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Sample records for advanced cell biology

  1. Advances in cell surface glycoengineering reveal biological function.

    PubMed

    Nischan, Nicole; Kohler, Jennifer J

    2016-08-01

    Cell surface glycans are critical mediators of cell-cell, cell-ligand, and cell-pathogen interactions. By controlling the set of glycans displayed on the surface of a cell, it is possible to gain insight into the biological functions of glycans. Moreover, control of glycan expression can be used to direct cellular behavior. While genetic approaches to manipulate glycosyltransferase gene expression are available, their utility in glycan engineering has limitations due to the combinatorial nature of glycan biosynthesis and the functional redundancy of glycosyltransferase genes. Biochemical and chemical strategies offer valuable complements to these genetic approaches, notably by enabling introduction of unnatural functionalities, such as fluorophores, into cell surface glycans. Here, we describe some of the most recent developments in glycoengineering of cell surfaces, with an emphasis on strategies that employ novel chemical reagents. We highlight key examples of how these advances in cell surface glycan engineering enable study of cell surface glycans and their function. Exciting new technologies include synthetic lipid-glycans, new chemical reporters for metabolic oligosaccharide engineering to allow tandem and in vivo labeling of glycans, improved chemical and enzymatic methods for glycoproteomics, and metabolic glycosyltransferase inhibitors. Many chemical and biochemical reagents for glycan engineering are commercially available, facilitating their adoption by the biological community.

  2. Information Literacy in Biology Education: An Example from an Advanced Cell Biology Course

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Information literacy skills are critically important for the undergraduate biology student. The ability to find, understand, evaluate, and use information, whether from the scientific literature or from Web resources, is essential for a good understanding of a topic and for the conduct of research. A project in which students receive information literacy instruction and then proceed to select, update, and write about a current research topic in an upper-level cell biology course is described. Students research the chosen topic using paper and electronic resources, generate a list of relevant articles, prepare abstracts based on papers read, and, finally, prepare a “state-of-the-art” paper on the topic. This approach, which extends over most of one semester, has resulted in a number of well-researched and well-written papers that incorporate some of the latest research in cell biology. The steps in this project have also led to students who are prepared to address future projects on new and complex topics. The project is part of an undergraduate course in cell biology, but parts of the assignments can be modified to fit a variety of subject areas and levels. PMID:16341261

  3. Advances in Norovirus Biology

    PubMed Central

    Karst, Stephanie M.; Wobus, Christiane E.; Goodfellow, Ian G.; Green, Kim Y.

    2014-01-01

    Human noroviruses are a major cause of epidemic and sporadic gastroenteritis worldwide, and can chronically infect immunocompromised patients. Efforts to develop effective vaccines and antivirals have been hindered by the uncultivable nature and extreme genetic diversity of human noroviruses. Although they remain a particularly challenging pathogen to study, recent advances in norovirus animal models and in vitro cultivation systems have led to an increased understanding of norovirus molecular biology and replication, pathogenesis, cell tropism, and innate and adaptive immunity. Furthermore, clinical trials of vaccines consisting of nonreplicating virus-like particles have shown promise. In this review, we summarize these recent advances and discuss controversies in the field, which is rapidly progressing towards generation of antiviral agents and increasingly effective vaccines. PMID:24922570

  4. Information Literacy in Biology Education: An Example from an Advanced Cell Biology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, John R.

    2005-01-01

    Information literacy skills are critically important for the undergraduate biology student. The ability to find, understand, evaluate, and use information, whether from the scientific literature or from Web resources, is essential for a good understanding of a topic and for the conduct of research. A project in which students receive information…

  5. Recent advances in the biology of human circulating tumour cells and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Gkountela, Sofia; Szczerba, Barbara; Donato, Cinzia; Aceto, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    The development of a metastatic disease is recognised as the cause of death of over 90% of patients diagnosed with cancer. Understanding the biological features of metastasis has been hampered for a long time by the difficulties to study widespread cancerous lesions in patients, and by the absence of reliable methods to isolate viable metastatic cells during disease progression. These difficulties negatively impact on our ability to develop new agents that are tailored to block the spread of cancer. Yet, recent advances in specialised devices for the isolation of circulating tumour cells (CTCs), hand-in-hand with technologies that enable single cell resolution interrogation of their genome and transcriptome, are now paving the way to understanding those molecular mechanisms that drive the formation of metastasis. In this review, we aim to summarise some of the latest discoveries in CTC biology in the context of several types of cancer, and to highlight those findings that have a potential to improve the clinical management of patients with metastatic cancer. PMID:27843628

  6. Biological effects of space radiation on human cells: history, advances and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Maalouf, Mira; Durante, Marco; Foray, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to radiation is one of the main concerns for space exploration by humans. By focusing deliberately on the works performed on human cells, we endeavored to review, decade by decade, the technological developments and conceptual advances of space radiation biology. Despite considerable efforts, the cancer and the toxicity risks remain to be quantified: 1) the nature and the frequency of secondary heavy ions need to be better characterized in order to estimate their contribution to the dose and to the final biological response; 2) the diversity of radiation history of each astronaut and the impact of individual susceptibility make very difficult any epidemiological analysis for estimating hazards specifically due to space radiation exposure. 3) Cytogenetic data undoubtedly revealed that space radiation exposure produce significant damage in cells. However, our knowledge of the basic mechanisms specific to low-dose, to repeated doses and to adaptive response is still poor. The application of new radiobiological techniques, like immunofluorescence, and the use of human tissue models different from blood, like skin fibroblasts, may help in clarifying all the above items.

  7. Advancement in bioprocess technology: parallels between microbial natural products and cell culture biologics.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Arpan A; Khetan, Anurag; Malmberg, Li-Hong; Zhou, Weichang; Hu, Wei-Shou

    2017-02-09

    The emergence of natural products and industrial microbiology nearly eight decades ago propelled an era of bioprocess innovation. Half a century later, recombinant protein technology spurred the tremendous growth of biologics and added mammalian cells to the forefront of industrial producing cells in terms of the value of products generated. This review highlights the process technology of natural products and protein biologics. Despite the separation in time, there is a remarkable similarity in their progression. As the new generation of therapeutics for gene and cell therapy emerges, its process technology development can take inspiration from that of natural products and biologics.

  8. Recent advances in molecular and cell biology of testicular germ-cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Chieffi, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Testicular germ-cell tumors (TGCTs) are the most frequent solid malignant tumors in men 20-40 years of age and the most frequent cause of death from solid tumors in this age group. TGCTs comprise two major histologic groups: seminomas and nonseminomas germ-cell tumors (NSGCTs). NSGCTs can be further divided into embryonal, carcinoma, Teratoma, yolk sac tumor, and choriocarcinoma. Seminomas and NSGCTs present significant differences in clinical features, therapy, and prognosis, and both show characteristics of the primordial germ cells. Many discovered biomarkers including OCT3/4, SOX2, SOX17, HMGA1, Nek2, GPR30, Aurora-B, estrogen receptor β, and others have given further advantages to discriminate between histological subgroups and could represent useful novel molecular targets for antineoplastic strategies. More insight into the pathogenesis of TGCTs is likely to improve disease management not only to better treatment of these tumors but also to a better understanding of stem cells and oncogenesis.

  9. Systems biology of yeast: enabling technology for development of cell factories for production of advanced biofuels.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Bouke; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2012-08-01

    Transportation fuels will gradually shift from oil based fuels towards alternative fuel resources like biofuels. Current bioethanol and biodiesel can, however, not cover the increasing demand for biofuels and there is therefore a need for advanced biofuels with superior fuel properties. Novel cell factories will provide a production platform for advanced biofuels. However, deep cellular understanding is required for improvement of current biofuel cell factories. Fast screening and analysis (-omics) methods and metabolome-wide mathematical models are promising techniques. An integrated systems approach of these techniques drives diversity and quantity of several new biofuel compounds. This review will cover the recent technological developments that support improvement of the advanced biofuels 1-butanol, biodiesels and jetfuels.

  10. Advances in Biological Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppenheimer, Steven B.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Reviews major developments in areas that are at the cutting edge of biological research. Areas include: human anti-cancer gene, recombinant DNA techniques for the detection of Huntington disease carriers, and marine biology. (CW)

  11. Proteolysis mediated by cysteine cathepsins and legumain-recent advances and cell biological challenges.

    PubMed

    Brix, Klaudia; McInnes, Joseph; Al-Hashimi, Alaa; Rehders, Maren; Tamhane, Tripti; Haugen, Mads H

    2015-05-01

    Proteases play essential roles in protein degradation, protein processing, and extracellular matrix remodeling in all cell types and tissues. They are also involved in protein turnover for maintenance of homeostasis and protein activation or inactivation for cell signaling. Proteases range in function and specificity, with some performing distinct substrate cleavages, while others accomplish proteolysis of a wide range of substrates. As such, different cell types use specialized molecular mechanisms to regulate the localization of proteases and their function within the compartments to which they are destined. Here, we focus on the cysteine family of cathepsin proteases and legumain, which act predominately within the endo-lysosomal pathway. In particular, recent knowledge on cysteine cathepsins and their primary regulator legumain is scrutinized in terms of their trafficking to endo-lysosomal compartments and other less recognized cellular locations. We further explore the mechanisms that regulate these processes and point to pathological cases which arise from detours taken by these proteases. Moreover, the emerging biological roles of specific forms and variants of cysteine cathepsins and legumain are discussed. These may be decisive, pathogenic, or even deadly when localizing to unusual cellular compartments in their enzymatically active form, because they may exert unexpected effects by alternative substrate cleavage. Hence, we propose future perspectives for addressing the actions of cysteine cathepsins and legumain as well as their specific forms and variants. The increasing knowledge in non-canonical aspects of cysteine cathepsin- and legumain-mediated proteolysis may prove valuable for developing new strategies to utilize these versatile proteases in therapeutic approaches.

  12. Biological response of human suture mesenchymal cells to Titania nanotube-based implants for advanced craniosynostosis therapy.

    PubMed

    Bariana, Manpreet; Dwivedi, Prem; Ranjitkar, Sarbin; Kaidonis, John A; Losic, Dusan; Anderson, Peter J

    2017-02-01

    Titania nanotubes (TNTs) engineered on titanium (Ti) surfaces (i.e. TNT/Ti) and loaded with specific drugs have been recognised as a promising solution for localised therapeutic delivery to address several medical problems not feasible with conventional drug administration. We propose the use of TNT/Ti protein-releasing implants to treat paediatric craniofacial abnormality in craniosynostosis caused by premature fusion of cranial sutures. In this study, we have analysed the biological response of human suture mesenchymal cells (SMCs), extracted from two different patients undergoing craniofacial reconstruction surgery, at the TNT/Ti implant surface. The experimental groups included large-diameter TNT/Ti implants, with and without biopolymer surface coating (Chitosan and Pluronic-F127) while the controls comprised of flat Ti disc and tissue culture plastic. The non-loaded implant surfaces and the cellular interactions at the implant-cell interface were characterised using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The SMC adhesion, viability and proliferation were determined by MTT assay and manual cell counting at day 1 and day 3 of cell incubation. SEM showed significant reduction in initial attachment and adhesion of SMCs at TNT-cell biointerface compared with the control Ti discs. Subsequent cell proliferation results also revealed a decrease in the number of viable cells on the TNT surfaces. The nanotopography and structural features along with the surface chemistry dictated the cellular response, with nanotubular surfaces (with and without polymer coating) impeding cell adhesion and proliferation. Our findings hold promise for the use of TNT-based cranial implants as a delivery system to prevent sutural bone growth for advanced craniosynostosis therapy.

  13. Advances in Genome Biology & Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas J. Albert, Jon R. Armstrong, Raymond K. Auerback, W. Brad Barbazuk, et al.

    2007-12-01

    This year's meeting focused on the latest advances in new DNA sequencing technologies and the applications of genomics to disease areas in biology and biomedicine. Daytime plenary sessions highlighted cutting-edge research in areas such as complex genetic diseases, comparative genomics, medical sequencing, massively parallel DNA sequencing, and synthetic biology. Technical approaches being developed and utilized in contemporary genomics research were presented during evening concurrent sessions. Also, as in previous years, poster sessions bridged the morning and afternoon plenary sessions. In addition, for the third year in a row, the Advances in Genome Biology and Technology (AGBT) meeting was preceded by a pre-meeting workshop that aimed to provide an introductory overview for trainees and other meeting attendees. This year, speakers at the workshop focused on next-generation sequencing technologies, including their experiences, findings, and helpful advise for others contemplating using these platforms in their research. Speakers from genome centers and core sequencing facilities were featured and the workshop ended with a roundtable discussion, during which speakers fielded questions from the audience.

  14. The cell biology of malaria infection of mosquito: advances and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Sinden, R E

    2015-01-01

    Recent reviews (Feachem et al.; Alonso et al.) have concluded that in order to have a sustainable impact on the global burden of malaria, it is essential that we knowingly reduce the global incidence of infected persons. To achieve this we must reduce the basic reproductive rate of the parasites to < 1 in diverse epidemiological settings. This can be achieved by impacting combinations of the following parameters: the number of mosquitoes relative to the number of persons, the mosquito/human biting rate, the proportion of mosquitoes carrying infectious sporozoites, the daily survival rate of the infectious mosquito and the ability of malaria-infected persons to infect mosquito vectors. This paper focuses on our understanding of parasite biology underpinning the last of these terms: infection of the mosquito. The article attempts to highlight central issues that require further study to assist in the discovery of useful transmission-blocking measures. PMID:25557077

  15. Emerging molecular approaches in stem cell biology.

    PubMed

    Jaishankar, Amritha; Vrana, Kent

    2009-04-01

    Stem cells are characterized by their ability to self-renew and differentiate into multiple adult cell types. Although substantial progress has been made over the last decade in understanding stem cell biology, recent technological advances in molecular and systems biology may hold the key to unraveling the mystery behind stem cell self-renewal and plasticity. The most notable of these advances is the ability to generate induced pluripotent cells from somatic cells. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of molecular similarities and differences among various stem cell types. Moreover, we survey the current state of systems biology and forecast future needs and direction in the stem cell field.

  16. Advances in cell culture

    SciTech Connect

    Maramorosch, K. )

    1987-01-01

    This book presents papers on advances in cell culture. Topics covered include: Genetic changes in the influenza viruses during growth in cultured cells; The biochemistry and genetics of mosquito cells in culture; and Tree tissue culture applications.

  17. Flow cytometry in environmental microbiology: a rapid approach for the isolation of single cells for advanced molecular biology analysis.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Belinda C; Winsley, Tristrom J; Bergquist, Peter L; Van Dorst, Josie

    2012-01-01

    The isolation and subsequent characterization of microbial cells from within environmental samples is a difficult process. Flow cytometry and cell sorting, when combined with the application of fluorescent probes, have the capability for the detection and separation of diverse microbial populations from within complex mixtures. The isolation of single cells allows for downstream investigations towards system-level characterization of unknown Bacterial Phyla to occur. We describe here the combination of fluorescent in situ hybridization and cell sorting for the detection and isolation of Candidate Division TM7 bacteria from an enriched soil sample. The result is the isolation of rare cells suitable for advanced molecular analysis including whole genome amplification and high-throughput pyrosequencing.

  18. Recent advances in the epidermal growth factor receptor/ligand system biology on skin homeostasis and keratinocyte stem cell regulation.

    PubMed

    Nanba, Daisuke; Toki, Fujio; Barrandon, Yann; Higashiyama, Shigeki

    2013-11-01

    The epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor/ligand system stimulates multiple pathways of signal transduction, and is activated by various extracellular stimuli and inter-receptor crosstalk signaling. Aberrant activation of EGF receptor (EGFR) signaling is found in many tumor cells, and humanized neutralizing antibodies and synthetic small compounds against EGFR are in clinical use today. However, these drugs are known to cause a variety of skin toxicities such as inflammatory rash, skin dryness, and hair abnormalities. These side effects demonstrate the multiple EGFR-dependent homeostatic functions in human skin. The epidermis and hair follicles are self-renewing tissues, and keratinocyte stem cells are crucial for maintaining these homeostasis. A variety of molecules associated with the EGF receptor/ligand system are involved in epidermal homeostasis and hair follicle development, and the modulation of EGFR signaling impacts the behavior of keratinocyte stem cells. Understanding the roles of the EGF receptor/ligand system in skin homeostasis is an emerging issue in dermatology to improve the current therapy for skin disorders, and the EGFR inhibitor-associated skin toxicities. Besides, controlling of keratinocyte stem cells by modulating the EGF receptor/ligand system assures advances in regenerative medicine of the skin. We present an overview of the recent progress in the field of the EGF receptor/ligand system on skin homeostasis and regulation of keratinocyte stem cells.

  19. Studying cell biology in the skin.

    PubMed

    Morrow, Angel; Lechler, Terry

    2015-11-15

    Advances in cell biology have often been driven by studies in diverse organisms and cell types. Although there are technical reasons for why different cell types are used, there are also important physiological reasons. For example, ultrastructural studies of vesicle transport were aided by the use of professional secretory cell types. The use of tissues/primary cells has the advantage not only of using cells that are adapted to the use of certain cell biological machinery, but also of highlighting the physiological roles of this machinery. Here we discuss advantages of the skin as a model system. We discuss both advances in cell biology that used the skin as a driving force and future prospects for use of the skin to understand basic cell biology. A unique combination of characteristics and tools makes the skin a useful in vivo model system for many cell biologists.

  20. SNAB: A New Advanced Level Biology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiss, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    Of all the sciences, biology has probably made the most rapid progress in recent years and the need for this to be reflected in a new Advanced Level biology course has long been recognised in the UK. After wide-ranging consultation and successful piloting in over 50 schools and colleges in England and Wales, the new Salters-Nuffield Advanced…

  1. Treatment algorithm in 2014 for advanced non-small cell lung cancer: therapy selection by tumour histology and molecular biology.

    PubMed

    Manegold, Christian

    2014-09-01

    The availability of antineoplastic monoclonal antibodies, small molecules and newer cytotoxics such as pemetrexed, the EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors erlotinib, gefitinib, afatinib as well as the anti-angiogenic bevacizumab and the ALK-inhibitor crizotinib has recently changes the treatment algorithm of advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Decision making in 2014 is characterized by customizing therapy, by selecting a specific therapeutic regimen based on the histotype and the genotype of the tumour. This refers to first-line induction therapy and maintenance therapy as well, but also to subsequent lines of therapy since anti-neoplastic drugs and regimens used upfront clinically influence the selection of agents/regimes considered for second-/third-line treatment. Consequently, therapy customization through tumour histology and molecular markers has significantly influenced the work of pathologists around the globe and the process of obtaining an extended therapeutically relevant tumour diagnosis. Not only histological sub-typing became standard but molecular information is also considered of increasing importance for treatment selection. Routine molecular testing in certified laboratories must be established, and the diagnostic process should ideally be performed under the guidance of evidence based recommendation. The process of investigating and implementing medical targeting in lung cancer therefore, requires advanced diagnostic techniques and expertise and because of its large dimension is costly and influenced by the limitation of financial and clinical resources.

  2. Fostering synergy between cell biology and systems biology.

    PubMed

    Eddy, James A; Funk, Cory C; Price, Nathan D

    2015-08-01

    In the shared pursuit of elucidating detailed mechanisms of cell function, systems biology presents a natural complement to ongoing efforts in cell biology. Systems biology aims to characterize biological systems through integrated and quantitative modeling of cellular information. The process of model building and analysis provides value through synthesizing and cataloging information about cells and molecules, predicting mechanisms and identifying generalizable themes, generating hypotheses and guiding experimental design, and highlighting knowledge gaps and refining understanding. In turn, incorporating domain expertise and experimental data is crucial for building towards whole cell models. An iterative cycle of interaction between cell and systems biologists advances the goals of both fields and establishes a framework for mechanistic understanding of the genome-to-phenome relationship.

  3. Fostering synergy between cell biology and systems biology

    PubMed Central

    Eddy, James A.; Funk, Cory C.; Price, Nathan D.

    2015-01-01

    In the shared pursuit of elucidating detailed mechanisms of cell function, systems biology presents a natural complement to ongoing efforts in cell biology. Systems biology aims to characterize biological systems through integrated and quantitative modeling of cellular information. The process of model building and analysis provides value through synthesizing and cataloging information about cells and molecules; predicting mechanisms and identifying generalizable themes; generating hypotheses and guiding experimental design; and highlighting knowledge gaps and refining understanding. In turn, incorporating domain expertise and experimental data is critical for building towards whole cell models. An iterative cycle of interaction between cell and systems biologists advances the goals of both fields and establishes a framework for mechanistic understanding of the genome-to-phenome relationship. PMID:26013981

  4. Biology of Schwann cells.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Grahame J; Ohno, Nobuhiko; Trapp, Bruce D

    2013-01-01

    The fundamental roles of Schwann cells during peripheral nerve formation and regeneration have been recognized for more than 100 years, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms that integrate Schwann cell and axonal functions continue to be elucidated. Derived from the embryonic neural crest, Schwann cells differentiate into myelinating cells or bundle multiple unmyelinated axons into Remak fibers. Axons dictate which differentiation path Schwann cells follow, and recent studies have established that axonal neuregulin1 signaling via ErbB2/B3 receptors on Schwann cells is essential for Schwann cell myelination. Extracellular matrix production and interactions mediated by specific integrin and dystroglycan complexes are also critical requisites for Schwann cell-axon interactions. Myelination entails expansion and specialization of the Schwann cell plasma membrane over millimeter distances. Many of the myelin-specific proteins have been identified, and transgenic manipulation of myelin genes have provided novel insights into myelin protein function, including maintenance of axonal integrity and survival. Cellular events that facilitate myelination, including microtubule-based protein and mRNA targeting, and actin based locomotion, have also begun to be understood. Arguably, the most remarkable facet of Schwann cell biology, however, is their vigorous response to axonal damage. Degradation of myelin, dedifferentiation, division, production of axonotrophic factors, and remyelination all underpin the substantial regenerative capacity of the Schwann cells and peripheral nerves. Many of these properties are not shared by CNS fibers, which are myelinated by oligodendrocytes. Dissecting the molecular mechanisms responsible for the complex biology of Schwann cells continues to have practical benefits in identifying novel therapeutic targets not only for Schwann cell-specific diseases but other disorders in which axons degenerate.

  5. Synthetic biology advances for pharmaceutical production

    PubMed Central

    Breitling, Rainer; Takano, Eriko

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology enables a new generation of microbial engineering for the biotechnological production of pharmaceuticals and other high-value chemicals. This review presents an overview of recent advances in the field, describing new computational and experimental tools for the discovery, optimization and production of bioactive molecules, and outlining progress towards the application of these tools to pharmaceutical production systems. PMID:25744872

  6. Synthetic biology advances for pharmaceutical production.

    PubMed

    Breitling, Rainer; Takano, Eriko

    2015-12-01

    Synthetic biology enables a new generation of microbial engineering for the biotechnological production of pharmaceuticals and other high-value chemicals. This review presents an overview of recent advances in the field, describing new computational and experimental tools for the discovery, optimization and production of bioactive molecules, and outlining progress towards the application of these tools to pharmaceutical production systems.

  7. Advancing metabolic engineering through systems biology of industrial microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zongjie; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-12-01

    Development of sustainable processes to produce bio-based compounds is necessary due to the severe environmental problems caused by the use of fossil resources. Metabolic engineering can facilitate the development of highly efficient cell factories to produce these compounds from renewable resources. The objective of systems biology is to gain a comprehensive and quantitative understanding of living cells and can hereby enhance our ability to characterize and predict cellular behavior. Systems biology of industrial microorganisms is therefore valuable for metabolic engineering. Here we review the application of systems biology tools for the identification of metabolic engineering targets which may lead to reduced development time for efficient cell factories. Finally, we present some perspectives of systems biology for advancing metabolic engineering further.

  8. [Cell biology and cosmetology].

    PubMed

    Traniello, S; Cavalletti, T

    1991-01-01

    Cellular biology can become the natural support of research in the field of cosmetics because it is able to provide alternative experimental models which can partially replace the massive use of laboratory animals. Cultures of human skin cells could be used in tests investigating irritation of the skin. We have developed an "in vitro" experimental model that allows to evaluate the damage caused by the free radicals to the fibroblasts in culture and to test the protective action of the lipoaminoacids. Experimenting on human cell cultures presents the advantage of eliminating the extrapolation between the different species, of allowing a determination of the biological action of a substance and of evaluating its dose/response effect. This does not mean that "in vitro" experimenting could completely replace experimenting on living animals, but the "in vitro" model can be introduced in the realisation of preliminary screenings.

  9. Mesangial cell biology

    SciTech Connect

    Abboud, Hanna E.

    2012-05-15

    Mesangial cells originate from the metanephric mesenchyme and maintain structural integrity of the glomerular microvascular bed and mesangial matrix homeostasis. In response to metabolic, immunologic or hemodynamic injury, these cells undergo apoptosis or acquire an activated phenotype and undergo hypertrophy, proliferation with excessive production of matrix proteins, growth factors, chemokines and cytokines. These soluble factors exert autocrine and paracrine effects on the cells or on other glomerular cells, respectively. MCs are primary targets of immune-mediated glomerular diseases such as IGA nephropathy or metabolic diseases such as diabetes. MCs may also respond to injury that primarily involves podocytes and endothelial cells or to structural and genetic abnormalities of the glomerular basement membrane. Signal transduction and oxidant stress pathways are activated in MCs and likely represent integrated input from multiple mediators. Such responses are convenient targets for therapeutic intervention. Studies in cultured MCs should be supplemented with in vivo studies as well as examination of freshly isolated cells from normal and diseases glomeruli. In addition to ex vivo morphologic studies in kidney cortex, cells should be studied in their natural environment, isolated glomeruli or even tissue slices. Identification of a specific marker of MCs should help genetic manipulation as well as selective therapeutic targeting of these cells. Identification of biological responses of MCs that are not mediated by the renin–angiotensin system should help development of novel and effective therapeutic strategies to treat diseases characterized by MC pathology.

  10. Illuminating Cell Biology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Ames Research Center awarded Ciencia, Inc., a Small Business Innovation Research contract to develop the Cell Fluorescence Analysis System (CFAS) to address the size, mass, and power constraints of using fluorescence spectroscopy in the International Space Station's Life Science Research Facility. The system will play an important role in studying biological specimen's long-term adaptation to microgravity. Commercial applications for the technology include diverse markets such as food safety, in situ environmental monitoring, online process analysis, genomics and DNA chips, and non-invasive diagnostics. Ciencia has already sold the system to the private sector for biosensor applications.

  11. Open source bioimage informatics for cell biology.

    PubMed

    Swedlow, Jason R; Eliceiri, Kevin W

    2009-11-01

    Significant technical advances in imaging, molecular biology and genomics have fueled a revolution in cell biology, in that the molecular and structural processes of the cell are now visualized and measured routinely. Driving much of this recent development has been the advent of computational tools for the acquisition, visualization, analysis and dissemination of these datasets. These tools collectively make up a new subfield of computational biology called bioimage informatics, which is facilitated by open source approaches. We discuss why open source tools for image informatics in cell biology are needed, some of the key general attributes of what make an open source imaging application successful, and point to opportunities for further operability that should greatly accelerate future cell biology discovery.

  12. Development of an Interdisciplinary Experimental Series for the Laboratory Courses of Cell and Molecular Biology and Advance Inorganic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Montserrat Rabago; McAllister, Robert; Newkirk, Kiera; Basing, Alexander; Wang, Lihua

    2012-01-01

    An interdisciplinary approach to education has become more important in the development of science and technology, which requires universities to have graduates with broad knowledge and skills and to apply these skills in solving real-world problems. An interdisciplinary experimental series has been developed for the laboratories in cell and…

  13. Predicting success on the Advanced Placement Biology Examination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Lesa Hanlin

    Four hundred sixty students in four public high schools were used as subjects to determine which of eleven academic and demographic factors studied were significant predictors of success for the Advanced Placement Biology Examination. Factors studied were attendance, class rank, gender, grade level at the time of the examination, grade point average, level of prerequisite biology course, number of Advanced Placement Examinations taken in the year prior to the Advanced Placement Biology Examination, number of Advanced Placement Examinations taken in the same year as the Advanced Placement Biology Examination, proposed major in college, race, and SAT mathematics, verbal, and combined score. Significant relationships were found to exist between the Advanced Placement Biology Examination score and attendance, class rank, gender, grade level at the time of the Advanced Placement Biology Examination, grade point average, number of Advanced Placement Examinations taken in the year prior to the Advanced Placement Biology Examination, number of Advanced Placement Examinations taken in the same year as the Advanced Placement Biology Examination, race, and SAT scores. Significant relationships were not found to exist between Advanced Placement Biology Examination score and level prerequisite biology course and Advanced Placement Biology Examination score and proposed major in college. A multiple regression showed the best combination of predictors to be attendance, SAT verbal score, and SAT mathematics score. Discriminant analysis showed the variables in this study to be good predictors of whether the student would pass the Advanced Placement Biology Examination (score a 3, 4, or 5) or fail the Advanced Placement Biology Examination (score a 1 or 2). These results demonstrated that significant predictors for the Advanced Placement Biology Examination do exist and can be used to assist in the prediction of scores, prediction of passing or failing, the identification of

  14. Designing and Implementing a New Advanced Level Biology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Angela; Reiss, Michael J.; Rowell, Cathy; Scott, Anne

    2003-01-01

    Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology is a new advanced level biology course, piloted from September 2002 in England with around 1200 students. This paper discusses the reasons for developing a new advanced biology course at this time, the philosophy of the project and how the materials are being written and the specification devised. The aim of the…

  15. Recent Advances in Engineering Polyvalent Biological Interactions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Polyvalent interactions, where multiple ligands and receptors interact simultaneously, are ubiquitous in nature. Synthetic polyvalent molecules, therefore, have the ability to affect biological processes ranging from protein–ligand binding to cellular signaling. In this review, we discuss recent advances in polyvalent scaffold design and applications. First, we will describe recent developments in the engineering of polyvalent scaffolds based on biomolecules and novel materials. Then, we will illustrate how polyvalent molecules are finding applications as toxin and pathogen inhibitors, targeting molecules, immune response modulators, and cellular effectors. PMID:25426695

  16. Recent advances in engineering polyvalent biological interactions.

    PubMed

    Varner, Chad T; Rosen, Tania; Martin, Jacob T; Kane, Ravi S

    2015-01-12

    Polyvalent interactions, where multiple ligands and receptors interact simultaneously, are ubiquitous in nature. Synthetic polyvalent molecules, therefore, have the ability to affect biological processes ranging from protein-ligand binding to cellular signaling. In this review, we discuss recent advances in polyvalent scaffold design and applications. First, we will describe recent developments in the engineering of polyvalent scaffolds based on biomolecules and novel materials. Then, we will illustrate how polyvalent molecules are finding applications as toxin and pathogen inhibitors, targeting molecules, immune response modulators, and cellular effectors.

  17. Advances in nicotine research in Addiction Biology.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Rick E

    2015-09-01

    The aim of Addiction Biology is to advance our understanding of the action of drugs of abuse and addictive processes via the publication of high-impact clinical and pre-clinical findings resulting from behavioral, molecular, genetic, biochemical, neurobiological and pharmacological research. As of 2013, Addiction Biology is ranked number 1 in the category of Substance Abuse journals (SCI). Occasionally, Addiction Biology likes to highlight via review important findings focused on a particular topic and recently published in the journal. The current review summarizes a number of key publications from Addiction Biology that have contributed to the current knowledge of nicotine research, comprising a wide spectrum of approaches, both clinical and pre-clinical, at the cellular, molecular, systems and behavioral levels. A number of findings from human studies have identified, using imaging techniques, alterations in common brain circuits, as well as morphological and network activity changes, associated with tobacco use. Furthermore, both clinical and pre-clinical studies have characterized a number of mechanistic targets critical to understanding the effects of nicotine and tobacco addiction. Together, these findings will undoubtedly drive future studies examining the dramatic impact of tobacco use and the development of treatments to counter nicotine dependence.

  18. Advances in molecular biology of lung disease: aiming for precision therapy in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Rooney, Claire; Sethi, Tariq

    2015-10-01

    Lung cancer is the principal cause of cancer-related mortality in the developed world, accounting for almost one-quarter of all cancer deaths. Traditional treatment algorithms have largely relied on histologic subtype and have comprised pragmatic chemotherapy regimens with limited efficacy. However, because our understanding of the molecular basis of disease in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has improved exponentially, it has become apparent that NSCLC can be radically subdivided, or molecularly characterized, based on recurrent driver mutations occurring in specific oncogenes. We know that the presence of such mutations leads to constitutive activation of aberrant signaling proteins that initiate, progress, and sustain tumorigenesis. This persistence of the malignant phenotype is referred to as "oncogene addiction." On this basis, a paradigm shift in treatment approach has occurred. Rational, targeted therapies have been developed, the first being tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), which entered the clinical arena > 10 years ago. These were tremendously successful, significantly affecting the natural history of NSCLC and improving patient outcomes. However, the benefits of these drugs are somewhat limited by the emergence of adaptive resistance mechanisms, and efforts to tackle this phenomenon are ongoing. A better understanding of all types of oncogene-driven NSCLC and the occurrence of TKI resistance will help us to further develop second- and third-generation small molecule inhibitors and will expand our range of precision therapies for this disease.

  19. Cell electrospinning: a novel tool for functionalising fibres, scaffolds and membranes with living cells and other advanced materials for regenerative biology and medicine.

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, Suwan N

    2013-04-21

    Recent years have seen interest in approaches for directly generating fibers and scaffolds following a rising trend for their exploration in the health sciences. In this review the author wishes to briefly highlight the many approaches explored to date for generating such structures, while underlining their advantages and disadvantages, and their contribution in particular to the biomedical sciences. Such structures have been demonstrated as having implications in both the laboratory and the clinic, as they mimic the native extra cellular matrix. Interestingly the only materials investigated until very recently for generating fibrous architectures employed either natural or synthetic polymers with or without the addition of functional molecule(s). Arguably although such constructs have been demonstrated to have many applications, they lack the one unit most important for carrying out the ability to directly reconstruct a three-dimensional functional tissue, namely living cells. Therefore recent findings have demonstrated the ability to directly form cell-laden fibers and scaffolds in useful quantities from which functional three-dimensional living tissues can be conceived. These recent developments have far-reaching ramifications to many areas of research and development, a few of which range from tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, a novel approach to analyzing cell behavior and function in real time in three-dimensions, to the advanced controlled and targeted delivery of experimental and/or medical cells and/or genes for localized treatment. At present these developments have passed all in vitro and in vivo mouse model based challenge trials and are now spearheading their journey towards initiating human clinical trials.

  20. Networks in Cell Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchanan, Mark; Caldarelli, Guido; De Los Rios, Paolo; Rao, Francesco; Vendruscolo, Michele

    2010-05-01

    Introduction; 1. Network views of the cell Paolo De Los Rios and Michele Vendruscolo; 2. Transcriptional regulatory networks Sarath Chandra Janga and M. Madan Babu; 3. Transcription factors and gene regulatory networks Matteo Brilli, Elissa Calistri and Pietro Lió; 4. Experimental methods for protein interaction identification Peter Uetz, Björn Titz, Seesandra V. Rajagopala and Gerard Cagney; 5. Modeling protein interaction networks Francesco Rao; 6. Dynamics and evolution of metabolic networks Daniel Segré; 7. Hierarchical modularity in biological networks: the case of metabolic networks Erzsébet Ravasz Regan; 8. Signalling networks Gian Paolo Rossini; Appendix 1. Complex networks: from local to global properties D. Garlaschelli and G. Caldarelli; Appendix 2. Modelling the local structure of networks D. Garlaschelli and G. Caldarelli; Appendix 3. Higher-order topological properties S. Ahnert, T. Fink and G. Caldarelli; Appendix 4. Elementary mathematical concepts A. Gabrielli and G. Caldarelli; References.

  1. Performance of Project Advance Students on the AP Biology Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercurio, Joseph; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Compared performance of Project Advance biology students (N=60) with Advanced Placement (AP) candidates (N=15,947) nationally on College Entrance Examination Board AP biology test. The research, conducted to determine comparability of the program as valid measures of academic achievement, determined that Project Advance students scored above the…

  2. Advances in imaging secondary ion mass spectrometry for biological samples

    DOE PAGES

    Boxer, Steven G.; Kraft, Mary L.; Weber, Peter K.

    2008-12-16

    Imaging mass spectrometry combines the power of mass spectrometry to identify complex molecules based on mass with sample imaging. Recent advances in secondary ion mass spectrometry have improved sensitivity and spatial resolution, so that these methods have the potential to bridge between high-resolution structures obtained by X-ray crystallography and cyro-electron microscopy and ultrastructure visualized by conventional light microscopy. Following background information on the method and instrumentation, we address the key issue of sample preparation. Because mass spectrometry is performed in high vacuum, it is essential to preserve the lateral organization of the sample while removing bulk water, and this hasmore » been a major barrier for applications to biological systems. Furthermore, recent applications of imaging mass spectrometry to cell biology, microbial communities, and biosynthetic pathways are summarized briefly, and studies of biological membrane organization are described in greater depth.« less

  3. Advances in imaging secondary ion mass spectrometry for biological samples

    SciTech Connect

    Boxer, Steven G.; Kraft, Mary L.; Weber, Peter K.

    2008-12-16

    Imaging mass spectrometry combines the power of mass spectrometry to identify complex molecules based on mass with sample imaging. Recent advances in secondary ion mass spectrometry have improved sensitivity and spatial resolution, so that these methods have the potential to bridge between high-resolution structures obtained by X-ray crystallography and cyro-electron microscopy and ultrastructure visualized by conventional light microscopy. Following background information on the method and instrumentation, we address the key issue of sample preparation. Because mass spectrometry is performed in high vacuum, it is essential to preserve the lateral organization of the sample while removing bulk water, and this has been a major barrier for applications to biological systems. Furthermore, recent applications of imaging mass spectrometry to cell biology, microbial communities, and biosynthetic pathways are summarized briefly, and studies of biological membrane organization are described in greater depth.

  4. Advances in the biology and chemistry of sialic acids.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Varki, Ajit

    2010-02-19

    Sialic acids are a subset of nonulosonic acids, which are nine-carbon alpha-keto aldonic acids. Natural existing sialic acid-containing structures are presented in different sialic acid forms, various sialyl linkages, and on diverse underlying glycans. They play important roles in biological, pathological, and immunological processes. Sialobiology has been a challenging and yet attractive research area. Recent advances in chemical and chemoenzymatic synthesis, as well as large-scale E. coli cell-based production, have provided a large library of sialoside standards and derivatives in amounts sufficient for structure-activity relationship studies. Sialoglycan microarrays provide an efficient platform for quick identification of preferred ligands for sialic acid-binding proteins. Future research on sialic acid will continue to be at the interface of chemistry and biology. Research efforts not only will lead to a better understanding of the biological and pathological importance of sialic acids and their diversity but also could lead to the development of therapeutics.

  5. Invited Review Article: Advanced light microscopy for biological space research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Vos, Winnok H.; Beghuin, Didier; Schwarz, Christian J.; Jones, David B.; van Loon, Jack J. W. A.; Bereiter-Hahn, Juergen; Stelzer, Ernst H. K.

    2014-10-01

    As commercial space flights have become feasible and long-term extraterrestrial missions are planned, it is imperative that the impact of space travel and the space environment on human physiology be thoroughly characterized. Scrutinizing the effects of potentially detrimental factors such as ionizing radiation and microgravity at the cellular and tissue level demands adequate visualization technology. Advanced light microscopy (ALM) is the leading tool for non-destructive structural and functional investigation of static as well as dynamic biological systems. In recent years, technological developments and advances in photochemistry and genetic engineering have boosted all aspects of resolution, readout and throughput, rendering ALM ideally suited for biological space research. While various microscopy-based studies have addressed cellular response to space-related environmental stressors, biological endpoints have typically been determined only after the mission, leaving an experimental gap that is prone to bias results. An on-board, real-time microscopical monitoring device can bridge this gap. Breadboards and even fully operational microscope setups have been conceived, but they need to be rendered more compact and versatile. Most importantly, they must allow addressing the impact of gravity, or the lack thereof, on physiologically relevant biological systems in space and in ground-based simulations. In order to delineate the essential functionalities for such a system, we have reviewed the pending questions in space science, the relevant biological model systems, and the state-of-the art in ALM. Based on a rigorous trade-off, in which we recognize the relevance of multi-cellular systems and the cellular microenvironment, we propose a compact, but flexible concept for space-related cell biological research that is based on light sheet microscopy.

  6. Invited Review Article: Advanced light microscopy for biological space research

    SciTech Connect

    De Vos, Winnok H.; Beghuin, Didier; Schwarz, Christian J.; Jones, David B.; Loon, Jack J. W. A. van

    2014-10-15

    As commercial space flights have become feasible and long-term extraterrestrial missions are planned, it is imperative that the impact of space travel and the space environment on human physiology be thoroughly characterized. Scrutinizing the effects of potentially detrimental factors such as ionizing radiation and microgravity at the cellular and tissue level demands adequate visualization technology. Advanced light microscopy (ALM) is the leading tool for non-destructive structural and functional investigation of static as well as dynamic biological systems. In recent years, technological developments and advances in photochemistry and genetic engineering have boosted all aspects of resolution, readout and throughput, rendering ALM ideally suited for biological space research. While various microscopy-based studies have addressed cellular response to space-related environmental stressors, biological endpoints have typically been determined only after the mission, leaving an experimental gap that is prone to bias results. An on-board, real-time microscopical monitoring device can bridge this gap. Breadboards and even fully operational microscope setups have been conceived, but they need to be rendered more compact and versatile. Most importantly, they must allow addressing the impact of gravity, or the lack thereof, on physiologically relevant biological systems in space and in ground-based simulations. In order to delineate the essential functionalities for such a system, we have reviewed the pending questions in space science, the relevant biological model systems, and the state-of-the art in ALM. Based on a rigorous trade-off, in which we recognize the relevance of multi-cellular systems and the cellular microenvironment, we propose a compact, but flexible concept for space-related cell biological research that is based on light sheet microscopy.

  7. Invited review article: Advanced light microscopy for biological space research.

    PubMed

    De Vos, Winnok H; Beghuin, Didier; Schwarz, Christian J; Jones, David B; van Loon, Jack J W A; Bereiter-Hahn, Juergen; Stelzer, Ernst H K

    2014-10-01

    As commercial space flights have become feasible and long-term extraterrestrial missions are planned, it is imperative that the impact of space travel and the space environment on human physiology be thoroughly characterized. Scrutinizing the effects of potentially detrimental factors such as ionizing radiation and microgravity at the cellular and tissue level demands adequate visualization technology. Advanced light microscopy (ALM) is the leading tool for non-destructive structural and functional investigation of static as well as dynamic biological systems. In recent years, technological developments and advances in photochemistry and genetic engineering have boosted all aspects of resolution, readout and throughput, rendering ALM ideally suited for biological space research. While various microscopy-based studies have addressed cellular response to space-related environmental stressors, biological endpoints have typically been determined only after the mission, leaving an experimental gap that is prone to bias results. An on-board, real-time microscopical monitoring device can bridge this gap. Breadboards and even fully operational microscope setups have been conceived, but they need to be rendered more compact and versatile. Most importantly, they must allow addressing the impact of gravity, or the lack thereof, on physiologically relevant biological systems in space and in ground-based simulations. In order to delineate the essential functionalities for such a system, we have reviewed the pending questions in space science, the relevant biological model systems, and the state-of-the art in ALM. Based on a rigorous trade-off, in which we recognize the relevance of multi-cellular systems and the cellular microenvironment, we propose a compact, but flexible concept for space-related cell biological research that is based on light sheet microscopy.

  8. The cell biology of taste

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Taste buds are aggregates of 50–100 polarized neuroepithelial cells that detect nutrients and other compounds. Combined analyses of gene expression and cellular function reveal an elegant cellular organization within the taste bud. This review discusses the functional classes of taste cells, their cell biology, and current thinking on how taste information is transmitted to the brain. PMID:20696704

  9. The cell biology of taste.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Nirupa; Roper, Stephen D

    2010-08-09

    Taste buds are aggregates of 50-100 polarized neuroepithelial cells that detect nutrients and other compounds. Combined analyses of gene expression and cellular function reveal an elegant cellular organization within the taste bud. This review discusses the functional classes of taste cells, their cell biology, and current thinking on how taste information is transmitted to the brain.

  10. Biological atomism and cell theory.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Daniel J

    2010-09-01

    Biological atomism postulates that all life is composed of elementary and indivisible vital units. The activity of a living organism is thus conceived as the result of the activities and interactions of its elementary constituents, each of which individually already exhibits all the attributes proper to life. This paper surveys some of the key episodes in the history of biological atomism, and situates cell theory within this tradition. The atomistic foundations of cell theory are subsequently dissected and discussed, together with the theory's conceptual development and eventual consolidation. This paper then examines the major criticisms that have been waged against cell theory, and argues that these too can be interpreted through the prism of biological atomism as attempts to relocate the true biological atom away from the cell to a level of organization above or below it. Overall, biological atomism provides a useful perspective through which to examine the history and philosophy of cell theory, and it also opens up a new way of thinking about the epistemic decomposition of living organisms that significantly departs from the physicochemical reductionism of mechanistic biology.

  11. Advances in Systems Biology, Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology Volume 547

    SciTech Connect

    Opresko, Lee; Gephart, Julie M.; Mann, Michaela B.

    2002-12-02

    This is the inaugural year for a new series of symposia on systems biology. Particular focus will be on identifying current breakthrough technologies and their application to important model systems. By integrating computational sciences, high-throughput technologies and quantitative biology, we hope to facilitate advancements in this important new area of research.In this first year we are focusing on the four different research areas contained within the new U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Genomes to Life program. This program is the successor to the Human Genome Project and exceeds it in scope and ambition. Its goal is to understand the basis of life and ?to venture beyond characterizing such individual life components as genes and other DNA sequences toward a more comprehensive, integrated view of biology at a whole-systems level.? These goals will be met by1. identifying the protein machines that carry out critical life functions2. characterizing the gene regulatory networks that control these machines3. exploring the functional repertoire of complex microbial communities in their natural environments to provide a foundation for understanding and using their remarkably diverse capabilities to address DOE missions4. developing the computational capabilities to integrate and understand these data and begin to model complex biological systems.

  12. Microgravity and Cell Biology

    NASA Video Gallery

    The lecture covers the rationale for cell based research in the space program, the coordinated role of physical forces in life processes, cellular responses to microgravity and environmental condit...

  13. Novel Advances in Shotgun Lipidomics for Biology and Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Miao; Wang, Chunyan; Han, Rowland H.; Han, Xianlin

    2015-01-01

    The field of lipidomics, as coined in 2003, has made profound advances and been rapidly expanded. The mass spectrometry-based strategies of this analytical methodology-oriented research discipline for lipid analysis are largely fallen into three categories: direct infusion-based shotgun lipidomics, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based platforms, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry-based approaches (particularly in imagining lipid distribution in tissues or cells). This review focuses on shotgun lipidomics. After briefly introducing its fundamentals, the major materials of this article cover its recent advances. These include the novel methods of lipid extraction, novel shotgun lipidomics strategies for identification and quantification of previously hardly accessible lipid classes and molecular species including isomers, and novel tools for processing and interpretation of lipidomics data. Representative applications of advanced shotgun lipidomics for biological and biomedical research are also presented in this review. We believe that with these novel advances in shotgun lipidomics, this approach for lipid analysis should become more comprehensive and high throughput, thereby greatly accelerating the lipidomics field to substantiate the aberrant lipid metabolism, signaling, trafficking, and homeostasis under pathological conditions and their underpinning biochemical mechanisms. PMID:26703190

  14. When cell biology meets theory

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Gaitan, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    Cell biologists now have tools and knowledge to generate useful quantitative data. But how can we make sense of these data, and are we measuring the correct parameters? Moreover, how can we test hypotheses quantitatively? To answer these questions, the theory of physics is required and is essential to the future of quantitative cell biology. PMID:26416957

  15. Prion potency in stem cells biology.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Marilene H; Santos, Tiago G

    2012-01-01

    Prion protein (PrP) can be considered a pivotal molecule because it interacts with several partners to perform a diverse range of critical biological functions that might differ in embryonic and adult cells. In recent years, there have been major advances in elucidating the putative role of PrP in the basic biology of stem cells in many different systems. Here, we review the evidence indicating that PrP is a key molecule involved in driving different aspects of the potency of embryonic and tissue-specific stem cells in self-perpetuation and differentiation in many cell types. It has been shown that PrP is involved in stem cell self-renewal, controlling pluripotency gene expression, proliferation, and neural and cardiomyocyte differentiation. PrP also has essential roles in distinct processes that regulate tissue-specific stem cell biology in nervous and hematopoietic systems and during muscle regeneration. Results from our own investigations have shown that PrP is able to modulate self-renewal and proliferation in neural stem cells, processes that are enhanced by PrP interactions with stress inducible protein 1 (STI1). Thus, the available data reveal the influence of PrP in acting upon the maintenance of pluripotent status or the differentiation of stem cells from the early embryogenesis through adulthood.

  16. Advanced fuel cell development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, R. D.; Baumert, B.; Claar, T. D.; Fousek, R. J.; Huang, H. S.; Kaun, T. D.; Krumpelt, M.; Minh, N.; Mrazek, F. C.; Poeppel, R. B.

    1985-01-01

    Fuel cell research and development activities at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) during the period January through March 1984 are described. These efforts have been directed principally toward seeking alternative cathode materials to NiO for molten carbonate fuel cells. Based on an investigation of the thermodynamically stable phases formed under cathode conditions, a number of prospective alternative cathode materials have been identified. From the list of candidates, LiFeO2, Li2MnO3, and ZnO were selected for further investigation. During this quarter, they were doped to promote conductivity and tested for solubility and ion migration in the cell environment. An investigation directed to understanding in cell densification of anode materials was initiated. In addition, calculations were made to evaluate the practicality of controlling sulfur accumulation in molten carbonate fuel cells by bleed off of a portion of the anode gas that could be recycled to the cathode. In addition, a model is being developed to predict the performance of solid oxide fuel cells as a function of cell design and operation.

  17. Biological therapies in nonsmall cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Zugazagoitia, Jon; Molina-Pinelo, Sonia; Lopez-Rios, Fernando; Paz-Ares, Luis

    2017-03-01

    Biological therapies have improved survival outcomes of advanced-stage nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Genotype-directed therapies have changed treatment paradigms of patients with EGFR-mutant and ALK/ROS1-rearranged lung adenocarcinomas, and the list of druggable targets with demonstrated clinical actionability (BRAF, MET, RET, NTRK1 and HER2) continues to expand. Furthermore, we have incrementally understood the mechanisms of cancer immune evasion and foresee ways to effectively circumvent them, particularly at the immune checkpoint level. Drugs targeting the tumour immune-evasive PD-1 pathway have demonstrated remarkable treatment benefits in this disease, with a non-negligible fraction of patients potentially receiving long-term survival benefits. Herein, we briefly discuss the role of various medical disciplines in the management of advanced-stage NSCLC and review the most relevant biological therapies for this disease, with particular emphasis in genotype-directed therapies and immune checkpoint inhibitors.

  18. Cell biology of neuronal endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Parton, R G; Dotti, C G

    1993-09-01

    Endocytosis is the process by which cells take in fluid and components of the plasma membrane. In this way cells obtain nutrients and trophic factors, retrieve membrane proteins for degradation, and sample their environment. In neuronal cells endocytosis is essential for the recycling of membrane after neurotransmitter release and plays a critical role during early developmental stages. Moreover, alterations of the endocytic pathway have been attributed a crucial role in the pathophysiology of certain neurological diseases. Although well characterized at the ultrastructural level, little is known of the dynamics and molecular organization of the neuronal endocytic pathways. In this respect most of our knowledge comes from studies of non-neuronal cells. In this review we will examine the endocytic pathways in neurons from a cell biological viewpoint by making comparisons with non-neuronal cells and in particular with another polarized cell, the epithelial cell.

  19. Methodological Advances in Auxin and Cytokinin Biology.

    PubMed

    Hurný, Andrej; Benková, Eva

    2017-01-01

    The history of auxin and cytokinin biology including the initial discoveries by father-son duo Charles Darwin and Francis Darwin (1880), and Gottlieb Haberlandt (1919) is a beautiful demonstration of unceasing continuity of research. Novel findings are integrated into existing hypotheses and models and deepen our understanding of biological principles. At the same time new questions are triggered and hand to hand with this new methodologies are developed to address these new challenges.

  20. Single Cell Genomics: Advances and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Macaulay, Iain C.; Voet, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Advances in whole-genome and whole-transcriptome amplification have permitted the sequencing of the minute amounts of DNA and RNA present in a single cell, offering a window into the extent and nature of genomic and transcriptomic heterogeneity which occurs in both normal development and disease. Single-cell approaches stand poised to revolutionise our capacity to understand the scale of genomic, epigenomic, and transcriptomic diversity that occurs during the lifetime of an individual organism. Here, we review the major technological and biological breakthroughs achieved, describe the remaining challenges to overcome, and provide a glimpse into the promise of recent and future developments. PMID:24497842

  1. Advances in the Biology and Chemistry of Sialic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xi; Varki, Ajit

    2010-01-01

    Sialic acids are a subset of nonulosonic acids, which are nine-carbon alpha-keto aldonic acids. Natural existing sialic acid-containing structures are presented in different sialic acid forms, various sialyl linkages, and on diverse underlying glycans. They play important roles in biological, pathological, and immunological processes. Sialobiology has been a challenging and yet attractive research area. Recent advances in chemical and chemoenzymatic synthesis as well as large-scale E. coli cell-based production have provided a large library of sialoside standards and derivatives in amounts sufficient for structure-activity relationship studies. Sialoglycan microarrays provide an efficient platform for quick identification of preferred ligands for sialic acid-binding proteins. Future research on sialic acid will continue to be at the interface of chemistry and biology. Research efforts will not only lead to a better understanding of the biological and pathological importance of sialic acids and their diversity, but could also lead to the development of therapeutics. PMID:20020717

  2. Toward metabolic engineering in the context of system biology and synthetic biology: advances and prospects.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanfeng; Shin, Hyun-dong; Li, Jianghua; Liu, Long

    2015-02-01

    Metabolic engineering facilitates the rational development of recombinant bacterial strains for metabolite overproduction. Building on enormous advances in system biology and synthetic biology, novel strategies have been established for multivariate optimization of metabolic networks in ensemble, spatial, and dynamic manners such as modular pathway engineering, compartmentalization metabolic engineering, and metabolic engineering guided by genome-scale metabolic models, in vitro reconstitution, and systems and synthetic biology. Herein, we summarize recent advances in novel metabolic engineering strategies. Combined with advancing kinetic models and synthetic biology tools, more efficient new strategies for improving cellular properties can be established and applied for industrially important biochemical production.

  3. Advanced Biology [Sahuarita High School Career Curriculum Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Larry

    This course in advanced biology is entitled "Advanced Genetics" and is one of a series of instructional guides prepared by teachers for the Sahuarita High School (Arizona) Career Curriculum Project. It consists of seven units of study, and 15 behavioral objectives relating to these units are stated. The topics covered include a review of genetics,…

  4. Cell biology of fat storage

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Paul; Spiegelman, Bruce M.

    2016-01-01

    The worldwide epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes has greatly increased interest in the biology and physiology of adipose tissues. Adipose (fat) cells are specialized for the storage of energy in the form of triglycerides, but research in the last few decades has shown that fat cells also play a critical role in sensing and responding to changes in systemic energy balance. White fat cells secrete important hormone-like molecules such as leptin, adiponectin, and adipsin to influence processes such as food intake, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion. Brown fat, on the other hand, dissipates chemical energy in the form of heat, thereby defending against hypothermia, obesity, and diabetes. It is now appreciated that there are two distinct types of thermogenic fat cells, termed brown and beige adipocytes. In addition to these distinct properties of fat cells, adipocytes exist within adipose tissue, where they are in dynamic communication with immune cells and closely influenced by innervation and blood supply. This review is intended to serve as an introduction to adipose cell biology and to familiarize the reader with how these cell types play a role in metabolic disease and, perhaps, as targets for therapeutic development. PMID:27528697

  5. The cell biology of aging

    PubMed Central

    DiLoreto, Race; Murphy, Coleen T.

    2015-01-01

    One of the original hypotheses of organismal longevity posits that aging is the natural result of entropy on the cells, tissues, and organs of the animal—a slow, inexorable slide into nonfunctionality caused by stochastic degradation of its parts. We now have evidence that aging is instead at least in part genetically regulated. Many mutations have been discovered to extend lifespan in organisms of all complexities, from yeast to mammals. The study of metazoan model organisms, such as Caenorhabditis elegans, has been instrumental in understanding the role of genetics in the cell biology of aging. Longevity mutants across the spectrum of model organisms demonstrate that rates of aging are regulated through genetic control of cellular processes. The regulation and subsequent breakdown of cellular processes represent a programmatic decision by the cell to either continue or abandon maintenance procedures with age. Our understanding of cell biological processes involved in regulating aging have been particularly informed by longevity mutants and treatments, such as reduced insulin/IGF-1 signaling and dietary restriction, which are critical in determining the distinction between causes of and responses to aging and have revealed a set of downstream targets that participate in a range of cell biological activities. Here we briefly review some of these important cellular processes. PMID:26668170

  6. Current advances in systems and integrative biology

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Scott W.; Fernandes, Marco; Husi, Holger

    2014-01-01

    Systems biology has gained a tremendous amount of interest in the last few years. This is partly due to the realization that traditional approaches focusing only on a few molecules at a time cannot describe the impact of aberrant or modulated molecular environments across a whole system. Furthermore, a hypothesis-driven study aims to prove or disprove its postulations, whereas a hypothesis-free systems approach can yield an unbiased and novel testable hypothesis as an end-result. This latter approach foregoes assumptions which predict how a biological system should react to an altered microenvironment within a cellular context, across a tissue or impacting on distant organs. Additionally, re-use of existing data by systematic data mining and re-stratification, one of the cornerstones of integrative systems biology, is also gaining attention. While tremendous efforts using a systems methodology have already yielded excellent results, it is apparent that a lack of suitable analytic tools and purpose-built databases poses a major bottleneck in applying a systematic workflow. This review addresses the current approaches used in systems analysis and obstacles often encountered in large-scale data analysis and integration which tend to go unnoticed, but have a direct impact on the final outcome of a systems approach. Its wide applicability, ranging from basic research, disease descriptors, pharmacological studies, to personalized medicine, makes this emerging approach well suited to address biological and medical questions where conventional methods are not ideal. PMID:25379142

  7. Nanobodies and recombinant binders in cell biology

    PubMed Central

    Helma, Jonas; Cardoso, M. Cristina; Muyldermans, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Antibodies are key reagents to investigate cellular processes. The development of recombinant antibodies and binders derived from natural protein scaffolds has expanded traditional applications, such as immunofluorescence, binding arrays, and immunoprecipitation. In addition, their small size and high stability in ectopic environments have enabled their use in all areas of cell research, including structural biology, advanced microscopy, and intracellular expression. Understanding these novel reagents as genetic modules that can be integrated into cellular pathways opens up a broad experimental spectrum to monitor and manipulate cellular processes. PMID:26056137

  8. Advances in nanowire transistors for biological analysis and cellular investigation.

    PubMed

    Li, Bor-Ran; Chen, Chiao-Chen; Kumar, U Rajesh; Chen, Yit-Tsong

    2014-04-07

    Electrical biosensors based on silicon nanowire field-effect transistors (SiNW-FETs) have attracted enormous interest in the biosensing field. SiNW-FETs have proven to be significant and efficient in detecting diverse biomolecular species with the advantages of high probing sensitivity, target selectivity, real-time recording and label-free detection. In recent years, significant advances in biosensors have been achieved, particularly for cellular investigation and biomedical diagnosis. In this critical review, we will report on the latest developments in biosensing with SiNW-FETs and discuss recent advancements in the innovative designs of SiNW-FET devices. This critical review introduces the basic instrumental setup and working principle of SiNW-FETs. Technical approaches that attempted to enhance the detection sensitivity and target selectivity of SiNW-FET sensors are discussed. In terms of applications, we review the recent achievements with SiNW-FET biosensors for the investigations of protein-protein interaction, DNA/RNA/PNA hybridization, virus detection, cellular recording, biological kinetics, and clinical diagnosis. In addition, the novel architecture designs of the SiNW-FET devices are highlighted in studies of live neuron cells, electrophysiological measurements and other signal transduction pathways. Despite these remarkable achievements, certain improvements remain necessary in the device performance and clinical applications of FET-based biosensors; thus, several prospects about the future development of nanowire transistor-based instruments for biosensing employments are discussed at the end of this review.

  9. Imaging cell biology in live animals: ready for prime time.

    PubMed

    Weigert, Roberto; Porat-Shliom, Natalie; Amornphimoltham, Panomwat

    2013-06-24

    Time-lapse fluorescence microscopy is one of the main tools used to image subcellular structures in living cells. Yet for decades it has been applied primarily to in vitro model systems. Thanks to the most recent advancements in intravital microscopy, this approach has finally been extended to live rodents. This represents a major breakthrough that will provide unprecedented new opportunities to study mammalian cell biology in vivo and has already provided new insight in the fields of neurobiology, immunology, and cancer biology.

  10. Cell biology of mitotic recombination.

    PubMed

    Lisby, Michael; Rothstein, Rodney

    2015-03-02

    Homologous recombination provides high-fidelity DNA repair throughout all domains of life. Live cell fluorescence microscopy offers the opportunity to image individual recombination events in real time providing insight into the in vivo biochemistry of the involved proteins and DNA molecules as well as the cellular organization of the process of homologous recombination. Herein we review the cell biological aspects of mitotic homologous recombination with a focus on Saccharomyces cerevisiae and mammalian cells, but will also draw on findings from other experimental systems. Key topics of this review include the stoichiometry and dynamics of recombination complexes in vivo, the choreography of assembly and disassembly of recombination proteins at sites of DNA damage, the mobilization of damaged DNA during homology search, and the functional compartmentalization of the nucleus with respect to capacity of homologous recombination.

  11. Basic statistics in cell biology.

    PubMed

    Vaux, David L

    2014-01-01

    The physicist Ernest Rutherford said, "If your experiment needs statistics, you ought to have done a better experiment." Although this aphorism remains true for much of today's research in cell biology, a basic understanding of statistics can be useful to cell biologists to help in monitoring the conduct of their experiments, in interpreting the results, in presenting them in publications, and when critically evaluating research by others. However, training in statistics is often focused on the sophisticated needs of clinical researchers, psychologists, and epidemiologists, whose conclusions depend wholly on statistics, rather than the practical needs of cell biologists, whose experiments often provide evidence that is not statistical in nature. This review describes some of the basic statistical principles that may be of use to experimental biologists, but it does not cover the sophisticated statistics needed for papers that contain evidence of no other kind.

  12. Cell Biology of Mitotic Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Lisby, Michael; Rothstein, Rodney

    2015-01-01

    Homologous recombination provides high-fidelity DNA repair throughout all domains of life. Live cell fluorescence microscopy offers the opportunity to image individual recombination events in real time providing insight into the in vivo biochemistry of the involved proteins and DNA molecules as well as the cellular organization of the process of homologous recombination. Herein we review the cell biological aspects of mitotic homologous recombination with a focus on Saccharomyces cerevisiae and mammalian cells, but will also draw on findings from other experimental systems. Key topics of this review include the stoichiometry and dynamics of recombination complexes in vivo, the choreography of assembly and disassembly of recombination proteins at sites of DNA damage, the mobilization of damaged DNA during homology search, and the functional compartmentalization of the nucleus with respect to capacity of homologous recombination. PMID:25731763

  13. Synthetic biology: advancing the design of diverse genetic systems

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yen-Hsiang; Wei, Kathy Y.; Smolke, Christina D.

    2013-01-01

    A main objective of synthetic biology is to make the process of designing genetically-encoded biological systems more systematic, predictable, robust, scalable, and efficient. The examples of genetic systems in the field vary widely in terms of operating hosts, compositional approaches, and network complexity, ranging from a simple genetic switch to search-and-destroy systems. While significant advances in synthesis capabilities support the potential for the implementation of pathway- and genome-scale programs, several design challenges currently restrict the scale of systems that can be reasonably designed and implemented. Synthetic biology offers much promise in developing systems to address challenges faced in manufacturing, the environment and sustainability, and health and medicine, but the realization of this potential is currently limited by the diversity of available parts and effective design frameworks. As researchers make progress in bridging this design gap, advances in the field hint at ever more diverse applications for biological systems. PMID:23413816

  14. Single cell sequencing approaches for complex biological systems.

    PubMed

    Baslan, Timour; Hicks, James

    2014-06-01

    Biological phenotype is the output of complex interactions between heterogeneous cells within a specified niche. These interactions are tightly governed and regulated by the genetic, epigenetic, and transcriptional states of single cells, with deregulation of these states resulting in disease. As such, genome wide single cell investigations are bound to enhance our knowledge of the underlying principles that govern biological systems. Recent technological advances have enabled such investigations in the form of single-cell sequencing. Here, we review the most recent developments in genome wide profiling of single cells, discuss some of the novel biological observations gleaned by such investigations, and touch upon the promise of single cell sequencing in unraveling biological systems.

  15. Using Advance Organizers to Enhance Students' Motivation in Learning Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shihusa, Hudson; Keraro, Fred N.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of using advance organizers on students' motivation to learn biology. The research design used was quasi-experimental design where the non-randomised Solomon Four group was adopted. The focus was on the topic pollution. The sample comprised of 166 form three (third grade in the secondary school cycle) students in…

  16. ARPA advanced fuel cell development

    SciTech Connect

    Dubois, L.H.

    1995-08-01

    Fuel cell technology is currently being developed at the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) for several Department of Defense applications where its inherent advantages such as environmental compatibility, high efficiency, and low noise and vibration are overwhelmingly important. These applications range from man-portable power systems of only a few watts output (e.g., for microclimate cooling and as direct battery replacements) to multimegawatt fixed base systems. The ultimate goal of the ARPA program is to develop an efficient, low-temperature fuel cell power system that operates directly on a military logistics fuel (e.g., DF-2 or JP-8). The absence of a fuel reformer will reduce the size, weight, cost, and complexity of such a unit as well as increase its reliability. In order to reach this goal, ARPA is taking a two-fold, intermediate time-frame approach to: (1) develop a viable, low-temperature proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell that operates directly on a simple hydrocarbon fuel (e.g., methanol or trimethoxymethane) and (2) demonstrate a thermally integrated fuel processor/fuel cell power system operating on a military logistics fuel. This latter program involves solid oxide (SOFC), molten carbonate (MCFC), and phosphoric acid (PAFC) fuel cell technologies and concentrates on the development of efficient fuel processors, impurity scrubbers, and systems integration. A complementary program to develop high performance, light weight H{sub 2}/air PEM and SOFC fuel cell stacks is also underway. Several recent successes of these programs will be highlighted.

  17. Action Biology. Advanced Placement for the Second Year. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Mary Pitt

    This document provides biology experiments designed for students who have completed a first year biology course. This self contained laboratory booklet contains four sections. In section 1, "Instrumentation in the Study of Cells," discussion sections and suggestions for teacher demonstrations are provided. It also includes some basic materials…

  18. The Emerging Cell Biology of Thyroid Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Latif, Rauf; Minsky, Noga C.; Ma, Risheng

    2011-01-01

    Context: Stem cells are undifferentiated cells with the property of self-renewal and give rise to highly specialized cells under appropriate local conditions. The use of stem cells in regenerative medicine holds great promise for the treatment of many diseases, including those of the thyroid gland. Evidence Acquisition: This review focuses on the progress that has been made in thyroid stem cell research including an overview of cellular and molecular events (most of which were drawn from the period 1990–2011) and discusses the remaining problems encountered in their differentiation. Evidence Synthesis: Protocols for the in vitro differentiation of embryonic stem cells, based on normal developmental processes, have generated thyroid-like cells but without full thyrocyte function. However, agents have been identified, including activin A, insulin, and IGF-I, which are able to stimulate the generation of thyroid-like cells in vitro. In addition, thyroid stem/progenitor cells have been identified within the normal thyroid gland and within thyroid cancers. Conclusions: Advances in thyroid stem cell biology are providing not only insight into thyroid development but may offer therapeutic potential in thyroid cancer and future thyroid cell replacement therapy. PMID:21778219

  19. Advances in the cellular and molecular biology of angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Egginton, Stuart; Bicknell, Roy

    2011-12-01

    Capillaries have been recognized for over a century as one of the most important components in regulating tissue oxygen transport, and their formation or angiogenesis a pivotal element of tissue remodelling during development and adaptation. Clinical interest stems from observations that both excessive and inadequate vascular growth plays a major role in human diseases, and novel developments in treatments for cancer and eye disease increasingly rely on anti-angiogenic therapies. Although the discovery of VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) provided the first clue for specificity of signalling in endothelial cell activation, understanding the integrative response that drives angiogenesis requires a much broader perspective. The Advances in the Cellular and Molecular Biology of Angiogenesis meeting brought together researchers at the forefront of this rapidly moving field to provide an update on current understanding, and the most recent insights into molecular and cellular mechanisms of vascular growth. The plenary lecture highlighted the integrative nature of the angiogenic process, whereas invited contributions from basic and clinician scientists described fundamental mechanisms and disease-associated issues of blood vessel formation, grouped under a number of themes to aid discussion. These articles will appeal to academic, clinical and pharmaceutical scientists interested in the molecular and cellular basis of angiogenesis, their modulation or dysfunction in human diseases, and application of these findings towards translational medicine.

  20. A first attempt to bring computational biology into advanced high school biology classrooms.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Suzanne Renick; Coon, William; Donley, Kristin; Scott, Abby; Goldberg, Debra S

    2011-10-01

    Computer science has become ubiquitous in many areas of biological research, yet most high school and even college students are unaware of this. As a result, many college biology majors graduate without adequate computational skills for contemporary fields of biology. The absence of a computational element in secondary school biology classrooms is of growing concern to the computational biology community and biology teachers who would like to acquaint their students with updated approaches in the discipline. We present a first attempt to correct this absence by introducing a computational biology element to teach genetic evolution into advanced biology classes in two local high schools. Our primary goal was to show students how computation is used in biology and why a basic understanding of computation is necessary for research in many fields of biology. This curriculum is intended to be taught by a computational biologist who has worked with a high school advanced biology teacher to adapt the unit for his/her classroom, but a motivated high school teacher comfortable with mathematics and computing may be able to teach this alone. In this paper, we present our curriculum, which takes into consideration the constraints of the required curriculum, and discuss our experiences teaching it. We describe the successes and challenges we encountered while bringing this unit to high school students, discuss how we addressed these challenges, and make suggestions for future versions of this curriculum.We believe that our curriculum can be a valuable seed for further development of computational activities aimed at high school biology students. Further, our experiences may be of value to others teaching computational biology at this level. Our curriculum can be obtained at http://ecsite.cs.colorado.edu/?page_id=149#biology or by contacting the authors.

  1. Synthetic Biology: A Bridge between Artificial and Natural Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yunfeng; Wu, Fan; Tan, Cheemeng

    2014-01-01

    Artificial cells are simple cell-like entities that possess certain properties of natural cells. In general, artificial cells are constructed using three parts: (1) biological membranes that serve as protective barriers, while allowing communication between the cells and the environment; (2) transcription and translation machinery that synthesize proteins based on genetic sequences; and (3) genetic modules that control the dynamics of the whole cell. Artificial cells are minimal and well-defined systems that can be more easily engineered and controlled when compared to natural cells. Artificial cells can be used as biomimetic systems to study and understand natural dynamics of cells with minimal interference from cellular complexity. However, there remain significant gaps between artificial and natural cells. How much information can we encode into artificial cells? What is the minimal number of factors that are necessary to achieve robust functioning of artificial cells? Can artificial cells communicate with their environments efficiently? Can artificial cells replicate, divide or even evolve? Here, we review synthetic biological methods that could shrink the gaps between artificial and natural cells. The closure of these gaps will lead to advancement in synthetic biology, cellular biology and biomedical applications. PMID:25532531

  2. CURRICULUM GUIDES IN BIOLOGY--LIFE SCIENCE, BIOLOGY--GENERAL, AND BIOLOGY--ADVANCED PLACEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WESNER, GORDON E.; AND OTHERS

    "BIOLOGY--LIFE SCIENCE" IS GEARED TO STUDENTS OF AVERAGE ABILITY, "BIOLOGY--GENERAL" IS OFFERED FOR THOSE WHO HAVE COMPLETED "BIOLOGY--GENERAL" IN GRADES 10 OR 11 AND WHO WISH TO PURSUE COLLEGE LEVEL STUDY WHILE IN GRADE 12. THE NONTECHNICAL "BIOLOGY--LIFE SCIENCE" HAS OUTLINED UNITS IN ORGANIZING FOOD,…

  3. Advances in Neuroscience and the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention

    PubMed Central

    Dando, Malcolm

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the potential threat to the prohibition of the hostile misuse of the life sciences embodied in the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention from the rapid advances in the field of neuroscience. The paper describes how the implications of advances in science and technology are considered at the Five Year Review Conferences of the Convention and how State Parties have developed their appreciations since the First Review Conference in 1980. The ongoing advances in neurosciences are then assessed and their implications for the Convention examined. It is concluded that State Parties should consider a much more regular and systematic review system for such relevant advances in science and technology when they meet at the Seventh Review Conference in late 2011, and that neuroscientists should be much more informed and engaged in these processes of protecting their work from malign misuse. PMID:21350673

  4. Big data mining powers fungal research: recent advances in fission yeast systems biology approaches.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhe

    2016-10-11

    Biology research has entered into big data era. Systems biology approaches therefore become the powerful tools to obtain the whole landscape of how cell separate, grow, and resist the stresses. Fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe is wonderful unicellular eukaryote model, especially studying its division and metabolism can facilitate to understanding the molecular mechanism of cancer and discovering anticancer agents. In this perspective, we discuss the recent advanced fission yeast systems biology tools, mainly focus on metabolomics profiling and metabolic modeling, protein-protein interactome and genetic interaction network, DNA sequencing and applications, and high-throughput phenotypic screening. We therefore hope this review can be useful for interested fungal researchers as well as bioformaticians.

  5. Cell-free biology: exploiting the interface between synthetic biology and synthetic chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Harris, D. Calvin; Jewett, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Just as synthetic organic chemistry once revolutionized the ability of chemists to build molecules (including those that did not exist in nature) following a basic set of design rules, cell-free synthetic biology is beginning to provide an improved toolbox and faster process for not only harnessing but also expanding the chemistry of life. At the interface between chemistry and biology, research in cell-free synthetic systems is proceeding in two different directions: using synthetic biology for synthetic chemistry and using synthetic chemistry to reprogram or mimic biology. In the coming years, the impact of advances inspired by these approaches will make possible the synthesis of non-biological polymers having new backbone compositions, new chemical properties, new structures, and new functions. PMID:22483202

  6. Advanced composite applications for sub-micron biologically derived microstructures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnur, J. M.; Price, R. R.; Schoen, P. E.; Bonanventura, Joseph; Kirkpatrick, Douglas

    1991-01-01

    A major thrust of advanced material development is in the area of self-assembled ultra-fine particulate based composites (micro-composites). The application of biologically derived, self-assembled microstructures to form advanced composite materials is discussed. Hollow 0.5 micron diameter cylindrical shaped microcylinders self-assemble from diacetylenic lipids. These microstructures have a multiplicity of potential applications in the material sciences. Exploratory development is proceeding in application areas such as controlled release for drug delivery, wound repair, and biofouling as well as composites for electronic and magnetic applications, and high power microwave cathodes.

  7. Drug discovery in advanced prostate cancer: translating biology into therapy.

    PubMed

    Yap, Timothy A; Smith, Alan D; Ferraldeschi, Roberta; Al-Lazikani, Bissan; Workman, Paul; de Bono, Johann S

    2016-10-01

    Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is associated with a poor prognosis and poses considerable therapeutic challenges. Recent genetic and technological advances have provided insights into prostate cancer biology and have enabled the identification of novel drug targets and potent molecularly targeted therapeutics for this disease. In this article, we review recent advances in prostate cancer target identification for drug discovery and discuss their promise and associated challenges. We review the evolving therapeutic landscape of CRPC and discuss issues associated with precision medicine as well as challenges encountered with immunotherapy for this disease. Finally, we envision the future management of CRPC, highlighting the use of circulating biomarkers and modern clinical trial designs.

  8. Biological Therapy in Treating Patients With Advanced Myelodysplastic Syndrome, Acute or Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, or Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Who Are Undergoing Stem Cell Transplantation

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-27

    Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); B-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; B-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Essential Thrombocythemia; Polycythemia Vera; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; T-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; T-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  9. Evolutionary cell biology: Two origins, one objective

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Michael; Field, Mark C.; Goodson, Holly V.; Malik, Harmit S.; Pereira-Leal, José B.; Roos, David S.; Turkewitz, Aaron P.; Sazer, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    All aspects of biological diversification ultimately trace to evolutionary modifications at the cellular level. This central role of cells frames the basic questions as to how cells work and how cells come to be the way they are. Although these two lines of inquiry lie respectively within the traditional provenance of cell biology and evolutionary biology, a comprehensive synthesis of evolutionary and cell-biological thinking is lacking. We define evolutionary cell biology as the fusion of these two eponymous fields with the theoretical and quantitative branches of biochemistry, biophysics, and population genetics. The key goals are to develop a mechanistic understanding of general evolutionary processes, while specifically infusing cell biology with an evolutionary perspective. The full development of this interdisciplinary field has the potential to solve numerous problems in diverse areas of biology, including the degree to which selection, effectively neutral processes, historical contingencies, and/or constraints at the chemical and biophysical levels dictate patterns of variation for intracellular features. These problems can now be examined at both the within- and among-species levels, with single-cell methodologies even allowing quantification of variation within genotypes. Some results from this emerging field have already had a substantial impact on cell biology, and future findings will significantly influence applications in agriculture, medicine, environmental science, and synthetic biology. PMID:25404324

  10. Evolutionary cell biology: two origins, one objective.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Michael; Field, Mark C; Goodson, Holly V; Malik, Harmit S; Pereira-Leal, José B; Roos, David S; Turkewitz, Aaron P; Sazer, Shelley

    2014-12-02

    All aspects of biological diversification ultimately trace to evolutionary modifications at the cellular level. This central role of cells frames the basic questions as to how cells work and how cells come to be the way they are. Although these two lines of inquiry lie respectively within the traditional provenance of cell biology and evolutionary biology, a comprehensive synthesis of evolutionary and cell-biological thinking is lacking. We define evolutionary cell biology as the fusion of these two eponymous fields with the theoretical and quantitative branches of biochemistry, biophysics, and population genetics. The key goals are to develop a mechanistic understanding of general evolutionary processes, while specifically infusing cell biology with an evolutionary perspective. The full development of this interdisciplinary field has the potential to solve numerous problems in diverse areas of biology, including the degree to which selection, effectively neutral processes, historical contingencies, and/or constraints at the chemical and biophysical levels dictate patterns of variation for intracellular features. These problems can now be examined at both the within- and among-species levels, with single-cell methodologies even allowing quantification of variation within genotypes. Some results from this emerging field have already had a substantial impact on cell biology, and future findings will significantly influence applications in agriculture, medicine, environmental science, and synthetic biology.

  11. Embryonic stem cell biology: insights from molecular imaging.

    PubMed

    Sallam, Karim; Wu, Joseph C

    2010-01-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells have therapeutic potential in disorders of cellular loss such as myocardial infarction, type I diabetes and neurodegenerative disorders. ES cell biology in living subjects was largely poorly understood until incorporation of molecular imaging into the field. Reporter gene imaging works by integrating a reporter gene into ES cells and using a reporter probe to induce a signal detectable by normal imaging modalities. Reporter gene imaging allows for longitudinal tracking of ES cells within the same host for a prolonged period of time. This has advantages over postmortem immunohistochemistry and traditional imaging modalities. The advantages include expression of reporter gene is limited to viable cells, expression is conserved between generations of dividing cells, and expression can be linked to a specific population of cells. These advantages were especially useful in studying a dynamic cell population such as ES cells and proved useful in elucidating the biology of ES cells. Reporter gene imaging identified poor integration of differentiated ES cells transplanted into host tissue as well as delayed donor cell death as reasons for poor long-term survival in vivo. This imaging technology also confirmed that ES cells indeed have immunogenic properties that factor into cell survival and differentiation. Finally, reporter gene imaging improved our understanding of the neoplastic risk of undifferentiated ES cells in forming teratomas. Despite such advances, much remains to be understood about ES cell biology to translate this technology to the bedside, and reporter gene imaging will certainly play a key role in formulating this understanding.

  12. Micro/nano-fabrication technologies for cell biology.

    PubMed

    Qian, Tongcheng; Wang, Yingxiao

    2010-10-01

    Micro/nano-fabrication techniques, such as soft lithography and electrospinning, have been well-developed and widely applied in many research fields in the past decade. Due to the low costs and simple procedures, these techniques have become important and popular for biological studies. In this review, we focus on the studies integrating micro/nano-fabrication work to elucidate the molecular mechanism of signaling transduction in cell biology. We first describe different micro/nano-fabrication technologies, including techniques generating three-dimensional scaffolds for tissue engineering. We then introduce the application of these technologies in manipulating the physical or chemical micro/nano-environment to regulate the cellular behavior and response, such as cell life and death, differentiation, proliferation, and cell migration. Recent advancement in integrating the micro/nano-technologies and live cell imaging are also discussed. Finally, potential schemes in cell biology involving micro/nano-fabrication technologies are proposed to provide perspectives on the future research activities.

  13. Advanced carbon manufacturing for energy and biological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turon Teixidor, Genis

    The science of miniaturization has experienced revolutionary advances during the last decades, witnessing the development of the Integrated Circuit and the emergence of MEMS and Nanotechnology. Particularly, MEMS technology has pioneered the use of non-traditional materials in microfabrication by including polymers, ceramics and composites to the well known list of metals and semiconductors. One of the latest additions to this set of materials is carbon, which represents a very important inclusion given its significance in electrochemical energy conversion systems and in applications where it is used as sensor probe material. For these applications, carbon is optimal in several counts: It has a wide electrochemical stability window, good electrical and thermal conductivity, high corrosion resistance and mechanical stability, and is available in high purity at a low cost. Furthermore carbon is biocompatible. This thesis presents several microfabricated devices that take advantage of these properties. The thesis has two clearly differentiated parts. In the first one, applications of micromachined carbon in the field of energy conversion and energy storage are presented. These applications include lithium ion micro batteries and the development of new carbon electrodes with fractal geometries. In the second part, the focus shifts to biological applications. First, the study of the interaction of living cells with micromachined carbon is presented, followed by the description of a sensor based on interdigitated nano-electrode arrays, and finally the development of the new instrumentation needed to address arrays of carbon electrodes, a multiplexed potentiostat. The underlying theme that connects all these seemingly different topics is the use of carbon microfabrication techniques in electrochemical systems.

  14. Computational Tools for Stem Cell Biology.

    PubMed

    Bian, Qin; Cahan, Patrick

    2016-12-01

    For over half a century, the field of developmental biology has leveraged computation to explore mechanisms of developmental processes. More recently, computational approaches have been critical in the translation of high throughput data into knowledge of both developmental and stem cell biology. In the past several years, a new subdiscipline of computational stem cell biology has emerged that synthesizes the modeling of systems-level aspects of stem cells with high-throughput molecular data. In this review, we provide an overview of this new field and pay particular attention to the impact that single cell transcriptomics is expected to have on our understanding of development and our ability to engineer cell fate.

  15. Advancing Small Satellite Electronics Heritage for Microfluidic Biological Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Bruce; Mazmanian, Edward; Tapio, Eric

    2016-01-01

    DLR's Eu:CROPIS (Euglena and Combined Regenerative Organic-Food Production in Space) mission, launching in 2017, will carry multiple biological payloads into a sun-synchronous orbit, including NASA Ames' PowerCell experiment. PowerCell will attempt to characterize the viability of synthetic biology at micro-g, Lunar, and Martian gravity levels. PowerCell experiment requirements demand an electronic system similar to previous microfluidic biology payloads, but with an expanded feature set. As such, the system was based on PharmaSat (Diaz-Aguado et al. 2009), a previous successful biology payload from NASA Ames, and improved upon. Newer, more miniaturized electronics allow for greater capability with a lower part count and smaller size. Two identical PowerCell enclosures will fly. Each enclosure contains two separate and identical experiments with a 48-segment optical density measurement system, grow light system, microfluidic system for nutrient delivery and waste flushing, plus thermal control and environmental sensing/housekeeping including temperature, pressure, humidity, and acceleration. Electronics consist of a single Master PCB that interfaces to the spacecraft bus and regulates power and communication, plus LED, Detector, and Valve Manifold PCBs for each experiment. To facilitate ease of reuse on future missions, experiment electronics were designed to be compatible with a standard 3U small sat form factor and power bus, or to interface with a Master power/comm PCB for use in a larger satellite as in the case of PowerCell's flight on Eu:CROPIS.

  16. Cell-free biology: exploiting the interface between synthetic biology and synthetic chemistry.

    PubMed

    Harris, D Calvin; Jewett, Michael C

    2012-10-01

    Just as synthetic organic chemistry once revolutionized the ability of chemists to build molecules (including those that did not exist in nature) following a basic set of design rules, cell-free synthetic biology is beginning to provide an improved toolbox and faster process for not only harnessing but also expanding the chemistry of life. At the interface between chemistry and biology, research in cell-free synthetic systems is proceeding in two different directions: using synthetic biology for synthetic chemistry and using synthetic chemistry to reprogram or mimic biology. In the coming years, the impact of advances inspired by these approaches will make possible the synthesis of nonbiological polymers having new backbone compositions, new chemical properties, new structures, and new functions.

  17. Bioinformatics approaches to single-cell analysis in developmental biology.

    PubMed

    Yalcin, Dicle; Hakguder, Zeynep M; Otu, Hasan H

    2016-03-01

    Individual cells within the same population show various degrees of heterogeneity, which may be better handled with single-cell analysis to address biological and clinical questions. Single-cell analysis is especially important in developmental biology as subtle spatial and temporal differences in cells have significant associations with cell fate decisions during differentiation and with the description of a particular state of a cell exhibiting an aberrant phenotype. Biotechnological advances, especially in the area of microfluidics, have led to a robust, massively parallel and multi-dimensional capturing, sorting, and lysis of single-cells and amplification of related macromolecules, which have enabled the use of imaging and omics techniques on single cells. There have been improvements in computational single-cell image analysis in developmental biology regarding feature extraction, segmentation, image enhancement and machine learning, handling limitations of optical resolution to gain new perspectives from the raw microscopy images. Omics approaches, such as transcriptomics, genomics and epigenomics, targeting gene and small RNA expression, single nucleotide and structural variations and methylation and histone modifications, rely heavily on high-throughput sequencing technologies. Although there are well-established bioinformatics methods for analysis of sequence data, there are limited bioinformatics approaches which address experimental design, sample size considerations, amplification bias, normalization, differential expression, coverage, clustering and classification issues, specifically applied at the single-cell level. In this review, we summarize biological and technological advancements, discuss challenges faced in the aforementioned data acquisition and analysis issues and present future prospects for application of single-cell analyses to developmental biology.

  18. A decade of molecular cell biology: achievements and challenges.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Asifa; Fuchs, Elaine; Mitchison, Tim; Shaw, Reuben J; St Johnston, Daniel; Strasser, Andreas; Taylor, Susan; Walczak, Claire; Zerial, Marino

    2011-09-23

    Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology celebrated its 10-year anniversary during this past year with a series of specially commissioned articles. To complement this, here we have asked researchers from across the field for their insights into how molecular cell biology research has evolved during this past decade, the key concepts that have emerged and the most promising interfaces that have developed. Their comments highlight the broad impact that particular advances have had, some of the basic understanding that we still require, and the collaborative approaches that will be essential for driving the field forward.

  19. Glycan Engineering for Cell and Developmental Biology.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Matthew E; Hsieh-Wilson, Linda C

    2016-01-21

    Cell-surface glycans are a diverse class of macromolecules that participate in many key biological processes, including cell-cell communication, development, and disease progression. Thus, the ability to modulate the structures of glycans on cell surfaces provides a powerful means not only to understand fundamental processes but also to direct activity and elicit desired cellular responses. Here, we describe methods to sculpt glycans on cell surfaces and highlight recent successes in which artificially engineered glycans have been employed to control biological outcomes such as the immune response and stem cell fate.

  20. Glycan Engineering for Cell and Developmental Biology

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Matthew E.; Hsieh-Wilson, Linda C.

    2016-01-01

    Cell-surface glycans are a diverse class of macromolecules that participate in many key biological processes, including cell-cell communication, development, and disease progression. Thus, the ability to modulate the structures of glycans on cell surfaces provides a powerful means not only to understand fundamental processes but also to direct activity and elicit desired cellular responses. Here, we describe methods to sculpt glycans on cell surfaces and highlight recent successes in which artificially engineered glycans have been employed to control biological outcomes such as the immune response and stem cell fate. PMID:26933739

  1. Fish T cells: recent advances through genomics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laing, Kerry J.; Hansen, John D.

    2011-01-01

    This brief review is intended to provide a concise overview of the current literature concerning T cells, advances in identifying distinct T cell functional subsets, and in distinguishing effector cells from memory cells. We compare and contrast a wealth of recent progress made in T cell immunology of teleost, elasmobranch, and agnathan fish, to knowledge derived from mammalian T cell studies. From genome studies, fish clearly have most components associated with T cell function and we can speculate on the presence of putative T cell subsets, and the ability to detect their differentiation to form memory cells. Some recombinant proteins for T cell associated cytokines and antibodies for T cell surface receptors have been generated that will facilitate studying the functional roles of teleost T cells during immune responses. Although there is still a long way to go, major advances have occurred in recent years for investigating T cell responses, thus phenotypic and functional characterization is on the near horizon.

  2. [Recent biological and therapeutic advances in multiple myeloma].

    PubMed

    Coppetelli, U; Avvisati, G; Tribalto, M; Cantonetti, M; La Verde, G; Petrucci, T; Stasi, R; Papa, G

    1992-09-01

    Multiple myeloma still remains a fatal disease. However, in the last months new biological and clinical informations have been provided about this disease. In particular, the immunophenotype of myeloma cells seems indicate, in some patients, a clonal involvement of a stem cell in the pathogenesis of mieloma. Moreover, new biological insights concerning the cytokine network, have revealed a probable effect of some cytokines, such as IL6, IL3, IL4. Finally, new insights in the biology of multiple myeloma have been provided by studies of molecular biology and flow cytometry. As for therapy, the best conventional induction treatment still remains to be defined. In the last years, the increased use of alpha Interferon and new therapeutic modalities, such as transplantation procedures in multiple myeloma, open new hopes toward a cure of this disease. Therefore, in the future a better knowledge of the multiple myeloma biology, associated with a wider use of new effective therapeutic approaches will certainly improve the natural course of this disease.

  3. Lipid Rafts in Mast Cell Biology

    PubMed Central

    Silveira e Souza, Adriana Maria Mariano; Mazucato, Vivian Marino; Jamur, Maria Célia; Oliver, Constance

    2011-01-01

    Mast cells have long been recognized to have a direct and critical role in allergic and inflammatory reactions. In allergic diseases, these cells exert both local and systemic responses, including allergic rhinitis and anaphylaxis. Mast cell mediators are also related to many chronic inflammatory conditions. Besides the roles in pathological conditions, the biological functions of mast cells include roles in innate immunity, involvement in host defense mechanisms against parasites, immunomodulation of the immune system, tissue repair, and angiogenesis. Despite their growing significance in physiological and pathological conditions, much still remains to be learned about mast cell biology. This paper presents evidence that lipid rafts or raft components modulate many of the biological processes in mast cells, such as degranulation and endocytosis, play a role in mast cell development and recruitment, and contribute to the overall preservation of mast cell structure and organization. PMID:21490812

  4. Study of nanoscale structural biology using advanced particle beam microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boseman, Adam J.

    This work investigates developmental and structural biology at the nanoscale using current advancements in particle beam microscopy. Typically the examination of micro- and nanoscale features is performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), but in order to decrease surface charging, and increase resolution, an obscuring conductive layer is applied to the sample surface. As magnification increases, this layer begins to limit the ability to identify nanoscale surface structures. A new technology, Helium Ion Microscopy (HIM), is used to examine uncoated surface structures on the cuticle of wild type and mutant fruit flies. Corneal nanostructures observed with HIM are further investigated by FIB/SEM to provide detailed three dimensional information about internal events occurring during early structural development. These techniques are also used to reconstruct a mosquito germarium in order to characterize unknown events in early oogenesis. Findings from these studies, and many more like them, will soon unravel many of the mysteries surrounding the world of developmental biology.

  5. Synthetic Nanoelectronic Probes for Biological Cells and Tissue

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Research at the interface between nanoscience and biology has the potential to produce breakthroughs in fundamental science and lead to revolutionary technologies. In this review, we focus on nanoelectronic/biological interfaces. First, we discuss nanoscale field effect transistors (nanoFETs) as probes to study cellular systems, including the realization of nanoFET comparable in size to biological nanostructures involved in communication using synthesized nanowires. Second, we overview current progress in multiplexed extracellular sensing using planar nanoFET arrays. Third, we describe the design and implementation of three distinct nanoFETs used to realize the first intracellular electrical recording from single cells. Fourth, we present recent progress in merging electronic and biological systems at the 3D tissue level by using macroporous nanoelectronic scaffolds. Finally, we discuss future development in this research area, the unique challenges and opportunities, and the tremendous impact these nanoFET based technologies might have in advancing biology and medical sciences. PMID:23451719

  6. Recent Advances in Solar Cell Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Bailey, Sheila G.; Piszczor, Michael F., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The advances in solar cell efficiency, radiation tolerance, and cost over the last decade are reviewed. Potential performance of thin-film solar cells in space are discussed, and the cost and the historical trends in production capability of the photovoltaics industry are considered with respect to the requirements of space power systems. Concentrator cells with conversion efficiency over 30%, and nonconcentrating solar cells with efficiency over 25% are now available, and advanced radiation-tolerant cells and lightweight, thin-film arrays are both being developed. Nonsolar applications of solar cells, including thermophotovoltaics, alpha- and betavoltaics, and laser power receivers, are also discussed.

  7. Insights into dendritic cell function using advanced imaging modalities.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Jatin M

    2012-11-15

    The application of advanced imaging techniques to fundamental questions in immunology has provided insight into dendritic cell function and has challenged dogma created using static imaging of lymphoid tissue. The history of dendritic cell biology has a storied past and is tightly linked to imaging. The development of imaging techniques that emphasize live cell imaging in situ has provided not only breath-taking movies, but also novel insights into the importance of spatiotemporal relationships between antigen presenting cells and T cells. This review serves to provide a primer on two-photon microscopy, TIRF microscopy, spinning disk confocal microscopy and optical trapping and provides selective examples of insights gained from these tools on dendritic cell biology.

  8. An introduction to stem cell biology.

    PubMed

    Hemmat, Shirin; Lieberman, David M; Most, Sam P

    2010-10-01

    The field of stem cell biology has undergone tremendous expansion over the past two decades. Scientific investigation has continued to expand our understanding of these complex cells at a rapidly increasing rate. This understanding has produced a vast array of potential clinical applications. This article will serve as an overview of the current state of stem cell research as it applies to scientific and medical applications. Included in the discussion is a review of the many different types of stem cells, including but not limited to adult, embryonic, and perinatal stem cells. Also, this article describes somatic cell nuclear transfer, an exciting technology that allows the production of totipotent stem cells from fully differentiated cells, thereby eliminating the use of embryonic sources. This discussion should serve as a review of the field of stem cell biology and provide a foundation for the reader to better understand the interface of stem cell technology and facial plastic and reconstructive surgery.

  9. Biological cell classification by multiangle light scattering

    DOEpatents

    Salzman, G.C.; Crowell, J.M.; Mullaney, P.F.

    1975-06-03

    The specification is directed to an apparatus and method for detecting light scattering from a biological cell. Light, preferably from a coherent source of radiation, intercepts an individual biological cell in a stream of cells passing through the beam. Light scattered from the cell is detected at a selected number of angles between 0 and 90/sup 0/ to the longitudinal axis of the beam with a circular array of light responsive elements which produce signals representative of the intensity of light incident thereon. Signals from the elements are processed to determine the light-scattering pattern of the cell and therefrom its identity.

  10. Synthetic biology approaches to engineer T cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chia-Yung; Rupp, Levi J; Roybal, Kole T; Lim, Wendell A

    2015-08-01

    There is rapidly growing interest in learning how to engineer immune cells, such as T lymphocytes, because of the potential of these engineered cells to be used for therapeutic applications such as the recognition and killing of cancer cells. At the same time, our knowhow and capability to logically engineer cellular behavior is growing rapidly with the development of synthetic biology. Here we describe how synthetic biology approaches are being used to rationally alter the behavior of T cells to optimize them for therapeutic functions. We also describe future developments that will be important in order to construct safe and precise T cell therapeutics.

  11. Introduction to the Special Issue: Advances in island plant biology since Sherwin Carlquist's Island Biology.

    PubMed

    Traveset, Anna; Fernández-Palacios, José María; Kueffer, Christoph; Bellingham, Peter J; Morden, Clifford; Drake, Donald R

    2015-12-31

    Sherwin Carlquist's seminal publications-in particular his classic Island Biology, published in 1974-formulated hypotheses specific to island biology that remain valuable today. This special issue brings together some of the most interesting contributions presented at the First Island Biology Symposium hosted in Honolulu on 7-11 July 2014. We compiled a total of 18 contributions that present data from multiple archipelagos across the world and from different disciplines within the plant sciences. In this introductory paper, we first provide a short overview of Carlquist's life and work and then summarize the main findings of the collated papers. A first group of papers deals with issues to which Carlquist notably contributed: long-distance dispersal, adaptive radiation and plant reproductive biology. The findings of such studies demonstrate the extent to which the field has advanced thanks to (i) the increasing availability and richness of island data, covering many taxonomic groups and islands; (ii) new information from the geosciences, phylogenetics and palaeoecology, which allows us a more realistic understanding of the geological and biological development of islands and their biotas; and (iii) the new theoretical and methodological advances that allow us to assess patterns of abundance, diversity and distribution of island biota over large spatial scales. Most other papers in the issue cover a range of topics related to plant conservation on islands, such as causes and consequences of mutualistic disruptions (due to pollinator or disperser losses, introduction of alien predators, etc.). Island biologists are increasingly considering reintroducing ecologically important species to suitable habitats within their historic range and to neighbouring islands with depauperate communities of vertebrate seed dispersers, and an instructive example is given here. Finally, contributions on ecological networks demonstrate the usefulness of this methodological tool to

  12. Introduction to the Special Issue: Advances in island plant biology since Sherwin Carlquist's Island Biology

    PubMed Central

    Traveset, Anna; Fernández-Palacios, José María; Kueffer, Christoph; Bellingham, Peter J.; Morden, Clifford; Drake, Donald R.

    2016-01-01

    Sherwin Carlquist's seminal publications—in particular his classic Island Biology, published in 1974—formulated hypotheses specific to island biology that remain valuable today. This special issue brings together some of the most interesting contributions presented at the First Island Biology Symposium hosted in Honolulu on 7–11 July 2014. We compiled a total of 18 contributions that present data from multiple archipelagos across the world and from different disciplines within the plant sciences. In this introductory paper, we first provide a short overview of Carlquist's life and work and then summarize the main findings of the collated papers. A first group of papers deals with issues to which Carlquist notably contributed: long-distance dispersal, adaptive radiation and plant reproductive biology. The findings of such studies demonstrate the extent to which the field has advanced thanks to (i) the increasing availability and richness of island data, covering many taxonomic groups and islands; (ii) new information from the geosciences, phylogenetics and palaeoecology, which allows us a more realistic understanding of the geological and biological development of islands and their biotas; and (iii) the new theoretical and methodological advances that allow us to assess patterns of abundance, diversity and distribution of island biota over large spatial scales. Most other papers in the issue cover a range of topics related to plant conservation on islands, such as causes and consequences of mutualistic disruptions (due to pollinator or disperser losses, introduction of alien predators, etc.). Island biologists are increasingly considering reintroducing ecologically important species to suitable habitats within their historic range and to neighbouring islands with depauperate communities of vertebrate seed dispersers, and an instructive example is given here. Finally, contributions on ecological networks demonstrate the usefulness of this methodological tool to

  13. Use of animation in teaching cell biology.

    PubMed

    Stith, Bradley J

    2004-01-01

    To address the different learning styles of students, and because students can access animation from off-campus computers, the use of digital animation in teaching cell biology has become increasingly popular. Sample processes from cell biology that are more clearly presented in animation than in static illustrations are identified. The value of animation is evaluated on whether the process being taught involves motion, cellular location, or sequential order of numerous events. Computer programs for developing animation and animations associated with cell biology textbooks are reviewed, and links to specific examples of animation are given. Finally, future teaching tools for all fields of biology will increasingly benefit from an expansion of animation to the use of simulation. One purpose of this review is to encourage the widespread use of animations in biology teaching by discussing the nature of digital animation.

  14. Use of Animation in Teaching Cell Biology

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    To address the different learning styles of students, and because students can access animation from off-campus computers, the use of digital animation in teaching cell biology has become increasingly popular. Sample processes from cell biology that are more clearly presented in animation than in static illustrations are identified. The value of animation is evaluated on whether the process being taught involves motion, cellular location, or sequential order of numerous events. Computer programs for developing animation and animations associated with cell biology textbooks are reviewed, and links to specific examples of animation are given. Finally, future teaching tools for all fields of biology will increasingly benefit from an expansion of animation to the use of simulation. One purpose of this review is to encourage the widespread use of animations in biology teaching by discussing the nature of digital animation. PMID:15526065

  15. Mast cell biology: introduction and overview.

    PubMed

    Gilfillan, Alasdair M; Austin, Sarah J; Metcalfe, Dean D

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the field of mast cell biology has expanded well beyond the boundaries of atopic disorders and anaphy laxis, on which it has been historically focused. The biochemical and signaling events responsible for the development and regulation of mast cells has been increasingly studied, aided in large part by novel breakthroughs in laboratory techniques used to study these cells. The result of these studies has been a more comprehensive definition of mast cells that includes added insights to their overall biology as well as the various disease states that can now be traced to defects in mast cells. This introductory chapter outlines and highlights the various topics of mast cell biology that will be discussed in further detail in subsequent chapters.

  16. Cell and molecular biology of Chlamydomonas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This document contains only the abstracts of 92 presentations on the biology of Chlamydomonas. Topics include gene transformations, gene regulation, biosynthetic pathways, cell surfaces, circadian clocks, and the development and structure of the flagellar apparatus. (TEM)

  17. A chemist building paths to cell biology.

    PubMed

    Weibel, Douglas B

    2013-11-01

    Galileo is reported to have stated, "Measure what is measurable and make measurable what is not so." My group's trajectory in cell biology has closely followed this philosophy, although it took some searching to find this path.

  18. Development of advanced fuel cell system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gitlow, B.; Meyer, A. P.; Bell, W. F.; Martin, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted continuing the development effort to improve the weight, life, and performance characteristics of hydrogen-oxygen alkaline fuel cells for advanced power systems. These advanced technology cells operate with passive water removal which contributes to a lower system weight and extended operating life. Endurance evaluation of two single cells and two, two-cell plaques was continued. Three new test articles were fabricated and tested. A single cell completed 7038 hours of endurance testing. This cell incorporated a Fybex matrix, hybrid-frame, PPF anode, and a 90 Au/10 Pt cathode. This configuration was developed to extend cell life. Two cell plaques with dedicated flow fields and manifolds for all fluids did not exhibit the cell-to-cell electrolyte transfer that limited the operating life of earlier multicell plaques.

  19. Recent biologic and genetic advances in neuroblastoma: Implications for diagnostic, risk stratification, and treatment strategies.

    PubMed

    Newman, Erika A; Nuchtern, Jed G

    2016-10-01

    Neuroblastoma is an embryonic cancer of neural crest cell lineage, accounting for up to 10% of all pediatric cancer. The clinical course is heterogeneous ranging from spontaneous regression in neonates to life-threatening metastatic disease in older children. Much of this clinical variance is thought to result from distinct pathologic characteristics that predict patient outcomes. Consequently, many research efforts have been focused on identifying the underlying biologic and genetic features of neuroblastoma tumors in order to more clearly define prognostic subgroups for treatment stratification. Recent technological advances have placed emphasis on the integration of genetic alterations and predictive biologic variables into targeted treatment approaches to improve patient survival outcomes. This review will focus on these recent advances and the implications they have on the diagnostic, staging, and treatment approaches in modern neuroblastoma clinical management.

  20. The kynurenine pathway in stem cell biology.

    PubMed

    Jones, Simon P; Guillemin, Gilles J; Brew, Bruce J

    2013-09-15

    The kynurenine pathway (KP) is the main catabolic pathway of the essential amino acid tryptophan. The KP has been identified to play a critical role in regulating immune responses in a variety of experimental settings. It is also known to be involved in several neuroinflammatory diseases including Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Alzheimer's disease. This review considers the current understanding of the role of the KP in stem cell biology. Both of these fundamental areas of cell biology have independently been the focus of a burgeoning research interest in recent years. A systematic review of how the two interact has not yet been conducted. Several inflammatory and infectious diseases in which the KP has been implicated include those for which stem cell therapies are being actively explored at a clinical level. Therefore, it is highly relevant to consider the evidence showing that the KP influences stem cell biology and impacts the functional behavior of progenitor cells.

  1. Biological Fuel Cells and Membranes.

    PubMed

    Ghassemi, Zahra; Slaughter, Gymama

    2017-01-17

    Biofuel cells have been widely used to generate bioelectricity. Early biofuel cells employ a semi-permeable membrane to separate the anodic and cathodic compartments. The impact of different membrane materials and compositions has also been explored. Some membrane materials are employed strictly as membrane separators, while some have gained significant attention in the immobilization of enzymes or microorganisms within or behind the membrane at the electrode surface. The membrane material affects the transfer rate of the chemical species (e.g., fuel, oxygen molecules, and products) involved in the chemical reaction, which in turn has an impact on the performance of the biofuel cell. For enzymatic biofuel cells, Nafion, modified Nafion, and chitosan membranes have been used widely and continue to hold great promise in the long-term stability of enzymes and microorganisms encapsulated within them. This article provides a review of the most widely used membrane materials in the development of enzymatic and microbial biofuel cells.

  2. Biological Fuel Cells and Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Ghassemi, Zahra; Slaughter, Gymama

    2017-01-01

    Biofuel cells have been widely used to generate bioelectricity. Early biofuel cells employ a semi-permeable membrane to separate the anodic and cathodic compartments. The impact of different membrane materials and compositions has also been explored. Some membrane materials are employed strictly as membrane separators, while some have gained significant attention in the immobilization of enzymes or microorganisms within or behind the membrane at the electrode surface. The membrane material affects the transfer rate of the chemical species (e.g., fuel, oxygen molecules, and products) involved in the chemical reaction, which in turn has an impact on the performance of the biofuel cell. For enzymatic biofuel cells, Nafion, modified Nafion, and chitosan membranes have been used widely and continue to hold great promise in the long-term stability of enzymes and microorganisms encapsulated within them. This article provides a review of the most widely used membrane materials in the development of enzymatic and microbial biofuel cells. PMID:28106711

  3. Proteomics of lung cell biology and pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Levine, Stewart J

    2007-10-01

    Proteomics has the goal of defining the complete protein complement of biological systems, which can then be analyzed in a comparative fashion to generate informative data regarding protein expression and function. Proteomic analyses can also facilitate the discovery of biomarkers that can be used to diagnose and monitor disease severity, activity and therapeutic response, as well as to identify new targets for drug development. A major challenge for proteomics, however, has been detecting low-abundance proteins in complex biological fluids. This review summarizes how proteomic analyses have advanced lung cell biology and facilitated the identification of new mechanisms of disease pathogenesis in respiratory disorders, such as asthma, cystic fibrosis, lung cancer, acute lung injury and sarcoidosis. The impact of nanotechnology and microfluidics, as well as studies of post-translational modifications and protein-protein interactions (the interactome), are considered. Furthermore, the application of systems-biology approaches to organize and analyze data regarding the lung proteome, interactome, genome, transcriptome, metabolome, glycome and small RNAome (regulatory RNAs), should facilitate future conceptual advances regarding lung cell biology, disease pathogenesis, biomarker discovery and drug development.

  4. Ependymal cells: biology and pathology.

    PubMed

    Del Bigio, Marc R

    2010-01-01

    The literature was reviewed to summarize the current understanding of the role of ciliated ependymal cells in the mammalian brain. Previous reviews were summarized. Publications from the past 10 years highlight interactions between ependymal cells and the subventricular zone and the possible role of restricted ependymal populations in neurogenesis. Ependymal cells provide trophic support and possibly metabolic support for progenitor cells. Channel proteins such as aquaporins may be important for determining water fluxes at the ventricle wall. The junctional and anchoring proteins are now fairly well understood, as are proteins related to cilia function. Defects in ependymal adhesion and cilia function can cause hydrocephalus through several different mechanisms, one possibility being loss of patency of the cerebral aqueduct. Ependymal cells are susceptible to infection by a wide range of common viruses; while they may act as a line of first defense, they eventually succumb to repeated attacks in long-lived organisms. Ciliated ependymal cells are almost certainly important during brain development. However, the widespread absence of ependymal cells from the adult human lateral ventricles suggests that they may have only regionally restricted value in the mature brain of large size.

  5. Models to Study NK Cell Biology and Possible Clinical Application.

    PubMed

    Zamora, Anthony E; Grossenbacher, Steven K; Aguilar, Ethan G; Murphy, William J

    2015-08-03

    Natural killer (NK) cells are large granular lymphocytes of the innate immune system, responsible for direct targeting and killing of both virally infected and transformed cells. NK cells rapidly recognize and respond to abnormal cells in the absence of prior sensitization due to their wide array of germline-encoded inhibitory and activating receptors, which differs from the receptor diversity found in B and T lymphocytes that is due to the use of recombination-activation gene (RAG) enzymes. Although NK cells have traditionally been described as natural killers that provide a first line of defense prior to the induction of adaptive immunity, a more complex view of NK cells is beginning to emerge, indicating they may also function in various immunoregulatory roles and have the capacity to shape adaptive immune responses. With the growing appreciation for the diverse functions of NK cells, and recent technological advancements that allow for a more in-depth understanding of NK cell biology, we can now begin to explore new ways to manipulate NK cells to increase their clinical utility. In this overview unit, we introduce the reader to various aspects of NK cell biology by reviewing topics ranging from NK cell diversity and function, mouse models, and the roles of NK cells in health and disease, to potential clinical applications. © 2015 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  6. Cell biology of prokaryotic organelles.

    PubMed

    Murat, Dorothee; Byrne, Meghan; Komeili, Arash

    2010-10-01

    Mounting evidence in recent years has challenged the dogma that prokaryotes are simple and undefined cells devoid of an organized subcellular architecture. In fact, proteins once thought to be the purely eukaryotic inventions, including relatives of actin and tubulin control prokaryotic cell shape, DNA segregation, and cytokinesis. Similarly, compartmentalization, commonly noted as a distinguishing feature of eukaryotic cells, is also prevalent in the prokaryotic world in the form of protein-bounded and lipid-bounded organelles. In this article we highlight some of these prokaryotic organelles and discuss the current knowledge on their ultrastructure and the molecular mechanisms of their biogenesis and maintenance.

  7. Advanced Fuel-Cell Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, William F., III; Martin, Ronald E.; Struning, Albin J.; Whitehill, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Modules designed for long life, light weight, reliability, and low cost. Stack of alkaline fuel cells based on modules, consisting of three fuel cells and cooler. Each cell includes following components: ribbed carbon fine-pore anode electrolyte-reservoir plate; platinum-on-carbon catalyst anode; potassium titanate matrix bonded with butyl rubber; gold-plated nickel-foil electrode substrates; and silver plated, gold-flashed molded polyphenylene sulfide cell holder. Each cell has active area of 1ft to the 2nd power (0.09 m to the 2nd power). Materials and configurations of parts chosen to extend life expectancy, reduce weight and manufacturing cost, and increase reliability.

  8. Chlamydia cell biology and pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Elwell, Cherilyn; Mirrashidi, Kathleen; Engel, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia spp. are important causes of human disease for which no effective vaccine exists. These obligate intracellular pathogens replicate in a specialized membrane compartment and use a large arsenal of secreted effectors to survive in the hostile intracellular environment of the host. In this Review, we summarize the progress in decoding the interactions between Chlamydia spp. and their hosts that has been made possible by recent technological advances in chlamydial proteomics and genetics. The field is now poised to decipher the molecular mechanisms that underlie the intimate interactions between Chlamydia spp. and their hosts, which will open up many exciting avenues of research for these medically important pathogens. PMID:27108705

  9. Advances in imaging ultrastructure yield new insights into presynaptic biology

    PubMed Central

    Bruckner, Joseph J.; Zhan, Hong; O’Connor-Giles, Kate M.

    2015-01-01

    Synapses are the fundamental functional units of neural circuits, and their dysregulation has been implicated in diverse neurological disorders. At presynaptic terminals, neurotransmitter-filled synaptic vesicles are released in response to calcium influx through voltage-gated calcium channels activated by the arrival of an action potential. Decades of electrophysiological, biochemical, and genetic studies have contributed to a growing understanding of presynaptic biology. Imaging studies are yielding new insights into how synapses are organized to carry out their critical functions. The development of techniques for rapid immobilization and preservation of neuronal tissues for electron microscopy (EM) has led to a new renaissance in ultrastructural imaging that is rapidly advancing our understanding of synapse structure and function. PMID:26052269

  10. Recent advances on Candida albicans biology and virulence

    PubMed Central

    Sellam, Adnane; Whiteway, Malcolm

    2016-01-01

    Candida albicans is an important human fungal pathogen, in terms of both its clinical significance and its use as an experimental model for scientific investigation. Although this opportunistic pathogen is a natural component of the human flora, it can cause life-threatening infections in immunosuppressed patients. There are currently a limited number of antifungal molecules and drug targets, and increasing resistance to the front-line therapeutics, demonstrating a clear need for new antifungal drugs. Understanding the biology of this pathogen is an important prerequisite for identifying new drug targets for antifungal therapeutics. In this review, we highlight some recent developments that help us to understand how virulence traits are regulated at the molecular level, in addition to technical advances that improve the ability of genome editing in C. albicans. PMID:27853524

  11. Interface mechanics determining biological cell shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilgenfeldt, Sascha; Carthew, Richard

    2006-11-01

    To form a functional tissue, biological cells often adhere to each other establishing connections between membranes by means of cadherin molecules. The cells achieve a well-defined relative orientation as well as a faithfully prescribed shape. An excellent example is the cell cluster making up each ommatidium element in the drosophila eye. The similarity of the shape of these cells to connected soap bubbles has been remarked upon [1]. We show that, in order to explain the observed shapes of wild-type and mutant ommatidia, the soap film model has to be expanded into a realistic description of biological membranes and their mechanical properties including changes in interfacial tension due to the presence of cadherins. Surface Evolver simulations demonstrate that realistic modeling of the shape of cell clusters can be obtained using surface energy terms only, emphasizing the importance of interfacial phenomena in cell mechanics and cell morphology. [1] T. Hayashi & R. W. Carthew, Nature 431, 647 (2004)

  12. Interfacing nanostructures to biological cells

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Xing; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.; Zettl, Alexander K.

    2012-09-04

    Disclosed herein are methods and materials by which nanostructures such as carbon nanotubes, nanorods, etc. are bound to lectins and/or polysaccharides and prepared for administration to cells. Also disclosed are complexes comprising glycosylated nanostructures, which bind selectively to cells expressing glycosylated surface molecules recognized by the lectin. Exemplified is a complex comprising a carbon nanotube functionalized with a lipid-like alkane, linked to a polymer bearing repeated .alpha.-N-acetylgalactosamine sugar groups. This complex is shown to selectively adhere to the surface of living cells, without toxicity. In the exemplified embodiment, adherence is mediated by a multivalent lectin, which binds both to the cells and the .alpha.-N-acetylgalactosamine groups on the nanostructure.

  13. Biological surface engineering: a simple system for cell pattern formation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, S; Yan, L; Altman, M; Lässle, M; Nugent, H; Frankel, F; Lauffenburger, D A; Whitesides, G M; Rich, A

    1999-07-01

    Biological surface engineering using synthetic biological materials has a great potential for advances in our understanding of complex biological phenomena. We developed a simple system to engineer biologically relevant surfaces using a combination of self-assembling oligopeptide monolayers and microcontact printing (muCP). We designed and synthesized two oligopeptides containing a cell adhesion motif (RADS)n (n = 2 and 3) at the N-terminus, followed by an oligo(alanine) linker and a cysteine residue at the C-terminus. The thiol group of cysteine allows the oligopeptides to attach covalently onto a gold-coated surface to form monolayers. We then microfabricated a variety of surface patterns using the cell adhesion peptides in combination with hexa-ethylene glycol thiolate which resist non-specific adsorption of proteins and cells. The resulting patterns consist of areas either supporting or inhibiting cell adhesion, thus they are capable of aligning cells in a well-defined manner, leading to specific cell array and pattern formations.

  14. Recent advances in intravital imaging of dynamic biological systems.

    PubMed

    Kikuta, Junichi; Ishii, Masaru

    2012-01-01

    Intravital multiphoton microscopy has opened a new era in the field of biological imaging. Focal excitation of fluorophores by simultaneous attack of multiple (normally "two") photons generates images with high spatial resolution, and use of near-infrared lasers for multiphoton excitation allows penetration of thicker specimens, enabling biologists to visualize living cellular dynamics deep inside tissues and organs without thin sectioning. Moreover, the minimized photo-bleaching and toxicity associated with multiphoton techniques is beneficial for imaging of live specimens for extended observation periods. Here we focus on recent findings using intravital multiphoton imaging of dynamic biological systems such as the immune system and bone homeostasis. The immune system comprises highly dynamic networks, in which many cell types actively travel throughout the body and interact with each other in specific areas. Therefore, real-time intravital imaging represents a powerful tool for understanding the mechanisms underlying this dynamic system.

  15. Advances in sickle cell therapies in the hydroxyurea era.

    PubMed

    Field, Joshua J; Nathan, David G

    2014-12-16

    In the hydroxyurea era, insights into mechanisms downstream of erythrocyte sickling have led to new therapeutic approaches for patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). Therapies have been developed that target vascular adhesion, inflammation and hemolysis, including innovative biologics directed against P-selectin and invariant natural killer T cells. Advances in hematopoietic stem cell transplant and gene therapy may also provide more opportunities for cures in the near future. Several clinical studies are underway to determine the safety and efficacy of these new treatments. Novel approaches to treat SCD are desperately needed, since current therapies are limited and rates of morbidity and mortality remain high.

  16. Somatic stem cell biology and periodontal regeneration.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bin; Liu, Yihan; Li, Dehua; Jin, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Somatic stem cells have been acknowledged for their ability to differentiate into multiple cell types and their capacity for self-renewal. Some mesenchymal stem cells play a dominant role in the repair and reconstruction of periodontal tissues. Both dental-derived and some non-dental-derived mesenchymal stem cells possess the capacity for periodontal regeneration under certain conditions with induced differentiation, proliferation, cellular secretion, and their interactions. Stem cell-based tissue engineering technology promises to bring improvements to periodontal regeneration, biologic tooth repair, and bioengineered implants. The present review discusses the roles and values of various somatic stem cells in periodontal regeneration.

  17. An Audiovisual Program in Cell Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedoroff, Sergey; Opel, William

    1978-01-01

    A subtopic of cell biology, the structure and function of cell membranes, has been developed as a series of seven self-instructional slide-tape units and tested in five medical schools. Organization of advisers, analysis and definition of objectives and content, and development and evaluation of scripts and storyboards are discussed. (Author/LBH)

  18. Microfluidic tools for cell biological research

    PubMed Central

    Velve-Casquillas, Guilhem; Le Berre, Maël; Piel, Matthieu; Tran, Phong T.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Microfluidic technology is creating powerful tools for cell biologists to control the complete cellular microenvironment, leading to new questions and new discoveries. We review here the basic concepts and methodologies in designing microfluidic devices, and their diverse cell biological applications. PMID:21152269

  19. Low cost biological lung volume reduction therapy for advanced emphysema

    PubMed Central

    Bakeer, Mostafa; Abdelgawad, Taha Taha; El-Metwaly, Raed; El-Morsi, Ahmed; El-Badrawy, Mohammad Khairy; El-Sharawy, Solafa

    2016-01-01

    Background Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR), using biological agents, is one of the new alternatives to lung volume reduction surgery. Objectives To evaluate efficacy and safety of biological BLVR using low cost agents including autologous blood and fibrin glue. Methods Enrolled patients were divided into two groups: group A (seven patients) in which autologous blood was used and group B (eight patients) in which fibrin glue was used. The agents were injected through a triple lumen balloon catheter via fiberoptic bronchoscope. Changes in high resolution computerized tomography (HRCT) volumetry, pulmonary function tests, symptoms, and exercise capacity were evaluated at 12 weeks postprocedure as well as for complications. Results In group A, at 12 weeks postprocedure, there was significant improvement in the mean value of HRCT volumetry and residual volume/total lung capacity (% predicted) (P-value: <0.001 and 0.038, respectively). In group B, there was significant improvement in the mean value of HRCT volumetry and (residual volume/total lung capacity % predicted) (P-value: 0.005 and 0.004, respectively). All patients tolerated the procedure with no mortality. Conclusion BLVR using autologous blood and locally prepared fibrin glue is a promising method for therapy of advanced emphysema in term of efficacy, safety as well as cost effectiveness. PMID:27536091

  20. Cyanobacterial Metabolite Calothrixins: Recent Advances in Synthesis and Biological Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Su; Nijampatnam, Bhavitavya; Dutta, Shilpa; Velu, Sadanandan E.

    2016-01-01

    The marine environment is host to unparalleled biological and chemical diversity, making it an attractive resource for the discovery of new therapeutics for a plethora of diseases. Compounds that are extracted from cyanobacteria are of special interest due to their unique structural scaffolds and capacity to produce potent pharmaceutical and biotechnological traits. Calothrixins A and B are two cyanobacterial metabolites with a structural assembly of quinoline, quinone, and indole pharmacophores. This review surveys recent advances in the synthesis and evaluation of the biological activities of calothrixins. Due to the low isolation yields from the marine source and the promise this scaffold holds for anticancer and antimicrobial drugs, organic and medicinal chemists around the world have embarked on developing efficient synthetic routes to produce calothrixins. Since the first review appeared in 2009, 11 novel syntheses of calothrixins have been published in the efforts to develop methods that contain fewer steps and higher-yielding reactions. Calothrixins have shown their potential as topoisomerase I poisons for their cytotoxicity in cancer. They have also been observed to target various aspects of RNA synthesis in bacteria. Further investigation into the exact mechanism for their bioactivity is still required for many of its analogs. PMID:26771620

  1. Advanced high efficiency concentrator cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gale, R. . Varian Research Center)

    1992-06-01

    This report describes research to develop the technology needed to demonstrate a monolithic, multijunction, two-terminal, concentrator solar cell with a terrestrial power conversion efficiency greater than 35%. Under three previous subcontracts, Varian developed many of the aspects of a technology needed to fabricate very high efficiency concentrator cells. The current project was aimed at exploiting the new understanding of high efficiency solar cells. Key results covered in this report are as follows. (1) A 1.93-eV AlGaAs/1.42-eV GaAs metal-interconnected cascade cell was manufactured with a one-sun efficiency at 27.6% at air mass 1.5 (AM1.5) global. (2) A 1.0eV InGaAs cell was fabricated on the reverse'' side of a low-doped GaAs substrate with a one-sun efficiency of 2.5% AM1.5 diffuse and a short-circuit current of 14.4 mA/cm{sup 2}. (3) Small-scale manufacturing of GaAs p/n concentrator cells was attempted and obtained an excellent yield of high-efficiency cells. (4) Grown-in tunnel junction cell interconnects that are transparent and thermally stable using C and Si dopants were developed. 10 refs.

  2. Cell biology experiments conducted in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. R.

    1977-01-01

    A review of cell biology experiments conducted during the first two decades of space flight is provided. References are tabulated for work done with six types of living test system: isolated viruses, bacteriophage-host, bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi, protozoans, and small groups of cells (such as hamster cell tissue and fertilized frog eggs). The general results of studies involving the survival of cells in space, the effect of space flight on growing cultures, the biological effects of multicharged high-energy particles, and the effects of space flight on the genetic apparatus of microorganisms are summarized. It is concluded that cell systems remain sufficiently stable during space flight to permit experimentation with models requiring a fixed cell line during the space shuttle era.

  3. Biology, detection, and clinical implications of circulating tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Joosse, Simon A; Gorges, Tobias M; Pantel, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Cancer metastasis is the main cause of cancer-related death, and dissemination of tumor cells through the blood circulation is an important intermediate step that also exemplifies the switch from localized to systemic disease. Early detection and characterization of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) is therefore important as a general strategy to monitor and prevent the development of overt metastatic disease. Furthermore, sequential analysis of CTCs can provide clinically relevant information on the effectiveness and progression of systemic therapies (e.g., chemo-, hormonal, or targeted therapies with antibodies or small inhibitors). Although many advances have been made regarding the detection and molecular characterization of CTCs, several challenges still exist that limit the current use of this important diagnostic approach. In this review, we discuss the biology of tumor cell dissemination, technical advances, as well as the challenges and potential clinical implications of CTC detection and characterization. PMID:25398926

  4. Advanced cell therapies for articular cartilage regeneration.

    PubMed

    Madeira, Catarina; Santhagunam, Aruna; Salgueiro, João B; Cabral, Joaquim M S

    2015-01-01

    Advanced cell-based therapies are promising approaches for stimulating full regeneration of cartilage lesions. In addition to a few commercially available medicinal products, several clinical and preclinical studies are ongoing worldwide. In preclinical settings, high-quality cartilage tissue has been produced using combination strategies involving stem or progenitor cells, biomaterials, and biomolecules to generate a construct for implantation at the lesion site. Cell numbers and mechanical stimulation of the constructs are not commonly considered, but are important parameters to be evaluated in forthcoming clinical studies. We review current clinical and preclinical studies for advanced therapy cartilage regeneration and evaluate the progress of the field.

  5. Apoptosis: A Four-Week Laboratory Investigation for Advanced Molecular and Cellular Biology Students

    PubMed Central

    DiBartolomeis, Susan M.; Moné, James P.

    2003-01-01

    Over the past decade, apoptosis has emerged as an important field of study central to ongoing research in many diverse fields, from developmental biology to cancer research. Apoptosis proceeds by a highly coordinated series of events that includes enzyme activation, DNA fragmentation, and alterations in plasma membrane permeability. The detection of each of these phenotypic changes is accessible to advanced undergraduate cell and molecular biology students. We describe a 4-week laboratory sequence that integrates cell culture, fluorescence microscopy, DNA isolation and analysis, and western blotting (immunoblotting) to follow apoptosis in cultured human cells. Students working in teams chemically induce apoptosis, and harvest, process, and analyze cells, using their data to determine the order of events during apoptosis. We, as instructors, expose the students to an environment closely simulating what they would encounter in an active cell or molecular biology research laboratory by having students coordinate and perform multiple tasks simultaneously and by having them experience experimental design using current literature, data interpretation, and analysis to answer a single question. Students are assessed by examination of laboratory notebooks for completeness of experimental protocols and analysis of results and for completion of an assignment that includes questions pertaining to data interpretation and apoptosis. PMID:14673493

  6. Advances in Perovskite Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Chuantian; Bolink, Henk J.; Han, Hongwei; Huang, Jinsong

    2016-01-01

    Organolead halide perovskite materials possess a combination of remarkable optoelectronic properties, such as steep optical absorption edge and high absorption coefficients, long charge carrier diffusion lengths and lifetimes. Taken together with the ability for low temperature preparation, also from solution, perovskite‐based devices, especially photovoltaic (PV) cells have been studied intensively, with remarkable progress in performance, over the past few years. The combination of high efficiency, low cost and additional (non‐PV) applications provides great potential for commercialization. Performance and applications of perovskite solar cells often correlate with their device structures. Many innovative device structures were developed, aiming at large‐scale fabrication, reducing fabrication cost, enhancing the power conversion efficiency and thus broadening potential future applications. This review summarizes typical structures of perovskite solar cells and comments on novel device structures. The applications of perovskite solar cells are discussed. PMID:27812475

  7. Advances in Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Chuantian; Bolink, Henk J; Han, Hongwei; Huang, Jinsong; Cahen, David; Ding, Liming

    2016-07-01

    Organolead halide perovskite materials possess a combination of remarkable optoelectronic properties, such as steep optical absorption edge and high absorption coefficients, long charge carrier diffusion lengths and lifetimes. Taken together with the ability for low temperature preparation, also from solution, perovskite-based devices, especially photovoltaic (PV) cells have been studied intensively, with remarkable progress in performance, over the past few years. The combination of high efficiency, low cost and additional (non-PV) applications provides great potential for commercialization. Performance and applications of perovskite solar cells often correlate with their device structures. Many innovative device structures were developed, aiming at large-scale fabrication, reducing fabrication cost, enhancing the power conversion efficiency and thus broadening potential future applications. This review summarizes typical structures of perovskite solar cells and comments on novel device structures. The applications of perovskite solar cells are discussed.

  8. Progeria: translational insights from cell biology.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Leslie B; Cao, Kan; Collins, Francis S

    2012-10-01

    Cell biologists love to think outside the box, pursuing many surprising twists and unexpected turns in their quest to unravel the mysteries of how cells work. But can cell biologists think outside the bench? We are certain that they can, and clearly some already do. To encourage more cell biologists to venture into the realm of translational research on a regular basis, we would like to share a handful of the many lessons that we have learned in our effort to develop experimental treatments for Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS), an endeavor that many view as a "poster child" for how basic cell biology can be translated to the clinic.

  9. Cell technology: Advanced silicon sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Andrew D.

    1986-01-01

    The Flat-plate Solar Array (FSA)-sponsored Fourth Silicon Stress/Strain Workshop reviewed, coordinated, and assessed the progress in understanding and controlling stress and strain during the crystal growth of silicon ribbons. dislocation electrical activity and limits on solar cell efficiency, and on studying the effects of dopants on EFG characteristics. Work on silicon for high-efficiency solar cells, stress-strain relationships in silicon ribbon, and high temperature deformation of dendritic web ribbon was also discussed.

  10. Computer vision in cell biology.

    PubMed

    Danuser, Gaudenz

    2011-11-23

    Computer vision refers to the theory and implementation of artificial systems that extract information from images to understand their content. Although computers are widely used by cell biologists for visualization and measurement, interpretation of image content, i.e., the selection of events worth observing and the definition of what they mean in terms of cellular mechanisms, is mostly left to human intuition. This Essay attempts to outline roles computer vision may play and should play in image-based studies of cellular life.

  11. Advanced IPV Nickel/Hydrogen Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, J. J.; Manzo, M. A.; Gonzalez-Sanabria, O.; Soltis, D. G.

    1986-01-01

    Expansion and contraction of electrode stack accommodated to increase cycle life. Three features of advanced designs new and not incorporated but fully compatible in either contemporary cells: use of alternate methods of oxygen recombination, serrated-edge separators, and expandable stack. Designs also consider electrolyte volume requirements over life of cells and are fully compatible with state-of-the-art designs. Cells improve performance, life, and usable energy leading to lighter storage devices for low Earthorbit applications for commercial or government applications.

  12. Biologic lung volume reduction therapy for advanced homogeneous emphysema.

    PubMed

    Refaely, Y; Dransfield, M; Kramer, M R; Gotfried, M; Leeds, W; McLennan, G; Tewari, S; Krasna, M; Criner, G J

    2010-07-01

    This report summarises phase 2 trial results of biologic lung volume reduction (BioLVR) for treatment of advanced homogeneous emphysema. BioLVR therapy was administered bronchoscopically to 25 patients with homogeneous emphysema in an open-labelled study. Eight patients received low dose (LD) treatment with 10 mL per site at eight subsegments; 17 received high dose (HD) treatment with 20 mL per site at eight subsegments. Safety was assessed in terms of medical complications during 6-month follow-up. Efficacy was assessed in terms of change from baseline in gas trapping, spirometry, diffusing capacity, exercise capacity, dyspnoea and health-related quality of life. There were no deaths or serious medical complications during the study. A statistically significant reduction in gas trapping was observed at 3-month follow-up among HD patients, but not LD patients. At 6 months, changes from baseline in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (-8.0+/-13.93% versus +13.8+/-20.26%), forced vital capacity (-3.9+/-9.41% versus +9.0+/-13.01%), residual volume/total lung capacity ratio (-1.4+/-13.82% versus -5.4+/-12.14%), dyspnoea scores (-0.4+/-1.27 versus -0.8+/-0.73 units) and St George's Respiratory Questionnaire total domain scores (-4.9+/-8.3 U versus -12.2+/-12.38 units) were better with HD than with LD therapy. BioLVR therapy with 20 mL per site at eight subsegmental sites may be a safe and effective therapy in patients with advanced homogeneous emphysema.

  13. Recent advances in hydrogen peroxide imaging for biological applications.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hengchang; Aleyasin, Hossein; Dickinson, Bryan C; Haskew-Layton, Renée E; Ratan, Rajiv R

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence supports the role of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in physiological signaling as well as pathological conditions. However, the subtleties of peroxide-mediated signaling are not well understood, in part because the generation, degradation, and diffusion of H2O2 are highly volatile within different cellular compartments. Therefore, the direct measurement of H2O2 in living specimens is critically important. Fluorescent probes that can detect small changes in H2O2 levels within relevant cellular compartments are important tools to study the spatial dynamics of H2O2. To achieve temporal resolution, the probes must also be photostable enough to allow multiple readings over time without loss of signal. Traditional fluorescent redox sensitive probes that have been commonly used for the detection of H2O2 tend to react with a wide variety of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and often suffer from photostablilty issues. Recently, new classes of H2O2 probes have been designed to detect H2O2 with high selectivity. Advances in H2O2 measurement have enabled biomedical scientists to study H2O2 biology at a level of precision previously unachievable. In addition, new imaging techniques such as two-photon microscopy (TPM) have been employed for H2O2 detection, which permit real-time measurements of H2O2 in vivo. This review focuses on recent advances in H2O2 probe development and optical imaging technologies that have been developed for biomedical applications.

  14. Cell biology. Metabolic control of cell death.

    PubMed

    Green, Douglas R; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Kroemer, Guido

    2014-09-19

    Beyond their contribution to basic metabolism, the major cellular organelles, in particular mitochondria, can determine whether cells respond to stress in an adaptive or suicidal manner. Thus, mitochondria can continuously adapt their shape to changing bioenergetic demands as they are subjected to quality control by autophagy, or they can undergo a lethal permeabilization process that initiates apoptosis. Along similar lines, multiple proteins involved in metabolic circuitries, including oxidative phosphorylation and transport of metabolites across membranes, may participate in the regulated or catastrophic dismantling of organelles. Many factors that were initially characterized as cell death regulators are now known to physically or functionally interact with metabolic enzymes. Thus, several metabolic cues regulate the propensity of cells to activate self-destructive programs, in part by acting on nutrient sensors. This suggests the existence of "metabolic checkpoints" that dictate cell fate in response to metabolic fluctuations. Here, we discuss recent insights into the intersection between metabolism and cell death regulation that have major implications for the comprehension and manipulation of unwarranted cell loss.

  15. Development of advanced fuel cell system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grevstad, P. E.

    1972-01-01

    Weight, life and performance characteristics optimization of hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell power systems were considered. A promising gold alloy cathode catalyst was identified and tested in a cell for 5,000 hours. The compatibility characteristics of candidate polymer structural materials were measured after exposure to electrolyte and water vapor for 8,000 hours. Lightweight cell designs were prepared and fabrication techniques to produce them were developed. Testing demonstrated that predicted performance was achieved. Lightweight components for passive product water removal and evaporative cooling of cells were demonstrated. Systems studies identified fuel cell powerplant concepts for meeting the requirements of advanced spacecraft.

  16. Prostate Cancer Stem Cells: Research Advances

    PubMed Central

    Jaworska, Dagmara; Król, Wojciech; Szliszka, Ewelina

    2015-01-01

    Cancer stem cells have been defined as cells within a tumor that possesses the capacity to self-renew and to cause the heterogeneous lineages of cancer cells that comprise the tumor. Experimental evidence showed that these highly tumorigenic cells might be responsible for initiation and progression of cancer into invasive and metastatic disease. Eradicating prostate cancer stem cells, the root of the problem, has been considered as a promising target in prostate cancer treatment to improve the prognosis for patients with advanced stages of the disease. PMID:26593898

  17. Targeting B cells with biologics in SLE

    PubMed Central

    La Cava, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Importance of the field The use of biologics as immune modulators in several autoimmune diseases has provided new tools to the physician's therapeutic armamentiarium and has led to improved patients' outcomes and quality of life. By producing autoantibodies, B cells in SLE are key players in the pathogenesis of the disease and in its clinical manifestations. Therefore, biologics that target B cells in SLE aims at reducing the activity of these cells for the induction of remissions and/or amelioration of disease activity, reduction of organ involvement, and limitation of the complications and side effects caused by immunosuppressive therapies. Areas covered in this review This review describes the past and current clinical trials with B cell-targeted biologics in SLE, to provide a historical perspective and the state-of-the-art on the topic. What the reader will gain We will review how the disappointment in the field from promising agents has been instrumental in providing valuable lessons leading to an improved design of new trials that are now giving encouraging results Take home message In systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), the use of B cell-based biologics in clinical trials has shown both disappointment and promise PMID:20919800

  18. Nanotechnologies and chemical tools for cell biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xing

    This dissertation describes several nanotechnologies and chemical tools that I have developed to probe living cells. Chapter one gives a brief overview on the current status of biomedical and biotechnological applications of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). In this chapter, strategies for functionalization of CNTs with emphasis on biological applications are reviewed. Representative developments in biosensing, bioimaging, intracellular delivery, and tissue engineering are presented. Recent studies on toxicity of CNTs are also discussed. Chapter two describes the development of a nanoscale cell injector for delivery of cargo to the interior of living cells without physiological harm. A CNT attached to an atomic force microscope tip was functionalized with cargo via a disulfide linker. Penetration of cell membranes with this "nanoneedle", followed by reductive cleavage of the disulfide bonds within the cell's interior, resulted in the release of cargo inside the cells. Chapter three presents a biomimetic functionalization strategy for interfacing CNTs with biological systems. The potential biological applications of CNTs have been limited by their insolubility in aqueous environment and their intrinsic toxicity. We developed a biomimetic surface modification of CNTs using glycosylated polymers designed to mimic natural cell surface mucin glycoproteins interactions. Chapter four further extends the biomimetic strategy for functionalization of CNTs to glycosylated dendrimers. We developed a new class of amphiphilic bifunctional glycodendrimers that comprised carbohydrate units displayed in the periphery and a pyrene tail that bound to SWNT surface via pi-pi interactions. The glycodendrimer-coated CNTs were soluble in water, and noncytotoxic. We also demonstrated that the coated CNTs could interface with biological systems including proteins and cells. Chapter five presents a biosensing application of glycodenderimer-coated CNTs. SWNTN-FETs coated with glycodendrimers were

  19. Wnt Signaling in Cancer Stem Cell Biology

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa e Melo, Felipe; Vermeulen, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant regulation of Wnt signaling is a common theme seen across many tumor types. Decades of research have unraveled the epigenetic and genetic alterations that result in elevated Wnt pathway activity. More recently, it has become apparent that Wnt signaling levels identify stem-like tumor cells that are responsible for fueling tumor growth. As therapeutic targeting of these tumor stem cells is an intense area of investigation, a concise understanding on how Wnt activity relates to cancer stem cell traits is needed. This review attempts at summarizing the intricacies between Wnt signaling and cancer stem cell biology with a special emphasis on colorectal cancer. PMID:27355964

  20. Countercurrent distribution of biological cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, D. E.

    1979-01-01

    A neutral polymer phase system consisting of 7.5 percent dextran 40/4.5 percent PEG 6, 0.11 M Na phosphate, 5 percent fetal bovine serum (FBS), pH 7.5, was developed which has a high phase droplet electrophoretic mobility and retains cell viability over many hours. In this and related systems, the drop mobility was a linear function of drop size, at least in the range 4-30 micron diameter. Applications of and electric field of 4.5 v/cm to a system containing 10 percent v/v bottom phase cleared the system more than two orders of magnitude faster than in the absence of the field. At higher bottom phase concentrations a secondary phenomenon intervened in the field driven separations which resulted in an increase in turbidity after clearing had commenced. The increase was associated with a dilution of the phase system in the chamber. The effect depended on the presence of the electric field. It may be due to electroosmotic flow of buffer through the Amicon membranes into the sample chamber and flow of phase system out into the rinse stream. Strategies to eliminate this problem are proposed.

  1. Countercurrent distribution of biological cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, D. E.

    1982-01-01

    Detailed physiochemical studies of dextran/poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) two phase systems were carried out to characterize and provide understanding of the properties of the systems which determine cell partition and the electrophoretic behavior of phase drops responsible for electric field driven phase separation. A detailed study of the electrostatic and electrokinetic potentials developed in these systems was carried out. The salt partition was examined both in phase systems and with pure polymer solutions via equilibrium dialysis and mechanism of sulfate, chloride and phosphate partition shown to be exclusion by PEG rather than binding by dextran. Salt partition was shown to have a strong effect on the polymer compositions of the phases as well, an effect which produces large changes in the interfacial tension between them. These effects were characterized and the interfacial tension shown to obey a power law with respect to its dependence on the length of the tie line describing the system composition on a phase diagram. The electrostatic potential differences measured via salt bridges were shown to obey thermodynamic predictions. The electrophoretic mobilities measured were utilized to provide a partial test of Levine's incomplete theory of phase drop electrophoresis. The data were consistent with Levine's expression over a limited range of the variables tested.

  2. Countercurrent distribution of biological cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    It is known that the addition of phosphate buffer to two polymer aqueous phase systems has a strong effect on the partition behavior of cells and other particles in such mixtures. The addition of sodium phosphate to aqueous poly(ethylene glycol) dextran phase systems causes a concentration-dependent shift in binodial on the phase diagram, progressively lowering the critical conditions for phase separation as the phosphate concentration is increased. Sodium chloride produces no significant shift in the critical point relative to the salt-free case. Accurate determinations of the phase diagram require measurements of the density of the phases; data is presented which allows this parameter to be calculated from polarimetric measurements of the dextran concentrations of both phases. Increasing polymer concentrations in the phase systems produce increasing preference of the phosphate for the dextran-rich bottom phase. Equilibrium dialysis experiments showed that poly(ethylene glycol) effectively rejected phosphate, and to a lesser extent chloride, but that dextran had little effect on the distribution of either salt. Increasing ionic strength via addition of 0.15 M NaCl to phase systems containing 0.01 M phosphate produces an increased concentration of phosphate ions in the bottom dextran-rich phase, the expected effect in this type of Donnan distribution.

  3. Recent advances in Entamoeba biology: RNA interference, drug discovery, and gut microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Upinder

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, substantial progress has been made in understanding the molecular and cell biology of the human parasite Entamoeba histolytica, an important pathogen with significant global impact. This review outlines some recent advances in the Entamoeba field in the last five years, focusing on areas that have not recently been discussed in detail: (i) molecular mechanisms regulating parasite gene expression, (ii) new efforts at drug discovery using high-throughput drug screens, and (iii) the effect of gut microbiota on amoebiasis. PMID:27853522

  4. The biology of infertility: research advances and clinical challenges

    PubMed Central

    Matzuk, Martin M; Lamb, Dolores J

    2013-01-01

    Reproduction is required for the survival of all mammalian species, and thousands of essential ‘sex’ genes are conserved through evolution. Basic research helps to define these genes and the mechanisms responsible for the development, function and regulation of the male and female reproductive systems. However, many infertile couples continue to be labeled with the diagnosis of idiopathic infertility or given descriptive diagnoses that do not provide a cause for their defect. For other individuals with a known etiology, effective cures are lacking, although their infertility is often bypassed with assisted reproductive technologies (ART), some accompanied by safety or ethical concerns. Certainly, progress in the field of reproduction has been realized in the twenty-first century with advances in the understanding of the regulation of fertility, with the production of over 400 mutant mouse models with a reproductive phenotype and with the promise of regenerative gonadal stem cells. Indeed, the past six years have witnessed a virtual explosion in the identification of gene mutations or polymorphisms that cause or are linked to human infertility. Translation of these findings to the clinic remains slow, however, as do new methods to diagnose and treat infertile couples. Additionally, new approaches to contraception remain elusive. Nevertheless, the basic and clinical advances in the understanding of the molecular controls of reproduction are impressive and will ultimately improve patient care. PMID:18989307

  5. Probing bacterial cell biology using image cytometry.

    PubMed

    Cass, Julie A; Stylianidou, Stella; Kuwada, Nathan J; Traxler, Beth; Wiggins, Paul A

    2017-03-01

    Advances in automated fluorescence microscopy have made snapshot and time-lapse imaging of bacterial cells commonplace, yet fundamental challenges remain in analysis. The vast quantity of data collected in high-throughput experiments requires a fast and reliable automated method to analyze fluorescence intensity and localization, cell morphology and proliferation as well as other descriptors. Inspired by effective yet tractable methods of population-level analysis using flow cytometry, we have developed a framework and tools for facilitating analogous analyses in image cytometry. These tools can both visualize and gate (generate subpopulations) more than 70 cell descriptors, including cell size, age and fluorescence. The method is well suited to multi-well imaging, analysis of bacterial cultures with high cell density (thousands of cells per frame) and complete cell cycle imaging. We give a brief description of the analysis of four distinct applications to emphasize the broad applicability of the tool.

  6. Recent Advances in the Chemistry and Biology of Podophyllotoxins.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiang; Che, Zhiping; Xu, Hui

    2017-04-03

    Podophyllotoxin and its related aryltetralin cyclolignans belong to a family of important products that exhibit various biological properties (e.g., cytotoxic, insecticidal, antifungal, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, neurotoxic, immunosuppressive, antirheumatic, antioxidative, antispasmogenic, and hypolipidemic activities). This Review provides a survey of podophyllotoxin and its analogues isolated from plants. In particular, recent developments in the elegant total chemical synthesis, structural modifications, biosynthesis, and biotransformation of podophyllotoxin and its analogues are summarized. Moreover, a deoxypodophyllotoxin-based chemosensor for selective detection of mercury ion is described. In addition to the most active podophyllotoxin derivatives in each series against human cancer cell lines and insect pests listed in the tables, the structure-activity relationships of podophyllotoxin derivatives as cytotoxic and insecticidal agents are also outlined. Future prospects and further developments in this area are covered at the end of the Review. We believe that this Review will provide necessary information for synthetic, medicinal, and pesticidal chemistry researchers who are interested in the chemistry and biology of podophyllotoxins.

  7. [Advances in sickle cell disease].

    PubMed

    de Montalembert, Mariane

    2008-10-01

    Generation of transgenic mice have identified new pathophysiological mechanisms in sickle disease, including a permanent proinflammatory state and dysregulation of vascular tone. Treatment is no longer solely symptomatic. New agents target red cell hydration and the kinetics of deoxyhemoglobin S polymerization. Hydroxyurea, which reactivates fetal hemoglobin synthesis, is now widely used. Anti-adhesion molecules and agents modulating vascular tone are being tried in sickle mice. Bone marrow transplantation is widely used to cure patients with HLA-identical siblings, and gene therapy looks promising for those without a donor.

  8. Optofluidic cell manipulation for a biological microbeam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grad, Michael; Bigelow, Alan W.; Garty, Guy; Attinger, Daniel; Brenner, David J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the fabrication and integration of light-induced dielectrophoresis for cellular manipulation in biological microbeams. An optoelectronic tweezers (OET) cellular manipulation platform was designed, fabricated, and tested at Columbia University's Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF). The platform involves a light induced dielectrophoretic surface and a microfluidic chamber with channels for easy input and output of cells. The electrical conductivity of the particle-laden medium was optimized to maximize the dielectrophoretic force. To experimentally validate the operation of the OET device, we demonstrate UV-microspot irradiation of cells containing green fluorescent protein (GFP) tagged DNA single-strand break repair protein, targeted in suspension. We demonstrate the optofluidic control of single cells and groups of cells before, during, and after irradiation. The integration of optofluidic cellular manipulation into a biological microbeam enhances the facility's ability to handle non-adherent cells such as lymphocytes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that OET cell handling is successfully implemented in a biological microbeam.

  9. Textbook Errors & Misconceptions in Biology: Cell Metabolism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storey, Richard D.

    1991-01-01

    The idea that errors and misconceptions in biology textbooks are often slow to be discovered and corrected is discussed. Selected errors, misconceptions, and topics of confusion about cell metabolism are described. Fermentation, respiration, Krebs cycle, pentose phosphate pathway, uniformity of catabolism, and metabolic pathways as models are…

  10. Advanced Cell Development and Degradation Studies

    SciTech Connect

    J. E. O'Brien; C. M. Stoots; J. S. Herring; R. C. O'Brien; K. G. Condie; M. Sohal; G. K. Housley; J. J. Hartvigsen; D. Larsen; G. Tao; B. Yildiz; V. Sharma; P. Singh; N. Petigny; T. L. Cable

    2010-09-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been researching the application of solid-oxide electrolysis cells for large-scale hydrogen production from steam over a temperature range of 800 to 900ºC. From 2003 – 2009, this work was sponsored by the DOE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI). Starting in 2010, the HTE research program has been sponsored by the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) program. HTSE research priorities in FY10 are centered on understanding and reducing cell and stack performance degradation to an acceptable level to advance the technology readiness level of HTSE and to justify further large-scale demonstration activities. This report provides a summary of our FY10 experimental program, which has been focused on advanced cell and stack development and degradation studies. Advanced cell and stack development activities are under way at five technology partners: MSRI, Versa Power, Ceramatec, NASA Glenn, and St. Gobain. Performance evaluation of the advanced technology cells and stacks has been performed by the technology partners, by MIT and the University of Connecticut and at the INL HTE Laboratory. Summaries of these development activities and test results are presented.

  11. Advanced Catalysts for Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram R.; Whitacre, Jay; Valdez, T. I.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the development of catalyst for Fuel Cells. The objectives of the project are to reduce the cost of stack components and reduce the amount of precious metal used in fuel cell construction. A rapid combinatorial screening technique based on multi-electrode thin film array has been developed and validated for identifying catalysts for oxygen reduction; focus shifted from methanol oxidation in FY05 to oxygen reduction in FY06. Multi-electrode arrays of thin film catalysts of Pt-Ni and Pt-Ni-Zr have been deposited. Pt-Ni and have been characterized electrochemically and structurally. Pt-Ni-Zr and Pt-Ni films show higher current density and onset potential compared to Pt. Electrocatalytic activity and onset potential are found to be strong function of the lattice constant. Thin film Pt(59)Ni(39)Zr(2) can provide 10 times the current density of thin film Pt. Thin film Pt(59)Ni(39)Zr(2) also shows 65mV higher onset potential than Pt.

  12. Advanced glycation end-products: a biological consequence of lifestyle contributing to cancer disparity

    PubMed Central

    Turner, David P.

    2015-01-01

    Low income, poor diet, obesity and a lack of exercise are inter-related lifestyle factors that can profoundly alter our biological make-up to increase cancer risk, growth and development. We recently reported a potential mechanistic link between carbohydrate derived metabolites and cancer which may provide a biological consequence of lifestyle that can directly impact tumor biology. Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are reactive metabolites produced as a by-product of sugar metabolism. Failure to remove these highly reactive metabolites can lead to protein damage, aberrant cell signaling, increased stress responses, and decreased genetic fidelity. Critically, AGE accumulation is also directly affected by our lifestyle choices and shows a race specific, tumor dependent pattern of accumulation in cancer patients. This review will discuss the contribution of AGEs to the cancer phenotype with a particular emphasis on their biological links with the socioeconomic and environmental risk factors that drive cancer disparity. Given the potential benefits of lifestyle changes and the potential biological role of AGEs in promoting cancer, opportunities exist for collaborations impacting basic, translational, epidemiological and cancer prevention initiatives. PMID:25920350

  13. Comparative values of advanced space solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slifer, L. W., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A methodology for deriving a first order dollar value estimate for advanced solar cells which consists of defining scenarios for solar array production and launch to orbit and the associated costs for typical spacecraft, determining that portion affected by cell design and performance and determining the attributable cost differences is presented. Break even values are calculated for a variety of cells; confirming that efficiency and related effects of radiation resistance and temperature coefficient are major factors; array tare mass, packaging and packing factor are important; but cell mass is of lesser significance. Associated dollar values provide a means of comparison.

  14. Advanced Rechargeable Lithium Sulfur Dioxide Cell

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-11-01

    3SO 2 electrolyte. Surface treatments were carried out at 240"C using water (Cell 15) and thionyl chloride (Cell 16). Cathodes were placed in a Parr... LITHIUM SULFUR DIOXIDE CELL R.C. McDonald R. Vierra P. Harris M. Guentert F. Goebel C. Todino S. Hossain Yardney Technical Products, Inc. 82 Mechanic...61" INK rYPOT I AM 9al covmw 4 November 1991 Final Rpt: Sep 88 to Feb 91 ADVANCED RECHARGEABLE LITHIUM SULFUR DIOXIDE CELL C: DAAL01-88-C-0849 R C

  15. Advances in ambient temperature secondary lithium cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subbarao, S.; Shen, D. H.; Deligiannis, F.; Huang, C-K.; Halpert, G.

    1989-01-01

    The goal is to develop secondary lithium cells with a 100 Wh/kg specific energy capable of 1000 cycles at 50 percent DOD. The approach towards meeting this goal initially focused on several basic issues related to the cell chemistry, selection of cathode materials and electrolytes and component development. The performance potential of Li-TiS2, Li-MoS3, Li-V6O13 and Li-NbSe3 electrochemical systems was examined. Among these four, the Li-TiS2 system was found to be the most promising system in terms of achievable specific energy and cycle life. Major advancements to date in the development of Li-TiS2 cells are in the areas of cathode processing technology, mixed solvent electrolytes, and cell assembly. A summary is given of these advances.

  16. Development of GRAS strains for nutraceutical production using systems and synthetic biology approaches: advances and prospects.

    PubMed

    Liu, Long; Guan, Ningzi; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2017-03-01

    Nutraceuticals are food substances with medical and health benefits for humans. Limited by complicated procedures, high cost, low yield, insufficient raw materials, resource waste, and environment pollution, chemical synthesis and extraction are being replaced by microbial synthesis of nutraceuticals. Many microbial strains that are generally regarded as safe (GRAS) have been identified and developed for the synthesis of nutraceuticals, and significant nutraceutical production by these strains has been achieved. In this review, we systematically summarize recent advances in nutraceutical research in terms of physiological effects on health, potential applications, drawbacks of traditional production processes, characteristics of production strains, and progress in microbial fermentation. Recent advances in systems and synthetic biology techniques have enabled comprehensive understanding of GRAS strains and its wider applications. Thus, these microbial strains are promising cell factories for the commercial production of nutraceuticals.

  17. Ion channels regulating mast cell biology.

    PubMed

    Ashmole, I; Bradding, P

    2013-05-01

    Mast cells play a central role in the pathophysiology of asthma and related allergic conditions. Mast cell activation leads to the degranulation of preformed mediators such as histamine and the secretion of newly synthesised proinflammatory mediators such as leukotrienes and cytokines. Excess release of these mediators contributes to allergic disease states. An influx of extracellular Ca2+ is essential for mast cell mediator release. From the Ca2+ channels that mediate this influx, to the K+ , Cl- and transient receptor potential channels that set the cell membrane potential and regulate Ca2+ influx, ion channels play a critical role in mast cell biology. In this review we provide an overview of our current knowledge of ion channel expression and function in mast cells with an emphasis on how channels interact to regulate Ca2+ signalling.

  18. Tests Of Advanced Nickel/Hydrogen Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, John J.; Hall, Stephen W.

    1994-01-01

    Individual-pressure-vessel (IPV) nickel-hydrogen technology adanced with intention of improving cycle life and performance. One advancement to use 26 percent potassium hydroxide electrolyte to improve cycle life. Another to modify state-of-art cell design to eliminate identified failure modes.

  19. CellNet: network biology applied to stem cell engineering.

    PubMed

    Cahan, Patrick; Li, Hu; Morris, Samantha A; Lummertz da Rocha, Edroaldo; Daley, George Q; Collins, James J

    2014-08-14

    Somatic cell reprogramming, directed differentiation of pluripotent stem cells, and direct conversions between differentiated cell lineages represent powerful approaches to engineer cells for research and regenerative medicine. We have developed CellNet, a network biology platform that more accurately assesses the fidelity of cellular engineering than existing methodologies and generates hypotheses for improving cell derivations. Analyzing expression data from 56 published reports, we found that cells derived via directed differentiation more closely resemble their in vivo counterparts than products of direct conversion, as reflected by the establishment of target cell-type gene regulatory networks (GRNs). Furthermore, we discovered that directly converted cells fail to adequately silence expression programs of the starting population and that the establishment of unintended GRNs is common to virtually every cellular engineering paradigm. CellNet provides a platform for quantifying how closely engineered cell populations resemble their target cell type and a rational strategy to guide enhanced cellular engineering.

  20. Tensegrity I. Cell structure and hierarchical systems biology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingber, Donald E.

    2003-01-01

    In 1993, a Commentary in this journal described how a simple mechanical model of cell structure based on tensegrity architecture can help to explain how cell shape, movement and cytoskeletal mechanics are controlled, as well as how cells sense and respond to mechanical forces (J. Cell Sci. 104, 613-627). The cellular tensegrity model can now be revisited and placed in context of new advances in our understanding of cell structure, biological networks and mechanoregulation that have been made over the past decade. Recent work provides strong evidence to support the use of tensegrity by cells, and mathematical formulations of the model predict many aspects of cell behavior. In addition, development of the tensegrity theory and its translation into mathematical terms are beginning to allow us to define the relationship between mechanics and biochemistry at the molecular level and to attack the larger problem of biological complexity. Part I of this two-part article covers the evidence for cellular tensegrity at the molecular level and describes how this building system may provide a structural basis for the hierarchical organization of living systems--from molecule to organism. Part II, which focuses on how these structural networks influence information processing networks, appears in the next issue.

  1. Towards a whole-cell modeling approach for synthetic biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purcell, Oliver; Jain, Bonny; Karr, Jonathan R.; Covert, Markus W.; Lu, Timothy K.

    2013-06-01

    Despite rapid advances over the last decade, synthetic biology lacks the predictive tools needed to enable rational design. Unlike established engineering disciplines, the engineering of synthetic gene circuits still relies heavily on experimental trial-and-error, a time-consuming and inefficient process that slows down the biological design cycle. This reliance on experimental tuning is because current modeling approaches are unable to make reliable predictions about the in vivo behavior of synthetic circuits. A major reason for this lack of predictability is that current models view circuits in isolation, ignoring the vast number of complex cellular processes that impinge on the dynamics of the synthetic circuit and vice versa. To address this problem, we present a modeling approach for the design of synthetic circuits in the context of cellular networks. Using the recently published whole-cell model of Mycoplasma genitalium, we examined the effect of adding genes into the host genome. We also investigated how codon usage correlates with gene expression and find agreement with existing experimental results. Finally, we successfully implemented a synthetic Goodwin oscillator in the whole-cell model. We provide an updated software framework for the whole-cell model that lays the foundation for the integration of whole-cell models with synthetic gene circuit models. This software framework is made freely available to the community to enable future extensions. We envision that this approach will be critical to transforming the field of synthetic biology into a rational and predictive engineering discipline.

  2. Progeria: Translational insights from cell biology

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Leslie B.; Cao, Kan

    2012-01-01

    Cell biologists love to think outside the box, pursuing many surprising twists and unexpected turns in their quest to unravel the mysteries of how cells work. But can cell biologists think outside the bench? We are certain that they can, and clearly some already do. To encourage more cell biologists to venture into the realm of translational research on a regular basis, we would like to share a handful of the many lessons that we have learned in our effort to develop experimental treatments for Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS), an endeavor that many view as a “poster child” for how basic cell biology can be translated to the clinic. PMID:23027899

  3. [Biological properties of spermatogonial stem cell niches].

    PubMed

    Li, Ling-Ling; Liu, Yang; Jin, Bo; Zhang, Xue-Ming

    2012-04-01

    The self-renewal and differentiation of adult stem cells are closely related to their niches. Naturally, spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are the only adult stem cells in the body, which can transfer genetic information into the offspring. An insight into the modulation of the self-renewal and differentiation of SSCs can help elucidate the mechanisms of spermatogenesis and investigate the proliferation and differentiation of other adult stem cells. Therefore, the SSC system provides an ideal model for researches on the adult stem cell niche. More and more evidence indicates that the self-renewal and differentiation of SSCs are regulated by their niches. Based on our previous work and other related findings recently reported, this article presents an overview on the biological properties of SSC niches and their relationship with the self-renewal and differentiation of SSCs, focusing on the basic properties and components of SSC niches and various regulatory factors they produce.

  4. Recent Advances in Morphological Cell Image Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shengyong; Zhao, Mingzhu; Wu, Guang; Yao, Chunyan; Zhang, Jianwei

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the recent advances in image processing methods for morphological cell analysis. The topic of morphological analysis has received much attention with the increasing demands in both bioinformatics and biomedical applications. Among many factors that affect the diagnosis of a disease, morphological cell analysis and statistics have made great contributions to results and effects for a doctor. Morphological cell analysis finds the cellar shape, cellar regularity, classification, statistics, diagnosis, and so forth. In the last 20 years, about 1000 publications have reported the use of morphological cell analysis in biomedical research. Relevant solutions encompass a rather wide application area, such as cell clumps segmentation, morphological characteristics extraction, 3D reconstruction, abnormal cells identification, and statistical analysis. These reports are summarized in this paper to enable easy referral to suitable methods for practical solutions. Representative contributions and future research trends are also addressed. PMID:22272215

  5. From cell biology to biotechnology in space.

    PubMed

    Cogoli, A

    2000-09-01

    In this article I discuss the main results of our research in space biology from the simple early investigations with human lymphocytes in the early eighties until the projects in tissue engineering of the next decade on the international space station ISS. The discovery that T lymphocyte activation is nearly totally depressed in vitro in 0 g conditions showed that mammalian single cells are sensitive to the gravitational environment. Such finding had important implications in basic research, medicine and biotechnology. Low gravity can be used as a tool to investigate complicated and still obscure biological process from a new perspective not available to earth-bound laboratories. Low gravity may also favor certain bioprocesses involving the growth of tissues and thus lead to commercial and medical applications. However, shortage of crew time and of other resources, lack of sophisticated instrumentation, safety constraints pose serious limits to biological endeavors in space laboratories.

  6. Advanced high efficiency wraparound contact solar cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott-Monck, J. A.; Uno, F. M.; Thornhill, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    A significant advancement in the development of thin high efficiency wraparound contact silicon solar cells has been made by coupling space and terrestrial processing procedures. Although this new method for fabricating cells has not been completely reduced to practice, some of the initial cells have delivered over 20 mW/sq cm when tested at 25 C under AMO intensity. This approach not only yields high efficiency devices, but shows promise of allowing complete freedom of choice in both the location and size of the wraparound contact pad area

  7. Advanced high efficiency wraparound contact solar cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott-Monck, J. A.; Uno, F. M.; Thornhill, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    A significant advancement in the development of thin high efficiency wraparound contact silicon solar cells has been made by coupling space and terrestrial processing procedures. Although this new method for fabricating cells has not been completely reduced to practice, some of the initial cells have delivered over 20 mW/sq cm when tested at 25 C under AMO intensity. This approach not only yields high efficiency devices, but shows promise of allowing complete freedom of choice in both the location and size of the wraparound contact pad area.

  8. Advanced Rechargeable Lithium Sulfur Dioxide Cell

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-11-01

    electrolyte. Surface treatments were carried out at 2406C using water (Cell 15) and thionyl chloride (Cell 16). 3 Cathodes were placed in a Parr Bomb...Pawcatuck, CT 06379 94-02298 1425 Best Available Copy I ADVANCED RECHARGEABLE LITHIUM SULFUR DIOXIDE CELL I R.C. McDonald, P. Harris, F. Goebel, S. Hossain...Test Group 3 13 Test Group 4 22 Test Group 5 22 Test Group 6 24 Test Group 7 46 Test Group 8 52 Test Group 9 65 I CHEMICAL ANALYSIS 65 LITHIUM CYCLING

  9. NATO Advanced Research Workshop: Optics of Biological Particles. Held in Novosibirsk, Russia on 3-6 Oct 2005

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    A 3. DATES COVERED - 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE NATO Advanced Research Workshop Optics of Biological Particles 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...Characterization of Biologi- cal Species” 4 17:20 – 19:00 visit IChK&C 19:00 dinner 2nd day: Tuesday October 4 , 2005 09:00 – 09:30 Virginia Foot...surfaces; (3) erythrocyte lysis in isotonic solution of ammonium chloride; ( 4 ) endocytosis. OPTICS OF RED BLOOD CELLS AND CELL AGGREGATES Alexander V

  10. The cell biology of acute itch

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Itch, the irritation we feel and the relief that comes from scratching, is an evolutionary warning system and defense against harmful environmental agents. Although once considered a subtype of pain, itch is now recognized as a unique sense, with its own distinct physiology and cell receptors. Here, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of itch and the molecular players that mediate this sensory modality. PMID:27114499

  11. Advanced Solar Cells for Satellite Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flood, Dennis J.; Weinberg, Irving

    1994-01-01

    The multiple natures of today's space missions with regard to operational lifetime, orbital environment, cost and size of spacecraft, to name just a few, present such a broad range of performance requirements to be met by the solar array that no single design can suffice to meet them all. The result is a demand for development of specialized solar cell types that help to optimize overall satellite performance within a specified cost range for any given space mission. Historically, space solar array performance has been optimized for a given mission by tailoring the features of silicon solar cells to account for the orbital environment and average operating conditions expected during the mission. It has become necessary to turn to entirely new photovoltaic materials and device designs to meet the requirements of future missions, both in the near and far term. This paper will outline some of the mission drivers and resulting performance requirements that must be met by advanced solar cells, and provide an overview of some of the advanced cell technologies under development to meet them. The discussion will include high efficiency, radiation hard single junction cells; monolithic and mechanically stacked multiple bandgap cells; and thin film cells.

  12. Summary of biological spaceflight experiments with cells.

    PubMed

    Dickson, K J

    1991-07-01

    Numerous biological experiments with cells have been conducted in space, and the importance of these experiments and this area of study is continually becoming evident. This contribution is a compilation of available information about spaceflight experiments with cells for the purpose of providing a single source of information for those interested in space gravitational cell biology. Experiments focused on a study of the effects of gravity and its absence on cells, cell function, and basic cellular processes have been included. Experiments include those involving viruses, bacteriophage, unicellular organisms, lower fungi, and animal and plant cell and tissue cultures, but exclude experiments with cells that were carried on a flight as part of a whole organism and later removed for study, and experiments with fertilized eggs. In addition, experiments in biotechnology, in which the microgravity environment is employed to study cell purification, cell fusion, protein crystallization, and similar processes, have not been included. Spaceflight experiments conducted by scientists from the U.S., U.S.S.R., and other countries and flown onboard sounding rockets (TEXUS, MAXUS, Consort), biosatellites (Biosatellite II, Cosmos), and various crewed spacecraft including the space shuttle (STS) and Soyuz, and space stations (Salyut, Mir) have been included, as well as high altitude balloon flights. Balloon flights are not spaceflights but can and are used as controls for the effects of space radiation, since organisms carried on balloons may be exposed to some of the same radiation as those taken into space, yet continue to be exposed to Earth's gravitational force. Parabolic flights on aircraft during which periods of microgravity of less than a minute are achieved have arbitrarily been excluded, because even though numerous experiments have been conducted, few results have been published.

  13. The cell biology of fat expansion

    PubMed Central

    Rutkowski, Joseph M.; Stern, Jennifer H.

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a complex, multicellular organ that profoundly influences the function of nearly all other organ systems through its diverse metabolite and adipokine secretome. Adipocytes are the primary cell type of adipose tissue and play a key role in maintaining energy homeostasis. The efficiency with which adipose tissue responds to whole-body energetic demands reflects the ability of adipocytes to adapt to an altered nutrient environment, and has profound systemic implications. Deciphering adipocyte cell biology is an important component of understanding how the aberrant physiology of expanding adipose tissue contributes to the metabolic dysregulation associated with obesity. PMID:25733711

  14. The multifaceted biology of plasmacytoid dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Swiecki, Melissa; Colonna, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are a unique dendritic cell subset that specializes in the production of type I interferons (IFNs). pDCs promote antiviral immune responses and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases characterized by a type I IFN signature. However, pDCs can also induce tolerogenic immune responses. Here, we review recent progress from the field of pDC biology, focusing on: the molecular mechanisms that regulate pDC development and functions; the pathways involved in their sensing of pathogens and endogenous nucleic acids; the function of pDCs at mucosal sites; and their roles in infections, autoimmunity and cancer. PMID:26160613

  15. Biological cell manipulation by magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gertz, Frederick; Khitun, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    We report a manipulation of biological cells (erythrocytes) by magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles in the presence of a magnetic field. The experiment was accomplished on the top of a micro-electromagnet consisting of two magnetic field generating contours. An electric current flowing through the contour(s) produces a non-uniform magnetic field, which is about 1.4 mT/μm in strength at 100 mA current in the vicinity of the current-carrying wire. In responses to the magnetic field, magnetic nanoparticles move towards the systems energy minima. In turn, magnetic nanoparticles drag biological cells in the same direction. We present experimental data showing cell manipulation through the control of electric current. This technique allows us to capture and move cells located in the vicinity (10-20 microns) of the current-carrying wires. One of the most interesting results shows a periodic motion of erythrocytes between the two conducting contours, whose frequency is controlled by an electric circuit. The obtained results demonstrate the feasibility of non-destructive cell manipulation by magnetic nanoparticles with micrometer-scale precision.

  16. Cancer stem cells in hepatocellular carcinoma: Therapeutic implications based on stem cell biology.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Tetsuhiro; Iwama, Atsushi; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common cancer and the third most frequent cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Despite advances in its diagnosis and treatment, the prognosis of patients with advanced HCC remains unfavorable. Recent advances in stem cell biology and associated technologies have enabled the identification of minor components of tumorigenic cells, termed cancer stem cells (CSC) or tumor-initiating cells, in cancers such as HCC. Furthermore, because CSC play a central role in tumor development, metastasis and recurrence, they are considered to be a therapeutic target in cancer treatment. Hepatic CSC have been successfully identified using functional and cell surface markers. The analysis of purified hepatic CSC has revealed the molecular machinery and signaling pathways involved in their maintenance. In addition, epigenetic transcriptional regulation has been shown to be important in the development and maintenance of CSC. Although inhibitors of CSC show promise as CSC-targeting drugs, novel therapeutic approaches for the eradication of CSC are yet to be established. In this review, we describe recent progress in hepatic CSC research and provide a perspective on the available therapeutic approaches based on stem cell biology.

  17. Obstructive renal injury: from fluid mechanics to molecular cell biology.

    PubMed

    Ucero, Alvaro C; Gonçalves, Sara; Benito-Martin, Alberto; Santamaría, Beatriz; Ramos, Adrian M; Berzal, Sergio; Ruiz-Ortega, Marta; Egido, Jesus; Ortiz, Alberto

    2010-04-22

    Urinary tract obstruction is a frequent cause of renal impairment. The physiopathology of obstructive nephropathy has long been viewed as a mere mechanical problem. However, recent advances in cell and systems biology have disclosed a complex physiopathology involving a high number of molecular mediators of injury that lead to cellular processes of apoptotic cell death, cell injury leading to inflammation and resultant fibrosis. Functional studies in animal models of ureteral obstruction using a variety of techniques that include genetically modified animals have disclosed an important role for the renin-angiotensin system, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and other mediators of inflammation in this process. In addition, high throughput techniques such as proteomics and transcriptomics have identified potential biomarkers that may guide clinical decision-making.

  18. Obstructive renal injury: from fluid mechanics to molecular cell biology

    PubMed Central

    Ucero, Alvaro C; Gonçalves, Sara; Benito-Martin, Alberto; Santamaría, Beatriz; Ramos, Adrian M; Berzal, Sergio; Ruiz-Ortega, Marta; Egido, Jesus; Ortiz, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Urinary tract obstruction is a frequent cause of renal impairment. The physiopathology of obstructive nephropathy has long been viewed as a mere mechanical problem. However, recent advances in cell and systems biology have disclosed a complex physiopathology involving a high number of molecular mediators of injury that lead to cellular processes of apoptotic cell death, cell injury leading to inflammation and resultant fibrosis. Functional studies in animal models of ureteral obstruction using a variety of techniques that include genetically modified animals have disclosed an important role for the renin-angiotensin system, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and other mediators of inflammation in this process. In addition, high throughput techniques such as proteomics and transcriptomics have identified potential biomarkers that may guide clinical decision-making. PMID:24198613

  19. Artificial cell-cell communication as an emerging tool in synthetic biology applications.

    PubMed

    Hennig, Stefan; Rödel, Gerhard; Ostermann, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Cell-cell communication is a widespread phenomenon in nature, ranging from bacterial quorum sensing and fungal pheromone communication to cellular crosstalk in multicellular eukaryotes. These communication modes offer the possibility to control the behavior of an entire community by modifying the performance of individual cells in specific ways. Synthetic biology, i.e., the implementation of artificial functions within biological systems, is a promising approach towards the engineering of sophisticated, autonomous devices based on specifically functionalized cells. With the growing complexity of the functions performed by such systems, both the risk of circuit crosstalk and the metabolic burden resulting from the expression of numerous foreign genes are increasing. Therefore, systems based on a single type of cells are no longer feasible. Synthetic biology approaches with multiple subpopulations of specifically functionalized cells, wired by artificial cell-cell communication systems, provide an attractive and powerful alternative. Here we review recent applications of synthetic cell-cell communication systems with a specific focus on recent advances with fungal hosts.

  20. Stem cell genome-to-systems biology.

    PubMed

    Chia, Na-Yu; Ng, Huck-Hui

    2012-01-01

    Stem cells are capable of extended proliferation and concomitantly differentiating into a plethora of specialized cell types that render them apropos for their usage as a form of regenerative medicine for cell replacement therapies. The molecular processes that underlie the ability for stem cells to self-renew and differentiate have been intriguing, and elucidating the intricacies within the genome is pertinent to enhance our understanding of stem cells. Systems biology is emerging as a crucial field in the study of the sophisticated nature of stem cells, through the adoption of multidisciplinary approaches which couple high-throughput experimental techniques with computational and mathematical analysis. This allows for the determination of the molecular constituents that govern stem cell characteristics and conjointly with functional validations via genetic perturbation and protein location binding analysis necessitate the construction of the complex transcriptional regulatory network. With the elucidation of protein-protein interaction, protein-DNA regulation, microRNA involvement as well as the epigenetic modifications, it is possible to comprehend the defining features of stem cells at the system level.

  1. Male biological clock: a critical analysis of advanced paternal age

    PubMed Central

    Ramasamy, Ranjith; Chiba, Koji; Butler, Peter; Lamb, Dolores J.

    2016-01-01

    Extensive research defines the impact of advanced maternal age on couples’ fecundity and reproductive outcomes, but significantly less research has been focused on understanding the impact of advanced paternal age. Yet it is increasingly common for couples at advanced ages to conceive children. Limited research suggests that the importance of paternal age is significantly less than that of maternal age, but advanced age of the father is implicated in a variety of conditions affecting the offspring. This review examines three aspects of advanced paternal age: the potential problems with conception and pregnancy that couples with advanced paternal age may encounter, the concept of discussing a limit to paternal age in a clinical setting, and the risks of diseases associated with advanced paternal age. As paternal age increases, it presents no absolute barrier to conception, but it does present greater risks and complications. The current body of knowledge does not justify dissuading older men from trying to initiate a pregnancy, but the medical community must do a better job of communicating to couples the current understanding of the risks of conception with advanced paternal age. PMID:25881878

  2. Analysis of undergraduate cell biology contents in Brazilian public universities.

    PubMed

    Mermelstein, Claudia; Costa, Manoel Luis

    2017-04-01

    The enormous amount of information available in cell biology has created a challenge in selecting the core concepts we should be teaching our undergraduates. One way to define a set of essential core ideas in cell biology is to analyze what a specific cell biology community is teaching their students. Our main objective was to analyze the cell biology content currently being taught in Brazilian universities. We collected the syllabi of cell biology courses from public universities in Brazil and analyzed the frequency of cell biology topics in each course. We also compared the Brazilian data with the contents of a major cell biology textbook. Our analysis showed that while some cell biology topics such as plasma membrane and cytoskeleton was present in ∼100% of the Brazilian curricula analyzed others such as cell signaling and cell differentiation were present in only ∼35%. The average cell biology content taught in the Brazilian universities is quite different from what is presented in the textbook. We discuss several possible explanations for these observations. We also suggest a list with essential cell biology topics for any biological or biomedical undergraduate course. The comparative discussion of cell biology topics presented here could be valuable in other educational contexts.

  3. Advancing microwave technology for dehydration processing of biologics.

    PubMed

    Cellemme, Stephanie L; Van Vorst, Matthew; Paramore, Elisha; Elliott, Gloria D

    2013-10-01

    Our prior work has shown that microwave processing can be effective as a method for dehydrating cell-based suspensions in preparation for anhydrous storage, yielding homogenous samples with predictable and reproducible drying times. In the current work an optimized microwave-based drying process was developed that expands upon this previous proof-of-concept. Utilization of a commercial microwave (CEM SAM 255, Matthews, NC) enabled continuous drying at variable low power settings. A new turntable was manufactured from Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMW-PE; Grainger, Lake Forest, IL) to provide for drying of up to 12 samples at a time. The new process enabled rapid and simultaneous drying of multiple samples in containment devices suitable for long-term storage and aseptic rehydration of the sample. To determine sample repeatability and consistency of drying within the microwave cavity, a concentration series of aqueous trehalose solutions were dried for specific intervals and water content assessed using Karl Fischer Titration at the end of each processing period. Samples were dried on Whatman S-14 conjugate release filters (Whatman, Maidestone, UK), a glass fiber membrane used currently in clinical laboratories. The filters were cut to size for use in a 13 mm Swinnex(®) syringe filter holder (Millipore(™), Billerica, MA). Samples of 40 μL volume could be dehydrated to the equilibrium moisture content by continuous processing at 20% with excellent sample-to-sample repeatability. The microwave-assisted procedure enabled high throughput, repeatable drying of multiple samples, in a manner easily adaptable for drying a wide array of biological samples. Depending on the tolerance for sample heating, the drying time can be altered by changing the power level of the microwave unit.

  4. [Lipid networks in mast cell biology].

    PubMed

    Taketomi, Yoshitaka; Murakami, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    Tissue-resident mast cells are derived from circulating committed progenitors, which are originated from pluripotential hematopoietic stem cells in bone marrow. These progenitors migrate into extravascular tissues, where they undergo differentiation and maturation into tissue-specific mature phenotypes. When activated by IgE/antigen, stem cell factor, neuropeptides, or other stimuli, mature mast cells release three classes of biologically active products, including pre-formed mediators stored in secretory granules, newly transcribed cytokines and chemokines, and de novo synthesized lipid mediators. Therefore, these cells have been implicated as major effector cells in acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. In recent years, it has become clear that lipid mediators including arachidonic acid metabolites (prostaglandins and leukotrienes) and lysophospholipid-derived products play crucial roles in mast cell-associated pathology. In this article, we will provide an overview of the roles of various lipid mediators in allergic diseases fueled by studies of their biosynthetic enzymes or receptors. In the latter part, we will make a particular focus on phospholipase A(2) enzymes, which are placed at the bottleneck (rate-limiting) step of the lipid mediator-biosynthetic pathways.

  5. Shedding light on biology of bacterial cells

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    To understand basic principles of living organisms one has to know many different properties of all cellular components, their mutual interactions but also their amounts and spatial organization. Live-cell imaging is one possible approach to obtain such data. To get multiple snapshots of a cellular process, the imaging approach has to be gentle enough to not disrupt basic functions of the cell but also have high temporal and spatial resolution to detect and describe the changes. Light microscopy has become a method of choice and since its early development over 300 years ago revolutionized our understanding of living organisms. As most cellular components are indistinguishable from the rest of the cellular contents, the second revolution came from a discovery of specific labelling techniques, such as fusions to fluorescent proteins that allowed specific tracking of a component of interest. Currently, several different tags can be tracked independently and this allows us to simultaneously monitor the dynamics of several cellular components and from the correlation of their dynamics to infer their respective functions. It is, therefore, not surprising that live-cell fluorescence microscopy significantly advanced our understanding of basic cellular processes. Current cameras are fast enough to detect changes with millisecond time resolution and are sensitive enough to detect even a few photons per pixel. Together with constant improvement of properties of fluorescent tags, it is now possible to track single molecules in living cells over an extended period of time with a great temporal resolution. The parallel development of new illumination and detection techniques allowed breaking the diffraction barrier and thus further pushed the resolution limit of light microscopy. In this review, we would like to cover recent advances in live-cell imaging technology relevant to bacterial cells and provide a few examples of research that has been possible due to imaging. This

  6. Synthetic biology in mammalian cells: Next generation research tools and therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Lienert, Florian; Lohmueller, Jason J; Garg, Abhishek; Silver, Pamela A

    2014-01-01

    Recent progress in DNA manipulation and gene circuit engineering has greatly improved our ability to programme and probe mammalian cell behaviour. These advances have led to a new generation of synthetic biology research tools and potential therapeutic applications. Programmable DNA-binding domains and RNA regulators are leading to unprecedented control of gene expression and elucidation of gene function. Rebuilding complex biological circuits such as T cell receptor signalling in isolation from their natural context has deepened our understanding of network motifs and signalling pathways. Synthetic biology is also leading to innovative therapeutic interventions based on cell-based therapies, protein drugs, vaccines and gene therapies. PMID:24434884

  7. Systems-Level Synthetic Biology for Advanced Biofuel Production

    SciTech Connect

    Ruffing, Anne; Jensen, Travis J.; Strickland, Lucas Marshall; Meserole, Stephen; Tallant, David

    2015-03-01

    Cyanobacteria have been shown to be capable of producing a variety of advanced biofuels; however, product yields remain well below those necessary for large scale production. New genetic tools and high throughput metabolic engineering techniques are needed to optimize cyanobacterial metabolisms for enhanced biofuel production. Towards this goal, this project advances the development of a multiple promoter replacement technique for systems-level optimization of gene expression in a model cyanobacterial host: Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. To realize this multiple-target approach, key capabilities were developed, including a high throughput detection method for advanced biofuels, enhanced transformation efficiency, and genetic tools for Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. Moreover, several additional obstacles were identified for realization of this multiple promoter replacement technique. The techniques and tools developed in this project will help to enable future efforts in the advancement of cyanobacterial biofuels.

  8. Systems biology for organotypic cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Grego, Sonia; Dougherty, Edward R; Alexander, Francis J; Auerbach, Scott S; Berridge, Brian R; Bittner, Michael L; Casey, Warren; Cooley, Philip C; Dash, Ajit; Ferguson, Stephen S; Fennell, Timothy R; Hawkins, Brian T; Hickey, Anthony J; Kleensang, Andre; Liebman, Michael N J; Martin, Florian; Maull, Elizabeth A; Paragas, Jason; Qiao, Guilin Gary; Ramaiahgari, Sreenivasa; Sumner, Susan J; Yoon, Miyoung

    2016-11-14

    Translating in vitro biological data into actionable information related to human health holds the potential to improve disease treatment and risk assessment of chemical exposures. While genomics has identified regulatory pathways at the cellular level, translation to the organism level requires a multiscale approach accounting for intra-cellular regulation, inter-cellular interaction, and tissue/organ-level effects. Tissue-level effects can now be probed in vitro thanks to recently developed systems of three-dimensional (3D), multicellular, "organotypic" cell cultures, which mimic functional responses of living tissue. However, there remains a knowledge gap regarding interactions across different biological scales, complicating accurate prediction of health outcomes from molecular/genomic data and tissue responses. Systems biology aims at mathematical modeling of complex, non-linear biological systems. We propose to apply a systems biology approach to achieve a computational representation of tissue-level physiological responses by integrating empirical data derived from organotypic culture systems with computational models of intracellular pathways to better predict human responses. Successful implementation of this integrated approach will provide a powerful tool for faster, more accurate and cost-effective screening of potential toxicants and therapeutics. On September 11, 2015, an interdisciplinary group of scientists, engineers, and clinicians gathered for a workshop in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, to discuss this ambitious goal. Participants represented laboratory-based and computational modeling approaches to pharmacology and toxicology, as well as the pharmaceutical industry, government, non-profits, and academia. Discussions focused on identifying critical system perturbations to model, the computational tools required, and the experimental approaches best suited to generating key data.

  9. Systems Biology for Organotypic Cell Cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Grego, Sonia; Dougherty, Edward R.; Alexander, Francis J.; Auerbach, Scott S.; Berridge, Brian R.; Bittner, Michael L.; Casey, Warren; Cooley, Philip C.; Dash, Ajit; Ferguson, Stephen S.; Fennell, Timothy R.; Hawkins, Brian T.; Hickey, Anthony J.; Kleensang, Andre; Liebman, Michael N.; Martin, Florian; Maull, Elizabeth A.; Paragas, Jason; Qiao, Guilin; Ramaiahgari, Sreenivasa; Sumner, Susan J.; Yoon, Miyoung

    2016-08-04

    Translating in vitro biological data into actionable information related to human health holds the potential to improve disease treatment and risk assessment of chemical exposures. While genomics has identified regulatory pathways at the cellular level, translation to the organism level requires a multiscale approach accounting for intra-cellular regulation, inter-cellular interaction, and tissue/organ-level effects. Tissue-level effects can now be probed in vitro thanks to recently developed systems of three-dimensional (3D), multicellular, “organotypic” cell cultures, which mimic functional responses of living tissue. However, there remains a knowledge gap regarding interactions across different biological scales, complicating accurate prediction of health outcomes from molecular/genomic data and tissue responses. Systems biology aims at mathematical modeling of complex, non-linear biological systems. We propose to apply a systems biology approach to achieve a computational representation of tissue-level physiological responses by integrating empirical data derived from organotypic culture systems with computational models of intracellular pathways to better predict human responses. Successful implementation of this integrated approach will provide a powerful tool for faster, more accurate and cost-effective screening of potential toxicants and therapeutics. On September 11, 2015, an interdisciplinary group of scientists, engineers, and clinicians gathered for a workshop in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, to discuss this ambitious goal. Participants represented laboratory-based and computational modeling approaches to pharmacology and toxicology, as well as the pharmaceutical industry, government, non-profits, and academia. Discussions focused on identifying critical system perturbations to model, the computational tools required, and the experimental approaches best suited to generating key data. This consensus report summarizes the discussions held.

  10. Advanced-Level Biology--Is There a Problem?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lock, Roger

    1998-01-01

    Explores whether there are problems with A-level biology that are broadly shared by teachers. Addresses five major areas of concerns: (1) teaching and learning, (2) practical work, (3) subject content, (4) assessment, and (5) initial teacher training. (DDR)

  11. Irradiation of advanced health care products - Tissues and biologics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winters, Martell

    2014-12-01

    Radiation sterilization of tissues and biologics has become more common in recent years. As a result it has become critical to understand how to adapt the typical test methods and validation approaches to a tissue or biological product scenario. Also data evaluation sometimes becomes more critical than with traditional medical devices because for many tissues and biologics a low radiation dose is required. It is the intent behind this paper to provide information on adapting bioburden tests used in radiation validations such that the data can be most effectively used on tissues and biologics. In addition challenges with data evaluation are discussed, particularly the use of less-than values for bioburden results in radiation validation studies.

  12. Patterning of cells through patterning of biology.

    PubMed

    Kala, A; Jain, P K; Friedman, S H

    2014-07-01

    For the first time, cells have been patterned on surfaces through the spatial manipulation of native gene expression. By manipulating the inherent biology of the cell, as opposed to the chemical nature of the surfaces they are attached to, we have created a potentially more flexible way of creating patterns of cells that does not depend on the substrate. This was accomplished by bringing an siRNA that targets the expression of pten under the control of light, by modifying it with photocleavable groups. This pten-targeting siRNA has been previously demonstrated to induce dissociation of cells from surfaces. We modified this siRNA with dimethoxy nitro phenyl ethyl photocleavable groups (DMNPE) to allow the activity of the siRNA, and hence pten knockdown, to be toggled with light. Using this approach we demonstrated light dependent cell dissociation only with a DMNPE modified siRNA that targets pten and not with control siRNAs. In addition we demonstrated the ability to make simple patterns of cells through the application of masks during irradiation.

  13. Book review: Advances in reintroduction biology of Australian and New Zealand fauna

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, Erin L.

    2016-01-01

    Review info: Advances in Reintroduction Biology of Australian and New Zealand Fauna. Doug P. Armstrong, Matthew W. Hayward, Dorian Moro, and Philip J. Seddon, editors. 2015. ISBN 978-1486303014. 320 pp.

  14. Inside Single Cells: Quantitative Analysis with Advanced Optics and Nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yi; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Single cell explorations offer a unique window to inspect molecules and events relevant to mechanisms and heterogeneity constituting the central dogma of biology. A large number of nucleic acids, proteins, metabolites and small molecules are involved in determining and fine-tuning the state and function of a single cell at a given time point. Advanced optical platforms and nanotools provide tremendous opportunities to probe intracellular components with single-molecule accuracy, as well as promising tools to adjust single cell activity. In order to obtain quantitative information (e.g. molecular quantity, kinetics and stoichiometry) within an intact cell, achieving the observation with comparable spatiotemporal resolution is a challenge. For single cell studies both the method of detection and the biocompatibility are critical factors as they determine the feasibility, especially when considering live cell analysis. Although a considerable proportion of single cell methodologies depend on specialized expertise and expensive instruments, it is our expectation that the information content and implication will outweigh the costs given the impact on life science enabled by single cell analysis. PMID:25430077

  15. Cell Polarization: A Comparative Cell Biology and Immunological View

    PubMed Central

    Vicente-Manzanares, Miguel

    2000-01-01

    Cell polarization and the establishment of functionally specialized domains play a pivotal role in many cellular processes such as vectorial transport of molecules, cell division and differentiation, directional movement of the cells in a chemotactic gradient and activation of the immune response. Cell polarization is a complex phenomenon, in which the interplay among cell cytoskeletal components, extra- and intracellular signals and organelle and membrane reorganization is crucial to achieve a correct cell shape change. The intracellular machinery needed for cell polarization has been elucidated in several well-established models, including yeast, epithelial, neuronal and germ-line cells. Cells of the immune system also polarize in response to extracellular cues, but many of the intracellular signals that control cell polarization and the role of genes with a well-defined function in other polarization processes are still unknown. In this review, recent advances in the study of leukocyte polarization are examined highlighting the similarities and differences with other models of cell polarization. The extracellular signals which direct cell polarization, the signal transduction pathways involved as well as the role of cell polarization in the development of the immune response are discussed. PMID:11097201

  16. Recent Advances in Microfluidic Cell Separations

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yan; Li, Wenjie; Pappas, Dimitri

    2013-01-01

    The isolation and sorting of cells has become an increasingly important step in chemical and biological analyses. As a unit operation in more complex analyses, isolating a phenotypically pure cell population from a heterogeneous sample presents unique challenges. Microfluidic systems are ideal platforms for performing cell separations, enabling integration with other techniques and enhancing traditional separation modalities. In recent years there have been several techniques that use surface antigen affinity, physical interactions, or a combination of the two to achieve high separation purity and efficiency. This review discusses methods including magnetophoretic, acoustophoretic, sedimentation, electric, and hydrodynamic methods for physical separations. We also discuss affinity methods, including magnetic sorting, flow sorting, and affinity capture. PMID:23778244

  17. Designer nanoparticle: nanobiotechnology tool for cell biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thimiri Govinda Raj, Deepak B.; Khan, Niamat Ali

    2016-09-01

    This article discusses the use of nanotechnology for subcellular compartment isolation and its application towards subcellular omics. This technology review significantly contributes to our understanding on use of nanotechnology for subcellular systems biology. Here we elaborate nanobiotechnology approach of using superparamagnetic nanoparticles (SPMNPs) optimized with different surface coatings for subcellular organelle isolation. Using pulse-chase approach, we review that SPMNPs interacted differently with the cell depending on its surface functionalization. The article focuses on the use of functionalized-SPMNPs as a nanobiotechnology tool to isolate high quality (both purity and yield) plasma membranes and endosomes or lysosomes. Such nanobiotechnology tool can be applied in generating subcellular compartment inventories. As a future perspective, this strategy could be applied in areas such as immunology, cancer and stem cell research.

  18. Cell-free synthetic biology: thinking outside the cell.

    PubMed

    Hodgman, C Eric; Jewett, Michael C

    2012-05-01

    Cell-free synthetic biology is emerging as a powerful approach aimed to understand, harness, and expand the capabilities of natural biological systems without using intact cells. Cell-free systems bypass cell walls and remove genetic regulation to enable direct access to the inner workings of the cell. The unprecedented level of control and freedom of design, relative to in vivo systems, has inspired the rapid development of engineering foundations for cell-free systems in recent years. These efforts have led to programmed circuits, spatially organized pathways, co-activated catalytic ensembles, rational optimization of synthetic multi-enzyme pathways, and linear scalability from the micro-liter to the 100-liter scale. It is now clear that cell-free systems offer a versatile test-bed for understanding why nature's designs work the way they do and also for enabling biosynthetic routes to novel chemicals, sustainable fuels, and new classes of tunable materials. While challenges remain, the emergence of cell-free systems is poised to open the way to novel products that until now have been impractical, if not impossible, to produce by other means.

  19. Advances in three-dimensional rapid prototyping of microfluidic devices for biological applications

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, P. F.; Ben Azouz, A.; Vázquez, M.; Liu, J.; Marczak, S.; Slouka, Z.; Chang, H. C.; Diamond, D.; Brabazon, D.

    2014-01-01

    The capability of 3D printing technologies for direct production of complex 3D structures in a single step has recently attracted an ever increasing interest within the field of microfluidics. Recently, ultrafast lasers have also allowed developing new methods for production of internal microfluidic channels within the bulk of glass and polymer materials by direct internal 3D laser writing. This review critically summarizes the latest advances in the production of microfluidic 3D structures by using 3D printing technologies and direct internal 3D laser writing fabrication methods. Current applications of these rapid prototyped microfluidic platforms in biology will be also discussed. These include imaging of cells and living organisms, electrochemical detection of viruses and neurotransmitters, and studies in drug transport and induced-release of adenosine triphosphate from erythrocytes. PMID:25538804

  20. Preparing Future Biology Faculty: An Advanced Professional Development Program for Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockwood, Stephanie A.; Miller, Amanda J.; Cromie, Meghan M.

    2014-01-01

    Formal professional development programs for biology graduate students interested in becoming faculty members have come far; however, programs that provide advanced teaching experience for seasoned graduate teaching assistants are scarce. We outline an advanced program that focuses on further training of graduate teaching assistants in pedagogy…

  1. Chemical Biology Probes from Advanced DNA-encoded Libraries.

    PubMed

    Salamon, Hazem; Klika Škopić, Mateja; Jung, Kathrin; Bugain, Olivia; Brunschweiger, Andreas

    2016-02-19

    The identification of bioactive compounds is a crucial step toward development of probes for chemical biology studies. Screening of DNA-encoded small molecule libraries (DELs) has emerged as a validated technology to interrogate vast chemical space. DELs consist of chimeric molecules composed of a low-molecular weight compound that is conjugated to a DNA identifier tag. They are screened as pooled libraries using selection to identify "hits." Screening of DELs has identified numerous bioactive compounds. Some of these molecules were instrumental in gaining a deeper understanding of biological systems. One of the main challenges in the field is the development of synthesis methodology for DELs.

  2. Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater by a novel integration of heterogeneous catalytic ozonation and biological process.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Haifeng; Han, Hongjun; Jia, Shengyong; Hou, Baolin; Zhao, Qian

    2014-08-01

    Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (CGW) was investigated employing heterogeneous catalytic ozonation integrated with anoxic moving bed biofilm reactor (ANMBBR) and biological aerated filter (BAF) process. The results indicated that catalytic ozonation with the prepared catalyst (i.e. MnOx/SBAC, sewage sludge was converted into sludge based activated carbon (SBAC) which loaded manganese oxides) significantly enhanced performance of pollutants removal by generated hydroxyl radicals. The effluent of catalytic ozonation process was more biodegradable and less toxic than that in ozonation alone. Meanwhile, ANMBBR-BAF showed efficient capacity of pollutants removal in treatment of the effluent of catalytic ozonation at a shorter reaction time, allowing the discharge limits to be met. Therefore, the integrated process with efficient, economical and sustainable advantages was suitable for advanced treatment of real biologically pretreated CGW.

  3. Molecular biology of normal melanocytes and melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Bandarchi, Bizhan; Jabbari, Cyrus Aleksandre; Vedadi, Ali; Navab, Roya

    2013-08-01

    Malignant melanoma is one of the most aggressive malignancies in humans and is responsible for 60-80% of deaths from skin cancers. The 5-year survival of patients with metastatic malignant melanoma is about 14%. Its incidence has been increasing in the white population over the past two decades. The mechanisms leading to malignant transformation of melanocytes and melanocytic lesions are poorly understood. In developing malignant melanoma, there is a complex interaction of environmental and endogenous (genetic) factors, including: dysregulation of cell proliferation, programmed cell death (apoptosis) and cell-to-cell interactions. The understanding of genetic alterations in signalling pathways of primary and metastatic malignant melanoma and their interactions may lead to therapeutics modalities, including targeted therapies, particularly in advanced melanomas that have high mortality rates and are often resistant to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Our knowledge regarding the molecular biology of malignant melanoma has been expanding. Even though several genes involved in melanocyte development may also be associated with melanoma cell development, it is still unclear how a normal melanocyte becomes a melanoma cell. This article reviews the molecular events and recent findings associated with malignant melanoma.

  4. Advanced treatment for basal cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Atwood, Scott X; Whitson, Ramon J; Oro, Anthony E

    2014-07-01

    Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) are very common epithelial cancers that depend on the Hedgehog pathway for tumor growth. Traditional therapies such as surgical excision are effective for most patients with sporadic BCC; however, better treatment options are needed for cosmetically sensitive or advanced and metastatic BCC. The first approved Hedgehog antagonist targeting the membrane receptor Smoothened, vismodegib, shows remarkable effectiveness on both syndromic and nonsyndromic BCCs. However, drug-resistant tumors frequently develop, illustrating the need for the development of next-generation Hedgehog antagonists targeting pathway components downstream from Smoothened. In this article, we will summarize available BCC treatment options and discuss the development of next-generation antagonists.

  5. Advanced Treatment for Basal Cell Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Atwood, Scott X.; Whitson, Ramon J.; Oro, Anthony E.

    2014-01-01

    Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) are very common epithelial cancers that depend on the Hedgehog pathway for tumor growth. Traditional therapies such as surgical excision are effective for most patients with sporadic BCC; however, better treatment options are needed for cosmetically sensitive or advanced and metastatic BCC. The first approved Hedgehog antagonist targeting the membrane receptor Smoothened, vismodegib, shows remarkable effectiveness on both syndromic and nonsyndromic BCCs. However, drug-resistant tumors frequently develop, illustrating the need for the development of next-generation Hedgehog antagonists targeting pathway components downstream from Smoothened. In this article, we will summarize available BCC treatment options and discuss the development of next-generation antagonists. PMID:24985127

  6. Advances and Computational Tools towards Predictable Design in Biological Engineering

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The design process of complex systems in all the fields of engineering requires a set of quantitatively characterized components and a method to predict the output of systems composed by such elements. This strategy relies on the modularity of the used components or the prediction of their context-dependent behaviour, when parts functioning depends on the specific context. Mathematical models usually support the whole process by guiding the selection of parts and by predicting the output of interconnected systems. Such bottom-up design process cannot be trivially adopted for biological systems engineering, since parts function is hard to predict when components are reused in different contexts. This issue and the intrinsic complexity of living systems limit the capability of synthetic biologists to predict the quantitative behaviour of biological systems. The high potential of synthetic biology strongly depends on the capability of mastering this issue. This review discusses the predictability issues of basic biological parts (promoters, ribosome binding sites, coding sequences, transcriptional terminators, and plasmids) when used to engineer simple and complex gene expression systems in Escherichia coli. A comparison between bottom-up and trial-and-error approaches is performed for all the discussed elements and mathematical models supporting the prediction of parts behaviour are illustrated. PMID:25161694

  7. Recent advances in the chemistry and biology of pyridopyrimidines.

    PubMed

    Buron, F; Mérour, J Y; Akssira, M; Guillaumet, G; Routier, S

    2015-05-05

    The interest in pyridopyrimidine cores for pharmaceutical products makes this scaffold a highly useful building block for organic chemistry. These derivatives have found applications in various areas of medicine such as anticancer, CNS, fungicidal, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antibacterial therapies. This review mainly focuses on the progress achieved since 2004 in the chemistry and biological activity of pyridopyrimidines.

  8. Seeing Cells: Teaching the Visual/Verbal Rhetoric of Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinolfo, John; Heifferon, Barbara; Temesvari, Lesly A.

    2007-01-01

    This pilot study obtained baseline information on verbal and visual rhetorics to teach microscopy techniques to college biology majors. We presented cell images to students in cell biology and biology writing classes and then asked them to identify textual, verbal, and visual cues that support microscopy learning. Survey responses suggest that…

  9. Recent advances in mantle cell lymphoma: report of the 2013 Mantle Cell Lymphoma Consortium Workshop.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Leo I; Bernstein, Steven H; Jares, Pedro; Kahl, Brad S; Witzig, Thomas E; Dreyling, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma characterized by overexpression of cyclin D1 resulting from the t(11;14) chromosomal translocation. MCL is biologically and clinically heterogeneous and frequently disseminates to extranodal areas. MCL remains a clinically challenging lymphoma subtype, as there is no proven curative therapy and no standard of care has been established for initial or subsequent lines of therapy. However, there have been considerable advances in the last several years in the treatment of MCL, leading to improved survival. Recent investigations into the biology of MCL, clinically relevant biomarkers, novel therapeutic targets and new treatment strategies were discussed at a recent workshop of the Lymphoma Research Foundation's Mantle Cell Lymphoma Consortium. The presentations are summarized in this manuscript, which is intended to highlight areas of active investigation and identify topics for future research.

  10. Knowledge Gaps in Rodent Pancreas Biology: Taking Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Pancreatic Beta Cells into Our Own Hands

    PubMed Central

    Santosa, Munirah Mohamad; Low, Blaise Su Jun; Pek, Nicole Min Qian; Teo, Adrian Kee Keong

    2016-01-01

    In the field of stem cell biology and diabetes, we and others seek to derive mature and functional human pancreatic β cells for disease modeling and cell replacement therapy. Traditionally, knowledge gathered from rodents is extended to human pancreas developmental biology research involving human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). While much has been learnt from rodent pancreas biology in the early steps toward Pdx1+ pancreatic progenitors, much less is known about the transition toward Ngn3+ pancreatic endocrine progenitors. Essentially, the later steps of pancreatic β cell development and maturation remain elusive to date. As a result, the most recent advances in the stem cell and diabetes field have relied upon combinatorial testing of numerous growth factors and chemical compounds in an arbitrary trial-and-error fashion to derive mature and functional human pancreatic β cells from hPSCs. Although this hit-or-miss approach appears to have made some headway in maturing human pancreatic β cells in vitro, its underlying biology is vaguely understood. Therefore, in this mini-review, we discuss some of these late-stage signaling pathways that are involved in human pancreatic β cell differentiation and highlight our current understanding of their relevance in rodent pancreas biology. Our efforts here unravel several novel signaling pathways that can be further studied to shed light on unexplored aspects of rodent pancreas biology. New investigations into these signaling pathways are expected to advance our knowledge in human pancreas developmental biology and to aid in the translation of stem cell biology in the context of diabetes treatments. PMID:26834702

  11. Knowledge Gaps in Rodent Pancreas Biology: Taking Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Pancreatic Beta Cells into Our Own Hands.

    PubMed

    Santosa, Munirah Mohamad; Low, Blaise Su Jun; Pek, Nicole Min Qian; Teo, Adrian Kee Keong

    2015-01-01

    In the field of stem cell biology and diabetes, we and others seek to derive mature and functional human pancreatic β cells for disease modeling and cell replacement therapy. Traditionally, knowledge gathered from rodents is extended to human pancreas developmental biology research involving human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). While much has been learnt from rodent pancreas biology in the early steps toward Pdx1(+) pancreatic progenitors, much less is known about the transition toward Ngn3(+) pancreatic endocrine progenitors. Essentially, the later steps of pancreatic β cell development and maturation remain elusive to date. As a result, the most recent advances in the stem cell and diabetes field have relied upon combinatorial testing of numerous growth factors and chemical compounds in an arbitrary trial-and-error fashion to derive mature and functional human pancreatic β cells from hPSCs. Although this hit-or-miss approach appears to have made some headway in maturing human pancreatic β cells in vitro, its underlying biology is vaguely understood. Therefore, in this mini-review, we discuss some of these late-stage signaling pathways that are involved in human pancreatic β cell differentiation and highlight our current understanding of their relevance in rodent pancreas biology. Our efforts here unravel several novel signaling pathways that can be further studied to shed light on unexplored aspects of rodent pancreas biology. New investigations into these signaling pathways are expected to advance our knowledge in human pancreas developmental biology and to aid in the translation of stem cell biology in the context of diabetes treatments.

  12. Advanced-capability alkaline fuel cell powerplant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deronck, Henry J.

    The alkaline fuel cell powerplant utilized in the Space Shuttle Orbiter has established an excellent performance and reliability record over the past decade. Recent AFC technology programs have demonstrated significant advances in cell durability and power density. These capabilities provide the basis for substantial improvement of the Orbiter powerplant, enabling new mission applications as well as enhancing performance in the Orbiter. Improved durability would extend the powerplant's time between overhaul fivefold, and permit longer-duration missions. The powerplant would also be a strong candidate for lunar/planetary surface power systems. Higher power capability would enable replacement of the Orbiter's auxiliary power units with electric motors, and benefits mass-critical applications such as the National AeroSpace Plane.

  13. Photoactive molecules for applications in molecular imaging and cell biology.

    PubMed

    Shao, Qing; Xing, Bengang

    2010-08-01

    Photoactive technology has proven successful for non-invasive regulation of biological activities and processes in living cells. With the light-directed generation of biomaterials or signals, mechanisms in cell biology can be investigated at the molecular level with spatial and temporal resolution. In this tutorial review, we aim to introduce the important applications of photoactive molecules for elucidating cell biology on aspects of protein engineering, fluorescence labelling, gene regulation and cell physiological functions.

  14. Manipulating biological agents and cells in micro-scale volumes for applications in medicine

    PubMed Central

    Tasoglu, Savas; Gurkan, Umut Atakan; Wang, ShuQi

    2013-01-01

    Recent technological advances provide new tools to manipulate cells and biological agents in micro/nano-liter volumes. With precise control over small volumes, the cell microenvironment and other biological agents can be bioengineered; interactions between cells and external stimuli can be monitored; and the fundamental mechanisms such as cancer metastasis and stem cell differentiation can be elucidated. Technological advances based on the principles of electrical, magnetic, chemical, optical, acoustic, and mechanical forces lead to novel applications in point-of-care diagnostics, regenerative medicine, in vitro drug testing, cryopreservation, and cell isolation/purification. In this review, we first focus on the underlying mechanisms of emerging examples for cell manipulation in small volumes targeting applications such as tissue engineering. Then, we illustrate how these mechanisms impact the aforementioned biomedical applications, discuss the associated challenges, and provide perspectives for further development. PMID:23575660

  15. Advances in fuel cell vehicle design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauman, Jennifer

    Factors such as global warming, dwindling fossil fuel reserves, and energy security concerns combine to indicate that a replacement for the internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle is needed. Fuel cell vehicles have the potential to address the problems surrounding the ICE vehicle without imposing any significant restrictions on vehicle performance, driving range, or refuelling time. Though there are currently some obstacles to overcome before attaining the widespread commercialization of fuel cell vehicles, such as improvements in fuel cell and battery durability, development of a hydrogen infrastructure, and reduction of high costs, the fundamental concept of the fuel cell vehicle is strong: it is efficient, emits zero harmful emissions, and the hydrogen fuel can be produced from various renewable sources. Therefore, research on fuel cell vehicle design is imperative in order to improve vehicle performance and durability, increase efficiency, and reduce costs. This thesis makes a number of key contributions to the advancement of fuel cell vehicle design within two main research areas: powertrain design and DC/DC converters. With regards to powertrain design, this research first analyzes various powertrain topologies and energy storage system types. Then, a novel fuel cell-battery-ultracapacitor topology is presented which shows reduced mass and cost, and increased efficiency, over other promising topologies found in the literature. A detailed vehicle simulator is created in MATLAB/Simulink in order to simulate and compare the novel topology with other fuel cell vehicle powertrain options. A parametric study is performed to optimize each powertrain and general conclusions for optimal topologies, as well as component types and sizes, for fuel cell vehicles are presented. Next, an analytical method to optimize the novel battery-ultracapacitor energy storage system based on maximizing efficiency, and minimizing cost and mass, is developed. This method can be applied

  16. Advances in the biological effects of terahertz wave radiation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li; Hao, Yan-Hui; Peng, Rui-Yun

    2014-01-01

    The terahertz (THz) band lies between microwave and infrared rays in wavelength and consists of non-ionizing radiation. Both domestic and foreign research institutions, including the army, have attached considerable importance to the research and development of THz technology because this radiation exhibits both photon-like and electron-like properties, which grant it considerable application value and potential. With the rapid development of THz technology and related applications, studies of the biological effects of THz radiation have become a major focus in the field of life sciences. Research in this field has only just begun, both at home and abroad. In this paper, research progress with respect to THz radiation, including its biological effects, mechanisms and methods of protection, will be reviewed.

  17. Current advances in biological production of propionic acid.

    PubMed

    Eş, Ismail; Khaneghah, Amin Mousavi; Hashemi, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Koubaa, Mohamed

    2017-02-01

    Propionic acid and its derivatives are considered "Generally Recognized As Safe" food additives and are generally used as an anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory agent, herbicide, and artificial flavor in diverse industrial applications. It is produced via biological pathways using Propionibacterium and some anaerobic bacteria. However, its commercial chemical synthesis from the petroleum-based feedstock is the conventional production process bit results in some environmental issues. Novel biological approaches using microorganisms and renewable biomass have attracted considerable recent attention due to economic advantages as well as great adaptation with the green technology. This review provides a comprehensive overview of important biotechnological aspects of propionic acid production using recent technologies such as employment of co-culture, genetic and metabolic engineering, immobilization technique and efficient bioreactor systems.

  18. International Conference on the Cell and Molecular Biology of Chlamydomonas

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Stephen Miller

    2010-06-10

    The 2010 Conference on the Cell and Molecular Biology of Chlamydomonas was held June 6-10 near Boston, MA, and attracted a record 273 participants, 146 from US labs, 10 from Canada, and the remainder from 18 other countries. The single-celled algal protist Chlamydomonas is a key research organism for many investigators, including those who study photosynthesis, cell motility, adaptation to environmental stresses, the evolution of multicellularity, and the production of biofuels. Chlamydomonas researchers gather every two years at a research conference to exchange methods, develop collaborative efforts, disseminate recent findings, and plan large-scale studies to improve the usefulness of this unique research organism. This conference provides the only opportunity for Chlamydomonas scientists who work on different research problems to meet face to face, and greatly speeds progress in their respective fields. An important function of these Chlamydomonas conferences is to promote and showcase the work of younger scientists, and to attract new investigators into the Chlamydomonas community. DOE award SC0004085 was used to offset the travel and registration costs for 18 young investigators, 9 of whom were women, including one African American. Most of these scientists would not have been able to attend the conference without DOE support. A total of 208 research presentations were made at the meeting, 80 talks (63 presented by students, postdocs, and pre-tenured faculty) and 128 posters. Cell motility and biofuels/metabolism were the best-represented research areas, with a total of 77 presentations. This fact underscores the growing importance of Chlamydomonas as a research and production tool in the rapidly expanding world of biofuels research. A total of 28 talks and posters were presented on the topics of photosynthesis and stress responses, which were among the next best-represented research areas. As at several recent Chlamydomonas meetings, important advances were

  19. Advances in retinal ganglion cell imaging

    PubMed Central

    Balendra, S I; Normando, E M; Bloom, P A; Cordeiro, M F

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide and will affect 79.6 million people worldwide by 2020. It is caused by the progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), predominantly via apoptosis, within the retinal nerve fibre layer and the corresponding loss of axons of the optic nerve head. One of its most devastating features is its late diagnosis and the resulting irreversible visual loss that is often predictable. Current diagnostic tools require significant RGC or functional visual field loss before the threshold for detection of glaucoma may be reached. To propel the efficacy of therapeutics in glaucoma, an earlier diagnostic tool is required. Recent advances in retinal imaging, including optical coherence tomography, confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, and adaptive optics, have propelled both glaucoma research and clinical diagnostics and therapeutics. However, an ideal imaging technique to diagnose and monitor glaucoma would image RGCs non-invasively with high specificity and sensitivity in vivo. It may confirm the presence of healthy RGCs, such as in transgenic models or retrograde labelling, or detect subtle changes in the number of unhealthy or apoptotic RGCs, such as detection of apoptosing retinal cells (DARC). Although many of these advances have not yet been introduced to the clinical arena, their successes in animal studies are enthralling. This review will illustrate the challenges of imaging RGCs, the main retinal imaging modalities, the in vivo techniques to augment these as specific RGC-imaging tools and their potential for translation to the glaucoma clinic. PMID:26293138

  20. Alfalfa living mulch advances biological control of soybean aphid.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Nicholas P; O'neal, Matthew E; Singer, Jeremy W

    2007-04-01

    Despite evidence for biological control in North America, outbreaks of the invasive soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), continue to occur on soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.). Our objectives were to determine whether natural enemies delay aphid establishment and limit subsequent population growth and whether biological control can be improved by altering the within-field habitat. We hypothesized that a living mulch would increase the abundance of the aphidophagous community in soybean and suppress A. glycines establishment and population growth. We measured natural enemy and A. glycines abundance in soybean grown with and without an alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) living mulch. Soybean grown with an alfalfa living mulch had 45% more natural enemies and experienced a delay in A. glycines establishment that resulted in lower peak populations. From our experiments, we concluded that the current natural enemy community in Iowa can delay A. glycines establishment, and an increase in aphidophagous predator abundance lowered the rate of A. glycines population growth preventing economic populations (i.e., below the current economic threshold) from occurring. Incorporation of a living mulch had an unexpected impact on A. glycines population growth, lowering the aphids' intrinsic rate of growth, thus providing a bottom-up suppression of A. glycines. We suggest future studies of living mulches or cover crops for A. glycines management should address both potential sources of suppression. Furthermore, our experience suggests that more consistent biological control of A. glycines may be possible with even partial resistance that slows but does not prevent reproduction.

  1. Cell Biology Apps for Apple Devices

    PubMed Central

    Stark, Louisa A.

    2012-01-01

    Apps for touch-pad devices hold promise for guiding and supporting learning. Students may use them in the classroom or on their own for didactic instruction, just-in-time learning, or review. Since Apple touch-pad devices (i.e., iPad and iPhone) have a substantial share of the touch-pad device market (Campbell, 2012), this Feature will explore cell biology apps available from the App Store. My review includes iPad and iPhone apps available in June 2012, but does not include courses, lectures, podcasts, audiobooks, texts, or other books. I rated each app on a five-point scale (1 star = lowest; 5 stars = highest) for educational and production values; I also provide an overall score. PMID:22949420

  2. Cell biology apps for Apple devices.

    PubMed

    Stark, Louisa A

    2012-01-01

    Apps for touch-pad devices hold promise for guiding and supporting learning. Students may use them in the classroom or on their own for didactic instruction, just-in-time learning, or review. Since Apple touch-pad devices (i.e., iPad and iPhone) have a substantial share of the touch-pad device market (Campbell, 2012), this Feature will explore cell biology apps available from the App Store. My review includes iPad and iPhone apps available in June 2012, but does not include courses, lectures, podcasts, audiobooks, texts, or other books. I rated each app on a five-point scale (1 star = lowest; 5 stars = highest) for educational and production values; I also provide an overall score.

  3. Multi-scale modeling in cell biology

    PubMed Central

    Meier-Schellersheim, Martin; Fraser, Iain D. C.; Klauschen, Frederick

    2009-01-01

    Biomedical research frequently involves performing experiments and developing hypotheses that link different scales of biological systems such as, for instance, the scales of intracellular molecular interactions to the scale of cellular behavior and beyond to the behavior of cell populations. Computational modeling efforts that aim at exploring such multi-scale systems quantitatively with the help of simulations have to incorporate several different simulation techniques due to the different time and space scales involved. Here, we provide a non-technical overview of how different scales of experimental research can be combined with the appropriate computational modeling techniques. We also show that current modeling software permits building and simulating multi-scale models without having to become involved with the underlying technical details of computational modeling. PMID:20448808

  4. Perspectives and advances of biological H2 production in microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Rupprecht, Jens; Hankamer, Ben; Mussgnug, Jan H; Ananyev, Gennady; Dismukes, Charles; Kruse, Olaf

    2006-09-01

    The rapid development of clean fuels for the future is a critically important global challenge for two main reasons. First, new fuels are needed to supplement and ultimately replace depleting oil reserves. Second, fuels capable of zero CO2 emissions are needed to slow the impact of global warming. This review summarizes the development of solar powered bio-H2 production processes based on the conversion of photosynthetic products by fermentative bacteria, as well as using photoheterotrophic and photoautrophic organisms. The use of advanced bioreactor systems and their potential and limitations in terms of process design, efficiency, and cost are also briefly reviewed.

  5. The emerging age of cell-free synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Smith, Mark Thomas; Wilding, Kristen M; Hunt, Jeremy M; Bennett, Anthony M; Bundy, Bradley C

    2014-08-25

    The engineering of and mastery over biological parts has catalyzed the emergence of synthetic biology. This field has grown exponentially in the past decade. As increasingly more applications of synthetic biology are pursued, more challenges are encountered, such as delivering genetic material into cells and optimizing genetic circuits in vivo. An in vitro or cell-free approach to synthetic biology simplifies and avoids many of the pitfalls of in vivo synthetic biology. In this review, we describe some of the innate features that make cell-free systems compelling platforms for synthetic biology and discuss emerging improvements of cell-free technologies. We also select and highlight recent and emerging applications of cell-free synthetic biology.

  6. Crosstalk between stromal cells and cancer cells in pancreatic cancer: New insights into stromal biology.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Han-Xiang; Zhou, Bin; Cheng, Yu-Gang; Xu, Jian-Wei; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Guang-Yong; Hu, San-Yuan

    2017-04-28

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) remains one of the most lethal malignancies worldwide. Increasing evidence has confirmed the pivotal role of stromal components in the regulation of carcinogenesis, invasion, metastasis, and therapeutic resistance in PC. Interaction between neoplastic cells and stromal cells builds a specific microenvironment, which further modulates the malignant properties of cancer cells. Instead of being a "passive bystander", stroma may play a role as a "partner in crime" in PC. However, the role of stromal components in PC is complex and requires further investigation. In this article, we review recent advances regarding the regulatory roles and mechanisms of stroma biology, especially the cellular components such as pancreatic stellate cells, macrophages, neutrophils, adipocytes, epithelial cells, pericytes, mast cells, and lymphocytes, in PC. Crosstalk between stromal cells and cancer cells is thoroughly investigated. We also review the prognostic value and molecular therapeutic targets of stroma in PC. This review may help us further understand the molecular mechanisms of stromal biology and its role in PC development and therapeutic resistance. Moreover, targeting stroma components may provide new therapeutic strategies for this stubborn disease.

  7. SysBioMed report: advancing systems biology for medical applications.

    PubMed

    Wolkenhauer, O; Fell, D; De Meyts, P; Blüthgen, N; Herzel, H; Le Novère, N; Höfer, T; Schürrle, K; van Leeuwen, I

    2009-05-01

    The following report selects and summarises some of the conclusions and recommendations generated throughout a series of workshops and discussions that have lead to the publication of the Science Policy Briefing (SPB) Nr. 35, published by the European Science Foundation. (Large parts of the present text are directly based on the ESF SPB. Detailed recommendations with regard to specific application areas are not given here but can be found in the SPB. Issues related to mathematical modelling, including training and the need for an infrastructure supporting modelling are discussed in greater detail in the present text.)The numerous reports and publications about the advances within the rapidly growing field of systems biology have led to a plethora of alternative definitions for key concepts. Here, with 'mathematical modelling' the authors refer to the modelling and simulation of subcellular, cellular and macro-scale phenomena, using primarily methods from dynamical systems theory. The aim of such models is encoding and testing hypotheses about mechanisms underlying the functioning of cells. Typical examples are models for molecular networks, where the behaviour of cells is expressed in terms of quantitative changes in the levels of transcripts and gene products. Bioinformatics provides essential complementary tools, including procedures for pattern recognition, machine learning, statistical modelling (testing for differences, searching for associations and correlations) and secondary data extracted from databases.Dynamical systems theory is the natural language to investigate complex biological systems demonstrating nonlinear spatio-temporal behaviour. However, the generation of experimental data suitable to parameterise, calibrate and validate such models is often time consuming and expensive or not even possible with the technology available today. In our report, we use the term 'computational model' when mathematical models are complemented with information

  8. Machine learning in cell biology - teaching computers to recognize phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Christoph; Gerlich, Daniel W

    2013-12-15

    Recent advances in microscope automation provide new opportunities for high-throughput cell biology, such as image-based screening. High-complex image analysis tasks often make the implementation of static and predefined processing rules a cumbersome effort. Machine-learning methods, instead, seek to use intrinsic data structure, as well as the expert annotations of biologists to infer models that can be used to solve versatile data analysis tasks. Here, we explain how machine-learning methods work and what needs to be considered for their successful application in cell biology. We outline how microscopy images can be converted into a data representation suitable for machine learning, and then introduce various state-of-the-art machine-learning algorithms, highlighting recent applications in image-based screening. Our Commentary aims to provide the biologist with a guide to the application of machine learning to microscopy assays and we therefore include extensive discussion on how to optimize experimental workflow as well as the data analysis pipeline.

  9. Development and testing of new biologically-based polymers as advanced biocompatible contact lenses

    SciTech Connect

    Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2000-06-01

    Nature has evolved complex and elegant materials well suited to fulfill a myriad of functions. Lubricants, structural scaffolds and protective sheaths can all be found in nature, and these provide a rich source of inspiration for the rational design of materials for biomedical applications. Many biological materials are based in some fashion on hydrogels, the crosslinked polymers that absorb and hold water. Biological hydrogels contribute to processes as diverse as mineral nucleation during bone growth and protection and hydration of the cell surface. The carbohydrate layer that coats all living cells, often referred to as the glycocalyx, has hydrogel-like properties that keep cell surfaces well hydrated, segregated from neighboring cells, and resistant to non-specific protein deposition. With the molecular details of cell surface carbohydrates now in hand, adaptation of these structural motifs to synthetic materials is an appealing strategy for improving biocompatibility. The goal of this collaborative project between Prof. Bertozzi's research group, the Center for Advanced Materials at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Sunsoft Corporation was the design, synthesis and characterization of novel hydrogel polymers for improved soft contact lens materials. Our efforts were motivated by the urgent need for improved materials that allow extended wear, and essential feature for those whose occupation requires the use of contact lenses rather than traditional spectacles. Our strategy was to transplant the chemical features of cell surface molecules into contact lens materials so that they more closely resemble the tissue in which they reside. Specifically, we integrated carbohydrate molecules similar to those found on cell surfaces, and sulfoxide materials inspired by the properties of the carbohydrates, into hydrogels composed of biocompatible and manufacturable substrates. The new materials were characterized with respect to surface and bulk hydrophilicity, and

  10. From cell biology to the microbiome: An intentional infinite loop.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Wendy S

    2015-07-06

    Cell biology is the study of the structure and function of the unit or units of living organisms. Enabled by current and evolving technologies, cell biologists today are embracing new scientific challenges that span many disciplines. The eclectic nature of cell biology is core to its future and remains its enduring legacy.

  11. Advancing Systems Biology in the International Conference on Intelligent Biology and Medicine (ICIBM) 2015.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhongming; Liu, Yunlong; Huang, Yufei; Huang, Kun; Ruan, Jianhua

    2016-08-26

    The 2015 International Conference on Intelligent Biology and Medicine (ICIBM 2015) was held on November 13-15, 2015 in Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. ICIBM 2015 included eight scientific sessions, three tutorial sessions, one poster session, and four keynote presentations that covered the frontier research in broad areas related to bioinformatics, systems biology, big data science, biomedical informatics, pharmacogenomics, and intelligent computing. Here, we present a summary of the 10 research articles that were selected from ICIBM 2015 and included in the supplement to BMC Systems Biology.

  12. Advances in Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells, Genomics, Biomarkers, and Antiplatelet Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Barbato, Emanuele; Lara-Pezzi, Enrique; Stolen, Craig; Taylor, Angela; Barton, Paul J.; Bartunek, Jozef; Iaizzo, Paul; Judge, Daniel P.; Kirshenbaum, Lorrie; Blaxall, Burns C.; Terzic, Andre; Hall, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    The Journal provides the clinician and scientist with the latest advances in discovery research, emerging technologies, pre-clinical research design and testing, and clinical trials. We highlight advances in areas of induced pluripotent stem cells, genomics, biomarkers, multi-modality imaging and antiplatelet biology and therapy. The top publications are critically discussed and presented along with anatomical reviews and FDA insight to provide context. PMID:24659088

  13. Recent advances in molecular biology of parasitic viruses.

    PubMed

    Banik, Gouri Rani; Stark, Damien; Rashid, Harunor; Ellis, John T

    2014-01-01

    The numerous protozoa that can inhabit the human gastro-intestinal tract are known, yet little is understood of the viruses which infect these protozoa. The discovery, morphologic details, purification methods of virus-like particles, genome and proteome of the parasitic viruses, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, Trichomonas vaginalis, and the Eimeria sp. are described in this review. The protozoan viruses share many common features: most of them are RNA or double-stranded RNA viruses, ranging between 5 and 8 kilobases, and are spherical or icosahedral in shape with an average diameter of 30-40 nm. These viruses may influence the function and pathogenicity of the protozoa which they infect, and may be important to investigate from a clinical perspective. The viruses may be used as specific genetic transfection vectors for the parasites and may represent a research tool. This review provides an overview on recent advances in the field of protozoan viruses.

  14. Computational cell biology at the home of the helix.

    PubMed

    Ward, Jonathan J; Nédélec, Francois J

    2010-06-01

    The Computational Cell Biology Conference, held jointly by the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory and the Wellcome Trust, was convened in the grand surroundings of Hinxton Hall near Cambridge, UK. The high quality of the research presented at the meeting confirmed that the field of computational cell biology is maturing rapidly, which mirrors the progression of cell biology from being mostly descriptive to a more quantitative discipline.

  15. Dynamic and rheological properties of soft biological cell suspensions

    PubMed Central

    Yazdani, Alireza; Li, Xuejin

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying dynamic and rheological properties of suspensions of soft biological particles such as vesicles, capsules, and red blood cells (RBCs) is fundamentally important in computational biology and biomedical engineering. In this review, recent studies on dynamic and rheological behavior of soft biological cell suspensions by computer simulations are presented, considering both unbounded and confined shear flow. Furthermore, the hemodynamic and hemorheological characteristics of RBCs in diseases such as malaria and sickle cell anemia are highlighted. PMID:27540271

  16. Biology and Industrial Applications of Chlorella: Advances and Prospects.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin; Chen, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Chlorella represents a group of eukaryotic green microalgae that has been receiving increasing scientific and commercial interest. It possesses high photosynthetic ability and is capable of growing robustly under mixotrophic and heterotrophic conditions as well. Chlorella has long been considered as a source of protein and is now industrially produced for human food and animal feed. Chlorella is also rich in oil, an ideal feedstock for biofuels. The exploration of biofuel production by Chlorella is underway. Chlorella has the ability to fix carbon dioxide efficiently and to remove nutrients of nitrogen and phosphorous, making it a good candidate for greenhouse gas biomitigation and wastewater bioremediation. In addition, Chlorella shows potential as an alternative expression host for recombinant protein production, though challenges remain to be addressed. Currently, omics analyses of certain Chlorella strains are being performed, which will help to unravel the biological implications of Chlorella and facilitate the future exploration of industrial applications.

  17. Cell Biology of Thiazide Bone Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamba, Gerardo; Riccardi, Daniela

    2008-09-01

    The thiazide-sensitive Na+:Cl- cotransporter (NCC) is the major pathway for salt reabsorption in the mammalian kidney. The activity of NCC is not only related to salt metabolism, but also to calcium and magnesium homeostasis due to the inverse relationship between NCC activity and calcium reabsorption. Hence, the thiazide-type diuretics that specifically block NCC have been used for years, not only for treatment of hypertension and edematous disease, but also for the management of renal stone disease. Epidemiological studies have shown that chronic thiazide treatment is associated with higher bone mineral density and reduced risk of bone fractures, which can only partly be explained in terms of their effects on the kidney. In this regard, we have recently shown that NCC is expressed in bone cells and that inhibition of NCC in bone, either by thiazides or by reduction of NCC protein with specific siRNA, is associated with increased mineralization in vitro. These observations open a field of study to begin to understand the cell biology of the beneficial effects of thiazides in bone.

  18. Cell Biology and Pathology of Podocytes

    PubMed Central

    Greka, Anna; Mundel, Peter

    2013-01-01

    As an integral member of the filtration barrier in the kidney glomerulus, the podocyte is in a unique geographical position: It is exposed to chemical signals from the urinary space (Bowman’s capsule), it receives and transmits chemical and mechanical signals to/from the glomerular basement membrane upon which it elaborates, and it receives chemical and mechanical signals from the vascular space with which it also communicates. As with every cell, the ability of the podocyte to receive signals from the surrounding environment and to translate them to the intracellular milieu is dependent largely on molecules residing on the cell membrane. These molecules are the first-line soldiers in the ongoing battle to sense the environment, to respond to friendly signals, and to defend against injurious foes. In this review, we take a membrane biologist’s view of the podocyte, examining the many membrane receptors, channels, and other signaling molecules that have been implicated in podocyte biology. Although we attempt to be comprehensive, our goal is not to capture every membrane-mediated pathway but rather to emphasize that this approach may be fruitful in understanding the podocyte and its unique properties. PMID:22054238

  19. Advanced membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yu Seung; Pivovar, Bryan S

    2014-02-25

    A method of preparing advanced membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) for use in fuel cells. A base polymer is selected for a base membrane. An electrode composition is selected to optimize properties exhibited by the membrane electrode assembly based on the selection of the base polymer. A property-tuning coating layer composition is selected based on compatibility with the base polymer and the electrode composition. A solvent is selected based on the interaction of the solvent with the base polymer and the property-tuning coating layer composition. The MEA is assembled by preparing the base membrane and then applying the property-tuning coating layer to form a composite membrane. Finally, a catalyst is applied to the composite membrane.

  20. Advanced membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yu Seung; Pivovar, Bryan S.

    2012-07-24

    A method of preparing advanced membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) for use in fuel cells. A base polymer is selected for a base membrane. An electrode composition is selected to optimize properties exhibited by the membrane electrode assembly based on the selection of the base polymer. A property-tuning coating layer composition is selected based on compatibility with the base polymer and the electrode composition. A solvent is selected based on the interaction of the solvent with the base polymer and the property-tuning coating layer composition. The MEA is assembled by preparing the base membrane and then applying the property-tuning coating layer to form a composite membrane. Finally, a catalyst is applied to the composite membrane.

  1. Recent advances in yeast molecular biology: recombinant DNA. [Lead abstract

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-09-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 25 papers presented at a workshop focusing on chromosomal structure, gene regulation, recombination, DNA repair, and cell type control, that have been obtained by experimental approaches incorporating the new technologies of yeast DNA transformation, molecular cloning, and DNA sequence analysis. (KRM)

  2. Biology and clinical application of CAR T cells for B cell malignancies.

    PubMed

    Davila, Marco L; Sadelain, Michel

    2016-07-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells have generated broad interest in oncology following a series of dramatic clinical successes in patients with chemorefractory B cell malignancies. CAR therapy now appears to be on the cusp of regulatory approval as a cell-based immunotherapy. We review here the T cell biology and cell engineering research that led to the development of second generation CARs, the selection of CD19 as a CAR target, and the preclinical studies in animal models that laid the foundation for clinical trials targeting CD19+ malignancies. We further summarize the status of CD19 CAR clinical therapy for non-Hodgkin lymphoma and B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, including their efficacy, toxicities (cytokine release syndrome, neurotoxicity and B cell aplasia) and current management in humans. We conclude with an overview of recent pre-clinical advances in CAR design that argues favorably for the advancement of CAR therapy to tackle other hematological malignancies as well as solid tumors.

  3. The emerging biology of muscle stem cells: implications for cell-based therapies.

    PubMed

    Bentzinger, C Florian; Wang, Yu Xin; von Maltzahn, Julia; Rudnicki, Michael A

    2013-03-01

    Cell-based therapies for degenerative diseases of the musculature remain on the verge of feasibility. Myogenic cells are relatively abundant, accessible, and typically harbor significant proliferative potential ex vivo. However, their use for therapeutic intervention is limited due to several critical aspects of their complex biology. Recent insights based on mouse models have advanced our understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling the function of myogenic progenitors significantly. Moreover, the discovery of atypical myogenic cell types with the ability to cross the blood-muscle barrier has opened exciting new therapeutic avenues. In this paper, we outline the major problems that are currently associated with the manipulation of myogenic cells and discuss promising strategies to overcome these obstacles.

  4. Synthetic Biology and Microbial Fuel Cells: Towards Self-Sustaining Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogan, John Andrew

    2014-01-01

    NASA ARC and the J. Craig Venter Institute (JCVI) collaborated to investigate the development of advanced microbial fuels cells (MFCs) for biological wastewater treatment and electricity production (electrogenesis). Synthetic biology techniques and integrated hardware advances were investigated to increase system efficiency and robustness, with the intent of increasing power self-sufficiency and potential product formation from carbon dioxide. MFCs possess numerous advantages for space missions, including rapid processing, reduced biomass and effective removal of organics, nitrogen and phosphorus. Project efforts include developing space-based MFC concepts, integration analyses, increasing energy efficiency, and investigating novel bioelectrochemical system applications

  5. The cell biology of bone growth.

    PubMed

    Price, J S; Oyajobi, B O; Russell, R G

    1994-02-01

    The field of bone cell biology is clearly of relevance to the problem of stunting in children, as in the final analysis the cells of the growing long bone are the ultimate 'regulators'. It is the alterations in the functions of these cells that manifests as a reduction in height. Normal longitudinal growth is achieved by the coordinated recruitment, proliferation, differentiation, maturation and eventual death of the cells of growth plate and bone. Cellular activity is closely regulated by endocrine factors acting directly or indirectly, with factors produced locally and stored within the bone and cartilage microenvironment having a critical role in intercellular communication. Disruption of any of these processes can lead to growth disturbances, since it only requires a defect in a single gene to have profound effects. Studies in recent years have shed light on the biochemical and molecular effects of cytokines and growth factors and have shown that these regulatory molecules may mediate the effects of certain hormones important in controlling growth. However, the complex interrelationship of these molecules is still not clear. Notwithstanding, understanding of the mechanisms involved in bone remodelling is increasing, as this area attracts much research because of the high incidence of metabolic bone disease in Western society. Although studies of adult bone remodelling are of relevance, there is a requirement for increased research directed specifically at the mechanisms of endochondral ossification and its regulation. Longitudinal bone growth is a challenge to the cell biologist, since it is an accelerated cycle of cellular division and differentiation, within which it is not easy to separate events temporally and spatially. In addition, different regulatory mechanisms are probably important at different stages of growth. Another difficulty impeding progress in this field is the lack of appropriate animal models for research. Much information has come from

  6. Advances in space biology and medicine. Vol. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonting, Sjoerd L. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Topics discussed include the effects of prolonged spaceflights on the human body; skeletal responses to spaceflight; gravity effects on reproduction, development, and aging; neurovestibular physiology in fish; and gravity perception and circumnutation in plants. Attention is also given to the development of higher plants under altered gravitational conditions; the techniques, findings, and theory concerning gravity effects on single cells; protein crystal growth in space; and facilities for animal research in space.

  7. ``Physical Concepts in Cell Biology,'' an upper level interdisciplinary course in cell biophysics/mathematical biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vavylonis, Dimitrios

    2009-03-01

    I will describe my experience in developing an interdisciplinary biophysics course addressed to students at the upper undergraduate and graduate level, in collaboration with colleagues in physics and biology. The students had a background in physics, biology and engineering, and for many the course was their first exposure to interdisciplinary topics. The course did not depend on a formal knowledge of equilibrium statistical mechanics. Instead, the approach was based on dynamics. I used diffusion as a universal ``long time'' law to illustrate scaling concepts. The importance of statistics and proper counting of states/paths was introduced by calculating the maximum accuracy with which bacteria can measure the concentration of diffuse chemicals. The use of quantitative concepts and methods was introduced through specific biological examples, focusing on model organisms and extremes at the cell level. Examples included microtubule dynamic instability, the search and capture model, molecular motor cooperativity in muscle cells, mitotic spindle oscillations in C. elegans, polymerization forces and propulsion of pathogenic bacteria, Brownian ratchets, bacterial cell division and MinD oscillations.

  8. Advances in detection of antipsychotics in biological matrices.

    PubMed

    Patteet, Lisbeth; Cappelle, Delphine; Maudens, Kristof E; Crunelle, Cleo L; Sabbe, Bernard; Neels, Hugo

    2015-02-20

    Measuring antipsychotic concentrations in human matrices is important for both therapeutic drug monitoring and forensic toxicology. This review provides a critical overview of the analytical methods for detection and quantification of antipsychotics published in the last four years. Focus lies on advances in sample preparation, analytical techniques and alternative matrices. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is used most often for quantification of antipsychotics. This sensitive technique makes it possible to determine low concentrations not only in serum, plasma or whole blood, but also in alternative matrices like oral fluid, dried blood spots, hair, nails and other body tissues. Current literature on analytical techniques for alternative matrices is still limited and often requires a more thorough validation including a comparison between conventional and alternative results to determine their actual value. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) makes it possible to quantify a high amount of compounds within a shorter run time. This technique is widely used for multi-analyte methods. Only recently, high-resolution mass spectrometry has gained importance when a combination of screening of (un)known metabolites, and quantification is required.

  9. Engineering derivatives from biological systems for advanced aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winfield, Daniel L.; Hering, Dean H.; Cole, David

    1991-01-01

    The present study consisted of a literature survey, a survey of researchers, and a workshop on bionics. These tasks produced an extensive annotated bibliography of bionics research (282 citations), a directory of bionics researchers, and a workshop report on specific bionics research topics applicable to space technology. These deliverables are included as Appendix A, Appendix B, and Section 5.0, respectively. To provide organization to this highly interdisciplinary field and to serve as a guide for interested researchers, we have also prepared a taxonomy or classification of the various subelements of natural engineering systems. Finally, we have synthesized the results of the various components of this study into a discussion of the most promising opportunities for accelerated research, seeking solutions which apply engineering principles from natural systems to advanced aerospace problems. A discussion of opportunities within the areas of materials, structures, sensors, information processing, robotics, autonomous systems, life support systems, and aeronautics is given. Following the conclusions are six discipline summaries that highlight the potential benefits of research in these areas for NASA's space technology programs.

  10. Sub-terahertz resonance spectroscopy of biological macromolecules and cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Globus, Tatiana; Moyer, Aaron; Gelmont, Boris; Khromova, Tatyana; Sizov, Igor; Ferrance, Jerome

    2013-05-01

    Recently we introduced a Sub-THz spectroscopic system for characterizing vibrational resonance features from biological materials. This new, continuous-wave, frequency-domain spectroscopic sensor operates at room temperature between 315 and 480 GHz with spectral resolution of at least 1 GHz and utilizes the source and detector components from Virginia Diode, Inc. In this work we present experimental results and interpretation of spectroscopic signatures from bacterial cells and their biological macromolecule structural components. Transmission and absorption spectra of the bacterial protein thioredoxin, DNA and lyophilized cells of Escherichia coli (E. coli), as well as spores of Bacillus subtillis and B. atrophaeus have been characterized. Experimental results for biomolecules are compared with absorption spectra calculated using molecular dynamics simulation, and confirm the underlying physics for resonance spectroscopy based on interactions between THz radiation and vibrational modes or groups of modes of atomic motions. Such interactions result in multiple intense and narrow specific resonances in transmission/absorption spectra from nano-gram samples with spectral line widths as small as 3 GHz. The results of this study indicate diverse relaxation dynamic mechanisms relevant to sub-THz vibrational spectroscopy, including long-lasting processes. We demonstrate that high sensitivity in resolved specific absorption fingerprints provides conditions for reliable detection, identification and discrimination capability, to the level of strains of the same bacteria, and for monitoring interactions between biomaterials and reagents in near real-time. Additionally, it creates the basis for the development of new types of advanced biological sensors through integrating the developed system with a microfluidic platform for biomaterial samples.

  11. Final Technical Report - Use of Systems Biology Approaches to Develop Advanced Biofuel-Synthesizing Cyanobacterial Strains

    SciTech Connect

    Pakrasi, Himadri

    2016-09-01

    The overall objective of this project was to use a systems biology approach to evaluate the potentials of a number of cyanobacterial strains for photobiological production of advanced biofuels and/or their chemical precursors. Cyanobacteria are oxygen evolving photosynthetic prokaryotes. Among them, certain unicellular species such as Cyanothece can also fix N2, a process that is exquisitely sensitive to oxygen. To accommodate such incompatible processes in a single cell, Cyanothece produces oxygen during the day, and creates an O2-limited intracellular environment during the night to perform O2-sensitive processes such as N2-fixation. Thus, Cyanothece cells are natural bioreactors for the storage of captured solar energy with subsequent utilization at a different time during a diurnal cycle. Our studies include the identification of a novel, fast-growing, mixotrophic, transformable cyanobacterium. This strain has been sequenced and will be made available to the community. In addition, we have developed genome-scale models for a family of cyanobacteria to assess their metabolic repertoire. Furthermore, we developed a method for rapid construction of metabolic models using multiple annotation sources and a metabolic model of a related organism. This method will allow rapid annotation and screening of potential phenotypes based on the newly available genome sequences of many organisms.

  12. Cell biology and pathology of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Enomoto, Katsuhiko; Nishikawa, Yuji; Omori, Yasufumi; Tokairin, Takuo; Yoshida, Masayuki; Ohi, Naoto; Nishimura, Takuya; Yamamoto, Youhei; Li, Qinchang

    2004-12-01

    Growing evidence revealed that liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (SEC) play several important roles in physiology and pathology of the liver. It has been well understood that their structural characteristics, such as the membrane sieve and lack of basement membrane, facilitate direct contact of soluble and insoluble serum substances with hepatic parenchymal cells, resulting in enhancement of hepatic metabolic activity. In addition, SEC is now regarded as a member of the scavenger endothelial cells, which have potential to eliminate a variety of macromolecules from the blood circulation by receptor-mediated endocytosis. It is reported that molecules preferentially eliminated by SEC are denatured or modified proteins such as advanced glycation end products, extracellular matrix components including hyaluronic acid, and some lipoproteins. The nature of the scavenger receptors corresponding to these molecules remains to be clarified. Recently, it was noted that SEC has an antigen-presenting function similar to dendritic cells. Taken together, it is suggested that SEC, cooperating with Kupffer cells and hepatic dendritic cells, may partake of immunoregulatory functions in the liver. SEC also plays a pivotal role in the pathological process of ischemia-reperfusion injury following liver surgery and liver transplantation. Thus, it is of importance to elucidate the mechanisms of apoptosis and proliferation of SEC. Recent results on the regulation of growth and apoptotic signaling of SEC are discussed.

  13. Improving human forensics through advances in genetics, genomics and molecular biology.

    PubMed

    Kayser, Manfred; de Knijff, Peter

    2011-03-01

    Forensic DNA profiling currently allows the identification of persons already known to investigating authorities. Recent advances have produced new types of genetic markers with the potential to overcome some important limitations of current DNA profiling methods. Moreover, other developments are enabling completely new kinds of forensically relevant information to be extracted from biological samples. These include new molecular approaches for finding individuals previously unknown to investigators, and new molecular methods to support links between forensic sample donors and criminal acts. Such advances in genetics, genomics and molecular biology are likely to improve human forensic case work in the near future.

  14. Advanced mast cell disease: an Italian Hematological Multicenter experience.

    PubMed

    Pagano, Livio; Valentini, Caterina Giovanna; Caira, Morena; Rondoni, Michela; Van Lint, Maria Teresa; Candoni, Anna; Allione, Bernardino; Cattaneo, Chiara; Marbello, Laura; Caramatti, Cecilia; Pogliani, Enrico Maria; Iannitto, Emilio; Giona, Fiorina; Ferrara, Felicetto; Invernizzi, Rosangela; Fanci, Rosa; Lunghi, Monia; Fianchi, Luana; Sanpaolo, Grazia; Stefani, Pietro Maria; Pulsoni, Alessandro; Martinelli, Giovanni; Leone, Giuseppe; Musto, Pellegrino

    2008-12-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate clinical features, treatments and outcome of patients with systemic mast cell disease (MCD) who arrived to the attention of hematologists. A retrospective study was conducted over 1995-2006 in patients admitted in 18 Italian hematological divisions. Twenty-four cases of advanced MCD were collected: 12 aggressive SM (50%), 8 mast cell leukemia (33%), 4 SM with associated clonal non-mast cell-lineage hematologic disease (17%). Spleen and liver were the principal extramedullary organ involved. The c-kit point mutation D816V was found in 13/18 patients in which molecular biology studies were performed (72%). Treatments were very heterogeneous: on the whole Imatinib was administered in 17 patients, alpha-Interferon in 8, 2-CdA in 3; 2 patients underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The overall response rate to Imatinib, the most frequently employed drugs, was of 29%, registering one complete remission and four partial remission; all responsive patients did not present D816V c-kit mutation. Overall three patients (12%) died for progression of disease. We conclude that MCD is characterized by severe mediator-related symptoms but with a moderate mortality rate. D816V c-kit mutation is frequent and associated with resistance against Imatinib. Because of the rarity of these forms, an effective standard of care is lacking. More data are needed to find new and successful therapeutic strategies.

  15. Genome Annotation in a Community College Cell Biology Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beagley, C. Timothy

    2013-01-01

    The Biology Department at Salt Lake Community College has used the IMG-ACT toolbox to introduce a genome mapping and annotation exercise into the laboratory portion of its Cell Biology course. This project provides students with an authentic inquiry-based learning experience while introducing them to computational biology and contemporary learning…

  16. "Sickle Cell Anemia: Tracking down a Mutation": An Interactive Learning Laboratory That Communicates Basic Principles of Genetics and Cellular Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrett, Kevin; Williams, Mary; Horn, Spencer; Radford, David; Wyss, J. Michael

    2016-01-01

    "Sickle cell anemia: tracking down a mutation" is a full-day, inquiry-based, biology experience for high school students enrolled in genetics or advanced biology courses. In the experience, students use restriction endonuclease digestion, cellulose acetate gel electrophoresis, and microscopy to discover which of three putative patients…

  17. Semantics for Biological Data Resource: Cell Image Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 165 NIST Semantics for Biological Data Resource: Cell Image Database (Web, free access)   This Database is a prototype to test concepts for semantic searching of cell image data based on experimental details.

  18. The role of mitochondria in stem cell biology.

    PubMed

    Nesti, Claudia; Pasquali, Livia; Vaglini, Francesca; Siciliano, Gabriele; Murri, Luigi

    2007-06-01

    This mini-review summarizes the current literature on the role of mitochondrial DNA mutations and mitochondrial metabolism in stem cell biology. The possible uses of stem cells as a therapeutic tool in mitochondrial disorders are also reported.

  19. Cell Biology of Cnidarian-Dinoflagellate Symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Allemand, Denis; Weis, Virginia M.

    2012-01-01

    Summary: The symbiosis between cnidarians (e.g., corals or sea anemones) and intracellular dinoflagellate algae of the genus Symbiodinium is of immense ecological importance. In particular, this symbiosis promotes the growth and survival of reef corals in nutrient-poor tropical waters; indeed, coral reefs could not exist without this symbiosis. However, our fundamental understanding of the cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis and of its links to coral calcification remains poor. Here we review what we currently know about the cell biology of cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis. In doing so, we aim to refocus attention on fundamental cellular aspects that have been somewhat neglected since the early to mid-1980s, when a more ecological approach began to dominate. We review the four major processes that we believe underlie the various phases of establishment and persistence in the cnidarian/coral-dinoflagellate symbiosis: (i) recognition and phagocytosis, (ii) regulation of host-symbiont biomass, (iii) metabolic exchange and nutrient trafficking, and (iv) calcification. Where appropriate, we draw upon examples from a range of cnidarian-alga symbioses, including the symbiosis between green Hydra and its intracellular chlorophyte symbiont, which has considerable potential to inform our understanding of the cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis. Ultimately, we provide a comprehensive overview of the history of the field, its current status, and where it should be going in the future. PMID:22688813

  20. Systems Biology Perspectives on Minimal and Simpler Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xavier, Joana C.; Patil, Kiran Raosaheb

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The concept of the minimal cell has fascinated scientists for a long time, from both fundamental and applied points of view. This broad concept encompasses extreme reductions of genomes, the last universal common ancestor (LUCA), the creation of semiartificial cells, and the design of protocells and chassis cells. Here we review these different areas of research and identify common and complementary aspects of each one. We focus on systems biology, a discipline that is greatly facilitating the classical top-down and bottom-up approaches toward minimal cells. In addition, we also review the so-called middle-out approach and its contributions to the field with mathematical and computational models. Owing to the advances in genomics technologies, much of the work in this area has been centered on minimal genomes, or rather minimal gene sets, required to sustain life. Nevertheless, a fundamental expansion has been taking place in the last few years wherein the minimal gene set is viewed as a backbone of a more complex system. Complementing genomics, progress is being made in understanding the system-wide properties at the levels of the transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome. Network modeling approaches are enabling the integration of these different omics data sets toward an understanding of the complex molecular pathways connecting genotype to phenotype. We review key concepts central to the mapping and modeling of this complexity, which is at the heart of research on minimal cells. Finally, we discuss the distinction between minimizing the number of cellular components and minimizing cellular complexity, toward an improved understanding and utilization of minimal and simpler cells. PMID:25184563

  1. Synthetic biology: programming cells for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Hörner, Maximilian; Reischmann, Nadine; Weber, Wilfried

    2012-01-01

    The emerging field of synthetic biology is a novel biological discipline at the interface between traditional biology, chemistry, and engineering sciences. Synthetic biology aims at the rational design of complex synthetic biological devices and systems with desired properties by combining compatible, modular biological parts in a systematic manner. While the first engineered systems were mainly proof-of-principle studies to demonstrate the power of the modular engineering approach of synthetic biology, subsequent systems focus on applications in the health, environmental, and energy sectors. This review describes recent approaches for biomedical applications that were developed along the synthetic biology design hierarchy, at the level of individual parts, of devices, and of complex multicellular systems. It describes how synthetic biological parts can be used for the synthesis of drug-delivery tools, how synthetic biological devices can facilitate the discovery of novel drugs, and how multicellular synthetic ecosystems can give insight into population dynamics of parasites and hosts. These examples demonstrate how this new discipline could contribute to novel solutions in the biopharmaceutical industry.

  2. Industrial systems biology and its impact on synthetic biology of yeast cell factories.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Eugene; Krivoruchko, Anastasia; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-06-01

    Engineering industrial cell factories to effectively yield a desired product while dealing with industrially relevant stresses is usually the most challenging step in the development of industrial production of chemicals using microbial fermentation processes. Using synthetic biology tools, microbial cell factories such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be engineered to express synthetic pathways for the production of fuels, biopharmaceuticals, fragrances, and food flavors. However, directing fluxes through these synthetic pathways towards the desired product can be demanding due to complex regulation or poor gene expression. Systems biology, which applies computational tools and mathematical modeling to understand complex biological networks, can be used to guide synthetic biology design. Here, we present our perspective on how systems biology can impact synthetic biology towards the goal of developing improved yeast cell factories. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1164-1170. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Peroxisystem: harnessing systems cell biology to study peroxisomes.

    PubMed

    Schuldiner, Maya; Zalckvar, Einat

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, high-throughput experimentation with quantitative analysis and modelling of cells, recently dubbed systems cell biology, has been harnessed to study the organisation and dynamics of simple biological systems. Here, we suggest that the peroxisome, a fascinating dynamic organelle, can be used as a good candidate for studying a complete biological system. We discuss several aspects of peroxisomes that can be studied using high-throughput systematic approaches and be integrated into a predictive model. Such approaches can be used in the future to study and understand how a more complex biological system, like a cell and maybe even ultimately a whole organism, works.

  4. Advances in induced pluripotent stem cells, genomics, biomarkers, and antiplatelet therapy highlights of the year in JCTR 2013.

    PubMed

    Barbato, Emanuele; Lara-Pezzi, Enrique; Stolen, Craig; Taylor, Angela; Barton, Paul J; Bartunek, Jozef; Iaizzo, Paul; Judge, Daniel P; Kirshenbaum, Lorrie; Blaxall, Burns C; Terzic, Andre; Hall, Jennifer L

    2014-07-01

    The Journal provides the clinician and scientist with the latest advances in discovery research, emerging technologies, preclinical research design and testing, and clinical trials. We highlight advances in areas of induced pluripotent stem cells, genomics, biomarkers, multimodality imaging, and antiplatelet biology and therapy. The top publications are critically discussed and presented along with anatomical reviews and FDA insight to provide context.

  5. A Diagnostic Assessment for Introductory Molecular and Cell Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Jia; Wood, William B.; Martin, Jennifer M.; Guild, Nancy A.; Vicens, Quentin; Knight, Jennifer K.

    2010-01-01

    We have developed and validated a tool for assessing understanding of a selection of fundamental concepts and basic knowledge in undergraduate introductory molecular and cell biology, focusing on areas in which students often have misconceptions. This multiple-choice Introductory Molecular and Cell Biology Assessment (IMCA) instrument is designed…

  6. Miniaturized biological and electrochemical fuel cells: challenges and applications.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Ghobadian, Sasan; Goodrich, Payton J; Montazami, Reza; Hashemi, Nastaran

    2013-09-14

    This paper discusses the fundamentals and developments of miniaturized fuel cells, both biological and electrochemical. An overview of microfluidic fuel cells, miniaturized microbial fuel cells, enzymatic biofuel cells, and implanted biofuel cells in an attempt to provide green energy and to power implanted microdevices is provided. Also, the challenges and applications of each type of fuel cell are discussed in detail. Most recent developments in fuel cell technologies such as novel catalysts, compact designs, and fabrication methods are reviewed.

  7. Technological advancements for the detection of and protection against biological and chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Eubanks, Lisa M; Dickerson, Tobin J; Janda, Kim D

    2007-03-01

    There is a growing need for technological advancements to combat agents of chemical and biological warfare, particularly in the context of the deliberate use of a chemical and/or biological warfare agent by a terrorist organization. In this tutorial review, we describe methods that have been developed both for the specific detection of biological and chemical warfare agents in a field setting, as well as potential therapeutic approaches for treating exposure to these toxic species. In particular, nerve agents are described as a typical chemical warfare agent, and the two potent biothreat agents, anthrax and botulinum neurotoxin, are used as illustrative examples of potent weapons for which countermeasures are urgently needed.

  8. Role of O.G. Gazenko in formation and advancement of space biology and medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoriev, Anatoly I.

    2011-05-01

    Oleg G. Gazenko belongs to the noble cohort of pupils of well-known Russian physiologist L.A. Orbeli. He was one of the fathers of space biology and medicine, discipline in which he displayed his brilliant talents of experimenter and thinker. He was acknowledged for the investigations of spaceflight effects on living systems, the concept of medical operations system to support long-term piloted missions and implementation of biological researches that fostered the advance of space and gravitational biology. The analytical works of Oleg G. Gazenko are of imperishable significance for future researches to the benefit of space biomedicine.

  9. A perfect time to harness advanced molecular technologies to explore the fundamental biology of Toxocara species.

    PubMed

    Gasser, Robin B

    2013-04-15

    Toxocarosis is of major canine health and socioeconomic importance worldwide. Although many studies have given insights into toxocarosis, to date, there has been limited exploration of the molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, epidemiology and ecology of Toxocara species as well as parasite-host interactions using '-omic' technologies. The present article gives a background on Toxocara species and toxocarosis, describes molecular tools for specific identification and genetic analysis, and provides a prospective view of the benefits that advanced molecular technologies will have towards better understanding the parasites and disease. Tackling key biological questions employing a 'systems biology' approach should lead to new and improved strategies for the treatment, diagnosis and control of toxocarosis.

  10. Development of advanced fuel cell system, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handley, L. M.; Meyer, A. P.; Bell, W. F.

    1973-01-01

    A multiple task research and development program was performed to improve the weight, life, and performance characteristics of hydrogen-oxygen alkaline fuel cells for advanced power systems. Development and characterization of a very stable gold alloy catalyst was continued from Phase I of the program. A polymer material for fabrication of cell structural components was identified and its long term compatibility with the fuel cell environment was demonstrated in cell tests. Full scale partial cell stacks, with advanced design closed cycle evaporative coolers, were tested. The characteristics demonstrated in these tests verified the feasibility of developing the engineering model system concept into an advanced lightweight long life powerplant.

  11. Cell Science and Cell Biology Research at MSFC: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The common theme of these research programs is that they investigate regulation of gene expression in cells, and ultimately gene expression is controlled by the macromolecular interactions between regulatory proteins and DNA. The NASA Critical Path Roadmap identifies Muscle Alterations and Atrophy and Radiation Effects as Very Serious Risks and Severe Risks, respectively, in long term space flights. The specific problem addressed by Dr. Young's research ("Skeletal Muscle Atrophy and Muscle Cell Signaling") is that skeletal muscle loss in space cannot be prevented by vigorous exercise. Aerobic skeletal muscles (i.e., red muscles) undergo the most extensive atrophy during long-term space flight. Of the many different potential avenues for preventing muscle atrophy, Dr. Young has chosen to study the beta-adrenergic receptor (betaAR) pathway. The reason for this choice is that a family of compounds called betaAR agonists will preferentially cause an increase in muscle mass of aerobic muscles (i.e., red muscle) in animals, potentially providing a specific pharmacological solution to muscle loss in microgravity. In addition, muscle atrophy is a widespread medical problem in neuromuscular diseases, spinal cord injury, lack of exercise, aging, and any disease requiring prolonged bedridden status. Skeletal muscle cells in cell culture are utilized as a model system to study this problem. Dr. Richmond's research ("Radiation & Cancer Biology of Mammary Cells in Culture") is directed toward developing a laboratory model for use in risk assessment of cancer caused by space radiation. This research is unique because a human model will be developed utilizing human mammary cells that are highly susceptible to tumor development. This approach is preferential over using animal cells because of problems in comparing radiation-induced cancers between humans and animals.

  12. Advances in wound-healing assays for probing collective cell migration.

    PubMed

    Riahi, Reza; Yang, Yongliang; Zhang, Donna D; Wong, Pak Kin

    2012-02-01

    Collective cell migration plays essential roles in a wide spectrum of biological processes, such as embryogenesis, tissue regeneration, and cancer metastasis. Numerous wound-healing assays based on mechanical, chemical, optical, and electrical approaches have been developed to create model "wounds" in cell monolayers to study the collective cell migration processes. These approaches can result in different microenvironments for cells to migrate and possess diverse assay characteristics in terms of simplicity, throughput, reproducibility, and multiplexability. In this review, we provide an overview of advances in wound-healing assays and discuss their advantages and limitations in studying collective cell migration.

  13. Biological Features of the Soil: Advanced Crop and Soil Science. A Course of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Larry E.

    The course of study represents the third of six modules in advanced crop and soil science and introduces the agriculture student to biological features of soil. Upon completing the two day lesson, the student will: (1) realize the vast amount of life present in the soil, (2) be able to list representative animal and plant life in the soil by size,…

  14. Next Generation Risk Assessment: Incorporation of Recent Advances in Molecular, Computational, and Systems Biology (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced the release of the final report, Next Generation Risk Assessment: Incorporation of Recent Advances in Molecular, Computational, and Systems Biology. This report describes new approaches that are faster, less resource intensive, and more robust that can help ...

  15. Comparing Community College Students' Learning Styles in General and Advanced Biology Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Elsa C.

    This paper reports on an investigation into individual differences and group differences in learning styles, test anxiety levels, task performance, and students' attitudes regarding cooperative learning in beginning and advanced biology classes. The Transactional Analysis Inventory (TAI) and Test Anxiety Scale (TAS) were administered to two groups…

  16. PARTNERING WITH DOE TO APPLY ADVANCED BIOLOGICAL, ENVIRONMENTAL, AND COMPUTATIONAL SCIENCE TO ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    On February 18, 2004, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Department of Energy signed a Memorandum of Understanding to expand the research collaboration of both agencies to advance biological, environmental, and computational sciences for protecting human health and the ...

  17. The Oral Histories of Six African American Males in Their Ecology of Advanced Placement Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halasa, Katrina Bassam

    2012-01-01

    The major purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the past in order to understand the complex phenomenon of students engaging in science (Newman, Ridenour, Newman, & DeMarco, 2003) specifically through the oral histories of six self-identified African American males enrolled in a high school Advanced Placement Biology class and the…

  18. Advanced Level Biology Teachers' Attitudes towards Assessment and Their Engagement in Assessment for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramwell-Lalor, Sharon; Rainford, Marcia

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a Mixed Methods study involving an investigation into the attitudes of advanced level biology teachers towards assessment and describes the teachers' experiences while being engaged in Assessment for Learning (AfL) practices such as sharing of learning objectives and peer- and self-assessment. Quantitative data were collected…

  19. Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coking wastewater by electrochemical oxidation using boron-doped diamond electrodes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiuping; Ni, Jinren; Lai, Peng

    2009-09-01

    Electrochemical oxidation is a promising technology to treatment of bio-refractory wastewater. Coking wastewater contains high concentration of refractory and toxic compounds and the water quality usually cannot meet the discharge standards after conventional biological treatment processes. This paper initially investigated the electrochemical oxidation using boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode for advanced treatment of coking wastewater. Under the experimental conditions (current density 20-60mAcm(-2), pH 3-11, and temperature 20-60 degrees C) using BDD anode, complete mineralization of organic pollutants was almost achieved, and surplus ammonia-nitrogen (NH(3)-N) was further removed thoroughly when pH was not adjusted or at alkaline value. Moreover, the TOC and NH(3)-N removal rates in BDD anode cell were much greater than those in other common anode systems such as SnO(2) and PbO(2) anodes cells. Given the same target to meet the National Discharge Standard of China, the energy consumption of 64kWhkgCOD(-1) observed in BDD anode system was only about 60% as much as those observed in SnO(2) and PbO(2) anode systems. Further investigation revealed that, in BDD anode cell, organic pollutants were mainly degraded by reaction with free hydroxyl radicals and electrogenerated oxidants (S(2)O(8)(2-), H(2)O(2), and other oxidants) played a less important role, while direct electrochemical oxidation and indirect electrochemical oxidation mediated by active chlorine can be negligible. These results showed great potential of BDD anode system in engineering application as a final treatment of coking wastewater.

  20. A quick guide to light microscopy in cell biology.

    PubMed

    Thorn, Kurt

    2016-01-15

    Light microscopy is a key tool in modern cell biology. Light microscopy has several features that make it ideally suited for imaging biology in living cells: the resolution is well-matched to the sizes of subcellular structures, a diverse range of available fluorescent probes makes it possible to mark proteins, organelles, and other structures for imaging, and the relatively nonperturbing nature of light means that living cells can be imaged for long periods of time to follow their dynamics. Here I provide a brief introduction to using light microscopy in cell biology, with particular emphasis on factors to be considered when starting microscopy experiments.

  1. Learning Cell Biology as a Team: A Project-Based Approach to Upper-Division Cell Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Robin; Boggs, James

    2002-01-01

    To help students develop successful strategies for learning how to learn and communicate complex information in cell biology, we developed a quarter-long cell biology class based on team projects. Each team researches a particular human disease and presents information about the cellular structure or process affected by the disease, the cellular…

  2. Single cell induced optical confinement in biological lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karl, M.; Dietrich, C. P.; Schubert, M.; Samuel, I. D. W.; Turnbull, G. A.; Gather, M. C.

    2017-03-01

    Biological single cell lasers have shown great potential for fundamental research and next generation sensing applications. In this study, the potential of fluorescent biological cells as refractive index landscapes and active optical elements is investigated using a combined Fourier- and hyperspectral imaging technique. We show that the refractive index contrast between cell and surrounding leads to 3D confinement of photons inside living cells. The Fourier- and real-space emission characteristics of these biological lasers are closely related and can be predicted from one another. Investigations of the lasing threshold for different energy and momentum position in Fourier-space give insight into the fundamental creation of longitudinal and transverse lasing modes within the cell. These findings corroborate the potential of living biological materials for precision engineering of photonic structures and may pave the way towards low threshold polariton lasing from single cells.

  3. Using Femtosecond Laser Subcellular Surgery as a Tool to Study Cell Biology

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, N; Colvin, M E; Huser, T

    2007-02-27

    Research on cellular function and regulation would be greatly advanced by new instrumentation using methods to alter cellular processes with spatial discrimination on the nanometer-scale. We present a novel technique for targeting submicrometer sized organelles or other biologically important regions in living cells using femtosecond laser pulses. By tightly focusing these pulses beneath the cell membrane, we can vaporize cellular material inside the cell through nonlinear optical processes. This technique enables non-invasive manipulation of the physical structure of a cell with sub-micrometer resolution. We propose to study the role mitochondria play in cell proliferation and apoptosis. Our technique provides a unique tool for the study of cell biology.

  4. Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater by a novel integration of heterogeneous Fenton oxidation and biological process.

    PubMed

    Xu, Peng; Han, Hongjun; Zhuang, Haifeng; Hou, Baolin; Jia, Shengyong; Xu, Chunyan; Wang, Dexin

    2015-04-01

    Laboratorial scale experiments were conducted in order to investigate a novel system integrating heterogeneous Fenton oxidation (HFO) with anoxic moving bed biofilm reactor (ANMBBR) and biological aerated filter (BAF) process on advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (CGW). The results indicated that HFO with the prepared catalyst (FeOx/SBAC, sewage sludge based activated carbon (SBAC) which loaded Fe oxides) played a key role in eliminating COD and COLOR as well as in improving the biodegradability of raw wastewater. The surface reaction and hydroxyl radicals (OH) oxidation were the mechanisms for FeOx/SBAC catalytic reaction. Compared with ANMBBR-BAF process, the integrated system was more effective in abating COD, BOD5, total phenols (TPs), total nitrogen (TN) and COLOR and could shorten the retention time. Therefore, the integrated system was a promising technology for engineering applications.

  5. Advanced Materials and Cell Components for NASA's Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.

    2009-01-01

    This is an introductory paper for the focused session "Advanced Materials and Cell Components for NASA's Exploration Missions". This session will concentrate on electrochemical advances in materials and components that have been achieved through efforts sponsored under NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD). This paper will discuss the performance goals for components and for High Energy and Ultra High Energy cells, advanced lithium-ion cells that will offer a combination of higher specific energy and improved safety over state-of-the-art. Papers in this session will span a broad range of materials and components that are under development to enable these cell development efforts.

  6. Multispectral optical tweezers for molecular diagnostics of single biological cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Corey; Fardad, Shima; Sincore, Alex; Vangheluwe, Marie; Baudelet, Matthieu; Richardson, Martin

    2012-03-01

    Optical trapping of single biological cells has become an established technique for controlling and studying fundamental behavior of single cells with their environment without having "many-body" interference. The development of such an instrument for optical diagnostics (including Raman and fluorescence for molecular diagnostics) via laser spectroscopy with either the "trapping" beam or secondary beams is still in progress. This paper shows the development of modular multi-spectral imaging optical tweezers combining Raman and Fluorescence diagnostics of biological cells.

  7. Evolving Strategies for the Incorporation of Bioinformatics Within the Undergraduate Cell Biology Curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Honts, Jerry E.

    2003-01-01

    Recent advances in genomics and structural biology have resulted in an unprecedented increase in biological data available from Internet-accessible databases. In order to help students effectively use this vast repository of information, undergraduate biology students at Drake University were introduced to bioinformatics software and databases in three courses, beginning with an introductory course in cell biology. The exercises and projects that were used to help students develop literacy in bioinformatics are described. In a recently offered course in bioinformatics, students developed their own simple sequence analysis tool using the Perl programming language. These experiences are described from the point of view of the instructor as well as the students. A preliminary assessment has been made of the degree to which students had developed a working knowledge of bioinformatics concepts and methods. Finally, some conclusions have been drawn from these courses that may be helpful to instructors wishing to introduce bioinformatics within the undergraduate biology curriculum. PMID:14673489

  8. Microscopy images as interactive tools in cell modeling and cell biology education.

    PubMed

    Araújo-Jorge, Tania C; Cardona, Tania S; Mendes, Cláudia L S; Henriques-Pons, Andrea; Meirelles, Rosane M S; Coutinho, Cláudia M L M; Aguiar, Luiz Edmundo V; Meirelles, Maria de Nazareth L; de Castro, Solange L; Barbosa, Helene S; Luz, Mauricio R M P

    2004-01-01

    The advent of genomics, proteomics, and microarray technology has brought much excitement to science, both in teaching and in learning. The public is eager to know about the processes of life. In the present context of the explosive growth of scientific information, a major challenge of modern cell biology is to popularize basic concepts of structures and functions of living cells, to introduce people to the scientific method, to stimulate inquiry, and to analyze and synthesize concepts and paradigms. In this essay we present our experience in mixing science and education in Brazil. For two decades we have developed activities for the science education of teachers and undergraduate students, using microscopy images generated by our work as cell biologists. We describe open-air outreach education activities, games, cell modeling, and other practical and innovative activities presented in public squares and favelas. Especially in developing countries, science education is important, since it may lead to an improvement in quality of life while advancing understanding of traditional scientific ideas. We show that teaching and research can be mutually beneficial rather than competing pursuits in advancing these goals.

  9. Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater by a novel integration of catalytic ultrasound oxidation and membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Jia, Shengyong; Han, Hongjun; Zhuang, Haifeng; Xu, Peng; Hou, Baolin

    2015-01-01

    Laboratorial scale experiments were conducted to investigate a novel system integrating catalytic ultrasound oxidation (CUO) with membrane bioreactor (CUO-MBR) on advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater. Results indicated that CUO with catalyst of FeOx/SBAC (sewage sludge based activated carbon (SBAC) which loaded Fe oxides) represented high efficiencies in eliminating TOC as well as improving the biodegradability. The integrated CUO-MBR system with low energy intensity and high frequency was more effective in eliminating COD, BOD5, TOC and reducing transmembrane pressure than either conventional MBR or ultrasound oxidation integrated MBR. The enhanced hydroxyl radical oxidation, facilitation of substrate diffusion and improvement of cell enzyme secretion were the mechanisms for CUO-MBR performance. Therefore, the integrated CUO-MBR was the promising technology for advanced treatment in engineering applications.

  10. Evolutionary cell biology: functional insight from "endless forms most beautiful".

    PubMed

    Richardson, Elisabeth; Zerr, Kelly; Tsaousis, Anastasios; Dorrell, Richard G; Dacks, Joel B

    2015-12-15

    In animal and fungal model organisms, the complexities of cell biology have been analyzed in exquisite detail and much is known about how these organisms function at the cellular level. However, the model organisms cell biologists generally use include only a tiny fraction of the true diversity of eukaryotic cellular forms. The divergent cellular processes observed in these more distant lineages are still largely unknown in the general scientific community. Despite the relative obscurity of these organisms, comparative studies of them across eukaryotic diversity have had profound implications for our understanding of fundamental cell biology in all species and have revealed the evolution and origins of previously observed cellular processes. In this Perspective, we will discuss the complexity of cell biology found across the eukaryotic tree, and three specific examples of where studies of divergent cell biology have altered our understanding of key functional aspects of mitochondria, plastids, and membrane trafficking.

  11. Cell-free synthetic biology for environmental sensing and remediation.

    PubMed

    Karig, David K

    2017-02-19

    The fields of biosensing and bioremediation leverage the phenomenal array of sensing and metabolic capabilities offered by natural microbes. Synthetic biology provides tools for transforming these fields through complex integration of natural and novel biological components to achieve sophisticated sensing, regulation, and metabolic function. However, the majority of synthetic biology efforts are conducted in living cells, and concerns over releasing genetically modified organisms constitute a key barrier to environmental applications. Cell-free protein expression systems offer a path towards leveraging synthetic biology, while preventing the spread of engineered organisms in nature. Recent efforts in the areas of cell-free approaches for sensing, regulation, and metabolic pathway implementation, as well as for preserving and deploying cell-free expression components, embody key steps towards realizing the potential of cell-free systems for environmental sensing and remediation.

  12. Synthetic biology and molecular genetics in non-conventional yeasts: Current tools and future advances.

    PubMed

    Wagner, James M; Alper, Hal S

    2016-04-01

    Coupling the tools of synthetic biology with traditional molecular genetic techniques can enable the rapid prototyping and optimization of yeast strains. While the era of yeast synthetic biology began in the well-characterized model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae, it is swiftly expanding to include non-conventional yeast production systems such as Hansenula polymorpha, Kluyveromyces lactis, Pichia pastoris, and Yarrowia lipolytica. These yeasts already have roles in the manufacture of vaccines, therapeutic proteins, food additives, and biorenewable chemicals, but recent synthetic biology advances have the potential to greatly expand and diversify their impact on biotechnology. In this review, we summarize the development of synthetic biological tools (including promoters and terminators) and enabling molecular genetics approaches that have been applied in these four promising alternative biomanufacturing platforms. An emphasis is placed on synthetic parts and genome editing tools. Finally, we discuss examples of synthetic tools developed in other organisms that can be adapted or optimized for these hosts in the near future.

  13. Remediation of a winery wastewater combining aerobic biological oxidation and electrochemical advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Francisca C; Boaventura, Rui A R; Brillas, Enric; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2015-05-15

    Apart from a high biodegradable fraction consisting of organic acids, sugars and alcohols, winery wastewaters exhibit a recalcitrant fraction containing high-molecular-weight compounds as polyphenols, tannins and lignins. In this context, a winery wastewater was firstly subjected to a biological oxidation to mineralize the biodegradable fraction and afterwards an electrochemical advanced oxidation process (EAOP) was applied in order to mineralize the refractory molecules or transform them into simpler ones that can be further biodegraded. The biological oxidation led to above 97% removals of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), but was inefficient on the degradation of a bioresistant fraction corresponding to 130 mg L(-1) of DOC, 380 mg O2 L(-1) of COD and 8.2 mg caffeic acid equivalent L(-1) of total dissolved polyphenols. Various EAOPs such as anodic oxidation with electrogenerated H2O2 (AO-H2O2), electro-Fenton (EF), UVA photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) and solar PEF (SPEF) were then applied to the recalcitrant effluent fraction using a 2.2 L lab-scale flow plant containing an electrochemical cell equipped with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and a carbon-PTFE air-diffusion cathode and coupled to a photoreactor with compound parabolic collectors (CPCs). The influence of initial Fe(2+) concentration and current density on the PEF process was evaluated. The relative oxidative ability of EAOPs increased in the order AO-H2O2 < EF < PEF ≤ SPEF. The SPEF process using an initial Fe(2+) concentration of 35 mg L(-1), current density of 25 mA cm(-2), pH of 2.8 and 25 °C reached removals of 86% on DOC and 68% on COD after 240 min, regarding the biologically treated effluent, along with energy consumptions of 45 kWh (kg DOC)(-1) and 5.1 kWh m(-3). After this coupled treatment, color, odor, COD, BOD5, NH4(+), NO3(-) and SO4(2-) parameters complied with the legislation targets and, in addition, a total

  14. The biology of innate lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Artis, David; Spits, Hergen

    2015-01-15

    The innate immune system is composed of a diverse array of evolutionarily ancient haematopoietic cell types, including dendritic cells, monocytes, macrophages and granulocytes. These cell populations collaborate with each other, with the adaptive immune system and with non-haematopoietic cells to promote immunity, inflammation and tissue repair. Innate lymphoid cells are the most recently identified constituents of the innate immune system and have been the focus of intense investigation over the past five years. We summarize the studies that formally identified innate lymphoid cells and highlight their emerging roles in controlling tissue homeostasis in the context of infection, chronic inflammation, metabolic disease and cancer.

  15. Real Time Monitoring of Signaling Pathways in Biological Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    cell signaling events by mediating the transport of molecules in and out of the cells . Cell surface receptors also function to...organic acceptor molecules in the plasma membrane and endocytic membranes of non -polarized MDCK cells . The EviTag-based FRET assay was designed to...02-2005 Final 27-07-2004 to 14-02-2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Real Time Monitoring of Signaling Pathways in Biological Cells

  16. Cell and molecular biology of epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Ceresa, Brian P; Peterson, Joanne L

    2014-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been one of the most intensely studied cell surface receptors due to its well-established roles in developmental biology, tissue homeostasis, and cancer biology. The EGFR has been critical for creating paradigms for numerous aspects of cell biology, such as ligand binding, signal transduction, and membrane trafficking. Despite this history of discovery, there is a continual stream of evidence that only the surface has been scratched. New ways of receptor regulation continue to be identified, each of which is a potential molecular target for manipulating EGFR signaling and the resultant changes in cell and tissue biology. This chapter is an update on EGFR-mediated signaling, and describes some recent developments in the regulation of receptor biology.

  17. Applied Developmental Biology: Making Human Pancreatic Beta Cells for Diabetics.

    PubMed

    Melton, Douglas A

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the genes and signaling pathways that determine the differentiation and fate of a cell is a central goal of developmental biology. Using that information to gain mastery over the fates of cells presents new approaches to cell transplantation and drug discovery for human diseases including diabetes.

  18. Quantitative cell biology: the essential role of theory.

    PubMed

    Howard, Jonathon

    2014-11-05

    Quantitative biology is a hot area, as evidenced by the recent establishment of institutes, graduate programs, and conferences with that name. But what is quantitative biology? What should it be? And how can it contribute to solving the big questions in biology? The past decade has seen very rapid development of quantitative experimental techniques, especially at the single-molecule and single-cell levels. In this essay, I argue that quantitative biology is much more than just the quantitation of these experimental results. Instead, it should be the application of the scientific method by which measurement is directed toward testing theories. In this view, quantitative biology is the recognition that theory and models play critical roles in biology, as they do in physics and engineering. By tying together experiment and theory, quantitative biology promises a deeper understanding of underlying mechanisms, when the theory works, or to new discoveries, when it does not.

  19. Quantitative cell biology: the essential role of theory

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Jonathon

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative biology is a hot area, as evidenced by the recent establishment of institutes, graduate programs, and conferences with that name. But what is quantitative biology? What should it be? And how can it contribute to solving the big questions in biology? The past decade has seen very rapid development of quantitative experimental techniques, especially at the single-molecule and single-cell levels. In this essay, I argue that quantitative biology is much more than just the quantitation of these experimental results. Instead, it should be the application of the scientific method by which measurement is directed toward testing theories. In this view, quantitative biology is the recognition that theory and models play critical roles in biology, as they do in physics and engineering. By tying together experiment and theory, quantitative biology promises a deeper understanding of underlying mechanisms, when the theory works, or to new discoveries, when it does not. PMID:25368416

  20. Involvement of autophagy in T cell biology.

    PubMed

    Oral, Ozlem; Yedier, Ozlem; Kilic, Seval; Gozuacik, Devrim

    2017-01-01

    Autophagy is an essential cellular pathway that sequesters various cytoplasmic components, including accumulated proteins, damaged organelles or invading microorganisms and delivers them to lysosomes for degradation. The function of autophagy has been reported in various tissues and systems, including its role in the regulation of cellular immunity. Autophagy plays a fundamental role at various stages of T cell maturation. It regulates the thymocyte selection and the generation of T cell repertoire by presenting intracellular antigens to MHC class molecules. Autophagy is crucial for metabolic regulation of T cells, and therefore supports cell survival and homeostasis, particularly in activated mature T cells. Furthermore, deletion of specific autophagy-related genes induces several immunological alterations including differentiation of activated T cells into regulatory, memory or natural killer T cells. In this review, we emphasize the impact of autophagy on T cell development, activation and differentiation, which is pivotal for the adaptive immune system.

  1. Recent progress in studies on Merkel cell biology.

    PubMed

    Tachibana, Tamiko; Nawa, Tokio

    2002-03-01

    Merkel cells ubiquitously distribute in the skin of vertebrates, from cyclostomes to mammals. It is well known that mammalian Merkel cells coupled with axon terminals of type I sensory nerve fibers form slowly adapting mechanoreceptors, Merkel endings, within the epidermis. However, there are still many unresolved problems in the biology of Merkel cells. We reviewed recently acquired knowledge about the histochemical nature of Merkel cell granules, the morphological heterogeneity of Merkel cells and the roles of neurotrophins and their receptors for the development and survival of the cells. We discuss the functional significance of Merkel cell granules and the heterogeneity of Merkel cell populations.

  2. Concise Review: Stem Cell Population Biology: Insights from Hematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    MacLean, Adam L; Lo Celso, Cristina; Stumpf, Michael P H

    2017-01-01

    Stem cells are fundamental to human life and offer great therapeutic potential, yet their biology remains incompletely-or in cases even poorly-understood. The field of stem cell biology has grown substantially in recent years due to a combination of experimental and theoretical contributions: the experimental branch of this work provides data in an ever-increasing number of dimensions, while the theoretical branch seeks to determine suitable models of the fundamental stem cell processes that these data describe. The application of population dynamics to biology is amongst the oldest applications of mathematics to biology, and the population dynamics perspective continues to offer much today. Here we describe the impact that such a perspective has made in the field of stem cell biology. Using hematopoietic stem cells as our model system, we discuss the approaches that have been used to study their key properties, such as capacity for self-renewal, differentiation, and cell fate lineage choice. We will also discuss the relevance of population dynamics in models of stem cells and cancer, where competition naturally emerges as an influential factor on the temporal evolution of cell populations. Stem Cells 2017;35:80-88.

  3. Evaluation of the Redesign of an Undergraduate Cell Biology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, Laura April; Harris, dik; Schmid, Richard F.; Vogel, Jackie; Western, Tamara; Harrison, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This article offers a case study of the evaluation of a redesigned and redeveloped laboratory-based cell biology course. The course was a compulsory element of the biology program, but the laboratory had become outdated and was inadequately equipped. With the support of a faculty-based teaching improvement project, the teaching team redesigned the…

  4. Bacterial cell biology outside the streetlight

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Summary As much as vertical transmission of microbial symbionts requires their deep integration into the host reproductive and developmental biology, symbiotic lifestyle might profoundly affect bacterial growth and proliferation. This review describes the reproductive oddities displayed by bacteria associated – more or less intimately – with multicellular eukaryotes. PMID:27306428

  5. The cell biology of suturing tendons

    PubMed Central

    Wong, J.K.F.; Alyouha, S.; Kadler, K.E.; Ferguson, M.W.J.; McGrouther, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    Trauma by suturing tendon form areas devoid of cells termed “acellular zones” in the matrix. This study aimed to characterise the cellular insult of suturing and acellular zone formation in mouse tendon. Acellular zone formation was evaluated using single grasping sutures placed using flexor tendons with time lapse cell viability imaging for a period of 12 h. Both tension and injury were required to induce cell death and cell movement in the formation of the acellular zone. DNA fragmentation studies and transmission electron microscopy indicated that cells necrosed. Parallel in vivo studies showed that cell-to-cell contacts were disrupted following grasping by the suture in tensioned tendon. Without tension, cell death was lessened and cell-to-cell contacts remained intact. Quantitative immunohistochemistry and 3D cellular profile mapping of wound healing markers over a one year time course showed that acellular zones arise rapidly and showed no evidence of healing whilst the wound healing response occurred in the surrounding tissues. The acellular zones were also evident in a standard modified “Kessler” clinical repair. In conclusion, the suture repair of injured tendons produces acellular zones, which may potentially cause early tendon failure. PMID:20600895

  6. Biological assessment of the advanced turbine design at Wanapum Dam, 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, D. D.; Deng, Z. D.; Richmond, M. C.; Moursund, R. A.; Carlson, T. J.; Rakowski, C. L.; Duncan, J. P.

    2007-08-01

    Three studies were conducted to evaluate the biological performance of an advanced design turbine installed at Unit 8 of Wanapum Dam on the Columbia River in 2005 versus a conventional Kaplan turbine, Unit 9. The studies included an evaluation of blade-strike using deterministic and probabilistic models, integrated analysis of the response of the Sensor Fish to sever hydraulic events within the turbine system, and a novel dye technique to measure injury to juvenile salmonids in the field.

  7. Cell Division and Evolution of Biological Tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivier, Nicolas; Arcenegui-Siemens, Xavier; Schliecker, Gudrun

    A tissue is a geometrical, space-filling, random cellular network; it remains in this steady state while individual cells divide. Cell division (fragmentation) is a local, elementary topological transformation which establishes statistical equilibrium of the structure. Statistical equilibrium is characterized by observable relations (Lewis, Aboav) between cell shapes, sizes and those of their neighbours, obtained through maximum entropy and topological correlation extending to nearest neighbours only, i.e. maximal randomness. For a two-dimensional tissue (epithelium), the distribution of cell shapes and that of mother and daughter cells can be obtained from elementary geometrical and physical arguments, except for an exponential factor favouring division of larger cells, and exponential and combinatorial factors encouraging a most symmetric division. The resulting distributions are very narrow, and stationarity severely restricts the range of an adjustable structural parameter

  8. Genome annotation in a community college cell biology lab.

    PubMed

    Beagley, C Timothy

    2013-01-01

    The Biology Department at Salt Lake Community College has used the IMG-ACT toolbox to introduce a genome mapping and annotation exercise into the laboratory portion of its Cell Biology course. This project provides students with an authentic inquiry-based learning experience while introducing them to computational biology and contemporary learning skills. Additionally, the project strengthens student understanding of the scientific method and contributes to student learning gains in curricular objectives centered around basic molecular biology, specifically, the Central Dogma. Importantly, inclusion of this project in the laboratory course provides students with a positive learning environment and allows for the use of cooperative learning strategies to increase overall student success.

  9. Glial cell biology in the Great Lakes region.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Douglas L; Skoff, Robert P

    2016-03-31

    We report on the tenth bi-annual Great Lakes Glial meeting, held in Traverse City, Michigan, USA, September 27-29 2015. The GLG meeting is a small conference that focuses on current research in glial cell biology. The array of functions that glial cells (astrocytes, microglia, oligodendrocytes, Schwann cells) play in health and disease is constantly increasing. Despite this diversity, GLG meetings bring together scientists with common interests, leading to a better understanding of these cells. This year's meeting included two keynote speakers who presented talks on the regulation of CNS myelination and the consequences of stress on Schwann cell biology. Twenty-two other talks were presented along with two poster sessions. Sessions covered recent findings in the areas of microglial and astrocyte activation; age-dependent changes to glial cells, Schwann cell development and pathology, and the role of stem cells in glioma and neural regeneration.

  10. Biological significance of RNA editing in cells.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wei; Fei, Yongjun; Page, Michael

    2012-09-01

    RNA editing is one of the post-transcriptional RNA processes. RNA editing generates RNA and protein diversity in eukaryotes and results in specific amino acid substitutions, deletions, and changes in gene expression levels. Adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing represents the most important class of editing in human and affects function of many genes. The importance of balancing RNA modification levels across time and space is becoming increasingly evident. In this review, we overview the biological significance of RNA editing including RNA editing in tumorigenesis, RNA editing in neuronal tissues, RNA editing as a regulator of gene expression, and RNA editing in dsRNA-mediated gene silencing, which may increase our understanding of RNA biology.

  11. Dual fiber microprobe for mapping elemental distributions in biological cells

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Rodger C [Powell, TN; Martin, Madhavi Z [Powell, TN

    2007-07-31

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is applied on a microscale for in situ elemental analysis and spatial mapping in biological cells. A high power laser beam is focused onto a cell surface using a dual branching optical fiber probe for optical excitation of the cell constituents. Dual spectrometers and ICCD detectors capture the emission spectra from the excited cell(s). Repeated probing or repositioning of the laser beam with respect to the cell can provide 2-D or 3-D mapping of the cell.

  12. Exploration of Natural Biomass Utilization Systems (NBUS) for advanced biofuel--from systems biology to synthetic design.

    PubMed

    Xie, Shangxian; Syrenne, Ryan; Sun, Su; Yuan, Joshua S

    2014-06-01

    Efficient degradation and utilization of lignocellulosic biomass remains a challenge for sustainable and affordable biofuels. Various natural biomass utilization systems (NBUS) evolved the capacity to combat the recalcitrance of plant cell walls. The study of these NBUS could enable the development of efficient and cost-effective biocatalysts, microorganisms, and bioprocesses for biofuels and bioproducts. Here, we reviewed the recent research progresses for several NBUS, ranging from single cell microorganisms to consortiums such as cattle rumen and insect guts. These studies aided the discovery of biomass-degrading enzymes and the elucidation of the evolutionary and functional relevance in these systems. In particular, advances in the next generation 'omics' technologies offered new opportunities to explore NBUS in a high-throughput manner. Systems biology helped to facilitate the rapid biocatalyst discovery and detailed mechanism analysis, which could in turn guide the reverse design of engineered microorganisms and bioprocesses for cost-effective and efficient biomass conversion.

  13. Workshop II: Nanotechnology and Advanced Cell Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Workshop focused on few emerging concepts(beyond tandem cells): 1. Engineering incident sun spectrum and transparency losses a) Nano emitters (dot concentrator); b) Surface plasmonics; c) Up converters; d) Down converter. 2. Intermediate band solar cells a) Efficiency projections (detail energy balance projections); b) Inserting 0,1 and 2D semiconductor structures in solar cells 3. Polymer and hybrid cells a) Nanotubes/dot polymers; b) Exciton dissociation.

  14. ADVANCED THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    SEMICONDUCTING FILMS), (* SOLAR CELLS , GALLIUM ARSENIDES, TRANSPORT PROPERTIES, SUBSTRATES, MASS SPECTROSCOPY, CAPACITANCE, PREPARATION, PROCESSING, LABORATORY FURNACES, IMPURITIES, STABILITY, OXIDES.

  15. The cell biology of inflammasomes: Mechanisms of inflammasome activation and regulation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, numerous advances have been made in the role and regulation of inflammasomes during pathogenic and sterile insults. An inflammasome complex comprises a sensor, an adaptor, and a zymogen procaspase-1. The functional output of inflammasome activation includes secretion of cytokines, IL-1β and IL-18, and induction of an inflammatory form of cell death called pyroptosis. Recent studies have highlighted the intersection of this inflammatory response with fundamental cellular processes. Novel modulators and functions of inflammasome activation conventionally associated with the maintenance of homeostatic biological functions have been uncovered. In this review, we discuss the biological processes involved in the activation and regulation of the inflammasome. PMID:27325789

  16. Advances in cell culture: anchorage dependence

    PubMed Central

    Merten, Otto-Wilhelm

    2015-01-01

    Anchorage-dependent cells are of great interest for various biotechnological applications. (i) They represent a formidable production means of viruses for vaccination purposes at very large scales (in 1000–6000 l reactors) using microcarriers, and in the last decade many more novel viral vaccines have been developed using this production technology. (ii) With the advent of stem cells and their use/potential use in clinics for cell therapy and regenerative medicine purposes, the development of novel culture devices and technologies for adherent cells has accelerated greatly with a view to the large-scale expansion of these cells. Presently, the really scalable systems—microcarrier/microcarrier-clump cultures using stirred-tank reactors—for the expansion of stem cells are still in their infancy. Only laboratory scale reactors of maximally 2.5 l working volume have been evaluated because thorough knowledge and basic understanding of critical issues with respect to cell expansion while retaining pluripotency and differentiation potential, and the impact of the culture environment on stem cell fate, etc., are still lacking and require further studies. This article gives an overview on critical issues common to all cell culture systems for adherent cells as well as specifics for different types of stem cells in view of small- and large-scale cell expansion and production processes. PMID:25533097

  17. Translating Stem Cell Biology Into Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Singeç, Ilyas; Simeonov, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cell research has made extraordinary progress over the last decade. The robustness of nuclear reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has created entirely novel opportunities for drug discovery and personalized regenerative medicine. Patient- and disease-specific iPSCs can be expanded indefinitely and differentiated into relevant cell types of different organ systems. As the utilization of iPSCs is becoming a key enabling technology across various scientific disciplines, there are still important challenges that need to be addressed. Here we review the current state and reflect on the issues that the stem cell and translational communities are facing in bringing iPSCs closer to clinical application. PMID:27774310

  18. Responses of Cell Renewal Systems to Long-term Low-Level Radiation Exposure: A Feasibility Study Applying Advanced Molecular Biology Techniques on Available Histological and Cytological Material of Exposed Animals and Men

    SciTech Connect

    Fliedner Theodor M.; Feinendegen Ludwig E.; Meineke Viktor; Fritz Thomas E.

    2005-02-28

    First results of this feasibility study showed that evaluation of the stored material of the chronically irradiated dogs with modern molecular biological techniques proved to be successful and extremely promising. Therefore an in deep analysis of at least part of the huge amount of remaining material is of outmost interest. The methods applied in this feasibility study were pathological evaluation with different staining methods, protein analysis by means of immunohistochemistry, strand break analysis with the TdT-assay, DNA- and RNA-analysis as well as genomic examination by gene array. Overall more than 50% of the investigated material could be used. In particular the results of an increased stimulation of the immune system within the dogs of the 3mSv group as both compared to the control and higher dose groups gives implications for the in depth study of the cellular events occurring in context with low dose radiation. Based on the findings of this study a further evaluation and statistically analysis of more material can help to identify promising biomarkers for low dose radiation. A systematic evaluation of a correlation of dose rates and strand breaks within the dog tissue might moreover help to explain mechanisms of tolerance to IR. One central problem is that most sequences for dog specific primers are not known yet. The discovery of the dog genome is still under progress. In this study the isolation of RNA within the dog tissue was successful. But up to now there are no gene arrays or gene chips commercially available, tested and adapted for canine tissue. The uncritical use of untested genomic test systems for canine tissue seems to be ineffective at the moment, time consuming and ineffective. Next steps in the investigation of genomic changes after IR within the stored dog tissue should be limited to quantitative RT-PCR of tested primer sequences for the dog. A collaboration with institutions working in the field of the discovery of the dog genome could

  19. Recent advances in endophytic exopolysaccharides: Production, structural characterization, physiological role and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Wang, Xingchi; Pu, Huimin; Liu, Shuang; Kan, Juan; Jin, Changhai

    2017-02-10

    Endophytes are microorganisms that colonize living, internal tissues of plants without causing any immediate, overt negative effects. In recent years, both endophytic bacteria and fungi have been demonstrated to be excellent exopolysaccharides (EPS) producers. This review focuses on the recent advances in EPS produced by endophytes, including its production, isolation and purification, structural characterization, physiological role and biological activity. In general, EPS production is influenced by media components and cultivation conditions. The structures of purified EPS range from linear homopolysaccharides to highly branched heteropolysaccharides. These structurally novel EPS not only play important roles in plant-endophyte interactions; but also exhibit several biological functions, such as antioxidant, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic and prebiotic activities. In order to utilize endophytic EPS on an industrial scale, both yield and productivity enhancement strategies are required at several levels. Besides, the exact mechanisms on the physiological roles and biological functions of EPS should be elucidated in future.

  20. Virtual Reconstruction and Three-Dimensional Printing of Blood Cells as a Tool in Cell Biology Education

    PubMed Central

    Girard-Dias, Wendell; dos Santos, Thaisa Oliveira; Rosa Belmonte, Simone Letícia; Pinto de Oliveira, Jairo; Mauad, Helder; da Silva Pacheco, Marcos; Lenz, Dominik; Stefanon Bittencourt, Athelson; Valentim Nogueira, Breno; Lopes dos Santos, Jorge Roberto; Miranda, Kildare; Guimarães, Marco Cesar Cunegundes

    2016-01-01

    The cell biology discipline constitutes a highly dynamic field whose concepts take a long time to be incorporated into the educational system, especially in developing countries. Amongst the main obstacles to the introduction of new cell biology concepts to students is their general lack of identification with most teaching methods. The introduction of elaborated figures, movies and animations to textbooks has given a tremendous contribution to the learning process and the search for novel teaching methods has been a central goal in cell biology education. Some specialized tools, however, are usually only available in advanced research centers or in institutions that are traditionally involved with the development of novel teaching/learning processes, and are far from becoming reality in the majority of life sciences schools. When combined with the known declining interest in science among young people, a critical scenario may result. This is especially important in the field of electron microscopy and associated techniques, methods that have greatly contributed to the current knowledge on the structure and function of different cell biology models but are rarely made accessible to most students. In this work, we propose a strategy to increase the engagement of students into the world of cell and structural biology by combining 3D electron microscopy techniques and 3D prototyping technology (3D printing) to generate 3D physical models that accurately and realistically reproduce a close-to-the native structure of the cell and serve as a tool for students and teachers outside the main centers. We introduce three strategies for 3D imaging, modeling and prototyping of cells and propose the establishment of a virtual platform where different digital models can be deposited by EM groups and subsequently downloaded and printed in different schools, universities, research centers and museums, thereby modernizing teaching of cell biology and increasing the accessibility to

  1. Virtual Reconstruction and Three-Dimensional Printing of Blood Cells as a Tool in Cell Biology Education.

    PubMed

    Augusto, Ingrid; Monteiro, Douglas; Girard-Dias, Wendell; Dos Santos, Thaisa Oliveira; Rosa Belmonte, Simone Letícia; Pinto de Oliveira, Jairo; Mauad, Helder; da Silva Pacheco, Marcos; Lenz, Dominik; Stefanon Bittencourt, Athelson; Valentim Nogueira, Breno; Lopes Dos Santos, Jorge Roberto; Miranda, Kildare; Guimarães, Marco Cesar Cunegundes

    2016-01-01

    The cell biology discipline constitutes a highly dynamic field whose concepts take a long time to be incorporated into the educational system, especially in developing countries. Amongst the main obstacles to the introduction of new cell biology concepts to students is their general lack of identification with most teaching methods. The introduction of elaborated figures, movies and animations to textbooks has given a tremendous contribution to the learning process and the search for novel teaching methods has been a central goal in cell biology education. Some specialized tools, however, are usually only available in advanced research centers or in institutions that are traditionally involved with the development of novel teaching/learning processes, and are far from becoming reality in the majority of life sciences schools. When combined with the known declining interest in science among young people, a critical scenario may result. This is especially important in the field of electron microscopy and associated techniques, methods that have greatly contributed to the current knowledge on the structure and function of different cell biology models but are rarely made accessible to most students. In this work, we propose a strategy to increase the engagement of students into the world of cell and structural biology by combining 3D electron microscopy techniques and 3D prototyping technology (3D printing) to generate 3D physical models that accurately and realistically reproduce a close-to-the native structure of the cell and serve as a tool for students and teachers outside the main centers. We introduce three strategies for 3D imaging, modeling and prototyping of cells and propose the establishment of a virtual platform where different digital models can be deposited by EM groups and subsequently downloaded and printed in different schools, universities, research centers and museums, thereby modernizing teaching of cell biology and increasing the accessibility to

  2. Advanced Fuel Cell System Thermal Management for NASA Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center is developing advanced passive thermal management technology to reduce the mass and improve the reliability of space fuel cell systems for the NASA exploration program. An analysis of a state-of-the-art fuel cell cooling systems was done to benchmark the portion of a fuel cell system s mass that is dedicated to thermal management. Additional analysis was done to determine the key performance targets of the advanced passive thermal management technology that would substantially reduce fuel cell system mass.

  3. Advanced low carbon-to-nitrogen ratio wastewater treatment by electrochemical and biological coupling process.

    PubMed

    Deng, Shihai; Li, Desheng; Yang, Xue; Zhu, Shanbin; Xing, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Nitrogen pollution in ground and surface water significantly affects the environment and its organisms, thereby leading to an increasingly serious environmental problem. Such pollution is difficult to degrade because of the lack of carbon sources. Therefore, an electrochemical and biological coupling process (EBCP) was developed with a composite catalytic biological carrier (CCBC) and applied in a pilot-scale cylindrical reactor to treat wastewater with a carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) ratio of 2. The startup process, coupling principle, and dynamic feature of the EBCP were examined along with the effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT), dissolved oxygen (DO), and initial pH on nitrogen removal. A stable coupling system was obtained after 51 days when plenty of biofilms were cultivated on the CCBC without inoculation sludge. Autotrophic denitrification, with [Fe(2+)] and [H] produced by iron-carbon galvanic cells in CCBC as electron donors, was confirmed by equity calculation of CODCr and nitrogen removal. Nitrogen removal efficiency was significantly influenced by HRT, DO, and initial pH with optimal values of 3.5 h, 3.5 ± 0.1 mg L(-1), and 7.5 ± 0.1, respectively. The ammonia, nitrate, and total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiencies of 90.1 to 95.3 %, 90.5 to 99.0 %, and 90.3 to 96.5 % were maintained with corresponding initial concentrations of 40 ± 2 mg L(-1) (NH3-N load of 0.27 ± 0.01 kg NH3-N m(-3) d(-1)), 20 ± 1 mg L(-1), and 60 ± 2 mg L(-1) (TN load of 0.41 ± 0.02 kg TN m(-3) d(-1)). Based on the Eckenfelder model, the kinetics equation of the nitrogen transformation along the reactor was N e  = N 0 exp (-0.04368 h/L(1.8438)). Hence, EBCP is a viable method for advanced low C/N ratio wastewater treatment.

  4. Mechanistic modeling confronts the complexity of molecular cell biology.

    PubMed

    Phair, Robert D

    2014-11-05

    Mechanistic modeling has the potential to transform how cell biologists contend with the inescapable complexity of modern biology. I am a physiologist-electrical engineer-systems biologist who has been working at the level of cell biology for the past 24 years. This perspective aims 1) to convey why we build models, 2) to enumerate the major approaches to modeling and their philosophical differences, 3) to address some recurrent concerns raised by experimentalists, and then 4) to imagine a future in which teams of experimentalists and modelers build-and subject to exhaustive experimental tests-models covering the entire spectrum from molecular cell biology to human pathophysiology. There is, in my view, no technical obstacle to this future, but it will require some plasticity in the biological research mind-set.

  5. Melatonin as a promising agent of regulating stem cell biology and its application in disease therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuo; Chen, Simon; Li, Yuan; Liu, Yu

    2017-03-01

    Stem cells have emerged as an important approach to repair and regenerate damaged tissues or organs and show great therapeutic potential in a variety of diseases. However, the low survival of engrafted stem cells still remains a major challenge for stem cell therapy. As a major hormone from the pineal gland, melatonin has been shown to play an important role in regulating the physiological and pathological functions of stem cells, such as promoting proliferation, migration and differentiation. Thus, melatonin combined with stem cell transplantation displayed promising application potential in neurodegenerative diseases, liver cirrhosis, wound healing, myocardial infarction, kidney ischemia injury, osteoporosis, etc. It exerts its physiological and pathological functions through its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptosis and anti-ageing properties. Here, we summarize recent advances on exploring the biological role of melatonin in stem cells, and discuss its potential applications in stem cell-based therapy.

  6. Recent advances in T-cell immunotherapy for haematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Rouce, Rayne H; Sharma, Sandhya; Huynh, Mai; Heslop, Helen E

    2017-03-01

    In vitro discoveries have paved the way for bench-to-bedside translation in adoptive T cell immunotherapy, resulting in remarkable clinical responses in a variety of haematological malignancies. Adoptively transferred T cells genetically modified to express CD19 CARs have shown great promise, although many unanswered questions regarding how to optimize T-cell therapies for both safety and efficacy remain. Similarly, T cells that recognize viral or tumour antigens though their native receptors have produced encouraging clinical responses. Honing manufacturing processes will increase the availability of T-cell products, while combining T-cell therapies has the ability to increase complete response rates. Lastly, innovative mechanisms to control these therapies may improve safety profiles while genome editing offers the prospect of modulating T-cell function. This review will focus on recent advances in T-cell immunotherapy, highlighting both clinical and pre-clinical advances, as well as exploring what the future holds.

  7. Cell biology of Ca2+-triggered exocytosis.

    PubMed

    Pang, Zhiping P; Südhof, Thomas C

    2010-08-01

    Ca(2+) triggers many forms of exocytosis in different types of eukaryotic cells, for example synaptic vesicle exocytosis in neurons, granule exocytosis in mast cells, and hormone exocytosis in endocrine cells. Work over the past two decades has shown that synaptotagmins function as the primary Ca(2+)-sensors for most of these forms of exocytosis, and that synaptotagmins act via Ca(2+)-dependent interactions with both the fusing phospholipid membranes and the membrane fusion machinery. However, some forms of Ca(2+)-induced exocytosis may utilize other, as yet unidentified Ca(2+)-sensors, for example, slow synaptic exocytosis mediating asynchronous neurotransmitter release. In the following overview, we will discuss the synaptotagmin-based mechanism of Ca(2+)-triggered exocytosis in neurons and neuroendocrine cells, and its potential extension to other types of Ca(2+)-stimulated exocytosis for which no synaptotagmin Ca(2+)-sensor has been identified.

  8. The circadian coordination of cell biology

    PubMed Central

    Zarrinpar, Amir

    2016-01-01

    Circadian clocks are cell-autonomous timing mechanisms that organize cell functions in a 24-h periodicity. In mammals, the main circadian oscillator consists of transcription–translation feedback loops composed of transcriptional regulators, enzymes, and scaffolds that generate and sustain daily oscillations of their own transcript and protein levels. The clock components and their targets impart rhythmic functions to many gene products through transcriptional, posttranscriptional, translational, and posttranslational mechanisms. This, in turn, temporally coordinates many signaling pathways, metabolic activity, organelles’ structure and functions, as well as the cell cycle and the tissue-specific functions of differentiated cells. When the functions of these circadian oscillators are disrupted by age, environment, or genetic mutation, the temporal coordination of cellular functions is lost, reducing organismal health and fitness. PMID:27738003

  9. Neural crest cells: from developmental biology to clinical interventions.

    PubMed

    Noisa, Parinya; Raivio, Taneli

    2014-09-01

    Neural crest cells are multipotent cells, which are specified in embryonic ectoderm in the border of neural plate and epiderm during early development by interconnection of extrinsic stimuli and intrinsic factors. Neural crest cells are capable of differentiating into various somatic cell types, including melanocytes, craniofacial cartilage and bone, smooth muscle, and peripheral nervous cells, which supports their promise for cell therapy. In this work, we provide a comprehensive review of wide aspects of neural crest cells from their developmental biology to applicability in medical research. We provide a simplified model of neural crest cell development and highlight the key external stimuli and intrinsic regulators that determine the neural crest cell fate. Defects of neural crest cell development leading to several human disorders are also mentioned, with the emphasis of using human induced pluripotent stem cells to model neurocristopathic syndromes.

  10. New Advanced Technologies in Stem Cell Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    stem” like state when expanded in a cell monolayer. A media formulation of 10% fetal bovine serum , 10% horse serum , 1% penicillin /streptomycin and 1...medium (DMEM supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum , 10% horse serum , 0.5% chicken embryo extract and 1% Penicillin -streptomycin) until the cell...expanded in DMEM containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), 10% horse serum , 1% penicillin -streptomycin, and 0.5% chick embryo extract. Cells were

  11. New Advanced Technologies In Stem Cell Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    Project 1: Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), human muscle-derived cells (hMDC), myoendothelial cells, pericytes, hMDC transplantation, angiogenesis...function of skeletal muscle that has been damaged by Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and other muscle degenerative disorders and injury...of Contents 4) Project 1: Muscle stem cell transplantation for Duchenne muscular dystrophy A) Introduction……………………………………………………………6

  12. Microfluidics meet cell biology: bridging the gap by validation and application of microscale techniques for cell biological assays.

    PubMed

    Paguirigan, Amy L; Beebe, David J

    2008-09-01

    Microscale techniques have been applied to biological assays for nearly two decades, but haven't been widely integrated as common tools in biological laboratories. The significant differences between several physical phenomena at the microscale versus the macroscale have been exploited to provide a variety of new types of assays (such as gradient production or spatial cell patterning). However, the use of these devices by biologists seems to be limited by issues regarding biological validation, ease of use, and the limited available readouts for assays done using microtechnology. Critical validation work has been done recently that highlights the current challenges for microfluidic methods and suggest ways in which future devices might be improved to better integrate with biological assays. With more validation and improved designs, microscale techniques hold immense promise as a platform to study aspects of cell biology that are not possible using current macroscale techniques.

  13. ADVANCED THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    SEMICONDUCTING FILMS), (* SOLAR CELLS , MANUFACTURING, GALLIUM ALLOYS, ARSENIC ALLOYS, PLATINUM, OXIDES, TRANSPORT PROPERTIES, MOLYBDENUM, METAL FILMS, COPPER, HYDROGEN, GERMANIUM ALLOYS, TIN ALLOYS, ZINC, CRYSTAL GROWTH.

  14. Textbook Errors and Misconceptions in Biology: Cell Physiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storey, Richard D.

    1992-01-01

    Considers topics about cell function often misunderstood, misrepresented, or omitted from biology textbooks: enzyme catalyzed reactions; RNA as a catalyst; protein levels in cells; amino acids; organic acids; glucose and fructose; gluconeogenesis; fatty acids and ketone bodies; diffusion; and transport across membranes. (Contains 25 references.)…

  15. Hybrid IC / Microfluidic Chips for the Manipulation of Biological Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hakho

    2005-03-01

    A hybrid IC / Microfluidic chip that can manipulate individual biological cells in a fluid with microscopic resolution has been demonstrated. The chip starts with a custom-designed silicon integrated circuit (IC) produced in a foundry using standard processing techniques. A microfluidic chamber is then fabricated on top of the IC to provide a biocompatible environment. The motion of biological cells in the chamber is controlled using a two-dimensional array of micro-scale electromagnets in the IC that generate spatially patterned magnetic fields. A local peak in the magnetic field amplitude will trap a magnetic bead and an attached cell; by moving the peak's location, the bead-bound cell can be moved to any position on the chip surface above the array. By generating multiple peaks, many cells can be moved independently along separate paths, allowing many different manipulations of individual cells. The hybrid IC / Microfluidic chip can be used, for example, to sort cells or to assemble tissue on micrometer length scales. To prove the concept, an IC / Microfluidic chip was fabricated, based on a custom-designed IC that contained a two-dimensional microcoil array with integrated current sources and control circuits. The chip was tested by trapping and moving biological cells tagged with magnetic beads inside the microfluidic chamber over the array. By combining the power of silicon technology with the biocompatibility of microfluidics, IC / Microfluidic chips will make new types of investigations possible in biological and biomedical studies.

  16. The shifting geography and language of cell biology

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    With the increase in scientific activity globally, the geographical focus of basic research is shifting away from the West. At the same time, multidisciplinary approaches are uncovering new layers in our understanding of how cells work. How will these trends affect cell biology in the near future? PMID:25963814

  17. Advances and issues in mantle cell lymphoma research: report of the 2014 Mantle Cell Lymphoma Consortium Workshop.

    PubMed

    Kahl, Brad S; Gordon, Leo I; Dreyling, Martin; Gascoyne, Randy D; Sotomayor, Eduardo M

    2015-01-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma characterized by the t(11;14) chromosomal translocation and cyclin D1 over-expression. A biologically and clinically heterogeneous lymphoma, MCL, remains clinically challenging, with no proven curative therapy and no established standard of care. However, there have been considerable advances in the last several years in the treatment and understanding of MCL with the FDA approval of lenalidomide and ibrutinib, the development of other potentially active novel agents and the identification of recurrent mutations through new genomic sequencing approaches that may contribute to the biology of MCL and to therapeutic resistance. At the Lymphoma Research Foundation's 11th MCL Workshop, researchers gathered to discuss recent studies and current issues related to the biology of MCL, novel therapeutic targets and new treatment strategies. The presentations are summarized in this manuscript, which is intended to highlight areas of active investigation and identify topics for future research.

  18. Heart-on-a-chip based on stem cell biology.

    PubMed

    Jastrzebska, Elzbieta; Tomecka, Ewelina; Jesion, Iwona

    2016-01-15

    Heart diseases are one of the main causes of death around the world. The great challenge for scientists is to develop new therapeutic methods for these types of ailments. Stem cells (SCs) therapy could be one of a promising technique used for renewal of cardiac cells and treatment of heart diseases. Conventional in vitro techniques utilized for investigation of heart regeneration do not mimic natural cardiac physiology. Lab-on-a-chip systems may be the solution which could allow the creation of a heart muscle model, enabling the growth of cardiac cells in conditions similar to in vivo conditions. Microsystems can be also used for differentiation of stem cells into heart cells, successfully. It will help better understand of proliferation and regeneration ability of these cells. In this review, we present Heart-on-a-chip systems based on cardiac cell culture and stem cell biology. This review begins with the description of the physiological environment and the functions of the heart. Next, we shortly described conventional techniques of stem cells differentiation into the cardiac cells. This review is mostly focused on describing Lab-on-a-chip systems for cardiac tissue engineering. Therefore, in the next part of this article, the microsystems for both cardiac cell culture and SCs differentiation into cardiac cells are described. The section about SCs differentiation into the heart cells is divided in sections describing biochemical, physical and mechanical stimulations. Finally, we outline present challenges and future research concerning Heart-on-a-chip based on stem cell biology.

  19. Bioelectro-Fenton: evaluation of a combined biological-advanced oxidation treatment for pharmaceutical wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ganzenko, Oleksandra; Trellu, Clement; Papirio, Stefano; Oturan, Nihal; Huguenot, David; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Esposito, Giovanni; Oturan, Mehmet A

    2017-01-31

    Electro-Fenton (EF), an advanced oxidation process, can be combined with a biological process for efficient treatment of wastewater containing refractory pollutants such as pharmaceuticals. In this study, a biological process was implemented in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR), which was either preceded or followed by EF treatment. The main goal was to evaluate the potential of two sequences of a combined electrochemical-biological process: EF/SBR and SBR/EF for the treatment of real wastewater spiked with 0.1 mM of caffeine and 5-fluorouracil. The biological removal of COD and pharmaceuticals was improved by extending the acclimation time and increasing concentration of biomass in the SBR. Hardly biodegradable caffeine and COD were completely removed during the EF post-treatment (SBR/EF). During the EF/SBR sequence, complete removal of pharmaceuticals was achieved by EF within 30 min at applied current 800 mA. With a current of 500 and 800 mA, the initially very low BOD5/COD ratio increased up to 0.38 and 0.58, respectively, after 30 min. The efficiency of the biological post-treatment was influenced by the biodegradability enhancement after EF pre-treatment. The choice of an adequate sequence of such a combined process is significantly related to the wastewater characteristics as well as the treatment objectives.

  20. Coccolithophore Cell Biology: Chalking Up Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Alison R.; Brownlee, Colin; Wheeler, Glen

    2017-01-01

    Coccolithophores occupy a special position within the marine phytoplankton because of their production of intricate calcite scales, or coccoliths. Coccolithophores are major contributors to global ocean calcification and long-term carbon fluxes. The intracellular production of coccoliths requires modifications to cellular ultrastructure and metabolism that are surveyed here. In addition to calcification, which appears to have evolved with a diverse range of functions, several other remarkable features that likely underpin the ecological and evolutionary success of coccolithophores have recently been uncovered. These include complex and varied life cycle strategies related to abiotic and biotic interactions as well as a range of novel metabolic pathways and nutritional strategies. Together with knowledge of coccolithophore genetic and physiological variability, these findings are beginning to shed new light on species diversity, distribution, and ecological adaptation. Further advances in genetics and functional characterization at the cellular level will likely to lead to a rapid increase in this understanding.

  1. Coccolithophore Cell Biology: Chalking Up Progress.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Alison R; Brownlee, Colin; Wheeler, Glen

    2017-01-03

    Coccolithophores occupy a special position within the marine phytoplankton because of their production of intricate calcite scales, or coccoliths. Coccolithophores are major contributors to global ocean calcification and long-term carbon fluxes. The intracellular production of coccoliths requires modifications to cellular ultrastructure and metabolism that are surveyed here. In addition to calcification, which appears to have evolved with a diverse range of functions, several other remarkable features that likely underpin the ecological and evolutionary success of coccolithophores have recently been uncovered. These include complex and varied life cycle strategies related to abiotic and biotic interactions as well as a range of novel metabolic pathways and nutritional strategies. Together with knowledge of coccolithophore genetic and physiological variability, these findings are beginning to shed new light on species diversity, distribution, and ecological adaptation. Further advances in genetics and functional characterization at the cellular level will likely to lead to a rapid increase in this understanding.

  2. The cell biology of TRIM5α.

    PubMed

    Lukic, Zana; Campbell, Edward M

    2012-03-01

    The tripartite motif (TRIM)-containing proteins are involved in many cellular functions such as cell signaling, apoptosis, cell differentiation, and immune modulation. TRIM5 proteins, including TRIM5α and TRIM-Cyp, are known to possess antiretroviral activity against many different retroviruses. Besides being retroviral restriction factors, TRIM5 proteins participate in other cellular functions that have recently emerged in the study of TRIM5α. In this review, we discuss properties of TRIM5α such as cytoplasmic body formation, protein turnover, and trafficking. Also, we discuss recent insights into innate immune modulation mediated by TRIM5α, highlighting the various functions TRIM5α has in cellular processes.

  3. Muscle Satellite Cells: Exploring the Basic Biology to Rule Them

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Camila F.; Fernandes, Stephanie A.; Ribeiro Junior, Antonio F.; Vainzof, Mariz

    2016-01-01

    Adult skeletal muscle is a postmitotic tissue with an enormous capacity to regenerate upon injury. This is accomplished by resident stem cells, named satellite cells, which were identified more than 50 years ago. Since their discovery, many researchers have been concentrating efforts to answer questions about their origin and role in muscle development, the way they contribute to muscle regeneration, and their potential to cell-based therapies. Satellite cells are maintained in a quiescent state and upon requirement are activated, proliferating, and fusing with other cells to form or repair myofibers. In addition, they are able to self-renew and replenish the stem pool. Every phase of satellite cell activity is highly regulated and orchestrated by many molecules and signaling pathways; the elucidation of players and mechanisms involved in satellite cell biology is of extreme importance, being the first step to expose the crucial points that could be modulated to extract the optimal response from these cells in therapeutic strategies. Here, we review the basic aspects about satellite cells biology and briefly discuss recent findings about therapeutic attempts, trying to raise questions about how basic biology could provide a solid scaffold to more successful use of these cells in clinics. PMID:27042182

  4. Spectral fingerprint of electrostatic forces between biological cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murovec, T.; Brosseau, C.

    2015-10-01

    The prediction of electrostatic forces (EFs) between biological cells still poses challenges of great scientific importance, e.g., cell recognition, electroporation (EP), and mechanosensing. Frequency-domain finite element simulations explore a variety of cell configurations in the range of parameters typical for eukaryotic cells. Here, by applying an electric field to a pair of layered concentric shells, a prototypical model of a biological cell, we provide numerical evidence that the instantaneous EF changes from repulsion to attraction as the drive frequency of the electric field is varied. We identify crossover frequencies and discuss their dependence as a function of field frequency, conductivity of the extracellular medium, and symmetry of the configuration of cells. We present findings which suggest that the spectrum of EFs depends sensitively on the configuration of cells. We discuss the signatures of the collective behavior of systems with many cells in the spectrum of the EF and highlight a few of the observational consequences that this behavior implies. By looking at different cell configurations, we are able to show that the repulsion-to-attraction transition phenomenon is largely associated with an asymmetric electrostatic screening at very small separation between cells. These findings pave the way for the experimental observation of the electromagnetic properties of efficient and simple models of biological tissues.

  5. Integrating the biological characteristics of oncolytic viruses and immune cells can optimize therapeutic benefits of cell-based delivery.

    PubMed

    Thorne, S H; Contag, C H

    2008-05-01

    Despite significant advances in the development of tumor-selective agents, strategies for effective delivery of these agents across biological barriers to cells within the tumor microenvironment has been limiting. One tactical approach to overcoming biological barriers is to use cells as delivery vehicles, and a variety of different cell types have been investigated with a range of agents. In addition to transporting agents with targeted delivery, cells can also produce their own tumoricidal effect, conceal a payload from an immune response, amplify a selective agent at the target site and facilitate an antitumor immune response. We have reported a therapeutic combination consisting of cytokine induced killer cells and an oncolytic vaccinia virus with many of these features that led to therapeutic synergy in animal models of human cancer. The synergy was due to the interaction of the two agents to enhance the antitumor benefits of each individual component. As both of these agents display broad tumor-targeting potential and possess unique tumor killing mechanisms, together they were able to recognize and destroy a far greater number of malignant cells within the heterogeneous tumor than either agent alone. Effective cancer therapy will require recognition and elimination of the root of the disease, the cancer stem cell, and the combination of CIK cells and oncolytic vaccinia viruses has this potential. To create effective tumor-selective agents the viruses are modified to take advantage of the unique biology of the cancer cell. Similarly, if we are to develop targeted therapies that are sufficiently multifaceted to eliminate cancer cells at all stages of disease, we should integrate the virus into the unique biology of the cell delivery vehicle.

  6. Using synthetic biology to make cells tomorrow's test tubes.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Hernan G; Brewster, Robert C; Phillips, Rob

    2016-04-18

    The main tenet of physical biology is that biological phenomena can be subject to the same quantitative and predictive understanding that physics has afforded in the context of inanimate matter. However, the inherent complexity of many of these biological processes often leads to the derivation of complex theoretical descriptions containing a plethora of unknown parameters. Such complex descriptions pose a conceptual challenge to the establishment of a solid basis for predictive biology. In this article, we present various exciting examples of how synthetic biology can be used to simplify biological systems and distill these phenomena down to their essential features as a means to enable their theoretical description. Here, synthetic biology goes beyond previous efforts to engineer nature and becomes a tool to bend nature to understand it. We discuss various recent and classic experiments featuring applications of this synthetic approach to the elucidation of problems ranging from bacteriophage infection, to transcriptional regulation in bacteria and in developing embryos, to evolution. In all of these examples, synthetic biology provides the opportunity to turn cells into the equivalent of a test tube, where biological phenomena can be reconstituted and our theoretical understanding put to test with the same ease that these same phenomena can be studied in the in vitro setting.

  7. Spatial Modeling Tools for Cell Biology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    ischemia on ATP hydrolysis rate, max ATP hydro. rate and available free energy (inset...Table 3.1: Examples of enzyme catalyzed kinetics reactions and reaction rate expressions...specific enzymes and plays a unique role in the growth and metabolism of the cell. The most important organelles are: nucleus – containing DNA and other

  8. Personalized nanomedicine advancements for stem cell tracking☆

    PubMed Central

    Janowski, Mirek; Bulte, Jeff W.M.; Walczak, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    Recent technological developments in biomedicine have facilitated the generation of data on the anatomical, physiological and molecular level for individual patients and thus introduces opportunity for therapy to be personalized in an unprecedented fashion. Generation of patient-specific stem cells exemplifies the efforts toward this new approach. Cell-based therapy is a highly promising treatment paradigm; however, due to the lack of consistent and unbiased data about the fate of stem cells in vivo, interpretation of therapeutic remains challenging hampering the progress in this field. The advent of nanotechnology with a wide palette of inorganic and organic nanostructures has expanded the arsenal of methods for tracking transplanted stem cells. The diversity of nanomaterials has revolutionized personalized nanomedicine and enables individualized tailoring of stem cell labeling materials for the specific needs of each patient. The successful implementation of stem cell tracking will likely be a significant driving force that will contribute to the further development of nanotheranostics. The purpose of this review is to emphasize the role of cell tracking using currently available nanoparticles. PMID:22820528

  9. Recent advances in plant cell wall proteomics.

    PubMed

    Jamet, Elisabeth; Albenne, Cécile; Boudart, Georges; Irshad, Muhammad; Canut, Hervé; Pont-Lezica, Rafael

    2008-02-01

    The plant extracellular matrix contains typical polysaccharides such as cellulose, hemicelluloses, and pectins that interact to form dense interwoven networks. Plant cell walls play crucial roles during development and constitute the first barrier of defense against invading pathogens. Cell wall proteomics has greatly contributed to the description of the protein content of a compartment specific to plants. Around 400 cell wall proteins (CWPs) of Arabidopsis, representing about one fourth of its estimated cell wall proteome, have been described. The main points to note are that: (i) the diversity of enzymes acting on polysaccharides suggests a great plasticity of cell walls; (ii) CWPs such as proteases, polysaccharide hydrolytic enzymes, and lipases may contribute to the generation of signals; (iii) proteins of unknown functions were identified, suggesting new roles for cell walls. Recently, the characterization of PTMs such as N- and O-glycosylations improved our knowledge of CWP structure. The presence of many glycoside hydrolases and proteases suggests a complex regulation of CWPs involving various types of post-translational events. The first 3-D structures to be resolved gave clues about the interactions between CWPs, or between CWPs and polysaccharides. Future work should include: extracting and identifying CWPs still recalcitrant to proteomics, describing the cell wall interactome, improving quantification, and unraveling the roles of each of the CWPs.

  10. Recent advances in amino acid production by microbial cells.

    PubMed

    Hirasawa, Takashi; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2016-12-01

    Amino acids have been utilized for the production of foods, animal feeds and pharmaceuticals. After the discovery of the glutamic acid-producing bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum by Japanese researchers, the production of amino acids, which are primary metabolites, has been achieved using various microbial cells as hosts. Recently, metabolic engineering studies on the rational design of amino acid-producing microbial cells have been successfully conducted. Moreover, the technology of systems biology has been applied to metabolic engineering for the creation of amino acid-producing microbial cells. Currently, new technologies including synthetic biology, single-cell analysis, and evolutionary engineering have been utilized to create amino acid-producing microbial cells. In addition, useful compounds from amino acids have been produced by microbial cells. Here, current researches into the metabolic engineering of microbial cells toward production of amino acids and amino acid-related compounds are reviewed.

  11. Mutagenic Effects of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles on Biological Cells.

    PubMed

    Dissanayake, Niluka M; Current, Kelley M; Obare, Sherine O

    2015-09-30

    In recent years, there has been an increased interest in the design and use of iron oxide materials with nanoscale dimensions for magnetic, catalytic, biomedical, and electronic applications. The increased manufacture and use of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) in consumer products as well as industrial processes is expected to lead to the unintentional release of IONPs into the environment. The impact of IONPs on the environment and on biological species is not well understood but remains a concern due to the increased chemical reactivity of nanoparticles relative to their bulk counterparts. This review article describes the impact of IONPs on cellular genetic components. The mutagenic impact of IONPs may damage an organism's ability to develop or reproduce. To date, there has been experimental evidence of IONPs having mutagenic interactions on human cell lines including lymphoblastoids, fibroblasts, microvascular endothelial cells, bone marrow cells, lung epithelial cells, alveolar type II like epithelial cells, bronchial fibroblasts, skin epithelial cells, hepatocytes, cerebral endothelial cells, fibrosarcoma cells, breast carcinoma cells, lung carcinoma cells, and cervix carcinoma cells. Other cell lines including the Chinese hamster ovary cells, mouse fibroblast cells, murine fibroblast cells, Mytilus galloprovincialis sperm cells, mice lung cells, murine alveolar macrophages, mice hepatic and renal tissue cells, and vero cells have also shown mutagenic effects upon exposure to IONPs. We further show the influence of IONPs on microorganisms in the presence and absence of dissolved organic carbon. The results shed light on the OPEN ACCESS Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16 23483 transformations IONPs undergo in the environment and the nature of the potential mutagenic impact on biological cells.

  12. Mutagenic Effects of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles on Biological Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dissanayake, Niluka M.; Current, Kelley M.; Obare, Sherine O.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increased interest in the design and use of iron oxide materials with nanoscale dimensions for magnetic, catalytic, biomedical, and electronic applications. The increased manufacture and use of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) in consumer products as well as industrial processes is expected to lead to the unintentional release of IONPs into the environment. The impact of IONPs on the environment and on biological species is not well understood but remains a concern due to the increased chemical reactivity of nanoparticles relative to their bulk counterparts. This review article describes the impact of IONPs on cellular genetic components. The mutagenic impact of IONPs may damage an organism’s ability to develop or reproduce. To date, there has been experimental evidence of IONPs having mutagenic interactions on human cell lines including lymphoblastoids, fibroblasts, microvascular endothelial cells, bone marrow cells, lung epithelial cells, alveolar type II like epithelial cells, bronchial fibroblasts, skin epithelial cells, hepatocytes, cerebral endothelial cells, fibrosarcoma cells, breast carcinoma cells, lung carcinoma cells, and cervix carcinoma cells. Other cell lines including the Chinese hamster ovary cells, mouse fibroblast cells, murine fibroblast cells, Mytilus galloprovincialis sperm cells, mice lung cells, murine alveolar macrophages, mice hepatic and renal tissue cells, and vero cells have also shown mutagenic effects upon exposure to IONPs. We further show the influence of IONPs on microorganisms in the presence and absence of dissolved organic carbon. The results shed light on the transformations IONPs undergo in the environment and the nature of the potential mutagenic impact on biological cells. PMID:26437397

  13. Biologicals and Fetal Cell Therapy for Wound and Scar Management

    PubMed Central

    Hirt-Burri, Nathalie; Ramelet, Albert-Adrien; Raffoul, Wassim; de Buys Roessingh, Anthony; Scaletta, Corinne; Pioletti, Dominique; Applegate, Lee Ann

    2011-01-01

    Few biopharmaceutical preparations developed from biologicals are available for tissue regeneration and scar management. When developing biological treatments with cellular therapy, selection of cell types and establishment of consistent cell banks are crucial steps in whole-cell bioprocessing. Various cell types have been used in treatment of wounds to reduce scar to date including autolog and allogenic skin cells, platelets, placenta, and amniotic extracts. Experience with fetal cells show that they may provide an interesting cell choice due to facility of outscaling and known properties for wound healing without scar. Differential gene profiling has helped to point to potential indicators of repair which include cell adhesion, extracellular matrix, cytokines, growth factors, and development. Safety has been evidenced in Phase I and II clinical fetal cell use for burn and wound treatments with different cell delivery systems. We present herein that fetal cells present technical and therapeutic advantages compared to other cell types for effective cell-based therapy for wound and scar management. PMID:22363853

  14. Enzymatic biofuel cells: 30 years of critical advancements.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Michelle; Abdellaoui, Sofiene; Minteer, Shelley D

    2016-02-15

    Enzymatic biofuel cells are bioelectronic devices that utilize oxidoreductase enzymes to catalyze the conversion of chemical energy into electrical energy. This review details the advancements in the field of enzymatic biofuel cells over the last 30 years. These advancements include strategies for improving operational stability and electrochemical performance, as well as device fabrication for a variety of applications, including implantable biofuel cells and self-powered sensors. It also discusses the current scientific and engineering challenges in the field that will need to be addressed in the future for commercial viability of the technology.

  15. Magnetic Wire Traps and Programmable Manipulation of Biological Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, G.; Henighan, T.; Chen, A.; Hauser, A. J.; Yang, F. Y.; Chalmers, J. J.; Sooryakumar, R.

    2009-09-01

    We present a multiplex method, based on microscopic programmable magnetic traps in zigzag wires patterned on a platform, to simultaneously apply directed forces on multiple fluid-borne cells or biologically inert magnetic microparticles or nanoparticles. The gentle tunable forces do not produce damage and retain cell viability. The technique is demonstrated with T-lymphocyte cells remotely manipulated (by a joystick) along desired trajectories on a silicon surface with average speeds up to 20μm/s.

  16. Recent advances in food biopeptides: production, biological functionalities and therapeutic applications.

    PubMed

    Saadi, Sami; Saari, Nazamid; Anwar, Farooq; Hamid, Azizah Abdul; Mohd Ghazali, Hasanah

    2015-01-01

    The growing momentum of several common life-style diseases such as myocardial infarction, cardiovascular disorders, stroke, hypertension, diabetes, and atherosclerosis has become a serious global concern. Recent developments in the field of proteomics offering promising solutions to solving such health problems stimulates the uses of biopeptides as one of the therapeutic agents to alleviate disease-related risk factors. Functional peptides are typically produced from protein via enzymatic hydrolysis under in vitro or in vivo conditions using different kinds of proteolytic enzymes. An array of biological activities, including antioxidative, antihypertensive, antidiabetic and immunomodulating has been ascribed to different types of biopeptides derived from various food sources. In fact, biopeptides are nutritionally and functionally important for regulating some physiological functions in the body; however, these are yet to be extensively addressed with regard to their production through advance strategies, mechanisms of action and multiple biological functionalities. This review mainly focuses on recent biotechnological advances that are being made in the field of production in addition to covering the mode of action and biological activities, medicinal health functions and therapeutic applications of biopeptides. State-of-the-art strategies that can ameliorate the efficacy, bioavailability, and functionality of biopeptides along with their future prospects are likewise discussed.

  17. Choroid plexus papillomas: advances in molecular biology and understanding of tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Safaee, Michael; Oh, Michael C; Bloch, Orin; Sun, Matthew Z; Kaur, Gurvinder; Auguste, Kurtis I; Tihan, Tarik; Parsa, Andrew T

    2013-03-01

    Choroid plexus papillomas are rare, benign tumors originating from the choroid plexus. Although generally found within the ventricular system, they can arise ectopically in the brain parenchyma or disseminate throughout the neuraxis. We sought to review recent advances in our understanding of the molecular biology and oncogenic pathways associated with this disease. A comprehensive PubMed literature review was conducted to identify manuscripts discussing the clinical, molecular, and genetic features of choroid plexus papillomas. Articles concerning diagnosis, treatment, and long-term patient outcomes were also reviewed. The introduction of atypical choroid plexus papilloma as a distinct entity has increased the need for accurate histopathologic diagnosis. Advances in immunohistochemical staining have improved our ability to differentiate choroid plexus papillomas from other intracranial tumors or metastatic lesions using combinations of key markers and mitotic indices. Recent findings have implicated Notch3 signaling, the transcription factor TWIST1, platelet-derived growth factor receptor, and the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand pathway in choroid plexus papilloma tumorigenesis. A combination of commonly occurring chromosomal duplications and deletions has also been identified. Surgical resection remains the standard of care, although chemotherapy and radiotherapy may be considered for recurrent or metastatic lesions. While generally considered benign, these tumors possess a complex biology that sheds insight into other choroid plexus tumors, particularly malignant choroid plexus carcinomas. Improving our understanding of the molecular biology, genetics, and oncogenic pathways associated with this tumor will allow for the development of targeted therapies and improved outcomes for patients with this disease.

  18. Cell and molecular biology of intervertebral disc degeneration: current understanding and implications for potential therapeutic strategies.

    PubMed

    Wang, S Z; Rui, Y F; Lu, J; Wang, C

    2014-10-01

    Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is a chronic, complex process associated with low back pain; mechanisms of its occurrence have not yet been fully elucidated. Its process is not only accompanied by morphological changes, but also by systematic changes in its histological and biochemical properties. Many cellular and molecular mechanisms have been reported to be related with IDD and to reverse degenerative trends, abnormal conditions of the living cells and altered cell phenotypes would need to be restored. Promising biological therapeutic strategies still rely on injection of active substances, gene therapy and cell transplantation. With advanced study of tissue engineering protocols based on cell therapy, combined use of seeding cells, bio-active substances and bio-compatible materials, are promising for IDD regeneration. Recently reported progenitor cells within discs themselves also hold prospects for future IDD studies. This article describes the background of IDD, current understanding and implications of potential therapeutic strategies.

  19. Paul Ehrlich's mastzellen: a historical perspective of relevant developments in mast cell biology.

    PubMed

    Ghably, Jack; Saleh, Hana; Vyas, Harsha; Peiris, Emma; Misra, Niva; Krishnaswamy, Guha

    2015-01-01

    Following the discovery of mast cells (or mastzellen) by the prolific physician researcher, Paul Ehrlich, many advances have improved our understanding of these cells and their fascinating biology. The discovery of immunoglobulin E and receptors for IgE and IgG on mast cells heralded further in vivo and in vitro studies, using molecular technologies and gene knockout models. Mast cells express an array of inflammatory mediators including tryptase, histamine, cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. They play a role in many varying disease states, from atopic diseases, parasitic infections, hematological malignancies, and arthritis to osteoporosis. This review will attempt to summarize salient evolving areas in mast cell research over the last few centuries that have led to our current understanding of this pivotal multifunctional cell.

  20. TGFβ in T cell biology and tumor immunity: angel or devil?

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Eric; Chia, Pei Zhi Cheryl; Chen, Wanjun

    2014-01-01

    The evolutionally conserved transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) affects multiple cell types in the immune system by either stimulating or inhibiting their differentiation and function. Studies using transgenic mice with ablation of TGFβ or its receptor have revealed the biological significance of TGFβ signaling in the control of T cells. However, it is now clear that TGFβ is more than an immunosuppressive cytokine. Disruption of TGFβ signaling pathway also leads to impaired generation of certain T cell populations. Therefore, in the normal physiological state, TGFβ actively maintains T cell homeostasis and regulates T cell function. However, in the tumor microenvironment, TGFβ creates an immunosuppressive milieu that inhibits antitumor immunity. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of the roles of TGFβ in the regulation of T cells and tumor immunity. PMID:25156420

  1. The cell biology of the endocytic system from an evolutionary perspective.

    PubMed

    Wideman, Jeremy G; Leung, Ka Fai; Field, Mark C; Dacks, Joel B

    2014-04-01

    Evolutionary cell biology can afford an interdisciplinary comparative view that gives insights into both the functioning of modern cells and the origins of cellular systems, including the endocytic organelles. Here, we explore several recent evolutionary cell biology studies, highlighting investigations into the origin and diversity of endocytic systems in eukaryotes. Beginning with a brief overview of the eukaryote tree of life, we show how understanding the endocytic machinery in a select, but diverse, array of organisms provides insights into endocytic system origins and predicts the likely configuration in the last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA). Next, we consider three examples in which a comparative approach yielded insight into the function of modern cellular systems. First, using ESCRT-0 as an example, we show how comparative cell biology can discover both lineage-specific novelties (ESCRT-0) as well as previously ignored ancient proteins (Tom1), likely of both evolutionary and functional importance. Second, we highlight the power of comparative cell biology for discovery of previously ignored but potentially ancient complexes (AP5). Finally, using examples from ciliates and trypanosomes, we show that not all organisms possess canonical endocytic pathways, but instead likely evolved lineage-specific mechanisms. Drawing from these case studies, we conclude that a comparative approach is a powerful strategy for advancing knowledge about the general mechanisms and functions of endocytic systems.

  2. Advances in direct oxidation methanol fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surampudi, S.; Narayanan, S. R.; Vamos, E.; Frank, H.; Halpert, G.; Laconti, Anthony B.; Kosek, J.; Prakash, G. K. Surya; Olah, G. A.

    1993-01-01

    Fuel cells that can operate directly on fuels such as methanol are attractive for low to medium power applications in view of their low weight and volume relative to other power sources. A liquid feed direct methanol fuel cell has been developed based on a proton exchange membrane electrolyte and Pt/Ru and Pt catalyzed fuel and air/O2 electrodes, respectively. The cell has been shown to deliver significant power outputs at temperatures of 60 to 90 C. The cell voltage is near 0.5 V at 300 mA/cm(exp 2) current density and an operating temperature of 90 C. A deterrent to performance appears to be methanol crossover through the membrane to the oxygen electrode. Further improvements in performance appear possible by minimizing the methanol crossover rate.

  3. Single-cell sequencing in stem cell biology.

    PubMed

    Wen, Lu; Tang, Fuchou

    2016-04-15

    Cell-to-cell variation and heterogeneity are fundamental and intrinsic characteristics of stem cell populations, but these differences are masked when bulk cells are used for omic analysis. Single-cell sequencing technologies serve as powerful tools to dissect cellular heterogeneity comprehensively and to identify distinct phenotypic cell types, even within a 'homogeneous' stem cell population. These technologies, including single-cell genome, epigenome, and transcriptome sequencing technologies, have been developing rapidly in recent years. The application of these methods to different types of stem cells, including pluripotent stem cells and tissue-specific stem cells, has led to exciting new findings in the stem cell field. In this review, we discuss the recent progress as well as future perspectives in the methodologies and applications of single-cell omic sequencing technologies.

  4. New Advanced Technologies in Stem Cell Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    Pittsburgh, PA, USA. 8Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Center, Cellular and Molecular Arrhythmia Research Program, Department of Medicine, School...function and reduce ventricular arrhythmias (145). Preclinical studies are beginning to test PSC cell therapy in large-animal models of heart dis- ease...been ob- served (148). However, a transient increase in ventricular arrhythmias has occurred, raising a potential safety concern. Transplantation of hu

  5. Advanced technology lightweight fuel cell program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    The potential of the alkaline electrolyte fuel cell as the power source in a multi hundred kilowatt orbital energy storage system was studied. The total system weight of an electrolysis cell energy storage system was determined. The tests demonstrated: (1) the performance stability of a platinum on carbon anode catalyst configuration after 5000 hours of testing has no loss in performance; (2) capability of the alkaline fuel cell to operate to a cyclical load profile; (3) suitability of a lightweight graphite electrolyte reservoir plate for use in the alkaline fuel cell; (4) long life potential of a hybrid polysulfone cell edge frame construction; and (5) long term stability of a fiber reinforced potassium titanate matrix structure. The power section tested operates with passive water removal eliminating the requirement for a dynamic hydrogen pump water separator thereby allowing a powerplant design with reduced weight, lower parasite power, and a potential for high reliability and extended endurance. It is concluded that two perovskites are unsuitable for use as a catalyst or as a catalyst support at the cathode of an alkaline fuel cell.

  6. Laboratory investigations in cell biology. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Bregman, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    This text contains 18 lab projects that explore the structural, biochemical, and physiological nature of eukaryotic cells. Topics are largely traditional, however, several investigations employ new methodologies. Offers extended coverage of biochemistry. Materials have been selected for availability and ease of handling: e.g. Project 4 - extraction of DNA and RNA done with calf liver, Project 9 - succinate dehydrogenase activity studied in mitochondria isolated from cauliflower. There is more procedural detail than found in most lab manuals, negating the need for constant instructional details. And a variety of methodologies is introduced, such as Cytochemistry, Spectrophotometry, Electrophoresis, Cell Fractionation, silver staining of active sites of RNA transcription, and many more. Pages are perforated for collecting and grading.

  7. Environmental scanning electron microscopy in cell biology.

    PubMed

    McGregor, J E; Staniewicz, L T L; Guthrie Neé Kirk, S E; Donald, A M

    2013-01-01

    Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) (1) is an imaging technique which allows hydrated, insulating samples to be imaged under an electron beam. The resolution afforded by this technique is higher than conventional optical microscopy but lower than conventional scanning electron microscopy (CSEM). The major advantage of the technique is the minimal sample preparation needed, making ESEM quick to use and the images less susceptible to the artifacts that the extensive sample preparation usually required for CSEM may introduce. Careful manipulation of both the humidity in the microscope chamber and the beam energy are nevertheless essential to prevent dehydration and beam damage artifacts. In some circumstances it is possible to image live cells in the ESEM (2).In the following sections we introduce the fundamental principles of ESEM imaging before presenting imaging protocols for plant epidermis, mammalian cells, and bacteria. In the first two cases samples are imaged using the secondary electron (topographic) signal, whereas a transmission technique is employed to image bacteria.

  8. Microfluidic cell sorting: a review of the advances in the separation of cells from debulking to rare cell isolation.

    PubMed

    Shields, C Wyatt; Reyes, Catherine D; López, Gabriel P

    2015-03-07

    Accurate and high throughput cell sorting is a critical enabling technology in molecular and cellular biology, biotechnology, and medicine. While conventional methods can provide high efficiency sorting in short timescales, advances in microfluidics have enabled the realization of miniaturized devices offering similar capabilities that exploit a variety of physical principles. We classify these technologies as either active or passive. Active systems generally use external fields (e.g., acoustic, electric, magnetic, and optical) to impose forces to displace cells for sorting, whereas passive systems use inertial forces, filters, and adhesion mechanisms to purify cell populations. Cell sorting on microchips provides numerous advantages over conventional methods by reducing the size of necessary equipment, eliminating potentially biohazardous aerosols, and simplifying the complex protocols commonly associated with cell sorting. Additionally, microchip devices are well suited for parallelization, enabling complete lab-on-a-chip devices for cellular isolation, analysis, and experimental processing. In this review, we examine the breadth of microfluidic cell sorting technologies, while focusing on those that offer the greatest potential for translation into clinical and industrial practice and that offer multiple, useful functions. We organize these sorting technologies by the type of cell preparation required (i.e., fluorescent label-based sorting, bead-based sorting, and label-free sorting) as well as by the physical principles underlying each sorting mechanism.

  9. Microfluidic Cell Sorting: A Review of the Advances in the Separation of Cells from Debulking to Rare Cell Isolation

    PubMed Central

    Shields, C. Wyatt; Reyes, Catherine D.; López, Gabriel P.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate and high throughput cell sorting is a critical enabling technology in molecular and cellular biology, biotechnology, and medicine. While conventional methods can provide high efficiency sorting in short timescales, advances in microfluidics have enabled the realization of miniaturized devices offering similar capabilities that exploit a variety of physical principles. We classify these technologies as either active or passive. Active systems generally use external fields (e.g., acoustic, electric, magnetic, and optical) to impose forces to displace cells for sorting, whereas passive systems use inertial forces, filters, and adhesion mechanisms to purify cell populations. Cell sorting on microchips provides numerous advantages over conventional methods by reducing the size of necessary equipment, eliminating potentially biohazardous aerosols, and simplifying the complex protocols commonly associated with cell sorting. Additionally, microchip devices are well suited for parallelization, enabling complete lab-on-a-chip devices for cellular isolation, analysis, and experimental processing. In this review, we examine the breadth of microfluidic cell sorting technologies, while focusing on those that offer the greatest potential for translation into clinical and industrial practice and that offer multiple, useful functions. We organize these sorting technologies by the type of cell preparation required (i.e., fluorescent label-based sorting, bead-based sorting, and label-free sorting) as well as by the physical principles underlying each sorting mechanism. PMID:25598308

  10. Determining the bacterial cell biology of Planctomycetes.

    PubMed

    Boedeker, Christian; Schüler, Margarete; Reintjes, Greta; Jeske, Olga; van Teeseling, Muriel C F; Jogler, Mareike; Rast, Patrick; Borchert, Daniela; Devos, Damien P; Kucklick, Martin; Schaffer, Miroslava; Kolter, Roberto; van Niftrik, Laura; Engelmann, Susanne; Amann, Rudolf; Rohde, Manfred; Engelhardt, Harald; Jogler, Christian

    2017-04-10

    Bacteria of the phylum Planctomycetes have been previously reported to possess several features that are typical of eukaryotes, such as cytosolic compartmentalization and endocytosis-like macromolecule uptake. However, recent evidence points towards a Gram-negative cell plan for Planctomycetes, although in-depth experimental analysis has been hampered by insufficient genetic tools. Here we develop methods for expression of fluorescent proteins and for gene deletion in a model planctomycete, Planctopirus limnophila, to analyse its cell organization in detail. Super-resolution light microscopy of mutants, cryo-electron tomography, bioinformatic predictions and proteomic analyses support an altered Gram-negative cell plan for Planctomycetes, including a defined outer membrane, a periplasmic space that can be greatly enlarged and convoluted, and an energized cytoplasmic membrane. These conclusions are further supported by experiments performed with two other Planctomycetes, Gemmata obscuriglobus and Rhodopirellula baltica. We also provide experimental evidence that is inconsistent with endocytosis-like macromolecule uptake; instead, extracellular macromolecules can be taken up and accumulate in the periplasmic space through unclear mechanisms.

  11. Advanced fuel cell concepts for future NASA missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stedman, J. K.

    1987-01-01

    Studies of primary fuel cells for advanced all electric shuttle type vehicles show an all fuel cell power system with peak power capability of 100's of kW to be potentially lighter and have lower life cycle costs than a hybrid system using advanced H2O2 APU's for peak power and fuel cells for low power on orbit. Fuel cell specific weights of 1 to 3 lb/kW, a factor of 10 improvement over the orbiter power plant, are projected for the early 1990's. For satellite applications, a study to identify high performance regenerative hydrogen oxygen fuel cell concepts for geosynchronous orbit was completed. Emphasis was placed on concepts with the potential for high energy density (Wh/lb) and passive means for water and heat management to maximize system reliability. Both alkaline electrolyte and polymer membrane fuel cells were considered.

  12. Advanced fuel cell concepts for future NASA missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stedman, J. K.

    1987-09-01

    Studies of primary fuel cells for advanced all electric shuttle type vehicles show an all fuel cell power system with peak power capability of 100's of kW to be potentially lighter and have lower life cycle costs than a hybrid system using advanced H2O2 APU's for peak power and fuel cells for low power on orbit. Fuel cell specific weights of 1 to 3 lb/kW, a factor of 10 improvement over the orbiter power plant, are projected for the early 1990's. For satellite applications, a study to identify high performance regenerative hydrogen oxygen fuel cell concepts for geosynchronous orbit was completed. Emphasis was placed on concepts with the potential for high energy density (Wh/lb) and passive means for water and heat management to maximize system reliability. Both alkaline electrolyte and polymer membrane fuel cells were considered.

  13. Stem cell biology and cell transplantation therapy in the retina.

    PubMed

    Osakada, Fumitaka; Hirami, Yasuhiko; Takahashi, Masayo

    2010-01-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells, which are derived from the inner cell mass of mammalian blastocyst stage embryos, have the ability to differentiate into any cell type in the body and to grow indefinitely while maintaining pluripotency. During development, cells undergo progressive and irreversible differentiation into specialized adult cell types. Remarkably, in spite of this restriction in potential, adult somatic cells can be reprogrammed and returned to the naive state of pluripotency found in the early embryo simply by forcing expression of a defined set of transcription factors. These induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are molecularly and functionally equivalent to ES cells and provide powerful in vitro models for development, disease, and drug screening, as well as material for cell replacement therapy. Since functional impairment results from cell loss in most central nervous system (CNS) diseases, recovery of lost cells is an important treatment strategy. Although adult neurogenesis occurs in restricted regions, the CNS has poor potential for regeneration to compensate for cell loss. Thus, cell transplantation into damaged or diseased CNS tissues is a promising approach to treating various neurodegenerative disorders. Transplantation of photoreceptors or retinal pigment epithelium cells derived from human ES cells can restore some visual function. Patient-specific iPS cells may lead to customized cell therapy. However, regeneration of retinal function will require a detailed understanding of eye development, visual system circuitry, and retinal degeneration pathology. Here, we review the current progress in retinal regeneration, focusing on the therapeutic potential of pluripotent stem cells.

  14. Finding the key - cell biology and science education.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kenneth R

    2010-12-01

    No international research community, cell biology included, can exist without an educational community to renew and replenish it. Unfortunately, cell biology researchers frequently regard their work as independent of the process of education and see little reason to reach out to science teachers. For cell biology to continue to prosper, I argue that researchers must support education in at least three ways. First, we must view education and research as part of a single scientific community. Second, we should take advantage of new technologies to connect the research laboratory to the classroom. Finally, we must take the initiative in defending the integrity of science teaching, particularly when education is under attack for political or religious reasons.

  15. Emerging challenges of advanced squamous cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi-Chen; Zhou, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Squamous cell lung cancer (SQCLC) is an aggressive type of lung cancer and most are diagnosed at advanced stage. Patients with advanced SQCLC tend to be older, current or former smoker, with central type tumour located near large blood vessels and seldom with druggable genetic alternations. Consequently, progress of targeted therapy and antivascular agents available in lung adenocarcinoma could not be duplicated in this subset of patients. The treatment paradigms have long been dominant by cytotoxic agents and posed many therapeutic challenges. Until recent years, immune checkpoint inhibitors, other monoclonal antibodies and afatinib have been approved for treatment of advanced SQCLC, presenting a novel treatment landscape and initiating the era of precision medicine in this subset of patients. This review will summarise the recent treatment progresses in advanced SQCLC with a focus on checkpoint inhibitors of programmed cell death-1 receptor or its ligand, and discuss the emerging challenges in this new era. PMID:28255454

  16. Understanding the advances in biology of orthodontic tooth movement for improved ortho-perio interdisciplinary approach

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Anand K.; Shetty, Adarsh S.; Setty, Swati; Thakur, Srinath

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an insight on detailed current advances in molecular understandings of periodontal ligament cells and the influence of orthodontic force on them in the light of recent advances in molecular and genetic sciences. It sequentially unfolds the cellular events beginning from the mechanical force initiated events of cellular responses to bone remodeling. It also highlights the risks and limitations of orthodontic treatment in certain periodontal conditions, the important areas of team work, orthodontic expectations from periodontal treatment and the possibility of much more future combined research to improve the best possible periodontal health and esthetic outcome of the patient. PMID:24049330

  17. Cell Biology of Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Kalogeris, Theodore; Baines, Christopher P.; Krenz, Maike; Korthuis, Ronald J.

    2014-01-01

    Disorders characterized by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), such as myocardial infarction, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease, continue to be among the most frequent causes of debilitating disease and death. Tissue injury and/or death occur as a result of the initial ischemic insult, which is determined primarily by the magnitude and duration of the interruption in the blood supply, and then subsequent damage induced by reperfusion. During prolonged ischemia, ATP levels and intracellular pH decrease as a result of anaerobic metabolism and lactate accumulation. As a consequence, ATPase-dependent ion transport mechanisms become dysfunctional, contributing to increased intracellular and mitochondrial calcium levels (calcium overload), cell swelling and rupture, and cell death by necrotic, necroptotic, apoptotic, and autophagic mechanisms. Although oxygen levels are restored upon reperfusion, a surge in the generation of reactive oxygen species occurs and proinflammatory neutrophils infiltrate ischemic tissues to exacerbate ischemic injury. The pathologic events induced by I/R orchestrate the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, which appears to represent a common end-effector of the pathologic events initiated by I/R. The aim of this treatise is to provide a comprehensive review of the mechanisms underlying the development of I/R injury, from which it should be apparent that a combination of molecular and cellular approaches targeting multiple pathologic processes to limit the extent of I/R injury must be adopted to enhance resistance to cell death and increase regenerative capacity in order to effect long-lasting repair of ischemic tissues. PMID:22878108

  18. Accessories to the crime: recent advances in HIV accessory protein biology.

    PubMed

    Gramberg, Thomas; Sunseri, Nicole; Landau, Nathaniel R

    2009-02-01

    Recent advances in understanding the roles of the lentiviral accessory proteins have provided fascinating insight into the molecular biology of the virus and uncovered previously unappreciated innate immune mechanisms by which the host defends itself. HIV-1 and other lentiviruses have developed accessory proteins that counterattack the antiviral defenses in a sort of evolutionary battle. The virus is remarkably adept at co-opting cellular degradative pathways to destroy the protective proteins. This review focuses on recent advances in understanding three of the accessory proteins-virion infectivity factor (Vif), viral protein R (Vpr), and viral protein U (Vpu)-that target different restriction factors to ensure virus replication. These proteins may provide promising targets for the development of novel classes of antiretroviral drugs.

  19. Single-cell RNA-seq: advances and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Saliba, Antoine-Emmanuel; Westermann, Alexander J; Gorski, Stanislaw A; Vogel, Jörg

    2014-08-01

    Phenotypically identical cells can dramatically vary with respect to behavior during their lifespan and this variation is reflected in their molecular composition such as the transcriptomic landscape. Single-cell transcriptomics using next-generation transcript sequencing (RNA-seq) is now emerging as a powerful tool to profile cell-to-cell variability on a genomic scale. Its application has already greatly impacted our conceptual understanding of diverse biological processes with broad implications for both basic and clinical research. Different single-cell RNA-seq protocols have been introduced and are reviewed here-each one with its own strengths and current limitations. We further provide an overview of the biological questions single-cell RNA-seq has been used to address, the major findings obtained from such studies, and current challenges and expected future developments in this booming field.

  20. Single-cell RNA-seq: advances and future challenges

    PubMed Central

    Saliba, Antoine-Emmanuel; Westermann, Alexander J.; Gorski, Stanislaw A.; Vogel, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Phenotypically identical cells can dramatically vary with respect to behavior during their lifespan and this variation is reflected in their molecular composition such as the transcriptomic landscape. Single-cell transcriptomics using next-generation transcript sequencing (RNA-seq) is now emerging as a powerful tool to profile cell-to-cell variability on a genomic scale. Its application has already greatly impacted our conceptual understanding of diverse biological processes with broad implications for both basic and clinical research. Different single-cell RNA-seq protocols have been introduced and are reviewed here—each one with its own strengths and current limitations. We further provide an overview of the biological questions single-cell RNA-seq has been used to address, the major findings obtained from such studies, and current challenges and expected future developments in this booming field. PMID:25053837

  1. Advances in management of sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, M B

    2003-08-01

    Sickle cell disease is numerically as common as thalassaemia. However, it affects relatively under privileged population i.e. tribal population belonging to economically poor class and having inadequate access to education and modern health facilities. A recent explosion acknowledged in understanding the pathogenesis of this disease has lead to newer dimensions in treatment. Some of these viz. prevention of overwhelming bacterial infection, present indications and controversies regarding blood transfusion, prevention of stroke, acute chest syndrome, hydroxyurea therapy--probably the best disease modifying agent at the moment, stem cell transplantation--a cure and certain promising experimental therapies including gene therapy have been discussed in this review.

  2. Fuel cell and advanced turbine power cycle

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.J.

    1995-10-19

    Solar Turbines, Incorporated (Solar) has a vested interest in the integration of gas turbines and high temperature fuel cells and in particular, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Solar has identified a parallel path approach to the technology developments needed for future products. The primary approach is to move away from the simple cycle industrial machines of the past and develop as a first step more efficient recuperated engines. This move was prompted by the recognition that the simple cycle machines were rapidly approaching their efficiency limits. Improving the efficiency of simple cycle machines is and will become increasingly more costly. Each efficiency increment will be progressively more costly than the previous step.

  3. Recent Advances in the Chemistry and Biology of Naturally Occurring Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jason S.; Edmonds, David J.; Estrada, Anthony A.

    2009-01-01

    Lead-in Ever since the world-shaping discovery of penicillin, nature’s molecular diversity has been extensively screened for new medications and lead compounds in drug discovery. The search for anti-infective agents intended to combat infectious diseases has been of particular interest and has enjoyed a high degree of success. Indeed, the history of antibiotics is marked with impressive discoveries and drug development stories, the overwhelming majority of which have their origins in nature. Chemistry, and in particular chemical synthesis, has played a major role in bringing naturally occurring antibiotics and their derivatives to the clinic, and no doubt these disciplines will continue to be key enabling technologies for future developments in the field. In this review article, we highlight a number of recent discoveries and advances in the chemistry, biology, and medicine of naturally occurring antibiotics, with particular emphasis on the total synthesis, analog design, and biological evaluation of molecules with novel mechanisms of action. PMID:19130444

  4. Biological processes for advancing lignocellulosic waste biorefinery by advocating circular economy.

    PubMed

    Liguori, Rossana; Faraco, Vincenza

    2016-09-01

    The actualization of a circular economy through the use of lignocellulosic wastes as renewable resources can lead to reduce the dependence from fossil-based resources and contribute to a sustainable waste management. The integrated biorefineries, exploiting the overall lignocellulosic waste components to generate fuels, chemicals and energy, are the pillar of the circular economy. The biological treatment is receiving great attention for the biorefinery development since it is considered an eco-friendly alternative to the physico-chemical strategies to increase the biobased product recovery from wastes and improve saccharification and fermentation yields. This paper reviews the last advances in the biological treatments aimed at upgrading lignocellulosic wastes, implementing the biorefinery concept and advocating circular economy.

  5. Recent advances and industrial viewpoint for biological treatment of wastewaters by oleaginous microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chao; Luo, Mu-Tan; Chen, Xue-Fang; Xiong, Lian; Li, Xiao-Mei; Chen, Xin-De

    2017-02-20

    Recently, technology of using oleaginous microorganisms for biological treatment of wastewaters has become one hot topic in biochemical and environmental engineering for its advantages such as easy for operation in basic bioreactor, having potential to produce valuable bio-products, efficient wastewaters treatment in short period, etc. To promote its industrialization, this article provides some comprehensive analysis of this technology such as its advances, issues, and outlook especially from industrial viewpoint. In detail, the types of wastewaters can be treated and the kinds of oleaginous microorganisms used for biological treatment are introduced, the potential of industrial application and issues (relatively low COD removal, low lipid yield, cost of operation, and lack of scale up application) of this technology are presented, and some critical outlook mainly on co-culture method, combination with other treatments, process controlling and adjusting are discussed systematically. By this article, some important information to develop this technology can be obtained.

  6. Bovine babesiosis in the 21st century: advances in biology and functional genomics.

    PubMed

    Gohil, Sejal; Herrmann, Susann; Günther, Svenja; Cooke, Brian M

    2013-02-01

    Bovine babesiosis caused by the protozoan parasite, Babesia bovis, remains a significant cause of avoidable economic losses to the livestock industry in many countries throughout the world. The molecular mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of severe disease in susceptible cattle are not well understood and the tools available to study the biology of the parasite, including technologies for genetic manipulation, have only recently been developed. Recent availability of multiple parasite genomes and bioinformatic tools, in combination with the development of new biological reagents, will facilitate our better understanding of the parasite. This will ultimately assist in the identification of novel targets for the development of new therapeutics and vaccines. Here we describe some recent advances in Babesia research and highlight some important challenges for the future.

  7. Advances in radiation biology: Relative radiation sensitivities of human organ systems. Volume 12

    SciTech Connect

    Lett, J.T.; Altman, K.I.; Ehmann, U.K.; Cox, A.B.

    1987-01-01

    This volume is a thematically focused issue of Advances in Radiation Biology. The topic surveyed is relative radiosensitivity of human organ systems. Topics considered include relative radiosensitivities of the thymus, spleen, and lymphohemopoietic systems; relative radiosensitivities of the small and large intestine; relative rediosensitivities of the oral cavity, larynx, pharynx, and esophagus; relative radiation sensitivity of the integumentary system; dose response of the epidermal; microvascular, and dermal populations; relative radiosensitivity of the human lung; relative radiosensitivity of fetal tissues; and tolerance of the central and peripheral nervous system to therapeutic irradiation.

  8. Recent advances of molecular toolbox construction expand Pichia pastoris in synthetic biology applications.

    PubMed

    Kang, Zhen; Huang, Hao; Zhang, Yunfeng; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Pichia pastoris: (reclassified as Komagataella phaffii), a methylotrophic yeast strain has been widely used for heterologous protein production because of its unique advantages, such as readily achievable high-density fermentation, tractable genetic modifications and typical eukaryotic post-translational modifications. More recently, P. pastoris as a metabolic pathway engineering platform has also gained much attention. In this mini-review, we addressed recent advances of molecular toolboxes, including synthetic promoters, signal peptides, and genome engineering tools that established for P. pastoris. Furthermore, the applications of P. pastoris towards synthetic biology were also discussed and prospected especially in the context of genome-scale metabolic pathway analysis.

  9. Correlating the morphological and light scattering properties of biological cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Marina

    The scattered light pattern from a biological cell is greatly influenced by the internal structure and optical properties of the cell. This research project examines the relationships between the morphological and scattering properties of biological cells through numerical simulations. The mains goals are: (1) to develop a procedure to analytically model biological cells, (2) to quantitatively study the effects of a range of cell characteristics on the features of the light scattering patterns, and (3) to classify cells based on the features of their light scattering patterns. A procedure to create an analytical cell model was developed which extracted structural information from the confocal microscopic images of cells and allowed for the alteration of the cell structure in a controlled and systematic way. The influence of cell surface roughness, nuclear size, and mitochondrial volume density, spatial distribution, size and shape on the light scattering patterns was studied through numerical simulations of light scattering using the Discrete Dipole Approximation. It was found that the light scattering intensity in the scattering angle range of 25° to 45° responded to changes in the surface fluctuation of the cell and the range of 90° to 110° was well suited for characterization of mitochondrial density and nuclear size. A comparison of light scattering pattern analysis methods revealed that the angular distribution of the scattered light and Gabor filters were most helpful in differentiating between the cell characteristics. In addition, a measured increase in the Gabor energy of the light scattering patterns in response to an increase in the complexity of the cell models suggested that a complex nuclear structure and mitochondria should be included when modeling biological cells for light scattering simulations. Analysis of the scattering pattern features with Gabor filters resulted in discrimination of the cell models according to cell surface roughness

  10. Recent advances in microbial single cell genomics technology and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanauskas, R.

    2015-12-01

    Single cell genomics is increasingly utilized as a powerful tool to decipher the metabolic potential, evolutionary histories and in situ interactions of environmental microorganisms. I will present several new developments of this exciting technology, which improve genomic data recovery from individual cells and allow its integration with cell's phenotypic properties. I will also demonstrate how these new technical capabilities help understanding the biology of the "microbial dark matter" inhabiting marine and terrestrial subsurface environments.

  11. Advanced nickel-hydrogen cell configuration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Long-term trends in the evolution of space power technology point toward increased payload power demand which in turn translates into both higher battery system charge storage capability and higher operating voltages. State of the art nickel-hydrogen cells of the 50 to 60 Wh size, packaged in individual pressure vessels, are capable of meeting the required cycle life for a wide range of anticipated operating conditions; however, they provided several drawbacks to battery system integrated efforts. Because of size, high voltage/high power systems require integrating hundreds of cells into the operating system. Packaging related weight and volume inefficiencies degrade the energy density and specific energy of individual cells currently at 30 Wh/cudm and 40 Wh/kg respectively. In addition, the increased parts count and associated handling significantly affect the overall battery related costs. Spacecraft battery systems designers within industry and Government realize that to reduce weight, volume, and cost requires increases in the capacity of nickel-hydrogen cells.

  12. Stem Cells: A Renaissance in Human Biology Research.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun; Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos

    2016-06-16

    The understanding of human biology and how it relates to that of other species represents an ancient quest. Limited access to human material, particularly during early development, has restricted researchers to only scratching the surface of this inherently challenging subject. Recent technological innovations, such as single cell "omics" and human stem cell derivation, have now greatly accelerated our ability to gain insights into uniquely human biology. The opportunities afforded to delve molecularly into scarce material and to model human embryogenesis and pathophysiological processes are leading to new insights of human development and are changing our understanding of disease and choice of therapy options.

  13. High efficiency fuel cell/advanced turbine power cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Morehead, H.

    1995-10-19

    An outline of the Westinghouse high-efficiency fuel cell/advanced turbine power cycle is presented. The following topics are discussed: The Westinghouse SOFC pilot manufacturing facility, cell scale-up plan, pressure effects on SOFC power and efficiency, sureCell versus conventional gas turbine plants, sureCell product line for distributed power applications, 20 MW pressurized-SOFC/gas turbine power plant, 10 MW SOFC/CT power plant, sureCell plant concept design requirements, and Westinghouse SOFC market entry.

  14. [Markers of prostate cancer stem cells: research advances].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shun-Qi; Huang, Sheng-Song

    2013-12-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most seriously malignant diseases threatening men's health, and the mechanisms of its initiation and progression are not yet completely understood. Recent years have witnessed distinct advances in researches on prostate cancer stem cells in many aspects using different sources of materials, such as human prostate cancer tissues, human prostate cancer cell lines, and mouse models of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer stem cell study offers a new insight into the mechanisms of the initiation and progression of prostate cancer and contributes positively to its treatment. This article presents an overview on the prostate cancer stem cell markers utilized in the isolation and identification of prostate cancer stem cells.

  15. Advances and applications of induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Pietronave, Stefano; Prat, Maria

    2012-03-01

    Direct reprogramming of somatic cells into pluripotent cells is an emerging technology for creating patient-specific cells, and potentially opens new scenarios in medical and pharmacological fields. From the discovery of Shinya Yamanaka, who first obtained pluripotent cells from fibroblasts by retrovirus-derived ectopic expression of defined embryonic transcription factors, new methods have been developed to generate safe induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells without genomic manipulations. This review will focus on the recent advances in iPS technology and their application in pharmacology and medicine.

  16. Cell biology and molecular basis of denitrification.

    PubMed Central

    Zumft, W G

    1997-01-01

    Denitrification is a distinct means of energy conservation, making use of N oxides as terminal electron acceptors for cellular bioenergetics under anaerobic, microaerophilic, and occasionally aerobic conditions. The process is an essential branch of the global N cycle, reversing dinitrogen fixation, and is associated with chemolithotrophic, phototrophic, diazotrophic, or organotrophic metabolism but generally not with obligately anaerobic life. Discovered more than a century ago and believed to be exclusively a bacterial trait, denitrification has now been found in halophilic and hyperthermophilic archaea and in the mitochondria of fungi, raising evolutionarily intriguing vistas. Important advances in the biochemical characterization of denitrification and the underlying genetics have been achieved with Pseudomonas stutzeri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Paracoccus denitrificans, Ralstonia eutropha, and Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Pseudomonads represent one of the largest assemblies of the denitrifying bacteria within a single genus, favoring their use as model organisms. Around 50 genes are required within a single bacterium to encode the core structures of the denitrification apparatus. Much of the denitrification process of gram-negative bacteria has been found confined to the periplasm, whereas the topology and enzymology of the gram-positive bacteria are less well established. The activation and enzymatic transformation of N oxides is based on the redox chemistry of Fe, Cu, and Mo. Biochemical breakthroughs have included the X-ray structures of the two types of respiratory nitrite reductases and the isolation of the novel enzymes nitric oxide reductase and nitrous oxide reductase, as well as their structural characterization by indirect spectroscopic means. This revealed unexpected relationships among denitrification enzymes and respiratory oxygen reductases. Denitrification is intimately related to fundamental cellular processes that include primary and secondary

  17. Strategies of cell biology experimentation in space.

    PubMed

    Cogoli, Augusto

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to inform newcomers on the most important aspects of experimentation with living cells and tissues in space laboratories and platforms. There are strong arguments that justify the efforts and investments in such activity. Experimentation in space is subject to safety and technological constraints that require considerable attention to the development of the flight protocols and of the flight instrumentation. Nevertheless to fly an experiment in space is a unique opportunity to study living systems under conditions not reproducible on Earth and it is also a contribution to human exploration of space. Thereby important progress in basic and applied science can be expected. Parallel investigations on ground with devices averaging the exposure to the gravity vector but not reproducing microgravity shall always be part of a space flight project.

  18. Molecular biology of testicular germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Exposito, R; Merino, M; Aguayo, C

    2016-06-01

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are the most common solid tumors in young adult men. They constitute a unique pathology because of their embryonic and germ origin and their special behavior. Genetic predisposition, environmental factors involved in their development and genetic aberrations have been under study in many works throughout the last years trying to explain the susceptibility and the transformation mechanism of TGCTs. Despite the high rate of cure in this type of tumors because its particular sensitivity to cisplatin, there are tumors resistant to chemotherapy for which it is needed to find new therapies. In the present work, it has been carried out a literature review on the most important molecular aspects involved in the onset and development of such tumors, as well as a review of the major developments regarding prognostic factors, new prognostic biomarkers and the possibility of new targeted therapies.

  19. Cell fusion: biological perspectives and potential for regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Dolado, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    Cell fusion has emerged as a powerful subject of debate in the last few years. Adult stem cell plasticity and the search for mechanisms to explain this process have led to the "rediscovery" of cell fusion. In nature, cell fusion is a normal process involved in sexual reproduction, tissue formation, and immune response. The recent observation that bone marrow derived cells fuse with several cell types introduces new and provocative questions. In this review, I shall recapitulate what is known about cell fusion and discuss its more controversial aspects. I shall highlight the most exciting open questions; its biological potential; pros and cons; and their implications on stem cell plasticity, regenerative medicine, and development.

  20. Apoptotic cell clearance: basic biology and therapeutic potential

    PubMed Central

    Poon, Ivan K. H.; Lucas, Christopher D.

    2014-01-01

    Prompt removal of apoptotic cells by phagocytes is important for maintaining tissue homeostasis. The molecular and cellular events that underpin apoptotic cell recognition and uptake, and the subsequent biological responses are increasingly better defined. The detection and disposal of apoptotic cells generally promote an anti-inflammatory response at the tissue level, as well as immunological tolerance. Consequently, defects in apoptotic cell clearance have been linked with a variety of inflammatory diseases and autoimmunity. Conversely, under certain conditions such as killing tumour cells by specific cell death inducers, the recognition of apoptotic tumour cells can promote an immunogenic response and anti-tumour immunity. Here, we review the current understanding of the complex process of apoptotic cell clearance in physiology and pathology, and discuss how this knowledge could be harnessed for new therapeutic strategies. PMID:24481336

  1. Recent advances in sensitized mesoscopic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Grätzel, Michael

    2009-11-17

    Perhaps the largest challenge for our global society is to find ways to replace the slowly but inevitably vanishing fossil fuel supplies by renewable resources and, at the same time, avoid negative effects from the current energy system on climate, environment, and health. The quality of human life to a large degree depends upon the availability of clean energy sources. The worldwide power consumption is expected to double in the next 3 decades because of the increase in world population and the rising demand of energy in the developing countries. This implies enhanced depletion of fossil fuel reserves, leading to further aggravation of the environmental pollution. As a consequence of dwindling resources, a huge power supply gap of 14 terawatts is expected to open up by year 2050 equaling today's entire consumption, thus threatening to create a planetary emergency of gigantic dimensions. Solar energy is expected to play a crucial role as a future energy source. The sun provides about 120,000 terawatts to the earth's surface, which amounts to 6000 times the present rate of the world's energy consumption. However, capturing solar energy and converting it to electricity or chemical fuels, such as hydrogen, at low cost and using abundantly available raw materials remains a huge challenge. Chemistry is expected to make pivotal contributions to identify environmentally friendly solutions to this energy problem. One area of great promise is that of solar converters generally referred to as "organic photovoltaic cells" (OPV) that employ organic constituents for light harvesting or charge carrier transport. While this field is still in its infancy, it is receiving enormous research attention, with the number of publications growing exponentially over the past decade. The advantage of this new generation of solar cells is that they can be produced at low cost, i.e., potentially less than 1 U.S. $/peak watt. Some but not all OPV embodiments can avoid the expensive and energy

  2. To Fly or Not to Fly: Teaching Advanced Secondary School Students about Principles of Flight in Biological Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietsch, Renée B.; Bohland, Cynthia L.; Schmale, David G., III.

    2015-01-01

    Biological flight mechanics is typically taught in graduate level college classes rather than in secondary school classes. We developed an interdisciplinary unit for advanced upper-level secondary school students (ages 15-18) to teach the principles of flight and applications to biological systems. This unit capitalised on the tremendous…

  3. The Effects of Using Concept Mapping for Improving Advanced Level Biology Students' Lower- and Higher-Order Cognitive Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramwell-Lalor, Sharon; Rainford, Marcia

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on teachers' use of concept mapping as an alternative assessment strategy in advanced level biology classes and its effects on students' cognitive skills on selected biology concepts. Using a mixed methods approach, the study employed a pre-test/post-test quasi-experimental design involving 156 students and 8 teachers from…

  4. The Histochemistry and Cell Biology omnium-gatherum: the year 2015 in review.

    PubMed

    Taatjes, Douglas J; Roth, Jürgen

    2016-03-01

    We provide here our annual review/synopsis of all of the articles published in Histochemistry and Cell Biology (HCB) for the preceding year. In 2015, HCB published 102 articles, representing a wide variety of topics and methodologies. For ease of access to these differing topics, we have created categories, as determined by the types of articles presented to provide a quick index representing the general areas covered. This year, these categories include: (1) advances in methodologies; (2) molecules in health and disease; (3) organelles, subcellular structures, and compartments; (4) the nucleus; (5) stem cells and tissue engineering; (6) cell cultures: properties and capabilities; (7) connective tissues and extracellular matrix; (8) developmental biology; (9) nervous system; (10) musculoskeletal system; (11) respiratory and cardiovascular system; (12) liver and gastrointestinal tract; and (13) male and female reproductive systems. Of note, the categories proceed from methods development, to molecules, intracellular compartments, stem cells and cell culture, extracellular matrix, developmental biology, and finishing with various organ systems, hopefully presenting a logical journey from methods to organismal molecules, cells, and whole tissue systems.

  5. Three-dimensional printing of human skeletal muscle cells: An interdisciplinary approach for studying biological systems.

    PubMed

    Bagley, James R; Galpin, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Interdisciplinary exploration is vital to education in the 21st century. This manuscript outlines an innovative laboratory-based teaching method that combines elements of biochemistry/molecular biology, kinesiology/health science, computer science, and manufacturing engineering to give students the ability to better conceptualize complex biological systems. Here, we utilize technology available at most universities to print three-dimensional (3D) scale models of actual human muscle cells (myofibers) out of bioplastic materials. The same methodological approach could be applied to nearly any cell type or molecular structure. This advancement is significant because historically, two-dimensional (2D) myocellular images have proven insufficient for detailed analysis of organelle organization and morphology. 3D imaging fills this void by providing accurate and quantifiable myofiber structural data. Manipulating tangible 3D models combats 2D limitation and gives students new perspectives and alternative learning experiences that may assist their understanding. This approach also exposes learners to 1) human muscle cell extraction and isolation, 2) targeted fluorescence labeling, 3) confocal microscopy, 4) image processing (via open-source software), and 5) 3D printing bioplastic scale-models (×500 larger than the actual cells). Creating these physical models may further student's interest in the invisible world of molecular and cellular biology. Furthermore, this interdisciplinary laboratory project gives instructors of all biological disciplines a new teaching tool to foster integrative thinking.

  6. The Emory Chemical Biology Discovery Center: leveraging academic innovation to advance novel targets through HTS and beyond.

    PubMed

    Johns, Margaret A; Meyerkord-Belton, Cheryl L; Du, Yuhong; Fu, Haian

    2014-03-01

    The Emory Chemical Biology Discovery Center (ECBDC) aims to accelerate high throughput biology and translation of biomedical research discoveries into therapeutic targets and future medicines by providing high throughput research platforms to scientific collaborators worldwide. ECBDC research is focused at the interface of chemistry and biology, seeking to fundamentally advance understanding of disease-related biology with its HTS/HCS platforms and chemical tools, ultimately supporting drug discovery. Established HTS/HCS capabilities, university setting, and expertise in diverse assay formats, including protein-protein interaction interrogation, have enabled the ECBDC to contribute to national chemical biology efforts, empower translational research, and serve as a training ground for young scientists. With these resources, the ECBDC is poised to leverage academic innovation to advance biology and therapeutic discovery.

  7. Translating cell biology in vitro to immunity in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boes, Marianne; Ploegh, Hidde L.

    2004-07-01

    The elimination of pathogens and pathogen-infected cells initially rests on the rapid deployment of innate immune defences. Should these defences fail, it is the lymphocytes - T cells and B cells - with their antigen-specific receptors that must rise to the task of providing adaptive immunity. Technological advances are now allowing immunologists to correlate data obtained in vitro with in vivo functions. A better understanding of T-cell activation in vivo could lead to more effective strategies for the treatment and prevention of infectious and autoimmmune diseases.

  8. Pulmonary adenocarcinoma: implications of the recent advances in molecular biology, treatment and the IASLC/ATS/ERS classification

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Priyanka; Bhardwaj, Bhaskar; Susheela, Sridhar Papaiah; Madabhavi, Irappa

    2014-01-01

    A decade ago, lung cancer could conveniently be classified into two broad categories—either the small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC), or the non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), mainly to assist in further treatment related decision making. However, the understanding regarding the eligibility of adenocarcinoma histology for treatments with agents such as pemetrexed and bevacizumab made it a necessity for NSCLC to be classified into more specific sub-groups. Then, the availability of molecular targeted therapy with oral tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) such as gefitinib and erlotinib not only further emphasized the need for accurate sub-classification of lung cancer, but also heralded the important role of molecular profiling of lung adenocarcinomas. Given the remarkable advances in molecular biology, oncology and radiology, a need for felt for a revised classification for lung adenocarcinoma, since the existing World Health Organization (WHO) classification of lung cancer, published in the year 2004 was mainly a pathological system of classification. Thus, there was a combined effort by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC), the American Thoracic Society (ATS) and the European Respiratory Society (ERS) with an effort to inculcate newly established perspectives from clinical, molecular and radiological aspects in evolving a modern classification for lung adenocarcinomas. This review provides a summary of the recent advances in molecular biology and molecular targeted therapy with respect to lung adenocarcinoma. Also, a brief summation of the salient recommendations provided in the IASLC/ATS/ERS classification of lung adenocarcinomas is provided. Lastly, a discussion regarding the future prospects with lung adenocarcinoma is included. PMID:25349702

  9. Primary processes in sensory cells: current advances.

    PubMed

    Frings, Stephan

    2009-01-01

    In the course of evolution, the strong and unremitting selective pressure on sensory performance has driven the acuity of sensory organs to its physical limits. As a consequence, the study of primary sensory processes illustrates impressively how far a physiological function can be improved if the survival of a species depends on it. Sensory cells that detect single-photons, single molecules, mechanical motions on a nanometer scale, or incredibly small fluctuations of electromagnetic fields have fascinated physiologists for a long time. It is a great challenge to understand the primary sensory processes on a molecular level. This review points out some important recent developments in the search for primary processes in sensory cells that mediate touch perception, hearing, vision, taste, olfaction, as well as the analysis of light polarization and the orientation in the Earth's magnetic field. The data are screened for common transduction strategies and common transduction molecules, an aspect that may be helpful for researchers in the field.

  10. Advanced Solar Cell Testing and Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila; Curtis, Henry; Piszczor, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The topic for this workshop stems from an ongoing effort by the photovoltaic community and U.S. government to address issues and recent problems associated with solar cells and arrays experienced by a number of different space systems. In April 2003, a workshop session was held at the Aerospace Space Power Workshop to discuss an effort by the Air Force to update and standardize solar cell and array qualification test procedures in an effort to ameliorate some of these problems. The organizers of that workshop session thought it was important to continue these discussions and present this information to the entire photovoltaic community. Thus, it was decided to include this topic as a workshop at the following SPRAT conference.

  11. Nursing Management of Advanced Merkel Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lowry, Pamela A; Freeman, Morganna L; Russell, Jeffery S

    2016-11-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and lethal skin cancer with few known treatment options. Management of this disease is challenging, and oncology nurses must understand the medical, physical, and psychosocial burden that MCC places on the patient and family caregivers. Patients must navigate a complex medical and insurance network that often fails to support patients with rare cancers. Nurses must advocate for these patients to ensure quality comprehensive cancer care.

  12. Advances and Prospect of Nanotechnology in Stem Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zheng; Ruan, Jing; Cui, Daxiang

    2009-07-01

    In recent years, stem cell nanotechnology has emerged as a new exciting field. Theoretical and experimental studies of interaction between nanomaterials or nanostructures and stem cells have made great advances. The importance of nanomaterials, nanostructures, and nanotechnology to the fundamental developments in stem cells-based therapies for injuries and degenerative diseases has been recognized. In particular, the effects of structure and properties of nanomaterials on the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells have become a new interdisciplinary frontier in regeneration medicine and material science. Here we review some of the main advances in this field over the past few years, explore the application prospects, and discuss the issues, approaches and challenges, with the aim of improving application of nanotechnology in the stem cells research and development.

  13. Modelling Chemotactic Motion of Cells in Biological Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Vasiev, Bakhtier

    2016-01-01

    Developmental processes in biology are underlined by proliferation, differentiation and migration of cells. The latter two are interlinked since cellular differentiation is governed by the dynamics of morphogens which, in turn, is affected by the movement of cells. Mutual effects of morphogenetic and cell movement patterns are enhanced when the movement is due to chemotactic response of cells to the morphogens. In this study we introduce a mathematical model to analyse how this interplay can result in a steady movement of cells in a tissue and associated formation of travelling waves in a concentration field of morphogen. Using the model we have identified four chemotactic scenarios for migration of single cell or homogeneous group of cells in a tissue. Such a migration can take place if moving cells are (1) repelled by a chemical produced by themselves or (2) attracted by a chemical produced by the surrounding cells in a tissue. Furthermore, the group of cells can also move if cells in surrounding tissue are (3) repelled by a chemical produced by moving cells or (4) attracted by a chemical produced by surrounding cells themselves. The proposed mechanisms can underlie migration of cells during embryonic development as well as spread of metastatic cells. PMID:27798687

  14. The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor and stem cell biology.

    PubMed

    Sage, Julien

    2012-07-01

    Stem cells play a critical role during embryonic development and in the maintenance of homeostasis in adult individuals. A better understanding of stem cell biology, including embryonic and adult stem cells, will allow the scientific community to better comprehend a number of pathologies and possibly design novel approaches to treat patients with a variety of diseases. The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor RB controls the proliferation, differentiation, and survival of cells, and accumulating evidence points to a central role for RB activity in the biology of stem and progenitor cells. In some contexts, loss of RB function in stem or progenitor cells is a key event in the initiation of cancer and determines the subtype of cancer arising from these pluripotent cells by altering their fate. In other cases, RB inactivation is often not sufficient to initiate cancer but may still lead to some stem cell expansion, raising the possibility that strategies aimed at transiently inactivating RB might provide a novel way to expand functional stem cell populations. Future experiments dedicated to better understanding how RB and the RB pathway control a stem cell's decisions to divide, self-renew, or give rise to differentiated progeny may eventually increase our capacity to control these decisions to enhance regeneration or help prevent cancer development.

  15. Natural killer cell biology: an update and future directions.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Kerry S; Hasegawa, Jun

    2013-09-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells constitute a minor subset of normal lymphocytes that initiate innate immune responses toward tumor and virus-infected cells. They can mediate spontaneous cytotoxicity toward these abnormal cells and rapidly secrete numerous cytokines and chemokines to promote subsequent adaptive immune responses. Significant progress has been made in the past 2 decades to improve our understanding of NK cell biology. Here we review recent discoveries, including a better comprehension of the "education" of NK cells to achieve functional competence during their maturation and the discovery of "memory" responses by NK cells, suggesting that they might also contribute to adaptive immunity. The improved understanding of NK cell biology has forged greater awareness that these cells play integral early roles in immune responses. In addition, several promising clinical therapies have been used to exploit NK cell functions in treating patients with cancer. As our molecular understanding improves, these and future immunotherapies should continue to provide promising strategies to exploit the unique functions of NK cells to treat cancer, infections, and other pathologic conditions.

  16. [Molecular biology of renal cancer: bases for genetic directed therapy in advanced disease].

    PubMed

    Maroto Rey, José Pablo; Cillán Narvaez, Elena

    2013-06-01

    There has been expansion of therapeutic options in the management of metastatic renal cell carcinoma due to a better knowledge of the molecular biology of kidney cancers. There are different tumors grouped under the term renal cell carcinoma, being clear cell cancer the most frequent and accounting for 80% of kidney tumors. Mutations in the Von Hippel-Lindau gene can be identified in up to 80% of sporadic clear cell cancer, linking a genetically inheritable disease where vascular tumors are frequent, with renal cell cancer. Other histologic types present specific alterations in molecular pathways, like c-MET in papillary type I tumors, and Fumarase Hydratase in papillary type II tumors. Identification of the molecular alteration for a specific tumor may offer an opportunity for treatment selection based on biomarkers, and, in the future, for developing an engineering designed genetic treatment.

  17. Orbital rotation of biological cells using two fibre probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J.; Liu, X.; Zhang, Y.; Li, B.

    2017-03-01

    We report the orbital rotation of biological cells using two tapered fibre probes. We launched laser beams into the probes at a wavelength of 980 nm and rotated 5 µm-diameter yeast cells and 13.5 µm-diameter human leukemic K562 by optical force. The rotation period varied from 1.59 to 2.41 s for the yeast cells and was 4.83 s for the human leukemic K562. The rotation direction of the cells can be controlled by adjusting the position of the two probes. The experimental results were interpreted by theoretical analysis and numerical simulations.

  18. Clinical relevance and biology of circulating tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Most breast cancer patients die due to metastases, and the early onset of this multistep process is usually missed by current tumor staging modalities. Therefore, ultrasensitive techniques have been developed to enable the enrichment, detection, isolation and characterization of disseminated tumor cells in bone marrow and circulating tumor cells in the peripheral blood of cancer patients. There is increasing evidence that the presence of these cells is associated with an unfavorable prognosis related to metastatic progression in the bone and other organs. This review focuses on investigations regarding the biology and clinical relevance of circulating tumor cells in breast cancer. PMID:22114869

  19. T Regulatory Cell Biology in Health and Disease.

    PubMed

    Alroqi, Fayhan J; Chatila, Talal A

    2016-04-01

    Regulatory T (Treg) cells that express the transcription factor forkhead box protein P3 (FOXP3) play an essential role in enforcing immune tolerance to self tissues, regulating host-commensal flora interaction, and facilitating tissue repair. Their deficiency and/or dysfunction trigger unbridled autoimmunity and inflammation. A growing number of monogenic defects have been recognized that adversely impact Treg cell development, differentiation, and/or function, leading to heritable diseases of immune dysregulation and autoimmunity. In this article, we review recent insights into Treg cell biology and function, with particular attention to lessons learned from newly recognized clinical disorders of Treg cell deficiency.

  20. Cell biology and physiology of the uroepithelium

    PubMed Central

    Khandelwal, Puneet; Abraham, Soman N.

    2009-01-01

    The uroepithelium sits at the interface between the urinary space and underlying tissues, where it forms a high-resistance barrier to ion, solute, and water flux, as well as pathogens. However, the uroepithelium is not simply a passive barrier; it can modulate the composition of the urine, and it functions as an integral part of a sensory web in which it receives, amplifies, and transmits information about its external milieu to the underlying nervous and muscular systems. This review examines our understanding of uroepithelial regeneration and how specializations of the outermost umbrella cell layer, including tight junctions, surface uroplakins, and dynamic apical membrane exocytosis/endocytosis, contribute to barrier function and how they are co-opted by uropathogenic bacteria to infect the uroepithelium. Furthermore, we discuss the presence and possible functions of aquaporins, urea transporters, and multiple ion channels in the uroepithelium. Finally, we describe potential mechanisms by which the uroepithelium can transmit information about the urinary space to the other tissues in the bladder proper. PMID:19587142

  1. Investigating the role of retinal Müller cells with approaches in genetics and cell biology.

    PubMed

    Fu, Suhua; Zhu, Meili; Ash, John D; Wang, Yunchang; Le, Yun-Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Müller cells are major macroglia and play many essential roles as a supporting cell in the retina. As Müller cells only constitute a small portion of retinal cells, investigating the role of Müller glia in retinal biology and diseases is particularly challenging. To overcome this problem, we first generated a Cre/lox-based conditional gene targeting system that permits the genetic manipulation and functional dissection of gene of interests in Müller cells. To investigate diabetes-induced alteration of Müller cells, we recently adopted methods to analyze Müller cells survival/death in vitro and in vivo. We also used normal and genetically altered primary cell cultures to reveal the mechanistic insights for Müller cells in biological and disease processes. In this article, we will discuss the applications and limitations of these methodologies, which may be useful for research in retinal Müller cell biology and pathophysiology.

  2. Quantitative nano-mechanics of biological cells with AFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Igor

    2013-03-01

    The importance of study of living cells is hard to overestimate. Cell mechanics is a relatively young, yet not a well-developed area. Besides just a fundamental interest, large practical need has emerged to measure cell mechanics quantitatively. Recent studies revealed a significant correlation between stiffness of biological cells and various human diseases, such as cancer, malaria, arthritis, and even aging. However, really quantitative studies of mechanics of biological cells are virtually absent. It is not even clear if the cell, being a complex and heterogeneous object, can be described by the elastic modulus at all. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a natural instrument to study properties of cells in their native environments. Here we will demonstrate that quantitative measurements of elastic modulus of cells with AFM are possible. Specifically, we will show that the ``cell body'' (cell without ``brush'' surface layer, a non-elastic layer surrounding cells) typically demonstrates the response of a homogeneous elastic medium up to the deformation of 10-20%, but if and only if a) the cellular brush layer is taken into account, b) rather dull AFM probes are used. This will be justified with the help of the strong condition of elastic behavior of material: the elastic modulus is shown to be independent on the indentation depth. We will also demonstrate that an attempt either to ignore the brush layer or to use sharp AFM probes will result in the violation of the strong condition, which implies impossibility to use the concept of the elastic modulus to describe cell mechanics in such experiments. Examples of quantitative measurements of the Young's modulus of the cell body and the cell brush parameters will be given for various cells. Address when submitting: Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699

  3. Artificial cells: building bioinspired systems using small-scale biology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Ruder, Warren C; LeDuc, Philip R

    2008-01-01

    Artificial cells have generated much interest since the concept was introduced by Aleksandr Oparin in the 1920s, and they have had an impact on the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industry in various areas, including potential therapeutic applications. Here, we discuss the development of small-scale, bio-inspired artificial cell components that recreate the function of key cellular and physiological systems. We describe artificial cells, selected current applications and how small-scale biology could be used to provide what might be a next-generation approach in this area. We believe that this type of work is in its infancy and that exploiting small-scale biological inspiration in the field of artificial cells has great potential for successes in the future.

  4. Innate Immune Pattern Recognition: A Cell Biological Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Brubaker, Sky W.; Bonham, Kevin S.; Zanoni, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Receptors of the innate immune system detect conserved determinants of microbial and viral origin. Activation of these receptors initiates signaling events that culminate in an effective immune response. Recently, the view that innate immune signaling events rely on and operate within a complex cellular infrastructure has become an important framework for understanding the regulation of innate immunity. Compartmentalization within this infrastructure provides the cell with the ability to assign spatial information to microbial detection and regulate immune responses. Several cell biological processes play a role in the regulation of innate signaling responses; at the same time, innate signaling can engage cellular processes as a form of defense or to promote immunological memory. In this review, we highlight these aspects of cell biology in pattern-recognition receptor signaling by focusing on signals that originate from the cell surface, from endosomal compartments, and from within the cytosol. PMID:25581309

  5. Cell biological regulation of division fate in vertebrate neuroepithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Willardsen, Minde I; Link, Brian A

    2011-08-01

    The developing nervous system derives from neuroepithelial progenitor cells that divide to generate all of the mature neuronal types. For the proper complement of cell types to form, the progenitors must produce postmitotic cells, yet also replenish the progenitor pool. Progenitor divisions can be classified into three general types: symmetric proliferative (producing two progenitors), asymmetric neurogenic (producing one progenitor and one postmitotic cell), and symmetric neurogenic (producing two postmitotic cells). The appropriate ratios for these modes of cell division require intrinsic polarity, which is one of the characteristics that define neuroepithelial progenitor cells. The type of division an individual progenitor undergoes can be influenced by cellular features, or behaviors, which are heterogeneous within the population of progenitors. Here we review three key cellular parameters, asymmetric inheritance, cell cycle kinetics, and interkinetic nuclear migration, and the possible mechanisms for how these features influence progenitor fates.

  6. Cell biology and biotechnology research for exploration of the Moon and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellis, N.; North, R.

    Health risks generated by human long exposure to radiation, microgravity, and unknown factors in the planetary environment are the major unresolved issues for human space exploration. A complete characterization of human and other biological systems adaptation processes to long-duration space missions is necessary for the development of countermeasures. The utilization of cell and engineered tissue cultures in space research and exploration complements research in human, animal, and plant subjects. We can bring a small number of humans, animals, or plants to the ISS, Moon, and Mars. However, we can investigate millions of their cells during these missions. Furthermore, many experiments can not be performed on humans, e.g. radiation exposure, cardiac muscle. Cells from critical tissues and tissue constructs per se are excellent subjects for experiments that address underlying mechanisms important to countermeasures. The development of cell tissue engineered for replacement, implantation of biomaterial to induce tissue regeneration (e.g. absorbable collagen matrix for guiding tissue regeneration in periodontal surgery), and immunoisolation (e.g. biopolymer coating on transplanted tissues to ward off immunological rejection) are good examples of cell research and biotechnology applications. NASA Cell Biology and Biotechnology research include Bone/Muscle and Cardiovascular cell culture and tissue engineering; Environmental Health and Life Support Systems; Immune System; Radiation; Gravity Thresholds ; and Advanced Biotechnology Development to increase the understanding of animal and plant cell adaptive behavior when exposed to space, and to advance technologies that facilitates exploration. Cell systems can be used to investigate processes related to food, microbial proliferation, waste management, biofilms and biomaterials. The NASA Cell Science Program has the advantage of conducting research in microgravity based on significantly small resources, and the ability to

  7. Treatment of winery wastewater by physicochemical, biological and advanced processes: a review.

    PubMed

    Ioannou, L A; Li Puma, G; Fatta-Kassinos, D

    2015-04-09

    Winery wastewater is a major waste stream resulting from numerous cleaning operations that occur during the production stages of wine. The resulting effluent contains various organic and inorganic contaminants and its environmental impact is notable, mainly due to its high organic/inorganic load, the large volumes produced and its seasonal variability. Several processes for the treatment of winery wastewater are currently available, but the development of alternative treatment methods is necessary in order to (i) maximize the efficiency and flexibility of the treatment process to meet the discharge requirements for winery effluents, and (ii) decrease both the environmental footprint, as well as the investment/operational costs of the process. This review, presents the state-of-the-art of the processes currently applied and/or tested for the treatment of winery wastewater, which were divided into five categories: i.e., physicochemical, biological, membrane filtration and separation, advanced oxidation processes, and combined biological and advanced oxidation processes. The advantages and disadvantages, as well as the main parameters/factors affecting the efficiency of winery wastewater treatment are discussed. Both bench- and pilot/industrial-scale processes have been considered for this review.

  8. Recent advances in medical device triage technologies for chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear events.

    PubMed

    Lansdowne, Krystal; Scully, Christopher G; Galeotti, Loriano; Schwartz, Suzanne; Marcozzi, David; Strauss, David G

    2015-06-01

    In 2010, the US Food and Drug Administration (Silver Spring, Maryland USA) created the Medical Countermeasures Initiative with the mission of development and promoting medical countermeasures that would be needed to protect the nation from identified, high-priority chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear (CBRN) threats and emerging infectious diseases. The aim of this review was to promote regulatory science research of medical devices and to analyze how the devices can be employed in different CBRN scenarios. Triage in CBRN scenarios presents unique challenges for first responders because the effects of CBRN agents and the clinical presentations of casualties at each triage stage can vary. The uniqueness of a CBRN event can render standard patient monitoring medical device and conventional triage algorithms ineffective. Despite the challenges, there have been recent advances in CBRN triage technology that include: novel technologies; mobile medical applications ("medical apps") for CBRN disasters; electronic triage tags, such as eTriage; diagnostic field devices, such as the Joint Biological Agent Identification System; and decision support systems, such as the Chemical Hazards Emergency Medical Management Intelligent Syndromes Tool (CHEMM-IST). Further research and medical device validation can help to advance prehospital triage technology for CBRN events.

  9. Electrochemical advanced oxidation and biological processes for wastewater treatment: a review of the combined approaches.

    PubMed

    Ganzenko, Oleksandra; Huguenot, David; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Esposito, Giovanni; Oturan, Mehmet A

    2014-01-01

    As pollution becomes one of the biggest environmental challenges of the twenty-first century, pollution of water threatens the very existence of humanity, making immediate action a priority. The most persistent and hazardous pollutants come from industrial and agricultural activities; therefore, effective treatment of this wastewater prior to discharge into the natural environment is the solution. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have caused increased interest due to their ability to degrade hazardous substances in contrast to other methods, which mainly only transfer pollution from wastewater to sludge, a membrane filter, or an adsorbent. Among a great variety of different AOPs, a group of electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs), including electro-Fenton, is emerging as an environmental-friendly and effective treatment process for the destruction of persistent hazardous contaminants. The only concern that slows down a large-scale implementation is energy consumption and related investment and operational costs. A combination of EAOPs with biological treatment is an interesting solution. In such a synergetic way, removal efficiency is maximized, while minimizing operational costs. The goal of this review is to present cutting-edge research for treatment of three common and problematic pollutants and effluents: dyes and textile wastewater, olive processing wastewater, and pharmaceuticals and hospital wastewater. Each of these types is regarded in terms of recent scientific research on individual electrochemical, individual biological and a combined synergetic treatment.

  10. Where in the Cell Are You? Probing HIV-1 Host Interactions through Advanced Imaging Techniques.

    PubMed

    Dirk, Brennan S; Van Nynatten, Logan R; Dikeakos, Jimmy D

    2016-10-19

    Viruses must continuously evolve to hijack the host cell machinery in order to successfully replicate and orchestrate key interactions that support their persistence. The type-1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) is a prime example of viral persistence within the host, having plagued the human population for decades. In recent years, advances in cellular imaging and molecular biology have aided the elucidation of key steps mediating the HIV-1 lifecycle and viral pathogenesis. Super-resolution imaging techniques such as stimulated emission depletion (STED) and photoactivation and localization microscopy (PALM) have been instrumental in studying viral assembly and release through both cell-cell transmission and cell-free viral transmission. Moreover, powerful methods such as Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) have shed light on the protein-protein interactions HIV-1 engages within the host to hijack the cellular machinery. Specific advancements in live cell imaging in combination with the use of multicolor viral particles have become indispensable to unravelling the dynamic nature of these virus-host interactions. In the current review, we outline novel imaging methods that have been used to study the HIV-1 lifecycle and highlight advancements in the cell culture models developed to enhance our understanding of the HIV-1 lifecycle.

  11. Current Advances in L-DOPA and DOPA-Peptidomimetics: Chemistry, Applications and Biological Activity.

    PubMed

    Bizzarri, Bruno Mattia; Tortolini, Silvia; Rotelli, Luca; Botta, Giorgia; Saladino, Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    L-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine [2-amino-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) propanoic acid (L-DOPA) is a natural constituent of animal and plant tissue derived from post-translational modification of the amino acid tyrosine. L-DOPA is modified during metabolism to catecholamine neurotransmitters, noradrenaline and adrenaline, which are characterized by different biological activities. L-DOPA has been the first drug of choice in the therapy of Parkinson's disease that is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder involving the loss of dopaminergic neurons of substantia nigra pars compacta. The social and economic impact of these diseases is very high due to the progressive aging of the population. This review focuses on the biological effect of LDOPA, as well as on the synthesis of L-DOPA derivatives and their application in central nervous system diseases. Among them, L-DOPA-containing peptides (L-DOPA-Pep) show important biological and pharmacological activities. For example, L-DOPA analogues of the alpha-factor interact with models of the G protein-coupled receptor, inhibit the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins, and are used for improving L-DOPA absorption in long-term treatment of Parkinson's disease and as skin moisturizer in cosmetic compositions. Moreover, L-DOPA residues in proteins provide reactive tools for the preparation of adhesives and coatings materials. Usually, L-DOPA-Pep is prepared by traditional liquid or solid state procedures starting from simple amino acids. Recently, selective side-chain modifications of pre-formed peptides have also been reported both for linear and branched peptides. Here, we describe the recent advances in the synthesis of L-DOPA and dopa-peptidomimetics and their biological and pharmacological activities, focusing the attention on new synthetic procedures and biological mechanism of actions.

  12. Advances in biocompatibility and physico-chemical characterization of microspheres for cell encapsulation.

    PubMed

    Rokstad, Anne Mari A; Lacík, Igor; de Vos, Paul; Strand, Berit L

    2014-04-01

    Cell encapsulation has already shown its high potential and holds the promise for future cell therapies to enter the clinics as a large scale treatment option for various types of diseases. The advancement in cell biology towards this goal has to be complemented with functional biomaterials suitable for cell encapsulation. This cannot be achieved without understanding the close correlation between cell performance and properties of microspheres. The ongoing challenges in the field of cell encapsulation require a critical view on techniques and approaches currently utilized to characterize microspheres. This review deals with both principal subjects of microspheres characterization in the cell encapsulation field: physico-chemical characterization and biocompatibility. The up-to-day knowledge is summarized and discussed with the focus to identify missing knowledge and uncertainties, and to propose the mandatory next steps in characterization of microspheres for cell encapsulation. The primary conclusion of this review is that further success in development of microspheres for cell therapies cannot be accomplished without careful selection of characterization techniques, which are employed in conjunction with biological tests.

  13. Multidisciplinary approaches to understanding collective cell migration in developmental biology.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Linus J; Kulesa, Paul M; McLennan, Rebecca; Baker, Ruth E; Maini, Philip K

    2016-06-01

    Mathematical models are becoming increasingly integrated with experimental efforts in the study of biological systems. Collective cell migration in developmental biology is a particularly fruitful application area for the development of theoretical models to predict the behaviour of complex multicellular systems with many interacting parts. In this context, mathematical models provide a tool to assess the consistency of experimental observations with testable mechanistic hypotheses. In this review, we showcase examples from recent years of multidisciplinary investigations of neural crest cell migration. The neural crest model system has been used to study how collective migration of cell populations is shaped by cell-cell interactions, cell-environmental interactions and heterogeneity between cells. The wide range of emergent behaviours exhibited by neural crest cells in different embryonal locations and in different organisms helps us chart out the spectrum of collective cell migration. At the same time, this diversity in migratory characteristics highlights the need to reconcile or unify the array of currently hypothesized mechanisms through the next generation of experimental data and generalized theoretical descriptions.

  14. Biologic Treatments for Sports Injuries II Think Tank-Current Concepts, Future Research, and Barriers to Advancement, Part 1: Biologics Overview, Ligament Injury, Tendinopathy.

    PubMed

    LaPrade, Robert F; Geeslin, Andrew G; Murray, Iain R; Musahl, Volker; Zlotnicki, Jason P; Petrigliano, Frank; Mann, Barton J

    2016-12-01

    Biologic therapies, including stem cells, platelet-rich plasma, growth factors, and other biologically active adjuncts, have recently received increased attention in the basic science and clinical literature. At the 2015 AOSSM Biologics II Think Tank held in Colorado Springs, Colorado, a group of orthopaedic surgeons, basic scientists, veterinarians, and other investigators gathered to review the state of the science for biologics and barriers to implementation of biologics for the treatment of sports medicine injuries. This series of current concepts reviews reports the summary of the scientific presentations, roundtable discussions, and recommendations from this think tank.

  15. Textbook Errors and Misconceptions in Biology: Cell Energetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storey, Richard D.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses misconceptions and outdated models appearing in biology textbooks for concepts involving bioenergetics and chemical reactions; adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as the energy currency of cells; the myth of high energy phosphate bonds; structural properties of ATP; ATP production from respiration and fermentation; ATP as an energy storage…

  16. Fractal mechanisms of light scattering in biological tissue and cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, M.; Alfano, R. R.

    2005-11-01

    We use fractal continuous random media to model visible and near-infrared light scattering by biological tissue and cell suspensions. The power law of the reduced scattering coefficient, the anisotropy factor of scattering, and the phase function are derived with good agreement with experimental results. Implications for spectroscopic tissue diagnosis are discussed.

  17. The Palade Symposium: Celebrating Cell Biology at Its Best

    PubMed Central

    Farquhar, Marilyn G.

    2010-01-01

    A symposium was held at the University of California, San Diego, to honor the contributions of Nobel Laureate, George Palade, to cell biology. The speakers included Günter Blobel, on the structure and function of nuclear pore complexes; Peter Walter, on the unfolded protein response in health and disease; Randy Schekman, on human disease-linked mutations in the COPII machinery; Scott Emr, on the regulation of plasma membrane composition by selective endocytosis; Roger Kornberg, on the structure and function of the transcription machinery; Peter Novick, on the regulation of rab GTPases along the secretory pathway; Jim Spudich, on the mechanism of the enigmatic myosin VI motor; and Joe Goldstein, on the function of the Niemann-Pick C (NPC)-linked gene products, NPC1 and NPC2, in cholesterol transport. Their work showcased the multidisciplinary nature, diversity, and vitality of cell biology. In the words of George Palade, their talks also illustrated “how cell biology could be used to understand disease and how disease could be used to discover normal cell biology.” An integrated understanding of the cellular machinery will be essential in tackling the plethora of questions and challenges posed by completion of the human genome and for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying human disease. PMID:20505070

  18. Teaching Cell and Molecular Biology for Gender Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sible, Jill C.; Wilhelm, Dayna E.; Lederman, Muriel

    2006-01-01

    Science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields, including cell biology, are characterized by the "leaky pipeline" syndrome in which, over time, women leave the discipline. The pipeline itself and the pond into which it empties may not be neutral. Explicating invisible norms, attitudes, and practices by integrating social…

  19. The Palade symposium: celebrating cell biology at its best.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Sandra L; Farquhar, Marilyn G

    2010-07-15

    A symposium was held at the University of California, San Diego, to honor the contributions of Nobel Laureate, George Palade, to cell biology. The speakers included Günter Blobel, on the structure and function of nuclear pore complexes; Peter Walter, on the unfolded protein response in health and disease; Randy Schekman, on human disease-linked mutations in the COPII machinery; Scott Emr, on the regulation of plasma membrane composition by selective endocytosis; Roger Kornberg, on the structure and function of the transcription machinery; Peter Novick, on the regulation of rab GTPases along the secretory pathway; Jim Spudich, on the mechanism of the enigmatic myosin VI motor; and Joe Goldstein, on the function of the Niemann-Pick C (NPC)-linked gene products, NPC1 and NPC2, in cholesterol transport. Their work showcased the multidisciplinary nature, diversity, and vitality of cell biology. In the words of George Palade, their talks also illustrated "how cell biology could be used to understand disease and how disease could be used to discover normal cell biology." An integrated understanding of the cellular machinery will be essential in tackling the plethora of questions and challenges posed by completion of the human genome and for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying human disease.

  20. Teaching Cell and Molecular Biology for Gender Equity

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelm, Dayna E.; Lederman, Muriel

    2006-01-01

    Science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields, including cell biology, are characterized by the “leaky pipeline” syndrome in which, over time, women leave the discipline. The pipeline itself and the pond into which it empties may not be neutral. Explicating invisible norms, attitudes, and practices by integrating social studies of science into science education may be the necessary first step in helping female students persist in STEM disciplines. In 2003 and 2004, a sophomore Cell and Molecular Biology course at Virginia Tech (Blacksburg, VA) was taught integrating social studies of science with standard material. The course was successfully implemented, teaching students factual content while increasing awareness of the cultures of science and their self-confidence in engaging with the subject. Course evaluation data indicated that females in particular perceived greater gains in logical thinking and problem-solving abilities than females in a traditional cell biology course. Consistent with K–12 studies, males in this class were likely to view scientists as male only, whereas females viewed scientists as male and female. This pilot project demonstrates that social studies can be integrated successfully in a cell biology course. Longitudinal studies of this cohort of students will indicate whether this approach contributes to the retention of women in the field. PMID:17012214

  1. Advances in osteoclast biology reveal potential new drug targets and new roles for osteoclasts.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Brendan F

    2013-04-01

    Osteoclasts are multinucleated myeloid lineage cells formed in response to macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) by fusion of bone marrow-derived precursors that circulate in the blood and are attracted to sites of bone resorption in response to factors, such as sphingosine-1 phosphate signaling. Major advances in understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating osteoclast functions have been made in the past 20 years, mainly from mouse and human genetic studies. These have revealed that osteoclasts express and respond to proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Some of these cytokines activate NF-κB and nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1) signaling to induce osteoclast formation and activity and also regulate communication with neighboring cells through signaling proteins, including ephrins and semaphorins. Osteoclasts also positively and negatively regulate immune responses and osteoblastic bone formation. These advances have led to development of new inhibitors of bone resorption that are in clinical use or in clinical trials; and more should follow, based on these advances. This article reviews current understanding of how bone resorption is regulated both positively and negatively in normal and pathologic states.

  2. Biological Assessment of the Advanced Turbine Design at Wanapum Dam, 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, Dennis D.; Deng, Zhiqun; Richmond, Marshall C.; Moursund, Russell A.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Duncan, Joanne P.

    2007-09-12

    This report summarizes the results of studies sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to evaluate the biological performance (likelihood of injury to fish) from an advanced design turbine installed at Unit 8 of Wanapum Dam on the Columbia River in Washington State in 2005. PNNL studies included a novel dye technique to measure injury to juvenile fish in the field, an evaluation of blade-strike using both deterministic and stochastic models, and extended analysis of the response of the Sensor Fish Device to strike, pressure, and turbulence within the turbine system. Fluorescein dye was used to evaluate injuries to live fish passed through the advanced turbine and an existing turbine at two spill discharges (15 and 17 kcfs). Under most treatments the results were not significantly different for the two turbines, however, eye injury occurred in nearly 30% of fish passing through Unit 9 but in less than 10% of those passing through Unit 8 at 15 kcfs. Both deterministic and stochastic blade-strike models were applied for the original and new AHTS turbines. The modeled probabilities were compared to the Sensor Fish results (Carlson et al. 2006) and the biological studies using juvenile fish (Normandeau et al. 2005) under the same operational parameters. The new AHTS turbine had slightly higher modeled injury rates than the original turbine, but no statistical evidence to suggest that there is significant difference in blade-strike injury probabilities between the two turbines, which is consistent with the experiment results using Sensor Fish and juvenile fish. PNNL also conducted Sensor Fish studies at Wanapum Dam in 2005 concurrent with live fish studies. The probablility of severe collision events was similar for both turbine. The advanced turbine had a slightly lower probability of severe shear events but a slightly higher probability of slight shear.

  3. Hydrogen-bromine fuel cell advance component development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charleston, Joann; Reed, James

    1988-01-01

    Advanced cell component development is performed by NASA Lewis to achieve improved performance and longer life for the hydrogen-bromine fuel cells system. The state-of-the-art hydrogen-bromine system utilizes the solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) technology, similar to the SPE technology developed for the hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell system. These studies are directed at exploring the potential for this system by assessing and evaluating various types of materials for cell parts and electrode materials for Bromine-hydrogen bromine environment and fabricating experimental membrane/electrode-catalysts by chemical deposition.

  4. The cell biology of secondary endosymbiosis--how parasites build, divide and segregate the apicoplast.

    PubMed

    Vaishnava, Shipra; Striepen, Boris

    2006-09-01

    Protozoan parasites of the phylum Apicomplexa harbour a chloroplast-like organelle, the apicoplast. The biosynthetic pathways localized to this organelle are of cyanobacterial origin and therefore offer attractive targets for the development of new drugs for the treatment of malaria and toxoplasmosis. The apicoplast also provides a unique system to study the cell biology of endosymbiosis. This organelle is the product of secondary endosymbiosis, the marriage of an alga and an auxotrophic eukaryote. This origin has led to a fascinating set of novel cellular mechanisms that are clearly distinct from those employed by the plant chloroplast. Here we explore how the apicoplast interacts with its 'host' to secure building blocks for its biogenesis and how the organelle is divided and segregated during mitosis. Considerable advances in parasite genetics and genomics have transformed apicomplexans, long considered hard to study, into highly tractable model organisms. We discuss how these resources might be marshalled to develop a detailed mechanistic picture of apicoplast cell biology.

  5. Measurements and interpretations of light scattering from intact biological cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Jeremy D.

    Visible light interacts with biological cells primarily through elastic scattering. The details of how cells scatter light depend on their morphology and their substructures. In this thesis we first present a series of experiments and models to discern the specific contributions of certain sub-cellular constituents to whole-cell scattering. Exploiting the findings of those studies, we report on experiments within model systems of cell death that demonstrate the potential of light scattering measurements as a tool in modern biology. Instrumentation capable of exploiting the findings of this thesis from a biology-relevant microscopy platform is designed and developed. A Mie theory based interpretation of light scattering signals originating from a collection of particles with a broad size distribution is developed. Upon applying this model to scattering data from intact cells, we find that it robustly extracts the size scale of dominant light scattering particles, suggests that scattering measurements are sensitive primarily to mitochondrial and lysosomal morphology, and unites conflicting results in the literature. Using this model as a basis, we present a collection of studies in which we use various strategies of photodynamic therapy (PDT) as a biophysical tool to perturb mitochondria and lysosomes, and observe the effects of these perturbations on whole-cell scattering. Through these experiments, we are able to discern the individual contributions of mitochondria and lysosomes to whole-cell light scattering, and demonstrate that mitochondria are responsible for roughly 80% of the scattering signal. Results of experiments aimed at demonstrating the potential role that light scattering measurements have to play in future studies of cell death biology are presented. We first show that mitochondrial-PDT-induced morphology changes measured with light scattering map into the cell killing efficacy of the therapy. We next demonstrate that mitochondrial

  6. Conceptual and methodological advances in cell-free directed evolution

    PubMed Central

    Dodevski, Igor; Markou, George C.; Sarkar, Casim A.

    2015-01-01

    Although cell-free directed evolution methods have been used to engineer proteins for nearly two decades, selections on more complex phenotypes have largely remained in the domain of cell-based engineering approaches. Here, we review recent conceptual advances that now enable in vitro display of multimeric proteins, integral membrane proteins, and proteins with an expanded amino acid repertoire. Additionally, we discuss methodological improvements that have enhanced the accessibility, efficiency, and robustness of cell-free approaches. Coupling these advances with the in vitro advantages of creating exceptionally large libraries and precisely controlling all experimental conditions, cell-free directed evolution is poised to contribute significantly to our understanding and engineering of more complex protein phenotypes. PMID:26093059

  7. Review of the algal biology program within the National Alliance for Advanced Biofuels and Bioproducts

    DOE PAGES

    Unkefer, Clifford Jay; Sayre, Richard Thomas; Magnuson, Jon K.; ...

    2016-06-21

    In 2010,when the National Alliance for Advanced Biofuels and Bioproducts (NAABB) consortium began, little was known about the molecular basis of algal biomass or oil production. Very few algal genome sequences were available and efforts to identify the best-producing wild species through bioprospecting approaches had largely stalled after the U.S. Department of Energy's Aquatic Species Program. This lack of knowledge included how reduced carbon was partitioned into storage products like triglycerides or starch and the role played by metabolite remodeling in the accumulation of energy-dense storage products. Furthermore, genetic transformation and metabolic engineering approaches to improve algal biomass and oilmore » yields were in their infancy. Genome sequencing and transcriptional profiling were becoming less expensive, however; and the tools to annotate gene expression profiles under various growth and engineered conditions were just starting to be developed for algae. It was in this context that an integrated algal biology program was introduced in the NAABB to address the greatest constraints limiting algal biomass yield. Our review describes the NAABB algal biology program, including hypotheses, research objectives, and strategies to move algal biology research into the twenty-first century and to realize the greatest potential of algae biomass systems to produce biofuels.« less

  8. Review of the algal biology program within the National Alliance for Advanced Biofuels and Bioproducts

    SciTech Connect

    Unkefer, Clifford Jay; Sayre, Richard Thomas; Magnuson, Jon K.; Anderson, Daniel B.; Baxter, Ivan; Blaby, Ian K.; Brown, Judith K.; Carleton, Michael; Cattolico, Rose Ann; Dale, Taraka T.; Devarenne, Timothy P.; Downes, C. Meghan; Dutcher, Susan K.; Fox, David Thomas; Goodenough, Ursula; Jaworski, Jan; Holladay, Jonathan E.; Kramer, David M.; Koppisch, Andrew Thomas; Lipton, Mary S.; Marrone, Babetta Louise; McCormick, Margaret; Molnar, Istvan; Mott, John Blaine; Ogden, Kimberly L.; Panisko, Ellen A.; Pellegrini, Matteo; Polle, Juergen; Richardson, James W.; Sabarsky, Martin; Starkenburg, Shawn Robert; Stormo, Gary D.; Teshima, Munehiro; Twary, Scott Nicholas; Unkefer, Pat J.; Yuan, Joshua S.; Olivares, Jose Antonio

    2016-06-21

    In 2010,when the National Alliance for Advanced Biofuels and Bioproducts (NAABB) consortium began, little was known about the molecular basis of algal biomass or oil production. Very few algal genome sequences were available and efforts to identify the best-producing wild species through bioprospecting approaches had largely stalled after the U.S. Department of Energy's Aquatic Species Program. This lack of knowledge included how reduced carbon was partitioned into storage products like triglycerides or starch and the role played by metabolite remodeling in the accumulation of energy-dense storage products. Furthermore, genetic transformation and metabolic engineering approaches to improve algal biomass and oil yields were in their infancy. Genome sequencing and transcriptional profiling were becoming less expensive, however; and the tools to annotate gene expression profiles under various growth and engineered conditions were just starting to be developed for algae. It was in this context that an integrated algal biology program was introduced in the NAABB to address the greatest constraints limiting algal biomass yield. Our review describes the NAABB algal biology program, including hypotheses, research objectives, and strategies to move algal biology research into the twenty-first century and to realize the greatest potential of algae biomass systems to produce biofuels.

  9. "Cancer Cell Biology:" A Student-Centered Instructional Module Exploring the Use of Multimedia to Enrich Interactive, Constructivist Learning of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockholt, Susanne M.; West, J. Paige; Bollenbacher, Walter E.

    2003-01-01

    Multimedia has the potential of providing bioscience education novel learning environments and pedagogy applications to foster student interest, involve students in the research process, advance critical thinking/problem-solving skills, and develop conceptual understanding of biological topics. "Cancer Cell Biology," an interactive, multimedia,…

  10. Characterization of mast cell secretory granules and their cell biology.

    PubMed

    Azouz, Nurit Pereg; Hammel, Ilan; Sagi-Eisenberg, Ronit

    2014-10-01

    Exocytosis and secretion of secretory granule (SG) contained inflammatory mediators is the primary mechanism by which mast cells exert their protective immune responses in host defense, as well as their pathological functions in allergic reactions and anaphylaxis. Despite their central role in mast cell function, the molecular mechanisms underlying the biogenesis and secretion of mast cell SGs remain largely unresolved. Early studies have established the lysosomal nature of the mast cell SGs and implicated SG homotypic fusion as an important step occurring during both their biogenesis and compound secretion. However, the molecular mechanisms that account for key features of this process largely remain to be defined. A novel high-resolution imaging based methodology allowed us to screen Rab GTPases for their phenotypic and functional impact and identify Rab networks that regulate mast cell secretion. This screen has identified Rab5 as a novel regulator of homotypic fusion of the mast cell SGs that thereby regulates their size and cargo composition.

  11. Fluid models and simulations of biological cell phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenspan, H. P.

    1982-01-01

    The dynamics of coated droplets are examined within the context of biofluids. Of specific interest is the manner in which the shape of a droplet, the motion within it as well as that of aggregates of droplets can be controlled by the modulation of surface properties and the extent to which such fluid phenomena are an intrinsic part of cellular processes. From the standpoint of biology, an objective is to elucidate some of the general dynamical features that affect the disposition of an entire cell, cell colonies and tissues. Conventionally averaged field variables of continuum mechanics are used to describe the overall global effects which result from the myriad of small scale molecular interactions. An attempt is made to establish cause and effect relationships from correct dynamical laws of motion rather than by what may have been unnecessary invocation of metabolic or life processes. Several topics are discussed where there are strong analogies droplets and cells including: encapsulated droplets/cell membranes; droplet shape/cell shape; adhesion and spread of a droplet/cell motility and adhesion; and oams and multiphase flows/cell aggregates and tissues. Evidence is presented to show that certain concepts of continuum theory such as suface tension, surface free energy, contact angle, bending moments, etc. are relevant and applicable to the study of cell biology.

  12. Single Cell Analysis: From Technology to Biology and Medicine.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xinghua

    2014-01-01

    Single-cell analysis heralds a new era that allows "omics" analysis, notably genomics, transcriptomics, epigenomics and proteomics at the single-cell level. It enables the identification of the minor subpopulations that may play a critical role in a biological process of a population of cells, which conventionally are regarded as homogeneous. It provides an ultra-sensitive tool to clarify specific molecular mechanisms and pathways and reveal the nature of cell heterogeneity. It also facilitates the clinical investigation of patients when a very low quantity or a single cell is available for analysis, such as noninvasive prenatal diagnosis and cancer screening, and genetic evaluation for in vitro fertilization. Within a few short years, single-cell analysis, especially whole genomic sequencing and transcriptomic sequencing, is becoming robust and broadly accessible, although not yet a routine practice. Here, with single cell RNA-seq emphasized, an overview of the discipline, progresses, and prospects of single-cell analysis and its applications in biology and medicine are given with a series of logic and theoretical considerations.

  13. Advanced materials for solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, T.R.; Stevenson, J.

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of this research is to improve the properties of the current state-of-the-art materials used for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The objectives are to: (1) develop materials based on modifications of the state-of-the-art materials; (2) minimize or eliminate stability problems in the cathode, anode, and interconnect; (3) Electrochemically evaluate (in reproducible and controlled laboratory tests) the current state-of-the-art air electrode materials and cathode/electrolyte interfacial properties; (4) Develop accelerated electrochemical test methods to evaluate the performance of SOFCs under controlled and reproducible conditions; and (5) Develop and test materials for use in low-temperature SOFCs. The goal is to modify and improve the current state-of-the-art materials and minimize the total number of cations in each material to avoid negative effects on the materials properties. Materials to reduce potential deleterious interactions, (3) improve thermal, electrical, and electrochemical properties, (4) develop methods to synthesize both state-of-the-art and alternative materials for the simultaneous fabricatoin and consolidation in air of the interconnections and electrodes with the solid electrolyte, and (5) understand electrochemical reactions at materials interfaces and the effects of component composition and processing on those reactions.

  14. Human umbilical cord blood cells and diabetes mellitus: recent advances.

    PubMed

    Reddi, Alluru S; Kothari, Neil; Kuppasani, Kishore; Ende, Norman

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell therapy for patients with diabetes is an area of great interest to both scientists and clinicians. Human umbilical cord blood cells (HUCBCs) are being increasingly used as a source of stem cells for cell-based therapy for diabetes because these cells can differentiate into pancreatic islet β-cells. Administration of HUCBCs has been shown to lower blood glucose levels in diabetic animal models. The use of autologous HUCBC transfusion in type 1 diabetic children has not shown any benefit. However, "Stem Cell Educator" therapy has shown promise in long term lowering of blood glucose levels in both type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients. In this review, we will briefly discuss recent advances in HUCBC therapy in the treatment of diabetes and some of its complications.

  15. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine in Lung Biology and Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Allison N; Goodwin, Meagan; Kim, Carla F; Weiss, Daniel J

    2012-01-01

    A number of novel approaches for repair and regeneration of injured lung have developed over the past several years. These include a better understanding of endogenous stem and progenitor cells in the lung that can function in reparative capacity as well as extensive exploration of the potential efficacy of administering exogenous stem or progenitor cells to function in lung repair. Recent advances in ex vivo lung engineering have also been increasingly applied to the lung. The current status of these approaches as well as initial clinical trials of cell therapies for lung diseases are reviewed below. PMID:22395528

  16. Stem cells in toxicology: fundamental biology and practical considerations.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyung-Sun; Trosko, James E

    2011-03-01

    This "Commentary" has examined the use of human stem cells for detection of toxicities of physical, chemical, and biological toxins/toxicants in response to the challenge posed by the NRC Report, "Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A vision and Strategy." Before widespread application of the use of human embryonic, pluripotent, "iPS," or adult stem cells be considered, the basic characterization of stem cell biology should be undertaken. Because no in vitro system can mimic all factors that influence cells in vivo (individual genetic, gender, developmental, immunological and diurnal states; niche conditions; complex intercellular interactions between stem, progenitor, terminal differentiated cells, and the signaling from extracellular matrices, oxygen tensions, etc.), attempts should be made to use both embryonic and adult stem cells, grown in three dimension under "niche-like" conditions. Because many toxins and toxicants work by "epigenetic" mechanisms and that epigenetic mechanisms play important roles in regulating gene expression and in the pathogenesis of many human diseases, epigenetic toxicity must be incorporated in toxicity testing. Because modulation of gap junctional intercellular communication by epigenetic agents plays a major role in homeostatic regulation of both stem and progenitor cells in normal tissues, the modulation of this biological process by both endogenous and endogenous chemicals should be incorporated as an end point to monitor for potential toxicities or chemo-preventive attributes. In addition, modulation of quantity, as well as the quality, of stem cells should be considered as potential source of a chemical's toxic potential in affecting any stem cell-based pathology, such as cancer.

  17. SBR-Blood: systems biology repository for hematopoietic cells.

    PubMed

    Lichtenberg, Jens; Heuston, Elisabeth F; Mishra, Tejaswini; Keller, Cheryl A; Hardison, Ross C; Bodine, David M

    2016-01-04

    Extensive research into hematopoiesis (the development of blood cells) over several decades has generated large sets of expression and epigenetic profiles in multiple human and mouse blood cell types. However, there is no single location to analyze how gene regulatory processes lead to different mature blood cells. We have developed a new database framework called hematopoietic Systems Biology Repository (SBR-Blood), available online at http://sbrblood.nhgri.nih.gov, which allows user-initiated analyses for cell type correlations or gene-specific behavior during differentiation using publicly available datasets for array- and sequencing-based platforms from mouse hematopoietic cells. SBR-Blood organizes information by both cell identity and by hematopoietic lineage. The validity and usability of SBR-Blood has been established through the reproduction of workflows relevant to expression data, DNA methylation, histone modifications and transcription factor occupancy profiles.

  18. Hydraulic fracturing in cells and tissues: fracking meets cell biology.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, Marino; Trepat, Xavier

    2016-12-06

    The animal body is largely made of water. A small fraction of body water is freely flowing in blood and lymph, but most of it is trapped in hydrogels such as the extracellular matrix (ECM), the cytoskeleton, and chromatin. Besides providing a medium for biological molecules to diffuse, water trapped in hydrogels plays a fundamental mechanical role. This role is well captured by the theory of poroelasticity, which explains how any deformation applied to a hydrogel causes pressure gradients and water flows, much like compressing a sponge squeezes water out of it. Here we review recent evidence that poroelastic pressures and flows can fracture essential biological barriers such as the nuclear envelope, the cellular cortex, and epithelial layers. This type of fracture is known in engineering literature as hydraulic fracturing or 'fracking'.

  19. An autologous endothelial cell:peripheral blood mononuclear cell assay that detects cytokine storm responses to biologics.

    PubMed

    Reed, Daniel M; Paschalaki, Koralia E; Starke, Richard D; Mohamed, Nura A; Sharp, Giles; Fox, Bernard; Eastwood, David; Bristow, Adrian; Ball, Christina; Vessillier, Sandrine; Hansel, Trevor T; Thorpe, Susan J; Randi, Anna M; Stebbings, Richard; Mitchell, Jane A

    2015-06-01

    There is an urgent unmet need for human tissue bioassays to predict cytokine storm responses to biologics. Current bioassays that detect cytokine storm responses in vitro rely on endothelial cells, usually from umbilical veins or cell lines, cocultured with freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy adult volunteers. These assays therefore comprise cells from 2 separate donors and carry the disadvantage of mismatched tissues and lack the advantage of personalized medicine. Current assays also do not fully delineate mild (such as Campath) and severe (such as TGN1412) cytokine storm-inducing drugs. Here, we report a novel bioassay where endothelial cells grown from stem cells in the peripheral blood (blood outgrowth endothelial cells) and PBMCs from the same donor can be used to create an autologous coculture bioassay that responds by releasing a plethora of cytokines to authentic TGN1412 but only modestly to Campath and not to control antibodies such as Herceptin, Avastin, and Arzerra. This assay performed better than the traditional mixed donor assay in terms of cytokine release to TGN1412 and, thus, we suggest provides significant advancement and a definitive system by which biologics can be tested and paves the way for personalized medicine.

  20. Learning cell biology as a team: a project-based approach to upper-division cell biology.

    PubMed

    Wright, Robin; Boggs, James

    2002-01-01

    To help students develop successful strategies for learning how to learn and communicate complex information in cell biology, we developed a quarter-long cell biology class based on team projects. Each team researches a particular human disease and presents information about the cellular structure or process affected by the disease, the cellular and molecular biology of the disease, and recent research focused on understanding the cellular mechanisms of the disease process. To support effective teamwork and to help students develop collaboration skills useful for their future careers, we provide training in working in small groups. A final poster presentation, held in a public forum, summarizes what students have learned throughout the quarter. Although student satisfaction with the course is similar to that of standard lecture-based classes, a project-based class offers unique benefits to both the student and the instructor.

  1. Brain Cancer Stem Cells in Adults and Children: Cell Biology and Therapeutic Implications.

    PubMed

    Abou-Antoun, Tamara J; Hale, James S; Lathia, Justin D; Dombrowski, Stephen M

    2017-04-03

    Brain tumors represent some of the most malignant cancers in both children and adults. Current treatment options target the majority of tumor cells but do not adequately target self-renewing cancer stem cells (CSCs). CSCs have been reported to resist the most aggressive radiation and chemotherapies, and give rise to recurrent, treatment-resistant secondary malignancies. With advancing technologies, we now have a better understanding of the genetic, epigenetic and molecular signatures and microenvironmental influences which are useful in distinguishing between distinctly different tumor subtypes. As a result, efforts are now underway to identify and target CSCs within various tumor subtypes based on this foundation. This review discusses progress in CSC biology as it relates to targeted therapies which may be uniquely different between pediatric and adult brain tumors. Studies to date suggest that pediatric brain tumors may benefit more from genetic and epigenetic targeted therapies, while combination treatments aimed specifically at multiple molecular pathways may be more effective in treating adult brain tumors which seem to have a greater propensity towards microenvironmental interactions. Ultimately, CSC targeting approaches in combination with current clinical therapies have the potential to be more effective owing to their ability to compromise CSCs maintenance and the mechanisms which underlie their highly aggressive and deadly nature.

  2. Advances and Applications of Single Cell Sequencing Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong; Navin, Nicholas E.

    2015-01-01

    Single cell sequencing (SCS) has emerged as a powerful new set of technologies for studying rare cells and delineating complex populations. Over the past 5 years, SCS methods for DNA and RNA have had a broad impact on many diverse fields of biology, including microbiology, neurobiology, development, tissue mosaicism, immunology and cancer research. In this review, we will discuss SCS technologies and applications, as well as translational applications in the clinic. PMID:26000845

  3. Advances and applications of single-cell sequencing technologies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Navin, Nicholas E

    2015-05-21

    Single-cell sequencing (SCS) has emerged as a powerful new set of technologies for studying rare cells and delineating complex populations. Over the past 5 years, SCS methods for DNA and RNA have had a broad impact on many diverse fields of biology, including microbiology, neurobiology, development, tissue mosaicism, immunology, and cancer research. In this review, we will discuss SCS technologies and applications, as well as translational applications in the clinic.

  4. Bone marrow stromal stem cells: nature, biology, and potential applications.

    PubMed

    Bianco, P; Riminucci, M; Gronthos, S; Robey, P G

    2001-01-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells are progenitors of skeletal tissue components such as bone, cartilage, the hematopoiesis-supporting stroma, and adipocytes. In addition, they may be experimentally induced to undergo unorthodox differentiation, possibly forming neural and myogenic cells. As such, they represent an important paradigm of post-natal nonhematopoietic stem cells, and an easy source for potential therapeutic use. Along with an overview of the basics of their biology, we discuss here their potential nature as components of the vascular wall, and the prospects for their use in local and systemic transplantation and gene therapy.

  5. Influence of cell printing on biological characters of chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Miao; Gao, Xiaoyan; Hou, Yikang; Shen, Congcong; Xu, Yourong; Zhu, Ming; Wang, Hengjian; Xu, Haisong; Chai, Gang; Zhang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To establish a two-dimensional biological printing technique of chondrocytes and compare the difference of related biological characters between printed chondrocytes and unprinted cells so as to control the cell transfer process and keep cell viability after printing. Methods: Primary chondrocytes were obtained from human mature and fetal cartilage tissues and then were regularly sub-cultured to harvest cells at passage 2 (P2), which were adjusted to the single cell suspension at a density of 1×106/mL. The experiment was divided into 2 groups: experimental group P2 chondrocytes were transferred by rapid prototype biological printer (driving voltage value 50 V, interval in x-axis 300 μm, interval in y-axis 1500 μm). Afterwards Live/Dead viability Kit and flow cytometry were respectively adopted to detect cell viability; CCK-8 Kit was adopted to detect cell proliferation viability; immunocytochemistry, immunofluorescence and RT-PCR was employed to identify related markers of chondrocytes; control group steps were the same as the printing group except that cell suspension received no printing. Results: Fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry analyses showed that there was no significant difference between experimental group and control group in terms of cell viability. After 7-day in vitro culture, control group exhibited higher O.D values than experimental group from 2nd day to 7th day but there was no distinct difference between these two groups (P>0.05). Inverted microscope observation demonstrated that the morphology of these two groups had no significant difference either. Similarly, Immunocytochemistry, immunofluorescence and RT-PCR assays also showed that there was no significant difference in the protein and gene expression of type II collagen and aggrecan between these two groups (P>0.05). Conclusion Cell printing has no distinctly negative effect on cell vitality, proliferation and phenotype of chondrocytes. Biological printing technique may

  6. Assembly of hair bundles, an amazing problem for cell biology.

    PubMed

    Barr-Gillespie, Peter-G

    2015-08-01

    The hair bundle--the sensory organelle of inner-ear hair cells of vertebrates--exemplifies the ability of a cell to assemble complex, elegant structures. Proper construction of the bundle is required for proper mechanotransduction in response to external forces and to transmit information about sound and movement. Bundles contain tightly controlled numbers of actin-filled stereocilia, which are arranged in defined rows of precise heights. Indeed, many deafness mutations that disable hair-cell cytoskeletal proteins also disrupt bundles. Bundle assembly is a tractable problem in molecular and cellular systems biology; the sequence of structural changes in stereocilia is known, and a modest number of proteins may be involved.

  7. Biological efficacy and toxic effect of emergency water disinfection process based on advanced oxidation technology.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yiping; Yuan, Xiaoli; Xu, Shujing; Li, Rihong; Zhou, Xinying; Zhang, Zhitao

    2015-12-01

    An innovative and removable water treatment system consisted of strong electric field discharge and hydrodynamic cavitation based on advanced oxidation technologies was developed for reactive free radicals producing and waterborne pathogens eliminating in the present study. The biological efficacy and toxic effects of this advanced oxidation system were evaluated during water disinfection treatments. Bench tests were carried out with synthetic microbial-contaminated water, as well as source water in rainy season from a reservoir of Dalian city (Liaoning Province, China). Results showed that high inactivation efficiency of Escherichia coli (>5 log) could be obtained for synthetic contaminated water at a low concentration (0.5-0.7 mg L(-1)) of total oxidants in 3-10 s. The numbers of wild total bacteria (108 × 10(3) CFU mL(-1)) and total coliforms (260 × 10(2) MPN 100 mL(-1)) in source water greatly reduced to 50 and 0 CFU mL(-1) respectively after treated by the advanced oxidation system, which meet the microbiological standards of drinking water, and especially that the inactivation efficiency of total coliforms could reach 100%. Meanwhile, source water qualities were greatly improved during the disinfection processes. The values of UV254 in particular were significantly reduced (60-80%) by reactive free radicals. Moreover, the concentrations of possible disinfection by-products (formaldehyde and bromide) in treated water were lower than detection limits, indicating that there was no harmful effect on water after the treatments. These investigations are helpful for the ecotoxicological studies of advanced oxidation system in the treatments of chemical polluted water or waste water. The findings of this work suggest that the developed water treatment system is ideal in the acute phases of emergencies, which also could offer additional advantages over a wide range of applications in water pollution control.

  8. Bovine mammary stem cells: Cell biology meets production agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mammary stem cells (MaSC) provide for net growth, renewal and turnover of mammary epithelial cells, and are therefore potential targets for strategies to increase production efficiency. Appropriate regulation of MaSC can potentially benefit milk yield, persistency, dry period management and tissue ...

  9. A diagnostic assessment for introductory molecular and cell biology.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jia; Wood, William B; Martin, Jennifer M; Guild, Nancy A; Vicens, Quentin; Knight, Jennifer K

    2010-01-01

    We have developed and validated a tool for assessing understanding of a selection of fundamental concepts and basic knowledge in undergraduate introductory molecular and cell biology, focusing on areas in which students often have misconceptions. This multiple-choice Introductory Molecular and Cell Biology Assessment (IMCA) instrument is designed for use as a pre- and posttest to measure student learning gains. To develop the assessment, we first worked with faculty to create a set of learning goals that targeted important concepts in the field and seemed likely to be emphasized by most instructors teaching these subjects. We interviewed students using open-ended questions to identify commonly held misconceptions, formulated multiple-choice questions that included these ideas as distracters, and reinterviewed students to establish validity of the instrument. The assessment was then evaluated by 25 biology experts and modified based on their suggestions. The complete revised assessment was administered to more than 1300 students at three institutions. Analysis of statistical parameters including item difficulty, item discrimination, and reliability provides evidence that the IMCA is a valid and reliable instrument with several potential uses in gauging student learning of key concepts in molecular and cell biology.

  10. Sealable femtoliter chamber arrays for cell-free biology.

    PubMed

    Norred, Sarah Elizabeth; Caveney, Patrick M; Retterer, Scott T; Boreyko, Jonathan B; Fowlkes, Jason D; Collier, Charles Patrick; Simpson, Michael L

    2015-03-11

    Cell-free systems provide a flexible platform for probing specific networks of biological reactions isolated from the complex resource sharing (e.g., global gene expression, cell division) encountered within living cells. However, such systems, used in conventional macro-scale bulk reactors, often fail to exhibit the dynamic behaviors and efficiencies characteristic of their living micro-scale counterparts. Understanding the impact of internal cell structure and scale on reaction dynamics is crucial to understanding complex gene networks. Here we report a microfabricated device that confines cell-free reactions in cellular scale volumes while allowing flexible characterization of the enclosed molecular system. This multilayered poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) device contains femtoliter-scale reaction chambers on an elastomeric membrane which can be actuated (open and closed). When actuated, the chambers confine Cell-Free Protein Synthesis (CFPS) reactions expressing a fluorescent protein, allowing for the visualization of the reaction kinetics over time using time-lapse fluorescent microscopy. Here we demonstrate how this device may be used to measure the noise structure of CFPS reactions in a manner that is directly analogous to those used to characterize cellular systems, thereby enabling the use of noise biology techniques used in cellular systems to characterize CFPS gene circuits and their interactions with the cell-free environment.

  11. Sealable Femtoliter Chamber Arrays for Cell-free Biology

    PubMed Central

    Norred, Sarah Elizabeth; Caveney, Patrick M.; Retterer, Scott T.; Boreyko, Jonathan B.; Fowlkes, Jason D.; Collier, Charles Patrick; Simpson, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    Cell-free systems provide a flexible platform for probing specific networks of biological reactions isolated from the complex resource sharing (e.g., global gene expression, cell division) encountered within living cells. However, such systems, used in conventional macro-scale bulk reactors, often fail to exhibit the dynamic behaviors and efficiencies characteristic of their living micro-scale counterparts. Understanding the impact of internal cell structure and scale on reaction dynamics is crucial to understanding complex gene networks. Here we report a microfabricated device that confines cell-free reactions in cellular scale volumes while allowing flexible characterization of the enclosed molecular system. This multilayered poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) device contains femtoliter-scale reaction chambers on an elastomeric membrane which can be actuated (open and closed). When actuated, the chambers confine Cell-Free Protein Synthesis (CFPS) reactions expressing a fluorescent protein, allowing for the visualization of the reaction kinetics over time using time-lapse fluorescent microscopy. Here we demonstrate how this device may be used to measure the noise structure of CFPS reactions in a manner that is directly analogous to those used to characterize cellular systems, thereby enabling the use of noise biology techniques used in cellular systems to characterize CFPS gene circuits and their interactions with the cell-free environment. PMID:25867144

  12. Volumetric Stress-Strain Analysis of Optohydrodynamically Suspended Biological Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yu; Saha, Asit K.

    2011-01-01

    Ongoing investigations are exploring the biomechanical properties of isolated and suspended biological cells in pursuit of understanding single-cell mechanobiology. An optical tweezer with minimal applied laser power has positioned biologic cells at the geometric center of a microfluidic cross-junction, creating a novel optohydrodynamic trap. The resulting fluid flow environment facilitates unique multiaxial loading of single cells with site-specific normal and shear stresses resulting in a physical albeit extensional state. A recent two-dimensional analysis has explored the cytoskeletal strain response due to these fluid-induced stresses [Wilson and Kohles, 2010, “Two-Dimensional Modeling of Nanomechanical Stresses-Strains in Healthy and Diseased Single-Cells During Microfluidic Manipulation,” J Nanotechnol Eng Med, 1(2), p. 021005]. Results described a microfluidic environment having controlled nanometer and piconewton resolution. In this present study, computational fluid dynamics combined with multiphysics modeling has further characterized the applied fluid stress environment and the solid cellular strain response in three dimensions to accompany experimental cell stimulation. A volumetric stress-strain analysis was applied to representative living cell biomechanical data. The presented normal and shear stress surface maps will guide future microfluidic experiments as well as provide a framework for characterizing cytoskeletal structure influencing the stress to strain response. PMID:21186894

  13. Sealable femtoliter chamber arrays for cell-free biology

    DOE PAGES

    Retterer, Scott T.; Fowlkes, Jason Davidson; Collier, Charles Patrick; ...

    2015-03-11

    Cell-free systems provide a flexible platform for probing specific networks of biological reactions isolated from the complex resource sharing (e.g. global gene expression, cell division) encountered within living cells. However, such systems, used in conventional macro-scale bulk reactors, often fail to exhibit the dynamic behaviors and efficiencies characteristic of their living micro-scale counterparts. Understanding the impact of internal cell structure and scale on reaction dynamics is crucial to understanding complex gene networks. Here we report a microfabricated device that confines cell-free reactions in cellular scale volumes while allowing flexible characterization of the enclosed molecular system. This multilayered poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) devicemore » contains femtoliter-scale reaction chambers on an elastomeric membrane which can be actuated (open and closed). When actuated, the chambers confine Cell-Free Protein Synthesis (CFPS) reactions expressing a fluorescent protein, allowing for the visualization of the reaction kinetics over time using time-lapse fluorescent microscopy. Lastly, we demonstrate how this device may be used to measure the noise structure of CFPS reactions in a manner that is directly analogous to those used to characterize cellular systems, thereby enabling the use of noise biology techniques to characterize CFPS gene circuits and their interactions with the cell-free environment.« less

  14. Sealable femtoliter chamber arrays for cell-free biology

    SciTech Connect

    Retterer, Scott T.; Fowlkes, Jason Davidson; Collier, Charles Patrick; Simpson, Michael L.; Norred, Sarah Elizabeth; Caveney, Patrick M.; Boreyko, Jonathan B.

    2015-03-11

    Cell-free systems provide a flexible platform for probing specific networks of biological reactions isolated from the complex resource sharing (e.g. global gene expression, cell division) encountered within living cells. However, such systems, used in conventional macro-scale bulk reactors, often fail to exhibit the dynamic behaviors and efficiencies characteristic of their living micro-scale counterparts. Understanding the impact of internal cell structure and scale on reaction dynamics is crucial to understanding complex gene networks. Here we report a microfabricated device that confines cell-free reactions in cellular scale volumes while allowing flexible characterization of the enclosed molecular system. This multilayered poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) device contains femtoliter-scale reaction chambers on an elastomeric membrane which can be actuated (open and closed). When actuated, the chambers confine Cell-Free Protein Synthesis (CFPS) reactions expressing a fluorescent protein, allowing for the visualization of the reaction kinetics over time using time-lapse fluorescent microscopy. Lastly, we demonstrate how this device may be used to measure the noise structure of CFPS reactions in a manner that is directly analogous to those used to characterize cellular systems, thereby enabling the use of noise biology techniques to characterize CFPS gene circuits and their interactions with the cell-free environment.

  15. Multidisciplinary approaches to understanding collective cell migration in developmental biology

    PubMed Central

    Schumacher, Linus J.; Kulesa, Paul M.; McLennan, Rebecca; Baker, Ruth E.; Maini, Philip K.

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical models are becoming increasingly integrated with experimental efforts in the study of biological systems. Collective cell migration in developmental biology is a particularly fruitful application area for the development of theoretical models to predict the behaviour of complex multicellular systems with many interacting parts. In this context, mathematical models provide a tool to assess the consistency of experimental observations with testable mechanistic hypotheses. In this review, we showcase examples from recent years of multidisciplinary investigations of neural crest cell migration. The neural crest model system has been used to study how collective migration of cell populations is shaped by cell–cell interactions, cell–environmental interactions and heterogeneity between cells. The wide range of emergent behaviours exhibited by neural crest cells in different embryonal locations and in different organisms helps us chart out the spectrum of collective cell migration. At the same time, this diversity in migratory characteristics highlights the need to reconcile or unify the array of currently hypothesized mechanisms through the next generation of experimental data and generalized theoretical descriptions. PMID:27278647

  16. [Biology of epidermal stem cells: impact on medicine].

    PubMed

    Pikuła, Michał; Trzonkowski, Piotr

    2009-10-15

    The epidermis is a self-renewing tissue which regenerates constantly. It consists mainly of keratinocytes of various degree of differentiation, from the proliferative basal layer to the terminally differentiated horny layer. Keratinocytes are specialized cells responsible for cohesion, barrier functions, and immunological reactions. The maintenance of homeostasis in the epidermis is possible via the self-renewing ability of the epidermal stem-cell population, which gives rise to differentiated keratinocytes. It is believed that epidermal stem cells play an important role in cellular regeneration, wound healing, and the pathogenesis of skin cancers. Epidermal stem cells reside in the basal layer of the epidermis, the bulge region of the hair follicle, and the germinal hair follicle matrix. Epidermal stem cells are relatively quiescent, slow-cycling cells defined by their great proliferative potential and unlimited capacity for self-renewal. Adult human epidermal stem cells can be activated and expanded in vitro under appropriate conditions. Cultured human keratinocytes and epidermal stem cells may be then transplanted as a biological dressing in burn injuries, chronic wounds, and various skin diseases. Additionally, epidermal stem cells have become a target for gene therapy and drug testing. In this review the fundamental characteristics of epidermal stem cells and the signaling pathways involved in the regulation of their proliferation and differentiation are discussed. The possibilities of using epidermal stem cells in medicine are also presented.

  17. Advances on plant-pathogen interactions from molecular toward systems biology perspectives.

    PubMed

    Peyraud, Rémi; Dubiella, Ullrich; Barbacci, Adelin; Genin, Stéphane; Raffaele, Sylvain; Roby, Dominique

    2016-11-21

    In the past 2 decades, progress in molecular analyses of the plant immune system has revealed key elements of a complex response network. Current paradigms depict the interaction of pathogen-secreted molecules with host target molecules leading to the activation of multiple plant response pathways. Further research will be required to fully understand how these responses are integrated in space and time, and exploit this knowledge in agriculture. In this review, we highlight systems biology as a promising approach to reveal properties of molecular plant-pathogen interactions and predict the outcome of such interactions. We first illustrate a few key concepts in plant immunity with a network and systems biology perspective. Next, we present some basic principles of systems biology and show how they allow integrating multiomics data and predict cell phenotypes. We identify challenges for systems biology of plant-pathogen interactions, including the reconstruction of multiscale mechanistic models and the connection of host and pathogen models. Finally, we outline studies on resistance durability through the robustness of immune system networks, the identification of trade-offs between immunity and growth and in silico plant-pathogen co-evolution as exciting perspectives in the field. We conclude that the development of sophisticated models of plant diseases incorporating plant, pathogen and climate properties represent a major challenge for agriculture in the future.

  18. Recent Advances in Therapeutic Applications of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Rami, Farzaneh; Beni, Shamsi Naderi; Kahnamooi, Mahboobeh Mojaver; Rahimmanesh, Ilnaz; Salehi, Ahmad Reza; Salehi, Rasoul

    2017-04-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are generated by reprogramming of differentiated somatic cells. These cells are identical to human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in gene expression pattern and the ability to differentiate. iPS cells can be used in in vitro modeling of diseases, testing drugs, assessing gene therapy methods, and cell therapy. Yet, the most important and promising application of iPS cells is in regenerative medicine. Regenerative medicine is a novel area in medicine aiming at the treatment of impaired or lost tissues by replacing them with functional and healthy ones. Currently, organ transplantation, which is considered the only treatment and cure for a number of diseases, is limited by shortage of organ donors and availability of the right match. Therefore, utilization of an alternative source of cells and tissues is critical in transplantation therapy. In this study, we review recent advances in therapeutic application of iPS cells in diseases where organ transplantation remains the only solution and will discuss the potential and usage of iPS cells in different areas of regenerative medicine. The primary theory of using iPS cells in regenerative medicine has brought lots of promises due to its potential for solving the immunological, social, and ethical problems of using ESCs. Nevertheless, several issues and problems have to be resolved before applying iPS cells in therapeutic applications.

  19. A muscle stem cell for every muscle: variability of satellite cell biology among different muscle groups.

    PubMed

    Randolph, Matthew E; Pavlath, Grace K

    2015-01-01

    The human body contains approximately 640 individual skeletal muscles. Despite the fact that all of these muscles are composed of striated muscle tissue, the biology of these muscles and their associated muscle stem cell populations are quite diverse. Skeletal muscles are affected differentially by various muscular dystrophies (MDs), such that certain genetic mutations specifically alter muscle function in only a subset of muscles. Additionally, defective muscle stem cells have been implicated in the pathology of some MDs. The biology of muscle stem cells varies depending on the muscles with which they are associated. Here we review the biology of skeletal muscle stem cell populations of eight different muscle groups. Understanding the biological variation of skeletal muscles and their resident stem cells could provide valuable insight into mechanisms underlying the susceptibility of certain muscles to myopathic disease.

  20. A muscle stem cell for every muscle: variability of satellite cell biology among different muscle groups

    PubMed Central

    Randolph, Matthew E.; Pavlath, Grace K.

    2015-01-01

    The human body contains approximately 640 individual skeletal muscles. Despite the fact that all of these muscles are composed of striated muscle tissue, the biology of these muscles and their associated muscle stem cell populations are quite diverse. Skeletal muscles are affected differentially by various muscular dystrophies (MDs), such that certain genetic mutations specifically alter muscle function in only a subset of muscles. Additionally, defective muscle stem cells have been implicated in the pathology of some MDs. The biology of muscle stem cells varies depending on the muscles with which they are associated. Here we review the biology of skeletal muscle stem cell populations of eight different muscle groups. Understanding the biological variation of skeletal muscles and their resident stem cells could provide valuable insight into mechanisms underlying the susceptibility of certain muscles to myopathic disease. PMID:26500547