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 and managed by the Department of Energy. Based in the Permian Basin, it is focused on the utilization of CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) projects for the long term storage of CO2 while producing a domestic oil and revenue stream. It delivers training to students, oil and gas professionals, regulators, environmental and academia through a robust web site, newsletter, tech alerts, webinars, self-paced online courses, one day workshops, and two day high level forums. While course material prominently features all aspects of the capture, transportation and EOR utilization of CO2, the audience focus is represented by its high level forums where selected graduate students with an interest in CCUS interact with Industry experts and in-house workshops for the regulatory community.

  11. Bench-scale studies of in-duct mercury capture using cupric chloride-impregnated carbons

    SciTech Connect

    Sang-Sup Lee; Joo-Youp Lee; Tim C. Keener

    2009-04-15

    A brominated activated carbon (Darco Hg-LH) and cupric chloride-impregnated activated carbon (CuCl{sub 2}-ACs) sorbent have been tested in a bench-scale entrained-flow reactor system which was developed for simulating in-flight mercury capture in ducts upstream of particulate matter control devices. The bench-scale experimental system has been operated with the conditions of a residence time of 0.75 s and a gas temperature of 140{sup o}C to simulate typical conditions in the duct of coal-fired exhaust gas. In addition, sorbent deposition on walls which can occur in a laboratory-scale system more than in a full-scale system was significantly reduced so that additional mercury capture by the deposited sorbent was minimized. In the entrained-flow system, CuCl{sub 2}-ACs demonstrated similar performance in Hg adsorption and better performance in Hg{sup 0} oxidation than Darco Hg-LH. In addition, the carbon content of those sorbents was found to determine their Hg adsorption capability in the entrained-flow system. The bench-scale entrained-flow system was able to demonstrate the important Hg adsorption and oxidation characteristics of the tested sorbents. 18 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Capture by Montmorillonite Using an Accurate and Flexible Force Field

    SciTech Connect

    Romanov, V N; Cygan, R T; Myshakin, E M

    2012-06-21

    Naturally occurring clay minerals provide a distinctive material for carbon capture and carbon dioxide sequestration. Swelling clay minerals, such as the smectite variety, possess an aluminosilicate structure that is controlled by low-charge layers that readily expand to accommodate water molecules and, potentially, CO2. Recent experimental studies have demonstrated the efficacy of intercalating CO2 in the interlayer of layered clays, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms of the process and the extent of carbon capture as a function of clay charge and structure. A series of molecular dynamics simulations and vibrational analyses have been completed to assess the molecular interactions associated with incorporation of CO2 and H2O in the interlayer of montmorillonite clay and to help validate the models with experimental observation. An accurate and fully flexible set of interatomic potentials for CO2 is developed and combined with Clayff potentials to help evaluate the intercalation mechanism and examine the effect of molecular flexibility onthe diffusion rate of CO2 in water.

  13. The energy-water nexus and the role of carbon capture and sequestration.

    SciTech Connect

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Shuster, Erik; Castillo, Cesar; Kobos, Peter Holmes

    2010-10-01

    There is growing evidence of human induced climate change. Various legislation has been introduced to cap carbon emissions. Fossil powered electric generation is responsible for over 30% of the U.S. emissions. Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) technology is water and energy intensive. The project's objectives are: (1) Explore water consumption implications associated with full deployment of a Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) future; (2) Identify vulnerable areas in which water resources may be too limited to enable full deployment of CCS technology; and (3) Implement project with the cooperation of the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and DOE Office of Policy and International Affairs. Thermoelectric consumption projected to increase by 3.7 BGD due to CCS by 2035, a doubling over 2004. This increase is equivalent to projected growth in consumption by all other sectors. Demand is not equally distributed across the U.S. 18.5% of this future demand is located in watershed prone to surface and groundwater stress. 30% of current and future demand is located in watersheds prone to drought stress.

  14. Global economic consequences of deploying bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muratori, Matteo; Calvin, Katherine; Wise, Marshall; Kyle, Page; Edmonds, Jae

    2016-09-01

    Bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) is considered a potential source of net negative carbon emissions and, if deployed at sufficient scale, could help reduce carbon dioxide emissions and concentrations. However, the viability and economic consequences of large-scale BECCS deployment are not fully understood. We use the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) integrated assessment model to explore the potential global and regional economic impacts of BECCS. As a negative-emissions technology, BECCS would entail a net subsidy in a policy environment in which carbon emissions are taxed. We show that by mid-century, in a world committed to limiting climate change to 2 °C, carbon tax revenues have peaked and are rapidly approaching the point where climate mitigation is a net burden on general tax revenues. Assuming that the required policy instruments are available to support BECCS deployment, we consider its effects on global trade patterns of fossil fuels, biomass, and agricultural products. We find that in a world committed to limiting climate change to 2 °C, the absence of CCS harms fossil-fuel exporting regions, while the presence of CCS, and BECCS in particular, allows greater continued use and export of fossil fuels. We also explore the relationship between carbon prices, food-crop prices and use of BECCS. We show that the carbon price and biomass and food crop prices are directly related. We also show that BECCS reduces the upward pressure on food crop prices by lowering carbon prices and lowering the total biomass demand in climate change mitigation scenarios. All of this notwithstanding, many challenges, both technical and institutional, remain to be addressed before BECCS can be deployed at scale.

  15. Microbially enhanced carbon capture and storage by mineral-trapping and solubility-trapping.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Andrew C; Dideriksen, Knud; Spangler, Lee H; Cunningham, Alfred B; Gerlach, Robin

    2010-07-01

    The potential of microorganisms for enhancing carbon capture and storage (CCS) via mineral-trapping (where dissolved CO(2) is precipitated in carbonate minerals) and solubility trapping (as dissolved carbonate species in solution) was investigated. The bacterial hydrolysis of urea (ureolysis) was investigated in microcosms including synthetic brine (SB) mimicking a prospective deep subsurface CCS site with variable headspace pressures [p(CO(2))] of (13)C-CO(2). Dissolved Ca(2+) in the SB was completely precipitated as calcite during microbially induced hydrolysis of 5-20 g L(-1) urea. The incorporation of carbonate ions from (13)C-CO(2) ((13)C-CO(3)(2-)) into calcite increased with increasing p((13)CO(2)) and increasing urea concentrations: from 8.3% of total carbon in CaCO(3) at 1 g L(-1) to 31% at 5 g L(-1), and 37% at 20 g L(-1). This demonstrated that ureolysis was effective at precipitating initially gaseous [CO(2)(g)] originating from the headspace over the brine. Modeling the change in brine chemistry and carbonate precipitation after equilibration with the initial p(CO(2)) demonstrated that no net precipitation of CO(2)(g) via mineral-trapping occurred, since urea hydrolysis results in the production of dissolved inorganic carbon. However, the pH increase induced by bacterial ureolysis generated a net flux of CO(2)(g) into the brine. This reduced the headspace concentration of CO(2) by up to 32 mM per 100 mM urea hydrolyzed because the capacity of the brine for carbonate ions was increased, thus enhancing the solubility-trapping capacity of the brine. Together with the previously demonstrated permeability reduction of rock cores at high pressure by microbial biofilms and resilience of biofilms to supercritical CO(2), this suggests that engineered biomineralizing biofilms may enhance CCS via solubility-trapping, mineral formation, and CO(2)(g) leakage reduction.

  16. Prospective life-cycle modeling of a carbon capture and storage system using metal-organic frameworks for CO2 capture

    SciTech Connect

    Sathre, R; Masanet, E

    2013-01-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are promising new material media for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture. Their tunable adsorption patterns may allow relatively efficient separation of gases, e.g. from power plant exhaust. Here we conduct scenario-based prospective life-cycle system modeling to estimate the potentials and implications of large-scale MOF application for post-combustion carbon capture and storage (CCS), and estimate the source and magnitude of uncertainties. The methodological approach includes parametric system modeling to quantify relations between system components; scenario projections of plausible pathways for system scale-up; proxy data on analogous materials and processes; and uncertainty analysis of parameter significance. We estimate the system-wide material and energy flows and economic costs associated with projected large-scale CCS deployment. We compare the performance of a MOF-based system to currently more mature amine-based capture technology. We discuss balancing two critical factors that determine the success of CO2 capture media: thermodynamic efficiency of the capture/regeneration cycle, and life-cycle embodied energy and cost of the material and its ancillary systems.

  17. Electricity without carbon dioxide: Assessing the role of carbon capture and sequestration in United States electric markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Timothy Lawrence

    2002-09-01

    Stabilization of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations will likely require significant cuts in electric sector carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The ability to capture and sequester CO2 in a manner compatible with today's fossil-fuel based power generating infrastructure offers a potentially low-cost contribution to a larger climate change mitigation strategy. This thesis fills a niche between economy-wide studies of CO 2 abatement and plant-level control technology assessments by examining the contribution that carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) might make toward reducing US electric sector CO2 emissions. The assessment's thirty year perspective ensures that costs sunk in current infrastructure remain relevant and allows time for technological diffusion, but remains free of assumptions about the emergence of unidentified radical innovations. The extent to which CCS might lower CO2 mitigation costs will vary directly with the dispatch of carbon capture plants in actual power-generating systems, and will depend on both the retirement of vintage capacity and competition from abatement alternatives such as coal-to-gas fuel switching and renewable energy sources. This thesis therefore adopts a capacity planning and dispatch model to examine how the current distribution of generating units, natural gas prices, and other industry trends affect the cost of CO2 control via CCS in an actual US electric market. The analysis finds that plants with CO2 capture consistently provide significant reductions in base-load emissions at carbon prices near 100 $/tC, but do not offer an economical means of meeting peak demand unless CO2 reductions in excess of 80 percent are required. Various scenarios estimate the amount by which turn-over of the existing generating infrastructure and the severity of criteria pollutant constraints reduce mitigation costs. A look at CO2 sequestration in the seabed beneath the US Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) complements this model

  18. Development of a Risk-Based Comparison Methodology of Carbon Capture Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, David W.; Dalton, Angela C.; Dale, Crystal; Thompson, Julie; Leclaire, Rene; Edward, Bryan; Jones, Edward

    2014-06-01

    Given the varying degrees of maturity among existing carbon capture (CC) technology alternatives, an understanding of the inherent technical and financial risk and uncertainty associated with these competing technologies is requisite to the success of carbon capture as a viable solution to the greenhouse gas emission challenge. The availability of tools and capabilities to conduct rigorous, risk–based technology comparisons is thus highly desirable for directing valuable resources toward the technology option(s) with a high return on investment, superior carbon capture performance, and minimum risk. To address this research need, we introduce a novel risk-based technology comparison method supported by an integrated multi-domain risk model set to estimate risks related to technological maturity, technical performance, and profitability. Through a comparison between solid sorbent and liquid solvent systems, we illustrate the feasibility of estimating risk and quantifying uncertainty in a single domain (modular analytical capability) as well as across multiple risk dimensions (coupled analytical capability) for comparison. This method brings technological maturity and performance to bear on profitability projections, and carries risk and uncertainty modeling across domains via inter-model sharing of parameters, distributions, and input/output. The integration of the models facilitates multidimensional technology comparisons within a common probabilistic risk analysis framework. This approach and model set can equip potential technology adopters with the necessary computational capabilities to make risk-informed decisions about CC technology investment. The method and modeling effort can also be extended to other industries where robust tools and analytical capabilities are currently lacking for evaluating nascent technologies.

  19. Growth and activity of reservoir microorganisms under carbon capture and storage conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakoczy, Jana; Gniese, Claudia; Krüger, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Carbon capture and storage is a technology to decelerate global warming by reducing CO2 emissions into the atmosphere. To ensure safe long-term storage of CO2 in the underground a number of factors need to be considered. One of them is microbial activity in storage reservoirs, which can lead to the formation of acidic metabolites, H2S or carbonates which then might affect injectivity, permeability, pressure build-up and long-term operability. Our research focused on the effect of high CO2 concentrations on growth and activity of selected thermophilic fermenting and sulphate-reducing bacteria isolated from deep reservoirs. Experiments with supercritical carbon dioxide at 100 bar completely inhibited growth of freshly inoculated cultures and also caused a rapid decrease of growth of a pre-grown culture. This demonstrated that supercritical carbon dioxide had a certain sterilizing effect on cells. This effect was not observed in control cultures with 100 bar of hydrostatic pressure. However, when provided with a surface for attachment, CO2-inhibited cells restarted growth after CO2 release. The same was observed for organisms able to form spores. Further experiments will examine physiological and molecular properties of the model organism allowing for prediction of its sensitivity and/or adaptability to carbon dioxide in potential future storage sites.

  20. Siting is a constraint to realize environmental benefits from carbon capture and storage.

    PubMed

    Sekar, Ashok; Williams, Eric; Chester, Mikhail

    2014-10-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) for coal power plants reduces onsite carbon dioxide emissions, but affects other air emissions on and offsite. This research assesses the net societal benefits and costs of Monoethanolamine (MEA) CCS, valuing changes in emissions of CO2, SO2, NOX, NH3 and particulate matter (PM), including those in the supply chain. Geographical variability and stochastic uncertainty for 407 coal power plant locations in the U.S. are analyzed. The results show that the net environmental benefits and costs of MEA CCS depend critically on location. For a few favorable sites of both power plant and upstream processes, CCS realizes a net benefit (benefit-cost ratio >1) if the social cost of carbon exceeds $51/ton. For much of the U.S. however, the social cost of carbon must be much higher to realize net benefits from CCS, up to a maximum of $910/ton. While the social costs of carbon are uncertain, typical estimates are in the range of $32-220 per ton, much lower than the breakeven value for many potential CCS locations. Increased impacts upstream from the power plant can dramatically change the social acceptability of CCS and needs further consideration and analysis.

  1. Bicarbonate-based Integrated Carbon Capture and Algae Production System with alkalihalophilic cyanobacterium.

    PubMed

    Chi, Zhanyou; Xie, Yuxiao; Elloy, Farah; Zheng, Yubin; Hu, Yucai; Chen, Shulin

    2013-04-01

    An extremely alkalihalophilic cyanobacteria Euhalothece ZM001 was tested in the Bicarbonate-based Integrated Carbon Capture and Algae Production System (BICCAPS), which utilize bicarbonate as carbon source for algae culture and use the regenerated carbonate to absorb CO2. Culture conditions including temperature, inoculation rate, medium composition, pH, and light intensity were investigated. A final biomass concentration of 4.79 g/L was reached in tissue flask culture with 1.0 M NaHCO3/Na2CO3. The biomass productivity of 1.21 g/L/day was achieved under optimal conditions. When pH increased from 9.55 to 10.51, 0.256 M of inorganic carbon was consumed during the culture process. This indicated sufficient carbon can be supplied as bicarbonate to the culture. This study proved that a high biomass production rate can be achieved in a BICCAPS. This strategy can also lead to new design of photobioreactors that provides an alternative supply of CO2 to sparging.

  2. Biomass waste carbon materials as adsorbents for CO2 capture under post-combustion conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo-Muñoz, Elisa; García-Mateos, Francisco José; Rosas, Juana; Rodríguez-Mirasol, José; Cordero, Tomás

    2016-05-01

    A series of porous carbon materials obtained from biomass waste have been synthesized, with different morphologies and structural properties, and evaluated as potential adsorbents for CO2 capture in post-combustion conditions. These carbon materials present CO2 adsorption capacities, at 25 ºC and 101.3 kPa, comparable to those obtained by other complex carbon or inorganic materials. Furthermore, CO2 uptakes under these conditions can be well correlated to the narrow micropore volume, derived from the CO2 adsorption data at 0 ºC (VDRCO2). In contrast, CO2 adsorption capacities at 25 ºC and 15 kPa are more related to only pores of sizes lower than 0.7 nm. The capacity values obtained in column adsorption experiments were really promising. An activated carbon fiber obtained from Alcell lignin, FCL, presented a capacity value of 1.3 mmol/g (5.7 %wt). Moreover, the adsorption capacity of this carbon fiber was totally recovered in a very fast desorption cycle at the same operation temperature and total pressure and, therefore, without any additional energy requirement. Thus, these results suggest that the biomass waste used in this work could be successfully valorized as efficient CO2 adsorbent, under post-combustion conditions, showing excellent regeneration performance.

  3. Bicarbonate-based Integrated Carbon Capture and Algae Production System with alkalihalophilic cyanobacterium.

    PubMed

    Chi, Zhanyou; Xie, Yuxiao; Elloy, Farah; Zheng, Yubin; Hu, Yucai; Chen, Shulin

    2013-04-01

    An extremely alkalihalophilic cyanobacteria Euhalothece ZM001 was tested in the Bicarbonate-based Integrated Carbon Capture and Algae Production System (BICCAPS), which utilize bicarbonate as carbon source for algae culture and use the regenerated carbonate to absorb CO2. Culture conditions including temperature, inoculation rate, medium composition, pH, and light intensity were investigated. A final biomass concentration of 4.79 g/L was reached in tissue flask culture with 1.0 M NaHCO3/Na2CO3. The biomass productivity of 1.21 g/L/day was achieved under optimal conditions. When pH increased from 9.55 to 10.51, 0.256 M of inorganic carbon was consumed during the culture process. This indicated sufficient carbon can be supplied as bicarbonate to the culture. This study proved that a high biomass production rate can be achieved in a BICCAPS. This strategy can also lead to new design of photobioreactors that provides an alternative supply of CO2 to sparging. PMID:23455223

  4. Siting is a constraint to realize environmental benefits from carbon capture and storage.

    PubMed

    Sekar, Ashok; Williams, Eric; Chester, Mikhail

    2014-10-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) for coal power plants reduces onsite carbon dioxide emissions, but affects other air emissions on and offsite. This research assesses the net societal benefits and costs of Monoethanolamine (MEA) CCS, valuing changes in emissions of CO2, SO2, NOX, NH3 and particulate matter (PM), including those in the supply chain. Geographical variability and stochastic uncertainty for 407 coal power plant locations in the U.S. are analyzed. The results show that the net environmental benefits and costs of MEA CCS depend critically on location. For a few favorable sites of both power plant and upstream processes, CCS realizes a net benefit (benefit-cost ratio >1) if the social cost of carbon exceeds $51/ton. For much of the U.S. however, the social cost of carbon must be much higher to realize net benefits from CCS, up to a maximum of $910/ton. While the social costs of carbon are uncertain, typical estimates are in the range of $32-220 per ton, much lower than the breakeven value for many potential CCS locations. Increased impacts upstream from the power plant can dramatically change the social acceptability of CCS and needs further consideration and analysis. PMID:25187199

  5. Electrochemical carbon dioxide concentrator advanced technology tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, J. J.; Schubert, F. H.; Hallick, T. M.; Woods, R. R.

    1975-01-01

    Technology advancement studies are reported on the basic electrochemical CO2 removal process to provide a basis for the design of the next generation cell, module and subsystem hardware. An Advanced Electrochemical Depolarized Concentrator Module (AEDCM) is developed that has the characteristics of low weight, low volume, high CO2, removal, good electrical performance and low process air pressure drop. Component weight and noise reduction for the hardware of a six man capacity CO2 collection subsystem was developed for the air revitalization group of the Space Station Prototype (SSP).

  6. Cost-effective synthesis of amine-tethered porous materials for carbon capture.

    PubMed

    Lu, Weigang; Bosch, Mathieu; Yuan, Daqiang; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2015-02-01

    A truly cost-effective strategy for the synthesis of amine-tethered porous polymer networks (PPNs) has been developed. A network containing diethylenetriamine (PPN-125-DETA) exhibits a high working capacity comparable to current state-of-art technology (30 % monoethanolamine solutions), yet it requires only one third as much energy for regeneration. It has also been demonstrated to retain over 90 % capacity after 50 adsorption-desorption cycles of CO2 in a temperature-swing adsorption process. The results suggest that PPN-125-DETA is a very promising new material for carbon capture from flue gas streams.

  7. Advances in carbonate exploration and reservoir analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garland, J.; Neilson, J.; Laubach, S.E.; Whidden, Katherine J.

    2012-01-01

    The development of innovative techniques and concepts, and the emergence of new plays in carbonate rocks are creating a resurgence of oil and gas discoveries worldwide. The maturity of a basin and the application of exploration concepts have a fundamental influence on exploration strategies. Exploration success often occurs in underexplored basins by applying existing established geological concepts. This approach is commonly undertaken when new basins ‘open up’ owing to previous political upheavals. The strategy of using new techniques in a proven mature area is particularly appropriate when dealing with unconventional resources (heavy oil, bitumen, stranded gas), while the application of new play concepts (such as lacustrine carbonates) to new areas (i.e. ultra-deep South Atlantic basins) epitomizes frontier exploration. Many low-matrix-porosity hydrocarbon reservoirs are productive because permeability is controlled by fractures and faults. Understanding basic fracture properties is critical in reducing geological risk and therefore reducing well costs and increasing well recovery. The advent of resource plays in carbonate rocks, and the long-standing recognition of naturally fractured carbonate reservoirs means that new fracture and fault analysis and prediction techniques and concepts are essential.

  8. Understanding Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide Leakage from Carbon Capture and Sequestration

    EPA Science Inventory

    US EPA held a technical Geochemical Impact Workshop in Washington, DC on July 10 and 11, 2007 to discuss geological considerations and Area of Review (AoR) issues related to geologic sequestration (GS) of Carbon Dioxide (CO2). Seventy=one (71) representatives of the electric uti...

  9. Power generation enhancement in novel microbial carbon capture cells with immobilized Chlorella vulgaris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Minghua; He, Huanhuan; Jin, Tao; Wang, Hongyu

    2012-09-01

    With the increasing concerns for global climate change, a sustainable, efficient and renewable energy production from wastewater is imperative. In this study, a novel microbial carbon capture cell (MCC), is constructed for the first time by the introduction of immobilized microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris) into the cathode chamber of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) to fulfill the zero discharge of carbon dioxide. This process can achieve an 84.8% COD removal, and simultaneously the maximum power density can reach 2485.35 mW m-3 at a current density of 7.9 A m-3 and the Coulombic efficiency is 9.40%, which are 88% and 57.7% greater than that with suspended C. vulgaris, respectively. These enhancements in performance demonstrate the feasibility of an economical and effective approach for the simultaneous wastewater treatment, electricity generation and biodiesel production from microalgae.

  10. Carbon dioxide capture strategies from flue gas using microalgae: a review.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Daniya M; Mechery, Jerry; Paulose, Sylas V

    2016-09-01

    Global warming and pollution are the twin crises experienced globally. Biological offset of these crises are gaining importance because of its zero waste production and the ability of the organisms to thrive under extreme or polluted condition. In this context, this review highlights the recent developments in carbon dioxide (CO2) capture from flue gas using microalgae and finding the best microalgal remediation strategy through contrast and comparison of different strategies. Different flue gas microalgal remediation strategies discussed are as follows: (i) Flue gas to CO2 gas segregation using adsorbents for microalgal mitigation, (ii) CO2 separation from flue gas using absorbents and later regeneration for microalgal mitigation, (iii) Flue gas to liquid conversion for direct microalgal mitigation, and (iv) direct flue gas mitigation using microalgae. This work also studies the economic feasibility of microalgal production. The study discloses that the direct convening of flue gas with high carbon dioxide content, into microalgal system is cost-effective.

  11. Carbon dioxide capture strategies from flue gas using microalgae: a review.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Daniya M; Mechery, Jerry; Paulose, Sylas V

    2016-09-01

    Global warming and pollution are the twin crises experienced globally. Biological offset of these crises are gaining importance because of its zero waste production and the ability of the organisms to thrive under extreme or polluted condition. In this context, this review highlights the recent developments in carbon dioxide (CO2) capture from flue gas using microalgae and finding the best microalgal remediation strategy through contrast and comparison of different strategies. Different flue gas microalgal remediation strategies discussed are as follows: (i) Flue gas to CO2 gas segregation using adsorbents for microalgal mitigation, (ii) CO2 separation from flue gas using absorbents and later regeneration for microalgal mitigation, (iii) Flue gas to liquid conversion for direct microalgal mitigation, and (iv) direct flue gas mitigation using microalgae. This work also studies the economic feasibility of microalgal production. The study discloses that the direct convening of flue gas with high carbon dioxide content, into microalgal system is cost-effective. PMID:27397026

  12. Bench-scale Development of an Advanced Solid Sorbent-based CO2 Capture Process for Coal-fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Thomas; Kataria, Atish; Soukri, Mustapha; Farmer, Justin; Mobley, Paul; Tanthana, Jak; Wang, Dongxiang; Wang, Xiaoxing; Song, Chunshan

    2015-12-31

    and potential to achieve the DOE’s Carbon Capture Program’s goal of >90% CO2 capture rate at a cost of < $40/T-CO2 captured by 2025. Through this integrated technology development approach, the project team has advanced RTI’s CO2 capture technology to TRL-4 (nearly TRL-5, with the missing variable being testing on actual, coal-fired flue gas), according to the DOE/FE definitions for Technology Readiness Levels. At a broader level, this project has advanced the whole of the solid sorbent CO2 capture field, with advancements in process engineering and design, technical risk mitigation, sorbent scale-up optimization, and an understanding of the commercial viability and applicability of solid sorbent CO2 capture technologies for the U.S. existing fleet of coal-fired power plants.

  13. Carbon dioxide capture and nutrients removal utilizing treated sewage by concentrated microalgae cultivation in a membrane photobioreactor.

    PubMed

    Honda, Ryo; Boonnorat, Jarungwit; Chiemchaisri, Chart; Chiemchaisri, Wilai; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2012-12-01

    A highly efficient microalgae cultivation process was developed for carbon dioxide capture using nutrients from treated sewage. A submerged-membrane filtration system was installed in a photobioreactor to achieve high nutrient loading and to maintain a high concentration and production of microalgae. Chlorella vulgaris, Botryococcus braunii and Spirulina platensis were continuously cultivated with simulated treated sewage and 1%-CO(2) gas. The optimum hydraulic retention time (HRT) and solids retention time (SRT) were explored to achieve the maximum CO(2) capture rate, nutrient removal rate and microalgae biomass productivity. The carbon dioxide capture rate and volumetric microalgae productivity were high when the reactor was operated under 1-day (HRT) and 18-days (SRT) conditions. The independent control of HRT and SRT is effective for efficient microalgae cultivation and carbon dioxide capture using treated sewage.

  14. Advanced Physical Chemistry of Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Pandey, Gaind P.

    2015-04-01

    The past decade has seen a surge of exciting research and applications of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) stimulated by deeper understanding of their fundamental properties and increasing production capability. The intrinsic properties of various CNTs were found to strongly depend on their internal microstructures. This review summarizes the fundamental structure-property relations of seamless tube-like single- and multiwalled CNTs and conically stacked carbon nanofibers, as well as the organized architectures of these CNTs (including randomly stacked thin films, parallel aligned thin films, and vertically aligned arrays). It highlights the recent development of CNTs as key components in selected applications, including nanoelectronics, filtration membranes, transparent conductive electrodes, fuel cells, electrical energy storage devices, and solar cells. Particular emphasis is placed on the link between the basic physical chemical properties of CNTs and the organized CNT architectures with their functions and performance in each application.

  15. Carbon dioxide postcombustion capture: a novel screening study of the carbon dioxide absorption performance of 76 amines.

    PubMed

    Puxty, Graeme; Rowland, Robert; Allport, Andrew; Yang, Qi; Bown, Mark; Burns, Robert; Maeder, Marcel; Attalla, Moetaz

    2009-08-15

    The significant and rapid reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is recognized as necessary to mitigate the potential climate effects from global warming. The postcombustion capture (PCC) and storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) produced from the use of fossil fuels for electricity generation is a key technology needed to achieve these reductions. The most mature technology for CO2 capture is reversible chemical absorption into an aqueous amine solution. In this study the results from measurements of the CO2 absorption capacity of aqueous amine solutions for 76 different amines are presented. Measurements were made using both a novel isothermal gravimetric analysis (IGA) method and a traditional absorption apparatus. Seven amines, consisting of one primary, three secondary, and three tertiary amines, were identified as exhibiting outstanding absorption capacities. Most have a number of structural features in common including steric hindrance and hydroxyl functionality 2 or 3 carbons from the nitrogen. Initial CO2 absorption rate data from the IGA measurements was also used to indicate relative absorption rates. Most of the outstanding performers in terms of capacity also showed initial absorption rates comparable to the industry standard monoethanolamine (MEA). This indicates, in terms of both absorption capacity and kinetics, that they are promising candidates for further investigation.

  16. Transport Properties of Amine/Carbon Dioxide Reactive Mixtures and Implications to Carbon Capture Technologies.

    PubMed

    Turgman-Cohen, Salomon; Giannelis, Emmanuel P; Escobedo, Fernando A

    2015-08-19

    The structure and transport properties of physisorbed and chemisorbed CO2 in model polyamine liquids (hexamethylenediamine and diethylenetriamine) are studied via molecular dynamics simulations. Such systems are relevant to CO2 absorption processes where nonaqueous amines are used as absorbents (e.g., when impregnated or grafted onto mesoporous media or misted in the gas phase). It is shown that accounting for the ionic speciation resulting from CO2 chemisorption enabled us to capture the qualitative changes in extent of absorption and fluidity with time that are observed in thermogravimetric experiments. Simulations reveal that high enough concentration of reacted CO2 leads to strong intermolecular ionic interactions and the arrest of molecular translations. The transport properties obtained from the simulations of the ionic speciated mixtures are also used to construct an approximate continuum-level model for the CO2 absorption process that mimics thermogravimetric experiments.

  17. Transport Properties of Amine/Carbon Dioxide Reactive Mixtures and Implications to Carbon Capture Technologies.

    PubMed

    Turgman-Cohen, Salomon; Giannelis, Emmanuel P; Escobedo, Fernando A

    2015-08-19

    The structure and transport properties of physisorbed and chemisorbed CO2 in model polyamine liquids (hexamethylenediamine and diethylenetriamine) are studied via molecular dynamics simulations. Such systems are relevant to CO2 absorption processes where nonaqueous amines are used as absorbents (e.g., when impregnated or grafted onto mesoporous media or misted in the gas phase). It is shown that accounting for the ionic speciation resulting from CO2 chemisorption enabled us to capture the qualitative changes in extent of absorption and fluidity with time that are observed in thermogravimetric experiments. Simulations reveal that high enough concentration of reacted CO2 leads to strong intermolecular ionic interactions and the arrest of molecular translations. The transport properties obtained from the simulations of the ionic speciated mixtures are also used to construct an approximate continuum-level model for the CO2 absorption process that mimics thermogravimetric experiments. PMID:26200117

  18. Carbon dioxide capture-related gas adsorption and separation in metal-organic frameworks

    SciTech Connect

    Li, JR; Ma, YG; McCarthy, MC; Sculley, J; Yu, JM; Jeong, HK; Balbuena, PB; Zhou, HC

    2011-08-01

    Reducing anthropogenic CO2 emission and lowering the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has quickly become one of the most urgent environmental issues of our age. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is one option for reducing these harmful CO2 emissions. While a variety of technologies and methods have been developed, the separation of CO2 from gas streams is still a critical issue. Apart from establishing new techniques, the exploration of capture materials with high separation performance and low capital cost are of paramount importance. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), a new class of crystalline porous materials constructed by metal-containing nodes bonded to organic bridging ligands hold great potential as adsorbents or membrane materials in gas separation. In this paper, we review the research progress (from experimental results to molecular simulations) in MOFs for CO2 adsorption, storage, and separations (adsorptive separation and membrane-based separation) that are directly related to CO2 capture. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Multiscale carbon nanotube-carbon fiber reinforcement for advanced epoxy composites.

    PubMed

    Bekyarova, E; Thostenson, E T; Yu, A; Kim, H; Gao, J; Tang, J; Hahn, H T; Chou, T-W; Itkis, M E; Haddon, R C

    2007-03-27

    We report an approach to the development of advanced structural composites based on engineered multiscale carbon nanotube-carbon fiber reinforcement. Electrophoresis was utilized for the selective deposition of multi- and single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on woven carbon fabric. The CNT-coated carbon fabric panels were subsequently infiltrated with epoxy resin using vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) to fabricate multiscale hybrid composites in which the nanotubes were completely integrated into the fiber bundles and reinforced the matrix-rich regions. The carbon nanotube/carbon fabric/epoxy composites showed approximately 30% enhancement of the interlaminar shear strength as compared to that of carbon fiber/epoxy composites without carbon nanotubes and demonstrate significantly improved out-of-plane electrical conductivity. PMID:17326671

  20. 41 CFR 301-71.303 - What data must we capture in our travel advance accounting system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What data must we capture in our travel advance accounting system? 301-71.303 Section 301-71.303 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES...

  1. Simulation of mercury capture by activated carbon injection in incinerator flue gas. 2. Fabric filter removal.

    PubMed

    Scala, F

    2001-11-01

    Following a companion paper focused on the in-duct mercury capture in incinerator flue gas by powdered activated carbon injection, this paper is concerned with the additional mercury capture on the fabric filter cake, relevant to baghouse equipped facilities. A detailed model is presented for this process, based on material balances on mercury in both gaseous and adsorbed phases along the growing filter cake and inside the activated carbon particles,taking into account mass transfer resistances and adsorption kinetics. Several sorbents of practical interest have been considered, whose parameters have been evaluated from available literature data. The values and range of the operating variables have been chosen in order to simulate typical incinerators operating conditions. Results of simulations indicate that, contrary to the in-duct removal process, high mercury removal efficiencies can be obtained with moderate sorbent consumption, as a consequence of the effective gas/sorbent contacting on the filter. Satisfactory utilization of the sorbents is predicted, especially at long filtration times. The sorbent feed rate can be minimized by using a reactive sorbent and by lowering the filter temperature as much as possible. Minor benefits can be obtained also by decreasing the sorbent particle size and by increasing the cleaning cycle time of the baghouse compartments. Reverse-flow baghouses were more efficient than pulse-jet baghouses, while smoother operation can be obtained by increasing the number of baghouse compartments. Model results are compared with available relevant full scale data. PMID:11718360

  2. The lifetime of carbon capture and storage as a climate-change mitigation technology

    SciTech Connect

    Juanes, Ruben

    2013-12-30

    In carbon capture and storage (CCS), CO2 is captured at power plants and then injected underground into reservoirs like deep saline aquifers for long-term storage. While CCS may be critical for the continued use of fossil fuels in a carbon-constrained world, the deployment of CCS has been hindered by uncertainty in geologic storage capacities and sustainable injection rates, which has contributed to the absence of concerted government policy. Here, we clarify the potential of CCS to mitigate emissions in the United States by developing a storage-capacity supply curve that, unlike current large-scale capacity estimates, is derived from the fluid mechanics of CO2 injection and trapping and incorporates injection-rate constraints. We show that storage supply is a dynamic quantity that grows with the duration of CCS, and we interpret the lifetime of CCS as the time for which the storage supply curve exceeds the storage demand curve from CO2 production. We show that in the United States, if CO2 production from power generation continues to rise at recent rates, then CCS can store enough CO2 to stabilize emissions at current levels for at least 100 years. This result suggests that the large-scale implementation of CCS is a geologically viable climate-change mitigation option in the United States over the next century.

  3. An investigation of carbon dioxide capture by chitin acetate/DMSO binary system.

    PubMed

    Eftaiha, Ala'a F; Alsoubani, Fatima; Assaf, Khaleel I; Troll, Carsten; Rieger, Bernhard; Khaled, Aseel H; Qaroush, Abdussalam K

    2016-11-01

    Chitin is considered to be the second most abundant naturally-occurring polysaccharide. Also, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is the second highest dielectric constant polar solvent after water. Despite the low solubility of chitin in common organic solvents, and due to its high nitrogen content, it may serve as a potential scrubbing agent "wet scrubbing" for carbon dioxide (CO2) capturing as an alternative to monoethanolamine "renewables for renewables approach". Briefly, a detailed investigation for the utilization of low molecular weight, chitin-acetate (CA) in DMSO for the capturing of CO2 is reported. As carbonation process takes place, the formation of ionic alkylcarbonate was confirmed throughout spectroscopic and computational studies. Supramolecular chemisorption was proven throughout (1)H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((1)H NMR) together with the absence of sorption of CO2 by the monomeric repeating unit, glucosamine hydrochloride. Further, Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations supported the formation of the CA/CO2 adduct through a newly formed supramolecular ionic interaction and hydrogen bonding along the oligosaccharide backbone between the neighboring ammonium ion and hydroxyl functional groups. The sorption capacity was measured volumetrically within an in situ Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared coupled (in situ ATR-FTIR) autoclave at 25.0°C, and 4.0bar CO2, with a maximum sorption capacity of 3.63 [Formula: see text] /gsorbent at 10.0% (w/v). PMID:27516261

  4. An investigation of carbon dioxide capture by chitin acetate/DMSO binary system.

    PubMed

    Eftaiha, Ala'a F; Alsoubani, Fatima; Assaf, Khaleel I; Troll, Carsten; Rieger, Bernhard; Khaled, Aseel H; Qaroush, Abdussalam K

    2016-11-01

    Chitin is considered to be the second most abundant naturally-occurring polysaccharide. Also, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is the second highest dielectric constant polar solvent after water. Despite the low solubility of chitin in common organic solvents, and due to its high nitrogen content, it may serve as a potential scrubbing agent "wet scrubbing" for carbon dioxide (CO2) capturing as an alternative to monoethanolamine "renewables for renewables approach". Briefly, a detailed investigation for the utilization of low molecular weight, chitin-acetate (CA) in DMSO for the capturing of CO2 is reported. As carbonation process takes place, the formation of ionic alkylcarbonate was confirmed throughout spectroscopic and computational studies. Supramolecular chemisorption was proven throughout (1)H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((1)H NMR) together with the absence of sorption of CO2 by the monomeric repeating unit, glucosamine hydrochloride. Further, Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations supported the formation of the CA/CO2 adduct through a newly formed supramolecular ionic interaction and hydrogen bonding along the oligosaccharide backbone between the neighboring ammonium ion and hydroxyl functional groups. The sorption capacity was measured volumetrically within an in situ Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared coupled (in situ ATR-FTIR) autoclave at 25.0°C, and 4.0bar CO2, with a maximum sorption capacity of 3.63 [Formula: see text] /gsorbent at 10.0% (w/v).

  5. Simulation of mercury capture by activated carbon injection in incinerator flue gas. 2. Fabric filter removal.

    PubMed

    Scala, F

    2001-11-01

    Following a companion paper focused on the in-duct mercury capture in incinerator flue gas by powdered activated carbon injection, this paper is concerned with the additional mercury capture on the fabric filter cake, relevant to baghouse equipped facilities. A detailed model is presented for this process, based on material balances on mercury in both gaseous and adsorbed phases along the growing filter cake and inside the activated carbon particles,taking into account mass transfer resistances and adsorption kinetics. Several sorbents of practical interest have been considered, whose parameters have been evaluated from available literature data. The values and range of the operating variables have been chosen in order to simulate typical incinerators operating conditions. Results of simulations indicate that, contrary to the in-duct removal process, high mercury removal efficiencies can be obtained with moderate sorbent consumption, as a consequence of the effective gas/sorbent contacting on the filter. Satisfactory utilization of the sorbents is predicted, especially at long filtration times. The sorbent feed rate can be minimized by using a reactive sorbent and by lowering the filter temperature as much as possible. Minor benefits can be obtained also by decreasing the sorbent particle size and by increasing the cleaning cycle time of the baghouse compartments. Reverse-flow baghouses were more efficient than pulse-jet baghouses, while smoother operation can be obtained by increasing the number of baghouse compartments. Model results are compared with available relevant full scale data.

  6. Lifetime of carbon capture and storage as a climate-change mitigation technology

    PubMed Central

    Szulczewski, Michael L.; MacMinn, Christopher W.; Herzog, Howard J.; Juanes, Ruben

    2012-01-01

    In carbon capture and storage (CCS), CO2 is captured at power plants and then injected underground into reservoirs like deep saline aquifers for long-term storage. While CCS may be critical for the continued use of fossil fuels in a carbon-constrained world, the deployment of CCS has been hindered by uncertainty in geologic storage capacities and sustainable injection rates, which has contributed to the absence of concerted government policy. Here, we clarify the potential of CCS to mitigate emissions in the United States by developing a storage-capacity supply curve that, unlike current large-scale capacity estimates, is derived from the fluid mechanics of CO2 injection and trapping and incorporates injection-rate constraints. We show that storage supply is a dynamic quantity that grows with the duration of CCS, and we interpret the lifetime of CCS as the time for which the storage supply curve exceeds the storage demand curve from CO2 production. We show that in the United States, if CO2 production from power generation continues to rise at recent rates, then CCS can store enough CO2 to stabilize emissions at current levels for at least 100 y. This result suggests that the large-scale implementation of CCS is a geologically viable climate-change mitigation option in the United States over the next century. PMID:22431639

  7. Multiphase flow simulations of a moving fluidized bed regenerator in a carbon capture unit

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkar, Avik; Pan, Wenxiao; Suh, Dong-Myung; Huckaby, E. D.; Sun, Xin

    2014-10-01

    To accelerate the commercialization and deployment of carbon capture technologies, computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based tools may be used to model and analyze the performance of carbon capture devices. This work presents multiphase CFD-based flow simulations for the regeneration device responsible for extracting CO2 from CO2-loaded sorbent particles before the particles are recycled. The use of solid particle sorbents in this design is a departure from previously reported systems, where aqueous sorbents are employed. Another new feature is the inclusion of a series of perforated plates along the regenerator height. The influence of these plates on sorbent distribution is examined for varying sorbent holdup, fluidizing gas velocity, and particle size. The residence time distribution of sorbents is also measured to classify the low regime as plug flow or well-mixed flow. The purpose of this work is to better understand the sorbent flow characteristics before reaction kinetics of CO2 desorption can be implemented.

  8. The Biological Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vent as a Model to Study Carbon Dioxide Capturing Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Minic, Zoran; Thongbam, Premila D.

    2011-01-01

    Deep sea hydrothermal vents are located along the mid-ocean ridge system, near volcanically active areas, where tectonic plates are moving away from each other. Sea water penetrates the fissures of the volcanic bed and is heated by magma. This heated sea water rises to the surface dissolving large amounts of minerals which provide a source of energy and nutrients to chemoautotrophic organisms. Although this environment is characterized by extreme conditions (high temperature, high pressure, chemical toxicity, acidic pH and absence of photosynthesis) a diversity of microorganisms and many animal species are specially adapted to this hostile environment. These organisms have developed a very efficient metabolism for the assimilation of inorganic CO2 from the external environment. In order to develop technology for the capture of carbon dioxide to reduce greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, enzymes involved in CO2 fixation and assimilation might be very useful. This review describes some current research concerning CO2 fixation and assimilation in the deep sea environment and possible biotechnological application of enzymes for carbon dioxide capture. PMID:21673885

  9. The biological deep sea hydrothermal vent as a model to study carbon dioxide capturing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Minic, Zoran; Thongbam, Premila D

    2011-01-01

    Deep sea hydrothermal vents are located along the mid-ocean ridge system, near volcanically active areas, where tectonic plates are moving away from each other. Sea water penetrates the fissures of the volcanic bed and is heated by magma. This heated sea water rises to the surface dissolving large amounts of minerals which provide a source of energy and nutrients to chemoautotrophic organisms. Although this environment is characterized by extreme conditions (high temperature, high pressure, chemical toxicity, acidic pH and absence of photosynthesis) a diversity of microorganisms and many animal species are specially adapted to this hostile environment. These organisms have developed a very efficient metabolism for the assimilation of inorganic CO₂ from the external environment. In order to develop technology for the capture of carbon dioxide to reduce greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, enzymes involved in CO₂ fixation and assimilation might be very useful. This review describes some current research concerning CO₂ fixation and assimilation in the deep sea environment and possible biotechnological application of enzymes for carbon dioxide capture.

  10. The biological deep sea hydrothermal vent as a model to study carbon dioxide capturing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Minic, Zoran; Thongbam, Premila D

    2011-01-01

    Deep sea hydrothermal vents are located along the mid-ocean ridge system, near volcanically active areas, where tectonic plates are moving away from each other. Sea water penetrates the fissures of the volcanic bed and is heated by magma. This heated sea water rises to the surface dissolving large amounts of minerals which provide a source of energy and nutrients to chemoautotrophic organisms. Although this environment is characterized by extreme conditions (high temperature, high pressure, chemical toxicity, acidic pH and absence of photosynthesis) a diversity of microorganisms and many animal species are specially adapted to this hostile environment. These organisms have developed a very efficient metabolism for the assimilation of inorganic CO₂ from the external environment. In order to develop technology for the capture of carbon dioxide to reduce greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, enzymes involved in CO₂ fixation and assimilation might be very useful. This review describes some current research concerning CO₂ fixation and assimilation in the deep sea environment and possible biotechnological application of enzymes for carbon dioxide capture. PMID:21673885

  11. Tail-end Hg capture on Au/carbon-monolith regenerable sorbents.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, M Teresa; Ballestero, Diego; Juan, Roberto; García-Díez, Enrique; Rubio, Begoña; Ruiz, Carmen; Pino, M Rosa

    2011-10-15

    In this work, a regenerable sorbent for Hg retention based on carbon supported Au nanoparticles has been developed and tested. Honeycomb structures were chosen in order to avoid pressure drop and particle entrainment in a fixed bed. Carbon-based supports were selected in order to easily modify the surface chemistry to favour the Au dispersion. Results of Hg retention and regeneration were obtained in a bench scale experimental installation working at high space velocities (for sorbent, 53,000 h(-1); for active phase, 2.6 × 10(8) h(-1)), 120 °C for retention temperature and Hg inlet concentration of 23 ppbv. Gold nanoparticles were shown to be the active phase for mercury capture through an amalgamating mechanism. The mercury captured by the spent sorbent can be easily released to be disposed or reused. Mercury evolution from spent sorbents was followed by TPD experiments showing that the sorbent can be regenerated at temperatures as low as 220 °C.

  12. Porous carbon material containing CaO for acidic gas capture: preparation and properties.

    PubMed

    Przepiórski, Jacek; Czyżewski, Adam; Pietrzak, Robert; Toyoda, Masahiro; Morawski, Antoni W

    2013-12-15

    A one-step process for the preparation of CaO-containing porous carbons is described. Mixtures of poly(ethylene terephthalate) with natural limestone were pyrolyzed and thus hybrid sorbents could be easily obtained. The polymeric material and the mineral served as a carbon precursor and CaO delivering agent, respectively. We discuss effects of the preparation conditions and the relative amounts of the raw materials used for the preparations on the porosity of the hybrid products. The micropore areas and volumes of the obtained products tended to decrease with increasing CaO contents. Increase in the preparation temperature entailed a decrease in the micropore volume, whereas the mesopore volume increased. The pore creation mechanism is proposed on the basis of thermogravimetric and temperature-programmed desorption measurements. The prepared CaO-containing porous carbons efficiently captured SO2 and CO2 from air. Washing out of CaO from the hybrid materials was confirmed as a suitable method to obtain highly porous carbon materials.

  13. Microbially enhanced carbon capture and storage - from pores to cores (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, A. C.; Cunningham, A. B.; Spangler, L.; Gerlach, R.

    2010-12-01

    During the operation of Geologic Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) and the injection of supercritical CO2 into underground formations, microbe-rock-fluid interactions occur. These interactions may be important for controlling the ultimate fate of the injected CO2, and may also be manipulated to enhance the storage of the CO2, via mineral-trapping, solubility trapping, formation trapping, and leakage reduction. We have demonstrated that engineered microbial biofilms are capable of enhancing formation, mineral, and solubility trapping in carbon sequestration-relevant formation materials. Batch and flow experiments at atmospheric and high pressures (> 74 bar) have shown the ability of microbial biofilms to decrease the permeability of natural and artificial porous media, survive the exposure to supercritical CO2, and facilitate the conversion of gaseous and supercritical CO2 into long-term stable carbonate phases as well as increase the solubility of CO2 in brines. Ongoing microscopy and modelling studies aim to understand these processes at both the pore- and core-scale in order to facilitate larger scale understanding and potential manipulation for biologically based CCS engineering. Successful development of these biologically-based concepts could result in microbially enhanced carbon sequestration strategies as well as CO2 leakage mitigation technologies, which can be applied either before CO2 injection or as a remedial measure around injection wells.

  14. Reviews and synthesis: Carbon capture and storage monitoring - an integrated biological, biophysical and chemical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, N.; Vik, U.; Taylor, P.; Ladoukakis, E.; Park, J.; Kolisis, F.; Stahl, H.; Jakobsen, K. S.

    2015-06-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a developing technology that seeks to mitigate against the impact of increasing anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) production by capturing CO2 from large point source emitters. After capture the CO2 is compressed and transported to a reservoir where it is stored for geological time scales. Potential leakages from CCS projects, where stored CO2 migrates through the overlaying sediments, are likely to have severe implications on benthic and marine ecosystems. Nonetheless, prokaryotic response to elevated CO2 concentrations has been suggested as one of the first detectable warnings if a CO2 leakage should occur. Applying properties of prokaryotic communities (i.e. community composition and metabolic status) as a novel CO2 monitoring application is highly reliable within a multidisciplinary framework, where deviations from the baseline can easily be identified. In this paper we review current knowledge about the impact of CO2 leakages on marine sediments from a multidisciplinary-based monitoring perspective. We focus on aspects from the fields of biology, geophysics, and chemistry, and discuss a case study example. We argue the importance of an integrative multidisciplinary approach, incorporating biogeochemistry, geophysics, microbial ecology and modelling, with a particular emphasis on metagenomic techniques and novel bioinformatics, for future CCS monitoring. Within this framework, we consider that an effective CCS monitoring programme will ensure that large-scale leakages with potentially devastating effects for the overlaying ecosystem are avoided. Furthermore, the multidisciplinary approach suggested here for CCS monitoring is generic, and can be adapted to other systems of interest.

  15. Cumulative Radiative Forcing Implications of Deployment Strategies for Carbon Capture and Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathre, R. C.; Masanet, E.

    2011-12-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is increasingly discussed as a potential means of mitigating the climate disruption associated with fossil fuel use. Some technologies for capturing, transporting, and sequestering carbon dioxide (CO2) are already mature, while others technologies under development may lead to more cost- and energy-efficient CCS systems. Various elements of CCS systems are currently in operation at relatively small scale, but will need to be scaled up very substantially in order to make a significant contribution to climate change mitigation. Because the rate of fossil fuel CO2 emission is continuing to increase and the emitted CO2 will remain in the atmosphere for long time periods, the speed at which CCS is deployed will strongly affect the cumulative CO2 emission and the climate impacts. To better understand these issues, in this analysis we integrate scenario forecasting of energy supply systems, life cycle emission modeling, and time-dependent calculations of cumulative radiative forcing. We develop a series of CCS deployment scenarios that describe plausible future trajectories for CCS implementation in the US electric power plant fleet. The scenarios incorporate dimensions such as speed of deployment build-out, year of initiating deployment, efficiency of capture technology, and installation in new power plants vs. retrofitting existing plants. We conduct life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions analyses of each scenario to estimate annual emission profiles of CO2, CH4, and N2O over a 90-year time horizon, from 2010 to 2100. We then model the atmospheric dynamics of the emitted GHGs including atmospheric decay and instantaneous radiative forcing patterns over time. Finally, we determine the cumulative radiative forcing of each scenario, which we use as a proxy for surface temperature change and resulting disruption to physical, ecological and social systems. The results show strong climate mitigation benefits of early, aggressive

  16. Optimal Synthesis of a Pulverized Coal Power Plant with Carbon Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Prakash R. Kotecha; Juan M. Salazar; Stephen Zitney

    2009-01-01

    Coal constitutes an important source of fuel for the production of power in the United States. For instance, in January 2009, pulverized coal (PC) power plants alone contributed to over 45 percent of the Nation's total electric power production. However, PC power plants also contribute to increased emissions of greenhouse gases principally carbon-dioxide (CO2). Recently, various carbon capture strategies have been under active investigation so as to make these plants compete with the more environmental friendly renewable energy sources. One such technology that has received considerable success is the capture of CO2 by an amine-based solvent extraction process. However, an aqueous absorption/stripping technology when used in a PC power plant can reduce the net power output of the plant by as much as 20-40%. The energy penalty comes from heating up the solvent in the regenerator, balancing the enthalpy of reaction, and water stripping. This energy penalty poses considerable limitations on commercial viability of the solvent extraction process and, as a result, various energy-saving modifications have been proposed in the literature ranging from the use of hybrid solvents to novel stripper configurations. In this paper, we show that the energy penalty can be further reduced by heat integration of various PC plant components with the carbon capture system. In addition to the release of greenhouse gases to the environment, PC plants also consume a large amount of freshwater. It is estimated that subcritical and supercritical PC plants have water losses of 714 gal/MWh and 639 gal/MWh, respectively. Water loss is based on an overall balance of the plant source and exit streams. This includes coal moisture, air humidity, process makeup, cooling tower makeup (equivalent to evaporation plus blowdown), process losses (including losses through reactions, solids entrainment, and process makeup/blowdown) and flue gas losses. The primary source of water used in PC power plants

  17. Effect of nano-silica spheres template on CO2 capture of exchange resin-based nanoporous carbons.

    PubMed

    Meng, Long-Yue; Park, Soo-Jin

    2013-01-01

    In this work, a nanoporous carbon-based adsorbent with a higher specific surface area was directly prepared from polystyrene-based cation exchange resin (PCER) by carbonization of a mixture of nano-silica spheres. The silica/PCER composites were carbonized at 1173 K with different silica/PCER ratios. The effects of nano-silica spheres content on the pore structures of nanoporous carbons were investigated by N2 full isotherms. The CO2 capture capacity was measured by CO2 isothermal adsorption at 298 K and 1 bar. From the results, it was found that the nano-silica spheres/PCER ratio had a major influence on the CO2 capture capacity and the textural properties of the prepared nanoporous carbons. The specific surface area and total pore volume, as well as the pore size of the nanoporous carbons increased with increasing silica/PCER ratio. PMID:23646745

  18. ADVANCED OXYFUEL BOILERS AND PROCESS HEATERS FOR COST EFFECTIVE CO2 CAPTURE AND SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    John Sirman; Leonard Switzer; Bart van Hassel

    2004-06-01

    This annual technical progress report summarizes the work accomplished during the second year of the program, January-December 2003, in the following task areas: Task 1--Conceptual Design, Task 2--Laboratory Scale Evaluations, Task 3--OTM Development, Task 4--Economic Evaluation and Commercialization Planning and Task 5--Program Management. The program has experienced significant delays due to several factors. The budget has also been significantly under spent. Based on recent technical successes and confirmation of process economics, significant future progress is expected. Concepts for integrating Oxygen Transport Membranes (OTMs) into boilers and process heaters to facilitate oxy-fuel combustion have been investigated. OTM reactor combustion testing was delayed to insufficient reliability of the earlier OTM materials. Substantial improvements to reliability have been identified and testing will recommence early in 2004. Promising OTM material compositions and OTM architectures have been identified that improve the reliability of the ceramic elements. Economic evaluation continued. Information was acquired that quantified the attractiveness of the advanced oxygen-fired boiler. CO{sub 2} capture and compression are still estimated to be much less than $10/ton CO{sub 2}.

  19. Conceptual Design of Optimized Fossil Energy Systems with Capture and Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Nils Johnson; Joan Ogden

    2010-12-31

    In this final report, we describe research results from Phase 2 of a technical/economic study of fossil hydrogen energy systems with carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture and storage (CCS). CO{sub 2} capture and storage, or alternatively, CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration, involves capturing CO{sub 2} from large point sources and then injecting it into deep underground reservoirs for long-term storage. By preventing CO{sub 2} emissions into the atmosphere, this technology has significant potential to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from fossil-based facilities in the power and industrial sectors. Furthermore, the application of CCS to power plants and hydrogen production facilities can reduce CO{sub 2} emissions associated with electric vehicles (EVs) and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCVs) and, thus, can also improve GHG emissions in the transportation sector. This research specifically examines strategies for transitioning to large-scale coal-derived energy systems with CCS for both hydrogen fuel production and electricity generation. A particular emphasis is on the development of spatially-explicit modeling tools for examining how these energy systems might develop in real geographic regions. We employ an integrated modeling approach that addresses all infrastructure components involved in the transition to these energy systems. The overall objective is to better understand the system design issues and economics associated with the widespread deployment of hydrogen and CCS infrastructure in real regions. Specific objectives of this research are to: Develop improved techno-economic models for all components required for the deployment of both hydrogen and CCS infrastructure, Develop novel modeling methods that combine detailed spatial data with optimization tools to explore spatially-explicit transition strategies, Conduct regional case studies to explore how these energy systems might develop in different regions of the United States, and Examine how the

  20. Radiative double electron capture in collisions of fully-stripped fluorine ions with thin carbon foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkafrawy, Tamer Mohammad Samy

    Radiative double electron capture (RDEC) is a one-step process in ion-atom collisions occurring when two target electrons are captured to a bound state of the projectile simultaneously with the emission of a single photon. The emitted photon has approximately double the energy of the photon emitted due to radiative electron capture (REC), which occurs when a target electron is captured to a projectile bound state with simultaneous emission of a photon. REC and RDEC can be treated as time-reversed photoionization (PI) and double photoionization (DPI), respectively, if loosely-bound target electrons are captured. This concept can be formulated with the principle of detailed balance, in which the processes of our interest can be described in terms of their time-reversed ones. Fully-stripped ions were used as projectiles in the performed RDEC experiments, providing a recipient system free of electron-related Coulomb fields. This allows the target electrons to be transferred without interaction with any of the projectile electrons, enabling accurate investigation of the electron-electron interaction in the vicinity of electromagnetic field. In this dissertation, RDEC was investigated during the collision of fully-stripped fluorine ions with a thin carbon foil and the results are compared with the recent experimental and theoretical studies. In the current work, x rays associated with projectile charge-changing by single and double electron capture and no charge change by F9+ ions were observed and compared with recent work for O8+ ions and with theory. Both the F 9+ and O8+ ions had energies in the ˜MeV/u range. REC, in turn, was investigated as a means to compare with the theoretical predictions of the RDEC/REC cross section ratio. The most significant background processes including various mechanisms of x-ray emission that may interfere with the energy region of interest are addressed in detail. This enables isolation of the contributions of REC and RDEC from the

  1. Carbonation and hydration characteristics of dry potassium-based sorbents for CO{sub 2} capture

    SciTech Connect

    Chuanwen Zhao; Xiaoping Chen; Changsui Zhao; Yakun Liu

    2009-03-15

    Thermogravimetric apparatus (TGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) have been used to study the characteristics of potassium-based sorbents for CO{sub 2} capture. The carbonation reactivity of K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}.1.5H{sub 2}O and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} dehydrated from K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. 1.5H{sub 2}O was weak. However, K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} calcined from KHCO{sub 3} showed excellent carbonation capacity and no deactivation of sorbents during multiple cycles. The XRD results showed that the sample dehydrated from K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}1.5H{sub 2}O was K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} with structure of monoclinic crystal (PCNo.1). The carbonation products of PCNo.1 included K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}.1.5H{sub 2}O and KHCO{sub 3}, and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. 1.5H{sub 2}O was the main product. Correspondingly, K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} with structure of hexagonal crystal (PCNo.2) was the product calcined from KHCO{sub 3}, and the main carbonation product of PCNo.2 was KHCO{sub 3}. The byproduct of K{sub 4}H{sub 2}(CO{sub 3})3.1.5H{sub 2}O for PCNo.2 would affect the carbonation processes. Hydration tests confirmed the two hypotheses: the hydration reaction will first occur for K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} with structure of monoclinic crystal, and the carbonation reaction will first occur for K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} with structure of hexagonal crystal. The reaction principles were analyzed by product and the relevant reactions. This investigation can be used as basic data for dry potassium-based sorbents capturing CO{sub 2} from flue gas. 20 refs., 7 figs.

  2. Carbon Sequestration and Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hisyamudin Muhd Nor, Nik; Norhana Selamat, Siti; Hanif Abd Rashid, Muhammad; Fauzi Ahmad, Mohd; Jamian, Saifulnizan; Chee Kiong, Sia; Fahrul Hassan, Mohd; Mohamad, Fariza; Yokoyama, Seiji

    2016-06-01

    Southeast Asia is a standout amongst the most presented districts to unnatural weather change dangers even they are not principle worldwide carbon dioxide (CO2) maker, its discharge will get to be significant if there is no move made. CO2 wellsprings of Southeast Asia are mainly by fossil fuel through era of power and warmth generation, and also transportation part. The endeavors taken by these nations can be ordered into administrative and local level. This paper review the potential for carbon catch and capacity (CCS) as a part of the environmental change moderation system for the Malaysian power area utilizing an innovation appraisal structure. The country's recorded pattern of high dependence on fossil fuel for its power segment makes it a prime possibility for CCS reception. This issue leads to gradual increment of CO2 emission. It is evident from this evaluation that CCS can possibly assume a vital part in Malaysia's environmental change moderation methodology gave that key criteria are fulfilled. With the reason to pick up considerations from all gatherings into the earnestness of an Earth-wide temperature boost issue in Southeast Asia, assume that more efficient measures can be taken to effectively accomplish CO2 diminishment target.

  3. Systematic Tuning and Multifunctionalization of Covalent Organic Polymers for Enhanced Carbon Capture.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Zhonghua; Mercado, Rocio; Huck, Johanna M; Wang, Hui; Guo, Zhanhu; Wang, Wenchuan; Cao, Dapeng; Haranczyk, Maciej; Smit, Berend

    2015-10-21

    Porous covalent polymers are attracting increasing interest in the fields of gas adsorption, gas separation, and catalysis due to their fertile synthetic polymer chemistry, large internal surface areas, and ultrahigh hydrothermal stabilities. While precisely manipulating the porosities of porous organic materials for targeted applications remains challenging, we show how a large degree of diversity can be achieved in covalent organic polymers by incorporating multiple functionalities into a single framework, as is done for crystalline porous materials. Here, we synthesized 17 novel porous covalent organic polymers (COPs) with finely tuned porosities, a wide range of Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface areas of 430-3624 m(2) g(-1), and a broad range of pore volumes of 0.24-3.50 cm(3) g(-1), all achieved by tailoring the length and geometry of building blocks. Furthermore, we are the first to successfully incorporate more than three distinct functional groups into one phase for porous organic materials, which has been previously demonstrated in crystalline metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). COPs decorated with multiple functional groups in one phase can lead to enhanced properties that are not simply linear combinations of the pure component properties. For instance, in the dibromobenzene-lined frameworks, the bi- and multifunctionalized COPs exhibit selectivities for carbon dioxide over nitrogen twice as large as any of the singly functionalized COPs. These multifunctionalized frameworks also exhibit a lower parasitic energy cost for carbon capture at typical flue gas conditions than any of the singly functionalized frameworks. Despite the significant improvement, these frameworks do not yet outperform the current state-of-art technology for carbon capture. Nonetheless, the tuning strategy presented here opens up avenues for the design of novel catalysts, the synthesis of functional sensors from these materials, and the improvement in the performance of

  4. Deciding between carbon trading and carbon capture and sequestration: an optimisation-based case study for methanol synthesis from syngas.

    PubMed

    Üçtuğ, Fehmi Görkem; Ağralı, Semra; Arıkan, Yıldız; Avcıoğlu, Eray

    2014-01-01

    The economic and technical feasibility of carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) systems are gaining importance as CO2 emission reduction is becoming a more pressing issue for parties from production sectors. Public and private entities have to comply with national schemes imposing tighter limits on their emission allowances. Often these parties face two options as whether to invest in CCS or buy carbon credits for the excess emissions above their limits. CCS is an expensive system to invest in and to operate. Therefore, its feasibility depends on the carbon credit prices prevailing in the markets now and in the future. In this paper we consider the problem of installing a CCS unit in order to ensure that the amount of CO2 emissions is within its allowable limits. We formulate this problem as a non-linear optimisation problem where the objective is to maximise the net returns from pursuing an optimal mix of the two options described above. General Algebraic Modelling Systems (GAMS) software was used to solve the model. The results were found to be sensitive to carbon credit prices and the discount rate, which determines the choices with respect to the future and the present. The model was applied to a methanol synthesis plant as an example. However, the formulation can easily be extended to any production process if the CO2 emissions level per unit of physical production is known. The results showed that for CCS to be feasible, carbon credit prices must be above 15 Euros per ton. This value, naturally, depends on the plant-specific data, and the costs we have employed for CCS. The actual prices (≈5 Euros/ton CO2) at present are far from encouraging the investors into CCS technology.

  5. Fatigue characterization of advanced carbon-carbon composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahfuz, Hassan; Das, Partha S.; Jeelani, Shaik; Baker, Dean M.; Johnson, Sigured A.

    1992-01-01

    Response of quasi-isotropic laminates of SiC coated Carbon-Carbon (C/C) composites under flexural fatigue are investigated at room temperature. Virgin as well as mission cycled specimens are tested to study the effects of thermal and pressure cycling on the fatigue performance of C/C. Tests were conducted in three point bending with a stress ratio of 0.2 and frequency of 1 Hz. Fatigue strength of C/C has been found to be considerably high - approximately above 85 percent of the ultimate flexural strength. The fatigue strength appears to be decreasing with the increase in the number of mission cycling of the specimens. This lower strength with the mission cycled specimens is attributed to the loss of interfacial bond strength due to thermal and pressure cycling of the material. C/C is also found to be highly sensitive to the applied stress level during cyclic loading, and this sensitivity is observed to increase with the mission cycling. Weibull characterization on the fatigue data has been performed, and the wide scatter in the Weibull distribution is discussed. Fractured as well as untested specimens were C-scanned, and the progressive damage growth during fatigue is presented.

  6. Mechanism Study of Carbon Dioxide Capture from Ambient Air by Hydration Energy Variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, X.; Lackner, K. S.

    2014-12-01

    Hydration of neutral and ionic species on solid interfaces plays an important role in a wide range of natural and engineered processes within energy systems as well as biological and environmental systems. Various chemical reactions are significantly enhanced, both in the rate and the extent of the reaction, because of water molecules present or absent at the interface. A novel technology for carbon dioxide capture, driven by the free energy difference between more or less hydrated states of an anionic exchange resin is studied for a new approach to absorb CO2 from ambient air. For these materials the affinity to CO2 is dramatically lowered as the availability of water is increased. This makes it possible to absorb CO2 from air in a dry environment and release it at two orders of magnitude larger partial pressures in a wet environment. While the absorption process and the thermodynamic properties of air capture via ion exchange resins have been demonstrated, the underlying physical mechanisms remain to be understood. In order to rationally design better sorbent materials, the present work elucidates through molecular dynamics and quantum mechanical modeling the energy changes in the carbonate, bicarbonate and hydroxide ions that are induced by hydration, and how these changes affect sorbent properties. A methodology is developed to determine the free energy change during carbonate ion hydrolysis changes with different numbers of water molecules present. This makes it possible to calculate the equilibrium in the reaction CO3--•nH2O ↔ HCO3- • m1H2O + OH- • m2H2O + (n - 1 - m1 - m2)H2O Molecular dynamics models are used to calculate free energies of hydration for the CO32- ion, the HCO3- ion, and the OH- ion as function of the amount of water that is present. A quantum mechanical model is employed to study the equilibrium of the reaction Na2CO3 + H2O ↔ NaHCO3 + NaOHin a vacuum and at room temperature. The computational analysis of the free energy of

  7. Recent advances in carbon-carbon substrate technology at NASA. Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ransone, Philip O.; Yamaki, Y. Robert; Maahs, Howard G.

    1992-01-01

    A comparison of specific strengths of candidate high-temperature materials as a function of temperature is shown. From this comparison, it is apparent why there is an interest in carbon-carbon composites for applications as a strong, light-weight thermal protection system (TPS), or as hot structure, for applications above 2500 F. The lower bound of the carbon-carbon band is representative of the tensile strength of cross-ply Advanced Carbon-Carbon (ACC). The upper bound represents capabilities of various experimental carbon-carbon composites. Thin carbon-carbon composites, such as would be used as TPS panels or hot aero-structure, are usually constructed of layups of 2-D fabrics of carbon-fiber yarns (tows). Although the in-plane strengths of these composites can be very attractive, a major problem area is low interlaminar strength. The low interlaminar strength is the result of a relatively weak carbon matrix and poor interaction between the fibers and matrix. The purpose of this paper is to discuss strategies being employed to improve the interlaminar strengths of the materials at the upper bound of the carbon-carbon band, and to present some recent encouraging results. The emphasis of these strategies is to improve interlaminar shear and tensile strengths while maintaining, or even improving, the inplane properties.

  8. Transition metal ion capture using functional mesoporous carbon made with 1,10-phenanthroline

    SciTech Connect

    Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Yantasee, Wassana; Shin, Yongsoon; Grudzien, Rafal M.; Fryxell, Glen E.

    2009-11-01

    Functional mesoporous carbon has been built using 1,10-phenanthroline as the fundamental building block, resulting in a nanoporous, high surface area sorbent capable of selectively binding transition metal ions. This material had a specific surface area of 870 m2/g, an average pore size of about 30Å, and contained as much as 8.2 weight percent N. Under acidic conditions, where the 1,10-phenanthroline ligand is protonated, this material was found to be an effective anion exchange material for transition metal anions like PdCl4-2 and H2VO4-1. 1,10-phenanthroline functionalized mesoporous carbon (“Phen-FMC”) was found to have a high affinity for Cu(II), even down to a pH of 1. At pHs above 5, Phen-FMC was found to bind a variety of transition metal cations (e.g. Co(II), Ni(II), Zn(II), etc.) from filtered ground water, river water and seawater. Phen-FMC displayed rapid sorption kinetics with Co(II) in filtered river water, reaching equilibrium in less than an hour, and easily lowering the [Co(II)] to sub-ppb levels. Phen-FMC was found to be more effective for transition metal ion capture than ion exchange resin or activated carbon.

  9. Transition metal ion capture using functional mesoporous carbon made with 1,10-phenanthroline☆

    PubMed Central

    Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Yantasee, Wassana; Shin, Yongsoon; Grudzien, Rafal M.; Fryxell, Glen E.

    2012-01-01

    Functional mesoporous carbon has been built using 1,10-phenanthroline as the fundamental building block, resulting in a nanoporous, high surface area sorbent capable of selectively binding transition metal ions. This material had a specific surface area of 870 m2/g, an average pore size of about 30 Å, and contained as much as 8.2 wt% N. Under acidic conditions, where the 1,10-phenanthroline ligand is protonated, this material was found to be an effective anion exchange material for transition metal anions like PdCl42- and H2VO41-. 1,10-Phenanthroline functionalized mesoporous carbon (“Phen-FMC”) was found to have a high affinity for Cu(II), even down to a pH of 1. At pHs above 5, Phen-FMC was found to bind a variety of transition metal cations (e.g. Co(II), Ni(II), Zn(II), etc.) from filtered ground water, river water and seawater. Phen-FMC displayed rapid sorption kinetics with Co(II) in filtered river water, reaching equilibrium in less than an hour, and easily lowering the [Co(II)] to sub-ppb levels. Phen-FMC was found to be more effective for transition metal ion capture than ion-exchange resin or activated carbon. PMID:23762013

  10. Advances in carbon-nanotube assembly.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yehai; Chan-Park, Mary B; Zhang, Qing

    2007-01-01

    Iijima's observation in 1991 of fullerene-like materials by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy heralded the beginning of the carbon nanotube (CNT) era. A wealth of theoretical predictions and experimental verifications about CNTs have disclosed remarkable size- and structure-dependent properties that are attractive for various potential applications, ranging from conducting wires in molecular devices to fillers in nanocomposites. Many of these applications require assembly (alignment and/or patterning) of CNTs into hierarchical arrays over large-scale areas with controllable shape, location, orientation, and density of the nanotubes. Efforts from both the scientific and engineering points of view have been made to address this issue, beginning shortly after the discovery of CNTs. We review here the development of CNT-assembly techniques under the two rubrics of synthetic assembly and post-synthetic assembly, with emphasis given to the post-synthetic approach. Preliminary to the survey of assembly techniques, we also discuss the characterization techniques that have been widely used for the challenging tasks of visualizing and quantifying CNT assembly. PMID:17294465

  11. Combustion systems and power plants incorporating parallel carbon dioxide capture and sweep-based membrane separation units to remove carbon dioxide from combustion gases

    DOEpatents

    Wijmans, Johannes G.; Merkel, Timothy C; Baker, Richard W.

    2011-10-11

    Disclosed herein are combustion systems and power plants that incorporate sweep-based membrane separation units to remove carbon dioxide from combustion gases. In its most basic embodiment, the invention is a combustion system that includes three discrete units: a combustion unit, a carbon dioxide capture unit, and a sweep-based membrane separation unit. In a preferred embodiment, the invention is a power plant including a combustion unit, a power generation system, a carbon dioxide capture unit, and a sweep-based membrane separation unit. In both of these embodiments, the carbon dioxide capture unit and the sweep-based membrane separation unit are configured to be operated in parallel, by which we mean that each unit is adapted to receive exhaust gases from the combustion unit without such gases first passing through the other unit.

  12. Long-term calcination/carbonation cycling and thermal pretreatment for CO{sub 2} capture by limestone and dolomite

    SciTech Connect

    Zhongxiang Chen; Hoon Sub Song; Miguel Portillo; C. Jim Lim; John R. Grace; E.J. Anthony

    2009-03-15

    Capturing carbon dioxide is vital for the future of climate-friendly combustion, gasification, and steam-re-forming processes. Dry processes utilizing simple sorbents have great potential in this regard. Long-term calcination/carbonation cycling was carried out in an atmospheric-pressure thermogravimetric reactor. Although dolomite gave better capture than limestone for a limited number of cycles, the advantage declined over many cycles. Under some circumstances, decreasing the carbonation temperature increased the rate of reaction because of the interaction between equilibrium and kinetic factors. Limestone and dolomite, after being pretreated thermally at high temperatures (1000 or 1100{sup o}C), showed a substantial increase in calcium utilization over many calcination/carbonation cycles. Lengthening the pretreatment interval resulted in greater improvement. However, attrition was significantly greater for the pretreated sorbents. Greatly extending the duration of carbonation during one cycle was found to be capable of restoring the CO{sub 2} capture ability of sorbents to their original behavior, offering a possible means of countering the long-term degradation of calcium sorbents for dry capture of carbon dioxide. 12 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Pilot-Scale Silicone Process for Low-Cost Carbon Dioxide Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Farnum, Rachel; Perry, Robert; Wood, Benjamin

    2014-12-31

    GE Global Research is developing technology to remove carbon dioxide (CO 2) from the flue gas of coal-fired powerplants. A mixture of 3-aminopropyl end-capped polydimethylsiloxane (GAP-1m) and triethylene glycol (TEG) is the preferred CO2-capture solvent. GE Global Research was contracted by the Department of Energy to test a pilot-scale continuous CO2 absorption/desorption system using a GAP-1m/TEG mixture as the solvent. As part of that effort, an Environmental, Health, and Safety (EH&S) assessment for a CO2-capture system for a 550 MW coal-fired powerplant was conducted. Five components of the solvent, CAS#2469-55-8 (GAP-0), CAS#106214-84-0 (GAP-1-4), TEG, and methanol and xylene (minor contaminants from the aminosilicone) are included in this assessment. One by-product, GAP- 1m/SOX salt, and dodecylbenzenesulfonicacid (DDBSA) were also identified foranalysis. An EH&S assessment was also completed for the manufacturing process for the GAP-1m solvent. The chemicals associated with the manufacturing process include methanol, xylene, allyl chloride, potassium cyanate, sodium hydroxide (NaOH), tetramethyldisiloxane (TMDSO), tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide, Karstedt catalyst, octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), Aliquat 336, methyl carbamate, potassium chloride, trimethylamine, and (3-aminopropyl) dimethyl silanol. The toxicological effects of each component of both the CO2 capture system and the manufacturing process were defined, and control mechanisms necessary to comply with U.S. EH&S regulations are summarized. Engineering and control systems, including environmental abatement, are described for minimizing exposure and release of the chemical components. Proper handling and storage recommendations are made for each chemical to minimize risk to workers and the surrounding community.

  14. Black carbon in the Arctic: How well is it captured by models?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckhardt, Sabine

    2015-04-01

    A correct representation of the spatial distribution of aerosols in atmospheric models is essential for realistic simulations of deposition and calculations of radiative forcing. It has been observed that transport of black carbon (BC) into the Arctic and scavenging is sometimes not captured accurately enough in chemistry transport models (CTM) as well as global circulation models (GCM). In this study we determine the discrepancies between measured equivalent BC (EBC) and modeled BC for several Arctic measurement stations as well as for Arctic aircraft campaigns. For this, we use the output of a set of 11 models based on the same emission dataset (ECLIPSE emissions, see eclipse.nilu.no) and evaluate the simulated concentrations at the measurement locations and times. Emissions are separated for different sources such as biomass burning, domestic heating, gas flaring, industry and the transport sector. We focus on the years 2008 and 2009, where many campaigns took place in the framework of the International Polar Year. Arctic stations like Barrow, Alert, Station Nord in Greenland and Zeppelin show a very pronounced winter/spring maximum in BC. While monthly averaged measured EBC values are around 80 ng/m3, the models severely underestimate this with some models simulating only a small percentage of the observed values. During summer measured concentrations are a magnitude lower, and still underestimated by almost an order of magnitude in some models. However, the best models are with a factor of 2 in winter/spring and realistic concentrations in summer. In order to get information on the vertical profile we used measurements from aircraft campaigns like ARCTAS, ARCPAC and HIPPO. It is found that BC in latitudes below 60 degrees is better captured by the models than BC at higher latitudes, even though it is overestimated at high altitudes. A systematic analysis of the performance of different models is presented. With the dataset we capture remote, polluted and fire

  15. Learning through a portfolio of carbon capture and storage demonstration projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiner, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technology is considered by many to be an essential route to meet climate mitigation targets in the power and industrial sectors. Deploying CCS technologies globally will first require a portfolio of large-scale demonstration projects. These first projects should assist learning by diversity, learning by replication, de-risking the technologies and developing viable business models. From 2005 to 2009, optimism about the pace of CCS rollout led to mutually independent efforts in the European Union, North America and Australia to assemble portfolios of projects. Since 2009, only a few of these many project proposals remain viable, but the initial rationales for demonstration have not been revisited in the face of changing circumstances. Here I argue that learning is now both more difficult and more important given the slow pace of deployment. Developing a more coordinated global portfolio will facilitate learning across projects and may determine whether CCS ever emerges from the demonstration phase.

  16. EVALUATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM EXISTING COAL FIRED PLANTS BY HYBRID SORPTION USING SOLID SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, Steven; Palo, Daniel; Srinivasachar, Srivats; Laudal, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Under contract DE-FE0007603, the University of North Dakota conducted the project Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Capture from Existing Coal Fired Plants by Hybrid Sorption Using Solid Sorbents. As an important element of this effort, an Environmental Health and Safety (EH&S) Assessment was conducted by Barr Engineering Co. (Barr) in association with the University of North Dakota. The assessment addressed air and particulate emissions as well as solid and liquid waste streams. The magnitude of the emissions and waste streams was estimated for evaluation purposes. EH&S characteristics of materials used in the system are also described. This document contains data based on the mass balances from both the 40 kJ/mol CO2 and 80 kJ/mol CO2 desorption energy cases evaluated in the Final Technical and Economic Feasibility study also conducted by Barr Engineering.

  17. Super liquid-repellent gas membranes for carbon dioxide capture and heart-lung machines.

    PubMed

    Paven, Maxime; Papadopoulos, Periklis; Schöttler, Susanne; Deng, Xu; Mailänder, Volker; Vollmer, Doris; Butt, Hans-Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    In a gas membrane, gas is transferred between a liquid and a gas through a microporous membrane. The main challenge is to achieve a high gas transfer while preventing wetting and clogging. With respect to the oxygenation of blood, haemocompatibility is also required. Here we coat macroporous meshes with a superamphiphobic-or liquid repellent-layer to meet this challenge. The superamphiphobic layer consists of a fractal-like network of fluorinated silicon oxide nanospheres; gas trapped between the nanospheres keeps the liquid from contacting the wall of the membrane. We demonstrate the capabilities of the membrane by capturing carbon dioxide gas into a basic aqueous solution and in addition use it to oxygenate blood. Usually, blood tends to clog membranes because of the abundance of blood cells, platelets, proteins and lipids. We show that human blood stored in a superamphiphobic well for 24 h can be poured off without leaving cells or adsorbed protein behind.

  18. Super liquid-repellent gas membranes for carbon dioxide capture and heart–lung machines

    PubMed Central

    Paven, Maxime; Papadopoulos, Periklis; Schöttler, Susanne; Deng, Xu; Mailänder, Volker; Vollmer, Doris; Butt, Hans-Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    In a gas membrane, gas is transferred between a liquid and a gas through a microporous membrane. The main challenge is to achieve a high gas transfer while preventing wetting and clogging. With respect to the oxygenation of blood, haemocompatibility is also required. Here we coat macroporous meshes with a superamphiphobic—or liquid repellent—layer to meet this challenge. The superamphiphobic layer consists of a fractal-like network of fluorinated silicon oxide nanospheres; gas trapped between the nanospheres keeps the liquid from contacting the wall of the membrane. We demonstrate the capabilities of the membrane by capturing carbon dioxide gas into a basic aqueous solution and in addition use it to oxygenate blood. Usually, blood tends to clog membranes because of the abundance of blood cells, platelets, proteins and lipids. We show that human blood stored in a superamphiphobic well for 24 h can be poured off without leaving cells or adsorbed protein behind. PMID:24065073

  19. Proposed roadmap for overcoming legal and financial obstacles to carbon capture and sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, Wendy ); Chohen, Leah; Kostakidis-Lianos, Leah; Rundell, Sara )

    2009-03-01

    Many existing proposals either lack sufficient concreteness to make carbon capture and geological sequestration (CCGS) operational or fail to focus on a comprehensive, long term framework for its regulation, thus failing to account adequately for the urgency of the issue, the need to develop immediate experience with large scale demonstration projects, or the financial and other incentives required to launch early demonstration projects. We aim to help fill this void by proposing a roadmap to commercial deployment of CCGS in the United States.This roadmap focuses on the legal and financial incentives necessary for rapid demonstration of geological sequestration in the absence of national restrictions on CO2 emissions. It weaves together existing federal programs and financing opportunities into a set of recommendations for achieving commercial viability of geological sequestration.

  20. Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Survey Design for Monitoring Carbon Capture and Storage Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bull, J. M.; Cevatoglu, M.; Connelly, D.; Wright, I. C.; McPhail, S.; Shitashima, K.

    2013-12-01

    Long-term monitoring of sub-seabed Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) sites will require systems that are flexible, independent, and have long-endurance. In this presentation we will discuss the utility of autonomous underwater vehicles equipped with different sensor packages in monitoring storage sites. We will present data collected using Autosub AUV, as part of the ECO2 project, from the Sleipner area of the North Sea. The Autosub AUV was equipped with sidescan sonar, an EM2000 multibeam systems, a Chirp sub-bottom profiler, and a variety of chemical sensors. Our presentation will focus on survey design, and the simultaneous use of multiple sensor packages in environmental monitoring on the continental shelf.

  1. Front page or "buried" beneath the fold? Media coverage of carbon capture and storage.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Amanda D; Paveglio, Travis B

    2014-05-01

    Media can affect public views and opinions on science, policy and risk issues. This is especially true of a controversial emerging technology that is relatively unknown. The study presented here employs a media content analysis of carbon capture and storage (CCS), one potential strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The authors analyzed all mentions of CCS in two leading Canadian national newspapers and two major western regional newspapers from the first article that discussed CCS in 2004 to the end of 2009 (825 articles). An in-depth content analysis was conducted to examine factors relating to risk from CCS, how the technology was portrayed and if coverage was negatively or positively biased. We conclude by discussing the possible impact of media coverage on support or opposition to CCS adoption. PMID:23825250

  2. Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions with Carbon Dioxide Capture and Sequestration in Deep Geological Formations

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, Dr. Sally; Cole, David R

    2008-01-01

    Carbon dioxide capture and sequestration (CCS) in deep geological formations has quickly emerged as an important option for reducing greenhouse emissions. If CCS is implemented on the scale needed for large reductions in CO2 emissions, a billion of tonnes or more of CO2 will be sequestered annually a 250 fold increase over the amount sequestered annually today. Sequestering these large volumes will require a strong scientific foundation of the coupled hydrological-geochemical-geomechanical processes that govern the long term fate of CO2 in the subsurface. Methods to characterize and select sequestration sites, subsurface engineering to optimize performance and cost, safe operations, monitoring technology, remediation methods, regulatory oversight, and an institutional approach for managing long term liability are also needed.

  3. Space Geodesy and Geochemistry Applied to the Monitoring, Verification of Carbon Capture and Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Swart, Peter

    2013-11-30

    This award was a training grant awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of this award was solely to provide training for two PhD graduate students for three years in the general area of carbon capture and storage (CCS). The training consisted of course work and conducting research in the area of CCS. Attendance at conferences was also encouraged as an activity and positive experience for students to learn the process of sharing research findings with the scientific community, and the peer review process. At the time of this report, both students have approximately two years remaining of their studies, so have not fully completed their scientific research projects.

  4. Easily regenerable solid adsorbents based on polyamines for carbon dioxide capture from the air.

    PubMed

    Goeppert, Alain; Zhang, Hang; Czaun, Miklos; May, Robert B; Prakash, G K Surya; Olah, George A; Narayanan, S R

    2014-05-01

    Adsorbents prepared easily by impregnation of fumed silica with polyethylenimine (PEI) are promising candidates for the capture of CO2 directly from the air. These inexpensive adsorbents have high CO2 adsorption capacity at ambient temperature and can be regenerated in repeated cycles under mild conditions. Despite the very low CO2 concentration, they are able to scrub efficiently all CO2 out of the air in the initial hours of the experiments. The influence of parameters such as PEI loading, adsorption and desorption temperature, particle size, and PEI molecular weight on the adsorption behavior were investigated. The mild regeneration temperatures required could allow the use of waste heat available in many industrial processes as well as solar heat. CO2 adsorption from the air has a number of applications. Removal of CO2 from a closed environment, such as a submarine or space vehicles, is essential for life support. The supply of CO2-free air is also critical for alkaline fuel cells and batteries. Direct air capture of CO2 could also help mitigate the rising concerns about atmospheric CO2 concentration and associated climatic changes, while, at the same time, provide the first step for an anthropogenic carbon cycle.

  5. Amphiphilic Polycarbonates from Carborane-Installed Cyclic Carbonates as Potential Agents for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Hejian; Wei, Xing; Zhou, Dongfang; Qi, Yanxin; Xie, Zhigang; Chen, Xuesi; Jing, Xiabin; Huang, Yubin

    2016-09-21

    Carboranes with rich boron content have showed significant applications in the field of boron neutron capture therapy. Biodegradable derivatives of carborane-conjugated polymers with well-defined structure and tunable loading of boron atoms are far less explored. Herein, a new family of amphiphilic carborane-conjugated polycarbonates was synthesized by ring-opening polymerization of a carborane-installed cyclic carbonate monomer. Catalyzed by TBD from a poly(ethylene glycol) macroinitiator, the polymerization proceeded to relatively high conversions (>65%), with low polydispersity in a certain range of molecular weight. The boron content was readily tuned by the feed ratio of the monomer and initiator. The resultant amphiphilic polycarbonates self-assembled in water into spherical nanoparticles of different sizes depending on the hydrophilic-to-hydrophobic ratio. It was demonstrated that larger nanoparticles (PN150) were more easily subjected to protein adsorption and captured by the liver, and smaller nanoparticles (PN50) were more likely to enter cancer cells and accumulate at the tumor site. PN50 with thermal neutron irradiation exhibited the highest therapeutic efficacy in vivo. The new synthetic method utilizing amphiphilic biodegradable boron-enriched polymers is useful for developing more-selective and -effective boron delivery systems for BNCT. PMID:27548011

  6. A multicriteria decision analysis model and risk assessment framework for carbon capture and storage.

    PubMed

    Humphries Choptiany, John Michael; Pelot, Ronald

    2014-09-01

    Multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) has been applied to various energy problems to incorporate a variety of qualitative and quantitative criteria, usually spanning environmental, social, engineering, and economic fields. MCDA and associated methods such as life-cycle assessments and cost-benefit analysis can also include risk analysis to address uncertainties in criteria estimates. One technology now being assessed to help mitigate climate change is carbon capture and storage (CCS). CCS is a new process that captures CO2 emissions from fossil-fueled power plants and injects them into geological reservoirs for storage. It presents a unique challenge to decisionmakers (DMs) due to its technical complexity, range of environmental, social, and economic impacts, variety of stakeholders, and long time spans. The authors have developed a risk assessment model using a MCDA approach for CCS decisions such as selecting between CO2 storage locations and choosing among different mitigation actions for reducing risks. The model includes uncertainty measures for several factors, utility curve representations of all variables, Monte Carlo simulation, and sensitivity analysis. This article uses a CCS scenario example to demonstrate the development and application of the model based on data derived from published articles and publicly available sources. The model allows high-level DMs to better understand project risks and the tradeoffs inherent in modern, complex energy decisions. PMID:24772997

  7. The cost of carbon capture and storage for natural gas combined cycle power plants.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Edward S; Zhai, Haibo

    2012-03-20

    This paper examines the cost of CO(2) capture and storage (CCS) for natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) power plants. Existing studies employ a broad range of assumptions and lack a consistent costing method. This study takes a more systematic approach to analyze plants with an amine-based postcombustion CCS system with 90% CO(2) capture. We employ sensitivity analyses together with a probabilistic analysis to quantify costs for plants with and without CCS under uncertainty or variability in key parameters. Results for new baseload plants indicate a likely increase in levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of $20-32/MWh (constant 2007$) or $22-40/MWh in current dollars. A risk premium for plants with CCS increases these ranges to $23-39/MWh and $25-46/MWh, respectively. Based on current cost estimates, our analysis further shows that a policy to encourage CCS at new NGCC plants via an emission tax or carbon price requires (at 95% confidence) a price of at least $125/t CO(2) to ensure NGCC-CCS is cheaper than a plant without CCS. Higher costs are found for nonbaseload plants and CCS retrofits.

  8. Ambient carbon dioxide capture by boron-rich boron nitride nanotube.

    PubMed

    Choi, Heechol; Park, Young Choon; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Lee, Yoon Sup

    2011-02-23

    Carbon dioxides (CO(2)) emitted from large-scale coal-fired power stations or industrial manufacturing plants have to be properly captured to minimize environmental side effects. From results of ab initio calculations using plane waves [PAW-PBE] and localized atomic orbitals [ONIOM(wB97X-D/6-31G*:AM1)], we report strong CO(2) adsorption on boron antisite (B(N)) in boron-rich boron nitride nanotube (BNNT). We have identified two adsorption states: (1) A linear CO(2) molecule is physically adsorbed on the B(N), showing electron donation from the CO(2) lone-pair states to the B(N) double-acceptor state, and (2) the physisorbed CO(2) undergoes a carboxylate-like structural distortion and C═O π-bond breaking due to electron back-donation from B(N) to CO(2). The CO(2) chemisorption energy on B(N) is almost independent of tube diameter and, more importantly, higher than the standard free energy of gaseous CO(2) at room temperature. This implies that boron-rich BNNT could capture CO(2) effectively at ambient conditions. PMID:21287992

  9. Atmospheric measurements of carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, and carbon disulfide using the electron capture sulfur detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, James E.; Bates, Timothy S.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of atmospheric dimethyl sulfide (DMS), carbonyl sulfide (COS), and carbon disulfide (CS2) were conducted over the Atlantic Ocean on board the NASA Electra aircraft during the Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation (CITE 3) project using the electron capture sulfur detector (ECD-S). The system employed cryogenic preconcentration of air samples, gas chromatographic separation, catalytic fluorination, and electron capture detection. Samples collected for DMS analysis were scrubbed of oxidants with NaOH impregnated glass fiber filters to preconcentration. The detection limits (DL) of the system for COS, DMS, and CS2 were 5, 5, and 2 ppt, respectively. COS concentrations ranged from 404 to 603 ppt with a mean of 489 ppt for measurements over the North Atlantic Ocean (31 deg N to 41 deg N), and from 395 to 437 ppt with a mean of 419 ppt for measurements over the Tropical Atlantic Ocean (11 deg S to 2 deg N). DMS concentrations in the lower marine boundary layer, below 600-m altitude, ranged from below DL to 150 ppt from flights over the North Atlantic, and from 9 to 104 ppt over the Tropical Atlantic. CS2 concentrations ranged from below DL to 29 ppt over the North Atlantic. Almost all CS2 measurements over the Tropical Atlantic were below DL.

  10. A multicriteria decision analysis model and risk assessment framework for carbon capture and storage.

    PubMed

    Humphries Choptiany, John Michael; Pelot, Ronald

    2014-09-01

    Multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) has been applied to various energy problems to incorporate a variety of qualitative and quantitative criteria, usually spanning environmental, social, engineering, and economic fields. MCDA and associated methods such as life-cycle assessments and cost-benefit analysis can also include risk analysis to address uncertainties in criteria estimates. One technology now being assessed to help mitigate climate change is carbon capture and storage (CCS). CCS is a new process that captures CO2 emissions from fossil-fueled power plants and injects them into geological reservoirs for storage. It presents a unique challenge to decisionmakers (DMs) due to its technical complexity, range of environmental, social, and economic impacts, variety of stakeholders, and long time spans. The authors have developed a risk assessment model using a MCDA approach for CCS decisions such as selecting between CO2 storage locations and choosing among different mitigation actions for reducing risks. The model includes uncertainty measures for several factors, utility curve representations of all variables, Monte Carlo simulation, and sensitivity analysis. This article uses a CCS scenario example to demonstrate the development and application of the model based on data derived from published articles and publicly available sources. The model allows high-level DMs to better understand project risks and the tradeoffs inherent in modern, complex energy decisions.

  11. Easily regenerable solid adsorbents based on polyamines for carbon dioxide capture from the air.

    PubMed

    Goeppert, Alain; Zhang, Hang; Czaun, Miklos; May, Robert B; Prakash, G K Surya; Olah, George A; Narayanan, S R

    2014-05-01

    Adsorbents prepared easily by impregnation of fumed silica with polyethylenimine (PEI) are promising candidates for the capture of CO2 directly from the air. These inexpensive adsorbents have high CO2 adsorption capacity at ambient temperature and can be regenerated in repeated cycles under mild conditions. Despite the very low CO2 concentration, they are able to scrub efficiently all CO2 out of the air in the initial hours of the experiments. The influence of parameters such as PEI loading, adsorption and desorption temperature, particle size, and PEI molecular weight on the adsorption behavior were investigated. The mild regeneration temperatures required could allow the use of waste heat available in many industrial processes as well as solar heat. CO2 adsorption from the air has a number of applications. Removal of CO2 from a closed environment, such as a submarine or space vehicles, is essential for life support. The supply of CO2-free air is also critical for alkaline fuel cells and batteries. Direct air capture of CO2 could also help mitigate the rising concerns about atmospheric CO2 concentration and associated climatic changes, while, at the same time, provide the first step for an anthropogenic carbon cycle. PMID:24644023

  12. Amphiphilic Polycarbonates from Carborane-Installed Cyclic Carbonates as Potential Agents for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Hejian; Wei, Xing; Zhou, Dongfang; Qi, Yanxin; Xie, Zhigang; Chen, Xuesi; Jing, Xiabin; Huang, Yubin

    2016-09-21

    Carboranes with rich boron content have showed significant applications in the field of boron neutron capture therapy. Biodegradable derivatives of carborane-conjugated polymers with well-defined structure and tunable loading of boron atoms are far less explored. Herein, a new family of amphiphilic carborane-conjugated polycarbonates was synthesized by ring-opening polymerization of a carborane-installed cyclic carbonate monomer. Catalyzed by TBD from a poly(ethylene glycol) macroinitiator, the polymerization proceeded to relatively high conversions (>65%), with low polydispersity in a certain range of molecular weight. The boron content was readily tuned by the feed ratio of the monomer and initiator. The resultant amphiphilic polycarbonates self-assembled in water into spherical nanoparticles of different sizes depending on the hydrophilic-to-hydrophobic ratio. It was demonstrated that larger nanoparticles (PN150) were more easily subjected to protein adsorption and captured by the liver, and smaller nanoparticles (PN50) were more likely to enter cancer cells and accumulate at the tumor site. PN50 with thermal neutron irradiation exhibited the highest therapeutic efficacy in vivo. The new synthetic method utilizing amphiphilic biodegradable boron-enriched polymers is useful for developing more-selective and -effective boron delivery systems for BNCT.

  13. The cost of carbon capture and storage for natural gas combined cycle power plants.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Edward S; Zhai, Haibo

    2012-03-20

    This paper examines the cost of CO(2) capture and storage (CCS) for natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) power plants. Existing studies employ a broad range of assumptions and lack a consistent costing method. This study takes a more systematic approach to analyze plants with an amine-based postcombustion CCS system with 90% CO(2) capture. We employ sensitivity analyses together with a probabilistic analysis to quantify costs for plants with and without CCS under uncertainty or variability in key parameters. Results for new baseload plants indicate a likely increase in levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of $20-32/MWh (constant 2007$) or $22-40/MWh in current dollars. A risk premium for plants with CCS increases these ranges to $23-39/MWh and $25-46/MWh, respectively. Based on current cost estimates, our analysis further shows that a policy to encourage CCS at new NGCC plants via an emission tax or carbon price requires (at 95% confidence) a price of at least $125/t CO(2) to ensure NGCC-CCS is cheaper than a plant without CCS. Higher costs are found for nonbaseload plants and CCS retrofits. PMID:22332665

  14. Immobilization of carbonic anhydrase on carboxyl-functionalized ferroferric oxide for CO2 capture.

    PubMed

    Lv, Bihong; Yang, Zhaoren; Pan, Fujun; Zhou, Zuoming; Jing, Guohua

    2015-08-01

    New materials of Fe3O4 magnetic microspheres were functionalized with carboxyl and prepared for carbonic anhydrase (CA) immobilization to capture CO2. The optimum conditions for immobilization, such as carrier dose, enzyme dose, pH, shaking speed, temperature and contact time, were determined. The pH and thermal stability of the free and the immobilized CA were compared. The results presented that the immobilized CA had a better enzyme activity, a higher pH and thermal stability than that of the free CA. Meanwhile, CO2 capture was respectively enhanced by the free and the immobilized CA in tris(hydroxymethyl) aminomethane (Tris) buffer solution. Moreover, the immobilized CA maintained 58.5% of its initial catalytic ability even after ten recovery cycles due to the protest of the magnetic microspheres. All the results confirmed the potential use of the carboxyl-functionalized Fe3O4 magnetic microspheres immobilized CA to remove CO2 from air or flue gas.

  15. Easily Regenerable Solid Adsorbents Based on Polyamines for Carbon Dioxide Capture from the Air

    SciTech Connect

    Goeppert, A; Zhang, H; Czaun, M; May, RB; Prakash, GKS; Olah, GA; Narayanan, SR

    2014-03-18

    Adsorbents prepared easily by impregnation of fumed silica with polyethylenimine (PEI) are promising candidates for the capture of CO2 directly from the air. These inexpensive adsorbents have high CO2 adsorption capacity at ambient temperature and can be regenerated in repeated cycles under mild conditions. Despite the very low CO2 concentration, they are able to scrub efficiently all CO2 out of the air in the initial hours of the experiments. The influence of parameters such as PEI loading, adsorption and desorption temperature, particle size, and PEI molecular weight on the adsorption behavior were investigated. The mild regeneration temperatures required could allow the use of waste heat available in many industrial processes as well as solar heat. CO2 adsorption from the air has a number of applications. Removal of CO2 from a closed environment, such as a submarine or space vehicles, is essential for life support. The supply of CO2-free air is also critical for alkaline fuel cells and batteries. Direct air capture of CO2 could also help mitigate the rising concerns about atmospheric CO2 concentration and associated climatic changes, while, at the same time, provide the first step for an anthropogenic carbon cycle.

  16. Water use at pulverized coal power plants with postcombustion carbon capture and storage.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Haibo; Rubin, Edward S; Versteeg, Peter L

    2011-03-15

    Coal-fired power plants account for nearly 50% of U.S. electricity supply and about a third of U.S. emissions of CO(2), the major greenhouse gas (GHG) associated with global climate change. Thermal power plants also account for 39% of all freshwater withdrawals in the U.S. To reduce GHG emissions from coal-fired plants, postcombustion carbon capture and storage (CCS) systems are receiving considerable attention. Current commercial amine-based capture systems require water for cooling and other operations that add to power plant water requirements. This paper characterizes and quantifies water use at coal-burning power plants with and without CCS and investigates key parameters that influence water consumption. Analytical models are presented to quantify water use for major unit operations. Case study results show that, for power plants with conventional wet cooling towers, approximately 80% of total plant water withdrawals and 86% of plant water consumption is for cooling. The addition of an amine-based CCS system would approximately double the consumptive water use of the plant. Replacing wet towers with air-cooled condensers for dry cooling would reduce plant water use by about 80% (without CCS) to about 40% (with CCS). However, the cooling system capital cost would approximately triple, although costs are highly dependent on site-specific characteristics. The potential for water use reductions with CCS is explored via sensitivity analyses of plant efficiency and other key design parameters that affect water resource management for the electric power industry.

  17. Carbon Capture and Sequestration (via Enhanced Oil Recovery) from a Hydrogen Production Facility in an Oil Refinery

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart Mehlman

    2010-06-16

    The project proposed a commercial demonstration of advanced technologies that would capture and sequester CO2 emissions from an existing hydrogen production facility in an oil refinery into underground formations in combination with Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). The project is led by Praxair, Inc., with other project participants: BP Products North America Inc., Denbury Onshore, LLC (Denbury), and Gulf Coast Carbon Center (GCCC) at the Bureau of Economic Geology of The University of Texas at Austin. The project is located at the BP Refinery at Texas City, Texas. Praxair owns and operates a large hydrogen production facility within the refinery. As part of the project, Praxair would construct a CO2 capture and compression facility. The project aimed at demonstrating a novel vacuum pressure swing adsorption (VPSA) based technology to remove CO2 from the Steam Methane Reformers (SMR) process gas. The captured CO2 would be purified using refrigerated partial condensation separation (i.e., cold box). Denbury would purchase the CO2 from the project and inject the CO2 as part of its independent commercial EOR projects. The Gulf Coast Carbon Center at the Bureau of Economic Geology, a unit of University of Texas at Austin, would manage the research monitoring, verification and accounting (MVA) project for the sequestered CO2, in conjunction with Denbury. The sequestration and associated MVA activities would be carried out in the Hastings field at Brazoria County, TX. The project would exceed DOE’s target of capturing one million tons of CO2 per year (MTPY) by 2015. Phase 1 of the project (Project Definition) is being completed. The key objective of Phase 1 is to define the project in sufficient detail to enable an economic decision with regard to proceeding with Phase 2. This topical report summarizes the administrative, programmatic and technical accomplishments completed in Phase 1 of the project. It describes the work relative to project technical and design activities

  18. Optimization of water use and cost of electricity for an MEA carbon capture process, January 26, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Eslick, J.; Miller, D.

    2012-01-01

    DOE goals are: 90% CO{sub 2} capture, Less than 30% increase in COE, and to reduce water use by 70% at 50% cost of dry cooling. Objectives are: (1) Develop detailed models of supercritical power plant, MEA carbon capture process, CO{sub 2} compression; and (2) Optimize process for conflicting goals of minimizing water use and COE CO{sub 2} capture greatly increases COE and water use, power gen. 1/3 of fresh water use, and water scarcity is increasing.

  19. Oxygen Generation from Carbon Dioxide for Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Sean; Duncan, Keith; Hagelin-Weaver, Helena; Neal, Luke; Sanchez, Jose; Paul, Heather L.; Wachsman, Eric

    2007-01-01

    The partial electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) using ceramic oxygen generators (COGs) is well known and widely studied. However, complete reduction of metabolically produced CO2 (into carbon and oxygen) has the potential of reducing oxygen storage weight for life support if the oxygen can be recovered. Recently, the University of Florida devel- oped novel ceramic oxygen generators employing a bilayer elec- trolyte of gadolinia-doped ceria and erbia-stabilized bismuth ox- ide (ESB) for NASA's future exploration of Mars. The results showed that oxygen could be reliably produced from CO2 at temperatures as low as 400 C. The strategy discussed here for advanced life support systems employs a catalytic layer com- bined with a COG cell so that CO2 is reduced all the way to solid carbon and oxygen without carbon buildup on the COG cell and subsequent deactivation.

  20. Silica-coated multi-walled carbon nanotubes impregnated with polyethyleneimine for carbon dioxide capture under the flue gas condition

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Min-Sang; Park, Soo-Jin

    2015-03-15

    In this study, silica-coated multi-walled carbon nanotubes impregnated with polyethyleneimine (PEI) were prepared via a two-step process: (i) hydrolysis of tetraethylorthosilicate onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and (ii) impregnation of PEI. The adsorption properties of CO{sub 2} were investigated using CO{sub 2} adsorption–desorption isotherms at 298 K and thermogravimetric analysis under the flue gas condition (15% CO{sub 2}/85% N{sub 2}). The results obtained in this study indicate that CO{sub 2} adsorption increases after impregnation of PEI. The increase in CO{sub 2} capture was attributed to the affinity between CO{sub 2} and the amine groups. CO{sub 2} adsorption–desorption experiments, which were repeated five times, also showed that the prepared adsorbents have excellent regeneration properties. - Graphical abstract: Fabrication and CO{sub 2} adsorption process of the S-MWCNTs impregnated with PEI. - Highlights: • Silica coated-MWCNT impregnated with PEI was synthesized. • Amine groups of PEI gave CO{sub 2} affinity sites on MWCNT surfaces. • The S-MWCNT/PEI(50) exhibited the highest CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity.

  1. Surface modification of oil fly ash and its application in selective capturing of carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaumi, Ali L.; Hussien, Ibnelwaleed A.; Shawabkeh, Reyad A.

    2013-02-01

    Oil fly ash from power generation plants was activated with 30% NH4OH and used for selective adsorption of carbon dioxide from CO2/N2 mixture. The treated samples were characterized for their surface area, morphology, crystalline phase, chemical composition and surface functional groups. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis showed an increase in the carbon contents from 45 to 73 wt% as a result of leaching out metal oxides. XRD proved that chemical activation of ash resulted in diminishing of major crystalline phases of zeolite, and other alumino-silicates leaving only quartz and mullite. BET analysis showed an increase in surface area from 59 to 318 m2/g after chemical activation and the pore volume increased from 0.0368 to 0.679 cm3/g. This increase in pore volume is supported by the results of SEM, where more micropores were opened with well-defined particle sizes and porous structure. The TGA of the treated fly ash showed stability at higher temperature as the weight loss decreased with increasing temperature. For treated ash, the FTIR displayed new peaks of amine functional group. The treated ash was used for the removal of CO2 from CO2/N2 mixture and the maximum adsorption/capturing capacity was found to be 240 mg/g. This capacity increases with increase in initial gas concentration, inlet flow rate and temperature suggesting the endothermic nature of the interaction between the gas molecules and the surface of the ash.

  2. Viability preserved capture of microorganism by plasma functionalized carbon-encapsulated iron nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswan, Anchu; Sugiura, Kuniaki; Nagatsu, Masaaki

    2015-09-01

    Carbon-encapsulated iron nanoparticles (Fe@C NPs) were synthesized by DC arc discharge method. Carbon encapsulation makes the particles hydrophobic, however for most of the biomedical applications they need to be hydrophilic. To attain this, the particles were amino functionalized by RF plasma. Effect of gas mixture ratio (Ar/NH3), pretreatment, post-treatment times and RF power were optimized. By varying the RF plasma conditions, the amino group population on the surface of Fe@C NPs were increased. With conventional chemical method the amino group population on particles, synthesized in different conditions was found to be ranging from 3-7 × 104 per particle. Bioconjugation efficiency of the nanoparticles was examined by biotin-avidin system, which can be simulated for antigen-antibody reactions. Results from the UV absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy shows increment in bioconjugation efficiency, with the increase of amino group population on the nanoparticles. After confirming the bioconjugation efficiency, the amino functionalized Fe@C NPs were modified with antibodies for targeting specific microorganisms. Our aim is to capture the microbes in viable and concentrated form even from less populated samples, with lesser time compared to the presently available methods. This work has been supported in part by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (Nos. 21110010 and 25246029) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS).

  3. Water and climate risks to power generation with carbon capture and storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byers, E. A.; Hall, J. W.; Amezaga, J. M.; O'Donnell, G. M.; Leathard, A.

    2016-02-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) provides the opportunity to minimize atmospheric carbon emissions from fossil fuel power plants. However, CCS increases cooling water use and few studies have simulated the potential impacts of low flows on CCS power plant reliability. We present a framework to simulate the impacts of natural hydrological variability and climatic changes on water availability for portfolios of CCS capacity and cooling technologies. The methods are applied to the River Trent, the UK’s largest inland cooling water source for electricity generation capacity. Under a medium emissions climate change scenario, the projected median reductions in river flow by the 2040s was 43% for Q 99.9 very low flows and 31% in licensable abstractions between Q 99.9 and Q 91. With CCS developments, cooling water abstractions are projected to increase, likely exceeding available water for all users by the 2030s-2040s. Deficits are reduced when wet/dry hybrid tower cooling is used, which may increase reliability at low flows. We also explore alternative water licensing regimes, currently considered by the UK Government. Climate change and growing cooling demands, individually and jointly present risks that will be prominent by the 2030s, if unaddressed. These risks may be managed if water-efficient abstraction is prioritized when supplies are limited.

  4. Influencing attitudes toward carbon capture and sequestration: a social marketing approach.

    PubMed

    Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; Dowlatabadi, Hadi; McDaniels, Tim; Ray, Isha

    2011-08-15

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS), while controversial, is seen as promising because it will allow the United States to continue using its vast fossil fuel resources in a carbon-constrained world. The public is an important stakeholder in the national debate about whether or not the U.S. should include CCS as a significant part of its climate change strategy. Understanding how to effectively engage with the public about CCS has become important in recent years, as interest in the technology has intensified. We argue that engagement efforts should be focused on places where CCS will first be deployed, i.e., places with many "energy veteran" (EV) citizens. We also argue that, in addition to information on CCS, messages with emotional appeal may be necessary in order to engage the public. In this paper we take a citizen-guided social marketing approach toward understanding how to (positively or negatively) influence EV citizens' attitudes toward CCS. We develop open-ended interview protocols, and a "CCS campaign activity", for Wyoming residents from Gillette and Rock Springs. We conclude that our participants believed expert-informed CCS messages, embedded within an emotionally self-referent (ESR) framework that was relevant to Wyoming, to be more persuasive than the expert messages alone. The appeal to core values of Wyomingites played a significant role in the citizen-guided CCS messages. PMID:21728279

  5. Water and climate risks to power generation with carbon capture and storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byers, E. A.; Hall, J. W.; Amezaga, J. M.; O'Donnell, G. M.; Leathard, A.

    2016-02-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) provides the opportunity to minimize atmospheric carbon emissions from fossil fuel power plants. However, CCS increases cooling water use and few studies have simulated the potential impacts of low flows on CCS power plant reliability. We present a framework to simulate the impacts of natural hydrological variability and climatic changes on water availability for portfolios of CCS capacity and cooling technologies. The methods are applied to the River Trent, the UK’s largest inland cooling water source for electricity generation capacity. Under a medium emissions climate change scenario, the projected median reductions in river flow by the 2040s was 43% for Q99.9 very low flows and 31% in licensable abstractions between Q99.9 and Q91. With CCS developments, cooling water abstractions are projected to increase, likely exceeding available water for all users by the 2030s-2040s. Deficits are reduced when wet/dry hybrid tower cooling is used, which may increase reliability at low flows. We also explore alternative water licensing regimes, currently considered by the UK Government. Climate change and growing cooling demands, individually and jointly present risks that will be prominent by the 2030s, if unaddressed. These risks may be managed if water-efficient abstraction is prioritized when supplies are limited.

  6. Temporal and Spatial Deployment of Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Technologies across the Representative Concentration Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, James J.; Calvin, Katherine V.

    2011-04-18

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s (IPCC) Fifth Assessment (to be published in 2013-2014) will to a significant degree be built around four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) that are intended to represent four scenarios of future development of greenhouse gas emissions, land use, and concentrations that span the widest range of potential future atmospheric radiative forcing. Under the very stringent climate policy implied by the 2.6 W/m2 overshoot scenario, all electricity is eventually generated from low carbon sources. However, carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies never comprise more than 50% of total electricity generation in that very stringent scenario or in any of the other cases examined here. There are significant differences among the cases studied here in terms of how CCS technologies are used, with the most prominent being is the significant expansion of biomass+CCS as the stringency of the implied climate policy increases. Cumulative CO2 storage across the three cases that imply binding greenhouse gas constraints ranges by nearly an order of magnitude from 170GtCO2 (radiative forcing of 6.0W/m2 in 2100) to 1600GtCO2 (2.6W/m2 in 2100) over the course of this century. This potential demand for deep geologic CO2 storage is well within published estimates of total global CO2 storage capacity.

  7. Early public impressions of terrestrial carbon capture and storage in a coal-intensive state.

    PubMed

    Carley, Sanya R; Krause, Rachel M; Warren, David C; Rupp, John A; Graham, John D

    2012-07-01

    While carbon capture and storage (CCS) is considered to be critical to achieving long-term climate-protection goals, public concerns about the CCS practice could pose significant obstacles to its deployment. This study reports findings from the first state-wide survey of public perceptions of CCS in a coal-intensive state, with an analysis of which factors predict early attitudes toward CCS. Nearly three-quarters of an Indiana sample (N = 1001) agree that storing carbon underground is a good approach to protecting the environment, despite 80% of the sample being unaware of CCS prior to participation in the two-wave survey. The majority of respondents do not hold strong opinions about CCS technology. Multivariate analyses indicate that support for CCS is predicted by a belief that humankind contributes to climate change, a preference for increased use of renewable energy, and egalitarian and individualistic worldviews, while opposition to CCS is predicted by self-identified political conservatism and by selective attitudes regarding energy and climate change. Knowledge about early impressions of CCS can help inform near-term technology decisions at state regulatory agencies, utilities, and pipeline companies, but follow-up surveys are necessary to assess how public sentiments evolve in response to image-building efforts with different positions on coal and CCS.

  8. Research for deployment: incorporating risk, regulation, and liability for carbon capture and sequestration.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Elizabeth J; Friedmann, S Julio; Pollak, Melisa F

    2007-09-01

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) has the potential to enable deep reductions in global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, however this promise can only be fulfilled with large-scale deployment. For this to happen, CCS must be successfully embedded into a larger legal and regulatory context, and any potential risks must be effectively managed. We developed a list of outstanding research and technical questions driven by the demands of the regulatory and legal systems for the geologic sequestration (GS) component of CCS. We then looked at case studies that bound uncertainty within two of the research themes that emerge. These case studies, on surface leakage from abandoned wells and groundwater quality impacts from metals mobilization, illustrate how research can inform decision makers on issues of policy, regulatory need, and legal considerations. A central challenge is to ensure that the research program supports development of general regulatory and legal frameworks, and also the development of geological, geophysical, geochemical, and modeling methods necessary for effective GS site monitoring and verification (M&V) protocols, as well as mitigation and remediation plans. If large-scale deployment of GS is to occur in a manner that adequately protects human and ecological health and does not discourage private investment, strengthening the scientific underpinnings of regulatory and legal decision-making is crucial.

  9. Downhole Microseismic Monitoring at a Carbon Capture, Utilization, and Storage Site, Farnsworth Unit, Ochiltree County, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, A.; Balch, R. S.; van Wijk, J.

    2015-12-01

    Farnsworth Oil Field in North Texas hosts an ongoing carbon capture, utilization, and storage project. This study is focused on passive seismic monitoring at the carbon injection site to measure, locate, and catalog any induced seismic events. A Geometrics Geode system is being utilized for continuous recording of the passive seismic downhole bore array in a monitoring well. The array consists of 3-component dual Geospace OMNI-2400 15Hz geophones with a vertical spacing of 30.5m. Downhole temperature and pressure are also monitored. Seismic data is recorded continuously and is produced at a rate of over 900GB per month, which must be archived and reviewed. A Short Term Average/Long Term Average (STA/LTA) algorithm was evaluated for its ability to search for events, including identification and quantification of any false positive events. It was determined that the algorithm was not appropriate for event detection with the background level of noise at the field site and for the recording equipment as configured. Alternatives are being investigated. The final intended outcome of the passive seismic monitoring is to mine the continuous database and develop a catalog of microseismic events/locations and to determine if there is any relationship to CO2 injection in the field. Identifying the location of any microseismic events will allow for correlation with carbon injection locations and previously characterized geological and structural features such as faults and paleoslopes. Additionally, the borehole array has recorded over 1200 active sources with three sweeps at each source location that were acquired during a nearby 3D VSP. These data were evaluated for their usability and location within an effective radius of the array and were stacked to improve signal-noise ratio and are used to calibrate a full field velocity model to enhance event location accuracy. Funding for this project is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy under Award No. DE-FC26-05NT42591.

  10. The Potential of Microbial Activity to Increase the Efficacy of Geologic Carbon Capture and Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, A. B.; Gerlach, R.; Phillips, A. J.; Eldring, J.; Lauchnor, E.; Klapper, I.; Ebigbo, A.; Mitchell, A. C.; Spangler, L.

    2012-12-01

    Geologic carbon capture and storage involves the injection of CO2 into underground formations such as brine aquifers where microbe-rock-fluid interactions will occur. These interactions may be important for the long-term fate of the injected CO2 particularly near well bores and potential leakage pathways. Herein, concepts and results are presented from bench to meso-scale experiments focusing on the utility of attached microorganisms and biofilms to enhance storage security of injected CO2. Batch and flow experiments at atmospheric and geologic CO2storage-relevant pressures have demonstrated the ability of microbial biofilms to decrease the permeability of natural and artificial porous media, survive the exposure to scCO2, and facilitate the conversion of CO2 into long-term stable carbonate phases as well as increase the solubility of CO2 in brines. Recently, the microbially catalyzed process of ureolysis has been investigated for the potential to promote calcium carbonate mineralization in subsurface reservoirs using native or introduced ureolytic microorganisms, which increase the saturation state of CaCO3 via the hydrolysis of urea. The anticipated applications for this biomineralization process in the subsurface include sealing microfractures and CO2 leakage pathways for increased security of geologic carbon storage. Recent work has focused on facilitating this biomineralization process in large scale (74 cm diameter, 38 cm high sandstone) radial flow systems under ambient and subsurface relevant pressures with the goal of developing injection strategies suited for field scale deployment. Methods for microscopic and macroscopic visualization of relevant processes, such as growth of microbial biofilms, their interactions with minerals and influence on pore spaces in porous media reactors are being developed and have been used to calibrate reactive transport models. As a result, these models are being used to predict the effect of biological processes on CO2

  11. Recent advances in carbon nanodots: synthesis, properties and biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Peng; Han, Kun; Tang, Yuguo; Wang, Bidou; Lin, Tao; Cheng, Wenbo

    2015-01-01

    Herein, a mini review is presented concerning the most recent research progress of carbon nanodots, which have emerged as one of the most attractive photoluminescent materials. Different synthetic methodologies to achieve advanced functions and better photoluminescence performances are summarized, which are mainly divided into two classes: top-down and bottom-up. The inspiring properties, including photoluminescence emission, chemiluminescence, electrochemical luminescence, peroxidase-like activity and toxicity, are discussed. Moreover, the biomedical applications in biosensing, bioimaging and drug delivery are reviewed.

  12. Economic and environmental evaluation of coal-and-biomass-to-liquids-and-electricity plants equipped with carbon capture and storage

    EPA Science Inventory

    Among various clean energy technologies, one innovative option for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions involves pairing carbon capture and storage (CCS) with the production of synthetic fuels and electricity from co-processed coal and biomass. With a relatively pure CO2 strea...

  13. Stakeholder views on financing carbon capture and storage demonstration projects in China.

    PubMed

    Reiner, David; Liang, Xi

    2012-01-17

    Chinese stakeholders (131) from 68 key institutions in 27 provinces were consulted in spring 2009 in an online survey of their perceptions of the barriers and opportunities in financing large-scale carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) demonstration projects in China. The online survey was supplemented by 31 follow-up face-to-face interviews. The National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) was widely perceived as the most important institution in authorizing the first commercial-scale CCS demonstration project and authorization was viewed as more similar to that for a power project than a chemicals project. There were disagreements, however, on the appropriate size for a demonstration plant, the type of capture, and the type of storage. Most stakeholders believed that the international image of the Chinese Government could benefit from demonstrating commercial CCS and that such a project could also create advantages for Chinese companies investing in CCS technologies. In more detailed interviews with 16 financial officials, we found striking disagreements over the perceived risks of demonstrating CCS. The rate of return seen as appropriate for financing demonstration projects was split between stakeholders from development banks (who supported a rate of 5-8%) and those from commercial banks (12-20%). The divergence on rate alone could result in as much as a 40% difference in the cost of CO(2) abatement and 56% higher levelized cost of electricity based on a hypothetical case study of a typical 600-MW new build ultrasupercritical pulverized coal-fired (USCPC) power plant. To finance the extra operational costs, there were sharp divisions over which institutions should bear the brunt of financing although, overall, more than half of the support was expected to come from foreign and Chinese governments. PMID:22191735

  14. Stakeholder views on financing carbon capture and storage demonstration projects in China.

    PubMed

    Reiner, David; Liang, Xi

    2012-01-17

    Chinese stakeholders (131) from 68 key institutions in 27 provinces were consulted in spring 2009 in an online survey of their perceptions of the barriers and opportunities in financing large-scale carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) demonstration projects in China. The online survey was supplemented by 31 follow-up face-to-face interviews. The National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) was widely perceived as the most important institution in authorizing the first commercial-scale CCS demonstration project and authorization was viewed as more similar to that for a power project than a chemicals project. There were disagreements, however, on the appropriate size for a demonstration plant, the type of capture, and the type of storage. Most stakeholders believed that the international image of the Chinese Government could benefit from demonstrating commercial CCS and that such a project could also create advantages for Chinese companies investing in CCS technologies. In more detailed interviews with 16 financial officials, we found striking disagreements over the perceived risks of demonstrating CCS. The rate of return seen as appropriate for financing demonstration projects was split between stakeholders from development banks (who supported a rate of 5-8%) and those from commercial banks (12-20%). The divergence on rate alone could result in as much as a 40% difference in the cost of CO(2) abatement and 56% higher levelized cost of electricity based on a hypothetical case study of a typical 600-MW new build ultrasupercritical pulverized coal-fired (USCPC) power plant. To finance the extra operational costs, there were sharp divisions over which institutions should bear the brunt of financing although, overall, more than half of the support was expected to come from foreign and Chinese governments.

  15. Carbon-based electrocatalysts for advanced energy conversion and storage

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jintao; Xia, Zhenhai; Dai, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) play curial roles in electrochemical energy conversion and storage, including fuel cells and metal-air batteries. Having rich multidimensional nanoarchitectures [for example, zero-dimensional (0D) fullerenes, 1D carbon nanotubes, 2D graphene, and 3D graphite] with tunable electronic and surface characteristics, various carbon nanomaterials have been demonstrated to act as efficient metal-free electrocatalysts for ORR and OER in fuel cells and batteries. We present a critical review on the recent advances in carbon-based metal-free catalysts for fuel cells and metal-air batteries, and discuss the perspectives and challenges in this rapidly developing field of practical significance. PMID:26601241

  16. Carbon-based electrocatalysts for advanced energy conversion and storage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jintao; Xia, Zhenhai; Dai, Liming

    2015-08-01

    Oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) play curial roles in electrochemical energy conversion and storage, including fuel cells and metal-air batteries. Having rich multidimensional nanoarchitectures [for example, zero-dimensional (0D) fullerenes, 1D carbon nanotubes, 2D graphene, and 3D graphite] with tunable electronic and surface characteristics, various carbon nanomaterials have been demonstrated to act as efficient metal-free electrocatalysts for ORR and OER in fuel cells and batteries. We present a critical review on the recent advances in carbon-based metal-free catalysts for fuel cells and metal-air batteries, and discuss the perspectives and challenges in this rapidly developing field of practical significance. PMID:26601241

  17. Advanced carbon manufacturing for energy and biological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turon Teixidor, Genis

    The science of miniaturization has experienced revolutionary advances during the last decades, witnessing the development of the Integrated Circuit and the emergence of MEMS and Nanotechnology. Particularly, MEMS technology has pioneered the use of non-traditional materials in microfabrication by including polymers, ceramics and composites to the well known list of metals and semiconductors. One of the latest additions to this set of materials is carbon, which represents a very important inclusion given its significance in electrochemical energy conversion systems and in applications where it is used as sensor probe material. For these applications, carbon is optimal in several counts: It has a wide electrochemical stability window, good electrical and thermal conductivity, high corrosion resistance and mechanical stability, and is available in high purity at a low cost. Furthermore carbon is biocompatible. This thesis presents several microfabricated devices that take advantage of these properties. The thesis has two clearly differentiated parts. In the first one, applications of micromachined carbon in the field of energy conversion and energy storage are presented. These applications include lithium ion micro batteries and the development of new carbon electrodes with fractal geometries. In the second part, the focus shifts to biological applications. First, the study of the interaction of living cells with micromachined carbon is presented, followed by the description of a sensor based on interdigitated nano-electrode arrays, and finally the development of the new instrumentation needed to address arrays of carbon electrodes, a multiplexed potentiostat. The underlying theme that connects all these seemingly different topics is the use of carbon microfabrication techniques in electrochemical systems.

  18. Pilot-Scale Silicone Process for Low-Cost Carbon Dioxide Capture Preliminary Techno-Economic Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Surinder; Spiry, Irina; Wood, Benjamin; Hance, Dan; Chen, Wei; Kehmna, Mark; McDuffie, Dwayne

    2014-03-31

    This report presents system and economic analysis for a carbon-capture unit which uses an aminosilicone-based solvent for CO{sub 2} capture in a pulverized coal (PC) boiler. The aminosilicone solvent is a 60/40 wt/wt mixture of 3-aminopropyl end-capped polydimethylsiloxane (GAP-1m) with tri-ethylene glycol (TEG) as a co-solvent. For comparison purposes, the report also shows results for a carbon-capture unit based on a conventional approach using mono-ethanol amine (MEA). The first year removal cost of CO{sub 2} for the aminosilicone-based carbon-capture process is $46.04/ton of CO2 as compared to $60.25/ton of CO{sub 2} when MEA is used. The aminosilicone-based process has <77% of the CAPEX of a system using MEA solvent. The lower CAPEX is due to several factors, including the higher working capacity of the aminosilicone solvent compared the MEA, which reduces the solvent flow rate required, reducing equipment sizes. If it is determined that carbon steel can be used in the rich-lean heat exchanger in the carbon capture unit, the first year removal cost of CO{sub 2} decreases to $44.12/ton. The aminosilicone-based solvent has a higher thermal stability than MEA, allowing desorption to be conducted at higher temperatures and pressures, decreasing the number of compressor stages needed. The aminosilicone-based solvent also has a lower vapor pressure, allowing the desorption to be conducted in a continuous-stirred tank reactor versus a more expensive packed column. The aminosilicone-based solvent has a lower heat capacity, which decreases the heat load on the desorber. In summary, the amino-silicone solvent has significant advantages over conventional systems using MEA.

  19. Carbon Capture and Water Emissions Treatment System (CCWESTRS) at Fossil-Fueled Electric Generating Plants

    SciTech Connect

    P. Alan Mays; Bert R. Bock; Gregory A. Brodie; L. Suzanne Fisher; J. Devereux Joslin; Donald L. Kachelman; Jimmy J. Maddox; N. S. Nicholas; Larry E. Shelton; Nick Taylor; Mark H. Wolfe; Dennis H. Yankee; John Goodrich-Mahoney

    2005-08-30

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and the Department of Energy-National Energy Technologies Laboratory (DOE-NETL) are evaluating and demonstrating integration of terrestrial carbon sequestration techniques at a coal-fired electric power plant through the use of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system gypsum as a soil amendment and mulch, and coal fly ash pond process water for periodic irrigation. From January to March 2002, the Project Team initiated the construction of a 40 ha Carbon Capture and Water Emissions Treatment System (CCWESTRS) near TVA's Paradise Fossil Plant on marginally reclaimed surface coal mine lands in Kentucky. The CCWESTRS is growing commercial grade trees and cover crops and is expected to sequester 1.5-2.0 MT/ha carbon per year over a 20-year period. The concept could be used to meet a portion of the timber industry's needs while simultaneously sequestering carbon in lands which would otherwise remain non-productive. The CCWESTRS includes a constructed wetland to enhance the ability to sequester carbon and to remove any nutrients and metals present in the coal fly ash process water runoff. The CCWESTRS project is a cooperative effort between TVA, EPRI, and DOE-NETL, with a total budget of $1,574,000. The proposed demonstration project began in October 2000 and has continued through December 2005. Additional funding is being sought in order to extend the project. The primary goal of the project is to determine if integrating power plant processes with carbon sequestration techniques will enhance carbon sequestration cost-effectively. This goal is consistent with DOE objectives to provide economically competitive and environmentally safe options to offset projected growth in U.S. baseline emissions of greenhouse gases after 2010, achieve the long-term goal of $10/ton of avoided net costs for carbon sequestration, and provide half of the required reductions in global greenhouse gases by 2025

  20. Direct Air Capture of CO2 - an Overview of Carbon Engineering's Technology and Pilot Plant Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, G.; Corless, A.

    2014-12-01

    At Carbon Engineering, we are developing and commercializing technology to scrub CO2 directly from atmospheric air at industrial scale. By providing atmospheric CO2 for use in fuel production, we can enable production of transportation fuels with ultra-low carbon intensities, which command price premiums in the growing set of constrained fuels markets such as California's LCFS. We are a Calgary based startup founded in 2009 with 10 employees, and we are considered a global leader in the direct air capture (DAC) field. We will review CE's DAC technology, based on a wet-scrubbing "air contactor" which absorbs CO2 into aqueous solution, and a chemical looping "regeneration" component, which liberates pure CO2 from this aqueous solution while re-making the original absorption chemical. CE's DAC tecnology exports purified atmospheric CO2, combined with the combustion CO2 from plant energy usage, as the end product. We will also discuss CE's 2014-2015 end-to-end Pilot Demonstration Unit. This is a $7M technology demonstration plant that CE is building with the help of key industrial partners and equipment vendors. Vendor design and engineering requirements have been used to specify the pilot air contactor, pellet reactor, calciner, and slaker modules, as well as auxiliary systems. These modules will be run for several months to obtain the engineering and performance data needed for subsequent commercial plant design, as well as to test the residual integration risks associated with CE's process. By the time of the AGU conference, the pilot is expected to be in late stages of fabrication or early stages of site installation.

  1. Co-cultivation of microalgae and nitrifiers for higher biomass production and better carbon capture.

    PubMed

    Bilanovic, Dragoljub; Holland, Mark; Starosvetsky, Jeanna; Armon, Robert

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work was to study co-cultivation of nitrifiers with microalgae as a non-intrusive technique for selective removal of oxygen generated by microalgae. Biomass concentration was, at least, 23% higher in mixed-cultures where nitrifiers kept the dissolved oxygen concentration below 9.0μLL(-1) than in control Chlorella vulgaris axenic-cultures where the concentration of dissolved oxygen was higher than 10.0μLL(-1). This approach to eliminating oxygen inhibition of microalgal growth could become the basis for the development of advanced microalgae reactors for removal of CO2 from the atmosphere, and concentrated CO2 streams. CO2 sequestration would become a chemically and geologically safer and environmentally more sound technology provided it uses microalgal, or other biomass, instead of CO2, for carbon storage. PMID:27584904

  2. Co-cultivation of microalgae and nitrifiers for higher biomass production and better carbon capture.

    PubMed

    Bilanovic, Dragoljub; Holland, Mark; Starosvetsky, Jeanna; Armon, Robert

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work was to study co-cultivation of nitrifiers with microalgae as a non-intrusive technique for selective removal of oxygen generated by microalgae. Biomass concentration was, at least, 23% higher in mixed-cultures where nitrifiers kept the dissolved oxygen concentration below 9.0μLL(-1) than in control Chlorella vulgaris axenic-cultures where the concentration of dissolved oxygen was higher than 10.0μLL(-1). This approach to eliminating oxygen inhibition of microalgal growth could become the basis for the development of advanced microalgae reactors for removal of CO2 from the atmosphere, and concentrated CO2 streams. CO2 sequestration would become a chemically and geologically safer and environmentally more sound technology provided it uses microalgal, or other biomass, instead of CO2, for carbon storage.

  3. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS): Risk assessment focused on marine bacteria.

    PubMed

    Borrero-Santiago, A R; DelValls, T A; Riba, I

    2016-09-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is one of the options to mitigate the negative effects of the climate change. However, this strategy may have associated some risks such as CO2 leakages due to an escape from the reservoir. In this context, marine bacteria have been underestimated. In order to figure out the gaps and the lack of knowledge, this work summarizes different studies related to the potential effects on the marine bacteria associated with an acidification caused by a CO2 leak from CSS. An improved integrated model for risk assessment is suggested as a tool based on the rapid responses of bacterial community. Moreover, this contribution proposes a strategy for laboratory protocols using Pseudomona stanieri (CECT7202) as a case of study and analyzes the response of the strain under different CO2 conditions. Results showed significant differences (p≤0.05) under six diluted enriched medium and differences about the days in the exponential growth phase. Dilution 1:10 (Marine Broth 2216 with seawater) was selected as an appropriate growth medium for CO2 toxicity test in batch cultures. This work provide an essential and a complete tool to understand and develop a management strategy to improve future works related to possible effects produced by potential CO2 leaks.

  4. Partitioning MOF-5 into Confined and Hydrophobic Compartments for Carbon Capture under Humid Conditions.

    PubMed

    Ding, Nan; Li, Haiwei; Feng, Xiao; Wang, Qianyou; Wang, Shan; Ma, Li; Zhou, Junwen; Wang, Bo

    2016-08-17

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), by virtue of their remarkable uptake capability, selectivity, and ease of regeneration, hold great promise for carbon capture from fossil fuel combustion. However, their stability toward moisture together with the competitive adsorption of water against CO2 drastically dampens their capacity and selectivity under real humid flue gas conditions. In this work, an effective strategy was developed to tackle the above obstacles by partitioning the channels of MOFs into confined, hydrophobic compartments by in situ polymerization of aromatic acetylenes. Specifically, polynaphthylene was formed via a radical reaction inside the channels of MOF-5 and served as partitions without altering the underlying structure of the framework. Compared with pristine MOF-5, the resultant material (PN@MOF-5) exhibits a doubled CO2 capacity (78 vs 38 cm(3)/g at 273 K and 1 bar), 23 times higher CO2/N2 selectivity (212 vs 9), and significantly improved moisture stability. The dynamic CO2 adsorption capacity can be largely maintained (>90%) under humid conditions during cycles. This strategy can be applied to other MOF materials and may shed light on the design of new MOF-polymer materials with tunable pore sizes and environments to promote their practical applications. PMID:27477091

  5. Illustrative national scale scenarios of environmental and human health impacts of Carbon Capture and Storage.

    PubMed

    Tzanidakis, Konstantinos; Oxley, Tim; Cockerill, Tim; ApSimon, Helen

    2013-06-01

    Integrated Assessment, and the development of strategies to reduce the impacts of air pollution, has tended to focus only upon the direct emissions from different sources, with the indirect emissions associated with the full life-cycle of a technology often overlooked. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) reflects a number of new technologies designed to reduce CO2 emissions, but which may have much broader environmental implications than greenhouse gas emissions. This paper considers a wider range of pollutants from a full life-cycle perspective, illustrating a methodology for assessing environmental impacts using source-apportioned effects based impact factors calculated by the national scale UK Integrated Assessment Model (UKIAM). Contrasting illustrative scenarios for the deployment of CCS towards 2050 are presented which compare the life-cycle effects of air pollutant emissions upon human health and ecosystems of business-as-usual, deployment of CCS and widespread uptake of IGCC for power generation. Together with estimation of the transboundary impacts we discuss the benefits of an effects based approach to such assessments in relation to emissions based techniques.

  6. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS): Risk assessment focused on marine bacteria.

    PubMed

    Borrero-Santiago, A R; DelValls, T A; Riba, I

    2016-09-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is one of the options to mitigate the negative effects of the climate change. However, this strategy may have associated some risks such as CO2 leakages due to an escape from the reservoir. In this context, marine bacteria have been underestimated. In order to figure out the gaps and the lack of knowledge, this work summarizes different studies related to the potential effects on the marine bacteria associated with an acidification caused by a CO2 leak from CSS. An improved integrated model for risk assessment is suggested as a tool based on the rapid responses of bacterial community. Moreover, this contribution proposes a strategy for laboratory protocols using Pseudomona stanieri (CECT7202) as a case of study and analyzes the response of the strain under different CO2 conditions. Results showed significant differences (p≤0.05) under six diluted enriched medium and differences about the days in the exponential growth phase. Dilution 1:10 (Marine Broth 2216 with seawater) was selected as an appropriate growth medium for CO2 toxicity test in batch cultures. This work provide an essential and a complete tool to understand and develop a management strategy to improve future works related to possible effects produced by potential CO2 leaks. PMID:27107627

  7. Partitioning MOF-5 into Confined and Hydrophobic Compartments for Carbon Capture under Humid Conditions.

    PubMed

    Ding, Nan; Li, Haiwei; Feng, Xiao; Wang, Qianyou; Wang, Shan; Ma, Li; Zhou, Junwen; Wang, Bo

    2016-08-17

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), by virtue of their remarkable uptake capability, selectivity, and ease of regeneration, hold great promise for carbon capture from fossil fuel combustion. However, their stability toward moisture together with the competitive adsorption of water against CO2 drastically dampens their capacity and selectivity under real humid flue gas conditions. In this work, an effective strategy was developed to tackle the above obstacles by partitioning the channels of MOFs into confined, hydrophobic compartments by in situ polymerization of aromatic acetylenes. Specifically, polynaphthylene was formed via a radical reaction inside the channels of MOF-5 and served as partitions without altering the underlying structure of the framework. Compared with pristine MOF-5, the resultant material (PN@MOF-5) exhibits a doubled CO2 capacity (78 vs 38 cm(3)/g at 273 K and 1 bar), 23 times higher CO2/N2 selectivity (212 vs 9), and significantly improved moisture stability. The dynamic CO2 adsorption capacity can be largely maintained (>90%) under humid conditions during cycles. This strategy can be applied to other MOF materials and may shed light on the design of new MOF-polymer materials with tunable pore sizes and environments to promote their practical applications.

  8. Innovative use of membrane contactor as condenser for heat recovery in carbon capture.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shuiping; Zhao, Shuaifei; Wardhaugh, Leigh; Feron, Paul H M

    2015-02-17

    The gas-liquid membrane contactor generally used as a nonselective gas absorption enhancement device is innovatively proposed as a condenser for heat recovery in liquid-absorbent-based carbon capture. The membrane condenser is used as a heat exchanger to recover the latent heat of the exiting vapor from the desorber, and it can help achieve significant energy savings when proper membranes with high heat-transfer coefficients are used. Theoretical thermodynamic analysis of mass and heat transfer in the membrane condensation system shows that heat recovery increases dramatically as inlet gas temperature rises and outlet gas temperature falls. The optimal split mass flow rate is determined by the inlet gas temperature and the overall heat-transfer coefficient in the condensation system. The required membrane area is also strongly dependent on the overall heat-transfer coefficient, particularly at higher inlet gas temperatures. Mass transfer across the membrane has an insignificant effect on heat transfer and heat recovery, suggesting that membrane wetting may not be an issue when a membrane condenser is used for heat recovery. Our analysis provides important insights into the energy recovery performance of the membrane condensation system as well as selection of operational parameters, such as split mass flow rate and membrane area, thickness, and thermal conductivity.

  9. FUNCTIONALIZED SILICA AEROGELS: ADVANCED MATERIALS TO CAPTURE AND IMMOBILIZE RADIOACTIVE IODINE

    SciTech Connect

    Matyas, Josef; Fryxell, Glen E.; Busche, Brad J.; Wallace, Krys; Fifield, Leonard S.

    2011-11-16

    To support the future expansion of nuclear energy, an effective method is needed to capture and safely store radiological iodine-129 released during reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. Various materials have been investigated to capture and immobilize iodine. In most cases, however, the materials that are effective for capturing iodine cannot subsequently be sintered/densified to create a stable composite that could be a viable waste form. We have developed chemically modified, highly porous, silica aerogels that show sorption capacities higher than 440 mg of I2 per gram at 150 C. An iodine uptake test in dry air containing 4.2 ppm of iodine demonstrated no breakthrough after 3.5 h and indicated a decontamination factor in excess of 310. Preliminary densification tests showed that the I2-loaded aerogels retained more than 92 wt% of I2 after thermal sintering with pressure assistance at 1200 C for 30 min. These high capture and retention efficiencies for I2 can be further improved by optimizing the functionalization process and the chemistry as well as the sintering conditions.

  10. Hydroquinone and Quinone-Grafted Porous Carbons for Highly Selective CO2 Capture from Flue Gases and Natural Gas Upgrading.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Krishna, Rajamani; Yang, Jiangfeng; Deng, Shuguang

    2015-08-01

    Hydroquinone and quinone functional groups were grafted onto a hierarchical porous carbon framework via the Friedel-Crafts reaction to develop more efficient adsorbents for the selective capture and removal of carbon dioxide from flue gases and natural gas. The oxygen-doped porous carbons were characterized with scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. CO2, CH4, and N2 adsorption isotherms were measured and correlated with the Langmuir model. An ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST) selectivity for the CO2/N2 separation of 26.5 (298 K, 1 atm) was obtained on the hydroquinone-grafted carbon, which is 58.7% higher than that of the pristine porous carbon, and a CO2/CH4 selectivity value of 4.6 (298 K, 1 atm) was obtained on the quinone-grafted carbon (OAC-2), which represents a 28.4% improvement over the pristine porous carbon. The highest CO2 adsorption capacity on the oxygen-doped carbon adsorbents is 3.46 mmol g(-1) at 298 K and 1 atm. In addition, transient breakthrough simulations for CO2/CH4/N2 mixture separation were conducted to demonstrate the good separation performance of the oxygen-doped carbons in fixed bed adsorbers. Combining excellent adsorption separation properties and low heats of adsorption, the oxygen-doped carbons developed in this work appear to be very promising for flue gas treatment and natural gas upgrading.

  11. Selection of microalgae and cyanobacteria strains for bicarbonate-based integrated carbon capture and algae production system.

    PubMed

    Chi, Zhanyou; Elloy, Farah; Xie, Yuxiao; Hu, Yucai; Chen, Shulin

    2014-01-01

    Using microalgae to capture CO2 from flue gas is an ideal way to reduce CO2 emission, but this is challenged by the high cost of carbon capture and transportation. To address this problem, a bicarbonate-based integrated carbon capture and algae production system (BICCAPS) has been proposed, in which bicarbonate is used for algae culture, and the regenerated carbonate from this process can be used to capture more CO2. High-concentration bicarbonate is obligate for the BICCAPS. Thus, different strains of microalgae and cyanobacteria were tested in this study for their capability to grow in high-concentration NaHCO3. The highest NaHCO3 concentrations they are tolerant to were determined as 0.30 M for Synechocystis sp. PCC6803, 0.60 M for Cyanothece sp., 0.10 M for Chlorella sorokiniana, 0.60 M for Dunaliella salina, and 0.30 M for Dunaliella viridis and Dunaliella primolecta. In further study, biomass production from culture of D. primolecta in an Erlenmeyer flask with either 0.30 M NaHCO3 or 2 % CO2 bubbling was compared, and no significant difference was detected. This indicates BICCAPS can reach the same biomass productivity as regular CO2 bubbling culture, and it is promising for future application.

  12. Selection of microalgae and cyanobacteria strains for bicarbonate-based integrated carbon capture and algae production system.

    PubMed

    Chi, Zhanyou; Elloy, Farah; Xie, Yuxiao; Hu, Yucai; Chen, Shulin

    2014-01-01

    Using microalgae to capture CO2 from flue gas is an ideal way to reduce CO2 emission, but this is challenged by the high cost of carbon capture and transportation. To address this problem, a bicarbonate-based integrated carbon capture and algae production system (BICCAPS) has been proposed, in which bicarbonate is used for algae culture, and the regenerated carbonate from this process can be used to capture more CO2. High-concentration bicarbonate is obligate for the BICCAPS. Thus, different strains of microalgae and cyanobacteria were tested in this study for their capability to grow in high-concentration NaHCO3. The highest NaHCO3 concentrations they are tolerant to were determined as 0.30 M for Synechocystis sp. PCC6803, 0.60 M for Cyanothece sp., 0.10 M for Chlorella sorokiniana, 0.60 M for Dunaliella salina, and 0.30 M for Dunaliella viridis and Dunaliella primolecta. In further study, biomass production from culture of D. primolecta in an Erlenmeyer flask with either 0.30 M NaHCO3 or 2 % CO2 bubbling was compared, and no significant difference was detected. This indicates BICCAPS can reach the same biomass productivity as regular CO2 bubbling culture, and it is promising for future application. PMID:24092450

  13. Predicting mixed-gas adsorption equilibria on activated carbon for precombustion CO2 capture.

    PubMed

    García, S; Pis, J J; Rubiera, F; Pevida, C

    2013-05-21

    We present experimentally measured adsorption isotherms of CO2, H2, and N2 on a phenol-formaldehyde resin-based activated carbon, which had been previously synthesized for the separation of CO2 in a precombustion capture process. The single component adsorption isotherms were measured in a magnetic suspension balance at three different temperatures (298, 318, and 338 K) and over a large range of pressures (from 0 to 3000-4000 kPa). These values cover the temperature and pressure conditions likely to be found in a precombustion capture scenario, where CO2 needs to be separated from a CO2/H2/N2 gas stream at high pressure (~1000-1500 kPa) and with a high CO2 concentration (~20-40 vol %). Data on the pure component isotherms were correlated using the Langmuir, Sips, and dual-site Langmuir (DSL) models, i.e., a two-, three-, and four-parameter model, respectively. By using the pure component isotherm fitting parameters, adsorption equilibrium was then predicted for multicomponent gas mixtures by the extended models. The DSL model was formulated considering the energetic site-matching concept, recently addressed in the literature. Experimental gas-mixture adsorption equilibrium data were calculated from breakthrough experiments conducted in a lab-scale fixed-bed reactor and compared with the predictions from the models. Breakthrough experiments were carried out at a temperature of 318 K and five different pressures (300, 500, 1000, 1500, and 2000 kPa) where two different CO2/H2/N2 gas mixtures were used as the feed gas in the adsorption step. The DSL model was found to be the one that most accurately predicted the CO2 adsorption equilibrium in the multicomponent mixture. The results presented in this work highlight the importance of performing experimental measurements of mixture adsorption equilibria, as they are of utmost importance to discriminate between models and to correctly select the one that most closely reflects the actual process.

  14. Advanced Materials for the Recognition and Capture of Whole Cells and Microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Bole, Amanda L; Manesiotis, Panagiotis

    2016-07-01

    Selective cell recognition and capture has recently attracted significant interest due to its potential importance for clinical, diagnostic, environmental, and security applications. Current methods for cell isolation from complex samples are largely dependent on cell size and density, with limited application scope as many of the target cells do not exhibit appreciable differences in this respect. The most recent and forthcoming developments in the area of selective recognition and capture of whole cells, based on natural receptors, as well as synthetic materials utilising physical and chemical properties of the target cell or microorganism, are highlighted. Particular focus is given to the development of cell complementary surfaces using the cells themselves as templating agents, by means of molecular imprinting, and their combination with sensing platforms for rapid cell detection in complex media. The benefits and challenges of each approach are discussed and a perspective of the future of this research area is given.

  15. Report of the Interagency Task Force on Carbon Capture and Storage

    SciTech Connect

    2010-08-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) refers to a set of technologies that can greatly reduce carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions from new and existing coal- and gas-fired power plants, industrial processes, and other stationary sources of CO{sub 2}. In its application to electricity generation, CCS could play an important role in achieving national and global greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction goals. However, widespread cost-effective deployment of CCS will occur only if the technology is commercially available and a supportive national policy framework is in place. In keeping with that objective, on February 3, 2010, President Obama established an Interagency Task Force on Carbon Capture and Storage composed of 14 Executive Departments and Federal Agencies. The Task Force, co-chaired by the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), was charged with proposing a plan to overcome the barriers to the widespread, cost-effective deployment of CCS within ten years, with a goal of bringing five to ten commercial demonstration projects online by 2016. Composed of more than 100 Federal employees, the Task Force examined challenges facing early CCS projects as well as factors that could inhibit widespread commercial deployment of CCS. In developing the findings and recommendations outlined in this report, the Task Force relied on published literature and individual input from more than 100 experts and stakeholders, as well as public comments submitted to the Task Force. The Task Force also held a large public meeting and several targeted stakeholder briefings. While CCS can be applied to a variety of stationary sources of CO{sub 2}, its application to coal-fired power plant emissions offers the greatest potential for GHG reductions. Coal has served as an important domestic source of reliable, affordable energy for decades, and the coal industry has provided stable and quality high-paying jobs for American workers. At the same time, coal-fired power

  16. Carbon capture by sorption-enhanced water-gas shift reaction process using hydrotalcite-based material

    SciTech Connect

    van Selow, E.R.; Cobden, P.D.; Verbraeken, P.A.; Hufton, J.R.; van den Brink, R.W.

    2009-05-15

    A novel route for precombustion decarbonization is the sorption-enhanced water-gas shift (SEWGS) process. In this process carbon dioxide is removed from a synthesis gas at elevated temperature by adsorption. Simultaneously, carbon monoxide is converted to carbon dioxide by the water-gas shift reaction. The periodic adsorption and desorption of carbon dioxide is induced by a pressure swing cycle, and the cyclic capacity can be amplified by purging with steam. From previous studies is it known that for SEWGS applications, hydrotalcite-based materials are particularly attractive as sorbent, and commercial high-temperature shift catalysts can be used for the conversion of carbon monoxide. Tablets of a potassium promoted hydrotalcite-based material are characterized in both breakthrough and cyclic experiments in a 2 m tall fixed-bed reactor. When exposed to a mixture of carbon dioxide, steam, and nitrogen at 400{sup o}C, the material shows a breakthrough capacity of 1.4 mmol/g. In subsequent experiments the material was mixed with tablets of promoted iron-chromium shift catalyst and exposed to a mixture of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, steam, hydrogen, and nitrogen. It is demonstrated that carbon monoxide conversion can be enhanced to 100% in the presence of a carbon dioxide sorbent. At breakthrough, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide simultaneously appear at the end of the bed. During more than 300 cycles of adsorption/reaction and desorption, the capture rate, and carbon monoxide conversion are confirmed to be stable. Two different cycle types are investigated: one cycle with a CO{sub 2} rinse step and one cycle with a steam rinse step. The performance of both SEWGS cycles are discussed.

  17. Regional Opportunities for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage in China: A Comprehensive CO2 Storage Cost Curve and Analysis of the Potential for Large Scale Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage in the People’s Republic of China

    SciTech Connect

    Dahowski, Robert T.; Li, Xiaochun; Davidson, Casie L.; Wei, Ning; Dooley, James J.

    2009-12-01

    This study presents data and analysis on the potential for carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies to deploy within China, including a survey of the CO2 source fleet and potential geologic storage capacity. The results presented here indicate that there is significant potential for CCS technologies to deploy in China at a level sufficient to deliver deep, sustained and cost-effective emissions reductions for China over the course of this century.

  18. Preparation of a one-curie 171Tm target for the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE)

    SciTech Connect

    Schwantes, Jon M.; Taylor, Wayne A.; Rundberg, Robert S.; Vieira, David J.

    2008-05-15

    Roughly one curie of 171Tm (t1/2=1.92a) has been produced and purified for the purpose of making a nuclear target for the first measurements of its neutron capture cross section. Target preparation consisted of three key steps: (1) material production; (2) separation and purification; and (3) electrodeposition onto a suitable backing material. Approximately 1.5 mg of the target material (at the time of separation) was produced by irradiating roughly 250 mg of its stable enriched 170Er lanthanide neighbor with neutrons at the ILL reactor in France. This production method resulted in a “difficult-to-separate” 1:167 mixture of near-neighboring lanthanides, Tm and Er. Separation and purification was accomplished using high-performance liquid chromatorgraphy (HPLC), with a proprietary cation exchange column (Dionex, CS-3) and alpha-hydroxyisobutyric acid (a-HIB) eluent. This technique yielded a final product of ~95% purity with respect to Tm. A portion (20 ug) of the Tm was electrodeposited on thin Be foil and delivered to the Los Alamos Neutron Science CEnter (LANSCE) for preliminary analysis of its neutron capture cross section using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE). This paper discusses the major hurdles associated with the separation and purification step including, scale-up issues related to the use of HPLC for material separation and purification of the target material from a-HIB and 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol (PAR) colorant.

  19. Energy and economic analysis of the carbon dioxide capture installation with the use of monoethanolamine and ammonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochon, Krzysztof; Chmielniak, Tadeusz

    2015-03-01

    In the study an accurate energy and economic analysis of the carbon capture installation was carried out. Chemical absorption with the use of monoethanolamine (MEA) and ammonia was adopted as the technology of carbon dioxide (CO2) capture from flue gases. The energy analysis was performed using a commercial software package to analyze the chemical processes. In the case of MEA, the demand for regeneration heat was about 3.5 MJ/kg of CO2, whereas for ammonia it totalled 2 MJ/kg CO2. The economic analysis was based on the net present value (NPV) method. The limit price for CO2 emissions allowances at which the investment project becomes profitable (NPV = 0) was more than 160 PLN/Mg for MEA and less than 150 PLN/Mg for ammonia. A sensitivity analysis was also carried out to determine the limit price of CO2 emissions allowances depending on electricity generation costs at different values of investment expenditures.

  20. An Estimate of the Cost of Electricity from Light Water Reactors and Fossil Plants with Carbon Capture and Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, A J

    2009-08-21

    As envisioned in this report, LIFE technology lends itself to large, centralized, baseload (or 'always on') electrical generation. Should LIFE plants be built, they will have to compete in the electricity market with other generation technologies. We consider the economics of technologies with similar operating characteristics: significant economies of scale, limited capacity for turndown, zero dependence on intermittent resources and ability to meet environmental constraints. The five generation technologies examined here are: (1) Light Water Reactors (LWR); (2) Coal; (3) Coal with Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS); (4) Natural Gas; and (5) Natural Gas with Carbon Capture and Sequestration. We use MIT's cost estimation methodology (Du and Parsons, 2009) to determine the cost of electricity at which each of these technologies is viable.

  1. Efficient solar-driven synthesis, carbon capture, and desalinization, STEP: solar thermal electrochemical production of fuels, metals, bleach.

    PubMed

    Licht, S

    2011-12-15

    STEP (solar thermal electrochemical production) theory is derived and experimentally verified for the electrosynthesis of energetic molecules at solar energy efficiency greater than any photovoltaic conversion efficiency. In STEP the efficient formation of metals, fuels, chlorine, and carbon capture is driven by solar thermal heated endothermic electrolyses of concentrated reactants occuring at a voltage below that of the room temperature energy stored in the products. One example is CO(2) , which is reduced to either fuels or storable carbon at a solar efficiency of over 50% due to a synergy of efficient solar thermal absorption and electrochemical conversion at high temperature and reactant concentration. CO(2) -free production of iron by STEP, from iron ore, occurs via Fe(III) in molten carbonate. Water is efficiently split to hydrogen by molten hydroxide electrolysis, and chlorine, sodium, and magnesium from molten chlorides. A pathway is provided for the STEP decrease of atmospheric carbon dioxide levels to pre-industial age levels in 10 years.

  2. Radiation processing of carbon fibre-reinforced advanced composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ajit

    2001-12-01

    Carbon fibre-reinforced advanced composites are being used for a variety of structural applications, because of their useful mechanical properties, including high strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance. Thermal curing of composite products results in internal stresses, due to the mismatch of the coefficients of expansion of the tools and the composite products. Because radiation curing can be done at ambient temperatures, the possibility that the residual stresses might be absent, or much lower in the radiation-cured products, originally led to the start of work on radiation curing of advanced composites at AECL's Whiteshell Laboratories in Pinawa, Canada, in 1985. Research work during the last two decades has shown that advanced composites can be radiation-cured with electron beams or γ radiation. Many of the advantages of radiation curing, as compared to thermal curing, which include curing at ambient temperature, reduced curing time, improved resin stability and reduced volatile emissions, have now been demonstrated. The initial work focussed on electron curing of acrylated epoxy matrices. Since then, procedures have been developed to radiation cure conventional aerospace epoxies, as well. Electron beam cured advanced composites are now being developed for use in the aircraft and aerospace industry. Repair of advanced composite structures is also possible using radiation curing technology. Radiation curing work is continuing at Pinawa and has also been done by Aerospatiale, who have facilities for electron curing composite rocket motor casings and by Chappas and co-workers who have electron cured part of a boat hull. In this paper, the work done on this emerging new technology by the various groups is briefly reviewed.

  3. Ex Situ CO2 capture by carbonation of steelmaking slag coupled with metalworking wastewater in a rotating packed bed.

    PubMed

    Pan, Shu-Yuan; Chiang, Pen-Chi; Chen, Yi-Hung; Tan, Chung-Sung; Chang, E-E

    2013-04-01

    Both basic oxygen furnace (BOF) slag and cold-rolling wastewater (CRW) exhibiting highly alkaline characteristics require stabilization and neutralization prior to utilization and/or final disposal. Using CO2 from flue gases as the stabilizing and neutralizing agents could also diminish CO2 emissions. In this investigation, ex situ hot stove gas containing 30 vol% CO2 in the steelmaking process was captured by accelerated carbonation of BOF slag coupled with CRW in a rotating packed bed (RPB). The developed RPB process exhibits superior results, with significant CO2 removal efficiency (η) of 96-99% in flue gas achieved within a short reaction time of 1 min at 25 °C and 1 atm. Calcite (CaCO3) was identified as the main product according to XRD and SEM-XEDS observations. In addition, the elimination of lime and Ca(OH)2 in the BOF slag during carbonation is beneficial to its further use as construction material. Consequently, the developed RPB process could capture the CO2 from the flue gas, neutralize the CRW, and demonstrate the utilization potential for BOF slag. It was also concluded that carbonation of BOF slag coupled with CRW in an RPB is a viable method for CO2 capture due to its higher mass transfer rate and CO2 removal efficiency in a short reaction time. PMID:23458276

  4. Ex Situ CO2 capture by carbonation of steelmaking slag coupled with metalworking wastewater in a rotating packed bed.

    PubMed

    Pan, Shu-Yuan; Chiang, Pen-Chi; Chen, Yi-Hung; Tan, Chung-Sung; Chang, E-E

    2013-04-01

    Both basic oxygen furnace (BOF) slag and cold-rolling wastewater (CRW) exhibiting highly alkaline characteristics require stabilization and neutralization prior to utilization and/or final disposal. Using CO2 from flue gases as the stabilizing and neutralizing agents could also diminish CO2 emissions. In this investigation, ex situ hot stove gas containing 30 vol% CO2 in the steelmaking process was captured by accelerated carbonation of BOF slag coupled with CRW in a rotating packed bed (RPB). The developed RPB process exhibits superior results, with significant CO2 removal efficiency (η) of 96-99% in flue gas achieved within a short reaction time of 1 min at 25 °C and 1 atm. Calcite (CaCO3) was identified as the main product according to XRD and SEM-XEDS observations. In addition, the elimination of lime and Ca(OH)2 in the BOF slag during carbonation is beneficial to its further use as construction material. Consequently, the developed RPB process could capture the CO2 from the flue gas, neutralize the CRW, and demonstrate the utilization potential for BOF slag. It was also concluded that carbonation of BOF slag coupled with CRW in an RPB is a viable method for CO2 capture due to its higher mass transfer rate and CO2 removal efficiency in a short reaction time.

  5. Sustainability Assessment of Coal-Fired Power Plants with Carbon Capture and Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Widder, Sarah H.; Butner, R. Scott; Elliott, Michael L.; Freeman, Charles J.

    2011-11-30

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) has the ability to dramatically reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from power production. Most studies find the potential for 70 to 80 percent reductions in CO2 emissions on a life-cycle basis, depending on the technology. Because of this potential, utilities and policymakers are considering the wide-spread implementation of CCS technology on new and existing coal plants to dramatically curb greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the power generation sector. However, the implementation of CCS systems will have many other social, economic, and environmental impacts beyond curbing GHG emissions that must be considered to achieve sustainable energy generation. For example, emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur oxides (SOx), and particulate matter (PM) are also important environmental concerns for coal-fired power plants. For example, several studies have shown that eutrophication is expected to double and acidification would increase due to increases in NOx emissions for a coal plant with CCS provided by monoethanolamine (MEA) scrubbing. Potential for human health risks is also expected to increase due to increased heavy metals in water from increased coal mining and MEA hazardous waste, although there is currently not enough information to relate this potential to actual realized health impacts. In addition to environmental and human health impacts, supply chain impacts and other social, economic, or strategic impacts will be important to consider. A thorough review of the literature for life-cycle analyses of power generation processes using CCS technology via the MEA absorption process, and other energy generation technologies as applicable, yielded large variability in methods and core metrics. Nonetheless, a few key areas of impact for CCS were developed from the studies that we reviewed. These are: the impact of MEA generation on increased eutrophication and acidification from ammonia emissions and increased toxicity

  6. Stabilization of CO2 in a B2 World: Insights on The Roles of Carbon Capture and Disposal, Hydrogen, and Transportation Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, John F.; Dooley, James J.; Kim, Son H.; Smith, Steven J.

    2004-07-01

    Technology is one of the most important determinants of the cost of stabilizing the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The character of its role is both complex and evolving. The purpose of this paper is to examine the potential role of a suite of technologies that could have a profound impact on the cost of stabilizing the greenhouse gas concentrations. These technologies include those which capture and dispose of carbon in reservoirs permanently isolated from the atmosphere (CC&D), technologies that make and use hydrogen (H2), and advanced transportation technologies. While this paper will focus on the impact of this group of technologies, other energy technologies, not examined here, because of space limitations, such as biotechnology, renewables, nuclear power and energy efficiency also hold substantial potential for addressing climate change.

  7. A research needs assessment for the capture, utilization and disposal of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel-fired power plants. Volume 2, Topical reports: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    This study, identifies and assesses system approaches in order to prioritize research needs for the capture and non-atmospheric sequestering of a significant portion of the carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emitted from fossil fuel-fired electric power plants (US power plants presently produce about 7% of the world`s CO{sub 2} emissions). The study considers capture technologies applicable either to existing plants or to those that optimistically might be demonstrated on a commercial scale over the next twenty years. The research needs that have high priority in establishing the technical, environmental, and economic feasibility of large-scale capture and disposal of CO{sub 2} from electric power plants are:(1) survey and assess the capacity, cost, and location of potential depleted gas and oil wells that are suitable CO{sub 2} repositories (with the cooperation of the oil and gas industry); (2) conduct research on the feasibility of ocean disposal, with objectives of determining the cost, residence time, and environmental effects for different methods of CO{sub 2} injection; (3) perform an in-depth survey of knowledge concerning the feasibility of using deep, confined aquifers for disposal and, if feasible, identify potential disposal locations (with the cooperation of the oil and gas industry); (4) evaluate, on a common basis, system and design alternatives for integration of CO{sub 2} capture systems with emerging and advanced technologies for power generation; and prepare a conceptual design, an analysis of barrier issues, and a preliminary cost estimate for pipeline networks necessary to transport a significant portion of the CO{sub 2} to potentially feasible disposal locations.

  8. High-throughput screening of metal-porphyrin-like graphenes for selective capture of carbon dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Hyeonhu; Park, Minwoo; Jang, Byungryul; Kang, Yura; Park, Jinwoo; Lee, Hosik; Chung, Haegeun; Chung, ChiHye; Hong, Suklyun; Kwon, Yongkyung; Yakobson, Boris I.; Lee, Hoonkyung

    2016-01-01

    Nanostructured materials, such as zeolites and metal-organic frameworks, have been considered to capture CO2. However, their application has been limited largely because they exhibit poor selectivity for flue gases and low capture capacity under low pressures. We perform a high-throughput screening for selective CO2 capture from flue gases by using first principles thermodynamics. We find that elements with empty d orbitals selectively attract CO2 from gaseous mixtures under low CO2 pressures (~10−3 bar) at 300 K and release it at ~450 K. CO2 binding to elements involves hybridization of the metal d orbitals with the CO2 π orbitals and CO2-transition metal complexes were observed in experiments. This result allows us to perform high-throughput screening to discover novel promising CO2 capture materials with empty d orbitals (e.g., Sc– or V–porphyrin-like graphene) and predict their capture performance under various conditions. Moreover, these findings provide physical insights into selective CO2 capture and open a new path to explore CO2 capture materials. PMID:26902156

  9. High-throughput screening of metal-porphyrin-like graphenes for selective capture of carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Bae, Hyeonhu; Park, Minwoo; Jang, Byungryul; Kang, Yura; Park, Jinwoo; Lee, Hosik; Chung, Haegeun; Chung, ChiHye; Hong, Suklyun; Kwon, Yongkyung; Yakobson, Boris I; Lee, Hoonkyung

    2016-02-23

    Nanostructured materials, such as zeolites and metal-organic frameworks, have been considered to capture CO2. However, their application has been limited largely because they exhibit poor selectivity for flue gases and low capture capacity under low pressures. We perform a high-throughput screening for selective CO2 capture from flue gases by using first principles thermodynamics. We find that elements with empty d orbitals selectively attract CO2 from gaseous mixtures under low CO2 pressures (~10(-3) bar) at 300 K and release it at ~450 K. CO2 binding to elements involves hybridization of the metal d orbitals with the CO2 π orbitals and CO2-transition metal complexes were observed in experiments. This result allows us to perform high-throughput screening to discover novel promising CO2 capture materials with empty d orbitals (e.g., Sc- or V-porphyrin-like graphene) and predict their capture performance under various conditions. Moreover, these findings provide physical insights into selective CO2 capture and open a new path to explore CO2 capture materials.

  10. Economic and Environmental Evaluation of Flexible Integrated Gasification Polygeneration Facilities Equipped with Carbon Capture and Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aitken, M.; Yelverton, W. H.; Dodder, R. S.; Loughlin, D. H.

    2014-12-01

    Among the diverse menu of technologies for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, one option involves pairing carbon capture and storage (CCS) with the generation of synthetic fuels and electricity from co-processed coal and biomass. In this scheme, the feedstocks are first converted to syngas, from which a Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process reactor and combined cycle turbine produce liquid fuels and electricity, respectively. With low concentrations of sulfur and other contaminants, the synthetic fuels are expected to be cleaner than conventional crude oil products. And with CO2 as an inherent byproduct of the FT process, most of the GHG emissions can be eliminated by simply compressing the CO2 output stream for pipeline transport. In fact, the incorporation of CCS at such facilities can result in very low—or perhaps even negative—net GHG emissions, depending on the fraction of biomass as input and its CO2 signature. To examine the potential market penetration and environmental impact of coal and biomass to liquids and electricity (CBtLE), which encompasses various possible combinations of input and output parameters within the overall energy landscape, a system-wide analysis is performed using the MARKet ALlocation (MARKAL) model. With resource supplies, energy conversion technologies, end-use demands, costs, and pollutant emissions as user-defined inputs, MARKAL calculates—using linear programming techniques—the least-cost set of technologies that satisfy the specified demands subject to environmental and policy constraints. In this framework, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed both national and regional databases to characterize assorted technologies in the industrial, commercial, residential, transportation, and generation sectors of the U.S. energy system. Here, the EPA MARKAL database is updated to include the costs and emission characteristics of CBtLE using figures from the literature. Nested sensitivity analysis is then

  11. Coprecipitated, copper-based, alumina-stabilized materials for carbon dioxide capture by chemical looping combustion.

    PubMed

    Imtiaz, Qasim; Kierzkowska, Agnieszka Marta; Müller, Christoph Rüdiger

    2012-08-01

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) has emerged as a carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) process to produce a pure stream of CO(2) at very low costs when compared with alternative CCS technologies, such as scrubbing with amines. From a thermodynamic point of view, copper oxide is arguably the most promising candidate for the oxygen carrier owing to its exothermic reduction and oxidation reactions and high oxygen-carrying capacity. However, the low melting point of pure copper of only 1085 °C has so far prohibited the synthesis of copper-rich oxygen carriers. This paper is concerned with the development of copper-based and Al(2)O(3)-stabilized oxygen carriers that contain a high mass fraction of CuO, namely, 82.4 wt %. The oxygen carriers were synthesized by using a coprecipitation technique. The synthesized oxygen carriers were characterized in detail with regards to their morphological properties, chemical composition, and surface topography. It was found that both the precipitating agent and the pH at which the precipitation was performed strongly influenced the structure and chemical composition of the oxygen carriers. In addition, XRD analysis confirmed that, for the majority of the precipitation conditions investigated, CuO reacted with Al(2)O(3) to form fully reducible CuAl(2)O(4). The redox characteristics of the synthesized materials were evaluated at 800 °C by using methane as the fuel and air for reoxidation. It was found that the oxygen-carrying capacity of the synthesized oxygen carriers was strongly influenced by both the precipitating agent and the pH at which the precipitation was performed; however, all oxygen carriers tested showed a stable cyclic oxygen-carrying capacity. The oxygen carriers synthesized at pH 5.5 using NaOH or Na(2)CO(3) as the precipitating agents were the best oxygen carriers synthesized owing to their high and stable oxygen transfer and uncoupling capacities. The excellent redox characteristics of the best oxygen carrier

  12. Sulfation of CaO particles in a carbonation/calcination loop to capture CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Grasa, G.S.; Alonso, M.; Abanades, J.C.

    2008-03-15

    CaO is being proposed as a regenerable sorbent of CO{sub 2} via a carbonation/calcination loop. It is well known that natural sorbents lose their capacity to capture CO{sub 2} with the number of cycles due to textural degradation. In coal combustion systems, reaction with the SO{sub 2} present in flue gases also causes sorbent deactivation. This work investigates the effect of partial sorbent sulfation on the amount of CaO used in systems where both carbonation and sulfation reactions are competing. We have found that SO{sub 2} reacts with the deactivated CaO resulting from repetitive calcination/carbonation reactions. Therefore, the deactivation of CaO as a result of the presence of SO{sub 2} is lower than one would expect if one assumes that SO{sub 2} reacts only with active CaO. This work shows that changes in the texture of the sorbent due to repetitive carbonation/calcination cycles tend to increase the sulfation capacity of the sorbents tested. This suggests that the purge of deactivated CaO obtained from a CO{sub 2} capture loop could be a more effective sorbent of SO{sub 2} than fresh CaO.

  13. Neighborhood structure influences the convergence in light capture efficiency and carbon gain: an architectural approach for cloud forest shrubs.

    PubMed

    Guzmán Q, J Antonio; Cordero S, Roberto A

    2016-06-01

    Although plant competition is recognized as a fundamental factor that limits survival and species coexistence, its relative importance on light capture efficiency and carbon gain is not well understood. Here, we propose a new framework to explain the effects of neighborhood structures and light availability on plant attributes and their effect on plant performance in two understory shade-tolerant species (Palicourea padifolia (Roem. & Schult.) C.M. Taylor & Lorence and Psychotria elata (Swartz)) within two successional stages of a cloud forest in Costa Rica. Features of plant neighborhood physical structure and light availability, estimated by hemispherical photographs, were used to characterize the plant competition. Plant architecture, leaf attributes and gas exchange parameters extracted from the light-response curve were used as functional plant attributes, while an index of light capture efficiency (silhouette to total area ratio, averaged over all viewing angles, STAR) and carbon gain were used as indicators of plant performance. This framework is based in a partial least square Path model, which suggests that changes in plant performance in both species were affected in two ways: (i) increasing size and decreasing distance of neighbors cause changes in plant architecture (higher crown density and greater leaf dispersion), which contribute to lower STAR and subsequently lower carbon gain; and (ii) reductions in light availability caused by the neighbors also decrease plant carbon gain. The effect of neighbors on STAR and carbon gain were similar for the two forests sites, which were at different stages of succession, suggesting that the architectural changes of the two understory species reflect functional convergence in response to plant competition. Because STAR and carbon gain are variables that depend on multiple plant attributes and environmental characteristics, we suggest that changes in these features can be used as a whole-plant response approach to

  14. An advanced digital image-capture computer system for gross specimens: a substitute for gross description.

    PubMed

    Leong, A S; Visinoni, F; Visinoni, C; Milios, J

    2000-05-01

    The description of macroscopic appearances of surgically excised specimens together with the sites of specimen sampling form an important component in the documentation of a histopathology specimen. Unfortunately, accuracy of description depends on the vocabulary and descriptive prowess of the pathologist which means that the result can be variable. Transcription of the dictated word also takes time and involves typists. We developed a user-friendly, high-resolution image capture system that will supplement word description of macroscopic specimens and has the potential to replace it completely. It also provides the opportunity of revisiting traditional methods of documenting specimens with words, allowing the production of more relevant and user-friendly reports containing information relevant to clinical management and supplemented by high-resolution digital images. The accompanying Windows-based software has capabilities of generating the entire histopathology report and allows rapid retrospective searches through any one of several common search parameters. The stored images form a powerful database for teaching and research. Connection to remote transmission facilities allows teleconferencing and telepathology consultations.

  15. Metal-organic frameworks with precisely designed interior for carbon dioxide capture in the presence of water.

    PubMed

    Fracaroli, Alejandro M; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; Suzuki, Mitsuharu; Dodd, Matthew; Okajima, Satoshi; Gándara, Felipe; Reimer, Jeffrey A; Yaghi, Omar M

    2014-06-25

    The selective capture of carbon dioxide in the presence of water is an outstanding challenge. Here, we show that the interior of IRMOF-74-III can be covalently functionalized with primary amine (IRMOF-74-III-CH2NH2) and used for the selective capture of CO2 in 65% relative humidity. This study encompasses the synthesis, structural characterization, gas adsorption, and CO2 capture properties of variously functionalized IRMOF-74-III compounds (IRMOF-74-III-CH3, -NH2, -CH2NHBoc, -CH2NMeBoc, -CH2NH2, and -CH2NHMe). Cross-polarization magic angle spinning (13)C NMR spectra showed that CO2 binds chemically to IRMOF-74-III-CH2NH2 and -CH2NHMe to make carbamic species. Carbon dioxide isotherms and breakthrough experiments show that IRMOF-74-III-CH2NH2 is especially efficient at taking up CO2 (3.2 mmol of CO2 per gram at 800 Torr) and, more significantly, removing CO2 from wet nitrogen gas streams with breakthrough time of 610 ± 10 s g(-1) and full preservation of the IRMOF structure.

  16. Advance chromatin extraction improves capture performance of protein A affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Nian, Rui; Zhang, Wei; Tan, Lihan; Lee, Jeremy; Bi, Xeuzhi; Yang, Yuansheng; Gan, Hui Theng; Gagnon, Pete

    2016-01-29

    Practical effects of advance chromatin removal on performance of protein A affinity chromatography were evaluated using a caprylic acid-allantoin-based extraction method. Lacking this treatment, the practice of increasing loading residence time to increase capacity was shown to increase host protein contamination of the eluted IgG. Advance chromatin extraction suspended that compromise. Protein A ligand leakage from columns loaded with chromatin-extracted harvest was half the level observed on protein A columns loaded with non-extracted harvest. Columns loaded with chromatin-extracted harvest were cleaned more effectively by 50-100mM NaOH than columns loaded with non-extracted harvest that were cleaned with 250-500mM NaOH. Two protein A media with IgG capacities in excess of 50g/L were loaded with chromatin-extracted harvest, washed with 2.0M NaCl before elution, and the eluted IgG fraction titrated to pH 5.5 before microfiltration. Host protein contamination in the filtrate was reduced to <1ppm, DNA to <1ppb, protein A leakage to 0.5ppm, and aggregates to 1.0%. Caprylic acid and allantoin were both reduced below 5ppm. Step recovery of IgG was 99.4%. Addition of a single polishing step reduced residual protein A beneath the level of detection and aggregates to <0.1%. Overall process recovery including chromatin extraction was 90%. PMID:26774119

  17. Advances in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) at kyoto university - From reactor-based BNCT to accelerator-based BNCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Hiroki; Takata, Takushi; Fujimoto, Nozomi; Suzuki, Minoru; Masunaga, Shinichiro; Kinashi, Yuko; Kondo, Natsuko; Narabayashi, Masaru; Nakagawa, Yosuke; Watanabe, Tsubasa; Ono, Koji; Maruhashi, Akira

    2015-07-01

    At the Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI), a clinical study of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using a neutron irradiation facility installed at the research nuclear reactor has been regularly performed since February 1990. As of November 2014, 510 clinical irradiations were carried out using the reactor-based system. The world's first accelerator-based neutron irradiation system for BNCT clinical irradiation was completed at this institute in early 2009, and the clinical trial using this system was started in 2012. A shift of BCNT from special particle therapy to a general one is now in progress. To promote and support this shift, improvements to the irradiation system, as well as its preparation, and improvements in the physical engineering and the medical physics processes, such as dosimetry systems and quality assurance programs, must be considered. The recent advances in BNCT at KURRI are reported here with a focus on physical engineering and medical physics topics.

  18. Novel shortcut estimation method for regeneration energy of amine solvents in an absorption-based carbon capture process.

    PubMed

    Kim, Huiyong; Hwang, Sung June; Lee, Kwang Soon

    2015-02-01

    Among various CO2 capture processes, the aqueous amine-based absorption process is considered the most promising for near-term deployment. However, the performance evaluation of newly developed solvents still requires complex and time-consuming procedures, such as pilot plant tests or the development of a rigorous simulator. Absence of accurate and simple calculation methods for the energy performance at an early stage of process development has lengthened and increased expense of the development of economically feasible CO2 capture processes. In this paper, a novel but simple method to reliably calculate the regeneration energy in a standard amine-based carbon capture process is proposed. Careful examination of stripper behaviors and exploitation of energy balance equations around the stripper allowed for calculation of the regeneration energy using only vapor-liquid equilibrium and caloric data. Reliability of the proposed method was confirmed by comparing to rigorous simulations for two well-known solvents, monoethanolamine (MEA) and piperazine (PZ). The proposed method can predict the regeneration energy at various operating conditions with greater simplicity, greater speed, and higher accuracy than those proposed in previous studies. This enables faster and more precise screening of various solvents and faster optimization of process variables and can eventually accelerate the development of economically deployable CO2 capture processes.

  19. Advances in mechanisms and signaling pathways of carbon nanotube toxicity.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jie; Ma, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been developed into new materials with a variety of industrial and commercial applications. In contrast, the physicochemical properties of CNT at the nanoscale render them the potency to generate toxic effects. Indeed, the potential health impacts of CNT have drawn a great deal of attention in recent years, owing to their identified toxicological and pathological consequences including cytotoxicity, inflammation, fibrosis, genotoxicity, tumorigenesis, and immunotoxicity. Understanding the mechanisms by which CNT induce toxicity and pathology is thus urgently needed for accurate risk assessment of CNT exposure in humans, and for safe and responsible development and commercialization of nanotechnology. Here, we summarize and discuss recent advances in this area with a focus on the molecular interactions between CNT and mammalian systems, and the signaling pathways important for the development of CNT toxicity such as the NF-κB, NLRP3 inflammasome, TGF-β1, MAPK, and p53 signaling cascades. With the current mechanistic evidence summarized in this review, we expect to provide new insights into CNT toxicology at the molecular level and offer new clues to the prevention of health effects resulting from CNT exposure. Moreover, we disclose questions and issues that remain in this rapidly advancing field of nanotoxicology, which would facilitate ascertaining future research directions. PMID:25676622

  20. Advances in mechanisms and signaling pathways of carbon nanotube toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Jie; Ma, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been developed into new materials with a variety of industrial and commercial applications. In contrast, the physicochemical properties of CNT at the nanoscale render them the potency to generate toxic effects. Indeed, the potential health impacts of CNT have drawn a great deal of attention in recent years, owing to their identified toxicological and pathological consequences including cytotoxicity, inflammation, fibrosis, genotoxicity, tumorigenesis, and immunotoxicity. Understanding the mechanisms by which CNT induce toxicity and pathology is thus urgently needed for accurate risk assessment of CNT exposure in humans, and for safe and responsible development and commercialization of nanotechnology. Here, we summarize and discuss recent advances in this area with a focus on the molecular interactions between CNT and mammalian systems, and the signaling pathways important for the development of CNT toxicity such as the NF-κB, NLRP3 inflammasome, TGF-β1, MAPK, and p53 signaling cascades. With the current mechanistic evidence summarized in this review, we expect to provide new insights into CNT toxicology at the molecular level and offer new clues to the prevention of health effects resulting from CNT exposure. Moreover, we disclose questions and issues that remain in this rapidly advancing field of nanotoxicology, which would facilitate ascertaining future research directions. PMID:25676622

  1. Functionalization of Metal-Organic Frameworks for Enhanced Stability under Humid Carbon Dioxide Capture Conditions.

    PubMed

    Andirova, Dinara; Lei, Yu; Zhao, Xiaodan; Choi, Sunho

    2015-10-26

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been highlighted recently as promising materials for CO2 capture. However, in practical CO2 capture processes, such as capture from flue gas or ambient air, the adsorption properties of MOFs tend to be harmed by the presence of moisture possibly because of the hydrophilic nature of the coordinatively unsaturated sites (CUSs) within their framework. In this work, the CUSs of the MOF framework are functionalized with amine-containing molecules to prevent structural degradation in a humid environment. Specifically, the framework of the magnesium dioxybenzenedicarboxylate (Mg/DOBDC) MOF was functionalized with ethylenediamine (ED) molecules to make the overall structure less hydrophilic. Structural analysis after exposure to high-temperature steam showed that the ED-functionalized Mg/DOBDC (ED-Mg/DOBDC) is more stable under humid conditions, than Mg/DOBDC, which underwent drastic structural changes. ED-Mg/DOBDC recovered its CO2 adsorption capacity and initial adsorption rate quite well as opposed to the original Mg/DOBDC, which revealed a significant reduction in its capture capacity and kinetics. These results suggest that the amine-functionalization of the CUSs is an effective way to enhance the structural stability of MOFs as well as their capture of humid CO2 . PMID:26367016

  2. Functionalization of Metal-Organic Frameworks for Enhanced Stability under Humid Carbon Dioxide Capture Conditions.

    PubMed

    Andirova, Dinara; Lei, Yu; Zhao, Xiaodan; Choi, Sunho

    2015-10-26

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been highlighted recently as promising materials for CO2 capture. However, in practical CO2 capture processes, such as capture from flue gas or ambient air, the adsorption properties of MOFs tend to be harmed by the presence of moisture possibly because of the hydrophilic nature of the coordinatively unsaturated sites (CUSs) within their framework. In this work, the CUSs of the MOF framework are functionalized with amine-containing molecules to prevent structural degradation in a humid environment. Specifically, the framework of the magnesium dioxybenzenedicarboxylate (Mg/DOBDC) MOF was functionalized with ethylenediamine (ED) molecules to make the overall structure less hydrophilic. Structural analysis after exposure to high-temperature steam showed that the ED-functionalized Mg/DOBDC (ED-Mg/DOBDC) is more stable under humid conditions, than Mg/DOBDC, which underwent drastic structural changes. ED-Mg/DOBDC recovered its CO2 adsorption capacity and initial adsorption rate quite well as opposed to the original Mg/DOBDC, which revealed a significant reduction in its capture capacity and kinetics. These results suggest that the amine-functionalization of the CUSs is an effective way to enhance the structural stability of MOFs as well as their capture of humid CO2 .

  3. Energy and exergy analyses of an integrated gasification combined cycle power plant with CO2 capture using hot potassium carbonate solvent.

    PubMed

    Li, Sheng; Jin, Hongguang; Gao, Lin; Mumford, Kathryn Anne; Smith, Kathryn; Stevens, Geoff

    2014-12-16

    Energy and exergy analyses were studied for an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant with CO2 capture using hot potassium carbonate solvent. The study focused on the combined impact of the CO conversion ratio in the water gas shift (WGS) unit and CO2 recovery rate on component exergy destruction, plant efficiency, and energy penalty for CO2 capture. A theoretical limit for the minimal efficiency penalty for CO2 capture was also provided. It was found that total plant exergy destruction increased almost linearly with CO2 recovery rate and CO conversion ratio at low CO conversion ratios, but the exergy destruction from the WGS unit and the whole plant increased sharply when the CO conversion ratio was higher than 98.5% at the design WGS conditions, leading to a significant decrease in plant efficiency and increase in efficiency penalty for CO2 capture. When carbon capture rate was over around 70%, via a combination of around 100% CO2 recovery rate and lower CO conversion ratios, the efficiency penalty for CO2 capture was reduced. The minimal efficiency penalty for CO2 capture was estimated to be around 5.0 percentage points at design conditions in an IGCC plant with 90% carbon capture. Unlike the traditional aim of 100% CO conversion, it was recommended that extremely high CO conversion ratios should not be considered in order to decrease the energy penalty for CO2 capture and increase plant efficiency.

  4. A Techno-Economic Assessment of Hybrid Cooling Systems for Coal- and Natural-Gas-Fired Power Plants with and without Carbon Capture and Storage.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Haibo; Rubin, Edward S

    2016-04-01

    Advanced cooling systems can be deployed to enhance the resilience of thermoelectric power generation systems. This study developed and applied a new power plant modeling option for a hybrid cooling system at coal- or natural-gas-fired power plants with and without amine-based carbon capture and storage (CCS) systems. The results of the plant-level analyses show that the performance and cost of hybrid cooling systems are affected by a range of environmental, technical, and economic parameters. In general, when hot periods last the entire summer, the wet unit of a hybrid cooling system needs to share about 30% of the total plant cooling load in order to minimize the overall system cost. CCS deployment can lead to a significant increase in the water use of hybrid cooling systems, depending on the level of CO2 capture. Compared to wet cooling systems, widespread applications of hybrid cooling systems can substantially reduce water use in the electric power sector with only a moderate increase in the plant-level cost of electricity generation.

  5. A Techno-Economic Assessment of Hybrid Cooling Systems for Coal- and Natural-Gas-Fired Power Plants with and without Carbon Capture and Storage.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Haibo; Rubin, Edward S

    2016-04-01

    Advanced cooling systems can be deployed to enhance the resilience of thermoelectric power generation systems. This study developed and applied a new power plant modeling option for a hybrid cooling system at coal- or natural-gas-fired power plants with and without amine-based carbon capture and storage (CCS) systems. The results of the plant-level analyses show that the performance and cost of hybrid cooling systems are affected by a range of environmental, technical, and economic parameters. In general, when hot periods last the entire summer, the wet unit of a hybrid cooling system needs to share about 30% of the total plant cooling load in order to minimize the overall system cost. CCS deployment can lead to a significant increase in the water use of hybrid cooling systems, depending on the level of CO2 capture. Compared to wet cooling systems, widespread applications of hybrid cooling systems can substantially reduce water use in the electric power sector with only a moderate increase in the plant-level cost of electricity generation. PMID:26967583

  6. Thermal Integration of CO{sub 2} Compression Processes with Coal-Fired Power Plants Equipped with Carbon Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Edward Levy

    2012-06-29

    Coal-fired power plants, equipped either with oxycombustion or post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture, will require a CO{sub 2} compression system to increase the pressure of the CO{sub 2} to the level needed for sequestration. Most analyses show that CO{sub 2} compression will have a significant effect on parasitic load, will be a major capital cost, and will contribute significantly to reduced unit efficiency. This project used first principle engineering analyses and computer simulations to determine the effects of utilizing compressor waste heat to improve power plant efficiency and increase net power output of coal-fired power plants with carbon capture. This was done for units with post combustion solvent-based CO{sub 2} capture systems and for oxyfired power plants, firing bituminous, PRB and lignite coals. The thermal integration opportunities analyzed for oxycombustion capture are use of compressor waste heat to reheat recirculated flue gas, preheat boiler feedwater and predry high-moisture coals prior to pulverizing the coal. Among the thermal integration opportunities analyzed for post combustion capture systems are use of compressor waste heat and heat recovered from the stripper condenser to regenerate post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture solvent, preheat boiler feedwater and predry high-moisture coals. The overall conclusion from the oxyfuel simulations is that thermal integration of compressor heat has the potential to improve net unit heat rate by up to 8.4 percent, but the actual magnitude of the improvement will depend on the type of heat sink used and to a lesser extent, compressor design and coal rank. The simulations of a unit with a MEA post combustion capture system showed that thermal integration of either compressor heat or stripper condenser heat to preheat boiler feedwater would result in heat rate improvements from 1.20 percent to 4.19 percent. The MEA capture simulations further showed that partial drying of low rank coals, done in combination

  7. CO{sub 2} capture capacity of CaO in long series of carbonation/calcination cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Grasa, G.S.; Abanades, J.C.

    2006-12-20

    Calcium oxide can be an effective sorbent to separate CO{sub 2} at high temperatures. When coupled with a calcination step to produce pure CO{sub 2}, the carbonation reaction is the basis for several high-temperature CO{sub 2} capture systems. The evolution with cycling of the capture capacity of CaO derived from natural limestones is experimentally investigated in this work. Long series of carbonation/calcination cycles (up to 500) varying different variables affecting sorbent capacity have been tested in a thermogravimetric apparatus. Calcination temperatures above T > 950{sup o}C and very long calcination times accelerate the decay in sorption capacity, while other variables have a comparatively modest effect on the overall sorbent performance. A residual conversion of about 7-8% that remains constant after many hundreds of cycles and that seems insensitive to process conditions has been found. This residual conversion makes very attractive the carbonation/calcination cycle, by reducing (or even eliminating) sorbent purge rates in the system. A semiempirical equation has been proposed to describe sorbent conversion with the number of cycles based on these new long data series.

  8. "Not in (or under) my backyard": Geographic proximity and public acceptance of carbon capture and storage facilities.

    PubMed

    Krause, Rachel M; Carley, Sanya R; Warren, David C; Rupp, John A; Graham, John D

    2014-03-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is an innovative technical approach to mitigate the problem of climate change by capturing carbon dioxide emissions and injecting them underground for permanent geological storage. CCS has been perceived both positively, as an innovative approach to facilitate a more environmentally benign use of fossil fuels while also generating local economic benefits, and negatively, as a technology that prolongs the use of carbon-intensive energy sources and burdens local communities with prohibitive costs and ecological and human health risks. This article extends existing research on the "not in my backyard" (NIMBY) phenomenon in a direction that explores the public acceptance of CCS. We utilize survey data collected from 1,001 residents of the coal-intensive U.S. state of Indiana. Over 80% of respondents express support for the general use of CCS technology. However, 20% of these initial supporters exhibit a NIMBY-like reaction and switch to opposition as a CCS facility is proposed close to their communities. Respondents' worldviews, their beliefs about the local economic benefits that CCS will generate, and their concerns about its safety have the greatest impact on increasing or decreasing the acceptance of nearby facilities. These results lend valuable insights into the perceived risks associated with CCS technology and the possibilities for its public acceptance at both a national and local scale. They may be extended further to provide initial insights into likely public reactions to other technologies that share a similar underground dimension, such as hydraulic fracturing.

  9. Activity and stability of immobilized carbonic anhydrase for promoting CO2 absorption into a carbonate solution for post-combustion CO2 capture.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shihan; Zhang, Zhaohui; Lu, Yongqi; Rostam-Abadi, Massoud; Jones, Andrew

    2011-11-01

    An Integrated Vacuum Carbonate Absorption Process (IVCAP) currently under development could significantly reduce the energy consumed when capturing CO2 from the flue gases of coal-fired power plants. The biocatalyst carbonic anhydrase (CA) has been found to effectively promote the absorption of CO2 into the potassium carbonate solution that would be used in the IVCAP. Two CA enzymes were immobilized onto three selected support materials having different pore structures. The thermal stability of the immobilized CA enzymes was significantly greater than their free counterparts. For example, the immobilized enzymes retained at least 60% of their initial activities after 90 days at 50 °C compared to about 30% for their free counterparts under the same conditions. The immobilized CA also had significantly improved resistance to concentrations of sulfate (0.4 M), nitrate (0.05 M) and chloride (0.3 M) typically found in flue gas scrubbing liquids than their free counterparts.

  10. Activity and stability of immobilized carbonic anhydrase for promoting CO2 absorption into a carbonate solution for post-combustion CO2 capture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, S.; Zhang, Z.; Lu, Y.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Jones, A.

    2011-01-01

    An Integrated Vacuum Carbonate Absorption Process (IVCAP) currently under development could significantly reduce the energy consumed when capturing CO2 from the flue gases of coal-fired power plants. The biocatalyst carbonic anhydrase (CA) has been found to effectively promote the absorption of CO2 into the potassium carbonate solution that would be used in the IVCAP. Two CA enzymes were immobilized onto three selected support materials having different pore structures. The thermal stability of the immobilized CA enzymes was significantly greater than their free counterparts. For example, the immobilized enzymes retained at least 60% of their initial activities after 90days at 50??C compared to about 30% for their free counterparts under the same conditions. The immobilized CA also had significantly improved resistance to concentrations of sulfate (0.4M), nitrate (0.05M) and chloride (0.3M) typically found in flue gas scrubbing liquids than their free counterparts. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Oxygen Generation from Carbon Dioxide for Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, s. R.; Duncan, K. L.; Hagelin-Weaver, H. E.; Neal, L.; Paul, H. L.; Wachsman, E. D.

    2007-01-01

    The partial electrochemical reduction of CO2 using ceramic oxygen generators (COGs) is well known and has been studied. Conventional COGs use yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes and operate at temperatures greater than 700 C (1, 2). Operating at a lower temperature has the advantage of reducing the mass of the ancillary components such as insulation. Moreover, complete reduction of metabolically produced CO2 (into carbon and oxygen) has the potential of reducing oxygen storage weight if the oxygen can be recovered. Recently, the University of Florida developed ceramic oxygen generators employing a bilayer electrolyte of gadolinia-doped ceria and erbia-stabilized bismuth oxide (ESB) for NASA s future exploration of Mars (3). The results showed that oxygen could be reliably produced from CO2 at temperatures as low as 400 C. These results indicate that this technology could be adapted to CO2 removal from a spacesuit and other applications in which CO2 removal is an issue. This strategy for CO2 removal in advanced life support systems employs a catalytic layer combined with a COG so that the CO2 is reduced completely to solid carbon and oxygen. First, to reduce the COG operating temperature, a thin, bilayer electrolyte was employed. Second, to promote full CO2 reduction while avoiding the problem of carbon deposition on the COG cathode, a catalytic carbon deposition layer was designed and the cathode utilized materials shown to be coke resistant. Third, a composite anode was used consisting of bismuth ruthenate (BRO) and ESB that has been shown to have high performance (4). The inset of figure 1 shows the conceptual design of the tubular COG and the rest of the figure shows schematically the test apparatus. Figure 2 shows the microstructure of a COG tube prior to testing. During testing, current is applied across the cell and initially CuO is reduced to copper metal by electrochemical pumping. Then the oxygen source becomes the CO/CO2. This presentation

  12. Computational evaluation of metal-organic frameworks for carbon dioxide capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jiamei

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), a new class of porous solids comprised of metal-containing nodes linked by organic ligands, have become promising materials for gas separations. In particular, their flexible chemistry makes them attractive for CO2 capture from flue gas streams in post-combustion plants. Although numerous efforts have been exerted on the investigation of MOFs for CO2 capture, the exploration of the effects from coexisting components present in very dilute proportions in flue gases is limited because of the experimental difficulty to determine the coadsorption of CO2 with trace components. In this regard, molecular simulations show superiority. In this study, molecular simulations are used to estimate the influence of impurities: water, O2, and SO2 on post-combustion CO2 capture in MOFs. Firstly, two MOFs with coordinatively unsaturated metal sites (CUMs), HKUST-1 and Mg-MOF-74 are explored. Increase of CO 2 adsorption is observed for hydrated HKUST-1; on the contrary, the opposite water adsorption behavior is observed in hydrated Mg-MOF-74, leading to decrease of CO2 adsorption. Further, water effects on CO 2 capture in M-HKUST1 (M = Mg, Zn, Co, Ni) are evaluated to test whether comparing the binding energy could be a general method to evaluate water effects in MOFs with CUMs. It is found that the method works well for Zn-, Co-, and Ni-HKUST1 but partially for Mg-HKUST1. In addition, the effects of O2 and SO2 on CO2 capture in MOFs are also investigated for the first time, showing that the effects of O2 may be negligible but SO2 has negative effects in the CO 2 capture process in HKUST-1 systems. Secondly, the influences of water on CO2 capture in three UiO-66 MOFs with functional groups, --NH2, --OH and --Br are explored, respectively. For UiO-66-NH2 and -OH, the presence of water lowers CO2 adsorption significantly; in contrast, water shows much smaller effects in UiO-66-Br. Moreover, the presence of SO 2 decreases water adsorption but enhances CO

  13. Furfuralcohol Co-Polymerized Urea Formaldehyde Resin-derived N-Doped Microporous Carbon for CO2 Capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhen; Yang, Yi; Du, Zhenyu; Xing, Wei; Komarneni, Sridhar; Zhang, Zhongdong; Gao, Xionghou; Yan, Zifeng

    2015-08-01

    Carbon-based adsorbent is considered to be one of the most promising adsorbents for CO2 capture form flue gases. In this study, a series of N-doped microporous carbon materials were synthesized from low cost and widely available urea formaldehyde resin co-polymerized with furfuralcohol. These N-doped microporous carbons showed tunable surface area in the range of 416-2273 m2 g-1 with narrow pore size distribution within less than 1 nm and a high density of the basic N functional groups (2.93-13.92 %). Compared with the carbon obtained from urea resin, the addition of furfuralcohol apparently changed the surface chemical composition and pore size distribution, especially ultramicropores as can be deduced from the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and pore size distribution measurements and led to remarkable improvement on CO2 adsorption capacity. At 1 atm, N-doped carbons activated at 600 °C with KOH/UFFC weight ratio of 2 (UFFA-2-600) showed the highest CO2 uptake of 3.76 and 1.57 mmol g-1 at 25 and 75 °C, respectively.

  14. Joining and Integration of Advanced Carbon-Carbon Composites to Metallic Systems for Thermal Management Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, M.; Asthana, R.

    2008-01-01

    Recent research and development activities in joining and integration of carbon-carbon (C/C) composites to metals such as Ti and Cu-clad-Mo for thermal management applications are presented with focus on advanced brazing techniques. A wide variety of carbon-carbon composites with CVI and resin-derived matrices were joined to Ti and Cu-clad Mo using a number of active braze alloys. The brazed joints revealed good interfacial bonding, preferential precipitation of active elements (e.g., Ti) at the composite/braze interface. Extensive braze penetration of the inter-fiber channels in the CVI C/C composites was observed. The chemical and thermomechanical compatibility between C/C and metals at elevated temperatures is assessed. The role of residual stresses and thermal conduction in brazed C/C joints is discussed. Theoretical predictions of the effective thermal resistance suggest that composite-to-metal brazed joints may be promising for lightweight thermal management applications.

  15. Post-combustion Carbon Dioxide Capture using Amine Functionalized Solid Sorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittal, Nikhil

    This work is divided into two parts: (1) Synthesis of amine functionalized adsorbents using grafting technique for post-combustion CO2 capture, (2) Performance evaluation of structured bed configuration with straight gas flow channels using amine impregnated adsorbent for post-combustion CO 2 capture. Brief description of each part is given below: (1) N-(3-trimethoxysilylpropyl)diethylenetriamine (DAEAPTS) grafted SBA-15 adsorbents were synthesized for CO2 capture. The adsorption of CO2 on the amine-grafted sorbents was measured by thermogravimetric method over a CO2 partial pressure range of 8--101.3 kPa and a temperature range of 25--105 °C under atmospheric pressure. The optimal amine loaded SBA-15 adsorbent was examined for multi-cycle stability and adsorption/desorption kinetics. (2) The performance of structured bed and packed bed configurations for post-combustion CO2 capture was evaluated using PEI impregnated SBA-15 adsorbent. The effect of adsorption temperature (25-90 °C), adsorption /desorption kinetics and multi-cycle stability was studied in both structured and packed bed configurations.

  16. CATALYTIC EFFECTS OF CARBON SORBENTS FOR MERCURY CAPTURE. (R827649C001)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Activated carbon sorbents have the potential to be an effective means of mercury control in combustion systems. Reactions of activated carbons in flow systems with mercury and gas stream components were investigated to determine the types of chemical interactions that occur on...

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF A CL-IMPREGNATED ACTIVATED CARBON FOR ENTRAINED-FLOW CAPTURE OF ELEMENTAL MERCURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Efforts to discern the role of an activated carbon's surface functional groups on the adsorption of elemental mercury [Hg(0)] and mercuric chloride demonstrated that chlorine (Cl) impregnation of a virgin activated carbon using dilute solutions of hydrogen chloride leads to incre...

  18. Designing and Validating Ternary Pd Alloys for Optimum Sulfur/Carbon Resistance in Hydrogen Separation and Carbon Capture Membrane Systems Using High-Throughput Combinatorial Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Amanda; Zhao, Hongbin; Hopkins, Scott

    2014-09-30

    This report summarizes the work completed under the U.S. Department of Energy Project Award No.: DE-FE0001181 titled “Designing and Validating Ternary Pd Alloys for Optimum Sulfur/Carbon Resistance in Hydrogen Separation and Carbon Capture Membrane Systems Using High-Throughput Combinatorial Methods.” The project started in October 1, 2009 and was finished September 30, 2014. Pall Corporation worked with Cornell University to sputter and test palladium-based ternary alloys onto silicon wafers to examine many alloys at once. With the specialized equipment at Georgia Institute of Technology that analyzed the wafers for adsorbed carbon and sulfur species six compositions were identified to have resistance to carbon and sulfur species. These compositions were deposited on Pall AccuSep® supports by Colorado School of Mines and then tested in simulated synthetic coal gas at the Pall Corporation. Two of the six alloys were chosen for further investigations based on their performance. Alloy reproducibility and long-term testing of PdAuAg and PdZrAu provided insight to the ability to manufacture these compositions for testing. PdAuAg is the most promising alloy found in this work based on the fabrication reproducibility and resistance to carbon and sulfur. Although PdZrAu had great initial resistance to carbon and sulfur species, the alloy composition has a very narrow range that hindered testing reproducibility.

  19. Thermodynamic analysis of low-temperature carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide capture from coal-burning power plants.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Charles E; Elzey, John W; Hershberger, Robert E; Donnelly, Russell J; Pfotenhauer, John

    2012-07-01

    We discuss the possibility of capturing carbon dioxide from the flue gas of a coal-fired electrical power plant by cryogenically desublimating the carbon dioxide and then preparing it for transport in a pipeline to a sequestration site. Various other means have been proposed to accomplish the same goal. The problem discussed here is to estimate the "energy penalty" or "parasitic energy loss,' defined as the fraction of electrical output that will be needed to provide the refrigeration and that will then not be deliverable. We compute the energy loss (7.9-9.2% at 1 atm) based on perfect Carnot efficiency and estimate the achievable parasitic energy loss (22-26% at 1 atm) by incorporating the published coefficient of performance values for appropriately sized refrigeration or liquefaction cycles at the relevant temperatures. The analyses at 1 atm represent a starting point for future analyses using elevated pressures.

  20. Water/carbonate stripping for CO.sub.2 capture adsorber regeneration and CO.sub.2 delivery to photoautotrophs

    SciTech Connect

    Chance, Ronald; Koros, William J.; McCool, Benjamin; Noel, James

    2015-08-11

    The invention provides systems and methods for the delivery of carbon to photoautotrophs. The invention utilizes low energy regeneration of adsorbent for CO.sub.2 capture and provides for effective CO.sub.2 loading into liquids useful for photoautotroph growth and/or production of photosynthetic products, such as biofuels, via photoautotrophic culture media. The inventive system comprises a fluid/membrane/fluid contactor that provides selective transfer of molecular CO.sub.2 via a dense (non-porous) membrane from a carbonate-based CO.sub.2 snipping solution to a culture medium where the CO.sub.2 is consumed by a photoautotroph for the production of biofuels, biofuel precursors or other commercial products.