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Sample records for advanced ckd patients

  1. Phase I Study of CKD-516, a Novel Vascular Disrupting Agent, in Patients with Advanced Solid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Do-Youn; Kim, Tae-Min; Han, Sae-Won; Shin, Dong-Yeop; Lee, Yun Gyoo; Lee, Keun-Wook; Kim, Jee Hyun; Kim, Tae-You; Jang, In-Jin; Lee, Jong-Seok; Bang, Yung-Jue

    2016-01-01

    Purpose CKD-516 is a newly developed vascular disrupting agent. This phase I dose-escalation study of CKD-516 was conducted to determine maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), safety, pharmacokinetics, and preliminary antitumor efficacy in patients with advanced solid tumors. Materials and Methods Patients received CKD-516 intravenously on D1 and D8 every 3 weeks, in a standard 3+3 design. Safety was evaluated by National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events ver. 4.02 and response was assessed by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumor ver. 1.1. Results Twenty-three patients were treated with CKD-516 at seven dosing levels: 1 mg/m2/day (n=3), 2 mg/m2/day (n=3), 3.3 mg/m2/day (n=3), 5 mg/m2/day (n=3), 7 mg/m2/day (n=3), 9 mg/m2/day (n=6), and 12 mg/m2/day (n=2). Mean age was 54 and 56.5% of patients were male. Two dose-limiting toxicities, which were both grade 3 hypertension, were observed in two patients at 12 mg/m2/day. The MTD was determined as 12 mg/m2/day. Most common adverse events were gastrointestinal adverse events (diarrhea, 34.8% [30.4% grade 1/2, 13.0% grade 3]; nausea, 21.7% [all grade 1/2]; vomiting, 21.7% [all grade 1/2]), myalgia (17.4%, all grade 1/2), and abdominal pain (21.7% [21.7% grade 1/2, 4.3% grade 3]). The pharmacokinetic study showed the dose-linearity of all dosing levels. Among 23 patients, six patients (26.1%) showed stable disease. Median progression-free survival was 39 days (95% confidence interval, 37 to 41 days). Conclusion This study demonstrates feasibility of CKD-516, novel vascular disrupting agent, in patients with advanced solid tumor. MTD of CKD-516 was defined as 12 mg/m2/day on D1 and D8 every 3 weeks. PMID:25715767

  2. Bisphophonates in CKD Patients with Low Bone Mineral Density

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wen-Chih; Yen, Jen-Fen; Lu, Kuo-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) have a high risk of bone fracture because of low bone mineral density and poor bone quality. Osteoporosis also features low bone mass, disarranged microarchitecture, and skeletal fragility, and differentiating between osteoporosis and CKD-MBD in low bone mineral density is a challenge and usually achieved by bone biopsy. Bisphosphonates can be safe and beneficial for patients with a glomerular filtration rate of 30 mL/min or higher, but prescribing bisphosphonates in advanced CKD requires caution because of the increased possibility of low bone turnover disorders such as osteomalacia, mixed uremic osteodystrophy, and adynamic bone, even aggravating hyperparathyroidism. Therefore, bone biopsy in advanced CKD is an important consideration before prescribing bisphosphonates. Treatment also may induce hypocalcemia in CKD patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism, but vitamin D supplementation may ameliorate this effect. Bisphosphonate treatment can improve both bone mineral density and vascular calcification, but the latter becomes more unlikely in patients with stage 3-4 CKD with vascular calcification but no decreased bone mineral density. Using bisphosphonates requires considerable caution in advanced CKD, and the lack of adequate clinical investigation necessitates more studies regarding its effects on these patients. PMID:24501586

  3. Bisphophonates in CKD patients with low bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-Chih; Yen, Jen-Fen; Lang, Cheng-Lin; Yan, Ming-Tso; Lu, Kuo-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) have a high risk of bone fracture because of low bone mineral density and poor bone quality. Osteoporosis also features low bone mass, disarranged microarchitecture, and skeletal fragility, and differentiating between osteoporosis and CKD-MBD in low bone mineral density is a challenge and usually achieved by bone biopsy. Bisphosphonates can be safe and beneficial for patients with a glomerular filtration rate of 30 mL/min or higher, but prescribing bisphosphonates in advanced CKD requires caution because of the increased possibility of low bone turnover disorders such as osteomalacia, mixed uremic osteodystrophy, and adynamic bone, even aggravating hyperparathyroidism. Therefore, bone biopsy in advanced CKD is an important consideration before prescribing bisphosphonates. Treatment also may induce hypocalcemia in CKD patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism, but vitamin D supplementation may ameliorate this effect. Bisphosphonate treatment can improve both bone mineral density and vascular calcification, but the latter becomes more unlikely in patients with stage 3-4 CKD with vascular calcification but no decreased bone mineral density. Using bisphosphonates requires considerable caution in advanced CKD, and the lack of adequate clinical investigation necessitates more studies regarding its effects on these patients. PMID:24501586

  4. Recent advances in understanding the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in CKD patients.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sudhir V; Shukla, Ashutosh M; Bose, Chhanda; Basnakian, Alexei G; Rajapurkar, Mohan

    2015-03-01

    A need exists for developing new therapies to improve cardiovascular outcomes in end-stage kidney disease. Three new areas that address novel pathophysiological mechanisms and/or therapeutic approaches toward cardiovascular events in chronic kidney disease patients include the use of an anti-inflammatory agent, the role of catalytic iron, and protein carbamylation. In preliminary studies, hydroxychloroquine, which has multiple anti-inflammatory properties, preserved vascular compliance for the aorta and major vessels, as well as reduced the extent of severity of atherosclerosis in ApoE-/- mice. The ability of iron to rapidly and reversibly cycle between 2 oxidation states makes iron potentially hazardous by enabling it to participate in the generation of powerful oxidant species. We have shown that high catalytic iron in the general population is associated with a 4-fold increase in prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD), even after accounting for traditional risk factors. In addition, the highest levels of catalytic iron are present in dialysis patients and, more specifically, patients with prevalent CVD have several-fold higher catalytic iron levels compared with controls without CVD. These data suggest the utility of iron chelators for preventing and treating CVD in patients with chronic kidney disease and should be further investigated. Carbamylation of proteins results from nonenzymatic chemical modification by isocyanic acid derived from urea and an alternative route, the myeloperoxidase-catalyzed oxidation of thiocyanate. We have shown carbamylated low-density lipoprotein to have all the major biological effects relevant to atherosclerosis including endothelial cell injury, increased expression of cell adhesion molecules, and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. In 2 separate clinical studies, plasma levels of carbamylated protein independently predicted an increased risk of CVD and death. PMID:25556310

  5. Recent advances in understanding the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in CKD patients.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sudhir V; Shukla, Ashutosh M; Bose, Chhanda; Basnakian, Alexei G; Rajapurkar, Mohan

    2015-03-01

    A need exists for developing new therapies to improve cardiovascular outcomes in end-stage kidney disease. Three new areas that address novel pathophysiological mechanisms and/or therapeutic approaches toward cardiovascular events in chronic kidney disease patients include the use of an anti-inflammatory agent, the role of catalytic iron, and protein carbamylation. In preliminary studies, hydroxychloroquine, which has multiple anti-inflammatory properties, preserved vascular compliance for the aorta and major vessels, as well as reduced the extent of severity of atherosclerosis in ApoE-/- mice. The ability of iron to rapidly and reversibly cycle between 2 oxidation states makes iron potentially hazardous by enabling it to participate in the generation of powerful oxidant species. We have shown that high catalytic iron in the general population is associated with a 4-fold increase in prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD), even after accounting for traditional risk factors. In addition, the highest levels of catalytic iron are present in dialysis patients and, more specifically, patients with prevalent CVD have several-fold higher catalytic iron levels compared with controls without CVD. These data suggest the utility of iron chelators for preventing and treating CVD in patients with chronic kidney disease and should be further investigated. Carbamylation of proteins results from nonenzymatic chemical modification by isocyanic acid derived from urea and an alternative route, the myeloperoxidase-catalyzed oxidation of thiocyanate. We have shown carbamylated low-density lipoprotein to have all the major biological effects relevant to atherosclerosis including endothelial cell injury, increased expression of cell adhesion molecules, and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. In 2 separate clinical studies, plasma levels of carbamylated protein independently predicted an increased risk of CVD and death.

  6. Epidemiology of CKD Regression in Patients under Nephrology Care

    PubMed Central

    Borrelli, Silvio; Leonardis, Daniela; Minutolo, Roberto; Chiodini, Paolo; De Nicola, Luca; Esposito, Ciro; Mallamaci, Francesca; Zoccali, Carmine; Conte, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) regression is considered as an infrequent renal outcome, limited to early stages, and associated with higher mortality. However, prevalence, prognosis and the clinical correlates of CKD regression remain undefined in the setting of nephrology care. This is a multicenter prospective study in 1418 patients with established CKD (eGFR: 60–15 ml/min/1.73m²) under nephrology care in 47 outpatient clinics in Italy from a least one year. We defined CKD regressors as a ΔGFR ≥0 ml/min/1.73 m2/year. ΔGFR was estimated as the absolute difference between eGFR measured at baseline and at follow up visit after 18–24 months, respectively. Outcomes were End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) and overall-causes Mortality.391 patients (27.6%) were identified as regressors as they showed an eGFR increase between the baseline visit in the renal clinic and the follow up visit. In multivariate regression analyses the regressor status was not associated with CKD stage. Low proteinuria was the main factor associated with CKD regression, accounting per se for 48% of the likelihood of this outcome. Lower systolic blood pressure, higher BMI and absence of autosomal polycystic disease (PKD) were additional predictors of CKD regression. In regressors, ESRD risk was 72% lower (HR: 0.28; 95% CI 0.14–0.57; p<0.0001) while mortality risk did not differ from that in non-regressors (HR: 1.16; 95% CI 0.73–1.83; p = 0.540). Spline models showed that the reduction of ESRD risk associated with positive ΔGFR was attenuated in advanced CKD stage. CKD regression occurs in about one-fourth patients receiving renal care in nephrology units and correlates with low proteinuria, BP and the absence of PKD. This condition portends better renal prognosis, mostly in earlier CKD stages, with no excess risk for mortality. PMID:26462071

  7. Cardiovascular Complications in CKD Patients: Role of Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Gosmanova, Elvira O.; Le, Ngoc-Anh

    2011-01-01

    Starting with the early stages, patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) experience higher burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Moreover, CVD complications are the major cause of mortality in CKD patients as compared with complications from chronic kidney failure. While traditional CVD risk factors, including diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, obesity, physical inactivity, may be more prevalent among CKD patients, these factors seem to underestimate the accelerated cardiovascular disease in the CKD population. Search for additional biomarkers that could explain the enhanced CVD risk in CKD patients has gained increasing importance. Although it is unlikely that any single nontraditional risk factor would fully account for the increased CVD risk in individuals with CKD, oxidative stress appears to play a central role in the development and progression of CVD and its complications. We will review the data that support the contribution of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of CVD in patients with chronic kidney failure. PMID:21253517

  8. Disease management programs for CKD patients: the potential and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Rocco, Michael V

    2009-03-01

    Disease management describes the use of a number of approaches to identify and treat patients with chronic health conditions, especially those that are expensive to treat. Disease management programs have grown rapidly in the United States in the past several years. These programs have been established for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), but some have been discontinued because of the high cost of the program. Disease management programs for CKD face unique challenges. Identification of patients with CKD is hampered by incomplete use of the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes for CKD by physicians and the less than universal use of estimated glomerular filtration rate from serum creatinine measurements to identify patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2). CKD affects multiple organ systems. Thus, a comprehensive disease management program will need to manage each of these aspects of CKD. These multiple interventions likely will make a CKD disease management program more costly than similar disease management programs designed for patients with diabetes mellitus, congestive heart failure, or other chronic diseases. The lack of data that can be used to develop effective disease management programs in CKD makes it difficult to determine goals for the management of each organ system affected by CKD. Finally, long periods of observation will be needed to determine whether a particular disease management program is effective in not only improving patient outcomes, but also decreasing both resource use and health care dollars. This long-term observation period is contrary to how most disease management contracts are written, which usually are based on meeting goals during a 1- to 3-year period. Until these challenges are resolved, it likely will be difficult to maintain effective disease management programs for CKD.

  9. Symptom Management in Patients with Stage 5 CKD Opting for Conservative Management.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages 3-5 now affects 8.5% of adults in the United Kingdom; with 4% of patients expected to reach stage 5 CKD. Increasing numbers of older patients are contributing to the growth of demand of kidney services. With the exception of transplantation, dialysis has been the main form of renal replacement therapy (RRT) for advanced CKD. This elderly population is usually too frail and has many other co-existing medical complaints or co morbidities to undergo transplantation. Dialysis is an invasive treatment, and some frail elderly patients can experience many dialysis related symptoms. An alternative option for these patients is to choose conservative management (CM) of their stage 5 CKD. These patients often have complex supportive and palliative care needs. The frequency, severity and distress caused by symptoms related to stage 5 CKD are often under recognized and under treated. There is a need for early identification and management of symptoms as they present in patients with stage 5 CKD being managed conservatively. Symptom assessment should be focused on anticipating, identifying and alleviating any symptoms. This needs to be incorporated into the regular practice of those managing CM patients. PMID:27669324

  10. Prognosis of CKD Patients Receiving Outpatient Nephrology Care in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Chiodini, Paolo; Zoccali, Carmine; Borrelli, Silvio; Cianciaruso, Bruno; Di Iorio, Biagio; Santoro, Domenico; Giancaspro, Vincenzo; Abaterusso, Cataldo; Gallo, Ciro; Conte, Giuseppe; Minutolo, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Prognosis in nondialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients under regular nephrology care is rarely investigated. Design, setting, participants, & measurements We prospectively followed from 2003 to death or June 2010 a cohort of 1248 patients with CKD stages 3 to 5 and previous nephrology care ≥1 year in 25 Italian outpatient nephrology clinics. Cumulative incidence of ESRD or death before ESRD were estimated using the competing-risk approach. Results Estimated rates (per 100 patient-years) of ESRD and death 8.3 (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.4 to 9.2) and 5.9 (95% CI 5.2 to 6.6), respectively. Risk of ESRD and death increased progressively from stages 3 to 5. ESRD was more frequent than death in stage 4 and 5 CKD, whereas the opposite was true in stage 3 CKD. Younger age, lower body mass index, proteinuria, and high phosphate predicted ESRD, whereas older age, diabetes, previous cardiovascular disease, ESRD, proteinuria, high uric acid, and anemia predicted death (P < 0.05 for all). Among modifiable risk factors, proteinuria accounted for the greatest contribution to the model fit for either outcome. Conclusions In patients receiving continuity of care in Italian nephrology clinics, ESRD was a more frequent outcome than death in stage 4 and 5 CKD, but the opposite was true in stage 3. Outcomes were predicted by modifiable risk factors specific to CKD. Proteinuria used in conjunction with estimated GFR refined risk stratification. These findings provide information, specific to CKD patients under regular outpatient nephrology care, for risk stratification that complement recent observations in the general population. PMID:21817127

  11. Vascular Calcification in Patients with Nondialysis CKD over 3 Years

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Pablo; Cerverón, M. Jesús; Vila, Rocío; Bover, Jordi; Nieto, Javier; Barril, Guillermina; Martínez-Castelao, Alberto; Fernández, Elvira; Escudero, Verónica; Piñera, Celestino; Adragao, Teresa; Navarro-Gonzalez, Juan F.; Molinero, Luis M.; Castro-Alonso, Cristina; Pallardó, Luis M.; Jamal, Sophie A.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Vascular calcification (VC) is common in CKD, but little is known about its prognostic effect on patients with nondialysis CKD. The prevalence of VC and its ability to predict death, time to hospitalization, and renal progression were assessed. Design, setting, participants, & measurements The Study of Mineral and Bone Disorders in CKD in Spain is a prospective, observational, 3-year follow-up study of 742 patients with nondialysis CKD stages 3–5 from 39 centers in Spain from April to May 2009. VC was assessed using Adragao (AS; x-ray pelvis and hands) and Kauppila (KS; x-ray lateral lumbar spine) scores from 572 and 568 patients, respectively. The primary end point was death. Secondary outcomes were hospital admissions and appearance of a combined renal end point (beginning of dialysis or drop >30% in eGFR). Factors related to VC were assessed by logistic regression analysis. Survival analysis was assessed by Cox proportional models. Results VC was present in 79% of patients and prominent in 47% (AS≥3 or KS>6). Age (odds ratio [OR], 1.05; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.02 to 1.07; P<0.001), phosphorous (OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.28 to 2.20; P<0.001), and diabetes (OR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.32 to 3.35; P=0.002) were independently related to AS≥3. After a median follow-up of 35 months (interquartile range=17–36), there were 70 deaths (10%). After multivariate adjustment for age, smoking, diabetes, comorbidity, renal function, and level of phosphorous, AS≥3 but not KS>6 was independently associated with all-cause (hazard ratio [HR], 2.07; 95% CI, 1.07 to 4.01; P=0.03) and cardiovascular (HR, 3.46; 95% CI, 1.27 to 9.45; P=0.02) mortality as well as a shorter hospitalization event–free period (HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.22; P<0.001). VC did not predict renal progression. Conclusions VC is highly prevalent in patients with CKD. VC assessment using AS independently predicts death and time to hospitalization. Therefore, it could be a useful

  12. [Is it possible to-predict fracture in CKD patients?].

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Yusuke

    2016-09-01

    Routine examination of bone mineral density(BMD)by DXA(dual energy X-ray absorptiometry)is useful to predict bone fracture in both CKD nondialysis and dialysis patients. The cutoff value of BMD to predict bone fracture is different between genders and its predictive power is better in patients with lower serum PTH levels than higher counterpart. Increase in serum bone specific alkaline phosphatase is a better predictor of the bone fracture than serum PTH levels. PMID:27561344

  13. [Sarcopenia or uremic myopathy in CKD patients].

    PubMed

    Chauveau, Philippe; Moreau, Karine; Lasseur, Catherine; Fouque, Denis; Combe, Christian; Aparicio, Michel

    2016-04-01

    Often underestimated or misunderstood in chronic renal failure (CRF), muscle wasting is nevertheless common and concerns about 50% of dialysis patients. The consequences of this myopathy on quality of life and outcomes of patients are unfavorable, identical to those observed in sarcopenia in elderly subjects with sarcopenia. The similarities between the two situations also concern the symptoms, the underlying muscle damages and the pathogenic mechanisms and may be partly explained by the frequently high age of ESRD patients. Skeletal muscle involvement should be systematically investigated in the IRC patient as in the elderly with sarcopenia to propose as early as possible a treatment of which physical activity and nutritional interventions are the mainstay. PMID:26598033

  14. A patient with CKD and poor nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Ikizler, T Alp

    2013-12-01

    Protein energy wasting is common in patients with CKD and ESRD and is associated with adverse clinical outcomes, such as increased rates of hospitalization and death, in these patients. A multitude of factors can affect the nutritional and metabolic status of patients with CKD, including decreased dietary nutrient intake, catabolic effects of renal replacement therapy, systemic inflammation, metabolic and hormonal derangements, and comorbid conditions (such as diabetes and depression). Unique aspects of CKD also confound reliable assessment of nutritional status, further complicating management of this comorbid condition. In patients in whom preventive measures and oral dietary intake from regular meals cannot help them maintain adequate nutritional status, nutritional supplementation, administered orally, enterally, or parenterally, is effective in replenishing protein and energy stores. The advantages of oral nutritional supplements include proven efficacy, safety, and compliance. Anabolic steroids and exercise, with nutritional supplementation or alone, improve protein stores and represent potential additional approaches for the treatment of PEW. There are several emerging novel therapies, such as appetite stimulants, anti-inflammatory interventions, and anabolic agents.

  15. Clinical Significance of FGF-23 in Patients with CKD

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Domenico; Battaglia, Yuri

    2011-01-01

    FGF23 is a bone-derived hormone that plays an important role in the regulation of phosphate and 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D metabolism. FGF23 principally acts in the kidney to induce urinary phosphate excretion and suppress 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D synthesis in the presence of FGF receptor 1 (FGFR1) and its coreceptor Klotho. In patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), circulating FGF23 levels are progressively increased to compensate for persistent phosphate retention, but this results in reduced renal production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and leads to hypersecretion of parathyroid hormone. Furthermore, FGF23 is associated with vascular dysfunction, atherosclerosis, and left ventricular hypertrophy. This paper summarizes the role of FGF23 in the pathogenesis of mineral, bone, and cadiovascular disorders in CKD. PMID:21603159

  16. Kidney Function Can Improve in Patients with Hypertensive CKD

    PubMed Central

    Gadegbeku, Crystal; Lipkowitz, Michael S.; Rostand, Stephen; Lewis, Julia; Wright, Jackson T.; Appel, Lawrence J.; Greene, Tom; Gassman, Jennifer; Astor, Brad C.

    2012-01-01

    The typical assumption is that patients with CKD will have progressive nephropathy. Methodological issues, such as measurement error and regression to the mean, have made it difficult to document whether kidney function might improve in some patients. Here, we used data from 12 years of follow-up in the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension to determine whether some patients with CKD can experience a sustained improvement in GFR. We calculated estimated GFR (eGFR) based on serum creatinine measurements during both the trial and cohort phases. We defined clearly improved patients as those with positive eGFR slopes that we could not explain by random measurement variation under Bayesian mixed-effects models. Of 949 patients with at least three follow-up eGFR measurements, 31 (3.3%) demonstrated clearly positive eGFR slopes. The mean slope among these patients was +1.06 (0.12) ml/min per 1.73 m2 per yr, compared with −2.45 (0.07) ml/min per 1.73 m2 per yr among the remaining patients. During the trial phase, 24 (77%) of these 31 patients also had clearly positive slopes of 125I-iothalamate–measured GFR during the trial phase. Low levels of proteinuria at baseline and randomization to the lower BP goal (mean arterial pressure ≤92 mmHg) associated with improved eGFR. In conclusion, the extended follow-up from this study provides strong evidence that kidney function can improve in some patients with hypertensive CKD. PMID:22402803

  17. Association of advanced age with concentrations of uraemic toxins in CKD.

    PubMed

    Rroji, Merita; Eloot, Sunny; Dhondt, Annemie; Van Biesen, Wim; Glorieux, Griet; Neirynck, Nathalie; Vandennoortgate, Nele; Liabeuf, Sophie; Massy, Ziad; Vanholder, Raymond

    2016-02-01

    To our knowledge, there are no studies on advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) analysing the impact of ageing on serum concentrations of uraemic toxins while adjusting for renal function. Knowledge of this feature, however, could influence prognostic assessment and therapeutic decision-making, e.g. about when to start dialysis or how intensive it should be. Indeed, the slowing down of metabolism with age may result in lower uraemic toxin concentrations, hence reducing their toxic effects. In this case, a later start of dialysis or less intensive dialysis may become justified in an already fragile population that might enjoy a better quality of life without a survival disadvantage with conservative treatment. We assessed the impact of advancing age on uraemic solute concentrations [blood, urea, nitrogen (BUN), uric acid, creatinine, asymmetric and symmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA and SDMA), β2-microglobulin and a large array of protein-bound solutes] by matching 126 maintenance haemodialysis patients subdivided into two age-groups, younger vs. older (using the median as cut-off: 72 years). Concentrations were compared after age stratification and were matched with patient and dialysis characteristics. In addition, 93 non-dialysed CKD patients (median as cut-off: 70 years), with a comparable average estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) between younger and older age-groups, were analysed. In haemodialysis patients, carboxy-methyl-furanpropionic acid (CMPF) levels were markedly higher and BUN and uric acid borderline lower in the older age-group. All other solutes showed no difference. At multifactor analysis, the concentration of several uraemic toxins was associated with residual renal function and protein intake in the overall haemodialysis group and the younger group, but the association with most solutes, especially those protein-bound, was lost in the older age-group. No differences were found in non-dialysed CKD patients. It was concluded that in this

  18. CKD and Its Risk Factors among Patients with Cystinuria

    PubMed Central

    Prot-Bertoye, Caroline; Lebbah, Saïd; Daudon, Michel; Tostivint, Isabelle; Bataille, Pierre; Bridoux, Franck; Brignon, Pierre; Choquenet, Christian; Cochat, Pierre; Combe, Christian; Conort, Pierre; Decramer, Stéphane; Doré, Bertrand; Dussol, Bertrand; Essig, Marie; Gaunez, Nicolas; Joly, Dominique; Le Toquin-Bernard, Sophie; Méjean, Arnaud; Meria, Paul; Morin, Denis; N’Guyen, Hung Viet; Noël, Christian; Normand, Michel; Pietak, Michel; Ronco, Pierre; Saussine, Christian; Tsimaratos, Michel; Friedlander, Gérard; Traxer, Olivier; Knebelmann, Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Cystinuria is an autosomal recessive disorder affecting renal cystine reabsorption; it causes 1% and 8% of stones in adults and children, respectively. This study aimed to determine epidemiologic and clinical characteristics as well as comorbidities among cystinuric patients, focusing on CKD and high BP. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This retrospective study was conducted in France, and involved 47 adult and pediatric nephrology and urology centers from April 2010 to January 2012. Data were collected from 442 cystinuric patients. Results Median age at onset of symptoms was 16.7 (minimum to maximum, 0.3–72.1) years and median diagnosis delay was 1.3 (0–45.7) years. Urinary alkalinization and cystine-binding thiol were prescribed for 88.8% and 52.2% of patients, respectively, and 81.8% had at least one urological procedure. Five patients (1.1%, n=4 men) had to be treated by dialysis at a median age of 35.0 years (11.8–70.7). Among the 314 patients aged ≥16 years, using the last available plasma creatinine, 22.5% had an eGFR≥90 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (calculated by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation), whereas 50.6%, 15.6%, 7.6%, 2.9%, and 0.6% had an eGFR of 60–89, 45–59, 30–44, 15–29, and <15, respectively. Among these 314 patients, 28.6% had high BP. In multivariate analysis, CKD was associated with age (odds ratio, 1.05 [95% confidence interval, 1.03 to 1.07]; P<0.001), hypertension (3.30 [1.54 to 7.10]; P=0.002), and severe damage of renal parenchyma defined as a past history of partial or total nephrectomy, a solitary congenital kidney, or at least one kidney with a size <10 cm in patients aged ≥16 years (4.39 [2.00 to 9.62]; P<0.001), whereas hypertension was associated with age (1.06 [1.04 to 1.08]; P<0.001), male sex (2.3 [1.3 to 4.1]; P=0.003), and an eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (2.7 [1.5 to 5.1]; P=0.001). Conclusions CKD and high BP occur frequently in patients with cystinuria and

  19. Effects of Oral Sodium Bicarbonate in Patients with CKD

    PubMed Central

    Melamed, Michal L.; Bauer, Carolyn; Raff, Amanda C.; Hostetter, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Metabolic acidosis contributes to muscle breakdown in patients with CKD, but whether its treatment improves functional outcomes is unknown. The choice of dose and tolerability of high doses remain unclear. In CKD patients with mild acidosis, this study evaluated the dose–response relationship of alkali with serum bicarbonate, its side effect profile, and its effect on muscle strength. Design, setting, participants, & measurements In this single-blinded pilot study from March of 2009 to August of 2010, 20 adults with estimated GFR 15–45 ml/min per 1.73 m2 and serum bicarbonate 20–24 mEq/L were treated during successive 2-week periods with placebo followed by escalating oral NaHCO3 doses (0.3, 0.6, and 1.0 mEq/kg per day). At each visit, handgrip strength and time required to complete 5 and 10 repetitions of a sit-to-stand test were measured. Results Each 0.1 mEq/kg per day increase in dose produced a 0.33 mEq/L (95% confidence interval=0.23–0.43 mEq/L) higher serum bicarbonate. Sit-to-stand time improved after 6 weeks of oral NaHCO3 (23.8±1.4 versus 22.2±1.6 seconds for 10 repetitions, P=0.002), and urinary nitrogen excretion decreased (−0.70 g/g creatinine [95% confidence interval=−1.11 to −0.30] per 0.1 mEq/kg per day higher dose). No statistically significant change was seen in handgrip strength (29.5±9.6 versus 28.4±9.4 kg, P=0.12). Higher NaHCO3 doses were not associated with increased BP or greater edema. Conclusions NaHCO3 supplementation produces a dose-dependent increase in serum bicarbonate and improves lower extremity muscle strength after a short-term intervention in CKD patients with mild acidosis. Long-term studies are needed to determine if this finding translates into improved functional status. PMID:23393105

  20. Advanced Parameters of Cardiac Mechanics in Children with CKD: The 4C Study

    PubMed Central

    Matteucci, Maria Chiara; Franceschini, Alessio; Doyon, Anke; Pongiglione, Giacomo; Rinelli, Gabriele; Schaefer, Franz

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Newer parameters of cardiac mechanics provide additional insights on cardiac dysfunction in adult patients with CKD. The aim of this study was to identify prevalence of subclinical abnormalities in cardiac function through the analysis of novel indices of cardiac mechanics in a large population of children with CKD. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Between 2009 and 2011, the prospective observational Cardiovascular Comorbidity in Children with CKD Study enrolled patients with CKD ages 6–17 years old with eGFR=10–45 ml/min per 1.73 m2 in 14 European countries. Cardiac morphology and function were assessed through echocardiography. The analysis presented encompasses global radial, longitudinal, and circumferential strains as well as time to peak analysis. Data were compared with 61 healthy children with comparable age and sex. Results Data on 272 patients with CKD with complete echocardiographic assessment are reported (age =12.8±3.5 years old; 65% boys). Patients with CKD showed mildly higher office BP values and higher prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy, but no differences were observed among groups in left ventricular ejection fraction. Strain analysis showed significantly lower global radial strain (29.6%±13.3% versus 35.5%±8.9%) and circumferential strain components (−21.8%±4.8% versus −28.2%±5.0%; both P<0.05) in patients with CKD without significant differences observed in longitudinal strain (−15.9%±3.4% versus −16.2%±3.7%). Lower values of global radial strain were associated with lower circumferential endocardial-to-epicardial gradient (r=0.51; P<0.01). This association remained significant after adjusting for BP, eGFR, and presence of left ventricular hypertrophy. Eventually, patients with CKD also showed higher delay in time to peak cardiac contraction (58±28 versus 37±18 milliseconds; P<0.05). Conclusions A significant proportion of children with CKD show impaired systolic mechanics

  1. Life-Time Risk, Screening and The Cost of Cardiovascular Comorbidities in CKD Patients.

    PubMed

    Zoccali, Carmine; Abd ElHafeez, Samar; Dounousi, Evangelia; Anastasi, Rossana; Tripepi, Giovanni; Mallamaci, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    CKD is a problem of epidemic dimension. The risk of death and cardiovascular complications in this condition is of the same order of that by myocardial infarction, which qualifies CKD as "risk equivalent". Calculations made on the basis of the epidemiological data of the MONICA-Augsburg study and analyses of the costs of myocardial infarction in a large health insurance company in Germany show that the economic burden of cardiovascular comorbidities with CKD in this country is substantial. These estimates, which may be valid also for other large member states of the European Community, represent a call for studies looking at the cost-effectiveness of preventive interventions aimed at reducing the risk for CKD and at lowering the concerning incidence rate of death and disability due to CKD-triggered cardiovascular complications in CKD patients. PMID:27442374

  2. A Retrospective Case-Control Analysis of the Outpatient Expenditures for Western Medicine and Dental Treatment Modalities in CKD Patients in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ren-Yeong; Lin, Yuh-Feng; Kao, Sen-Yeong; Shieh, Yi-Shing; Chen, Jin-Shuen

    2014-01-01

    Background To determine if expenditures for dentistry (DENT) correlate with severity of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods A total of 10,457 subjects were enrolled from January 2008 to December 2010, divided into three groups: healthy control (HC) group (n = 1,438), high risk (HR) group (n = 3,392), and CKD group (n = 5,627). Five stages were further categorized for the CKD group. OPD utilization and expenditures for western medicine (WM), DENT, and TCM (traditional Chinese medicine) were analyzed retrospectively (2000–2008) using Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. Three major areas were analyzed among groups CKD, HR and HC in this study: 1) demographic data and medical history; 2) utilization (visits/person/year) and expenditures (9-year cumulative expenditure, expenditure/person/year) for OPD services in WM, DENT, and TCM; and 3) utilization and expenditures for dental OPD services, particularly in dental filling, root canal and periodontal therapy. Results OPD utilization and expenditures of WM increased significantly for the CKD group compared with the HR and HC groups, and increased steadily along with the severity of CKD stages. However, overall DENT and TCM utilization and expenditures did not increase for the CKD group. In comparison among different CKD stages, the average expenditures and utilization for DENT including restorative filling and periodontal therapy, but not root canal therapy, showed significant decreases according to severity of CKD stage, indicating less DENT OPD utilization with progression of CKD. Conclusions Patients with advanced CKD used DENT OPD service less frequently. However, the connection between CKD and DENT service utilization requires further study. PMID:24533085

  3. Educating Patients about CKD: The Path to Self-Management and Patient-Centered Care.

    PubMed

    Narva, Andrew S; Norton, Jenna M; Boulware, L Ebony

    2016-04-01

    Patient education is associated with better patient outcomes and supported by international guidelines and organizations, but a range of barriers prevent widespread implementation of comprehensive education for people with progressive kidney disease, especially in the United States. Among United States patients, obstacles to education include the complex nature of kidney disease information, low baseline awareness, limited health literacy and numeracy, limited availability of CKD information, and lack of readiness to learn. For providers, lack of time and clinical confidence combine with competing education priorities and confusion about diagnosing CKD to limit educational efforts. At the system level, lack of provider incentives, limited availability of practical decision support tools, and lack of established interdisciplinary care models inhibit patient education. Despite these barriers, innovative education approaches for people with CKD exist, including self-management support, shared decision making, use of digital media, and engaging families and communities. Education efficiency may be increased by focusing on people with progressive disease, establishing interdisciplinary care management including community health workers, and providing education in group settings. New educational approaches are being developed through research and quality improvement efforts, but challenges to evaluating public awareness and patient education programs inhibit identification of successful strategies for broader implementation. However, growing interest in improving patient-centered outcomes may provide new approaches to effective education of people with CKD. PMID:26536899

  4. Prevalence and Risk Factors of CKD in Chinese Patients with Periodontal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei; Liang, Mengjun; Luo, Wei; Wu, Xianfeng; Ruan, Yiping; Wang, Jie; Xu, Ricong; Zhan, Xiaojiang; Yu, Jianwen; Tan, Jiaqing; Dong, Xiuqing; Zhang, Jincai; Yu, Xueqing

    2013-01-01

    Background Periodontal disease is common among adults and is associated with an increasing risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We aimed to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of CKD in patients with periodontal disease in China. Methods In the current cross-sectional study, patients with periodontal disease were included from Guangdong Provincial Stomatological Hospital between March 2011 and August 2011. CKD was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2, the presence of albuminuria, or hematuria. All patients with periodontal disease underwent a periodontal examination, including periodontal probing pocket depth, gingival recession, and clinical attachment level by Florida Probe. They completed a questionnaire and had blood and urine samples taken. The adjusted prevalence of indicators of kidney damage was calculated and risk factors associated with CKD were analyzed. Results A total of 1392 patients with periodontal disease were invited to participate this study and 1268 completed the survey and examination. After adjusting for age and sex, the prevalence of reduced eGFR, albuminuria, and hematuria was 2.7% (95% CI 1.7–3.7), 6.7% (95% CI 5.5–8.1) and 10.9% (95% CI 9.2–12.5), respectively. The adjusted prevalence of CKD was 18.2% (95% CI 16.2–20.3). Age, male, diabetes, hypertension, history of CKD, hyperuricemia, and interleukin-6 levels (≥7.54 ng/L) were independent risk factors for reduced eGFR. Female, diabetes, hypertension, history of CKD, hyperuricemia, high level of cholesterol, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) (≥1.03 mg/L) and TNF-α levels (≥1.12 ng/L) were independently associated with an increased risk of albuminuria. Female, lower education (CKD were independent risk factors for hematuria. Conclusions 18.2% of Chinese patients with periodontal disease have proteinuria, hematuria, or reduced eGFR, indicating the presence of kidney damage. Whether

  5. Understanding CKD among patients with T2DM: prevalence, temporal trends, and treatment patterns—NHANES 2007–2012

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bingcao; Bell, Kelly; Stanford, Amy; Kern, David M; Tunceli, Ozgur; Vupputuri, Suma; Kalsekar, Iftekhar; Willey, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the estimated prevalence and temporal trends of chronic kidney disease (CKD) treatment patterns, and the association between CKD and potential factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in different demographic subgroups. Research design and methods This was a cross-sectional analysis of adults with T2DM based on multiple US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) datasets developed during 2007–2012. CKD severity was defined according to the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) 2012 guidelines using the CKD Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation: mild to moderate=stages 1–3a; moderate to kidney failure=stages 3b–5. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the associations between CKD and potential factors. Results Of the adult individuals with T2DM (n=2006), age-adjusted CKD prevalence was 38.3% during 2007–2012; 77.5% were mild-to-moderate CKD. The overall age-adjusted prevalence of CKD was 40.2% in 2007–2008, 36.9% in 2009–2010, and 37.6% in 2011–2012. The prevalence of CKD in T2DM was 58.7% in patients aged ≥65 years, 25.7% in patients aged <65 years, 43.5% in African-Americans and Mexican-Americans, and 38.7% in non-Hispanic whites. The use of antidiabetes and antihypertensive medications generally followed treatment guideline recommendations. Older age, higher hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and having hypertension were significantly associated with CKD presence but not increasing severity of CKD. Conclusions CKD continued to be prevalent in the T2DM population; prevalence remained fairly consistent over time, suggesting that current efforts to prevent CKD could be improved overall, especially by monitoring certain populations more closely. PMID:27110365

  6. JS ISH-ISN-2 ROLE OF THE KIDNEY IN RESISTANT HYPERTENSION: WHY SO RESISTANT TO BP CONTROL IN CKD PATIENTS?

    PubMed

    Bakris, George

    2016-09-01

    Resistant hypertension is defined as a blood pressure above 140/90 mmHg despite adherence to a combination of at least three optimally dosed antihypertensive medications, one of which is a diuretic. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one of the more common patient comorbidities associated with resistant hypertension. Recommended low-salt diet and triple antihypertensive drug regimens that include a diuretic, should be complemented by the sequential addition of other antihypertensive drugs. CKD is associated with premature vascular ageing, characterized by accelerated arteriosclerosis or atherosclerosis and endothelial dysfunction. Vascular changes appear in the early stages of CKD, although they are most pronounced in advanced stages. Systolic hypertension is the most common form of hypertension in patients with CKD, and raised systolic BP is independently associated with risk of progression to chronic kidney disease. Rigid arterial walls attenuate baroreceptor control of efferent sympathetic activity and vagal activation. Reduced baroreflex sensitivity maintains high sympathetic activity directed to the heart, blood vessels, and kidney, which contributes to high BP. Patients with CKD also have an inadequate vasoconstrictor response to baroreceptor unloading, this contributes to frequent orthostatic hypotension and circulatory instability. Moreover, hypoxemia of renal tissue due to kidney damage activates the CNS via afferent nerves, which also contributes to high sympathetic activity. New therapeutic innovations for resistant hypertension, such as renal denervation and carotid barostimulation are under investigation especially in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease. One of the most common reasons for blood pressure resistance in CKD is volume overload with increased sympathetic activity also being a major contributor. We will focus on the epidemiology as well as pathophysiology and therapeutic approaches to managing resistant hypertension in CKD stages 3

  7. Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) Treatment Burden Among Low-Income Primary Care Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Linda S.; Vest, Bonnie M.; Madurai, Nethra; Singh, Ranjit; York, Trevor R.M.; Cipparone, Charlotte W.; Reilly, Sarah; Malik, Khalid S.; Fox, Chester H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study explored the self-management strategies and treatment burden experienced by low income US primary care patients with chronic kidney disease. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 34 patients from two primary care practices on Buffalo’s East Side, a low-income community. Qualitative analysis was undertaken using an inductive thematic content analysis approach. We applied Normalization Process Theory (NPT) to the concept of treatment burden to interpret and categorize our findings. Results The sample was predominantly African-American (79%) and female (59%). Most patients (79%) had a diagnosis of Stage 3 CKD. Four major themes were identified corresponding to NPT and treatment burden: (1) Coherence – making sense of CKD; (2) Cognitive participation – enlisting support and organizing personal resources; (3) Collective action – self-management work; and (4) Reflexive monitoring – further refining chronic illness self-care in the context of CKD. For each component we identified barriers hindering patients’ ability to accomplish the necessary tasks. Conclusions Our findings highlight the substantial treatment burden faced by inner-city primary care patients self-managing CKD in combination with other chronic illnesses. Health care providers’ awareness of treatment burden can inform the development of person-centered care plans that can help patients to better manage their chronic illnesses. PMID:25416418

  8. Effects of the Use of Non-Calcium Phosphate Binders in the Control and Outcome of Vascular Calcifications: A Review of Clinical Trials on CKD Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bolasco, Piergiorgio

    2011-01-01

    Vascular calcifications produce a high impact on morbidity and mortality rates in patients affected by chronic kidney disease and mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD). Effects are manifested from the more advanced stages of CKD (stages 3-4), particularly in patients undergoing dialysis (CKD5D). In recent years, a large number of therapeutic options have been successfully used in the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT), despite eliciting less marked effects on nonbone calcifications associated with CKD-MBD. In addition to the use of Vitamin D and analogues, more recently treatment with calcimimetic drugs has also been undertaken. The present paper aims to analyze comparative and efficacy studies undertaken to assess particularly the impact on morbidity and mortality rates of non-calcium phosphate binders. Moreover, the mechanism of action underlying the depositing of calcium and phosphate along blood vessel walls, irrespective of the specific contribution provided in reducing the typical phosphate levels observed in CKD largely at more advanced stages of the disease, will be investigated. The aim of this paper therefore is to evaluate which phosphate binders are characterised by the above action and the mechanisms through which these are manifested. PMID:21716706

  9. The effect of sodium bicarbonate on cytokine secretion in CKD patients with metabolic acidosis.

    PubMed

    Ori, Yaacov; Zingerman, Boris; Bergman, Michael; Bessler, Hanna; Salman, Hertzel

    2015-04-01

    The incidence of acidosis increases with the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Correction of acidosis by sodium bicarbonate may slow CKD deterioration. Inflammation, which is common in CKD, may be related to acidosis. Whether the slower rate of GFR decline following the correction of acidosis is related to changes in inflammatory markers is unknown. The current study examined whether correcting CKD-acidosis affected inflammatory cytokines secretion. Thirteen patients with CKD 4-5 and acidosis were tested for cytokines secretion from peripheral-blood mononuclear cells at baseline and after one month of oral sodium bicarbonate. Following treatment with sodium bicarbonate there was no change in weight, blood pressure, serum creatinine, albumin, sodium, calcium, phosphate, PTH, hemoglobin and CRP. Serum urea decreased (134±10-116±8 mg/dl, P=0.002), potassium decreased (5.1±0.4-4.8±0.1 mequiv./l, P=0.064), pH increased (7.29±0.01-7.33±0.01, P=0.008), and serum bicarbonate increased (18.6±0.4 mequiv./l to 21.3±0.3 mequiv./l, P=0.001). The secretion of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 decreased (2.75±0.25 ng/ml to 2.29±0.21 ng/ml, P=0.041). There was no significant change in the secretion of the other pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, TNFα, IFNγ, IL-1ra. Thus, correcting acidosis in CKD with bicarbonate decreases IL-10 secretion. Its significance needs to be further investigated.

  10. How do We Manage Coronary Artery Disease in Patients with CKD and ESRD?

    PubMed

    Choi, Hoon Young; Park, Hyeong Cheon; Ha, Sung Kyu

    2014-12-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been shown to be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events. In addition, patients with pre-dialysis CKD appear to be more likely to die of heart disease than of kidney disease. CKD accelerates coronary artery atherosclerosis by several mechanisms, notably hypertension and dyslipidemia, both of which are known risk factors for coronary artery disease. In addition, CKD alters calcium and phosphorus homeostasis, resulting in hypercalcemia and vascular calcification, including the coronary arteries. Mortality of patients on long-term dialysis therapy is high, with age-adjusted mortality rates of about 25% annually. Because the majority of deaths are caused by cardiovascular disease, routine cardiac catheterization of new dialysis patients was proposed as a means of improving the identification and treatment of high-risk patients. However, clinicians may be uncomfortable exposing asymptomatic patients to such invasive procedures like cardiac catheterization, thus noninvasive cardiac risk stratification was investigated widely as a more palatable alternative to routine diagnostic catheterization. The effective management of coronary artery disease is of paramount importance in uremic patients. The applicability of diagnostic, preventive, and treatment modalities developed in nonuremic populations to patients with kidney failure cannot necessarily be extrapolated from clinical studies in non-kidney failure populations. Noninvasive diagnostic testing in uremic patients is less accurate than in nonuremic populations. Initial data suggest that dobutamine echocardiography may be the preferred diagnostic method. PCI with stenting is a less favorable alternative to CABG, however, it has a faster recovery time, reduced invasiveness, and no overall mortality difference in nondiabetic and non-CKD patients compared with CABG. CABG is associated with reduced repeat revascularizations, greater relief of angina, and increased long term

  11. Using an electronic self-management tool to support patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD): a CKD clinic self-care model.

    PubMed

    Ong, Stephanie W; Jassal, Sarbjit V; Porter, Eveline; Logan, Alexander G; Miller, Judith A

    2013-01-01

    New healthcare delivery models are needed to enhance the patient experience and improve quality of care for individuals with chronic conditions such as kidney disease. One potential avenue is to implement self-management strategies. There is growing evidence that self-management interventions help optimize various aspects of chronic disease management. With the increasing use of information technology (IT) in health care, chronic disease management programs are incorporating IT solutions to support patient self-management practices. IT solutions have the ability to promote key principles of self-management, namely education, empowerment, and collaboration. Positive clinical outcomes have been demonstrated for a number of chronic conditions when IT solutions were incorporated into self-management programs. There is a paucity of evidence for self-management in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Furthermore, IT strategies have not been tested in this patient population to the same extent as other chronic conditions (e.g., diabetes, hypertension). Therefore, it is currently unknown if IT strategies will promote self-management behaviors and lead to improvements in overall patient care. We designed and developed an IT solution called My KidneyCare Centre to support self-management strategies for patients with CKD. In this review, we discuss the rationale and vision of incorporating an electronic self-management tool to support the care of patients with CKD.

  12. Prolactin Levels, Endothelial Dysfunction, and the Risk of Cardiovascular Events and Mortality in Patients with CKD

    PubMed Central

    Carrero, Juan Jesús; Kyriazis, John; Sonmez, Alper; Tzanakis, Ioannis; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid; Stenvinkel, Peter; Saglam, Mutlu; Stylianou, Kostas; Yaman, Halil; Taslipinar, Abdullah; Vural, Abdulgaffar; Gok, Mahmut; Yenicesu, Mujdat; Daphnis, Eugene; Yilmaz, Mahmut Ilker

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Both prolactin clearance and production are altered in CKD. In nonrenal populations, emerging evidence suggests that prolactin participates in the atherosclerotic process. Given the elevated cardiovascular risk of CKD, this study examined links between prolactinemia, vascular derangements, and outcomes. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This observational study was conducted in two cohorts: one with 457 nondialyzed CKD patients (mean age 52±12 years; 229 men) with measurements of flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and carotid intima-media thickness and one with 173 hemodialysis patients (65±12 years; 111 men) with measurements of pulse wave velocity (PWV). Patients were followed for cardiovascular events (n=146, nondialyzed cohort) or death (n=79, hemodialysis cohort). Results Prolactin levels increased along with reduced kidney function. Prolactin significantly and independently contributed to explain the variance of both FMD (in nondialyzed patients) and PWV (in hemodialysis patients), but not intima-media thickness. In Cox analyses, the risk of cardiovascular events in nondialyzed patients increased by 27% (hazard ratio [HR], 1.27; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.17–1.38) for each 10 ng/ml increment of prolactin. Similarly, the risk for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in hemodialysis patients increased by 12% (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.06–1.17) and 15% (HR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.08–1.21), respectively. This was true after multivariate adjustment for confounders and after adjustment within the purported causal pathway (FMD or PWV). Conclusions Prolactin levels directly associated with endothelial dysfunction/stiffness and with increased risk of cardiovascular events and mortality in two independent cohorts of CKD patients. PMID:22193237

  13. [The expanding concept of CKD-MBD].

    PubMed

    Komaba, Hirotaka

    2016-09-01

    Almost seven years have passed since the publication of the KDIGO clinical practice guideline on chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder(CKD-MBD). During this period, several new medications for osteoporosis that may be applicable to patients with CKD have become available. Clinical studies have also shown the utility of bone mineral density to assess fracture risk in CKD. These new data charges us with the task of reconciling the concept of renal osteodystrophy(ROD)and osteoporosis in CKD. This review summarize the recent advances in the management of bone disease in CKD and the key points raised during the discussion for the KDIGO guideline revision, and address the problems to be solved in future. PMID:27561339

  14. "Dietaly": practical issues for the nutritional management of CKD patients in Italy.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, Claudia; Piccoli, Giorgina Barbara; Calella, Patrizia; Brunori, Giuliano; Pasticci, Franca; Egidi, Maria Francesca; Capizzi, Irene; Bellizzi, Vincenzo; Cupisti, Adamasco

    2016-01-01

    Evidence exists that nutritional therapy induces favorable metabolic changes, prevents signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency, and is able to delay the need of dialysis. Currently, the main concern of the renal diets has turned from the efficacy to the feasibility in the daily clinical practice.Herewith we describe some different dietary approaches, developed in Italy in the last decades and applied in the actual clinical practice for the nutritional management of CKD patients.A step-wise approach or simplified dietary regimens are usually prescribed while taking into account not only the residual renal function and progression rate but also socio-economic, psychological and functional aspects.The application of the principles of the Mediterranean diet that covers the recommended daily allowances for nutrients and protein (0.8 g/Kg/day) exert a favorable effect at least in the early stages of CKD. Low protein (0.6 g/kg/day) regimens that include vegan diet and very low-protein (0.3-0.4 g/Kg/day) diet supplemented with essential amino acids and ketoacids, represent more opportunities that should be tailored on the single patient's needs.Rather than a structured dietary plan, a list of basic recommendations to improve compliance with a low-sodium diet in CKD may allow patients to reach the desired salt target in the daily eating.Another approach consists of low protein diets as part of an integrated menu, in which patients can choose the "diet" that best suits their preferences and clinical needs.Lastly, in order to allow efficacy and safety, the importance of monitoring and follow up of a proper nutritional treatment in CKD patients is emphasized. PMID:27473183

  15. Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Management of Depression in Patients With CKD

    PubMed Central

    Hedayati, S. Susan; Finkelstein, Fredric O.

    2011-01-01

    CASE PRESENTATION A 58-year-old Hispanic man who has been dialysis dependent for 2 years because of diabetic nephropathy reports depressive symptoms during dialysis rounds. For the past 6 weeks, he has had reduced energy and difficulty sleeping and concentrating. He reports a loss of interest in his usual hobbies and family activities and notes an increasing sense of feeling worthless and guilty. He denies suicidal ideation. Medical history includes diabetic retinopathy and neuropathy, coronary artery disease treated with 4-vessel coronary artery bypass grafting 3 years ago, ischemic cardiomyopathy with an ejection fraction of 30%, and cerebrovascular disease. His wife recently has been given a diagnosis of breast cancer. His medications are aspirin, metoprolol, lisinopril, simvastatin, sevelamer, and epoetin alfa. His blood pressure is 130/75 mm Hg, pulse is 65 beats/min, and cardiac and pulmonary examination results are unremarkable. He is interviewed by the social worker in the dialysis unit, who diagnoses clinical depression by using standard Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition) (DSM IV) criteria. The patient refuses to discuss his problems with the social worker and declines further psychiatric evaluation. His nephrologist discusses a trial of antidepressant medication, but the patient refuses to use additional medication. During the next month, the patient presents with greater interdialytic weight gains and begins to come late for dialysis sessions. He then presents to a dialysis session reporting dyspnea and orthopnea and is found to have a 10-kg weight gain. On physical examination, blood pressure is 196/96 mm Hg and he has increased jugular venous pressure and bibasilar crackles. He is admitted to the hospital with a diagnosis of congestive heart failure. PMID:19592143

  16. Treatment of Metabolic Acidosis in Patients With CKD

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei; Abramowitz, Matthew K.

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis is a common complication of chronic kidney disease and believed to contribute to a number of sequelae, including bone disease, altered protein metabolism, skeletal muscle wasting, and progressive GFR loss. Small trials in animal models and humans suggest a role for alkali therapy to lessen these complications. Recent studies support this notion, although more definitive evidence is needed on the long-term benefits of alkali therapy and the optimal serum bicarbonate level. The role of dietary modification should also be given greater consideration. In addition, potential adverse effects of alkali treatment must be taken into consideration, including sodium retention and the theoretical concern of promoting vascular calcification. This teaching case summarizes the rationale for and the benefits and complications of base therapy in patients with chronic kidney disease. PMID:23932089

  17. The Management of Diabetic Neuropathy in CKD and Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Pop-Busui, Rodica; Roberts, Laurel; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Kretzler, Mathias; Brosius, Frank C.; Feldman, Eva L.

    2014-01-01

    Case Presentation A 64-year-old male with a 15-year history of poorly controlled type 2 diabetes and a 10-year history of hypertension and hyperlipidemia had developed multiple diabetes-related complications within the last 5 years. He first developed albuminuria 5 years ago, and over the next several years experienced fairly rapid decline in kidney function, with eGFR of 55 mL/min/1.73m2 noted 2 years ago. He was diagnosed with proliferative retinopathy 5 years ago and underwent laser photocoagulation. Four years ago, he noted symptoms of peripheral neuropathy manifested as shooting pain and numbness with loss of light touch, thermal and vibratory sensation in a stocking distribution. Last year he developed a non-healing ulcer on the plantar aspect of his left foot which was complicated with gangrene and resulted in a below-the-knee amputation of the left leg one year ago. He now reports a new onset of weakness, lightheadedness and dizziness on standing that affects his daily activities. He reports lancinating pain in his right lower extremity, worse in the evening. Medications include: neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin twice daily and regular insulin on a sliding scale, metoprolol 50 mg/d, lisinopril 40 mg/d, atorvastatin 80 mg/d, furosemide 40 mg/d and aspirin 81 mg/d. Blood pressure is 127/69 mm Hg with a pulse rate of 96 bpm while supine and 94/50 mmHg with a pulse rate of 102 bpm while standing. Strength is normal but with a complete loss of all sensory modalities to the knee in his remaining limb and up to the wrists in both upper extremities, and he is areflexic. Today's laboratory evaluations show a serum creatinine of 2.8 mg/dl, an estimated GFR (eGFR) of 24 ml/min/1.73m2, a hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) of 7.9 % and 2.1 g of urine protein per gram of creatinine. What would be the most appropriate management for this patient? PMID:20042258

  18. The "phosphorus pyramid": a visual tool for dietary phosphate management in dialysis and CKD patients.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, Claudia; Piccoli, Giorgina B; Cupisti, Adamasco

    2015-01-20

    Phosphorus retention plays a pivotal role in the onset of mineral and bone disorders (MBD) in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Phosphorus retention commonly occurs as a result of net intestinal absorption exceeding renal excretion or dialysis removal. The dietary phosphorus load is crucial since the early stages of CKD, throughout the whole course of the disease, up to dialysis-dependent end-stage renal disease.Agreement exits regarding the need for dietary phosphate control, but it is quite challenging in the real-life setting. Effective strategies to control dietary phosphorus intake include restricting phosphorus-rich foods, preferring phosphorus sourced from plant origin, boiling as the preferred cooking procedure and avoiding foods with phosphorus-containing additives. Nutritional education is crucial in this regard.Based on the existing literature, we developed the "phosphorus pyramid", namely a novel, visual, user-friendly tool for the nutritional education of patients and health-care professionals. The pyramid consists of six levels in which foods are arranged on the basis of their phosphorus content, phosphorus to protein ratio and phosphorus bioavailability. Each has a colored edge (from green to red) that corresponds to recommended intake frequency, ranging from "unrestricted" to "avoid as much as possible".The aim of the phosphorus pyramid is to support dietary counseling in order to reduce the phosphorus load, a crucial aspect of integrated CKD-MBD management.

  19. The Relationship between IL-10 Levels and Cardiovascular Events in Patients with CKD

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, Mahmut Ilker; Solak, Yalcin; Saglam, Mutlu; Cayci, Tuncer; Acikel, Cengizhan; Unal, Hilmi Umut; Eyileten, Tayfun; Oguz, Yusuf; Sari, Sebahattin; Carrero, Juan Jesus; Stenvinkel, Peter; Covic, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in patients with CKD. IL-10 is considered an antiatherosclerotic cytokine. However, previous studies have failed to observe an association between IL-10 and cardiovascular disease in CKD. This study aimed to evaluate whether serum IL-10 levels were associated with the risk of cardiovascular events in CKD patients. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Four hundred three patients with stages 1–5 CKD were followed for a mean of 38 (range=2–42) months for fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events. IL-10 and IL-6 were measured at baseline together with surrogates of endothelial function (flow-mediated dilatation) and proinflammatory markers (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and pentraxin-3). The association between IL-10 and flow-mediated dilatation through linear regression analyses was evaluated. The association between IL-10 and the risk of cardiovascular events was assessed with Cox regression analysis. Results IL-10, IL-6, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and pentraxin-3 levels were higher among participants with lower eGFR. Both fatal (25 of 200 versus 6 of 203 patients) and combined fatal and nonfatal (106 of 200 versus 23 of 203 patients) cardiovascular events were more common in patients with IL-10 concentration above the median. Flow-mediated dilatation was significantly lower in patients with higher serum IL-10 levels, but IL-10 was not associated with flow-mediated dilatation in multivariate analysis. Kaplan–Meier survival curves showed that patients with IL-10 below the median value (<21.5 pg/ml) had higher cumulative survival compared with patients who had IL-10 levels above the median value (log-rank test, P<0.001). Conclusions IL-10 levels increase along with the reduction of kidney function. Higher serum IL-10 levels were associated with the risk of cardiovascular events during follow-up. We speculate that higher IL-10 levels in this context signify an

  20. [Teriparatide:benefit and safety for bone disease in CKD patients undergoing hemodialysis].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Suguru; Ei, Isei; Narita, Ichiei

    2016-09-01

    Teriparatide, 1-34 parathyroid hormone, is one of effective treatments for osteoporosis. Teriparatide shows an anabolic effect for bone formation, as a result, increases bone mineral density as well as prevention of fractures in the general population. On the other hand, there are a few report about the effect of teriparatide on increase of bone mineral density in maintenance hemodialysis patients. In addition to CKD-MBD, osteoporosis is also an important pathological change in ESRD patients, therefore its safety and efficacy should be discussed in more detail. PMID:27561345

  1. Promoting functioning and well-being in older CKD patients: review of recent evidence.

    PubMed

    Kutner, Nancy G

    2008-01-01

    Osteoporosis, falls, sleep difficulty, cognitive impairment, and depressed mood are major clinical concerns in the geriatric population that are physiologically and psychologically based and are often interrelated. All of these issues have implications for patients' daily functioning and quality of life (QOL). This review synthesizes recent evidence about these prominent issues in geriatric care and related implications for care of older patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Recent evidence about pre-dialysis and dialysis treatment strategies that may help to optimize management of older patients is also considered. Although elderly patients often report better psychosocial adjustment to dialysis than do younger patients, physical functioning and cognitive functioning losses challenge the QOL of many elderly persons. Early management of CKD and attention to anemia, consideration of the benefits of peritoneal dialysis compared with hemodialysis, and inclusion of some form of exercise or regular physical activity in routine care provide key opportunities to enhance the functioning and well-being of older patients. PMID:18787971

  2. Effects of a Renal Rehabilitation Exercise Program in Patients with CKD: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Ana P.; Burris, Debra D.; Lucas, F. Leslie; Crocker, Gail A.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Patients with CKD have a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease associated with or exacerbated by inactivity. This randomized, controlled study investigated whether a renal rehabilitation exercise program for patients with stages 3 or 4 CKD would improve their physical function and quality of life. Design, setting, participants, & measurements In total, 119 adults with CKD stages 3 and 4 were randomized, and 107 of these patients proceeded to usual care or the renal rehabilitation exercise intervention consisting of usual care plus guided exercise two times per week for 12 weeks (24 sessions). Physical function was determined by three well established performance-based tests: 6-minute walk test, sit-to-stand test, and gait-speed test. Health-related quality of life was assessed by the RAND 36-Item Short Form Health Survey. Results At baseline, no differences in self-reported level of activity, 6-minute walk test, and sit-to-stand test scores were observed between the usual care (n=48) and renal rehabilitation exercise (n=59) groups, although baseline gait-speed test score was higher in the renal rehabilitation exercise group (P<0.001). At follow-up, the renal rehabilitation exercise group but not the usual care group showed significant improvements in the 6-minute walk test (+210.4±266.0 ft [19% improvement] versus −10±219.9 ft; P<0.001), the sit-to-stand test (+26.9±27% of age prediction [29% improvement] versus +0.7±12.1% of age prediction; P<0.001), and the RAND-36 physical measures of role functioning (P<0.01), physical functioning (P<0.01), energy/fatigue levels (P=0.01), and general health (P=0.03) and mental measure of pain scale (P=0.04). The renal rehabilitation exercise regimen was generally well tolerated. Conclusions A 12-week/24-session renal rehabilitation exercise program improved physical capacity and quality of life in patients with CKD stages 3 and 4. Longer follow-up is needed to determine if these findings will

  3. Assessing glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in elderly Chinese patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD): a comparison of various predictive equations.

    PubMed

    Xun, Liu; Cheng, Wang; Hua, Tang; Chenggang, Shi; Zhujiang, Chen; Zengchun, Ye; Tanqi, Lou

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of formulas based on serum creatinine (SC) levels in elderly Chinese patients with CKD. A total of 103 elderly CKD patients were investigated. The GFR was estimated with Cockcroft-Gault-equation, MDRD1-equation, abbreviated MDRD-equation, Jelliffe-1973-equation, Mawer-equation, Hull-equation, Jelliffe-1971-equation, SC-reciprocal-equation, Gate-equation and Bjornsson-equation. The accuracy of estimated GFR (eGFR) values was compared with the 99mTc-DTPA-GFR (standardized GFR=sGFR) in elderly CKD patients. Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated that Hull-equation, Cockcroft-Gault-equation and Bjornsson-equation were better than the other ones. However, the agreement limits of all the equations exceeded the prior acceptable tolerances defined as 60 ml/min/(1.73 m(2)). Linear regressions showed that the slopes of Jelliffe-1973-equation, Cockcroft-Gault-equation and Bjornsson-equation were closer to the identical line. The median of difference of MDRD1-equation, abbreviated MDRD-equation and Gate-equation were smaller. Accuracy of Jelliffe-1973-equation, Cockcroft-Gault-equation and Hull-equation were better than those of the other equations. But 30% accuracy of all the equations were less than 70%. When compared the bias as well as accuracy of eGFR with sGFR values in different stages of CKD, GFR estimated by MDRD1-equation, Hull-equation, Cockcroft-Gault-equation and Jelliffe-1973-equation showed good results. These results suggested that when SC was checked with enzymatic method, GFR-estimation equations may show great bias in elderly Chinese CKD patients. Further improved formulas are needed to evaluate renal function in elderly Chinese patients with CKD. PMID:19615764

  4. Length Polymorphism in Heme Oxygenase-1 and Risk of CKD among Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Hsin; Kuo, Ko-Lin; Hung, Szu-Chun; Hsu, Chih-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    The length polymorphism of guanosine thymidine dinucleotide repeats in the heme oxygenase-1 gene promoter is associated with cardiovascular events and mortality in high-risk populations. Experimental data suggest that heme oxygenase-1 protects against kidney disease. However, the association between this polymorphism and long-term risk of CKD in high-risk patients is unknown. We analyzed the allelic frequencies of guanosine thymidine dinucleotide repeats in the heme oxygenase-1 gene promoter in 386 patients with coronary artery disease recruited from January 1999 to July 2001 and followed until August 31, 2012. The S allele represents short repeats (<27), and the L allele represents long repeats (≥27). The primary renal end points consisted of sustained serum creatinine doubling and/or ESRD requiring long-term RRT. The secondary end points were major adverse cardiovascular events and mortality. At the end of study, the adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for each L allele in the additive model were 1.99 (1.27 to 3.14; P=0.003) for the renal end points, 1.70 (1.27 to 2.27; P<0.001) for major adverse cardiovascular events, and 1.36 (1.04 to 1.79; P=0.03) for mortality. With cardiac events as time-dependent covariates, the adjusted hazard ratio for each L allele in the additive model was 1.91 (1.20 to 3.06; P=0.01) for the renal end points. In conclusion, a greater number of guanosine thymidine dinucleotide repeats in the heme oxygenase-1 gene promoter is associated with higher risk for CKD, cardiovascular events, and mortality among patients with coronary artery disease. PMID:24762402

  5. Inflammation, Endothelial Dysfunction and Increased Left Ventricular Mass in Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) Patients: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Dounousi, Evangelia; Jager, Kitty J.; Papagianni, Aikaterini; Pappas, Konstantinos; Siamopoulos, Kostas C.; Zoccali, Carmine; Tsakiris, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Within this longitudinal study we investigated the association of inflammation markers C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and endothelial dysfunction markers intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) with left ventricular mass indexed for height2·71 (LVMI) in hypertensive predialysis CKD patients. Material and Methods From 2004 to 2005, 182 incident consecutive adult patients from the outpatient CKD clinics of two hospitals in Greece with CKD and hypertension or using antihypertensive medication, were included. Of these, 107 patients underwent CRP (mg/l) and LVMI (g/height2·71) measurements annually for three years. Results In the longitudinal analyses, using linear mixed modeling, a higher IL-6 (ß = 1.9 (95%ci:0.38;3.5), inflammation score based on CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α (ß = 5.0 (95%ci:0.72; 9.4) and VCAM-1 (ß = 0.01 (95%ci:0.005;0.02) were associated with higher LVMI. These models were adjusted for age, gender and primary renal disease, and for confounders that on top changed the beta with ≥10%, i.e. diuretic use (for IL-6 and inflammation score). Conclusion The results suggest that in predialysis CKD patients, inflammation as well as endothelial dysfunction may play an important role towards the increase in LVMI. PMID:26398099

  6. Assessing Glomerular Filtration Rate in Hospitalized Patients: A Comparison Between CKD-EPI and Four Cystatin C-Based Equations

    PubMed Central

    de la Torre, Judith; Ramos, Natalia; Quiroz, Augusto; Garjau, Maria; Torres, Irina; Azancot, M. Antonia; López, Montserrat; Sobrado, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives A specific method is required for estimating glomerular filtration rate GFR in hospitalized patients. Our objective was to validate the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation and four cystatin C (CysC)–based equations in this setting. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This was an epidemiologic, cross-sectional study in a random sample of hospitalized patients (n = 3114). We studied the accuracy of the CKD-EPI and four CysC-based equations—based on (1) CysC alone or (2) adjusted by gender; (3) age, gender, and race; and (4) age, gender, race, and creatinine, respectively—compared with GFR measured by iohexol clearance (mGFR). Clinical, biochemical, and nutritional data were also collected. Results The CysC equation 3 significantly overestimated the GFR (bias of 7.4 ml/min per 1.73 m2). Most of the error in creatinine-based equations was attributable to calculated muscle mass, which depended on patient's nutritional status. In patients without malnutrition or reduced body surface area, the CKD-EPI equation adequately estimated GFR. Equations based on CysC gave more precise mGFR estimates when malnutrition, extensive reduction of body surface area, or loss of muscle mass were present (biases of 1 and 1.3 ml/min per 1.73 m2 for equations 2 and 4, respectively, versus 5.9 ml/min per 1.73 m2 for CKD-EPI). Conclusions These results suggest that the use of equations based on CysC and gender, or CysC, age, gender, and race, is more appropriate in hospitalized patients to estimate GFR, since these equations are much less dependent on patient's nutritional status or muscle mass than the CKD-EPI equation. PMID:21852668

  7. Cholesterol Metabolism in CKD.

    PubMed

    Reiss, Allison B; Voloshyna, Iryna; De Leon, Joshua; Miyawaki, Nobuyuki; Mattana, Joseph

    2015-12-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a substantial risk of developing coronary artery disease. Traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors such as hypertension and hyperlipidemia do not adequately explain the high prevalence of CVD in CKD. Both CVD and CKD are inflammatory states and inflammation adversely affects lipid balance. Dyslipidemia in CKD is characterized by elevated triglyceride levels and high-density lipoprotein levels that are both decreased and dysfunctional. This dysfunctional high-density lipoprotein becomes proinflammatory and loses its atheroprotective ability to promote cholesterol efflux from cells, including lipid-overloaded macrophages in the arterial wall. Elevated triglyceride levels result primarily from defective clearance. The weak association between low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level and coronary risk in CKD has led to controversy over the usefulness of statin therapy. This review examines disrupted cholesterol transport in CKD, presenting both clinical and preclinical evidence of the effect of the uremic environment on vascular lipid accumulation. Preventative and treatment strategies are explored. PMID:26337134

  8. Hepcidin Response to Iron Therapy in Patients with Non-Dialysis Dependent CKD: An Analysis of the FIND-CKD Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gaillard, Carlo A.; Bock, Andreas H.; Carrera, Fernando; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Van Wyck, David B.; Bansal, Sukhvinder S.; Cronin, Maureen; Meier, Yvonne; Larroque, Sylvain; Roger, Simon D.; Macdougall, Iain C.

    2016-01-01

    Hepcidin is the key regulator of iron homeostasis but data are limited regarding its temporal response to iron therapy, and response to intravenous versus oral iron. In the 56-week, open-label, multicenter, prospective, randomized FIND-CKD study, 626 anemic patients with non-dialysis dependent chronic kidney disease (ND-CKD) and iron deficiency not receiving an erythropoiesis stimulating agent were randomized (1:1:2) to intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (FCM), targeting higher (400–600μg/L) or lower (100–200μg/L) ferritin, or to oral iron. Serum hepcidin levels were measured centrally in a subset of 61 patients. Mean (SD) baseline hepcidin level was 4.0(3.5), 7.3(6.4) and 6.5(5.6) ng/mL in the high ferritin FCM (n = 17), low ferritin FCM (n = 16) and oral iron group (n = 28). The mean (SD) endpoint value (i.e. the last post-baseline value) was 26.0(9.1),15.7(7.7) and 16.3(11.0) ng/mL, respectively. The increase in hepcidin from baseline was significantly smaller with low ferritin FCM or oral iron vs high ferritin FCM at all time points up to week 52. Significant correlations were found between absolute hepcidin and ferritin values (r = 0.65, p<0.001) and between final post-baseline increases in both parameters (r = 0.70, p<0.001). The increase in hepcidin levels over the 12-month study generally mirrored the cumulative iron dose in each group. Hepcidin and transferrin saturation (TSAT) absolute values showed no correlation, although there was an association between final post-baseline increases (r = 0.42, p<0.001). Absolute values (r = 0.36, p = 0.004) and final post-baseline increases of hepcidin and hemoglobin (p = 0.30, p = 0.030) correlated weakly. Baseline hepcidin levels were not predictive of a hematopoietic response to iron therapy. In conclusion, hepcidin levels rose in response to either intravenous or oral iron therapy, but the speed and extent of the rise was greatest with intravenous iron targeting a higher ferritin level. However neither the

  9. Albuminuria Is an Appropriate Therapeutic Target in Patients with CKD: The Pro View

    PubMed Central

    Gansevoort, Ron T.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of elevated levels of albuminuria is associated with an increased risk of progressive renal function loss over time. This association is found in various pathophysiological conditions, including diabetic nephropathy, hypertensive nephropathy, and various primary renal diseases, but also, the general, otherwise healthy population. Emerging data report that elevated albuminuria causes tubulointerstitial damage through activation of proinflammatory mediators, which ultimately leads to a progressive decline in renal function. Nowadays, various drugs are available that decrease the rate of GFR loss in patients with kidney disease. Well known are renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors, but there are also other drugs and interventions, like intensive glucose control, anti-inflammatory agents (pentoxifylline), or a low-protein diet. These interventions have an additional effect beyond their original target, namely lowering albuminuria. Analyses from clinical trials show that the reduction in albuminuria observed during the first months of treatment with these drugs correlates with the degree of long-term renal protection: the larger the initial reduction in albuminuria, the lower the risk of ESRD during treatment. In addition, in treated patients, residual albuminuria is again the strongest risk marker for renal disease progression. These observations combined provide a strong argument that albuminuria is an appropriate therapeutic target in patients with CKD. PMID:25887073

  10. A Randomized Controlled Study of Weekly and Biweekly Dosing of Epoetin Alfa in CKD Patients With Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Gartenberg, Gary; Fu, Min; Wolfson, Marsha; Rao, Sudhakar; Bowers, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives: In clinical practice, physicians often use once-weekly (QW) and biweekly (Q2W) dosing of epoetin alfa to treat anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Although the literature supports this practice, previous studies were limited by short treatment duration, lack of randomization, or absence of the approved three times per week (TIW) dosing arm. This randomized trial evaluated extended dosing regimens of epoetin alfa, comparing QW and Q2W to TIW dosing in anemic CKD subjects. The primary objective was to show that treatment with epoetin alfa at QW and Q2W intervals was not inferior to TIW dosing. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: 375 subjects with stage 3 to 4 CKD were randomized equally to the three groups and treated for 44 wk; to explore the impact of changing from TIW to QW administration on hemoglobin (Hb) control and adverse events, subjects on TIW switched to QW after 22 wk. The Hb was measured weekly, and the dose of epoetin alfa was adjusted to achieve and maintain an Hb level of 11.0 to 11.9 g/dl. Results: Both the QW and Q2W regimens met the primary efficacy endpoint. More subjects in the TIW group than in the QW and Q2W groups exceeded the Hb ceiling. Adverse events were similar across treatment groups and consistent with the morbidities of CKD patients. Conclusions: Administration of epoetin alfa at QW and Q2W intervals are potential alternatives to TIW dosing for the treatment of anemia in stage 3 to 4 CKD subjects. PMID:19808215

  11. A public health perspective on CKD and obesity.

    PubMed

    McClellan, William M; Plantinga, Laura C

    2013-11-01

    End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is a growing health burden for global populations, which has generated keen interest in interventions to prevent or delay the progression of its antecedent chronic kidney disease (CKD). There are biologically plausible mechanisms that link increased adiposity to pathways of kidney injury, animal models of obesity-related kidney disease and specific glomerular disease that is observed in extremely obese humans. Further, individuals with progressive kidney disease and incident ESRD are more obese than their counterparts in the general population. These observations raise the consideration that population-based policies targeted at delaying progressive CKD should recommend interventions for treatment of obesity in these individuals. We examine this proposition first by describing the public health infrastructure that exists to translate CKD public health policy, illustrating it by examples familiar to the practicing nephrologist. Next, we suggest that, despite the evidence supporting an association between increased body weight and progressive CKD, it is premature to contemplate public health recommendations for weight reduction in CKD patients. This prematurity reflects the lack of strong evidence that reduction in body weight delays or prevents the progression of CKD and persistent uncertainty about the direction of the association between obesity and mortality in individuals with advanced kidney failure. We conclude by noting that this position is not that of therapeutic nihilism but rather a caution to approach weight management in CKD on an individual, patient-to-patient basis, and an emphasis for further randomized clinical trials to resolve these uncertainties. PMID:24179014

  12. Association of FMO3 Variants and Trimethylamine N-Oxide Concentration, Disease Progression, and Mortality in CKD Patients.

    PubMed

    Robinson-Cohen, Cassianne; Newitt, Richard; Shen, Danny D; Rettie, Allan E; Kestenbaum, Bryan R; Himmelfarb, Jonathan; Yeung, Catherine K

    2016-01-01

    Elevated levels of circulating pro-atherogenic uremic solutes, particularly trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), have been implicated in cardiovascular disease development in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). TMAO is generated from trimethylamine (TMA) via metabolism by hepatic flavin-containing monooxygenase isoform 3 (FMO3). We determined the functional effects of three common FMO3 variants at amino acids 158, 308, and 257 on TMAO concentrations in a prospective cohort study and evaluated associations of polymorphisms with CKD progression and mortality. Each additional minor allele at amino acid 158 was associated with a 0.38 μg/mL higher circulating TMAO (p = 0.01) and with faster rates of annualized relative eGFR decline. Participants with 0, 1 and 2 variant alleles averaged an eGFR loss of 8%, 12%, and 14% per year, respectively (p-for trend = 0.05). Compared to participants with the homozygous reference allele, heterozygous and homozygous variant participants had a 2.0-fold (95% CI: 0.85, 4.6) and 2.2-fold (95% CI: 0.89, 5.48) higher risk of mortality, respectively (p-for-trend = 0.04). No associations with clinical outcomes were observed for allelic variants at amino acids 257 or 308. Understanding the contribution of genetic variation of FMO3 to disease progression and all-cause mortality can guide recommendations for diet modification or pharmacotherapy in CKD patients at increased risk of adverse outcomes. PMID:27513517

  13. Association of FMO3 Variants and Trimethylamine N-Oxide Concentration, Disease Progression, and Mortality in CKD Patients

    PubMed Central

    Robinson-Cohen, Cassianne; Newitt, Richard; Shen, Danny D.; Rettie, Allan E.; Kestenbaum, Bryan R.; Himmelfarb, Jonathan; Yeung, Catherine K.

    2016-01-01

    Elevated levels of circulating pro-atherogenic uremic solutes, particularly trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), have been implicated in cardiovascular disease development in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). TMAO is generated from trimethylamine (TMA) via metabolism by hepatic flavin-containing monooxygenase isoform 3 (FMO3). We determined the functional effects of three common FMO3 variants at amino acids 158, 308, and 257 on TMAO concentrations in a prospective cohort study and evaluated associations of polymorphisms with CKD progression and mortality. Each additional minor allele at amino acid 158 was associated with a 0.38 μg/mL higher circulating TMAO (p = 0.01) and with faster rates of annualized relative eGFR decline. Participants with 0, 1 and 2 variant alleles averaged an eGFR loss of 8%, 12%, and 14% per year, respectively (p-for trend = 0.05). Compared to participants with the homozygous reference allele, heterozygous and homozygous variant participants had a 2.0-fold (95% CI: 0.85, 4.6) and 2.2-fold (95% CI: 0.89, 5.48) higher risk of mortality, respectively (p-for-trend = 0.04). No associations with clinical outcomes were observed for allelic variants at amino acids 257 or 308. Understanding the contribution of genetic variation of FMO3 to disease progression and all-cause mortality can guide recommendations for diet modification or pharmacotherapy in CKD patients at increased risk of adverse outcomes. PMID:27513517

  14. Aldosterone blockade in CKD: emphasis on pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Schwenk, Michael H; Hirsch, Jamie S; Bomback, Andrew S

    2015-03-01

    Besides its epithelial effect on sodium retention and potassium excretion in the distal tubule, aldosterone promotes inflammation and fibrosis in the heart, kidneys, and blood vessels. As glomerular filtration rate falls, aldosterone is inappropriately elevated relative to extracellular fluid expansion. In addition, studies in CKD patients on angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and/or direct renin inhibitors have shown that aldosterone levels paradoxically rise in approximately 30% to 40% of patients on these renin-angiotensin system-blocking drugs. Hence, there is interest in using mineralocorticoid receptor blockers that directly target the inflammatory and fibrotic effects of aldosterone in CKD patients. This interest, however, is tempered by a number of unresolved issues, including the safety of using such drugs in advanced CKD and ESRD populations, and the potential for differences in drug efficacy according to race and ethnicity of patient populations. A better understanding of mineralocorticoid receptor blocker pharmacology should help inform future research directions and clinical practice decisions as to how best to use these agents in CKD.

  15. Consequences of CKD on Functioning.

    PubMed

    Kittiskulnam, Piyawan; Sheshadri, Anoop; Johansen, Kirsten L

    2016-07-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is highly prevalent in the United States and throughout the world,(1) with approximately 13% of adults affected.(2) In addition, according to recent estimates, almost half of patients with CKD stages 3 to 5 are 70 years of age and older.(2) In the United States, the number of prevalent end-stage renal disease cases continues to increase in patients older than age 65. In light of the demographic characteristics of patients with CKD and ESRD, there has been considerable focus on associations between CKD and cardiovascular outcomes.(3) Until recently, less attention had been paid to other consequences of CKD in general and among older individuals with CKD in particular, but there is now solid evidence linking CKD with impairments of physical function, cognitive function, and emotional function and quality of life. This review summarizes available literature on these topics, focusing specifically on physical functioning and frailty, cognitive function, emotional health, including depression and anxiety, and health-related quality of life. PMID:27475661

  16. Febuxostat for hyperuricemia in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Akimoto, Tetsu; Morishita, Yoshiyuki; Ito, Chiharu; Iimura, Osamu; Tsunematsu, Sadao; Watanabe, Yuko; Kusano, Eiji; Nagata, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    Febuxostat is a nonpurine xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitor, which recently received marketing approval. However, information regarding the experience with this agent among advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients is limited. In the current study, we investigated the effects of oral febuxostat in patients with advanced CKD with asymptomatic hyperuricemia. We demonstrated, for the first time, that not only the serum levels of uric acid (UA) but also those of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, an oxidative stress marker, were significantly reduced after six months of febuxostat treatment, with no adverse events. These results encouraged us to pursue further investigations regarding the clinical impact of lowering the serum UA levels with febuxostat in advanced CKD patients in terms of concomitantly reducing oxidative stress via the blockade of XO. More detailed studies with a larger number of subjects and assessments of the effects of multiple factors affecting hyperuricemia, such as age, sex, and dietary habits, would shed light on the therapeutic challenges of treating asymptomatic hyperuricemia in patients with various stages of CKD. PMID:25210423

  17. Glycated Hemoglobin and Outcomes in Patients with Advanced Diabetic Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, I-Ching; Lin, Hugo You-Hsien; Niu, Sheng-Wen; Hwang, Daw-Yang; Lee, Jia-Jung; Tsai, Jer-Chia; Hung, Chi-Chih; Hwang, Shang-Jyh; Chen, Hung-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is the major risk factor for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) worldwide. In advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD), less is known about the predictive value of HbA1c. We enrolled 2401 diabetic patients with stage 3–4 and stage 5 CKD, who were classified into 4 groups according to their baseline HbA1c values (<6%, 6%–7%, 7%–9%, and >9%). During the median follow-up of 3 years, 895 patients developed ESRD, and 530 died. In linear regression analysis, higher HbA1c correlated with higher eGFR in patients with stage 5 CKD but not in stage 3–4 CKD. In Cox regression analysis, a trend toward worse clinical outcomes existed when the HbA1c level exceeded 6% in stage 3–4 CKD, but the significance was only observed for >9%. The hazard ratios (HRs) for ESRD, all-cause mortality and combined CV events with mortality in the group of HbA1c >9% were 1.6 (95% CI, 1.07 to 2.38), 1.52 (95% CI, 0.97 to 2.38) and 1.46 (95% CI, 1.02 to 2.09), respectively. This study demonstrates that the higher HbA1c level is associated higher risks for clinical outcomes in diabetic patients with stage 3–4 CKD but not in stage 5 CKD. PMID:26818011

  18. Approximation of Corrected Calcium Concentrations in Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease Patients with or without Dialysis Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kaku, Yoshio; Ookawara, Susumu; Miyazawa, Haruhisa; Ito, Kiyonori; Ueda, Yuichiro; Hirai, Keiji; Hoshino, Taro; Mori, Honami; Yoshida, Izumi; Morishita, Yoshiyuki; Tabei, Kaoru

    2015-01-01

    Background The following calcium (Ca) correction formula (Payne) is conventionally used for serum Ca estimation: corrected total Ca (TCa) (mg/dl) = TCa (mg/dl) + [4 – albumin (g/dl)]; however, it is inapplicable to advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Methods 1,922 samples in CKD G4 + G5 patients and 341 samples in CKD G5D patients were collected. Levels of TCa (mg/day), ionized Ca2+ (iCa2+) (mmol/l) and other clinical parameters were measured. We assumed the corrected TCa to be equal to eight times the iCa2+ value (measured corrected TCa). We subsequently performed stepwise multiple linear regression analysis using the clinical parameters. Results The following formula was devised from multiple linear regression analysis. For CKD G4 + G5 patients: approximated corrected TCa (mg/dl) = TCa + 0.25 × (4 – albumin) + 4 × (7.4 – pH) + 0.1 × (6 – P) + 0.22. For CKD G5D patients: approximated corrected TCa (mg/dl) = TCa + 0.25 × (4 – albumin) + 0.1 × (6 – P) + 0.05 × (24 – HCO3-) + 0.35. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed the high values of the area under the curve of approximated corrected TCa for the detection of measured corrected TCa ≥8.4 mg/dl and ≤10.4 mg/dl for each CKD sample. Both intraclass correlation coefficients for each CKD sample demonstrated superior agreement using the new formula compared to the previously reported formulas. Conclusion Compared to other formulas, the approximated corrected TCa values calculated from the new formula for patients with CKD G4 + G5 and CKD G5D demonstrates superior agreement with the measured corrected TCa. PMID:26557841

  19. Patient Education and Support During CKD Transitions: When the Possible Becomes Probable.

    PubMed

    Green, Jamie A; Boulware, L Ebony

    2016-07-01

    Patients transitioning from kidney disease to kidney failure require comprehensive patient-centered education and support. Efforts to prepare patients for this transition often fail to meet patients' needs due to uncertainty about which patients will progress to kidney failure, nonindividualized patient education programs, inadequate psychosocial support, or lack of assistance to guide patients through complex treatment plans. Resources are available to help overcome barriers to providing optimal care during this time, including prognostic tools, educational lesson plans, decision aids, communication skills training, peer support, and patient navigation programs. New models are being studied to comprehensively address patients' needs and improve the lives of kidney patients during this high-risk time.

  20. Patient Education and Support During CKD Transitions: When the Possible Becomes Probable.

    PubMed

    Green, Jamie A; Boulware, L Ebony

    2016-07-01

    Patients transitioning from kidney disease to kidney failure require comprehensive patient-centered education and support. Efforts to prepare patients for this transition often fail to meet patients' needs due to uncertainty about which patients will progress to kidney failure, nonindividualized patient education programs, inadequate psychosocial support, or lack of assistance to guide patients through complex treatment plans. Resources are available to help overcome barriers to providing optimal care during this time, including prognostic tools, educational lesson plans, decision aids, communication skills training, peer support, and patient navigation programs. New models are being studied to comprehensively address patients' needs and improve the lives of kidney patients during this high-risk time. PMID:27324676

  1. Online CKD education for medical students, residents, and fellows: training in a new era.

    PubMed

    Bhasin, Bhavna; Estrella, Michelle M; Choi, Michael J

    2013-07-01

    CKD and its complications are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Studies have highlighted significant deficiencies in resident knowledge and awareness of CKD and its complications. There is a need to improve CKD education through medical school and residency. There is also a need to provide alternatives to traditional teaching methods to meet the challenges of learning in the context of work-hour restrictions and increasing workload among residents and fellows. Internet-based learning resources offer various educational tools, including websites, kidney blogs, online modules, and smartphone applications, which could potentially and efficiently advance CKD knowledge among medical trainees. In this review, we describe several online resources for CKD education that could be useful for medical students, residents, and fellows. Increased awareness of these tools and their utilization may significantly influence and hopefully improve the recognition and management of patients with CKD. Future studies may help evaluate the effectiveness of these online learning methods and their effect on CKD patient outcomes. In addition, in light of increased concern about nephrology workforce issues, the potential for these online tools to augment interest in nephrology careers should be investigated. PMID:23809287

  2. Online CKD education for medical students, residents, and fellows: training in a new era.

    PubMed

    Bhasin, Bhavna; Estrella, Michelle M; Choi, Michael J

    2013-07-01

    CKD and its complications are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Studies have highlighted significant deficiencies in resident knowledge and awareness of CKD and its complications. There is a need to improve CKD education through medical school and residency. There is also a need to provide alternatives to traditional teaching methods to meet the challenges of learning in the context of work-hour restrictions and increasing workload among residents and fellows. Internet-based learning resources offer various educational tools, including websites, kidney blogs, online modules, and smartphone applications, which could potentially and efficiently advance CKD knowledge among medical trainees. In this review, we describe several online resources for CKD education that could be useful for medical students, residents, and fellows. Increased awareness of these tools and their utilization may significantly influence and hopefully improve the recognition and management of patients with CKD. Future studies may help evaluate the effectiveness of these online learning methods and their effect on CKD patient outcomes. In addition, in light of increased concern about nephrology workforce issues, the potential for these online tools to augment interest in nephrology careers should be investigated.

  3. Sleep Quality, Mood, Alertness and Their Variability in CKD and ESRD

    PubMed Central

    Roumelioti, Maria-Eleni; Argyropoulos, Christos; Buysse, Daniel J.; Nayar, Harry; Weisbord, Steven D.; Unruh, Mark L.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims Little is known about the association of chronic kidney disease (CKD) with sleep quality, mood, and alertness. In this report, we assessed these symptoms among patients with advanced CKD (stages 4–5) and those with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and compared them to healthy controls without known kidney disease. Methods Patients were recruited from local dialysis units, outpatient nephrology clinics and the Thomas E. Starzl Transplant Institute. Healthy control subjects matched for age, gender and race were drawn from an archival database. Daily symptoms of sleep quality, mood, and alertness were assessed by visual analogue scales of the Pittsburgh Sleep Diary. Health-related quality of life was assessed by the Short Form-36 instrument. Results Sixty-nine dialysis patients and 23patients with advanced CKD demonstrated worse scores in sleep quality, mood, and alertness (p < 0.001) than controls. In adjusted analyses, European-American race, dialysis dependency, younger age, and physical performance SF-36 components were significantly associated with poor sleep quality, mood and alertness (p < 0.05). The dialysis population demonstrated higher day-to-day variability in scores than either the advanced CKD patients or the controls. Conclusion Advanced CKD and dialysis dependency are associated with impaired and highly variable sleep quality, mood, and alertness. PMID:20090370

  4. Niacin and progression of CKD.

    PubMed

    Streja, Elani; Kovesdy, Csaba P; Streja, Dan A; Moradi, Hamid; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Kashyap, Moti L

    2015-05-01

    Niacin is the oldest drug available for the treatment of dyslipidemia. It has been studied extensively and tested in clinical trials of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease prevention and regression in the general population, but not specifically in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), who are at extremely high residual risk despite current therapy. Despite the current controversy about recent trials with niacin, including their limitations, there may be a place for this agent in select patients with CKD with dyslipidemia. Niacin has a favorable unique impact on factors affecting the rate of glomerular filtration rate decline, including high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particle number and function, triglyceride levels, oxidant stress, inflammation and endothelial function, and lowering of serum phosphorus levels by reducing dietary phosphorus absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. These effects may slow glomerular filtration rate decline and ultimately improve CKD outcomes and prevent cardiovascular risk. This review presents the clinically relevant concept that niacin holds significant potential as a renoprotective therapeutic agent. In addition, this review concludes that clinical investigations to assess the effect of niacin (in addition to aggressive low-density lipoprotein cholesterol lowering) on reduction of cardiovascular events in patients with CKD with very low HDL cholesterol (or those with identified dysfunctional HDL) and elevated triglyceride levels need to be considered seriously to address the high residual risk in this population.

  5. SY 01-3 HOW DO WE RECONCILE THE DISCREPANCY OF BLOOD PRESSURE GUIDELINES FOR PATIENTS WITH OLD AGE, DIABETES AND CKD?

    PubMed

    Shimamoto, Kazuaki

    2016-09-01

    There are some discrepancies among several international guidelines. I summarise the discrepancies among these guidelines for patients with diabetes, CKD and old age, and describe how-to reconcile.A very controversial topic involves controlling the blood pressure target for hypertension with diabetes. In the treatment for the hypertension with diabetes, until 2012, it was almost universally accepted that the blood pressure control target should be below 130/80 mmHg. However, recent guidelines have increased the target blood pressure to 140 mmHg in systolic blood pressure. Very important evidence to support this change is from the results of ACCORD-BP. In ACCORD-BP, the ratio of stroke/myocardial infarction was 0.3. However, in Japanese epidemiological studies showed a two-fold higher incident rate in strokes than myocardial infarction. Thus, the background of cardiovascular disease is very different between European countries or the United States, and Japan. This point should be considered in each country guidelines.As the risk of cardiovascular accidents is high in patients with CKD, their early detection is extremely important. KDIGO 2012 indicated the recent stratification for the treatment of hypertension with CKD. The goal of blood pressure lowering therapy in the case of CKD with proteinuria, are achievement of the blood pressure control target of below 130/80 mmHg. However, in CKD without proteinuria, the target blood pressure is 140/90 mmHg. The difference between KDIGO and other guidelines should be discussed.Considerable evidence has been accumulated from elderly hypertension. HYVET indicated a target blood pressure of 140 to 150 mmHg in patients 80 years and older. Both JATOS and VALISH conducted in Japan indicated no significant differences in groups with blood pressure below 140 mmHg and those with blood pressure below 150mmHg. However, definition of the age of elderly is different among each guidelines.Recent SPRINT results indicated

  6. Audit-based education: a potentially effective program for improving guideline achievement in CKD patients.

    PubMed

    de Goeij, Moniek C M; Rotmans, Joris I

    2013-09-01

    The achievement of treatment guidelines in patients with chronic kidney disease is poor, and more efforts are needed to improve this. Audit-based education is a program that may contribute to this improvement. de Lusignana et al. investigated whether audit-based education is effective in lowering systolic blood pressure in a primary-care setting. Although the program is inventive and promising, several adjustments are needed before it can be applied as an effective strategy.

  7. Pulmonary Hypertension: Epidemiology in Different CKD Stages and Its Association with Cardiovascular Morbidity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuangxin; Ye, Zhiming; Chen, Yuanhan; Wang, Wenjian; Li, Ruizhao; Xu, Lixia; Feng, Zhonglin; Shi, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Background Pulmonary hypertension (PH) was recently recognized as a common complication of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) that causes an increased risk of mortality. Epidemiological data for this disorder in earlier stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its association with cardiovascular (CV) morbidity are scarce. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 2,351 Chinese CKD patients with complete clinical records and echocardiography data between Jan 2008 and May 2012. The patients were divided into the following 6 groups: CKD Stages 1–4; Stage 5 for those not on or initiated on hemodialysis for <3 months; and Stage 5D for the patients undergoing hemodialysis for ≥3 months. The prevalence of PH and CV morbidity was investigated, and their association was evaluated with a logistic regression model. Results PH was detected in 426 patients (18.1%). Mild, moderate and severe PH was diagnosed in 12.1%, 4.9% and 1.1% of the patients, respectively. Severe PH was detected in CKD Stages 5 and 5D. CV morbidity was found in 645 patients (27.4%). Compared with the non-PH group, the PH group had a higher risk for cardiac disease but not for cerebrovascular disease risk. PH severity was associated with cardiac morbidity risk [odds ratio (95% CI) for mild PH: 1.79 (1.30–2.47); moderate PH: 2.75 (1.73–4.37); severe PH: 3.90 (1.46–10.42)]. Conclusions Our study showed for the first time the epidemiology profile of PH across the spectrum of CKD. Mild-to-moderate PH occurs with more frequency in advanced CKD, and severe PH is scarce in non-ESRD CKD. PH in CKD is associated with cardiac but not cerebrovascular disease, with increasing cardiac morbidity seen with increasing PH severity. Evidence from prospective studies addressing PH in this population is needed to predict cardiac events. PMID:25525807

  8. Fragility fractures and osteoporosis in CKD: pathophysiology and diagnostic methods.

    PubMed

    Salam, Syazrah N; Eastell, Richard; Khwaja, Arif

    2014-06-01

    Both chronic kidney disease (CKD) and osteoporosis are major public health problems associated with an aging population. Osteoporosis is characterized by reduced bone mineral density, while CKD results in qualitative changes in bone structure; both conditions increase the predisposition to fragility fractures. There is a significant coprevalence of osteoporotic fractures and CKD, particularly in the elderly population. Not only is the risk of fracture higher in the CKD population, but clinical outcomes are significantly worse, with substantial health care costs. Management of osteoporosis in the CKD population is particularly complex given the impact of renal osteodystrophy on bone quality and the limited safety and hard outcome data for current therapy in patients with severe CKD or on dialysis therapy. In this review, we discuss the pathophysiology of osteoporosis, the impact of CKD on bone strength, and the role of novel imaging techniques and biomarkers in predicting underlying renal osteodystrophy on bone histomorphometry in the context of CKD. PMID:24631043

  9. Association of the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) gene polymorphisms in Malaysian patients with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Foo Nian; Chua, Kek Heng; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani; Wong, Chew Ming; Lim, Soo Kun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a condition associated with progressive loss of kidney function and kidney damage. The two common causes of CKD are diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Other causes of CKD also include polycystic kidney disease, obstructive uropathy and primary glomerulonephritis. The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) is a multi-ligand cell surface receptor of the immunoglobulin superfamily and it has been associated with kidney disease in both non-diabetic and diabetic patients. Presently, data on the association between RAGE polymorphisms and CKD in the Malaysian population is limited, while numerous studies have reported associations of RAGE polymorphisms with diabetic complications in other populations. The present study aims to explore the possibility of using RAGE polymorphisms as candidate markers of CKD in Malaysian population by using association analysis. Methods: A total of 102 non-diabetic CKD patients, 204 diabetic CKD patients and 345 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. DNA isolated from blood samples were subjected to genotyping of RAGE G82S, −374T/A, −429T/C, 1704G/T and 2184A/G polymorphisms using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The 63-bp deletion, a polymorphism in the RAGE gene promoter, was genotyped using conventional PCR method and visualized using agarose gel electrophoresis. The collective frequencies of genotypes with at least one copy of the minor alleles of the four polymorphisms were compared between the non-diabetic CKD patients, diabetic CKD patients and healthy controls. Results: After adjustment of age, gender and ethnic groups in binary logistic regression analysis, the G82S CT + TT genotypes were associated with non-diabetic CKD patients when compared with diabetic CKD patients (p = 0.015, OR = 1.896, 95% CI = 1.132–3.176). After further adjustment of CKD comorbidities, the G82S CT + TT genotypes were still associated with non-diabetic CKD patients when compared

  10. The French Chronic Kidney Disease-Renal Epidemiology and Information Network (CKD-REIN) cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Stengel, Bénédicte; Combe, Christian; Jacquelinet, Christian; Briançon, Serge; Fouque, Denis; Laville, Maurice; Frimat, Luc; Pascal, Christophe; Herpe, Yves-Edouard; Deleuze, Jean-François; Schanstra, Joost; Pisoni, Ron L.; Robinson, Bruce M.; Massy, Ziad A.

    2014-01-01

    Background While much has been learned about the epidemiology and treatment of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the last 30 years, chronic kidney disease (CKD) before the end-stage has been less investigated. Not enough is known about factors associated with CKD progression and complications, as well as its transition to ESRD. We designed the CKD-renal epidemiology and information network (REIN) cohort to provide a research platform to address these key questions and to assess clinical practices and costs in patients with moderate or advanced CKD. Methods A total of 46 clinic sites and 4 renal care networks participate in the cohort. A stratified selection of clinic sites yields a sample that represents a diversity of settings, e.g. geographic region, and public versus for-profit and non-for-profit private clinics. In each site, 60–90 patients with CKD are enrolled at a routine clinic visit during a 12-month enrolment phase: 3600 total, including 1800 with Stage 3 and 1800 with Stage 4 CKD. Follow-up will continue for 5 years, including after initiation of renal replacement therapy. Data will be collected from medical records at inclusion and at yearly intervals, as well as from self-administered patient questionnaires and provider-level questionnaires. Patients will also be interviewed at baseline, and at 1, 3 and 5 years. Healthcare costs will also be determined. Blood and urine samples will be collected and stored for future studies on all patients at enrolment and at study end, and at 1 and 3 years in a subsample of 1200. Conclusions The CKD-REIN cohort will serve to improve our understanding of the biological, clinical and healthcare system determinants associated with CKD progression and adverse outcomes as well as of international variations in collaboration with the CKD Outcome and Practice Pattern Study (CKDopps). It will foster CKD epidemiology and outcomes research and provide evidence to improve the health and quality of life of patients with CKD and

  11. A randomized trial of dietary sodium restriction in CKD.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Emma J; Bauer, Judith D; Hawley, Carmel M; Isbel, Nicole M; Stowasser, Michael; Johnson, David W; Campbell, Katrina L

    2013-12-01

    There is a paucity of quality evidence regarding the effects of sodium restriction in patients with CKD, particularly in patients with pre-end stage CKD, where controlling modifiable risk factors may be especially important for delaying CKD progression and cardiovascular events. We conducted a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized crossover trial assessing the effects of high versus low sodium intake on ambulatory BP, 24-hour protein and albumin excretion, fluid status (body composition monitor), renin and aldosterone levels, and arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity and augmentation index) in 20 adult patients with hypertensive stage 3-4 CKD as phase 1 of the LowSALT CKD study. Overall, salt restriction resulted in statistically significant and clinically important reductions in BP (mean reduction of systolic/diastolic BP, 10/4 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 5 to 15 /1 to 6 mm Hg), extracellular fluid volume, albuminuria, and proteinuria in patients with moderate-to-severe CKD. The magnitude of change was more pronounced than the magnitude reported in patients without CKD, suggesting that patients with CKD are particularly salt sensitive. Although studies with longer intervention times and larger sample sizes are needed to confirm these benefits, this study indicates that sodium restriction should be emphasized in the management of patients with CKD as a means to reduce cardiovascular risk and risk for CKD progression.

  12. An overview of advance care planning for patients with advanced chronic kidney disease: The basics.

    PubMed

    Wasylynuk, Betty Ann; Davison, Sara N

    2016-01-01

    As the number of Canadians living with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) continues to grow, even higher numbers are living with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). Many of these people will eventually require renal replacement therapy (RRT), either dialysis or transplantation. More than 50% of patients starting RRT today are aged 65 or older, with the fastest growing group being patients 75 years and older. Despite advances to dialysis technology and dialysis care, the mortality rates remain high and dialysis patients' end-of-life care may not align with their preferences or values. Advance care planning (ACP) is an essential component of quality comprehensive kidney care. Kidney care teams develop strong relationships with their patients and are well positioned to integrate ACP into routine kidney care. This article defines ACP, outlines the essential components of ACP, and discusses the benefits, challenges, and special considerations of ACP. By enhancing the kidney care team's understanding of ACP, this article aims to assist in integrating ACP into routine kidney care for patients with advanced CKD. PMID:27215058

  13. [Hyperphosphatemia in Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Zhang, Xiao-yan; Guan, You-Fei

    2015-08-01

    Phosphorus plays important roles in a variety of biological processes such as energy metabolism, cell signaling, nuclenic acid synthesis and membrane function. A major role of the kidney is to maintain phosphorus homeostasis. It is not surprising that when renal function begins to decline in CKD patients, the homeostasis is disrupted and serum concentration of phosphorus begins to increase. Hyperphosphatemia leads to a series of complications including secondary hyperparathyroidism, renal osteodystrophy, cardiovascular diseases and progression of CKD, which contributing to the excess mortality of CKD. In recent years, as an independent risk factor of health damage, hyperphosphatemia has attracted more and more concerns. The progression of researches about hyperphosphatemia has promoted the clinical therapies of CKD. PMID:26669072

  14. High amylose resistant starch diet ameliorates oxidative stress, inflammation, and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Patients with advanced CKD exhibit profound changes in the composition and function of the gut microbiome. This is, in part, mediated by: I- heavy influx of urea in the intestinal tract leading to the dominance of urease-possessing bacteria and II- dietary restriction of potassium-rich fruits and ve...

  15. Combined walking exercise and alkali therapy in patients with CKD4-5 regulates intramuscular free amino acid pools and ubiquitin E3 ligase expression.

    PubMed

    Watson, Emma L; Kosmadakis, George C; Smith, Alice C; Viana, Joao L; Brown, Jeremy R; Molyneux, Karen; Pawluczyk, Izabella Z A; Mulheran, Michael; Bishop, Nicolette C; Shirreffs, Susan; Maughan, Ronald J; Owen, Paul J; John, Stephen G; McIntyre, Christopher W; Feehally, John; Bevington, Alan

    2013-08-01

    Muscle-wasting in chronic kidney disease (CKD) arises from several factors including sedentary behaviour and metabolic acidosis. Exercise is potentially beneficial but might worsen acidosis through exercise-induced lactic acidosis. We studied the chronic effects of exercise in CKD stage 4-5 patients (brisk walking, 30 min, 5 times/week), and non-exercising controls; each group receiving standard oral bicarbonate (STD), or additional bicarbonate (XS) (Total n = 26; Exercising + STD n = 9; Exercising +XS n = 6; Control + STD n = 8; Control + XS n = 3). Blood and vastus lateralis biopsies were drawn at baseline and 6 months. The rise in blood lactate in submaximal treadmill tests was suppressed in the Exercising + XS group. After 6 months, intramuscular free amino acids (including the branched chain amino acids) in the Exercising + STD group showed a striking chronic depletion. This did not occur in the Exercising + XS group. The effect in Exercising + XS patients was accompanied by reduced transcription of ubiquitin E3-ligase MuRF1 which activates proteolysis via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Other anabolic indicators (Akt activation and suppression of the 14 kDa actin catabolic marker) were unaffected in Exercising + XS patients. Possibly because of this, overall suppression of myofibrillar proteolysis (3-methylhistidine output) was not observed. It is suggested that alkali effects in exercisers arose by countering exercise-induced acidosis. Whether further anabolic effects are attainable on combining alkali with enhanced exercise (e.g. resistance exercise) merits further investigation. PMID:23591985

  16. Randomized placebo-controlled dose-ranging and pharmacodynamics study of roxadustat (FG-4592) to treat anemia in nondialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (NDD-CKD) patients

    PubMed Central

    Besarab, Anatole; Provenzano, Robert; Hertel, Joachim; Zabaneh, Raja; Klaus, Stephen J.; Lee, Tyson; Leong, Robert; Hemmerich, Stefan; Yu, Kin-Hung Peony; Neff, Thomas B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Roxadustat (FG-4592) is an oral hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor that stimulates erythropoiesis. This Phase 2a study tested efficacy (Hb response) and safety of roxadustat in anemic nondialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (NDD-CKD) subjects. Methods NDD-CKD subjects with hemoglobin (Hb) ≤11.0 g/dL were sequentially enrolled into four dose cohorts and randomized to roxadustat or placebo two times weekly (BIW) or three times weekly (TIW) for 4 weeks, in an approximate roxadustat:placebo ratio of 3:1. Efficacy was assessed by (i) mean Hb change (ΔHb) from baseline (BL) and (ii) proportion of Hb responders (ΔHb ≥ 1.0 g/dL). Pharmacodynamic evaluation was performed in a subset of subjects. Safety was evaluated by adverse event frequency/severity. Results Of 116 subjects receiving treatment, 104 completed 4 weeks of dosing and 96 were evaluable for efficacy. BL characteristics for roxadustat and placebo groups were comparable. In roxadustat-treated subjects, Hb levels increased from BL in a dose-related manner in the 0.7, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mg/kg groups. Maximum ΔHb within the first 6 weeks was significantly higher in the 1.5 and 2.0 mg/kg groups than in the placebo subjects. Hb responder rates were dose dependent and ranged from 30% in the 0.7 mg/kg BIW group to 100% in the 2.0 mg/kg BIW and TIW groups versus 13% in placebo. Conclusions Roxadustat transiently and moderately increased endogenous erythropoietin and reduced hepcidin. Adverse events were similar in the roxadustat and placebo groups. Roxadustat produced dose-dependent increases in blood Hb among anemic NDD-CKD patients in a placebo-controlled trial. Clinical Trials Registration Clintrials.gov #NCT00761657. PMID:26238121

  17. Plant Protein Intake Is Associated with Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 and Serum Bicarbonate in Patients with CKD: The Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Scialla, Julia J.; Appel, Lawrence J; Wolf, Myles; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Xiaoming; Sozio, Stephen M.; Miller, Edgar R.; Bazzano, Lydia A.; Cuevas, Magdalena; Glenn, Melanie J.; Lustigova, Eva; Kallem, Radhakrishna R.; Porter, Anna C.; Townsend, Raymond R.; Weir, Matthew R.; Anderson, Cheryl A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Protein from plant, as opposed to animal, sources may be preferred in chronic kidney disease (CKD), due to lower bioavailability of phosphate and lower nonvolatile acid load. Study Design Observational cross-sectional study. Setting & Participants 2938 participants with chronic kidney disease and information on dietary intake at the baseline visit in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study. Predictors Percentage of total protein from plant sources (% plant protein) was determined by scoring individual food items from the National Cancer Institute Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ). Outcomes Metabolic parameters, including serum phosphate, bicarbonate (HCO3), potassium, and albumin, plasma fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), and parathyroid hormone (PTH), and hemoglobin. Measurements We modeled the association between % plant protein and metabolic parameters using linear regression. Models were adjusted for age, sex, race, diabetes, body mass index, eGFR, income, smoking, total energy intake, total protein intake, 24 hour urinary sodium, use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers and use of diuretics. Results Higher % plant protein was associated with lower FGF23 (p=0.05) and higher HCO3 (p=0.01), but not with serum phosphate or PTH (p=0.9 and 0.5, respectively). Higher % plant protein was not associated with higher serum potassium (p=0.2), lower serum albumin (p=0.2) or lower hemoglobin (p=0.3). The associations of % plant protein with FGF23 and HCO3 did not differ by diabetes status, sex, race, CKD stage (2/3 vs. 4/5) or total protein intake (≤ 0.8 g/kg/d vs. >0.8 g/kg/d) (p-interaction > 0.10 for each). Limitations Cross-sectional study; Determination of % plant protein using the DHQ has not been validated. Conclusions Consumption of a higher percentage of protein from plant sources may lower FGF23 and raise HCO3 in patients with CKD. PMID:22480598

  18. A Japanese approach for CKD-MBD.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Keitaro; Taniguchi, Masatomo; Fukagawa, Masafumi

    2013-12-01

    Disturbances in mineral and bone metabolism have a critical role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular complications in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The term 'renal osteodystrophy' has recently been replaced by 'CKD-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD)', which includes abnormalities in bone and mineral metabolism and vascular calcification. The Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy clinical practice guideline for the management of secondary hyperparathyroidism in chronic dialysis patients was originally published in Japanese in 2006, then in English in 2008. During the past 5 years, this first guideline has contributed to a considerably better understanding and control of secondary hyperparathyroidism in CKD patients by physicians, other medical professionals, and the patients themselves. However, since its publication several new therapeutic modalities have become available for Japanese dialysis patients, which added more evidence to this area. Thus, we revised the guideline to include several new policies, and the new guideline was published in Japanese in 2012. This article contains the new guideline text, and clinical significance of CKD-MBD in Japan. PMID:25019029

  19. Antiproteinuric effect of add-on paricalcitol in CKD patients under maximal tolerated inhibition of renin-angiotensin system: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Whether paricalcitol (PCT) reduces proteinuria in the presence of intensified inhibition of Renin-Angiotensin-System (RAS) is poorly studied. We evaluated the antiproteinuric effect of PCT in non-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with proteinuria greater than 0.5 g/24 h persisting despite anti-RAS therapy titrated to minimize proteinuria in the absence of adverse effects. Methods Forty-eight CKD patients were studied in the first six months of add-on oral PCT (1 mcg/day) and three months after drug withdrawal. Results Males were 87.5%, age 63 ± 14 yrs, systolic/diastolic blood pressure (BP) 143 ± 22/78 ± 11 mmHg, eGFR 29.7 ± 14.5 mL/min/1.73 m2, diabetes 40%, and cardiovascular disease 38%. At referral in the center (28 months prior to study baseline), proteinuria was 2.44 (95% CI 1.80-3.04) g/24 h with 6 patients not receiving any anti-RAS and 42 treated with a single agent, at low dosage in most cases. At study baseline, twenty patients were under 2–3 anti-RAS drugs while twenty-eight received 1 agent at full dose and proteinuria resulted to be reduced versus referral to 1.23 g/24 h (95%CI 1.00-1.51). Six months of add-on PCT significantly decreased proteinuria to 0.61 g/24 h (95%CI 0.40-0.93), with levels less than 0.5 g/24 h achieved in 37.5% patients, in the absence of changes of BP and GFR. Proteinuria recovered to basal value after drug withdrawal. The extent of antiproteinuric response to PCT was positively associated with diabetes, eGFR and daily Na excretion (R2 = 0.459, P < 0.0001). PTH decreased from 201 (IQR 92–273) to 83 (IQR 50–189) pg/mL. Conclusions In CKD patients, add-on PCT induces a significant reduction of proteinuria that is evident despite intensified anti-RAS therapy and larger in the presence of diabetes, higher GFR and unrestricted salt intake. PMID:23167771

  20. Rationale and Approaches to Phosphate and Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 Reduction in CKD

    PubMed Central

    Ix, Joachim H.; Sprague, Stuart M.; Raphael, Kalani L.; Fried, Linda; Gassman, Jennifer J.; Raj, Dominic; Cheung, Alfred K.; Kusek, John W.; Flessner, Michael F.; Wolf, Myles; Block, Geoffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with CKD often progress to ESRD and develop cardiovascular disease (CVD), yet available therapies only modestly improve clinical outcomes. Observational studies report independent associations between elevated serum phosphate and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) levels and risks of ESRD, CVD, and death. Phosphate excess induces arterial calcification, and although elevated FGF23 helps maintain serum phosphate levels in the normal range in CKD, it may contribute mechanistically to left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Consistent epidemiologic and experimental findings suggest the need to test therapeutic approaches that lower phosphate and FGF23 in CKD. Dietary phosphate absorption is one modifiable determinant of serum phosphate and FGF23 levels. Limited data from pilot studies in patients with CKD stages 3–4 suggest that phosphate binders, low phosphate diets, or vitamin B3 derivatives, such as niacin or nicotinamide, may reduce dietary phosphate absorption and serum phosphate and FGF23 levels. This review summarizes current knowledge regarding the deleterious systemic effects of phosphate and FGF23 excess, identifies questions that must be addressed before advancing to a full-scale clinical outcomes trial, and presents a novel therapeutic approach to lower serum phosphate and FGF23 levels that will be tested in the COMBINE Study: The CKD Optimal Management With BInders and NicotinamidE study. PMID:25967123

  1. Vitamin B(12) Immunoassay on Roche Elecsys 2010: Effects of High Excess Concentration of Serum Vitamin B(12) in CKD Patients on Parenteral Administration.

    PubMed

    Basu, Surupa; Chaudhuri, Subimal

    2011-10-01

    Vitamin B(12) being water soluble is excreted in the urine when administered in excess. The probability of finding an abnormally excess serum concentration would be almost surreal. We report a peculiar clinical situation that may impact the vitamin B(12) immunoassay on the Roche Elecsys 2010 due to excess analyte concentration. In separate episodes (Feb and June 2010), the Biochemistry laboratory of a tertiary-care hospital, Kolkata, India, encountered two critically ill patients with background chronic kidney disease (CKD), low urine output, and on cyanocoabalamin supplementation, who had serum vitamin B(12) concentrations far exceeding expected values; even post dialysis. The B(12) assays (pmol/l) were performed using electrochemiluminiscence immunoassay on Roche Elecsys 2010, the assay validity confirmed by concomitant quality control runs. The immunoassays failed to deliver results, flagged with "signal level below limit". Biotin therapy was ruled out as a possible interferent. In the first episode, re-assay of a repeat draw yielded same outcome; outsourcing on Immulite provided concentration of >738 pmol/l. Serial dilution gave result of >29520 pmol/l on Elecsys 2010. In the second, we gained from past experience. Vitamin B(12) concentration >59040 pmol/l was conveyed to the treating nephrologist the very day. The B(12) immunoassay on the Elecsys 2010 employs sequential incubation steps for competitive binding that is compromised in the event of abnormally excess B(12) concentration in patient sera akin to the prozone effect. This knowledge may be beneficial while assaying sera of CKD patients to avoid financial loss due unnecessary repeats and delay in turnaround time. PMID:23024480

  2. Factors Associated with CKD in the Elderly and Nonelderly Population

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ming-Yen; Chiu, Yi-Wen; Lee, Chien-Hung; Yu, Hui-Yen; Chen, Hung-Chun; Wu, Ming-Tsang

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives The risk factors for CKD in different age groups remain unknown. This community-based study aimed to identify the risk factors for CKD in elderly and nonelderly patients. Design, setting, participants, & measurements A multistage sampling survey for CKD was conducted in 2007 in Kaohsiung County, an area with the highest prevalence of dialysis in the world. CKD was defined as proteinuria in at least the microalbuminuric stage or an estimated GFR (eGFR) of <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2. The factors for CKD in elderly and nonelderly patient groups were identified (with age 60 years as a cutoff value). Results The analyses included 3352 participants, of whom 687 had CKD. The weighted prevalence of CKD was 19.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 18.0%–20.7%). Elderly patients typically presented with low eGFR and nonelderly patients, with proteinuria. Age, annual income, use of oral analgesics, metabolic syndrome, hyperuricemia, and hemoglobin were risk factors for CKD in both age groups. In elderly patients, risk factors were medical history of diabetes mellitus, CKD, stroke, and not using analgesic injection (odds ratios [95% CIs], 3.58 [2.06–6.22], 3.66 [1.58–8.43], 3.89 [1.09–13.87], 2.27 [1.21–4.17], respectively). In nonelderly patients, associated risk factors for CKD were gout, hepatitis B virus infection, and use of the Chinese herbal medicine Long Dan Xie Gan Tang (odds ratios [95% CIs], 3.15 [1.96–5.07], 1.66 [1.09–2.53], and 8.86 [1.73–45.45], respectively). Conclusions The risk factors for CKD vary by age. PMID:23085726

  3. Social Determinants of Racial Disparities in CKD.

    PubMed

    Norton, Jenna M; Moxey-Mims, Marva M; Eggers, Paul W; Narva, Andrew S; Star, Robert A; Kimmel, Paul L; Rodgers, Griffin P

    2016-09-01

    Significant disparities in CKD rates and outcomes exist between black and white Americans. Health disparities are defined as health differences that adversely affect disadvantaged populations, on the basis of one or more health outcomes. CKD is the complex result of genetic and environmental factors, reflecting the balance of nature and nurture. Social determinants of health have an important role as environmental components, especially for black populations, who are disproportionately disadvantaged. Understanding the social determinants of health and appreciating the underlying differences associated with meaningful clinical outcomes may help nephrologists treat all their patients with CKD in an optimal manner. Altering the social determinants of health, although difficult, may embody important policy and research efforts, with the ultimate goal of improving outcomes for patients with kidney diseases, and minimizing the disparities between groups. PMID:27178804

  4. Prevalence of Metformin Use and the Associated Risk of Metabolic Acidosis in US Diabetic Adults With CKD: A National Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chin-Chi; Yeh, Hung-Chieh; Chen, Bradley; Tsai, Ching-Wei; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Huang, Chiu-Ching

    2015-12-01

    metabolic acidosis but not with severe metabolic acidosis. The propensity of serum bicarbonate-lowering effect was intensified in advanced CKD; however, such tendency was not associated with the risk of clinically defined acidosis. Our findings highlight a potential of cautious expansion of metformin use among CKD-3b patients with diabetes meriting further investigations.

  5. Arterial Remodeling Associates with CKD Progression

    PubMed Central

    Collin, Cédric; Karras, Alexandre; Laurent, Stéphane; Bozec, Erwan; Jacquot, Christian; Stengel, Bénédicte; Houillier, Pascal; Froissart, Marc; Boutouyrie, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    In CKD, large arteries remodel and become increasingly stiff. The greater pulsatile pressure reaching the glomerulus as a result of increased aortic stiffness could induce renal damage, suggesting that the stiffening and remodeling of large arteries could affect the progression of CKD. We measured carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, aortic pressure and carotid remodeling and stiffness parameters in 180 patients with CKD (mean measured GFR, 32 ml/min per 1.73 m2) and followed them prospectively for a mean of 3.1 years. During follow-up, carotid stiffness significantly increased (+0.28 ± 0.05 m/s; P < 0.0001) but aortic stiffness did not. Carotid intima-media thickness decreased significantly during follow-up and the internal diameter of the carotid increased, producing increased circumferential wall stress (+2.08 ± 0.43 kPa/yr; P < 0.0001). In a linear mixed model, circumferential wall stress significantly associated with faster GFR decline after adjustment for risk factors of cardiovascular disease and progression of CKD. In a multivariable Cox model, carotid circumferential wall stress and pulse pressure independently associated with higher risk for ESRD. None of the arterial stiffness parameters associated with progression of CKD. In conclusion, maladaptive remodeling of the carotid artery and increased pulse pressure independently associate with faster decline of renal function and progression to ESRD. PMID:21493771

  6. Uric Acid as a Target of Therapy in CKD

    PubMed Central

    Jalal, Diana I.; Chonchol, Michel; Chen, Wei; Targher, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) has risen and will continue to rise in the United States and worldwide. This is alarming considering that CKD remains an irreversible condition and patients who progress to chronic kidney failure suffer reduced quality of life and high mortality rates. As such, it is imperative to identify modifiable risk factors to develop strategies to slow CKD progression. One such factor is hyperuricemia. Recent observational studies have associated hyperuricemia with kidney disease. In addition, hyperuricemia is largely prevalent in patients with CKD. Data from experimental studies have revealed several potential mechanisms by which hyperuricemia may contribute to the development and progression of CKD. In this manuscript we offer a critical review of the experimental evidence linking hyperuricemia to CKD, we highlight the gaps in our knowledge on the topic as it stands today, and we review the observational and interventional studies that have examined the potential nephro-protective effect of lowering uric acid in CKD patients . While uric acid may also be linked to cardiovascular disease and mortality in patients with CKD, this review will focus only on uric acid as a potential therapeutic target to prevent kidney disease onset and progression. PMID:23058478

  7. Current Status of Bicarbonate in CKD

    PubMed Central

    Dobre, Mirela; Rahman, Mahboob

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis was one of the earliest complications to be recognized and explained pathologically in patients with CKD. Despite the accumulated evidence of deleterious effects of acidosis, treatment of acidosis has been tested very little, especially with respect to standard clinical outcomes. On the basis of fundamental research and small alkali supplementation trials, correcting metabolic acidosis has a strikingly broad array of potential benefits. This review summarizes the published evidence on the association between serum bicarbonate and clinical outcomes. We discuss the role of alkali supplementation in CKD as it relates to retarding kidney disease progression, improving metabolic and musculoskeletal complications. PMID:25150154

  8. Homocysteine Lowering and Cognition in CKD: The VA Homocysteine Study

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Christopher B.; Gaziano, J. Michael; Cxypoliski, Roberta A.; Guarino, Peter D.; Kaufman, James S.; Warren, Stuart R.; Hartigan, Pamela; Goldfarb, David S.; Jamison, Rex L.

    2009-01-01

    Background Individuals with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end stage renal disease (ESRD) have high total plasma homocysteine (tHcy) levels, which may be a risk factor for cognitive impairment. Whether treatment with high dose B-vitamins to reduce high tHcy levels improves cognition in persons with kidney disease is unknown. Study Design Randomized controlled trial. Setting & Participants A substudy of 659 patients (mean age 67.3 ± 11.7 years) who participated in a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial, 5 years in duration, conducted in 36 US Department of Veterans Affairs medical centers, of the effect on all-cause mortality of vitamin-induced lowering of plasma tHcy. 236 (35.8%) were treated by dialysis (ESRD) and 423 (64.2%) had a Cockcroft-Gault estimated creatinine clearance ≤ 30 ml/min (advanced CKD). All had high tHcy levels (≥15 μmol/L) at baseline. Cognitive assessments began during the follow up period of the main trial, 3 years after treatment began; participants were subsequently retested one year later to assess cognitive change. Intervention Daily high dose B-vitamin capsule (40 mg of folic acid, 100 mg of vitamin B6, and 2 mg of vitamin B12) or placebo. Outcomes Cognitive function at initial assessment and one year later. Measurements The Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status – modified, supplemented with attention, working memory and executive function tests. Results Initial cognitive function was impaired in approximately 19% of patients, regardless of treatment assignment (vitamin or placebo) or kidney disease status (advanced CKD or ESRD). Treatment reduced tHcy levels by 26.7%. Unadjusted and adjusted analyses showed that treatment did not improve initial cognitive outcomes or affect subsequent cognitive status one year later. Limitations Cognitive assessments began after treatment was initiated; cognitive assessment was limited. Conclusion Treatment with high daily doses of B-vitamins, which reduced tHcy levels, did not

  9. Coronary plaque progression of non-culprit lesions after culprit percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with moderate to advanced chronic kidney disease: intravascular ultrasound and integrated backscatter intravascular ultrasound study.

    PubMed

    Kashiyama, Kuninobu; Sonoda, Shinjo; Muraoka, Yoshitaka; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Kamezaki, Fumihiko; Tsuda, Yuki; Araki, Masaru; Tamura, Masahito; Takeuchi, Masaaki; Abe, Haruhiko; Okazaki, Masahiro; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Otsuji, Yutaka

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the deterioration of renal function increases the risk of major adverse clinical events not only in culprit lesions but also in non-culprit lesions (NCLs) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). This study evaluated serial coronary plaque change of NCL in patients with different stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) using intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and integrated backscatter IVUS (IB-IVUS). In 113 patients (113 NCLs) underwent both IVUS-guided PCI and follow-up IVUS, volumetric IVUS analyses were performed at proximal reference NCLs in de novo target vessels post PCI and at 8-month follow-up. NCLs were divided into 4 groups based on baseline CKD stage: CKD-1, n = 18; CKD-2, n = 42; CKD-3, n = 29; and CKD4-5, n = 24. We compared serial changes of plaque burden and composition among groups under statin treatment. Plaque progression occurred in CKD-3 (+4.6 mm(3), p < 0.001) and CKD4-5 (+9.8 mm(3), p < 0.001) despite anti-atherosclerotic treatment, whereas plaque regression occurred in CKD-1 (-5.4 mm(3), p = 0.002) and CKD-2 (-3.2 mm(3), p = 0.001) mainly due to initiate statin treatment after PCI. Plaque volume change was correlated with eGFR (p < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis showed CKD stage 3-5 was an independent predictor of plaque progression. Regarding IB-IVUS analyses, lipid plaque increased in CKD-3 (+4.6 mm(3), p < 0.001) and CKD4-5 (+5.4 mm(3), p < 0.001), but decreased in CKD-2 (-2.7 mm(3), p < 0.05). Fibrotic plaque also increased in CKD4-5 (+3.4 mm(3), p < 0.001). Moderate to advanced CKD was associated with coronary plaque progression characterized by greater lipid and fibrotic plaque volumes in NCL under statin treatment after culprit PCI. PMID:25724567

  10. Type 2 translational research for CKD.

    PubMed

    Tuttle, Katherine R; Tuot, Delphine S; Corbett, Cynthia L; Setter, Stephen M; Powe, Neil R

    2013-10-01

    Strategies to effectively treat people with CKD have been identified by conventional clinical research. Despite this evidence, awareness, screening, detection, diagnosis, risk factor control, treatment, and outcomes remain substandard. Translating clinical evidence into actionable measures that reduce the burden of CKD is a pressing need. Expansion from a "bench-to-bedside" paradigm (conventional type 1 translation) to research that encompasses "clinic and community" is the core concept of type 2 translation. Specifically, this is the discipline of identifying factors and using strategies that lead to adoption, maintenance, and sustainability of science-based interventions in practice. This review identifies key elements of type 2 translational research and highlights the current scope of this type of research for CKD. For type 2 translation to achieve the goals of providing high-quality care and better health outcomes, key facilitators (e.g., theory-based frameworks, adaptable interventions, and inclusion of sustainability and evaluation metrics) and essential elements (e.g., multidisciplinary team care, health information technology, and stakeholder engagement) must be integrated. The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases recently funded five proposals that aim to improve outcomes for people with CKD, focusing on diverse components of the healthcare continuum: patient safety and transitions; delivery of high-quality, evidence-based CKD care; and elimination of disparities. The need for type 2 translational research in CKD is urgent because of preventable human suffering and unsustainable costs of providing care. Focus on the theory, framework, and approaches we have suggested may help us meet that challenge. PMID:23620444

  11. Type 2 Translational Research for CKD

    PubMed Central

    Tuot, Delphine S.; Corbett, Cynthia L.; Setter, Stephen M.; Powe, Neil R.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Strategies to effectively treat people with CKD have been identified by conventional clinical research. Despite this evidence, awareness, screening, detection, diagnosis, risk factor control, treatment, and outcomes remain substandard. Translating clinical evidence into actionable measures that reduce the burden of CKD is a pressing need. Expansion from a “bench-to-bedside” paradigm (conventional type 1 translation) to research that encompasses “clinic and community” is the core concept of type 2 translation. Specifically, this is the discipline of identifying factors and using strategies that lead to adoption, maintenance, and sustainability of science-based interventions in practice. This review identifies key elements of type 2 translational research and highlights the current scope of this type of research for CKD. For type 2 translation to achieve the goals of providing high-quality care and better health outcomes, key facilitators (e.g., theory-based frameworks, adaptable interventions, and inclusion of sustainability and evaluation metrics) and essential elements (e.g., multidisciplinary team care, health information technology, and stakeholder engagement) must be integrated. The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases recently funded five proposals that aim to improve outcomes for people with CKD, focusing on diverse components of the healthcare continuum: patient safety and transitions; delivery of high-quality, evidence-based CKD care; and elimination of disparities. The need for type 2 translational research in CKD is urgent because of preventable human suffering and unsustainable costs of providing care. Focus on the theory, framework, and approaches we have suggested may help us meet that challenge. PMID:23620444

  12. The effects of colestilan versus placebo and sevelamer in patients with CKD 5D and hyperphosphataemia: a 1-year prospective randomized study

    PubMed Central

    Locatelli, Francesco; Spasovski, Goce; Dimkovic, Nada; Wanner, Christoph; Dellanna, Frank; Pontoriero, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Background This study compared the effects of short-term titrated colestilan (a novel non-absorbable, non-calcium, phosphate binder) with placebo, and evaluated the safety and efficacy of colestilan over 1 year compared with sevelamer, in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) 5D. Methods This prospective multicentre study comprised a 4-week phosphate binder washout period, a 16-week short-term, flexible-dose, treatment period (including a 4-week placebo-controlled withdrawal period) and a 40-week extension treatment phase. Results At Week 16 (the end of the 4-week placebo-controlled withdrawal period), serum phosphorus level was 0.43 mmol/L (1.32 mg/dL) lower with colestilan than placebo (P < 0.001; primary end point). Serum LDL-C level was also lower with colestilan than with placebo (P < 0.001). Both colestilan and sevelamer produced significant reductions from baseline in serum phosphorus levels (P < 0.001), maintained for 1 year, and the proportion of patients achieving target levels of ≤1.78 mmol/L (5.5 mg/dL) or ≤1.95 mmol/L (6.0 mg/dL) at study end were similar (65.3 and 73.3%, respectively, for colestilan, and 66.9 and 77.4%, respectively, for sevelamer). Serum calcium level remained stable in the colestilan group but tended to increase slightly in the sevelamer group (end-of-study increase of 0.035 mmol/L over baseline). Both binders produced similar reductions from baseline in LDL-C level (P < 0.001), and responder rates after 1 year, using a target of <1.83 mmol/L (70 mg/dL) or <2.59 mmol/L (100 mg/dL) were similar in both groups (50.7 and 85.3% for colestilan and 54.0 and 80.6% for sevelamer). Colestilan was generally well tolerated. Conclusions Colestilan is effective and safe for the treatment of hyperphosphataemia in patients with CKD 5D, and affords similar long-term phosphorus and cholesterol reductions/responder rates to sevelamer. PMID:24302608

  13. Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion and CKD Progression.

    PubMed

    He, Jiang; Mills, Katherine T; Appel, Lawrence J; Yang, Wei; Chen, Jing; Lee, Belinda T; Rosas, Sylvia E; Porter, Anna; Makos, Gail; Weir, Matthew R; Hamm, L Lee; Kusek, John W

    2016-04-01

    CKD is a major risk factor for ESRD, cardiovascular disease, and premature death. Whether dietary sodium and potassium intake affect CKD progression remains unclear. We prospectively studied the association of urinary sodium and potassium excretion with CKD progression and all-cause mortality among 3939 patients with CKD in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study. Urinary sodium and potassium excretion were measured using three 24-hour urine specimens, and CKD progression was defined as incident ESRD or halving of eGFR. During follow-up, 939 CKD progression events and 540 deaths occurred. Compared with the lowest quartile of urinary sodium excretion (<116.8 mmol/24 h), hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for the highest quartile of urinary sodium excretion (≥194.6 mmol/24 h) were 1.54 (1.23 to 1.92) for CKD progression, 1.45 (1.08 to 1.95) for all-cause mortality, and 1.43 (1.18 to 1.73) for the composite outcome of CKD progression and all-cause mortality after adjusting for multiple covariates, including baseline eGFR. Additionally, compared with the lowest quartile of urinary potassium excretion (<39.4 mmol/24 h), hazard ratios for the highest quartile of urinary potassium excretion (≥67.1 mmol/24 h) were 1.59 (1.25 to 2.03) for CKD progression, 0.98 (0.71 to 1.35) for all-cause mortality, and 1.42 (1.15 to 1.74) for the composite outcome. These data indicate that high urinary sodium and potassium excretion are associated with increased risk of CKD progression. Clinical trials are warranted to test the effect of sodium and potassium reduction on CKD progression.

  14. Consideration of ICD-9 Code-Derived Disease-Specific Safety Indicators in CKD

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Iris R.; Ginsberg, Jennifer S.; Diamantidis, Clarissa J.; Zhan, Min; Walker, Loreen; Rattinger, Gail B.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives The Agency for Healthcare and Research Quality patient safety indicators track adverse safety events in hospitalized patients but overlook safety incidents specific to CKD. This study considers candidate CKD-pertinent patient safety indicators and compares them with the Agency for Healthcare and Research Quality patient safety indicators. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Using a national Veterans Health Administration database of hospitalized veterans from fiscal year 2005, 247,160 hospitalized veterans with prehospitalization measures of renal function were retrospectively examined for proposed CKD patient safety indicators versus Agency for Healthcare and Research Quality patient safety indicators using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision diagnosis codes. Candidate CKD-pertinent patient safety indicators included in-hospital acute kidney failure; in-hospital congestive heart failure (and related diagnostic codes); electrolyte disturbances; and medication errors, poisoning, and intoxication. Patients with a prehospital estimated GFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (CKD group) were compared with a non-CKD group. For CKD patient safety indicators, hospitalizations were excluded if the admitting condition was a potential cause of the secondary condition. Regression methods were used to present adjusted rates in study groups of interest. Results The CKD patient safety indicators were generally more common than the Agency for Healthcare and Research Quality patient safety indicators in all groups, tended to occur in different patients than those patients who experienced Agency for Healthcare and Research Quality patient safety indicators, and were more common in the CKD group than the non-CKD group, except for hypoglycemia, hypokalemia, and hyponatremia. The adjusted composite CKD patient safety indicators rate (per 1000 patient-hospitalizations) was 398.0 (95% confidence interval, 391.2 to 405.0) for patients

  15. Albuminuria as a Risk Factor for Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease: Result from the KoreaN Cohort Study for Outcomes in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease (KNOW-CKD)

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ji Suk; Lee, Mi Jung; Park, Kyoung Sook; Han, Seung Hyeok; Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Oh, Kook-Hwan; Park, Sue Kyung; Lee, Joongyub; Hyun, Young Youl; Chung, Wookyung; Kim, Yeong Hoon; Ahn, Curie; Choi, Kyu Hun

    2015-01-01

    Background Anemia is a common complication among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and it is associated with unfavorable clinical outcomes in patients with CKD independent of the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). We assessed the association of the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) and eGFR with anemia in CKD patients. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study using baseline data from the KoreaN Cohort Study for Outcome in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease (KNOW-CKD). Multiple regression analysis was performed to identify the independent association of albuminuria with anemia. Furthermore, odds ratios for anemia were calculated by cross-categorization of ACR and eGFR. Results Among 1,456 patients, the mean age was 53.5 ± 12.4 years, and the mean eGFR and ACR were 51.9 ± 30.5 mL/min per 1.73 m2 and 853.2 ± 1,330.3 mg/g, respectively. Anemia was present in 644 patients (40.5%). Multivariate analysis showed that the odds ratio of anemia increased according to ACR levels, after adjusting for age, sex, eGFR, body mass index, pulse pressure, cause of CKD, use of erythropoiesis stimulating agents, serum calcium and ferritin (ACR < 30 mg/g as a reference group; 30–299 mg/g, adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.43, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.88–2.33; ≥300 mg/g, adjusted OR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.12–3.10). In addition, graded associations were observed in cross-categorized groups of a higher ACR and eGFR compared to the reference group with an ACR <30 mg/g and eGFR ≥60 mL/min per 1.73 m2. Conclusion The present study demonstrated that albuminuria was a significant risk factor for anemia in CKD patients independent of the eGFR. PMID:26430892

  16. The CKD enigma with misleading statistics and myths about CKD, and conflicting ESRD and death rates in the literature: results of a 2008 U.S. population-based cross-sectional CKD outcomes analysis.

    PubMed

    Onuigbo, Macaulay A C

    2013-01-01

    The just released (August 2012) U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) report on chronic kidney disease (CKD) screening concluded that we know surprisingly little about whether screening adults with no signs or symptoms of CKD will improve health outcomes and that clinicians and patients deserve better information on CKD. The implications of the recently introduced CKD staging paradigm versus long-term renal outcomes remain uncertain. Furthermore, the natural history of CKD remains unclear. We completed a comparison of US population-wide CKD to projected annual incidence of end stage renal disease (ESRD) for 2008 based on current evidence in the literature . Projections for new ESRD resulted in an estimated 840,000 new ESRD cases in 2008, whereas the actual reported new ESRD incidence in 2008, according to the 2010 USRDS Annual Data Report, was in fact only 112,476, a gross overestimation by about 650%. We conclude that we as nephrologists in particular, and physicians in general, still do not understand the true natural history of CKD. We further discussed the limitations of current National Kidney Foundation Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (NKF KDOQI) CKD staging paradigms. Moreover, we have raised questions regarding the CKD patients who need to be seen by nephrologists, and have further highlighted the limitations and intricacies of the individual patient prognostication among CKD populations when followed overtime, and the implications of these in relation to future planning of CKD care in general. Finally, the clear heterogeneity of the so-called CKD patient is brought into prominence as we review the very misleading concept of classifying and prognosticating all CKD patients as one homogenous patient population.

  17. Longitudinal changes of cardiac structure and function in CKD (CASCADE study).

    PubMed

    Cai, Qi-Zhe; Lu, Xiu-Zhang; Lu, Ye; Wang, Angela Yee-Moon

    2014-07-01

    Little is known regarding the natural longitudinal changes in cardiac structure and function in CKD. We hypothesized that baseline CKD stage is associated with progressive worsening in cardiac structure and function. We conducted a prospective longitudinal study, recruiting 300 patients with stages 3-5 CKD from a major regional tertiary center and university teaching hospital in Hong Kong. Baseline CKD stages were studied in relation to natural longitudinal changes in echocardiographic and tissue Doppler imaging-derived parameters. Over 1 year, the prevalence of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy increased from 40.3% to 48.9%, median left atrial volume index increased 4.8 (interquartile range [IQR], 2.1, 7.7) ml/m(2) (P<0.001), peak systolic mitral annular velocity decreased 0.5 (IQR, -1.5, 0.5) cm/s (P<0.001), early diastolic mitral annular velocity decreased 0.5 (IQR, -1.5, 0.5) cm/s (P<0.001), and eGFR declined 2.0 (IQR, -5.0, 0.0) ml/min per 1.73 m(2). CKD stages 4 and 5 were associated with more baseline abnormalities in cardiac structure and function and predicted greater longitudinal progression in LV mass index (odds ratio [OR], 3.02; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.39 to 6.58), volume index (OR, 2.58; 95% CI, 1.18 to 5.62), and left atrial volume index (OR, 2.61; 95% CI, 1.20 to 5.69) and worse diastolic dysfunction grade (OR, 3.17; 95% CI, 1.16 to 8.69) compared with stage 3a in the fully adjusted analysis. In conclusion, more advanced CKD at baseline may be associated with larger longitudinal increases in LV mass and volume and greater deterioration in diastolic function.

  18. Management of Hypertension in CKD: Beyond the Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Judd, Eric; Calhoun, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension (HTN) and CKD are closely associated with an intermingled cause and effect relationship. Blood pressure (BP) typically rises with declines in kidney function, and sustained elevations in BP hasten progression of kidney disease. This review addresses current management issues in HTN in patients with CKD including altered circadian rhythm of BP, timing of antihypertensive medication dosing, BP targets, diagnostic challenges in evaluating secondary forms of HTN, and the role of salt restriction in CKD. HTN in patients with CKD is often accompanied by a decrease in the kidney’s ability to remove salt. Addressing this salt sensitivity is critical for the management of HTN in CKD. In addition to the well-established use of an ACEI or angiotensin receptor blocker, dietary salt restriction and appropriate diuretic therapy make up the mainstay of HTN treatment in patients with CKD. Bedtime dosing of antihypertensive medications can restore nocturnal dips in BP, and future clinical practice guidelines may recommend bedtime dosing of 1 or more antihypertensive medications in patients with CKD. PMID:25704348

  19. Low-Protein Diets in Diabetic Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) Patients: Are They Feasible and Worth the Effort?

    PubMed Central

    Piccoli, Giorgina B.; Ventrella, Federica; Capizzi, Irene; Vigotti, Federica N.; Mongilardi, Elena; Grassi, Giorgio; Loi, Valentina; Cabiddu, Gianfranca; Avagnina, Paolo; Versino, Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    Low-protein diets (LPDs) are often considered as contraindicated in diabetic patients, and are seldom studied. The aim of this observational study was to provide new data on this issue. It involved 149 diabetic and 300 non-diabetic patients who followed a LPD, with a personalized approach aimed at moderate protein restriction (0.6 g/day). Survival analysis was performed according to Kaplan–Meier, and multivariate analysis with Cox model. Diabetic versus non-diabetic patients were of similar age (median 70 years) and creatinine levels at the start of the diet (2.78 mg/dL vs. 2.80 mg/dL). There was higher prevalence of nephrotic proteinuria in diabetic patients (27.52% vs. 13.67%, p = 0.002) as well as comorbidity (median Charlson index 8 vs. 6 p = 0.002). Patient survival was lower in diabetic patients, but differences levelled off considering only cases with Charlson index > 7, the only relevant covariate in Cox analysis. Dialysis-free survival was superimposable in the setting of good compliance (Mitch formula: 0.47 g/kg/day in both groups): about 50% of the cases remained dialysis-free 2 years after the first finding of e-GFR (estimated glomerular filtration rate) < 15 mL/min, and 1 year after reaching e-GFR < 10 mL/min. In patients with type 2 diabetes, higher proteinuria was associated with mortality and initiation of dialysis. In conclusion, moderately restricted LPDs allow similar results in diabetic and non non-diabetic patients with similar comorbidity. PMID:27775639

  20. Renal Denervation in Moderate to Severe CKD

    PubMed Central

    Hering, Dagmara; Mahfoud, Felix; Walton, Antony S.; Krum, Henry; Lambert, Gavin W.; Lambert, Elisabeth A.; Sobotka, Paul A.; Böhm, Michael; Cremers, Bodo; Esler, Murray D.

    2012-01-01

    Sympathetic activation contributes to the progression of CKD and is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Ablation of renal sympathetic nerves reduces sympathetic nerve activity and BP in patients with resistant hypertension and preserved renal function, but whether this approach is safe and effective in patients with an estimated GFR (eGFR) < 45 ml/min per 1.73 m2 is unknown. We performed bilateral renal denervation in 15 patients with resistant hypertension and stage 3–4 CKD (mean eGFR, 31 ml/min per 1.73 m2). We used CO2 angiography in six patients to minimize exposure to contrast agents. Estimated GFR remained unchanged after the procedure, irrespective of the use of CO2 angiography. Mean baseline BP ± SD was 174±22/91±16 mmHg despite the use of 5.6±1.3 antihypertensive drugs. Mean changes in office systolic and diastolic BP at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months were −34/−14, −25/−11, −32/−15, and −33/−19 mmHg, respectively. Night-time ambulatory BP significantly decreased (P<0.05), restoring a more physiologic dipping pattern. In conclusion, this study suggests a favorable short-term safety profile and beneficial BP effects of catheter-based renal nerve ablation in patients with stage 3–4 CKD and resistant hypertension. PMID:22595301

  1. CKD as a Model for Improving Chronic Disease Care through Electronic Health Records.

    PubMed

    Drawz, Paul E; Archdeacon, Patrick; McDonald, Clement J; Powe, Neil R; Smith, Kimberly A; Norton, Jenna; Williams, Desmond E; Patel, Uptal D; Narva, Andrew

    2015-08-01

    Electronic health records have the potential to improve the care of patients with chronic medical conditions. CKD provides a unique opportunity to show this potential: the disease is common in the United States, there is significant room to improve CKD detection and management, CKD and its related conditions are defined primarily by objective laboratory data, CKD care requires collaboration by a diverse team of health care professionals, and improved access to CKD-related data would enable identification of a group of patients at high risk for multiple adverse outcomes. However, to realize the potential for improvement in CKD-related care, electronic health records will need to provide optimal functionality for providers and patients and interoperability across multiple health care settings. The goal of the National Kidney Disease Education Program Health Information Technology Working Group is to enable and support the widespread interoperability of data related to kidney health among health care software applications to optimize CKD detection and management. Over the course of the last 2 years, group members met to identify general strategies for using electronic health records to improve care for patients with CKD. This paper discusses these strategies and provides general goals for appropriate incorporation of CKD-related data into electronic health records and corresponding design features that may facilitate (1) optimal care of individual patients with CKD through improved access to clinical information and decision support, (2) clinical quality improvement through enhanced population management capabilities, (3) CKD surveillance to improve public health through wider availability of population-level CKD data, and (4) research to improve CKD management practices through efficiencies in study recruitment and data collection. Although these strategies may be most effectively applied in the setting of CKD, because it is primarily defined by laboratory

  2. Epidemiology of acute infections among patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Dalrymple, Lorien S; Go, Alan S

    2008-09-01

    The objectives of this review were (1) to review recent literature on the rates, risk factors, and outcomes of infections in patients who had chronic kidney disease (CKD) and did or did not require renal replacement therapy; (2) to review literature on the efficacy and use of selected vaccines for patients with CKD; and (3) to outline a research framework for examining key issues regarding infections in patients with CKD. Infection-related hospitalizations contribute substantially to excess morbidity and mortality in patients with ESRD, and infection is the second leading cause of death in this population. Patients who have CKD and do not require renal replacement therapy seem to be at higher risk for infection compared with patients without CKD; however, data about patients who have CKD and do not require dialysis therapy are very limited. Numerous factors potentially predispose patients with CKD to infection: advanced age, presence of coexisting illnesses, vaccine hyporesponsiveness, immunosuppressive therapy, uremia, dialysis access, and the dialysis procedure. Targeted vaccination seems to have variable efficacy in the setting of CKD and is generally underused in this population. In conclusion, infection is a primary issue when caring for patients who receive maintenance dialysis. Very limited data exist about the rates, risk factors, and outcomes of infection in patients who have CKD and do not require dialysis. Future research is needed to delineate accurately the epidemiology of infections in these populations and to develop effective preventive strategies across the spectrum of CKD severity. PMID:18650409

  3. Risk of Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes in Women with CKD.

    PubMed

    Piccoli, Giorgina Barbara; Cabiddu, Gianfranca; Attini, Rossella; Vigotti, Federica Neve; Maxia, Stefania; Lepori, Nicola; Tuveri, Milena; Massidda, Marco; Marchi, Cecilia; Mura, Silvia; Coscia, Alessandra; Biolcati, Marilisa; Gaglioti, Pietro; Nichelatti, Michele; Pibiri, Luciana; Chessa, Giuseppe; Pani, Antonello; Todros, Tullia

    2015-08-01

    CKD is increasingly prevalent in pregnancy. In the Torino-Cagliari Observational Study (TOCOS), we assessed whether the risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes is associated with CKD by comparing pregnancy outcomes of 504 pregnancies in women with CKD to outcomes of 836 low-risk pregnancies in women without CKD. The presence of hypertension, proteinuria (>1 g/d), systemic disease, and CKD stage (at referral) were assessed at baseline. The following outcomes were studied: cesarean section, preterm delivery, and early preterm delivery; small for gestational age (SGA); need for neonatal intensive care unit (NICU); new onset of hypertension; new onset/doubling of proteinuria; CKD stage shift; "general" combined outcome (preterm delivery, NICU, SGA); and "severe" combined outcome (early preterm delivery, NICU, SGA). The risk for adverse outcomes increased across stages (for stage 1 versus stages 4-5: "general" combined outcome, 34.1% versus 90.0%; "severe" combined outcome, 21.4% versus 80.0%; P<0.001). In women with stage 1 CKD, preterm delivery was associated with baseline hypertension (odds ratio [OR], 3.42; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.87 to 6.21), systemic disease (OR, 3.13; 95% CI, 1.51 to 6.50), and proteinuria (OR, 3.69; 95% CI, 1.63 to 8.36). However, stage 1 CKD remained associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes (general combined outcome) in women without baseline hypertension, proteinuria, or systemic disease (OR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.27 to 2.79). The risk of intrauterine death did not differ between patients and controls. Findings from this prospective study suggest a "baseline risk" for adverse pregnancy-related outcomes linked to CKD.

  4. [Treatment for CKD-MBD(Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder)].

    PubMed

    Iwashita, Yuko; Iwashita, Yu; Ito, Takafumi; Shigematsu, Takashi

    2016-02-01

    CKD is a common disease that is estimated to develop one in eight persons in Japan. The CKD itself is highly risk factor on the cardiac/vascular mortality. In addition,a new concept has been proposed "CKD-MBD". CKD-MBD is composed of a combination of abnormal mineral metabolism, abnormal bone, and extra skeletal calcification with cardiovascular high mortality. Treatment for CKD-MBD is a wide-ranging. We aim to decline cardiovascular event, fracture, and mortality rate of patients with CKD. The main therapeutic target for CKD-MBD becomes the phosphate control. Today, we can use of the VRDA, Calcimimetics and muti-phosphate binders as a lot of pharmacological intervention. PMID:26813506

  5. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the elderly -- a geriatrician's perspective.

    PubMed

    Munikrishnappa, Devaraj

    2007-09-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is becoming increasingly prevalent among many different populations all over the world, including the US and Europe. Its multitude of complications with devastating outcomes leads to a significantly higher risk for cardio-vascular and all-cause mortality in an individual. However, it is clear now that early detection of CKD might not only delay some of the complications but also prevent them. Therefore, various important public health organizations all over the world have turned their focus and attention to CKD and its risk factors, early detection and early intervention. Nevertheless, the general goals in preventing the increase in CKD and its complications are far from being completely achieved. Why is this so? What is the magnitude and complexity of the problem? How is it affecting the population - are there differences in its affection by age, gender or frail elderly versus the robust? Are we modifying the risk factors appropriately and aggressively? Are there subtle differences in managing the risk factors in those on dialysis versus the non-dialysis CKD patients? Is it important to treat anaemia of CKD aggressively, will it make a difference in the disease progression, its complications or to quality of life? What do these unfortunate individuals commonly succumb to? What do we advise patients who refuse dialysis or those who desire dialysis or transplant? Are there useful non-dialytic treatment recommendations for those who refuse dialysis? What is the role of the physicians caring for the elderly with CKD? When should the primary care givers refer a CKD patient to a nephrologist? The key to eventually controlling incident and prevalent CKD and improve quality of life of affected individuals, lies in not only knowing these and many other vital aspects, but also in applying such knowledge compulsively in day-to-day practice by each and every one us. As CKD is increasingly a disease of the elderly with men being affected more, this

  6. Approach to the Treatment of Chronic Metabolic Acidosis in CKD.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Kalani L

    2016-04-01

    Chronic metabolic acidosis is not uncommon in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Clinical practice guidelines suggest that clinicians administer alkali to maintain serum bicarbonate level at a minimum of 22 mEq/L to prevent the effects of acidosis on bone demineralization and protein catabolism. Small interventional studies support the notion that correcting acidosis slows CKD progression as well. Furthermore, alkaline therapy in persons with CKD and normal bicarbonate levels may also preserve kidney function. Observational studies suggest that targeting a serum bicarbonate level near 28 mEq/L may improve clinical outcomes above and beyond targeting a value ≥ 22 mEq/L, yet values > 26 mEq/L have been reported to be associated with incident heart failure and mortality in the CRIC (Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort) Study. Furthermore, correcting acidosis may provoke vascular calcification. This teaching case discusses several uncertainties regarding the management of acidosis in CKD, such as when to initiate alkali treatment, potential side effects of alkali, and the optimum serum bicarbonate level based on current evidence in CKD. Suggestions regarding the maximum sodium bicarbonate dose to administer to patients with CKD to achieve the target serum bicarbonate concentration are offered.

  7. Automated Clinical Reminders for Primary Care Providers in the Care of CKD: A Small Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Kader, Khaled; Fischer, Gary S; Li, Jie; Moore, Charity G; Hess, Rachel; Unruh, Mark L

    2011-01-01

    Background Primary care physicians (PCPs) care for the majority of non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Studies suggest that PCPs may deliver suboptimal CKD care. One means to improve PCP treatment of CKD is clinical decision support systems (CDSS). Study Design Cluster randomized controlled trial Setting & Participants Thirty PCPs in a university-based outpatient general internal medicine practice and their 248 moderate to advanced CKD patients who had not been referred to a nephrologist. Intervention Two CKD educational sessions were held for PCPs in both arms. The 15 intervention arm PCPs also received real-time automated electronic medical record alerts for patients with estimated glomerular filtration rates < 45 ml/min/1.73m2 recommending renal referral and urine albumin quantification if not done within the prior year. Outcomes Primary outcome was referral to a nephrologist; secondary outcomes were albuminuria/proteinuria assessment, CKD documentation, optimal blood pressure (i.e., < 130/80), and use of renoprotective medications. Results The intervention and control arms did not differ in renal referrals (9.7% vs. 16.5%, respectively; between group difference, −6.8% (95% CI, −15.5% to 1.8%; P=0.1)) or proteinuria assessments (39.3% vs. 30.1%, respectively; between group difference, 9.2% (95% CI, −2.7% to 21.1%; P=0.1)). Among intervention and control group patients without a baseline proteinuria assessment, 27.7% versus 16.3%, respectively had one at follow-up (P=0.06). After controlling for clustering, these findings were largely unchanged and no significant differences were apparent between the groups. Limitations Small single-center university based practice, use of a passive CDSS that required PCPs to trigger the electronic order set. Conclusions PCPs were willing to partake in a randomized trial of CDSS to improve outpatient CKD care. While CDSS may possess potential, larger studies are needed to further explore how best

  8. [Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and bone. Targets of serum calcium, phosphate, and parathyroid hormone levels and their controls in maintenance dialysis patients].

    PubMed

    Akiba, Takashi

    2009-04-01

    Introduction of CKD-MBD changed clinical attitudes for the therapy of metabolic bone disease in maintenance dialysis therapy as the systemic diseases of calcium phosphate metabolism. We present the variation of target serum calcium, phosphate and parathyroid hormone levels in the guidelines of US and European countries. We also review the management of drug use especially concomitant active vitamin D metabolites and calcium carbonate to cinacalcet prescription.

  9. CKD-Mineral Bone Disorder in Stage 4 and 5 CKD: What We Know Today?

    PubMed

    Melamed, Michal L; Buttar, Rupinder Singh; Coco, Maria

    2016-07-01

    Patients with CKD stages 4 and 5 experience biochemical derangements associated with CKD-mineral bone disorder. Some of the key abnormalities are hyperparathyroidism, hyperphosphatemia, hypocalcemia, and metabolic acidosis. We review the available treatments for these conditions and the evidence behind the treatments. We conclude that there is greater evidence for treating hyperphosphatemia than hyperparathyroidism. Treatment of metabolic acidosis in small clinical trials appears to be safe. We caution the reader about side effects associated with some of these treatments that differ in patients with CKD Stages 4 and 5 compared with patients on dialysis. The use of cinacalcet has been associated with hyperphosphatemia in patients with functioning kidneys. Activated vitamin D therapy has been associated with elevated creatinine levels, which may or may not be a reflection of true decrement in kidney function. Finally, the use of non-calcium-containing phosphate binders may be associated with improved clinical outcomes in patients; however, many more clinical trials are needed in this important area of medicine. PMID:27324680

  10. Managing older adults with CKD: individualized versus disease-based approaches.

    PubMed

    Bowling, C Barrett; O'Hare, Ann M

    2012-02-01

    The last decade has seen the evolution and ongoing refinement of a disease-oriented approach to chronic kidney disease (CKD). Disease-oriented models of care assume a direct causal association between observed signs and symptoms and underlying disease pathophysiologic processes. Treatment plans target underlying disease mechanisms with the goal of improving disease-related outcomes. Because average glomerular filtrate rates tend to decrease with age, CKD becomes increasingly prevalent with advancing age and those who meet criteria for CKD are disproportionately elderly. However, several features of geriatric populations may limit the utility of disease-oriented models of care. In older adults, complex comorbid conditions and geriatric syndromes are common; signs and symptoms often do not reflect a single underlying pathophysiologic process; there can be substantial heterogeneity in life expectancy, functional status, and health priorities; and information about the safety and efficacy of recommended interventions often is lacking. For all these reasons, geriatricians have tended to favor an individualized patient-centered model of care over more traditional disease-based approaches. An individualized approach prioritizes patient preferences and embraces the notion that observed signs and symptoms often do not reflect a single unifying disease process and instead reflect the complex interplay between many different factors. This approach emphasizes modifiable outcomes that matter to the patient. Prognostic information related to these and other outcomes generally is used to shape rather than dictate treatment decisions. We argue that an individualized patient-centered approach to care may have more to offer than a traditional disease-based approach to CKD in many older adults.

  11. Risk Prediction in CKD: The Rational Alignment of Health Care Resources in CKD 4/5 Care.

    PubMed

    Wojciechowski, Peter; Tangri, Navdeep; Rigatto, Claudio; Komenda, Paul

    2016-07-01

    CKD is a well-recognized global epidemic with consequences on patient morbidity, mortality, and health care resources. In the United States and Canada, a financial premium is often paid to programs and providers for caring for patients with Stage 4 to 5 CKD (not on dialysis) and is justified by the intensive care required by these patients, particularly in preparation for dialysis. About half of all patients with CKD Stages 3 and 4 never progress to kidney failure, and more than a quarter of them have stable kidney function for years. Among patients with Stage 3 CKD, even fewer progresses to kidney failure but small subpopulations with certain characteristics (eg, younger age, higher levels of proteinuria) have a more predictable trajectory. Clearly, a more robust method of screening patients for nephrology referral and subsequent enrollment into multidisciplinary clinics is needed to provide better efficiency within the health care system. The Kidney Failure Risk Equation is a generalizable CKD risk prediction model that has been externally validated and allows for the efficient risk-based triaging of nephrology referrals with a significant benefit to decreasing wait times. It is also efficiently used in a multidisciplinary kidney disease clinic with aiding timing in modality planning and frequency of follow-ups. The overall potential benefit of this system should allow for appropriate allocation of human resources to those at highest risk to yield optimal care in the most cost-effective manner to the health care system.

  12. Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... patients Join our Advocacy Network Join our Advocacy Network There is strength in numbers. Make your voice heard—join our nationwide Advocacy Network. Take action on current issues Take action on ...

  13. CKD in an Electronic Health Record Problem List: Quality of Care, ESRD, and Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Jolly, Stacey E.; Navaneethan, Sankar D.; Schold, Jesse D.; Arrigain, Susana; Sharp, John W; Jain, Anil K; Schreiber, Martin J.; Simon, James F.; Nally, Joseph V

    2014-01-01

    Background Whether CKD recognition in an electronic health record (EHR) problem list improves processes of care or clinical outcomes of ESRD and death is unclear. Methods We identified patients who had at least 1 year of follow up (2005–2009) in our EHR based CKD registry (n=25,742). CKD recognition was defined by having ICD-9 codes for CKD, diabetic kidney disease, or hypertensive kidney disease in the problem list. We calculated proportions of patients with and without CKD recognition and examined differences by demographics, clinical factors, and development of ESRD or mortality. We evaluated differences in the proportion of patients with CKD specific labs checked before and after recognition among cases and propensity-matched controls. Results Only 11% (n=2735) had CKD recognition in the problem list and they were younger (68 vs. 71 yrs), a higher proportion were male (61% vs. 37%) and African-American (21% vs. 10%) compared to those unrecognized. CKD-specific labs for patients with eGFR 30–59 including iPTH (23% vs. 6%), Vitamin D (22% vs. 18%), phosphorus (29% vs. 7%), and a urine check for proteinuria (55% vs. 36%) were significantly more likely to be done among those with CKD recognition. (all p<0.05) Similar results were found for eGFR<30 except for proteinuria and in our propensity score matched control analysis. There was no independent association of CKD recognition with ESRD or mortality. Conclusions CKD recognition in the EHR problem list was low, but translated into more CKD specific processes of care; however ESRD or mortality were not affected. PMID:24714513

  14. CKD and Infectious Diseases in Asia Pacific: Challenges and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Jha, Vivekanand; Prasad, Narayan

    2016-07-01

    The exact number of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Asia Pacific is uncertain. In numeric terms, the region is home to the largest population of patients with untreated chronic kidney failure. The climatic, geographic, social, cultural, economic, and environmental diversity within this region is higher than in any other part of the world. Large parts of the region face a climate-related burden of infectious diseases. Infections contribute to the development and progression of CKD and complicate the course of patients with pre-existing CKD (especially those on dialysis therapy or who are immunosuppressed), increase the cost of CKD care, and contribute to mortality and morbidity. Kidney involvement is a feature of several infectious diseases prevalent in Asia Pacific. Examples include malaria, leptospirosis, scrub typhus, tuberculosis, hepatitis B and C virus, dengue hemorrhagic fever, and Hantaan virus infections. The contribution of infection-associated acute kidney injury to the overall burden of CKD has not been evaluated systematically. Research is needed to quantify the impact of infections on kidney health by undertaking prospective studies. Nephrologists need to work with infectious disease research groups and government infection surveillance and control programs.

  15. CKD and Infectious Diseases in Asia Pacific: Challenges and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Jha, Vivekanand; Prasad, Narayan

    2016-07-01

    The exact number of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Asia Pacific is uncertain. In numeric terms, the region is home to the largest population of patients with untreated chronic kidney failure. The climatic, geographic, social, cultural, economic, and environmental diversity within this region is higher than in any other part of the world. Large parts of the region face a climate-related burden of infectious diseases. Infections contribute to the development and progression of CKD and complicate the course of patients with pre-existing CKD (especially those on dialysis therapy or who are immunosuppressed), increase the cost of CKD care, and contribute to mortality and morbidity. Kidney involvement is a feature of several infectious diseases prevalent in Asia Pacific. Examples include malaria, leptospirosis, scrub typhus, tuberculosis, hepatitis B and C virus, dengue hemorrhagic fever, and Hantaan virus infections. The contribution of infection-associated acute kidney injury to the overall burden of CKD has not been evaluated systematically. Research is needed to quantify the impact of infections on kidney health by undertaking prospective studies. Nephrologists need to work with infectious disease research groups and government infection surveillance and control programs. PMID:26943982

  16. News on biomarkers in CKD-MBD.

    PubMed

    Mazzaferro, Sandro; Tartaglione, Lida; Rotondi, Silverio; Bover, Jordi; Goldsmith, David; Pasquali, Marzia

    2014-11-01

    The increased awareness of the potential role played by mineral and bone disorder in the appearance of cardiovascular disease in renal patients has produced research efforts aimed at discovering possible pathogenic links. Accordingly, the diagnostic significance of the classic bone markers of mineral disorders and of the new markers in the setting of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorders (CKD-MBD) needs to be re-evaluated along with increasing information. In this article we include classic markers of bone metabolism and some of the noncollagenous bone proteins that are gaining experimental and clinical significance in CKD-MBD. Among classic markers of secondary hyperparathyroidism and of renal osteodystrophy, we analyzed parathyroid hormone, alkaline phosphatase, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, and bone collagen-derived peptides. We underlined, for each, the relevance of parent proteins (peptides or isoforms) that affect assay methods and, eventually, the diagnostic or prognostic significance. Also, we considered their relationship with cardiovascular mortality. Among the numerous noncollagenous bone proteins, we examined matrix Gla protein (MGP), osteocalcin (OC), osteoprotegerin, and the small integrin-binding ligand N-linked glycoprotein family. For MGP and OC we report the relevant involvement with the process of calcification (MGP) and with glucose and energy metabolism (OC). Both of these proteins require vitamin K to become active and this is a specific problem in renal patients who frequently are deficient of this vitamin. Finally, recent acquisitions on the fascinating family of the small integrin-binding ligand N-linked glycoprotein proteins are recapitulated briefly to underline their potential clinical interest and their complex involvement with all aspects of CKD-MBD. Their diagnostic role in clinical practice awaits further studies. PMID:25498379

  17. Magnesium in CKD: more than a calcification inhibitor?

    PubMed

    Floege, Jürgen

    2015-06-01

    Magnesium fulfils important roles in multiple physiological processes. Accordingly, a tight regulation of magnesium homeostasis is essential. Dysregulated magnesium serum levels, in particular hypomagnesaemia, are common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and have been associated with poor clinical outcomes. In cell culture studies as well as in clinical situations magnesium levels were associated with vascular calcification, cardiovascular disease and altered bone-mineral metabolism. Magnesium has also been linked to diseases such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes, hypertension, fatigue and depression, all of which are common in CKD. The present review summarizes and discusses the latest clinical data on the impact of magnesium and possible effects of higher levels on the health status of patients with CKD, including an outlook on the use of magnesium-based phosphate-binding agents in this context.

  18. CKD screening and management in the Veterans Health Administration: the impact of system organization and an innovative electronic record.

    PubMed

    Patel, Thakor G; Pogach, Leonard M; Barth, Robert H

    2009-03-01

    At the beginning of this decade, Healthy People 2010 issued a series of objectives to "reduce the incidence, morbidity, mortality and health care costs of chronic kidney disease." A necessary feature of any program to reduce the burden of kidney disease in the US population must include mechanisms to screen populations at risk and institute early the aspects of management, such as control of blood pressure, management of diabetes, and, in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD), preparation for dialysis therapy and proper vascular access management, that can retard CKD progression and improve long-term outcome. The Department of Veterans Affairs and the Veterans Health Administration is a broad-based national health care system that is almost uniquely situated to address these issues and has developed a number of effective approaches using evidence-based clinical practice guidelines, performance measures, innovative use of a robust electronic medical record system, and system oversight during the past decade. In this report, we describe the application of this systems approach to the prevention of CKD in veterans through the treatment of risk factors, identification of CKD in veterans, and oversight of predialysis and dialysis care. The lessons learned and applicability to the private sector are discussed.

  19. Diagnosis and Prediction of CKD Progression by Assessment of Urinary Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Schanstra, Joost P.; Alkhalaf, Alaa; Argiles, Angel; Bakker, Stephan J.L.; Beige, Joachim; Bilo, Henk J.G.; Chatzikyrkou, Christos; Dakna, Mohammed; Dawson, Jesse; Delles, Christian; Haller, Hermann; Haubitz, Marion; Husi, Holger; Jankowski, Joachim; Jerums, George; Kleefstra, Nanne; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Maahs, David M.; Menne, Jan; Mullen, William; Ortiz, Alberto; Persson, Frederik; Rossing, Peter; Ruggenenti, Piero; Rychlik, Ivan; Serra, Andreas L.; Siwy, Justyna; Snell-Bergeon, Janet; Spasovski, Goce; Staessen, Jan A.; Vlahou, Antonia; Mischak, Harald; Vanholder, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Progressive CKD is generally detected at a late stage by a sustained decline in eGFR and/or the presence of significant albuminuria. With the aim of early and improved risk stratification of patients with CKD, we studied urinary peptides in a large cross-sectional multicenter cohort of 1990 individuals, including 522 with follow-up data, using proteome analysis. We validated that a previously established multipeptide urinary biomarker classifier performed significantly better in detecting and predicting progression of CKD than the current clinical standard, urinary albumin. The classifier was also more sensitive for identifying patients with rapidly progressing CKD. Compared with the combination of baseline eGFR and albuminuria (area under the curve [AUC]=0.758), the addition of the multipeptide biomarker classifier significantly improved CKD risk prediction (AUC=0.831) as assessed by the net reclassification index (0.303±−0.065; P<0.001) and integrated discrimination improvement (0.058±0.014; P<0.001). Correlation of individual urinary peptides with CKD stage and progression showed that the peptides that associated with CKD, irrespective of CKD stage or CKD progression, were either fragments of the major circulating proteins, suggesting failure of the glomerular filtration barrier sieving properties, or different collagen fragments, suggesting accumulation of intrarenal extracellular matrix. Furthermore, protein fragments associated with progression of CKD originated mostly from proteins related to inflammation and tissue repair. Results of this study suggest that urinary proteome analysis might significantly improve the current state of the art of CKD detection and outcome prediction and that identification of the urinary peptides allows insight into various ongoing pathophysiologic processes in CKD. PMID:25589610

  20. Diagnosis and Prediction of CKD Progression by Assessment of Urinary Peptides.

    PubMed

    Schanstra, Joost P; Zürbig, Petra; Alkhalaf, Alaa; Argiles, Angel; Bakker, Stephan J L; Beige, Joachim; Bilo, Henk J G; Chatzikyrkou, Christos; Dakna, Mohammed; Dawson, Jesse; Delles, Christian; Haller, Hermann; Haubitz, Marion; Husi, Holger; Jankowski, Joachim; Jerums, George; Kleefstra, Nanne; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Maahs, David M; Menne, Jan; Mullen, William; Ortiz, Alberto; Persson, Frederik; Rossing, Peter; Ruggenenti, Piero; Rychlik, Ivan; Serra, Andreas L; Siwy, Justyna; Snell-Bergeon, Janet; Spasovski, Goce; Staessen, Jan A; Vlahou, Antonia; Mischak, Harald; Vanholder, Raymond

    2015-08-01

    Progressive CKD is generally detected at a late stage by a sustained decline in eGFR and/or the presence of significant albuminuria. With the aim of early and improved risk stratification of patients with CKD, we studied urinary peptides in a large cross-sectional multicenter cohort of 1990 individuals, including 522 with follow-up data, using proteome analysis. We validated that a previously established multipeptide urinary biomarker classifier performed significantly better in detecting and predicting progression of CKD than the current clinical standard, urinary albumin. The classifier was also more sensitive for identifying patients with rapidly progressing CKD. Compared with the combination of baseline eGFR and albuminuria (area under the curve [AUC]=0.758), the addition of the multipeptide biomarker classifier significantly improved CKD risk prediction (AUC=0.831) as assessed by the net reclassification index (0.303±-0.065; P<0.001) and integrated discrimination improvement (0.058±0.014; P<0.001). Correlation of individual urinary peptides with CKD stage and progression showed that the peptides that associated with CKD, irrespective of CKD stage or CKD progression, were either fragments of the major circulating proteins, suggesting failure of the glomerular filtration barrier sieving properties, or different collagen fragments, suggesting accumulation of intrarenal extracellular matrix. Furthermore, protein fragments associated with progression of CKD originated mostly from proteins related to inflammation and tissue repair. Results of this study suggest that urinary proteome analysis might significantly improve the current state of the art of CKD detection and outcome prediction and that identification of the urinary peptides allows insight into various ongoing pathophysiologic processes in CKD. PMID:25589610

  1. Urinary Stone Disease: Advancing Knowledge, Patient Care, and Population Health.

    PubMed

    Scales, Charles D; Tasian, Gregory E; Schwaderer, Andrew L; Goldfarb, David S; Star, Robert A; Kirkali, Ziya

    2016-07-01

    Expanding epidemiologic and physiologic data suggest that urinary stone disease is best conceptualized as a chronic metabolic condition punctuated by symptomatic, preventable stone events. These acute events herald substantial future chronic morbidity, including decreased bone mineral density, cardiovascular disease, and CKD. Urinary stone disease imposes a large and growing public health burden. In the United States, 1 in 11 individuals will experience a urinary stone in their lifetime. Given this high incidence and prevalence, urinary stone disease is one of the most expensive urologic conditions, with health care charges exceeding $10 billion annually. Patient care focuses on management of symptomatic stones rather than prevention; after three decades of innovation, procedural interventions are almost exclusively minimally invasive or noninvasive, and mortality is rare. Despite these advances, the prevalence of stone disease has nearly doubled over the past 15 years, likely secondary to dietary and health trends. The NIDDK recently convened a symposium to assess knowledge and treatment gaps to inform future urinary stone disease research. Reducing the public health burden of urinary stone disease will require key advances in understanding environmental, genetic, and other individual disease determinants; improving secondary prevention; and optimal population health strategies in an increasingly cost-conscious care environment. PMID:26964844

  2. Urine Creatinine Excretion and Clinical Outcomes in CKD

    PubMed Central

    Di Micco, Lucia; Quinn, Robert Ross; Ronksley, Paul Everett; Bellizzi, Vincenzo; Lewin, Adriane Marlene; Cianciaruso, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Twenty-four–hour urine creatinine excretion is a reliable approximation of muscle mass. Whether changes in urine creatinine predict clinical outcomes in persons with CKD is unknown. This work studied the relationship between urine creatinine and patient and renal survival in people with CKD not requiring renal replacement therapy. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This longitudinal cohort study included incident stages 3–5 CKD patients referred to the renal clinic at the University Federico II in Naples between January of 1995 and December of 2005. Clinical data and urine creatinine were updated at each visit. Main outcomes were all-cause mortality and kidney failure requiring dialysis. Results This study enrolled 525 individuals and followed them for a median of 6 years (range of 4 months to 15 years). Urine creatinine excretion declined by 16 mg/d per year (95% confidence interval, 14 to 19) in participants with CKD stages 3a, 3b, and 4, and it remained stable in participants with stage 5 CKD. Per each 20 mg/d decline in urine creatinine, mortality increased by 3% (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.03; 95% confidence interval, 1.01 to 1.05), and the risk of initiating dialysis increased by 2% (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.02; 95% confidence interval, 1.01 to 1.03). These associations were independent of body mass index and GFR. Conclusions In persons with CKD stages 3 and 4, urine creatinine declines at a rate of 16 mg/d per year. Lower urine creatinine excretion predicts greater risk of kidney failure and patient mortality. PMID:24158796

  3. Predialysis chronic kidney disease in 2010: Novel targets for slowing CKD progression.

    PubMed

    Carrero, Juan Jesús; Stenvinkel, Peter

    2011-02-01

    Several 2010 trials have provided novel information on how best to manage patients with predialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD). Armed with these new findings, nephrologists can find new means of slowing CKD progression by targeting blood-pressure control, acidosis and serum uric acid levels.

  4. Chronic kidney disease guideline implementation in primary care: a qualitative report from the TRANSLATE CKD study

    PubMed Central

    Vest, Bonnie M.; York, Trevor R.M.; Sand, Jessica; Fox, Chester H.; Kahn, Linda S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Primary care physicians (PCPs) are optimally situated to identify and manage early-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD). Nonetheless, studies have documented suboptimal PCP understanding, awareness, and management of early CKD. The TRANSLATE CKD study is an ongoing national mixed-methods cluster randomized control trial that examines the implementation of evidence-based guidelines for CKD into primary care practice. Methods As part of mixed-methods process evaluation, semi-structured interviews were conducted by phone with 27 providers participating in the study. Interviews were audio-taped and transcribed. Thematic content analysis was used to identify themes. Themes were categorized according to the four domains of Normalization Process Theory (NPT). Results Identified themes illuminated the complex work undertaken in primary care practices to manage CKD. Barriers to guideline implementation were identified in each of the four NPT domains, including: 1) lack of knowledge and understanding around CKD (coherence), 2) difficulties engaging providers and patients in CKD management (cognitive participation), 3) limited time and competing demands (collective action), and 4) challenges obtaining and utilizing data to monitor progress (reflexive monitoring). Conclusions Addressing the barriers to implementation with concrete interventions at the levels at which they occur, informed by NPT, will ultimately improve the quality of CKD patient care. PMID:26355134

  5. Back to the future: restricted protein intake for conservative management of CKD, triple goals of renoprotection, uremia mitigation, and nutritional health.

    PubMed

    Kovesdy, Csaba P; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2016-05-01

    Lowering dietary protein intake (DPI) to approximately 0.6-0.8 g/kgBW/day may be renoprotective through various mechanisms, and it has been recommended in patients with non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (NDD-CKD) as a means to also control various metabolic consequences of advanced CKD, such as uremic symptoms, hyperparathyroidism, hypertension, hyperkalemia, and hyperphosphatemia. A meta-analysis in this issue of the Journal suggests that low-protein diet is effective and safe when used to retard progression of CKD and alleviate uremic complications. A potential deleterious consequence of lowering DPI in this population is the development or worsening of protein-energy wasting (PEW), which can contribute to poor clinical outcomes such as higher mortality and morbidity. There is currently insufficient high-level evidence to determine the ideal level of DPI in patients with NDD-CKD with high risk of PEW. For the time being we recommend a DPI of 0.6-0.8 g/kgBW/day, and increasing this as needed on an individual basis in patients with PEW. Further examination of this dilemma in randomized controlled clinical trials will be necessary. PMID:26886110

  6. Obesity in CKD--what should nephrologists know?

    PubMed

    Stenvinkel, Peter; Zoccali, Carmine; Ikizler, T Alp

    2013-11-01

    Obesity, the epidemic of the 21st century, carries a markedly increased risk for comorbid complications, such as type 2 diabetes, cancer, hypertension, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, and sleep apnea. In addition, obesity increases the risk for CKD and its progression to ESRD. Paradoxically, even morbid obesity associates with better outcomes in studies of ESRD patients on maintenance dialysis. Because the number of obese CKD and maintenance dialysis patients is projected to increase markedly in developed as well as low- and middle-income countries, obesity is a rapidly emerging problem for the international renal community. Targeting the obesity epidemic represents an unprecedented opportunity for health officials to ameliorate the current worldwide increase in CKD prevalence. Nephrologists need more information about assessing and managing obesity in the setting of CKD. Specifically, more precise estimation of regional fat distribution and the amount of muscle mass should be introduced into regular clinical practice to complement more commonly used practical markers, such as body mass index. Studies examining the effects of obesity on kidney disease progression and other clinical outcomes along with weight management strategies are much needed in this orphan area of research.

  7. The chronic kidney disease self-efficacy (CKD-SE) instrument: development and psychometric evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chiu-Chu; Wu, Chia-Chen; Anderson, Robert M.; Chang, Chao-Sung; Chang, Shu-Chen; Hwang, Shang-Jyh; Chen, Hung-Chun

    2012-01-01

    Background Self-management has been associated with positive health outcomes among adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Perceived disease-related self-efficacy (DSE) is considered a critical component in the successful self-management of chronic disease. A valid and reliable instrument for measuring CKD patients' self-efficacy is needed. This study aims to develop and test a new instrument to measure the DSE of patients with early stage CKD. Methods A total of 594 Taiwanese patients with early stage CKD recruited from two medical centers and one regional hospital in southern Taiwan completed the questionnaire. The CKD self-efficacy (CKD-SE) was evaluated using exploratory factor analyses (EFA) and measures of reliability. Results EFA identified four distinct factors with loadings ranging from 0.557 to 0.970: autonomy, self-integration, problem solving and seeking social support, accounting for 64.348% of the total variance. Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the subscales ranged from 0.843 to 0.901. Conclusion This promising 25-item CKD-SE instrument can be used for the early identification of patients with low DSE, thus allowing the development of interventions to help these patients attain an appropriate level of DSE. PMID:22344776

  8. The role of bone in CKD-mediated mineral and vascular disease.

    PubMed

    Khouzam, Nadine M; Wesseling-Perry, Katherine; Salusky, Isidro B

    2015-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in pediatric patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and vascular calcifications start early in the course of CKD. Based on the growing body of evidence that alterations of bone and mineral metabolism and the therapies designed to treat the skeletal consequences of CKD are linked to cardiovascular calcifications, the Kidney Disease, Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) working group redefined renal osteodystrophy as a systemic disorder of mineral and bone metabolism due to CKD, and this newly defined disorder is now known as "chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD)". Elevated fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), a bone-derived protein, is the first biochemical abnormality to be associated with CKD-MBD, and high FGF23 levels correlate with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, suggesting that bone is central to both initiating and perpetuating the abnormal mineral metabolism and vascular disease in CKD. The current standard therapies for CKD-MBD affect FGF23 levels differently; non-calcium-based binders with or without concurrent use of dietary phosphate restriction reduce FGF23 levels, while calcium-based binders seem to either increase or have no effect on FGF23 levels. Active vitamin D sterols increase FGF23 levels, whereas therapy with calcimimetics decreases FGF23 levels. Thus, the appropriate therapy that will minimize the rise in FGF23 and prevent cardiovascular morbidity remains to be defined. PMID:25168424

  9. Elevated Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio Predicts Intermediate-Term Outcomes in Patients Who Have Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease with Peripheral Artery Disease Receiving Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty

    PubMed Central

    Chen, I-Chih; Yu, Chao-Chin; Wu, Yi-Hsuan; Chao, Ting-Hsing

    2016-01-01

    Background Inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), an inflammatory biomarker, has not been evaluated in patients who have advanced CKD with peripheral artery disease (PAD) undergoing percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA), especially in Taiwan. Methods We retrospectively evaluated 148 advanced CKD (creatinine clearance rate ≤ 30 mL/min/1.73 m2) identified from a prospective registry in our hospital (303 PTA cases in total). Kaplan-Meier analysis with log-rank test was used to study event-free survival, and all univariables (p value < 0.1) were put into multivariate Cox regression analysis. Results During the mean follow-up time of 8.6 ± 7.8 months, 35.1% of the cases achieved primary composite endpoint (all-cause mortality or major amputation), 25.5% underwent death from any cause, and 14.9% underwent major or minor amputation. Rutherford grade 6, either NLR or NLR ≥ 3.76, and a history of hypertension had a positively prognostic impact on the occurrence of primary composite endpoint, whereas higher albumin level (≥ 3.0 mg/dL) and technical success had a significantly protective effect. History of hypertension, either NLR or NLR ≥ 3.76, and age were associated with all-cause mortality. In addition, Rutherford 6, higher albumin level (≥ 3.0 mg/dL), technical success, NLR, and age could predict the occurrence of major amputation. Conclusions NLR, but not C-reactive protein or platelet-lymphocyte ratio, is an important prognostic predictor of all major clinical outcomes in patients with advanced CKD and PAD receiving PTA. Further studies are warranted to establish a better strategy and healthcare program in this clinical setting. PMID:27713601

  10. Tipping the balance from angiogenesis to fibrosis in CKD

    PubMed Central

    Ballermann, Barbara J; Obeidat, Marya

    2014-01-01

    Chronic progressive renal fibrosis leads to end-stage renal failure many patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Loss of the rich peritubular capillary network is a prominent feature, and seems independent of the specific underlying disease. The mechanisms that contribute to peritubular capillary regression include the loss of glomerular perfusion, as flow-dependent shear forces are required to provide the survival signal for endothelial cells. Also, reduced endothelial cell survival signals from sclerotic glomeruli and atrophic or injured tubule epithelial cells contribute to peritubular capillary regression. In response to direct tubular epithelial cell injury, and the inflammatory reaction that ensues, capillary pericytes dissociate from their blood vessels, also reducing endothelial cell survival. In addition, direct inflammatory injury of capillary endothelial cells, for instance in chronic allograft nephropathy, also contributes to capillary dropout. Chronic tissue hypoxia, which ensues from the rarefaction of the peritubular capillary network, can generate both an angiogenic and a fibrogenic response. However, in CKD, the balance is strongly tipped toward fibrogenesis. Understanding the underlying mechanisms for failed angiogenesis in CKD and harnessing endothelial-specific survival and pro-angiogenic mechanisms for therapy should be our goal if we are to reduce the disease burden from CKD. PMID:26312149

  11. Recognizing the link between CKD and CVD in the primary care setting: accurate and early diagnosis for timely and appropriate intervention.

    PubMed

    Basile, Jan N

    2007-05-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD), which is becoming increasingly prevalent in the US and worldwide, eventually progresses to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), requiring renal replacement therapy. Diabetes and hypertension, the two leading causes of CKD, are themselves reaching near epidemic proportions. Hypertension can cause both the development and progression of CKD, and CKD is a significant risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. Indeed, CKD patients are more likely to die of cardiovascular complications than progress to ESRD. However, data indicate that early recognition and management of CKD can have a significant positive impact on disease outcome. This creates an important interventional opportunity for the primary care physician. This report describes the major risk factors and comorbidities associated with the development and progression of CKD and offers suggestions for timely diagnosis and management of CKD in the primary care setting.

  12. [The efficacy and safety of activated vitamin D for CKD-MBD].

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Nobuki; Suzuki, Atsushi

    2016-09-01

    Metabolic bone disorders that are represented by secondary hyperparathyroidism occur with the progression of chronic kidney disease(CKD). The administration of activated vitamin D is expected to improve high-turnover bone disorders and is widely used for the management of bone mineral diseases in patients with CKD and end-stage renal disease. CKD is an underlying disease of secondary osteoporosis and coexists with primary osteoporosis at a high rate. With regard to osteoporosis patients with renal insufficiency, the administration of activated vitamin D is also thought to reduce the fracture incidence by both increasing bone mass and reducing falls. PMID:27561349

  13. Americans’ Use of Dietary Supplements That Are Potentially Harmful in CKD

    PubMed Central

    Grubbs, Vanessa; Plantinga, Laura C.; Tuot, Delphine S.; Hedgeman, Elizabeth; Saran, Rajiv; Saydah, Sharon; Rolka, Deborah; Powe, Neil R.

    2013-01-01

    patients with and at risk for CKD. PMID:23415417

  14. BR 08-2 CARDIOVASCULAR RISK ASSESSMENT IN HYPERTENSIVES WITH CKD.

    PubMed

    Park, Jongha

    2016-09-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) risk assessment is not easy in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Age, male sex, race, family history of CV disease, smoking status and diabetes should be considered as CV risk factors as the general population. It is also accepted that hypertension (HTN) is associated with the greater risk of CV complications in this population. However, there are some concerns in this issue.First, supporting evidence for specific blood pressure (BP) targets in CKD is scarce. Many observational studies reported a J-shaped association between BP level and CV mortality unlike a linear association in the general population. Only few randomized trials (the MDRD, AASK, REIN-2 etc.) were conducted to draw conclusion about different BP targets and outcomes in CKD patients. Even in them, primary outcomes were focused on renal outcomes, and none of them had sufficient power to evaluate CV outcomes. In the last year, the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) was reported, which partly included CKD patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate of 20 to less than 60 ml/min/1.73m. Intensive BP treatment to systolic BP <120 mmHg led to a statistically significant 25% reduction in the composite CV outcome compared with standard BP treatment to systolic BP <140 mmHg. There was no interaction between treatment and CKD subgroup. In SPRINT, however, only 28% subjects had CKD and diabetic CKD patients were excluded. It is questionable whether its results could be safely applied to all CKD patients. Second, proteinuria level could modify the association between BP level and CV outcome. Until the late 2000 s, major guidelines recommended that the target BP was less than 130/80 mmHg in all CKD patients. However, recent randomized trials have been repeatedly failed to show the definite benefit of target BP below 130/80 mmHg in diabetic or non-diabetic CKD patients. Now, the lower target BP is recommended only for CKD patients with urinary albumin excretion

  15. Effect of Bicarbonate Supplementation on Renal Function and Nutritional Indices in Predialysis Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Jiwon; Kwon, Soon Kil

    2014-01-01

    Current practice guidelines recommend alkali therapy in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and metabolic acidosis to prevent complications. This study aims to investigate the effect of oral sodium bicarbonate supplementation on the progression of renal function and nutritional indices in patients with predialysis advanced CKD. Forty patients with predialysis stage 5 CKD(estimated glomerular filtration rate, eGFR <15mL/min per 1.73m2) and 40 patients with stage 4 CKD (eGFR 15 to 30mL/min per 1.73m2) who had a total CO2 less than 22mEq/L were assigned into the bicarbonate treatment group or control group for 12 months. In stage 4 CKD, there were significant differences in the changes of eGFR during the study between the treatment group and the control group (-2.30±4.49 versus -6.58±6.32mL/min/1.73m2, p<0.05). However, in stage 5 CKD, there were no significant differences in the change of eGFR during the study between the two groups (-2.10±2.06 versus -3.23±1.95mL/min/1.73 m2).There were no significant differences in the changes of nutritional indices such as albumin, prealbumin, transferrin, total lymphocyte count (TLC), and Ondodera's prognostic nutritional index (OPNI) during the study between the two groups. In stage 5 CKD, there were significant differences in the changes of TLC and OPNI between the two groups. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that bicarbonate supplementation slows the rate of decline of renal function in stage 4 CKD and improves nutritional indices in stage 5 CKD. Alkali therapy in advanced CKD may have beneficial effect on renal function and malnutrition. PMID:25606047

  16. Vascular effects of exercise training in CKD: current evidence and pathophysiological mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Van Craenenbroeck, Amaryllis H; Van Craenenbroeck, Emeline M; Kouidi, Evangelia; Vrints, Christiaan J; Couttenye, Marie M; Conraads, Viviane M

    2014-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains the main cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with CKD, an observation that cannot be explained by the coexistence of traditional risk factors alone. Recently, other mechanisms, such as alterations in nitric oxide bioavailability, impaired endothelial repair mechanisms, inflammation, and oxidative stress (all characteristic in CKD), have gained much attention as mediators for the increased cardiovascular risk. Regular physical training is a valuable nonpharmacological intervention for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Likewise, the benefits of exercise training on exercise capacity and quality of life are increasingly recognized in patients with CKD. Furthermore, exercise training could also influence potential reversible mechanisms involved in atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis. After discussing briefly the general concepts of vascular disease in CKD, this review provides an overview of the current evidence for the effects of exercise training at both clinical and preclinical levels. It concludes with some practical considerations on exercise training in this specific patient group. PMID:24832091

  17. Vascular Effects of Exercise Training in CKD: Current Evidence and Pathophysiological Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Van Craenenbroeck, Emeline M.; Kouidi, Evangelia; Vrints, Christiaan J.; Couttenye, Marie M.; Conraads, Viviane M.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains the main cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with CKD, an observation that cannot be explained by the coexistence of traditional risk factors alone. Recently, other mechanisms, such as alterations in nitric oxide bioavailability, impaired endothelial repair mechanisms, inflammation, and oxidative stress (all characteristic in CKD), have gained much attention as mediators for the increased cardiovascular risk. Regular physical training is a valuable nonpharmacological intervention for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Likewise, the benefits of exercise training on exercise capacity and quality of life are increasingly recognized in patients with CKD. Furthermore, exercise training could also influence potential reversible mechanisms involved in atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis. After discussing briefly the general concepts of vascular disease in CKD, this review provides an overview of the current evidence for the effects of exercise training at both clinical and preclinical levels. It concludes with some practical considerations on exercise training in this specific patient group. PMID:24832091

  18. Phosphate Metabolism in CKD Stages 3–5: Dietary and Pharmacological Control

    PubMed Central

    Ketteler, Markus

    2011-01-01

    When compared to the available information for patients on dialysis (CKD stage 5D), data on the epidemiology and appropriate treatment of calcium and phosphate metabolism in the predialysis stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) are quite limited. Perceptible derangements of calcium and phosphate levels start to become apparent when GFR falls below 30 mL/min in some, but not all, patients. However, hyperphosphatemia may be a significant morbidity and mortality risk predictor in predialysis CKD stages. The RIND study, evaluating progression of coronary artery calcification in incident hemodialysis patients, indirectly demonstrated that vascular calcification processes start to manifest in CKD patients prior to the dialysis stage, which may be closely linked to early and invisible derangements in calcium and phosphate homeostasis. Novel insights into the pathophysiology of calcium and phosphate handling such as the discovery of FGF23 and other phosphatonins suggest that a more complex assessment of phosphate balance is warranted, possibly including measurements of fractional phosphate excretion and phosphatonin levels in order to appropriately evaluate disordered metabolism in earlier stages of kidney disease. As a consequence, early and preventive treatment approaches may have to be developed for patients in CKD stages 3-5 to halt progression of CKD-MBD. PMID:21660261

  19. Cross-Disciplinary Biomarkers Research: Lessons Learned by the CKD Biomarkers Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chi-yuan; Ballard, Shawn; Batlle, Daniel; Bonventre, Joseph V.; Böttinger, Erwin P.; Feldman, Harold I.; Klein, Jon B.; Coresh, Josef; Eckfeldt, John H.; Inker, Lesley A.; Kimmel, Paul L.; Kusek, John W.; Liu, Kathleen D.; Mauer, Michael; Mifflin, Theodore E.; Molitch, Mark E.; Nelsestuen, Gary L.; Rebholz, Casey M.; Rovin, Brad H.; Sabbisetti, Venkata S.; Van Eyk, Jennifer E.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Waikar, Sushrut S.; Whitehead, Krista M.

    2015-01-01

    Significant advances are needed to improve the diagnosis, prognosis, and management of persons with CKD. Discovery of new biomarkers and improvements in currently available biomarkers for CKD hold great promise to achieve these necessary advances. Interest in identification and evaluation of biomarkers for CKD has increased substantially over the past decade. In 2009, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases established the CKD Biomarkers Consortium (http://www.ckdbiomarkersconsortium.org/), a multidisciplinary, collaborative study group located at over a dozen academic medical centers. The main objective of the consortium was to evaluate new biomarkers for purposes related to CKD in established prospective cohorts, including those enriched for CKD. During the first 5 years of the consortium, many insights into collaborative biomarker research were gained that may be useful to other investigators involved in biomarkers research. These lessons learned are outlined in this Special Feature and include a wide range of issues related to biospecimen collection, storage, and retrieval, and the internal and external quality assessment of laboratories that performed the assays. The authors propose that investigations involving biomarker discovery and validation are greatly enhanced by establishing and following explicit quality control metrics, including the use of blind replicate and proficiency samples, by carefully considering the conditions under which specimens are collected, handled, and stored, and by conducting pilot and feasibility studies when there are concerns about the condition of the specimens or the accuracy or reproducibility of the assays. PMID:25739849

  20. Effect of an Educational Program on Adherence to Therapeutic Regimen among Chronic Kidney Disease Stage5 (CKD5) Patients under Maintenance Hemodialysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deif, Hala I. Abo; Elsawi, Khiria; Selim, Mohga; NasrAllah, Mohamed M.

    2015-01-01

    The burden of chronic disease on health care services worldwide is growing and the increased development of educational interventions which help patients to better manage their conditions is evident internationally. It has been recognized that poor adherence can be a serious risk to the health and wellbeing of patients. Adherence to fluid…

  1. Morbidity and treatment in patients with atrial fibrillation and chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Reinecke, Holger; Nabauer, Michael; Gerth, Andrea; Limbourg, Tobias; Treszl, Andras; Engelbertz, Christiane; Eckardt, Lars; Kirchhof, Paulus; Wegscheider, Karl; Ravens, Ursula; Meinertz, Thomas; Steinbeck, Gerhard; Breithardt, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality but there are few studies available about atrial fibrillation, the most frequent arrhythmia in CKD, and the applied treatment. Based on the prospective German Competence NETwork on Atrial Fibrillation, data of 3138 patients with atrial fibrillation were analyzed and categorized by their estimated glomerular filtration rate (stages 1-3 and 4 plus 5). With advanced CKD, significantly more patients suffered from a more severe form of atrial fibrillation. Despite significantly higher CHADS2 scores in advanced CKD, oral anticoagulation was not prescribed more frequently while antiarrhythmic drugs and catheter ablations were used significantly less often, in contrast to more pacemaker implantations. However, in multivariate hierarchical logistic regression analyses of in-hospital treatments and complications, only hemorrhages and pacemaker implantations turned out to be independently and significantly associated with higher CKD stages. This nationwide study shows that patients with CKD and atrial fibrillation suffer from a markedly higher comorbidity. Thus, while CKD patients have received cardioversions, ablations, antiarrhythmic, or anticoagulation drugs significantly less often in their history, current treatments were not different if adjusted for multiple comorbidities. This might indicate an improvement in the often reported therapeutic nihilism in CKD. PMID:24897032

  2. Is chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD) really a syndrome?

    PubMed

    Cozzolino, Mario; Ureña-Torres, Pablo; Vervloet, Marc G; Brandenburg, Vincent; Bover, Jordi; Goldsmith, David; Larsson, Tobias E; Massy, Ziad A; Mazzaferro, Sandro

    2014-10-01

    The concept of chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD) does not appear to fulfil the requirements for a syndrome at first glance, but its definition has brought some clear-cut benefits for clinicians and patients, including wider and more complex diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to the management of this challenging set of issues. Admittedly, not all components of CKD-MBD are present in all patients at all times, but these are highly interrelated, involving mineral and bone laboratory abnormalities, clinical and histological bone disease and finally, cardiovascular disease. The presence of typical biological bone ossification processes in an ectopic anatomical location in CKD has helped to define the existence of an unprecedented bone-vascular relationship, extending its interest even to other medical specialities. For now, we believe that CKD-MBD does not reach full criteria to be defined as a syndrome. However, this novel concept has clearly influenced current clinical guidelines. The National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (NKF/KDOQI™) guidelines in 2003 for instance recommended that calcium-based phosphate binders should be avoided to treat hyperphosphataemia in the presence of cardiovascular calcifications. In 2009, the KDIGO and other guidelines reinforced and extended this recommendation by stating that it is reasonable to choose oral phosphate binder therapy by taking into consideration other components of CKD-MBD. Similarly, it is also considered reasonable to use information on vascular/valvular calcification to guide the management of CKD-MBD. Our current assumption as a working group 'CKD-MBD' is that CKD-MBD has the potential to be defined a true syndrome, such as a constellation of concurrent signs and symptoms that suggest a common underlying mechanism for these components as opposed to the term disease. The term 'syndrome' also implies that in any patient at risk due to the presence of one or a few

  3. Is chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD) really a syndrome?

    PubMed

    Cozzolino, Mario; Ureña-Torres, Pablo; Vervloet, Marc G; Brandenburg, Vincent; Bover, Jordi; Goldsmith, David; Larsson, Tobias E; Massy, Ziad A; Mazzaferro, Sandro

    2014-10-01

    The concept of chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD) does not appear to fulfil the requirements for a syndrome at first glance, but its definition has brought some clear-cut benefits for clinicians and patients, including wider and more complex diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to the management of this challenging set of issues. Admittedly, not all components of CKD-MBD are present in all patients at all times, but these are highly interrelated, involving mineral and bone laboratory abnormalities, clinical and histological bone disease and finally, cardiovascular disease. The presence of typical biological bone ossification processes in an ectopic anatomical location in CKD has helped to define the existence of an unprecedented bone-vascular relationship, extending its interest even to other medical specialities. For now, we believe that CKD-MBD does not reach full criteria to be defined as a syndrome. However, this novel concept has clearly influenced current clinical guidelines. The National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (NKF/KDOQI™) guidelines in 2003 for instance recommended that calcium-based phosphate binders should be avoided to treat hyperphosphataemia in the presence of cardiovascular calcifications. In 2009, the KDIGO and other guidelines reinforced and extended this recommendation by stating that it is reasonable to choose oral phosphate binder therapy by taking into consideration other components of CKD-MBD. Similarly, it is also considered reasonable to use information on vascular/valvular calcification to guide the management of CKD-MBD. Our current assumption as a working group 'CKD-MBD' is that CKD-MBD has the potential to be defined a true syndrome, such as a constellation of concurrent signs and symptoms that suggest a common underlying mechanism for these components as opposed to the term disease. The term 'syndrome' also implies that in any patient at risk due to the presence of one or a few

  4. JS ISH-ISN-3 OPTIMAL TARGETS FOR BP CONTROL IN CKD.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, David

    2016-09-01

    Hypertension is the most prevalent complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Lowering high blood pressure slows progressive loss of kidney function and may also reduce the associated risk of cardiovascular complications, a common cause of premature death in CKD patients.Current International Guidelines produced by Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) acknowledges that no single BP target is optimal for all CKD patients, and encourages individualization of treatment depending on age, the severity of albuminuria and comorbidities. When published in 2012, the available evidence indicated that in CKD patients without albuminuria, the target BP should be ≤140 mmHg systolic and ≤90 mmHg diastolic. However, in most patients with an albumin excretion rate of ≥30 mg/24 h (i.e., those with both micro- and macroalbuminuria), a lower target of ≤130 mmHg systolic and ≤80 mmHg diastolic was suggested. In achieving BP control, the value of lifestyle changes and the need for multiple pharmacological agents was acknowledged. Use of agents that block the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system was recommended or suggested in all patients with an albumin excretion rate of ≥30 mg/24 h. Recommendations are almost identical in CKD patients with and without diabetes.Recent data from SPRINT (which included CKD patients) and other clinical trials has led nephrologists to ask whether targets lower than those recommend by KDIGO are appropriate and the guidelines are currently undergoing an update. Controversies remain around discontinuation of ACE/ARB in patients with stage 4-5 CKD and dual renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade. PMID:27642915

  5. New Models of CKD Care Including Pharmacists: Improving Medication Reconciliation and Medication Management

    PubMed Central

    St Peter, Wendy L.; Wazny, Lori D.; Patel, Uptal D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Chronic kidney disease patients are complex, have many medication-related problems (MRPs) and high rates of medication nonadherence, and are less adherent to some medications than patients with higher levels of kidney function. Nonadherence in CKD patients increases the odds of uncontrolled hypertension, which can increase the risk of CKD progression. This review discusses reasons for gaps in medication-related care for CKD patients, pharmacy services to reduce these gaps, and successful models that incorporate pharmacist care. Recent findings Pharmacists are currently being trained to deliver patient-centered care, including identification and management of MRPs and helping patients overcome barriers to improve medication adherence. A growing body of evidence indicates that pharmacist services for CKD patients, including medication reconciliation and medication therapy management, positively affect clinical and cost outcomes including lower rates of decline in glomerular filtration rates, reduced mortality, and fewer hospitalizations and hospital days, but more robust research is needed. Team-based models including pharmacists exist today and are being studied in a wide range of innovative care and reimbursement models. Summary Opportunities are growing to include pharmacists as integral members of CKD and dialysis healthcare teams to reduce MRPs, increase medication adherence, and improve patient outcomes. PMID:24076556

  6. Recent advance in patient monitoring

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Recent advance in technology has developed a lot of new aspects of clinical monitoring. We can monitor sedation levels during anesthesia using various electroencephalographic (EEG) indices, while it is still not useful for anesthesia depth monitoring. Some attempts are made to monitor the changes in sympathetic nerve activity as one of the indicators of stress, pain/analgesia, or anesthesia. To know the balance of sympathetic and parasympathetic activity, heart rate or blood pressure variability is investigated. For trend of cardiac output, low invasive monitors have been investigated. Improvement of ultrasound enables us to see cardiac structure and function continuously and clearer, increases success rate and decreases complication of central venous puncture and various kinds of nerve blocks. Without inserting an arterial catheter, trends of arterial oxygen tension or carbon dioxide tension can be monitored. Indirect visualization of the airway decreases difficult intubation and makes it easier to teach tracheal intubation. The changes in blood volume can be speculated non-invasively. Cerebral perfusion and metabolism are not ordinary monitored yet, but some studies show their usefulness in management of critically ill. This review introduces recent advances in various monitors used in anesthesia and critical care including some studies of the author, especially focused on EEG and cardiac output. However, the most important is that these new monitors are not almighty but should be used adequately in a limited situation where their meaning is confirmed. PMID:20877698

  7. Metabolic Acidosis of CKD: An Update.

    PubMed

    Kraut, Jeffrey A; Madias, Nicolaos E

    2016-02-01

    The kidney has the principal role in the maintenance of acid-base balance. Therefore, a decrease in renal ammonium excretion and a positive acid balance often leading to a reduction in serum bicarbonate concentration are observed in the course of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The decrease in serum bicarbonate concentration is usually absent until glomerular filtration rate decreases to <20 to 25mL/min/1.73 m(2), although it can develop with lesser degrees of decreased kidney function. Non-anion gap acidosis, high-anion gap acidosis, or both can be found at all stages of CKD. The acidosis can be associated with muscle wasting, bone disease, hypoalbuminemia, inflammation, progression of CKD, and increased mortality. Administration of base may decrease muscle wasting, improve bone disease, and slow the progression of CKD. Base is suggested when serum bicarbonate concentration is <22 mEq/L, but the target serum bicarbonate concentration is unclear. Evidence that increments in serum bicarbonate concentration > 24 mEq/L might be associated with worsening of cardiovascular disease adds complexity to treatment decisions. Further study of the mechanisms through which metabolic acidosis contributes to the progression of CKD, as well as the pathways involved in mediating the benefits and complications of base therapy, is warranted.

  8. Metabolic Acidosis of CKD: An Update.

    PubMed

    Kraut, Jeffrey A; Madias, Nicolaos E

    2016-02-01

    The kidney has the principal role in the maintenance of acid-base balance. Therefore, a decrease in renal ammonium excretion and a positive acid balance often leading to a reduction in serum bicarbonate concentration are observed in the course of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The decrease in serum bicarbonate concentration is usually absent until glomerular filtration rate decreases to <20 to 25mL/min/1.73 m(2), although it can develop with lesser degrees of decreased kidney function. Non-anion gap acidosis, high-anion gap acidosis, or both can be found at all stages of CKD. The acidosis can be associated with muscle wasting, bone disease, hypoalbuminemia, inflammation, progression of CKD, and increased mortality. Administration of base may decrease muscle wasting, improve bone disease, and slow the progression of CKD. Base is suggested when serum bicarbonate concentration is <22 mEq/L, but the target serum bicarbonate concentration is unclear. Evidence that increments in serum bicarbonate concentration > 24 mEq/L might be associated with worsening of cardiovascular disease adds complexity to treatment decisions. Further study of the mechanisms through which metabolic acidosis contributes to the progression of CKD, as well as the pathways involved in mediating the benefits and complications of base therapy, is warranted. PMID:26477665

  9. SP 05-2 WHAT SHOULD BE THE TARGET BLOOD PRESSURE FOR CKD WITH OVERT PROTEINURIA?

    PubMed

    Jones, Daniel W

    2016-09-01

    Hypertension and Chronic Kidney Disease are both common. The vast majority of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have hypertension. Hypertension can be both a cause and a result of CKD. Many patients with CKD, both diabetic and non-diabetic have overt proteinuria (>300 mg/day). Patients with proteinuria are at higher risk for progression of kidney disease and for atherosclerosis. Because patients with CKD are often excluded from hypertension trials with hard outcomes, there has been until recently less data than ideal to consider in making decisions. The goal of antihypertensive treatment in patients with CKD and proteinuria is to reduce the risk of progression of renal disease and to prevent cardiovascular disease. Hypertension can be treated with a variety of antihypertensive agents. Some classes have been demonstrated to be superior to other classes in preventing progression of renal disease (ace Inhibitors, angiotensin receptor antagonists, and non-dihydropyridine calcium antagonists). Because of a paucity of data, ideal goal blood pressure for patients with CKD and proteinuria has been uncertain for a number of years. Various groups recommended goal SBP ranging from 120 mmHg to 140 mmHg. The Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) completed in the last year provided new data and new insight for goal blood pressure in patients with CKD (with and without proteinuria). In SPRINT, 28% of the participants had CKD stage 3 or 4. In these patients, those treated to a lower goal SBP (120 mmHg), cardiovascular outcomes were reduced compared to those with a goal of 140 mmHg. In these patients, renal function remained stable with the more aggressive goal. (In patients with normal renal function at baseline, some participants experienced a small reduction in renal function.) The achieved SBP in SPRINT was just over 121 mmHg. And importantly, automated office blood pressure averaging three measurements with no person present in the room when

  10. Statins and Cardiovascular Primary Prevention in CKD: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Chee Kay; Gray, Laura J.; Brunskill, Nigel J.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Multiple meta-analyses of lipid-lowering therapies for cardiovascular primary prevention in the general population have been performed. Other meta-analyses of lipid-lowering therapies in CKD have also been performed, but not for primary prevention. This meta-analysis assesses lipid-lowering therapies for cardiovascular primary prevention in CKD. Design, setting, participants, & measurements A systematic review and meta-analysis using a random-effects model was performed. MEDLINE was searched between January 2012 and September 2013 for new studies using predefined search criteria without language restrictions. A number of other sources including previously published meta-analyses were also reviewed. Inclusion criteria were randomized control trials of primary prevention with lipid-lowering therapy in non–end stage CKD. Results Six trials were identified, five including patients with stage 3 CKD only. These studies included 8834 participants and 32,846 person-years of follow-up. All trials were post hoc subgroup analyses of statins in the general population. Statins reduced the risk of cardiovascular disease (the prespecified primary outcome) by 41% in stages 1–3 CKD compared with placebo (pooled risk ratio, 0.59; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.48 to 0.72). For the secondary outcomes, the risk ratios were 0.66 (95% CI, 0.49 to 0.88) for total mortality, 0.55 (95% CI, 0.42 to 0.72) for coronary heart disease events, and 0.56 (95% CI, 0.28 to 1.13) for stroke. In study participants with stage 3 CKD specifically, the results were similar. Conclusions This meta-analysis suggests that the use of statins in CKD for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease is effective. These findings are consistent with recent guidance for the use of statins in all patients with CKD. PMID:25833405

  11. LDL cholesterol in CKD--to treat or not to treat?

    PubMed

    Massy, Ziad A; de Zeeuw, Dick

    2013-09-01

    In the majority of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) the total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol are usually normal, with the exception of patients with nephrotic-range proteinuria and in peritoneal dialysis patients. Moreover, epidemiological evidence shows that the link between serum total cholesterol or LDL cholesterol and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in CKD is not as straightforward as in the general population. In addition, atherosclerosis-related events are responsible for only ∼30% of CVD in these patients. Nevertheless, intervention trials, particularly the Study of Heart and Renal Protection, and meta-analyses showed a proportional reduction of cardiovascular risk associated with the absolute reduction in LDL cholesterol in patients with CKD similar to the general population, with apparent attenuation of this relationship in end-stage kidney disease. Therefore, the use of cholesterol-lowering agents appears to be indicated in early CKD stages to prevent atherosclerosis-related risk. However, uncertainty persists as to the optimal management of this risk in end-stage kidney disease patients. In the present review, we discuss these issues and end up with a practical plan aimed to help the nephrologist in managing atherosclerosis-related risk using cholesterol-lowering therapies in CKD patients. PMID:23698234

  12. ESRD and death after heart failure in CKD.

    PubMed

    Sud, Maneesh; Tangri, Navdeep; Pintilie, Melania; Levey, Andrew S; Naimark, David M J

    2015-03-01

    CKD is a risk factor for heart failure, but there is no data on the risk of ESRD and death after recurrent hospitalizations for heart failure. We sought to determine how interim heart failure hospitalizations modify the subsequent risk of ESRD or death before ESRD in patients with CKD. We retrospectively identified 2887 patients with a GFR between 15 and 60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 referred between January of 2001 and December of 2008 to a nephrology clinic in Toronto, Canada. We ascertained interim first, second, and third heart failure hospitalizations as well as ESRD and death before ESRD outcomes from administrative data. Over a median follow-up time of 3.01 (interquartile range=1.56-4.99) years, interim heart failure hospitalizations occurred in 359 (12%) patients, whereas 234 (8%) patients developed ESRD, and 499 (17%) patients died before ESRD. Compared with no heart failure hospitalizations, one, two, or three or more heart failure hospitalizations increased the adjusted hazard ratio of ESRD from 4.89 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 3.21 to 7.44) to 10.27 (95% CI, 5.54 to 19.04) to 14.16 (95% CI, 8.07 to 24.83), respectively, and the adjusted hazard ratio death before ESRD from 3.30 (95% CI, 2.55 to 4.27) to 4.20 (95% CI, 2.82 to 6.25) to 6.87 (95% CI, 4.96 to 9.51), respectively. We conclude that recurrent interim heart failure is associated with a stepwise increase in the risk of ESRD and death before ESRD in patients with CKD.

  13. GPs’ views on managing advanced chronic kidney disease in primary care: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Tonkin-Crine, Sarah; Santer, Miriam; Leydon, Geraldine M; Murtagh, Fliss EM; Farrington, Ken; Caskey, Fergus; Rayner, Hugh; Roderick, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has become a significant part of the GP’s workload since the introduction of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines in 2008. Patients with advanced CKD (stages G4 and G5) often have comorbidities, varied disease progression, and are likely to be older. GPs may experience difficulties with management decisions for patients with advanced CKD, including when to refer to nephrology. Aim To explore GPs’ views of managing patients with advanced CKD and referral to secondary care. Design and setting Qualitative study with GPs in four areas of England: London, Bristol, Birmingham, and Stevenage. Method Semi-structured interviews with 19 GPs. Transcribed interviews were thematically analysed. Results GPs had little experience of managing patients with advanced CKD, including those on dialysis or having conservative care (treatment without dialysis or a transplant), and welcomed guidance. Some GPs referred patients based on renal function alone and some used wider criteria including age and multimorbidity. GPs reported a tension between national guidance and local advice, and some had learnt from experience that patients were discharged back to primary care. GPs with more experience of managing CKD referred patients later, or sometimes not at all, if there were no additional problems and if dialysis was seen as not in the patient’s interests. Conclusion GPs want guidance on managing older patients with advanced CKD and comorbidities, which better incorporates agreement between local and national recommendations to clarify referral criteria. GPs are not generally aware of conservative care programmes provided by renal units, however, they appear happy to contribute to such care or alternatively, lead conservative management with input from renal teams. PMID:26120137

  14. Plasma Pentosidine and Its Association with Mortality in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jia; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid; Isoyama, Naohito; Leurs, Paul; Anderstam, Björn; Heimburger, Olof; Barany, Peter; Stenvinkel, Peter; Lindholm, Bengt

    2016-01-01

    Background Circulating advanced glycated end-products (AGEs) including pentosidine accumulating in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients due to retention and increased formation are thought to contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Here we evaluated factors linked to increased plasma pentosidine and its association with mortality in patients with different stages of CKD and undergoing different treatments. Methods Plasma pentosidine, biomarkers of inflammation, oxidative stress and nutritional status were investigated in CKD 1–2 (n = 37), CKD 3–4 (n = 54), CKD 5 non-dialyzed (CKD5-ND; n = 386), peritoneal dialysis (PD; n = 74) and hemodialysis (HD; n = 195) patients. Factors predicting plasma pentosidine were analysed by multivariate regression analysis and mortality risk was assessed by GENMOD procedure. Results Plasma pentosidine levels, which were higher in CKD5-ND, PD and HD groups than in CKD 1–2 group, were significantly lower in PD than in HD patients, and not different between PD patients and CKD5-ND patients. Pentosidine associated inversely with glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and additionally in PD with 8-hydroxy-2‘-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and interleukin 6 (IL-6); in HD with age, IL-6 and body mass index (BMI); in CKD5-ND with age, 8-OHdG, IL-6, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and soluble vascular cell adhesion protein-1 (sVCAM-1); in CKD 3–4 with 8-OHdG and sVCAM-1; and in CKD 1–2 with age and sVCAM-1. In multivariate analysis, age (one standard deviation, 1-SD higher), malnutrition (subjective global assessment, SGA), oxidative stress (8-OHdG, 1-SD higher), and belonging to CKD5-ND, HD and PD cohorts associated with 1-SD higher pentosidine. In GENMOD, 1-SD higher pentosidine independently predicted all-cause mortality (relative risk, RR = 1.04; 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.01–1.08, p = 0.01) and CVD mortality (RR = 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01–1.06, p = 0.03) after adjusting for all confounders. Conclusions Plasma

  15. [Is denosmab really effective and safe in the care of CKD-MBD?].

    PubMed

    Hamano, Takayuki; Nakano, Chikako

    2016-09-01

    The authors of Freedom study enrolling primary osteoporosis patients argued that the anti-fracture effect of denosmab is not dependent on baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate(eGFR)by showing the non-significant interaction term between treatment and CKD stage. However, given disproportionate numbers of patients in each subgroup(4069, 2817, and only 73 patients, in CKD stage 2, 3, and, 4, respectively), this study seems to lack the statistical power to reach a definite conclusion on the effect modification by CKD stage. Truly, the serum concentration of infused denosmab in patients with CKD stage 4 is equivalent to that in patients without CKD, the risk of developing life-threatening or prolonged hypocalcemia is huge even under active vitamin D therapy in this population. In hemodialysis patients, this drug is relatively safer because each dialysis session delivers calcium into the circulation 3 times a week. However, even with concomitant administration of massive active vitamin D, the increase of intact PTH levels greater than 1000 pg/mL by this agent is not rare. In other words, this drug worsens secondary hyperparathyroidism. Moreover, reportedly, calcium and active vitamin D administered to avoid hypocalcemia can lead to ectopic calcification especially under the low bone turnover induced by this agent. In fact, transient hypercalcemia often follows hypocalcemia by the inevitable calcium supplementation. PMID:27561346

  16. Analgesia for patients with advanced disease: 2

    PubMed Central

    Hall, E; Sykes, N

    2004-01-01

    The first article in this series explored epidemiology and patterns of pain in advanced disease, non-pharmacological treatments, and the use of opioids to manage pain. This second article examines the use of non-opioid drugs and anaesthetic interventions for pain relief in advanced disease. It also discusses an approach to managing analgesia in dying patients and finally looks at future developments. PMID:15082837

  17. Bicarbonate supplementation slows progression of CKD and improves nutritional status.

    PubMed

    de Brito-Ashurst, Ione; Varagunam, Mira; Raftery, Martin J; Yaqoob, Muhammad M

    2009-09-01

    Bicarbonate supplementation preserves renal function in experimental chronic kidney disease (CKD), but whether the same benefit occurs in humans is unknown. Here, we randomly assigned 134 adult patients with CKD (creatinine clearance [CrCl] 15 to 30 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)) and serum bicarbonate 16 to 20 mmol/L to either supplementation with oral sodium bicarbonate or standard care for 2 yr. The primary end points were rate of CrCl decline, the proportion of patients with rapid decline of CrCl (>3 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)/yr), and ESRD (CrCl <10 ml/min). Secondary end points were dietary protein intake, normalized protein nitrogen appearance, serum albumin, and mid-arm muscle circumference. Compared with the control group, decline in CrCl was slower with bicarbonate supplementation (5.93 versus 1.88 ml/min 1.73 m(2); P < 0.0001). Patients supplemented with bicarbonate were significantly less likely to experience rapid progression (9 versus 45%; relative risk 0.15; 95% confidence interval 0.06 to 0.40; P < 0.0001). Similarly, fewer patients supplemented with bicarbonate developed ESRD (6.5 versus 33%; relative risk 0.13; 95% confidence interval 0.04 to 0.40; P < 0.001). Nutritional parameters improved significantly with bicarbonate supplementation, which was well tolerated. This study demonstrates that bicarbonate supplementation slows the rate of progression of renal failure to ESRD and improves nutritional status among patients with CKD.

  18. Research Priorities in CKD: Report of a National Workshop Conducted in Australia.

    PubMed

    Tong, Allison; Crowe, Sally; Chando, Shingisai; Cass, Alan; Chadban, Steve J; Chapman, Jeremy R; Gallagher, Martin; Hawley, Carmel M; Hill, Sophie; Howard, Kirsten; Johnson, David W; Kerr, Peter G; McKenzie, Anne; Parker, David; Perkovic, Vlado; Polkinghorne, Kevan R; Pollock, Carol; Strippoli, Giovanni F M; Tugwell, Peter; Walker, Rowan G; Webster, Angela C; Wong, Germaine; Craig, Jonathan C

    2015-08-01

    Research aims to improve health outcomes for patients. However, the setting of research priorities is usually performed by clinicians, academics, and funders, with little involvement of patients or caregivers and using processes that lack transparency. A national workshop was convened in Australia to generate and prioritize research questions in chronic kidney disease (CKD) among diverse stakeholder groups. Patients with CKD (n=23), nephrologists/surgeons (n=16), nurses (n=8), caregivers (n=7), and allied health professionals and researchers (n=4) generated and voted on intervention questions across 4 treatment categories: CKD stages 1 to 5 (non-dialysis dependent), peritoneal dialysis, hemodialysis, and kidney transplantation. The 5 highest ranking questions (in descending order) were as follows: How effective are lifestyle programs for preventing deteriorating kidney function in early CKD? What strategies will improve family consent for deceased donor kidney donation, taking different cultural groups into account? What interventions can improve long-term post-transplant outcomes? What are effective interventions for post hemodialysis fatigue? How can we improve and individualize drug therapy to control post-transplant side effects? Priority questions were focused on prevention, lifestyle, quality of life, and long-term impact. These prioritized research questions can inform funding agencies, patient/consumer organizations, policy makers, and researchers in developing a CKD research agenda that is relevant to key stakeholders.

  19. Which vitamin D in CKD-MBD? The time of burning questions.

    PubMed

    Galassi, Andrea; Bellasi, Antonio; Auricchio, Sara; Papagni, Sergio; Cozzolino, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D is a common treatment against secondary hyperparathyroidism in renal patients. However, the rationale for the prescription of vitamin D sterols in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is rapidly increasing due to the coexistence of growing expectancies close to unsatisfactory evidences, such as (1) the lack of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) proving the superiority of any vitamin D sterol against placebo on patients centered outcomes, (2) the scanty clinical data on head to head comparisons between the multiple vitamin D sterols currently available, (3) the absence of RCTs confirming the crescent expectations on nutritional vitamin D pleiotropic effects even in CKD patients, (4) the promising effects of vitamin D receptors activators (VDRA) against proteinuria and myocardial hypertrophy in diabetic CKD cohorts, and (5) the conflicting data on the impact on mortality of VDRA versus calcimimetic centered regimens to control CKD-MBD. The present review arguments these issues focusing on the opened questions that nephrologists should consider dealing with the prescription of nutritional vitamin D or VDRA and with the choice of a VDRA versus a calcimimetic based regimen in CKD-MBD patients. PMID:23991423

  20. Research Priorities in CKD: Report of a National Workshop Conducted in Australia.

    PubMed

    Tong, Allison; Crowe, Sally; Chando, Shingisai; Cass, Alan; Chadban, Steve J; Chapman, Jeremy R; Gallagher, Martin; Hawley, Carmel M; Hill, Sophie; Howard, Kirsten; Johnson, David W; Kerr, Peter G; McKenzie, Anne; Parker, David; Perkovic, Vlado; Polkinghorne, Kevan R; Pollock, Carol; Strippoli, Giovanni F M; Tugwell, Peter; Walker, Rowan G; Webster, Angela C; Wong, Germaine; Craig, Jonathan C

    2015-08-01

    Research aims to improve health outcomes for patients. However, the setting of research priorities is usually performed by clinicians, academics, and funders, with little involvement of patients or caregivers and using processes that lack transparency. A national workshop was convened in Australia to generate and prioritize research questions in chronic kidney disease (CKD) among diverse stakeholder groups. Patients with CKD (n=23), nephrologists/surgeons (n=16), nurses (n=8), caregivers (n=7), and allied health professionals and researchers (n=4) generated and voted on intervention questions across 4 treatment categories: CKD stages 1 to 5 (non-dialysis dependent), peritoneal dialysis, hemodialysis, and kidney transplantation. The 5 highest ranking questions (in descending order) were as follows: How effective are lifestyle programs for preventing deteriorating kidney function in early CKD? What strategies will improve family consent for deceased donor kidney donation, taking different cultural groups into account? What interventions can improve long-term post-transplant outcomes? What are effective interventions for post hemodialysis fatigue? How can we improve and individualize drug therapy to control post-transplant side effects? Priority questions were focused on prevention, lifestyle, quality of life, and long-term impact. These prioritized research questions can inform funding agencies, patient/consumer organizations, policy makers, and researchers in developing a CKD research agenda that is relevant to key stakeholders. PMID:25943716

  1. Myocardial dysfunction occurs prior to changes in ventricular geometry in mice with chronic kidney disease (CKD).

    PubMed

    Winterberg, Pamela D; Jiang, Rong; Maxwell, Josh T; Wang, Bo; Wagner, Mary B

    2016-03-01

    Uremic cardiomyopathy is responsible for high morbidity and mortality rates among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), but the underlying mechanisms contributing to this complex phenotype are incompletely understood. Myocardial deformation analyses (ventricular strain) of patients with mild CKD have recently been reported to predict adverse clinical outcome. We aimed to determine if early myocardial dysfunction in a mouse model of CKD could be detected using ventricular strain analyses. CKD was induced in 5-week-old male 129X1/SvJ mice through partial nephrectomy (5/6Nx) with age-matched mice undergoing bilateral sham surgeries serving as controls. Serial transthoracic echocardiography was performed over 16 weeks following induction of CKD. Invasive hemodynamic measurements were performed at 8 weeks. Gene expression and histology was performed on hearts at 8 and 16 weeks. CKD mice developed decreased longitudinal strain (-25 ± 4.2% vs. -29 ± 2.3%; P = 0.01) and diastolic dysfunction (E/A ratio 1.2 ± 0.15 vs. 1.9 ± 0.18; P < 0.001) compared to controls as early as 2 weeks following 5/6Nx. In contrast, ventricular hypertrophy was not apparent until 4 weeks. Hearts from CKD mice developed progressive fibrosis at 8 and 16 weeks with gene signatures suggestive of evolving heart failure with elevated expression of natriuretic peptides. Uremic cardiomyopathy in this model is characterized by early myocardial dysfunction which preceded observable changes in ventricular geometry. The model ultimately resulted in myocardial fibrosis and increased expression of natriuretic peptides suggestive of progressive heart failure.

  2. Decreased MicroRNA Is Involved in the Vascular Remodeling Abnormalities in Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, Kalisha D.; Chen, Xianming; Moorthi, Ranjani N.; Gattone, Vincent H.; Allen, Matthew R.; Moe, Sharon M.

    2013-01-01

    Patients with CKD have abnormal vascular remodeling that is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) control mRNA expression intracellularly and are secreted into the circulation; three miRNAs (miR-125b, miR-145 and miR-155) are known to alter vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and differentiation. We measured these vascular miRNAs in blood from 90 patients with CKD and found decreased circulating levels with progressive loss of eGFR by multivariate analyses. Expression of these vascular miRNAs miR-125b, miR-145, and miR-155 was decreased in the thoracic aorta in CKD rats compared to normal rats, with concordant changes in target genes of RUNX2, angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1R), and myocardin. Furthermore, the expression of miR-155 was negatively correlated with the quantity of calcification in the aorta, a process known to be preceded by vascular de-differentiation in these animals. We then examined the mechanisms of miRNA regulation in primary VSMC and found decreased expression of miR-125b, 145, and 155 in VSMC from rats with CKD compared to normal littermates but no alteration in DROSHA or DICER, indicating that the low levels of expression is not due to altered intracellular processing. Finally, overexpression of miR-155 in VSMC from CKD rats inhibited AT1R expression and decreased cellular proliferation supporting a direct effect of miR-155 on VSMC. In conclusion, we have found ex vivo and in vitro evidence for decreased expression of these vascular miRNA in CKD, suggesting that alterations in miRNAs may lead to the synthetic state of VSMC found in CKD. The decreased levels in the circulation may reflect decreased vascular release but more studies are needed to confirm this relationship. PMID:23717629

  3. Systolic BP and Mortality in Older Adults with CKD

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Dawn; Yang, Xiuhai; Petrik, Amanda; Smith, David H.; Johnson, Eric S.; Thorp, Micah L.; Morris, Cynthia; O’Hare, Ann M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Optimal BP targets for older adults with CKD are unclear. This study sought to determine whether a nonlinear relationship between BP and mortality—as described for the broader CKD population and for older adults in the general population—is present for older adults with CKD. Design, setting, participants, & measurements A cohort of 21,015 adults age 65–105 years with a moderate or severe reduction in eGFR (<60 ml/min per 1.73 m2) were identified within the Kaiser Permanente Northwest Health Maintenance Organization population. The relationship between baseline systolic BP (SBP; ≤120, 121–130, 131–140, 141–150, >150 mmHg; referent, 131–140 mmHg) and all-cause mortality across age groups (65–70, 71–80, and >80 years) was examined; patients were followed for up to 11 years after cohort entry. Results The median times at risk were 3.15 years, 3.53 years, and 2.76 years for adults age 65–70, 71–80, and >80 years, respectively. Mortality during follow-up was 19.6% for those age 65–70 years, 33.4% for those age 71–80 years, and 55.7% for those age >80 years. The relationship between SBP and mortality varied as a function of age. The risk of death was highest for patients with the lowest SBP in all age groups. Only among adults age 65–70 years was an SBP>140 mmHg associated with a higher risk of death compared with the referent category. Patterns of age modification of the relationship between SBP and mortality were consistent in all sensitivity analyses. Conclusions In a cohort of older adults, the relationship between SBP and mortality varied systematically with age. A relationship between higher SBP and mortality was present only for younger members of this cohort and not for those older than 70. These results raise the question of whether the relative benefits and harms of lowering BP to recommended targets for older adults with CKD may vary as a function of age. PMID:26276142

  4. Defective skeletal mineralization in pediatric CKD.

    PubMed

    Wesseling-Perry, Katherine

    2015-04-01

    Although traditional diagnosis and treatment of renal osteodystrophy focused on changes in bone turnover, current data demonstrate that abnormalities in skeletal mineralization are also prevalent in pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD) and likely contribute to skeletal morbidities that continue to plague this population. It is now clear that alterations in osteocyte biology, manifested by changes in osteocytic protein expression, occur in early CKD before abnormalities in traditional measures of mineral metabolism are apparent and may contribute to defective skeletal mineralization. Current treatment paradigms advocate the use of 1,25(OH)2vitamin D for the control of secondary hyperparathyroidism; however, these agents fail to correct defective skeletal mineralization and may exacerbate already altered osteocyte biology. Further studies are critically needed to identify the initial trigger for abnormalities of skeletal mineralization as well as the potential effects that current therapeutic options may have on osteocyte biology and bone mineralization. PMID:25638580

  5. Defective skeletal mineralization in pediatric CKD.

    PubMed

    Wesseling-Perry, Katherine

    2015-04-01

    Although traditional diagnosis and treatment of renal osteodystrophy focused on changes in bone turnover, current data demonstrate that abnormalities in skeletal mineralization are also prevalent in pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD) and likely contribute to skeletal morbidities that continue to plague this population. It is now clear that alterations in osteocyte biology, manifested by changes in osteocytic protein expression, occur in early CKD before abnormalities in traditional measures of mineral metabolism are apparent and may contribute to defective skeletal mineralization. Current treatment paradigms advocate the use of 1,25(OH)2vitamin D for the control of secondary hyperparathyroidism; however, these agents fail to correct defective skeletal mineralization and may exacerbate already altered osteocyte biology. Further studies are critically needed to identify the initial trigger for abnormalities of skeletal mineralization as well as the potential effects that current therapeutic options may have on osteocyte biology and bone mineralization.

  6. Fracture Burden and Risk Factors in Childhood CKD: Results from the CKiD Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Denburg, Michelle R; Kumar, Juhi; Jemielita, Thomas; Brooks, Ellen R; Skversky, Amy; Portale, Anthony A; Salusky, Isidro B; Warady, Bradley A; Furth, Susan L; Leonard, Mary B

    2016-02-01

    Childhood chronic kidney disease (CHD) poses multiple threats to bone accrual; however, the associated fracture risk is not well characterized. This prospective cohort study included 537 CKD in Children (CKiD) participants. Fracture histories were obtained at baseline, at years 1, 3, and 5 through November 1, 2009, and annually thereafter. We used Cox regression analysis of first incident fracture to evaluate potential correlates of fracture risk. At enrollment, median age was 11 years, and 16% of patients reported a prior fracture. Over a median of 3.9 years, 43 males and 24 females sustained incident fractures, corresponding to 395 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 293-533) and 323 (95% CI, 216-481) fractures per 10,000 person-years, respectively. These rates were 2- to 3-fold higher than published general population rates. The only gender difference in fracture risk was a 2.6-fold higher risk in males aged ≥15 years (570/10,000 person-years, adjusted P=0.04). In multivariable analysis, advanced pubertal stage, greater height Z-score, difficulty walking, and higher average log-transformed parathyroid hormone level were independently associated with greater fracture risk (all P≤0.04). Phosphate binder treatment (predominantly calcium-based) was associated with lower fracture risk (hazard ratio, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.15-0.91; P=0.03). Participation in more than one team sport was associated with higher risk (hazard ratio, 4.87; 95% CI, 2.21-10.75; P<0.001). In conclusion, children with CKD have a high burden of fracture. Regarding modifiable factors, higher average parathyroid hormone level was associated with greater risk of fracture, whereas phosphate binder use was protective in this cohort.

  7. Plasma and Urinary Amino Acid Metabolomic Profiling in Patients with Different Levels of Kidney Function

    PubMed Central

    Duranton, Flore; Lundin, Ulrika; Gayrard, Nathalie; Mischak, Harald; Aparicio, Michel; Mourad, Georges; Daurès, Jean-Pierre; Weinberger, Klaus M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Patients with CKD display altered plasma amino acid profiles. This study estimated the association between the estimated GFR and urinary and plasma amino acid profiles in CKD patients. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Urine and plasma samples were taken from 52 patients with different stages of CKD, and plasma samples only were taken from 25 patients on maintenance hemodialysis. Metabolic profiling was performed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry after phenylisothiocyanate derivatization. Results Most plasma amino acid concentrations were decreased in hemodialysis patients, whereas proline, citrulline, asparagine, asymmetric dimethylarginine, and hydroxykynurenine levels were increased (P<0.05). Both plasma levels and urinary excretion of citrulline were higher in the group of patients with advanced CKD (CKD stages 2 and 3 versus CKD stages 4 and 5; in plasma: 35.9±16.3 versus 61.8±23.6 µmol/L, P<0.01; in urine: 1.0±1.2 versus 7.1±14.3 µmol/mol creatinine, P<0.001). Plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine levels were higher in advanced CKD (CKD stages 2 and 3, 0.57±0.29; CKD stages 4 and 5, 1.02±0.48, P<0.001), whereas urinary excretion was lower (2.37±0.93 versus 1.51±1.43, P<0.001). Multivariate analyses adjusting on estimated GFR, serum albumin, proteinuria, and other covariates revealed associations between diabetes and plasma citrulline (P=0.02) and between serum sodium and plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine (P=0.03). Plasma tyrosine to phenylalanine and valine to glycine ratios were lower in advanced CKD stages (P<0.01). Conclusion CKD patients have altered plasma and urinary amino acid profiles that are not corrected by dialysis. Depending on solutes, elevated plasma levels were associated with increased or decreased urinary excretion, depicting situations of uremic retention (asymmetric dimethylarginine) or systemic overproduction (citrulline). These results give some insight in

  8. FGF23 signaling impairs neutrophil recruitment and host defense during CKD

    PubMed Central

    Rossaint, Jan; Oehmichen, Jessica; Van Aken, Hugo; Reuter, Stefan; Pavenstädt, Hermann J.; Meersch, Melanie; Unruh, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been associated with impaired host response and increased susceptibility to infections. Leukocyte recruitment during inflammation must be tightly regulated to protect the host against pathogens. FGF23 levels are increased in blood during CKD, and levels of this hormone have been associated with a variety of adverse effects in CKD patients. Here, we have shown that CKD impairs leukocyte recruitment into inflamed tissue and host defense in mice and humans. FGF23 neutralization during CKD in murine models restored leukocyte recruitment and host defense. Intravital microscopy of animals with chronic kidney failure showed that FGF23 inhibits chemokine-activated leukocyte arrest on the endothelium, and downregulation of FGF receptor 2 (FGFR2) on PMNs rescued host defense in these mice. In vitro, FGF23 inhibited PMN adhesion, arrest under flow, and transendothelial migration. Mechanistically, FGF23 binding to FGFR2 counteracted selectin- and chemokine-triggered β2 integrin activation on PMNs by activating protein kinase A (PKA) and inhibiting activation of the small GTPase Rap1. Moreover, knockdown of PKA abolished the inhibitory effect of FGF23 on integrin activation. Together, our data reveal that FGF23 acts directly on PMNs and dampens host defense by direct interference with chemokine signaling and integrin activation. PMID:26878171

  9. Diabetes Drug Victoza Might Not Help Advanced Heart Failure Patients

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Diabetes Drug Victoza Might Not Help Advanced Heart Failure Patients Study participants may have been too sick ... to improve heart function in patients with advanced heart failure, a new study finds. The theory for this ...

  10. High Mobility Group Box Protein-1 Correlates with Renal Function in Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)

    PubMed Central

    Bruchfeld, Annette; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid; Lindholm, Bengt; Barany, Peter; Yang, LiHong; Stenvinkel, Peter; Tracey, Kevin J

    2008-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with inflammation and malnutrition and carries a markedly increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). High Mobility Group Box Protein-1 (HMGB-1) is a 30-kDa nuclear and cytosolic protein known as a transcription and growth factor, recently identified as a proinflammatory mediator of tissue injury. Recent data implicates HMGB-1 in endotoxin lethality, rheumatoid arthritis, and atherosclerosis. The aim of this post-hoc, cross-sectional study was to determine whether HMGB-1 serum levels are elevated in CKD patients. The study groups were categorized as follows: 110 patients starting dialysis defined as CKD 5; 67 patients with moderately to severely reduced renal function or CKD 3–4; and 48 healthy controls. High-sensitivity C-reactive-protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), serum-albumin (S-albumin), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), hemoglobin, subjective global nutritional assessment (SGA), and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were analyzed. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare groups and Spearman’s rank correlation test was used for continuous variables. HMGB-1, measured by Western blot, was significantly (P < 0.001) elevated in CKD 5 (146.7 ± 58.6 ng/mL) and CKD 3–4 (85.6 ± 31.8) compared with controls (10.9 ± 10.5). HMGB-1 levels were correlated positively with TNF (Rho = 0.52; P < 0.001), hs-CRP (Rho = 0.38; P < 0.001), IL-6 (Rho = 0.30; P < 0.001), HbA1c (Rho = 0.14; P = 0.02) and SGA (Rho = 0.21; P = 0.002) and negatively correlated with GFR (Rho = –0.69; P = 0.0001), Hb (Rho = –0.60; P < 0.001), S-albumin (Rho = –0.31; P < 0.001). The current study has revealed that HMGB-1 is elevated significantly in CKD patients and correlates with GFR as well as markers of inflammation and malnutrition. Future studies may delineate whether HMGB-1 is also a marker of disease activity and severity as well as a predictor of outcome in CKD. PMID:18317568

  11. Strategies for preserving residual renal function in peritoneal dialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Nongnuch, Arkom; Assanatham, Montira; Panorchan, Kwanpeemai; Davenport, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Although there have been many advancements in the treatment of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) over the last 50 years, in terms of reducing cardiovascular risk, mortality remains unacceptably high, particularly for those patients who progress to stage 5 CKD and initiate dialysis (CKD5d). As mortality risk increases exponentially with progressive CKD stage, the question arises as to whether preservation of residual renal function once dialysis has been initiated can reduce mortality risk. Observational studies to date have reported an association between even small amounts of residual renal function and improved patient survival and quality of life. Dialysis therapies predominantly provide clearance for small water-soluble solutes, volume and acid-base control, but cannot reproduce the metabolic functions of the kidney. As such, protein-bound solutes, advanced glycosylation end-products, middle molecules and other azotaemic toxins accumulate over time in the anuric CKD5d patient. Apart from avoiding potential nephrotoxic insults, observational and interventional trials have suggested that a number of interventions and treatments may potentially reduce the progression of earlier stages of CKD, including targeted blood pressure control, reducing proteinuria and dietary intervention using combinations of protein restriction with keto acid supplementation. However, many interventions which have been proven to be effective in the general population have not been equally effective in the CKD5d patient, and so the question arises as to whether these treatment options are equally applicable to CKD5d patients. As strategies to help preserve residual renal function in CKD5d patients are not well established, we have reviewed the evidence for preserving or losing residual renal function in peritoneal dialysis patients, as urine collections are routinely collected, whereas few centres regularly collect urine from haemodialysis patients, and haemodialysis dialysis

  12. Bedtime Dosing of Antihypertensive Medications Reduces Cardiovascular Risk in CKD

    PubMed Central

    Ayala, Diana E.; Mojón, Artemio; Fernández, José R.

    2011-01-01

    Time of ingestion of hypertension medications can affect circadian patterns of BP, but whether this translates into an effect on clinical outcomes is unknown. Here, in an open-label trial, we randomly assigned 661 patients with CKD either to take all prescribed hypertension medications upon awakening or to take at least one of them at bedtime. We measured 48-hour ambulatory BP at baseline and 3 months after any adjustment in treatment or, at the least, annually. After a median follow-up of 5.4 years, patients who took at least one BP-lowering medication at bedtime had an adjusted risk for total cardiovascular events (a composite of death, myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, revascularization, heart failure, arterial occlusion of lower extremities, occlusion of the retinal artery, and stroke) that was approximately one-third that of patients who took all medications upon awakening (adjusted HR 0.31; 95% CI 0.21 to 0.46; P < 0.001). Bedtime dosing demonstrated a similar significant reduction in risk for a composite outcome of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke (adjusted HR 0.28; 95% CI 0.13 to 0.61; P < 0.001). Furthermore, patients on bedtime treatment had a significantly lower mean sleep-time BP and a greater proportion demonstrated control of their ambulatory BP (56% versus 45%, P = 0.003). Each 5-mmHg decrease in mean sleep-time systolic BP was associated with a 14% reduction in the risk for cardiovascular events during follow-up (P < 0.001). In conclusion, among patients with CKD and hypertension, taking at least one antihypertensive medication at bedtime improves control of BP and reduces the risk for cardiovascular events. PMID:22025630

  13. Implementing KDOQI CKD definition and staging guidelines in Southern California Kaiser Permanente.

    PubMed

    Rutkowski, Mark; Mann, Wendy; Derose, Stephen; Selevan, David; Pascual, Noel; Diesto, Jean; Crooks, Peter

    2009-03-01

    We outline the experience of Southern California Kaiser Permanente, a large integrated health maintenance organization, in implementing the chronic kidney disease (CKD) definition and staging guidelines of the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI) from 2002 to 2008, including estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) implementation, algorithm for GFR range assignment and reassignment, and practical modifications of CKD staging for population management. We departed from the KDOQI CKD definition and staging as follows: for stages 1 to 2, we required "macroproteinuria" rather than "microalbuminuria" as the marker of kidney damage; for stage 3, we included individuals with macroproteinuria, diabetes mellitus based on diabetic registry, or eGFR + 1/2 age less than 85; and for stage 5, we included only individuals not receiving renal replacement therapy. In an adult population of 2.5 million members, we identified 2.9% (72,005) for CKD population management (0.1%, 0.2%, 1.7%, 0.15%, and 0.01% with stages 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively). Outpatient visits with a nephrologist in the past 12 months for the prevalent CKD population increased modestly from 2003 to 2008 from 20% to 24%. Nephrologists see a higher risk subset, including 77% of patients with stages 4 to 5, 45% of prevalent patients with CKD stages 1 to 5 with the last urine protein level greater than approximately 1 g, and 21% of patients with stage 3 in the past 12 months, but only 4% of patients with eGFR of 30 to 59 mL/min/1.73 m(2) not meeting our criteria for stage 3. Primary care providers see the majority of patients with stages 1 to 5 in the course of a year (85%) and are aware of kidney disease (79% coded for kidney disease). Other quality indicators during the 12-month window include the following: for patients with prevalent CKD stages 1 to 5, a total of 56% with last blood pressure greater than 129/79 mm Hg, 21% missing qualitative proteinuria, 16% missing angiotensin

  14. CKD-induced wingless/integration1 inhibitors and phosphorus cause the CKD-mineral and bone disorder.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yifu; Ginsberg, Charles; Seifert, Michael; Agapova, Olga; Sugatani, Toshifumi; Register, Thomas C; Freedman, Barry I; Monier-Faugere, Marie-Claude; Malluche, Hartmut; Hruska, Keith A

    2014-08-01

    In chronic kidney disease, vascular calcification, renal osteodystrophy, and phosphate contribute substantially to cardiovascular risk and are components of CKD-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). The cause of this syndrome is unknown. Additionally, no therapy addresses cardiovascular risk in CKD. In its inception, CKD-MBD is characterized by osteodystrophy, vascular calcification, and stimulation of osteocyte secretion. We tested the hypothesis that increased production of circulating factors by diseased kidneys causes the CKD-MBD in diabetic mice subjected to renal injury to induce stage 2 CKD (CKD-2 mice). Compared with non-CKD diabetic controls, CKD-2 mice showed increased renal production of Wnt inhibitor family members and higher levels of circulating Dickkopf-1 (Dkk1), sclerostin, and secreted klotho. Neutralization of Dkk1 in CKD-2 mice by administration of a monoclonal antibody after renal injury stimulated bone formation rates, corrected the osteodystrophy, and prevented CKD-stimulated vascular calcification. Mechanistically, neutralization of Dkk1 suppressed aortic expression of the osteoblastic transcription factor Runx2, increased expression of vascular smooth muscle protein 22-α, and restored aortic expression of klotho. Neutralization of Dkk1 did not affect the elevated plasma levels of osteocytic fibroblast growth factor 23 but decreased the elevated levels of sclerostin. Phosphate binder therapy restored plasma fibroblast growth factor 23 levels but had no effect on vascular calcification or osteodystrophy. The combination of the Dkk1 antibody and phosphate binder therapy completely treated the CKD-MBD. These results show that circulating Wnt inhibitors are involved in the pathogenesis of CKD-MBD and that the combination of Dkk1 neutralization and phosphate binding may have therapeutic potential for this disorder. PMID:24578135

  15. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) as a systemic disease: whole body autoregulation and inter-organ cross-talk.

    PubMed

    Zoccali, Carmine; Tripepi, Giovanni; Dounousi, Evangelia; Mallamaci, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    The inter-organ cross-talk and the functional integration of organ systems is an exceedingly complex process which until now has been investigated with a reductionist approach. CKD perturbs the inter-organ cross-talk and demands central resetting of autonomic (nervous) control of organ systems. Due to limitations inherent to the reductionist approach, we currently identify CKD-related pseudo-syndromes and largely fail at describing the complex systemic inter-relationships set into motion by renal damage and renal dysfunction. A mature technology for a system-analysis approach to physiology and pathophysiology of CKD now exists. System biology will allow in depth understanding of complex diseases like CKD and will set the stage for predictive, preventive and personalized medicine, a long-standing dream of doctors and patients alike. PMID:25117758

  16. Delirium in patients with advanced cancer.

    PubMed

    Lawlor, Peter G; Bruera, Eduardo D

    2002-06-01

    Managing delirium is of major importance in end-of-life care and frequently gives rise to controversies and to clinical and ethical dilemmas. These problems arise from a number of causes, including the sometimes-poor recognition or misdiagnosis of delirium despite its frequent occurrence. Delirium generates major symptomatic of distress for the patient, consequent stress for the patient's family, the potential to misinterpret delirium symptomatology, and behavioral management challenges for health care professionals. Paradoxically, delirium is potentially reversible in some episodes, but in many patients delirium presents a nonreversible terminal episode. Greater educational efforts are required to improve the recognition of delirium and lead to a better understanding of its impact in end-of-life care. Future research might focus on phenomenology, the development of low-burden instruments for assessment, communication strategies, and the family education regarding the manifestations of delirium. Further research is needed among patients with advanced cancer to establish a predictive model for reversibility that recognizes both baseline vulnerability factors and superimposed precipitating factors. Evidence-based guidelines should be developed to assist physicians in more appropriate use of sedation in the symptomatic management of delirium.

  17. Dietary intake of advanced cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Walsh, T D; Bowman, K B; Jackson, G P

    1983-02-01

    A state registered dietitian assessed the voluntary dietary intake of 13 advanced cancer inpatients on one ward of St. Christopher's Hospice for five consecutive days. There were 11 females, two males; median age 74 years (range 56 to 83). Two patients died on the fourth day of the study. A partially individualised weighed technique was used. Standard sized scoops and spoons were used to serve the food in small, medium or large standard portions (depending on appetite) and were weighed as served. Individual plate waste (by weight) was subtracted to give estimated individual intake. Foods provided by visitors was not included. The median and range of individual mean daily intakes (estimated) were: energy 5760 (938-8945) kJ, 1376 (224-2137) kcal; protein 44 (11-86) g; fat 52 (9-93) g; carbohydrate 169 (21-194) g; calcium 748 (268-1457) mg; iron 4.8 (0.5-21.0) mg; dietary fibre 5.0 (0.5-21.0) g. Compared to recommended amounts, energy, iron and dietary fibre intakes were low; calcium intake was high. Nutritional status may affect prognosis and/or subjective well-being in advanced cancer. The value of nutritional supplementation and the role of appetite stimulants in improving nutritional status needs investigation.

  18. Dietary intake of advanced cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Walsh, T D; Bowman, K B; Jackson, G P

    1983-02-01

    A state registered dietitian assessed the voluntary dietary intake of 13 advanced cancer inpatients on one ward of St. Christopher's Hospice for five consecutive days. There were 11 females, two males; median age 74 years (range 56 to 83). Two patients died on the fourth day of the study. A partially individualised weighed technique was used. Standard sized scoops and spoons were used to serve the food in small, medium or large standard portions (depending on appetite) and were weighed as served. Individual plate waste (by weight) was subtracted to give estimated individual intake. Foods provided by visitors was not included. The median and range of individual mean daily intakes (estimated) were: energy 5760 (938-8945) kJ, 1376 (224-2137) kcal; protein 44 (11-86) g; fat 52 (9-93) g; carbohydrate 169 (21-194) g; calcium 748 (268-1457) mg; iron 4.8 (0.5-21.0) mg; dietary fibre 5.0 (0.5-21.0) g. Compared to recommended amounts, energy, iron and dietary fibre intakes were low; calcium intake was high. Nutritional status may affect prognosis and/or subjective well-being in advanced cancer. The value of nutritional supplementation and the role of appetite stimulants in improving nutritional status needs investigation. PMID:6841131

  19. Recent Advances in Traditional Chinese Medicine for Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yifei; Menon, Madhav C; Deng, Yueyi; Chen, Yiping; He, John Cijiang

    2015-09-01

    Because current treatment options for chronic kidney disease (CKD) are limited, many patients seek out alternative therapies such as traditional Chinese medicine. However, there is a lack of evidence from large clinical trials to support the use of traditional medicines in patients with CKD. Many active components of traditional medicine formulas are undetermined and their toxicities are unknown. Therefore, there is a need for research to identify active compounds from traditional medicines and understand the mechanisms of action of these compounds, as well as their potential toxicity, and subsequently perform well-designed, randomized, controlled, clinical trials to study the efficacy and safety of their use in patients with CKD. Significant progress has been made in this field within the last several years. Many active compounds have been identified by applying sophisticated techniques such as mass spectrometry, and more mechanistic studies of these compounds have been performed using both in vitro and in vivo models. In addition, several well-designed, large, randomized, clinical trials have recently been published. We summarize these recent advances in the field of traditional medicines as they apply to CKD. In addition, current barriers for further research are also discussed. Due to the ongoing research in this field, we believe that stronger evidence to support the use of traditional medicines for CKD will emerge in the near future.

  20. KDOQI US commentary on the 2013 KDIGO Clinical Practice Guideline for Lipid Management in CKD.

    PubMed

    Sarnak, Mark J; Bloom, Roy; Muntner, Paul; Rahman, Mahboob; Saland, Jeffrey M; Wilson, Peter W F; Fried, Linda

    2015-03-01

    The National Kidney Foundation-Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (NKF-KDOQI) guideline for management of dyslipidemia in chronic kidney disease (CKD) was published in 2003. Since then, considerable evidence, including randomized controlled trials of statin therapy in adults with CKD, has helped better define medical treatments for dyslipidemia. In light of the new evidence, KDIGO (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes) formed a work group for the management of dyslipidemia in patients with CKD. This work group developed a new guideline that contains substantial changes from the prior KDOQI guideline. KDIGO recommends treatment of dyslipidemia in patients with CKD primarily based on risk for coronary heart disease, which is driven in large part by age. The KDIGO guideline does not recommend using low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level as a guide for identifying individuals with CKD to be treated or as treatment targets. Initiation of statin treatment is no longer recommended in dialysis patients. To assist US practitioners in interpreting and applying the KDIGO guideline, NKF-KDOQI convened a work group to write a commentary on this guideline. For the most part, our work group agreed with the recommendations of the KDIGO guideline, although we describe several areas in which we believe the guideline statements are either too strong or need to be more nuanced, areas of uncertainty and inconsistency, as well as additional research recommendations. The target audience for the KDIGO guideline includes nephrologists, primary care practitioners, and non-nephrology specialists such as cardiologists and endocrinologists. As such, we also put the current recommendations into the context of other clinical practice recommendations for cholesterol treatment.

  1. Baseline Characteristics and Prescription Patterns of Standard Drugs in Patients with Angiographically Determined Coronary Artery Disease and Renal Failure (CAD-REF Registry)

    PubMed Central

    Reinecke, Holger; Breithardt, Günter; Engelbertz, Christiane; Schmieder, Roland E.; Fobker, Manfred; Pinnschmidt, Hans O.; Schmitz, Boris; Bruland, Philipp; Wegscheider, Karl; Pavenstädt, Hermann; Brand, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is strongly associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). We established a prospective observational nationwide multicenter registry to evaluate current treatment and outcomes in patients with both CKD and angiographically documented CAD. Methods In 32 cardiological centers 3,352 CAD patients with ≥50% stenosis in at least one coronary artery were enrolled and classified according to their estimated glomerular filtration rate and proteinuria into one of five stages of CKD or as a control group. Results 2,723 (81.2%) consecutively enrolled patients suffered from CKD. Compared to controls, CKD patients had a higher prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, peripheral artery diseases, heart failure, and valvular heart disease (each p<0.001). Myocardial infarctions (p = 0.02), coronary bypass grafting, valve replacements and pacemaker implantations had been recorded more frequently (each p<0.001). With advanced CKD, the number of diseased coronary vessels and the proportion of patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) increased significantly (both p<0.001). Percutaneous coronary interventions were performed less frequently (p<0.001) while coronary bypass grafting was recommended more often (p = 0.04) with advanced CKD. With regard to standard drugs in CAD treatment, prescriptions were higher in our registry than in previous reports, but beta-blockers (p = 0.008), and angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors and/or angiotensin-receptor blockers (p<0.001) were given less often in higher CKD stages. In contrast, in the subgroup of patients with moderately to severely reduced LVEF the prescription rates did not differ between CKD stages. In-hospital mortality increased stepwise with each CKD stage (p = 0.02). Conclusions In line with other studies comprising CKD cohorts, patients’ morbidity and in-hospital mortality increased with the degree of renal impairment. Although cardiologists’ drug prescription rates

  2. Association of BP with Death, Cardiovascular Events, and Progression to Chronic Dialysis in Patients with Advanced Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Palit, Shyamal; Chonchol, Michel; Cheung, Alfred K.; Kaufman, James; Smits, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective The optimal BP target to reduce adverse clinical outcomes in patients with CKD is unclear. This study examined the relationship between BP and death, cardiovascular events (CVEs), and kidney disease progression in patients with advanced kidney disease. Design, setting, participants, & measurements The relationship of systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), and pulse pressure (PP) with death, CVE, and progression to long-term dialysis was examined in 1099 patients with advanced CKD (eGFR≤30 ml/min per 1.7 3m2; not receiving dialysis) who participated in the Homocysteine in Kidney and ESRD study. That study enrolled participants from 2001 to 2003. Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine the association between BP and adverse outcomes. Results The mean±SD baseline eGFR was 18±7 ml/min per 1.73 m2. During a median follow-up of 2.9 years, 453 patients died, 215 had a CVE, and 615 initiated long-term dialysis. After adjustment for demographic characteristics and confounders, SBP, DBP, and PP were not associated with a higher risk of death. SBP and DBP were also not associated with CVE. The highest quartile of PP was associated with a substantial higher risk of CVE compared with the lowest quartile (hazard ratio [HR], 1.67; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.10 to 2.52). The highest quartiles of SBP (HR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.61) and DBP (HR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.73), but not PP, were associated with a higher risk of progression to long-term dialysis compared with the lowest quartile. Conclusions In patients with advanced kidney disease not undergoing dialysis, higher PP was strongly associated with CVE whereas higher SBP and DBP were associated with progression to long-term dialysis. These results suggest that SBP and DBP should not be the only factors considered in determining antihypertensive therapy; elevated PP should also be considered. PMID:25979975

  3. Medical costs of CKD in the Medicare population.

    PubMed

    Honeycutt, Amanda A; Segel, Joel E; Zhuo, Xiaohui; Hoerger, Thomas J; Imai, Kumiko; Williams, Desmond

    2013-09-01

    Estimates of the medical costs associated with different stages of CKD are needed to assess the economic benefits of interventions that slow the progression of kidney disease. We combined laboratory data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey with expenditure data from Medicare claims to estimate the Medicare program's annual costs that were attributable to CKD stage 1-4. The Medicare costs for persons who have stage 1 kidney disease were not significantly different from zero. Per person annual Medicare expenses attributable to CKD were $1700 for stage 2, $3500 for stage 3, and $12,700 for stage 4, adjusted to 2010 dollars. Our findings suggest that the medical costs attributable to CKD are substantial among Medicare beneficiaries, even during the early stages; moreover, costs increase as disease severity worsens. These cost estimates may facilitate the assessment of the net economic benefits of interventions that prevent or slow the progression of CKD.

  4. Quality of life and outcomes in African Americans with CKD.

    PubMed

    Porter, Anna; Fischer, Michael J; Wang, Xuelei; Brooks, Deborah; Bruce, Marino; Charleston, Jeanne; Cleveland, William H; Dowie, Donna; Faulkner, Marquetta; Gassman, Jennifer; Hiremath, Leena; Kendrick, Cindy; Kusek, John W; Norris, Keith C; Thornley-Brown, Denyse; Greene, Tom; Lash, James P

    2014-08-01

    Low health-related quality of life (HRQOL) has been associated with increased risk for hospitalization and death in ESRD. However, the relationship of HRQOL with outcomes in predialysis CKD is not well understood. We evaluated the association between HRQOL and renal and cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in 1091 African Americans with hypertensive CKD enrolled in the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) trial and cohort studies. Outcomes included CKD progression (doubling of serum creatinine/ESRD), CV events/CV death, and a composite of CKD progression or death from any cause (CKD progression/death). We assessed HRQOL, including mental health composite (MHC) and physical health composite (PHC), using the Short Form-36 survey. Cox regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between outcomes and five-point decrements in MHC and PHC scores using measurements at baseline, at the most recent annual visit (time-varying), or averaged from baseline to the most recent visit (cumulative). During approximately 10 years of follow-up, lower mean PHC score was associated with increased risk of CV events/CV death and CKD progression/death across all analytic approaches, but only time-varying and cumulative decrements were associated with CKD progression. Similarly, lower mean MHC score was associated with increased risk of CV events/CV death regardless of analytic approach, while only time-varying and cumulative decrements in mean MHC score was associated with CKD progression and CKD progression or death. In conclusion, lower HRQOL is associated with a range of adverse outcomes in African Americans with hypertensive CKD.

  5. Impaired Glucose and Insulin Homeostasis in Moderate-Severe CKD.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Ian H; Zelnick, Leila; Afkarian, Maryam; Ayers, Ernest; Curtin, Laura; Himmelfarb, Jonathan; Ikizler, T Alp; Kahn, Steven E; Kestenbaum, Bryan; Utzschneider, Kristina

    2016-09-01

    Kidney disease leads to clinically relevant disturbances in glucose and insulin homeostasis, but the pathophysiology in moderate-severe CKD remains incompletely defined. In a cross-sectional study of 59 participants with nondiabetic CKD (mean eGFR =37.6 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)) and 39 healthy control subjects, we quantified insulin sensitivity, clearance, and secretion and glucose tolerance using hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp and intravenous and oral glucose tolerance tests. Participants with CKD had lower insulin sensitivity than participants without CKD (mean[SD] 3.9[2.0] versus 5.0 [2.0] mg/min per µU/ml; P<0.01). Insulin clearance correlated with insulin sensitivity (r=0.72; P<0.001) and was also lower in participants with CKD than controls (876 [226] versus 998 [212] ml/min; P<0.01). Adjustment for physical activity, diet, fat mass, and fatfree mass in addition to demographics and smoking partially attenuated associations of CKD with insulin sensitivity (adjusted difference, -0.7; 95% confidence interval, -1.4 to 0.0 mg/min per µU/ml) and insulin clearance (adjusted difference, -85; 95% confidence interval, -160 to -10 ml/min). Among participants with CKD, eGFR did not significantly correlate with insulin sensitivity or clearance. Insulin secretion and glucose tolerance did not differ significantly between groups, but 65% of participants with CKD had impaired glucose tolerance. In conclusion, moderate-severe CKD associated with reductions in insulin sensitivity and clearance that are explained, in part, by differences in lifestyle and body composition. We did not observe a CKD-specific deficit in insulin secretion, but the combination of insulin resistance and inadequate augmentation of insulin secretion led to a high prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance.

  6. Prevalence, Awareness, and Management of CKD and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Publicly Funded Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Verhave, Jacobien C.; Mongeau, Frédéric; Fradette, Lorraine; Bouchard, Josée; Awadalla, Philip; Madore, François

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives It is uncertain how many patients with CKD and cardiovascular risk factors in publicly funded universal health care systems are aware of their disease and how to achieve their treatment targets. Design, setting, participants, & measurements The CARTaGENE study evaluated BP, lipid, and diabetes profiles as well as corresponding treatments in 20,004 random individuals between 40 and 69 years of age. Participants had free access to health care and were recruited from four regions within the province of Quebec, Canada in 2009 and 2010. Results CKD (Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation; <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2) was present in 4.0% of the respondents, and hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia were reported by 25%, 7.4%, and 28% of participants, respectively. Self-awareness was low: 8% for CKD, 73% for diabetes, and 45% for hypercholesterolemia. Overall, 31% of patients with hypertension did not meet BP goals, and many received fewer antihypertensive drugs than appropriately controlled individuals; 41% of patients with diabetes failed to meet treatment targets. Among those patients with a moderate or high Framingham risk score, 53% of patients had LDL levels above the recommended levels, and many patients were not receiving a statin. Physician checkups were not associated with greater awareness but did increase the achievement of targets. Conclusion In this population with access to publicly funded health care, CKD and cardiovascular risk factors are common, and self-awareness of these conditions is low. Recommended targets were frequently not achieved, and treatments were less intensive in those patients who failed to reach goals. New strategies to enhance public awareness and reach guideline targets should be developed. PMID:24458079

  7. Diabetes mellitus increases the prevalence of anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease: A nested case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Loutradis, Charalampos; Skodra, Alexandra; Georgianos, Panagiotis; Tolika, Panagiota; Alexandrou, Dimitris; Avdelidou, Afroditi; Sarafidis, Pantelis A

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To compare anemia prevalence between matched chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with and without diabetes mellitus (DM) and to assess factors associated with anemia development. METHODS: This is a nested case-control study of 184 type-2 diabetic and 184 non-diabetic CKD patients from a prospectively assembled database of a Nephrology outpatient clinic, matched for gender, age and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Prevalence of anemia (hemoglobin: Men: < 13 g/dL, women: < 12 g/dL and/or use of recombinant erythropoietin) was examined in comparison, in the total population and by CKD Stage. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with anemia. RESULTS: The total prevalence of anemia was higher in diabetics (47.8% vs 33.2%, P = 0.004). Accordingly, prevalence was higher in diabetics in CKD Stage 3 (53.5% vs 33.1%, P < 0.001) and particularly in Stage 3a (60.4% vs 26.4%, P < 0.001), whereas it was non-significantly higher in Stage 4 (61.3% vs 48.4%; P = 0.307). Serum ferritin was higher in diabetics in total and in CKD stages, while serum iron was similar between groups. In multivariate analyses, DM (OR = 2.206, 95%CI: 1.196-4.069), CKD Stages 3a, 3b, 4 (Stage 4: OR = 12.169, 95%CI: 3.783-39.147) and serum iron (OR = 0.976, 95%CI: 0.968-0.985 per mg/dL increase) were independently associated with anemia. CONCLUSION: Prevalence of anemia progressively increases with advancing stages of CKD and is higher in diabetic than matched non-diabetic CKD patients and diabetes is independently associated with anemia occurrence. Detection and treatment of anemia in diabetic CKD patients should be performed earlier than non-diabetic counterparts. PMID:27458564

  8. Bevacizumab improves survival for patients with advanced cervical cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Patients with advanced, recurrent, or persistent cervical cancer that was not curable with standard treatment who received the drug bevacizumab (Avastin) lived 3.7 months longer than patients who did not receive the drug, according to an interim analysis

  9. Lower Superoxide Dismutase 2 (SOD2) Protein Content in Mononuclear Cells Is Associated with Better Survival in Patients with Hemodialysis Therapy.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Katharina; Shen, Jianlin; Maier, Alexandra; Tepel, Martin; Scholze, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) converts superoxide anions to hydrogen peroxide and oxygen. Human data on SOD2 protein content in chronic kidney disease (CKD) are sparse and mortality data are lacking. We investigated SOD2 protein content in monocytes from patients with hemodialysis therapy (n = 81), CKD stage 1-5 (n = 120), and healthy controls (n = 13) using in-cell Western assays. SOD2 protein decreased from CKD stage 1 until stage 4 whereas it increased again in stage 5 with and without hemodialysis. SOD2 gene expression, analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR, was not significantly different between the groups. Elevating cellular superoxide production reduced SOD2 protein content. This effect was abolished by the superoxide dismutase mimetic Tempol. Using gelelectrophoresis and Western blot we did not detect nitrotyrosine modifications of SOD2 in CKD. Finally, in patients with CKD stage 5 with hemodialysis therapy higher than median SOD2 protein content was associated with higher all-cause mortality. In conclusion, SOD2 protein content declined in CKD until stage 4 while SOD2 gene expression did not. Increased cellular superoxide anion production might affect SOD2 protein content. In advanced CKD (stage 5) SOD2 protein content increased again, but higher than median SOD2 protein content in these patients did not confer a survival benefit. PMID:27630759

  10. Lower Superoxide Dismutase 2 (SOD2) Protein Content in Mononuclear Cells Is Associated with Better Survival in Patients with Hemodialysis Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jianlin

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) converts superoxide anions to hydrogen peroxide and oxygen. Human data on SOD2 protein content in chronic kidney disease (CKD) are sparse and mortality data are lacking. We investigated SOD2 protein content in monocytes from patients with hemodialysis therapy (n = 81), CKD stage 1–5 (n = 120), and healthy controls (n = 13) using in-cell Western assays. SOD2 protein decreased from CKD stage 1 until stage 4 whereas it increased again in stage 5 with and without hemodialysis. SOD2 gene expression, analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR, was not significantly different between the groups. Elevating cellular superoxide production reduced SOD2 protein content. This effect was abolished by the superoxide dismutase mimetic Tempol. Using gelelectrophoresis and Western blot we did not detect nitrotyrosine modifications of SOD2 in CKD. Finally, in patients with CKD stage 5 with hemodialysis therapy higher than median SOD2 protein content was associated with higher all-cause mortality. In conclusion, SOD2 protein content declined in CKD until stage 4 while SOD2 gene expression did not. Increased cellular superoxide anion production might affect SOD2 protein content. In advanced CKD (stage 5) SOD2 protein content increased again, but higher than median SOD2 protein content in these patients did not confer a survival benefit.

  11. Lower Superoxide Dismutase 2 (SOD2) Protein Content in Mononuclear Cells Is Associated with Better Survival in Patients with Hemodialysis Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jianlin

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) converts superoxide anions to hydrogen peroxide and oxygen. Human data on SOD2 protein content in chronic kidney disease (CKD) are sparse and mortality data are lacking. We investigated SOD2 protein content in monocytes from patients with hemodialysis therapy (n = 81), CKD stage 1–5 (n = 120), and healthy controls (n = 13) using in-cell Western assays. SOD2 protein decreased from CKD stage 1 until stage 4 whereas it increased again in stage 5 with and without hemodialysis. SOD2 gene expression, analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR, was not significantly different between the groups. Elevating cellular superoxide production reduced SOD2 protein content. This effect was abolished by the superoxide dismutase mimetic Tempol. Using gelelectrophoresis and Western blot we did not detect nitrotyrosine modifications of SOD2 in CKD. Finally, in patients with CKD stage 5 with hemodialysis therapy higher than median SOD2 protein content was associated with higher all-cause mortality. In conclusion, SOD2 protein content declined in CKD until stage 4 while SOD2 gene expression did not. Increased cellular superoxide anion production might affect SOD2 protein content. In advanced CKD (stage 5) SOD2 protein content increased again, but higher than median SOD2 protein content in these patients did not confer a survival benefit. PMID:27630759

  12. Clinical assessment and management of dyslipidemia in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Nitta, Kosaku

    2012-08-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Several factors contribute to the onset and progression of atherosclerosis and CVD in CKD patients. Most of the cases of coronary heart disease in the general population can be explained by traditional risk factors, whereas non-traditional risk factors, including oxidative stress, anemia, inflammation, malnutrition, vascular calcification, and endothelial dysfunction, have been proposed to play a central role in the pathogenesis of CVD in CKD patients. However, the precise mechanism of CVD initiation in CKD patients remains unclear. Lipid-lowering therapies may decrease proteinuria, and increase or maintain renal function. Because the serum levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins are increased in CKD patients, particularly in advanced stages, the serum non-HDL cholesterol level may be a better biomarker of dyslipidemia than the serum LDL cholesterol level in this population. A meta-analysis showed that statin therapy was associated with decreased albuminuria in comparison with a placebo. Moreover, lipid-lowering therapy with statins is effective in reducing the risk of CVD in the early stages of CKD, whereas the benefit of statins in patients with end-stage renal disease may be limited.

  13. Recent advances in understanding of chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Junna; Tanaka, Tetsuhiro; Nangaku, Masaomi

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is defined as any condition that causes reduced kidney function over a period of time. Fibrosis, tubular atrophy and interstitial inflammation are the hallmark of pathological features in CKD. Regardless of initial insult, CKD has some common pathways leading CKD to end-stage kidney disease, including hypoxia in the tubulointerstitium and proteinuria. Recent advances in genome editing technologies and stem cell research give great insights to understand the pathogenesis of CKD, including identifications of the origins of renal myofibroblasts and tubular epithelial cells upon injury. Environmental factors such as hypoxia, oxidative stress, and epigenetic factors in relation to CKD are also discussed. PMID:26937272

  14. Pedometer-Assessed Physical Activity in Children and Young Adults with CKD

    PubMed Central

    Akber, Aalia; Portale, Anthony A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Data on physical activity are limited in children with CKD. The objectives of this study were to measure the level and correlates of physical activity in children and young adults with CKD and to determine the association of physical activity with physical performance and physical functioning. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Physical activity was measured for 7 days using pedometers; physical performance was measured by the 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) and physical functioning with the PedsQL 4.0. Results Study participants were 44 patients 7–20 years of age who had CKD stage 1–4 (n=12), had ESRD and were undergoing dialysis (n=7), or had undergone kidney transplantation (n=25). Participants were very sedentary; they walked 6218 (interquartile range, 3637, 9829) steps per day, considerably less than recommended. Physical activity did not differ among participants in the CKD stage 1–4, ESRD, and transplant groups. Females were less active than males (P<0.01), and physical activity was 44% lower among young adults (18–20 years) than younger participants (P<0.05). Physical activity was associated positively with maternal education and hemoglobin concentration and inversely with body mass index. Respective 6MWD in males and females was 2 and approximately 4 SDs below expected. Low levels of physical activity were associated with poor physical performance and physical functioning, after adjustment for age, sex, and body mass index. Conclusions In most participants with CKD, physical activity was considerably below recommended levels. Future studies are needed to determine whether increasing physical activity can improve physical performance and physical functioning. PMID:22422539

  15. Cognitive Impairment in CKD: Keep Vascular Disease in Mind

    PubMed Central

    Drew, David A; Weiner, Daniel E

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is a major cause of morbidity in people with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is associated with lower quality of life, more difficulty adhering to medications, and worse survival. Prior data suggest a relationship between vascular disease and cognitive impairment in individuals with CKD, although overall risk factors remain poorly understood. Critically, clinicians should be aware of the high rates of cognitive impairment that occur in all stages of CKD, which, although sometimes subtle, may impact comprehension and decision making in these individuals and may herald future, more debilitating impairment. PMID:24583984

  16. Evolving Approaches to Patients with Advanced Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Steven I.

    2013-01-01

    Advanced differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), defined by clinical characteristics including gross extrathyroidal invasion, distant metastases, radioiodine (RAI) resistance, and avidity for 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (positron emission tomography-positive), is found in approximately 10–20% of patients with DTC. Standard therapy (surgery, RAI, TSH suppression with levothyroxine) is ineffective for many of these patients, as is standard chemotherapy. Our understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to DTC and the transformation to advanced DTC has rapidly evolved over the past 15–20 years. Newer targeted therapy, specifically inhibitors of intracellular kinase signaling pathways, and cooperative multicenter clinical trials have dramatically changed the therapeutic landscape for patients with advanced DTC. In this review focusing on morbidities, molecules, and medicinals, we present a patient with advanced DTC, explore the genetics and molecular biology of advanced DTC, and review evolving therapies for these patients including multikinase inhibitors, selective kinase inhibitors, and combination therapies. PMID:23575762

  17. Prevalence, awareness, and treatment of anemia in Chinese patients with nondialysis chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ya; Shi, Hao; Wang, Wei-Ming; Peng, Ai; Jiang, Geng-Ru; Zhang, Jin-Yuan; Ni, Zhao-Hui; He, Li-Qun; Niu, Jian-Ying; Wang, Nian-Song; Mei, Chang-Lin; Xu, Xu-Dong; Guo, Zhi-Yong; Yuan, Wei-Jie; Yan, Hai-Dong; Deng, Yue-Yi; Yu, Chen; Cen, Jun; Zhang, Yun; Chen, Nan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This was the first multicenter, cross-sectional survey to assess the prevalence of anemia, patient awareness, and treatment status in China. Data of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD; age, 18–75 years; both out- and inpatients) from 25 hospitals in Shanghai, seeking medical treatment at the nephrology department, were collected between July 1, 2012 and August 31, 2012. The prevalence, awareness, and treatment of anemia in patients with nondialysis CKD (ND-CKD) were assessed. Anemia was defined as serum hemoglobin (Hb) levels ≤12 g/dL in women and ≤13 g/dL in men. A total of 2420 patients with ND-CKD were included. Anemia was established in 1246 (51.5%) patients: 639 (51.3%) men and 607 (48.7%) women. The prevalence of anemia increased with advancing CKD stage (χ2trend = 675.14, P < 0.001). Anemia was more prevalent in patients with diabetic nephropathy (68.0%) than in patients with hypertensive renal damage (56.6%) or chronic glomerulonephritis (46.1%, both P < 0.001). Only 39.8% of the anemic patients received treatment with erythropoietin and 27.1% patients received iron products; furthermore, 22.7% of the patients started receiving treatment when their Hb level reached 7 g/dL. The target-achieving rate (Hb at 11–12 g/dL) was only 8.2%. Of the 1246 anemia patients, only 7.5% received more effective and recommended intravenous supplementation. Anemia is highly prevalent in patients with ND-CKD in China, with a low target-achieving rate and poor treatment patterns. The study highlights the need to improve multiple aspects of CKD management to delay the progression of renal failure. PMID:27310973

  18. Syndrome of rapid-onset end-stage renal disease: a new unrecognized pattern of CKD progression to ESRD.

    PubMed

    Onuigbo, Macaulay A C

    2010-01-01

    By most estimates, we have an increasing worldwide end-stage renal disease (ESRD) epidemic. This is despite at least two decades of intensified reno-protection strategies, including attempts at optimal hypertension management, optimization of diabetic control, smoking cessation efforts, and the extensive application of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockade in both diabetic and nondiabetic chronic nephropathies. The current consensus is that chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression to ESRD is a continuous, progressive, and predictable loss of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in CKD patients, inexorably leading to ESRD. Our recent experience in a Mayo Health System Hypertension Clinic, as well as new reports associating ESRD development in CKD patients with episodes of acute kidney injury (AKI), led us to hypothesize that CKD to ESRD progression may not be that predictable, after all. Among a 100 high-risk CKD patient cohort that we have followed up prospectively since 2002, we demonstrated that in 15 of 17 (88%) patients who progressed to ESRD, progression from CKD to ESRD was unpredictable, nonlinear, abrupt, and rapid, and this followed AKI secondary to medical and surgical events. We have coined a new term, the syndrome of rapid-onset end-stage renal disease (SORO-ESRD), to represent this unrecognized syndrome. Larger studies are warranted to confirm our single-center findings. If confirmed to represent a significant proportion of the ESRD population, at least here in the United States, this finding will demand major paradigm shifts in the current concepts of reno-protection and "A-V Fistula first" programs.

  19. Fewer Advanced Alzheimer's Patients on Feeding Tubes

    MedlinePlus

    ... at someone in the advanced stages of a terminal illness, a feeding tube doesn't make a ... of palliative care (keeping a person with a terminal illness as comfortable as possible), Mitchell said. As ...

  20. Gaps between Global Guidelines and Local Practices in CKD-MBD.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gheun-Ho

    2014-12-01

    The term 'chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder' (CKD-MBD) is a new term that, in contrast to the old term 'renal osteodystrophy', implies a systemic syndrome associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This new terminology is in line with previous studies that show elevated serum calcium, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels associated with increased cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. In order to improve outcomes in patients with CKD-MBD, many countries have developed clinical practice guidelines. Globally, the Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative (KDOQI) and Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) guidelines are the most commonly used. However, whether these global guidelines can be successfully implemented on a local level needs to be studied. Differences in medical care and social factors between countries may limit the generalizability of global guidelines. Reports from the Korean registry and the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS) suggest that many dialysis patients are not within the target ranges recommended by the KDOQI and KDIGO guidelines for serum calcium, phosphorus, and PTH, suggesting gaps between global guidelines and local practices. Clinical studies with Korean CKD-MBD patients are necessary to compare Korean practices and outcomes to those suggested by global guidelines and to determine the target serum mineral levels associated with the best local outcomes. PMID:25606042

  1. Relationship between circadian blood pressure variation and circadian protein excretion in CKD.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Rajiv

    2007-09-01

    Circadian blood pressure changes are blunted in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Proteinuria is the most important correlate of hypertension in CKD. However, little is known about the influence of circadian blood pressure changes and variation in protein excretion rate. Furthermore, the impact of blood pressure components, e.g., mean arterial pressure and pulse pressure, on proteinuria has not been evaluated. To analyze the relationship of circadian changes in blood pressure on urinary protein excretion patterns, glomerular filtration rate was measured with iothalamate clearance and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure with SpaceLabs 90207 monitor in 22 patients with CKD. It was found that hourly protein excretion rates were 31% higher during the night. Excretion results of sodium, potassium, chloride, urea, and creatinine were also between 30 and 40% higher at night. Systolic, mean arterial, and pulse pressures but not diastolic pressure were related to daytime protein excretion rate. At night, the relationship of systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressures was significantly lower and essentially flat with respect to protein excretion rate, but the relationship of pulse pressure and proteinuria was not different from that seen during the day. Circadian variation in blood pressure did not impact circadian sodium excretion rate. In conclusion, these data suggest that patients with CKD have patterns of proteinuria that share different relationships with blood pressure components depending on the awake-sleep state. Pulse pressure is related to proteinuria independent of the awake-sleep state. Reducing mean arterial pressure during the day and pulse pressure during the day or night may be effective antiproteinuric strategies. PMID:17581923

  2. Randomized Placebo-Controlled EPPIC Trials of AST-120 in CKD

    PubMed Central

    Berl, Tomas; Beck, Gerald J.; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Ritz, Eberhard; Arita, Kiyoshi; Kato, Akira; Shimizu, Miho

    2015-01-01

    Reduced GFR in patients with CKD causes systemic accumulation of uremic toxins, which has been correlated with disease progression and increased morbidity. The orally administered spherical carbon adsorbent AST-120 reduces systemic toxin absorption through gastrointestinal sequestration, which may slow disease progression in these patients. The multinational, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Evaluating Prevention of Progression in CKD (EPPIC)-1 and EPPIC-2 trials evaluated the effects of AST-120 on the progression of CKD when added to standard therapy. We randomly assigned 2035 adults with moderate to severe disease (serum creatinine at screening, 2.0–5.0 mg/dl for men and 1.5–5.0 mg/dl for women) to receive either placebo or AST-120 (9 g/d). The primary end point was a composite of dialysis initiation, kidney transplantation, and serum creatinine doubling. Each trial continued until accrual of 291 primary end points. The time to primary end point was similar between the AST-120 and the placebo groups in both trials (EPPIC-1: hazard ratio, 1.03; 95% confidence interval, 0.84 to 1.27; P=0.78) (EPPIC-2: hazard ratio, 0.91; 95% confidence interval, 0.74 to 1.12; P=0.37); a pooled analysis of both trials showed similar results. The estimated median time to primary end points for the placebo groups was 124 weeks for power calculations, but actual times were 189.0 and 170.3 weeks for EPPIC-1 and EPPIC-2, respectively. Thus, disease progression was more gradual than expected in the trial populations. In conclusion, the benefit of adding AST-120 to standard therapy in patients with moderate to severe CKD is not supported by these data. PMID:25349205

  3. Prevalence, awareness, and treatment of anemia in Chinese patients with nondialysis chronic kidney disease: First multicenter, cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Li, Ya; Shi, Hao; Wang, Wei-Ming; Peng, Ai; Jiang, Geng-Ru; Zhang, Jin-Yuan; Ni, Zhao-Hui; He, Li-Qun; Niu, Jian-Ying; Wang, Nian-Song; Mei, Chang-Lin; Xu, Xu-Dong; Guo, Zhi-Yong; Yuan, Wei-Jie; Yan, Hai-Dong; Deng, Yue-Yi; Yu, Chen; Cen, Jun; Zhang, Yun; Chen, Nan

    2016-06-01

    This was the first multicenter, cross-sectional survey to assess the prevalence of anemia, patient awareness, and treatment status in China. Data of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD; age, 18-75 years; both out- and inpatients) from 25 hospitals in Shanghai, seeking medical treatment at the nephrology department, were collected between July 1, 2012 and August 31, 2012. The prevalence, awareness, and treatment of anemia in patients with nondialysis CKD (ND-CKD) were assessed. Anemia was defined as serum hemoglobin (Hb) levels ≤12 g/dL in women and ≤13 g/dL in men. A total of 2420 patients with ND-CKD were included. Anemia was established in 1246 (51.5%) patients: 639 (51.3%) men and 607 (48.7%) women. The prevalence of anemia increased with advancing CKD stage (χtrend = 675.14, P < 0.001). Anemia was more prevalent in patients with diabetic nephropathy (68.0%) than in patients with hypertensive renal damage (56.6%) or chronic glomerulonephritis (46.1%, both P < 0.001). Only 39.8% of the anemic patients received treatment with erythropoietin and 27.1% patients received iron products; furthermore, 22.7% of the patients started receiving treatment when their Hb level reached 7 g/dL. The target-achieving rate (Hb at 11-12 g/dL) was only 8.2%. Of the 1246 anemia patients, only 7.5% received more effective and recommended intravenous supplementation. Anemia is highly prevalent in patients with ND-CKD in China, with a low target-achieving rate and poor treatment patterns. The study highlights the need to improve multiple aspects of CKD management to delay the progression of renal failure. PMID:27310973

  4. A Longitudinal Study of Inflammation, CKD-Mineral Bone Disorder, and Carotid Atherosclerosis after Renal Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Sonmez, Alper; Saglam, Mutlu; Cayci, Tuncer; Kilic, Selim; Unal, Hilmi Umut; Karaman, Murat; Cetinkaya, Hakki; Eyileten, Tayfun; Gok, Mahmut; Oguz, Yusuf; Vural, Abdulgaffar; Mallamaci, Francesca; Zoccali, Carmine

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives The role of reversibility of nontraditional risk factors, like inflammation and CKD-mineral bone disorder, in the reduction of cardiovascular risk after renal transplantation is still scarcely defined. Design, setting, participants, and measurements The longitudinal relationship between C-reactive protein, CKD-mineral bone disorder biomarkers, and intima media thickness was investigated in a series of 178 patients (age=32±10 years) with stage 5 CKD maintained on chronic dialysis who underwent echo-color Doppler studies of the carotid arteries before and after renal transplantation. Smokers and patients with diabetes were excluded from the study. In all patients, immunosuppression was performed by a standard regimen on the basis of calcineurin inhibitors. Healthy controls were specifically selected to match the age and sex distribution of the patients. Biochemical and intima media thickness assessments were repeated 6 months after transplantation. Results Before transplantation, intima media thickness in patients with stage 5 CKD on dialysis (average=0.9±0.2 mm) was higher (P<0.001) than in well matched healthy controls (0.6±0.1 mm) and reduced substantially (−22%; 95% confidence interval, −24% to −20%) after transplantation (P=0.001). GFR (multivariable-adjusted β=0.23; P<0.001), C-reactive protein (β=0.15; P<0.001), and fibroblast growth factor 23 (β=0.28; P<0.001) were the strongest independent correlates of intima media thickness before transplantation. Similarly, longitudinal changes in the same biomarkers were the sole independent correlates of simultaneous changes in intima media thickness (C-reactive protein: β=0.25; fibroblast growth factor 23: β=0.26; P<0.001 for both) after renal transplantation. The evolution of intima media thickness after transplantation was largely independent of classic risk factors, including BP, LDL cholesterol, and insulin resistance, as measured by homeostatic model assessment. Conclusions

  5. Glycated albumin is the preferred marker for assessing glycaemic control in advanced chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Vos, Frederiek E; Schollum, John B; Walker, Robert J

    2011-12-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is the most common aetiology of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Strict glycaemic control reduces the development and progression of diabetes-related complications, and there is evidence that improved metabolic control improves outcomes in diabetic subjects with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). Glycaemic control in people with kidney disease is complex. Changes in glucose and insulin homeostasis may occur as a consequence of loss of kidney function and dialysis. The reliability of measures of long-term glycaemic control is affected by CKD and the accuracy of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) in the setting of CKD and ESKD is questioned. Despite the altered character of diabetes in CKD, current guidelines for diabetes management are not specifically adjusted to this patient group. The validity of indicators of longer term glycaemic control has been the focus of increased recent research. This review discusses the current understanding of commonly used indicators of metabolic control (HbA1c, fructosamine, glycated albumin) in the setting of advanced CKD (Stages 4 and 5, glomerular filtration rate <30 mL/min/1.73m(2)).

  6. Individuals with a family history of ESRD are a high-risk population for CKD: implications for targeted surveillance and intervention activities.

    PubMed

    McClellan, William M; Satko, Scott G; Gladstone, Elisa; Krisher, Jenna O; Narva, Andrew S; Freedman, Barry I

    2009-03-01

    Activities intended to improve the detection, treatment, and control of chronic kidney disease (CKD) should be incorporated into existing health care systems and targeted to high-risk populations to avoid redundancy and waste of resources. One high-risk population consists of first- or second-degree family members of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), who are 2 to 3 times as likely to have incident ESRD, have high rates of impaired kidney function and undetected and uncontrolled high blood pressure, and are more likely to be obese. These individuals usually are unaware of their underlying CKD and may discount their own risk of ESRD. The ESRD Network 6 Family History Project shows that the ESRD Networks, which constitute a national CKD surveillance system for patients with stage 5 CKD, may be an existing resource that can be used to identify relatives of incident patients with ESRD and provide these families with information about CKD. Nationally available resources have been developed by the National Kidney Disease Education Program for use with these at-risk families. Individuals interested in population-based CKD control activities should be aware of and use these resources. PMID:19231753

  7. Association of CKD with Disability in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Plantinga, Laura C.; Johansen, Kirsten; Crews, Deidra C.; Shahinian, Vahakn B.; Robinson, Bruce M.; Saran, Rajiv; Burrows, Nilka Rios; Williams, Desmond E.; Powe, Neil R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Little is known about disability in early-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD). Study Design Cross-sectional national survey (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2006). Setting and Participants Community-based survey of 16,011 non-institutionalized U.S. civilian adults (≥20 years). Predictor CKD, categorized as: no CKD, stages 1 and 2 [albuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥60 ml/min/1.73 m2], and stages 3 and 4 (eGFR 15–59). Outcome Self-reported disability, defined by limitations in working, walking, and cognition; and difficulties in activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental ADL, leisure and social activities, lower extremity mobility, and general physical activity. Measurements Albuminuria and eGFR assessed from urine and blood samples; disability, demographics, access to care, and comorbid conditions assessed by standardized questionnaire. Results Age-adjusted prevalence of reported limitations was generally significantly greater with CKD: e.g., difficulty with ADLs was reported by 17.6%, 24.7%, and 23.9% of older (≥65 years) and 6.8%, 11.9%, and 11.0% of younger (20–64 years) adults with no CKD, stages 1 and 2, and stages 3 and 4, respectively. CKD was also associated with greater reported limitations and difficulty in other activities after age adjustment, including instrumental ADL, leisure and social activities, lower extremity mobility, and general physical activity. Other demographics, socioeconomic status, and access to care generally only slightly attenuated the observed associations, particularly among older individuals; adjustment for cardiovascular disease, arthritis, and cancer attenuated most associations such that statistical significance was no longer achieved. Limitations Inability to establish causality and possible unmeasured confounding. Conclusion CKD is associated with higher prevalence of disability in the United States. Age and other comorbid conditions account for most

  8. Sorafenib in advanced, heavily pretreated patients with soft tissue sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Brämswig, Kira; Ploner, Ferdinand; Martel, Alexandra; Bauernhofer, Thomas; Hilbe, Wolfgang; Kühr, Thomas; Leitgeb, Clemens; Mlineritsch, Brigitte; Petzer, Andreas; Seebacher, Veronika; Stöger, Herbert; Girschikofsky, Michael; Hochreiner, Gerhard; Ressler, Sigrun; Romeder, Franz; Wöll, Ewald; Brodowicz, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    Therapeutic options for patients with advanced pretreated soft tissue sarcomas are limited. However, in this setting, sorafenib has shown promising results. We reviewed the data of 33 patients with soft tissue sarcoma treated with sorafenib within a named patient program in Austria. Twelve physicians from eight different hospitals provided records for the analysis of data. Among the 33 patients, the predominant histological subtype of sarcoma was leiomyosarcoma (n=18, 55%). Other subtypes were represented by only one or two cases. Fifteen patients presented with metastases at the time of diagnosis. Another 17 patients developed metastases later in the course of the disease (data on one patient are missing). Most of the 33 patients had undergone resection of the primary (n=29, 88%) and half of the patients had received radiotherapy (n=17, 52%). Chemotherapy for metastatic disease had been administered to 30 patients (91%). The majority had received two or more regimens of chemotherapy (n=25, 76%) before sorafenib treatment. The use of sorafenib resulted in a median time to treatment failure of 92 days in patients with leiomyosarcoma and 45 days in patients with other histological subtypes. One-third of the patients derived benefits from treatment: four patients were documented with partial response and six with stabilized disease. In terms of treatment-related toxicity, skin problems of various degrees and gastrointestinal disturbances were frequently reported. In this retrospective analysis of heavily pretreated patients with advanced soft tissue sarcomas, sorafenib was associated with some antitumor activity and an acceptable toxicity profile. PMID:24667659

  9. Advanced nurse-patient communication system.

    PubMed

    Unluturk, Mehmet S

    2012-08-01

    Effective communication is the most important part of any healthcare organization. For many years, hospital nurse call solutions had been stand-alone systems with occasional integration to pocket paging for outputting patient call alerts to mobile staff. In the late 1990's, technology enabled in-building wireless phones to supplement or replace paging systems as a means of not only sending alerts, but also enabling voice communication between mobile staff and patients. Today's nurse call market requires integration of additional information from location and ADT (admit, discharge, transfer) systems into what have traditionally been nurse call applications. This system information is required not only at the nursing station, pagers, and phones, but also at PC's placed on each patient care floor in hallways, nurse stations, and offices, and at areas away from the patients, including administrator and clinical engineering offices. It is crucial that nurses have the latest patient information in their hand wherever they go in the hospital. In this paper, MatchMaker.NET has been developed to integrate all these technologies into the hospital's LAN to improve nurse-patient communication. PMID:21541690

  10. Women and CKD-mineral and bone disorder.

    PubMed

    Ho, L Tammy; Sprague, Stuart M

    2013-09-01

    Development of CKD-mineral and bone disorder (MBD) increases morbidity and mortality in men and women with CKD. The corresponding link among bone disease, fracture, and extraskeletal calcifications has been the subject of much focus. In the general population, the incidence of cardiovascular disease is higher in men than women, and this gender differences in degree of calcification and morbidity is maintained in kidney disease. Gender differences in phosphorus and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) have been described. Increases in both have been linked with increasing likelihood of death in the CKD population as a whole; however, this link is not as well described when looking at women alone. The clinical significance of these differences, and the potential associated outcomes, are poorly understood. Traditional understanding of bone disease in women without kidney disease may not be fully applicable in women with CKD. Use of bone densitometry is limited in this population, and the traditional preventative interventions may not be fully transferrable to women with CKD. PMID:23978548

  11. p-Cresyl sulfate promotes insulin resistance associated with CKD.

    PubMed

    Koppe, Laetitia; Pillon, Nicolas J; Vella, Roxane E; Croze, Marine L; Pelletier, Caroline C; Chambert, Stéphane; Massy, Ziad; Glorieux, Griet; Vanholder, Raymond; Dugenet, Yann; Soula, Hédi A; Fouque, Denis; Soulage, Christophe O

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the insulin resistance that frequently accompanies CKD are poorly understood, but the retention of renally excreted compounds may play a role. One such compound is p-cresyl sulfate (PCS), a protein-bound uremic toxin that originates from tyrosine metabolism by intestinal microbes. Here, we sought to determine whether PCS contributes to CKD-associated insulin resistance. Administering PCS to mice with normal kidney function for 4 weeks triggered insulin resistance, loss of fat mass, and ectopic redistribution of lipid in muscle and liver, mimicking features associated with CKD. Mice treated with PCS exhibited altered insulin signaling in skeletal muscle through ERK1/2 activation. In addition, exposing C2C12 myotubes to concentrations of PCS observed in CKD caused insulin resistance through direct activation of ERK1/2. Subtotal nephrectomy led to insulin resistance and dyslipidemia in mice, and treatment with the prebiotic arabino-xylo-oligosaccharide, which reduced serum PCS by decreasing intestinal production of p-cresol, prevented these metabolic derangements. Taken together, these data suggest that PCS contributes to insulin resistance and that targeting PCS may be a therapeutic strategy in CKD. PMID:23274953

  12. Emerging biomarkers for evaluating cardiovascular risk in the chronic kidney disease patient: how do new pieces fit into the uremic puzzle?

    PubMed

    Stenvinkel, Peter; Carrero, Juan Jesús; Axelsson, Jonas; Lindholm, Bengt; Heimbürger, Olof; Massy, Ziad

    2008-03-01

    Premature cardiovascular disease (CVD), including stroke, peripheral vascular disease, sudden death, coronary artery disease, and congestive heart failure, is a notorious problem in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Because the presence of CVD is independently associated with kidney function decline, it appears that the relationship between CKD and CVD is reciprocal or bidirectional, and that it is this association that leads to the vicious circle contributing to premature death. As randomized, placebo-controlled trials have so far been disappointing and unable to show a survival benefit of various treatment strategies, such a lipid-lowering, increased dialysis dose and normalization of hemoglobin, the risk factor profile seems to be different in CKD compared with the general population. Indeed, seemingly paradoxical associations between traditional risk factors and cardiovascular outcome in patients with advanced CKD have complicated our efforts to identify the real cardiovascular culprits. This review focuses on the many new pieces that need to be fit into the complicated puzzle of uremic vascular disease, including persistent inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and vascular ossification. Each of these is not only highly prevalent in CKD but also more strongly linked to CVD in these patients than in the general population. However, a causal relationship between these new markers and CVD in CKD patients remains to be established. Finally, two novel disciplines, proteomics and epigenetics, will be discussed, because these tools may be helpful in the understanding of the discussed vascular risk factors.

  13. Safety, efficacy and renal effect of febuxostat in patients with moderate-to-severe kidney dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Shibagaki, Yugo; Ohno, Iwao; Hosoya, Tatsuo; Kimura, Kenjiro

    2014-10-01

    Hyperuricemia (HU) is common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and accumulating evidence suggests it has a pathogenic role in the progression of the disease. However, a major challenge in treating patients with HU is the adverse effects caused by urate-lowering drugs used to treat CKD. Because of these untoward effects, doses need to be reduced, which leads to suboptimal efficacy. Febuxostat has been shown to be highly efficacious in reducing serum uric acid (sUA) and is well tolerated in patients with mild kidney dysfunction. However, its safety and efficacy have not been well studied in more advanced cases of CKD. We studied the safety and efficacy of escalating doses of febuxostat over a 24-week period in 70 patients with CKD stages 3b, 4 and 5, and we also observed the changes in blood pressure, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and proteinuria following the reduction of sUA. Drug-related adverse events (AEs) occurred in only 5 out of 70 patients. All but one of the events were mild, and all five patients fully recovered. By 24 weeks, the reduction of sUA levels was >40% in CKD stage 3b and >50% in CKD stages 4 and 5. More than 70% of patients achieved target sUA levels of 6 mg dl(-1) or less. Multivariate analysis showed that a greater reduction in sUA with febuxostat was associated with an increase in eGFR and a tendency toward decreased proteinuria. Febuxostat was safe and efficacious in the treatment of CKD stages 3b-5.

  14. The NLRP3 Inflammasome Promotes Renal Inflammation and Contributes to CKD

    PubMed Central

    Vilaysane, Akosua; Chun, Justin; Seamone, Mark E.; Wang, Wenjie; Chin, Rick; Hirota, Simon; Li, Yan; Clark, Sharon A.; Tschopp, Jurg; Trpkov, Kiril; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R.; Beck, Paul L.

    2010-01-01

    Inflammation significantly contributes to the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Inflammasome-dependent cytokines, such as IL-1β and IL-18, play a role in CKD, but their regulation during renal injury is unknown. Here, we analyzed the processing of caspase-1, IL-1β, and IL-18 after unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) in mice, which suggested activation of the Nlrp3 inflammasome during renal injury. Compared with wild-type mice, Nlrp3−/− mice had less tubular injury, inflammation, and fibrosis after UUO, associated with a reduction in caspase-1 activation and maturation of IL-1β and IL-18; these data confirm that the Nlrp3 inflammasome upregulates these cytokines in the kidney during injury. Bone marrow chimeras revealed that Nlrp3 mediates the injurious/inflammatory processes in both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cellular compartments. In tissue from human renal biopsies, a wide variety of nondiabetic kidney diseases exhibited increased expression of NLRP3 mRNA, which correlated with renal function. Taken together, these results strongly support a role for NLRP3 in renal injury and identify the inflammasome as a possible therapeutic target in the treatment of patients with progressive CKD. PMID:20688930

  15. Palliative communications: addressing chemotherapy in patients with advanced cancer.

    PubMed

    Kadakia, K C; Moynihan, T J; Smith, T J; Loprinzi, C L

    2012-04-01

    Patients with advanced cancers often endure chemotherapy late in their disease course leading to unnecessary adverse effects, loss of quality of life, and delay in hospice referral. Compassionate and honest communication about the use of chemotherapy can facilitate better patient care. This manuscript will explore communication issues regarding palliative-intent chemotherapy.

  16. Myofacial Trigger Points in Advanced Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hasuo, Hideaki; Ishihara, Tatsuhiko; Kanbara, Kenji; Fukunaga, Mikihiko

    2016-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome is started to be recognized as one of important factors of pain in cancer patients. However, no reports on features of myofascial trigger points were found in terminally-ill cancer populations. This time, we encountered 5 patients with myofascial pain syndrome and terminal cancer in whom delirium developed due to increased doses of opioid without a diagnosis of myofascial pain syndrome on initial presentation. The delirium subsided with dose reductions of opioid and treatment of myofascial pain syndrome. The common reason for a delayed diagnosis among the patients included an incomplete palpation of the painful sites, which led to unsuccessful myofascial trigger points identification. The features of myofascial trigger points included single onset in the cancer pain management site with opioid and the contralateral abdominal side muscles of the non-common sites. Withdrawal reflexes associated with cancer pain in the supine position, which are increasingly seen in the terminal cancer patients, were considered to have contributed to this siuation. We consider that careful palpation of the painful site is important, in order to obtain greater knowledge and understanding of the features of myofascial trigger points. PMID:26962285

  17. Improving CKD Therapies and Care: A National Dialogue

    PubMed Central

    Kaskel, Frederick; Batlle, Daniel; Beddhu, Srinivasan; Daugirdas, John; Feldman, Harold; Ferris, Maria; Fine, Lawrence; Freedman, Barry I.; Kimmel, Paul L.; Star, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    The Kidney Research National Dialogue, supported by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, asked the research and clinical communities to formulate and prioritize research objectives that would improve our understanding of kidney function and diseases. This commentary outlines the high-priority research objectives for CKD. The goal of these research objectives is to enhance knowledge to improve outcomes in people with CKD. Basic and translational research, longitudinal observations, and epidemiologic studies can each point to targets for intervention. Future interventions must be informed by data from well designed, large representative observational studies that include collection of genetic and phenotypic data as well as biospecimens. Interaction of genetic and environmental factors must be part of the analysis, including the influence of diet, comorbid conditions, and medication. The focus should be not only on slowing or preventing progression of CKD, but also on regression of disease to the greatest extent possible. PMID:24509296

  18. Improving CKD therapies and care: a National Dialogue.

    PubMed

    Kaskel, Frederick; Batlle, Daniel; Beddhu, Srinivasan; Daugirdas, John; Feldman, Harold; Ferris, Maria; Fine, Lawrence; Freedman, Barry I; Kimmel, Paul L; Flessner, Michael F; Star, Robert A

    2014-04-01

    The Kidney Research National Dialogue, supported by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, asked the research and clinical communities to formulate and prioritize research objectives that would improve our understanding of kidney function and diseases. This commentary outlines the high-priority research objectives for CKD. The goal of these research objectives is to enhance knowledge to improve outcomes in people with CKD. Basic and translational research, longitudinal observations, and epidemiologic studies can each point to targets for intervention. Future interventions must be informed by data from well designed, large representative observational studies that include collection of genetic and phenotypic data as well as biospecimens. Interaction of genetic and environmental factors must be part of the analysis, including the influence of diet, comorbid conditions, and medication. The focus should be not only on slowing or preventing progression of CKD, but also on regression of disease to the greatest extent possible.

  19. Measuring patient-reported outcomes in advanced gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jianming; Evans, TR Jeffry; Coon, Cheryl; Copley-Merriman, Kati; Su, Yun

    2013-01-01

    Background Gastric cancer (GC), one of the most common cancers in the world, is often diagnosed at an advanced stage and associated with a poor prognosis. Quality of life and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are important considerations when treating GC patients. The aim of this study was to identify existing PRO instruments that would be appropriate for use in GC trials. Methods Data were obtained from a systematic literature review and interviews with clinical experts. A literature search was conducted using OVID (EMBASE and MEDLINE) and yielded 1,008 abstracts; 92 assessed PROs in an advanced GC. Results Key symptoms and functional impacts identified through the literature and expert input included abdominal pain or pain at the site of distant metastases, dysphagia and other symptoms related to eating, and digestive symptoms. The liver and lungs were the most frequent locations of metastases, leading to dyspnea, abdominal fullness, and jaundice. Symptoms related to changes in bowel habits appeared to be more frequent and pronounced in Asian patients, possibly due to the higher prevalence of GC in the body of the stomach in this population. The five most commonly used PRO instruments were identified, but their validity in advanced-stage GC patients remains unclear. Conclusions The symptoms and functional impacts identified here should be confirmed with robust input from advanced-stage GC patients. Optimal measurement of PROs in GC should account for patient burden and possible differences between Asian and non-Asian patients. PMID:24062809

  20. Sailing between Scylla and Charybdis: oral long-term anticoagulation in dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Thilo; Brandenburg, Vincent; Schlieper, Georg; Marx, Nikolaus; Floege, Jürgen

    2013-03-01

    End-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients exhibit an increased risk of bleeding compared with non-chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients due to uraemic platelet dysfunction, altered vessel architecture and other factors. This renders any long-term oral anticoagulation potentially difficult. While there is little doubt that ESRD patients with recurrent thromboembolism or a mechanical cardiac valve should receive vitamin K antagonists (coumarins), the use of coumarins in ESRD patients with atrial fibrillation is a matter of debate. In non-CKD patients, current guidelines strongly recommend the use of oral anticoagulants for stroke prophylaxis in atrial fibrillation if certain risk factors are present (CHA2DS2-VASc score). This recommendation is often extrapolated to patients with advanced CKD or ESRD but data supporting this practice are weak to absent. Besides an increased bleeding risk in ESRD patients, coumarins will also accelerate cardiovascular calcification and are potent risk factors for the development of calcific uraemic arteriolopathy (calciphylaxis). Novel coumarin alternatives such as direct thrombin inhibitors are promising but none is currently approved for use in ESRD patients. Whether interventional treatment strategies such as atrial appendage occlusion are safe and effective options in advanced CKD is also as yet unresolved. This review attempts to balance the potential risks and benefits of coumarin usage in ESRD patients and to give the best possible recommendations for everyday patient care.

  1. Autosomal Dominant Mutation in the Signal Peptide of Renin in a Kindred with Anemia, Hyperuricemia, and CKD

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Bodo B.; Trachtman, Howard; Gitman, Michael; Miller, Ilene; Sayer, John A.; Pannes, Andrea; Baasner, Anne; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm; Wolf, Matthias T.F.

    2012-01-01

    Homozygous or compound heterozygous Renin (REN) mutations cause renal tubular dysgenesis (RTD), which is characterized by death in utero due to renal failure and pulmonary hypoplasia. The phenotype resembles the fetopathy caused by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker intake during pregnancy. Recently, heterozygous REN mutations were shown to result in early-onset hyperuricemia, anemia and chronic renal failure. So far, only three different heterozygous REN mutations were reported. We performed mutation analysis of the REN gene in 39 kindreds with hyperuricemia and chronic kidney disease (CKD) previously tested negative for mutations in the UMOD and HNF1β genes. We identified one kindred with a novel c.28T>C (p.W10R) REN mutation in the signal sequence, concluding that REN mutations are rare events in CKD patients. Affected individuals over four generations were identified carrying the novel REN mutation and were characterized by significant anemia, hyperuricemia and CKD. Anemia was severe and disproportional to the degree of renal impairment. Moreover all heterozygous REN mutations are localized in the signal sequence. Therefore, screening of the REN gene for CKD patients with hyperuricemia and anemia may be focusing on exon 1 sequencing, which encodes the signal peptide. PMID:21903317

  2. Vitamin D and chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disease (CKD-MBD).

    PubMed

    Nigwekar, Sagar U; Tamez, Hector; Thadhani, Ravi I

    2014-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a modern day epidemic and has significant morbidity and mortality implications. Mineral and bone disorders are common in CKD and are now collectively referred to as CKD- mineral and bone disorder (MBD). These abnormalities begin to appear even in early stages of CKD and contribute to the pathogenesis of renal osteodystrophy. Alteration in vitamin D metabolism is one of the key features of CKD-MBD that has major clinical and research implications. This review focuses on biology, epidemiology and management aspects of these alterations in vitamin D metabolism as they relate to skeletal aspects of CKD-MBD in adult humans. PMID:24605215

  3. Serum Glucocorticoid-Regulated Kinase 1 Blocks CKD-Induced Muscle Wasting Via Inactivation of FoxO3a and Smad2/3.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jinlong; Liang, Anlin; Liang, Ming; Xia, Ruohan; Rizvi, Yasmeen; Wang, Yun; Cheng, Jizhong

    2016-09-01

    Muscle proteolysis in CKD is stimulated when the ubiquitin-proteasome system is activated. Serum glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (SGK-1) is involved in skeletal muscle homeostasis, but the role of this protein in CKD-induced muscle wasting is unknown. We found that, compared with muscles from healthy controls, muscles from patients and mice with CKD express low levels of SGK-1. In mice, SGK-1-knockout (SGK-1-KO) induced muscle loss that correlated with increased expression of ubiquitin E3 ligases known to facilitate protein degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome, and CKD substantially aggravated this response. SGK-1-KO also altered the phosphorylation levels of transcription factors FoxO3a and Smad2/3. In C2C12 muscle cells, expression of dominant negative FoxO3a or knockdown of Smad2/3 suppressed the upregulation of E3 ligases induced by loss of SGK-1. Additionally, SGK-1 overexpression increased the level of phosphorylated N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 protein, which directly interacted with and suppressed the phosphorylation of Smad2/3. Overexpression of SGK-1 in wild-type mice with CKD had similar effects on the phosphorylation of FoxO3a and Smad2/3 and prevented CKD-induced muscle atrophy. Finally, mechanical stretch of C2C12 muscle cells or treadmill running of wild-type mice with CKD stimulated SGK-1 production, and treadmill running inhibited proteolysis in muscle. These protective responses were absent in SGK-1-KO mice. Thus, SGK-1 could be a mechanical sensor that mediates exercise-induced improvement in muscle wasting stimulated by CKD. PMID:26880799

  4. Comparison of the Antialbuminuric Effects of Benidipine and Hydrochlorothiazide in Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) Inhibitor-Treated Hypertensive Patients with Albuminuria: the COSMO-CKD (COmbination Strategy on Renal Function of Benidipine or Diuretics TreatMent with RAS inhibitOrs in a Chronic Kidney Disease Hypertensive Population) Study

    PubMed Central

    Ando, Katsuyuki; Nitta, Kosaku; Rakugi, Hiromi; Nishizawa, Yoshiki; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Nakanishi, Takeshi; Kashihara, Naoki; Tomita, Kimio; Nangaku, Masaomi; Takahashi, Katsutoshi; Isshiki, Masashi; Shimosawa, Tatsuo; Fujita, Toshiro

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the non-inferiority of renoprotection afforded by benidipine versus hydrochlorothiazide in hypertensive patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods: In this prospective, multicenter, open-labeled, randomized trial, the antialbuminuric effects of benidipine and hydrochlorothiazide were examined in renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitor-treated patients with blood pressure (BP) readings of ≥ 130/80 mmHg and ≤ 180/110 mmHg, a urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR) of ≥ 300 mg/g, and an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of ≥ 30 ml/min/1.73m2. Patients received benidipine (n = 176, final dose: 4.8 mg/day) or hydrochlorothiazide (n = 170, 8.2 mg/day) for 12 months. Results: Benidipine and hydrochlorothiazide exerted similar BP- and eGFR-decreasing actions. The UACR values for benidipine and hydrochlorothiazide were 930.8 (95% confidence interval: 826.1, 1048.7) and 883.1 (781.7, 997.7) mg/g at baseline, respectively. These values were reduced to 790.0 (668.1, 934.2) and 448.5 (372.9, 539.4) mg/g at last observation carried forward (LOCF) visits. The non-inferiority of benidipine versus hydrochlorothiazide was not demonstrated (benidipine/hydrochlorothiazide ratio of LOCF value adjusted for baseline: 1.67 (1.40, 1.99)). Conclusions: The present study failed to demonstrate the non-inferiority of the antialbuminuric effect of benidipine relative to that of hydrochlorothiazide in RAS inhibitor-treated hypertensive patients with macroalbuminuria. PMID:25013370

  5. Sarcopenia and physical function in overweight patients with advanced cancer.

    PubMed

    Prado, Carla M M; Lieffers, Jessica R; Bowthorpe, Lindsay; Baracos, Vickie E; Mourtzakis, Marina; McCargar, Linda J

    2013-01-01

    Advanced cancer is associated with numerous metabolic abnormalities that may lead to significant body composition changes, particularly muscle loss or sarcopenia. Sarcopenia in cancer has been associated with poor clinical outcomes, including poor physical function. Accurate tools to assess body composition are expensive and not readily available in clinical settings. Unfortunately, little is known about the efficacy of affordable and portable techniques to assess functional status in patients with cancer. We investigated the prevalence of sarcopenia and its association with different portable and low-cost functional status measurement tools (i.e., handgrip strength testing, a two-minute walking test, and a self-report questionnaire) in overweight/obese patients (body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m²) with advanced cancer. Twenty-eight patients (68% men) aged 64.5 ± 9.5 years with advanced lung or colorectal cancer were included. Sarcopenia was assessed by measuring appendicular skeletal muscle (ASM) adjusted by height (ASM index), using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Approximately 36% of patients had sarcopenia. Average handgrip strength was greater in men without sarcopenia than in men with it (p=0.035). In men, ASM index was positively correlated with average (r=0.535, p=0.018) and peak handgrip strength (r=0.457, p=0.049). No differences were observed among female patients. Handgrip strength was associated with sarcopenia in male patients with advanced cancer, and therefore it may be used as a portable and simple nutritional screening tool.

  6. Elevated Serum Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) Concentrations in Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) Are Associated with Markers of Oxidative Stress and Endothelial Activation

    PubMed Central

    Bruchfeld, Annette; Carrero, Juan J; Qureshi, Abdul R; Lindholm, Bengt; Barany, Peter; Heimburger, Olof; Hu, Maowen; Lin, Xinchun; Stenvinkel, Peter; Miller, Edmund J

    2009-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) carries an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Macrophage migration inhibiting factor (MIF) is a proinflammatory cytokine implicated in the pathogenesis of sepsis, autoimmune disease, atherogenesis, and plaque instability, and is a known cardiac depressant. This post-hoc, cross-sectional study examined whether MIF serum concentrations are elevated in CKD patients. Our study included CKD 3–5 patients with moderate to severe renal dysfunction (n = 257) (mean age SD; 55 ± 12 years) and 53 controls (60 ± 12 years). Serum MIF concentrations, measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), were studied in relation to glomerular filtration rate (GFR), presence of CVD, outcome and inflammatory and oxidative stress markers. MIF was significantly elevated in CKD patients compared with controls (CKD: median 676 [range 118–8275 pg/mL] controls: 433 [142–4707] pg/mL; P = 0.008). MIF was also associated with 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) levels (rho = 0.26; P = 0.001), a marker of oxidative stress, and ICAM-1 levels (rho = 0.14; P = 0.02), a marker of endothelial activation. However, the elevated MIF concentrations were neither correlated with glomerular filtration rate (GFR) nor inflammatory markers such as CRP, IL-6, and TNF. When combining MIF and IL-6 as a marker of inflammation, a significant increase in risk for CVD was found, but when analyzing all-cause mortality, this did not differ significantly with regard to mortality from inflamed patients with low MIF levels. The data suggest that increased serum MIF levels found in CKD is not caused primarily by poor renal function, but is associated with markers of oxidative stress and endothelial activation and may play a role in vascular disease associated with CKD. PMID:19081768

  7. Palliative care for patients with advance chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Douglas, C A

    2014-01-01

    Over the past three decades there has been a dramatic rise in the number of patients with advanced chronic kidney disease. The fastest expanding group receiving dialysis has been the elderly. However, for those patients who are very elderly with co-morbidity, dialysis may not offer a survival advantage. Therefore, active conservative management is a growing service offered by many renal units in the UK and focuses on non-dialytic correction of fluid and electrolyes, management of renal anaemia, and assessment and management of symptoms. The five-year survival of a patient over 75 years of age starting dialysis is 20% and if a patient is over 75 years, has co-morbidity, or a poor performance status, dialysis may not offer any survival advantage. Whether a patient is managed by dialysis or by conservative management the symptom burden suffered is high. These symptoms are under-recognised and often managed poorly because of increased drug toxicity in renal failure. This complex group of patients require close working between renal, palliative care, medicine for the elderly, and community teams, to allow best quality of life and end of life care. This review describes some of the challenges in providing Advanced Care Planning for dialysis and conservatively managed patients, highlights the symptom burden of patients with advanced chronic kidney disease, and offers guidance in how to manage the symptoms effectively.

  8. [Integrated care for patients with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Jassem, Ewa; Górecka, Dorota; Krakowiak, Piotr; Kozielski, Jerzy; Słomiński, J Marek; Krajnik, Małgorzata; Fal, Andrzej M

    2010-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third cause of mortality and disability (assessed by DALY) among patients above 60 year old. Severe and very severe COPD (FEV(1) = equal or less than 50% and 30% of expected value, respectively) is estimated at 20% of all COPD patients. Advanced COPD usually leads to physical and mental deterioration, the patients often manage with the problems caused by the disease and other comorbidities poorly. This leads to increased risk of COPD exacerbations and further deterioration of the patient's status, increased costs of medical care and eventually increased risk of death. Current organization of medical care for those patients does not provide adequate health and social support for them. However, it seems that introducing an integrated approach proposed by World Health Organization, could improve the situation of advanced COPD patients. In Poland, this kind of care has been provided in advanced cancer patients throughout stationary palliative care units and hospices during the last several years. This experience should be helpful in integrating actions of general practitioners and specialized nurses, as well as providing access for the specialists' consultations according to the individual needs of the patients. It should also allow for broad cooperation with auxiliary staff, such as social workers, medical assistants and volunteers, as well as psychologists and clergymen (especially in the terminal phase of the disease).

  9. Body Mass Index and Mortality in CKD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Greater body mass index (BMI) is associated with worse survival in the general population, but appears to confer a survival advantage in patients with kidney failure treated by hemodialysis. Data are limited on the relationship of BMI with mortality in patients in the earlier stages of c...

  10. Medication Adherence Behavior and Priorities Among Older Adults With CKD: A Semistructured Interview Study

    PubMed Central

    Rifkin, Dena E.; Laws, M. Barton; Rao, Madhumathi; Balakrishnan, V. S.; Sarnak, Mark J.; Wilson, Ira B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Older adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD) typically take more than five medications and have multiple prescribing physicians. Little however is known about how they prioritize their medical conditions or decide which medications to take. Methods Semistructured interviews (average length 40 minutes) with twenty community-dwelling adults with CKD stages 3-5D, receiving nephrology care at a tertiary referral center. Respondents were asked about medications, prescribing physicians, and medication-taking behaviors. We performed thematic analysis to explain patients’ decisions regarding medication prioritization, understanding, and adherence decisions. Results Participants (age range, 55–84 years; mean, 72) took 5–14 prescribed medications, had 2–9 physicians, and 5–11 comorbid conditions. All had assigned implicit priorities to their medications. While the majority expressed the intention to be adherent, many regularly skipped medications they considered less important. Most identified the prescribing physician and indication for each medication, but there was often substantial discordance between beliefs about medications and conventional medical opinion. Respondents prioritized medications based on the salience of the particular condition, perceived effects of the treatment, and on the barriers (physical, logistic, or financial) to taking the prescribed drug. Side effects of medications were common and anxiety-provoking, but discussions with the prescribing physician were often delayed or unfulfilling for the patient. Conclusions Polypharmacy in CKD patients leads to complex medication choices and adherence behaviors in this population. Most of the patients we interviewed had beliefs or priorities that were non-concordant with conventional medical opinion, but patients rarely discussed these beliefs and priorities, or the resultant poor medication adherence, with their physicians. Further study is needed to provide quantitative data on the

  11. Relation of Serum Lipids and Lipoproteins with Progression of CKD: The CRIC Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wei; Akkina, Sanjeev; Alper, Arnold; Anderson, Amanda Hyre; Appel, Lawrence J.; He, Jiang; Raj, Dominic S.; Schelling, Jeffrey; Strauss, Louise; Teal, Valerie; Rader, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Hyperlipidemia is common in patients with CKD. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether measures of plasma lipids and lipoproteins predict progression of kidney disease in patients with CKD. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Prospective cohort study in adults (n=3939) with CKD aged 21–74 years recruited between 2003 and 2008 and followed for a median of 4.1 years. At baseline, total cholesterol, triglycerides, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), apoA-I , apoB, and lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] were measured. The outcomes were composite end point of ESRD or 50% decline in eGFR from baseline (rate of change of GFR). Results Mean age of the study population was 58.2 years, and the mean GFR was 44.9 ml/min per 1.73 m2; 48% of patients had diabetes. None of the lipid or lipoprotein measures was independently associated with risk of the composite end point or rate of change in GFR. However, there were significant (P=0.01) interactions by level of proteinuria. In participants with proteinuria<0.2 g/d, 1-SD higher LDL-C was associated with a 26% lower risk of the renal end point (hazard ratio [HR], 0.74; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.59 to 0.92; P=0.01), and 1-SD higher total cholesterol was associated with a 23% lower risk of the renal end point (HR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.62 to 0.96; P=0.02). In participants with proteinuria>0.2 g/d, neither LDL-C (HR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.98 to 1.05) nor total cholesterol levels were associated with renal outcomes. Treatment with statins was reported in 55% of patients and was differential across lipid categories. Conclusions In this large cohort of patients with CKD, total cholesterol, triglycerides, VLDL-C, LDL-C, HDL-C, apoA-I, apoB, and Lp(a) were not independently associated with progression of kidney disease. There was an inverse relationship between LDL-C and total cholesterol levels and kidney disease outcomes in patients with

  12. Predictors of CKD and rate of decline in eGFR in the elderly: A case-cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ghaffar, Umbar; Maharjan, Najindra; Moore, Page C

    2016-04-01

    We wanted to examine the predictors of annual estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decline during a five-year follow-up in elderly individuals with pre-existing chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 3 or greater (defined as baseline eGFR of less than 60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 or a urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio > 30 mg/g), and to examine the difference in risk factors when compared to a co-hort without CKD. Our research team identified 599 patients who were 65 years of age or older with and without CKD stage 3 or greater at baseline. Data regarding various predictors such as age, sex, race, proteinuria, medication use, contrast exposure, acute kidney injury episodes, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, dyslipidemia, gout etc. were obtained. Semi-partial correlations were used to determine the fac-tors providing the largest unique contribution to the overall variability in eGFR. Semi-partial correlations identified age, proteinuria, and intravenous contrast ex-posure as the most significant predictors of eGFR decline in this population. Overall, patients in the pre-existing CKD cohort were more likely to be older, Af-rican American and with co-morbidities like diabetes, hypertension, etc. In this group, the unadjusted rate of decline in eGFR varied from 0.5% to 8.3% per year. This study identifies important risk factors for eGFR decline in the population aged > 65 years. It also concludes that each episode of acute kidney injury, wheth-er related to contrast or other nephrotoxins, increases the risk for CKD progression and eGFR decline in the elderly. PMID:27257659

  13. Necrotising herpetic retinopathy in patients with advance HIV disease.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, R F; Brink, N S; Cartledge, J; Sharvell, Y; Frith, P

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the presenting features, clinical and laboratory diagnosis, response to treatment, and outcome of necrotising herpetic retinopathy (NHR) in HIV infected patients. METHODS: Retrospective case records/laboratory data review of five HIV infected patients presenting to the specialist HIV/AIDS unit at UCL Hospitals, London from April 1994 to August 1996 with a clinical diagnosis of NHR. RESULTS: All patients had advanced HIV disease with a median CD4 count of 20.10(6)/1. Three patients had cutaneous varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection within the preceding 8 weeks. All had uniocular loss of visual acuity; one also had headache and another ocular pain. All had typical retinal appearances. VZV DNA was detected in cerebrospinal fluid of four patients (and in vitreous fluid of one of the four) and in vitreous fluid of one other. One patient refused therapy and rapidly became blind. Four patients received intravenous foscarnet with intravenous aciclovir for 6 weeks: three subsequently received oral famciclovir and one oral valaciclovir; two patients also had intravitreal injections of foscarnet. In none of the four did treatment bring about improvement in visual acuity, but in all four visual loss from retinitis was halted. CONCLUSIONS: NHR occurs in HIV infected patients with advanced HIV disease and is strongly associated with evidence of VZV infection. With aggressive use of antiviral drugs the outcome is not uniformly poor. Images PMID:9582461

  14. Prognosis of morbid obesity patients with advanced heart failure.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Vijaiganesh; Cauthen, Clay A; Starling, Randall C; Tang, Wai Hong Wilson

    2013-01-01

    Obese patients have been noted to have better prognosis in many conditions including heart failure. We hypothesize that this favorable prognosis for obesity may not be seen in patients with morbid obesity and advanced heart failure. A total of 501 consecutive patients with advanced heart failure referred for heart transplant evaluation to the Cleveland Clinic were studied. Patients were categorized into 3 groups based on their body mass index score as nonobese (≤30 kg/m(2) ), obese (30.1-40 kg/m(2) ), and morbidly obese (≥40 kg/m(2) ). There were fewer cardiovascular risk factors in the morbidly obese group. Unadjusted event-free survival rates were 48.4%, 57.4%, and 28.6% in the nonobese, obese, and morbidly obese groups, respectively (P=.02). In univariate analysis, both the nonobese group (hazard ratio [HR], 1.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-1.91; P=.01) and the morbidly obese group (HR, 2.46; 95% CI, 1.40-4.30; P=.002) had significantly higher risk of all-cause mortality/transplantation compared with the obese group. This difference persisted in multivariate analysis after adjustment for confounding factors. Our study re-emphasizes the presence of an obesity paradox even in patients with very advanced heart failure. This favorable prognosis, however, may not be relevant in patients with morbidly obesity. Cardiovascular risk factors may not contribute to this phenomenon.

  15. Protein-bound uremic toxins: new culprits of cardiovascular events in chronic kidney disease patients.

    PubMed

    Ito, Shunsuke; Yoshida, Masayuki

    2014-02-20

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been considered a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Although great advances have recently been made in the pathophysiology and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, CKD remains a major global health problem. Moreover, the occurrence rates of cardiovascular events among CKD patients increase even in cases in which patients undergo hemodialysis, and the mechanisms underlying the so-called "cardiorenal syndrome" are not clearly understood. Recently, small-molecule uremic toxins have been associated with cardiovascular mortality in CKD and/or dialysis patients. These toxins range from small uncharged solutes to large protein-bound structures. In this review, we focused on protein-bound uremic toxins, such as indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate, which are poorly removed by current dialysis techniques. Several studies have demonstrated that protein-bound uremic toxins, especially indoxyl sulfate, induce vascular inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and vascular calcification, which may explain the relatively poor prognosis of CKD and dialysis patients. The aim of this review is to provide novel insights into the effects of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate on the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.

  16. A Review of Recent Advances in Perioperative Patient Safety

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Alexander J.

    2013-01-01

    Major complications in surgery affect up to 16% of surgical procedures. Over the past 50 years, many patient safety initiatives have attempted to reduce such complications. Since the formation of the National Patient Safety Agency in 2001, there have been major advances in patient safety. Most recently, the production and implementation of the Surgical Safety Checklist by the World Health Organisation (WHO), a checklist ensuring that certain ‘never events’ (wrong-site surgery, wrong operation etc.) do not occur, irrespective of healthcare allowance. In this review, a summary of recent advances in patient safety are considered – including improvements in communication, understanding of human factors that cause mistakes, and strategies developed to minimise these. Additionally, the synthesis of best medical practice and harm minimisation is examined, with particular emphasis on communication and appreciation of human factors in the operating theatre. This is based on the resource management systems developed in other high risk industries (e.g. nuclear), and has also been adopted for other high risk medical areas. The WHO global movement to reduce surgical mortality has been highly successful, especially in the healthcare systems of developing nations where mortality reductions of up to 50% have been observed, and reductions in patient complications of 4%. Incident reporting has long been a key component of patient safety and continues to be so; allowing reflection and improved guideline formation. All patients are placed at risk in the surgical environment. It is crucial that this risk is minimised, whilst optimising the patient's outcome. In this review, recent advances in perioperative patient safety are examined and placed in context. PMID:26977290

  17. Orphan symptoms in advanced cancer patients followed at home.

    PubMed

    Mercadante, Sebastiano; Porzio, Giampiero; Valle, Alessandro; Fusco, Flavio; Aielli, Federica; Adile, Claudio; Casuccio, Alessandra

    2013-12-01

    Orphan symptoms are rarely assessed, particularly at home. The aim of this multicenter prospective study was to assess the prevalence of these symptoms and eventual factors possibly associated in advanced cancer patients at admission of a home care program. A prospective study was performed at three home care programs in Italy. Patients' data were collected, including age, sex, diagnosis, and Karnofsky status. Possible contributing factors were analyzed; preexisting neurological diseases, cerebral metastases, hyperthermia, diabetes, a state of dehydration clinically evident and/or oliguria, possible biochemical parameters when available, data regarding recent chemotherapy, opioids and doses, use of neuroleptics, benzodiazepine or anticonvulsants, corticosteroids, anti-inflammatory, and antibiotics were collected. Myoclonus, hiccup, sweating, pruritus, and tenesmus, either rectal or vesical, were assessed, according to a preliminary definition, at time of home care program admission. Three hundred sixty-two patients were surveyed at the three home care programs. Globally, 48 patients presented one or more orphan symptoms in the period taken into consideration, and 7 patients presented more than 1 symptom. One patient presented occasional and diffuse myoclonus. Nineteen patients presented sweating, 13 patients presented pruritus, and 14 patients presented hiccup. Finally, nine patients presented rectal or vesical tenesmus. There was a significant correlation between sweating and transdermal fentanyl use (P = 0.044), fever (P = 0.001), hiccup (P < 0.0005), and vesical tenesmus (P = 0.028). Pruritus was not associated to any factor. Hiccup was associated with gender (males, P = 0.006) and sweating (P < 0.0005). Vesical tenesmus was associated with fever (P = 0.019) and sweating (P = 0.028). Although the symptoms examined have a low prevalence in advanced cancer patients admitted to home care, the distress for patients may be high and

  18. Nutritional management of the patient with advanced cancer.

    PubMed

    Theologides, A

    1977-02-01

    Protein-calorie malnutrition, vitamin and other deficiencies, and weight loss frequently develop in cancer patients. Although there is no evidence that aggressive nutritional management prolongs survival, it may improve the quality of life. Efforts should be made to maintain adequate daily caloric intake with appropriate food selection and with control of complications interfering with nutrition. In selected patients, intravenous hyperalimentation can provide adequate nutrition during potentially effective chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Elemental diets also may be a source of complete or supplemental nutrition. Further experience with both approaches will help to clarify their role in the nutritional management of the patient with advanced cancer.

  19. The adverse effects of sorafenib in patients with advanced cancers.

    PubMed

    Li, Ye; Gao, Zu-Hua; Qu, Xian-Jun

    2015-03-01

    Sorafenib is the first multi-kinase inhibitor (TKI) approved for the treatment of advanced hepatocellular cancer (HCC) and metastatic renal cell cancer (RCC) and is increasingly being used to treat patients with well-differentiated radioiodine-resistant thyroid cancer (DTC). Sorafenib demonstrates targeted activity on several families of receptor and non-receptor tyrosine kinases that are involved in angiogenesis, tumour growth and metastatic progression of cancer. Sorafenib treatment results in long-term efficacy and low incidence of life-threatening toxicities. Although sorafenib has demonstrated many benefits in patients, the adverse effects cannot be ignored. The most common treatment-related toxicities include diarrhoea, fatigue, hand-foot skin reaction and hypertension. Most of these toxicities are considered mild to moderate and manageable to varying degrees; however, cardiovascular events might lead to death. In this MiniReview, we summarize the adverse effects of sorafenib that commonly occur in patients with advanced cancers. PMID:25495944

  20. Disordered FGF23 and Mineral Metabolism in Children with CKD

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Myles; Jüppner, Harald; Messinger, Shari; Kumar, Juhi; Wesseling-Perry, Katherine; Schwartz, George J.; Furth, Susan L.; Warady, Bradley A.; Salusky, Isidro B.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives In children with CKD, information is limited regarding the prevalence and determinants of fibroblast growth factor 23 excess and 1,25-dihyroxyvitamin D deficiency across the spectrum of predialysis CKD. This study characterized circulating concentrations of fibroblast growth factor 23 and 1,25-dihyroxyvitamin D, and investigated their interrelationships and associations with GFR and secondary hyperparathyroidism in children with CKD who were enrolled in the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children observational cohort study. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Plasma fibroblast growth factor 23 concentrations and determinants of mineral metabolism were measured in 464 children ages 1–16 years with predialysis CKD. GFR was measured by plasma disappearance of iohexol in 70% of participants and estimated by the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children estimating equation using serum creatinine and cystatin C concentrations in the remainder of the participants. Participants were grouped according to CKD stage and by 10-ml/min categories of GFR. Results Median GFR for the cohort was 45 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (interquartile range=33–57; range=15–109). Plasma fibroblast growth factor 23 concentration was above the normal range in 67% of participants (with higher levels observed among participants with lower GFR) before higher levels of serum parathyroid hormone and phosphorus were observed. Plasma fibroblast growth factor 23 levels were 34% higher in participants with glomerular disease than in participants with nonglomerular disease, despite similar GFR. Serum phosphorus levels, adjusted for age, were significantly lower at GFR of 60–69 ml/min per 1.73 m2 than higher GFR, but thereafter they became higher in parallel with fibroblast growth factor 23 as GFR declined. Serum 1,25-dihyroxyvitamin D concentrations were lower in those participants with low GFR values, high fibroblast growth factor 23 levels, 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency

  1. Modalities of palliative care in hospitalized patients with advanced AIDS.

    PubMed

    Vincent, I; D'Hérouville, D; Moulin, P; Bugler, C; Fraval, J; Mallet, D; Salamagne, M H; Vildé, J L; Jodelet, D; Leport, C

    2000-04-01

    This prospective multidisciplinary survey started in October 1994. The survey assessed the modalities of care of hospitalized patients with advanced AIDS in an Infectious and Tropical Diseases Unit with regards to the practices of palliative care in a Palliative Care Unit. Seventy-eight (78) AIDS patients with CD4 < or = 30/mm3 who had 102 consecutive hospitalizations were recruited. Types (symptomatic or curative) and number of drugs administered to the patients, as well as biological and radiological investigations performed were recorded. Symptoms were concomitantly assessed on a weekly basis by self-evaluation of the patients themselves and by physicians. The results showed that the practices of care were different in the two units according to the specific goals and norms of each unit. A higher density of care was delivered at the Infectious and Tropical Diseases Unit. Symptoms assessed by both patients and physicians were underestimated by physicians in frequency and in intensity. In conclusion, an integrated approach including objective and subjective criteria should enable a better adjustment of the palliative and curative therapeutic strategies in advanced AIDS. These would concomitantly take into account the wishes of the patient and the goals regarding care in the unit where the patient is hospitalized.

  2. Genetic damage in patients with chronic kidney disease, peritoneal dialysis and haemodialysis: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Rangel-López, Angélica; Paniagua-Medina, Maria Eugenia; Urbán-Reyes, Marcia; Cortes-Arredondo, Martha; Alvarez-Aguilar, Cleto; López-Meza, Joel; Ochoa-Zarzosa, Alejandra; Lindholm, Bengt; García-López, Elvia; Paniagua, José Ramón

    2013-03-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have signs of genomic instability and, as a consequence, extensive genetic damage, possibly due to accumulation of uraemic toxins, oxidative stress mediators and other endogenous substances with genotoxic properties. We explored factors associated with the presence and background levels of genetic damage in CKD. A cross-sectional study was performed in 91 CKD patients including pre-dialysis (CKD patients; n = 23) and patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD; n = 33) or haemodialysis (HD; n = 35) and with 61 healthy subjects, divided into two subgroups with the older group being in the age range of the patients, serving as controls. Alkaline comet assay and cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay in peripheral blood lymphocytes were used to determine DNA and chromosome damage, respectively, present in CKD. Markers of oxidative stress [malondialdehyde (MDA), advanced glycation end products (AGEs), thiols, advanced oxidation protein products and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine] and markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor alpha) were also measured. Micronucleus (MN) frequency was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the CKD group (46±4‰) when compared with the older control (oC) group (27.7±14). A significant increase in MN frequency (P < 0.05) was also seen in PD patients (41.9±14‰) versus the oC group. There was no statistically significant difference for the HD group (29.7±15.6‰; P = NS) versus the oC group. Comet assay data showed a significant increase (P < 0.001) of tail DNA intensity in cells of patients with CKD (15.6±7%) with respect to the total control (TC) group (11±1%). PD patients (14.8±7%) also have a significant increase (P < 0.001) versus the TC group. Again, there was no statistically significant difference for the HD group (12.5±3%) compared with the TC group. Patients with MN values in the upper quartile had increased cholesterol, triglycerides, AGEs and

  3. Genetic damage in patients with chronic kidney disease, peritoneal dialysis and haemodialysis: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Rangel-López, Angélica; Paniagua-Medina, Maria Eugenia; Urbán-Reyes, Marcia; Cortes-Arredondo, Martha; Alvarez-Aguilar, Cleto; López-Meza, Joel; Ochoa-Zarzosa, Alejandra; Lindholm, Bengt; García-López, Elvia; Paniagua, José Ramón

    2013-03-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have signs of genomic instability and, as a consequence, extensive genetic damage, possibly due to accumulation of uraemic toxins, oxidative stress mediators and other endogenous substances with genotoxic properties. We explored factors associated with the presence and background levels of genetic damage in CKD. A cross-sectional study was performed in 91 CKD patients including pre-dialysis (CKD patients; n = 23) and patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD; n = 33) or haemodialysis (HD; n = 35) and with 61 healthy subjects, divided into two subgroups with the older group being in the age range of the patients, serving as controls. Alkaline comet assay and cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay in peripheral blood lymphocytes were used to determine DNA and chromosome damage, respectively, present in CKD. Markers of oxidative stress [malondialdehyde (MDA), advanced glycation end products (AGEs), thiols, advanced oxidation protein products and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine] and markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor alpha) were also measured. Micronucleus (MN) frequency was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the CKD group (46±4‰) when compared with the older control (oC) group (27.7±14). A significant increase in MN frequency (P < 0.05) was also seen in PD patients (41.9±14‰) versus the oC group. There was no statistically significant difference for the HD group (29.7±15.6‰; P = NS) versus the oC group. Comet assay data showed a significant increase (P < 0.001) of tail DNA intensity in cells of patients with CKD (15.6±7%) with respect to the total control (TC) group (11±1%). PD patients (14.8±7%) also have a significant increase (P < 0.001) versus the TC group. Again, there was no statistically significant difference for the HD group (12.5±3%) compared with the TC group. Patients with MN values in the upper quartile had increased cholesterol, triglycerides, AGEs and

  4. Genetic damage in patients with chronic kidney disease, peritoneal dialysis and haemodialysis: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Rangel-López, Angélica

    2013-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have signs of genomic instability and, as a consequence, extensive genetic damage, possibly due to accumulation of uraemic toxins, oxidative stress mediators and other endogenous substances with genotoxic properties. We explored factors associated with the presence and background levels of genetic damage in CKD. A cross-sectional study was performed in 91 CKD patients including pre-dialysis (CKD patients; n = 23) and patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD; n = 33) or haemodialysis (HD; n = 35) and with 61 healthy subjects, divided into two subgroups with the older group being in the age range of the patients, serving as controls. Alkaline comet assay and cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay in peripheral blood lymphocytes were used to determine DNA and chromosome damage, respectively, present in CKD. Markers of oxidative stress [malondialdehyde (MDA), advanced glycation end products (AGEs), thiols, advanced oxidation protein products and 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine] and markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor alpha) were also measured. Micronucleus (MN) frequency was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the CKD group (46±4‰) when compared with the older control (oC) group (27.7±14). A significant increase in MN frequency (P < 0.05) was also seen in PD patients (41.9±14‰) versus the oC group. There was no statistically significant difference for the HD group (29.7±15.6‰; P = NS) versus the oC group. Comet assay data showed a significant increase (P < 0.001) of tail DNA intensity in cells of patients with CKD (15.6±7%) with respect to the total control (TC) group (11±1%). PD patients (14.8±7%) also have a significant increase (P < 0.001) versus the TC group. Again, there was no statistically significant difference for the HD group (12.5±3%) compared with the TC group. Patients with MN values in the upper quartile had increased cholesterol, triglycerides, AGEs

  5. Developing a CKD Registry in Primary Care: Provider Attitudes and Input

    PubMed Central

    McBride, Dannielle; Dohan, Daniel; Handley, Margaret A.; Powe, Neil R.; Tuot, Delphine S.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Chronic disease registries have been successful at promoting delivery of guideline-concordant primary care for diabetes and hypertension but not for chronic kidney disease (CKD). To understand whether a registry could be designed to improve CKD management in primary care, we explored primary care provider (PCP) attitudes about the benefits (or lack thereof) of a CKD registry compared to other chronic diseases and the key facilitators of successfully implementing a CKD registry in safety-net primary care. Study Design: Semistructured interview study. Setting & Participants. We conducted and recorded semi-structured, one-hour interviews with medical directors and quality improvement champions from safety-net adult primary care clinics in San Francisco. Analytic Approach. Recordings were transcribed and analyzed using a grounded theory approach until thematic saturation was achieved. Results. Twenty primary care providers were interviewed. Four themes relevant to the development of a successful CKD registry for safety-net primary care were identified: (1) provider beliefs that a CKD registry could aid in the delivery of team-based, high-quality CKD care; (2) clinic workflow re-design and staffing are key facilitators to successful implementation of a CKD registry; (3) unique complexities of CKD, such as varying etiologies, may limit the use of a CKD registry by non-physicians; and (4) a CKD registry is aligned with current primary care priorities and health care delivery strategies. Limitations. Small sample size and reliance on clinician leaders within one health care delivery system. Conclusions. A CKD registry directed at the entire health care team, with the functionality to track, standardize and enhance CKD care through decision support, has potential to improve the management of CKD in safety-net primary care settings. These data directly informed the development of a CKD registry in these settings in San Francisco. PMID:24295612

  6. Pathophysiology of the Chronic Kidney Disease – Mineral Bone Disorder (CKD-MBD)

    PubMed Central

    Hruska, Keith A.; Seifert, Michael; Sugatani, Toshifumi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review The causes of excess cardiovascular mortality associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have been attributed in part to the CKD-mineral bone disorder syndrome (CKD-MBD), wherein, novel cardiovascular risk factors have been identified. The causes of the CKD-MBD are not well known and they will be discussed in this review Recent findings The discovery of WNT (portmanteau of wingless and int) inhibitors, especially Dickkopf 1 (Dkk1), produced during renal repair as participating in the pathogenesis of the vascular and skeletal components of the CKD-MBD implied that additional pathogenic factors are critical, and whose discovery lead to the finding that activin A is a second renal repair factor circulating in increased levels during CKD. Activin A derives from peritubular myofibroblasts of diseased kidneys, wherein it stimulates fibrosis, and decreases tubular klotho expression.The type 2 activin A receptor, ActRIIA, is induced by CKD in atherosclerotic aortas specifically in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Inhibition of ActRIIA signaling by a ligand trap inhibited CKD induced VSMC dedifferentiation, osteogenic transition and atherosclerotic calcification. Inhibition of ActRIIA signaling in the kidney decreased renal fibrosis and proteinuria. Summary These studies demonstrate that circulating renal repair factors are causal of the CKD-MBD and CKD associated cardiovascular disease, and identify ActRIIA signaling as a therapeutic target in CKD that links progression of renal disease and vascular disease. PMID:26050115

  7. Ketoanalogue-Supplemented Vegetarian Very Low-Protein Diet and CKD Progression.

    PubMed

    Garneata, Liliana; Stancu, Alexandra; Dragomir, Diana; Stefan, Gabriel; Mircescu, Gabriel

    2016-07-01

    Dietary protein restriction may improve determinants of CKD progression. However, the extent of improvement and effect of ketoanalogue supplementation are unclear. We conducted a prospective, randomized, controlled trial of safety and efficacy of ketoanalogue-supplemented vegetarian very low-protein diet (KD) compared with conventional low-protein diet (LPD). Primary end point was RRT initiation or >50% reduction in initial eGFR. Nondiabetic adults with stable eGFR<30 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), proteinuria <1 g/g urinary creatinine, good nutritional status, and good diet compliance entered a run-in phase on LPD. After 3 months, compliant patients were randomized to KD (0.3 g/kg vegetable proteins and 1 cps/5 kg ketoanalogues per day) or continue LPD (0.6 g/kg per day) for 15 months. Only 14% of screened patients patients were randomized, with no differences between groups. Adjusted numbers needed to treat (NNTs; 95% confidence interval) to avoid composite primary end point in intention to treat and per-protocol analyses in one patient were 4.4 (4.2 to 5.1) and 4.0 (3.9 to 4.4), respectively, for patients with eGFR<30 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) Adjusted NNT (95% confidence interval) to avoid dialysis was 22.4 (21.5 to 25.1) for patients with eGFR<30 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) but decreased to 2.7 (2.6 to 3.1) for patients with eGFR<20 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) in intention to treat analysis. Correction of metabolic abnormalities occurred only with KD. Compliance to diet was good, with no changes in nutritional parameters and no adverse reactions. Thus, this KD seems nutritionally safe and could defer dialysis initiation in some patients with CKD.

  8. Ketoanalogue-Supplemented Vegetarian Very Low-Protein Diet and CKD Progression.

    PubMed

    Garneata, Liliana; Stancu, Alexandra; Dragomir, Diana; Stefan, Gabriel; Mircescu, Gabriel

    2016-07-01

    Dietary protein restriction may improve determinants of CKD progression. However, the extent of improvement and effect of ketoanalogue supplementation are unclear. We conducted a prospective, randomized, controlled trial of safety and efficacy of ketoanalogue-supplemented vegetarian very low-protein diet (KD) compared with conventional low-protein diet (LPD). Primary end point was RRT initiation or >50% reduction in initial eGFR. Nondiabetic adults with stable eGFR<30 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), proteinuria <1 g/g urinary creatinine, good nutritional status, and good diet compliance entered a run-in phase on LPD. After 3 months, compliant patients were randomized to KD (0.3 g/kg vegetable proteins and 1 cps/5 kg ketoanalogues per day) or continue LPD (0.6 g/kg per day) for 15 months. Only 14% of screened patients patients were randomized, with no differences between groups. Adjusted numbers needed to treat (NNTs; 95% confidence interval) to avoid composite primary end point in intention to treat and per-protocol analyses in one patient were 4.4 (4.2 to 5.1) and 4.0 (3.9 to 4.4), respectively, for patients with eGFR<30 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) Adjusted NNT (95% confidence interval) to avoid dialysis was 22.4 (21.5 to 25.1) for patients with eGFR<30 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) but decreased to 2.7 (2.6 to 3.1) for patients with eGFR<20 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) in intention to treat analysis. Correction of metabolic abnormalities occurred only with KD. Compliance to diet was good, with no changes in nutritional parameters and no adverse reactions. Thus, this KD seems nutritionally safe and could defer dialysis initiation in some patients with CKD. PMID:26823552

  9. Risk Prediction for Early CKD in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Peggy; Lee, Shun Fu; Heinze, Georg; Clase, Catherine M.; Tobe, Sheldon; Teo, Koon K.; Gerstein, Hertzel; Mann, Johannes F.E.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Quantitative data for prediction of incidence and progression of early CKD are scarce in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Therefore, two risk prediction models were developed for incidence and progression of CKD after 5.5 years and the relative effect of predictors were ascertained. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Baseline and prospective follow-up data of two randomized clinical trials, ONgoing Telmisartan Alone and in combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial (ONTARGET) and Outcome Reduction with Initial Glargine Intervention (ORIGIN), were used as development and independent validation cohorts, respectively. Individuals aged ≥55 years with type 2 diabetes and normo- or microalbuminuria at baseline were included. Incidence or progression of CKD after 5.5 years was defined as new micro- or macroalbuminuria, doubling of creatinine, or ESRD. The competing risk of death was considered as an additional outcome state in the multinomial logistic models. Results Of the 6766 ONTARGET participants with diabetes, 1079 (15.9%) experienced incidence or progression of CKD, and 1032 (15.3%) died. The well calibrated, parsimonious laboratory prediction model incorporating only baseline albuminuria, eGFR, sex, and age exhibited an externally validated c-statistic of 0.68 and an R2 value of 10.6%. Albuminuria, modeled to depict the difference between baseline urinary albumin/creatinine ratio and the threshold for micro- or macroalbuminuria, was mostly responsible for the predictive performance. Inclusion of clinical predictors, such as glucose control, diabetes duration, number of prescribed antihypertensive drugs, previous vascular events, or vascular comorbidities, increased the externally validated c-statistic and R2 value only to 0.69 and 12.1%, respectively. Explained variation was largely driven by renal and not clinical predictors. Conclusions Albuminuria and eGFR were the most important factors to predict onset and

  10. Development and Validation of a Model to Predict 5-Year Risk of Death without ESRD among Older Adults with CKD

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Ronit; De Boer, Ian H.; Peralta, Carmen A.; Fried, Linda F.; Siscovick, David S.; Rifkin, Dena E.; Hirsch, Calvin; Cummings, Steven R.; Harris, Tamara B.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Sarnak, Mark J.; Shlipak, Michael G.; Ix, Joachim H.

    2015-01-01

    in predicting 5-year mortality risk in elderly patients with CKD, which may be useful in counseling patients and guiding clinical decision making. PMID:25710804

  11. [Vital prognosis in advanced cancer patients: a systematic literature review].

    PubMed

    Tavares, Teresa; Gonçalves, Edna

    2013-01-01

    Prognostication is a critical medical task for the adequacy of treatment and management of priorities and expectations of patients and families. In 2005, the European Association of Palliative Care (EAPC) published recommendations on the formulation of vital prognosis in advanced cancer patients. The aim of this study is to analyze the literature subsequent to this review and to update the presented recommendations. Using the same strategy of the EAPC group, we performed a systematic literature search in the electronic databases PubMed and Scopus, which included original studies in adults with advanced cancer, without tumor-directed treatment, with a median survival of less than 90 days. The articles were analyzed and classified according to the level of evidence by two independent reviewers. The 41 articles analyzed allowed to keep grade A recommendations for clinical estimation of survival and Palliative Prognostic score and now also for Palliative Prognostic Index, performance status, dyspnea, lymphopenia and lactate dehydrogenase. Recommendations regarding the use of C-reactive protein, leukocytosis, azotemia, hypoalbuminemia and male gender as predictors reached grade B. To formulate the vital prognosis and to communicate it properly to the patient and family are core competencies of physicians, particularly of those who deal with end of life patients. The clinical impression combined with scientific evidence allows us to estimate more accurately the survival, allowing prioritizing and managing more appropriately the existing resources.

  12. [Pregnancy, CKD and solitary kidney: kidney donation between clinical logic and taboos].

    PubMed

    Piccoli, Giorgina

    2015-01-01

    On the occasion of the Congress of the American Society of Nephrology, the yearly issue of the NEJM introduces a selection of articles of interest for Nephrology, drawing attention to the incidence of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in kidney donors. The article reconsiders this issue five years after two studies that described an increase in risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes after kidney donation. It disproves a previous assumption of "non-interference" between kidney donation and pregnancy outcomes. Meanwhile,CKD has been recognized as a risk factor for pregnancy, regardless of the presence of reduced renal function, hypertension and proteinuria, although these factors modulate the risk. In the discussion, the authors help to dispel the taboos that donor women are substantially different from women born with a solitary kidney or were so as an effect of a disease. Beside the issue of transplantation,the study indicates that we have to pay attention to all patients with CKD in pregnancy, giving us a very interesting clue for counselling. The risk of complications is greater in the donor population compared to a "low risk" population, but it is roughly equal to that of the general population, if the latter is not subject to a careful clinical work-up. Control and follow-up offset the risk: in a time when economic cuts to health care are almost killing the prevention programs, this is probably the most important message.

  13. CKD hotspots around the world: where, why and what the lessons are. A CKJ review series

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Cleary, Catalina; Ortiz, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one of the three causes of death that has had the highest increase in the last 20 years. The increasing CKD burden occurs in the context of lack of access of most of the world population to adequate healthcare and an incomplete understanding of the pathogenesis of CKD. However, CKD is not homogeneously distributed. CKD hotspots are defined as countries, region, communities or ethnicities with higher than average incidence of CKD. Analysis of CKD hotspots has the potential to provide valuable insights into the pathogenesis of kidney disease and to improve the life expectancy of the affected communities. Examples include ethnicities such as African Americans in the USA or Aboriginals in Australia, regions such as certain Balkan valleys or Central America and even groups of people sharing common activities or interests such as young women trying to lose weight in Belgium. The study of these CKD hotspots has identified underlying genetic factors, such as ApoL1 gene variants, environmental toxins, such as aristolochic acid and socioeconomic factors leading to nutritional deprivation and inflammation/infection. The CKD hotspots series of CKJ reviews will explore the epidemiology and causes in CKD hotspots, beginning with Australian Aboriginals in this issue. An online map of CKD hotspots around the world will feature the reviewed hotspots, highlighting known or suspected causes as well as ongoing projects to unravel the cause and providing a directory of public health officials, physicians and basic scientists involved in these efforts. Since the high prevalence of CKD in a particular region or population may only be known to local physicians, we encourage readers to propose further CKD hotspots to be reviewed. PMID:25859368

  14. CKD hotspots around the world: where, why and what the lessons are. A CKJ review series.

    PubMed

    Martín-Cleary, Catalina; Ortiz, Alberto

    2014-12-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one of the three causes of death that has had the highest increase in the last 20 years. The increasing CKD burden occurs in the context of lack of access of most of the world population to adequate healthcare and an incomplete understanding of the pathogenesis of CKD. However, CKD is not homogeneously distributed. CKD hotspots are defined as countries, region, communities or ethnicities with higher than average incidence of CKD. Analysis of CKD hotspots has the potential to provide valuable insights into the pathogenesis of kidney disease and to improve the life expectancy of the affected communities. Examples include ethnicities such as African Americans in the USA or Aboriginals in Australia, regions such as certain Balkan valleys or Central America and even groups of people sharing common activities or interests such as young women trying to lose weight in Belgium. The study of these CKD hotspots has identified underlying genetic factors, such as ApoL1 gene variants, environmental toxins, such as aristolochic acid and socioeconomic factors leading to nutritional deprivation and inflammation/infection. The CKD hotspots series of CKJ reviews will explore the epidemiology and causes in CKD hotspots, beginning with Australian Aboriginals in this issue. An online map of CKD hotspots around the world will feature the reviewed hotspots, highlighting known or suspected causes as well as ongoing projects to unravel the cause and providing a directory of public health officials, physicians and basic scientists involved in these efforts. Since the high prevalence of CKD in a particular region or population may only be known to local physicians, we encourage readers to propose further CKD hotspots to be reviewed.

  15. Serum calcification propensity predicts all-cause mortality in predialysis CKD.

    PubMed

    Smith, Edward R; Ford, Martin L; Tomlinson, Laurie A; Bodenham, Emma; McMahon, Lawrence P; Farese, Stefan; Rajkumar, Chakravarthi; Holt, Stephen G; Pasch, Andreas

    2014-02-01

    Medial arterial calcification is accelerated in patients with CKD and strongly associated with increased arterial rigidity and cardiovascular mortality. Recently, a novel in vitro blood test that provides an overall measure of calcification propensity by monitoring the maturation time (T50) of calciprotein particles in serum was described. We used this test to measure serum T50 in a prospective cohort of 184 patients with stages 3 and 4 CKD, with a median of 5.3 years of follow-up. At baseline, the major determinants of serum calcification propensity included higher serum phosphate, ionized calcium, increased bone osteoclastic activity, and lower free fetuin-A, plasma pyrophosphate, and albumin concentrations, which accounted for 49% of the variation in this parameter. Increased serum calcification propensity at baseline independently associated with aortic pulse wave velocity in the complete cohort and progressive aortic stiffening over 30 months in a subgroup of 93 patients. After adjustment for demographic, renal, cardiovascular, and biochemical covariates, including serum phosphate, risk of death among patients in the lowest T50 tertile was more than two times the risk among patients in the highest T50 tertile (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 5.4; P=0.04). This effect was lost, however, after additional adjustment for aortic stiffness, suggesting a shared causal pathway. Longitudinally, serum calcification propensity measurements remained temporally stable (intraclass correlation=0.81). These results suggest that serum T50 may be helpful as a biomarker in designing methods to improve defenses against vascular calcification.

  16. Tissue-Advanced Glycation End Product Concentration in Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    McIntyre, Natasha J.; Chesterton, Lindsay J.; John, Stephen G.; Jefferies, Helen J.; Burton, James O.; Taal, Maarten W.; Fluck, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Background and objectives: Tissue-advanced glycation end products (AGE) are a measure of cumulative metabolic stress. Assessment of tissue AGE by skin autofluoresence (AF) correlates well with cardiovascular outcomes in hemodialysis (HD) patients. This study aimed to measure and compare tissue AGE levels in HD and peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients and to evaluate the impact of systemic PD glucose exposure. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Tissue AGE were measured in 115 established dialysis patients (62 HD and 53 PD) using a cutaneous AF device (AGE Reader; DiagnOptics). Values were compared with an age-matched non–chronic kidney disease database. Review of all previous PD solution delivery/prescription data determined PD glucose exposure. Results: PD patients were similar in age to HD patients but had a shorter dialysis vintage. There were no differences in ischemic heart disease or smoking history, statin or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) use, lipids, biochemistry, or prevalence of diabetes. More than 90% of both groups had met current dialysis adequacy targets. Skin AF values in PD and HD patients were similar and strongly correlated with historical PD glucose exposure. Skin AF correlated with age in both groups but with dialysis vintage only in PD patients Conclusions: Cumulative metabolic stress and transient hyperglycemia results in grossly elevated levels of tissue AGE in dialysis patients. In PD patients, this high level of AGE deposition is associated with historical glucose exposure. This observation provides a previously unappreciated potential link between PD exposure to glucose and systemic cardiovascular disease. PMID:19965551

  17. Enzymatic creatinine assays allow estimation of glomerular filtration rate in stages 1 and 2 chronic kidney disease using CKD-EPI equation.

    PubMed

    Kuster, Nils; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Cavalier, Etienne; Bargnoux, Anne-Sophie; Halimi, Jean-Michel; Froissart, Marc; Piéroni, Laurence; Delanaye, Pierre

    2014-01-20

    The National Kidney Disease Education Program group demonstrated that MDRD equation is sensitive to creatinine measurement error, particularly at higher glomerular filtration rates. Thus, MDRD-based eGFR above 60 mL/min/1.73 m² should not be reported numerically. However, little is known about the impact of analytical error on CKD-EPI-based estimates. This study aimed at assessing the impact of analytical characteristics (bias and imprecision) of 12 enzymatic and 4 compensated Jaffe previously characterized creatinine assays on MDRD and CKD-EPI eGFR. In a simulation study, the impact of analytical error was assessed on a hospital population of 24084 patients. Ability using each assay to correctly classify patients according to chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages was evaluated. For eGFR between 60 and 90 mL/min/1.73 m², both equations were sensitive to analytical error. Compensated Jaffe assays displayed high bias in this range and led to poorer sensitivity/specificity for classification according to CKD stages than enzymatic assays. As compared to MDRD equation, CKD-EPI equation decreases impact of analytical error in creatinine measurement above 90 mL/min/1.73 m². Compensated Jaffe creatinine assays lead to important errors in eGFR and should be avoided. Accurate enzymatic assays allow estimation of eGFR until 90 mL/min/1.73 m² with MDRD and 120 mL/min/1.73 m² with CKD-EPI equation.

  18. Mineral metabolites and CKD progression in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Scialla, Julia J; Astor, Brad C; Isakova, Tamara; Xie, Huiliang; Appel, Lawrence J; Wolf, Myles

    2013-01-01

    CKD progresses more rapidly to ESRD among African Americans compared with Caucasians. Disordered mineral metabolism is more severe among African Americans with CKD, which might partially explain the accelerated progression of their kidney disease. Here, using data from the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension, we evaluated longitudinal changes in serum levels of fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23), parathyroid hormone (PTH), phosphate, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D in a subset of 420 participants followed for a median of 4 years. We also examined the association of baseline levels of mineral metabolites with risk for ESRD or death in 809 participants. FGF23, PTH, and phosphate levels rose over time; participants with faster rates of decline in measured GFR had the greatest increases in these parameters (P<0.01 for each). Higher baseline levels of FGF23, PTH, and phosphate each associated with increased risk for ESRD or death independent of GFR. FGF23 exhibited a dose-response relationship with outcomes (HR=1.30 per doubling, 95% CI=1.15-1.47; HR=2.24 for highest compared with lowest quartile, 95% CI=1.39-3.60), whereas PTH and phosphate showed nonlinear relationships. Vitamin D insufficiency (<30 ng/ml) was present in 95% of participants, but lower levels did not independently associate with outcomes. Using death-censored ESRD as the outcome produced qualitatively similar results. In conclusion, abnormalities of mineral metabolism worsen with progressive CKD and associate with higher risk for ESRD among African Americans with hypertensive nephrosclerosis.

  19. High Dietary Acid Load Predicts ESRD among Adults with CKD.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Tanushree; Crews, Deidra C; Wesson, Donald E; Tilea, Anca M; Saran, Rajiv; Ríos-Burrows, Nilka; Williams, Desmond E; Powe, Neil R

    2015-07-01

    Small clinical trials have shown that a reduction in dietary acid load (DAL) improves kidney injury and slows kidney function decline; however, the relationship between DAL and risk of ESRD in a population-based cohort with CKD remains unexamined. We examined the association between DAL, quantified by net acid excretion (NAEes), and progression to ESRD in a nationally representative sample of adults in the United States. Among 1486 adults with CKD age≥20 years enrolled in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III, DAL was determined by 24-h dietary recall questionnaire. The development of ESRD was ascertained over a median 14.2 years of follow-up through linkage with the Medicare ESRD Registry. We used the Fine-Gray competing risks method to estimate the association of high, medium, and low DAL with ESRD after adjusting for demographics, nutritional factors, clinical factors, and kidney function/damage markers and accounting for intervening mortality events. In total, 311 (20.9%) participants developed ESRD. Higher levels of DAL were associated with increased risk of ESRD; relative hazards (95% confidence interval) were 3.04 (1.58 to 5.86) for the highest tertile and 1.81 (0.89 to 3.68) for the middle tertile compared with the lowest tertile in the fully adjusted model. The risk of ESRD associated with DAL tertiles increased as eGFR decreased (P trend=0.001). Among participants with albuminuria, high DAL was strongly associated with ESRD risk (P trend=0.03). In conclusion, high DAL in persons with CKD is independently associated with increased risk of ESRD in a nationally representative population.

  20. High Dietary Acid Load Predicts ESRD among Adults with CKD

    PubMed Central

    Crews, Deidra C.; Wesson, Donald E.; Tilea, Anca M.; Saran, Rajiv; Ríos-Burrows, Nilka; Williams, Desmond E.; Powe, Neil R.

    2015-01-01

    Small clinical trials have shown that a reduction in dietary acid load (DAL) improves kidney injury and slows kidney function decline; however, the relationship between DAL and risk of ESRD in a population-based cohort with CKD remains unexamined. We examined the association between DAL, quantified by net acid excretion (NAEes), and progression to ESRD in a nationally representative sample of adults in the United States. Among 1486 adults with CKD age≥20 years enrolled in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III, DAL was determined by 24-h dietary recall questionnaire. The development of ESRD was ascertained over a median 14.2 years of follow-up through linkage with the Medicare ESRD Registry. We used the Fine–Gray competing risks method to estimate the association of high, medium, and low DAL with ESRD after adjusting for demographics, nutritional factors, clinical factors, and kidney function/damage markers and accounting for intervening mortality events. In total, 311 (20.9%) participants developed ESRD. Higher levels of DAL were associated with increased risk of ESRD; relative hazards (95% confidence interval) were 3.04 (1.58 to 5.86) for the highest tertile and 1.81 (0.89 to 3.68) for the middle tertile compared with the lowest tertile in the fully adjusted model. The risk of ESRD associated with DAL tertiles increased as eGFR decreased (P trend=0.001). Among participants with albuminuria, high DAL was strongly associated with ESRD risk (P trend=0.03). In conclusion, high DAL in persons with CKD is independently associated with increased risk of ESRD in a nationally representative population. PMID:25677388

  1. Pulmonary Rehabilitation in Advanced Lung Cancer Patients During Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Jastrzębski, D; Maksymiak, M; Kostorz, S; Bezubka, B; Osmanska, I; Młynczak, T; Rutkowska, A; Baczek, Z; Ziora, D; Kozielski, J

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the utility of pulmonary rehabilitation for improving of exercises efficiency, dyspnea, and quality of life of patients with lung cancer during chemotherapy. After the enrollment selection, the study included 20 patients with newly diagnosed advanced lung cancer and performance status 0-2. There were 12 patients randomly allocated to the pulmonary rehabilitation group and another 8 constituted the control group that did not undergo physical rehabilitation. Both groups of patients had continual cycles of chemotherapy. Data were analyzed before and after 8 weeks of physical rehabilitation, and before and after 8 weeks of observation without rehabilitation in controls. The inpatient rehabilitation program was based on exercise training with ski poles and respiratory muscle training. We found a tendency for enhanced mobility (6 Minute Walk Test: 527.3 ± 107.4 vs. 563.9 ±64.6 m; p > 0.05) and a significant increase in forced expired volume in 1 s (66.9 ± 13.2 vs. 78.4 ± 17.7 %predicted; p = 0.016), less dyspnea (p = 0.05), and a tendency for improvement in the general quality of life questionnaire after completion of pulmonary rehabilitation as compared with the control group. This report suggests that pulmonary rehabilitation in advanced lung cancer patients during chemotherapy is a beneficial intervention to reduce dyspnea and enhance the quality of life and mobility.

  2. Microbiota and the nitrogen cycle: Implications in the development and progression of CVD and CKD.

    PubMed

    Briskey, David; Tucker, Patrick S; Johnson, David W; Coombes, Jeff S

    2016-07-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with an increased risk of death from cardiovascular disease (CVD). One factor involved in CVD development is nitric oxide (NO), which acts as a powerful vasodilator. NO is produced via the nitrogen cycle, through the reduction of nitrate to nitrite with the process mainly occurring in the mouth by commensal microbiota. People with CKD have compromised microbiota (dysbiosis) with an increased abundance of potentially pathogenic and pro-inflammatory bacteria capable of producing uremic toxins that contribute to CKD development and reduce enzymatic NO production. However, to date, few studies have comprehensively documented the gut or saliva microbiota in the CKD population or investigated the role of NO in people with CKD. This review will discuss NO pathways that are linked to the progression of CKD and CVD and therapeutic options for targeting these pathways. PMID:27164294

  3. Advanced Hemodynamic Management in Patients with Septic Shock

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Wolfgang; Nierhaus, Axel; Kluge, Stefan; Reuter, Daniel A.; Wagner, Julia Y.

    2016-01-01

    In patients with sepsis and septic shock, the hemodynamic management in both early and later phases of these “organ dysfunction syndromes” is a key therapeutic component. It needs, however, to be differentiated between “early goal-directed therapy” (EGDT) as proposed for the first 6 hours of emergency department treatment by Rivers et al. in 2001 and “hemodynamic management” using advanced hemodynamic monitoring in the intensive care unit (ICU). Recent large trials demonstrated that nowadays protocolized EGDT does not seem to be superior to “usual care” in terms of a reduction in mortality in emergency department patients with early identified septic shock who promptly receive antibiotic therapy and fluid resuscitation. “Hemodynamic management” comprises (a) making the diagnosis of septic shock as one differential diagnosis of circulatory shock, (b) assessing the hemodynamic status including the identification of therapeutic conflicts, and (c) guiding therapeutic interventions. We propose two algorithms for hemodynamic management using transpulmonary thermodilution-derived variables aiming to optimize the cardiocirculatory and pulmonary status in adult ICU patients with septic shock. The complexity and heterogeneity of patients with septic shock implies that individualized approaches for hemodynamic management are mandatory. Defining individual hemodynamic target values for patients with septic shock in different phases of the disease must be the focus of future studies. PMID:27703980

  4. Prognostic Importance of Serum Alkaline Phosphatase in CKD Stages 3–4 in a Clinical Population

    PubMed Central

    Taliercio, Jonathan J.; Schold, Jesse D.; Simon, James F.; Arrigain, Susana; Tang, Anne; Saab, Georges; Nally, Joseph V.; Navaneethan, Sankar D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Elevated total serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels have been associated with mortality in the general population and in dialysis patients. Study Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting & Participants 28,678 patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages 3 and 4 (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR], 15–59 ml/min/1.73 m2) were identified using the Cleveland Clinic Chronic Kidney Disease Registry. CKD was defined as two eGFR values <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 drawn >90 days apart using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration creatinine equation. Predictor ALP levels measured using the calorimetric assay was examined as quartiles (quartile 1, <66 U/L; Q2, 66–81 U/L; Q3, 82–101 U/L; and Q4, ≥102 U/L) and as a continuous measure. Outcomes & Measurements All-cause mortality and ESRD were ascertained using the Social Security Death Index and US Renal Data System. Results After a median follow up of 2.2 years, 588 patients progressed to ESRD and 4,755 died. There was a graded increase in the risk for mortality with higher ALP quartiles (Q2, Q3, Q4) when compared to the reference quartile (Q1) after adjusting for demographics, comorbid conditions, use of relevant medications and liver function tests. The highest quartile of ALP was associated with a hazard ratio for ESRD of 1.38 (95% CI, 1.09–1.76). Each 1-standard deviation (42.7 U/L) higher ALP level was associated with 15% (95% CI, 1.09–1.22) and 16% (95% CI, 1.14–1.18) increased risk of ESRD and mortality respectively. Limitations Single center observational study, lack complete data including PTH for all study participants and attrition bias. Conclusions Higher serum ALP levels in CKD stages 3–4 were independently associated with all-cause mortality and ESRD. PMID:23769134

  5. [Molecular targeting agents for advanced or recurrent gastric cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Fuse, Nozomu

    2012-10-01

    The combination of fluoropyrimidine and platinum with or without epirubicin or docetaxel has been regarded as standard chemotherapy for advanced or recurrent gastric cancer patients. Recently, trastuzumab with conventional chemotherapy for human epidermal growth factor receptor(HER)2 positive gastric cancer patients was proved to be effective in terms of survival benefit and has become one of standard treatment options. Other molecular target agents, such as HER1, HER2, vascular endothelial growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor/c-Met, fibroblast growth factor and mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors were and are being evaluated in clinical trials. However, no agents other than trastuzumab have shown clear survival benefit. The predictive biomarker seems to be necessary for developing new molecular targeting agents for gastric cancer with heterogeneity.

  6. Management of a patient with advanced BRAF-mutant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Ashworth, Michelle T; Daud, Adil

    2014-03-01

    A 49-year-old man initially diagnosed in 1995 with cutaneous melanoma presented to the authors' institution in 2009 with metastatic, BRAF V600E-mutant melanoma. His treatment course to date has included surgery, adjuvant radiotherapy, and interferon, metastasectomies, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factors, a clinical trial with the BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib (PLX-4032), clinical trial with combination BRAF plus MEK inhibition with vemurafenib plus GDC-0973, and combination targeted and immune therapy with vemurafenib plus the anti-CTLA4 antibody ipilimumab. This case report illustrates the long-term management of a patient with metastatic melanoma using targeted and immune therapy, evolution in treatment guidelines, next directions in research, and the critical role of clinical trials in advancement of patient care.

  7. Differential Patient-Caregiver Opinions of Treatment and Care For Advanced Lung Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zyzanski, Stephen J; Siminoff, Laura A

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the differences of opinion between cancer patients and caregivers with regard to treatment and care decisions. 184 advanced lung cancer patients and 171 primary caregivers were recruited as a convenience sample from clinics in Cleveland, Ohio. A telephone interview was conducted to collect data using a semi-structured questionnaire. Nonparametric tests and regression analysis were performed. The findings showed that patients and caregivers reported significant disagreement on three main issues: trade-off between treatment side effects and benefits; reporting treatment side effects to physicians, and hospice care. Caregivers were more concerned about patient’s quality of life and more willing to discuss hospice issues than were patients. Perceived family disagreement is associated with depression in both patients and caregivers. The study provided empirical evidence for patient-caregiver disagreement about treatment and care decisions and its significant adverse impact on both patients and caregivers. PMID:20137849

  8. [Advanced directives document and neurologist-patient relationship].

    PubMed

    Boada Rovira, M

    2004-12-01

    Perception of health and disease, pain and suffering, quality of life, personal relationships, privacy and intimacy, culture and social values, can now be stated in a written document, by way of a living will, giving legal legitimacy to each patient's way of being and understanding life, to be used when the subject cannot express it by him/herself. In this way, the patients will participate in the therapeutic process and will incorporate their desires and decisions through the Informed Consent and the Advanced Directives Document (ADD). Both documents translate and indicate how to treat and care for a patient who will progressively lose his/her cognitive faculties and others will decided for him/her, in the case of dementias. The basis of ADD is respect and promotion of the patient's autonomy, prolonging his/her right to decide in the stages in which he/she cannot do it. It consists in some instructions or orientations for the patient to be cared for in a certain way, according to his/her will. To this effect, a representative will be named who will act in the subject's name and who will help to interpret and make decisions when the patient cannot. Specifically, in Alzheimer's disease, ADD allows the patient to decide, in full lucidity, freedom and autonomy, how to live a progressive and irreversible disease. Explicit mention can be made to the will of making his/her disease known publically or not, the care of its aspect, privacy, type of care, whether institutionalized or home care, limitation of visits, treatment intensity and prolongation, palliative cares, donation of biological samples, participation in drug clinical trials. PMID:15719290

  9. Gastrointestinal Inhibition of Sodium-Hydrogen Exchanger 3 Reduces Phosphorus Absorption and Protects against Vascular Calcification in CKD

    PubMed Central

    Labonté, Eric D.; Carreras, Christopher W.; Leadbetter, Michael R.; Kozuka, Kenji; Kohler, Jill; Koo-McCoy, Samantha; He, Limin; Dy, Edward; Black, Deborah; Zhong, Ziyang; Langsetmo, Ingrid; Spencer, Andrew G.; Bell, Noah; Deshpande, Desiree; Navre, Marc; Lewis, Jason G.; Jacobs, Jeffrey W.

    2015-01-01

    In CKD, phosphate retention arising from diminished GFR is a key early step in a pathologic cascade leading to hyperthyroidism, metabolic bone disease, vascular calcification, and cardiovascular mortality. Tenapanor, a minimally systemically available inhibitor of the intestinal sodium-hydrogen exchanger 3, is being evaluated in clinical trials for its potential to (1) lower gastrointestinal sodium absorption, (2) improve fluid overload-related symptoms, such as hypertension and proteinuria, in patients with CKD, and (3) reduce interdialytic weight gain and intradialytic hypotension in ESRD. Here, we report the effects of tenapanor on dietary phosphorous absorption. Oral administration of tenapanor or other intestinal sodium-hydrogen exchanger 3 inhibitors increased fecal phosphorus, decreased urine phosphorus excretion, and reduced [33P]orthophosphate uptake in rats. In a rat model of CKD and vascular calcification, tenapanor reduced sodium and phosphorus absorption and significantly decreased ectopic calcification, serum creatinine and serum phosphorus levels, circulating phosphaturic hormone fibroblast growth factor-23 levels, and heart mass. These results indicate that tenapanor is an effective inhibitor of dietary phosphorus absorption and suggest a new approach to phosphate management in renal disease and associated mineral disorders. PMID:25404658

  10. Gastrointestinal Inhibition of Sodium-Hydrogen Exchanger 3 Reduces Phosphorus Absorption and Protects against Vascular Calcification in CKD.

    PubMed

    Labonté, Eric D; Carreras, Christopher W; Leadbetter, Michael R; Kozuka, Kenji; Kohler, Jill; Koo-McCoy, Samantha; He, Limin; Dy, Edward; Black, Deborah; Zhong, Ziyang; Langsetmo, Ingrid; Spencer, Andrew G; Bell, Noah; Deshpande, Desiree; Navre, Marc; Lewis, Jason G; Jacobs, Jeffrey W; Charmot, Dominique

    2015-05-01

    In CKD, phosphate retention arising from diminished GFR is a key early step in a pathologic cascade leading to hyperthyroidism, metabolic bone disease, vascular calcification, and cardiovascular mortality. Tenapanor, a minimally systemically available inhibitor of the intestinal sodium-hydrogen exchanger 3, is being evaluated in clinical trials for its potential to (1) lower gastrointestinal sodium absorption, (2) improve fluid overload-related symptoms, such as hypertension and proteinuria, in patients with CKD, and (3) reduce interdialytic weight gain and intradialytic hypotension in ESRD. Here, we report the effects of tenapanor on dietary phosphorous absorption. Oral administration of tenapanor or other intestinal sodium-hydrogen exchanger 3 inhibitors increased fecal phosphorus, decreased urine phosphorus excretion, and reduced [(33)P]orthophosphate uptake in rats. In a rat model of CKD and vascular calcification, tenapanor reduced sodium and phosphorus absorption and significantly decreased ectopic calcification, serum creatinine and serum phosphorus levels, circulating phosphaturic hormone fibroblast growth factor-23 levels, and heart mass. These results indicate that tenapanor is an effective inhibitor of dietary phosphorus absorption and suggest a new approach to phosphate management in renal disease and associated mineral disorders.

  11. Cost-effectiveness of Simvastatin plus Ezetimibe for Cardiovascular Prevention in CKD: Results of the Study of Heart and Renal Protection (SHARP)

    PubMed Central

    Mihaylova, Borislava; Schlackow, Iryna; Herrington, William; Lozano-Kühne, Jingky; Kent, Seamus; Emberson, Jonathan; Reith, Christina; Haynes, Richard; Cass, Alan; Craig, Jonathan; Gray, Alastair; Collins, Rory; Landray, Martin J.; Baigent, Colin; Collins, R.; Baigent, C.; Landray, M.J.; Bray, C.; Chen, Y.; Baxter, A.; Young, A.; Hill, M.; Knott, C.; Cass, A.; Feldt-Rasmussen, B.; Fellström, B.; Grobbee, D.E.; Grönhagen-Riska, C.; Haas, M.; Holdaas, H.; Hooi, L.S.; Jiang, L.; Kasiske, B.; Krairittichai, U.; Levin, A.; Massy, Z.A.; Tesar, V.; Walker, R.; Wanner, C.; Wheeler, D.C.; Wiecek, A.; Dasgupta, T.; Herrington, W.; Lewis, D.; Mafham, M.; Majoni, W.; Reith, C.; Emberson, J.; Parish, S.; Simpson, D.; Strony, J.; Musliner, T.; Agodoa, L.; Armitage, J.; Chen, Z.; Craig, J.; de Zeeuw, D.; Gaziano, J.M.; Grimm, R.; Krane, V.; Neal, B.; Ophascharoensuk, V.; Pedersen, T.; Sleight, P.; Tobert, J.; Tomson, C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Simvastatin, 20 mg, plus ezetimibe, 10 mg, daily (simvastatin plus ezetimibe) reduced major atherosclerotic events in patients with moderate to severe chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the Study of Heart and Renal Protection (SHARP), but its cost-effectiveness is unknown. Study Design Cost-effectiveness of simvastatin plus ezetimibe in SHARP, a randomized controlled trial. Setting & Population 9,270 patients with CKD randomly assigned to simvastatin plus ezetimibe versus placebo; participants in categories by 5-year cardiovascular risk (low, <10%; medium, 10%-<20%; or high, ≥20%) and CKD stage (3, 4, 5 not on dialysis, or on dialysis therapy). Model, Perspective, & Timeline Assessment during SHARP follow-up from the UK perspective; long-term projections. Intervention Simvastatin plus ezetimibe (2015 UK £1.19 per day) during 4.9 years’ median follow-up in SHARP; scenario analyses with high-intensity statin regimens (2015 UK £0.05-£1.06 per day). Outcomes Additional health care costs per major atherosclerotic event avoided and per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained. Results In SHARP, the proportional reductions per 1 mmol/L of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol reduction with simvastatin plus ezetimibe in all major atherosclerotic events of 20% (95% CI, 6%-32%) and in the costs of vascular hospital episodes of 17% (95% CI, 4%-28%) were similar across participant categories by cardiovascular risk and CKD stage. The 5-year reduction in major atherosclerotic events per 1,000 participants ranged from 10 in low-risk to 58 in high-risk patients and from 28 in CKD stage 3 to 36 in patients on dialysis therapy. The net cost per major atherosclerotic event avoided with simvastatin plus ezetimibe compared to no LDL-lowering regimen ranged from £157,060 in patients at low risk to £15,230 in those at high risk (£30,500-£39,600 per QALY); and from £47,280 in CKD stage 3 to £28,180 in patients on dialysis therapy (£13,000-£43,300 per QALY

  12. Audit-based education lowers systolic blood pressure in chronic kidney disease: the Quality Improvement in CKD (QICKD) trial results.

    PubMed

    Lusignan, Simon de; de Lusignana, Simon; Gallagher, Hugh; Jones, Simon; Chan, Tom; van Vlymen, Jeremy; Tahir, Aumran; Thomas, Nicola; Jain, Neerja; Dmitrieva, Olga; Rafi, Imran; McGovern, Andrew; Harris, Kevin

    2013-09-01

    Strict control of systolic blood pressure is known to slow progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Here we compared audit-based education (ABE) to guidelines and prompts or usual practice in lowering systolic blood pressure in people with CKD. This 2-year cluster randomized trial included 93 volunteer general practices randomized into three arms with 30 ABE practices, 32 with guidelines and prompts, and 31 usual practices. An intervention effect on the primary outcome, systolic blood pressure, was calculated using a multilevel model to predict changes after the intervention. The prevalence of CKD was 7.29% (41,183 of 565,016 patients) with all cardiovascular comorbidities more common in those with CKD. Our models showed that the systolic blood pressure was significantly lowered by 2.41 mm Hg (CI 0.59-4.29 mm Hg), in the ABE practices with an odds ratio of achieving at least a 5 mm Hg reduction in systolic blood pressure of 1.24 (CI 1.05-1.45). Practices exposed to guidelines and prompts produced no significant change compared to usual practice. Male gender, ABE, ischemic heart disease, and congestive heart failure were independently associated with a greater lowering of systolic blood pressure but the converse applied to hypertension and age over 75 years. There were no reports of harm. Thus, individuals receiving ABE are more likely to achieve a lower blood pressure than those receiving only usual practice. The findings should be interpreted with caution due to the wide confidence intervals.

  13. Audit-based education lowers systolic blood pressure in chronic kidney disease: the Quality Improvement in CKD (QICKD) trial results

    PubMed Central

    de Lusignana, Simon; Gallagher, Hugh; Jones, Simon; Chan, Tom; van Vlymen, Jeremy; Tahir, Aumran; Thomas, Nicola; Jain, Neerja; Dmitrieva, Olga; Rafi, Imran; McGovern, Andrew; Harris, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Strict control of systolic blood pressure is known to slow progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Here we compared audit-based education (ABE) to guidelines and prompts or usual practice in lowering systolic blood pressure in people with CKD. This 2-year cluster randomized trial included 93 volunteer general practices randomized into three arms with 30 ABE practices, 32 with guidelines and prompts, and 31 usual practices. An intervention effect on the primary outcome, systolic blood pressure, was calculated using a multilevel model to predict changes after the intervention. The prevalence of CKD was 7.29% (41,183 of 565,016 patients) with all cardiovascular comorbidities more common in those with CKD. Our models showed that the systolic blood pressure was significantly lowered by 2.41 mm Hg (CI 0.59–4.29 mm Hg), in the ABE practices with an odds ratio of achieving at least a 5 mm Hg reduction in systolic blood pressure of 1.24 (CI 1.05–1.45). Practices exposed to guidelines and prompts produced no significant change compared to usual practice. Male gender, ABE, ischemic heart disease, and congestive heart failure were independently associated with a greater lowering of systolic blood pressure but the converse applied to hypertension and age over 75 years. There were no reports of harm. Thus, individuals receiving ABE are more likely to achieve a lower blood pressure than those receiving only usual practice. The findings should be interpreted with caution due to the wide confidence intervals. PMID:23536132

  14. Renoprotection and the Bardoxolone Methyl Story - Is This the Right Way Forward? A Novel View of Renoprotection in CKD Trials: A New Classification Scheme for Renoprotective Agents.

    PubMed

    Onuigbo, Macaulay

    2013-01-01

    In the June 2011 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine, the BEAM (Bardoxolone Methyl Treatment: Renal Function in CKD/Type 2 Diabetes) trial investigators rekindled new interest and also some controversy regarding the concept of renoprotection and the role of renoprotective agents, when they reported significant increases in the mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in diabetic chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with an eGFR of 20-45 ml/min/1.73 m(2) of body surface area at enrollment who received the trial drug bardoxolone methyl versus placebo. Unfortunately, subsequent phase IIIb trials failed to show that the drug is a safe alternative renoprotective agent. Current renoprotection paradigms depend wholly and entirely on angiotensin blockade; however, these agents [angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs)] have proved to be imperfect renoprotective agents. In this review, we examine the mechanistic limitations of the various previous randomized controlled trials on CKD renoprotection, including the paucity of veritable, elaborate and systematic assessment methods for the documentation and reporting of individual patient-level, drug-related adverse events. We review the evidence base for the presence of putative, multiple independent and unrelated pathogenetic mechanisms that drive (diabetic and non-diabetic) CKD progression. Furthermore, we examine the validity, or lack thereof, of the hyped notion that the blockade of a single molecule (angiotensin II), which can only antagonize the angiotensin cascade, would veritably successfully, consistently and unfailingly deliver adequate and qualitative renoprotection results in (diabetic and non-diabetic) CKD patients. We clearly posit that there is this overarching impetus to arrive at the inference that multiple, disparately diverse and independent pathways, including any veritable combination of the mechanisms that we examine in this review, and many

  15. Renoprotection and the Bardoxolone Methyl Story - Is This the Right Way Forward? A Novel View of Renoprotection in CKD Trials: A New Classification Scheme for Renoprotective Agents.

    PubMed

    Onuigbo, Macaulay

    2013-01-01

    In the June 2011 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine, the BEAM (Bardoxolone Methyl Treatment: Renal Function in CKD/Type 2 Diabetes) trial investigators rekindled new interest and also some controversy regarding the concept of renoprotection and the role of renoprotective agents, when they reported significant increases in the mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in diabetic chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with an eGFR of 20-45 ml/min/1.73 m(2) of body surface area at enrollment who received the trial drug bardoxolone methyl versus placebo. Unfortunately, subsequent phase IIIb trials failed to show that the drug is a safe alternative renoprotective agent. Current renoprotection paradigms depend wholly and entirely on angiotensin blockade; however, these agents [angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs)] have proved to be imperfect renoprotective agents. In this review, we examine the mechanistic limitations of the various previous randomized controlled trials on CKD renoprotection, including the paucity of veritable, elaborate and systematic assessment methods for the documentation and reporting of individual patient-level, drug-related adverse events. We review the evidence base for the presence of putative, multiple independent and unrelated pathogenetic mechanisms that drive (diabetic and non-diabetic) CKD progression. Furthermore, we examine the validity, or lack thereof, of the hyped notion that the blockade of a single molecule (angiotensin II), which can only antagonize the angiotensin cascade, would veritably successfully, consistently and unfailingly deliver adequate and qualitative renoprotection results in (diabetic and non-diabetic) CKD patients. We clearly posit that there is this overarching impetus to arrive at the inference that multiple, disparately diverse and independent pathways, including any veritable combination of the mechanisms that we examine in this review, and many

  16. Designing a web-application to support home-based care of childhood CKD stages 3-5: Qualitative study of family and professional preferences

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a lack of online, evidence-based information and resources to support home-based care of childhood CKD stages 3-5. Methods Qualitative interviews were undertaken with parents, patients and professionals to explore their views on content of the proposed online parent information and support (OPIS) web-application. Data were analysed using Framework Analysis, guided by the concept of Self-efficacy. Results 32 parents, 26 patients and 12 professionals were interviewed. All groups wanted an application that explains, demonstrates, and enables parental clinical care-giving, with condition-specific, continously available, reliable, accessible material and a closed communication system to enable contact between families living with CKD. Professionals advocated a regularly updated application to empower parents to make informed health-care decisions. To address these requirements, key web-application components were defined as: (i) Clinical care-giving support (information on treatment regimens, video-learning tools, condition-specific cartoons/puzzles, and a question and answer area) and (ii) Psychosocial support for care-giving (social-networking, case studies, managing stress, and enhancing families’ health-care experiences). Conclusions Developing a web-application that meets parents’ information and support needs will maximise its utility, thereby augmenting parents’ self-efficacy for CKD caregiving, and optimising outcomes. Self-efficacy theory provides a schema for how parents’ self-efficacy beliefs about management of their child’s CKD could potentially be promoted by OPIS. PMID:24548640

  17. Peritoneal ultrafiltration in patients with advanced decompensated heart failure.

    PubMed

    Iadarola, Gian Maria; Lusardi, Paola; La Milia, Vincenzo; Amici, Gianpaolo; Santarelli, Stefano; Virga, Giovambattista; Basile, Carlo; Bertoli, Silvio; Bonofiglio, Renzo; Del Rosso, Goffredo; Feriani, Mariano; Galli, Emilio; Gallieni, Maurizio; Gambaro, Giovanni; Sandrini, Massimo; Sisca, Sergio; Cancarini, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the Best Practice guidelines on peritoneal ultrafiltration (UF) in patients with treatment-resistant advanced decompensated heart failure (TR-AHDF) is to achieve a common approach to the management of decompensated heart failure in those situations in which all conventional treatment options have been unsuccessful, and to stimulate a closer cooperation between nephrologists and cardiologists. The standardization of the case series of different centers would allow a better definition of the results published in the literature, without which they are nothing more than anecdotes. TR-AHDF is characterized by the persistence of severe symptoms even when all possible pharmacological and surgical options have been exhausted. These patients are often treated with methods that allow extracorporeal UF - slow continuous ultrafiltration (SCUF) and continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) - which have to be performed in hospital facilities. Peritoneal ultrafiltration (PUF) can be considered a treatment option in patients with TR-AHDF when, despite the fact that all treatment options have been used, patients meet the following criteria: • stage D decompensated heart failure (ACC/AHA classification); • INTERMACS level 4 decompensated heart failure; • INTERMACS frequent flyer profile; • chronic renal failure (estimated glomerular filtration rate <50 ml/min per 1.73 m2: KDOQI classification stage 3 chronic kidney disease); • no obvious contraindications to peritoneal UF. PUF treatment modes are derived from the treatment regimens proposed by various authors to obtain systemic UF in patients with severe decompensated heart failure, using manual and automated incremental peritoneal dialysis involving various glucose concentrations in addition to the single icodextrin exchange. These guidelines also identify a minimum set of tests and procedures for the follow-up phase, to be supplemented, according to the center's resources and policy, with other tests that

  18. Nonesterified Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Mortality in Elderly Men with CKD

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Zibo; Xu, Hong; Huang, Xiaoyan; Ärnlöv, Johan; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid; Cederholm, Tommy; Sjögren, Per; Lindholm, Bengt; Risérus, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Although nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) are essential as energy substrate for the myocardium, an excess of circulating NEFAs can be harmful. This study aimed to assess plausible relationships between serum NEFA and mortality due to cardiovascular disease (CVD) in individuals with CKD. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This was a prospective cohort study from the third examination cycle of the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men, a population-based survey of 1221 elderly men aged 70–71 years residing in Uppsala, Sweden. Data collection took place during 1991–1995. All participants had measures of kidney function; this study investigated 623 (51.7%) of these patients with manifest CKD (defined as either eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 or urine albumin excretion rate ≥20 µg/min). Follow-up for mortality was done from examination date until death or December 31, 2007. After a median follow-up of 14 years (interquartile range, 8–16.8), associations of NEFAs with mortality (related to all causes, CVD, ischemic heart disease [IHD], or acute myocardial infarction) were ascertained. Results The median serum NEFA was 14.1 mg/dl (interquartile range, 11.3–17.8). No association was found with measures of kidney function. Diabetes and serum triglycerides were the only multivariate correlates of NEFA. During follow-up, 453 participants died, of which 209 deaths were due to CVD, including 88 IHD deaths, with 41 attributed to acute myocardial infarction (AMI). In fully adjusted covariates, serum NEFA was an independent risk factor for all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR] per log2 increase, 1.22; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.00 to 1.48) and CVD-related death (HR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.15 to 1.99), including both IHD (HR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.00 to 2.32) and AMI mortality (HR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.09 to 3.98). Conclusions Elevated serum NEFA associated with CVD mortality, and particularly with mortality due to AMI, in a homogeneous

  19. Integrative and complementary therapies for patients with advanced cancer.

    PubMed

    Marchand, Lucille

    2014-07-01

    In integrative medicine, well-being is emphasized, and in palliative care, quality of life (QOL) is a similar concept or goal. Both can occur despite advanced cancer. Integrative medicine serves to combine the best of alternative, complementary and conventional therapies to optimize well-being and QOL, whether or not a person is at the end of their life. When integrative medicine is combined with palliative care modalities, the toolbox to provide symptom control and well-being or QOL is increased or broadened. Palliative care and integrative medicine are best provided early in the trajectory of illness such as cancer, and increase in amount as the illness progresses toward end of life. In cancer care, symptoms of the cancer, as well as symptoms produced by cancer therapies, are addressed with conventional and integrative therapies. Goals of care change as the disease progresses, and a patient's unique situation creates a different balance of integrative and conventional therapies. Integrative therapies such as music, aromatherapy, and massage might appeal to more patients than more specific, less common integrative therapies that might be more expensive, or seem more unusual such as Ayurvedic medicine and energy modalities. Each person may be drawn to different integrative modalities depending on factors such as cultural traditions, beliefs, lifestyle, internet information, advice from family and friends, books, etc. This review focuses on how integrative and complementary modalities can be included in comprehensive palliative care for patients with advanced malignancies. Nutrition and movement, often neglected in conventional treatment strategies, will also be included in the larger context of integrative and palliative modalities. Both conventional and integrative modalities in palliative care help patients live with empowerment, hope, and well-being no matter how long their lives last. A comprehensive review of all integrative and complementary therapies is

  20. Pembrolizumab for Treatment of Patients with Advanced or Unresectable Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Ryan J; Flaherty, Keith T

    2015-07-01

    From Coley's toxin to combination immune checkpoint inhibition, strategies to activate the immune system and generate anticancer immunity have been ongoing for well over a century. Over the past decade, the so-called immune checkpoint inhibitors, generally monoclonal antibodies that target key regulators of T-cell activation, emerged as the most effective immune-targeted agents. Pembrolizumab is the first anti-programmed death 1 (PD-1) antibody approved by the FDA for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. With responses seen in 25% to 40% of patients, depending on dose and setting (i.e., before or after ipilimumab), pembrolizumab specifically and anti-PD-1 antibodies generally are revolutionizing the treatment of melanoma. However, in the setting of other recent advances in the field, a number of practical issues are emerging that need to be addressed to optimize the care of patients with melanoma. First, the optimal sequencing of therapy (first-line immunotherapy over molecular targeted therapy, ipilimumab versus pembrolizumab as initial immune checkpoint inhibitor) is unknown and must be evaluated through randomized trials. Second, there is a strong rationale to combine immune checkpoint inhibitors (i.e., anti-PD-1 with ipilimumab) and to combine immune therapies with targeted therapy agents, so determining whether combination therapy is better than direct sequencing is another critical issue that needs to be addressed in carefully carried out studies.

  1. The changing hope trajectory in patients with advanced-stage cancer: a nursing perspective.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Judith Brown; Seda, Julie S; Kardinal, Carl G

    2012-06-01

    As patients with advanced-stage cancer move from the initial diagnosis through treatment, remission, recurrence, and advanced-stage disease, the hope trajectory undergoes a dynamic transformation. By identifying the hope trajectory, nurses can help patients focus on obtainable hope objects while balancing the need to present a realistic prognosis. This, in turn, may help patients find meaning and purpose in advanced-stage cancer and facilitate realistic hope when faced with a life-threatening illness.

  2. Report on the Workshop and Regular Meeting of the Imode-CKD and Bcmolmed Marie Curie Training and Research Programs.

    PubMed

    Krochmal, Magdalena; Cisek, Katryna; Markoska, Katerina; Spasovski, Goce; Vlahou, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    A Workshop and Regular Meeting of the Marie Curie Training and Research Programs iMODECKD (Identification of the Molecular Determinants of established Chronic Kidney Disease) and BCMolMed (Molecular Medicine for Bladder Cancer) was held from 20-22 March at the Macedonian Academy of Science and Arts (MASA). The meeting was hosted by the participating center University of Skopje (SKO) - Goce Spasovski and MASA - Momir Polenakovic (R. Macedonia). The representative from MASA proteomic research center - Katerina Davalieva (R. Macedonia) had presentation on proteomic research in prostate cancer (PCa). 40 researchers from 13 different countries participated at the meeting. The Workshop was devoted on "Chronic Kidney Disease: Clinical Management issues", and consisted of 15 oral presentations given by nephrologists and experts in the field of CKD. Raymond Vanholder (Belgium) - past president of ERA-EDTA had a keynote lecture on "CKD: Questions that need to be answered and are not (or at least not entirely)". The workshop continued in four sessions with lectures from Alberto Ortiz (Spain), Olivera Stojceva-Taneva (R. Macedonia), Dimitrios Goumenos (Greece), Joachim Beige (Germany), Marian Klinger (Poland), Goce Spasovski (R. Macedonia), Joachim Jankowski (Germany), Adalbert Schiller (Romania), Robert Johnson (USA), Franco Ferrario (Italy), Ivan Rychlik (Czech Republic), Fulvio Magni (Italy) and Giovambattista Capasso (Italy), all covering a training theme. Within the meeting there were two lectures on complimentary skills for ethics in science and career advancement from two principal investigators - Goce Spasovski (R. Macedonia) and Joost Schanstra (France). During the Regular Meeting, 13 PhD students i.e. Early Stage Researchers and one Experienced Researcher from both Programs presented their work and progress within iMODE-CKD and BCMolMed projects. This meeting was a great opportunity to exchange experience and ideas in the field of systems biology approaches and

  3. Report on the Workshop and Regular Meeting of the Imode-CKD and Bcmolmed Marie Curie Training and Research Programs.

    PubMed

    Krochmal, Magdalena; Cisek, Katryna; Markoska, Katerina; Spasovski, Goce; Vlahou, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    A Workshop and Regular Meeting of the Marie Curie Training and Research Programs iMODECKD (Identification of the Molecular Determinants of established Chronic Kidney Disease) and BCMolMed (Molecular Medicine for Bladder Cancer) was held from 20-22 March at the Macedonian Academy of Science and Arts (MASA). The meeting was hosted by the participating center University of Skopje (SKO) - Goce Spasovski and MASA - Momir Polenakovic (R. Macedonia). The representative from MASA proteomic research center - Katerina Davalieva (R. Macedonia) had presentation on proteomic research in prostate cancer (PCa). 40 researchers from 13 different countries participated at the meeting. The Workshop was devoted on "Chronic Kidney Disease: Clinical Management issues", and consisted of 15 oral presentations given by nephrologists and experts in the field of CKD. Raymond Vanholder (Belgium) - past president of ERA-EDTA had a keynote lecture on "CKD: Questions that need to be answered and are not (or at least not entirely)". The workshop continued in four sessions with lectures from Alberto Ortiz (Spain), Olivera Stojceva-Taneva (R. Macedonia), Dimitrios Goumenos (Greece), Joachim Beige (Germany), Marian Klinger (Poland), Goce Spasovski (R. Macedonia), Joachim Jankowski (Germany), Adalbert Schiller (Romania), Robert Johnson (USA), Franco Ferrario (Italy), Ivan Rychlik (Czech Republic), Fulvio Magni (Italy) and Giovambattista Capasso (Italy), all covering a training theme. Within the meeting there were two lectures on complimentary skills for ethics in science and career advancement from two principal investigators - Goce Spasovski (R. Macedonia) and Joost Schanstra (France). During the Regular Meeting, 13 PhD students i.e. Early Stage Researchers and one Experienced Researcher from both Programs presented their work and progress within iMODE-CKD and BCMolMed projects. This meeting was a great opportunity to exchange experience and ideas in the field of systems biology approaches and

  4. Using Adult Learning Concepts To Assist Patients in Completing Advance Directives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Rose Mary

    2000-01-01

    Advance directives that enable individuals to control their health care are underused due to lack of patient knowledge. Nurses can teach patients about them using adult learning principles, transformation theory, and skills for learning how to learn. (SK)

  5. SSA 02-4 DISPARITIES IN HYPERTENSION MANAGEMENT OF CKD IN SOUTH ASIA.

    PubMed

    Jafar, Tazeen

    2016-09-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) defined as reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) or presence of albuminuria, progresses to end stage renal disease (ESRD), needing dialysis or kidney transplant to sustain life, and is associated with increased risks of premature cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. CKD ranked 18 leading (and most rapidly rising cause of mortality by the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. The social and economic consequences of CKD are far worse in low and middle income countries (LMICs) including India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka.Accoriding to successive estimates of the World Health Organization, countries in South Asia have been experiencing a progressive rise in the burden of non-communicable diseases (NCD) one facet of which is CKD. About 1 in 5 adults older aged 30 years suffer from CKD South Asia. Although national level estimates are not available, a recent meta-analysis indicated prevalence of CKD is 7.7% in South Asia based on eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m. However, evidence to inform CKD prevention and management programs is scarce.Hypertension and diabetes are the most important risk factors for CKD in South Asia: 1 in 3 adults has hypertension. In addition, more than 70 million people had diabetes in 2010, and this number is expected to rise to 100 million by 2030. Both high blood pressure and diabetes are common even during chilldhood. The age of onset of CKD is also younger in South Asians than noted in studies in Western populations. This is unsurprising as low birth weight and prematurity, both in part due to maternal malnutrition are common in India, and predispose to insulin resistance and CKD. Rates of progression of CKD to ESRD have been shown to be faster in people of South Asian origin than white counterparts. However, less than 10% with ESRD are able to afford RRT (annual cost US $5000) in India. The impact of lives lost due to ESRD or premature CVD are far more grave in India where majority of the

  6. Patient education for phosphorus management in chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This review explores the challenges and solutions in educating patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) to lower serum phosphorus while avoiding protein insufficiency and hypercalcemia. Methods: A literature search including terms “hyperphosphatemia,” “patient education,” “food fatigue,” “hypercalcemia,” and “phosphorus–protein ratio” was undertaken using PubMed. Results: Hyperphosphatemia is a strong predictor of mortality in advanced CKD and is remediated via diet, phosphorus binders, and dialysis. Dietary counseling should encourage the consumption of foods with the least amount of inorganic or absorbable phosphorus, low phosphorus-to-protein ratios, and adequate protein content, and discourage excessive calcium intake in high-risk patients. Emerging educational initiatives include food labeling using a “traffic light” scheme, motivational interviewing techniques, and the Phosphate Education Program – whereby patients no longer have to memorize the phosphorus content of each individual food component, but only a “phosphorus unit” value for a limited number of food groups. Phosphorus binders are associated with a clear survival advantage in CKD patients, overcome the limitations associated with dietary phosphorus restriction, and permit a more flexible approach to achieving normalization of phosphorus levels. Conclusion: Patient education on phosphorus and calcium management can improve concordance and adherence and empower patients to collaborate actively for optimal control of mineral metabolism. PMID:23667310

  7. Intraoperative Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy in Patients With Advanced Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Oseledchyk, Anton; Zivanovic, Oliver

    2015-09-01

    Ovarian cancer, because it is largely confined to the peritoneal cavity, has a unique tumor biology and metastatic spread pattern. Its metastatic potential comes from detached tumor cells in the peritoneal cavity that re-attach to the mesothelial lining of the peritoneal surface. It is proposed that these micrometastases without neovasculature, as well as floating malignant cells, are drivers of early recurrence, since they can be neither resected nor adequately treated by systemic chemotherapy. This represents the major rationale for local treatment by means of postoperative intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy, which is the standard of care in the United States in patients with advanced-stage ovarian cancer who have minimal residual disease following cytoreductive surgery. An alternative loco-regional treatment strategy is the "HIPEC" procedure--hyperthermic IP chemoperfusion that is performed during the operation immediately following completion of gross tumor resection, and which provides improved tissue penetration and distribution of the chemotherapeutics. However, prospective data are limited and an outcomes benefit has yet to be shown. Here we discuss the advantages and pitfalls of HIPEC, as well as current data and ongoing prospective trials. PMID:26384807

  8. [Technological advances and micro-inflammation in dialysis patients].

    PubMed

    Ferro, Giuseppe; Ravaglia, Fiammetta; Ferrari, Elisa; Romoli, Elena; Michelassi, Stefano; Caiani, David; Pizzarelli, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    As currently performed, on line hemodiafiltration reduces, but does not normalize, the micro-inflammation of uremic patients. Recent technological advances make it possible to further reduce the inflammation connected to the dialysis treatment. 
Short bacterial DNA fragments are pro-inflammatory and can be detected in the dialysis fluids. However, their determination is not currently within normal controls of the quality of the dialysate. The scenario may change once the analysis of these fragments yields reliable, inexpensive, quick and easy to evaluate the results. At variance with standard bicarbonate dialysate, Citrate dialysate induces far less inflammation both for the well-known anti-inflammatory effect of such buffer and also because it is completely acetate free, e.g. a definitely pro-inflammatory buffer. However, the extensive use of citrate dialysate in chronic dialysis is prevented because of concerns about its potential calcium lowering effect. In our view, high convective exchange on line hemodiafiltration performed with dialysate, whose sterility and a-pirogenicity is guaranteed by increasingly sophisticated controls and with citrate buffer whose safety is certified, can serve as the gold standard of dialysis treatments in future.

  9. Advancing chronic kidney disease care: new imperatives for recognition and intervention.

    PubMed

    Szromba, Charlotte; Thies, Mary Ann; Ossman, Sherry Smith

    2002-12-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects over 6.2 million people in the U.S. and most commonly results from diabetes and/or hypertension. Patients with CKD have an increased risk of anemia and hypertension. Anemia occurs early in CKD and can be effectively treated with epoetin alfa. Hypertension can be managed with lifestyle modifications and medications. Nurses play a vital role in managing these patients by providing early CKD/anemia screening and intervention, education, patient monitoring, and support for patients and caregivers. PMID:12596604

  10. Erythropoiesis-stimulating Agents and Anemia in Patients with Non-dialytic Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Moon; Kim, Kyeong Min; Kwon, Soon Kil; Kim, Hye-Young

    2016-01-01

    Anemia is common in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). Though erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) have been strongly endorsed in guidelines, it is of particular financial interest. Recently, the reimbursement of ESAs in non-dialytic patients was started by the Korean National Health Insurance System. Thus, we investigated the impact of the reimbursement of ESAs on the anemia care in non-dialytic CKD patients. Medical records of patients with advanced CKD (estimated GFR <30 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) were reviewed. Use of ESAs, blood transfusion, and hemoglobin concentrations were analyzed from one year prior to reimbursement to three years following. We used multivariable modified Poisson regression to estimate the utilization prevalence ratio (PRs). A total of 1,791 medical records were analyzed. The proportion of patients receiving ESAs increased from 14.8% before reimbursement to a peak 33.6% in 1 yr after reimbursement; thereafter, ESA use decreased to 22.4% in 3 yr after reimbursement (compared with baseline; PR, 2.19 [95% CI, 1.40-3.42]). In patients with Hb <10 g/dL, the proportion of receiving ESAs increased from 32.1% before reimbursement to 66.7% in 3 yr after reimbursement (compared with baseline; PR, 2.04 [95% CI, 1.25-3.32]). Mean hemoglobin concentrations were 10.06±1.54 g/dL before reimbursement and increased to 10.78±1.51 g/dL in 3 yr after the reimbursement change (P=0.001). However, the requirement of blood transfusion was not changed over time. With the reimbursement of ESAs, the advanced CKD patients were more likely to be treated with ESAs, and the hemoglobin concentrations increased.

  11. Distinguishing Symptoms of Grief and Depression in a Cohort of Advanced Cancer Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Juliet C.; Zhang, Baohui; Block, Susan D.; Maciejewski, Paul K.; Prigerson, Holly G.

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have shown that the symptoms of grief are different from symptoms of depression among bereaved family members. This study is an attempt to replicate this finding among advanced cancer patients and examine clinical correlates of patient grief and depression. Analyses were conducted on data from interviews with 123 advanced cancer…

  12. Evaluation of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living in Greek Patients with Advanced Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mystakidou, Kyriaki; Parpa, Efi; Tsilika, Eleni; Panagiotoua, Irene; Roumeliotou, Anna; Symeonidi, Matina; Galanos, Antonis; Kouvaris, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Translation of the instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) was carried out and its psychometric properties were assessed in a Greek sample of patients with advanced cancer. The scale was translated with the forward-backward procedure into the Greek language. It was initially administered to 136 advanced cancer patients. To assess…

  13. A quality improvement project to improve the effectiveness and patient-centredness of management of people with mild-to-moderate kidney disease in primary care.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Nicola; Gallagher, Hugh; Jain, Neerja

    2014-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages 3 to 5, affects 6-7% of the adult population and is an important risk factor for both advanced kidney disease and cardiovascular disease. This paper describes a quality improvement project that aimed to establish consistent implementation of best practice in people with stage 3-5 kidney disease who were managed in primary care. The intervention was a Care Bundle for CKD. The bundle included three evidence-based, high impact interventions based on National Institute for Care Excellence (NICE, 2008) guidance, with an additional and novel self-management element. 29 GP Practices in England and Wales began the study. They undertook training in clinical management of CKD and in facilitation of self-management, with the self-management content designed and led by patients. Practices were asked to report baseline and then monthly outcome data extracted from practice computer systems. The project team provided implementation and ongoing quality improvement support for participating Practices. Ten Practices dropped out of the study following the training. Data submissions were incomplete in six Practices who continued to apply the care bundle. At the project end, a decision was taken by the study team to perform the final analysis on those thirteen Practices which completed the project and submitted at least six sets of monthly Practice-level outcome data. In these Practices the Care Bundle was applied to under 20% of the registered CKD stage 3 to 5 population in 5 Practices, 20-29% in 3 Practices, 30-49% in 2 Practices and ≥50% in 3 Practices (998 patients in total). Of these, 671 patients (75%) agreed to the self-management component of the intervention. The reliability (at project end) in those who received the Bundle was 100%. The Bundle was applied to an additional 315 patients in the six Practices who completed the project but did not submit regular practice-level monthly data. In the thirteen remaining Practices, the achievement

  14. Chronic kidney disease in urolithiasis patients following successful extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Satoshi; Naganuma, Toshihide; Takemoto, Yoshiaki; Shoji, Tetsuo; Okamura, Mikio; Nakatani, Tatsuya

    2012-01-01

    Recently, it has been reported that kidney stones are a significant and independent risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the general population. However, the prevalence of CKD in patients following successful extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) has yet to be elucidated. In the present study, the prevalence of CKD and the clinical factors associated with the presence of CKD in patients following successful ESWL were investigated. A cross‑sectional study was performed in 114 patients who had undergone ESWL for upper urinary tract stones and 96 age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects. We initially determined the stage of CKD and compared the prevalence of CKD between healthy subjects and patients who underwent successful ESWL. We then investigated the clinical factors associated with the presence of CKD by logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of CKD was significantly higher in patients following successful ESWL than in the healthy subjects [40 patients (35.1%) vs. 9 healthy controls (9.4%), P<0.0001]. Logistic regression analysis showed that the significant factors associated with the presence of CKD were increased body mass index (BMI) and the presence of a ureteric stone (pre‑ESWL stone position). The findings indicated that there was a high prevalence of CKD among patients following successful ESWL, and that an increased BMI and a ureteric stone were factors associated with the presence of CKD.

  15. The Ontario Prehospital Advanced Life Support (OPALS) Study: rationale and methodology for cardiac arrest patients.

    PubMed

    Stiell, I G; Wells, G A; Spaite, D W; Lyver, M B; Munkley, D P; Field, B J; Dagnone, E; Maloney, J P; Jones, G R; Luinstra, L G; Jermyn, B D; Ward, R; DeMaio, V J

    1998-08-01

    The Ontario Prehospital Advanced Life Support Study represents the largest prehospital study yet conducted, worldwide. This study will involve more than 25,000 cardiac arrest, trauma, and critically ill patients over an 8-year period. The study will evaluate the incremental benefit of rapid defibrillation and prehospital Advanced Cardiac Life Support measures for cardiac arrest survival and the benefit of Advanced Life Support for patients with traumatic injuries and other critically ill prehospital patients. This article describes the OPALS study with regard to the rationale and methodology for cardiac arrest patients.

  16. Honey in the Prevention and Treatment of Infection in the CKD Population: A Narrative Review.

    PubMed

    Francis, Anna; Cho, Yeoungjee; Johnson, David W

    2015-01-01

    Infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality at all stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Multiresistant organisms are becoming increasingly common, particularly in the CKD population. Unfortunately, the rapid evolution of antibiotic resistance has not been mirrored by innovation in new antibiotic agents. Novel treatments are therefore urgently needed. Honey has garnered much interest due to its broad-spectrum antibacterial properties based on extensive experimental data. Unlike conventional antibiotics, honey has an added advantage as it appears to avoid inducing antimicrobial resistance in bacteria. This review discusses the potential mechanisms of action and role of honey in infection management in the general population, epidemiology and special challenges of infections in CKD populations, and the clinical trial evidence pertaining to the safety and efficacy of honey for the prevention and treatment of infections in CKD population. PMID:26167189

  17. Honey in the Prevention and Treatment of Infection in the CKD Population: A Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Anna; Cho, Yeoungjee; Johnson, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality at all stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Multiresistant organisms are becoming increasingly common, particularly in the CKD population. Unfortunately, the rapid evolution of antibiotic resistance has not been mirrored by innovation in new antibiotic agents. Novel treatments are therefore urgently needed. Honey has garnered much interest due to its broad-spectrum antibacterial properties based on extensive experimental data. Unlike conventional antibiotics, honey has an added advantage as it appears to avoid inducing antimicrobial resistance in bacteria. This review discusses the potential mechanisms of action and role of honey in infection management in the general population, epidemiology and special challenges of infections in CKD populations, and the clinical trial evidence pertaining to the safety and efficacy of honey for the prevention and treatment of infections in CKD population. PMID:26167189

  18. Quality Nursing Care for Hospitalized Patients with Advanced Illness: Concept Development

    PubMed Central

    Izumi, Shigeko; Baggs, Judith G.; Knafl, Kathleen A.

    2011-01-01

    The quality of nursing care as perceived by hospitalized patients with advanced illness has not been examined. A concept of quality nursing care for this population was developed by integrating the literature on constructs defining quality nursing care with empirical findings from interviews of 16 patients with advanced illness. Quality nursing care was characterized as competence and personal caring supported by professionalism and delivered with an appropriate demeanor. Although the attributes of competence, caring, professionalism, and demeanor were identified as common components of quality care across various patient populations, the caring domain increased in importance when patients with advanced illness perceived themselves as vulnerable. Assessment of quality nursing care for patients with advanced illness needs to include measures of patient perceptions of vulnerability. PMID:20572095

  19. Deep vein thrombosis in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Daneschvar, H Leon; Seddighzadeh, Ali; Piazza, Gregory; Goldhaber, Samuel Z

    2008-06-01

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a poorly understood complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The objective of our analysis was to profile DVT patients with and without CKD. We defined CKD as patients requiring dialysis or patients having nephrotic syndrome. We compared 268 patients with CKD (184 patients with dialysis-dependent renal disease and 84 with nephrotic syndrome) to 4,307 patients with preserved renal function from a prospective United States multicenter deep venous thrombosis (DVT) registry. Compared with non-CKD patients, CKD patients with DVT were younger (median age 62 vs. 69 years, p < 0.0001), more often African-American (p < 0.0001), and more often Hispanic (p = 0.0003). CKD patients underwent surgery more frequently in the three months prior to developing DVT (48.9% vs. 39.0%, p = 0.001) and more often had concomitant congestive heart failure (20.9% vs. 14.6%, p = 0.005). CKD patients suffered upper extremity DVT more frequently (30.0% vs. 10.8%, p < 0.0001). Patients with CKD presented less often with typical DVT symptoms of extremity discomfort (42.9% vs. 52.4%, p = 0.003) and difficulty ambulating (5.4% vs. 10.1%, p = 0.01). Prophylaxis rates prior to DVT were similarly low in CKD and non-CKD patients (44.2% vs. 38.0%, p = 0.06). Future studies of DVT in CKD patients should explore novel strategies for improving prophylaxis utilization and the detection of DVT in this special population. PMID:18521505

  20. Early change in proteinuria as a surrogate outcome in kidney disease progression: a systematic review of previous analyses and creation of a patient-level pooled dataset

    PubMed Central

    Stoycheff, Nicholas; Pandya, Kruti; Okparavero, Aghogho; Schiff, Abigail; Levey, Andrew S.; Greene, Tom; Stevens, Lesley A.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Proteinuria is a candidate surrogate end point for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in chronic kidney disease (CKD). There is a reasonably sound biological basis for this hypothesis, but only preliminary empirical evidence currently exists. Methods. A systematic review and creation of a patient-level dataset of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in CKD that reported changes in proteinuria and assessed progression of kidney disease as defined by dialysis, transplantation, death, or changes in GFR or creatinine were performed. Results. Systematic review. Seventy RCTs met the eligibility criteria; 17 eligible RCTs contained analyses of proteinuria as a predictor of outcomes; 15 RCTs concluded that greater proteinuria was associated with adverse outcomes. A majority were studies of diabetic or hypertensive kidney disease and tested renin–angiotensin system blockade. Definitions of predictor and outcome variables were too variable to conduct a meta-analysis of group data. Database creation. Over 4 years was required to create the patient-level dataset. The final dataset included 34 studies and > 9000 patients with a variety of CKD types and interventions. Conclusions. There are a relatively small number of RCTs designed to rigorously test therapies for kidney disease progression. Current analyses of change in proteinuria as a predictor of CKD progression are heterogeneous and incomplete, indicating further evaluation in a pooled individual patient-level database is necessary to advance knowledge in this field. PMID:20817671

  1. The Roles of the Skeleton and Phosphorus in the CKD Mineral Bone Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hruska, Keith A.; Mathew, Suresh

    2011-01-01

    The CKD mineral bone disorder is a new term coined to describe the multiorgan system failure that is a major component of the excess cardiovascular mortality and morbidity complicating decreased kidney function. This syndrome embodies new discoveries of organ-to-organ communication including the skeletal hormone fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23), which signals the status of skeletal mineral deposition to the kidney. The CKD mineral bone disorder begins with mild decreases in kidney function (stage 2 CKD) affecting the skeleton, as marked by increased FGF-23 secretion. At this stage, the stimulation of cardiovascular risk has begun and the increases in FGF-23 levels are strongly predictive of cardiovascular events. Later in CKD, hyperphosphatemia ensues when FGF-23 and hyperparathyroidism are no longer sufficient to maintain phosphate excretion. Hyperphosphatemia has been shown to be a direct stimulus to several cell types including vascular smooth muscle cells migrating to the neointima of atherosclerotic plaques. Phosphorus stimulates FGF-23 secretion by osteocytes and expression of the osteoblastic transcriptome, thereby increasing extracellular matrix mineralization in atherosclerotic plaques, hypertrophic cartilage, and skeletal osteoblast surfaces.In CKD, the skeleton positively contributes to hyperphosphatemia through excess bone resorption and inhibition of matrix mineralization. Thus, through the action of phosphorus, FGF-23, and other newly discovered skeletal hormones, such as osteocalcin, the skeleton plays an important role in the occurrence of cardiovascular morbidity in CKD. PMID:21406294

  2. Estrogen Deficiency Leads to Further Bone Loss in the Mandible of CKD Mice

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yuchen; Sun, Ningyuan; Duan, Xiaobo; Xu, Xin; Zheng, Liwei; Seriwatanachai, Dutmanee; Wang, Yongyue; Yuan, Quan

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been regarded as a grave public health problem. Estrogen is a critical factor for both renal protection and bone remodeling. Our previous study demonstrated that CKD impairs the healing of titanium implants. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of estrogen deficiency on the mandibular bone in CKD mice. Methods Forty eleven-week-old female C57BL mice were used in this study. Uremia and estrogen deficiency were induced by 5/6 nephrectomy and ovariectomy (OVX), respectively. After 8 weeks, the mice were sacrificed, and their mandibles were collected for micro-CT analysis and histological examination. Results All the mice survived the experimental period. Serum measurements confirmed a significant increase in BUN in the CKD group that was further increased by OVX. OVX led to significant decreases in both the BV/TV and cortical thickness of the mandibular bone in CKD mice. Conclusion In summary, our findings indicate that estrogen deficiency leads to further mandibular bone loss in CKD mice. PMID:26886008

  3. Some Advanced Kidney Cancer Patients May Postpone Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... advanced kidney cancer that has spread require immediate, aggressive treatment, a small new study suggests. "A subset ... them the inconvenience and debilitating side effects of aggressive treatments for about a year, and in some ...

  4. Intraperitoneal radiolabeled OC 125 in patients with advanced ovarian cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Finkler, N.J.; Muto, M.G.; Kassis, A.I.; Weadock, K.; Tumeh, S.S.; Zurawski, V.R. Jr.; Knapp, R.C. )

    1989-09-01

    Twenty patients with recurrent or persistent epithelial ovarian cancer failing conventional therapies were treated with a single intraperitoneal injection of iodine-131-labeled OC 125 monoclonal antibody. Rare acute side effects were nausea and mild diarrhea. At doses up to 120 mCi of iodine-131, median white blood cell and platelet count nadirs were 3.6k/microliters and 187k/microliters, respectively. Two patients acquired thyroid toxicities despite thyroid blockage with cold iodine. One patient had transient TSH elevation while remaining clinically euthyroid, and 1 patient developed activation of a thyroid nodule and clinical hyperthyroidism. Dose-limiting toxicity has not yet been observed. Twelve of 20 patients are alive 3 to 17 months following therapy. Tumor progression was noted in the majority of patients, although 3 patients had documented decreases in tumor burden of short duration. We conclude that, at the doses examined, iodine-131 OC 125 can be safely administered intraperitoneally.

  5. Comparison of the Schwartz and CKD-EPI Equations for Estimating Glomerular Filtration Rate in Children, Adolescents, and Adults: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Selistre, Luciano; Rabilloud, Muriel; Cochat, Pierre; de Souza, Vandréa; Iwaz, Jean; Lemoine, Sandrine; Beyerle, Françoise; Poli-de-Figueiredo, Carlos E.; Dubourg, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Background Estimating kidney glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is of utmost importance in many clinical conditions. However, very few studies have evaluated the performance of GFR estimating equations over all ages and degrees of kidney impairment. We evaluated the reliability of two major equations for GFR estimation, the CKD-EPI and Schwartz equations, with urinary clearance of inulin as gold standard. Methods and Findings The study included 10,610 participants referred to the Renal and Metabolic Function Exploration Unit of Edouard Herriot Hospital (Lyon, France). GFR was measured by urinary inulin clearance (only first measurement kept for analysis) then estimated with isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS)–traceable CKD-EPI and Schwartz equations. The participants’ ages ranged from 3 to 90 y, and the measured GFRs from 3 to 160 ml/min/1.73 m2. A linear mixed-effects model was used to model the bias (mean ratio of estimated GFR to measured GFR). Equation reliability was also assessed using precision (interquartile range [IQR] of the ratio) and accuracy (percentage of estimated GFRs within the 10% [P10] and 30% [P30] limits above and below the measured GFR). In the whole sample, the mean ratio with the CKD-EPI equation was significantly higher than that with the Schwartz equation (1.17 [95% CI 1.16; 1.18] versus 1.08 [95% CI 1.07; 1.09], p < 0.001, t-test). At GFR values of 60–89 ml/min/1.73 m2, the mean ratios with the Schwartz equation were closer to 1 than the mean ratios with the CKD-EPI equation whatever the age class (1.02 [95% CI 1.01; 1.03] versus 1.15 [95% CI 1.13; 1.16], p < 0.001, t-test). In young adults (18–40 y), the Schwartz equation had a better precision and was also more accurate than the CKD-EPI equation at GFR values under 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 (IQR: 0.32 [95% CI 0.28; 0.33] versus 0.40 [95% CI 0.36; 0.44]; P30: 81.4 [95% CI 78.1; 84.7] versus 63.8 [95% CI 59.7; 68.0]) and also at GFR values of 60–89 ml/min/1.73 m2. In all patients

  6. Future care planning: a first step to palliative care for all patients with advanced heart disease.

    PubMed

    Denvir, M A; Murray, S A; Boyd, K J

    2015-07-01

    Palliative care is recommended for patients with end-stage heart failure with several recent, randomised trials showing improvements in symptoms and quality of life and more studies underway. Future care planning provides a framework for discussing a range of palliative care problems with patients and their families. This approach can be introduced at any time during the patient's journey of care and ideally well in advance of end-of-life care. Future care planning is applicable to a wide range of patients with advanced heart disease and could be delivered systematically by cardiology teams at the time of an unplanned hospital admission, akin to cardiac rehabilitation for myocardial infarction. Integrating cardiology care and palliative care can benefit many patients with advanced heart disease at increased risk of death or hospitalisation. Larger, randomised trials are needed to assess the impact on patient outcomes and experiences.

  7. Crizotinib Improves Progression-Free Survival in Some Patients with Advanced Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Crizotinib Improves Progression-Free Survival in Some Patients with Advanced Lung Cancer ( ... starting treatment without their disease getting worse (progression-free survival), as assessed by radiologic review. Results Progression- ...

  8. Care of Patients at the End of Life: Advance Care Planning.

    PubMed

    Ackermann, Richard J

    2016-08-01

    Advance directives are legal documents that give instructions about how to provide care when patients develop life-threatening illnesses and can no longer communicate their wishes. Two types of documents are widely used-a living will and a durable power of attorney for health care. Most states also authorize physician orders for life-sustaining treatment. Physicians should encourage patients, particularly those with severe chronic or terminal conditions, to prepare advance directives. Medicare now reimburses billing codes for advance care consultations. Directions regarding cardiopulmonary resuscitation and artificial ventilation often are included in advance care plans, and use of artificial nutrition and hydration (ANH) also should be addressed, particularly for patients with advanced dementia. Evidence shows that in such patients, ANH does not prolong survival, increase comfort, or improve quality of life. Given the lack of benefit, physicians should recommend against use of ANH for patients with dementia. Finally, physicians should encourage use of hospice services by patients whose life expectancy is 6 months or less. Although Medicare and most other health care insurers cover hospice care, and despite evidence that patient and family satisfaction increase when hospice services are used, many patients do not use these services. PMID:27490070

  9. Hypertension Awareness, Treatment, and Control in Adults With CKD: Results From the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Muntner, Paul; Anderson, Amanda; Charleston, Jeanne; Chen, Zhen; Ford, Virginia; Makos, Gail; O’Connor, Andrew; Perumal, Kalyani; Rahman, Mahboob; Steigerwalt, Susan; Teal, Valerie; Townsend, Raymond; Weir, Matthew; Wright, Jackson T

    2010-01-01

    Background A low rate of blood pressure control has been reported among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). These data were derived from population-based samples with a low rate of CKD awareness. Study Design Cross-sectional Setting & Participants Data from the baseline visit of the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study (n=3612) were analyzed. Participants with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 20 to 70 ml/min/1.73m2 were identified from physician offices and review of laboratory databases. Outcomes Prevalence and awareness of hypertension, treatment patterns, control rates and factors associated with hypertension control. Measurements Following a standardized protocol, blood pressure was measured three times by trained staff and hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg and/or self-reported antihypertensive medication use. Patients’ awareness and treatment of hypertension were defined using self-report and two levels of hypertension control were evaluated: systolic/diastolic blood pressure <140/90 mmHg and <130/80 mmHg. Results The prevalence of hypertension was 85.7%, and 98.9% of CRIC participants were aware of this diagnosis, 98.3% were treated with medications while 67.1% and 46.1% had their hypertension controlled to <140/90 mmHg and <130/80 mmHg, respectively. Of CRIC participants with hypertension, 15%, 25%, 26% and 32% were taking one, two, three and four or more antihypertensive medications, respectively. After multivariable adjustment, older patients, blacks, those with higher urinary albumin excretion were less likely while participants taking ACE-inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers were more likely to have controlled their hypertension to <140/90 mmHg and <130/80 mmHg. Limitations Data were derived from a single study visit. Conclusions Despite almost universal hypertension awareness and treatment in this cohort of patients with CKD, rates of

  10. Advance care planning: thinking ahead to achieve our patients' goals.

    PubMed

    Cairns, Rosemary

    2011-09-01

    The End of Life Care Strategy for England describes advance care planning (ACP) as a 'voluntary process of discussion about future care...concerns and wishes...values or personal goals for care, their understanding of their illness and prognosis...wishes for types of care or treatment and the availability of these' (Department of Health (DH), 2008). In Scotland, Living and Dying Well: Building on Progress (Scottish Government (SG), 2011) referred to adopting a 'thinking ahead' philosophy.

  11. What would you like to eat, Mr CKD Microbiota? A Mediterranean Diet, please!

    PubMed

    Montemurno, Eustacchio; Cosola, Carmela; Dalfino, Giuseppe; Daidone, Giuseppe; De Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco; Gesualdo, Loreto

    2014-01-01

    In this review we elucidate the role of gut microbiota as the plausible missing link between food and health, focusing on chronic kidney disease (CKD). Microbiota, the microbial community harboured in the large intestine, is considered a symbiotic "supplementary organ". It contributes to digestion, mainly through two catabolic pathways: saccharolytic (fermentation) or proteolytic (putrefaction). It also interacts with host influencing immunity, metabolism, and health status. It is believed that a balanced healthy microbiota is primarily saccharolytic and diet has a deep effect on its composition. Mediterranean Diet, UNESCO "Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity", prevents cardiovascular and metabolic systemic diseases, thanks to the high supply of fibres and antioxidants. Mediterranean Diet also favours the prevalence of saccharolytic species, while Western Diet promotes the shift towards a proteolytic profile (dysbiosis). Emerging evidences highlight the association between a wide range of diseases and dysbiosis. In CKD a vicious circle exists, in which proteolytic-derived microbial metabolites (p-cresol and indoxyl sulphate), represent the main circulating uremic toxins: their accumulation worsens dysbiosis and promotes CKD progression. Gut microbiota shaping through non-pharmacologic nutritional treatments, based on Mediterranean Diet, represents an innovative approach in CKD, potentially restoring microbiota balance, ameliorating CKD conditions and slowing down disease progression.

  12. Phosphate binders, Vitamin D and Calcimimetics in the Management of Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral Bone Disorders (CKD-MBD) in Children

    PubMed Central

    Wesseling-Perry, Katherine; Salusky, Isidro B.

    2013-01-01

    In order to minimize complications on the skeleton and to prevent extraskeletal calcifications, the specific aims of the management of Chronic Kidney Disease Mineral and Bone Disorder (CKD-MBD) are to maintain blood levels of serum calcium and phosphorus as close to the normal range as possible, thereby maintaining serum PTH at levels appropriate for stage of CKD, preventing hyperplasia of the parathyroid glands, avoiding the development of extra-skeletal calcifications, and preventing or reversing the accumulation of toxic substances such as aluminum and β2-microglobulin. In order to limit cardiovascular calcification, daily intake of elemental calcium, including from dietary sources and from phosphate binders, should not exceed twice the daily recommended intake for age and should not exceed 2.5 g/day. Calcium-free phosphate binders such as sevelamer hydrochloride and sevelamer carbonate are safe and effective alternatives to calcium-based binders and their use widens the margin of safety for active vitamin D sterol therapy. Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent across the spectrum of CKD and replacement therapy is recommended in vitamin D deficient and insufficient individuals. Therapy with active vitamin D sterols is recommended after correction of vitamin D deficiency state and should be titrated based on target PTH levels across the spectrum of CKD. Although the use of calcimimetics drugs have proven to effectively control the biochemical features of secondary hyperparathyroidism, there is very limited experience with the use of such agent in pediatric patients and mainly during the first years of life. Studies are needed to further define the role of such agents in the treatment of pediatric CKDMBD. PMID:23381010

  13. What drives quality improvement in chronic kidney disease (CKD) in primary care: process evaluation of the Quality Improvement in Chronic Kidney Disease (QICKD) trial

    PubMed Central

    Nihat, Akin; de Lusignan, Simon; Thomas, Nicola; Tahir, Mohammad Aumran; Gallagher, Hugh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study is a process evaluation of the Quality Improvement in Chronic Kidney Disease (QICKD) study, comparing audit-based education (ABE) and sending clinical guidelines and prompts (G&P) with usual practice, in improving systolic blood pressure control in primary care. This evaluation aimed to explore how far clinical staff in participating practices were aware of the intervention, and why change in practice might have taken place. Setting 4 primary care practices in England: 2 received ABE, and 2 G&P. We purposively selected 1 northern/southern/city and rural practice from each study arm (from a larger pool of 132 practices as part of the QICKD trial). Participants The 4 study practices were purposively sampled, and focus groups conducted with staff from each. All staff members were invited to attend. Interventions Focus groups in each of 4 practices, at the mid-study point and at the end. 4 additional trial practices not originally selected for in-depth process evaluation took part in end of trial focus groups, to a total of 12 focus groups. These were recorded, transcribed and analysed using the framework approach. Results 5 themes emerged: (1) involvement in the study made participants more positive about the CKD register; (2) clinicians did not always explain to patients that they had CKD; (3) while practitioners improved their monitoring of CKD, many were sceptical that it improved care and were more motivated by pay-for-performance measures; (4) the impact of study interventions on practice was generally positive, particularly the interaction with specialists, included in ABE; (5) the study stimulated ideas for future clinical practice. Conclusions Improving quality in CKD is complex. Lack of awareness of clinical guidelines and scepticism about their validity are barriers to change. While pay-for-performance incentives are the main driver for change, quality improvement interventions can have a complementary influence. PMID:27053264

  14. The effect of locoregional therapies in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma treated with sorafenib

    PubMed Central

    Sarpel, Umut; Spivack, John H.; Berger, Yaniv; Heskel, Marina; Aycart, Samantha N.; Sweeney, Robert; Edwards, Martin P.; Labow, Daniel M.; Kim, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Background & aims It is unknown whether the addition of locoregional therapies (LRTx) to sorafenib improves prognosis over sorafenib alone in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of this study was to assess the effect of LRTx in this population. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed of patients with advanced HCC as defined by extrahepatic metastasis, lymphadenopathy >2 cm, or gross vascular invasion. Sorafenib therapy was required for inclusion. Survival of patients who received LRTx after progression to advanced stage was compared to those who did not receive LRTx. Results Using an intention to treat analysis of 312 eligible patients, a propensity weighted proportional hazards model demonstrated LRTx as a predictor of survival (HR = 0.505, 95% CI: 0.407–0.628; P < 0.001). The greatest benefit was seen in patients with the largest tumor burden (HR = 0.305, 95% CI: 0.236–0.393; P < 0.01). Median survival in the sorafenib arm was 143 days (95% CI: 118–161) vs. 247 days (95% CI: 220–289) in the sorafenib plus LRTx arm (P < 0.001). Conclusions These results demonstrate a survival benefit with the addition of LRTx to sorafenib for patients with advanced HCC. These findings should prompt a prospective clinical trial to further assess the role of LRTx in patients with advanced HCC. PMID:27154804

  15. [Transarterial infusion chemotherapy using fine-powder cisplatin in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Hatanaka, Takeshi; Kakizaki, Satoru; Ueno, Takashi; Takeuchi, Suguru; Takizawa, Daichi; Katakai, Kenji

    2014-02-01

    We investigated the therapeutic effects and safety of fine powder cisplatin for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma( HCC). From January 2006 to March 2012, 123 patients with advanced HCC were treated by transarterial infusion chemotherapy(TAI)with fine-powder cisplatin(IA-call®, Nippon Kayaku Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan). The drug was infused into the liver through the feeding artery at a dose of 65 mg/m2. The treatment was repeated every 4 to 8 weeks until evidence of either tumor progression or unacceptable toxicity appeared. Treatment responses were classified as complete response(CR), partial response(PR), stable disease(SD), and progressive disease(PD)in 3.2%, 12.0%, 32.2%, and 52.4% of patients, respectively. The median survival durations were as follows: overall, 12.2 months; CR/PR patients, 23.8 months; and SD/PD patients, 10.6 months. The cumulative survival rates of CR/PR patients were significantly higher than those of SD/PD patients (p<0.05). Multivariate analyses revealed that treatment response, etiology, Child-Pugh grading, and level of protein induced by the vitamin K antagonist- II (PIVKA- II )were predictive factors of survival duration. Problematic adverse events were not observed in any of the patients. Our results suggest that TAI using fine-powder cisplatin can be safely administered for advanced HCC and can improve the prognosis of patients with advanced disease. PMID:24743198

  16. Chemotherapy Regimen Extends Survival in Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Patients

    Cancer.gov

    A four-drug chemotherapy regimen has produced the longest improvement in survival ever seen in a phase III clinical trial of patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer, one of the deadliest types of cancer.

  17. Heading perception in patients with advanced retinitis pigmentosa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Li; Peli, Eli; Warren, William H.

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: We investigated whether retinis pigmentosa (RP) patients with residual visual field of < 100 degrees could perceive heading from optic flow. METHODS: Four RP patients and four age-matched normally sighted control subjects viewed displays simulating an observer walking over a ground. In experiment 1, subjects viewed either the entire display with free fixation (full-field condition) or through an aperture with a fixation point at the center (aperture condition). In experiment 2, patients viewed displays of different durations. RESULTS: RP patients' performance was comparable to that of the age-matched control subjects: heading judgment was better in the full-field condition than in the aperture condition. Increasing display duration from 0.5 s to 1 s improved patients' heading performance, but giving them more time (3 s) to gather more visual information did not consistently further improve their performance. CONCLUSIONS: RP patients use active scanning eye movements to compensate for their visual field loss in heading perception; they might be able to gather sufficient optic flow information for heading perception in about 1 s.

  18. Morbid obesity in a young woman affected by advanced chronic kidney disease: an exceptional case report. Does a high dose of essential amino acids play a key role in therapeutic success?

    PubMed Central

    Caria, S; Murtas, S; Loria, G; Dioguardi, F S; Secci, R; Bolasco, P

    2016-01-01

    A 38-year-old woman, obese (219 kg), diabetic, hypertensive, chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 4, with low plasma albumin level (2.9 g dl−1) and marked proteinuria (22 g per day) was studied. Given the advanced-stage CKD with nephrotic proteinuria, we supplemented low-protein diet with high doses of a tailored essential amino acid mixture (AAs: 44 g per day) to improve weight reduction in the patient. After 20 months of conservative therapy, the patient lost 43 kg; despite two episodes of infection, albumin plasma levels increased up to 3.7 g per day. After a further 20 months of dialysis, the patient maintained a diet of 1800 kcal supplemented with 32 g of AAs and lost 47 kg, whereas both albumin (3.89±0.12 g dl−1) and C reactive protein returned to normal. During the follow-up period, anemia improved, erythropoietin was thus discontinued and insulin requirement decreased to 105 IU. This therapeutic option may be beneficial in advanced CKD patients with obesity and diabetes resulting from malnutrition. PMID:26926587

  19. Morbid obesity in a young woman affected by advanced chronic kidney disease: an exceptional case report. Does a high dose of essential amino acids play a key role in therapeutic success?

    PubMed

    Caria, S; Murtas, S; Loria, G; Dioguardi, F S; Secci, R; Bolasco, P

    2016-01-01

    A 38-year-old woman, obese (219 kg), diabetic, hypertensive, chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 4, with low plasma albumin level (2.9 g dl(-1)) and marked proteinuria (22 g per day) was studied. Given the advanced-stage CKD with nephrotic proteinuria, we supplemented low-protein diet with high doses of a tailored essential amino acid mixture (AAs: 44 g per day) to improve weight reduction in the patient. After 20 months of conservative therapy, the patient lost 43 kg; despite two episodes of infection, albumin plasma levels increased up to 3.7 g per day. After a further 20 months of dialysis, the patient maintained a diet of 1800 kcal supplemented with 32 g of AAs and lost 47 kg, whereas both albumin (3.89±0.12 g dl(-1)) and C reactive protein returned to normal. During the follow-up period, anemia improved, erythropoietin was thus discontinued and insulin requirement decreased to 105 IU. This therapeutic option may be beneficial in advanced CKD patients with obesity and diabetes resulting from malnutrition. PMID:26926587

  20. Attitudes towards and barriers to writing advance directives amongst cancer patients, healthy controls, and medical staff

    PubMed Central

    Sahm, S; Will, R; Hommel, G

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: After years of public discussion too little is still known about willingness to accept the idea of writing an advance directive among various groups of people in EU countries. We investigated knowledge about and willingness to accept such a directive in cancer patients, healthy controls, physicians, and nursing staff in Germany. Methods: Cancer patients, healthy controls, nursing staff, and physicians (n = 100 in each group) were surveyed by means of a structured questionnaire. Results: Only 18% and 19% of the patients and healthy controls respectively, and 10% of the medical staff had written an advance directive. However, 50–81% of those surveyed indicated that they wished to write one. This intention was associated with deteriorating health (p < 0.001). Only 29% of the healthy controls and 43% of the patients knew about the possibility of appointing a health care proxy. A majority in all groups believed that advance directives may influence the course of treatment (79–85%), yet half of those surveyed in all groups fear that patients could be pressurised into writing an advance directive, and 38–65% thought that relatives could abuse such documents. Conclusions: Only a minority of the participants had written an advance directive and knew about the possibility of authorising a health care proxy. Deteriorating health was associated with increasing willingness to make a directive. Despite a majority belief that advance directives may influence treatment at the end of life, other factors limit their employment, such as fear of abuse. PMID:16076965

  1. Lenvatinib and Capecitabine in Patients With Advanced Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-23

    Advanced Cancer; Malignant Neoplasm of Breast; Malignant Neoplasms of Bone and Articular Cartilage; Malignant Neoplasms of Digestive Organs; Malignant Neoplasms of Eye Brain and Other Parts of Central Nervous System; Malignant Neoplasms of Female Genital Organs; Malignant Neoplasms of Ill-defined Secondary and Unspecified Sites; Malignant Neoplasms of Independent (Primary) Multiple Sites; Malignant Neoplasms of Lip Oral Cavity and Pharynx; Malignant Neoplasms of Male Genital Organs; Malignant Neoplasms of Mesothelial and Soft Tissue; Malignant Neoplasms of Respiratory and Intrathoracic Organs; Malignant Neoplasms of Thyroid and Other Endocrine Glands; Malignant Neoplasms of Urinary Tract

  2. Technology advances in hospital practices: robotics in treatment of patients.

    PubMed

    Rosiek, Anna; Leksowski, Krzysztof

    2015-06-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is widely considered as the treatment of choice for acute cholecystitis. The safety of the procedure and its minimal invasiveness made it a valid treatment option for a patient not responding to antibiotic therapy. Our research shows that patients positively assess this treatment method, but the world's tendency is to turn to a more sophisticated method utilizing robot-assisted surgery as a gold standard. Providing patient with minimally invasive surgical procedures that utilize the state-of-the-art equipment like the da Vinci Robotic Surgical System underscores the commitment to high-quality patient care while enhancing patient safety. The advantages include minimal invasive scarring, less pain and bleeding, faster recovery time, and shorter hospital stay. The move toward less invasive and less morbid procedures and a need to re-create the true open surgical experience have paved the way for the development and application of robotic and computer-assisted systems in surgery in Poland as well as the rest of the world.

  3. Technology advances in hospital practices: robotics in treatment of patients.

    PubMed

    Rosiek, Anna; Leksowski, Krzysztof

    2015-06-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is widely considered as the treatment of choice for acute cholecystitis. The safety of the procedure and its minimal invasiveness made it a valid treatment option for a patient not responding to antibiotic therapy. Our research shows that patients positively assess this treatment method, but the world's tendency is to turn to a more sophisticated method utilizing robot-assisted surgery as a gold standard. Providing patient with minimally invasive surgical procedures that utilize the state-of-the-art equipment like the da Vinci Robotic Surgical System underscores the commitment to high-quality patient care while enhancing patient safety. The advantages include minimal invasive scarring, less pain and bleeding, faster recovery time, and shorter hospital stay. The move toward less invasive and less morbid procedures and a need to re-create the true open surgical experience have paved the way for the development and application of robotic and computer-assisted systems in surgery in Poland as well as the rest of the world. PMID:25782187

  4. Endocrine alterations and cardiovascular risk in CKD: is there a link?

    PubMed

    Ros, Silvia; Carrero, Juan J

    2013-01-01

    The kidney plays an important role in synthesis, metabolism and elimination of a plethora of hormones. Thus, chronic kidney disease (CKD) naturally progresses with hormonal disorders. This review will focus in emerging evidence regarding the association between CKD-associated disturbances in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and cardiovascular risk factors. Hormonal derangements discussed are prolactin retention, testosterone deficiency and the low trioodothyronine syndrome, all of which have traditionally been interpreted as innocent bystanders of uremia and received relatively scarce attention by the Nephrology community. We here show that these disorders share intriguing links with inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, arterial stiffness, protein-energy wasting and other cardiometabolic alterations inherent to CKD-related excess mortality. We argue that these disorders may be novel uremic risk factors with possibility to serve as therapeutic targets.

  5. Effectiveness of the Mindfulness Art Therapy Short Version for Japanese Patients with Advanced Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ando, Michiyo; Kira, Haruko; Hayashida, Shigeru; Ito, Sayoko

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of the Mindfulness Art Therapy Short Version for Japanese patients with advanced cancer. Patients learned mindfulness practices and then made art to express their feelings in the first session. After receiving instruction on practicing mindfulness 2 weeks later, they participated in a second…

  6. Balamuthia mandrillaris and Acanthamoeba Amebic Encephalitis with Neurotoxoplasmosis Coinfection in a Patient with Advanced HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Joseph C.; Castellano-Sanchez, Amilcar; Hirzel, Alicia; Laowansiri, Panthipa; Tuda, Claudio; Visvesvara, Govinda S.; Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; Ratzan, Kenneth R.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a patient with advanced HIV infection and Balamuthia mandrillaris and Acanthamoeba amebic encephalitis with Toxoplasma gondii coinfection. A multidisciplinary effort and state-of-the-art diagnostic techniques were required for diagnosis. Our patient is the first reported case of an HIV-infected person with dual Balamuthia mandrillaris and Acanthamoeba amebic encephalitis with neurotoxoplasmosis coinfection. PMID:22170911

  7. Expressed wishes and incidence of euthanasia in advanced lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Pardon, Koen; Deschepper, Reginald; Vander Stichele, Robert; Bernheim, Jan L; Mortier, Freddy; Schallier, Denis; Germonpré, Paul; Galdermans, Daniella; Van Kerckhoven, Willem; Deliens, Luc

    2012-10-01

    This study explores expressed wishes and requests for euthanasia (i.e. administration of lethal drugs at the explicit request of the patient), and incidence of end-of-life decisions with possible life-shortening effects (ELDs) in advanced lung cancer patients in Flanders, Belgium. We performed a prospective, longitudinal, observational study of a consecutive sample of advanced lung cancer patients and selected those who died within 18 months of diagnosis. Immediately after death, the pulmonologist/oncologist and general practitioner (GP) of the patient filled in a questionnaire. Information was available for 105 out of 115 deaths. According to the specialist or GP, one in five patients had expressed a wish for euthanasia; and three in four of these had made an explicit and repeated request. One in two of these received euthanasia. Of the patients who had expressed a wish for euthanasia but had not made an explicit and repeated request, none received euthanasia. Patients with a palliative treatment goal at inclusion were more likely to receive euthanasia. Death was preceded by an ELD in 62.9% of patients. To conclude, advanced lung cancer patients who expressed a euthanasia wish were often determined. Euthanasia was performed significantly more among patients whose treatment goal after diagnosis was exclusively palliative.

  8. Using Standardized Patients in Advanced Practice Nursing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vessey, Judith A.; Huss, Karen

    2002-01-01

    Graduating nurse practitioners (n=26) completed simulated clinical encounters with standardized patients. Their performance did not reflect their results on other clinical evaluations and national certifying examinations, suggesting that simulated encounters lack validity and reliability. They may be useful for formative learning. (Contains 38…

  9. Circulating Follistatin in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: Implications for Muscle Strength, Bone Mineral Density, Inflammation, and Survival

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, Tetsu; Carrero, Juan Jesús; Rashid Qureshi, Abdul; Anderstam, Björn; Heimbürger, Olof; Bárány, Peter; Lindholm, Bengt

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Follistatin mediates muscle growth and bone mineralization. At present, it is unknown whether circulating follistatin levels are altered in chronic kidney disease (CKD) or links to CKD risk factors and outcomes. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Plasma follistatin levels were cross-sectionally analyzed in relation to protein-energy wasting (PEW), handgrip strength (HGS), bone mineral density (BMD), and inflammatory markers in 280 CKD stage 5 patients, 32 CKD stage 4 patients, 16 CKD stage 3 patients, and 32 control subjects. In CKD stage 5 patients survival was prospectively investigated during a follow-up period of up to 5 years. Results The plasma follistatin concentration was not higher in CKD stage 5 patients than in other CKD stages or controls. In CKD stage 5 patients, circulating follistatin positively correlated with age, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and IL-6; negatively correlated with HGS, serum creatinine, and BMD; and was increased in patients with PEW. In a multivariate logistic regression model, lower HGS, lower BMD, and higher hsCRP independently correlated with higher follistatin levels. In a Cox regression model, follistatin levels were not associated with all-cause mortality. Conclusions Circulating follistatin levels were neither elevated nor predicted outcome in patients with CKD. However, increased follistatin levels occurred together with increased inflammation, reduced muscle strength, and low BMD, suggesting an involvement of a mechanism including follistatin in the uremic wasting process. PMID:21350111

  10. Dietary sodium: a therapeutic target in the treatment of hypertension and CKD.

    PubMed

    Sanghavi, Sarah; Vassalotti, Joseph A

    2013-05-01

    Interventional trials of dietary sodium reduction have demonstrated improvements in blood pressure, cardiovascular events, and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Furthermore, public health initiatives to reduce population sodium intake in Finland and Japan have shown similar benefit in blood pressure and stroke reduction. Recent follow-up data from large cohort trials that suggest increased mortality among individuals with lower urinary sodium excretion have generated controversy regarding the optimal sodium intake. This paper reviews the evidence for the reduction of dietary sodium to prevent and manage chronic diseases, including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and CKD.

  11. Homotopic Approximate Solutions for the Perturbed CKdV Equation with Variable Coefficients

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Dianchen; Chen, Tingting

    2014-01-01

    This work concerns how to find the double periodic form of approximate solutions of the perturbed combined KdV (CKdV) equation with variable coefficients by using the homotopic mapping method. The obtained solutions may degenerate into the approximate solutions of hyperbolic function form and the approximate solutions of trigonometric function form in the limit cases. Moreover, the first order approximate solutions and the second order approximate solutions of the variable coefficients CKdV equation in perturbation εun are also induced. PMID:24737983

  12. Homotopic approximate solutions for the perturbed CKdV equation with variable coefficients.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dianchen; Chen, Tingting; Hong, Baojian

    2014-01-01

    This work concerns how to find the double periodic form of approximate solutions of the perturbed combined KdV (CKdV) equation with variable coefficients by using the homotopic mapping method. The obtained solutions may degenerate into the approximate solutions of hyperbolic function form and the approximate solutions of trigonometric function form in the limit cases. Moreover, the first order approximate solutions and the second order approximate solutions of the variable coefficients CKdV equation in perturbation εu (n) are also induced. PMID:24737983

  13. Anxiety and depression in patients with advanced macular degeneration: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Cimarolli, Verena R; Casten, Robin J; Rovner, Barry W; Heyl, Vera; Sörensen, Silvia; Horowitz, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) – despite advances in prevention and medical treatment options – remains prevalent among older adults, often resulting in functional losses that negatively affect the mental health of older adults. In particular, the prevalence of both anxiety and depression in patients with AMD is high. Along with medical treatment options, low vision rehabilitation and AMD-specific behavioral and self-management programs have been developed and have demonstrated effectiveness in improving the mental health of AMD patients. This article reviews the prevalence of anxiety and depression in patients with advanced AMD, discusses potential mechanisms accounting for the development of depression and anxiety in AMD patients, presents the state-of the-art of available interventions for addressing anxiety and depression in AMD patients, and delineates recommendations for eye care professionals regarding how to screen for these two prevalent mental health problems and how to facilitate appropriate treatment for patients with AMD. PMID:26766899

  14. Recent advances in MRI technology: Implications for image quality and patient safety

    PubMed Central

    Sobol, Wlad T.

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in MRI technology are presented, with emphasis on how this new technology impacts clinical operations (better image quality, faster exam times, and improved throughput). In addition, implications for patient safety are discussed with emphasis on the risk of patient injury due to either high local specific absorption rate (SAR) or large cumulative energy doses delivered during long exam times. Patient comfort issues are examined as well. PMID:23961024

  15. A multilevel model for services provided to patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Barahimi, Hamid; Abolhassani, Farid; Rajaee, Farahnaz; Akbari Sari, Ali

    2015-05-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a general health problem with high rates of mortality and morbidity. The increasing prevalence of CKD has led to the recognition of the fact that it needs special care. One approach to CKD management is to present a model of care for the disease. A model of care for CKD was developed by drawing on the literature, including guidelines for CKD care, and by using previous experiences in providing care for patients with diabetes mellitus and CKD. The model focuses on training, identification of patients, care, follow-up, and evaluation of patients. In this study, two levels were defined for providing care to patients with CKD. The first level involves care provided by family physicians, while the second level was defined as community health services for CKD. Establishment of at least 1 CKD community health service at each capital city of any province seems to be an effective factor in improving services provided to patients with CKD. PMID:25957421

  16. Contrast-enhanced CT imaging in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    von Stillfried, Saskia; Apitzsch, Jonas C; Ehling, Josef; Penzkofer, Tobias; Mahnken, Andreas H; Knüchel, Ruth; Floege, Jürgen; Boor, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Renal microvascular rarefaction characterizes chronic kidney disease (CKD). In murine models of CKD, micro-CT imaging reflected capillary rarefaction using quantification of renal relative blood volume (rBV). In addition, micro-CT imaging revealed morphological alterations of the intrarenal vasculature including reduced vascular branching and lumen diameter. Here, we retrospectively quantified rBV in contrast-enhanced CT angiography in patients and found that, compared to non-CKD patients, those with CKD and renal fibrosis had significantly reduced rBV in the renal cortex. rBV values closely mirrored capillary rarefaction in the corresponding nephrectomy specimens. In patients with follow-up CT angiography, reduction of renal function was paralleled by a decline in rBV. Using virtual autopsy, i.e., postmortem CT angiography, morphometry of intrarenal arteries in 3D-rendered CT images revealed significantly reduced arterial diameter and branching in CKD compared to non-CKD cases. In conclusion, in CKD patients, contrast-enhanced CT imaging with quantification of rBV correlates with functional renal vasculature, whereas virtual autopsy allows morphometric analyses of macrovascular changes. Importantly, the observed vascular alterations in CKD patients mirror those in animals with progressive CKD, suggesting a high relevance of animal models for studying vascular alterations in CKD and renal fibrosis. PMID:27582011

  17. Advances in Patient-Reported Outcomes: The NIH PROMIS® Measures

    PubMed Central

    Broderick, Joan E.; DeWitt, Esi Morgan; Rothrock, Nan; Crane, Paul K.; Forrest, Christopher B.

    2013-01-01

    Patient-reported outcomes (PRO) are questionnaire measures of patients’ symptoms, functioning, and health-related quality of life. They are designed to provide important clinical information that generally cannot be captured with objective medical testing. In 2004, the National Institutes of Health launched a research initiative to improve the clinical research enterprise by developing state-of-the-art PROs. The NIH Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement System (PROMIS) and Assessment Center are the products of that initiative. Adult, pediatric, and parent-proxy item banks have been developed by using contemporary psychometric methods, yielding rapid, accurate measurements. PROMIS currently provides tools for assessing physical, mental, and social health using short-form and computer-adaptive testing methods. The PROMIS tools are being adopted for use in clinical trials and translational research. They are also being introduced in clinical medicine to assess a broad range of disease outcomes. Recent legislative developments in the United States support greater efforts to include patients’ reports of health experience in order to evaluate treatment outcomes, engage in shared decision-making, and prioritize the focus of treatment. PROs have garnered increased attention by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for evaluating drugs and medical devices. Recent calls for comparative effectiveness research favor inclusion of PROs. PROs could also potentially improve quality of care and disease outcomes, provide patient-centered assessment for comparative effectiveness research, and enable a common metric for tracking outcomes across providers and medical systems. PMID:25848562

  18. Bone disease in uremic patients: advances in PTH suppression.

    PubMed

    Brancaccio, Diego; Cozzolino, Mario; Gorio, Alfredo; Di Giulio, Anna Maria; Gallieni, Maurizio

    2002-01-01

    Chronic renal failure is often complicated by altered calcium and phosphate omeostasis. Many patients develop secondary hyperparathyroidism during the course of the disease. Therefore, both prevention and treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism are central issues in the treatment of uremic patients. Active vitamin D metabolites are important agents in uremic patients, who have a defective activity of the renal 1alpha-hydroxylase responsible for calcitriol synthesis. Howewer, treatment with calcitriol has some limitations, namely an increase in intestinal phosphate absorption, a possible calcium overload and therefore an increase in CaxP ion product. These limitations stimulated an active research on the development of vitamin D analogs with reduced effects on intestinal transport as well as on bone mobilization of calcium and phosphate. Three vitamin D analogs, which have been used in humans, are reviewed in this article: 22-oxacalcitriol (Maxacalcitol), 19-nor-1alpha,25(OH)2 vitamin D2 (Paricalcitol), and 1alpha(OH) Vitamin D2 (Doxercalciferol). In addition, a new pharmacologic approach to the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism has been developed: the use of agonists for the parathyroid calcium sensing receptor, or calcimimetics. AMG O73, a second generation agent, is now under clinical evaluation in phase 3 studies, and it will soon be available in clinical practice. Given the different mechanism of action, it will be possible to use it along with vitamin D analogs and non calcemic phosphate binders. A broader spectrum of therapeutic approaches will enable the nephrologist to individually tailor the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism. PMID:12515379

  19. Participation of patients in the development of advanced therapy medicinal products.

    PubMed

    Bignami, F; Kent, A J; Lipucci di Paola, M; Meade, N

    2011-07-01

    An increasing number of advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) are under development and in clinical trials. Patients are central to this progress. In research, patients have funded, catalysed, coordinated and led projects. In regulation, patient groups have contributed to the creation of the political momentum for regulation of ATMPs, contributed to the debate and now participate in the regulatory process. Once licensed, patients will have a role in the pharmacovigilance, health technology assessment and reimbursement arrangements for these products. Patient groups contribute valuably as equal stakeholders at every step of the development of an ATMP.

  20. Impact of Diabetes and Hyperglycemia on Survival in Advanced Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Villarreal-Garza, Cynthia; Shaw-Dulin, Robin; Lara-Medina, Fernando; Bacon, Ludwing; Rivera, Daniel; Urzua, Lorena; Aguila, Christian; Ramirez-Morales, Rebeca; Santamaria, Julieta; Bargallo, Enrique; Mohar, Alejandro; Herrera, Luis A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. We examined the impact of diabetes and hyperglycemia on cancer-specific survival of patients with metastatic or recurrent breast cancer (BC). Methods. We performed a retrospective analysis of 265 patients with advanced BC receiving palliative chemotherapy. BC-specific mortality was compared for diabetic and nondiabetic patients as well as for patients that presented hyperglycemia during treatment. Results. No difference was observed between the diabetic and nondiabetic patients in terms of overall survival (OS). A difference in OS was observed between nondiabetic patients and diabetic patients who had hyperglycemia. The OS was greater in diabetic patients with proper metabolic control than diabetic patients with hyperglycemia. The risk of death was higher in patients with mean glucose levels >130 mg/dL during treatment. Several factors were associated with poor OS: tumor stage, hormone-receptor-negative tumors, HER2 negative disease, multiple metastatic sites, presence of visceral metastases, and mean glucose >130 mg/dL. Conclusion. Elevated glucose levels are associated with a poor outcome in diabetic and nondiabetic patients in contrast to patients with normoglycemic levels, conferring an elevated risk of death. According to these results, clinicians should monitor glucose levels during treatment for advanced breast cancer disease and take action to maintain normal glucose levels. PMID:22919369

  1. Clinical Correlates of Insulin Sensitivity and Its Association with Mortality among Men with CKD Stages 3 and 4

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hong; Huang, Xiaoyan; Ärnlöv, Johan; Cederholm, Tommy; Stenvinkel, Peter; Lindholm, Bengt; Risérus, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Insulin resistance participates in the pathogenesis of multiple metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. CKD patients have impaired insulin sensitivity, but the clinical correlates and outcome associations of impaired insulin sensitivity in this vulnerable population are not well defined. Design, setting, participants, & measurements The prospective cohort study was from the third examination cycle of the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men, a population-based survey of elderly men ages 70–71 years; insulin sensitivity was assessed by glucose disposal rate as measured with euglycemic clamps. Inclusion criterion was eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (n=543). Exclusion criteria were incomplete data on euglycemic clamp and diabetes (n=97), leaving 446 men with CKD stages 3 and 4 (eGFR median=51.9 ml/min per 1.73 m2; range=20.2–59.5 ml/min per 1.73 m2). Results The mean of glucose disposal rate was 5.4±1.9 mg/kg per minute. In multivariable analysis, the independent clinical correlates of glucose disposal rate were eGFR (slope, 0.02; 95% confidence interval, 0.01 to 0.04), hypertension (−0.48; 95% confidence interval, −0.86 to −0.11), hyperlipidemia (−0.51; 95% confidence interval, −0.84 to −0.18), and body mass index (−0.32; 95% confidence interval, −0.37 to −0.27). During follow-up (median=10.0 years; interquartile range=8.7–11.0 years), 149 participants died. In Cox regression models, glucose disposal rate was not associated with all-cause or cardiovascular mortality. Multiplicative interactions (P<0.05) were observed between glucose disposal rate and physical activity or smoking in total mortality association. After subsequent stratification, glucose disposal rate was an independent correlate of all-cause mortality in smokers (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.72; 95% confidence interval, 0.54 to 0.96 per 1 mg/kg per minute glucose disposal rate increase) and physically inactive individuals (hazard ratio, 0.77; 95% confidence

  2. Diets for patients with chronic kidney disease, should we reconsider?

    PubMed

    Mitch, William E; Remuzzi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Here we revisit how dietary factors could affect the treatment of patients with complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD), bringing to the attention of the reader the most recent developments in the field. We will briefly discuss five CKD-induced complications that are substantially improved by dietary manipulation: 1) metabolic acidosis and the progression of CKD; 2) improving the diet to take advantage of the benefits of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) on slowing the progression of CKD; 3) the diet and mineral bone disorders in CKD; 4) the safety of nutritional methods utilizing dietary protein restriction; and 5) evidence that new strategies can treat the loss of lean body mass that is commonly present in patients with CKD. PMID:27401192

  3. Investigation of the oral infections and manifestations seen in patients with advanced cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lihua; Zhang, Hualin; Liu, Jinsong; Chen, Xiaowei

    2013-01-01

    Objective: A prospective, observational study was undertaken to investigate the epidemiology of oral infection among the patients with advanced malignancies, and to investigate the effects of therapy strategies and risk factors on the incidence of oral infection. Methods: The patients with advanced malignancies were enrolled into the study. The incidence of oral infection with different malignant tumor groups or different treatment methods and the diagnoses of oral infection were confirmed. Demographic data on age, gender, bed rest time, nutritional status, smoking habit and the presence of oral prosthesis were also recorded. Results: Oral infection was prevalent in 46% (391/850) of all cancer patients, with the highest rate in oral and maxillofacial cancer group (67%), followed by Hematological malignancy group (58.6%) and other groups (ranging from 43.3% to 35.3%). Oral candidiasis, oral herpes simplex, and oral mucositis were the popular infectious diseases in the patients. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy, especially combined radio- and chemotherapy, resulted in more oral infections compared with palliative care and surgery. Poor nutritional status and oral prosthesis were identified as independent risk factors associated with oral infection. Conclusion: Oral infection is prevalent among advanced cancer patients and associated with therapy methods and risk factors. More oral health care should be carried out for the patients with advanced malignant tumor. PMID:24353702

  4. The desire to die: making treatment decisions for suicidal patients who have an advance directive.

    PubMed

    Salter, Erica K

    2014-01-01

    This article enumerates and critically examines the potential grounds on which we might treat the case of a patient with an advance directive who attempted suicide, differently from one whose injuries were the result of an accident. Grounds for differentiation are distilled into two potential justifications. The first addresses the concern that withholding or withdrawing care from a patient with self-inflicted injuries would be aiding and abetting suicide.The second examines concerns about the patient's decisionmaking capacity. Ultimately, it is argued that while there might be legitimate reasons to hold the advance directive of a suicidal patient to a different standard of scrutiny, the fact that the patient's medical state was self-inflicted should not, in and of itself, necessarily invalidate the guidance of the directive. Finally, four practical recommendations are offered for negotiating similar cases.

  5. Beneficial effects through aggressive coronary screening for type 2 diabetes patients with advanced vascular complications.

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto, Tetsuro; Sugiyama, Takehiro; Yamamoto-Honda, Ritsuko; Kishimoto, Miyako; Noto, Hiroshi; Morooka, Miyako; Kubota, Kazuo; Kamimura, Munehiro; Hara, Hisao; Kajio, Hiroshi; Kakei, Masafumi; Noda, Mitsuhiko

    2016-08-01

    Glycemic control alone does not reduce cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), and routine screening of all T2D patients for asymptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD) is not effective for preventing acute cardiac events. We examined the effectiveness of an aggressive screening protocol for asymptomatic CAD in T2D patients with advanced vascular complications.We designed a 3-year cohort study investigating the effectiveness of the aggressive coronary screening for T2D patients with advanced vascular complications and no known coronary events using propensity score adjusted analysis at a national center in Japan. Eligibility criteria included T2D without known coronary events and with any 1 of the following 4 complications: advanced diabetic retinopathy, advanced chronic kidney disease, peripheral artery disease, or cerebrovascular disease. In the aggressive screening group (n = 122), all patients received stress single photon emission computed tomography and those exhibiting myocardial perfusion abnormalities underwent coronary angiography. In the conventional screening group (n = 108), patients were examined for CAD at the discretion of their medical providers. Primary endpoint was composite outcome of cardiovascular death and nonfatal cardiovascular events.Asymptomatic CAD with ≥70% stenosis was detected in 39.3% of patients completing aggressive screening. The proportions achieving revascularization and receiving intensive medical therapy within 90 days after the screening were significantly higher in the aggressive screening group than in the conventional screening group [19.7% vs 0% (P < 0.001) and 48.4% vs 9.3% (P < 0.001), respectively]. The cumulative rate of primary composite outcome was significantly lower in the aggressive screening group according to a propensity score adjusted Cox proportional hazards model (hazard ratio, 0.35; 95% confidence interval, 0.12-0.96; P = 0.04).Aggressive coronary screening for T2D patients

  6. Measuring therapeutic alliance between oncologists and patients with advanced cancer: The Human Connection Scale

    PubMed Central

    Mack, Jennifer W; Block, Susan D.; Nilsson, Matthew; Wright, Alexi; Trice, Elizabeth; Friedlander, Robert; Paulk, Elizabeth; Prigerson, Holly G

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Patients consider having a human connection with a physician to be an important aspect of end-of-life (EOL) care. We sought to develop and validate a measure of therapeutic alliance between advanced cancer patients and their physicians, and to evaluate the effects of therapeutic alliance on EOL experiences and care. Methods We developed The Human Connection (THC) scale to measure the extent to which patients felt a sense of mutual understanding, caring, and trust with their physicians. The scale was administered to 217 advanced cancer patients along with measures of attributes hypothesized to be related to therapeutic alliance, including emotional acceptance of terminal illness. EOL outcomes in 90 patients who died during the study were also examined. Results The 16-item THC questionnaire was internally consistent (Cronbach’s α =.90) and valid, based on its expected positive association with emotional acceptance of the terminal illness (r=.31, P<.0001). THC scores were inversely related to symptom burden (r=−.19, P=.006), functional status (Karnofsky score, r=.22, P=.001), and mental illness (THC score 50.69 for patients with any DSM diagnosis versus 55.22 for those without, P=.03). THC scores were not significantly associated with EOL discussions (P=.68). Among patients who had died, EOL ICU care was inversely associated with therapeutic alliance (THC score 46.5 for those with ICU care versus 55.5 for those without, P=.002), such that patients with higher THC scores were less likely to spend time in the ICU during the last week of life. Conclusion The THC scale is a valid and reliable measure of therapeutic alliance between advanced cancer patients and their physicians. In addition, we found no evidence to suggest that EOL discussions harm patients’ therapeutic alliance. A strong therapeutic alliance is associated with emotional acceptance of a terminal illness and with decreased ICU care at the end of life among patients with advanced cancer

  7. Research advances in traditional Chinese medicine syndromes in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Ji, Qing; Luo, Yun-quan; Wang, Wen-hai; Liu, Xuan; Li, Qi; Su, Shi-bing

    2016-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome, also known as TCM ZHENG or TCM pattern, is an integral and essential part of TCM theory that helps to guide the design of individualized treatments. A TCM syndrome, in essence, is a characteristic profile of all clinical manifestations in one patient that can be readily identified by a TCM practitioner. In this article, the authors reviewed the presentations of TCM syndromes in seven common malignancies (liver, lung, gastric, breast, colorectal, pancreatic and esophageal cancers), the objectivity and the standardization of TCM syndrome differentiation, the evaluation of TCM syndrome modeling in cancer research, and syndrome differentiation-guided TCM treatment of cancers. A better understanding of TCM syndrome theory, as well as its potential biological basis, may contribute greatly to the clinical TCM diagnosis and the treatment of cancer.

  8. A resistant starch fiber diet ameliorates oxidative stress, inflammation, and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inflammation is a constant feature and a major mediator of CKD progression. It is, in part, driven by altered gut microbiome and disruption of intestinal epithelial barrier, events which are primarily caused by: 1- urea influx in the intestine resulting in dominance of urease-possessing bacteria; 2-...

  9. Evaluation of Salivary Leptin Levels in Healthy Subjects and Patients with Advanced Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Khorsand, Afshin; Bayani, Mojtaba; Torabi, Sepehr; Kharrazifard, Mohammad Javad; Mohammadnejhad, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Leptin is a hormone-like protein produced by the adipose tissue. It plays an important role in protection of host against inflammation and infection. Some studies have reported changes in leptin levels in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), saliva and blood serum of patients with periodontal disease compared to healthy individuals. The aim of the present study was to compare the salivary leptin levels in patients with advanced periodontitis and healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, the salivary samples of healthy individuals and patients with advanced periodontitis with clinical attachment loss >5mm were obtained using a standardized method and the leptin levels were measured in the salivary samples by means of ELISA. The effects of the periodontal status and sex on the salivary leptin levels of both groups were statistically analyzed by two-way ANOVA. Results: The means ± standard deviation (SD) of salivary leptin levels in healthy subjects and patients with advanced periodontitis were 34.27±6.88 and 17.87±5.89 pg/mL, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that the effect of sex on the salivary leptin levels was not significant (P=0.91), while the effect of advanced periodontitis on the salivary leptin levels was significant compared to healthy individuals (P<0.0001). Conclusions: In patients with advanced periodontitis, the salivary leptin levels were significantly lower compared to healthy individuals. Thus, assessment of salivary leptin can be done as a non-invasive and simple method to determine the susceptibility of patients to advanced periodontitis. PMID:27536322

  10. Qualitative research in CKD: an overview of methods and applications.

    PubMed

    Tong, Allison; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C; Craig, Jonathan C

    2014-09-01

    There recently has been a paradigm shift in health care policies and research toward greater patient centeredness. A core tenet of patient-centered care is that patients' needs, values, and preferences are respected in clinical decision making. Qualitative research methods are designed to generate insights about patients' priorities, values, and beliefs. However, in the past 5 years (2008-2013), only 23 (0.4%) of the 6,043 original articles published in the top 5 nephrology journals (assessed by impact factor) were qualitative studies. Given this observation, it seems important to promote awareness and better understanding within the nephrology community about qualitative research and how the findings can contribute to improving the quality and outcomes of care for patients with chronic kidney disease. This article outlines examples of how qualitative research can generate insight into the values and preferences of patients with chronic kidney disease, provides an overview of qualitative health research methods, and discusses practical applications for research, practice, and policy.

  11. The Effects of Simvastatin on Proteinuria and Renal Function in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Satirapoj, Bancha; Promrattanakun, Anan; Supasyndh, Ouppatham; Choovichian, Panbuppa

    2015-01-01

    Current data suggests that statins might have beneficial effects on renal outcomes. Beneficial effects of statin treatment on renal progression in advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) are obviously controversial. In a retrospective, controlled study, the authors have evaluated the effects of 53-week treatment with simvastatin, versus no treatment on proteinuria and renal function among 51 patients with CKD stages III-IV. By the end of the 53-week treatment, urine protein excretion decreased from 0.96 (IQR 0.54, 2.9) to 0.48 (IQR 0.18, 0.79) g/g creatinine (P < 0.001) in patients treated with simvastatin in addition to ACEI and ARBs, while no change was observed among the untreated patients. Moreover, a significantly greater decrease in urine protein excretion was observed in the simvastatin group as compared with the untreated group. The mean changes of serum creatinine and eGFR did not significantly differ in both groups. A significantly greater decrease in total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol was found in the simvastatin group than in the untreated group. In summary, apart from lipid lowering among CKD patients, ingesting simvastatin was associated with a decrease in proteinuria. These statin effects may become important for supportive therapy in renal damage in the future. PMID:26543646

  12. Current advances in targeted therapies for metastatic gastric cancer: improving patient care.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Pedro Nazareth; Muniz, Thiago Pimentel; Miranda, Raelson Rodrigues; Tadokoro, Hakaru; Forones, Nora Manoukian; Monteiro, Ines-de-Paula; Castelo-Branco, Pedro; Janjigian, Yelena Y; Mello, Ramon Andrade de

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we review the literature on the current advances in targeted therapies for metastatic gastric cancer aimed at improving patient care. We conclude that the key to guiding targeted therapy is individual biomarkers, which are not completely elucidated. HER2 overexpression is the only predictive biomarker currently in use. Furthermore, it is necessary to understand that gastric tumors are heterogeneous; therefore, is impossible to evaluate a novel biological compound without evaluating personal biomarkers. The selection of patients who are able to receive each treatment is paramount for improving advanced gastric cancer survival and reducing unnecessary costs.

  13. The Meaning of Parenteral Hydration to Family Caregivers and Patients with Advanced Cancer Receiving Hospice Care

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Marlene Z; Torres-Vigil, Isabel; Burbach, Beth E.; de Rosa, Allison; Bruera, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Context In the U.S., patients with advanced cancer who are dehydrated or have decreased oral intake virtually always receive parenteral hydration in acute care facilities but rarely in the hospice setting. Objectives To describe the meaning of hydration for terminally ill cancer patients in home hospice care and for their primary caregivers. Methods Phenomenological interviews were conducted at two time points with 85 patients and 84 caregivers enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial examining the efficacy of parenteral hydration in patients with advanced cancer receiving hospice care in the southern U.S. Transcripts were analyzed hermeneutically by the interdisciplinary research team until consensus on the theme labels was reached. Results Patients and their family caregivers both saw hydration as meaning hope and comfort. Hope was the view that hydration might prolong a life of dignity and enhance quality of life by reducing symptoms such as fatigue and increasing patients’ alertness. Patients and caregivers also described hydration as improving patients’ comfort by reducing pain, enhancing the effectiveness of pain medication, and nourishing the body, mind and spirit. Conclusion These findings differ from traditional hospice beliefs that dehydration enhances patient comfort given that patients and their families in the study viewed fluids as enhancing comfort, dignity and quality of life. Discussion with patients and families about their preferences for hydration may help tailor care plans to meet specific patient needs. PMID:22459230

  14. Safety and efficacy of sorafenib in patients with Child-Pugh B advanced hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    DA FONSECA, LEONARDO GOMES; BARROSO-SOUSA, ROMUALDO; BENTO, AFONSO DA SILVA ALVES; BLANCO, BRUNA PACCOLA; VALENTE, GABRIEL LUIS; PFIFFER, TULIO EDUARDO FLESCH; HOFF, PAULO MARCELO; SABBAGA, JORGE

    2015-01-01

    Sorafenib demonstrated a survival benefit in the treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in phase III trials. However, almost all the patients included in those trials exhibited well-preserved liver function (Child-Pugh A). The aim of this study was to describe our experience with sorafenib in Child-Pugh B HCC patients. A database of patients with advanced HCC treated with sorafenib was retrospectively evaluated. The median overall survival of Child-Pugh B patients (n=20) was 2.53 months [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.33–5.92 months] and of Child-Pugh A patients (n=100) 9.71 months (95% CI: 6.22–13.04). Child-Pugh B patients had a significantly poorer survival compared to Child-Pugh A patients (P=0.002). The toxicities were similar between the two groups. Metastasis, vascular invasion and α-fetoprotein level >1,030 ng/ml were not associated with survival among Child-Pugh B patients (P=0.281, 0.189 and 0.996, respectively). Although the survival outcomes were worse in Child-Pugh B patients treated with sorafenib, the toxicity profile was manageable. Therefore, there remains the question of whether to treat this subgroup of patients and more data are required to define the role of sorafenib in the context of liver dysfunction. PMID:26171182

  15. Frequency of Elevated Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) Biomarkers in Patients with Advanced Hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Sterling, Richard K.; Wright, Elizabeth C.; Morgan, Timothy R.; Seeff, Leonard B.; Hoefs, John C.; Di Bisceglie, Adrian M.; Dienstag, Jules L.; Lok, Anna S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Prospective studies of serum HCC biomarkers in patients with advanced hepatitis C are lacking. Aims To determine frequencies and performance of elevated alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), AFP-L3, and des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) levels as HCC biomarkers in advanced hepatitis C. Methods Patients in the HALT-C Trial were tested every 3 months for 42 months. Screening ultrasound was performed every 12 months. Levels of biomarkers were compared in patients in whom HCC did or did not develop. Results 855 patients were evaluated; HCC developed in 46. Among patients without HCC, 73.2% had AFP consistently <20, 24.5% had at least one AFP between 20-199, while 2.3% had at least one AFP value ≥200 ng/mL; 73.7% had DCP consistently <90, 11.6% had at least one DCP between 90-149, and 14.7% had at least one DCP value ≥150 mAU/mL. AFP-L3 ≥10% was present at least once in 9.0% and in 17.1% of those with AFP >20 ng/mL. Among all patients with elevated biomarkers, a diagnosis of HCC was made in 0-31.6% (depending on the biomarker and cutoff) during the subsequent 24 months. AFP ≥200 ng/mL had the highest specificity (99%), but sensitivity was ≤20%. DCP ≥40 mAU/mL had the highest sensitivity (76%), but specificity was ≤58%. Independent predictors of elevated AFP were gender (female), race (Black), more advanced disease, and HCC. Elevated DCP was associated with more advanced disease and HCC. Conclusions Mild-moderate elevations in total AFP and DCP but not AFP-L3 occur frequently in patients with chronic hepatitis C and advanced fibrosis, are related to factors other than HCC, and are poor predictors of HCC. PMID:21931376

  16. Management of patients with advanced prostate cancer: recommendations of the St Gallen Advanced Prostate Cancer Consensus Conference (APCCC) 2015

    PubMed Central

    Gillessen, S.; Omlin, A.; Attard, G.; de Bono, J. S.; Efstathiou, E.; Fizazi, K.; Halabi, S.; Nelson, P. S.; Sartor, O.; Smith, M. R.; Soule, H. R.; Akaza, H.; Beer, T. M.; Beltran, H.; Chinnaiyan, A. M.; Daugaard, G.; Davis, I. D.; De Santis, M.; Drake, C. G.; Eeles, R. A.; Fanti, S.; Gleave, M. E.; Heidenreich, A.; Hussain, M.; James, N. D.; Lecouvet, F. E.; Logothetis, C. J.; Mastris, K.; Nilsson, S.; Oh, W. K.; Olmos, D.; Padhani, A. R.; Parker, C.; Rubin, M. A.; Schalken, J. A.; Scher, H. I.; Sella, A.; Shore, N. D.; Small, E. J.; Sternberg, C. N.; Suzuki, H.; Sweeney, C. J.; Tannock, I. F.; Tombal, B.

    2015-01-01

    The first St Gallen Advanced Prostate Cancer Consensus Conference (APCCC) Expert Panel identified and reviewed the available evidence for the ten most important areas of controversy in advanced prostate cancer (APC) management. The successful registration of several drugs for castration-resistant prostate cancer and the recent studies of chemo-hormonal therapy in men with castration-naïve prostate cancer have led to considerable uncertainty as to the best treatment choices, sequence of treatment options and appropriate patient selection. Management recommendations based on expert opinion, and not based on a critical review of the available evidence, are presented. The various recommendations carried differing degrees of support, as reflected in the wording of the article text and in the detailed voting results recorded in supplementary Material, available at Annals of Oncology online. Detailed decisions on treatment as always will involve consideration of disease extent and location, prior treatments, host factors, patient preferences as well as logistical and economic constraints. Inclusion of men with APC in clinical trials should be encouraged. PMID:26041764

  17. Measured GFR Does Not Outperform Estimated GFR in Predicting CKD-related Complications

    PubMed Central

    Propert, Kathleen; Xie, Dawei; Hamm, Lee; He, Jiang; Miller, Edgar; Ojo, Akinlolu; Shlipak, Michael; Teal, Valerie; Townsend, Raymond; Weir, Matthew; Wilson, Jillian; Feldman, Harold

    2011-01-01

    Although many assume that measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using a marker such as iothalamate (iGFR) is superior to equation-estimated GFR (eGFR), each of these methods has distinct disadvantages. Because physicians often use renal function to guide the screening for various CKD-associated complications, one method to compare the clinical utility of iGFR and eGFR is to determine the strength of their association with CKD-associated comorbidities. Using a subset of 1214 participants in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study, we determined the cross-sectional associations between known complications of CKD and iGFR, eGFR estimated from serum creatinine (eGFR_Cr), and eGFR estimated from cystatin C (eGFR_cysC). We found that none of the measures of renal function strongly associated with CKD complications and that the relative strengths of associations varied according to the outcome of interest. For example, iGFR demonstrated better discrimination than eGFR_Cr and eGFR_cysC for outcomes of anemia and hemoglobin concentration; however, both eGFR_Cr and eGFR_cysC demonstrated better discrimination than iGFR for outcomes of hyperphosphatemia and phosphorus level. iGFR and eGFR had similar strengths of association with hyperkalemia/potassium level and with metabolic acidosis/bicarbonate level. In conclusion, iothalamate measurement of GFR is not consistently superior to equation-based estimations of GFR in explaining CKD-related comorbidities. These results raise questions regarding the conventional view that iGFR is the “gold standard” measure of kidney function. PMID:21921144

  18. Low-frequency electrical stimulation attenuates muscle atrophy in CKD--a potential treatment strategy.

    PubMed

    Hu, Li; Klein, Janet D; Hassounah, Faten; Cai, Hui; Zhang, Cong; Xu, Ping; Wang, Xiaonan H

    2015-03-01

    Effective therapeutic strategies to treat CKD-induced muscle atrophy are urgently needed. Low-frequency electrical stimulation (LFES) may be effective in preventing muscle atrophy, because LFES is an acupuncture technique that mimics resistance exercise by inducing muscle contraction. To test this hypothesis, we treated 5/6-nephrectomized mice (CKD mice) and control mice with LFES for 15 days. LFES prevented soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscle weight loss and loss of hind-limb muscle grip in CKD mice. LFES countered the CKD-induced decline in the IGF-1 signaling pathway and led to increases in markers of protein synthesis and myogenesis and improvement in muscle protein metabolism. In control mice, we observed an acute response phase immediately after LFES, during which the expression of inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-6) increased. Expression of the M1 macrophage marker IL-1β also increased acutely, but expression of the M2 marker arginase-1 increased 2 days after initiation of LFES, paralleling the change in IGF-1. In muscle cross-sections of LFES-treated mice, arginase-1 colocalized with IGF-1. Additionally, expression of microRNA-1 and -206, which inhibits IGF-1 translation, decreased in the acute response phase after LFES and increased at a later phase. We conclude that LFES ameliorates CKD-induced skeletal muscle atrophy by upregulation of the IGF-1 signaling pathway, which improves protein metabolism and promotes myogenesis. The upregulation of IGF-1 may be mediated by decreased expression of microRNA-1 and -206 and/or activation of M2 macrophages. PMID:25228359

  19. Optimal pharmacotherapeutic strategies for elderly patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Quoix, Elisabeth

    2011-11-01

    Increases in both life expectancy and cancer incidence with age result in a significant rise in lung cancer rates among elderly patients, with a median age at diagnosis of between 63 and 70 years. However, elderly patients are under-represented in clinical trials and generally receive suboptimal treatment, mainly because of fears about increased toxicity of chemotherapy. Indeed, physiological modification of renal and haematopoietic functions with age together with co-morbidity and associated polypharmacy may alter the metabolism of chemotherapy drugs, resulting in greater toxicity. Moreover, performance status (PS), the main prognostic factor in younger patients, does not correlate well with geriatric indexes such as activities of daily living, cognition and physical performance, and comprehensive geriatric assessment is important in elderly patients. Until 2010, based on the small number of clinical trials designed for elderly patients, monotherapy was the recommended treatment for those with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), whereas for fit younger patients, a platinum-based doublet was and continues to be the recommended first-line therapy. However, at the plenary session of the 2010 Annual Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, results were presented from a randomized controlled trial conducted by the French Intergroup of Thoracic Oncology that demonstrated that in PS 0-2 patients aged≥70 years with advanced NSCLC, monthly carboplatin with weekly paclitaxel resulted in significantly longer survival than single-agent therapy (vinorelbine or gemcitabine). It should be noted that even in a priori unfavourable prognostic subgroups (patients with a PS score of 2, those aged>80 years or those with an activities of daily living scale score of <6), doublet therapy was associated with a survival advantage over monotherapy. Thus, the new paradigm of treatment of elderly patients with advanced NSCLC and a PS score of 0-2 should now be monthly

  20. Considerations and controversies in the management of older patients with advanced cancer.

    PubMed

    Mohile, Supriya Gupta; Klepin, Heidi D; Rao, Arati V

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of cancer increases with age. Oncologists need to be adept at assessing physiologic and functional capacity in older patients in order to provide safe and efficacious cancer treatment. Assessment of underlying health status is especially important for older patients with advanced cancer, for whom the benefits of treatment may be low and the toxicity of treatment high. The comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) is the criterion standard for evaluation of the older patient. The combined data from the CGA can be used to stratify patients into categories to better predict risk for chemotherapy toxicity as well as overall outcomes. The CGA can also be used to identify and follow-up on possible functional consequences from treatment. A variety of screening tools might be useful in the oncology practice setting to identify patients who may benefit from further testing and intervention. In this chapter, we discuss how the principles of geriatrics can help improve the clinical care of older adults with advanced cancer. Specifically, we discuss assessing tolerance for treatment, options for chemotherapy scheduling and dosing for older patients with advanced cancer, and management of under-recognized symptoms in older patients with cancer.

  1. The role of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with advanced (stage IIIC) epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Škof, Erik; Merlo, Sebastjan; Pilko, Gasper

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Primary treatment of patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer consists of chemotherapy either before (neoadjuvant chemotherapy, NACT) or after primary surgery (adjuvant chemotherapy). The goal of primary treatment is no residual disease after surgery (R0 resection) what is associated with an improvement in survival of patients. There is, however, no evidence of survival benefits in patients with R0 resections after prior NACT. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients who were treated with diagnosis of epithelial ovarian cancer at Institute of Oncology Ljubljana in the years 2005–2007. The differences in the rates of R0 resections, progression free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and in five-year and eight-year survival rates between patients treated with NACT and patients who had primary surgery were compared. Results Overall 160 patients had stage IIIC epithelial ovarian cancer. Eighty patients had NACT and eighty patients had primary surgery. Patients in NACT group had higher rates of R0 resection (42% vs. 20%; p = 0.011) than patients after primary surgery. PFS was 14.1 months in NACT group and 17.7 months after primary surgery (p = 0.213). OS was 24.8 months in NACT group and 31.6 months after primary surgery (p = 0.012). In patients with R0 resections five-year and eight-year survival rates were 20.6% and 17.6% in NACT group compared to 62.5% and 62.5% after primary surgery (p < 0.0001), respectively. Conclusions Despite higher rates of R0 resections achieved by NACT, survival of patients treated with NACT was inferior to survival of patients who underwent primary surgery. NACT should only be offered to patients with advanced epithelial cancer who are not candidates for primary surgery. PMID:27679552

  2. The role of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with advanced (stage IIIC) epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Škof, Erik; Merlo, Sebastjan; Pilko, Gasper

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Primary treatment of patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer consists of chemotherapy either before (neoadjuvant chemotherapy, NACT) or after primary surgery (adjuvant chemotherapy). The goal of primary treatment is no residual disease after surgery (R0 resection) what is associated with an improvement in survival of patients. There is, however, no evidence of survival benefits in patients with R0 resections after prior NACT. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients who were treated with diagnosis of epithelial ovarian cancer at Institute of Oncology Ljubljana in the years 2005–2007. The differences in the rates of R0 resections, progression free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and in five-year and eight-year survival rates between patients treated with NACT and patients who had primary surgery were compared. Results Overall 160 patients had stage IIIC epithelial ovarian cancer. Eighty patients had NACT and eighty patients had primary surgery. Patients in NACT group had higher rates of R0 resection (42% vs. 20%; p = 0.011) than patients after primary surgery. PFS was 14.1 months in NACT group and 17.7 months after primary surgery (p = 0.213). OS was 24.8 months in NACT group and 31.6 months after primary surgery (p = 0.012). In patients with R0 resections five-year and eight-year survival rates were 20.6% and 17.6% in NACT group compared to 62.5% and 62.5% after primary surgery (p < 0.0001), respectively. Conclusions Despite higher rates of R0 resections achieved by NACT, survival of patients treated with NACT was inferior to survival of patients who underwent primary surgery. NACT should only be offered to patients with advanced epithelial cancer who are not candidates for primary surgery.

  3. Sarcopenia and Physical Inactivity in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hirai, Keiji; Ookawara, Susumu; Morishita, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Sarcopenia and physical inactivity synergistically progress in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and are strong predictors of mortality in this population. Exercise training and essential amino acids and vitamin D supplements may contribute to improving sarcopenia and physical inactivity in CKD patients. PMID:27570755

  4. Sarcopenia and Physical Inactivity in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Keiji; Ookawara, Susumu; Morishita, Yoshiyuki

    2016-05-01

    Sarcopenia and physical inactivity synergistically progress in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and are strong predictors of mortality in this population. Exercise training and essential amino acids and vitamin D supplements may contribute to improving sarcopenia and physical inactivity in CKD patients. PMID:27570755

  5. Clinically Apparent Internal Mammary Nodal Metastasis in Patients With Advanced Breast Cancer: Incidence and Local Control

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yujing; Oh, Julia L.; Whitman, Gary J.

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: To investigate the incidence and local control of internal mammary lymph node metastases (IMN+) in patients with clinical N2 or N3 locally advanced breast cancer. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 809 breast cancer patients diagnosed with advanced nodal disease (clinical N2-3) who received radiation treatment at our institution from January 2000 December 2006. Patients were considered IMN+ on the basis of imaging studies. Results: We identified 112 of 809 patients who presented with IMN+ disease (13.8%) detected on ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography/CT (PET/CT), and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. All 112 patients with IMN+ disease received anthracycline and taxane-based chemotherapy. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) resulted in a complete response (CR) on imaging studies of IMN disease in 72.1% of patients. Excluding 16 patients with progressive disease, 96 patients received adjuvant radiation to the breast or the chest wall and the regional lymphatics including the IMN chain with a median dose of 60 Gy if the internal mammary lymph nodes normalized after chemotherapy and 66 Gy if they did not. The median follow-up of surviving patients was 41 months (8-118 months). For the 96 patients able to complete curative therapy, the actuarial 5-year IMN control rate, locoregional control, overall survival, and disease-free survival were 89%, 80%, 76%, and 56%. Conclusion: Over ten percent of patients with advanced nodal disease will have IMN metastases on imaging studies. Multimodality therapy including IMN irradiation achieves excellent rates of control in the IMN region and a DFS of more than 50% after curative treatment.

  6. [Triple therapy in cirrhotic patients and those with advanced fibrosis: relevant aspects in clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Albillos, Agustín; Luis Calleja, José; Molina, Esther; Planas, Ramon; Romero-Gómez, Manuel; Turnes, Juan; Hernández-Guerra, Manuel

    2014-07-01

    The first-line option in the treatment of patients with advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis due to genotype 1 hepatitis C virus is currently triple therapy with boceprevir/telaprevir and pegylated interferon-ribavirin. However, certain limitations could constitute a barrier to starting treatment or achieving sustained viral response in these patients. These limitations include the patient's or physician's perception of treatment effectiveness in routine clinical practice-which can weight against the decision to start treatment-, the advanced stage of the disease with portal hypertension and comorbidity, treatment interruption due to poor adherence, and adverse effects, mainly anemia. In addition, it is now possible to identify patients who could benefit from a shorter therapeutic regimen with a similar cure rate. This review discusses these issues and their possible effect on the use of triple therapy. PMID:25907434

  7. Advanced practice nursing students in the patient-centered medical home: preparing for a new reality.

    PubMed

    Swartwout, Kathryn; Murphy, Marcia Pencak; Dreher, Melanie C; Behal, Raj; Haines, Alison; Ryan, Mary; Ryan, Norman; Saba, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Driven by reimbursement incentives for increased access, improved quality and reduced cost, the patient-centered medical home model of health care delivery is being adopted in primary care practices across the nation. The transition from traditional primary care models to patient-centered medical homes presents many challenges, including the assembly of a well-prepared, interprofessional provider team to achieve effective, well-coordinated care. In turn, advanced practice nursing education programs are challenged to prepare graduates who are qualified for practice in the new reality of health care reform. This article reviews the patient-centered medical home model and describes how one college of nursing joined 7 primary care physician practices to prepare advanced practice nursing students for the new realities of health care reform while supporting each practice in its transition to the patient-centered medical home. PMID:24720942

  8. Precision oncology for patients with advanced cancer: the challenges of malignant snowflakes

    PubMed Central

    Kurzrock, Razelle; Giles, Francis J

    2015-01-01

    Precision oncology implies customizing treatment to the unique molecular and biologic characteristics of each individual and their cancer. Its implementation is being facilitated by remarkable technological advances in genomic sequencing, as well as the increasing availability of targeted and immunotherapeutic drugs. Yet, next generation sequencing may be a disruptive technology in that its results suggest that classic paradigms for clinical research and practice are a poor fit with the complex reality encountered in metastatic malignancies. Indeed, it is evident that advanced tumors have heterogeneous molecular landscapes that mostly differ between patients. Traditional modes of clinical research/practice are drug centered, with a strategy of finding commonalities between patients so that they can be grouped together and treated similarly. However, if each patient with metastatic cancer has a unique molecular portfolio, a new patient-centered, N-of-one approach that utilizes individually tailored treatment is needed. PMID:26030337

  9. The evolving role of health educators in advancing patient safety: forging partnerships and leading change.

    PubMed

    Mercurio, Annette

    2007-04-01

    At least 1.5 million preventable injuries because of adverse drug events occur in the United States each year, according to an Institute of Medicine report. IOM and other organizations at the forefront of health care improvement emphasize that stronger partnerships between patients, their families, and health care providers are necessary to make health care safer. Health educators possess a skill set and an ethical framework that effectively equip them to advance patient and family-centered care and contribute in other significant ways to a safer health care system. Health educators in clinical settings are playing varied and significant roles in advancing patient safety. They are removing barriers to clear communication and forging partnerships between patients, their families, and staff. Health educators are leading patient safety culture change within their institutions and contributing to the shift from provider-centric to patient-centric systems. To expand their impact in improving patient safety, health educators in clinical settings are participating in public awareness campaigns. In seeking to enhance patient safety, health educators face a number of challenges. To successfully manage those, health educators must expand their knowledge, broaden connections, and engage patients and families in meaningful ways.

  10. Treatment approaches in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer and poor performance status.

    PubMed

    Govindan, Ramaswamy; Garfield, David H

    2004-12-01

    It is estimated that 30% to 40% of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have a poor performance status (PS)-defined as a score of 2 or higher on the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group scale-because of their disease burden, comorbidities, or both. Survival is shorter in these patients than in those with a better PS, and they do not tolerate chemotherapy as well. There is now evidence that PS2 patients with advanced NSCLC can benefit from single-agent chemotherapy with drugs such as vinorelbine, gemcitabine, paclitaxel, pemetrexed, and docetaxel and that combination chemotherapy may have additional advantages. The optimal treatment for PS2 patients with NSCLC, however, has yet to be determined. The case histories in this article demonstrate that PS2 patients are a heterogeneous group and that selecting the chemotherapy for each patient must take into consideration comorbidities and disease-related symptoms, as well as the potential toxicity of treatment. Large prospective clinical trials are needed to determine whether, and in which patients, combination chemotherapy or novel agents, such as the epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors or paclitaxel poliglumex, have advantages. Three large phase III trials-Selective Targeting for Efficacy in Lung Cancer, Lower Adverse Reactions trials (STELLAR)-are now being conducted in PS2 patients with NSCLC. It is hoped that their findings will aid in determining the best treatment options for these patients.

  11. Advance directives and living wills: the role of patient's autonomy in the Brazilian experience.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Eduardo

    2013-12-01

    This paper aims to discuss the development of the notion that the patient has the right to refuse treatment, and how the Brazilian legal system is dealing with bioethical dilemmas, such as the possibility of exercising autonomy through advance directives. The paper discusses the lack of legislation to regulate important issues in the end of life healthcare, and what ethical guidelines exist, providing physicians with ethical and legal parameters to deal with the patient's will.

  12. Left atrial appendage closure for thromboembolism prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation: advances and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Bin; Liu, Yu; Huang, He; Jiang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a frequent cause of stroke. More than 90% of thrombi were found in the left atrial appendage (LAA) in non-valvular AF. Transcatheter LAA closure has been developed as a novel approach to reduce the risk of stroke in patients with AF over the last decade. In this article, we review the recent advances and propose the possible challenges regarding the LAA closure for thromboembolism prevention in patients with AF. PMID:25713737

  13. Estimated aortic blood pressure based on radial artery tonometry underestimates directly measured aortic blood pressure in patients with advancing chronic kidney disease staging and increasing arterial stiffness.

    PubMed

    Carlsen, Rasmus K; Peters, Christian D; Khatir, Dinah S; Laugesen, Esben; Bøtker, Hans Erik; Winther, Simon; Buus, Niels H

    2016-10-01

    Central blood pressure (BP) can be assessed noninvasively based on radial tonometry and may potentially be a better predictor of clinical outcome than brachial BP. However, the validity of noninvasively obtained estimates has never been examined in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Here we compared invasive aortic systolic BP (SBP) with estimated central SBP obtained by radial artery tonometry and examined the influence of renal function and arterial stiffness on this relationship. We evaluated 83 patients with stage 3 to 5 CKD (mean estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] 30 ml/min/1.73 m(2)) and 41 controls without renal disease undergoing scheduled coronary angiography. BP in the ascending aorta was measured through the angiography catheter and simultaneously estimated using radial tonometry. The mean difference between estimated central and aortic SBP was -13.2 (95% confidence interval -14.9 to -11.4) mm Hg. Arterial stiffness was evaluated by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV) and was significantly increased in CKD patients compared with (versus) control patients (mean 10.7 vs. 9.3 m/s). The difference in BP significantly increased 1.0 mm Hg for every 10 ml/min decrease in eGFR and by 1.6 mm Hg per 1 m/s increase in cfPWV. Using multivariate regression analysis including both eGFR and cfPWV, the difference between estimated central and invasive aortic SBP was significantly increased by 0.7 mm Hg. For the entire cohort brachial SBP significantly better reflected invasive SBP than estimated SBP. Thus, tonometry-based estimates of central BP progressively underestimate invasive central SBP with decreasing renal function and increasing arterial stiffness in CKD patients.

  14. A prospective evaluation of an interdisciplinary nutrition–rehabilitation program for patients with advanced cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, B.; Murphy, J.; Eades, M.; Lemoignan, J.; Jelowicki, M.; Carney, S.; Amdouni, S.; Di Dio, P.; Chasen, M.; MacDonald, N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cancer can affect many dimensions of a patient’s life, and in turn, it should be targeted using a multimodal approach. We tested the extent to which an interdisciplinary nutrition–rehabilitation program can improve the well-being of patients with advanced cancer. Methods Between January 10, 2007, and September 29, 2010, 188 patients with advanced cancer enrolled in the 10–12-week program. Body weight, physical function, symptom severity, fatigue dimensions, distress level, coping ability, and overall quality of life were assessed at the start and end of the program. Results Of the enrolled patients, 70% completed the program. Patients experienced strong improvements in the physical and activity dimensions of fatigue (effect sizes: 0.8–1.1). They also experienced moderate reductions in the severity of weakness, depression, nervousness, shortness of breath, and distress (effect sizes: 0.5–0.7), and moderate improvements in Six Minute Walk Test distance, maximal gait speed, coping ability, and quality of life (effect sizes: 0.5–0.7) Furthermore, 77% of patients either maintained or increased their body weight. Conclusions Interdisciplinary nutrition–rehabilitation can be advantageous for patients with advanced cancer and should be considered an integrated part of standard palliative care. PMID:24311946

  15. KDOQI US Commentary on the 2012 KDIGO Clinical Practice Guideline for Management of Blood Pressure in CKD

    PubMed Central

    Taler, Sandra J.; Agarwal, Rajiv; Bakris, George L.; Flynn, Joseph T.; Nilsson, Peter M.; Rahman, Mahboob; Sanders, Paul W.; Textor, Stephen C.; Weir, Matthew R.; Townsend, Raymond R.

    2014-01-01

    In response to the 2012 KDIGO (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes) guideline for blood pressure management in patients with chronic kidney disease not on dialysis, the National Kidney Foundation organized a group of US experts in hypertension and transplant nephrology to review the recommendations and comment on their relevancy in the context of current US clinical practice and concerns. The overriding message was the dearth of clinical trial evidence to provide strong evidence-based recommendations. For patients with CKD with normal to mildly increased albuminuria, goal blood pressure has been relaxed to ≤140/90 mm Hg for both diabetic and nondiabetic patients. In contrast, KDIGO continues to recommend goal blood pressure ≤130/80 mm Hg for patients with chronic kidney disease with moderately or severely increased albuminuria and for all renal transplant recipients regardless of the presence of proteinuria, without supporting data. The expert panel thought the KDIGO recommendations were generally reasonable but lacking in sufficient evidence support and that additional studies are greatly needed. PMID:23684145

  16. Urate calculi complicating orchidectomy in a patient with advanced prostatic cancer. Case report.

    PubMed

    Roosen, J U; Rungby, J A; Hvidt, V

    1991-01-01

    A patient passed 11 urate calculi after palliative orchidectomy for advanced prostatic cancer, and there was a simultaneous rise in urinary urate excretion. We believe that this rise could be the result of increased purine metabolism from lysis of tumour cells. To our knowledge this has not previously been reported.

  17. Diabetic CKD/ESRD 2010: a progress report?

    PubMed

    Williams, Mark E

    2010-01-01

    Both in the United States and many regions of the world, chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in patients with diabetes mellitus have reached epidemic proportions in recent years. The large prevalent diabetic ESRD population in the US involves remarkable risk in African Americans and an increasing population of elderly diabetic patients, including many octogenarians. In the US and globally, over 90% of diabetic ESRD patients have type 2 diabetes. The multinational epidemic of diabetic ESRD has been linked to increases in the prevalence of diabetes in many populations, related to obesity, ageing, and physical inactivity. It is anticipated that the worldwide prevalence of diabetes over the next 20 years will reach a level twice that of the year 2000. The excessive morbidity and mortality of the diabetic ESRD population are well documented. However, the growth in incidence and prevalence rates for diabetic ESRD has remained somewhat stable in the US in recent years, and new data suggest that the incidence of ESRD expressed per diabetic population may finally be declining, suggesting that proven therapies are making "progress on progression."

  18. Red blood cell and plasma glutathione peroxidase activities and selenium concentration in patients with chronic kidney disease: a review.

    PubMed

    Zachara, Bronisław A; Gromadzińska, Jolanta; Wasowicz, Wojciech; Zbróg, Zbigniew

    2006-01-01

    The metabolism of oxygen in aerobic organisms leads to generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These entities are able to oxidize almost all classes of macromolecules, including proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. The physiological level of ROS is usually regulated by antioxidant defense mechanisms. There are at least three groups of antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutases, catalases and glutathione peroxidases (GSH-Pxs) which neutralize ROS. The trace elements (copper, zinc and selenium) bound to the active sites of the above listed enzymes play an important role in the antioxidant defense system. In mammals, a major function of selenium (Se) and Se-dependent GSH-Pxs is to protect cells from oxidative stress. Selenium concentrations and GSH-Px activities are altered in blood components of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. The Se level is frequently lower than in healthy subjects and the concentration very often decreases gradually with advancing stage of the disease. Studies on red cell GSH-Px activity in CKD patients reported its values significantly lower, significantly higher and lower or higher, but not significantly as compared with healthy subjects. On the other hand, all authors who studied plasma GSH-Px activity have shown significantly lower values than in healthy subjects. The degree of the reduction decreases gradually with the progression of the disease. High inverse correlations were seen between plasma GSH-Px activity and creatinine level. A gradual decrease in plasma GSH-Px activity in CKD patients is due to the fact that this enzyme is synthesized predominantly in the kidney and thus the impairment of this organ is the cause of the enzyme's lower activity. Se supplementation to CKD patients has a slightly positive effect in the incipient stage of the disease, but usually no effect was observed in end-stage CKD. Presently, kidney transplantation is the only treatment that may restore plasma Se level and GSH-Px activity in patients

  19. Bench-scale study of active mine water treatment using cement kiln dust (CKD) as a neutralization agent.

    PubMed

    Mackie, Allison L; Walsh, Margaret E

    2012-02-01

    The overall objective of this study was to investigate the potential impact on settled water quality of using cement kiln dust (CKD), a waste by-product, to replace quicklime in the active treatment of acidic mine water. Bench-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the treatment performance of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)(2)) slurries generated using four different CKD samples compared to a control treatment with quicklime (CaO) in terms of reducing acidity and metals concentrations in acid mine drainage (AMD) samples taken from the effluent of a lead/zinc mine in Atlantic Canada. Results of the study showed that all of the CKD samples evaluated were capable of achieving greater than 97% removal of total zinc and iron. The amount of solid alkaline material required to achieve pH targets required for neutralization of the AMD was found to be higher for treatment with the CKD slurries compared to the quicklime slurry control experiments, and varied linearly with the free lime content of the CKD. The results of this study also showed that a potential benefit of treating mine water with CKD could be reduced settled sludge volumes generated in the active treatment process, and further research into the characteristics of the sludge generated from the use of CKD-generated calcium hydroxide slurries is recommended.

  20. Surgery is an essential component of multimodality therapy for patients with locally advanced esophageal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Caitlin C.; Correa, Arlene M.; Ajani, Jaffer A.; Komaki, Ritsuko U.; Welsh, James W.; Swisher, Stephen G.; Hofstetter, Wayne L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Experience with neoadjuvant chemoradiation (CXRT) has raised questions regarding the additional benefit of surgery after locally advanced esophageal adenocarcinoma patients achieve a clinical response to CXRT. We sought to quantify the value of surgery by comparing the overall (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) of trimodality eligible patients treated with definitive CXRT versus CXRT followed by esophagectomy. Methods We identified 143 clinical stage III esophageal adenocarcinoma patients that were eligible for trimodality therapy. All patients successfully completed neoadjuvant CXRT and were considered appropriate candidates for resection. Patients that were medically inoperable were excluded. Cox regression models were used to identify significant predictors of survival. Results Among the 143 patients eligible for surgery after completing CXRT, 114 underwent resection and 29 did not. Poorly differentiated tumors (HR=2.041, 95% CI 1.235–3.373) and surgical resection (HR=0.504, 95% CI 0.283–0.899) were the only independent predictors of OS. Patients treated with surgery had a 50% and 54% risk reduction in overall and cancer-specific mortality, respectively. Median OS (41.2 months vs. 20.3 months, p=0.012) and DFS (21.5 months vs. 11.4 months, p=0.007) were significantly improved with the addition of surgery compared to definitive CXRT. Conclusions Surgery provides a significant survival benefit to trimodality-eligible esophageal adenocarcinoma patients with locally advanced disease. PMID:23715646

  1. Case study of a chaplain's spiritual care for a patient with advanced metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Rhonda S

    2011-01-01

    The case study seeks to describe an oncology chaplain's pastoral relationship with a 64-year-old woman with advanced metastatic breast cancer. The patient's distress was complicated by a history of anxiety and other chronic medical conditions. Approximately 16 pastoral encounters occurred during the last year of the patient's life. The patient, chaplain, and the pastoral conversations are presented as well as a retrospective assessment of them. The chaplain's interventions were appropriate for the patient's spiritual needs, particularly in regard to her fear of death, loneliness, grief that her life was "too short" and estrangement from her inherited faith tradition, with observable benefits for the patient. The oncology chaplain has a distinctive role in the healthcare team as one who can meet the patient at the point of their spiritual need, provide appropriate interventions and, thereby, ameliorate the distress, particularly in regard to death anxiety, peace of mind, and issues of meaning.

  2. Dietary Advanced Glycation End Products and Risk Factors for Chronic Disease: A Systematic Review of Randomised Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Rachel E.; Dordevic, Aimee L.; Tan, Sih Min; Ryan, Lisa; Coughlan, Melinda T.

    2016-01-01

    Dietary advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) form during heating and processing of food products and are widely prevalent in the modern Western diet. Recent systematic reviews indicate that consumption of dietary AGEs may promote inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin resistance. Experimental evidence indicates that dietary AGEs may also induce renal damage, however, this outcome has not been considered in previous systematic reviews. The purpose of this review was to examine the effect of consumption of a high AGE diet on biomarkers of chronic disease, including chronic kidney disease (CKD), in human randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Six databases (SCOPUS, CINHAL, EMBASE, Medline, Biological abstracts and Web of Science) were searched for randomised controlled dietary trials that compared high AGE intake to low AGE intake in adults with and without obesity, diabetes or CKD. Twelve dietary AGE interventions were identified with a total of 293 participants. A high AGE diet increased circulating tumour necrosis factor-alpha and AGEs in all populations. A high AGE diet increased 8-isoprostanes in healthy adults, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in patients with diabetes. Markers of CKD were not widely assessed. The evidence presented indicates that a high AGE diet may contribute to risk factors associated with chronic disease, such as inflammation and oxidative stress, however, due to a lack of high quality randomised trials, more research is required. PMID:26938557

  3. The patient perspective: Quality of life in advanced heart failure with frequent hospitalisations.

    PubMed

    Nieminen, Markku S; Dickstein, Kenneth; Fonseca, Cândida; Serrano, Jose Magaña; Parissis, John; Fedele, Francesco; Wikström, Gerhard; Agostoni, Piergiuseppe; Atar, Shaul; Baholli, Loant; Brito, Dulce; Colet, Josep Comín; Édes, István; Gómez Mesa, Juan E; Gorjup, Vojka; Garza, Eduardo Herrera; González Juanatey, José R; Karanovic, Nenad; Karavidas, Apostolos; Katsytadze, Igor; Kivikko, Matti; Matskeplishvili, Simon; Merkely, Béla; Morandi, Fabrizio; Novoa, Angel; Oliva, Fabrizio; Ostadal, Petr; Pereira-Barretto, Antonio; Pollesello, Piero; Rudiger, Alain; Schwinger, Robert H G; Wieser, Manfred; Yavelov, Igor; Zymliński, Robert

    2015-07-15

    End of life is an unfortunate but inevitable phase of the heart failure patients' journey. It is often preceded by a stage in the progression of heart failure defined as advanced heart failure, and characterised by poor quality of life and frequent hospitalisations. In clinical practice, the efficacy of treatments for advanced heart failure is often assessed by parameters such as clinical status, haemodynamics, neurohormonal status, and echo/MRI indices. From the patients' perspective, however, quality-of-life-related parameters, such as functional capacity, exercise performance, psychological status, and frequency of re-hospitalisations, are more significant. The effects of therapies and interventions on these parameters are, however, underrepresented in clinical trials targeted to assess advanced heart failure treatment efficacy, and data are overall scarce. This is possibly due to a non-universal definition of the quality-of-life-related endpoints, and to the difficult standardisation of the data collection. These uncertainties also lead to difficulties in handling trade-off decisions between quality of life and survival by patients, families and healthcare providers. A panel of 34 experts in the field of cardiology and intensive cardiac care from 21 countries around the world convened for reviewing the existing data on quality-of-life in patients with advanced heart failure, discussing and reaching a consensus on the validity and significance of quality-of-life assessment methods. Gaps in routine care and research, which should be addressed, were identified. Finally, published data on the effects of current i.v. vasoactive therapies such as inotropes, inodilators, and vasodilators on quality-of-life in advanced heart failure patients were analysed.

  4. Limitation to Advanced Life Support in patients admitted to intensive care unit with integrated palliative care

    PubMed Central

    Mazutti, Sandra Regina Gonzaga; Nascimento, Andréia de Fátima; Fumis, Renata Rego Lins

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate the incidence of limitations to Advanced Life Support in critically ill patients admitted to an intensive care unit with integrated palliative care. Methods This retrospective cohort study included patients in the palliative care program of the intensive care unit of Hospital Paulistano over 18 years of age from May 1, 2011, to January 31, 2014. The limitations to Advanced Life Support that were analyzed included do-not-resuscitate orders, mechanical ventilation, dialysis and vasoactive drugs. Central tendency measures were calculated for quantitative variables. The chi-squared test was used to compare the characteristics of patients with or without limits to Advanced Life Support, and the Wilcoxon test was used to compare length of stay after Advanced Life Support. Confidence intervals reflecting p ≤ 0.05 were considered for statistical significance. Results A total of 3,487 patients were admitted to the intensive care unit, of whom 342 were included in the palliative care program. It was observed that after entering the palliative care program, it took a median of 2 (1 - 4) days for death to occur in the intensive care unit and 4 (2 - 11) days for hospital death to occur. Many of the limitations to Advanced Life Support (42.7%) took place on the first day of hospitalization. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (96.8%) and ventilatory support (73.6%) were the most adopted limitations. Conclusion The contribution of palliative care integrated into the intensive care unit was important for the practice of orthothanasia, i.e., the non-extension of the life of a critically ill patient by artificial means. PMID:27626949

  5. The unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale for advanced patients: validation and follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Youssov, Katia; Dolbeau, Guillaume; Maison, Patrick; Boissé, Marie-Françoise; Cleret de Langavant, Laurent; Roos, Raymund A C; Bachoud-Lévi, Anne-Catherine

    2013-12-01

    The Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS) adequately measures decline in patients at early and moderate stages of Huntington's disease (HD). In patients with advanced HD, floor effects hamper the evaluation, thus calling for an adjusted scale. We designed the UHDRS-For Advanced Patients (UHDRS-FAP) to improve longitudinal assessment of patients at the advanced disease stage. Sixty-nine patients with a Total Functional Capacity score ≤ 5 were recruited in France and the Netherlands. Among them, 45 patients were followed longitudinally (mean ± standard deviation, 1.6 ± 1.2 years) with the UHDRS-FAP; 30 patients also were assessed with the UHDRS. In cross-sectional analyses, the psychometric properties and inter-rater reliability of the scale were evaluated. Longitudinal analyses were used to evaluate the sensitivity to decline of the UHDRS-FAP compared with the UHDRS. Internal consistency was higher for motor (0.84) and cognitive (0.91) scores than for somatic (0.70) and behavioral (0.49) scores. Inter-rater reliability was ≥ 0.88 for all scores. The somatic score, which was specific to the UHDRS-FAP, declined over time along with motor and cognitive performance on both scales. Although performance with the two scales was correlated, the UHDRS-FAP appeared to be more sensitive to change and was the only scale that detected decline in patients with a Total Functional Capacity score ≤ 1. Neither scale detected a significant decline in behavioral scores. The results indicate that the UHDRS-FAP is reliable and more sensitive to change than the original UHDRS for cognitive and motor domains. It offers items that are relevant for daily care. Behavioral scores tended to decline, but this may reflect the decline in patients' communicative abilities.

  6. Evaluation of overall tumor cellularity after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patient with locally advanced hypopharyngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Chitose, Shun-ichi; Chijiwa, Hideki; Maeda, Akiteru; Umeno, Hirohito; Nakashima, Tadashi; Kiyokawa, Kensuke; Hayabuchi, Naofumi; Fujita, Hiromasa

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study is to clarify the prognostic value of the pathological overall tumor cellularity after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced hypopharyngeal cancer. In consecutive series of 45 operable patients with locally advanced hypopharyngeal cancer, neoadjuvant chemotherapy by cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil was administered. Pathological image analysis was performed in 30 patients using the large cross-section specimen after total resection to evaluate the overall tumor cellularity. The chemotherapeutic responses were classified according to the pathological grading scale by dividing into four categories; more than 70% overall tumor cellularity in Grade 1, between an estimated 10 and 70% in Grade 2, less than 10% in Grade 3, and no identifiable malignant tumor cells in Grade 4. The pathological grades were taken into account for analysis of the survival. In 30 available patients, 40% had Grade 1 pathological response, 30% had Grade 2, and 30% had Grade 3. There was no Grade 4 patient. The overall 5-year survival rate for these 30 patients was 53.33%. The survival rate (61.66%) for patients with Grade 2 and 3 responses was significantly higher than that (27.78%) for patients with Grade 1 response (p = 0.009). Cox regression analysis revealed that the increasing pathological grade was an independent predictor of a better survival in patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy. We have shown that the prognosis of patients with locally advanced hypopharyngeal cancer, who had been treated by neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by total resection, can be predicted by evaluation of pathological overall tumor cellularity from the large section specimen.

  7. Prostate cancer patients may have an increased risk of coexisting advanced colorectal neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Sun-Hye; Baeg, Myong Ki; Bae, Woong Jin; Kim, Pumsoo; Choi, Myung-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Background/aims Patients being treated for prostate cancer (PCa) have an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer. However, whether PCa patients are inherently at a higher risk of colorectal neoplasms (CRNs) is unknown. We aimed to investigate the risk of CRNs in PCa patients. Materials and methods Patients who had been diagnosed with PCa at a tertiary medical center and had colonoscopy within 1 year of the PCa diagnosis were investigated. Patients were propensity-matched 1:2 by age and body mass index to asymptomatic control subjects who had undergone colonoscopy for routine health screening. CRN was defined as histological confirmation of an adenoma or adenocarcinoma component. Advanced CRN was defined as any of the following: 1) histological findings of high-grade dysplasia, 2) inclusion of villous features, 3) tumor ≥1 cm in size, or 4) presence of an adenocarcinoma. Risk factors for CRN and advanced CRN were evaluated by univariate and multivariate analysis. Results A total of 191 patients diagnosed with PCa had colonoscopies within 1 year of PCa diagnosis. Of these, 23 patients with a history of previous malignancy and seven with incomplete colonoscopies were excluded, leaving 161 patients in the PCa group. Although presence of PCa was not a significant risk factor for CRN by multivariate analysis, PCa was a significant risk factor for advanced CRN (odds ratio [OR] 3.300; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.766–6.167; P<0.001). Other significant risk factors for advanced CRN were age (OR 1.050; 95% CI 1.003–1.009; P=0.036) and body mass index (OR 1.205; 95% CI 1.067–1.361; P=0.003), whereas aspirin use (OR 0.414; 95% CI 0.173–0.990; P=0.047) was a preventive factor. Conclusion The risk of advanced CRN may be significantly increased in patients with PCa. Patients with PCa should have a colonoscopy at the time of PCa diagnosis.

  8. Prostate cancer patients may have an increased risk of coexisting advanced colorectal neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Sun-Hye; Baeg, Myong Ki; Bae, Woong Jin; Kim, Pumsoo; Choi, Myung-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Background/aims Patients being treated for prostate cancer (PCa) have an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer. However, whether PCa patients are inherently at a higher risk of colorectal neoplasms (CRNs) is unknown. We aimed to investigate the risk of CRNs in PCa patients. Materials and methods Patients who had been diagnosed with PCa at a tertiary medical center and had colonoscopy within 1 year of the PCa diagnosis were investigated. Patients were propensity-matched 1:2 by age and body mass index to asymptomatic control subjects who had undergone colonoscopy for routine health screening. CRN was defined as histological confirmation of an adenoma or adenocarcinoma component. Advanced CRN was defined as any of the following: 1) histological findings of high-grade dysplasia, 2) inclusion of villous features, 3) tumor ≥1 cm in size, or 4) presence of an adenocarcinoma. Risk factors for CRN and advanced CRN were evaluated by univariate and multivariate analysis. Results A total of 191 patients diagnosed with PCa had colonoscopies within 1 year of PCa diagnosis. Of these, 23 patients with a history of previous malignancy and seven with incomplete colonoscopies were excluded, leaving 161 patients in the PCa group. Although presence of PCa was not a significant risk factor for CRN by multivariate analysis, PCa was a significant risk factor for advanced CRN (odds ratio [OR] 3.300; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.766–6.167; P<0.001). Other significant risk factors for advanced CRN were age (OR 1.050; 95% CI 1.003–1.009; P=0.036) and body mass index (OR 1.205; 95% CI 1.067–1.361; P=0.003), whereas aspirin use (OR 0.414; 95% CI 0.173–0.990; P=0.047) was a preventive factor. Conclusion The risk of advanced CRN may be significantly increased in patients with PCa. Patients with PCa should have a colonoscopy at the time of PCa diagnosis. PMID:27672332

  9. [Immunomodulator Intensification of Etioropic Therapy in Patients with Advanced Pulmonary Tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Kolomiets, V M; Abramov, A V; Rachina, N V; Rubleva, N V

    2015-01-01

    The study was aimed at possible increase of the therapy efficacy in patients with advanced tuberculosis by including immunomodulators to the treatment schemes. The data concerning 6034 patients with advanced tuberculosis, mainly fibrocavernous tuberculosis of the lungs, were analysed. Four groups of the patients were randomized. In group 1 the management of the patients included etiotropic therapy and some treatment and rehabilitation measures with the use of Cycloferon. The group 2 patients in addition to the etiotropic therapy and some treatment and rehabilitation measures were given Omega-3. In group 3 the management included the etiotropic therapy and some treatment and rehabilitation measures. In group 4 the etioropic therapy was used alone. The analysis showed that 3419 patients had primary pulmonary tuberculosis, 340 patients had relapsing tuberculosis and 2275 patients had long-term process. The etiotropic therapy efficacy was estimated after an intensive phase of not more than 3 months. In the cases with Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug resistance and some other unfavourable factors it was estimated after a 5-month intensive phase. The results confirmed that inclusion of immunomodulators to the treatment schemes allowed to increase the therapy efficacy and the patients' adherence to the treatment, as well as to shorten the period of the bacteria carriage. Thus, the use of Cycloferon in the schemes of the treatment of the patients with fibrocavernous pulmonary tuberculosis allowed to shorten the period of the pathogen carriage (as well as the drug resistant forms) in 94.1 ± 3.33% of the patients in spite of concomitant diseases. The effect of Cycloferon in such cases was likely due to both its direct immunoprotective action and the improvement of the general state of the patients and their higher adherence to the treatment.

  10. Proteinuria as a Therapeutic Target in Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease: a Retrospective Multicenter Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chang-Hsu; Wu, Hon-Yen; Wang, Chieh-Li; Yang, Feng-Jung; Wu, Pei-Chen; Hung, Szu-Chun; Kan, Wei-Chih; Yang, Chung-Wei; Chiang, Chih-Kang; Huang, Jenq-Wen; Hung, Kuan-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Current evidence of proteinuria reduction as a surrogate target in advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) is incomplete due to lack of patient-pooled database. We retrospectively studied a multicenter cohort of 1891 patients who were enrolled in the nationwide multidisciplinary pre-end stage renal disease care program with a baseline glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <45 mL/min/1.73 m2 and followed longitudinally to investigate the effect of the change in proteinuria on renal death (defined as composite of dialysis and death occurring before initiation of dialysis). The group with a change in proteinuria ≤0.30 g/g (n = 1261) had lower cumulative probabilities of renal death (p < 0.001). In a linear regression model, a higher baseline proteinuria and a greater increase in proteinuria were associated with faster annual GFR decline. Cox’s analysis showed that every 1 unit increase in natural log(baseline proteinuria, 10 g/g) and every 0.1 g/g increase in the change in proteinuria resulted in 67% (HR = 1.67, 95% CI: 1.46–1.91) and 1% (HR = 1.01, 95% CI: 1.01–1.01) greater risk of renal death respectively after adjusting for the effects of the other covariates. Our study provided a patient-based evidence to support proteinuria as a therapeutic target in advanced CKD. PMID:27198863

  11. Sneddon-Wilkinson disease induced by sorafenib in a patient with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tajiri, Kazuto; Nakajima, Takahiko; Kawai, Kengo; Minemura, Masami; Sugiyama, Toshiro

    2015-01-01

    Sorafenib is the standard treatment for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), although it is known to cause a variety of dermatologic adverse events. Subcorneal pustular dermatosis (SCPD), also known as Sneddon-Wilkinson disease, is a rare skin eruption that accompanies various systemic disorders and may become chronically progressive. We herein describe the case of a patient who developed SCPD after sorafenib administration. The dermatologic reaction was improved by the cessation of sorafenib and worsened by its readministration. Clinicians treating HCC patients with sorafenib should be aware of the possibility of SCPD. PMID:25786448

  12. Sneddon-Wilkinson disease induced by sorafenib in a patient with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tajiri, Kazuto; Nakajima, Takahiko; Kawai, Kengo; Minemura, Masami; Sugiyama, Toshiro

    2015-01-01

    Sorafenib is the standard treatment for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), although it is known to cause a variety of dermatologic adverse events. Subcorneal pustular dermatosis (SCPD), also known as Sneddon-Wilkinson disease, is a rare skin eruption that accompanies various systemic disorders and may become chronically progressive. We herein describe the case of a patient who developed SCPD after sorafenib administration. The dermatologic reaction was improved by the cessation of sorafenib and worsened by its readministration. Clinicians treating HCC patients with sorafenib should be aware of the possibility of SCPD.

  13. Predictors of psychological distress in advanced cancer patients under palliative treatments.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Frutos, D; Baca-Garcia, E; García-Foncillas, J; López-Castroman, J

    2016-07-01

    This work aims to investigate the factors associated with psychological distress in advanced cancer patients under palliative treatment. We comprehensively assessed the demographic, psychosocial and health factors of 158 advanced cancer patients. Patients with high and low distress, according to the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, were compared. A regression analysis was built to identify the best predictors of distress. Patients with high psychological distress (81%) were more likely to have lung cancer, suicidal ideation, hopelessness, low quality of life and poor body image than those without. In the multivariate model, only poor emotional functioning (OR = .89; 95% CI = .83-.95; p ≤ .001), hopelessness (OR = .86; 95% CI = .78-.94; p ≤ .001) and body image distortions (OR = .77; 95% CI = .68-.85; p = .005) were retained. High levels of hopelessness, impaired emotional functioning and body image distortions are the main factors associated with psychological distress in patients with advanced cancer. Potential interventions to modify these factors in palliative units are discussed. PMID:27271213

  14. Sorafenib-induced acute interstitial pneumonia in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Haruhiko; Nishikawa, Hiroki; Iguchi, Eriko; Matsuda, Fumihiro; Kita, Ryuichi; Kimura, Toru; Osaki, Yukio

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP) induced by sorafenib therapy in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we present three patients with advanced HCC who developed AIP during sorafenib therapy, with fatal complications in two cases. Case 1 was a 76-year-old man who developed dyspnea. Chest CT showed interstitial pneumonia. Sorafenib was discontinued immediately, and prednisolone was started. His pneumonia resolved. A drug-induced lymphocyte stimulation test for sorafenib was positive. Case 2 was a 75-year-old man and case 3 was a 77-year-old man, both of whom developed high-grade fever and hypoxemia during sorafenib therapy, and were diagnosed with AIP. In spite of high-dose steroid therapy, their respiratory failure worsened and both patients died. In all three cases, serum KL-6 or surfactant protein D concentrations were elevated, and blood and sputum cultures did not grow pathogens. All three patients were smokers with restrictive lung disease on preoperative respiratory function testing, but did not have respiratory symptoms before sorafenib therapy. The clinical features of these three cases suggest that male gender, older age, smoking history, and lung disease are associated with acute sorafenib-induced AIP in patients with advanced HCC.

  15. The Caring Connections Project: Providing palliative care to Medicaid patients with advanced cancer.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, Mark P; Ritchie, Christine; Scharfenberger, Jennifer; Keeney, Cynthia; Hermann, Carla; Berwick, Marilyn; Head, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Palliative care, with its focus on symptom management, patient-centered goals, preparation for life's end, and preservation of quality of life in the face of advancing illness, is a rapidly advancing component of mainstream American medicine. Yet, access to palliative care is often lacking in the community setting and may be further hindered by the presence of healthcare disparities that impact the poor. This article presents a unique approach to assuring the availability of palliative care to Medicaid patients receiving case management services. This descriptive article describes the evolution of a palliative care management pilot program, the Caring Connections Program, beginning with the initial planning and progressing through implementation and provision of services to 56 persons. "Lessons learned" are shared to enable other providers to develop similar programs with success. Patient profiles and intervention strategies are offered to illustrate the work accomplished.

  16. Tube feeding in patients with advanced dementia: a review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Finucane, T E; Christmas, C; Travis, K

    1999-10-13

    Patients with advanced dementia frequently develop eating difficulties and weight loss. Enteral feeding tubes are often used in this situation, yet benefits and risks of this therapy are unclear. We searched MEDLINE, 1966 through March 1999, to identify data about whether tube feeding in patients with advanced dementia can prevent aspiration pneumonia, prolong survival, reduce the risk of pressure sores or infections, improve function, or provide palliation. We found no published randomized trials that compare tube feeding with oral feeding. We found no data to suggest that tube feeding improves any of these clinically important outcomes and some data to suggest that it does not. Further, risks are substantial. The widespread practice of tube feeding should be carefully reconsidered, and we believe that for severely demented patients the practice should be discouraged on clinical grounds.

  17. Clinical and radiographic evaluation of maxillary central incisors exposure in patients undergoing maxillary advancement

    PubMed Central

    Trento, Guilherme dos Santos; Bernabé, Felipe Bueno Rosettti; da Costa, Delson João; Rebellato, Nelson Luis Barbosa; Klüppel, Leandro Eduardo; Scariot, Rafaela

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Patients with dentofacial deformities may undergo orthodontic or orthodontic-surgical treatment. Both modalities can affect esthetics. Objective: This study aims to evaluate clinical and radiographic changes in exposure of maxillary central incisors occurring after orthognathic surgery for maxillary advancement. Methods: A total of 17 patients who underwent orthognathic surgery for maxillary advancement between September, 2010 and July, 2011 were selected. Exposure of maxillary central incisors was evaluated clinically and by lateral cephalograms. Measurements were taken one week before and three months after surgery. Data were paired in terms of sex, age, nasolabial angle, height and thickness of the upper lip, the amount of maxillary advancement, clinical exposure and inclination of maxillary central incisor by statistical tests (CI 95%). Results: After maxillary advancement, incisor clinical exposure had increased even with relaxed lips and under forced smile. Moreover, there was a mean increase of 23.33% revealed by lateral cephalograms. There was an inverse correlation between upper lip thickness and incisors postsurgical exposure revealed by radiographic images (p = 0.002). Conclusions: Significant changes in the exposure of maxillary central incisors occur after maxillary advancement, under the influence of some factors, especially lip thickness. PMID:26691970

  18. Some aspects of allogeneic stem cell transplantation in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome: advances and controversy

    PubMed Central

    Blau, Olga; Blau, Igor Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a heterogeneous group of myeloid disorders. MDS remains a disease of elderly patients; moreover, the incidence of high risk MDS is proportionally greater in elderly patients, with increased frequency of secondary acute myeloid leukemia, as well as adverse cytogenetic abnormalities. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation is a therapeutic approach with known curative potential for patients with MDS that allows the achievement of long-term disease control. Numerous controversies still exist regarding transplantation in MDS: timing of transplantation, disease status at transplantation and comorbidity, conditioning intensity, pretransplant therapy, and stem cell source. Various transplant modalities of different intensities and alternative donor sources are now in use. Current advances in transplant technology are allowing the consideration of older patients. This should result in a greater number of older patients benefiting from this potentially curative treatment modality. Despite advances in transplantation technology, there is still considerable morbidity and mortality associated with this approach. Nevertheless, with the introduction of reduced-intensity conditioning and thereby reduced early mortality, transplant numbers in MDS patients have significantly increased. Moreover, recent new developments with innovative drugs, including hypomethylating agents, have extended the therapeutic alternatives for MDS patients. Hypomethylating agents allow the delay of allogeneic stem cell transplantation by serving as an effective and well-tolerated means to reduce disease burden. PMID:25506229

  19. Bilateral subthalamic stimulation monotherapy in advanced Parkinson's disease: long-term follow-up of patients.

    PubMed

    Valldeoriola, Francesc; Pilleri, Manuela; Tolosa, Eduardo; Molinuevo, José L; Rumià, Jordi; Ferrer, Enric

    2002-01-01

    Bilateral subthalamic nucleus stimulation (STN-DBS) is used to improve parkinsonian symptoms and attenuate levodopa-induced motor complications. In some patients, such clinical improvement allows antiparkinsonian medication (ApMed) withdrawal. We show the clinical outcome at the long-term follow-up of patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) in which STN-DBS was used in monotherapy, and compare the clinical results of patients without medication with those obtained in parkinsonian patients in which ApMed were reduced but could not be totally displaced after surgery. We analyzed clinical outcome of ten patients with PD in which all ApMed was withdrawn after bilateral subthalamic stimulation and 16 parkinsonian patients still taking antiparkinsonian medication after surgery. After 1.5 years, STN-DBS monotherapy produced UPDRS motor scores similar to those observed in the on-drug condition before surgery without the inconvenience of motor fluctuations and dyskinesias. No significant differences were seen in most of clinical outcome measures when comparing patients still taking ApMed with patients in STN-DBS monotherapy but a few patients still taking ApMed presented mild dyskinesias and motor fluctuations and patients with STN-DBS monotherapy did not. STN-DBS is useful in the treatment of advanced PD and in some patients it is possible to maintain this therapy alone in the long term. The therapeutic effect of STN-DBS on motor signs can be equipotent to that of levodopa with the additional benefit of avoiding motor fluctuations and dyskinesias.

  20. Unified Huntington's disease rating scale for advanced patients: validation and follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Youssov, Katia; Dolbeau, Guillaume; Maison, Patrick; Boissé, Marie-Françoise; Cleret de Langavant, Laurent; Roos, Raymund A C; Bachoud-Lévi, Anne-Catherine

    2013-10-01

    The Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS) adequately measures decline in patients at early and moderate stages of Huntington's disease (HD). In advanced patients, floor effects hamper the evaluation, thus calling for an adjusted scale. We designed the UHDRS-For Advanced Patients (UHDRS-FAP), in order to improve longitudinal assessment of patients at advanced disease stage. Sixty-nine patients with a Total Functional Capacity (TFC)  ≤  5 were recruited in France and in the Netherlands. Among them, 45 patients were followed longitudinally (mean 1.6  ±  1.2 years) with the UHDRS-FAP; 30 were also assessed with the UHDRS. Cross-sectional analyses evaluated psychometric properties and interrater reliability of the scale. Longitudinal analyses evaluated the sensitivity to decline compared to the UHDRS. Internal consistency was higher for motor and cognitive scores than for somatic and behavioral scores (0.84, 0.91, 0.70, and 0.49, respectively). Interrater reliability was  ≥  0.88 in all scores. The somatic score, specific to the UHDRS-FAP, declined over time, as well as motor and cognitive performance with both scales. Although performance with the 2 scales correlated, the UHDRS-FAP appeared more sensitive to change and was the only scale that detected decline in patients with a TFC  ≤  1. Neither scale detected a significant decline in behavioral scores. The UHDRS-FAP is reliable and more sensitive to change than the original UHDRS for cognitive and motor domains. It offers items relevant for daily care. Behavioral scores tended to decline but this may reflect the decline in the communicative abilities of the patients.

  1. The association between malnutrition and psychological distress in patients with advanced head-and-neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ma, L.; Poulin, P.; Feldstain, A.; Chasen, M.R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Malnutrition and psychological distress are often seen in patients with head-and-neck cancer, but little is known about the interrelationships between those two symptoms. The present study examined the relationship between malnutrition and psychological distress in patients with advanced head-and-neck cancer. Methods Using the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment, 99 patients with advanced-stage head-and-neck cancer were screened for nutrition status. The patients were also screened for psychosocial distress (using the Distress Thermometer) and for psychosocial issues (using the Problem Checklist). Any relationship between malnutrition and psychosocial distress was determined by regression and correlation analysis. We also used t-tests to compare distress levels for patients with and without specific nutrition-related symptoms. Results The study group included 80 men and 19 women [mean age: 58.4 ± 10.9 years (range: 23–85 years)]. The correlation between poorer nutrition status and level of psychological distress was significant r = 0.37 (p < 0.001). Specifically, reduced food intake and symptoms were both positively associated with distress: r = 0.27 and r = 0.29 respectively, both significant at p < 0.01. After controlling for the effects of psychosocial problems and pain, nutrition status remained a significant predictor of distress, explaining 3.8% of the variance in the distress scores of the patients (p < 0.05). Conclusions Malnutrition and symptoms were strongly related to distress in patients with advanced head-and-neck cancer. Our results suggest the need for further research into the complex relationship between nutrition status and distress and into the management of both nutrition and distress in cancer care. PMID:24311956

  2. The effects of curcumin (diferuloylmethane) on body composition of patients with advanced pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Henrique A.; Baracos, Vickie E.; Hong, David S.; Abbruzzese, James; Bruera, Eduardo; Kurzrock, Razelle

    2016-01-01

    Background Curcumin is a natural product that is often explored by patients with cancer. Weight loss due to fat and muscle depletion is a hallmark of pancreatic cancer and is associated with worse outcomes. Studies of curcumin's effects on muscularity show conflicting results in animal models. Methods and results Retrospective matched 1:2 case-control study to evaluate the effects of curcumin on body composition (determined by computerized tomography) of 66 patients with advanced pancreatic cancer (22 treated,44 controls). Average age (SEM) was 63(1.8) years, 30/66(45%) women, median number of prior therapies was 2, median (IQR) time from advanced pancreatic cancer diagnosis to baseline image was 7(2-13.5) months (p>0.2, all variables). All patients lost weight (3.3% and 1.3%, treated vs. control, p=0.13). Treated patients lost more muscle (median [IQR] percent change −4.8[−9.1,-0.1] vs. −0.05%[−4.2, 2.6] in controls,p<0.001) and fat (median [IQR] percent change −6.8%[−15,-0.6] vs. −4.0%[−7.6, 1.3] in controls,p=0.04). Subcutaneous fat was more affected in the treated patients. Sarcopenic patients treated with curcumin(n=15) had survival of 169(115-223) days vs. 299(229-369) sarcopenic controls(p=0.024). No survival difference was found amongst non-sarcopenic patients. Conclusions Patients with advanced pancreatic cancer treated with curcumin showed significantly greater loss of subcutaneous fat and muscle than matched untreated controls. PMID:26934122

  3. Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of Individual Meaning-Centered Psychotherapy for Patients With Advanced Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Breitbart, William; Poppito, Shannon; Rosenfeld, Barry; Vickers, Andrew J.; Li, Yuelin; Abbey, Jennifer; Olden, Megan; Pessin, Hayley; Lichtenthal, Wendy; Sjoberg, Daniel; Cassileth, Barrie R.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Spiritual well-being and sense of meaning are important concerns for clinicians who care for patients with cancer. We developed Individual Meaning-Centered Psychotherapy (IMCP) to address the need for brief interventions targeting spiritual well-being and meaning for patients with advanced cancer. Patients and Methods Patients with stage III or IV cancer (N = 120) were randomly assigned to seven sessions of either IMCP or therapeutic massage (TM). Patients were assessed before and after completing the intervention and 2 months postintervention. Primary outcome measures assessed spiritual well-being and quality of life; secondary outcomes included anxiety, depression, hopelessness, symptom burden, and symptom-related distress. Results Of the 120 participants randomly assigned, 78 (65%) completed the post-treatment assessment and 67 (56%) completed the 2-month follow-up. At the post-treatment assessment, IMCP participants demonstrated significantly greater improvement than the control condition for the primary outcomes of spiritual well-being (b = 0.39; P <.001, including both components of spiritual well-being (sense of meaning: b = 0.34; P = .003 and faith: b = 0.42; P = .03), and quality of life (b = 0.76; P = .013). Significantly greater improvements for IMCP patients were also observed for the secondary outcomes of symptom burden (b = −6.56; P < .001) and symptom-related distress (b = −0.47; P < .001) but not for anxiety, depression, or hopelessness. At the 2-month follow-up assessment, the improvements observed for the IMCP group were no longer significantly greater than those observed for the TM group. Conclusion IMCP has clear short-term benefits for spiritual suffering and quality of life in patients with advanced cancer. Clinicians working with patients who have advanced cancer should consider IMCP as an approach to enhance quality of life and spiritual well-being. PMID:22370330

  4. Interleukin-6 and leptin as markers of energy metabolicchanges in advanced ovarian cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Macciò, Antonio; Madeddu, Clelia; Massa, Daniela; Astara, Giorgio; Farci, Daniele; Melis, Gian Benedetto; Mantovani, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    The progression of the neoplastic disease is characterized by specific alterations of energy metabolism and by symptoms like fatigue, anorexia, nausea, anaemia, immunodepression and poor performance status (PS). The main cause of these symptoms and metabolic abnormalities is the chronic action of proinflammatory cytokines released both by tumour and immune cells. The present study aimed to assess the relationship between markers of inflammation (C-Reactive Protein, Fibrinogen, proinflammatory cytokines) and energy metabolic status (BMI, leptin, oxidative stress) according to clinical parameters in 104 ovarian cancer patients at different stage and, moreover, to evaluate prospectively the changes of these parameters in accordance to tumour response in a subgroup of 70 advanced stage ovarian cancer patients. Advanced stage and poor PS were associated to high-grade inflammation and impaired energy metabolism. Among inflammatory mediators, interleukin (IL)-6 had a central role as predictive factor of leptin, reactive oxygen species and glutathione peroxidase. In turn, leptin considered the key marker of the nutritional status and energy metabolism, was independently determined from stage and IL-6, not only from BMI. Moreover, the evaluation of the changes of these parameters during the course of the neoplastic disease in the subgroup of advanced ovarian cancer patients clearly unveils the central role of IL-6 and leptin as early markers of the metabolic alterations and symptoms associated to disease progression in advanced stage ovarian cancer. Their assessment should be included in monitoring disease outcome, especially when cancer is no longer curable and quality of life becomes the primary endpoint. PMID:18624749

  5. Interleukin-6 and leptin as markers of energy metabolic changes in advanced ovarian cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Macciò, Antonio; Madeddu, Clelia; Massa, Daniela; Astara, Giorgio; Farci, Daniele; Melis, Gian Benedetto; Mantovani, Giovanni

    2009-09-01

    The progression of the neoplastic disease is characterized by specific alterations of energy metabolism and by symptoms like fatigue, anorexia, nausea, anaemia, immunodepression and poor performance status (PS). The main cause of these symptoms and metabolic abnormalities is the chronic action of proinflammatory cytokines released both by tumour and immune cells. The present study aimed to assess the relationship between markers of inflammation (C-Reactive Protein, Fibrinogen, proinflammatory cytokines) and energy metabolic status (BMI, leptin, oxidative stress) according to clinical parameters in 104 ovarian cancer patients at different stage and, moreover, to evaluate prospectively the changes of these parameters in accordance to tumour response in a subgroup of 70 advanced stage ovarian cancer patients. Advanced stage and poor PS were associated to high-grade inflammation and impaired energy metabolism. Among inflammatory mediators, interleukin (IL)-6 had a central role as predictive factor of leptin, reactive oxygen species and glutathione peroxidase. In turn, leptin considered the key marker of the nutritional status and energy metabolism, was independently determined from stage and IL-6, not only from BMI. Moreover, the evaluation of the changes of these parameters during the course of the neoplastic disease in the subgroup of advanced ovarian cancer patients clearly unveils the central role of IL-6 and leptin as early markers of the metabolic alterations and symptoms associated to disease progression in advanced stage ovarian cancer. Their assessment should be included in monitoring disease outcome, especially when cancer is no longer curable and quality of life becomes the primary endpoint. PMID:18624749

  6. A Potential Role for Mechanical Forces in the Detachment of Podocytes and the Progression of CKD

    PubMed Central

    Lemley, Kevin V.

    2015-01-01

    Loss of podocytes underlies progression of CKD. Detachment of podocytes from the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) rather than apoptosis or necrosis seems to be the major mechanism of podocyte loss. Such detachment of viable podocytes may be caused by increased mechanical distending and shear forces and/or impaired adhesion to the GBM. This review considers the mechanical challenges that may lead to podocyte loss by detachment from the GBM under physiologic and pathophysiologic conditions, including glomerular hypertension, hyperfiltration, hypertrophy, and outflow of filtrate from subpodocyte spaces. Furthermore, we detail the cellular mechanisms by which podocytes respond to these challenges, discuss the protective effects of angiotensin blockade, and note the questions that must be addressed to better understand the relationship between podocyte detachment and progression of CKD. PMID:25060060

  7. Successful treatment of critically ill chronic kidney disease patient with multi-organ dysfunction associated with H1N1 infection.

    PubMed

    Kute, V B; Shah, P R; Goplani, K R; Vanikar, A V; Trivedi, H L

    2011-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are at higher risk of H1N1 influenza A infection and associated complications. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a febrile CKD patient with multi-organ dysfunction and associated H1N1 virus infection successfully treated with oseltamivir, hemodialysis, and mechanical ventilation. Oseltamivir is safe, effective, and well tolerated in our CKD patient.

  8. Foreign travel for advanced cancer patients: a guide for healthcare professionals

    PubMed Central

    Perdue, Colin; Noble, Simon

    2007-01-01

    The opportunity for a patient with advanced cancer to travel abroad may, for some, be a life affirming event during a dark period in their life. For others, what they hoped to be a time of joy may become an unmitigated disaster if they become unwell while away from the safety net of local cancer services. The rise of low budget airlines and cheaper foreign travel has led to an increase in the number of people travelling by air. Health professionals are more likely to face requests by patients to advise them on travel plans. Although foreign travel is an unrealistic goal for some patients, appropriate forward planning and proactive management can allow some patients to make an important journey abroad. This paper looks at the practical issues facing cancer patients who intend to travel overseas and offers practical advice on considerations that need to be made. PMID:17621611

  9. Foreign travel for advanced cancer patients: a guide for healthcare professionals.

    PubMed

    Perdue, Colin; Noble, Simon

    2007-07-01

    The opportunity for a patient with advanced cancer to travel abroad may, for some, be a life affirming event during a dark period in their life. For others, what they hoped to be a time of joy may become an unmitigated disaster if they become unwell while away from the safety net of local cancer services. The rise of low budget airlines and cheaper foreign travel has led to an increase in the number of people travelling by air. Health professionals are more likely to face requests by patients to advise them on travel plans. Although foreign travel is an unrealistic goal for some patients, appropriate forward planning and proactive management can allow some patients to make an important journey abroad. This paper looks at the practical issues facing cancer patients who intend to travel overseas and offers practical advice on considerations that need to be made. PMID:17621611

  10. Phytoextraction of chloride from a cement kiln dust (CKD) contaminated landfill with Phragmites australis.

    PubMed

    McSorley, Kaitlin; Rutter, Allison; Cumming, Robert; Zeeb, Barbara A

    2016-05-01

    Cement kiln dust (CKD) is a globally produced by-product from cement manufacturing that is stockpiled or landfilled. Elevated concentrations of chloride pose toxic threats to plants and aquatic communities, as the anion is highly mobile in water and can leach into surrounding water sources. Re-vegetation and in situ phytoextraction of chloride from a CKD landfill in Bath, ON, Canada, was investigated with the resident invasive species Phragmites australis (haplotype M). Existing stands of P. australis were transplanted from the perimeter of the site into the highest areas of contamination (5.9×10(3)μg/g). Accumulation in the shoots of P. australis was quantified over one growing season by collecting samples from the site on a bi-weekly basis and analyzing for chloride. Concentrations decreased significantly from early May (24±2.2×10(3)μg/g) until mid-June (15±2.5×10(3)μg/g), and then remained stable from June to August. Shoot chloride accumulation was not significantly affected by water level fluctuations at the site, however elevated potassium concentrations in the soil may have contributed to uptake. Based on shoot chloride accumulation and total biomass, it was determined that phytoextraction from the CKD landfill can remove 65±4kg/km(2) of chloride per season. Based on this extraction rate, removal of chloride present in the highly contaminated top 10cm of soil can be achieved in 3-9years. This is the first study to apply phytotechnologies at a CKD landfill, and to successfully demonstrate in situ phytoextraction of chloride.

  11. Phytoextraction of chloride from a cement kiln dust (CKD) contaminated landfill with Phragmites australis.

    PubMed

    McSorley, Kaitlin; Rutter, Allison; Cumming, Robert; Zeeb, Barbara A

    2016-05-01

    Cement kiln dust (CKD) is a globally produced by-product from cement manufacturing that is stockpiled or landfilled. Elevated concentrations of chloride pose toxic threats to plants and aquatic communities, as the anion is highly mobile in water and can leach into surrounding water sources. Re-vegetation and in situ phytoextraction of chloride from a CKD landfill in Bath, ON, Canada, was investigated with the resident invasive species Phragmites australis (haplotype M). Existing stands of P. australis were transplanted from the perimeter of the site into the highest areas of contamination (5.9×10(3)μg/g). Accumulation in the shoots of P. australis was quantified over one growing season by collecting samples from the site on a bi-weekly basis and analyzing for chloride. Concentrations decreased significantly from early May (24±2.2×10(3)μg/g) until mid-June (15±2.5×10(3)μg/g), and then remained stable from June to August. Shoot chloride accumulation was not significantly affected by water level fluctuations at the site, however elevated potassium concentrations in the soil may have contributed to uptake. Based on shoot chloride accumulation and total biomass, it was determined that phytoextraction from the CKD landfill can remove 65±4kg/km(2) of chloride per season. Based on this extraction rate, removal of chloride present in the highly contaminated top 10cm of soil can be achieved in 3-9years. This is the first study to apply phytotechnologies at a CKD landfill, and to successfully demonstrate in situ phytoextraction of chloride. PMID:26597371

  12. Association between physical performance and all-cause mortality in CKD.

    PubMed

    Roshanravan, Baback; Robinson-Cohen, Cassianne; Patel, Kushang V; Ayers, Ernest; Littman, Alyson J; de Boer, Ian H; Ikizler, T Alp; Himmelfarb, Jonathan; Katzel, Leslie I; Kestenbaum, Bryan; Seliger, Stephen

    2013-04-01

    In older adults, measurements of physical performance assess physical function and associate with mortality and disability. Muscle wasting and diminished physical performance often accompany CKD, resembling physiologic aging, but whether physical performance associates with clinical outcome in CKD is unknown. We evaluated 385 ambulatory, stroke-free participants with stage 2-4 CKD enrolled in clinic-based cohorts at the University of Washington and University of Maryland and Veterans Affairs Maryland Healthcare systems. We compared handgrip strength, usual gait speed, timed up and go (TUAG), and 6-minute walking distance with normative values and constructed Cox proportional hazards models and receiver operating characteristic curves to test associations with all-cause mortality. Mean age was 61 years and the mean estimated GFR was 41 ml/min per 1.73 m(2). Measures of lower extremity performance were at least 30% lower than predicted, but handgrip strength was relatively preserved. Fifty deaths occurred during the median 3-year follow-up period. After adjustment, each 0.1-m/s decrement in gait speed associated with a 26% higher risk for death, and each 1-second longer TUAG associated with an 8% higher risk for death. On the basis of the receiver operating characteristic analysis, gait speed and TUAG more strongly predicted 3-year mortality than kidney function or commonly measured serum biomarkers. Adding gait speed to a model that included estimated GFR significantly improved the prediction of 3-year mortality. In summary, impaired physical performance of the lower extremities is common in CKD and strongly associates with all-cause mortality. PMID:23599380

  13. GFR decline as an end point for clinical trials in CKD: a scientific workshop sponsored by the National Kidney Foundation and the US Food and Drug Administration.

    PubMed

    Levey, Andrew S; Inker, Lesley A; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Greene, Tom; Willis, Kerry; Lewis, Edmund; de Zeeuw, Dick; Cheung, Alfred K; Coresh, Josef

    2014-12-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration currently accepts halving of glomerular filtration rate (GFR), assessed as doubling of serum creatinine level, as a surrogate end point for the development of kidney failure in clinical trials of kidney disease progression. A doubling of serum creatinine level generally is a late event in chronic kidney disease (CKD); thus, there is great interest in considering alternative end points for clinical trials to shorten their duration, reduce sample size, and extend their conduct to patients with earlier stages of CKD. However, the relationship between lesser declines in GFR and the subsequent development of kidney failure has not been well characterized. The National Kidney Foundation and Food and Drug Administration sponsored a scientific workshop to critically examine available data to determine whether alternative GFR-based end points have sufficiently strong relationships with important clinical outcomes of CKD to be used in clinical trials. Based on a series of meta-analyses of cohorts and clinical trials and simulations of trial designs and analytic methods, the workshop concluded that a confirmed decline in estimated GFR of 30% over 2 to 3 years may be an acceptable surrogate end point in some circumstances, but the pattern of treatment effects on GFR must be examined, specifically acute effects on estimated GFR. An estimated GFR decline of 40% may be more broadly acceptable than a 30% decline across a wider range of baseline GFRs and patterns of treatment effects on GFR. However, there are other circumstances in which these end points could lead to a reduction in statistical power or erroneous conclusions regarding benefits or harms of interventions. We encourage careful consideration of these alternative end points in the design of future clinical trials.

  14. IL-2-Activated Killer Cells and Native Cytokines in Treatment of Patients with Advanced Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ostanin, Alexander A.; Chernykh, Helena R.; Leplina, Olga Y.; Shevela, Ekaterina Ya.; Niconov, Sergey D.; Kozlov, Vladimir A.

    1997-12-01

    We evaluated the efficiency/tolerability of and the immunological changes induced by the adoptive immunotherapy (AIT) with IL-2-activated killer cells, and preparation of native cytokines from swine spleen (PSS) in treatment of 20 patients with advanced cancer (10 patients with primary lung cancer; 3 with metastatic melanoma; 2 with advanced neuroblastoma; 2 with ovarian cancer; renal cancer; gastric adenocarcinoma; and colorectal cancer). The partial/minor response of duration period 2-10 months was observed in 20% of patients. 2/4 patients, who underwent partial surgical tumor resection and following AIT course, sustained the event-free survival for more than 24 months. The response to the therapy was revealed in 4/10 patients with lung cancer, 2/2 patients with neuroblastoma, of whom each had ovarian and colorectal cancers. The evaluation of a dose of infused LAKcells as well as combined i.v./local (endobronchial or endoperitoneal) LAK administration were necessary to assure positive response in patients. The cytokine and/or side effects were moderate and the combined LAK-PSS infusions were generally well tolerated by the patients. The treatment was followed by activation of the patient immune system that included: (i) rebound in amount of peripheral blood lymphocytes; (ii) gain in amount of CD3(+) T cells and those CD4(+) helper/inducer; (iii) enchantment of lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production (IL-2, IL-1, TNF-alpha). Being injected to patients in combination with LAK cells, cytokines related to PSS action and/or those, either exogenous or secondary, and released by in vitro and in vivo, activated lymphocytes and could cause the therapeutic effects.

  15. Development of a Model of Chronic Kidney Disease in the C57BL/6 Mouse with Properties of Progressive Human CKD.

    PubMed

    Mohammed-Ali, Zahraa; Cruz, Gaile L; Lu, Chao; Carlisle, Rachel E; Werner, Kaitlyn E; Ask, Kjetil; Dickhout, Jeffrey G

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major healthcare problem with increasing prevalence in the population. CKD leads to end stage renal disease and increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. As such, it is important to study the mechanisms underlying CKD progression. To this end, an animal model was developed to allow the testing of new treatment strategies or molecular targets for CKD prevention. Many underlying risk factors result in CKD but the disease itself has common features, including renal interstitial fibrosis, tubular epithelial cell loss through apoptosis, glomerular damage, and renal inflammation. Further, CKD shows differences in prevalence between the genders with premenopausal women being relatively resistant to CKD. We sought to develop and characterize an animal model with these common features of human CKD in the C57BL/6 mouse. Mice of this genetic background have been used to produce transgenic strains that are commercially available. Thus, a CKD model in this strain would allow the testing of the effects of numerous genes on the severity or progression of CKD with minimal cost. This paper describes such a mouse model of CKD utilizing angiotensin II and deoxycorticosterone acetate as inducers.

  16. Laser immunotherapy for treatment of patients with advanced breast cancer and melanoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaosong; Hode, Tomas; Guerra, Maria C.; Ferrel, Gabriela L.; Nordquist, Robert E.; Chen, Wei R.

    2011-02-01

    Laser immunotherapy (LIT) was developed for the treatment of metastatic tumors. It combines local selective photothermal interaction and active immunological stimulation to induce a long-term, systemic anti-tumor immunity. During the past sixteen years, LIT has been advanced from bench-top to bedside, with promising outcomes. In our pre-clinical and preliminary clinical studies, LIT has demonstrated the capability in inducing immunological responses, which not only can eradicate the treated primary tumors, but also can eliminate untreated metastases at distant sites. Specifically, LIT has been used to treat advanced melanoma and breast cancer patients during the past five years. LIT was shown to be effective in controlling both primary tumors and distant metastases in late-stage patients, who have failed conventional therapies such as surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, and other more advanced approaches. The methodology and the development of LIT are presented in this paper. The patients' responses to LIT are also reported in this paper. The preliminary results obtained in these studies indicated that LIT could be an effective modality for the treatment of patients with late-stage, metastatic cancers, who are facing severely limited options.

  17. Disparities in the Use of Radiation Therapy in Patients With Local-Regionally Advanced Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, Steve R.; Beal, Shannon H.; Chen, Steven L.; Canter, Robert J.; Khatri, Vijay P.; Chen, Allen; Bold, Richard J.

    2010-11-01

    Background: Radiation therapy (RT) is indicated for the treatment of local-regionally advanced breast cancer (BCa). Hypothesis: We hypothesized that black and Hispanic patients with local-regionally advanced BCa would receive lower rates of RT than their white counterparts. Methods: The Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database was used to identify white, black, Hispanic, and Asian patients with invasive BCa and {>=}10 metastatic lymph nodes diagnosed between 1988 and 2005. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression evaluated the relationship of race/ethnicity with use of RT. Multivariate models stratified for those undergoing mastectomy or lumpectomy. Results: Entry criteria were met by 12,653 patients. Approximately half of the patients did not receive RT. Most patients were white (72%); the remainder were Hispanic (10.4%), black (10.3%), and Asian (7.3%). On univariate analysis, Hispanics (odd ratio [OR] 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.79-1.00) and blacks (OR 0.79; 95% CI, 0.70-0.89) were less likely to receive RT than whites. On multivariate analysis, blacks (OR 0.76; 95% CI, 0.67-0.86) and Hispanics (OR 0.80; 95% CI, 0.70-0.90) were less likely than whites to receive RT. Disparities persisted for blacks (OR 0.74; 95% CI, 0.64-0.85) and Hispanics (OR 0.77; 95% CI, 0.67-0.89) who received mastectomy, but not for those who received lumpectomy. Conclusions: Many patients with local-regionally advanced BCa do not receive RT. Blacks and Hispanics were less likely than whites to receive RT. This disparity was noted predominately in patients who received mastectomy. Future efforts at improving rates of RT are warranted. Efforts at eliminating racial/ethnic disparities should focus on black and Hispanic candidates for postmastectomy RT.

  18. Phosphate homeostasis in CKD: report of a scientific symposium sponsored by the National Kidney Foundation.

    PubMed

    Block, Geoffrey A; Ix, Joachim H; Ketteler, Markus; Martin, Kevin J; Thadhani, Ravi I; Tonelli, Marcello; Wolf, Myles; Jüppner, Harald; Hruska, Keith; Wheeler, David C

    2013-09-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD)-mineral and bone disorder is associated with diverse metabolic and endocrine disturbances that ultimately may contribute to further loss of kidney function, bone demineralization, and fatal or nonfatal cardiovascular events. Recent insights into the pathophysiology of the events that unfold during the development of this disorder suggest that disturbances in phosphate metabolism are pivotal. The consequences of abnormal phosphate homeostasis are evident at estimated glomerular filtration rates <70 mL/min/1.73 m(2), long before serum phosphate levels increase. Healthy individuals with blood phosphate levels in the top quartile of the normal range have an increased risk of developing CKD, reaching end-stage renal disease, and experiencing cardiovascular events. Substantial public health consequences may be related to increased dietary phosphorus exposure from additives that contain phosphate in the food supply and from modest increases in serum phosphate levels; however, it remains to be established whether interventions aimed at these targets can impact on the development of adverse clinical outcomes. Current approaches involving dietary intervention and intestinal phosphate binders are based on principles and assumptions that need to be examined more rigorously. Compelling animal, observational, and clinical data indicate that interventions directed at lowering phosphate exposure and serum phosphate levels should be subject to rigorous clinical trials that use appropriate placebo comparators and focus on key clinical outcomes, such as cardiovascular events, progression of CKD, fractures, quality of life, and mortality.

  19. Masked Hypertension Associates with Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Children with CKD

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Joseph; Cohn, Silvia; Samuels, Joshua; Blydt-Hansen, Tom; Saland, Jeffrey; Kimball, Thomas; Furth, Susan; Warady, Bradley

    2010-01-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) associates with increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Hypertension leads to LVH in adults, but its role in the pathogenesis of LVH in children is not as well established. To examine left ventricular mass and evaluate factors associated with LVH in children with stages 2 through 4 chronic kidney disease (CKD), we analyzed cross-sectional data from children who had baseline echocardiography (n = 366) and underwent ambulatory BP monitoring (n = 226) as a part of the observational Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) cohort study. At baseline, 17% of children had LVH (11% eccentric and 6% concentric) and 9% had concentric remodeling of the left ventricle. On the basis of a combination of ambulatory and casual BP assessment (n = 198), 38% of children had masked hypertension (normal casual but elevated ambulatory BP) and 18% had confirmed hypertension (both elevated casual and ambulatory BP). There was no significant association between LVH and kidney function. LVH was more common in children with either confirmed (34%) or masked (20%) hypertension compared with children with normal casual and ambulatory BP (8%). In multivariable analysis, masked (odds ratio 4.1) and confirmed (odds ratio 4.3) hypertension were the strongest independent predictors of LVH. In conclusion, casual BP measurements alone are insufficient to predict the presence of LVH in children with CKD. The high prevalence of masked hypertension and its association with LVH supports early echocardiography and ambulatory BP monitoring to evaluate cardiovascular risk in children with CKD. PMID:19917781

  20. Symptom clusters and quality of life among patients with advanced heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Doris SF; Chan, Helen YL; Leung, Doris YP; Hui, Elsie; Sit, Janet WH

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To identify symptom clusters among patients with advanced heart failure (HF) and the independent relationships with their quality of life (QoL). Methods This is the secondary data analysis of a cross-sectional study which interviewed 119 patients with advanced HF in the geriatric unit of a regional hospital in Hong Kong. The symptom profile and QoL were assessed by using the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS) and the McGill QoL Questionnaire. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify the symptom clusters. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to examine the independent relationships with their QoL, after adjusting the effects of age, gender, and comorbidities. Results The patients were at an advanced age (82.9 ± 6.5 years). Three distinct symptom clusters were identified: they were the distress cluster (including shortness of breath, anxiety, and depression), the decondition cluster (fatigue, drowsiness, nausea, and reduced appetite), and the discomfort cluster (pain, and sense of generalized discomfort). These three symptom clusters accounted for 63.25% of variance of the patients' symptom experience. The small to moderate correlations between these symptom clusters indicated that they were rather independent of one another. After adjusting the age, gender and comorbidities, the distress (β = −0.635, P < 0.001), the decondition (β = −0.148, P = 0.01), and the discomfort (β = −0.258, P < 0.001) symptom clusters independently predicted their QoL. Conclusions This study identified the distinctive symptom clusters among patients with advanced HF. The results shed light on the need to develop palliative care interventions for optimizing the symptom control for this life-limiting disease. PMID:27403150

  1. Selecting the best strategy of treatment in newly diagnosed advanced-stage ovarian cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Minig, Lucas; Zorrero, Cristina; Iserte, Pablo Padilla; Poveda, Andres

    2015-12-26

    Although it is assumed that the combination of chemotherapy and radical surgery should be indicated in all newly diagnosed advanced-stage ovarian cancer patients, one of the main raised questions is how to select the best strategy of initial treatment in this group of patients, neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by interval debulking surgery or primary debulking surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy. The selection criteria to offer one strategy over the other as well as a stepwise patient selection for initial treatment are described. Selecting the best strategy of treatment in newly diagnosed advanced stage ovarian cancer patients is a multifactorial and multidisciplinary decision. Several factors should be taken into consideration: (1) the disease factor, related to the extension and localization of the disease as well as tumor biology; (2) the patient factor, associated with patient age, poor performance status, and co-morbidities; and (3) institutional infrastructure factor, related to the lack of prolonged operative time, an appropriate surgical armamentarium, as well as well-equipped intensive care units with well-trained personnel.

  2. Recent advances in managing chronic HCV infection: focus on therapy in patients with severe liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Maan, Raoel; van der Meer, Adriaan J.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection still represents a major public health problem, as it is thought to be responsible for more than 350,000 deaths around the globe on a yearly basis. Fortunately, successful eradication of the virus has been associated with improved clinical outcome and reduced mortality rates. In the past few years, treatment has improved considerably by the implementation of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). From 2014 onwards, sofosbuvir, simeprevir, daclatasvir, ledipasvir, paritaprevir, ombitasvir, and dasabuvir have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA). Regimens with various combinations of these new drugs, without the use of interferon (IFN), proved to be very effective and well tolerated, even among patients with advanced liver disease. Moreover, treatment duration could be shortened to 12 weeks in the majority of patients. The high costs of these DAAs, however, limit the availability of IFN-free therapy worldwide. Even in wealthy countries, it is deemed necessary to prioritize DAA treatment in order to limit the immediate impact on the health budget. As patients with advanced liver disease are in most need of HCV clearance, many countries decided to treat those patients first. In the current review, we focus on the currently available IFN-free treatment options for patients with cirrhosis. We discuss the virological efficacy as well as the clinical relevance of these regimens among this specific patient population. PMID:27006761

  3. [Efficacy and safety of selective estrogen receptor modulators in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease].

    PubMed

    Nakai, Kentaro

    2016-09-01

    Selective estrogen receptor modulators(SERMs)have beneficial effects on the improvement of bone mineral density of the spine and hip, and decrease the vertebral fracture in postmenopausal women. Similar to patients with advanced chronic kidney disease, including dialysis patients, however, SERMs cannot decrease the risk of hip fracture, which is extremely high in Japanese dialysis patients. One of the most important disadvantages of SERMs is an increase in the risk of venous thromboembolic events and fatal stroke in high-risk groups of the Framingham Stroke Risk Score. On the other hand, SERMs may be used in unique osteoporosis drugs for reducing the incidence and progression of breast cancer. Moreover, SERMs attenuate oxidative stress and may lessen the deterioration of kidney function in patients with chronic kidney disease. The evidences for the efficacy and safety of SERMs in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease are insufficient, and knowledge concerning the selection and indication of osteoporosis drugs for those patients need to be developed. PMID:27561348

  4. Chemotherapy in elderly patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Quoix, Elisabeth; Westeel, Virginie; Zalcman, Gérard; Milleron, Bernard

    2011-12-01

    Because of increasing life expectancy and of higher risk of cancer with ageing, lung cancer in elderly is a frequent disease. For a long time nihilism influenced treatment decisions in elderly patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Since the beginning of the last decade single agent chemotherapy has been accepted as standard of care, vinorelbine and gemcitabine being the most frequently used drugs in Europe and US, docetaxel in Japan. Platinum-based doublets have been shown to be superior to monotherapy in young and fit patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Although there were some indications from subgroup analyses of clinical trials not specifically dedicated to elderly patients that a platinum-based doublet might also benefit to older patients, there was no definitive proof of concept until ASCO meeting 2010. At this meeting results of a phase 3 trial showed that PS 0-2 patients, aged 70-89 years drove a significant benefit from a treatment with carboplatin associated to weekly paclitaxel compared to a monotherapy. Thus, the paradigm of treatment in elderly patients should perhaps be modified from a single agent to doublet chemotherapy. Whether other platinum-based doublets would provide the same benefit as the specific one studied remains to be evaluated. PMID:21893363

  5. Advance Directives and Do-Not-Resuscitate Orders in Patients with Cancer with Metastatic Spinal Cord Compression: Advanced Care Planning Implications

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, J. Lynn; Bianty, Josephine; Konzen, Benedict; Shin, Ki; Bruera, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Communication about end-of-life decisions is crucial. Although patients with metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC) have a median survival time of 3 to 6 months, few data are available concerning the presence of advance directives and do-not-resuscitate (DNR) orders in this population. The objective of this study was to determine presence of advance directives and DNR order among patients with MSCC. Methods We retrospectively reviewed data concerning advance directives for 88 consecutive patients with cancer who had MSCC and required rehabilitation consultation at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center from September 20, 2005 to August 29, 2008. We characterized the data using univariate descriptive statistics and used the Fisher exact test to find correlations. Results The mean age of this patient population was 55 years (range, 24–81). Thirty patients (33%) were female. Twenty patients (23%) had a living will, 27 patients (31%) had health care proxies, and 10 patients (11%) had either out-of-hospital DNR order and/or dictated DNR note. The median survival time for these patients was 4.3 months. Conclusion Despite strong evidence showing short survival times for MSCC patients, it seems many of these patients are not aware of the urgency to have an advance directive. This may be an indicator of delayed end-of-life palliative care and suboptimal doctor–patient communication. Using the catastrophic event of a diagnosis of MSCC to trigger communication and initiate palliative care may be beneficial to patients and their families. PMID:20192843

  6. Vascularized Free Lymph Node Flap Transfer in Advanced Lymphedema Patient after Axillary Lymph Node Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Kyung Hoon; Park, Myong Chul; Lim, Seong Yoon; Jung, Yong Sik

    2016-01-01

    Lymphedema is a condition characterized by tissue swelling caused by localized fluid retention. Advanced lymphedema is characterized by irreversible skin fibrosis (stage IIIb) and nonpitting edema, with leather-like skin, skin crypts, and ulcers with or without involvement of the toes (stage IVa and IVb, respectively). Recently, surgical treatment of advanced lymphedema has been a challenging reconstructive modality. Microvascular techniques such as lymphaticovenous anastomosis and vascularized lymph node flap transfer are effective for early stage lymphedema. In this study, we performed a two-stage operation in an advanced lymphedema patient. First, a debulking procedure was performed using liposuction. A vascularized free lymph node flap transfer was then conducted 10 weeks after the first operation. In this case, good results were obtained, with reduced circumferences in various parts of the upper extremity noted immediately postoperation. PMID:27064862

  7. Treating Elderly Patients With Hormone Receptor–Positive Advanced Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Riseberg, David

    2015-01-01

    As the overall population ages, the proportion of elderly patients (aged ≥65 years) with breast cancer also increases. Studies have shown that elderly patients with hormone receptor–positive breast cancer can derive as much benefit from treatment as do younger patients, yet they remain underrepresented in clinical trials and are often undertreated in clinical practice. Treatment decisions for older patients should not be based solely on chronologic age; a patient’s physiologic functioning and comorbidities must also be taken into consideration. For recurrent or metastatic disease, systemic treatment with endocrine therapies or chemotherapy may prolong a patient’s life and alleviate troublesome symptoms. Resistance to therapy remains a problem in the advanced breast cancer setting, with most patients eventually becoming resistant to additional treatment. New combination regimens that target multiple pathways, such as everolimus plus exemestane, have shown efficacy in elderly patients previously resistant to endocrine therapies, and future research may need to focus on such combinations in order to improve outcomes in this patient group. A number of investigational agents are in clinical development, although few studies identify their effects in the elderly patient population. Optimizing effective yet tolerable therapeutic regimens for elderly patients could improve their outcomes while ensuring that the goals of improved survival and quality of life are considered. PMID:26339192

  8. Long-term outcomes of patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma who achieved complete remission after sorafenib therapy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Sorafenib is currently the sole molecular targeted agent that improves overall survival in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Despite the efficacy of sorafenib, the response rate varies in patients with advanced HCC. We retrospectively analyzed a series of Korean patients with advanced HCC with complete remission (CR) after sorafenib therapy. Methods In total, 523 patients with advanced HCC were treated with sorafenib in 3 large tertiary referral hospitals in Korea. A survey was conducted to collect data on patients who experienced CR after sorafenib monotherapy, and their medical records and follow-up data were analyzed. The tumor response and recurrence rates were assessed by radiologic study, based on modified response evaluation criteria in solid tumors. Results Seven patients with advanced HCC experienced CR after sorafenib therapy. The median time to tumor disappearance and the median disease-free survival time were 3 months and 9 months, respectively. HCC recurrence was identified in three cases (42.9%). Of these, two patients discontinued sorafenib before or after achieving CR and the other patient continued sorafenib after achieving CR. HCC recurred at 3, 10, and 42 months after CR in these three patients. Three patients needed dose reduction for toxicity and adverse events. Conclusions Though CR was achieved after sorafenib therapy in patients with advanced HCC, the recurrence rate was relatively high. Subsequent strategies to reduce a chance of recurrence after sorafenib therapy are required to investigate. PMID:26527250

  9. Advances in the pathogenesis and treatment of patients with stiff person syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dalakas, Marinos C

    2008-01-01

    Advances in the clinical diagnosis, prognosis, pathogenesis, and therapies for stiff person syndrome (SPS), based on observations in more than 50 consecutive patients, are presented. The syndrome varies from mild to severe, but if untreated it can be progressive and disabling. SPS remains a largely underdiagnosed condition. Anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) antibodies provide an excellent diagnostic marker, but their role in disease pathogenesis is uncertain. Research focused on identifying new autoantigens has provided evidence that gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)(A) receptor-associated protein (GABARAP), a 14-kD protein localized at the postsynaptic regions of GABAergic synapses, is a new antigenic target. In up to 65% of SPS patients, there are circulating anti-GABARAP antibodies that inhibit the GABA(A) receptor expression on GABAergic neurons. This review examines the diagnostic criteria for SPS, SPS variants, common errors in diagnosis, and a step-by-step therapeutic approach, including new advances in therapy.

  10. The influence of creatinine versus GFR on NSAID prescriptions in CKD

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Krupa; Diamantidis, Clarissa; Zhan, Min; Hsu, Van Doren; Walker, Loreen D.; Gardner, James; Weir, Matthew R.; Fink, Jeffrey C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors, are generally contraindicated in chronic kidney disease (CKD). This investigation sought to identify the frequency of NSAID/COX2 prescription and determine the influence of serum Cr versus estimated GFR on this practice pattern. Methods An established Veterans Health Administration (VHA) CKD safety cohort (n = 70,154) was examined to determine the frequency of NSAID/COX2 in fiscal year 2005 (FY05) for up to 30 days preceding the index hospitalization and as many as 365 days during that year. Binomial regression was used to determine adjusted prevalence ratios for prescription of NSAID/COX2 with respect to continuous eGFR measurement and serum creatinine (Cr) categories. CKD was defined as eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73m2. Results 15.4% of subjects had an NSAID/COX2 prescription during the observation period with the proportion prescribed these agents decreasing with declining renal function, but remained significant at any stage of CKD given the renal harm related to these medications. At specific GFR estimates, serum creatinine (Cr) remained a significant predictor of NSAID/COX prescription. At GFR set at 42 ml/min/1.73, the predicted proportion prescribed NSAID/COX2 was 0.29 (95% CI: 0.24,0.36); 0.23 (95% CI: 0.22,0.26); 0.20 (95%: 0.19,0,22); 0.12 (95% CI: 0.10,0.14) for Cr strata of ≤ 1.3 mg/dl, 1.4 – 1.6 mg/dl, 1.7 –2.1 mg/dl, ≥ 2.2 mg/dl, respectively (all p < 0.05). Conclusion A significant proportion of individuals with CKD continue to be prescribed NSAID/COX2 and serum Cr remains an influential guide to NSAID/COX2 prescription, even in GFR ranges where these agents are ill-advised. PMID:22699456

  11. Impact of Educational Attainment on Health Outcomes in Moderate to Severe CKD

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Rachael L.; Schlackow, Iryna; Staplin, Natalie; Gray, Alastair; Cass, Alan; Haynes, Richard; Emberson, Jonathan; Herrington, William; Landray, Martin J.; Baigent, Colin; Mihaylova, Borislava

    2016-01-01

    Background The inverse association between educational attainment and mortality is well established, but its relevance to vascular events and renal progression in a population with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is less clear. This study aims to determine the association between highest educational attainment and risk of vascular events, cause-specific mortality, and CKD progression. Study Design Prospective epidemiologic analysis among participants in the Study of Heart and Renal Protection (SHARP), a randomized controlled trial. Setting & Participants 9,270 adults with moderate to severe CKD (6,245 not receiving dialysis at baseline) and no history of myocardial infarction or coronary revascularization recruited in Europe, North America, Asia, Australia, and New Zealand. Predictor Highest educational attainment measured at study entry using 6 levels that ranged from “no formal education” to “tertiary education.” Outcomes Any vascular event (any fatal or nonfatal cardiac, cerebrovascular, or peripheral vascular event), cause-specific mortality, and CKD progression during 4.9 years’ median follow-up. Results There was a significant trend (P < 0.001) toward increased vascular risk with decreasing levels of education. Participants with no formal education were at a 46% higher risk of vascular events (relative risk [RR], 1.46; 95% CI, 1.14-1.86) compared with participants with tertiary education. The trend for mortality across education levels was also significant (P < 0.001): all-cause mortality was twice as high among those with no formal education compared with tertiary-educated individuals (RR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.62-2.58), and significant increases were seen for both vascular (RR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.21-2.81) and nonvascular (RR, 2.15; 95% CI, 1.60-2.89) deaths. Lifestyle factors and prior disease explain most of the excess mortality risk. Among 6,245 participants not receiving dialysis at baseline, education level was not significantly associated with

  12. Religious Coping is Associated with the Quality of Life of Patients with Advanced Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tarakeshwar, Nalini; Vanderwerker, Lauren C.; Paulk, Elizabeth; Pearce, Michelle J.; Kasl, Stanislav V.; Prigerson, Holly G.

    2008-01-01

    Background For patients confronting a life-threatening illness such as advanced cancer, religious coping can be an important factor influencing their quality of life (QOL). Objective The study's main purpose was to examine the association between religious coping and QOL among 170 patients with advanced cancer. Both positive religious coping (e.g., benevolent religious appraisals) and negative religious coping (e.g., anger at God) and multiple dimensions of QOL (physical, physical symptom, psychological, existential, and support) were studied. Design Structured interviews were conducted with 170 patients recruited as part of an ongoing multi-institutional longitudinal evaluation of the prevalence of mental illness and patterns of mental health service utilization in advanced cancer patients and their primary informal caregivers. Measurements Patients completed measures of QOL (McGill QOL questionnaire), religious coping (Brief Measure of Religious Coping [RCOPE] and Multidimensional Measure of Religion/Spirituality), self-efficacy (General Self-Efficacy Scale), and sociodemographic variables. Results Linear regression analyses revealed that after controlling for sociodemographic variables, lifetime history of depression and self-efficacy, greater use of positive religious coping was associated with better overall QOL as well as higher scores on the existential and support QOL dimensions. Greater use of positive religious coping was also related to more physical symptoms. In contrast, greater use of negative religious coping was related to poorer overall QOL and lower scores on the existential and psychological QOL dimensions. Conclusions Findings show that religious coping plays an important role for the QOL of patients and the types of religious coping strategies used are related to better or poorer QOL. PMID:16752970

  13. End-of-life care in patients with advanced lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Lim, Richard B L

    2016-10-01

    Despite advances in the detection, pathological diagnosis and therapeutics of lung cancer, many patients still develop advanced, incurable and progressively fatal disease. As physicians, the duties to cure sometimes, relieve often and comfort always should be a constant reminder to us of the needs that must be met when caring for a patient with lung cancer. Four key areas of end-of-life care in advanced lung cancer begin with first recognizing 'when a patient is approaching the end of life'. The clinician should be able to recognize when the focus of care needs to shift from an aggressive life-sustaining approach to an approach that helps prepare and support a patient and family members through a period of progressive, inevitable decline. Once the needs are recognized, the second key area is appropriate communication, where the clinician should assist patients and family members in understanding where they are in the disease trajectory and what to expect. This involves developing rapport, breaking bad news, managing expectations and navigating care plans. Subsequently, the third key area is symptom management that focuses on the goals to first and foremost provide comfort and dignity. Symptoms that are common towards the end of life in lung cancer include pain, dyspnoea, delirium and respiratory secretions. Such symptoms need to be anticipated and addressed promptly with appropriate medications and explanations to the patient and family. Lastly, in order for physicians to provide quality end-of-life care, it is necessary to understand the ethical principles applied to end-of-life-care interventions. Misconceptions about euthanasia versus withholding or withdrawing life-sustaining treatments may lead to physician distress and inappropriate decision making. PMID:27585597

  14. The Burden of Nephrotoxic Drug Prescriptions in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: A Retrospective Population-Based Study in Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Ingrasciotta, Ylenia; Sultana, Janet; Giorgianni, Francesco; Caputi, Achille Patrizio; Arcoraci, Vincenzo; Tari, Daniele Ugo; Linguiti, Claudio; Perrotta, Margherita; Nucita, Andrea; Pellegrini, Fabio; Fontana, Andrea; Cavagna, Lorenzo; Santoro, Domenico; Trifirò, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of nephrotoxic drugs can further worsening renal function in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. It is therefore imperative to explore prescribing practices that can negatively affect CKD patients. Aim To analyze the use of nephrotoxic drugs in CKD patients in a general population of Southern Italy during the years 2006–2011. Methods The general practice “Arianna” database contains data from 158,510 persons, registered with 123 general practitioners (GPs) of Caserta. CKD patients were identified searching: CKD-related ICD-9 CM codes among causes of hospitalization; CKD-relevant procedures undergone in hospital (e.g. dialysis); drug prescriptions issued for a CKD-related indication. A list of nephrotoxic drugs was compiled and validated by pharmacologists and nephrologists. The summary of product characteristics was used to classify drugs as ‘contraindicated’ or ‘to be used with caution’ in renal diseases. Frequency of nephrotoxic drug use, overall, by drug class and single compounds, by GPs within one year prior or after first CKD diagnosis and within one year after dialysis entry was calculated. Results Overall, 1,989 CKD patients and 112 dialysed patients were identified. Among CKD patients, 49.8% and 45.2% received at least one prescription for a contraindicated nephrotoxic drug within one year prior or after first CKD diagnosis, respectively. In detail, 1,119 CKD patients (56.3%) had at least one nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) prescription between CKD diagnosis and end of follow-up. A large proportion of CKD patients (35.6%) were treated with NSAIDs for periods exceeding 90 days. Contraindicated nephrotoxic drugs were used commonly in CKD, with nimesulide (16.6%) and diclofenac (11.0%) being most frequently used. Conclusions Contraindicated nephrotoxic drugs were highly prescribed in CKD patients from a general population of Southern Italy. CKD diagnosis did not seem to reduce significantly the prescription of

  15. Navigating Ethical Conflicts Between Advance Directives and Surrogate Decision-Makers' Interpretations of Patient Wishes.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Courtenay R; Bibler, Trevor; Childress, Andrew M; Stephens, Ashley L; Pena, Adam M; Allen, Nathan G

    2016-02-01

    There is little guidance on what clinicians should do when advance directives (or living wills, specifically) are challenged, particularly when surrogate decision-makers' interpretations of patients' wishes conflict with the living will. In our commentary, we make a controversial argument suggesting that overriding living wills can be ethically preferable to the alternative of strictly adhering to them. We propose four ethical considerations for determining whether it is ethically supportable to override living wills.

  16. Hypertension in CKD Pregnancy: a Question of Cause and Effect (Cause or Effect? This Is the Question).

    PubMed

    Piccoli, Giorgina Barbara; Cabiddu, Gianfranca; Attini, Rossella; Parisi, Silvia; Fassio, Federica; Loi, Valentina; Gerbino, Martina; Biolcati, Marilisa; Pani, Antonello; Todros, Tullia

    2016-04-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasingly encountered in pregnancy, and hypertension is frequently concomitant. In pregnancy, the prevalence of CKD is estimated to be about 3%, while the prevalence of chronic hypertension is about 5-8%. The prevalence of hypertension and CKD in pregnancy is unknown. Both are independently related to adverse pregnancy outcomes, and the clinical picture merges with pregnancy-induced hypertension and preeclampsia. Precise risk quantification is not available, but risks linked to CKD stage, hypertension, and proteinuria are probably multiplicative, each at least doubling the rates of preterm and early preterm delivery, small for gestational age babies, and related outcomes. Differential diagnosis (based upon utero-placental flows, fetal growth, and supported by serum biomarkers) is important for clinical management. In the absence of guidelines for hypertension in CKD pregnancies, the ideal blood pressure goal has not been established; we support a tailored approach, depending on compliance, baseline control, and CKD stages, with strict blood pressure monitoring. The choice of antihypertensive drugs and the use of diuretics and of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) are still open questions which only future studies may clarify.

  17. Prosthodontic treatment for a patient with advanced hydantoin-associated gingival hyperplasia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, I; Osada, E; Morisawa, M; Nakagawa, Y; Watanabe, I

    1996-04-01

    A patient in whom gingival hyperplasia was caused by prolonged use of an anticonvulsant drug (hydantoin) is described. Advanced gingival hyperplasia and significant displacement of the remaining teeth caused severe damage, especially to the patient's appearance. It was not possible to cure the problems completely with routine periodontal treatment. It was decided to extract all the remaining teeth and restore function and esthetics early with complete dentures. Cephalometric analysis was used to determine the degree to which the teeth had drifted. During fabrication of the dentures, the analysis was very useful in deciding the position of the anterior teeth and checking the vertical dimension of occlusion.

  18. Gross Hematuria and Bladder Tumor in a Patient with Advanced Thyroid Papillary Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Yuki; Ikeoka, Toshiyuki; Oba, Kojiro; Miyata, Yasuyoshi; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Kuniko; Kawakami, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    We present a 73-year-old female with advanced thyroid papillary carcinoma who complained of gross hematuria. We found a bladder tumor and considered it the cause of her symptom. Cystoscopic findings of the tumor were unusual, with peri-tumor vessel formation. Pathological examination of the bladder tumor was consistent with metastasis of thyroid papillary carcinoma. Therefore, we identified thyroid carcinoma metastasis to the urinary bladder as the cause of hematuria in our patient. Thyroid carcinoma metastasis to the bladder is extremely rare, but it should be included among differential diagnoses for gross hematuria in patients with a clinical history of thyroid carcinoma. PMID:23762664

  19. Intercostal nerves block for mastectomy in two patients with advanced breast malignancy.

    PubMed

    Kolawole, Israel K; Adesina, Michael D; Olaoye, Iyiade O

    2006-03-01

    Regional anesthesia is recognized as an alternative to general anesthesia for modern breast cancer surgery. Various techniques of block have been described. Each has its unique problems. Regional anesthesia was chosen for simple mastectomy in two patients with advanced breast malignancy, due to compromised pulmonary status resulting from widespread malignant infiltration of both lungs. We used intercostal nerves block. The block was supplemented with an infraclavicular infiltration to interrupt the branches of the superficial cervical plexus that provide sensation to the upper chest wall and subcutaneous infiltration in the midline to block the nerve supply from the contralateral side. Anesthesia was generally effective and the operations were uneventful. Both patients and surgeons expressed satisfaction. We conclude that where patients have significant comorbidities that make general anesthesia undesirable, the use of intercostal nerves block remains a safe and reliable anesthetic option that allows the patient access to surgery for simple mastectomy.

  20. Identifying the optimal criteria of radiotherapeutic parameters for patients with unresectable locally advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Son, Seok Hyun; Jang, Hong Seok; Sung, Soo Yoon; Kang, Hye Jin; Lee, Sojung; Kay, Chul Seung

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the optimal criteria of the radiotherapeutic parameters in patients with unresectable locally advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). 103 patients were enrolled in this study. All patients received RT delivered using the TomoTherapy Hi-Art system between March 2006 and February 2012. We evaluated the planning target volume (PTV), total dose (Gy10), and NTNL-V(BED20) (non-target normal liver volume receiving more than a biologically effective dose of 20 Gy8) as significant radiotherapeutic parameters associated with hepatic function deterioration and local progression-free survival (PFS). A PTV of 279 cm3 or 304 cm3, a total dose of 60 Gy10, and a NTNL-V(BED20) of 40.8% were identified as the optimal cut-off values of radiotherapeutic parameters to prevent hepatic function deterioration and prolong local PFS. Based on these findings, patients were divided in a favorable and an unfavorable prognosis group. The differences in median local PFS, overall survival, and incidence of deteriorated hepatic function between the two groups were 11.2 months, 11.1 months, and 71.7%, respectively (p < 0.001 in each case). In conclusion, we suggest that the optimal criteria of the radiotherapeutic parameters for patients with unresectable locally advanced HCC are: PTV ≤ 279 cm3, total dose > 60 Gy10, and NTNL-V(BED20) ≤ 40.8%. PMID:26510905

  1. Meaning-centered group psychotherapy for patients with advanced cancer: a pilot randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Breitbart, William; Rosenfeld, Barry; Gibson, Christopher; Pessin, Hayley; Poppito, Shannon; Nelson, Christian; Tomarken, Alexis; Timm, Anne Kosinski; Berg, Amy; Jacobson, Colleen; Sorger, Brooke; Abbey, Jennifer; Olden, Megan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives An increasingly important concern for clinicians who care for patients at the end of life is their spiritual well-being and sense of meaning and purpose in life. In response to the need for short-term interventions to address spiritual well-being, we developed Meaning Centered Group Psychotherapy (MCGP) to help patients with advanced cancer sustain or enhance a sense of meaning, peace and purpose in their lives, even as they approach the end of life. Methods Patients with advanced (stage III or IV) solid tumor cancers (N = 90) were randomly assigned to either MCGP or a supportive group psychotherapy (SGP). Patients were assessed before and after completing the 8-week intervention, and again 2 months after completion. Outcome assessment included measures of spiritual well-being, meaning, hopelessness, desire for death, optimism/pessimism, anxiety, depression and overall quality of life. Results MCGP resulted in significantly greater improvements in spiritual well-being and a sense of meaning. Treatment gains were even more substantial (based on effect size estimates) at the second follow-up assessment. Improvements in anxiety and desire for death were also significant (and increased over time). There was no significant improvement on any of these variables for patients participating in SGP. Conclusions MCGP appears to be a potentially beneficial intervention for patients’ emotional and spiritual suffering at the end of life. Further research, with larger samples, is clearly needed to better understand the potential benefits of this novel intervention. PMID:19274623

  2. [Incidence and Risk Assessment of Tumor Lysis Syndrome in Patients with Advanced Germ Cell Cancer].

    PubMed

    Kurobe, Masahiro; Kawai, Koji; Tanaka, Ken; Ichioka, Daishi; Yoshino, Takayuki; Kandori, Shuya; Kawahara, Takashi; Waku, Natsui; Takaoka, Ei-Ichirou; Kojima, Takahiro; Joraku, Akira; Suetomi, Takahiro; Miyazaki, Jun; Nishiyama, Hiroyuki

    2016-05-01

    Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is a major oncological emergency. TLS is common in patients with hematological malignancies, but it can occur across a spectrum of cancer types. Germ cell tumors (GCT) have rapid cancer cell turnover and often present with bulky metastasis. The international TLS expert consensus panel has recommended guidelines for a medical decision tree to assign low, intermediate and high risk to patients