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Sample records for advanced cladding materials

  1. Cladding and Duct Materials for Advanced Nuclear Recycle Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Todd R.; Busby, Jeremy T; Klueh, Ronald L; Maloy, S; Toloczko, M

    2008-01-01

    The expanded use of nuclear energy without risk of nuclear weapons proliferation and with safe nuclear waste disposal is a primary goal of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). To achieve that goal the GNEP is exploring advanced technologies for recycling spent nuclear fuel that do not separate pure plutonium, and advanced reactors that consume transuranic elements from recycled spent fuel. The GNEP s objectives will place high demands on reactor clad and structural materials. This article discusses the materials requirements of the GNEP s advanced nuclear recycle reactors program.

  2. Cladding and duct materials for advanced nuclear recycle reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, T. R.; Busby, J. T.; Klueh, R. L.; Maloy, S. A.; Toloczko, M. B.

    2008-01-01

    The expanded use of nuclear energy without risk of nuclear weapons proliferation and with safe nuclear waste disposal is a primary goal of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). To achieve that goal the GNEP is exploring advanced technologies for recycling spent nuclear fuel that do not separate pure plutonium, and advanced reactors that consume transuranic elements from recycled spent fuel. The GNEP’s objectives will place high demands on reactor clad and structural materials. This article discusses the materials requirements of the GNEP’s advanced nuclear recycle reactors program.

  3. Cladding and Structural Materials for Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Was, G S; Allen, T R; Ila, D; C,; Levi,; Morgan, D; Motta, A; Wang, L; Wirth, B

    2011-06-30

    The goal of this consortium is to address key materials issues in the most promising advanced reactor concepts that have yet to be resolved or that are beyond the existing experience base of dose or burnup. The research program consists of three major thrusts: 1) high-dose radiation stability of advanced fast reactor fuel cladding alloys, 2) irradiation creep at high temperature, and 3) innovative cladding concepts embodying functionally-graded barrier materials. This NERI-Consortium final report represents the collective efforts of a large number of individuals over a period of three and a half years and included 9 PIs, 4 scientists, 3 post-docs and 12 students from the seven participating institutions and 8 partners from 5 national laboratories and 3 industrial institutions (see table). University participants met semi-annually and participants and partners met annually for meetings lasting 2-3 days and designed to disseminate and discuss results, update partners, address outstanding issues and maintain focus and direction toward achieving the objectives of the program. The participants felt that this was a highly successful program to address broader issues that can only be done by the assembly of a range of talent and capabilities at a more substantial funding level than the traditional NERI or NEUP grant. As evidence of the success, this group, collectively, has published 20 articles in archival journals and made 57 presentations at international conferences on the results of this consortium.

  4. Screening of advanced cladding materials and UN-U3Si5 fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Nicholas R.; Todosow, Michael; Cuadra, Arantxa

    2015-07-01

    In the aftermath of Fukushima, a focus of the DOE-NE Advanced Fuels Campaign has been the development of advanced nuclear fuel and cladding options with the potential for improved performance in an accident. Uranium dioxide (UO2) fuels with various advanced cladding materials were analyzed to provide a reference for cladding performance impacts. For advanced cladding options with UO2 fuel, most of the cladding materials have some reactivity and discharge burn-up penalty (in GWd/t). Silicon carbide is one exception in that the reactor physics performance is predicted to be very similar to zirconium alloy cladding. Most candidate claddings performed similar to UO2-Zr fuel-cladding in terms of safety coefficients. The clear exception is that Mo-based materials were identified as potentially challenging from a reactor physics perspective due to high resonance absorption. This paper also includes evaluation of UN-U3Si5 fuels with Kanthal AF or APMT cladding. The objective of the U3Si5 phase in the UN-U3Si5 fuel concept is to shield the nitride phase from water. It was shown that UN-U3Si5 fuels with Kanthal AF or APMT cladding have similar reactor physics and fuel management performance over a wide parameter space of phase fractions when compared to UO2-Zr fuel-cladding. There will be a marginal penalty in discharge burn-up (in GWd/t) and the sensitivity to 14N content in UN ceramic composites is high. Analysis of the rim effect due to self-shielding in the fuel shows that the UN-based ceramic fuels are not expected to have significantly different relative burn-up distributions at discharge relative to the UO2 reference fuel. However, the overall harder spectrum in the UN ceramic composite fuels increases transuranic build-up, which will increase long-term activity in a once-thru fuel cycle but is expected to be a significant advantage in a fuel cycle with continuous recycling of transuranic material. It is recognized that the fuel and cladding properties assumed in

  5. History of Resistance Welding Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Cladding and other High Temperature Materials at Center for Advanced Energy Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Zirker; Nathan Jerred; Dr. Indrajit Charit; James Cole

    2012-03-01

    Research proposal 08-1079, 'A Comparative Study of Welded ODS Cladding Materials for AFCI/GNEP,' was funded in 2008 under an Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Research and Development Funding Opportunity, number DE-PS07-08ID14906. Th proposal sought to conduct research on joining oxide dispersion strengthen (ODS) tubing material to a solid end plug. This document summarizes the scientific and technical progress achieved during the project, which ran from 2008 to 2011.

  6. Characterization of microstructure and property evolution in advanced cladding and duct: Materials exposed to high dose and elevated temperature

    DOE PAGES

    Allen, Todd R.; Kaoumi, Djamel; Wharry, Janelle P.; Jiao, Zhijie; Topbasi, Cem; Kohnert, Aaron; Barnard, Leland; Certain, Alicia; Field, Kevin G.; Was, Gary S.; et al

    2015-05-20

    Designing materials for performance in high-radiation fields can be accelerated through a carefully chosen combination of advanced multiscale modeling paired with appropriate experimental validation. Here, the studies reported in this work, the combined efforts of six universities working together as the Consortium on Cladding and Structural Materials, use that approach to focus on improving the scientific basis for the response of ferritic–martensitic steels to irradiation. A combination of modern modeling techniques with controlled experimentation has specifically focused on improving the understanding of radiation-induced segregation, precipitate formation and growth under radiation, the stability of oxide nanoclusters, and the development of dislocationmore » networks under radiation. Experimental studies use both model and commercial alloys, irradiated with both ion beams and neutrons. Lastly, transmission electron microscopy and atom probe are combined with both first-principles and rate theory approaches to advance the understanding of ferritic–martensitic steels.« less

  7. Characterization of microstructure and property evolution in advanced cladding and duct: Materials exposed to high dose and elevated temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Todd R.; Kaoumi, Djamel; Wharry, Janelle P.; Jiao, Zhijie; Topbasi, Cem; Kohnert, Aaron; Barnard, Leland; Certain, Alicia; Field, Kevin G.; Was, Gary S.; Morgan, Dane L.; Motta, Arthur T.; Wirth, Brian D.; Yang, Y.

    2015-05-20

    Designing materials for performance in high-radiation fields can be accelerated through a carefully chosen combination of advanced multiscale modeling paired with appropriate experimental validation. Here, the studies reported in this work, the combined efforts of six universities working together as the Consortium on Cladding and Structural Materials, use that approach to focus on improving the scientific basis for the response of ferritic–martensitic steels to irradiation. A combination of modern modeling techniques with controlled experimentation has specifically focused on improving the understanding of radiation-induced segregation, precipitate formation and growth under radiation, the stability of oxide nanoclusters, and the development of dislocation networks under radiation. Experimental studies use both model and commercial alloys, irradiated with both ion beams and neutrons. Lastly, transmission electron microscopy and atom probe are combined with both first-principles and rate theory approaches to advance the understanding of ferritic–martensitic steels.

  8. Advanced ceramic cladding for water reactor fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Feinroth, H.

    2000-07-01

    Under the US Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Research Initiatives (NERI) program, continuous fiber ceramic composites (CFCCs) are being developed as cladding for water reactor fuel elements. The purpose is to substantially increase the passive safety of water reactors. A development effort was initiated in 1991 to fabricate CFCC-clad tubes using commercially available fibers and a sol-gel process developed by McDermott Technologies. Two small-diameter CFCC tubes were fabricated using pure alumina and alumina-zirconia fibers in an alumina matrix. Densities of {approximately}60% of theoretical were achieved. Higher densities are required to guarantee fission gas containment. This NERI work has just begun, and only preliminary results are presented herein. Should the work prove successful, further development is required to evaluate CFCC cladding and performance, including in-pile tests containing fuel and exploring a marriage of CFCC cladding materials with suitable advanced fuel and core designs. The possibility of much higher temperature core designs, possibly cooled with supercritical water, and achievement of plant efficiencies {ge}50% would be examined.

  9. Microstructure and Property Evolution in Advanced Cladding and Duct Materials Under Long-Term Irradiation at Elevated Temperature: Critical Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Was, Gary; Jiao, Zhijie; Allen, Todd; Yang, Yong

    2013-12-20

    The in-service degradation of reactor core materials is related to underlying changes in the irradiated microstructure. During reactor operation, structural components and cladding experience displacement of atoms by collisions with neutrons at temperatures at which the radiation-induced defects are mobile, leading to microstructure evolution under irradiation that can degrade material properties. At the doses and temperatures relevant to fast reactor operation, the microstructure evolves by microchemistry changes due to radiation-induced segregation, dislocation loop formation and growth, radiation induced precipitation, destabilization of the existing precipitate structure, as well as the possibility for void formation and growth. These processes do not occur independently; rather, their evolution is highly interlinked. Radiation-induced segregation of Cr and existing chromium carbide coverage in irradiated alloy T91 track each other closely. The radiation-induced precipitation of Ni-Si precipitates and RIS of Ni and Si in alloys T91 and HCM12A are likely related. Neither the evolution of these processes nor their coupling is understood under the conditions required for materials performance in fast reactors (temperature range 300-600°C and doses to 200 dpa and beyond). Further, predictive modeling is not yet possible, as models for microstructure evolution must be developed along with experiments to characterize these key processes and provide tools for extrapolation. To extend the range of operation of nuclear fuel cladding and structural materials in advanced nuclear energy and transmutation systems to that required for the fast reactor, the irradiation-induced evolution of the microstructure, microchemistry, and the associated mechanical properties at relevant temperatures and doses must be understood. This project builds upon joint work at the proposing institutions, under a NERI-C program that is scheduled to end in September, to understand the effects of

  10. Advanced Fuels Campaign Cladding & Coatings Meeting Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Listed

    2013-03-01

    The Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) organized a Cladding and Coatings operational meeting February 12-13, 2013, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Representatives from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), national laboratories, industry, and universities attended the two-day meeting. The purpose of the meeting was to discuss advanced cladding and cladding coating research and development (R&D); review experimental testing capabilities for assessing accident tolerant fuels; and review industry/university plans and experience in light water reactor (LWR) cladding and coating R&D.

  11. Potential effects of gallium on cladding materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.F.; Beahm, E.C.; Besmann, T.M.; DeVan, J.H.; DiStefano, J.R.; Gat, U.; Greene, S.R.; Rittenhouse, P.L.; Worley, B.A.

    1997-10-01

    This paper identifies and examines issues concerning the incorporation of gallium in weapons derived plutonium in light water reactor (LWR) MOX fuels. Particular attention is given to the more likely effects of the gallium on the behavior of the cladding material. The chemistry of weapons grade (WG) MOX, including possible consequences of gallium within plutonium agglomerates, was assessed. Based on the calculated oxidation potentials of MOX fuel, the effect that gallium may have on reactions involving fission products and possible impact on cladding performance were postulated. Gallium transport mechanisms are discussed. With an understanding of oxidation potentials and assumptions of mechanisms for gallium transport, possible effects of gallium on corrosion of cladding were evaluated. Potential and unresolved issues and suggested research and development (R and D) required to provide missing information are presented.

  12. Microstructure and Property Evolution in Advanced Cladding and Duct Materials Under Long-Term and Elevated Temperature Irradiation: Modeling and Experimental Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Wirth, Brian; Morgan, Dane; Kaoumi, Djamel; Motta, Arthur

    2013-12-01

    The in-service degradation of reactor core materials is related to underlying changes in the irradiated microstructure. During reactor operation, structural components and cladding experience displacement of atoms by collisions with neutrons at temperatures at which the radiation-induced defects are mobile, leading to microstructure evolution under irradiation that can degrade material properties. At the doses and temperatures relevant to fast reactor operation, the microstructure evolves by dislocation loop formation and growth, microchemistry changes due to radiation-induced segregation, radiation-induced precipitation, destabilization of the existing precipitate structure, and in some cases, void formation and growth. These processes do not occur independently; rather, their evolution is highly interlinked. Radiationinduced segregation of Cr and existing chromium carbide coverage in irradiated alloy T91 track each other closely. The radiation-induced precipitation of Ni-Si precipitates and RIS of Ni and Si in alloys T91 and HCM12A are likely related. Neither the evolution of these processes nor their coupling is understood under the conditions required for materials performance in fast reactors (temperature range 300-600°C and doses beyond 200 dpa). Further, predictive modeling is not yet possible as models for microstructure evolution must be developed along with experiments to characterize these key processes and provide tools for extrapolation. To extend the range of operation of nuclear fuel cladding and structural materials in advanced nuclear energy and transmutation systems to that required for the fast reactor, the irradiation-induced evolution of the microstructure, microchemistry, and the associated mechanical properties at relevant temperatures and doses must be understood. Predictive modeling relies on an understanding of the physical processes and also on the development of microstructure and microchemical models to describe their evolution under

  13. Reactivity Initiated Accident Simulation to Inform Transient Testing of Candidate Advanced Cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Nicholas R; Wysocki, Aaron J; Terrani, Kurt A

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Advanced cladding materials with potentially enhanced accident tolerance will yield different light water reactor performance and safety characteristics than the present zirconium-based cladding alloys. These differences are due to different cladding material properties and responses to the transient, and to some extent, reactor physics, thermal, and hydraulic characteristics. Some of the differences in reactors physics characteristics will be driven by the fundamental properties (e.g., absorption in iron for an iron-based cladding) and others will be driven by design modifications necessitated by the candidate cladding materials (e.g., a larger fuel pellet to compensate for parasitic absorption). Potential changes in thermal hydraulic limits after transition from the current zirconium-based cladding to the advanced materials will also affect the transient response of the integral fuel. This paper leverages three-dimensional reactor core simulation capabilities to inform on appropriate experimental test conditions for candidate advanced cladding materials in a control rod ejection event. These test conditions are using three-dimensional nodal kinetics simulations of a reactivity initiated accident (RIA) in a representative state-of-the-art pressurized water reactor with both nuclear-grade iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) and silicon carbide based (SiC-SiC) cladding materials. The effort yields boundary conditions for experimental mechanical tests, specifically peak cladding strain during the power pulse following the rod ejection. The impact of candidate cladding materials on the reactor kinetics behavior of RIA progression versus reference zirconium cladding is predominantly due to differences in: (1) fuel mass/volume/specific power density, (2) spectral effects due to parasitic neutron absorption, (3) control rod worth due to hardened (or softened) spectrum, and (4) initial conditions due to power peaking and neutron transport cross sections in the

  14. Advanced oxidation-resistant iron-based alloys for LWR fuel cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrani, K. A.; Zinkle, S. J.; Snead, L. L.

    2014-05-01

    Application of advanced oxidation-resistant iron alloys as light water reactor fuel cladding is proposed. The motivations are based on specific limitations associated with zirconium alloys, currently used as fuel cladding, under design-basis and beyond-design-basis accident scenarios. Using a simplified methodology, gains in safety margins under severe accidents upon transition to advanced oxidation-resistant iron alloys as fuel cladding are showcased. Oxidation behavior, mechanical properties, and irradiation effects of advanced iron alloys are briefly reviewed and compared to zirconium alloys as well as historic austenitic stainless steel cladding materials. Neutronic characteristics of iron-alloy-clad fuel bundles are determined and fed into a simple economic model to estimate the impact on nuclear electricity production cost. Prior experience with steel cladding is combined with the current understanding of the mechanical properties and irradiation behavior of advanced iron alloys to identify a combination of cladding thickness reduction and fuel enrichment increase (∼0.5%) as an efficient route to offset any penalties in cycle length, due to higher neutron absorption in the iron alloy cladding, with modest impact on the economics.

  15. Cladding material, tube including such cladding material and methods of forming the same

    DOEpatents

    Garnier, John E.; Griffith, George W.

    2016-03-01

    A multi-layered cladding material including a ceramic matrix composite and a metallic material, and a tube formed from the cladding material. The metallic material forms an inner liner of the tube and enables hermetic sealing of thereof. The metallic material at ends of the tube may be exposed and have an increased thickness enabling end cap welding. The metallic material may, optionally, be formed to infiltrate voids in the ceramic matrix composite, the ceramic matrix composite encapsulated by the metallic material. The ceramic matrix composite includes a fiber reinforcement and provides increased mechanical strength, stiffness, thermal shock resistance and high temperature load capacity to the metallic material of the inner liner. The tube may be used as a containment vessel for nuclear fuel used in a nuclear power plant or other reactor. Methods for forming the tube comprising the ceramic matrix composite and the metallic material are also disclosed.

  16. Intercode Advanced Fuels and Cladding Comparison Using BISON, FRAPCON, and FEMAXI Fuel Performance Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Aaren

    As part of the Department of Energy's Accident Tolerant Fuels (ATF) campaign, new cladding designs and fuel types are being studied in order to help make nuclear energy a safer and more affordable source for power. This study focuses on the implementation and analysis of the SiC cladding and UN, UC, and U3Si2 fuels into three specific nuclear fuel performance codes: BISON, FRAPCON, and FEMAXI. These fuels boast a higher thermal conductivity and uranium density than traditional UO2 fuel which could help lead to longer times in a reactor environment. The SiC cladding has been studied for its reduced production of hydrogen gas during an accident scenario, however the SiC cladding is a known brittle and unyielding material that may fracture during PCMI (Pellet Cladding Mechanical Interaction). This work focuses on steady-state operation with advanced fuel and cladding combinations. By implementing and performing analysis work with these materials, it is possible to better understand some of the mechanical interactions that could be seen as limiting factors. In addition to the analysis of the materials themselves, a further analysis is done on the effects of using a fuel creep model in combination with the SiC cladding. While fuel creep is commonly ignored in the traditional UO2 fuel and Zircaloy cladding systems, fuel creep can be a significant factor in PCMI with SiC.

  17. Material Selection for Accident Tolerant Fuel Cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pint, B. A.; Terrani, K. A.; Yamamoto, Y.; Snead, L. L.

    2015-09-01

    Alternative cladding materials to Zr-based alloys are being investigated for accident tolerance, which can be defined as >100X improvement (compared to Zr-based alloys) in oxidation resistance to steam or steam-H2 environments at ≥1473 K (1200 °C) for short times. After reviewing a wide range of candidates, current steam oxidation testing is being conducted on Mo, MAX phases, and FeCrAl alloys. Recently reported low-mass losses for Mo in steam at 1073 K (800 °C) could not be reproduced. Both FeCrAl and MAX phase Ti2AlC form a protective alumina scale in steam. However, commercial Ti2AlC that was not single phase, formed a much thicker oxide at 1473 K (1200 °C) in steam and significant TiO2, and therefore, Ti2AlC may be challenging to form as a cladding or a coating. Alloy development for FeCrAl is seeking to maintain its steam oxidation resistance to 1748 K (1475 °C), while reducing its Cr content to minimize susceptibility to irradiation-assisted α' formation. The composition effects and critical limits to retaining protective scale formation at >1673 K (1400 °C) are still being evaluated.

  18. Material selection for accident tolerant fuel cladding

    DOE PAGES

    Pint, B. A.; Terrani, K. A.; Yamamoto, Y.; Snead, L. L.

    2015-09-14

    Alternative cladding materials are being investigated for accident tolerance, which can be defined as >100X improvement (compared to current Zr-based alloys) in oxidation resistance in steam environments at ≥1200°C for short (≤4 h) times. After reviewing a wide range of candidates, current steam oxidation testing is being conducted on Mo, MAX phases and FeCrAl alloys. Recently reported low mass losses for Mo in steam at 800°C could not be reproduced. Both FeCrAl and MAX phase Ti2AlC form a protective alumina scale in steam. Therefore, commercial Ti2AlC that is not single phase, formed a much thicker oxide at 1200°C in steammore » and significant TiO2, and therefore may be challenging to use as a cladding or a coating. Alloy development for FeCrAl is seeking to maintain its steam oxidation resistance to 1475°C, while reducing its Cr content to minimize susceptibility to irradiation assisted Cr-rich α’ formation. The composition effects and critical limits to retaining protective scale formation at >1400°C are still being evaluated.« less

  19. Material selection for accident tolerant fuel cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Pint, B. A.; Terrani, K. A.; Yamamoto, Y.; Snead, L. L.

    2015-09-14

    Alternative cladding materials are being investigated for accident tolerance, which can be defined as >100X improvement (compared to current Zr-based alloys) in oxidation resistance in steam environments at ≥1200°C for short (≤4 h) times. After reviewing a wide range of candidates, current steam oxidation testing is being conducted on Mo, MAX phases and FeCrAl alloys. Recently reported low mass losses for Mo in steam at 800°C could not be reproduced. Both FeCrAl and MAX phase Ti2AlC form a protective alumina scale in steam. Therefore, commercial Ti2AlC that is not single phase, formed a much thicker oxide at 1200°C in steam and significant TiO2, and therefore may be challenging to use as a cladding or a coating. Alloy development for FeCrAl is seeking to maintain its steam oxidation resistance to 1475°C, while reducing its Cr content to minimize susceptibility to irradiation assisted Cr-rich α’ formation. The composition effects and critical limits to retaining protective scale formation at >1400°C are still being evaluated.

  20. Material Selection for Accident Tolerant Fuel Cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Pint, Bruce A.; Terrani, Kurt A.; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Snead, Lance Lewis

    2015-01-01

    Alternative cladding materials to Zr-based alloys are being investigated for accident tolerance, which can be defined as > 100X improvement (compared to Zr-based alloys) in oxidation resistance to steam or steam-H2 environments at ≥ 1200°C for short times. After reviewing a wide range of candidates, current steam oxidation testing is being conducted on Mo, MAX phases and FeCrAl alloys. Recently reported low mass losses for Mo in steam at 800°C could not be reproduced. Both FeCrAl and MAX phase Ti2AlC form a protective alumina scale in steam. However, commercial Ti2AlC that was not single phase, formed a much thicker oxide at 1200°C in steam and significant TiO2, and therefore Ti2AlC may be challenging to form as a cladding or a coating. Alloy development for FeCrAl is seeking to maintain its steam oxidation resistance to 1475°C, while reducing its Cr content to minimize susceptibility to irradiation-assisted α´ formation. The composition effects and critical limits to retaining protective scale formation at > 1400°C are still being evaluated.

  1. Advanced Fuel/Cladding Testing Capabilities in the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, Larry J; Ellis, Ronald James; McDuffee, Joel Lee; Spellman, Donald J; Bevard, Bruce Balkcom

    2009-01-01

    The ability to test advanced fuels and cladding materials under reactor operating conditions in the United States is limited. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and the newly expanded post-irradiation examination (PIE) capability at the ORNL Irradiated Fuels Examination Laboratory provide unique support for this type of advanced fuel/cladding development effort. The wide breadth of ORNL's fuels and materials research divisions provides all the necessary fuel development capabilities in one location. At ORNL, facilities are available from test fuel fabrication, to irradiation in HFIR under either thermal or fast reactor conditions, to a complete suite of PIEs, and to final product disposal. There are very few locations in the world where this full range of capabilities exists. New testing capabilities at HFIR have been developed that allow testing of advanced nuclear fuels and cladding materials under prototypic operating conditions (i.e., for both fast-spectrum conditions and light-water-reactor conditions). This paper will describe the HFIR testing capabilities, the new advanced fuel/cladding testing facilities, and the initial cooperative irradiation experiment that begins this year.

  2. Pulsed Magnetic Welding for Advanced Core and Cladding Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Guoping; Yang, Yong

    2013-12-19

    To investigate a solid-state joining method, pulsed magnetic welding (PMW), for welding the advanced core and cladding steels to be used in Generation IV systems, with a specific application for fuel pin end-plug welding. As another alternative solid state welding technique, pulsed magnetic welding (PMW) has not been extensively explored on the advanced steels. The resultant weld can be free from microstructure defects (pores, non-metallic inclusions, segregation of alloying elements). More specifically, the following objectives are to be achieved: 1. To design a suitable welding apparatus fixture, and optimize welding parameters for repeatable and acceptable joining of the fuel pin end-plug. The welding will be evaluated using tensile tests for lap joint weldments and helium leak tests for the fuel pin end-plug; 2 Investigate the microstructural and mechanical properties changes in PMW weldments of proposed advanced core and cladding alloys; 3. Simulate the irradiation effects on the PWM weldments using ion irradiation.

  3. Simulations of Failure via Three-Dimensional Cracking in Fuel Cladding for Advanced Nuclear Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Hongbing; Bukkapatnam, Satish; Harimkar, Sandip; Singh, Raman; Bardenhagen, Scott

    2014-01-09

    Enhancing performance of fuel cladding and duct alloys is a key means of increasing fuel burnup. This project will address the failure of fuel cladding via three-dimensional cracking models. Researchers will develop a simulation code for the failure of the fuel cladding and validate the code through experiments. The objective is to develop an algorithm to determine the failure of fuel cladding in the form of three-dimensional cracking due to prolonged exposure under varying conditions of pressure, temperature, chemical environment, and irradiation. This project encompasses the following tasks: 1. Simulate 3D crack initiation and growth under instantaneous and/or fatigue loads using a new variant of the material point method (MPM); 2. Simulate debonding of the materials in the crack path using cohesive elements, considering normal and shear traction separation laws; 3. Determine the crack propagation path, considering damage of the materials incorporated in the cohesive elements to allow the energy release rate to be minimized; 4. Simulate the three-dimensional fatigue crack growth as a function of loading histories; 5. Verify the simulation code by comparing results to theoretical and numerical studies available in the literature; 6. Conduct experiments to observe the crack path and surface profile in unused fuel cladding and validate against simulation results; and 7. Expand the adaptive mesh refinement infrastructure parallel processing environment to allow adaptive mesh refinement at the 3D crack fronts and adaptive mesh merging in the wake of cracks. Fuel cladding is made of materials such as stainless steels and ferritic steels with added alloying elements, which increase stability and durability under irradiation. As fuel cladding is subjected to water, chemicals, fission gas, pressure, high temperatures, and irradiation while in service, understanding performance is essential. In the fast fuel used in advanced burner reactors, simulations of the nuclear

  4. Polymer materials as modified optical fiber cladding for chemical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jianming

    An intrinsic fiber optic chemical sensor has been designed and developed by using a polymer material as a modified fiber cladding. The sensor is constructed by replacing a certain portion of the original cladding with a chemically sensitive material, specifically, polyaniline or polypyrrole. Both the light absorption coefficient and the refractive index of the polymers change upon the exposure to different chemical vapors. These changes induce the optical intensity modulation of the fiber optic sensor. Polyaniline or polypyrrole is coated as the modified cladding by either spin-cast or in-situ deposition method for sensing HCl, NH3, H 2O2, and H4N2 vapors. All sensors show rapid and strong response to the chemical vapors. Thus, these sensors demonstrate that polyaniline and polypyrrole are viable candidate materials for the detection of volatile toxic gases. Sensors exhibit better performance when correct parameters, such as modification area, in-situ deposition time, and spin-rate, are used in the cladding modification process. The reversibility of the sensor depends on the reaction between the modified cladding material and the chemical vapors. Polyaniline cladding has better reversibility than polypyrrole. The optimized sensor response and sensitivity can be achieved by selecting an incident light with suitable wavelength, power, and incident angle.

  5. Accident Performance of Light Water Reactor Cladding Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Andrew T.

    2012-07-24

    During a loss of coolant accident as experienced at Fukushima, inadequate cooling of the reactor core forces component temperatures ever higher where they must withstand aggressive chemical environments. Conventional zirconium cladding alloys will readily oxidize in the presence of water vapor at elevated temperatures, rapidly degrading and likely failing. A cladding breach removes the critical barrier between actinides and fission products and the coolant, greatly increasing the probability of the release of radioactivity in the event of a containment failure. These factors have driven renewed international interest in both study and improvement of the materials used in commercial light water reactors. Characterization of a candidate cladding alloy or oxidation mitigation technique requires understanding of both the oxidation kinetics and hydrogen production as a function of temperature and atmosphere conditions. Researchers in the MST division supported by the DOE-NE Fuel Cycle Research and Development program are working to evaluate and quantify these parameters across a wide range of proposed cladding materials. The primary instrument employed is a simultaneous thermal analyzer (STA) equipped with a specialized water vapor furnace capable of maintaining temperatures above 1200 C in a range of atmospheres and water vapor contents. The STA utilizes thermogravimetric analysis and a coupled mass spectrometer to measure in situ oxidation and hydrogen production of candidate materials. This capability is unprecedented in study of materials under consideration for reactor cladding use, and is currently being expanded to investigate proposed coating techniques as well as the effect of coating defects on corrosion resistance.

  6. Clad and duct materials property needs for sodium fast reactors: US perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Maloy, Stuart A

    2009-01-01

    In the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative, the clad and duct materials property needs are driven by the program direction of using a fast reactor to transmute minor actinides. To economically perform transmutation requires fuels to be irradiated to at least 200/0 burnup before discharge and recycle. The cladding materials used in sllch high dose irradiations will experience at least 200 dpa of exposure. The requirements are that the cladding must contain the fuel until discharge and the duct must maintain ductility and mechanical strength to direct the sodium coolant and withdraw the fuel at discharge. Presently, achieving a bumup of 20% in fast reactor fuels is a significant challenge. The materials property needs for clad materials are the following in order of importance: (1) Radiation resistance: the material must be tolerant of radiation damage up to 200 dpa or greater depending on the final burnup desired at temperatures ranging from 350-600 C (temperature range for maximum dose is 400-500 C). Thus, the material must be tolerant of swelling, irradiation creep, and embrittlement effects. (2) Mechanical properties: tensile properties (strength, ductility), creep resistance, fracture toughness and fatigue resistance must all sufficient to contain the fuel during irradiation and discharge. (3) Fuel Clad Chemical Interaction: the cladding must be resistant to chemical interaction with the fuel during irradiation to prevent clad failure. (4) Fabrication and joining: the material must be able to be fabricated into component parts and joined to contain the fuel during the irradiation and during discharge. (5) Corrosion resistance: the material must be tolerant of the sodium coolant, with minimal corrosion rate. (6) Reprocessing: the cladding must be dissolvable to enable fuel reprocessing. (7) Long-term stability: the clad and duct materials must be stable through 6 or more years of irradiation depending on the final fuel burnup desired. (8) Thermal properties: thermal

  7. The potential impact of enhanced accident tolerant cladding materials on reactivity initiated accidents in light water reactors

    DOE PAGES

    Brown, Nicholas R.; Wysocki, Aaron J.; Terrani, Kurt A.; Xu, Kevin G.; Wachs, Daniel M.

    2016-09-28

    Here, advanced cladding materials with potentially enhanced accident tolerance will yield different light-water-reactor performance and safety characteristics than the present zirconium-based cladding alloys. These differences are due to cladding material properties, reactor physics, thermal, and hydraulic characteristics. Differences in reactors physics characteristics are driven by the fundamental properties (e.g., absorption in iron for an iron-based cladding) and also by design modifications necessitated by the candidate cladding materials (e.g., a larger fuel pellet to compensate for parasitic absorption). Potential changes in thermal hydraulic limits after transition from the current zirconium alloy cladding to the advanced materials will also affect the transientmore » response of the integral fuel. This paper describes three-dimensional nodal kinetics simulations of a reactivity-initiated accident (RIA) in a representative state-of-the-art pressurized water reactor with both nuclear-grade iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) and silicon-carbide (SiC-SiC)-based cladding materials. The impact of candidate cladding materials on the reactor kinetics behavior of RIA progression versus that of reference Zr cladding is predominantly due to differences in (1) fuel mass/volume/specific power density, (2) spectral effects due to parasitic neutron absorption, (3) control rod worth due to hardened (or softened) spectrum, and (4) initial conditions due to power peaking and neutron transport cross sections in the equilibrium cycle cores resulting from hardened (or softened) spectrum. This study shows similar behavior for SiC-SiC-based cladding configurations on the transient response versus reference Zircaloy cladding. However, the FeCrAl cladding response indicates similar energy deposition, but with significantly shorter pulses of higher magnitude. This is due to the shorter neutron generation time of the models with FeCrAl cladding. Therefore, the FeCrAl-based cases have

  8. Report on Reactor Physics Assessment of Candidate Accident Tolerant Fuel Cladding Materials in LWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, Jeffrey J.; George, Nathan; Maldonado, G. Ivan; Worrall, Andrew

    2015-08-28

    This work focuses on ATF concepts being researched at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), expanding on previous studies of using alternate cladding materials in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). The neutronic performance of two leading alternate cladding materials were assessed in boiling water reactors (BWRs): iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) cladding, and silicon carbide (SiC)-based composite cladding. This report fulfills ORNL Milestone M3FT-15OR0202332 within the fiscal year 2015 (FY15)

  9. Ultrasonic monitoring of material processing using clad buffer rod sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos Franca, Demartonne

    Ultrasonic sensors and techniques are developed for in-line monitoring of polymer extrusion, cleanliness of molten metals and liquid flow speed at elevated temperature. Pulse-echo mode is used for the first two processes, while the through-transmission mode is applied in the third one. The ultrasonic probe consists of high performance clad buffer rods with different dimensions to thermally isolate the commercial ultrasonic transducer from materials at high temperature. The clad buffer rods are made of steel, polymer and ceramic. Steel clad buffer rods are introduced for in-line monitoring of polymer extrusion processes. Owing to its superior performance in pulse-echo mode, for the first time such a probe is installed and performs ultrasonic monitoring in the die of a co-extrusion machine and in the barrel section of a twin-screw extruder. It can reveal a variety of information relevant to process parameters, such as polymer layer thickness, interface location and adhesion quality, stability, or polymer composition change. For the ultrasonic monitoring of polymer processes, probes with acoustic impedance that matches that of the processed polymer may offer certain advantages such as quantitative viscoelastic evaluation; thus high temperature polymer clad buffer rods, in particular PEEK, are developed. It is demonstrated that this new probe exhibits unique advantages for in-line monitoring of the cure of epoxies and polymer extrusion process. Long steel clad buffer rods with a spherical focus lens machined at the probing end are proposed for cleanliness evaluation of molten metals. The potential of this focusing probe is demonstrated by means of high-resolution imaging and particles detection in molten zinc at temperatures higher than 600°C, using a single probe operated at pulse-echo mode. A contrapropagating ultrasonic flowmeter employing steel clad buffer rods is devised to operate at high temperature. It is demonstrated that these rods guide ultrasonic signals

  10. Thermochemical Compatibility and Oxidation Resistance of Advanced LWR Fuel Cladding

    DOE PAGES

    Besmann, T. M.; Yamamoto, Y.; Unocic, K. A.

    2016-06-21

    We assessed the thermochemical compatibility of potential replacement cladding materials for zirconium alloys in light water reactors. Considered were FeCrAl steel (similar to Kanthal APMT), Nb-1%Zr (similar to PWC-11), and a hybrid SiC-composite with a metallic barrier layer. The niobium alloy was also seen as requiring an oxidation protective layer, and a diffusion silicide was investigated. Metallic barrier layers for the SiC-composite reviewed included a FeCrAl alloy, Nb-1%Zr, and chromium. Thermochemical calculations were performed to determine oxidation behavior of the materials in steam, and for hybrid SiC-composites possible interactions between the metallic layer and SiC. Additionally, experimental exposures of SiC-alloymore » reaction couples at 673K, 1073K, and 1273K for 168 h in an inert atmosphere were made and microanalysis performed. Whereas all materials were determined to oxidize under higher oxygen partial pressures in the steam environment, these varied by material with expected protective oxides forming. Finally, the computed and experimental results indicate the formation of liquid phase eutectic in the FeCrAl-SiC system at the higher temperatures.« less

  11. The sodium-bonding pin concept for advanced fuels part II: analysis of the cladding carburization

    SciTech Connect

    Ronchi, C.; Blank, M.; Coguerelle, M.; Rouault, J.

    1984-10-01

    Cladding carburization in irradiated liquid-metal fast breeder reactor carbide pins is analyzed with particular emphasis on sodium-bonding conditions. Original data from the French Project for advanced fuels and the Swelling Project performed by the European Institute for Transuranium Elements are discussed and compared with published results. The mechanisms of carbon transfer from the fuel to the steel cladding are examined and evaluated concluding that cladding carburization cannot be avoided with the present sodium-bonded pin design if hyperstoichiometric fuel is adopted. An assessment of the pin failure risks involved is made for different steels. Austenitic steels customarily used for cladding do not exhibit a fully satisfactory carburization resistance. Recently developed ferritic alloys are suggested for carbide fuel cladding in future applications.

  12. Status report of advanced cladding modeling work to assess cladding performance under accident conditions

    SciTech Connect

    B.J. Merrill; Shannon M. Bragg-Sitton

    2013-09-01

    Scoping simulations performed using a severe accident code can be applied to investigate the influence of advanced materials on beyond design basis accident progression and to identify any existing code limitations. In 2012 an effort was initiated to develop a numerical capability for understanding the potential safety advantages that might be realized during severe accident conditions by replacing Zircaloy components in light water reactors (LWRs) with silicon carbide (SiC) components. To this end, a version of the MELCOR code, under development at the Sandia National Laboratories in New Mexico (SNL/NM), was modified by replacing Zircaloy for SiC in the MELCOR reactor core oxidation and material properties routines. The modified version of MELCOR was benchmarked against available experimental data to ensure that present SiC oxidation theory in air and steam were correctly implemented in the code. Additional modifications have been implemented in the code in 2013 to improve the specificity in defining components fabricated from non-standard materials. An overview of these modifications and the status of their implementation are summarized below.

  13. Advanced LWR Nuclear Fuel Cladding System Development Trade-Off Study

    SciTech Connect

    Kristine Barrett; Shannon Bragg-Sitton

    2012-09-01

    The Advanced Light Water Reactor (LWR) Nuclear Fuel Development Research and Development (R&D) Pathway encompasses strategic research focused on improving reactor core economics and safety margins through the development of an advanced fuel cladding system. To achieve significant operating improvements while remaining within safety boundaries, significant steps beyond incremental improvements in the current generation of nuclear fuel are required. Fundamental improvements are required in the areas of nuclear fuel composition, cladding integrity, and the fuel/cladding interaction to allow power uprates and increased fuel burn-up allowance while potentially improving safety margin through the adoption of an “accident tolerant” fuel system that would offer improved coping time under accident scenarios. With a development time of about 20 – 25 years, advanced fuel designs must be started today and proven in current reactors if future reactor designs are to be able to use them with confidence.

  14. Analysis of transmission characteristics of doubly clad fibers with an inner cladding made of uniaxial crystal materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaoping, Zhang; Zhihong, Tan

    2002-04-01

    A doubly clad optical fiber with an inner cladding made of a uniaxial crystal material whose optical axis is parallel to the fiber axis was proposed, and exact characteristic equations of vector modes were derived. The influence of the ratio ( kcl) of the extraordinary to the ordinary ray indexes upon the waveguide dispersion was examined in detail. In view of the impossibility to deduce the expression of waveguide dispersion directly due to the complexity of the characteristic equations, a feasible approach to calculate waveguide dispersion was established. The calculated results indicate that the values of waveguide dispersion can be effectively changed through variation of kcl without changing the geometrical and optical parameters ( S and R). The influences of kcl, S and R on the propagation and cutoff characteristics of the low order modes are also analyzed.

  15. Improved cladding nano-structured materials with self-repairing capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Popa-Simil, L.

    2012-07-01

    When designing nuclear reactors or the materials that go into them, one of the key challenges is finding materials that can withstand an outrageously extreme environment. In addition to constant bombardment by radiation, reactor materials may be subjected to extremes in temperature, physical stress, and corrosive conditions. A limitation in fuel burnup is and usage of the nuclear fuel material is related to the structural material radiation damage, that makes the fuel be removed with low-burnup and immobilized in the waste storage pools. The advanced burnup brings cladding material embitterment due to radiation damage effects corroborated with corrosion effects makes the fuel pellet life shorter. The novel nano-clustered structured sintered material may mitigate simultaneously the radiation damage and corrosion effects driving to more robust structural materials that may make the nuclear reactor safer and more reliable. The development of nano-clustered sinter alloys provides new avenues for further examination of the role of grain boundaries and engineered material interfaces in self-healing of radiation-induced defects driving to the design of highly radiation-tolerant materials for the next generation of nuclear energy applications. (authors)

  16. Experimental and numerical investigation on cladding of corrosion-erosion resistant materials by a high power direct diode laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farahmand, Parisa

    In oil and gas industry, soil particles, crude oil, natural gas, particle-laden liquids, and seawater can carry various highly aggressive elements, which accelerate the material degradation of component surfaces by combination of slurry erosion, corrosion, and wear mechanisms. This material degradation results into the loss of mechanical properties such as strength, ductility, and impact strength; leading to detachment, delamination, cracking, and ultimately premature failure of components. Since the failure of high valued equipment needs considerable cost and time to be repaired or replaced, minimizing the tribological failure of equipment under aggressive environment has been gaining increased interest. It is widely recognized that effective management of degradation mechanisms will contribute towards the optimization of maintenance, monitoring, and inspection costs. The hardfacing techniques have been widely used to enhance the resistance of surfaces against degradation mechanisms. Applying a surface coating improves wear and corrosion resistance and ensures reliability and long-term performance of coated parts. A protective layer or barrier on the components avoids the direct mechanical and chemical contacts of tool surfaces with process media and will reduce the material loss and ultimately its failure. Laser cladding as an advanced hardfacing technique has been widely used for industrial applications in order to develop a protective coating with desired material properties. During the laser cladding, coating material is fused into the base material by means of a laser beam in order to rebuild a damaged part's surface or to enhance its surface function. In the hardfacing techniques such as atmospheric plasma spraying (APS), high velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF), and laser cladding, mixing of coating materials with underneath surface has to be minimized in order to utilize the properties of the coating material most effectively. In this regard, laser cladding offers

  17. Advanced Pellet-Cladding Interaction Modeling using the US DOE CASL Fuel Performance Code: Peregrine

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, Robert O.; Capps, Nathan A.; Sunderland, Dion J.; Liu, Wenfeng; Hales, Jason; Stanek, Chris; Wirth, Brian D.

    2014-06-15

    The US DOE’s Consortium for Advanced Simulation of LWRs (CASL) program has undertaken an effort to enhance and develop modeling and simulation tools for a virtual reactor application, including high fidelity neutronics, fluid flow/thermal hydraulics, and fuel and material behavior. The fuel performance analysis efforts aim to provide 3-dimensional capabilities for single and multiple rods to assess safety margins and the impact of plant operation and fuel rod design on the fuel thermo-mechanical-chemical behavior, including Pellet-Cladding Interaction (PCI) failures and CRUD-Induced Localized Corrosion (CILC) failures in PWRs. [1-3] The CASL fuel performance code, Peregrine, is an engineering scale code that is built upon the MOOSE/ELK/FOX computational FEM framework, which is also common to the fuel modeling framework, BISON [4,5]. Peregrine uses both 2-D and 3-D geometric fuel rod representations and contains a materials properties and fuel behavior model library for the UO2 and Zircaloy system common to PWR fuel derived from both open literature sources and the FALCON code [6]. The primary purpose of Peregrine is to accurately calculate the thermal, mechanical, and chemical processes active throughout a single fuel rod during operation in a reactor, for both steady state and off-normal conditions.

  18. Advanced Pellet Cladding Interaction Modeling Using the US DOE CASL Fuel Performance Code: Peregrine

    SciTech Connect

    Jason Hales; Various

    2014-06-01

    The US DOE’s Consortium for Advanced Simulation of LWRs (CASL) program has undertaken an effort to enhance and develop modeling and simulation tools for a virtual reactor application, including high fidelity neutronics, fluid flow/thermal hydraulics, and fuel and material behavior. The fuel performance analysis efforts aim to provide 3-dimensional capabilities for single and multiple rods to assess safety margins and the impact of plant operation and fuel rod design on the fuel thermomechanical- chemical behavior, including Pellet-Cladding Interaction (PCI) failures and CRUD-Induced Localized Corrosion (CILC) failures in PWRs. [1-3] The CASL fuel performance code, Peregrine, is an engineering scale code that is built upon the MOOSE/ELK/FOX computational FEM framework, which is also common to the fuel modeling framework, BISON [4,5]. Peregrine uses both 2-D and 3-D geometric fuel rod representations and contains a materials properties and fuel behavior model library for the UO2 and Zircaloy system common to PWR fuel derived from both open literature sources and the FALCON code [6]. The primary purpose of Peregrine is to accurately calculate the thermal, mechanical, and chemical processes active throughout a single fuel rod during operation in a reactor, for both steady state and off-normal conditions.

  19. Advances in fabrication of Ag-clad Bi-2223 superconductors.

    SciTech Connect

    Balachandran, U.

    1998-09-04

    Powder-in-tube (PIT) processing was used to fabricate multifilamentary Ag-clad Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub y} (Bi-2223) superconductors for various electric power applications. Enhancements in the transport current properties of long lengths of multifilament tapes were achieved by increasing the packing density of the precursor powder, improving the mechanical deformation, and adjusting the cooling rate. The dependence of the critical current density on magnetic field and temperature for the optimally processed tapes was measured. J{sub c} was greater than 10{sup 4} (A/cm{sup 2}) at 20 K for magnetic field up to 3 T and parallel to the c-axis which is of interest for use in refrigerator coded magnets. An attempt was made to combine the good alignment of Bi-2223 grains in Ag-sheathed superconducting tapes to obtain high J{sub c} values at high temperature and low field, and good intrinsic pinning of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}d} (Y-123) thin film to maintain high J{sub c} values in high fields. A new composite multifilament tape was fabricated such that the central part contained Bi-2223 filaments, with the primary function of conducting the transport current. The central Bi-2223 filaments were surrounded by Y-123 thin film to shield the applied magnetic field and protect the Bi-2223 filaments. The J{sub c} values of the composite tape were better than those of an uncoated tape. In the case of 77 K applications, an I{sub c} of about 60 A was obtained in a 150 m long tape and zero applied magnetic field. In-situ strain characteristics of the mono- and multifilament tapes were conducted.

  20. Ferritic Alloys as Accident Tolerant Fuel Cladding Material for Light Water Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Rebak, Raul B.

    2014-09-30

    The objective of the GE project is to demonstrate that advanced steels such as iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) alloys could be used as accident tolerant fuel cladding material in commercial light water reactors. The GE project does not include fuel development. Current findings support the concept that a FeCrAl alloy could be used for the cladding of commercial nuclear fuel. The use of this alloy will benefit the public since it is going to make the power generating light water reactors safer. In the Phase 1A of this cost shared project, GE (GRC + GNF) teamed with the University of Michigan, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory to study the environmental and mechanical behavior of more than eight candidate cladding materials both under normal operation conditions of commercial nuclear reactors and under accident conditions in superheated steam (loss of coolant condition). The main findings are as follows: (1) Under normal operation conditions the candidate alloys (e.g. APMT, Alloy 33) showed excellent resistance to general corrosion, shadow corrosion and to environmentally assisted cracking. APMT also showed resistance to proton irradiation up to 5 dpa. (2) Under accident conditions the selected candidate materials showed several orders of magnitude improvement in the reaction with superheated steam as compared with the current zirconium based alloys. (3) Tube fabrication feasibility studies of FeCrAl alloys are underway. The aim is to obtain a wall thickness that is below 400 µm. (4) A strategy is outlined for the regulatory path approval and for the insertion of a lead fuel assembly in a commercial reactor by 2022. (5) The GE team worked closely with INL to have four rodlets tested in the ATR. GE provided the raw stock for the alloys, the fuel for the rodlets and the cost for fabrication/welding of the rodlets. INL fabricated the rodlets and the caps and welded them to

  1. Ion irradiation testing of Improved Accident Tolerant Cladding Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Anderoglu, Osman; Tesmer, Joseph R.; Maloy, Stuart A.

    2014-01-14

    This report summarizes the results of ion irradiations conducted on two FeCrAl alloys (named as ORNL A&B) for improving the accident tolerance of LWR nuclear fuel cladding. After irradiation with 1.5 MeV protons to ~0.5 to ~1 dpa and 300°C nanoindentations were performed on the cross-sections along the ion range. An increase in hardness was observed in both alloys. Microstructural analysis shows radiation induced defects.

  2. Preliminary assessment of the fracture behavior of weld material in full-thickness clad beams

    SciTech Connect

    Keeney, J.A.; Bass, B.R.; McAfee, W.J.; Iskander, S.K.

    1994-10-01

    This report describes a testing program that utilizes full-thickness clad beam specimens to quantify fracture toughness for shallow cracks in material for which metallurgical conditions are prototypic of those found in reactor pressure vessels (RPVs). The beam specimens are fabricated from a section of an RPV wall (removed from a canceled nuclear plant) that includes weld, plate, and clad material. Metallurgical factors potentially influencing fracture toughness for shallow cracks in the beam specimens include material gradients due to welding and cladding applications, as well as material inhomogeneities in welded regions due to reheating in multiple weld passes. A summary of the testing program includes a description of the specimen geometry, material properties, the testing procedure, and the experimental results form three specimens. The yield strength of the weld material was determined to be 36% higher than the yield strength of the base material. An irradiation-induced increase in yield strength of the weld material could result in a yield stress that exceeds the upper limit where code curves are valid. The high yield strength for prototypic weld material may have implications for RPV structural integrity assessments. Analyses of the test data are discussed, including comparisons of measured displacements with finite-element analysis results, applications of toughness estimation techniques, and interpretations of constraint conditions implied by stress-based constraint methodologies. Metallurgical conditions in the region of the cladding heat-affected zone are proposed as a possible explanation for the lower-bound fracture toughness measured with one of the shallow-crack clad beam specimens. Fracture toughness data from the three clad beam specimens are compared with other shallow- and deep-crack uniaxial beam and cruciform data generated previously from A 533 Grade B plate material.

  3. Fracture assessment of weld material from a full-thickness clad RPV shell segment

    SciTech Connect

    Keeney, J.A.; Bass, B.R.; McAfee, W.J.

    1996-07-01

    Fracture analysis was applied to full-thickness clad beam specimens containing shallow cracks in material for which metallurgical conditions are prototypic of those found in reactor pressure vessels (RPV) at beginning of life. The beam specimens were fabricated from a section of an RPV wall (removed from a canceled nuclear plant) that includes weld, plate, and clad material. Metallurgical factors potentially influencing fracture toughness for shallow cracks in the beam specimens include gradients of material properties and residual stresses due to welding and cladding applications. Fracture toughness estimates were obtained from load vs load-line displacement and load vs crack-mouth-opening displacement data using finite-element methods and estimation schemes based on the {eta}-factor method. One of the beams experienced a significant amount of precleavage stable ductile tearing. Effects of precleavage tearing on estimates of fracture toughness were investigated using continuum damage models. Fracture toughness results from the clad beam specimens were compared with other deep- and shallow-crack single-edge notch bend (SENB) data generated previously from A533 Grade B plate material. Range of scatter for the clad beam data is consistent with that from the laboratory-scale SENB specimens tested at the same temperature.

  4. Development of a metal-clad advanced composite shear web design concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laakso, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    An advanced composite web concept was developed for potential application to the Space Shuttle Orbiter main engine thrust structure. The program consisted of design synthesis, analysis, detail design, element testing, and large scale component testing. A concept was sought that offered significant weight saving by the use of Boron/Epoxy (B/E) reinforced titanium plate structure. The desired concept was one that was practical and that utilized metal to efficiently improve structural reliability. The resulting development of a unique titanium-clad B/E shear web design concept is described. Three large scale components were fabricated and tested to demonstrate the performance of the concept: a titanium-clad plus or minus 45 deg B/E web laminate stiffened with vertical B/E reinforced aluminum stiffeners.

  5. Corrosion Assessment of Candidate Materials for Fuel Cladding in Canadian SCWR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Yimin; Guzonas, David

    2016-02-01

    The supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR) is an innovative next generation reactor that offers many promising features, but the high-temperature high-pressure coolant introduces unique challenges to the long-term safe and reliable operation of in-core components, in particular the fuel cladding. To achieve high thermal efficiency, the Canadian SCWR concept has a coolant core outlet temperature of 625°C at 25 MPa with a peak cladding temperature as high as 800°C. International and Canadian research programs on corrosion issues in supercritical water have been conducted to support the SCWR concept. This paper provides a brief review of corrosion in supercritical water and summarizes the Canadian corrosion assessment work on potential fuel cladding materials. Five alloys, SS 347H, SS310S, Alloy 800H, Alloy 625 and Alloy 214, have been shown to have sufficient corrosion resistance to be used as the fuel cladding. Additional work, including tests in an in-reactor loop, is needed to confirm that these alloys would work as the fuel cladding in the Canadian SCWR.

  6. Oxidation of Fuel Cladding Candidate Materials in Steam Environments at High Temperature and Pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Ting; Keiser, James R; Brady, Michael P; Terrani, Kurt A; Pint, Bruce A

    2012-01-01

    Under certain severe accident conditions, the fuel rods of nuclear power plants are exposed to high temperature/pressure steam environments in which the Zr alloy cladding is rapidly oxidized. As alternative claddings, the oxidation resistances of SiC-based materials and stainless steels with high Cr and/or Al additions have been examined from 800-1200 C in high-pressure steam environments. Very low reaction kinetics were observed with alumina-forming FeCrAl alloys at 1200 C while Fe-Cr alloys with only 15-20% Cr were rapidly attacked.

  7. Oxidation of fuel cladding candidate materials in steam environments at high temperature and pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Ting; Keiser, James R.; Brady, Michael P.; Terrani, Kurt A.; Pint, Bruce A.

    2012-08-01

    Under certain severe accident conditions, the fuel rods of nuclear power plants are exposed to high temperature/pressure steam environments in which the Zr alloy cladding is rapidly oxidized. As alternative claddings, the oxidation resistances of SiC-based materials and stainless steels with high Cr and/or Al additions have been examined from 800-1200 °C in high-pressure steam environments. Very low reaction kinetics were observed with alumina-forming FeCrAl alloys at 1200 °C while Fe-Cr alloys with only 15-20% Cr were rapidly attacked.

  8. Structural transformations in hull material clad by nitrogen stainless steel using various methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagaradze, V. V.; Kataeva, N. V.; Mushnikova, S. Yu.; Khar'kov, O. A.; Kalinin, G. Yu.; Yampol'skii, V. D.

    2014-02-01

    Specimens of a 10N3KhDMBF shipbuilding hull steel were clad by a 04Kh20N6G11M2AFB nitrogen austenitic steel using various treatment conditions, which included hot rolling, austenitic facing, and explosive welding followed by hot rolling and heat treatment. Between the base and cladding materials, an intermediate layer with variable concentrations of chromium, manganese, and nickel was found, in which a martensitic structure was formed. In all the cases, the strength of bonding of the cladding layer to the hull steel (determined in tests for shear to fracture) was fairly high (σsh = 437-520 MPa). The only exception was the specimen produced by unidirectional facing without subsequent hot rolling (σsh = 308 MPa), in which nonfusions between the faced beads of stainless steel were detected.

  9. TiN-based coatings on fuel cladding tubes for advanced nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ickchan Kim; Fauzia Khatkhatay; Liang Jiao; Greg Swadener; James Cole; Jian Gan; Haiyan Wang

    2012-10-01

    Titanium nitride (TiN) thin films are coated on HT-9 and MA957 fuel cladding tubes and bars to explore their mechanical strength, thermal stability, diffusion barrier properties, and thermal conductivity properties. The ultimate goal is to implement TiN as an effective diffusion barrier to prevent the inter-diffusion between the nuclear fuel and the cladding material, and thus lead to a longer life time of the cladding tubes. Mechanical tests including hardness and scratch tests for the samples before and after thermal cycle tests show that the films have a high hardness of 28 GPa and excellent adhesion properties despite the thermal treatment. Thermal conductivity measurements demonstrate that the thin TiN films have very minimal impact on the overall thermal conductivity of the MA957 and HT9 substrates, i.e., the thermal conductivity of the uncoated HT-9 and MA957 substrates was 26.25 and 28.44 W m-1K-1 , and that of the coated ones was 26.21 and 28.38 W m-1K-1, respectively. A preliminary Ce diffusion test on the couple of Ce/TiN/HT-9 suggests that TiN has excellent material compatibility and good diffusion barrier properties.

  10. Preliminary Investigation of Zircaloy-4 as a Research Reactor Cladding Material

    SciTech Connect

    Brian K Castle

    2012-05-01

    As part of a scoping study for the ATR fuel conversion project, an initial comparison of the material properties of Zircaloy-4 and Aluminum-6061 (T6 and O-temper) is performed to provide a preliminary evaluation of Zircaloy-4 for possible inclusion as a candidate cladding material for ATR fuel elements. The current fuel design for the ATR uses Aluminum 6061 (T6 and O temper) as a cladding and structural material in the fuel element and to date, no fuel failures have been reported. Based on this successful and longstanding operating history, Zircaloy-4 properties will be evaluated against the material properties for aluminum-6061. The preliminary investigation will focus on a comparison of density, oxidation rates, water chemistry requirements, mechanical properties, thermal properties, and neutronic properties.

  11. Advanced materials for space nuclear power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Titran, R.H.; Grobstein, T.L. . Lewis Research Center); Ellis, D.L. )

    1991-01-01

    Research on monolithic refractory metal alloys and on metal matrix composites is being conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, in support of advanced space power systems. The overall philosophy of the research is to develop and characterize new high-temperature power conversion and radiator materials and to provide spacecraft designers with material selection options and design information. Research on three candidate materials (carbide strengthened niobium alloy PWC-11 for fuel cladding, graphite fiber reinforced copper matrix composites (Gr/Cu) for heat rejection fins, and tungsten fiber reinforced niobium matrix composites (W/NB) for fuel containment and structural supports) considered for space power system applications is discussed. Each of these types of materials offers unique advantages for space power applications.

  12. Advanced desiccant materials research

    SciTech Connect

    Czanderna, A.W.; Thomas, T.M.

    1986-05-01

    The long-range goal of this task is to understand the role of surface phenomena in desiccant cooling materials. The background information includes a brief introduction to desiccant cooling systems (DCS) and the role of the desiccant as a system component. The purpose, background, rationale, and long-term technical approach for studying advanced desiccant materials are then treated. Experimental methods for measuring water vapor sorption by desiccants are described, and the rationale is then given for choosing a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) for measuring sorption isotherms, rates, and cyclic stability. Background information is given about the QCM, including the quartz crystal resonator itself, the support structure for the quartz crystal, and the advantages and limitations of a QCM. The apparatus assembled and placed into operation during CY 1985 is described. The functions of the principal components of the equipment, i.e., the QCM, vacuum system, pressure gauges, residual gas analyzer, constant temperature bath, and data acquisition system, are described as they relate to the water vapor sorption measurements now under way. The criteria for narrowing the potential candidates as advanced desiccant materials for the initial studies are given. Also given is a list of 20 principal candidate materials identified based on the criteria and data available in the literature.

  13. Analysis of Nickel Based Hardfacing Materials Manufactured by Laser Cladding for Sodium Fast Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubry, P.; Blanc, C.; Demirci, I.; Dal, M.; Malot, T.; Maskrot, H.

    For improving the operational capacity, the maintenance and the decommissioning of the future French Sodium Fast Reactor ASTRID which is under study, it is asked to find or develop a cobalt free hardfacing alloy and the associated manufacturing process that will give satisfying wear performances. This article presents recent results obtained on some selected nickel-based hardfacing alloys manufactured by laser cladding, particularly on Tribaloy 700 alloy. A process parameter search is made and associated the microstructural analysis of the resulting clads. A particular attention is made on the solidification of the main precipitates (chromium carbides, boron carbides, Laves phases,…) that will mainly contribute to the wear properties of the material. Finally, the wear resistance of some samples is evaluated in simple wear conditions evidencing promising results on tribology behavior of Tribaloy 700.

  14. Accelerating advanced-materials commercialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maine, Elicia; Seegopaul, Purnesh

    2016-05-01

    Long commercialization times, high capital costs and sustained uncertainty deter investment in innovation for advanced materials. With appropriate strategies, technology and market uncertainties can be reduced, and the commercialization of advanced materials accelerated.

  15. Advanced composite materials and processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baucom, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    Composites are generally defined as two or more individual materials, which, when combined into a single material system, results in improved physical and/or mechanical properties. The freedom of choice of the starting components for composites allows the generation of materials that can be specifically tailored to meet a variety of applications. Advanced composites are described as a combination of high strength fibers and high performance polymer matrix materials. These advanced materials are required to permit future aircraft and spacecraft to perform in extended environments. Advanced composite precursor materials, processes for conversion of these materials to structures, and selected applications for composites are reviewed.

  16. Possibility of Multi-material Laser Cladding Fabrication of Nickel Alloy and Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotoban, D.; Aramov, A.; Tarasova, T.

    There are some applications in the industry for multi-material components, including device engineering and multifunctional surface engineering, having to eliminate a brazing or welding technological step. This study investigates the laser cladding process parameters, related single track geometry and quality of multi-material samples. The optimal process parameters for steel were found of 0.21-0.26 J/mm2 and 0.25 10-2 g/mm under the scanning velocity of 1400-1700 mm/min and powder feeding of 4.2-4.5 g/min. The bimetal thin walls, cylinders and cubes were manufactured within the optimal conditions. The requirements of steel and nickel joining were explored. For the examination, the optical microscopy, SEM, EDX microelement analysis and hardness analysis were involved.

  17. High Temperature and Pressure Steam-H2 Interaction with Candidate Advanced LWR Fuel Claddings

    SciTech Connect

    Pint, Bruce A

    2012-08-01

    This report summarizes the work completed to evaluate cladding materials that could serve as improvements to Zircaloy in terms of accident tolerance. This testing involved oxidation resistance to steam or H{sub 2}-50% steam environments at 800-1350 C at 1-20 bar for short times. A selection of conventional alloys, SiC-based ceramics and model alloys were used to explore a wide range of materials options and provide guidance for future materials development work. Typically, the SiC-based ceramic materials, alumina-forming alloys and Fe-Cr alloys with {ge}25% Cr showed the best potential for oxidation resistance at {ge}1200 C. At 1350 C, FeCrAl alloys and SiC remained oxidation resistant in steam. Conventional austenitic steels do not have sufficient oxidation resistance with only {approx}18Cr-10Ni. Higher alloyed type 310 stainless steel is protective but Ni is not a desirable alloy addition for this application and high Cr contents raise concern about {alpha}{prime} formation. Higher pressures (up to 20.7 bar) and H{sub 2} additions appeared to have a limited effect on the oxidation behavior of the most oxidation resistant alloys but higher pressures accelerated the maximum metal loss for less oxidation resistant steels and less metal loss was observed in a H{sub 2}-50%H{sub 2}O environment at 10.3 bar. As some of the results regarding low-alloyed FeCrAl and Fe-Cr alloys were unexpected, further work is needed to fundamentally understand the minimum Cr and Al alloy contents needed for protective behavior in these environments in order to assist in alloy selection and guide alloy development.

  18. Evaluation of the fabricability of advanced iron aluminide-clad austenitic stainless steel tubing

    SciTech Connect

    Mohn, W.R.; Topolski, M.J.

    1993-07-01

    Researchers at Babcock & Wilcox Alliance Research Center have investigated methods to produce bimetallic tubing consisting of iron aluminide-clad austenitic stainless steel for practical use in fossil fueled energy equipment. In the course of this work, the compatibility of iron aluminide with four candidate austenitic stainless steel substrates was first evaluated using diffusion couples. Based on these results, a combination of iron aluminide and 304 stainless steel was selected for further development. Two composite billets of this combination were then prepared and extruded in separate trails at 2200F and 2000F. Both extrusions yielded 2-inch OD clad tubes, each approximately 18 feet long. Results of the evaluation show that the tube extruded at 2000F had a sound, integrally bonded clad layer throughout its entire length. However, the tube extruded at 2200F exhibited regions of disbonding between the clad layer and the substrate. In supplement to this work, an assessment of the technical and economic merits of iron aluminide-clad austenitic stainless steel components in power generation systems was conducted by B&W Fossil Power Division. Future activities should include an investigation of lower extrusion processing temperatures to optimize the fabrication of high quality iron-aluminide clad tubing.

  19. Advanced Materials Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blankenship, C. P. (Compiler); Teichman, L. A. (Compiler)

    1982-01-01

    Composites, polymer science, metallic materials (aluminum, titanium, and superalloys), materials processing technology, materials durability in the aerospace environment, ceramics, fatigue and fracture mechanics, tribology, and nondestructive evaluation (NDE) are discussed. Research and development activities are introduced to the nonaerospace industry. In order to provide a convenient means to help transfer aerospace technology to the commercial mainstream in a systematic manner.

  20. Advanced neutron absorber materials

    DOEpatents

    Branagan, Daniel J.; Smolik, Galen R.

    2000-01-01

    A neutron absorbing material and method utilizing rare earth elements such as gadolinium, europium and samarium to form metallic glasses and/or noble base nano/microcrystalline materials, the neutron absorbing material having a combination of superior neutron capture cross sections coupled with enhanced resistance to corrosion, oxidation and leaching.

  1. Effects of quenching, irradiation, and annealing processes on the radiation hardness of silica fiber cladding materials (I)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Jianxiang; Gong, Renxiang; Xiao, Zhongyin; Luo, Wenyun; Wu, Wenkai; Luo, Yanhua; Peng, Gang-ding; Pang, Fufei; Chen, Zhenyi; Wang, Tingyun

    2016-07-01

    Silica optical fiber cladding materials were experimentally treated by a series of processes. The treatments involved quenching, irradiation, followed by annealing and subsequent re-irradiation, and they were conducted in order to improve the radiation hardness. The microstructural properties of the treated materials were subsequently investigated. Following the treatment of the optical fiber cladding materials, the results from the electron spin resonance (ESR) analysis demonstrated that there was a significant decrease in the radiation-induced defect structures. The ESR signals became significantly weaker when the samples were annealed at 1000 °C in combination with re-irradiation. In addition, the microstructure changes within the silica optical fiber cladding material were also analyzed using Raman spectroscopy. The experimental results demonstrate that the Sisbnd Osbnd Si bending vibrations at ω3 = 800-820 cm-1 and ω4 = 1000-1200 cm-1 (with longitudinal optical (LO) and transverse optical (TO) splitting bands) were relatively unaffected by the quenching, irradiation, and annealing treatments. In particular, the annealing process resulted in the disappearance of the defect centers; however, the LO and TO modes at the ω3 and ω4 bands were relatively unchanged. With the additional support of the ESR test results, we can conclude that the combined treatment processes can significantly enhance the radiation hardness properties of the optical fiber cladding materials.

  2. Surface Modification of Fuel Cladding Materials with Integral Fuel BUrnable Absorber Boron

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Kumar Sridharan; Dr. Todd Allen; Jesse Gudmundson; Benjamin Maier

    2008-11-03

    Integral fuel burnable absorgers (IFBA) are added to some rods in the fuel assembly to counteract excessive reactivity. These IFBA elements (usually boron or gadolinium) are presently incorporated in the U)2 pellets either by mixing in the pellets or as coatings on the pellet surface. In either case, the incorporation of ifba into the fuel has to be performed in a nuclear-regulated facility that is physically separated from the main plant. These operations tend to be costly and can add from 20 to 30% to the manufacturing cost of the fuel. The goal of this NEER research project was to develop an alternative approach that involves incorporation of IFBA element boron at the surface of the fuel cladding material.

  3. High Resolution Neutron Radiography and Tomography of Hydrided Zircaloy-4 Cladding Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Tyler S; Bilheux, Hassina Z; Ray, Holly B; Bilheux, Jean-Christophe; Yan, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Neutron radiography for hydrogen analysis was performed with several Zircaloy-4 cladding samples with controlled hydrogen concentrations up to 1100 ppm. Hydrogen charging was performed in a process tube that was heated to facilitate hydrogen absorption by the metal. A correlation between the hydrogen concentration in the hydrided tubes and the neutron intensity was established, by which hydrogen content can be determined precisely in a small area (55 m x 55 m). Radiography analysis was also performed to evaluate the heating rate and its correlation with the hydrogen distribution through hydrided materials. In addition to radiography analysis, tomography experiments were performed on Zircaloy-4 tube samples to study the local hydrogen distribution. Through tomography analysis a 3D reconstruction of the tube was evaluated in which an uneven hydrogen distribution in the circumferential direction can be observed.

  4. Advanced materials and the economy

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.P.; Flemings, M.C.

    1986-10-01

    Advances in materials science and engineering have impact quickly throughout the economy. On the average, every person in the US requires the securing and processing of some 20,000 pounds of nonrenewable, nonfuel mineral resources each year. Industries engaged in the direct production of primary materials employ approximately 1.5 million wage and salaried personnel, or about 1.5% of the labor force. On each person employed in the primary materials industries depend the jobs of from two to three workers in other sectors. The value of shipments of advanced materials is about $70 billion, or approximately 14% of total materials shipments. The production of such materials occupies about 10% of the total labor force of the materials industries. As in the case of employment, the indirect effect of the presence of these materials on the rest of the economy is highly significant. The reason is that advanced materials are not an end product; they are assembled into components critical to the successful performance and operation of such large, complex systems as aircraft and aerospace vehicles, electronic devices and automobiles. Advanced materials are essential to the future growth of these and other industries. In fact, progress in materials science sets ultimate limits on the rate at which key sectors of the economy can grown.

  5. Advanced electron microscopy for advanced materials.

    PubMed

    Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Bals, Sara; Van Aert, Sandra; Verbeeck, Jo; Van Dyck, Dirk

    2012-11-01

    The idea of this Review is to introduce newly developed possibilities of advanced electron microscopy to the materials science community. Over the last decade, electron microscopy has evolved into a full analytical tool, able to provide atomic scale information on the position, nature, and even the valency atoms. This information is classically obtained in two dimensions (2D), but can now also be obtained in 3D. We show examples of applications in the field of nanoparticles and interfaces.

  6. Development of advanced thermoelectric materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The development of an advanced thermoelectric material for radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) applications is reported. A number of materials were explored. The bulk of the effort, however, was devoted to improving silicon germanium alloys by the addition of gallium phosphide, the synthesis and evaluation of lanthanum chrome sulfide and the formulation of various mixtures of lanthanum sulfide and chrome sulfide. It is found that each of these materials exhibits promise as a thermoelectric material.

  7. Science based integrated approach to advanced nuclear fuel development - integrated multi-scale multi-physics hierarchical modeling and simulation framework Part III: cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Tome, Carlos N; Caro, J A; Lebensohn, R A; Unal, Cetin; Arsenlis, A; Marian, J; Pasamehmetoglu, K

    2010-01-01

    Advancing the performance of Light Water Reactors, Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles, and Advanced Reactors, such as the Next Generation Nuclear Power Plants, requires enhancing our fundamental understanding of fuel and materials behavior under irradiation. The capability to accurately model the nuclear fuel systems to develop predictive tools is critical. Not only are fabrication and performance models needed to understand specific aspects of the nuclear fuel, fully coupled fuel simulation codes are required to achieve licensing of specific nuclear fuel designs for operation. The backbone of these codes, models, and simulations is a fundamental understanding and predictive capability for simulating the phase and microstructural behavior of the nuclear fuel system materials and matrices. In this paper we review the current status of the advanced modeling and simulation of nuclear reactor cladding, with emphasis on what is available and what is to be developed in each scale of the project, how we propose to pass information from one scale to the next, and what experimental information is required for benchmarking and advancing the modeling at each scale level.

  8. Deformation Microstructures and Creep Mechanisms in Advanced ZR-Based Cladding Under Biazal Loading

    SciTech Connect

    K. Linga Murty

    2008-08-11

    Investigate creep behavior of Zr-based cladding tubes with attention to basic creep mechanisms and transitions in them at low stresses and/or temperatures and study the dislocation microstructures of deformed samples for correlation with the underlying micromechanism of creep

  9. Fabrication of a Porous Fiber Cladding Material Using Microsphere Templating for Improved Response Time with Fiber Optic Sensor Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Henning, Paul E.; Rigo, M. Veronica; Geissinger, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A highly porous optical-fiber cladding was developed for evanescent-wave fiber sensors, which contains sensor molecules, maintains guiding conditions in the optical fiber, and is suitable for sensing in aqueous environments. To make the cladding material (a poly(ethylene) glycol diacrylate (PEGDA) polymer) highly porous, a microsphere templating strategy was employed. The resulting pore network increases transport of the target analyte to the sensor molecules located in the cladding, which improves the sensor response time. This was demonstrated using fluorescein-based pH sensor molecules, which were covalently attached to the cladding material. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the structure of the templated polymer and the large network of interconnected pores. Fluorescence measurements showed a tenfold improvement in the response time for the templated polymer and a reliable pH response over a pH range of five to nine with an estimated accuracy of 0.08 pH units. PMID:22654644

  10. Fatigue of advanced materials

    SciTech Connect

    Dauskardt, R.H.; Ritchie, R.O. . Center for Advanced Materials); Cox, B.N. )

    1993-08-01

    The development of toughened ceramics over the past 10 to 15 years is arguably one of the most important materials breakthroughs of this century. Monolithic and composite ceramic materials having fracture toughnesses up to an order of magnitude higher than those available 20 years ago have been produced using technologies based on scientific understanding and micromechanical models for in situ phase transformation, fiber bridging, ductile-particle toughening, and other toughening mechanisms. The irony of this, however, is that although ceramics can now be seriously considered for many structural applications, they can also, contrary to popular belief, be susceptible to degradation under cyclic fatigue loading. This is true even when the loading is fully compressive. As a result, a great deal of attention is now being paid to ceramic fatigue, largely because of the importance of cyclic loading in many of the potential applications for ceramics, such as gas-turbine and reciprocating engines. However, because the field is in its infancy, only limited fatigue property data have been documented, understanding of salient fatigue mechanisms has not been achieved, and the design of ceramic microstructures for optimum fatigue resistance has yet to be attempted.

  11. Advanced Aerospace Materials by Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Djomehri, Jahed; Wei, Chen-Yu

    2004-01-01

    The advances in the emerging field of nanophase thermal and structural composite materials; materials with embedded sensors and actuators for morphing structures; light-weight composite materials for energy and power storage; and large surface area materials for in-situ resource generation and waste recycling, are expected to :revolutionize the capabilities of virtually every system comprising of future robotic and :human moon and mars exploration missions. A high-performance multiscale simulation platform, including the computational capabilities and resources of Columbia - the new supercomputer, is being developed to discover, validate, and prototype next generation (of such advanced materials. This exhibit will describe the porting and scaling of multiscale 'physics based core computer simulation codes for discovering and designing carbon nanotube-polymer composite materials for light-weight load bearing structural and 'thermal protection applications.

  12. Future requirements for advanced materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olstad, W. B.

    1980-01-01

    Recent advances and future trends in aerospace materials technology are reviewed with reference to metal alloys, high-temperature composites and adhesives, tungsten fiber-reinforced superalloys, hybrid materials, ceramics, new ablative materials, such as carbon-carbon composite and silica tiles used in the Shuttle Orbiter. The technologies of powder metallurgy coupled with hot isostatic pressing, near net forging, complex large shape casting, chopped fiber molding, superplastic forming, and computer-aided design and manufacture are emphasized.

  13. Evaluation of Corrosion of Aluminum Based Reactor Fuel Cladding Materials During Dry Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Peacock, H.B. Jr.

    1999-10-21

    This report provides an evaluation of the corrosion behavior of aluminum cladding alloys and aluminum-uranium alloys at conditions relevant to dry storage. The details of the corrosion program are described and the results to date are discussed.

  14. Advanced materials for energy storage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang; Li, Feng; Ma, Lai-Peng; Cheng, Hui-Ming

    2010-02-23

    Popularization of portable electronics and electric vehicles worldwide stimulates the development of energy storage devices, such as batteries and supercapacitors, toward higher power density and energy density, which significantly depends upon the advancement of new materials used in these devices. Moreover, energy storage materials play a key role in efficient, clean, and versatile use of energy, and are crucial for the exploitation of renewable energy. Therefore, energy storage materials cover a wide range of materials and have been receiving intensive attention from research and development to industrialization. In this Review, firstly a general introduction is given to several typical energy storage systems, including thermal, mechanical, electromagnetic, hydrogen, and electrochemical energy storage. Then the current status of high-performance hydrogen storage materials for on-board applications and electrochemical energy storage materials for lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors is introduced in detail. The strategies for developing these advanced energy storage materials, including nanostructuring, nano-/microcombination, hybridization, pore-structure control, configuration design, surface modification, and composition optimization, are discussed. Finally, the future trends and prospects in the development of advanced energy storage materials are highlighted.

  15. Advanced Ultrasonic Inspection Techniques for General Purpose Heat Source Fueled Clad Closure Welds

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, M.W.

    2001-01-11

    A radioisotope thermoelectric generator is used to provide a power source for long-term deep space missions. This General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is fabricated using iridium clad vent sets to contain the plutonium oxide fuel pellets. Integrity of the closure weld is essential to ensure containment of the plutonium. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant took the lead role in developing the ultrasonic inspection for the closure weld and transferring the inspection to Los Alamos National Laboratory for use in fueled clad inspection for the Cassini mission. Initially only amplitude and time-of-flight data were recorded. However, a number of benign geometric conditions produced signals that were larger than the acceptance threshold. To identify these conditions, a B-scan inspection was developed that acquired full ultrasonic waveforms. Using a test protocol the B-scan inspection was able to identify benign conditions such as weld shield fusion and internal mismatch. Tangential radiography was used to confirm the ultrasonic results. All but two of 29 fueled clads for which ultrasonic B-scan data was evaluated appeared to have signals that could be attributed to benign geometric conditions. This report describes the ultrasonic inspection developed at Y-12 for the Cassini mission.

  16. Development of new ferritic steels as cladding material for metallic fuel fast breeder reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokiwai, Moriyasu; Horie, Masaaki; Kako, Kenji; Fujiwara, Masayuki

    1993-09-01

    The excellent thermal, chemical and neutronic properties of metallic fuel (U-Pu-Zr alloy) will lead to drastic improvements in fast reactor safety and the related fuel cycle economy. Some new high molybdenum 12Cr ferritic stainless steel candidate cladding alloys have been designed to achieve the mechanical properties required for high performance metallic fuel elements. These candidate claddings were irradiated by ion bombardment and tested to determine their strength and creep rupture properties. A 12Cr-8Mo and a 12Cr-8Mo-0.1Y 2O 3 steel were fabricated into cladding via a powder metallurgy process and by a mechanical alloying process, respectively. These claddings had two and three times the creep rupture strength (pressurized at 650°C for 10000 h) of a conventional 12Cr ferritic steel (HT-9). These two steels also showed no void formation up to 350 dpa by Ni 3+ irradiation. A zircaloy-2 lined steel cladding tube has also been fabricated for the purpose of reducing fuel-cladding interdiffusion and chemical interaction.

  17. High temperature oxidation of fuel cladding candidate materials in steam-hydrogen environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pint, B. A.; Terrani, K. A.; Brady, M. P.; Cheng, T.; Keiser, J. R.

    2013-09-01

    Alternative fuel cladding materials to Zr alloys are being investigated for enhanced accident tolerance, which specifically involves oxidation resistance to steam or steam-H2 environments at ⩾1200 °C for short times. Based on a comparison of a range of commercial and model alloys, conventional austenitic steels do not have sufficient oxidation resistance with only ˜18Cr-10Ni. Higher alloyed type 310 stainless steel is protective but Ni is not a desirable alloy addition for this application. Results at 1350 °C indicated that FeCrAl alloys and CVD SiC remain oxidation resistant in steam. At 1200 °C, high (⩾25% Cr) ferritic alloys appear to be good candidates for this application. Higher pressures (up to 20.7 bar) and H2 additions appeared to have a limited effect on the oxidation behavior of the most oxidation resistant alloys, but higher pressures accelerated the maximum metal loss for less oxidation resistant steels and less metal loss was observed for type 317 L tubing in a H2-50%H2O environment at 10.3 bar compared to 100% H2O.

  18. Advanced materials for space nuclear power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titran, Robert H.; Grobstein, Toni L.; Ellis, David L.

    1991-01-01

    The overall philosophy of the research was to develop and characterize new high temperature power conversion and radiator materials and to provide spacecraft designers with material selection options and design information. Research on three candidate materials (carbide strengthened niobium alloy PWC-11 for fuel cladding, graphite fiber reinforced copper matrix composites for heat rejection fins, and tungsten fiber reinforced niobium matrix composites for fuel containment and structural supports) considered for space power system applications is discussed. Each of these types of materials offers unique advantages for space power applications.

  19. Advanced materials for space nuclear power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titran, Robert H.; Grobstein, Toni L.; Ellis, David L.

    1991-01-01

    The overall philosophy of the research was to develop and characterize new high temperature power conversion and radiator materials and to provide spacecraft designers with material selection options and design information. Research on three candidate materials (carbide strengthened niobium alloy PWC-11 for fuel cladding, graphite fiber reinforced copper matrix composites for heat rejection fins, and tungsten fiber reinforced niobium matrix composites for fuel containment and structural supports considered for space power system applications is discussed. Each of these types of materials offers unique advantages for space power applications.

  20. Incorporation of Integral Fuel Burnable Absorbers Boron and Gadolinium into Zirconium-Alloy Fuel Clad Material

    SciTech Connect

    Sridharan, K.; Renk, T.J.; Lahoda, E.J.; Corradini, M.L

    2004-12-14

    Long-lived fuels require the use of higher enrichments of 235U or other fissile materials. Such high levels of fissile material lead to excessive fuel activity at the beginning of life. To counteract this excessive activity, integral fuel burnable absorbers (IFBA) are added to some rods in the fuel assembly. The two commonly used IFBA elements are gadolinium, which is added as gadolinium-oxide to the UO2 powder, and boron, which is applied as a zirconium-diboride coating on the UO2 pellets using plasma spraying or chemical vapor deposition techniques. The incorporation of IFBA into the fuel has to be performed in a nuclear-regulated facility that is physically separated from the main plant. These operations tend to be very costly because of their small volume and can add from 20 to 30% to the manufacturing cost of the fuel. Other manufacturing issues that impact cost and performance are maintaining the correct levels of dosing, the reduction in fuel melting point due to gadolinium-oxide additions, and parasitic neutron absorption at fuel's end-of-life. The goal of the proposed research is to develop an alternative approach that involves incorporation of boron or gadolinium into the outer surface of the fuel cladding material rather than as an additive to the fuel pellets. This paradigm shift will allow for the introduction of the IFBA in a non-nuclear regulated environment and will obviate the necessity of additional handling and processing of the fuel pellets. This could represent significant cost savings and potentially lead to greater reproducibility and control of the burnable fuel in the early stages of the reactor operation. The surface alloying is being performed using the IBEST (Ion Beam Surface Treatment) process developed at Sandia National Laboratories. IBEST involves the delivery of energetic ion beam pulses onto the surface of a material, near-surface melting, and rapid solidification. The non-equilibrium nature of such processing allows for surface

  1. In-situ tube burst testing and high-temperature deformation behavior of candidate materials for accident tolerant fuel cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Byun, Thak Sang; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Maloy, Stuart A.; Gussev, M. N.; Terrani, K. A.

    2015-08-25

    Here, one of the most essential properties of accident tolerant fuel (ATF) for maintaining structural integrity during a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) is high resistance of the cladding to plastic deformation and burst failure, since the deformation and burst behavior governs the cooling efficiency of flow channels and the process of fission product release. To simulate and evaluate the deformation and burst process of thin-walled cladding, an in-situ testing and evaluation method has been developed on the basis of visual imaging and image analysis techniques. The method uses a specialized optics system consisting of a high-resolution video camera, a light filtering unit, and monochromatic light sources. The in-situ testing is performed using a 50 mm long pressurized thin-walled tubular specimen set in a programmable furnace. As the first application, ten (10) candidate cladding materials for ATF, i.e., five FeCrAl alloys and five nanostructured steels, were tested using the newly developed method, and the time-dependent images were analyzed to produce detailed deformation and burst data such as true hoop stress, strain (creep) rate, and failure stress. Relatively soft FeCrAl alloys deformed and burst below 800 °C, while negligible strain rates were measured for higher strength alloys.

  2. In-situ tube burst testing and high-temperature deformation behavior of candidate materials for accident tolerant fuel cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Gussev, Maxim N.; Byun, Thak Sang; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Maloy, Stuart A.; Terrani, Kurt A.

    2015-11-01

    The high resistance of cladding to plastic deformation and burst failure is one of the most essential properties of accident tolerant fuel (ATF) for maintaining structural integrity during a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) since the deformation and burst behavior governs the cooling efficiency of flow channels and process of fission product release. To simulate and evaluate such deformation and burst process of thin-walled cladding, an in-situ testing and evaluation method has been developed on the basis of visual imaging and image analysis techniques. The method uses a specialized optics system consisted of a high-resolution video camera, light filtering unit, and monochromatic light sources, and the in-situ testing is performed using a 50 mm long pressurized thin-walled tubular specimen set in a programmable furnace. In this study eleven (11) candidate cladding materials for ATF, i.e., 6 FeCrAl alloys and 5 nanostructured steels, were tested using the newly developed method, and the time-dependent images were analyzed to produce detailed deformation and burst data such as true hoop stress, strain (creep) rate, and failure stress. Relatively soft FeCrAl alloys deformed and burst below 800°C while negligible strain rates were measured for higher strength alloys and/or for relatively thick wall specimens.

  3. In-situ tube burst testing and high-temperature deformation behavior of candidate materials for accident tolerant fuel cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gussev, M. N.; Byun, T. S.; Yamamoto, Y.; Maloy, S. A.; Terrani, K. A.

    2015-11-01

    One of the most essential properties of accident tolerant fuel (ATF) for maintaining structural integrity during a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) is high resistance of the cladding to plastic deformation and burst failure, since the deformation and burst behavior governs the cooling efficiency of flow channels and the process of fission product release. To simulate and evaluate the deformation and burst process of thin-walled cladding, an in-situ testing and evaluation method has been developed on the basis of visual imaging and image analysis techniques. The method uses a specialized optics system consisting of a high-resolution video camera, a light filtering unit, and monochromatic light sources. The in-situ testing is performed using a 50 mm long pressurized thin-walled tubular specimen set in a programmable furnace. As the first application, ten (10) candidate cladding materials for ATF, i.e., five FeCrAl alloys and five nanostructured steels, were tested using the newly developed method, and the time-dependent images were analyzed to produce detailed deformation and burst data such as true hoop stress, strain (creep) rate, and failure stress. Relatively soft FeCrAl alloys deformed and burst below 800 °C, while negligible strain rates were measured for higher strength alloys.

  4. High Temperature Expansion Due to Compression Test for the Determination of a Cladding Material Failure Criterion under RIA Loading Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Le Saux, M.; Poussard, C.; Averty, X.; Sainte Catherine, C.; Carassou, S.

    2007-07-01

    This paper is mainly dedicated to the development of an out-of-pile test reproducing the thermo-mechanical loading conditions encountered during the first stage of a Reactivity Initiated Accidents (RIA) transient, dominated by Pellet Clad Mechanical Interaction (PCMI). In particular, the strain-controlled clad loading under high strain rate associated with temperatures up to 600 deg. C expected during the PCMI phase is simulated by an Expansion Due to Compression (EDC) test achievable at high temperature. The use of appropriate materials for the inner pellet made it possible to achieve the tests from 20 deg. C up to 900 deg. C. The interpretation of the test data is supported by Finite Element Analysis (FEA) including parameters tuned using an inverse method coupling FEA and tests results. A deformation model, identified upon the PROMETRA (Transient Mechanical Properties) experimental database and describing the anisotropic viscoplastic behavior of Cold-Worked Stress Relieved Zircaloy-4 cladding alloys under typical RIA loading conditions, is exploited. The combined analysis of experimental results and finite element simulations provides a deeper understanding of the deformation mode (near pure hoop tension) that arises during the tests. The failure mode appears to be representative of that obtained on tubes during the PCMI stage of RIA experiments. An appropriate device is currently developed in order to reach a bi-axiality of the loading path closer to that expected during the PCMI stage (between plane-strain and equal-biaxial tension). (authors)

  5. In-situ tube burst testing and high-temperature deformation behavior of candidate materials for accident tolerant fuel cladding

    DOE PAGES

    Byun, Thak Sang; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Maloy, Stuart A.; Gussev, M. N.; Terrani, K. A.

    2015-08-25

    Here, one of the most essential properties of accident tolerant fuel (ATF) for maintaining structural integrity during a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) is high resistance of the cladding to plastic deformation and burst failure, since the deformation and burst behavior governs the cooling efficiency of flow channels and the process of fission product release. To simulate and evaluate the deformation and burst process of thin-walled cladding, an in-situ testing and evaluation method has been developed on the basis of visual imaging and image analysis techniques. The method uses a specialized optics system consisting of a high-resolution video camera, a light filteringmore » unit, and monochromatic light sources. The in-situ testing is performed using a 50 mm long pressurized thin-walled tubular specimen set in a programmable furnace. As the first application, ten (10) candidate cladding materials for ATF, i.e., five FeCrAl alloys and five nanostructured steels, were tested using the newly developed method, and the time-dependent images were analyzed to produce detailed deformation and burst data such as true hoop stress, strain (creep) rate, and failure stress. Relatively soft FeCrAl alloys deformed and burst below 800 °C, while negligible strain rates were measured for higher strength alloys.« less

  6. Plasma Processing of Advanced Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Heberlein, Joachim, V.R.; Pfender, Emil; Kortshagen, Uwe

    2005-02-28

    Plasma Processing of Advanced Materials The project had the overall objective of improving our understanding of the influences of process parameters on the properties of advanced superhard materials. The focus was on high rate deposition processes using thermal plasmas and atmospheric pressure glow discharges, and the emphasis on superhard materials was chosen because of the potential impact of such materials on industrial energy use and on the environment. In addition, the development of suitable diagnostic techniques was pursued. The project was divided into four tasks: (1) Deposition of superhard boron containing films using a supersonic plasma jet reactor (SPJR), and the characterization of the deposition process. (2) Deposition of superhard nanocomposite films in the silicon-nitrogen-carbon system using the triple torch plasma reactor (TTPR), and the characterization of the deposition process. (3) Deposition of films consisting of carbon nanotubes using an atmospheric pressure glow discharge reactor. (4) Adapting the Thomson scattering method for characterization of atmospheric pressure non-uniform plasmas with steep spatial gradients and temporal fluctuations. This report summarizes the results.

  7. High Temperature Steam Corrosion of Cladding for Nuclear Applications: Experimental

    SciTech Connect

    McHugh, Kevin M; Garnier, John E; Sergey Rashkeev; Michael V. Glazoff; George W. Griffith; Shannong M. Bragg-Sitton

    2013-01-01

    Stability of cladding materials under off-normal conditions is an important issue for the safe operation of light water nuclear reactors. Metals, ceramics, and metal/ceramic composites are being investigated as substitutes for traditional zirconium-based cladding. To support down-selection of these advanced materials and designs, a test apparatus was constructed to study the onset and evolution of cladding oxidation, and deformation behavior of cladding materials, under loss-of-coolant accident scenarios. Preliminary oxidation tests were conducted in dry oxygen and in saturated steam/air environments at 1000OC. Tube samples of Zr-702, Zr-702 reinforced with 1 ply of a ß-SiC CMC overbraid, and sintered a-SiC were tested. Samples were induction heated by coupling to a molybdenum susceptor inside the tubes. The deformation behavior of He-pressurized tubes of Zr-702 and SiC CMC-reinforced Zr-702, heated to rupture, was also examined.

  8. Advances in fabrication of mono- and multifilament Ag-CLAD BSCCO superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Balachandran, U.; Iyer, A.N.; Jammy, R.; Haldar, P.; Hoehn, J.G. Jr.; Suenaga, M.

    1995-07-01

    Fabricating long lengths of robust and high-quality conductors is imperative for various applications of high-{Tc} superconductors. Long lengths of mono- and multifilament Ag-clad Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-0 conductors have been fabricated by the powder-in-tube technique. High values for critical current density (J{sub c}) have been achieved in both short- and long-length conductors. J{sub c} values up to 12,000 A/cm{sup 2} have been achieved in an 850-m-long multifilament conductor. Pancake-shaped coils and test magnets fabricated from long-length conductors were characterized at various temperatures and applied magnetic fields. A magnet containing 770 m of high-{Tc} conductor generated a record high field of {approx} 1 T at 4.2 K in a background field of {approx} 20 T. In-situ tensile and bending characteristics of both mono- and multifilament conductors have also been studied. Multifilament conductors exhibited better axial strain tolerance ({var_epsilon} {approx} 1%) than that of monofilament conductor ({var_epsilon} {approx} 0.2%), while retaining 90% of their initial critical current. An analysis of the results is presented, along with effects of parameters such as thickness, superconductor/Ag ratio, and microstructural details.

  9. Session: CSP Advanced Systems: Optical Materials (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, C.

    2008-04-01

    The Optical Materials project description is to characterize advanced reflector, perform accelerated and outdoor testing of commercial and experimental reflector materials, and provide industry support.

  10. Pellet cladding mechanical interactions of ceramic claddings fuels under light water reactor conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bo-Shiuan

    Ceramic materials such as silicon carbide (SiC) are promising candidate materials for nuclear fuel cladding and are of interest as part of a potential accident tolerant fuel design due to its high temperature strength, dimensional stability under irradiation, corrosion resistance, and lower neutron absorption cross-section. It also offers drastically lower hydrogen generation in loss of coolant accidents such as that experienced at Fukushima. With the implementation of SiC material properties to the fuel performance code, FRAPCON, performances of the SiC-clad fuel are compared with the conventional Zircaloy-clad fuel. Due to negligible creep and high stiffness, SiC-clad fuel allows gap closure at higher burnup and insignificant cladding dimensional change. However, severe degradation of SiC thermal conductivity with neutron irradiation will lead to higher fuel temperature with larger fission gas release. High stiffness of SiC has a drawback of accumulating large interfacial pressure upon pellet-cladding mechanical interactions (PCMI). This large stress will eventually reach the flexural strength of SiC, causing failure of SiC cladding instantly in a brittle manner instead of the graceful failure of ductile metallic cladding. The large interfacial pressure causes phenomena that were previously of only marginal significance and thus ignored (such as creep of the fuel) to now have an important role in PCMI. Consideration of the fuel pellet creep and elastic deformation in PCMI models in FRAPCON provide for an improved understanding of the magnitude of accumulated interfacial pressure. Outward swelling of the pellet is retarded by the inward irradiation-induced creep, which then reduces the rate of interfacial pressure buildup. Effect of PCMI can also be reduced and by increasing gap width and cladding thickness. However, increasing gap width and cladding thickness also increases the overall thermal resistance which leads to higher fuel temperature and larger fission

  11. Advanced Materials for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pater, Ruth H.; Curto, Paul A.

    2005-01-01

    Since NASA was created in 1958, over 6400 patents have been issued to the agency--nearly one in a thousand of all patents ever issued in the United States. A large number of these inventions have focused on new materials that have made space travel and exploration of the moon, Mars, and the outer planets possible. In the last few years, the materials developed by NASA Langley Research Center embody breakthroughs in performance and properties that will enable great achievements in space. The examples discussed below offer significant advantages for use in small satellites, i.e., those with payloads under a metric ton. These include patented products such as LaRC SI, LaRC RP 46, LaRC RP 50, PETI-5, TEEK, PETI-330, LaRC CP, TOR-LM and LaRC LCR (patent pending). These and other new advances in nanotechnology engineering, self-assembling nanostructures and multifunctional aerospace materials are presented and discussed below, and applications with significant technological and commercial advantages are proposed.

  12. Advanced materials for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pater, Ruth H.; Curto, Paul A.

    2007-12-01

    Since NASA was created in 1958, over 6400 patents have been issued to the agency—nearly one in a thousand of all patents ever issued in the United States. A large number of these inventions have focused on new materials that have made space travel and exploration of the moon, Mars, and the outer planets possible. In the last few years, the materials developed by NASA Langley Research Center embody breakthroughs in performance and properties that will enable great achievements in space. The examples discussed below offer significant advantages for use in small satellites, i.e., those with payloads under a metric ton. These include patented products such as LaRC SI, LaRC RP 46, LaRC RP 50, PETI-5, TEEK, PETI-330, LaRC CP, TOR-LM and LaRC LCR (patent pending). These and other new advances in nanotechnology engineering, self-assembling nanostructures and multifunctional aerospace materials are presented and discussed below, and applications with significant technological and commercial advantages are proposed.

  13. Advanced Materials and Processing 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunfeng; Su, Chun Wei; Xia, Hui; Xiao, Pengfei

    2011-06-01

    EuFe[symbol] materials / Huen Kan ... [et al.] -- Synthesis and characterization of Ni(OH)[symbol] nanosheets by a simple route at low temperature / Qian Li ... [et al.] -- The prediction of laser clad parameters based on neural network / Jichang Liu and Libin Ni -- The effects of Y[symbol] doping on the phase structure and photoluminescence properties of (Gd[symbol]) red phosphors / Qi Zhu ... [et al.] -- Design of an in situ detection system for laser hardened width / Caixia Yang and Jichang Liu -- Numerical simulation microstructure morphology evolution and solute microsegregation of Al-Si-Cu ternary alloys during solidification process / Shuisheng Xie ... [et al.].A shear-lag model for carbon nonotube-reinforced magnesium matrix composites / Wei-Xue Li ... [et al.] -- Corrosion behavior of the Alumina Coated Al6061 Alloy by Plasma electrolytic oxidation / Kai Wang ... [et al.] -- A simple route for synthesis of tin dioxide nanorods based on improved solid-state reactions / Yuehua Li ... [et al.] -- Comparative study on microstructure and magnetic properties of amorphous wires with different diameters / Jing-Shun Liu ... [et al.] -- Chemical-Vapor-Depositing (CVD) aluminium film on steel surface with the disproportionation reaction of Al[symbol]S / Wu Guoyuan and Dai Yongnian -- The microstructure and properties of super martensitic stainless steel microalloyed with tungsten and copper / Dong Ye ... [et al.] -- Design of low elastic modulus Ti-Nb-Zr alloys for implant materials / Xiping Song ... [et al.] -- In situ monitoring molten pool parameters for detecting visible defects in laser cladding / Liusha Yang ... [et al.].

  14. Materials Advance Chemical Propulsion Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    In the future, the Planetary Science Division of NASA's Science Mission Directorate hopes to use better-performing and lower-cost propulsion systems to send rovers, probes, and observers to places like Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. For such purposes, a new propulsion technology called the Advanced Materials Bipropellant Rocket (AMBR) was developed under NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) project, located at Glenn Research Center. As an advanced chemical propulsion system, AMBR uses nitrogen tetroxide oxidizer and hydrazine fuel to propel a spacecraft. Based on current research and development efforts, the technology shows great promise for increasing engine operation and engine lifespan, as well as lowering manufacturing costs. In developing AMBR, ISPT has several goals: to decrease the time it takes for a spacecraft to travel to its destination, reduce the cost of making the propulsion system, and lessen the weight of the propulsion system. If goals like these are met, it could result in greater capabilities for in-space science investigations. For example, if the amount (and weight) of propellant required on a spacecraft is reduced, more scientific instruments (and weight) could be added to the spacecraft. To achieve AMBR s maximum potential performance, the engine needed to be capable of operating at extremely high temperatures and pressure. To this end, ISPT required engine chambers made of iridium-coated rhenium (strong, high-temperature metallic elements) that allowed operation at temperatures close to 4,000 F. In addition, ISPT needed an advanced manufacturing technique for better coating methods to increase the strength of the engine chamber without increasing the costs of fabricating the chamber.

  15. Advanced ODS FeCrAl alloys for accident-tolerant fuel cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Dryepondt, Sebastien N; Unocic, Kinga A; Hoelzer, David T; Pint, Bruce A

    2014-09-01

    ODS FeCrAl alloys are being developed with optimum composition and properties for accident tolerant fuel cladding. Two oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) Fe-15Cr-5Al+Y2O3 alloys were fabricated by ball milling and extrusion of gas atomized metallic powder mixed with Y2O3 powder. To assess the impact of Mo on the alloy mechanical properties, one alloy contained 1%Mo. The hardness and tensile properties of the two alloys were close and higher than the values reported for fine grain PM2000 alloy. This is likely due to the combination of a very fine grain structure and the presence of nano oxide precipitates. The nano oxide dispersion was however not sufficient to prevent grain boundary sliding at 800 C and the creep properties of the alloys were similar or only slightly superior to fine grain PM2000 alloy. Both alloys formed a protective alumina scale at 1200 C in air and steam and the mass gain curves were similar to curves generated with 12Cr-5Al+Y2O3 (+Hf or Zr) ODS alloys fabricated for a different project. To estimate the maximum temperature limit of use for the two alloys in steam, ramp tests at a rate of 5 C/min were carried out in steam. Like other ODS alloys, the two alloys showed a significant increase of the mas gains at T~ 1380 C compared with ~1480 C for wrought alloys of similar composition. The beneficial effect of Yttrium for wrought FeCrAl does not seem effective for most ODS FeCrAl alloys. Characterization of the hardness of annealed specimens revealed that the microstructure of the two alloys was not stable above 1000 C. Concurrent radiation results suggested that Cr levels <15wt% are desirable and the creep and oxidation results from the 12Cr ODS alloys indicate that a lower Cr, high strength ODS alloy with a higher maximum use temperature could be achieved.

  16. Repairing rabbit radial defects by combining bone marrow stroma stem cells with bone scaffold material comprising a core-cladding structure.

    PubMed

    Wu, H; Liu, G H; Wu, Q; Yu, B

    2015-10-05

    We prepared a bone scaffold material comprising a PLGA/β-TCP core and a Type I collagen cladding, and recombined it with bone marrow stroma stem cells (BMSCs) to evaluate its potential for use in bone tissue engineering by in vivo and in vitro experiments. PLGA/β-TCP without a cladding was used for comparison. The adherence rate of the BMSCs to the scaffold was determined by cell counting. Cell proliferation rate was determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method. The osteogenic capability was evaluated by alkaline phosphatase activity. The scaffold materials were recombined with the BMSCs and implanted into a large segmental rabbit radial defect model to evaluate defect repair. Osteogenesis was assessed in the scaffold materials by histological and double immunofluorescence labeling, etc. The adherence number, proliferation number, and alkaline phosphatase expression of the cells on the bone scaffold material with core-cladding structure were significantly higher than the corresponding values in the PLGA/β-TCP composite scaffold material (P < 0.05). An in vivo test indicated that the bone scaffold material with core-cladding structure completely degraded at the bone defect site and bone formation was completed. The rabbit large sentimental radial defect was successfully repaired. The degradation and osteogenesis rates matched well. The bone scaffold with core-cladding structure exhibited better osteogenic activity and capacity to repair a large segmental bone defect compared to the PLGA/β-TCP composite scaffold. The bone scaffold with core-cladding structure has excellent physical properties and biocompatibility. It is an ideal scaffold material for bone tissue engineering.

  17. Fabrication of Tungsten-Rhenium Cladding materials via Spark Plasma Sintering for Ultra High Temperature Reactor Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Charit, Indrajit; Butt, Darryl; Frary, Megan; Carroll, Mark

    2012-11-05

    This research will develop an optimized, cost-effective method for producing high-purity tungsten-rhenium alloyed fuel clad forms that are crucial for the development of a very high-temperature nuclear reactor. The study will provide critical insight into the fundamental behavior (processing-microstructure- property correlations) of W-Re alloys made using this new fabrication process comprising high-energy ball milling (HEBM) and spark plasma sintering (SPS). A broader goal is to re-establish the U.S. lead in the research field of refractory alloys, such as W-Re systems, with potential applications in very high-temperature nuclear reactors. An essential long-term goal for nuclear power is to develop the capability of operating nuclear reactors at temperatures in excess of 1,000K. This capability has applications in space exploration and some special terrestrial uses where high temperatures are needed in certain chemical or reforming processes. Refractory alloys have been identified as being capable of withstanding temperatures in excess of 1,000K and are considered critical for the development of ultra hightemperature reactors. Tungsten alloys are known to possess extraordinary properties, such as excellent high-temperature capability, including the ability to resist leakage of fissile materials when used as a fuel clad. However, there are difficulties with the development of refractory alloys: 1) lack of basic experimental data on thermodynamics and mechanical and physical properties, and 2) challenges associated with processing these alloys.

  18. Advanced materials: Information and analysis needs

    SciTech Connect

    Curlee, T.R.; Das, S.; Lee, R.; Trumble, D.

    1990-09-01

    This report presents the findings of a study to identify the types of information and analysis that are needed for advanced materials. The project was sponsored by the US Bureau of Mines (BOM). It includes a conceptual description of information needs for advanced materials and the development and implementation of a questionnaire on the same subject. This report identifies twelve fundamental differences between advanced and traditional materials and discusses the implications of these differences for data and analysis needs. Advanced and traditional materials differ significantly in terms of physical and chemical properties. Advanced material properties can be customized more easily. The production of advanced materials may differ from traditional materials in terms of inputs, the importance of by-products, the importance of different processing steps (especially fabrication), and scale economies. The potential for change in advanced materials characteristics and markets is greater and is derived from the marriage of radically different materials and processes. In addition to the conceptual study, a questionnaire was developed and implemented to assess the opinions of people who are likely users of BOM information on advanced materials. The results of the questionnaire, which was sent to about 1000 people, generally confirm the propositions set forth in the conceptual part of the study. The results also provide data on the categories of advanced materials and the types of information that are of greatest interest to potential users. 32 refs., 1 fig., 12 tabs.

  19. Advanced Reflector and Absorber Materials (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-08-01

    Fact sheet describing NREL CSP Program capabilities in the area of advanced reflector and absorber materials: evaluating performance, determining degradation rates and lifetime, and developing new coatings.

  20. Advanced Photon Source Upgrade Project - Materials

    ScienceCinema

    Gibbson, Murray

    2016-07-12

    An upgrade to Advanced Photon Source announced by DOE - http://go.usa.gov/ivZ -- will help scientists break through bottlenecks in materials design in order to develop materials with desirable functions.

  1. Video Fact Sheets: Everyday Advanced Materials

    SciTech Connect

    2015-10-06

    What are Advanced Materials? Ames Laboratory is behind some of the best advanced materials out there. Some of those include: Lead-Free Solder, Photonic Band-Gap Crystals, Terfenol-D, Aluminum-Calcium Power Cable and Nano Particles. Some of these are in products we use every day.

  2. Video Fact Sheets: Everyday Advanced Materials

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    What are Advanced Materials? Ames Laboratory is behind some of the best advanced materials out there. Some of those include: Lead-Free Solder, Photonic Band-Gap Crystals, Terfenol-D, Aluminum-Calcium Power Cable and Nano Particles. Some of these are in products we use every day.

  3. Development of Specialized Advanced Materials Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malmgren, Thomas; And Others

    This course is intended to give students a comprehensive experience in current and future manufacturing materials and processes. It familiarizes students with: (1) base of composite materials; (2) composites--a very light, strong material used in spacecraft and stealth aircraft; (3) laminates; (4) advanced materials--especially aluminum alloys;…

  4. Early implementation of SiC cladding fuel performance models in BISON

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, Jeffrey J.

    2015-09-18

    SiC-based ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) [5–8] are being developed and evaluated internationally as potential LWR cladding options. These development activities include interests within both the DOE-NE LWR Sustainability (LWRS) Program and the DOE-NE Advanced Fuels Campaign. The LWRS Program considers SiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) as offering potentially revolutionary gains as a cladding material, with possible benefits including more efficient normal operating conditions and higher safety margins under accident conditions [9]. Within the Advanced Fuels Campaign, SiC-based composites are a candidate ATF cladding material that could achieve several goals, such as reducing the rates of heat and hydrogen generation due to lower cladding oxidation rates in HT steam [10]. This work focuses on the application of SiC cladding as an ATF cladding material in PWRs, but these work efforts also support the general development and assessment of SiC as an LWR cladding material in a much broader sense.

  5. Recent advances in nanoscale bioinspired materials.

    PubMed

    Demirel, Melik C; Cetinkaya, Murat; Pena-Francesch, Abdon; Jung, Huihun

    2015-03-01

    Natural materials have been a fundamental part of human life since the dawn of civilization. However, due to exploitation of natural resources and cost issues, synthetic materials replaced bio-derived materials in the last century. Recent advances in bio- and nano-technologies pave the way for developing eco-friendly materials that could be produced easily from renewable resources at reduced cost and in a broad array of useful applications. This feature article highlights structural and functional characteristics of bio-derived materials, which will expedite the design fabrication and synthesis of eco-friendly and recyclable advanced nano-materials and devices.

  6. Recent Advances in Superhard Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhisheng; Xu, Bo; Tian, Yongjun

    2016-07-01

    In superhard materials research, two topics are of central focus. One is to understand hardness microscopically and to establish hardness models with atomic parameters, which can be used to guide the design or prediction of novel superhard crystals. The other is to synthesize superhard materials with enhanced comprehensive performance (i.e., hardness, fracture toughness, and thermal stability), with the ambition of achieving materials harder than natural diamond. In this review, we present recent developments in both areas. The microscopic hardness models of covalent single crystals are introduced and further generalized to polycrystalline materials. Current research progress in novel superhard materials and nanostructuring approaches for high-performance superhard materials are discussed. We also clarify a long-standing controversy about the criterion for performing a reliable indentation hardness measurement.

  7. Micromechanical modeling of advanced materials

    SciTech Connect

    Silling, S.A.; Taylor, P.A.; Wise, J.L.; Furnish, M.D.

    1994-04-01

    Funded as a laboratory-directed research and development (LDRD) project, the work reported here focuses on the development of a computational methodology to determine the dynamic response of heterogeneous solids on the basis of their composition and microstructural morphology. Using the solid dynamics wavecode CTH, material response is simulated on a scale sufficiently fine to explicitly represent the material`s microstructure. Conducting {open_quotes}numerical experiments{close_quotes} on this scale, the authors explore the influence that the microstructure exerts on the material`s overall response. These results are used in the development of constitutive models that take into account the effects of microstructure without explicit representation of its features. Applying this methodology to a glass-reinforced plastic (GRP) composite, the authors examined the influence of various aspects of the composite`s microstructure on its response in a loading regime typical of impact and penetration. As a prerequisite to the microscale modeling effort, they conducted extensive materials testing on the constituents, S-2 glass and epoxy resin (UF-3283), obtaining the first Hugoniot and spall data for these materials. The results of this work are used in the development of constitutive models for GRP materials in transient-dynamics computer wavecodes.

  8. Shock-loading response of advanced materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, G.T. III

    1993-08-01

    Advanced materials, such as composites (metal, ceramic, or polymer-matrix), intermetallics, foams (metallic or polymeric-based), laminated materials, and nanostructured materials are receiving increasing attention because their properties can be custom tailored specific applications. The high-rate/impact response of advanced materials is relevant to a broad range of service environments such as the crashworthiness of civilian/military vehicles, foreign-object-damage in aerospace, and light-weight armor. Increased utilization of these material classes under dynamic loading conditions requires an understanding of the relationship between high-rate/shock-wave response as a function of microstructure if we are to develop models to predict material behavior. In this paper the issues relevant to defect generation, storage, and the underlying physical basis needed in predictive models for several advanced materials will be reviewed.

  9. Recycle of Zirconium from Used Nuclear Fuel Cladding: A Major Element of Waste Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Emory D; DelCul, Guillermo D; Terekhov, Dmitri; Emmanuel, N. V.

    2011-01-01

    Feasibility tests were initiated to determine if the zirconium in commercial used nuclear fuel (UNF) cladding can be recovered in sufficient purity to permit re-use, and if the recovery process can be operated economically. Initial tests are being performed with unirradiated, non-radioactive samples of various types of Zircaloy materials that are used in UNF cladding to develop the recovery process and determine the degree of purification that can be obtained. Early results indicate that quantitative recovery can be accomplished and product contamination with alloy constituents can be controlled sufficiently to meet purification requirements. Future tests with actual radioactive UNF cladding are planned. The objective of current research is to determine the feasibility of recovery and recycle of zirconium from used fuel cladding wastes. Zircaloy cladding, which contains 98+% of hafnium-free zirconium, is the second largest mass, on average {approx}25 wt %, of the components in used U.S. light-water-reactor fuel assemblies. Therefore, recovery and recycle of the zirconium would enable a large reduction in geologic waste disposal for advanced fuel cycles. Current practice is to compact or grout the cladding waste and store it for subsequent disposal in a geologic repository. This paper describes results of initial tests being performed with unirradiated, non-radioactive samples of various types of Zircaloy materials that are used in UNF cladding to develop the recovery process and determine the degree of purification that can be obtained. Future tests with actual radioactive UNF cladding are planned.

  10. Advanced Electrical Materials and Component Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarze, Gene E.

    2003-01-01

    The primary means to develop advanced electrical components is to develop new and improved materials for magnetic components (transformers, inductors, etc.), capacitors, and semiconductor switches and diodes. This paper will give a description and status of the internal and external research sponsored by NASA Glenn Research Center on soft magnetic materials, dielectric materials and capacitors, and high quality silicon carbide (SiC) atomically smooth substrates. The rationale for and the benefits of developing advanced electrical materials and components for the PMAD subsystem and also for the total power system will be briefly discussed.

  11. Ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, N.W.; Marwick, A.D.; Roberto, J.B.; International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY . Thomas J. Watson Research Center; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN )

    1989-01-01

    This report contains research programs discussed at the materials research society symposia on ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials. Major topics include: shallow implantation and solid-phase epitaxy; damage effects; focused ion beams; MeV implantation; high-dose implantation; implantation in III-V materials and multilayers; and implantation in electronic materials. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

  12. A Comparative Study of Welded ODS Cladding materials for AFCI/GNEP Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Indrajit Charit; Megan Frary; Darryl Butt; K.L. Murty; Larry Zirker; James Cole; Mitchell Meyer; Rajiv S. Mishra; Mark Woltz

    2011-03-31

    This research project involved working on the pressure resistance welding of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys which will have a large role to play in advanced nuclear reactors. The project also demonstrated the research collaboration between four universities and one nation laboratory (Idaho National Laboratory) with participation from an industry for developing for ODS alloys. These alloys contain a high number density of very fine oxide particles that can impart high temperature strength and radiation damage resistance suitable for in-core applications in advanced reactors. The conventional fusion welding techniques tend to produce porosity-laden microstructure in the weld region and lead to the agglomeration and non-uniform distribution of the neededoxide particles. That is why two solid state welding methods - pressure resistance welding (PRW) and friction stir welding (FSW) - were chosen to be evaluated in this project. The proposal is expected to support the development of Advanced Burner Reactors (ABR) under the GNEP program (now incorporated in Fuel Cycle R&D program). The outcomes of the concluded research include training of graduate and undergraduate students and get them interested in nuclear related research.

  13. Advanced Materials for Exploration Task Research Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, M. B. (Compiler); Murphy, K. L.; Schneider, T.

    2008-01-01

    The Advanced Materials for Exploration (AME) Activity in Marshall Space Flight Center s (MSFC s) Exploration Science and Technology Directorate coordinated activities from 2001 to 2006 to support in-space propulsion technologies for future missions. Working together, materials scientists and mission planners identified materials shortfalls that are limiting the performance of long-term missions. The goal of the AME project was to deliver improved materials in targeted areas to meet technology development milestones of NASA s exploration-dedicated activities. Materials research tasks were targeted in five areas: (1) Thermal management materials, (2) propulsion materials, (3) materials characterization, (4) vehicle health monitoring materials, and (5) structural materials. Selected tasks were scheduled for completion such that these new materials could be incorporated into customer development plans.

  14. Joining of advanced materials by superplastic deformation

    DOEpatents

    Goretta, Kenneth C.; Routbort, Jules L.; Gutierrez-Mora, Felipe

    2008-08-19

    A method for utilizing superplastic deformation with or without a novel joint compound that leads to the joining of advanced ceramic materials, intermetallics, and cermets. A joint formed by this approach is as strong as or stronger than the materials joined. The method does not require elaborate surface preparation or application techniques.

  15. Joining of advanced materials by superplastic deformation

    DOEpatents

    Goretta, Kenneth C.; Routbort, Jules L.; Gutierrez-Mora, Felipe

    2005-12-13

    A method for utilizing superplastic deformation with or without a novel joint compound that leads to the joining of advanced ceramic materials, intermetallics, and cermets. A joint formed by this approach is as strong as or stronger than the materials joined. The method does not require elaborate surface preparation or application techniques.

  16. Hydrogen permeation in FeCrAl alloys for LWR cladding application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xunxiang; Terrani, Kurt A.; Wirth, Brian D.; Snead, Lance L.

    2015-06-01

    FeCrAl, an advanced oxidation-resistant iron-based alloy class, is a highly prevalent candidate as an accident-tolerant fuel cladding material. Compared with traditional zirconium alloy fuel cladding, increased tritium permeation through FeCrAl fuel cladding to the primary coolant is expected, raising potential safety concerns. In this study, the hydrogen permeability of several FeCrAl alloys was obtained using a static permeation test station, which was calibrated and validated using 304 stainless steel. The high hydrogen permeability of FeCrAl alloys leads to concerns with respect to potentially significant tritium release when used for fuel cladding in LWRs. The total tritium inventory inside the primary coolant of a light water reactor was quantified by applying a 1-dimensional steady state tritium diffusion model to demonstrate the dependence of tritium inventory on fuel cladding type. Furthermore, potential mitigation strategies for tritium release from FeCrAl fuel cladding were discussed and indicate the potential for application of an alumina layer on the inner clad surface to serve as a tritium barrier. More effort is required to develop a robust, economical mitigation strategy for tritium permeation in reactors using FeCrAl clad fuel assemblies.

  17. Hydrogen permeation in FeCrAl alloys for LWR cladding application

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Xunxiang; Terrani, Kurt A.; Wirth, Brian D.; Snead, Lance L.

    2015-03-19

    FeCrAl is an advanced oxidation-resistant iron-based alloy class, is a highly prevalent candidate as an accident-tolerant fuel cladding material. Compared with traditional zirconium alloy fuel cladding, increased tritium permeation through FeCrAl fuel cladding to the primary coolant is expected, raising potential safety concerns. In our study, the hydrogen permeability of several FeCrAl alloys was obtained using a static permeation test station, which was calibrated and validated using 304 stainless steel. The high hydrogen permeability of FeCrAl alloys leads to concerns with respect to potentially significant tritium release when used for fuel cladding in LWRs. Also, the total tritium inventory inside the primary coolant of a light water reactor was quantified by applying a 1-dimensional steady state tritium diffusion model to demonstrate the dependence of tritium inventory on fuel cladding type. Furthermore, potential mitigation strategies for tritium release from FeCrAl fuel cladding were discussed and indicate the potential for application of an alumina layer on the inner clad surface to serve as a tritium barrier. More effort is required to develop a robust, economical mitigation strategy for tritium permeation in reactors using FeCrAl clad fuel assemblies.

  18. Hydrogen permeation in FeCrAl alloys for LWR cladding application

    DOE PAGES

    Hu, Xunxiang; Terrani, Kurt A.; Wirth, Brian D.; Snead, Lance L.

    2015-03-19

    FeCrAl is an advanced oxidation-resistant iron-based alloy class, is a highly prevalent candidate as an accident-tolerant fuel cladding material. Compared with traditional zirconium alloy fuel cladding, increased tritium permeation through FeCrAl fuel cladding to the primary coolant is expected, raising potential safety concerns. In our study, the hydrogen permeability of several FeCrAl alloys was obtained using a static permeation test station, which was calibrated and validated using 304 stainless steel. The high hydrogen permeability of FeCrAl alloys leads to concerns with respect to potentially significant tritium release when used for fuel cladding in LWRs. Also, the total tritium inventory insidemore » the primary coolant of a light water reactor was quantified by applying a 1-dimensional steady state tritium diffusion model to demonstrate the dependence of tritium inventory on fuel cladding type. Furthermore, potential mitigation strategies for tritium release from FeCrAl fuel cladding were discussed and indicate the potential for application of an alumina layer on the inner clad surface to serve as a tritium barrier. More effort is required to develop a robust, economical mitigation strategy for tritium permeation in reactors using FeCrAl clad fuel assemblies.« less

  19. Clad metal joint closure

    SciTech Connect

    Siebert, O.W.

    1985-04-09

    A plasma arc spray overlay of cladding metals is used over joints between clad metal pieces to provide a continuous cladding metal surface. The technique permits applying an overlay of a high melting point cladding metal to a cladding metal surface without excessive heating of the backing metal.

  20. Methane storage in advanced porous materials.

    PubMed

    Makal, Trevor A; Li, Jian-Rong; Lu, Weigang; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2012-12-01

    The need for alternative fuels is greater now than ever before. With considerable sources available and low pollution factor, methane is a natural choice as petroleum replacement in cars and other mobile applications. However, efficient storage methods are still lacking to implement the application of methane in the automotive industry. Advanced porous materials, metal-organic frameworks and porous organic polymers, have received considerable attention in sorptive storage applications owing to their exceptionally high surface areas and chemically-tunable structures. In this critical review we provide an overview of the current status of the application of these two types of advanced porous materials in the storage of methane. Examples of materials exhibiting high methane storage capacities are analyzed and methods for increasing the applicability of these advanced porous materials in methane storage technologies described.

  1. New Advanced Dielectric Materials for Accelerator Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kanareykin, A.

    2010-11-04

    We present our recent results on the development and experimental testing of advanced dielectric materials that are capable of supporting the high RF electric fields generated by electron beams or pulsed high power microwaves. These materials have been optimized or specially designed for accelerator applications. The materials discussed here include low loss microwave ceramics, quartz, Chemical Vapor Deposition diamonds and nonlinear Barium Strontium Titanate based ferroelectrics.

  2. New Advanced Dielectric Materials for Accelerator Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanareykin, A.

    2010-11-01

    We present our recent results on the development and experimental testing of advanced dielectric materials that are capable of supporting the high RF electric fields generated by electron beams or pulsed high power microwaves. These materials have been optimized or specially designed for accelerator applications. The materials discussed here include low loss microwave ceramics, quartz, Chemical Vapor Deposition diamonds and nonlinear Barium Strontium Titanate based ferroelectrics.

  3. Advanced materials for aircraft engine applications.

    PubMed

    Backman, D G; Williams, J C

    1992-02-28

    A review of advances for aircraft engine structural materials and processes is presented. Improved materials, such as superalloys, and the processes for making turbine disks and blades have had a major impact on the capability of modern gas turbine engines. New structural materials, notably composites and intermetallic materials, are emerging that will eventually further enhance engine performance, reduce engine weight, and thereby enable new aircraft systems. In the future, successful aerospace manufacturers will combine product design and materials excellence with improved manufacturing methods to increase production efficiency, enhance product quality, and decrease the engine development cycle time.

  4. Advanced materials for aircraft engine applications.

    PubMed

    Backman, D G; Williams, J C

    1992-02-28

    A review of advances for aircraft engine structural materials and processes is presented. Improved materials, such as superalloys, and the processes for making turbine disks and blades have had a major impact on the capability of modern gas turbine engines. New structural materials, notably composites and intermetallic materials, are emerging that will eventually further enhance engine performance, reduce engine weight, and thereby enable new aircraft systems. In the future, successful aerospace manufacturers will combine product design and materials excellence with improved manufacturing methods to increase production efficiency, enhance product quality, and decrease the engine development cycle time. PMID:17817782

  5. Materials Requirements for Advanced Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, Ann F.; Cook, Mary Beth; Clinton, R. G., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    NASA's mission to "reach the Moon and Mars" will be obtained only if research begins now to develop materials with expanded capabilities to reduce mass, cost and risk to the program. Current materials cannot function satisfactorily in the deep space environments and do not meet the requirements of long term space propulsion concepts for manned missions. Directed research is needed to better understand materials behavior for optimizing their processing. This research, generating a deeper understanding of material behavior, can lead to enhanced implementation of materials for future exploration vehicles. materials providing new approaches for manufacture and new options for In response to this need for more robust materials, NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) has established a strategic research initiative dedicated to materials development supporting NASA's space propulsion needs. The Advanced Materials for Exploration (AME) element directs basic and applied research to understand material behavior and develop improved materials allowing propulsion systems to operate beyond their current limitations. This paper will discuss the approach used to direct the path of strategic research for advanced materials to ensure that the research is indeed supportive of NASA's future missions to the moon, Mars, and beyond.

  6. Advanced Materials and Processing 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunfeng; Su, Chun Wei; Xia, Hui; Xiao, Pengfei

    2011-06-01

    Strain sensors made from MWNT/polymer nanocomposites / Gang Yin, Ning Hu and Yuan Li -- Shear band evolution and nanostructure formation in titanium by cold rolling / Dengke Yang, Peter D. Hodgson and Cuie Wen -- Biodegradable Mg-Zr-Ca alloys for bone implant materials / Yuncang Li ... [et al.] -- Hydroxyapatite synthesized from nanosized calcium carbonate via hydrothermal method / Yu-Shiang Wu, Wen-Ku Chang and Min Jou -- Modeling of the magnetization process and orthogonal fluxgate sensitivity of ferromagnetic micro-wire arrays / Fan Jie ... [et al.] -- Fabrication of silicon oxide nanowires on Ni coated silicon substrate by simple heating process / Bo Peng and Kwon-Koo Cho -- Deposition of TiOxNy thin films with various nitrogen flow rate: growth behavior and structural properties / S.-J. Cho ... [et al.] -- Observation on photoluminescence evolution in 300 KeV self-ion implanted and annealed silicon / Yu Yang ... [et al.] -- Facile synthesis of lithium niobate from a novel precursor H[symbol] / Meinan Liu ... [et al.] -- Effects of the buffer layers on the adhesion and antimicrobial properties of the amorphous ZrAlNiCuSi films / Pai-Tsung Chiang ... [et al.] -- Fabrication of ZnO nanorods by electrochemical deposition process and its photovoltaic properties / Jin-Hwa Kim ... [et al.] -- Cryogenic resistivities of NbTiAlVTaLax, CoCrFeNiCu and CoCrFeNiAl high entropy alloys / Xiao Yang and Yong Zhang -- Modeling of centrifugal force field and the effect on filling and solidification in centrifugal casting / Wenbin Sheng, Chunxue Ma and Wanli Gu -- Electrochemical properties of TiO[symbol] nanotube arrays film prepared by anodic oxidation / Young-Jin Choi ... [et al.] -- Effect of Ce additions on high temperature properties of Mg-5Sn-3Al-1Zn alloy / Byoung Soo Kang ... [et al.] -- Sono-electroless plating of Ni-Mo-P film / Atsushi Chiba, Masato Kanou and Wen-Chang Wu -- Diameter dependence of giant magneto-impedance effect in co-based melt extracted amorphous

  7. Materials performance in advanced combustion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.

    1992-12-01

    A number of advanced technologies are being developed to convert coal into clean fuels for use as feedstock in chemical plants and for power generation. From the standpoint of component materials, the environments created by coal conversion and combustion in these technologies and their interactions with materials are of interest. The trend in the new or advanced systems is to improve thermal efficiency and reduce the environmental impact of the process effluents. This paper discusses several systems that are under development and identifies requirements for materials application in those systems. Available data on the performance of materials in several of the environments are used to examine the performance envelopes for materials for several of the systems and to identify needs for additional work in different areas.

  8. Apparatus for leaching core material from clad nuclear fuel pin segments

    DOEpatents

    Yarbro, Orlan O.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to improved apparatus for counter-currently contacting liquids and solids to dissolve, or leach, a selected component of the solids while minimizing back-mixing of the liquid phase. The apparatus includes an elongated drum which is rotatable about its longitudinal axis in either direction and is partitioned radially into a solids-inlet/liquid-outlet compartment at one end, a solids-outlet/liquid-inlet compartment at its other end, and leaching compartments therebetween. The drum is designed to operate with its acid-inlet end elevated and with the longitudinal axis of the drum at an angle in the range of from about 3.degree. to 14.degree. to the horizontal. Each leaching compartment contains a chute assembly for advancing solids into the next compartment in the direction of solids flow when the drum is rotated in a selected direction. The chute assembly includes a solids-transfer baffle and a chute in the form of a slotted, skewed, conical frustum portion. When the drum is rotated in the direction opposite to that effecting solids transfer, the solids-transfer baffles continually separate and re-mix the solids and liquids in their respective compartments. The partitions defining the leaching compartments are formed with corresponding outer, annular, imperforate regions, each region extending inwardly from the partition rim to an annular array of perforations concentric with the rim. In each leaching compartment, the spacing between the rim and the perforations determines the depth of liquid at the liquid-outlet end of the compartment. The liquid input to the drum assembly flows continuously through the compartments, preventing back-mixing due to density differences, whereas backflow due to waves generated by the solids-transfer baffles is virtually eliminated because of the tilted orientation of the drum assembly.

  9. Fuel pin cladding

    DOEpatents

    Vaidyanathan, S.; Adamson, M.G.

    1986-01-28

    Disclosed is an improved fuel pin cladding, particularly adapted for use in breeder reactors, consisting of composite tubing with austenitic steel on the outer portion of the thickness of the tube wall and with nickel and/or ferritic material on the inner portion of the thickness of the tube wall. The nickel forms a sacrificial barrier as it reacts with certain fission products thereby reducing fission product activity at the austenitic steel interface. The ferritic material forms a preventive barrier for the austenitic steel as it is immune to liquid metal embrittlement. The improved cladding permits the use of high density fuel which in turn leads to a better breeding ratio in breeder reactors, and will increase the threshold at which failure occurs during temperature transients. 2 figs.

  10. Fuel pin cladding

    DOEpatents

    Vaidyanathan, S.; Adamson, M.G.

    1983-12-16

    An improved fuel pin cladding, particularly adapted for use in breeder reactors, is described which consist of composite tubing with austenitic steel on the outer portion of the thickness of the tube wall and with nickel an/or ferritic material on the inner portion of the thickness of the tube wall. The nickel forms a sacrificial barrier as it reacts with certain fission products thereby reducing fission product activity at the austenitic steel interface. The ferritic material forms a preventive barrier for the austenitic steel as it is immune to liquid metal embrittlement. The improved cladding permits the use of high density fuel which in turn leads to a better breeding ratio in breeder reactors, and will increase the threshold at which failure occurs during temperature transients.

  11. Fuel pin cladding

    DOEpatents

    Vaidyanathan, Swaminathan; Adamson, Martyn G.

    1986-01-01

    An improved fuel pin cladding, particularly adapted for use in breeder reactors, consisting of composite tubing with austenitic steel on the outer portion of the thickness of the tube wall and with nickel and/or ferritic material on the inner portion of the thickness of the tube wall. The nickel forms a sacrificial barrier as it reacts with certain fission products thereby reducing fission product activity at the austenitic steel interface. The ferritic material forms a preventive barrier for the austenitic steel as it is immune to liquid metal embrittlement. The improved cladding permits the use of high density fuel which in turn leads to a better breeding ratio in breeder reactors, and will increase the threshold at which failure occurs during temperature transients.

  12. Advanced materials for geothermal energy processes

    SciTech Connect

    Kukacka, L.E.

    1985-08-01

    The primary goal of the geothermal materials program is to ensure that the private sector development of geothermal energy resources is not constrained by the availability of technologically and economically viable materials of construction. This requires the performance of long-term high risk GHTD-sponsored materials R and D. Ongoing programs described include high temperature elastomers for dynamic sealing applications, advanced materials for lost circulation control, waste utilization and disposal, corrosion resistant elastomeric liners for well casing, and non-metallic heat exchangers. 9 refs.

  13. Development of Diffusion barrier coatings and Deposition Technologies for Mitigating Fuel Cladding Chemical Interactions (FCCI)

    SciTech Connect

    Sridharan, Kumar; Allen, Todd; Cole, James

    2013-02-27

    The goal of this project is to develop diffusion barrier coatings on the inner cladding surface to mitigate fuel-cladding chemical interaction (FCCI). FCCI occurs due to thermal and radiation enhanced inter-diffusion between the cladding and fuel materials, and can have the detrimental effects of reducing the effective cladding wall thickness and lowering the melting points of the fuel and cladding. The research is aimed at the Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR), a sodium-cooled fast reactor, in which higher burn-ups will exacerbate the FCCI problem. This project will study both diffusion barrier coating materials and deposition technologies. Researchers will investigate pure vanadium, zirconium, and titanium metals, along with their respective oxides, on substrates of HT-9, T91, and oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) steels; these materials are leading candidates for ABR fuel cladding. To test the efficacy of the coating materials, the research team will perform high-temperature diffusion couple studies using both a prototypic metallic uranium fuel and a surrogate the rare-earth element lanthanum. Ion irradiation experiments will test the stability of the coating and the coating-cladding interface. A critical technological challenge is the ability to deposit uniform coatings on the inner surface of cladding. The team will develop a promising non-line-of-sight approach that uses nanofluids . Recent research has shown the feasibility of this simple yet novel approach to deposit coatings on test flats and inside small sections of claddings. Two approaches will be investigated: 1) modified electrophoretic deposition (MEPD) and 2) boiling nanofluids. The coatings will be evaluated in the as-deposited condition and after sintering.

  14. Advanced composite materials: a strong growth industry

    SciTech Connect

    Lees, J.K.

    1987-01-01

    Advanced composites represent a material form that will see significant growth in structural applications. The authors notes that Du Pont sees a broad opportunity for these materials and proceeds to review reasons for the company's optimism as well as their approach to this technology. Substitution of composites for metals is shown graphically since 1960 and projected to 2025. Price reductions vs. steel of five materials also shown graphically since 1970 and projected to 1990. Today, use of advanced composites is primarily when high performance, is required, e.g., aerospace and sporting goods. The author sees a shift into higher-volume applications in the next 15 years, primarily the automotive industry. Finally, as the next century approaches, the author sees a possible capture of 50% of the structure-materials market, mostly in lightweight bridging structures and the top portion of large high-rise structures.

  15. Materials as additives for advanced lubrication

    DOEpatents

    Pol, Vilas G.; Thackeray, Michael M.; Mistry, Kuldeep; Erdemir, Ali

    2016-09-13

    This invention relates to carbon-based materials as anti-friction and anti-wear additives for advanced lubrication purposes. The materials comprise carbon nanotubes suspended in a liquid hydrocarbon carrier. Optionally, the compositions further comprise a surfactant (e.g., to aid in dispersion of the carbon particles). Specifically, the novel lubricants have the ability to significantly lower friction and wear, which translates into improved fuel economies and longer durability of mechanical devices and engines.

  16. Advancing Material Models for Automotive Forming Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vegter, H.; An, Y.; ten Horn, C. H. L. J.; Atzema, E. H.; Roelofsen, M. E.

    2005-08-01

    Simulations in automotive industry need more advanced material models to achieve highly reliable forming and springback predictions. Conventional material models implemented in the FEM-simulation models are not capable to describe the plastic material behaviour during monotonic strain paths with sufficient accuracy. Recently, ESI and Corus co-operate on the implementation of an advanced material model in the FEM-code PAMSTAMP 2G. This applies to the strain hardening model, the influence of strain rate, and the description of the yield locus in these models. A subsequent challenge is the description of the material after a change of strain path. The use of advanced high strength steels in the automotive industry requires a description of plastic material behaviour of multiphase steels. The simplest variant is dual phase steel consisting of a ferritic and a martensitic phase. Multiphase materials also contain a bainitic phase in addition to the ferritic and martensitic phase. More physical descriptions of strain hardening than simple fitted Ludwik/Nadai curves are necessary. Methods to predict plastic behaviour of single-phase materials use a simple dislocation interaction model based on the formed cells structures only. At Corus, a new method is proposed to predict plastic behaviour of multiphase materials have to take hard phases into account, which deform less easily. The resulting deformation gradients create geometrically necessary dislocations. Additional micro-structural information such as morphology and size of hard phase particles or grains is necessary to derive the strain hardening models for this type of materials. Measurements available from the Numisheet benchmarks allow these models to be validated. At Corus, additional measured values are available from cross-die tests. This laboratory test can attain critical deformations by large variations in blank size and processing conditions. The tests are a powerful tool in optimising forming simulations

  17. Property Data Summaries for Advanced Materials

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 150 NIST Property Data Summaries for Advanced Materials (Web, free access)   Property Data Summaries are topical collections of property values derived from surveys of published data. Thermal, mechanical, structural, and chemical properties are included in the collections.

  18. Advanced Electrical Materials and Components Being Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarze, Gene E.

    2004-01-01

    All aerospace systems require power management and distribution (PMAD) between the energy and power source and the loads. The PMAD subsystem can be broadly described as the conditioning and control of unregulated power from the energy source and its transmission to a power bus for distribution to the intended loads. All power and control circuits for PMAD require electrical components for switching, energy storage, voltage-to-current transformation, filtering, regulation, protection, and isolation. Advanced electrical materials and component development technology is a key technology to increasing the power density, efficiency, reliability, and operating temperature of the PMAD. The primary means to develop advanced electrical components is to develop new and/or significantly improved electronic materials for capacitors, magnetic components, and semiconductor switches and diodes. The next important step is to develop the processing techniques to fabricate electrical and electronic components that exceed the specifications of presently available state-of-the-art components. The NASA Glenn Research Center's advanced electrical materials and component development technology task is focused on the following three areas: 1) New and/or improved dielectric materials for the development of power capacitors with increased capacitance volumetric efficiency, energy density, and operating temperature; 2) New and/or improved high-frequency, high-temperature soft magnetic materials for the development of transformers and inductors with increased power density, energy density, electrical efficiency, and operating temperature; 3) Packaged high-temperature, high-power density, high-voltage, and low-loss SiC diodes and switches.

  19. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) fellowship program

    SciTech Connect

    McCleary, D.D.

    1997-04-01

    The Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program administers a Graduate Fellowship Program focused toward helping students who are currently under represented in the nation`s pool of scientists and engineers, enter and complete advanced degree programs. The objectives of the program are to: (1) establish and maintain cooperative linkages between DOE and professors at universities with graduate programs leading toward degrees or with degree options in Materials Science, Materials Engineering, Metallurgical Engineering, and Ceramic Engineering, the disciplines most closely related to the AIM Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); (2) strengthen the capabilities and increase the level of participation of currently under represented groups in master`s degree programs, and (3) offer graduate students an opportunity for practical research experience related to their thesis topic through the three-month research assignment or practicum at ORNL. The program is administered by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE).

  20. Structural materials challenges for advanced reactor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yvon, P.; Carré, F.

    2009-03-01

    Key technologies for advanced nuclear systems encompass high temperature structural materials, fast neutron resistant core materials, and specific reactor and power conversion technologies (intermediate heat exchanger, turbo-machinery, high temperature electrolytic or thermo-chemical water splitting processes, etc.). The main requirements for the materials to be used in these reactor systems are dimensional stability under irradiation, whether under stress (irradiation creep or relaxation) or without stress (swelling, growth), an acceptable evolution under ageing of the mechanical properties (tensile strength, ductility, creep resistance, fracture toughness, resilience) and a good behavior in corrosive environments (reactor coolant or process fluid). Other criteria for the materials are their cost to fabricate and to assemble, and their composition could be optimized in order for instance to present low-activation (or rapid desactivation) features which facilitate maintenance and disposal. These requirements have to be met under normal operating conditions, as well as in incidental and accidental conditions. These challenging requirements imply that in most cases, the use of conventional nuclear materials is excluded, even after optimization and a new range of materials has to be developed and qualified for nuclear use. This paper gives a brief overview of various materials that are essential to establish advanced systems feasibility and performance for in pile and out of pile applications, such as ferritic/martensitic steels (9-12% Cr), nickel based alloys (Haynes 230, Inconel 617, etc.), oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic/martensitic steels, and ceramics (SiC, TiC, etc.). This article gives also an insight into the various natures of R&D needed on advanced materials, including fundamental research to investigate basic physical and chemical phenomena occurring in normal and accidental operating conditions, lab-scale tests to characterize candidate materials

  1. Advanced fiber/matrix material systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartness, J. Timothy

    1991-01-01

    Work completed in Phase 1 of the NASA Advanced Composite Technology program is discussed. Two towpreg forms (commingled yarns and fused powder towpregs) are being characterized under the program. These towpregs will be used to evaluate textile fabrication technologies for advanced aircraft composite structures. The unique characteristic of both of these material forms is that both fiber and matrix resin are handled in a single operation such as weaving, braiding, or fiber placement. The evaluation of both commingled and fused powder towpreg is described. Various polymer materials are considered for both subsonic and supersonic applications. Polymers initially being evaluated include thermoplastic polyimides such as Larc-TPI and New-TPI, thermoplastics such as PEEK and PEKEKK as well as some toughened crosslinked polyimides. Preliminary mechanical properties as well as tow handling are evaluated.

  2. Task 8.9 - Advanced ceramic materials

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-30

    Advanced ceramic materials such as Continuous Fiber Reinforced Ceramic Matrix Composites (CFCCs) have had promising results on the companion program entitled ``Ceramic Stationary Gas Turbine`` (CSGT). In particular, CFCCs have outperformed monolithic tiles in structural integrity as a combustor liner. Also, CFCCs have provided the higher temperature operation and improved emissions performance that is required for the ATS combustor. The demonstrated advantages on CSGT justified work to explore the use of advanced ceramic composite materials in other gas turbine components. Sub-tasks include development of a practical, cost effective component fabrication process, development of finite element stress analysis to assure 30,000 hours of component life, and fabrication of a demonstration article.

  3. Advanced laser processing of glass materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugioka, Koji; Obata, Kotaro; Cheng, Ya; Midorikawa, Katsumi

    2003-09-01

    Three kinds of advanced technologies using lasers for glass microprocessing are reviewed. Simultaneous irradiation of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser beam, which possesses extremely small laser fluence, with ultraviolet (UV) laser achieves enhanced high surface and edge quality ablation in fused silica and other hard materials with little debris deposition as well as high-speed and high-efficiency refractive index modification of fused silica (VUV-UV multiwavelength excitation processing). Metal plasma generated by the laser beam effectively assists high-quality ablation of transparent materials, resulting in surface microstructuring, high-speed holes drilling, crack-free marking, color marking, painting and metal interconnection for the various kinds of glass materials (laser-induced plasma-assisted ablation (LIPAA)). In the meanwhile, a nature of multiphoton absorption of femtosecond laser by transparent materials realizes fabrication of true three-dimensional microstructures embedded in photosensitive glass.

  4. Advanced Thermoelectric Materials for Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caillat, Thierry; Hunag, C.-K.; Cheng, S.; Chi, S. C.; Gogna, P.; Paik, J.; Ravi, V.; Firdosy, S.; Ewell, R.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the progress and processes involved in creating new and advanced thermoelectric materials to be used in the design of new radioiootope thermoelectric generators (RTGs). In a program with Department of Energy, NASA is working to develop the next generation of RTGs, that will provide significant benefits for deep space missions that NASA will perform. These RTG's are planned to be capable of delivering up to 17% system efficiency and over 12 W/kg specific power. The thermoelectric materials being developed are an important step in this process.

  5. Library of Advanced Materials for Engineering : LAME.

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerand, Daniel Carl; Scherzinger, William Mark

    2007-08-01

    Constitutive modeling is an important aspect of computational solid mechanics. Sandia National Laboratories has always had a considerable effort in the development of constitutive models for complex material behavior. However, for this development to be of use the models need to be implemented in our solid mechanics application codes. In support of this important role, the Library of Advanced Materials for Engineering (LAME) has been developed in Engineering Sciences. The library allows for simple implementation of constitutive models by model developers and access to these models by application codes. The library is written in C++ and has a very simple object oriented programming structure. This report summarizes the current status of LAME.

  6. Advanced Ceramic Materials for Future Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay

    2015-01-01

    With growing trend toward higher temperature capabilities, lightweight, and multifunctionality, significant advances in ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) will be required for future aerospace applications. The presentation will provide an overview of material requirements for future aerospace missions, and the role of ceramics and CMCs in meeting those requirements. Aerospace applications will include gas turbine engines, aircraft structure, hypersonic and access to space vehicles, space power and propulsion, and space communication.

  7. Process development for cladding APT tungsten targets

    SciTech Connect

    Horner, M H; Barber, R; Dalder, E

    2000-11-27

    This report describes development of processes for cladding APT Target tungsten components with a thin layer (0.127-mm) of Alloy 718, Alloy 600 or 316L stainless steel alloy. The application requires that the cladding be thermally bonded to the tungsten in order to transfer heat generated in the tungsten volume to a surrounding coolant. High temperature diffusion bonding using the hot isostatic processing (HIP) technique was selected as the method for creating a metallurgical bond between pure tungsten tubes and rods and the cladding materials. Bonding studies using a uniaxially loaded vacuum hot press were conducted in preliminary experiments to determine acceptable time-temperature conditions for diffusion bonding. The results were successfully applied in cladding tungsten rods and tubes with these alloys. Temperatures 800-810 C were suitable for cladding tungsten with Alloy 600 and 316L stainless steel alloy, whereas tungsten was clad with Alloy 718 at 1020 C.

  8. Advanced Electron Microscopy in Materials Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Y.; Jarausch, K.

    2009-06-01

    Aberration correction has opened a new frontier in electron microscopy by overcoming the limitations of conventional round lenses, providing sub-angstrom-sized probes and extending information limits. The imaging and analytical performance of these corrector-equipped microscopes affords an unprecedented opportunity to study structure-property relationships of matter at the atomic scale. This new generation of microscopes is able to retrieve high-quality structural information comparable to neutron and synchrotron x-ray experiments, but with local atomic resolution. These advances in instrumentation are accelerating the research and development of various functional materials ranging from those for energy generation, conversion, transportation and storage to those for catalysis and nano-device applications. The dramatic improvements in electron-beam illumination and detection also present a host of new challenges for the interpretation and optimization of experiments. During 7-9 November 2007, a workshop, entitled 'Aberration Corrected Electron Microscopy in Material Physics', was convened at the Center for Functional Nanomaterials, Brookhaven National Laboratories (BNL) to address these opportunities and challenges. The workshop was co-sponsored by Hitachi High Technologies, a leader in electron microscopy instrumentation, and BNL's Institute of Advanced Electron Microscopy, a leader in materials physics research using electron microscopy. The workshop featured presentations by internationally prominent scientists working at the frontiers of electron microscopy, both on developing instrumentation and applying it in materials physics. The meeting, structured to stimulate scientific exchanges and explore new capabilities, brought together {approx}100 people from over 10 countries. This special issue complies many of the advances in instrument performance and materials physics reported by the invited speakers and attendees at the workshop.

  9. Advanced research workshop: nuclear materials safety

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, L J; Moshkov, M M

    1999-01-28

    The Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) on Nuclear Materials Safety held June 8-10, 1998, in St. Petersburg, Russia, was attended by 27 Russian experts from 14 different Russian organizations, seven European experts from six different organizations, and 14 U.S. experts from seven different organizations. The ARW was conducted at the State Education Center (SEC), a former Minatom nuclear training center in St. Petersburg. Thirty-three technical presentations were made using simultaneous translations. These presentations are reprinted in this volume as a formal ARW Proceedings in the NATO Science Series. The representative technical papers contained here cover nuclear material safety topics on the storage and disposition of excess plutonium and high enriched uranium (HEU) fissile materials, including vitrification, mixed oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication, plutonium ceramics, reprocessing, geologic disposal, transportation, and Russian regulatory processes. This ARW completed discussions by experts of the nuclear materials safety topics that were not covered in the previous, companion ARW on Nuclear Materials Safety held in Amarillo, Texas, in March 1997. These two workshops, when viewed together as a set, have addressed most nuclear material aspects of the storage and disposition operations required for excess HEU and plutonium. As a result, specific experts in nuclear materials safety have been identified, know each other from their participation in t he two ARW interactions, and have developed a partial consensus and dialogue on the most urgent nuclear materials safety topics to be addressed in a formal bilateral program on t he subject. A strong basis now exists for maintaining and developing a continuing dialogue between Russian, European, and U.S. experts in nuclear materials safety that will improve the safety of future nuclear materials operations in all the countries involved because of t he positive synergistic effects of focusing these diverse backgrounds of

  10. Recent advances in organic semiconducting materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostroverkhova, Oksana

    2011-10-01

    Organic semiconductors have attracted attention due to their low cost, easy fabrication, and tunable properties. Applications of organic materials in thin-film transistors, solar cells, light-emitting diodes, sensors, and many other devices have been actively explored. Recent advances in organic synthesis, material processing, and device fabrication led to significant improvements in (opto)electronic device performance. However, a number of challenges remain. These range from lack of understanding of basic physics of intermolecular interactions that determine optical and electronic properties of organic materials to difficulties in controlling film morphology and stability. In this presentation, current state of the field will be reviewed and recent results related to charge carrier and exciton dynamics in organic thin films will be presented.[4pt] In collaboration with Whitney Shepherd, Mark Kendrick, Andrew Platt, Oregon State University; Marsha Loth and John Anthony, University of Kentucky.

  11. Automotive applications for advanced composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, G. C.

    1978-01-01

    A description is presented of nonaerospace applications for advanced composite materials with special emphasis on the automotive applications. The automotive industry has to satisfy exacting requirements to reduce the average fuel consumption of cars. A feasible approach to accomplish this involves the development of composites cars with a total weight of 2400 pounds and a fuel consumption of 33 miles per gallon. In connection with this possibility, the automotive companies have started to look seriously at composite materials. The aerospace industry has over the past decade accumulated a considerable data base on composite materials and this is being made available to the nonaerospace sector. However, the automotive companies will place prime emphasis on low cost resins which lend themselves to rapid fabrication techniques.

  12. Advanced reflector materials for solar concentrators

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, G; Williams, T; Wendelin, T

    1994-10-01

    This paper describes the research and development program at the U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in advanced reflector materials for solar concentrators. NREL's research thrust is to develop solar reflector materials that maintain high specular reflectance for extended lifetimes under outdoor service conditions and whose cost is significantly lower than existing products. Much of this work has been in collaboration with private-sector companies that have extensive expertise in vacuum-coating and polymer-film technologies. Significant progress and other promising developments will be discussed. These are expected to lead to additional improvements needed to commercialize solar thermal concentration systems and make them economically attractive to the solar manufacturing industry. To explicitly demonstrate the optical durability of candidate reflector materials in real-world service conditions, a network of instrumented outdoor exposure sites has been activated.

  13. International Symposium on Advanced Materials (ISAM 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-06-01

    This proceeding is a compilation of peer reviewed papers presented at the 13th International Symposium on Advanced Materials (ISAM 2013) held from September 23-27, 2013, at Islamabad, Pakistan. In my capacity as ISAM-2013 Secretary, I feel honoured that the symposium has ended on a positive note. The ever increasing changes and intricacies that characterize modern industry necessitate a growing demand for technical information on advanced materials. ISAM and other similar forums serve to fulfill this need. The five day deliberations of ISAM 2013, consisted of 19 technical sessions and 2 poster sessions. In all, 277 papers were presented, inclusive of 80 contributory, invited and oral presentations. The symposium also hosted panel discussions led by renowned scientists and eminent researchers from foreign as well as local institutes. The ultimate aim of this proceeding is to record in writing the new findings in the field of advanced materials. I hope that the technical data available in this publication proves valuable to young scientists and researchers working in this area of science. At the same time, I wish to acknowledge Institute of Physics (IOP) Publishing UK, for accepting the research papers from ISAM-2013 for publication in the IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. The proceeding will be available on the IOP website as an online open access document. I am profoundly thankful to the Symposium Chairman for his steadfast support and valuable guidance without which ISAM 2013 could not have been the mega event that it turned out to be. My gratitude to all our distinguished participants, session chairs/co-chairs, and reviewers for their active role in the symposium. I appreciate the entire organizing committee for the zest and ardor with which each committee fulfilled its obligations to ISAM. Last yet not the least, my thankfulness goes to all our sponsors for wilfully financing the event. Dr. Sara Qaisar Symposium Secretary Further

  14. Nondestructive evaluation of advanced ceramic composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Lott, L.A.; Kunerth, D.C.; Walter, J.B.

    1991-09-01

    Nondestructive evaluation techniques were developed to characterize performance degrading conditions in continuous fiber-reinforced silicon carbide/silicon carbide composites. Porosity, fiber-matrix interface bond strength, and physical damage were among the conditions studied. The material studied is formed by chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) of the matrix material into a preform of woven reinforcing fibers. Acoustic, ultrasonic, and vibration response techniques were studied. Porosity was investigated because of its inherent presence in the CVI process and of the resultant degradation of material strength. Correlations between porosity and ultrasonic attenuation and velocity were clearly demonstrated. The ability of ultrasonic transmission scanning techniques to map variations in porosity in a single sample was also demonstrated. The fiber-matrix interface bond was studied because of its importance in determining the fracture toughness of the material. Correlations between interface bonding and acoustic and ultrasonic properties were observed. These results are presented along with those obtained form acoustic and vibration response measurements on material samples subjected to mechanical impact damage. This is the final report on research sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Fossil Energy Advanced Research and Technology Development Materials Program. 10 refs., 24 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. The recycling dilemma for advanced materials use: Automobile materials substitution

    SciTech Connect

    Field, F.R. III; Clark, J.P. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the difficulties associated with imposing recycling imperatives upon advanced materials development by examining the case of automotive materials substitution and its impacts upon the recyclability of the automobile. Parallels are drawn between today's issues, which focus upon the recyclability of the increasing polymeric fraction in automobile shredder fluff, and the junked automobile problem of the 1960's, when the problem of abandoned automobiles became a part of the environmental and legislative agenda in the US and overseas. In the 1960's, both the source and the resolution of the junk automobile problem arose through a confluence of technological and economic factors, rather than through any set of regulatory influences. The rise of electric arc furnace steelmaking and the development of the automobile shredder were sufficient to virtually eliminate the problem - so much so that today's problems are incorrectly viewed as novelties. Today's automobile recycling problem again derives from technological and economic factors, but regulatory influences have spurred some of them. While there are no lack of technological solutions to the problem of automobile shredder fluff, none of these solutions yet provides scrap processors with the kind of profit opportunity necessary to implement them. In some ways, it is implicit in advanced materials markets that there is little to no demand for recycled forms of these materials, and, in the absence of these markets, there are few reasons to expect that the solution to today's problems will be quite so neat.

  16. ASME Material Challenges for Advanced Reactor Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Piyush Sabharwall; Ali Siahpush

    2013-07-01

    This study presents the material Challenges associated with Advanced Reactor Concept (ARC) such as the Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR). ACR are the next generation concepts focusing on power production and providing thermal energy for industrial applications. The efficient transfer of energy for industrial applications depends on the ability to incorporate cost-effective heat exchangers between the nuclear heat transport system and industrial process heat transport system. The heat exchanger required for AHTR is subjected to a unique set of conditions that bring with them several design challenges not encountered in standard heat exchangers. The corrosive molten salts, especially at higher temperatures, require materials throughout the system to avoid corrosion, and adverse high-temperature effects such as creep. Given the very high steam generator pressure of the supercritical steam cycle, it is anticipated that water tube and molten salt shell steam generators heat exchanger will be used. In this paper, the ASME Section III and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Section VIII requirements (acceptance criteria) are discussed. Also, the ASME material acceptance criteria (ASME Section II, Part D) for high temperature environment are presented. Finally, lack of ASME acceptance criteria for thermal design and analysis are discussed.

  17. Advanced Technology Composite Fuselage - Materials and Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholz, D. B.; Dost, E. F.; Flynn, B. W.; Ilcewicz, L. B.; Nelson, K. M.; Sawicki, A. J.; Walker, T. H.; Lakes, R. S.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of Boeing's Advanced Technology Composite Aircraft Structures (ATCAS) program was to develop the technology required for cost and weight efficient use of composite materials in transport fuselage structure. This contractor report describes results of material and process selection, development, and characterization activities. Carbon fiber reinforced epoxy was chosen for fuselage skins and stiffening elements and for passenger and cargo floor structures. The automated fiber placement (AFP) process was selected for fabrication of monolithic and sandwich skin panels. Circumferential frames and window frames were braided and resin transfer molded (RTM'd). Pultrusion was selected for fabrication of floor beams and constant section stiffening elements. Drape forming was chosen for stringers and other stiffening elements. Significant development efforts were expended on the AFP, braiding, and RTM processes. Sandwich core materials and core edge close-out design concepts were evaluated. Autoclave cure processes were developed for stiffened skin and sandwich structures. The stiffness, strength, notch sensitivity, and bearing/bypass properties of fiber-placed skin materials and braided/RTM'd circumferential frame materials were characterized. The strength and durability of cocured and cobonded joints were evaluated. Impact damage resistance of stiffened skin and sandwich structures typical of fuselage panels was investigated. Fluid penetration and migration mechanisms for sandwich panels were studied.

  18. Nuclear fuel elements having a composite cladding

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, Gerald M.; Cowan, II, Robert L.; Davies, John H.

    1983-09-20

    An improved nuclear fuel element is disclosed for use in the core of nuclear reactors. The improved nuclear fuel element has a composite cladding of an outer portion forming a substrate having on the inside surface a metal layer selected from the group consisting of copper, nickel, iron and alloys of the foregoing with a gap between the composite cladding and the core of nuclear fuel. The nuclear fuel element comprises a container of the elongated composite cladding, a central core of a body of nuclear fuel material disposed in and partially filling the container and forming an internal cavity in the container, an enclosure integrally secured and sealed at each end of said container and a nuclear fuel material retaining means positioned in the cavity. The metal layer of the composite cladding prevents perforations or failures in the cladding substrate from stress corrosion cracking or from fuel pellet-cladding interaction or both. The substrate of the composite cladding is selected from conventional cladding materials and preferably is a zirconium alloy.

  19. Advanced Materials Laboratory User Test Planning Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orndoff, Evelyne

    2012-01-01

    Test process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the Advanced Materials Laboratory. The User Test Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their test engineering personnel in test planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the test process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, test article interfaces, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  20. On the fracture toughness of advanced materials

    SciTech Connect

    Launey, Maximilien E.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2008-11-24

    Few engineering materials are limited by their strength; rather they are limited by their resistance to fracture or fracture toughness. It is not by accident that most critical structures, such as bridges, ships, nuclear pressure vessels and so forth, are manufactured from materials that are comparatively low in strength but high in toughness. Indeed, in many classes of materials, strength and toughness are almost mutually exclusive. In the first instance, such resistance to fracture is a function of bonding and crystal structure (or lack thereof), but can be developed through the design of appropriate nano/microstructures. However, the creation of tough microstructures in structural materials, i.e., metals, polymers, ceramics and their composites, is invariably a compromise between resistance to intrinsic damage mechanisms ahead of the tip of a crack (intrinsic toughening) and the formation of crack-tip shielding mechanisms which principally act behind the tip to reduce the effective 'crack-driving force' (extrinsic toughening). Intrinsic toughening is essentially an inherent property of a specific microstructure; it is the dominant form of toughening in ductile (e.g., metallic) materials. However, for most brittle (e.g., ceramic) solids, and this includes many biological materials, it is largely ineffective and toughening conversely must be developed extrinsically, by such shielding mechanisms as crack bridging. From a fracture mechanics perspective, this results in toughening in the form of rising resistance-curve behavior where the fracture resistance actually increases with crack extension. The implication of this is that in many biological and high-strength advanced materials, toughness is developed primarily during crack growth and not for crack initiation. This is an important realization yet is still rarely reflected in the way that toughness is measured, which is invariably involves the use of single-value (crack-initiation) parameters such as the

  1. NREL Advances Spillover Materials for Hydrogen Storage (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-12-01

    This fact sheet describes NREL's accomplishments in advancing spillover materials for hydrogen storage and improving the reproducible synthesis, long-term durability, and material costs of hydrogen storage materials. Work was performed by NREL's Chemical and Materials Science Center.

  2. Optical bistability in a silicon nitride microring resonator with azo dye-doped liquid crystal as cladding material.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Ta; Tseng, Chih-Wei; Yu, Jui-Hao; Li, Yuan-Cheng; Lee, Chun-Hong; Jau, Hung-Chang; Lee, Ming-Chang; Chen, Yung-Jui; Lin, Tsung-Hsien

    2013-05-01

    This investigation reports observations of optical bistability in a silicon nitride (SiN) micro-ring resonator with azo dye-doped liquid crystal cladding. The refractive index of the cladding can be changed by switching the liquid crystal between nematic (NLC) and photo-induced isotropic (PHI) states by. Both the NLC and the PHI states can be maintained for many hours, and can be rapidly switched from one state to the other by photo-induced isomerization using 532 nm and 408 nm addressing light, respectively. The proposed device exhibits optical bistable switching of the resonance wavelength without sustained use of a power source. It has a 1.9 nm maximum spectral shift with a Q-factor of over 10000. The hybrid SiN- LC micro-ring resonator possesses easy switching, long memory, and low power consumption. It therefore has the potential to be used in signal processing elements and switching elements in optically integrated circuits. PMID:23669955

  3. Clad Degradation - FEPs Screening Arguments

    SciTech Connect

    E. Siegmann

    2004-03-17

    The purpose of this report is to document the screening of the cladding degradation features, events, and processes (FEPs) for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF). This report also addresses the effect of some FEPs on both the cladding and the CSNF, DSNF, and HLW waste forms where it was considered appropriate to address the effects on both materials together. This report summarizes the work of others to screen clad degradation FEPs in a manner consistent with, and used in, the Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA). This document was prepared according to ''Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Modeling, Testing, and Analyses in Support of LA'' (BSC 2004a [DIRS 167796]).

  4. ZIRCONIUM-CLADDING OF THORIUM

    DOEpatents

    Beaver, R.J.

    1961-11-21

    A method of cladding thorium with zirconium is described. The quality of the bond achieved between thorium and zirconium by hot-rolling is improved by inserting and melting a thorium-zirconium alloy foil between the two materials prior to rolling. (AEC)

  5. Materials for advanced ultrasupercritical steam turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Purgert, Robert; Shingledecker, John; Saha, Deepak; Thangirala, Mani; Booras, George; Powers, John; Riley, Colin; Hendrix, Howard

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have sponsored a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired power plants capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than the current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of advanced ultrasupercritical (A-USC) steam conditions. A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction for boilers and for steam turbines. The overall project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760°C (1400°F)/35MPa (5000 psi). This final technical report covers the research completed by the General Electric Company (GE) and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), with support from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) – Albany Research Center, to develop the A-USC steam turbine materials technology to meet the overall project goals. Specifically, this report summarizes the industrial scale-up and materials property database development for non-welded rotors (disc forgings), buckets (blades), bolting, castings (needed for casing and valve bodies), casting weld repair, and casting to pipe welding. Additionally, the report provides an engineering and economic assessment of an A-USC power plant without and with partial carbon capture and storage. This research project successfully demonstrated the materials technology at a sufficient scale and with corresponding materials property data to enable the design of an A-USC steam turbine. The key accomplishments included the development of a triple-melt and forged Haynes 282 disc for bolted rotor construction, long-term property development for Nimonic 105 for blading and bolting, successful scale-up of Haynes 282 and Nimonic 263 castings using

  6. Polymers as advanced materials for desiccant applications

    SciTech Connect

    Czanderna, A.W.

    1990-12-01

    This research is concerned with solid materials used as desiccants for desiccant cooling systems (DCSs) that process water vapor in an atmosphere to produce cooling. Background information includes an introduction to DCSs and the role of the desiccant as a system component. The water vapor sorption performance criteria used for screening the modified polymers prepared include the water sorption capacity from 5% to 80% relative humidity (R.H.), isotherm shape, and rate of adsorption and desorption. Measurements are presented for the sorption performance of modified polymeric advanced desiccant materials with the quartz crystal microbalance. Isotherms of polystyrene sulfonic acid (PSSA) taken over a 5-month period show that the material has a dramatic loss in capacity and that the isotherm shape is time dependent. The adsorption and desorption kinetics for PSSA and all the ionic salts of it studied are easily fast enough for commercial DCS applications with a wheel rotation speed of 6 min per revolution. Future activities for the project are addressed, and a 5-year summary of the project is included as Appendix A. 34 refs., 20 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Thermal fatigue durability for advanced propulsion materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halford, Gary R.

    1989-01-01

    A review is presented of thermal and thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) crack initiation life prediction and cyclic constitutive modeling efforts sponsored recently by the NASA Lewis Research Center in support of advanced aeronautical propulsion research. A brief description is provided of the more significant material durability models that were created to describe TMF fatigue resistance of both isotropic and anisotropic superalloys, with and without oxidation resistant coatings. The two most significant crack initiation models are the cyclic damage accumulation model and the total strain version of strainrange partitioning. Unified viscoplastic cyclic constitutive models are also described. A troika of industry, university, and government research organizations contributed to the generation of these analytic models. Based upon current capabilities and established requirements, an attempt is made to project which TMF research activities most likely will impact future generation propulsion systems.

  8. Advanced Pattern Material for Investment Casting Applications

    SciTech Connect

    F. Douglas Neece Neil Chaudhry

    2006-02-08

    Cleveland Tool and Machine (CTM) of Cleveland, Ohio in conjunction with Harrington Product Development Center (HPDC) of Cincinnati, Ohio have developed an advanced, dimensionally accurate, temperature-stable, energy-efficient and cost-effective material and process to manufacture patterns for the investment casting industry. In the proposed technology, FOPAT (aFOam PATtern material) has been developed which is especially compatible with the investment casting process and offers the following advantages: increased dimensional accuracy; increased temperature stability; lower cost per pattern; less energy consumption per pattern; decreased cost of pattern making equipment; decreased tooling cost; increased casting yield. The present method for investment casting is "the lost wax" process, which is exactly that, the use of wax as a pattern material, which is then melted out or "lost" from the ceramic shell. The molten metal is then poured into the ceramic shell to produce a metal casting. This process goes back thousands of years and while there have been improvements in the wax and processing technology, the material is basically the same, wax. The proposed technology is based upon an established industrial process of "Reaction Injection Molding" (RIM) where two components react when mixed and then "molded" to form a part. The proposed technology has been modified and improved with the needs of investment casting in mind. A proprietary mix of components has been formulated which react and expand to form a foam-like product. The result is an investment casting pattern with smooth surface finish and excellent dimensional predictability along with the other key benefits listed above.

  9. Indentation Methods in Advanced Materials Research Introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Pharr, George Mathews; Cheng, Yang-Tse; Hutchings, Ian; Sakai, Mototsugu; Moody, Neville; Sundararajan, G.; Swain, Michael V.

    2009-01-01

    Since its commercialization early in the 20th century, indentation testing has played a key role in the development of new materials and understanding their mechanical behavior. Progr3ess in the field has relied on a close marriage between research in the mechanical behavior of materials and contact mechanics. The seminal work of Hertz laid the foundations for bringing these two together, with his contributions still widely utilized today in examining elastic behavior and the physics of fracture. Later, the pioneering work of Tabor, as published in his classic text 'The Hardness of Metals', exapdned this understanding to address the complexities of plasticity. Enormous progress in the field has been achieved in the last decade, made possible both by advances in instrumentation, for example, load and depth-sensing indentation and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) based in situ testing, as well as improved modeling capabilities that use computationally intensive techniques such as finite element analysis and molecular dynamics simulation. The purpose of this special focus issue is to present recent state of the art developments in the field.

  10. Advanced Materials in Support of EERE Needs to Advance Clean Energy Technologies Program Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Liby, Alan L; Rogers, Hiram

    2013-10-01

    The goal of this activity was to carry out program implementation and technical projects in support of the ARRA-funded Advanced Materials in Support of EERE Needs to Advance Clean Energy Technologies Program of the DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) (formerly the Industrial Technologies Program (ITP)). The work was organized into eight projects in four materials areas: strategic materials, structural materials, energy storage and production materials, and advanced/field/transient processing. Strategic materials included work on titanium, magnesium and carbon fiber. Structural materials included work on alumina forming austentic (AFA) and CF8C-Plus steels. The advanced batteries and production materials projects included work on advanced batteries and photovoltaic devices. Advanced/field/transient processing included work on magnetic field processing. Details of the work in the eight projects are available in the project final reports which have been previously submitted.

  11. System analysis with improved thermo-mechanical fuel rod models for modeling current and advanced LWR materials in accident scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, Ian Edward

    A nuclear reactor systems code has the ability to model the system response in an accident scenario based on known initial conditions at the onset of the transient. However, there has been a tendency for these codes to lack the detailed thermo-mechanical fuel rod response models needed for accurate prediction of fuel rod failure. This proposed work will couple today's most widely used steady-state (FRAPCON) and transient (FRAPTRAN) fuel rod models with a systems code TRACE for best-estimate modeling of system response in accident scenarios such as a loss of coolant accident (LOCA). In doing so, code modifications will be made to model gamma heating in LWRs during steady-state and accident conditions and to improve fuel rod thermal/mechanical analysis by allowing axial nodalization of burnup-dependent phenomena such as swelling, cladding creep and oxidation. With the ability to model both burnup-dependent parameters and transient fuel rod response, a fuel dispersal study will be conducted using a hypothetical accident scenario under both PWR and BWR conditions to determine the amount of fuel dispersed under varying conditions. Due to the fuel fragmentation size and internal rod pressure both being dependent on burnup, this analysis will be conducted at beginning, middle and end of cycle to examine the effects that cycle time can play on fuel rod failure and dispersal. Current fuel rod and system codes used by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) are compilations of legacy codes with only commonly used light water reactor materials, Uranium Dioxide (UO2), Mixed Oxide (U/PuO 2) and zirconium alloys. However, the events at Fukushima Daiichi and Three Mile Island accident have shown the need for exploration into advanced materials possessing improved accident tolerance. This work looks to further modify the NRC codes to include silicon carbide (SiC), an advanced cladding material proposed by current DOE funded research on accident tolerant fuels (ATF). Several

  12. Reliability Testing of Advanced Interconnect Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, R. R.; Strus, M. C.; Chiaramonti, A. N.; Kim, Y. L.; Jung, Y. J.; Read, D. T.

    2011-11-01

    We describe the development of electrical test methods to evaluate damage that determines reliability in advanced, small-scale conductors, including damascene copper and aligned carbon nanotube networks. Rapid thermal cycling induced during high-current AC stressing provides a means for measuring lifetimes associated with cyclic plasticity and/or diffusive damage in damascene copper. The specific type of damage that develops depends on the line geometry and the nature of the stress state induced within the lines during cycling. Voids form in both fully passivated and partially passivated lines under high levels of hydrostatic tension. Dislocation activity takes place in partially passivated lines in the presence of high shears. High-current DC stressing provides a means for evaluating the fabrication quality of aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) networks, in what we believe to be the first lifetime degradation tests of such materials. While classic electromigration is unlikely in nanocarbon, we observed through resistance changes two forms of degradation that we believe are tied to the nanotube packing and resulting conduction path density through the network: a gradual build-up of damage, and a more abrupt, unpredictable form of damage accumulation, which may be linked to sudden changes in network morphology due to stressing.

  13. Advanced materials and nanotechnology for drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Yan, Li; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Wenjun; Chen, Xianfeng

    2014-08-20

    Many biological barriers are of great importance. For example, stratum corneum, the outmost layer of skin, effectively protects people from being invaded by external microorganisms such as bacteria and viruses. Cell membranes help organisms maintain homeostasis by controlling substances to enter and leave cells. However, on the other hand, these biological barriers seriously restrict drug delivery. For instance, stratum corneum has a very dense structure and only allows very small molecules with a molecular weight of below 500 Da to permeate whereas most drug molecules are much larger than that. A wide variety of drugs including genes needs to enter cells for proper functioning but cell membranes are not permeable to them. To overcome these biological barriers, many drug-delivery routes are being actively researched and developed. In this research news, we will focus on two advanced materials and nanotechnology approaches for delivering vaccines through the skin for painless and efficient immunization and transporting drug molecules to cross cell membranes for high-throughput intracellular delivery.

  14. Advanced High-Temperature Engine Materials Technology Progresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the Advanced High Temperature Engine Materials Technology Program (HITEMP) at the NASA Lewis Research Center is to generate technology for advanced materials and structural analysis that will increase fuel economy, improve reliability, extend life, and reduce operating costs for 21st century civil propulsion systems. The primary focus is on fan and compressor materials (polymer-matrix composites - PMC's), compressor and turbine materials (superalloys, and metal-matrix and intermetallic-matrix composites - MMC's and IMC's), and turbine materials (ceramic-matrix composites - CMC's). These advanced materials are being developed in-house by Lewis researchers and on grants and contracts.

  15. Development of Advanced Coatings for Laser Modifications Through Process and Materials Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martukanitz, R. P.; Babu, S. S.

    2004-06-01

    A simulation-based system is currently being constructed to aid in the development of advanced coating systems for laser cladding and surface alloying. The system employs loosely coupled material and process models that allow rapid determination of material compatibility over a wide range of processing conditions. The primary emphasis is on the development and identification of composite coatings for improved wear and corrosion resistance. The material model utilizes computational thermodynamics and kinetic analysis to establish phase stability and extent of diffusional reactions that may result from the thermal response of the material during virtual processing. The process model is used to develop accurate thermal histories associated with the laser surface modification process and provides critical input for the non-isothermal materials simulations. These techniques were utilized to design a laser surface modification experiment that utilized the addition of stainless steel alloy 431 and TiC produced using argon and argon and nitrogen shielding. The deposits representing alloy 431 and TiC powder produced in argon resulted in microstructures retaining some TiC particles and an increase in hardness when compared to deposits produced using only the 431 powder. Laser deposits representing alloy 431 and TiC powder produced with a mixture of argon and nitrogen shielding gas resulted in microstructures retaining some TiC particles, as well as fine precipitates of Ti(CN) formed during cooling and a further increase in hardness of the deposit.

  16. General corrosion properties of modified PNC1520 austenitic stainless steel in supercritical water as a fuel cladding candidate material for supercritical water reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakazono, Y.; Iwai, T.; Abe, H.

    2010-03-01

    The Super-Critical Water-cooled Reactor (SCWR) has been designed and investigated because of its high thermal efficiency and plant simplification. There are some advantages including the use of a single phase coolant with high enthalpy but there are numerous potential problems, particularly with materials. As the operating temperature of supercritical water reactor will be between 280°C and 620°C with a pressure of 25MPa, the selection of materials is difficult and important. Austenitic stainless steels were selected for possible use in supercritical water systems because of their corrosion resistance and radiation resistance. The PNC1520 austenitic stainless steel developed by Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) as a nuclear fuel cladding material for a Na-cooled fast breeder reactor. The corrosion data of PNC1520 in supercritical water (SCW) is required but does not exist. The purpose of the present study is to research the corrosion properties for PNC1520 austenitic stainless steel in supercritical water. The supercritical water corrosion test was performed for the standard PNC1520 (1520S) and the Ti-additional type of PNC1520 (1520Ti) by using a supercritical water autoclave. Corrosion tests on the austenitic 1520S and 1520Ti steels in supercritical water were performed at 400, 500 and 600°C with exposures up to 1000h. The amount of weight gain, weight loss and weight of scale were evaluated after the corrosion test in supercritical water for both austenitic steels. After 1000h corrosion test performed, the weight gains of both austenitic stainless steels were less than 2 g/m2 at 400°C and 500°C . But both weight gain and weight loss of 1520Ti were larger than those of 1520S at 600°C . By increasing the temperature to 600°C, the surface of 1520Ti was covered with magnetite formed in supercritical water and dissolution of the steel alloying elements has been observed. In view of corrosion, 1520S may have larger possibility than 1520Ti to adopt a

  17. The processing and evaluation of clad metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forster, James A.; Jha, Sunil; Amatruda, Andrew

    1993-06-01

    Clad metals are a specific form of composites in which the materials are arranged in a layered structure. Cold-roll bonding techniques are employed to produce more than 20,000 tonnes of clad metal laminates each year in the United States. This article is an introductory description of the processing steps in cold-roll bonding, the nature of the bond created in this process, and the methods used to evaluate the bond's strength.

  18. Advanced insider threat mitigation workshop instructional materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, Philip; Larsen, Robert; O Brien, Mike; Edmunds, Tom

    2008-11-01

    Insiders represent a formidable threat to nuclear facilities. This set of workshop materials covers methodologies to analyze and approaches to mitigate the threat of an insider attempting abrupt and protracted theft of nuclear materials. This particular set of materials is a n update of a January 2008 version to add increased emphasis on Material Control and Accounting and its role with respect to protracted insider nuclear material theft scenarios.

  19. A high-throughput investigation of Fe-Cr-Al as a novel high-temperature coating for nuclear cladding materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunn, Jonathan Kenneth; Fang, Randy L.; Albing, Mark R.; Mehta, Apurva; Kramer, Matthew J.; Besser, Matthew F.; Hattrick-Simpers, Jason R.

    2015-07-01

    High-temperature alloy coatings that can resist oxidation are urgently needed as nuclear cladding materials to mitigate the danger of hydrogen explosions during meltdown. Here we apply a combination of computationally guided materials synthesis, high-throughput structural characterization and data analysis tools to investigate the feasibility of coatings from the Fe-Cr-Al alloy system. Composition-spread samples were synthesized to cover the region of the phase diagram previous bulk studies have identified as forming protective oxides. The metallurgical and oxide phase evolution were studied via in situ synchrotron glancing incidence x-ray diffraction at temperatures up to 690 K. A composition region with an Al concentration greater than 3.08 at%, and between 20.0 at% and 32.9 at% Cr showed the least overall oxide growth. Subsequently, a series of samples were deposited on stubs and their oxidation behavior at 1373 K was observed. The continued presence of a passivating oxide was confirmed in this region over a period of 6 h.

  20. A high-throughput investigation of Fe-Cr-Al as a novel high-temperature coating for nuclear cladding materials.

    PubMed

    Bunn, Jonathan Kenneth; Fang, Randy L; Albing, Mark R; Mehta, Apurva; Kramer, Matthew J; Besser, Matthew F; Hattrick-Simpers, Jason R

    2015-07-10

    High-temperature alloy coatings that can resist oxidation are urgently needed as nuclear cladding materials to mitigate the danger of hydrogen explosions during meltdown. Here we apply a combination of computationally guided materials synthesis, high-throughput structural characterization and data analysis tools to investigate the feasibility of coatings from the Fe–Cr–Al alloy system. Composition-spread samples were synthesized to cover the region of the phase diagram previous bulk studies have identified as forming protective oxides. The metallurgical and oxide phase evolution were studied via in situ synchrotron glancing incidence x-ray diffraction at temperatures up to 690 K. A composition region with an Al concentration greater than 3.08 at%, and between 20.0 at% and 32.9 at% Cr showed the least overall oxide growth. Subsequently, a series of samples were deposited on stubs and their oxidation behavior at 1373 K was observed. The continued presence of a passivating oxide was confirmed in this region over a period of 6 h. PMID:26086841

  1. Analysis of an advanced technology subsonic turbofan incorporating revolutionary materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knip, Gerald, Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Successful implementation of revolutionary composite materials in an advanced turbofan offers the possibility of further improvements in engine performance and thrust-to-weight ratio relative to current metallic materials. The present analysis determines the approximate engine cycle and configuration for an early 21st century subsonic turbofan incorporating all composite materials. The advanced engine is evaluated relative to a current technology baseline engine in terms of its potential fuel savings for an intercontinental quadjet having a design range of 5500 nmi and a payload of 500 passengers. The resultant near optimum, uncooled, two-spool, advanced engine has an overall pressure ratio of 87, a bypass ratio of 18, a geared fan, and a turbine rotor inlet temperature of 3085 R. Improvements result in a 33-percent fuel saving for the specified misssion. Various advanced composite materials are used throughout the engine. For example, advanced polymer composite materials are used for the fan and the low pressure compressor (LPC).

  2. Fundamental Characterization Studies of Advanced Photocatalytic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phivilay, Somphonh Peter

    Solar powered photocatalytic water splitting has been proposed as a method for the production of sustainable, non-carbon hydrogen fuel. Although much technological progress has been achieved in recent years in the discovery of advanced photocatalytic materials, the progress in the fundamental scientific understanding of such novel, complex mixed oxide and oxynitride photocatalysts has significantly lagged. One of the major reasons for this slow scientific progress is the limited number of reported surface characterization studies of the complex bulk mixed oxide and oxynitride photocatalyst systems. Although photocatalytic splitting of water by bulk mixed oxide and oxynitride materials involves both bulk (generation of excited electrons and holes) and surface phenomena (reaction of H2O with excited electrons and holes at the surface), the photocatalysis community has almost completely ignored the surface characteristics of such complex bulk photocatalysts and correlates the photocatalytic properties with bulk properties. Some of the most promising photocatalyst systems (NaTaO3, GaN, (Ga1-xZnx)(N1-xOx) and TaON) were investigated to establish fundamental bulk/surface structure photoactivity relationships. The bulk molecular and electronic structures of the photocatalysts were determined with Raman and UV-vis spectroscopy. Photoluminescence (PL) and transient PL spectroscopy were provided insight into how recombination of photogenerated electrons is related to the photocatalysis activity. The chemical states and atomic compositions of the surface region of the photocatalysts were determined with high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (˜1-3 nm) and high sensitivity-low energy ion scattering spectroscopy (˜0.3 nm). The new insights obtained from surface characterization clarified the role of La and Ni promoters species for the NaTaO3 photocatalyst system. The La2O3 additive was found to be a structural promoter that stabilizes small NaTaO3 nanoparticles (NPs

  3. New Advances in SuperConducting Materials

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Superconducting materials will transform the world's electrical infrastructure, saving billions of dollars once the technical details and installation are in place. At Los Alamos National Laboratory, new materials science concepts are bringing this essential technology closer to widespread industrial use.

  4. Development of advanced thermoelectric materials, phase A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Work performed on the chemical system characterized by chrome sulfide, chrome selenide, lanthanum selenide, and lanthanum sulfide is described. Most materials within the chemical systems possess the requisites for attractive thermoelectric materials. The preparation of the alloys is discussed. Graphs show the Seebeck coefficient, electrical resistivity, and thermal conductivity of various materials within the chemical systems. The results of selected doping are included.

  5. Advanced materials for solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, T.R.; Stevenson, J.

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of this research is to improve the properties of the current state-of-the-art materials used for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The objectives are to: (1) develop materials based on modifications of the state-of-the-art materials; (2) minimize or eliminate stability problems in the cathode, anode, and interconnect; (3) Electrochemically evaluate (in reproducible and controlled laboratory tests) the current state-of-the-art air electrode materials and cathode/electrolyte interfacial properties; (4) Develop accelerated electrochemical test methods to evaluate the performance of SOFCs under controlled and reproducible conditions; and (5) Develop and test materials for use in low-temperature SOFCs. The goal is to modify and improve the current state-of-the-art materials and minimize the total number of cations in each material to avoid negative effects on the materials properties. Materials to reduce potential deleterious interactions, (3) improve thermal, electrical, and electrochemical properties, (4) develop methods to synthesize both state-of-the-art and alternative materials for the simultaneous fabricatoin and consolidation in air of the interconnections and electrodes with the solid electrolyte, and (5) understand electrochemical reactions at materials interfaces and the effects of component composition and processing on those reactions.

  6. Advanced Insider Threat Mitigation Workshop Instructional Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, Philip; Larsen, Robert; O'Brien, Mike; Edmunds, Tom

    2009-02-01

    Insiders represent a formidable threat to nuclear facilities. This set of workshop materials covers methodologies to analyze and approaches to mitigate the threat of an insider attempting abrupt and protracted theft of nuclear materials. This particular set of materials is an update of a January 2008 version to add increased emphasis on Material Control and Accounting and its role with respect to protracted insider nuclear material theft scenarios. This report is a compilation of workshop materials consisting of lectures on technical and administrative measures used in Physical Protection (PP) and Material Control and Accounting (MC&A) and methods for analyzing their effectiveness against a postulated insider threat. The postulated threat includes both abrupt and protracted theft scenarios. Presentation is envisioned to be through classroom instruction and discussion. Several practical and group exercises are included for demonstration and application of the analysis approach contained in the lecture/discussion sessions as applied to a hypothetical nuclear facility.

  7. Nuclear reactor fuel element with vanadium getter on cladding

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Carl E.; Carroll, Kenneth G.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear reactor fuel element is described which has an outer cladding, a central core of fissionable or mixed fissionable and fertile fuel material and a layer of vanadium as an oxygen getter on the inner surface of the cladding. The vanadium reacts with oxygen released by the fissionable material during irradiation of the core to prevent the oxygen from reacting with and corroding the cladding. Also described is a method for coating the inner surface of small diameter tubes of cladding with a layer of vanadium.

  8. Materials Challenges for Advanced Combustion and Gasification Fossil Energy Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridhar, S.; Rozzelle, P.; Morreale, B.; Alman, D.

    2011-04-01

    This special section of Metallurgical and Materials Transactions is devoted to materials challenges associated with coal based energy conversion systems. The purpose of this introductory article is to provide a brief outline to the challenges associated with advanced combustion and advanced gasification, which has the potential of providing clean, affordable electricity by improving process efficiency and implementing carbon capture and sequestration. Affordable materials that can meet the demanding performance requirements will be a key enabling technology for these systems.

  9. New Advance in SuperConducting Materials

    SciTech Connect

    2009-03-02

    Superconducting materials will transform the world's electrical infrastructure, saving billions of dollars once the technical details and installation are in place. At Los Alamos National Laborator...  

  10. Progress in advanced high temperature materials technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freche, J. C.; Ault, G. M.

    1976-01-01

    Significant progress has recently been made in many high temperature material categories pertinent to such applications by the industrial community. These include metal matrix composites, superalloys, directionally solidified eutectics, coatings, and ceramics. Each of these material categories is reviewed and the current state-of-the-art identified, including some assessment, when appropriate, of progress, problems, and future directions.

  11. Advanced materials for solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, T.R.; Stevenson, J.; Paulik, S.

    1996-12-31

    Purpose of the research is to improve the properties of current state- of-the-art materials used for SOFCs. The project includes interconnect development, high-performance cathode, electrochemical testing, and accelerated testing. This document reports results of mechanical tests (bend strength, elastic modulus, fracture strength) of acceptor-substituted lanthanum chromite (interconnect material).

  12. Challenge to advanced materials processing with lasers in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Isamu

    2003-02-01

    Japan is one of the most advanced countries in manufacturing technology, and lasers have been playing an important role for advancement of manufacturing technology in a variety of industrial fields. Contribution of laser materials processing to Japanese industry is significant for both macroprocessing and microprocessing. The present paper describes recent trend and topics of industrial applications in terms of the hardware and the software to show how Japanese industry challenges to advanced materials processing using lasers, and national products related to laser materials processing are also briefly introduced.

  13. Advanced materials research for long-haul aircraft turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Signorelli, R. A.; Blankenship, C. P.

    1978-01-01

    The status of research efforts to apply low to intermediate temperature composite materials and advanced high temperature materials to engine components is reviewed. Emerging materials technologies and their potential benefits to aircraft gas turbines were emphasized. The problems were identified, and the general state of the technology for near term use was assessed.

  14. Advances in Processing of Bulk Ferroelectric Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galassi, Carmen

    The development of ferroelectric bulk materials is still under extensive investigation, as new and challenging issues are growing in relation to their widespread applications. Progress in understanding the fundamental aspects requires adequate technological tools. This would enable controlling and tuning the material properties as well as fully exploiting them into the scale production. Apart from the growing number of new compositions, interest in the first ferroelectrics like BaTiO3 or PZT materials is far from dropping. The need to find new lead-free materials, with as high performance as PZT ceramics, is pushing towards a full exploitation of bariumbased compositions. However, lead-based materials remain the best performing at reasonably low production costs. Therefore, the main trends are towards nano-size effects and miniaturisation, multifunctional materials, integration, and enhancement of the processing ability in powder synthesis. Also, in control of dispersion and packing, to let densification occur in milder conditions. In this chapter, after a general review of the composition and main properties of the principal ferroelectric materials, methods of synthesis are analysed with emphasis on recent results from chemical routes and cold consolidation methods based on the colloidal processing.

  15. Lignin-Derived Advanced Carbon Materials.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sabornie; Saito, Tomonori

    2015-12-01

    Lignin is a highly abundant source of renewable carbon that can be considered as a valuable sustainable source of biobased materials. By applying specific pretreatments and manufacturing methods, lignin can be converted into a variety of value-added carbon materials. However, the physical and chemical heterogeneities of lignin complicate its use as a feedstock. Herein lignin manufacturing process, the effects of pretreatments and manufacturing methods on the properties of product lignin, and structure-property relationships in various applications of lignin-derived carbon materials, such as carbon fibers, carbon mats, activated carbons, carbon films, and templated carbon, are discussed.

  16. Advances in nonlinear optical materials and devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, Robert L.

    1991-01-01

    The recent progress in the application of nonlinear techniques to extend the frequency of laser sources has come from the joint progress in laser sources and in nonlinear materials. A brief summary of the progress in diode pumped solid state lasers is followed by an overview of progress in nonlinear frequency extension by harmonic generation and parametric processes. Improved nonlinear materials including bulk crystals, quasiphasematched interactions, guided wave devices, and quantum well intersubband studies are discussed with the idea of identifying areas of future progress in nonlinear materials and devices.

  17. Lignin-Derived Advanced Carbon Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Sabornie; Saito, Tomonori

    2015-11-16

    Lignin is a highly abundant source of renewable carbon that can be considered as a valuable sustainable source of biobased materials. By applying specific pretreatments and manufacturing methods, it has been found that lignin can be converted into a variety of value-added carbon materials. However, the physical and chemical heterogeneities of lignin complicate its use as a feedstock. Herein, we discuss the lignin manufacturing process, the effects of pretreatments and manufacturing methods on the properties of product lignin, and structure–property relationships in various applications of lignin-derived carbon materials, such as carbon fibers, carbon mats, activated carbons, carbon films, and templated carbon.

  18. Advanced lubrication systems and materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, S.

    1998-05-07

    This report described the work conducted at the National Institute of Standards and Technology under an interagency agreement signed in September 1992 between DOE and NIST for 5 years. The interagency agreement envisions continual funding from DOE to support the development of fuel efficient, low emission engine technologies in terms of lubrication, friction, and wear control encountered in the development of advanced transportation technologies. However, in 1994, the DOE office of transportation technologies was reorganized and the tribology program was dissolved. The work at NIST therefore continued at a low level without further funding from DOE. The work continued to support transportation technologies in the development of fuel efficient, low emission engine development. Under this program, significant progress has been made in advancing the state of the art of lubrication technology for advanced engine research and development. Some of the highlights are: (1) developed an advanced high temperature liquid lubricant capable of sustaining high temperatures in a prototype heat engine; (2) developed a novel liquid lubricant which potentially could lower the emission of heavy duty diesel engines; (3) developed lubricant chemistries for ceramics used in the heat engines; (4) developed application maps for ceramic lubricant chemistry combinations for design purpose; and (5) developed novel test methods to screen lubricant chemistries for automotive air-conditioning compressors lubricated by R-134a (Freon substitute). Most of these findings have been reported to the DOE program office through Argonne National Laboratory who manages the overall program. A list of those reports and a copy of the report submitted to the Argonne National Laboratory is attached in Appendix A. Additional reports have also been submitted separately to DOE program managers. These are attached in Appendix B.

  19. New Advance in SuperConducting Materials

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Superconducting materials will transform the world's electrical infrastructure, saving billions of dollars once the technical details and installation are in place. At Los Alamos National Laborator...  

  20. Advanced diffusion studies with isotopically controlled materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bracht, Hartmut A.; Silvestri, Hughes H.; Haller, Eugene E.

    2004-11-14

    The use of enriched stable isotopes combined with modern epitaxial deposition and depth profiling techniques enables the preparation of material heterostructures, highly appropriate for self- and foreign-atom diffusion experiments. Over the past decade we have performed diffusion studies with isotopically enriched elemental and compound semiconductors. In the present paper we highlight our recent results and demonstrate that the use of isotopically enriched materials ushered in a new era in the study of diffusion in solids which yields greater insight into the properties of native defects and their roles in diffusion. Our approach of studying atomic diffusion is not limited to semiconductors and can be applied also to other material systems. Current areas of our research concern the diffusion in the silicon-germanium alloys and glassy materials such as silicon dioxide and ion conducting silicate glasses.

  1. French investigations of high burnup effect on LOCA thermomecanical behavior. Part two. Oxidation and quenching experiments under simulated LOCA conditions with high burnup clad material

    SciTech Connect

    GrandJean, C.; Cauvin, R.; Lebuffe, C.

    1997-01-01

    In the frame of the high burnup fuel studies to support a possible extension of the current discharge burnup limit, experimental programs have been undertaken, jointly by EDF and IPSN in order to study the thermal-shock behavior of high burnup fuel claddings under typical LOCA conditions. The TAGUS program used unirradiated cladding samples, bare or bearing a pre-corrosion state simulating the end-of-life state of high burnup fuel claddings: the TAGCIR program used actually irradiated cladding samples taken from high burnup rods irradiated over 5 cycles in a commercial EDF PWR and having reached a rod burnup close to 60 GWd/tU. The thermal-shock failure tests consisted in oxidizing the cladding samples under steam flow, on both inner and outer faces or on the outer face alone, and subjecting them to a final water quench. The heating was provided by an inductive furnace the power of which being regulated through monitoring of the sample surface temperature with use of a single-wave optical pyrometer. Analysis of the irradiated tests (TAGCIR series) evidenced an increased oxidation rate as compared to similar tests on unirradiated samples. Results of the quenching tests series on unirradiated and irradiated samples are plotted under the usual presentation of failure maps relative to the oxidation parameters ECR (equivalent cladding reacted) or e{sub {beta}} (thickness of the remaining beta phase layer) as a function of the oxidation temperature. Comparison of the failure limits for irradiated specimens to those for unirradiated specimens indicates a lower brittleness under two side oxidation and possibly the opposite under one-side oxidation. The tentative analysis of the oxidation and quenching tests results on irradiated samples reveals the important role played by the hydrogen charged during in-reactor corrosion on the oxidation kinetics and the failure bearing capability of the cladding under LOCA transient conditions.

  2. Materials of construction for advanced coal conversion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nangia, V.K.

    1982-01-01

    This book describes materials of construction, and materials problems for equipment used in advanced coal conversion systems. The need for cost effective industrial operation is always a prime concern, particularly in this age of energy consciousness. Industry is continually seeking improved materials for more efficient systems. The information presented here is intended to be of use in the design and planning of these systems. Coal conversion and utilization impose severe demands on construction materials because of high temperature, high pressure, corrosive/erosive, and other hostile environmental factors. Successful economic development of these processes can be achieved only to the extent that working materials can withstand increasingly more aggressive operating conditions. The book, which reviews present and past work on the behavior of materials in the environments of advanced coal conversion systems, is divided into three parts: atmospheric fluidized bed combustion, coal gasification and liquefaction, and advanced power systems.

  3. Advanced organic composite materials for aircraft structures: Future program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Revolutionary advances in structural materials have been responsible for revolutionary changes in all fields of engineering. These advances have had and are still having a significant impact on aircraft design and performance. Composites are engineered materials. Their properties are tailored through the use of a mix or blend of different constituents to maximize selected properties of strength and/or stiffness at reduced weights. More than 20 years have passed since the potentials of filamentary composite materials were identified. During the 1970s much lower cost carbon filaments became a reality and gradually designers turned from boron to carbon composites. Despite progress in this field, filamentary composites still have significant unfulfilled potential for increasing aircraft productivity; the rendering of advanced organic composite materials into production aircraft structures was disappointingly slow. Why this is and research and technology development actions that will assist in accelerating the application of advanced organic composites to production aircraft is discussed.

  4. Advanced Materials and Solids Analysis Research Core (AMSARC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Advanced Materials and Solids Analysis Research Core (AMSARC), centered at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Andrew W. Breidenbach Environmental Research Center in Cincinnati, Ohio, is the foundation for the Agency's solids and surfaces analysis capabilities. ...

  5. CLAD DEGRADATION - FEPS SCREENING ARGUMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Schreiner

    2004-10-21

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate and document the screening of the clad degradation features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling used to support the Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA). This report also addresses the effect of certain FEPs on both the cladding and the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF), DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel (DSNF), and defense high-level waste (DHLW) waste forms, as appropriate to address the effects on multiple materials and both components (FEPs 2.1.09.09.0A, 2.1.09.11.0A, 2.1.11.05.0A, 2.1.12.02.0A, and 2.1.12.03.0A). These FEPs are expected to affect the repository performance during the postclosure regulatory period of 10,000 years after permanent closure. Table 1-1 provides the list of cladding FEPs, including their screening decisions (include or exclude). The primary purpose of this report is to identify and document the analysis, screening decision, and TSPA-LA disposition (for included FEPs) or screening argument (for excluded FEPs) for these FEPs related to clad degradation. In some cases, where a FEP covers multiple technical areas and is shared with other FEP reports, this report may provide only a partial technical basis for the screening of the FEP. The full technical basis for shared FEPs is addressed collectively by the sharing FEP reports. The screening decisions and associated TSPA-LA dispositions or screening arguments from all of the FEP reports are cataloged in a project-specific FEPs database.

  6. Advances in glazing materials for windows

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    No one type of glazing is suitable for every application. Many materials are available that serve different purposes. Moreover, consumers may discover that they need two types of glazing for a home because of the directions that the windows face and the local climate. To make wise purchases, consumers should first examine their heating and cooling needs and prioritize desired features such as daylighting, solar heating, shading, ventilation, and aesthetic value. Research and development into types of glazing have created a new generation of materials that offer improved window efficiency and performance for consumers. While this new generation of glazing materials quickly gains acceptance in the marketplace, the research and development of even more efficient technology continues.

  7. Lignin-Derived Advanced Carbon Materials

    DOE PAGES

    Chatterjee, Sabornie; Saito, Tomonori

    2015-11-16

    Lignin is a highly abundant source of renewable carbon that can be considered as a valuable sustainable source of biobased materials. By applying specific pretreatments and manufacturing methods, it has been found that lignin can be converted into a variety of value-added carbon materials. However, the physical and chemical heterogeneities of lignin complicate its use as a feedstock. Herein, we discuss the lignin manufacturing process, the effects of pretreatments and manufacturing methods on the properties of product lignin, and structure–property relationships in various applications of lignin-derived carbon materials, such as carbon fibers, carbon mats, activated carbons, carbon films, and templatedmore » carbon.« less

  8. ADVANCED ABRASION RESISTANT MATERIALS FOR MINING

    SciTech Connect

    Ludtka, G.M.

    2004-04-08

    The high-density infrared (HDI) transient-liquid coating (TLC) process was successfully developed and demonstrated excellent, enhanced (5 times higher than the current material and process) wear performance for the selected functionally graded material (FGM) coatings under laboratory simulated, in-service conditions. The mating steel component exhibited a wear rate improvement of approximately one and a half (1.5) times. After 8000 cycles of wear testing, the full-scale component testing demonstrated that the coating integrity was still excellent. Little or no spalling was observed to occur.

  9. Advance Abrasion Resistant Materials for Mining

    SciTech Connect

    Mackiewicz-Ludtka, G.

    2004-06-01

    The high-density infrared (HDI) transient-liquid coating (TLC) process was successfully developed and demonstrated excellent, enhanced (5 times higher than the current material and process) wear performance for the selected functionally graded material (FGM) coatings under laboratory simulated, in-service conditions. The mating steel component exhibited a wear rate improvement of approximately one and a half (1.5) times. After 8000 cycles of. wear testing, the full-scale component testing demonstrated that the coating integrity was still excellent. Little or no spalling was observed to occur.

  10. Fabrication of Advanced Thermoelectric Materials by Hierarchical Nanovoid Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sang Hyouk (Inventor); Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); Chu, Sang-Hyon (Inventor); Elliott, James R. (Inventor); King, Glen C. (Inventor); Kim, Jae-Woo (Inventor); Lillehei, Peter T. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A novel method to prepare an advanced thermoelectric material has hierarchical structures embedded with nanometer-sized voids which are key to enhancement of the thermoelectric performance. Solution-based thin film deposition technique enables preparation of stable film of thermoelectric material and void generator (voigen). A subsequent thermal process creates hierarchical nanovoid structure inside the thermoelectric material. Potential application areas of this advanced thermoelectric material with nanovoid structure are commercial applications (electronics cooling), medical and scientific applications (biological analysis device, medical imaging systems), telecommunications, and defense and military applications (night vision equipments).

  11. Evaluation of advanced materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, I.G.; Clauer, A.H.; Shetty, D.K.; Tucker, T.R.; Stropki, J.T.

    1982-11-18

    Cemented tungsten carbides with a binder level in the range of 5 to 6 percent exhibited the best resistance to erosion for this class of materials. Other practical cermet meterials were diamond - Si/SiC, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/-B/sub 4/C-Cr, and B/sub 4/C-Co. SiAlON exhibited erosion resistance equivalent to the best WC-cermet. The only coating system to show promise of improved erosion resistance was CVD TiB/sub 2/ on cemented TiB/sub 2/-Ni. Cracking and/or spalling of a TiC coating and a proprietary TMT coating occurred in the standard slurry erosion test. Ranking of cemented tungsten carbide materials in the laboratory erosion test was the same as that found in service in the Wilsonville pilot plant. Specimens from the Fort Lewis pilot plant which performed well in service exhibited low erosion in the laboratory test. A substitute slurry, was found to be 2 to 4 times more erosive than the coal-derived slurry 8 wt% solids. Ranking of materials in the substitute slurry was nearly identical to that in the coal-derived slurry. Three modes of erosion were: ductile cutting; elastic-plastic indentation and fracture; and intergranular fracture. Erosion of a given material was closely related to its microstructure. In the substitute slurry, the angle-dependence of erosion of two forms of SiC, hot-pressed and sintered, were similar, but the sintered material eroded slower. Laser fusing of preplaced powder mixtures can produce cermet-like structures with potential for erosive and sliding wear resistance. TiC particles in Stellite 6 matrix proved less prone to cracking than WC particles in the same matrix. 74 figures, 14 tables.

  12. Advances in electrode materials for AMTEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, M. A.; Williams, R. M.; Lara, L.; Fiebig, B. G.; Cortez, R. H.; Kisor, A. K.; Shields, V. B.; Homer, M. L.

    2001-02-01

    A mixed conducting electrode for the Alkali Metal Thermal to Electric Converter (AMTEC) has been made and tested. The electrode is made from a slurry of metal and TiO2 powders which is applied to the electrolyte and fired to sinter the electrode material. During the first 48-72 hours of operation in a SETC, the electrode takes up Na from low pressure sodium vapor to make a metal-Na-Ti-O compound. This compound is electronically conducting and ionically conducting to sodium; electronic conduction is also provided by the metal in the electrode. With a mixed conducting electrode made from robust, low vapor pressure materials, the promise for improved performance and lifetime is high. .

  13. Polymers Advance Heat Management Materials for Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    For 6 years prior to the retirement of the Space Shuttle Program, the shuttles carried an onboard repair kit with a tool for emergency use: two tubes of NOAX, or "good goo," as some people called it. NOAX flew on all 22 flights following the Columbia accident, and was designed to repair damage that occurred on the exterior of the shuttle. Bill McMahon, a structural materials engineer at Marshall Space Flight Center says NASA needed a solution for the widest range of possible damage to the shuttle s exterior thermal protection system. "NASA looked at several options in early 2004 and decided on a sealant. Ultimately, NOAX performed the best and was selected," he says. To prove NOAX would work effectively required hundreds of samples manufactured at Marshall and Johnson, and a concerted effort from various NASA field centers. Johnson Space Center provided programmatic leadership, testing, tools, and crew training; Glenn Research Center provided materials analysis; Langley Research Center provided test support and led an effort to perform large patch repairs; Ames Research Center provided additional testing; and Marshall provided further testing and the site of NOAX manufacturing. Although the sealant never had to be used in an emergency situation, it was tested by astronauts on samples of reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) during two shuttle missions. (RCC is the thermal material on areas of the shuttle that experience the most heat, such as the nose cone and wing leading edges.) The material handled well on orbit, and tests showed the NOAX patch held up well on RCC.

  14. PREFACE: Advanced Materials for Demanding Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Alison; Schofield, Stephen; Kelly, Michael

    2015-02-01

    This was a special conference. It was small enough (60+ delegates) but covering a wide range of topics, under a broad end-use focussed heading. Most conferences today either have hundreds or thousands of delegates or are small and very focussed. The topics ranged over composite materials, the testing of durability aspects of materials, and an eclectic set of papers on radar screening using weak ionized plasmas, composites for microvascular applications, composites in space rockets, and materials for spallation neutron sources etc. There were several papers of new characterisation techniques and, very importantly, several papers that started with the end-user requirements leading back into materials selection. In my own area, there were three talks about the technology for the ultra-precise positioning of individual atoms, donors, and complete monolayers to take modern electronics and optoelectronics ideas closer to the market place. The President of the Institute opened with an experience-based talk on translating innovative technology into business. Everyone gave a generous introduction to bring all-comers up to speed with the burning contemporary issues. Indeed, I wish that a larger cohort of first-year engineering PhD students were present to see the full gamut of what takes a physics idea to a success in the market place. I would urge groups to learn from Prof Alison McMillan (a Vice President of the Institute of Physics) and Steven Schofield, to set up conferences of similar scale and breadth. I took in more than I do from mega-meetings, and in greater depth. Professor Michael Kelly Department of Engineering University of Cambridge

  15. Advanced Materials and Coatings for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    2004-01-01

    In the application area of aerospace tribology, researchers and developers must guarantee the highest degree of reliability for materials, components, and systems. Even a small tribological failure can lead to catastrophic results. The absence of the required knowledge of tribology, as Professor H.P. Jost has said, can act as a severe brake in aerospace vehicle systems-and indeed has already done so. Materials and coatings must be able to withstand the aerospace environments that they encounter, such as vacuum terrestrial, ascent, and descent environments; be resistant to the degrading effects of air, water vapor, sand, foreign substances, and radiation during a lengthy service; be able to withstand the loads, stresses, and temperatures encountered form acceleration and vibration during operation; and be able to support reliable tribological operations in harsh environments throughout the mission of the vehicle. This presentation id divided into two sections: surface properties and technology practice related to aerospace tribology. The first section is concerned with the fundamental properties of the surfaces of solid-film lubricants and related materials and coatings, including carbon nanotubes. The second is devoted to applications. Case studies are used to review some aspects of real problems related to aerospace systems to help engineers and scientists to understand the tribological issues and failures. The nature of each problem is analyzed, and the tribological properties are examined. All the fundamental studies and case studies were conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center.

  16. Advanced Functional Materials for Energy Related Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasan, Koroush

    The current global heavy dependency on fossil fuels gives rise to two critical problems: I) fossil fuels will be depleted in the near future; II) the release of green house gas CO2 generated by the combustion of fossil fuels contributes to global warming. To potentially address both problems, this dissertation documents three primary areas of investigation related to the development of alternative energy sources: electrocatalysts for fuel cells, photocatalysts for hydrogen generation, and photoreduction catalysts for converting CO2 to CH4. Fuel cells could be a promising source of alternative energy. Decreasing the cost and improving the durability and power density of Pt/C as a catalyst for reducing oxygen are major challenges for developing fuel cells. To address these concerns, we have synthesized a Nitrogen-Sulfur-Iron-doped porous carbon material. Our results indicate that the synthesized catalyst exhibits not only higher current density and stability but also higher tolerance to crossover chemicals than the commercial Pt/C catalyst. More importantly, the synthetic method is simple and inexpensive. Using photocatalysts and solar energy is another potential alternative solution for energy demand. We have synthesized a new biomimetic heterogeneous photocatalyst through the incorporation of homogeneous complex 1 [(i-SCH 2)2NC(O)C5H4N]-Fe2(CO) 6] into the highly robust zirconium-porphyrin based metal-organic framework (ZrPF). As photosensitizer ZrPF absorbs the visible light and produces photoexcited electrons that can be transferred through axial covalent bond to di-nuclear complex 1 for hydrogen generation. Additionally, we have studied the photoreduction of CO2 to CH4 using self-doped TiO2 (Ti+3@TiO 2) as photocatalytic materials. The incorporation of Ti3+ into TiO2 structures narrows the band gap, leading to significantly increased photocatalytic activity for the reduction of CO2 into renewable hydrocarbon fuel in the presence of water vapor under visible

  17. Advanced new materials with various applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radu-Claudiu, Fierascu; Rodica-Mariana, Ion; Irina, Dumitriu

    2009-01-01

    Nanotechnology is the manufacture and science of materials with at least one dimension in the nanometer scale [1]. Many nanomaterials have novel chemical and biological properties and most of them are not naturally occurring. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are an example of a carbon-based nanomaterial which has won enormous popularity in nanotechnology for its unique properties and applications [2]. CNTs have highly desirable physicochemical properties for use in commercial, environmental and medical sectors. The inclusion of CNTs to improve the quality and performance of many widely used products, as well as potentially in medicine, will dramatically affect occupational and public exposure to CNT based nanomaterials in the near future [3].

  18. Advanced AE Techniques in Composite Materials Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, William H.

    1996-01-01

    Advanced, waveform based acoustic emission (AE) techniques have been successfully used to evaluate damage mechanisms in laboratory testing of composite coupons. An example is presented in which the initiation of transverse matrix cracking was monitored. In these tests, broad band, high fidelity acoustic sensors were used to detect signals which were then digitized and stored for analysis. Analysis techniques were based on plate mode wave propagation characteristics. This approach, more recently referred to as Modal AE, provides an enhanced capability to discriminate and eliminate noise signals from those generated by damage mechanisms. This technique also allows much more precise source location than conventional, threshold crossing arrival time determination techniques. To apply Modal AE concepts to the interpretation of AE on larger composite specimens or structures, the effects of modal wave propagation over larger distances and through structural complexities must be well characterized and understood. To demonstrate these effects, measurements of the far field, peak amplitude attenuation of the extensional and flexural plate mode components of broad band simulated AE signals in large composite panels are discussed. These measurements demonstrated that the flexural mode attenuation is dominated by dispersion effects. Thus, it is significantly affected by the thickness of the composite plate. Furthermore, the flexural mode attenuation can be significantly larger than that of the extensional mode even though its peak amplitude consists of much lower frequency components.

  19. Initial Cladding Condition

    SciTech Connect

    E. Siegmann

    2000-08-22

    The purpose of this analysis is to describe the condition of commercial Zircaloy clad fuel as it is received at the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) site. Most commercial nuclear fuel is encased in Zircaloy cladding. This analysis is developed to describe cladding degradation from the expected failure modes. This includes reactor operation impacts including incipient failures, potential degradation after reactor operation during spent fuel storage in pool and dry storage and impacts due to transportation. Degradation modes include cladding creep, and delayed hydride cracking during dry storage and transportation. Mechanical stresses from fuel handling and transportation vibrations are also included. This Analysis and Model Report (AMR) does not address any potential damage to assemblies that might occur at the YMP surface facilities. Ranges and uncertainties have been defined. This analysis will be the initial boundary condition for the analysis of cladding degradation inside the repository. In accordance with AP-2.13Q, ''Technical Product Development Planning'', a work plan (CRWMS M&O 2000c) was developed, issued, and utilized in the preparation of this document. There are constraints, caveats and limitations to this analysis. This cladding degradation analysis is based on commercial Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuel with Zircaloy cladding but is applicable to Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) fuel. Reactor operating experience for both PWRs and BWRs is used to establish fuel reliability from reactor operation. It is limited to fuel exposed to normal operation and anticipated operational occurrences (i.e. events which are anticipated to occur within a reactor lifetime), and not to fuel that has been exposed to severe accidents. Fuel burnup projections have been limited to the current commercial reactor licensing environment with restrictions on fuel enrichment, oxide coating thickness and rod plenum pressures. The information provided in this analysis will be used in

  20. Metal clad aramid fibers for aerospace wire and cable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tokarsky, Edward W.; Dunham, Michael G.; Hunt, James E.; Santoleri, E. David; Allen, David B.

    1995-01-01

    High strength light weight metal clad aramid fibers can provide significant weight savings when used to replace conventional metal wire in aerospace cable. An overview of metal clad aramid fiber materials and information on performance and use in braided electrical shielding and signal conductors is provided.

  1. Combustion synthesis of advanced composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, John J.

    1993-01-01

    Self-propagating high temperature (combustion) synthesis (SHS), has been investigated as a means of producing both dense and expanded (foamed) ceramic and ceramic-metal composites, ceramic powders and whiskers. Several model exothermic combustion synthesis reactions were used to establish the importance of certain reaction parameters, e.g., stoichiometry, green density, combustion mode, particle size, etc. on the control of the synthesis reaction, product morphology and properties. The use of an in situ liquid infiltration technique and the effect of varying the reactants and their stoichiometry to provide a range of reactant and product species i.e., solids, liquids and gases, with varying physical properties e.g., volatility and thermal conductivity, on the microstructure and morphology of synthesized composite materials is discussed. Conducting the combustion synthesis reaction in a reactive gas environment to take advantage of the synergistic effects of combustion synthesis and vapor phase transport is also examined.

  2. Characterization of advanced preprocessed materials (Hydrothermal)

    SciTech Connect

    Rachel Emerson; Garold Gresham

    2012-09-01

    The initial hydrothermal treatment parameters did not achieve the proposed objective of this effort; the reduction of intrinsic ash in the corn stover. However, liquid fractions from the 170°C treatments was indicative that some of the elements routinely found in the ash that negatively impact the biochemical conversion processes had been removed. After reviewing other options for facilitating ash removal, sodium-citrate (chelating agent) was included in the hydrothermal treatment process, resulting in a 69% reduction in the physiological ash. These results indicated that chelation –hydrothermal treatment is one possible approach that can be utilized to reduce the overall ash content of feedstock materials and having a positive impact on conversion performance.

  3. Advances in computational studies of energy materials.

    PubMed

    Catlow, C R A; Guo, Z X; Miskufova, M; Shevlin, S A; Smith, A G H; Sokol, A A; Walsh, A; Wilson, D J; Woodley, S M

    2010-07-28

    We review recent developments and applications of computational modelling techniques in the field of materials for energy technologies including hydrogen production and storage, energy storage and conversion, and light absorption and emission. In addition, we present new work on an Sn2TiO4 photocatalyst containing an Sn(II) lone pair, new interatomic potential models for SrTiO3 and GaN, an exploration of defects in the kesterite/stannite-structured solar cell absorber Cu2ZnSnS4, and report details of the incorporation of hydrogen into Ag2O and Cu2O. Special attention is paid to the modelling of nanostructured systems, including ceria (CeO2, mixed Ce(x)O(y) and Ce2O3) and group 13 sesquioxides. We consider applications based on both interatomic potential and electronic structure methodologies; and we illustrate the increasingly quantitative and predictive nature of modelling in this field. PMID:20566517

  4. Materials and light thermal structures research for advanced space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, Earl A.; Starke, Edgar A., Jr.; Herakovich, Carl T.

    1991-01-01

    The Light Thermal Structures Center at the University of Virginia sponsors educational and research programs focused on the development of reliable, lightweight structures to function in hostile thermal environments. Technology advances in materials and design methodology for light thermal structures will contribute to improved space vehicle design concepts with attendant weight savings. This paper highlights current research activities in three areas relevant to space exploration: low density, high temperature aluminum alloys, composite materials, and structures with thermal gradients. Advances in the development of new aluminum-lithium alloys and mechanically alloyed aluminum alloys are described. Material properties and design features of advanced composites are highlighted. Research studies in thermal structures with temperature gradients include inelastic panel buckling and thermally induced unstable oscillations. Current and future research is focused on the integration of new materials with applications to structural components with thermal gradients.

  5. Advanced magneto-optical materials and devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Shaoying

    The magneto-optical materials with both high Faraday rotation and high transmittance capabilities are greatly desired in high speed switches, isolators, and visible imaging systems. In this thesis work, new magneto-optical materials that possess both high Faraday effect and high transmittance in the visible range of the spectrum were studied and synthesized. New Bismuth iron gallium garnet thin-films (Bi3Fe4Ga 1O12, BIGG) have been successfully deposited on gadolinium gallium garnet substrates with a pulsed laser deposition technique in our lab. X-ray diffraction analyses have proven that the BIGG films are of good epitaxial quality with a lattice constant close to 12.61+/-0.01Á. The bandwidth of BIGG's transmittance spectrum has been extended and its left edge has been shifted about 50nm towards the shorter wavelengths relative to those of Bi3Fe5O12 (BIG) films. The BIGG film is more transparent than a BIG film although BIGG's Faraday rotation angle is slightly less than that of a BIG film. The figure of merit of the BIGG garnet film has reached 16.5°, which is about 1.8 times that of a typical BIG film. Currently, the switches using BIGG films were tested and a 2.4 ns response time had been reached with a phi1 mm circular aperture at the wavelength of 532 nm. Iron Borate (FeBO3) is another material that is far superior in terms of the transmittance in the visible spectrum at room temperature to most garnet materials. The FeBO3 is one of the orthoferrites with a large natural birefringence for the light propagated along the magnetization direction. The effect of birefringence on Faraday rotation reduced the maximum obtainable rotation. In order to eliminate the birefringence and further improve the transmittance, a high energy ball-milling technique was used to synthesize FeBO3 nanoparticles. Our numerical simulation shows the nanoparticles could eliminate the birefringence, and concurrently keep the intrinsic Faraday rotation. After milling and centrifuging

  6. Surface chemical deposition of advanced electronic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjelkevig, Cameron

    The focus of this work was to examine the direct plating of Cu on Ru diffusion barriers for use in interconnect technology and the substrate mediated growth of graphene on boron nitride for use in advanced electronic applications. The electrodeposition of Cu on Ru(0001) and polycrystalline substrates (with and without pretreatment in an iodine containing solution) has been studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV), current--time transient measurements (CTT), in situ electrochemical atomic force microscopy (EC-AFM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The EC-AFM data show that at potentials near the OPD/UPD threshold, Cu crystallites exhibit pronounced growth anisotropy, with lateral dimensions greatly exceeding vertical dimensions. XPS measurements confirmed the presence and stability of adsorbed I on the Ru surface following pre-treatment in a KI/H2SO4 solution and following polarization to at least -200 mV vs. Ag/AgCl. CV data of samples pre-reduced in I-containing electrolyte exhibited a narrow Cu deposition peak in the overpotential region and a UPD peak. The kinetics of the electrodeposited Cu films was investigated by CTT measurements and applied to theoretical models of nucleation. The data indicated that a protective I adlayer may be deposited on an airexposed Ru electrode as the oxide surface is electrochemically reduced, and that this layer will inhibit reformation of an oxide during the Cu electroplating process. A novel method for epitaxial graphene growth directly on a dielectric substrate of systematically variable thickness was studied. Mono/multilayers of BN(111) were grown on Ru(0001) by atomic layer deposition (ALD), exhibiting a flat (non-nanomesh) R30(✓3x✓3) structure. BN(111) was used as a template for growth of graphene by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of C2H4 at 1000 K. Characterization by LEED, Auger, STM/STS and Raman indicate the graphene is in registry with the BN substrate, and exhibits a HOPG-like 0 eV bandgap density

  7. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ADVANCED MAGNETIC MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Monica Sorescu

    2004-09-22

    The work described in this grant report was focused mainly on the properties of novel magnetic intermetallics. In the first project, we synthesized several 2:17 intermetallic compounds, namely Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 15}Si{sub 2}, Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 15}Al{sub 2}, Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 15}SiAl and Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 15}SiMn, as well as several 1:12 intermetallic compounds, such as NdFe{sub 10}Si{sub 2}, NdFe{sub 10}Al{sub 2}, NdFe{sub 10}SiAl and NdFe{sub 10}MnAl. In the second project, seven compositions of Nd{sub x}Fe{sub 100-x-y}B{sub y} ribbons were prepared by a melt spinning method with Nd and B content increasing from 7.3 and 3.6 to 11 and 6, respectively. The alloys were annealed under optimized conditions to obtain a composite material consisting of the hard magnetic Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B and soft magnetic {alpha}-Fe phases, typical of a spring magnet structure. In the third project, intermetallic compounds of the type Zr{sub 1}Cr{sub 1}Fe{sub 1}T{sub 0.8} with T = Al, Co and Fe were subjected to hydrogenation. In the fourth project, we performed three crucial experiments. In the first experiment, we subjected a mixture of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and Fe (80-20 wt %) to mechanochemical activation by high-energy ball milling, for time periods ranging from 0.5 to 14 hours. In the second experiment, we ball-milled Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}:Co{sup 2+} (x = 0.1) for time intervals between 2.5 and 17.5 hours. Finally, we exposed a mixture of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and Co (80-20 wt %) to mechanochemical activation for time periods ranging from 0.5 to 10 hours. In all cases, the structural and magnetic properties of the systems involved were elucidated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Moessbauer spectroscopy and hysteresis loop measurements. The four projects resulted in four papers, which were published in Intermetallics, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Journal of Materials Science Letters and Materials Chemistry and Physics. The contributions reveal for the first time in literature the effect of

  8. Fossil Energy Advanced Research and Technology Development Materials Program

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, N.C.; Judkins, R.R.

    1992-12-01

    Objective of this materials program is to conduct R and D on materials for fossil energy applications with focus on longer-term and generic needs of the various fossil fuel technologies. The projects are organized according to materials research areas: (1) ceramics, (2) new alloys: iron aluminides, advanced austenitics and chromium niobium alloys, and (3) technology development and transfer. Separate abstracts have been prepared.

  9. Simulation Toolkit for Renewable Energy Advanced Materials Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Sides, Scott; Kemper, Travis; Larsen, Ross; Graf, Peter

    2013-11-13

    STREAMM is a collection of python classes and scripts that enables and eases the setup of input files and configuration files for simulations of advanced energy materials. The core STREAMM python classes provide a general framework for storing, manipulating and analyzing atomic/molecular coordinates to be used in quantum chemistry and classical molecular dynamics simulations of soft materials systems. The design focuses on enabling the interoperability of materials simulation codes such as GROMACS, LAMMPS and Gaussian.

  10. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program: Annual progress report FY 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    In many ways, the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program underwent a major transformation in Fiscal Year 1995 and these changes have continued to the present. When the Program was established in 1990 as the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Materials Program, the mission was to conduct applied research and development to bring materials and processing technologies from the knowledge derived from basic research to the maturity required for the end use sectors for commercialization. In 1995, the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) made radical changes in structure and procedures. All technology development was directed toward the seven ``Vision Industries`` that use about 80% of industrial energy and generated about 90% of industrial wastes. The mission of AIM has, therefore, changed to ``Support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve productivity, product quality, and energy efficiency in the major process industries.`` Though AIM remains essentially a National Laboratory Program, it is essential that each project have industrial partners, including suppliers to, and customers of, the seven industries. Now, well into FY 1996, the transition is nearly complete and the AIM Program remains reasonably healthy and productive, thanks to the superb investigators and Laboratory Program Managers. This Annual Report for FY 1995 contains the technical details of some very remarkable work by the best materials scientists and engineers in the world. Areas covered here are: advanced metals and composites; advanced ceramics and composites; polymers and biobased materials; and new materials and processes.

  11. Integration of advanced nuclear materials separation processes

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvinen, G.D.; Worl, L.A.; Padilla, D.D.; Berg, J.M.; Neu, M.P.; Reilly, S.D.; Buelow, S.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project has examined the fundamental chemistry of plutonium that affects the integration of hydrothermal technology into nuclear materials processing operations. Chemical reactions in high temperature water allow new avenues for waste treatment and radionuclide separation.Successful implementation of hydrothermal technology offers the potential to effective treat many types of radioactive waste, reduce the storage hazards and disposal costs, and minimize the generation of secondary waste streams. The focus has been on the chemistry of plutonium(VI) in solution with carbonate since these are expected to be important species in the effluent from hydrothermal oxidation of Pu-containing organic wastes. The authors investigated the structure, solubility, and stability of the key plutonium complexes. Installation and testing of flow and batch hydrothermal reactors in the Plutonium Facility was accomplished. Preliminary testing with Pu-contaminated organic solutions gave effluent solutions that readily met discard requirements. A new effort in FY 1998 will build on these promising initial results.

  12. Advances in photonics thermal management and packaging materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweben, Carl

    2008-02-01

    Heat dissipation, thermal stresses, and cost are key packaging design issues for virtually all semiconductors, including photonic applications such as diode lasers, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), solid state lighting, photovoltaics, displays, projectors, detectors, sensors and laser weapons. Heat dissipation and thermal stresses affect performance and reliability. Copper, aluminum and conventional polymeric printed circuit boards (PCBs) have high coefficients of thermal expansion, which can cause high thermal stresses. Most traditional low-coefficient-of-thermal-expansion (CTE) materials like tungsten/copper, which date from the mid 20 th century, have thermal conductivities that are no better than those of aluminum alloys, about 200 W/m-K. There are an increasing number of low-CTE materials with thermal conductivities ranging between that of copper (400 W/m-K) and 1700 W/m-K, and many other new low-CTE materials with lower thermal conductivities. An important benefit of low-CTE materials is that they allow use of hard solders. Some advanced materials are low cost. Others have the potential to be low cost in high-volume production. High-thermal-conductivity materials enable higher power levels, potentially reducing the number of required devices. Advanced thermal materials can constrain PCB CTE and greatly increase thermal conductivity. This paper reviews traditional packaging materials and advanced thermal management materials. The latter provide the packaging engineer with a greater range of options than in the past. Topics include properties, status, applications, cost, using advanced materials to fix manufacturing problems, and future directions, including composites reinforced with carbon nanotubes and other thermally conductive materials.

  13. Sodium fast reactor evaluation: Core materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheon, Jin Sik; Lee, Chan Bock; Lee, Byoung Oon; Raison, J. P.; Mizuno, T.; Delage, F.; Carmack, J.

    2009-07-01

    In the framework of the Generation IV Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) Program the Advanced Fuel Project has conducted an evaluation of the available fuel systems supporting future sodium cooled fast reactors. In this paper the status of available and developmental materials for SFR core cladding and duct applications is reviewed. To satisfy the Generation IV SFR fuel requirements, an advanced cladding needs to be developed. The candidate cladding materials are austenitic steels, ferritic/martensitic (F/M) steels, and oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels. A large amount of irradiation testing is required, and the compatibility of cladding with TRU-loaded fuel at high temperatures and high burnup must be investigated. The more promising F/M steels (compared to HT9) might be able to meet the dose requirements of over 200 dpa for ducts in the GEN-IV SFR systems.

  14. Deformation and Damage Studies for Advanced Structural Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Advancements made in understanding deformation and damage of advanced structural materials have enabled the development of new technologies including the attainment of a nationally significant NASA Level 1 Milestone and the provision of expertise to the Shuttle Return to Flight effort. During this collaborative agreement multiple theoretical and experimental research programs, facilitating safe durable high temperature structures using advanced materials, have been conceived, planned, executed. Over 26 publications, independent assessments of structures and materials in hostile environments, were published within this agreement. This attainment has been recognized by 2002 Space Flight Awareness Team Award, 2004 NASA Group Achievement Award and 2003 and 2004 OAI Service Awards. Accomplishments in the individual research efforts are described as follows.

  15. Mechanistic Studies of Combustion and Structure Formation During Synthesis of Advanced Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varma, A.; Lau, C.; Mukasyan, A. S.

    2001-01-01

    Combustion in a variety of heterogeneous systems, leading to the synthesis of advanced materials, is characterized by high temperatures (2000-3500 K) and heating rates (up to 10(exp 6) K/s) at and ahead of the reaction front. These high temperatures generate liquids and gases which are subject to gravity-driven flow. The removal of such gravitational effects is likely to provide increased control of the reaction front, with a consequent improvement in control of the microstructure of the synthesized products. Thus, microgravity (mu-g) experiments lead to major advances in the understanding of fundamental aspects of combustion and structure formation under the extreme conditions of the combustion synthesis (CS) wave. In addition, the specific features of microgravity environment allow one to produce unique materials, which cannot be obtained under terrestrial conditions. The current research is a logic continuation of our previous work on investigations of the fundamental phenomena of combustion and structure formation that occur at the high temperatures achieved in a CS wave. Our research is being conducted in three main directions: 1) Microstructural Transformations during Combustion Synthesis of Metal-Ceramic Composites. The studies are devoted to the investigation of particle growth during CS of intermetallic-ceramic composites, synthesized from nickel, aluminum, titanium, and boron metal reactants. To determine the mechanisms of particle growth, the investigation varies the relative amount of components in the initial mixture to yield combustion wave products with different ratios of solid and liquid phases, under 1g and mu-g conditions; 2) Mechanisms of Heat Transfer during Reactions in Heterogeneous Media. Specifically, new phenomena of gasless combustion wave propagation in heterogeneous media with porosity higher than that achievable in normal gravity conditions, are being studied. Two types of mixtures are investigated: clad powders, where contact between

  16. SiC-CMC-Zircaloy-4 Nuclear Fuel Cladding Performance during 4-Point Tubular Bend Testing

    SciTech Connect

    IJ van Rooyen; WR Lloyd; TL Trowbridge; SR Novascone; KM Wendt; SM Bragg-Sitton

    2013-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE NE) established the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program to develop technologies and other solutions to improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of current reactors. The Advanced LWR Nuclear Fuel Development Pathway in the LWRS program encompasses strategic research focused on improving reactor core economics and safety margins through the development of an advanced fuel cladding system. Recent investigations of potential options for “accident tolerant” nuclear fuel systems point to the potential benefits of silicon carbide (SiC) cladding. One of the proposed SiC-based fuel cladding designs being investigated incorporates a SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) as a structural material supplementing an internal Zircaloy-4 (Zr-4) liner tube, referred to as the hybrid clad design. Characterization of the advanced cladding designs will include a number of out-of-pile (nonnuclear) tests, followed by in-pile irradiation testing of the most promising designs. One of the out-of-pile characterization tests provides measurement of the mechanical properties of the cladding tube using four point bend testing. Although the material properties of the different subsystems (materials) will be determined separately, in this paper we present results of 4-point bending tests performed on fully assembled hybrid cladding tube mock-ups, an assembled Zr-4 cladding tube mock-up as a standard and initial testing results on bare SiC-CMC sleeves to assist in defining design parameters. The hybrid mock-up samples incorporated SiC-CMC sleeves fabricated with 7 polymer impregnation and pyrolysis (PIP) cycles. To provide comparative information; both 1- and 2-ply braided SiC-CMC sleeves were used in this development study. Preliminary stress simulations were performed using the BISON nuclear fuel performance code to show the stress distribution differences for varying lengths between loading points

  17. Materials technology for an advanced space power nuclear reactor concept: Program summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gluyas, R. E.; Watson, G. K.

    1975-01-01

    The results of a materials technology program for a long-life (50,000 hr), high-temperature (950 C coolant outlet), lithium-cooled, nuclear space power reactor concept are reviewed and discussed. Fabrication methods and compatibility and property data were developed for candidate materials for fuel pins and, to a lesser extent, for potential control systems, reflectors, reactor vessel and piping, and other reactor structural materials. The effects of selected materials variables on fuel pin irradiation performance were determined. The most promising materials for fuel pins were found to be 85 percent dense uranium mononitride (UN) fuel clad with tungsten-lined T-111 (Ta-8W-2Hf).

  18. The advances and characteristics of high-power diode laser materials processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lin

    2000-10-01

    This paper presents a review of the direct applications of high-power diode lasers for materials processing including soldering, surface modification (hardening, cladding, glazing and wetting modifications), welding, scribing, sheet metal bending, marking, engraving, paint stripping, powder sintering, synthesis, brazing and machining. The specific advantages and disadvantages of diode laser materials processing are compared with CO 2, Nd:YAG and excimer lasers. An effort is made to identify the fundamental differences in their beam/material interaction characteristics and materials behaviour. Also an appraisal of the future prospects of the high-power diode lasers for materials processing is given.

  19. Soft computing in design and manufacturing of advanced materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cios, Krzysztof J.; Baaklini, George Y; Vary, Alex

    1993-01-01

    The potential of fuzzy sets and neural networks, often referred to as soft computing, for aiding in all aspects of manufacturing of advanced materials like ceramics is addressed. In design and manufacturing of advanced materials, it is desirable to find which of the many processing variables contribute most to the desired properties of the material. There is also interest in real time quality control of parameters that govern material properties during processing stages. The concepts of fuzzy sets and neural networks are briefly introduced and it is shown how they can be used in the design and manufacturing processes. These two computational methods are alternatives to other methods such as the Taguchi method. The two methods are demonstrated by using data collected at NASA Lewis Research Center. Future research directions are also discussed.

  20. Progress in advanced high temperature turbine materials, coatings, and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freche, J. C.; Ault, G. M.

    1978-01-01

    Advanced materials, coatings, and cooling technology is assessed in terms of improved aircraft turbine engine performance. High cycle operating temperatures, lighter structural components, and adequate resistance to the various environmental factors associated with aircraft gas turbine engines are among the factors considered. Emphasis is placed on progress in development of high temperature materials for coating protection against oxidation, hot corrosion and erosion, and in turbine cooling technology. Specific topics discussed include metal matrix composites, superalloys, directionally solidified eutectics, and ceramics.

  1. Cladding embrittlement during postulated loss-of-coolant accidents.

    SciTech Connect

    Billone, M.; Yan, Y.; Burtseva, T.; Daum, R.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2008-07-31

    The effect of fuel burnup on the embrittlement of various cladding alloys was examined with laboratory tests conducted under conditions relevant to loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs). The cladding materials tested were Zircaloy-4, Zircaloy-2, ZIRLO, M5, and E110. Tests were performed with specimens sectioned from as-fabricated cladding, from prehydrided (surrogate for high-burnup) cladding, and from high-burnup fuel rods which had been irradiated in commercial reactors. The tests were designed to determine for each cladding material the ductile-to-brittle transition as a function of steam oxidation temperature, weight gain due to oxidation, hydrogen content, pre-transient cladding thickness, and pre-transient corrosion-layer thickness. For short, defueled cladding specimens oxidized at 1000-1200 C, ring compression tests were performed to determine post-quench ductility at {le} 135 C. The effect of breakaway oxidation on embrittlement was also examined for short specimens oxidized at 800-1000 C. Among other findings, embrittlement was found to be sensitive to fabrication processes--especially surface finish--but insensitive to alloy constituents for these dilute zirconium alloys used as cladding materials. It was also demonstrated that burnup effects on embrittlement are largely due to hydrogen that is absorbed in the cladding during normal operation. Some tests were also performed with longer, fueled-and-pressurized cladding segments subjected to LOCA-relevant heating and cooling rates. Recommendations are given for types of tests that would identify LOCA conditions under which embrittlement would occur.

  2. ADVANCED HOT SECTION MATERIALS AND COATINGS TEST RIG

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Reome; Dan Davies

    2004-04-30

    The Hyperbaric Advanced Hot Section Materials & Coating Test Rig program provides design and implementation of a laboratory rig capable of simulating the hot gas path conditions of coal-gas fired industrial gas turbine engines. The principal activity during this reporting period were the evaluation of syngas combustor concepts, the evaluation of test section concepts and the selection of the preferred rig configuration.

  3. Advanced Hot Section Materials and Coatings Test Rig

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Davies

    2004-10-30

    The Hyperbaric Advanced Hot Section Materials & Coating Test Rig program provides design and implementation of a laboratory rig capable of simulating the hot gas path conditions of coal-gas fired industrial gas turbine engines. The principal activities during this reporting period were the continuation of test section detail design and developing specifications for auxiliary systems and facilities.

  4. Advanced materials: Looking ahead to the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Michelove, L.D.; Caruso, R.P.; Adams, P.; Fossey, W.H. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the following papers: Ballistic energy absorption of composites; Design trade-off for ceramic/composite armor materials; Impact damage tolerance testing of bonded sandwich panels; Non-destructive evaluation of advanced composites using high resolution computed tomography.

  5. Modelling of advanced structural materials for GEN IV reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samaras, M.; Hoffelner, W.; Victoria, M.

    2007-09-01

    The choice of suitable materials and the assessment of long-term materials damage are key issues that need to be addressed for the safe and reliable performance of nuclear power plants. Operating conditions such as high temperatures, irradiation and a corrosive environment degrade materials properties, posing the risk of very expensive or even catastrophic plant damage. Materials scientists are faced with the scientific challenge to determine the long-term damage evolution of materials under service exposure in advanced plants. A higher confidence in life-time assessments of these materials requires an understanding of the related physical phenomena on a range of scales from the microscopic level of single defect damage effects all the way up to macroscopic effects. To overcome lengthy and expensive trial-and-error experiments, the multiscale modelling of materials behaviour is a promising tool, bringing new insights into the fundamental understanding of basic mechanisms. This paper presents the multiscale modelling methodology which is taking root internationally to address the issues of advanced structural materials for Gen IV reactors.

  6. Interfacial Materials for Organic Solar Cells: Recent Advances and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Zhigang; Wei, Jiajun

    2016-01-01

    Organic solar cells (OSCs) have shown great promise as low‐cost photovoltaic devices for solar energy conversion over the past decade. Interfacial engineering provides a powerful strategy to enhance efficiency and stability of OSCs. With the rapid advances of interface layer materials and active layer materials, power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of both single‐junction and tandem OSCs have exceeded a landmark value of 10%. This review summarizes the latest advances in interfacial layers for single‐junction and tandem OSCs. Electron or hole transporting materials, including metal oxides, polymers/small‐molecules, metals and metal salts/complexes, carbon‐based materials, organic‐inorganic hybrids/composites, and other emerging materials, are systemically presented as cathode and anode interface layers for high performance OSCs. Meanwhile, incorporating these electron‐transporting and hole‐transporting layer materials as building blocks, a variety of interconnecting layers for conventional or inverted tandem OSCs are comprehensively discussed, along with their functions to bridge the difference between adjacent subcells. By analyzing the structure–property relationships of various interfacial materials, the important design rules for such materials towards high efficiency and stable OSCs are highlighted. Finally, we present a brief summary as well as some perspectives to help researchers understand the current challenges and opportunities in this emerging area of research. PMID:27812480

  7. Materials/manufacturing element of the Advanced Turbine Systems Program

    SciTech Connect

    Karnitz, M.A.; Holcomb, R.S.; Wright, I.G.

    1995-10-01

    The technology based portion of the Advanced Turbine Systems Program (ATS) contains several subelements which address generic technology issues for land-based gas-turbine systems. One subelement is the Materials/Manufacturing Technology Program which is coordinated by DOE-Oak Ridge Operations and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The work in this subelement is being performed predominantly by industry with assistance from universities and the national laboratories. Projects in this subelement are aimed toward hastening the incorporation of new materials and components in gas turbines. A materials/manufacturing plan was developed in FY 1994 with input from gas turbine manufacturers, materials suppliers, universities, and government laboratories. The plan outlines seven major subelements which focus on materials issues and manufacturing processes. Work is currently under way in four of the seven major subelements. There are now major projects on coatings and process development, scale-up of single crystal airfoil manufacturing technology, materials characterization, and technology information exchange.

  8. Advanced Packaging Materials and Techniques for High Power TR Module: Standard Flight vs. Advanced Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, James Patrick; Del Castillo, Linda; Miller, Jennifer; Jenabi, Masud; Hunter, Donald; Birur, Gajanana

    2011-01-01

    The higher output power densities required of modern radar architectures, such as the proposed DESDynI [Deformation, Ecosystem Structure, and Dynamics of Ice] SAR [Synthetic Aperture Radar] Instrument (or DSI) require increasingly dense high power electronics. To enable these higher power densities, while maintaining or even improving hardware reliability, requires advances in integrating advanced thermal packaging technologies into radar transmit/receive (TR) modules. New materials and techniques have been studied and compared to standard technologies.

  9. EPRI fuel cladding integrity program

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, R.

    1997-01-01

    The objectives of the EPRI fuel program is to supplement the fuel vendor research to assure that utility economic and operational interests are met. To accomplish such objectives, EPRI has conducted research and development efforts to (1) reduce fuel failure rates and mitigate the impact of fuel failures on plant operation, (2) provide technology to extend burnup and reduce fuel cycle cost. The scope of R&D includes fuel and cladding. In this paper, only R&D related to cladding integrity will be covered. Specific areas aimed at improving fuel cladding integrity include: (1) Fuel Reliability Data Base; (2) Operational Guidance for Defective Fuel; (3) Impact of Water Chemistry on Cladding Integrity; (4) Cladding Corrosion Data and Model; (5) Cladding Mechanical Properties; and (6) Transient Fuel Cladding Response.

  10. Advanced Propulsion Research Interest in Materials for Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, John

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of material science and technology in the area of propulsion energetics. The authors note that conventional propulsion systems are near peak performance and further refinements in manufacturing, engineering design and materials will only provide incremental increases in performance. Energetic propulsion technologies could potential solve the problems of energy storage density and energy-to-thrust conversion efficiency. Topics considered include: the limits of thermal propulsion systems, the need for energetic propulsion research, emerging energetic propulsion technologies, materials research needed for advanced propulsion, and potential research opportunities.

  11. Bridging Microstructure, Properties and Processing of Polymer Based Advanced Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Dongsheng; Ahzi, Said; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2012-01-01

    This is a guest editorial for a special issue in Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology. The papers collected in this special issue emphasize significant challenges, current approaches and future strategies necessary to advance the development of polymer-based materials. They were partly presented at the symposium of 'Bridging microstructure, properties and processing of polymer based advanced materials' in the TMS 2011 annual conference meeting, which was held in San Diego, US, on Feb 28 to March 3, 2011. This symposium was organized by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (USA) and the Institute of Mechanics of Fluids and Solids of the University of Strasbourg (France). The organizers were D.S. Li, S. Ahzi, and M. Khaleel.

  12. Elevated Temperature Testing and Modeling of Advanced Toughened Ceramic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, Theo G.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a final report for the period of 12/1/03 through 11/30/04 for NASA Cooperative Agreement NCC3-776, entitled "Elevated Temperature Testing and Modeling of Advanced Toughened Ceramic Materials." During this final period, major efforts were focused on both the determination of mechanical properties of advanced ceramic materials and the development of mechanical test methodologies under several different programs of the NASA-Glenn. The important research activities made during this period are: 1. Mechanical properties evaluation of two gas-turbine grade silicon nitrides. 2) Mechanical testing for fuel-cell seal materials. 3) Mechanical properties evaluation of thermal barrier coatings and CFCCs and 4) Foreign object damage (FOD) testing.

  13. Advanced ceramic materials for next-generation nuclear applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marra, John

    2011-10-01

    The nuclear industry is at the eye of a 'perfect storm' with fuel oil and natural gas prices near record highs, worldwide energy demands increasing at an alarming rate, and increased concerns about greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that have caused many to look negatively at long-term use of fossil fuels. This convergence of factors has led to a growing interest in revitalization of the nuclear power industry within the United States and across the globe. Many are surprised to learn that nuclear power provides approximately 20% of the electrical power in the US and approximately 16% of the world-wide electric power. With the above factors in mind, world-wide over 130 new reactor projects are being considered with approximately 25 new permit applications in the US. Materials have long played a very important role in the nuclear industry with applications throughout the entire fuel cycle; from fuel fabrication to waste stabilization. As the international community begins to look at advanced reactor systems and fuel cycles that minimize waste and increase proliferation resistance, materials will play an even larger role. Many of the advanced reactor concepts being evaluated operate at high-temperature requiring the use of durable, heat-resistant materials. Advanced metallic and ceramic fuels are being investigated for a variety of Generation IV reactor concepts. These include the traditional TRISO-coated particles, advanced alloy fuels for 'deep-burn' applications, as well as advanced inert-matrix fuels. In order to minimize wastes and legacy materials, a number of fuel reprocessing operations are being investigated. Advanced materials continue to provide a vital contribution in 'closing the fuel cycle' by stabilization of associated low-level and high-level wastes in highly durable cements, ceramics, and glasses. Beyond this fission energy application, fusion energy will demand advanced materials capable of withstanding the extreme environments of high

  14. Recent Advances in Two-Dimensional Materials Beyond Graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Meunier, Vincent; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Terrones Maldonado, Mauricio; Terrones Maldonado, Humberto; Liang, Liangbo; Cooper, Valentino R.; Bhimanapati, Ganesh; Lin, Zhong; Jung, Yeongwoong; Cha, Judy; Das, Saptarshi; Xiao, Di; Son, Youngwoo; Strano, Michael; Louie, Steven G.; Ringe, Emilie; Xia, Fengnian; Wang, Yeliang; Akinwande, Deji; Zhu, Jun; Schuller, John; Schaak, Raymond; Robinson, Joshua A

    2015-11-06

    The isolation of graphene in 2004 by peeling apart the atomically-thin sheets that comprise graphite was a defining moment for the birth of a field: Two-dimensional (2D) materials. In recent years, there has been a rapidly increasing number of papers focusing on non-graphene layered materials, including transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), because of the new properties and applications that emerge upon 2D confinement. Here we review significant recent advances and important new developments in 2D materials beyond graphene . We provide insight into the theoretical modeling and understanding of the van der Waals forces that hold together the 2D layers in bulk solids, as well as their excitonic properties and growth morphologies. Additionally, we highlight recent breakthroughs in TMD synthesis and characterization and discuss the newest families of 2D materials, including monoelement 2D materials (i.e., silicene, phosphorene, etc.) and transition metal carbide- and carbon nitride-based MXenes. We then discuss the doping and functionalization of 2D materials beyond graphene, which enable device applications, followed by advances in electronic, optoelectronic, and magnetic devices and theory. Finally, we provide perspectives on the future of 2D materials beyond graphene.

  15. Recent Advances in Two-Dimensional Materials beyond Graphene.

    PubMed

    Bhimanapati, Ganesh R; Lin, Zhong; Meunier, Vincent; Jung, Yeonwoong; Cha, Judy; Das, Saptarshi; Xiao, Di; Son, Youngwoo; Strano, Michael S; Cooper, Valentino R; Liang, Liangbo; Louie, Steven G; Ringe, Emilie; Zhou, Wu; Kim, Steve S; Naik, Rajesh R; Sumpter, Bobby G; Terrones, Humberto; Xia, Fengnian; Wang, Yeliang; Zhu, Jun; Akinwande, Deji; Alem, Nasim; Schuller, Jon A; Schaak, Raymond E; Terrones, Mauricio; Robinson, Joshua A

    2015-12-22

    The isolation of graphene in 2004 from graphite was a defining moment for the "birth" of a field: two-dimensional (2D) materials. In recent years, there has been a rapidly increasing number of papers focusing on non-graphene layered materials, including transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), because of the new properties and applications that emerge upon 2D confinement. Here, we review significant recent advances and important new developments in 2D materials "beyond graphene". We provide insight into the theoretical modeling and understanding of the van der Waals (vdW) forces that hold together the 2D layers in bulk solids, as well as their excitonic properties and growth morphologies. Additionally, we highlight recent breakthroughs in TMD synthesis and characterization and discuss the newest families of 2D materials, including monoelement 2D materials (i.e., silicene, phosphorene, etc.) and transition metal carbide- and carbon nitride-based MXenes. We then discuss the doping and functionalization of 2D materials beyond graphene that enable device applications, followed by advances in electronic, optoelectronic, and magnetic devices and theory. Finally, we provide perspectives on the future of 2D materials beyond graphene. PMID:26544756

  16. Recent Advances in Two-Dimensional Materials beyond Graphene.

    PubMed

    Bhimanapati, Ganesh R; Lin, Zhong; Meunier, Vincent; Jung, Yeonwoong; Cha, Judy; Das, Saptarshi; Xiao, Di; Son, Youngwoo; Strano, Michael S; Cooper, Valentino R; Liang, Liangbo; Louie, Steven G; Ringe, Emilie; Zhou, Wu; Kim, Steve S; Naik, Rajesh R; Sumpter, Bobby G; Terrones, Humberto; Xia, Fengnian; Wang, Yeliang; Zhu, Jun; Akinwande, Deji; Alem, Nasim; Schuller, Jon A; Schaak, Raymond E; Terrones, Mauricio; Robinson, Joshua A

    2015-12-22

    The isolation of graphene in 2004 from graphite was a defining moment for the "birth" of a field: two-dimensional (2D) materials. In recent years, there has been a rapidly increasing number of papers focusing on non-graphene layered materials, including transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), because of the new properties and applications that emerge upon 2D confinement. Here, we review significant recent advances and important new developments in 2D materials "beyond graphene". We provide insight into the theoretical modeling and understanding of the van der Waals (vdW) forces that hold together the 2D layers in bulk solids, as well as their excitonic properties and growth morphologies. Additionally, we highlight recent breakthroughs in TMD synthesis and characterization and discuss the newest families of 2D materials, including monoelement 2D materials (i.e., silicene, phosphorene, etc.) and transition metal carbide- and carbon nitride-based MXenes. We then discuss the doping and functionalization of 2D materials beyond graphene that enable device applications, followed by advances in electronic, optoelectronic, and magnetic devices and theory. Finally, we provide perspectives on the future of 2D materials beyond graphene.

  17. Recent Advances in Two-Dimensional Materials Beyond Graphene

    DOE PAGES

    Meunier, Vincent; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Terrones Maldonado, Mauricio; Terrones Maldonado, Humberto; Liang, Liangbo; Cooper, Valentino R.; Bhimanapati, Ganesh; Lin, Zhong; Jung, Yeongwoong; Cha, Judy; et al

    2015-11-06

    The isolation of graphene in 2004 by peeling apart the atomically-thin sheets that comprise graphite was a defining moment for the birth of a field: Two-dimensional (2D) materials. In recent years, there has been a rapidly increasing number of papers focusing on non-graphene layered materials, including transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), because of the new properties and applications that emerge upon 2D confinement. Here we review significant recent advances and important new developments in 2D materials beyond graphene . We provide insight into the theoretical modeling and understanding of the van der Waals forces that hold together the 2D layers in bulkmore » solids, as well as their excitonic properties and growth morphologies. Additionally, we highlight recent breakthroughs in TMD synthesis and characterization and discuss the newest families of 2D materials, including monoelement 2D materials (i.e., silicene, phosphorene, etc.) and transition metal carbide- and carbon nitride-based MXenes. We then discuss the doping and functionalization of 2D materials beyond graphene, which enable device applications, followed by advances in electronic, optoelectronic, and magnetic devices and theory. Finally, we provide perspectives on the future of 2D materials beyond graphene.« less

  18. PREFACE: 7th EEIGM International Conference on Advanced Materials Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joffe, Roberts

    2013-12-01

    The 7th EEIGM Conference on Advanced Materials Research (AMR 2013) was held at Luleå University of Technology on the 21-22 March 2013 in Luleå, SWEDEN. This conference is intended as a meeting place for researchers involved in the EEIGM programme, in the 'Erasmus Mundus' Advanced Materials Science and Engineering Master programme (AMASE) and the 'Erasmus Mundus' Doctoral Programme in Materials Science and Engineering (DocMASE). This is great opportunity to present their on-going research in the various fields of Materials Science and Engineering, exchange ideas, strengthen co-operation as well as establish new contacts. More than 60 participants representing six countries attended the meeting, in total 26 oral talks and 19 posters were presented during two days. This issue of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering presents a selection of articles from EEIGM-7 conference. Following tradition from previous EEIGM conferences, it represents the interdisciplinary nature of Materials Science and Engineering. The papers presented in this issue deal not only with basic research but also with applied problems of materials science. The presented topics include theoretical and experimental investigations on polymer composite materials (synthetic and bio-based), metallic materials and ceramics, as well as nano-materials of different kind. Special thanks should be directed to the senior staff of Division of Materials Science at LTU who agreed to review submitted papers and thus ensured high scientific level of content of this collection of papers. The following colleagues participated in the review process: Professor Lennart Walström, Professor Roberts Joffe, Professor Janis Varna, Associate Professor Marta-Lena Antti, Dr Esa Vuorinen, Professor Aji Mathew, Professor Alexander Soldatov, Dr Andrejs Purpurs, Dr Yvonne Aitomäki, Dr Robert Pederson. Roberts Joffe October 2013, Luleå Conference photograph EEIGM7 conference participants, 22 March 2013 The PDF

  19. Institute for Advanced Materials at University of Louisville

    SciTech Connect

    Sunkara, Mahendra; Sumaneskara, Gamini; Starr, Thomas L; Willing, G A; Robert W, Cohn

    2009-10-29

    In this project, a university-wide, academic center has been established entitled Institute for Advanced Materials and Renewable Energy. In this institute, a comprehensive materials characterization facility has been established by co-locating several existing characterization equipment and acquiring several state of the art instrumentation such as field emission transmission electron microscope, scanning electron microscope, high resolution X-ray diffractometer, Particle Size Distribution/Zeta Potential measurement system, and Ultra-microtome for TEM specimen. In addition, a renewable energy conversion and storage research facility was also established by acquiring instrumentation such as UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, Atomic Layer Deposition reactor, Solar light simulator, oxygen-free glove box, potentiostat/galvanostats and other miscellaneous items. The institute is staffed with three full-time staff members (one senior research technologist, a senior PhD level research scientist and a junior research scientist) to enable proper use of the techniques. About thirty faculty, fifty graduate students and several researchers access the facilities on a routine basis. Several industry R&D organizations (SudChemie, Optical Dynamics and Hexion) utilize the facility. The established Institute for Advanced Materials at UofL has three main objectives: (a) enable a focused research effort leading to the rapid discovery of new materials and processes for advancing alternate energy conversion and storage technologies; (b) enable offering of several laboratory courses on advanced materials science and engineering; and (c) develop university-industry partnerships based on the advanced materials research. The Institute's efforts were guided by an advisory board comprising eminent researchers from outside KY. Initial research efforts were focused on the discovery of new materials and processes for solar cells and Li ion battery electrodes. Initial sets of results helped PIs to

  20. Advanced High-Temperature Engine Materials Technology Progresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The objective of the Advanced High Temperature Engine Materials Technology Program (HITEMP) is to generate technology for advanced materials and structural analysis that will increase fuel economy, improve reliability, extend life, and reduce operating costs for 21st century civil propulsion systems. The primary focus is on fan and compressor materials (polymer-matrix composites--PMC's), compressor and turbine materials (superalloys, and metal-matrix and intermetallic-matrix composites--MMC's and IMC's) and turbine materials (ceramic-matrix composites--CMC's). These advanced materials are being developed by in-house researchers and on grants and contracts. NASA considers this program to be a focused materials and structures research effort that builds on our base research programs and supports component-development projects. HITEMP is coordinated with the Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Program and the Department of Defense/NASA Integrated High-Performance Turbine Engine Technology (IHPTET) Program. Advanced materials and structures technologies from HITEMP may be used in these future applications. Recent technical accomplishments have not only improved the state-of-the-art but have wideranging applications to industry. A high-temperature thin-film strain gage was developed to measure both dynamic and static strain up to 1100 C (2000 F). The gage's unique feature is that it is minimally intrusive. This technology, which received a 1995 R&D 100 Award, has been transferred to AlliedSignal Engines, General Electric Company, and Ford Motor Company. Analytical models developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center were used to study Textron Specialty Materials' manufacturing process for titanium-matrix composite rings. Implementation of our recommendations on tooling and processing conditions resulted in the production of defect free rings. In the Lincoln Composites/AlliedSignal/Lewis cooperative program, a composite compressor case is being manufactured with a Lewis

  1. Materials and Component Development for Advanced Turbine Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Alvin, M.A.; Pettit, F.; Meier, G.; Yanar, N.; Chyu, M.; Mazzotta, D.; Slaughter, W.; Karaivanov, V.; Kang, B.; Feng, C.; Chen, R.; Fu, T-C.

    2008-10-01

    In order to meet the 2010-2020 DOE Fossil Energy goals for Advanced Power Systems, future oxy-fuel and hydrogen-fired turbines will need to be operated at higher temperatures for extended periods of time, in environments that contain substantially higher moisture concentrations in comparison to current commercial natural gas-fired turbines. Development of modified or advanced material systems, combined with aerothermal concepts are currently being addressed in order to achieve successful operation of these land-based engines. To support the advanced turbine technology development, the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has initiated a research program effort in collaboration with the University of Pittsburgh (UPitt), and West Virginia University (WVU), working in conjunction with commercial material and coating suppliers as Howmet International and Coatings for Industry (CFI), and test facilities as Westinghouse Plasma Corporation (WPC) and Praxair, to develop advanced material and aerothermal technologies for use in future oxy-fuel and hydrogen-fired turbine applications. Our program efforts and recent results are presented.

  2. PREFACE: 6th EEIGM International Conference on Advanced Materials Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horwat, David; Ayadi, Zoubir; Jamart, Brigitte

    2012-02-01

    The 6th EEIGM Conference on Advanced Materials Research (AMR 2011) was held at the European School of Materials Engineering (EEIGM) on the 7-8 November 2011 in Nancy, France. This biennial conference organized by the EEIGM is a wonderful opportunity for all scientists involved in the EEIGM programme, in the 'Erasmus Mundus' Advanced Materials Science and Engineering Master programme (AMASE) and the 'Erasmus Mundus' Doctoral Programme in Materials Science and Engineering (DocMASE), to present their research in the various fields of Materials Science and Engineering. This conference is also open to other universities who have strong links with the EEIGM and provides a forum for the exchange of ideas, co-operation and future orientations by means of regular presentations, posters and a round-table discussion. This edition of the conference included a round-table discussion on composite materials within the Interreg IVA project '+Composite'. Following the publication of the proceedings of AMR 2009 in Volume 5 of this journal, it is with great pleasure that we present this selection of articles to the readers of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. Once again it represents the interdisciplinary nature of Materials Science and Engineering, covering basic and applicative research on organic and composite materials, metallic materials and ceramics, and characterization methods. The editors are indebted to all the reviewers for reviewing the papers at very short notice. Special thanks are offered to the sponsors of the conference including EEIGM-Université de Lorraine, AMASE, DocMASE, Grand Nancy, Ville de Nancy, Region Lorraine, Fédération Jacques Villermaux, Conseil Général de Meurthe et Moselle, Casden and '+Composite'. Zoubir Ayadi, David Horwat and Brigitte Jamart

  3. Advanced Electrical Materials and Components Development: An Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarze, Gene E.

    2005-01-01

    The primary means to develop advanced electrical components is to develop new and improved materials for magnetic components (transformers, inductors, etc.), capacitors, and semiconductor switches and diodes. This paper will give an update of the Advanced Power Electronics and Components Technology being developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center for use in future Power Management and Distribution subsystems used in space power systems for spacecraft and lunar and planetary surface power. The initial description and status of this technology program was presented two years ago at the First International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference held at Portsmouth, Virginia, August 2003. The present paper will give a brief background of the previous work reported and a summary of research performed the past several years on soft magnetic materials characterization, dielectric materials and capacitor developments, high quality silicon carbide atomically smooth substrates, and SiC static and dynamic device characterization under elevated temperature conditions. The rationale for and the benefits of developing advanced electrical materials and components for the PMAD subsystem and also for the total power system will also be briefly discussed.

  4. Advanced textile materials and biopolymers in wound management.

    PubMed

    Petrulyte, Salvinija

    2008-02-01

    New generation medical textiles are an important growing field with great expansion in wound management products. Virtually new products are coming but also well known materials with significantly improved properties using advanced technologies and new methods are in the centre of research which are highly technical, technological, functional, and effective oriented. The key qualities of fibres and dressings as wound care products include that they are bacteriostatic, anti-viral, fungistatic, non-toxic, high absorbent, non-allergic, breathable, haemostatic, biocompatible, and manipulatable to incorporate medications, also provide reasonable mechanical properties. Many advantages over traditional materials have products modified or blended with also based on alginate, chitin/chitosan, collagen, branan ferulate, carbon fibres. Textile structures used for modern wound dressings are of large variety: sliver, yarn, woven, non-woven, knitted, crochet, braided, embroidered, composite materials. Wound care also applies to materials like hydrogels, matrix (tissue engineering), films, hydrocolloids, foams. Specialized additives with special functions can be introduced in advanced wound dressings with the aim to absorb odours, provide strong antibacterial properties, smooth pain and relieve irritation. Because of unique properties as high surface area to volume ratio, film thinness, nano scale fibre diameter, porosity, light weight, nanofibres are used in wound care. The aim of this study is to outline and review the latest developments and advance in medical textiles and biopolymers for wound management providing the overview with generalized scope about novelties in products and properties.

  5. Improved LWR Cladding Performance by EPD Surface Modification Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Corradini, Michael; Sridharan, Kumar

    2012-11-26

    This project will utilize the electro-phoretic deposition technique (EPD) in conjunction with nanofluids to deposit oxide coatings on prototypic zirconium alloy cladding surfaces. After demonstrating that this surface modification is reproducible and robust, the team will subject the modified surface to boiling and corrosion tests to characterize the improved nucleate boiling behavior and superior corrosion performance. The scope of work consists of the following three tasks: The first task will employ the EPD surface modification technique to coat the surface of a prototypic set of zirconium alloy cladding tube materials (e.g. Zircaloy and advanced alloys such as M5) with a micron-thick layer of zirconium oxide nanoparticles. The team will characterize the modified surface for uniformity using optical microscopy and scanning-electron microscopy, and for robustness using standard hardness measurements. After zirconium alloy cladding samples have been prepared and characterized using the EPD technique, the team will begin a set of boiling experiments to measure the heat transfer coefficient and critical heat flux (CHF) limit for each prepared sample and its control sample. This work will provide a relative comparison of the heat transfer performance for each alloy and the surface modification technique employed. As the boiling heat transfer experiments begin, the team will also begin corrosion tests for these zirconium alloy samples using a water corrosion test loop that can mimic light water reactor (LWR) operational environments. They will perform extended corrosion tests on the surface-modified zirconium alloy samples and control samples to examine the robustness of the modified surface, as well as the effect on surface oxidation

  6. Polymers as advanced materials for desiccant applications, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Czanderna, A.W.; Neidlinger, H.H.

    1990-09-01

    This report documents work to identify a next-generation, low-cost material with which solar energy or heat from another low-cost energy source can be used for regenerating the water vapor sorption activity of the desiccant. The objective of the work is to determine how the desired sorption performance of advanced desiccant materials can be predicted by understanding the role of the material modifications and material surfaces. The work concentrates on solid materials to be used for desiccant cooling systems and which process water vapor in an atmosphere to produce cooling. The work involved preparing modifications of polystyrene sulfonic acid sodium salt, synthesizing a hydrogel, and evaluating the sorption performances of these and similar commercially available polymeric materials; all materials were studied for their potential application in solid commercial desiccant cooling systems. Background information is also provided on desiccant cooling systems and the role of a desiccant material within such a system, and it includes the use of polymers as desiccant materials. 31 refs., 16 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Report on sodium compatibility of advanced structural materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Li, M.; Natesan, K.; Momozaki, Y.; Rink, D.L.; Soppet, W.K.; Listwan, J.T.

    2012-07-09

    This report provides an update on the evaluation of sodium compatibility of advanced structural materials. The report is a deliverable (level 3) in FY11 (M3A11AN04030403), under the Work Package A-11AN040304, 'Sodium Compatibility of Advanced Structural Materials' performed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), as part of Advanced Structural Materials Program for the Advanced Reactor Concepts. This work package supports the advanced structural materials development by providing corrosion and tensile data from the standpoint of sodium compatibility of advanced structural alloys. The scope of work involves exposure of advanced structural alloys such as G92, mod.9Cr-1Mo (G91) ferritic-martensitic steels and HT-UPS austenitic stainless steels to a flowing sodium environment with controlled impurity concentrations. The exposed specimens are analyzed for their corrosion performance, microstructural changes, and tensile behavior. Previous reports examined the thermodynamic and kinetic factors involved in the purity of liquid sodium coolant for sodium reactor applications as well as the design, fabrication, and construction of a forced convection sodium loop for sodium compatibility studies of advanced materials. This report presents the results on corrosion performance, microstructure, and tensile properties of advanced ferritic-martensitic and austenitic alloys exposed to liquid sodium at 550 C for up to 2700 h and at 650 C for up to 5064 h in the forced convection sodium loop. The oxygen content of sodium was controlled by the cold-trapping method to achieve {approx}1 wppm oxygen level. Four alloys were examined, G92 in the normalized and tempered condition (H1 G92), G92 in the cold-rolled condition (H2 G92), G91 in the normalized and tempered condition, and hot-rolled HT-UPS. G91 was included as a reference to compare with advanced alloy, G92. It was found that all four alloys showed weight loss after sodium exposures at 550 and 650 C. The weight loss of the four

  8. Technology Readiness Levels for Advanced Nuclear Fuels and Materials Development

    SciTech Connect

    Jon Carmack

    2014-01-01

    The Technology Readiness Level (TRL) process is used to quantitatively assess the maturity of a given technology. The TRL process has been developed and successfully used by the Department of Defense (DOD) for development and deployment of new technology and systems for defense applications. In addition, NASA has also successfully used the TRL process to develop and deploy new systems for space applications. Advanced nuclear fuels and materials development is a critical technology needed for closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Because the deployment of a new nuclear fuel forms requires a lengthy and expensive research, development, and demonstration program, applying the TRL concept to the advanced fuel development program is very useful as a management and tracking tool. This report provides definition of the technology readiness level assessment process as defined for use in assessing nuclear fuel technology development for the Advanced Fuel Campaign (AFC).

  9. Advanced Bioinks for 3D Printing: A Materials Science Perspective.

    PubMed

    Chimene, David; Lennox, Kimberly K; Kaunas, Roland R; Gaharwar, Akhilesh K

    2016-06-01

    Advanced bioinks for 3D printing are rationally designed materials intended to improve the functionality of printed scaffolds outside the traditional paradigm of the "biofabrication window". While the biofabrication window paradigm necessitates compromise between suitability for fabrication and ability to accommodate encapsulated cells, recent developments in advanced bioinks have resulted in improved designs for a range of biofabrication platforms without this tradeoff. This has resulted in a new generation of bioinks with high print fidelity, shear-thinning characteristics, and crosslinked scaffolds with high mechanical strength, high cytocompatibility, and the ability to modulate cellular functions. In this review, we describe some of the promising strategies being pursued to achieve these goals, including multimaterial, interpenetrating network, nanocomposite, and supramolecular bioinks. We also provide an overview of current and emerging trends in advanced bioink synthesis and biofabrication, and evaluate the potential applications of these novel biomaterials to clinical use.

  10. Advanced Bioinks for 3D Printing: A Materials Science Perspective.

    PubMed

    Chimene, David; Lennox, Kimberly K; Kaunas, Roland R; Gaharwar, Akhilesh K

    2016-06-01

    Advanced bioinks for 3D printing are rationally designed materials intended to improve the functionality of printed scaffolds outside the traditional paradigm of the "biofabrication window". While the biofabrication window paradigm necessitates compromise between suitability for fabrication and ability to accommodate encapsulated cells, recent developments in advanced bioinks have resulted in improved designs for a range of biofabrication platforms without this tradeoff. This has resulted in a new generation of bioinks with high print fidelity, shear-thinning characteristics, and crosslinked scaffolds with high mechanical strength, high cytocompatibility, and the ability to modulate cellular functions. In this review, we describe some of the promising strategies being pursued to achieve these goals, including multimaterial, interpenetrating network, nanocomposite, and supramolecular bioinks. We also provide an overview of current and emerging trends in advanced bioink synthesis and biofabrication, and evaluate the potential applications of these novel biomaterials to clinical use. PMID:27184494

  11. Code qualification of structural materials for AFCI advanced recycling reactors.

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.; Li, M.; Majumdar, S.; Nanstad, R.K.; Sham, T.-L.

    2012-05-31

    This report summarizes the further findings from the assessments of current status and future needs in code qualification and licensing of reference structural materials and new advanced alloys for advanced recycling reactors (ARRs) in support of Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). The work is a combined effort between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with ANL as the technical lead, as part of Advanced Structural Materials Program for AFCI Reactor Campaign. The report is the second deliverable in FY08 (M505011401) under the work package 'Advanced Materials Code Qualification'. The overall objective of the Advanced Materials Code Qualification project is to evaluate key requirements for the ASME Code qualification and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approval of structural materials in support of the design and licensing of the ARR. Advanced materials are a critical element in the development of sodium reactor technologies. Enhanced materials performance not only improves safety margins and provides design flexibility, but also is essential for the economics of future advanced sodium reactors. Code qualification and licensing of advanced materials are prominent needs for developing and implementing advanced sodium reactor technologies. Nuclear structural component design in the U.S. must comply with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section III (Rules for Construction of Nuclear Facility Components) and the NRC grants the operational license. As the ARR will operate at higher temperatures than the current light water reactors (LWRs), the design of elevated-temperature components must comply with ASME Subsection NH (Class 1 Components in Elevated Temperature Service). However, the NRC has not approved the use of Subsection NH for reactor components, and this puts additional burdens on materials qualification of the ARR. In the past licensing review for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Project (CRBRP) and the

  12. Nanostructured Materials For Advanced Technological Applications: A Brief Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulisch, W.; Freudenstein, R.; Ruiz, A.; Valsesia, A.; Sirghi, L.; Ponti, J.; Colpo, P.; Rossi, F.

    In this contribution a short introduction to nanostructured materials for advanced technological applications is presented. A major aim is to demonstrate, on the one hand, the diversity of approaches, methods, techniques and solutions, which are used currently worldwide — but also by the authors of the contributions collected in this book — in the field of nano-structured materials, but also that, on the other hand, these diverse topics are based on the same principles, face similar problems, and bear similar prospects for future applications. For this reason, frequent reference is made to the contributions to this book. Some examples to illustrate current topics, advances and problems are taken from the recent work of the present home institute of the author, the NanoBioTech group of the IHCP at the JRC.

  13. Mishap risk control for advanced aerospace/composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, John M.

    1994-01-01

    Although advanced aerospace materials and advanced composites provide outstanding performance, they also present several unique post-mishap environmental, safety, and health concerns. The purpose of this paper is to provide information on some of the unique hazards and concerns associated with these materials when damaged by fire, explosion, or high-energy impact. Additionally, recommended procedures and precautions are addressed as they pertain to all phases of a composite aircraft mishap response, including fire-fighting, investigation, recovery, clean-up, and guidelines are general in nature and not application-specific. The goal of this project is to provide factual and realistic information which can be used to develop consistent and effective procedures and policies to minimize the potential environmental, safety, and health impacts of a composite aircraft mishap response effort.

  14. Corrosion performance of materials for advanced combustion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.; Yanez-Herrero, M.; Fornasieri, C.

    1993-12-01

    Conceptual designs of advanced combustion systems that utilize coal as a feedstock require high-temperature furnaces and heat transfer surfaces capable of operating at more elevated temperatures than those prevalent in current coal-fired power plants. The combination of elevated temperatures and hostile combustion environments necessitates development/application of advanced ceramic materials in these designs. This report characterizes the chemistry of coal-fired combustion environments over the wide temperature range that is of interest in these systems and discusses preliminary experimental results on several materials (alumina, Hexoloy, SiC/SiC, SiC/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, ZIRCONIA, INCONEL 677 and 617) with potential for application in these systems.

  15. A combinatorial approach to the discovery of advanced materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiao-Dong

    This thesis discusses the application of combinatorial methods to the search of advanced materials. The goal of this research is to develop a "parallel" or "fast sequential" methodology for both the synthesis and characterization of materials with novel electronic, magnetic and optical properties. Our hope is to dramatically accelerate the rate at which materials are generated and studied. We have developed two major combinatorial methodologies to this end. One involves generating thin film materials libraries using a combination of various thin film deposition and masking strategies with multi-layer thin film precursors. The second approach is to generate powder materials libraries with solution precursors delivered with a multi-nozzle inkjet system. The first step in this multistep combinatorial process involves the design and synthesis of high density libraries of diverse materials aimed at exploring a large segment of the compositional space of interest based on our understanding of the physical and structural properties of a particular class of materials. Rapid, sensitive measurements of one or more relevant physical properties of each library member result in the identification of a family of "lead" compositions with a desired property. These compositions are then optimized by continuously varying the stoichiometries of a more focused set of precursors. Materials with the optimal composition are then synthesized in quantities sufficient for detailed characterization of their structural and physical properties. Finally, the information obtained from this process should enhance our predictive ability in subsequent experiments. Combinatorial methods have been successfully used in the synthesis and discovery of materials with novel properties. For example, a class of cobaltite based giant magnetoresistance (GMR) ceramics was discovered; Application of this method to luminescence materials has resulted in the discovery of a few highly efficient tricolor

  16. ADVANCED ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC MATERIAL MODELS FOR FDTD ELECTROMAGNETIC CODES

    SciTech Connect

    Poole, B R; Nelson, S D; Langdon, S

    2005-05-05

    The modeling of dielectric and magnetic materials in the time domain is required for pulse power applications, pulsed induction accelerators, and advanced transmission lines. For example, most induction accelerator modules require the use of magnetic materials to provide adequate Volt-sec during the acceleration pulse. These models require hysteresis and saturation to simulate the saturation wavefront in a multipulse environment. In high voltage transmission line applications such as shock or soliton lines the dielectric is operating in a highly nonlinear regime, which require nonlinear models. Simple 1-D models are developed for fast parameterization of transmission line structures. In the case of nonlinear dielectrics, a simple analytic model describing the permittivity in terms of electric field is used in a 3-D finite difference time domain code (FDTD). In the case of magnetic materials, both rate independent and rate dependent Hodgdon magnetic material models have been implemented into 3-D FDTD codes and 1-D codes.

  17. [Advances of poly (ionic liquid) materials in separation science].

    PubMed

    Liu, Cuicui; Guo, Ting; Su, Rina; Gu, Yuchen; Deng, Qiliang

    2015-11-01

    Ionic liquids, as novel ionization reagents, possess beneficial characteristics including good solubility, conductivity, thermal stability, biocompatibility, low volatility and non-flammability. Ionic liquids are attracting a mass of attention of analytical chemists. Poly (ionic liquid) materials have common performances of ionic liquids and polymers, and have been successfully applied in separation science area. In this paper, we discuss the interaction mechanisms between the poly(ionic liquid) materials and analytes including hydrophobic/hydrophilic interactions, hydrogen bond, ion exchange, π-π stacking and electrostatic interactions, and summarize the application advances of the poly(ionic liquid) materials in solid phase extraction, chromatographic separation and capillary electrophoresis. At last, we describe the future prospect of poly(ionic liquid) materials. PMID:26939357

  18. Materials/manufacturing element of the Advanced Turbine Systems Program

    SciTech Connect

    Karnitz, M.A.; Holcomb, R.S.; Wright, I.G.; Ferber, M.K.; Hoffman, E.E.

    1995-12-31

    The technology based portion of the Advanced Turbine Systems Program (ATS) contains several subelements which address generic technology issues for land-based gas-turbine systems. One subelement is the Materials/ Manufacturing Technology Program which is coordinated by DOE Oak Ridge Operations and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The work in this subelement is being performed predominantly by industry with assistance from universities and the national laboratories. Projects in this sub-element are aimed toward hastening the incorporation of new materials and components in gas turbines.

  19. Ultrasonic and radiographic evaluation of advanced aerospace materials: Ceramic composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, Edward R.

    1990-01-01

    Two conventional nondestructive evaluation techniques were used to evaluate advanced ceramic composite materials. It was shown that neither ultrasonic C-scan nor radiographic imaging can individually provide sufficient data for an accurate nondestructive evaluation. Both ultrasonic C-scan and conventional radiographic imaging are required for preliminary evaluation of these complex systems. The material variations that were identified by these two techniques are porosity, delaminations, bond quality between laminae, fiber alignment, fiber registration, fiber parallelism, and processing density flaws. The degree of bonding between fiber and matrix cannot be determined by either of these methods. An alternative ultrasonic technique, angular power spectrum scanning (APSS) is recommended for quantification of this interfacial bond.

  20. Advanced thermal management materials for concentrator photovoltaic arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweben, Carl

    2010-08-01

    Thermal management is a critical issue for photovoltaics (PVs), especially concentrator photovoltaic systems. Thermal management problems are similar for all semiconductors, including those used in microelectronics and other optoelectronic applications, such as lasers, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), detectors and displays. We divide the thermal management problem into two parts: heat dissipation and thermal stresses. Heat dissipation affects efficiency and lifetime. Thermal stresses affect manufacturing yield and lifetime. Traditional thermal management materials all have serious deficiencies. Copper and aluminum have high coefficients of thermal expansion (CTEs), which can cause severe thermal stresses during manufacturing and in service. Compliant attach materials, used to minimize thermal stresses, all have major drawbacks. Traditional low-CTE thermal management materials have relatively low thermal conductivities and are hard to machine. In response to these deficiencies, new thermal management materials have been, and are continuing to be developed, which have low CTEs and thermal conductivities up to four times that of copper. Some are reportedly are cheaper than copper. In this paper, we survey the six categories of advanced thermal materials, including properties, state of maturity and cost. We also review a CPV application in which an advanced metal matrix composite with a tailored CTE eliminated solder joint failure and provided other benefits.

  1. Sol-gel Technology and Advanced Electrochemical Energy Storage Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Chung-tse; Zheng, Haixing

    1996-01-01

    Advanced materials play an important role in the development of electrochemical energy devices such as batteries, fuel cells, and electrochemical capacitors. The sol-gel process is a versatile solution for use in the fabrication of ceramic materials with tailored stoichiometry, microstructure, and properties. This processing technique is particularly useful in producing porous materials with high surface area and low density, two of the most desirable characteristics for electrode materials. In addition,the porous surface of gels can be modified chemically to create tailored surface properties, and inorganic/organic micro-composites can be prepared for improved material performance device fabrication. Applications of several sol-gel derived electrode materials in different energy storage devices are illustrated in this paper. V2O5 gels are shown to be a promising cathode material for solid state lithium batteries. Carbon aerogels, amorphous RuO2 gels and sol-gel derived hafnium compounds have been studied as electrode materials for high energy density and high power density electrochemical capacitors.

  2. Innovations in laser cladding and direct metal deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brückner, Frank; Nowotny, Steffen; Leyens, Christoph

    2012-03-01

    The present paper reviews recent progress in productivity, precision and quality of laser-based cladding and additive layer manufacturing. Recently, we have demonstrated the great benefits obtained from induction assisted laser cladding. This novel hybrid technology combines high deposition rates with excellent cladding properties. Laser-based direct metal deposition is a novel concept for the fabrication of components and repair as well as geometrical surface modifications. Newly developed nozzle design allows focused powder spots to generate wall thicknesses of about 30 μm. An in-depth understanding of the processes and the resulting materials properties is key for the development of technically viable and economically reasonable customized solutions.

  3. Advanced Materials for Mercury 50 Gas Turbine Combustion System

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Jeffrey

    2008-09-30

    Solar Turbines Incorporated (Solar), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-0CH11049, has conducted development activities to improve the durability of the Mercury 50 combustion system to 30,000 hours life and reduced life cycle costs. This project is part of Advanced Materials in the Advanced Industrial Gas Turbines program in DOE's Office of Distributed Energy. The targeted development engine was the Mercury{trademark} 50 gas turbine, which was developed by Solar under the DOE Advanced Turbine Systems program (DOE contract number DE-FC21-95MC31173). As a generator set, the Mercury 50 is used for distributed power and combined heat and power generation and is designed to achieve 38.5% electrical efficiency, reduced cost of electricity, and single digit emissions. The original program goal was 20,000 hours life, however, this goal was increased to be consistent with Solar's standard 30,000 hour time before overhaul for production engines. Through changes to the combustor design to incorporate effusion cooling in the Generation 3 Mercury 50 engine, which resulted in a drop in the combustor wall temperature, the current standard thermal barrier coated liner was predicted to have 18,000 hours life. With the addition of the advanced materials technology being evaluated under this program, the combustor life is predicted to be over 30,000 hours. The ultimate goal of the program was to demonstrate a fully integrated Mercury 50 combustion system, modified with advanced materials technologies, at a host site for a minimum of 4,000 hours. Solar was the Prime Contractor on the program team, which includes participation of other gas turbine manufacturers, various advanced material and coating suppliers, nationally recognized test laboratories, and multiple industrial end-user field demonstration sites. The program focused on a dual path development route to define an optimum mix of technologies for the Mercury 50 and future gas turbine products. For liner and injector

  4. On microstructure and flexural strength of metal-ceramic composite cladding developed through microwave heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Apurbba Kumar; Gupta, Dheeraj

    2012-05-01

    A domestic multimode microwave applicator was used to develop carbide reinforced (tungsten-based) metal-matrix composite cladding on austenitic stainless steel substrate. Cladding was developed through microwave irradiation of the preplaced clad materials at 2.45 GHz for 420 s. Clads show metallurgical bonding with substrate by partial dilution of materials. Back scattered images of clad section confirm uniformly distributed reinforced particles in the metallic matrix. Presence of WC, W2C, NiSi, NiW and Co3W3C phases was detected in the clad. Flexural characteristics show two distinct load transitions attributable to deformations of the matrix and the reinforced particles. Clads fail at the upper transition load; further load is taken by the SS-316 substrate. Clads exhibit good stiffness and good adhesion with the substrate. Multi directional cracks were observed at the clad surface; on further loading, cracks get propagated into the clad thickness without getting peeled-off. Mechanism of clad development has been introduced.

  5. Method and etchant to join Ag-clad BSSCO superconducting tape

    DOEpatents

    Balachandran, U.; Iyer, A.N.; Huang, J.Y.

    1999-03-16

    A method of removing a silver cladding from high temperature superconducting material clad in silver (HTS) is disclosed. The silver clad HTS is contacted with an aqueous solution of HNO{sub 3} followed by an aqueous solution of NH{sub 4}OH and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} for a time sufficient to remove the silver cladding from the superconducting material without adversely affecting the superconducting properties of the superconducting material. A portion of the silver cladding may be masked with a material chemically impervious to HNO{sub 3} and to a combination of NH{sub 4}OH and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} to preserve the Ag coating. A silver clad superconductor is disclosed, made in accordance with the method discussed. 3 figs.

  6. Method and etchant to join ag-clad BSSCO superconducting tape

    DOEpatents

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Iyer, Anand N.; Huang, Jiann Yuan

    1999-01-01

    A method of removing a silver cladding from high temperature superconducting material clad in silver (HTS) is disclosed. The silver clad HTS is contacted with an aqueous solution of HNO.sub.3 followed by an aqueous solution of NH.sub.4 OH and H.sub.2 O.sub.2 for a time sufficient to remove the silver cladding from the superconducting material without adversely affecting the superconducting properties of the superconducting material. A portion of the silver cladding may be masked with a material chemically impervious to HNO.sub.3 and to a combination of NH.sub.4 OH and H.sub.2 O.sub.2 to preserve the Ag coating. A silver clad superconductor is disclosed, made in accordance with the method discussed.

  7. Advanced thermoplastic materials for district heating piping systems

    SciTech Connect

    Raske, D.T.; Karvelas, D.E.

    1988-04-01

    The work described in this report represents research conducted in the first year of a three-year program to assess, characterize, and design thermoplastic piping for use in elevated-temperature district heating (DH) systems. The present report describes the results of a program to assess the potential usefulness of advanced thermoplastics as piping materials for use in DH systems. This includes the review of design rules for thermoplastic materials used as pipes, a survey of candidate materials and available mechanical properties data, and mechanical properties testing to obtain baseline data on a candidate thermoplastic material extruded as pipe. The candidate material studied in this phase of the research was a polyetherimide resin, Ultem 1000, which has a UL continuous service temperature rating of 338/degree/F (170/degree/C). The results of experiments to determine the mechanical properties between 68 and 350/degree/F (20 and 177/degree/C) were used to establish preliminary design values for this material. Because these prototypic pipes were extruded under less than optimal conditions, the mechanical properties obtained are inferior to those expected from typical production pipes. Nevertheless, the present material in the form of 2-in. SDR 11 pipe (2.375-in. O. D. by 0.216-in. wall) would have a saturated water design pressure rating of /approximately/34 psig at 280/degree/F. 16 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  8. Advanced composite structural concepts and materials technologies for primary aircraft structures: Advanced material concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, Kreisler S. Y.; Landis, Abraham L.; Chow, Andrea W.; Hamlin, Richard D.

    1993-01-01

    To achieve acceptable performance and long-term durability at elevated temperatures (350 to 600 F) for high-speed transport systems, further improvements of the high-performance matrix materials will be necessary to achieve very long-term (60,000-120,000 service hours) retention of mechanical properties and damage tolerance. This report emphasizes isoimide modification as a complementary technique to semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (SIPN's) to achieve greater processibility, better curing dynamics, and possibly enhanced thermo-mechanical properties in composites. A key result is the demonstration of enhanced processibility of isoimide-modified linear and thermo-setting polyimide systems.

  9. Area Reports. Advanced materials and devices research area. Silicon materials research task, and advanced silicon sheet task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The objectives of the Silicon Materials Task and the Advanced Silicon Sheet Task are to identify the critical technical barriers to low-cost silicon purification and sheet growth that must be overcome to produce a PV cell substrate material at a price consistent with Flat-plate Solar Array (FSA) Project objectives and to overcome these barriers by performing and supporting appropriate R&D. Progress reports are given on silicon refinement using silane, a chemical vapor transport process for purifying metallurgical grade silicon, silicon particle growth research, and modeling of silane pyrolysis in fluidized-bed reactors.

  10. Thermal Characterization of Nanostructures and Advanced Engineered Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyal, Vivek Kumar

    to heat-sinking units. This dissertation presents results of the experimental investigation and theoretical interpretation of thermal transport in the advanced engineered materials, which include thin films for thermal management of nanoscale devices, nanostructured superlattices as promising candidates for high-efficiency thermoelectric materials, and improved TIMs with graphene and metal particles as fillers providing enhanced thermal conductivity. The advanced engineered materials studied include chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) and microcrystalline diamond (MCD) films on Si substrates, directly integrated nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films on GaN, free-standing polycrystalline graphene (PCG) films, graphene oxide (GOx) films, and "pseudo-superlattices" of the mechanically exfoliated Bi2Te3 topological insulator films, and thermal interface materials (TIMs) with graphene fillers.

  11. Testing of Alternative Materials for Advanced Suit Bladders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bue, Grant; Orndoff, Evelyne; Makinen, Janice; Tang, Henry

    2011-01-01

    Several candidate advanced pressure bladder membrane materials have been developed for NASA Johnson Space Center by DSM Biomedical for selective permeability of carbon dioxide and water vapor. These materials were elasthane and two other formulations of thermoplastic polyether polyurethane. Each material was tested in two thicknesses for permeability to carbon dioxide, oxygen and water vapor. Although oxygen leaks through the suit bladder would amount to only about 60 cc/hr in a full size suit, significant amounts of carbon dioxide would not be rejected by the system to justify its use. While the ratio of carbon dioxide to oxygen permeability is about 48 to 1, this is offset by the small partial pressure of carbon dioxide in acceptable breathing atmospheres of the suit. Humidity management remains a possible use of the membranes depending on the degree to which the water permeability is inhibited by cations in the sweat. Tests are underway to explore cation fouling from sweat.

  12. Materials Advances for Next-Generation Ingestible Electronic Medical Devices.

    PubMed

    Bettinger, Christopher J

    2015-10-01

    Electronic medical implants have collectively transformed the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases, but have many inherent limitations. Electronic implants require invasive surgeries, operate in challenging microenvironments, and are susceptible to bacterial infection and persistent inflammation. Novel materials and nonconventional device fabrication strategies may revolutionize the way electronic devices are integrated with the body. Ingestible electronic devices offer many advantages compared with implantable counterparts that may improve the diagnosis and treatment of pathologies ranging from gastrointestinal infections to diabetes. This review summarizes current technologies and highlights recent materials advances. Specific focus is dedicated to next-generation materials for packaging, circuit design, and on-board power supplies that are benign, nontoxic, and even biodegradable. Future challenges and opportunities are also highlighted.

  13. Progress in advanced high temperature turbine materials, coatings, and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freche, J. C.; Ault, G. M.

    1977-01-01

    Several NASA-sponsored benefit-cost studies have shown that very substantial benefits can be obtained by increasing material capability for aircraft gas turbines. Prealloyed powder processing holds promise for providing superalloys with increased strength for turbine disk applications. The developement of advanced powder metallurgy disk alloys must be based on a design of optimum processing and heat treating procedures. Materials considered for high temperature application include oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys, directionally solidified superalloys, ceramics, directionally solidified eutectics, materials combining the high strength of a gamma prime strengthened alloy with the elevated temperature strength of an ODS, and composites. Attention is also given to the use of high pressure turbine seals, approaches for promoting environmental protection, and turbine cooling technology.

  14. Development of processing techniques for advanced thermal protection materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selvaduray, Guna S.

    1994-01-01

    The effort, which was focused on the research and development of advanced materials for use in Thermal Protection Systems (TPS), has involved chemical and physical testing of refractory ceramic tiles, fabrics, threads and fibers. This testing has included determination of the optical properties, thermal shock resistance, high temperature dimensional stability, and tolerance to environmental stresses. Materials have also been tested in the Arc Jet 2 x 9 Turbulent Duct Facility (TDF), the 1 atmosphere Radiant Heat Cycler, and the Mini-Wind Tunnel Facility (MWTF). A significant part of the effort hitherto has gone towards modifying and upgrading the test facilities so that meaningful tests can be carried out. Another important effort during this period has been the creation of a materials database. Computer systems administration and support have also been provided. These are described in greater detail below.

  15. Test model designs for advanced refractory ceramic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tran, Huy Kim

    1993-01-01

    The next generation of space vehicles will be subjected to severe aerothermal loads and will require an improved thermal protection system (TPS) and other advanced vehicle components. In order to ensure the satisfactory performance system (TPS) and other advanced vehicle materials and components, testing is to be performed in environments similar to space flight. The design and fabrication of the test models should be fairly simple but still accomplish test objectives. In the Advanced Refractory Ceramic Materials test series, the models and model holders will need to withstand the required heat fluxes of 340 to 817 W/sq cm or surface temperatures in the range of 2700 K to 3000 K. The model holders should provide one dimensional (1-D) heat transfer to the samples and the appropriate flow field without compromising the primary test objectives. The optical properties such as the effective emissivity, catalytic efficiency coefficients, thermal properties, and mass loss measurements are also taken into consideration in the design process. Therefore, it is the intent of this paper to demonstrate the design schemes for different models and model holders that would accommodate these test requirements and ensure the safe operation in a typical arc jet facility.

  16. Review on advanced composite materials boring mechanism and tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Runping; Wang, Chengyong

    2010-12-01

    With the rapid development of aviation and aerospace manufacturing technology, advanced composite materials represented by carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP) and super hybrid composites (fibre/metal plates) are more and more widely applied. The fibres are mainly carbon fibre, boron fibre, Aramid fiber and Sic fibre. The matrixes are resin matrix, metal matrix and ceramic matrix. Advanced composite materials have higher specific strength and higher specific modulus than glass fibre reinforced resin composites of the 1st generation. They are widely used in aviation and aerospace industry due to their high specific strength, high specific modulus, excellent ductility, anticorrosion, heat-insulation, sound-insulation, shock absorption and high&low temperature resistance. They are used for radomes, inlets, airfoils(fuel tank included), flap, aileron, vertical tail, horizontal tail, air brake, skin, baseboards and tails, etc. Its hardness is up to 62~65HRC. The holes are greatly affected by the fibre laminates direction of carbon fibre reinforced composite material due to its anisotropy when drilling in unidirectional laminates. There are burrs, splits at the exit because of stress concentration. Besides there is delamination and the hole is prone to be smaller. Burrs are caused by poor sharpness of cutting edge, delamination, tearing, splitting are caused by the great stress caused by high thrust force. Poorer sharpness of cutting edge leads to lower cutting performance and higher drilling force at the same time. The present research focuses on the interrelation between rotation speed, feed, drill's geometry, drill life, cutting mode, tools material etc. and thrust force. At the same time, holes quantity and holes making difficulty of composites have also increased. It requires high performance drills which won't bring out defects and have long tool life. It has become a trend to develop super hard material tools and tools with special geometry for drilling

  17. Review on advanced composite materials boring mechanism and tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Runping; Wang, Chengyong

    2011-05-01

    With the rapid development of aviation and aerospace manufacturing technology, advanced composite materials represented by carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP) and super hybrid composites (fibre/metal plates) are more and more widely applied. The fibres are mainly carbon fibre, boron fibre, Aramid fiber and Sic fibre. The matrixes are resin matrix, metal matrix and ceramic matrix. Advanced composite materials have higher specific strength and higher specific modulus than glass fibre reinforced resin composites of the 1st generation. They are widely used in aviation and aerospace industry due to their high specific strength, high specific modulus, excellent ductility, anticorrosion, heat-insulation, sound-insulation, shock absorption and high&low temperature resistance. They are used for radomes, inlets, airfoils(fuel tank included), flap, aileron, vertical tail, horizontal tail, air brake, skin, baseboards and tails, etc. Its hardness is up to 62~65HRC. The holes are greatly affected by the fibre laminates direction of carbon fibre reinforced composite material due to its anisotropy when drilling in unidirectional laminates. There are burrs, splits at the exit because of stress concentration. Besides there is delamination and the hole is prone to be smaller. Burrs are caused by poor sharpness of cutting edge, delamination, tearing, splitting are caused by the great stress caused by high thrust force. Poorer sharpness of cutting edge leads to lower cutting performance and higher drilling force at the same time. The present research focuses on the interrelation between rotation speed, feed, drill's geometry, drill life, cutting mode, tools material etc. and thrust force. At the same time, holes quantity and holes making difficulty of composites have also increased. It requires high performance drills which won't bring out defects and have long tool life. It has become a trend to develop super hard material tools and tools with special geometry for drilling

  18. Femtosecond writing of depressed cladding waveguides in strongly cumulative regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukharin, Mikhail A.; Khudyakov, Dmitriy V.; Vartapetov, Sergey K.

    2015-05-01

    We proposed a novel approach for direct femtosecond inscription of waveguides. It consisted in formation of cladding with reduced refractive index in fused silica. Depressed cladding was based on peripheral regions of individually written neighbored tracks, which should be inscribed in strongly cumulative regime. It was shown, that due to shot time interval between femtosecond laser pulses and relatively slow thermal diffusion, the exposed focal region surrounds by significantly wide cladding with reduced refracted index. Based on proposed approach we demonstrated depressed cladding waveguide inscription in fused silica using emission directly from commercially available femtosecond oscillator without correcting optical systems and second harmonic generation. It was shown, that the new approach provides formation of easily adjustable single mode waveguides with desired mode field diameter. Such depressed cladding waveguides exploit both advantages of fused silica material and depressed cladding geometry. We also verified our suggestion by experiment and inscribed depressed cladding waveguides with two different mode field diameters at similar femtosecond pulse characteristics. The obtained structures provided low propagation losses and good coupling with Gaussian mode. The waveguides supported propagation of both polarizations with nearly identical characteristics. Obtained experimental results were in good agreement with numerical simulation.

  19. Corrosion performance of advanced structural materials in sodium.

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.; Momozaki, Y.; Li, M.; Rink, D.L.

    2012-05-16

    This report gives a description of the activities in design, fabrication, construction, and assembling of a pumped sodium loop for the sodium compatibility studies on advanced structural materials. The work is the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) portion of the effort on the work project entitled, 'Sodium Compatibility of Advanced Fast Reactor Materials,' and is a part of Advanced Materials Development within the Reactor Campaign. The objective of this project is to develop information on sodium corrosion compatibility of advanced materials being considered for sodium reactor applications. This report gives the status of the sodium pumped loop at Argonne National Laboratory, the specimen details, and the technical approach to evaluate the sodium compatibility of advanced structural alloys. This report is a deliverable from ANL in FY2010 (M2GAN10SF050302) under the work package G-AN10SF0503 'Sodium Compatibility of Advanced Fast Reactor Materials.' Two reports were issued in 2009 (Natesan and Meimei Li 2009, Natesan et al. 2009) which examined the thermodynamic and kinetic factors involved in the purity of liquid sodium coolant for sodium reactor applications as well as the design specifications for the ANL pumped loop for testing advanced structural materials. Available information was presented on solubility of several metallic and nonmetallic elements along with a discussion of the possible mechanisms for the accumulation of impurities in sodium. That report concluded that the solubility of many metals in sodium is low (<1 part per million) in the temperature range of interest in sodium reactors and such trace amounts would not impact the mechanical integrity of structural materials and components. The earlier report also analyzed the solubility and transport mechanisms of nonmetallic elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and hydrogen in laboratory sodium loops and in reactor systems such as Experimental Breeder Reactor-II, Fast Flux Test Facility, and

  20. Properties of multilayer coatings produced by coaxial laser cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrovskiy, V. N.; Bykovskiy, D. P.; Dzhumaev, P. S.; Polskiy, V. I.; Prokopova, N. M.; Chirikov, S. N.

    2016-09-01

    This article contains results of the study of multilayer coatings produced by laser cladding on the substrate steel 34HMA using iron based powder PR-10R6M5 as the filler material. The coatings were produced with consistent application of the tracks with fixed overlapping. The dependencies between the characteristics of tracks and the technological mode of deposition were revealed. Properties of coatings were determined for various overlapping of tracks and directions of the cladding layers.

  1. Crashworthiness analysis using advanced material models in DYNA3D

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, R.W.; Burger, M.J.; McMichael, L.D.; Parkinson, R.D.

    1993-10-22

    As part of an electric vehicle consortium, LLNL and Kaiser Aluminum are conducting experimental and numerical studies on crashworthy aluminum spaceframe designs. They have jointly explored the effect of heat treat on crush behavior and duplicated the experimental behavior with finite-element simulations. The major technical contributions to the state of the art in numerical simulation arise from the development and use of advanced material model descriptions for LLNL`s DYNA3D code. Constitutive model enhancements in both flow and failure have been employed for conventional materials such as low-carbon steels, and also for lighter weight materials such as aluminum and fiber composites being considered for future vehicles. The constitutive model enhancements are developed as extensions from LLNL`s work in anisotropic flow and multiaxial failure modeling. Analysis quality as a function of level of simplification of material behavior and mesh is explored, as well as the penalty in computation cost that must be paid for using more complex models and meshes. The lightweight material modeling technology is being used at the vehicle component level to explore the safety implications of small neighborhood electric vehicles manufactured almost exclusively from these materials.

  2. Recent advances in material science for developing enzyme electrodes.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Anil Kumar; Vatsyayan, Preety; Goswami, Pranab; Minteer, Shelley D

    2009-04-15

    The enzyme-modified electrode is the fundamental component of amperometric biosensors and biofuel cells. The selection of appropriate combinations of materials, such as: enzyme, electron transport mediator, binding and encapsulation materials, conductive support matrix and solid support, for construction of enzyme-modified electrodes governs the efficiency of the electrodes in terms of electron transfer kinetics, mass transport, stability, and reproducibility. This review investigates the varieties of materials that can be used for these purposes. Recent innovation in conductive electro-active polymers, functionalized polymers, biocompatible composite materials, composites of transition metal-based complexes and organometallic compounds, sol-gel and hydro-gel materials, nanomaterials, other nano-metal composites, and nano-metal oxides are reviewed and discussed here. In addition, the critical issues related to the construction of enzyme electrodes and their application for biosensor and biofuel cell applications are also highlighted in this article. Effort has been made to cover the recent literature on the advancement of materials sciences to develop enzyme electrodes and their potential applications for the construction of biosensors and biofuel cells.

  3. Glass-clad semiconductor core optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Stephanie Lynn

    Glass-clad optical fibers comprising a crystalline semiconductor core have garnered considerable recent attention for their potential utility as novel waveguides for applications in nonlinear optics, sensing, power delivery, and biomedicine. As research into these fibers has progressed, it has become evident that excessive losses are limiting performance and so greater understanding of the underlying materials science, coupled with advances in fiber processing, is needed. More specifically, the semiconductor core fibers possess three performance-limiting characteristics that need to be addressed: (a) thermal expansion mismatches between crystalline core and glass cladding that lead to cracks, (b) the precipitation of oxide species in the core upon fiber cooling, which results from partial dissolution of the cladding glass by the core melt, and (c) polycrystallinity; all of which lead to scattering and increased transmission losses. This dissertation systematically studies each of these effects and develops both a fundamental scientific understanding of and practical engineering methods for reducing their impact. With respect to the thermal expansion mismatch and, in part, the dissolution of oxides, for the first time to our knowledge, oxide and non-oxide glass compositions are developed for a series of semiconductor cores based on two main design criteria: (1) matching the thermal expansion coefficient between semiconductor core and glass cladding to minimize cracking and (2) matching the viscosity-temperature dependences, such that the cladding glass draws into fiber at a temperature slightly above the melting point of the semiconductor in order to minimize dissolution and improve the fiber draw process. The x[Na 2O:Al2O3] + (100 - 2x)SiO2 glass compositional family was selected due to the ability to tailor the glass properties to match the aforementioned targets through slight variations in composition and adjusting the ratios of bridging and non-bridging oxygen

  4. Supramolecular polymer adhesives: advanced materials inspired by nature.

    PubMed

    Heinzmann, Christian; Weder, Christoph; de Espinosa, Lucas Montero

    2016-01-21

    Due to their dynamic, stimuli-responsive nature, non-covalent interactions represent versatile design elements that can be found in nature in many molecular processes or materials, where adaptive behavior or reversible connectivity is required. Examples include molecular recognition processes, which trigger biological responses or cell-adhesion to surfaces, and a broad range of animal secreted adhesives with environment-dependent properties. Such advanced functionalities have inspired researchers to employ similar design approaches for the development of synthetic polymers with stimuli-responsive properties. The utilization of non-covalent interactions for the design of adhesives with advanced functionalities such as stimuli responsiveness, bonding and debonding on demand capability, surface selectivity or recyclability is a rapidly emerging subset of this field, which is summarized in this review. PMID:26203784

  5. Weld overlay cladding with iron aluminides

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, G.M.

    1996-11-01

    The hot and cold cracking tendencies of some early iron aluminide alloy compositions limited their use to applications where good weldability was not required. Considerable progress has been made toward improving this situation. Using hot crack testing techniques developed at ORNL and a systematic study of alloy compositional effects, we have established a range of compositions within which hot cracking resistance is very good, essentially equivalent to stainless steel. Cold cracking, however, remains an issue, and extensive efforts are continuing to optimize composition and welding parameters, especially preheat and postweld heat treatment, to minimize its occurrence. In terms of filler metal and process development, we have progressed from sheared strip through aspiration cast rod and shielded metal arc electrodes to the point where we can now produce composite wire with a steel sheath and aluminum core in coil form, which permits the use of both the gas tungsten arc and gas metal arc processes. This is a significant advancement in that the gas metal arc process lends itself well to automated welding, and is the process of choice for commercial weld overlay applications. Using the newly developed filler metals, we have prepared clad specimens for testing in a variety of environments both in-house and outside ORNL, including laboratory and commercial organizations. As a means of assessing the field performance of this new type of material, we have modified several non-pressure boundary boiler components, including fuel nozzles and port shrouds, by introducing areas of weld overlay in strategic locations, and have placed these components in service in operating boilers for a side-by-side comparison with conventional corrosion-resistant materials.

  6. Advanced Materials Development Program: Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines program plan, 1983--1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    The purpose of the Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines (CTAHE) Project is the development of an industrial technology base capable of providing reliable and cost-effective high temperature ceramic components for application in advanced heat engines. There is a deliberate emphasis on industrial'' in the purpose statement. The project is intended to support the US ceramic and engine industries by providing the needed ceramic materials technology. The heat engine programs have goals of component development and proof-of-concept. The CTAHE Project is aimed at developing generic basic ceramic technology and does not involve specific engine designs and components. The materials research and development efforts in the CTAHE Project are focused on the needs and general requirements of the advanced gas turbine and low heat rejection diesel engines. The CTAHE Project supports the DOE Office of Transportation Systems' heat engine programs, Advanced Turbine Technology Applications (ATTAP) and Heavy Duty Transport (HDT) by providing the basic technology required for development of reliable and cost-effective ceramic components. The heat engine programs provide the iterative component design, fabrication, and test development logic. 103 refs., 18 figs., 11 tabs.

  7. Investigation of semiconductor clad optical waveguides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batchman, T. E.; Carson, R. F.

    1985-01-01

    A variety of techniques have been proposed for fabricating integrated optical devices using semiconductors, lithium niobate, and glasses as waveguides and substrates. The use of glass waveguides and their interaction with thin semiconductor cladding layers was studied. Though the interactions of these multilayer waveguide structures have been analyzed here using glass, they may be applicable to other types of materials as well. The primary reason for using glass is that it provides a simple, inexpensive way to construct waveguides and devices.

  8. Four advances in carbon-carbon materials technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maahs, Howard G.; Vaughn, Wallace L.; Kowbel, Witold

    1994-01-01

    Carbon-carbon composites are a specialty class of materials having many unique properties making these composites attractive for a variety of demanding engineering applications. Chief among these properties are exceptional retention of mechanical properties at temperatures as high as 4000 F, excellent creep resistance, and low density (1.6 to 1.8 g/cu cm). Although carbon-carbon composites are currently in service in a variety of applications, much development work remains to be accomplished before these materials can be considered to be fully mature, realizing their full potential. Four recent technology advances holding particular promise for overcoming current barriers to the wide-spread commercialization of carbon-carbon composites are described. These advances are: markedly improved interlaminar strengths (more than doubled) of two dimensional composites achieved by whiskerization of the fabric reinforcing plies, simultaneously improved oxidation resistance and mechanical properties achieved by the incorporation of matrix-phase oxidation inhibitors based on carborane chemistry, improved oxidation resistance achieved by compositionally graded oxidation protective coatings, and markedly reduced processing times (hours as opposed to weeks or months) accomplished through a novel process of carbon infiltration and coatings deposition based on the use of liquid-phase precursor materials.

  9. Aerogel-clad optical fiber

    DOEpatents

    Sprehn, Gregory A.; Hrubesh, Lawrence W.; Poco, John F.; Sandler, Pamela H.

    1997-01-01

    An optical fiber is surrounded by an aerogel cladding. For a low density aerogel, the index of refraction of the aerogel is close to that of air, which provides a high numerical aperture to the optical fiber. Due to the high numerical aperture, the aerogel clad optical fiber has improved light collection efficiency.

  10. Aerogel-clad optical fiber

    DOEpatents

    Sprehn, G.A.; Hrubesh, L.W.; Poco, J.F.; Sandler, P.H.

    1997-11-04

    An optical fiber is surrounded by an aerogel cladding. For a low density aerogel, the index of refraction of the aerogel is close to that of air, which provides a high numerical aperture to the optical fiber. Due to the high numerical aperture, the aerogel clad optical fiber has improved light collection efficiency. 4 figs.

  11. Application of advanced polymeric materials for controlled release pesticides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahim, M.; Hakim, M. R.; Haris, H. M.

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this work was to study the capability of advanced polymeric material constituted by chitosan and natural rubber matrices for controlled release of pesticides (1-hydroxynaphthalene and 2-hydroxynaphthalene) in aqueous solution. The released amount of pesticides was measured spectrophotometrically from the absorbance spectra applying a standardized curve. The release of the pesticides was studied into refreshing and non-refreshing neutral aqueous media. Interestingly, formulation successfully indicated a consistent, controlled and prolonged release of pesticides over a period of 35 days.

  12. Materials and Component Development for Advanced Turbine Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Alvin, M A; Pettit, F; Meier, G H; Yanar, M; Helminiak, M; Chyu, M; Siw, S; Slaughter, W S; Karaivanov, V; Kang, B S; Feng, C; Tannebaum, J M; Chen, R; Zhang, B; Fu, T; Richards, G A; Sidwell, T G; Straub, D; Casleton, K H; Dogan, O M

    2008-07-01

    Hydrogen-fired and oxy-fueled land-based gas turbines currently target inlet operating temperatures of ~1425-1760°C (~2600-3200°F). In view of natural gas or syngas-fired engines, advancements in both materials, as well as aerothermal cooling configurations are anticipated prior to commercial operation. This paper reviews recent technical accomplishments resulting from NETL’s collaborative research efforts with the University of Pittsburgh and West Virginia University for future land-based gas turbine applications.

  13. Microstructural and mechanical characterization of laser deposited advanced materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sistla, Harihar Rakshit

    Additive manufacturing in the form of laser deposition is a unique way to manufacture near net shape metallic components from advanced materials. Rapid solidification facilitates the extension of solid solubility, compositional flexibility and decrease in micro-segregation in the melt among other advantages. The current work investigates the employment of laser deposition to fabricate the following: 1. Functionally gradient materials: This allows grading dissimilar materials compositionally to tailor specific properties of both these materials into a single component. Specific compositions of the candidate materials (SS 316, Inconel 625 and Ti64) were blended and deposited to study the brittle intermetallics reported in these systems. 2. High entropy alloys: These are multi- component alloys with equiatomic compositions of 5 or more elements. The ratio of Al to Ni was decreased to observe the transition of solid solution from a BCC to an FCC crystal structure in the AlFeCoCrNi system. 3. Structurally amorphous alloys: Zr-based metallic glasses have been reported to have high glass forming ability. These alloys have been laser deposited so as to rapidly cool them from the melt into an amorphous state. Microstructural analysis and X-ray diffraction were used to study the phase formation, and hardness was measured to estimate the mechanical properties.

  14. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility: Addressing advanced nuclear materials research

    SciTech Connect

    John Jackson; Todd Allen; Frances Marshall; Jim Cole

    2013-03-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF), based at the Idaho National Laboratory in the United States, is supporting Department of Energy and industry research efforts to ensure the properties of materials in light water reactors are well understood. The ATR NSUF is providing this support through three main efforts: establishing unique infrastructure necessary to conduct research on highly radioactive materials, conducting research in conjunction with industry partners on life extension relevant topics, and providing training courses to encourage more U.S. researchers to understand and address LWR materials issues. In 2010 and 2011, several advanced instruments with capability focused on resolving nuclear material performance issues through analysis on the micro (10-6 m) to atomic (10-10 m) scales were installed primarily at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) in Idaho Falls, Idaho. These instruments included a local electrode atom probe (LEAP), a field-emission gun scanning transmission electron microscope (FEG-STEM), a focused ion beam (FIB) system, a Raman spectrometer, and an nanoindentor/atomic force microscope. Ongoing capability enhancements intended to support industry efforts include completion of two shielded, irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) test loops, the first of which will come online in early calendar year 2013, a pressurized and controlled chemistry water loop for the ATR center flux trap, and a dedicated facility intended to house post irradiation examination equipment. In addition to capability enhancements at the main site in Idaho, the ATR NSUF also welcomed two new partner facilities in 2011 and two new partner facilities in 2012; the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and associated hot cells and the University California Berkeley capabilities in irradiated materials analysis were added in 2011. In 2012, Purdue University’s Interaction of Materials

  15. Advanced Hot Section Materials and Coatings Test Rig

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Davis

    2006-09-30

    Phase I of the Hyperbaric Advanced Hot Section Materials & Coating Test Rig Program has been successfully completed. Florida Turbine Technologies has designed and planned the implementation of a laboratory rig capable of simulating the hot gas path conditions of coal gas fired industrial gas turbine engines. Potential uses of this rig include investigations into environmental attack of turbine materials and coatings exposed to syngas, erosion, and thermal-mechanical fatigue. The principle activities during Phase 1 of this project included providing several conceptual designs for the test section, evaluating various syngas-fueled rig combustor concepts, comparing the various test section concepts and then selecting a configuration for detail design. Conceptual definition and requirements of auxiliary systems and facilities were also prepared. Implementation planning also progressed, with schedules prepared and future project milestones defined. The results of these tasks continue to show rig feasibility, both technically and economically.

  16. Cost/benefit studies of advanced materials technologies for future aircraft turbine engines: Materials for advanced turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, M.; Wilbers, L.

    1982-01-01

    Cost benefit studies were conducted on six advanced materials and processes technologies applicable to commercial engines planned for production in the 1985 to 1990 time frame. These technologies consisted of thermal barrier coatings for combustor and high pressure turbine airfoils, directionally solidified eutectic high pressure turbine blades, (both cast and fabricated), and mixers, tail cones, and piping made of titanium-aluminum alloys. A fabricated titanium fan blisk, an advanced turbine disk alloy with improved low cycle fatigue life, and a long-life high pressure turbine blade abrasive tip and ceramic shroud system were also analyzed. Technologies showing considerable promise as to benefits, low development costs, and high probability of success were thermal barrier coating, directionally solidified eutectic turbine blades, and abrasive-tip blades/ceramic-shroud turbine systems.

  17. Development of Advanced Wear and Corrosion Resistant Systems Through Laser Surface Alloying and Materials Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    R. P. Martukanitz and S. Babu

    2007-05-03

    Laser surfacing in the form of cladding, alloying, and modifications are gaining widespread use because of its ability to provide high deposition rates, low thermal distortion, and refined microstructure due to high solidification rates. Because of these advantages, laser surface alloying is considered a prime candidate for producing ultra-hard coatings through the establishment or in situ formation of composite structures. Therefore, a program was conducted by the Applied Research Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University and Oak Ridge National Laboratory to develop the scientific and engineering basis for performing laser-based surface modifications involving the addition of hard particles, such as carbides, borides, and nitrides, within a metallic matrix for improved wear, fatigue, creep, and corrosion resistance. This has involved the development of advanced laser processing and simulation techniques, along with the refinement and application of these techniques for predicting and selecting materials and processing parameters for the creation of new surfaces having improved properties over current coating technologies. This program has also resulted in the formulation of process and material simulation tools capable of examining the potential for the formation and retention of composite coatings and deposits produced using laser processing techniques, as well as positive laboratory demonstrations in producing these coatings. In conjunction with the process simulation techniques, the application of computational thermodynamic and kinetic models to design laser surface alloying materials was demonstrated and resulted in a vast improvement in the formulation of materials used for producing composite coatings. The methodology was used to identify materials and to selectively modify microstructures for increasing hardness of deposits produced by the laser surface alloying process. Computational thermodynamic calculations indicated that it was possible to induce the

  18. Three-Layer Zn/Al/Zn Clad Solder for Die Attachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, T.; Ikeda, O.; Oda, Y.; Hata, S.; Kuroki, K.; Kuroda, H.; Hirose, A.

    2015-02-01

    Three-layer Zn/Al/Zn clad solders have been developed for high-temperature die attachment. The clad structure is used to improve the wettability and bondability of Zn-Al eutectic solder by preventing oxidation of the Al. The materials were produced by clad-rolling Zn and Al strips. TEM observations revealed that the Zn/Al clad interface was metallurgically bonded and that the Al oxide was almost entirely removed. The melting behavior of Zn/Al/Zn clad solder was examined. Eutectic melting began at the Zn/Al clad interface at 382°C, and all of the material melted within approximately 10 s. Unlike conventional Zn-Al solders, Zn/Al/Zn clad solders were successfully bonded without flux. The shear strength of a Zn/Al/Zn clad solder joint was three times that of a Pb-based solder joint. The bondability of Zn/Al/Zn clad solder was superior because the Al oxide films, which prevent bonding between chip and substrate, were fragmented by clad-rolling, and the outer Zn layers prevented Al oxidation during the bonding process.

  19. Combustion Synthesis of Advanced Porous Materials in Microgravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, X.; Moore, J. J.; Schowengerdt, F. D.; Johnson, D. P.

    1999-01-01

    Combustion synthesis, otherwise known as self-propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS), can be used to produce engineered advanced porous material implants which offer the possibility for bone ingrowth as well as a permanent structure framework for the long-term replacement of bone defects. The primary advantage of SHS is based on its rapid kinetics and favorable energetics. The structure and properties of materials produced by SHS are strongly dependent on the combustion reaction conditions. Combustion reaction conditions such as reaction stoichiometry, particle size, green density, the presence and use of diluents or inert reactants, and pre-heating of the reactants, will affect the exothermicity of the reaction. A number of conditions must be satisfied in order to obtain high porosity materials: an optimal amount of liquid, gas and solid phases must be present in the combustion front. Therefore, a balance among these phases at the combustion front must be created by the SHS reaction to successfully engineer a bone replacement material system. Microgravity testing has extended the ability to form porous products. The convective heat transfer mechanisms which operate in normal gravity, 1 g, constrain the combustion synthesis reactions. Gravity also acts to limit the porosity which may be formed as the force of gravity serves to restrict the gas expansion and the liquid movement during reaction. Infiltration of the porous product with other phases can modify both the extent of porosity and the mechanical properties.

  20. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program annual progress report, FY 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    The Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program is a part of the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, US Department of Energy (DOE). The mission of AIM is to support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve energy efficiency, productivity, product quality, and reduced waste in the major process industries. OIT has embarked on a fundamentally new way of working with industries--the Industries of the Future (IOF) strategy--concentrating on the major process industries that consume about 90% of the energy and generate about 90% of the waste in the industrial sector. These are the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, metalcasting, and steel industries. OIT has encouraged and assisted these industries in developing visions of what they will be like 20 or 30 years into the future, defining the drivers, technology needs, and barriers to realization of their visions. These visions provide a framework for development of technology roadmaps and implementation plans, some of which have been completed. The AIM Program supports IOF by conducting research and development on materials to solve problems identified in the roadmaps. This is done by National Laboratory/industry/university teams with the facilities and expertise needed to develop new and improved materials. Each project in the AIM Program has active industrial participation and support.

  1. Decreasing geothermal energy conversion costs with advanced materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kukacka, L.E.

    1988-03-01

    If the Geothermal Technology Division (GTD) is to meet its programmatic objectives in hydrothermal fluid production and energy conversion, it is essential that new materials of construction be available. Level III Program Objectives include (1) reducing the costs associated with lost circulation episodes by 30% by 1992, (2) reducing the costs of deep wells and directionally dried wells by 10% by 1992, (3) reducing well-cementing problems for typical hydrothermal wells by 20% by 1991, and (4) the development of a corrosion-resistant and low-fouling heat exchanger tube material costing no more than three times the cost of carbon steel tubes by 1991. The Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) materials program is focused on meeting these objectives. Currently, work is in progress on (1) high temperature chemical systems for lost circulation control, (2) advanced high temperature (300/sup 0/C), lightweight (approx. 1.1 g/cc), CO/sub 2/-resistant well cementing materials, (3) thermally conductive composites for heat exchanger tubing, and (4) ultra high temperature (600/sup 0/C) cements for magma wells. In addition, high temperature elastomer technology developed earlier in the program is being transferred for use in the Geothermal Drilling Organization programs on drill pipe protectors, rotating head seals, and blow-out preventors. Recent accomplishments and the current status of work in each subtask are summarized in the paper.

  2. Fluorescence thermometry for advanced high-temperature materials

    SciTech Connect

    Cates, M.R.; Beshears, D.L.; Allison, S.W.

    1996-05-01

    Advanced high-temperature materials, such as ceramics, metals, and composites, are of critical importance to the development of new and improved technologies worldwide. For aircraft, automobiles, or other combustion-engine powered systems, major efficiency improvements depend on the ability to operate at temperatures closer to the adiabatic limit of the chemical processes involved. Materials able to function at higher temperatures must therefore be introduced into improved designs. Jet turbine engines, for example, already require air cooled rotors and stators in order that the nickel alloys used will not deteriorate and fail from overheating. In the case of ceramics, optimum temperature usage will often cause the refractory surfaces to glow red hot and the material itself to become partially translucent. For composites, especially where structural integrity, vibration resistance, and strength are concerned, the temperature behavior of dissimilar components must be well known and well understood before appropriate designs can be effected. As the need for higher temperature materials becomes increasingly more important, so does the requirement to properly measure the temperatures involved. Phosphor thermometry offers measurement solutions at very high temperatures that often cannot be achieved by more conventional methods. In this paper we discuss the phosphor technique and several examples of its application to high-temperature measurement.

  3. Explosion Clad for Upstream Oil and Gas Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Banker, John G.; Massarello, Jack; Pauly, Stephane

    2011-01-17

    Today's upstream oil and gas facilities frequently involve the combination of high pressures, high temperatures, and highly corrosive environments, requiring equipment that is thick wall, corrosion resistant, and cost effective. When significant concentrations of CO{sub 2} and/or H{sub 2}S and/or chlorides are present, corrosion resistant alloys (CRA) can become the material of choice for separator equipment, piping, related components, and line pipe. They can provide reliable resistance to both corrosion and hydrogen embrittlement. For these applications, the more commonly used CRA's are 316L, 317L and duplex stainless steels, alloy 825 and alloy 625, dependent upon the application and the severity of the environment. Titanium is also an exceptional choice from the technical perspective, but is less commonly used except for heat exchangers. Explosion clad offers significant savings by providing a relatively thin corrosion resistant alloy on the surface metallurgically bonded to a thick, lower cost, steel substrate for the pressure containment. Developed and industrialized in the 1960's the explosion cladding technology can be used for cladding the more commonly used nickel based and stainless steel CRA's as well as titanium. It has many years of proven experience as a reliable and highly robust clad manufacturing process. The unique cold welding characteristics of explosion cladding reduce problems of alloy sensitization and dissimilar metal incompatibility. Explosion clad materials have been used extensively in both upstream and downstream oil, gas and petrochemical facilities for well over 40 years. The explosion clad equipment has demonstrated excellent resistance to corrosion, embrittlement and disbonding. Factors critical to insure reliable clad manufacture and equipment design and fabrication are addressed.

  4. Explosion Clad for Upstream Oil and Gas Equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banker, John G.; Massarello, Jack; Pauly, Stephane

    2011-01-01

    Today's upstream oil and gas facilities frequently involve the combination of high pressures, high temperatures, and highly corrosive environments, requiring equipment that is thick wall, corrosion resistant, and cost effective. When significant concentrations of CO2 and/or H2S and/or chlorides are present, corrosion resistant alloys (CRA) can become the material of choice for separator equipment, piping, related components, and line pipe. They can provide reliable resistance to both corrosion and hydrogen embrittlement. For these applications, the more commonly used CRA's are 316L, 317L and duplex stainless steels, alloy 825 and alloy 625, dependent upon the application and the severity of the environment. Titanium is also an exceptional choice from the technical perspective, but is less commonly used except for heat exchangers. Explosion clad offers significant savings by providing a relatively thin corrosion resistant alloy on the surface metallurgically bonded to a thick, lower cost, steel substrate for the pressure containment. Developed and industrialized in the 1960's the explosion cladding technology can be used for cladding the more commonly used nickel based and stainless steel CRA's as well as titanium. It has many years of proven experience as a reliable and highly robust clad manufacturing process. The unique cold welding characteristics of explosion cladding reduce problems of alloy sensitization and dissimilar metal incompatibility. Explosion clad materials have been used extensively in both upstream and downstream oil, gas and petrochemical facilities for well over 40 years. The explosion clad equipment has demonstrated excellent resistance to corrosion, embrittlement and disbonding. Factors critical to insure reliable clad manufacture and equipment design and fabrication are addressed.

  5. Fabrication and application of advanced functional materials from lignincellulosic biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Sixiao

    This dissertation explored the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into advanced functional materials and their potential applications. Lignocellulosic biomass represents an as-of-yet underutilized renewable source for not only biofuel production but also functional materials fabrication. This renewable source is a great alternative for fossil fuel based chemicals, which could be one of the solutions to energy crisis. In this work, it was demonstrated a variety of advanced materials including functional carbons, metal and silica nanoparticles could be derived from lignocellulosic biomass. Chapter 1 provided overall reviewed of the lignin structures, productions and its utilizations as plastics, absorbents and carbons, as well as the preparation of nano-structured silver, silica and silicon carbide/nitride from biomass. Chapter 2, 3 and 4 discussed the fabrication of highly porous carbons from isolated lignin, and their applications as electric supercapacitors for energy storage. In chapter 2, ultrafine porous carbon fibers were prepared via electrospinning followed by simultaneous carbonization and activation. Chapter 3 covered the fabrication of supercapacitor based on the porous carbon fibers and the investigation of their electrochemical performances. In chapter 4, porous carbon particulates with layered carbon nano plates structures were produced by simple oven-drying followed by simultaneous carbonization and activation. The effects of heat processing parameters on the resulting carbon structures and their electrochemical properties were discussed in details. Chapter 5 and 6 addressed the preparation of silver nanoparticles using lignin. Chapter 5 reported the synthesis, underlying kinetics and mechanism of monodispersed silver nanospheres with diameter less than 25 nm in aqueous solutions using lignin as dual reducing and capping agents. Chapter 6 covered the preparation of silver nanoparticles on electrospun celluloses ultrafine fibers using lignin as both

  6. PREFACE Conference on Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology (CAMAN 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Aidy

    2011-02-01

    This special issue of IOP Conference Series: Materials science and Engineering contains papers contributed to the Conference on Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology (CAMAN 2009) held on 3-5 November 2009 in Putra World Trade Centre (PWTC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The objective of the congress is to provide a platform for professionals, academicians and researchers to exchange views, findings, ideas and experiences on advanced science and technology. After careful refereeing of all manuscripts, 50 papers were selected for publications in this issue. The policy of editing was the content of the material and its rapid dissemination was more important than its form. In 2009, the conference received close to 120 papers from leading researchers and participants from countries such as Iran, India, Switzerland, Myanmar, Nigeria, Canada, Yemen and Malaysia. We strongly hope the new ideas and results presented will stimulate and enhance the progress of research on the above conference theme. We are grateful to all the authors for their papers and presentations in this conference. They are also the ones who help make this conference possible through their hard work in the preparation of the manuscripts. We would also like to offer our sincere thanks to all the invited speakers who came to share their knowledge with us. We would also like to acknowledge the untiring efforts of the reviewers, research assistants and students in meeting deadlines and for their patience and perseverance. We wish to thank all the authors who contributed papers to the conference and all reviewers for their efforts to review the papers as well as the sponsors. We would also like to thank the members of the CAMAN 2009 Organising Committee and the International Advisory Committee for their efforts in making the conference a success. Thank you very much indeed. Guest Editor Aidy Ali

  7. Advanced materials from natural materials: synthesis of aligned carbon nanotubes on wollastonites.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Meng-Qiang; Zhang, Qiang; Huang, Jia-Qi; Nie, Jing-Qi; Wei, Fei

    2010-04-26

    The growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on natural materials is a low-cost, environmentally benign, and materials-saving method for the large-scale production of CNTs. Directly building 3D CNT architectures on natural materials is a key issue for obtaining advanced materials with high added value. We report the fabrication of aligned CNT arrays on fibrous natural wollastonite. Strongly dispersed iron particles with small sizes were produced on a planar surface of soaked fibrous wollastonite by a reduction process. These particles then catalyzed the decomposition of ethylene, leading to the synchronous growth of CNTs to form leaf- and brush-like wollastonite/CNT hybrids. The as-obtained hybrids could be further transformed into porous SiO(2)/CNT hybrids by reaction with hydrochloric acid. Further treatment with hydrofluoric acid resulted in aligned CNT arrays, with purities as high as 98.7 %. The presented work is very promising for the fabrication of advanced materials with unique structures and properties that can be used as fillers, catalyst supports, or energy-absorbing materials. PMID:20183856

  8. Advanced materials from natural materials: synthesis of aligned carbon nanotubes on wollastonites.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Meng-Qiang; Zhang, Qiang; Huang, Jia-Qi; Nie, Jing-Qi; Wei, Fei

    2010-04-26

    The growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on natural materials is a low-cost, environmentally benign, and materials-saving method for the large-scale production of CNTs. Directly building 3D CNT architectures on natural materials is a key issue for obtaining advanced materials with high added value. We report the fabrication of aligned CNT arrays on fibrous natural wollastonite. Strongly dispersed iron particles with small sizes were produced on a planar surface of soaked fibrous wollastonite by a reduction process. These particles then catalyzed the decomposition of ethylene, leading to the synchronous growth of CNTs to form leaf- and brush-like wollastonite/CNT hybrids. The as-obtained hybrids could be further transformed into porous SiO(2)/CNT hybrids by reaction with hydrochloric acid. Further treatment with hydrofluoric acid resulted in aligned CNT arrays, with purities as high as 98.7 %. The presented work is very promising for the fabrication of advanced materials with unique structures and properties that can be used as fillers, catalyst supports, or energy-absorbing materials.

  9. Development of the recovery technology for nickel superalloy blades of the aircraft engine by laser cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bykovskiy, D. P.; Petrovskiy, V. N.; Polskiy, V. I.; Chirikov, S. N.; Dzhumaev, P. S.

    2016-09-01

    Development of cladding modes was performed with a superalloy nickel based powder on a flat substrate from material identical to compressor and turbine blades. Cross sections were made, and a visual inspection of the shape and the quality of the clad track as well as themetallographic analysis were performed. Microhardness of the deposition zone, chemical composition of the base, cladded metals, and the heat affected zone were determined.

  10. Advances in design and modeling of porous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayral, André; Calas-Etienne, Sylvie; Coasne, Benoit; Deratani, André; Evstratov, Alexis; Galarneau, Anne; Grande, Daniel; Hureau, Matthieu; Jobic, Hervé; Morlay, Catherine; Parmentier, Julien; Prelot, Bénédicte; Rossignol, Sylvie; Simon-Masseron, Angélique; Thibault-Starzyk, Frédéric

    2015-07-01

    This special issue of the European Physical Journal Special Topics is dedicated to selected papers from the symposium "High surface area porous and granular materials" organized in the frame of the conference "Matériaux 2014", held on November 24-28, 2014 in Montpellier, France. Porous materials and granular materials gather a wide variety of heterogeneous, isotropic or anisotropic media made of inorganic, organic or hybrid solid skeletons, with open or closed porosity, and pore sizes ranging from the centimeter scale to the sub-nanometer scale. Their technological and industrial applications cover numerous areas from building and civil engineering to microelectronics, including also metallurgy, chemistry, health, waste water and gas effluent treatment. Many emerging processes related to environmental protection and sustainable development also rely on this class of materials. Their functional properties are related to specific transfer mechanisms (matter, heat, radiation, electrical charge), to pore surface chemistry (exchange, adsorption, heterogeneous catalysis) and to retention inside confined volumes (storage, separation, exchange, controlled release). The development of innovative synthesis, shaping, characterization and modeling approaches enables the design of advanced materials with enhanced functional performance. The papers collected in this special issue offer a good overview of the state-of-the-art and science of these complex media. We would like to thank all the speakers and participants for their contribution to the success of the symposium. We also express our gratitude to the organization committee of "Matériaux 2014". We finally thank the reviewers and the staff of the European Physical Journal Special Topics who made the publication of this special issue possible.

  11. Advanced proton-exchange materials for energy efficient fuel cells.

    SciTech Connect

    Fujimoto, Cy H.; Grest, Gary Stephen; Hickner, Michael A.; Cornelius, Christopher James; Staiger, Chad Lynn; Hibbs, Michael R.

    2005-12-01

    The ''Advanced Proton-Exchange Materials for Energy Efficient Fuel Cells'' Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project began in October 2002 and ended in September 2005. This LDRD was funded by the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy strategic business unit. The purpose of this LDRD was to initiate the fundamental research necessary for the development of a novel proton-exchange membranes (PEM) to overcome the material and performance limitations of the ''state of the art'' Nafion that is used in both hydrogen and methanol fuel cells. An atomistic modeling effort was added to this LDRD in order to establish a frame work between predicted morphology and observed PEM morphology in order to relate it to fuel cell performance. Significant progress was made in the area of PEM material design, development, and demonstration during this LDRD. A fundamental understanding involving the role of the structure of the PEM material as a function of sulfonic acid content, polymer topology, chemical composition, molecular weight, and electrode electrolyte ink development was demonstrated during this LDRD. PEM materials based upon random and block polyimides, polybenzimidazoles, and polyphenylenes were created and evaluated for improvements in proton conductivity, reduced swelling, reduced O{sub 2} and H{sub 2} permeability, and increased thermal stability. Results from this work reveal that the family of polyphenylenes potentially solves several technical challenges associated with obtaining a high temperature PEM membrane. Fuel cell relevant properties such as high proton conductivity (>120 mS/cm), good thermal stability, and mechanical robustness were demonstrated during this LDRD. This report summarizes the technical accomplishments and results of this LDRD.

  12. On the Mechanical Behavior of Advanced Composite Material Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinson, Jack

    During the period between 1993 and 2004, the author, as well as some colleagues and graduate students, had the honor to be supported by the Office of Naval Research to conduct research in several aspects of the behavior of structures composed of composite materials. The topics involved in this research program were numerous, but all contributed to increasing the understanding of how various structures that are useful for marine applications behaved. More specifically, the research topics focused on the reaction of structures that were made of fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites when subjected to various loads and environmental conditions. This included the behavior of beam, plate/panel and shell structures. It involved studies that are applicable to fiberglass, graphite/carbon and Kevlar fibers imbedded in epoxy, polyester and other polymeric matrices. Unidirectional, cross-ply, angle ply, and woven composites were involved, both in laminated, monocoque as well as in sandwich constructions. Mid-plane symmetric as well as asymmetric laminates were studied, the latter involving bending-stretching coupling and other couplings that only can be achieved with advanced composite materials. The composite structures studied involved static loads, dynamic loading, shock loading as well as thermal and hygrothermal environments. One major consideration was determining the mechanical properties of composite materials subjected to high strain rates because the mechanical properties vary so significantly as the strain rate increases. A considerable number of references are cited for further reading and study for those interested.

  13. Nanocrystalline materials: recent advances in crystallographic characterization techniques.

    PubMed

    Ringe, Emilie

    2014-11-01

    Most properties of nanocrystalline materials are shape-dependent, providing their exquisite tunability in optical, mechanical, electronic and catalytic properties. An example of the former is localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), the coherent oscillation of conduction electrons in metals that can be excited by the electric field of light; this resonance frequency is highly dependent on both the size and shape of a nanocrystal. An example of the latter is the marked difference in catalytic activity observed for different Pd nanoparticles. Such examples highlight the importance of particle shape in nanocrystalline materials and their practical applications. However, one may ask 'how are nanoshapes created?', 'how does the shape relate to the atomic packing and crystallography of the material?', 'how can we control and characterize the external shape and crystal structure of such small nanocrystals?'. This feature article aims to give the reader an overview of important techniques, concepts and recent advances related to these questions. Nucleation, growth and how seed crystallography influences the final synthesis product are discussed, followed by shape prediction models based on seed crystallography and thermodynamic or kinetic parameters. The crystallographic implications of epitaxy and orientation in multilayered, core-shell nanoparticles are overviewed, and, finally, the development and implications of novel, spatially resolved analysis tools are discussed.

  14. Nanocrystalline materials: recent advances in crystallographic characterization techniques

    PubMed Central

    Ringe, Emilie

    2014-01-01

    Most properties of nanocrystalline materials are shape-dependent, providing their exquisite tunability in optical, mechanical, electronic and catalytic properties. An example of the former is localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), the coherent oscillation of conduction electrons in metals that can be excited by the electric field of light; this resonance frequency is highly dependent on both the size and shape of a nanocrystal. An example of the latter is the marked difference in catalytic activity observed for different Pd nanoparticles. Such examples highlight the importance of particle shape in nanocrystalline materials and their practical applications. However, one may ask ‘how are nanoshapes created?’, ‘how does the shape relate to the atomic packing and crystallography of the material?’, ‘how can we control and characterize the external shape and crystal structure of such small nanocrystals?’. This feature article aims to give the reader an overview of important techniques, concepts and recent advances related to these questions. Nucleation, growth and how seed crystallography influences the final synthesis product are discussed, followed by shape prediction models based on seed crystallography and thermodynamic or kinetic parameters. The crystallographic implications of epitaxy and orientation in multilayered, core-shell nanoparticles are overviewed, and, finally, the development and implications of novel, spatially resolved analysis tools are discussed. PMID:25485133

  15. Spatial mode-selective waveguide with hyperbolic cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Y.; Xi, Z.; Xu, M.; Bäumer, S.; Adam, A. J. L.; Urbach, H. P.

    2016-09-01

    Hyperbolic Meta-Materials~(HMMs) are anisotropic materials with permittivity tensor that has both positive and negative eigenvalues. Here we report that by using a type II HMM as cladding material, a waveguide which only supports higher order modes can be achieved, while the lower order modes become leaky and are absorbed in the HMM cladding. This counter intuitive property can lead to novel application in optical communication and photonic integrated circuit. The loss in our HMM-Insulator-HMM~(HIH) waveguide is smaller than that of similar guided mode in a Metal-Insulator-Metal~(MIM) waveguide.

  16. PREFACE: International Conference on Advanced Materials (ICAM 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Khateeb, Mohammad Y.

    2015-10-01

    It is with great pleasure to welcome you to the "International Conference of Advanced Materials ICAM 2015" that will take place at Jordan University of Science and Technology (JUST), Irbid, Jordan. This year, the conference coincides with the coming of spring in Jordan; we hope the participants will enjoy the colors and fragrance of April in Jordan. The call for papers attracted submissions of over a hundred abstracts from twenty one different countries. These papers are going to be classified under four plenary lectures, fifteen invited papers, thirty five oral presentations and more than sixty posters covering the different research areas of the conference. The ICAM conference focuses on new advances in research in the field of materials covering chemical, physical and biological aspects. ICAM includes representatives from academia, industry, governmental and private sectors. The plenary and invited speakers will present, discuss, promote and disseminate research in all fields of advanced materials. Topics range from synthesis, applications, and solid state to nano-materials. In addition, talented junior investigators will present their best ongoing research at a poster session. We have also organized several workshops contiguous to the main conference, such as the one-day workshop on "Particle Surface Modification for Improved Applications". The purpose of this short course was to introduce interested materials technologists to several methodologies that have been developed to modify the surfaces of particulate matter. Moreover, a pre-conference workshop on "Communication in Science" was conducted for young scientists. The main goal of this workshop was to train young scientists in matters of interdisciplinary scientific communications. In addition to the scientific program, the attendees will have a chance to discover the beauty of Jordan, a land of rich history and varied culture. Numerous social events that will provide opportunities to renew old contacts and

  17. Using graphitic foam as the bonding material in metal fuel pins for sodium fast reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karahan, Aydın; Kazimi, Mujid S.

    2013-10-01

    The study evaluates the possible use of graphite foam as the bonding material between U-Pu-Zr metallic fuel and steel clad for sodium fast reactor applications using FEAST-METAL fuel performance code. Furthermore, the applicability of FEAST-METAL to the advanced fuel designs is demonstrated. Replacing the sodium bond with a chemically stable foam material would eliminate fuel clad metallurgical interactions, and allow for fuel swelling under low external stress. Hence, a significant improvement is expected for the steady state and transient performance. FEAST-METAL was used to assess the thermo-mechanical behavior of the new fuel form and a reference metallic fuel pin. Nearly unity conversion ratio, 75% smear density U-15Pu-6Zr metallic fuel pin with sodium bond, and T91 cladding was selected as a reference case. It was found that operating the reference case at high clad temperatures (600-660 °C) results in (1) excessive clad wastage formation/clad thinning due to lanthanide migration and formation of brittle phases at clad inner surface, and (2) excessive clad hoop strain at the upper axial section due mainly to the occurrence of thermal creep. The combination of these two factors may lead to cladding breach. The work concludes that replacing the sodium bond with 80% porous graphite foam and reducing the fuel smear density to 70%, it is likely that the fuel clad metallurgical interaction would be eliminated while the fuel swelling is allowed without excessive fuel clad mechanical interaction. The suggested design appears as an alternative for a high performance metallic fuel design for sodium fast reactors.

  18. Improved Thermoelectric Devices: Advanced Semiconductor Materials for Thermoelectric Devices

    SciTech Connect

    2009-12-11

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Phononic Devices is working to recapture waste heat and convert it into usable electric power. To do this, the company is using thermoelectric devices, which are made from advanced semiconductor materials that convert heat into electricity or actively remove heat for refrigeration and cooling purposes. Thermoelectric devices resemble computer chips, and they manage heat by manipulating the direction of electrons at the nanoscale. These devices aren’t new, but they are currently too inefficient and expensive for widespread use. Phononic Devices is using a high-performance, cost-effective thermoelectric design that will improve the device’s efficiency and enable electronics manufacturers to more easily integrate them into their products.

  19. Review of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) materials irradiation facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Goland, A.N. )

    1991-03-01

    The purpose of the workshop was to document as accurately as possible the present and future needs for neutron irradiation capacity and facilities as related to the design of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) which will be the next generation steady-state research reactor. The report provides the findings and recommendations of the working group. After introductory and background information is presented, the discussion includes the status of the ANS design, in particular in-core materials irradiation facilities design and important experimental parameters. The summary of workshop discussions describes a survey of irradiation-effects research community and opportunities for ex-core irradiation facilities. 20 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs. (MHB)

  20. A Novel Approach to Material Development for Advanced Reactor Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Was, G.S.; Atzmon, M.; Wang, L.

    1999-12-22

    OAK B188 A Novel Approach to Material Development for Advanced Reactor Systems. Year one of this project had three major goals. First, to specify, order and install a new high current ion source for more rapid and stable proton irradiation. Second, to assess the use low temperature irradiation and chromium pre-enrichment in an effort to isolate a radiation damage microstructure in stainless steels without the effects of RIS. Third, to prepare for the irradiation of reactor pressure vessel steel and Zircaloy. In year 1 quarter 1, the project goal was to order the high current ion source and to procure and prepare samples of stainless steel for low temperature proton irradiation.

  1. A Novel Approach to Material Development for Advanced Reactor Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Was, G.S.; Atzmon, M.; Wang, L.

    2000-06-27

    OAK B188 A Novel Approach to Material Development for Advanced Reactor Systems. Year one of this project had three major goals. First, to specify, order and install a new high current ion source for more rapid and stable proton irradiation. Second, to assess the use of low temperature irradiation and chromium pre-enrichment in an effort to isolate a radiation damage microstructure in stainless steel without the effects of RIS. Third, to initiate irradiation of reactor pressure vessel steel and Zircaloy. In year 1 quarter 3, the project goal was to complete irradiation of model alloys of RPV steels for a range of doses and begin sample characterization. We also planned to prepare samples for microstructure isolation in stainless steels, and to identify sources of Zircaloy for irradiation and characterization.

  2. HIP clad nickel base Alloy 625 for deep sour wells

    SciTech Connect

    Uhl, W.K.; Pendley, M.R.

    1984-05-01

    The hot isostatic pressing (HIP) process was used to clad nickel base Alloy 625 to AISI 4130 low alloy steel. The performance of the HIP clad material in the corrosive environment characteristic of deep, sour oil and gas wells was evaluated in laboratory tests. Included in the test program were NACE TM-01-77 sulfide stress cracking tests, chloride stress corrosion cracking tests in boiling MgCl /SUB 2'/ , and pitting and crevice corrosion tests. The HIP clad 625 performed excellently, displaying essentially the same corrosion resistance as wrought 625. Specifically the HIP clad 625 resisted sulfide stress cracking at applied stresses as high as 120% of yield strength and resisted chloride stress corrosion cracking at stresses exceeding 100% of yield. The HIP clad 625 also displayed immunity to pitting and crevice corrosion, with corrosion rates of <0.025 mm/y (1 mil/y). The 4130 base metal, however, was attacked severly in all tests. SEM/EDX analysis of the 625/4130 interface demonstrated that dilution of the cladding by the base metal was essentially eliminated.

  3. Real-time laser cladding control with variable spot size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, J. L.; Montealegre, M. A.; Vidal, F.; Rodríguez, J.; Mann, S.; Abels, P.; Motmans, F.

    2014-03-01

    Laser cladding processing has been used in different industries to improve the surface properties or to reconstruct damaged pieces. In order to cover areas considerably larger than the diameter of the laser beam, successive partially overlapping tracks are deposited. With no control over the process variables this conduces to an increase of the temperature, which could decrease mechanical properties of the laser cladded material. Commonly, the process is monitored and controlled by a PC using cameras, but this control suffers from a lack of speed caused by the image processing step. The aim of this work is to design and develop a FPGA-based laser cladding control system. This system is intended to modify the laser beam power according to the melt pool width, which is measured using a CMOS camera. All the control and monitoring tasks are carried out by a FPGA, taking advantage of its abundance of resources and speed of operation. The robustness of the image processing algorithm is assessed, as well as the control system performance. Laser power is decreased as substrate temperature increases, thus maintaining a constant clad width. This FPGA-based control system is integrated in an adaptive laser cladding system, which also includes an adaptive optical system that will control the laser focus distance on the fly. The whole system will constitute an efficient instrument for part repair with complex geometries and coating selective surfaces. This will be a significant step forward into the total industrial implementation of an automated industrial laser cladding process.

  4. Novel particle and radiation sources and advanced materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mako, Frederick

    2016-03-01

    The influence Norman Rostoker had on the lives of those who had the pleasure of knowing him is profound. The skills and knowledge I gained as a graduate student researching collective ion acceleration has fueled a career that has evolved from particle beam physics to include particle and radiation source development and advanced materials research, among many other exciting projects. The graduate research performed on collective ion acceleration was extended by others to form the backbone for laser driven plasma ion acceleration. Several years after graduate school I formed FM Technologies, Inc., (FMT), and later Electron Technologies, Inc. (ETI). Currently, as the founder and president of both FMT and ETI, the Rostoker influence can still be felt. One technology that we developed is a self-bunching RF fed electron gun, called the Micro-Pulse Gun (MPG). The MPG has important applications for RF accelerators and microwave tube technology, specifically clinically improved medical linacs and "green" klystrons. In addition to electron beam and RF source research, knowledge of materials and material interactions gained indirectly in graduate school has blossomed into breakthroughs in materials joining technologies. Most recently, silicon carbide joining technology has been developed that gives robust helium leak tight, high temperature and high strength joints between ceramic-to-ceramic and ceramic-to-metal. This joining technology has the potential to revolutionize the ethylene production, nuclear fuel and solar receiver industries by finally allowing for the practical use of silicon carbide as furnace coils, fuel rods and solar receptors, respectively, which are applications that have been needed for decades.

  5. Radiographic Inspection of Fueled Clads

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy J. Roney; Karen M. Wendt

    2005-04-01

    Five general purpose heat source (GPHS) fueled clads were radiographically inspected at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The girth weld region of each clad had previously passed visual examination, ring gauge test, and leak test but showed “positive” indications on the ultrasonic (UT) test. Positive ultrasonic indications are allowable under certain weld conditions; radiographic inspection provides a secondary nonintrusive means of clad inspection and may confirm allowable anomalies from the UT inspection. All the positive UT indications were found to exhibit allowable weld shield fusion or mismatch conditions. No indication of void defects was found. One additional clad (FCO371) was deemed unacceptable for radiographic inspection due to an unknown black substance that obscured the angular origin on the weld so that the angular offset to the UT indication could not be found.

  6. Multiscale and Multiphysics Modeling of Additive Manufacturing of Advanced Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Frank; Newkirk, Joseph; Fan, Zhiqiang; Sparks, Todd; Chen, Xueyang; Fletcher, Kenneth; Zhang, Jingwei; Zhang, Yunlu; Kumar, Kannan Suresh; Karnati, Sreekar

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this proposed project is to research and develop a prediction tool for advanced additive manufacturing (AAM) processes for advanced materials and develop experimental methods to provide fundamental properties and establish validation data. Aircraft structures and engines demand materials that are stronger, useable at much higher temperatures, provide less acoustic transmission, and enable more aeroelastic tailoring than those currently used. Significant improvements in properties can only be achieved by processing the materials under nonequilibrium conditions, such as AAM processes. AAM processes encompass a class of processes that use a focused heat source to create a melt pool on a substrate. Examples include Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication and Direct Metal Deposition. These types of additive processes enable fabrication of parts directly from CAD drawings. To achieve the desired material properties and geometries of the final structure, assessing the impact of process parameters and predicting optimized conditions with numerical modeling as an effective prediction tool is necessary. The targets for the processing are multiple and at different spatial scales, and the physical phenomena associated occur in multiphysics and multiscale. In this project, the research work has been developed to model AAM processes in a multiscale and multiphysics approach. A macroscale model was developed to investigate the residual stresses and distortion in AAM processes. A sequentially coupled, thermomechanical, finite element model was developed and validated experimentally. The results showed the temperature distribution, residual stress, and deformation within the formed deposits and substrates. A mesoscale model was developed to include heat transfer, phase change with mushy zone, incompressible free surface flow, solute redistribution, and surface tension. Because of excessive computing time needed, a parallel computing approach was also tested. In addition

  7. Probabilistic Failure Analysis for Wound Composite Ceramic Cladding Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Hemrick, James Gordon; Lara-Curzio, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    Advanced ceramic matrix composites based on silicon carbide (SiC) are being considered as candidate material systems for nuclear fuel cladding in light water reactors. The SiC composite structure is considered due to its assumed exceptional performance under accident scenarios, where its excellent high-temperature strength and slow reaction kinetics with steam and associated mitigated hydrogen production are desirable. The specific structures of interest consist of a monolithic SiC cylinder surrounded by interphase-coated SiC woven fibers in a tubular form and infiltrated with SiC. Additional SiC coatings on the outermost surface of the assembly are also being considered to prevent hydrothermal corrosion of the fibrous structure. The inner monolithic cylinder is expected to provide a hermetic seal to contain fission products under normal conditions. While this approach offers the promise of higher burn-up rates and safer behavior in the case of LOCA events, the reliability of such structures must be demonstrated in advance. Therefore, a probability failure analysis study was performed of such monolithic-composite hybrid structures to determine the feasibility of these design concepts. This analysis will be used to predict the future performance of candidate systems in an effort to determine the feasibility of these design concepts and to make future recommendations regarding materials selection.

  8. Experimental and computing strategies in advanced material characterization problems

    SciTech Connect

    Bolzon, G.

    2015-10-28

    The mechanical characterization of materials relies more and more often on sophisticated experimental methods that permit to acquire a large amount of data and, contemporarily, to reduce the invasiveness of the tests. This evolution accompanies the growing demand of non-destructive diagnostic tools that assess the safety level of components in use in structures and infrastructures, for instance in the strategic energy sector. Advanced material systems and properties that are not amenable to traditional techniques, for instance thin layered structures and their adhesion on the relevant substrates, can be also characterized by means of combined experimental-numerical tools elaborating data acquired by full-field measurement techniques. In this context, parameter identification procedures involve the repeated simulation of the laboratory or in situ tests by sophisticated and usually expensive non-linear analyses while, in some situation, reliable and accurate results would be required in real time. The effectiveness and the filtering capabilities of reduced models based on decomposition and interpolation techniques can be profitably used to meet these conflicting requirements. This communication intends to summarize some results recently achieved in this field by the author and her co-workers. The aim is to foster further interaction between engineering and mathematical communities.

  9. The use of advanced materials in space structure applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, D. C. G.; Slachmuylders, E. J.

    The last decade has seen the Space applications of composite materials become almost commonplace in the construction of configurations requiring high stiffness and/or dimensional stability, particularly in the field of antennas. As experience has been accumulated, applications for load carrying structures utilizing the inherent high specific strength/stiffness of carbon fibres have become more frequent. Some typical examples of these and their design development criteria are reviewed. As these structures and the use of new plastic matrices emerge, considerable attention has to be given to establishing essential integrity control requirements from both safety and cost aspects. The advent of manned European space flight places greater emphasis on such requirements. Attention is given to developments in the fields of metallic structures with discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of their application. The design and development of hot structures, thermal protection systems and air-breathing engines for future launch vehicles necessitates the use of the emerging metal/matrix and other advanced materials. Some of their important features are outlined. Means of achieving such objectives by greater harmonization within Europe are emphasized. Typical examples of on-going activities to promote such collaboration are described.

  10. Experimental and computing strategies in advanced material characterization problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolzon, G.

    2015-10-01

    The mechanical characterization of materials relies more and more often on sophisticated experimental methods that permit to acquire a large amount of data and, contemporarily, to reduce the invasiveness of the tests. This evolution accompanies the growing demand of non-destructive diagnostic tools that assess the safety level of components in use in structures and infrastructures, for instance in the strategic energy sector. Advanced material systems and properties that are not amenable to traditional techniques, for instance thin layered structures and their adhesion on the relevant substrates, can be also characterized by means of combined experimental-numerical tools elaborating data acquired by full-field measurement techniques. In this context, parameter identification procedures involve the repeated simulation of the laboratory or in situ tests by sophisticated and usually expensive non-linear analyses while, in some situation, reliable and accurate results would be required in real time. The effectiveness and the filtering capabilities of reduced models based on decomposition and interpolation techniques can be profitably used to meet these conflicting requirements. This communication intends to summarize some results recently achieved in this field by the author and her co-workers. The aim is to foster further interaction between engineering and mathematical communities.

  11. Development of data base with mechanical properties of un- and pre-irradiated VVER cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Asmolov, V.; Yegorova, L.; Kaplar, E.; Lioutov, K.; Smirnov, V.; Prokhorov, V.; Goryachev, A.

    1998-03-01

    Analysis of recent RIA test with PWR and VVER high burnup fuel, performed at CABRI, NSRR, IGR reactors has shown that the data base with mechanical properties of the preirradiated cladding is necessary to interpret the obtained results. During 1997 the corresponding cycle of investigations for VVER clad material was performed by specialists of NSI RRC KI and RIAR in cooperation with NRC (USA), IPSN (France) in two directions: measurements of mechanical properties of Zr-1%Nb preirradiated cladding versus temperature and strain rate; measurements of failure parameters for gas pressurized cladding tubes. Preliminary results of these investigations are presented in this paper.

  12. Advanced materials characterization based on full field deformation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpentier, A. Paige

    Accurate stress-strain constitutive properties are essential for understanding the complex deformation and failure mechanisms for materials with highly anisotropic mechanical properties. Among such materials, glass-fiber- and carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer--matrix composites play a critical role in advanced structural designs. The large number of different methods and specimen types currently required to generate three-dimensional allowables for structural design slows down the material characterization. Also, some of the material constitutive properties are never measured due to the prohibitive cost of the specimens needed. This work shows that simple short-beam shear (SBS) specimens are well-suited for measurement of multiple constitutive properties for composite materials and that can enable a major shift toward accurate material characterization. The material characterization is based on the digital image correlation (DIC) full-field deformation measurement. The full-field-deformation measurement enables additional flexibility for assessment of stress--strain relations, compared to the conventional strain gages. Complex strain distributions, including strong gradients, can be captured. Such flexibility enables simpler test-specimen design and reduces the number of different specimen types required for assessment of stress--strain constitutive behavior. Two key elements show advantage of using DIC in the SBS tests. First, tensile, compressive, and shear stress--strain relations are measured in a single experiment. Second, a counter-intuitive feasibility of closed-form stress and modulus models, normally applicable to long beams, is demonstrated for short-beam specimens. The modulus and stress--strain data are presented for glass/epoxy and carbon/epoxy material systems. The applicability of the developed method to static, fatigue, and impact load rates is also demonstrated. In a practical method to determine stress-strain constitutive relations, the stress

  13. Thermo-mechanical analysis of LWR SiC/SiC composite cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Belgacem, M.; Richet, V.; Terrani, K. A.; Katoh, Y.; Snead, L. L.

    2014-04-01

    A dedicated framework for thermo-mechanical analysis of the in-pile performance of SiC/SiC composite fuel cladding concepts in LWRs has been developed. This analysis framework focuses on cladding and omits any fuel-cladding interaction and fuel behavior. Since radial expansion of the cladding occurs early in life for these ceramic structures, fuel-cladding contact is expected to be delayed or eliminated and therefore it is not considered in this analysis. The analysis inputs recent out-of-pile and in-pile materials property data and phenomenological understanding of material evolution under neutron irradiation for nuclear-grade SiC/SiC composites to provide a best-estimate analysis. The analysis provides insight into the concept design and feasibility of SiC/SiC composite cladding concepts that exhibit significantly different behavior than metallic cladding structures. In particular, absence of any tangible creep (thermal or irradiation) coupled with a large and temperature-gradient-driven irradiation swelling strain gradient across the cladding, drive development of large stresses across the cladding thickness. The resulting analysis indicates that significant stresses develop after a modest neutron dose (∼1 dpa) and a pronounced variation across the cladding thickness exists and is opposite to that observed for metallic cladding structures where swelling or growth strains are either negligible (with small temperature dependence) or absent. Following this thermo-mechanical analysis, a best-estimate and parametric examination of SiC/SiC fuel rod cladding structures has been performed using appropriate Weibull statistics to prescribe basic design guidelines and to begin to define a probable design space.

  14. Spatial mode-selective waveguide with hyperbolic cladding.

    PubMed

    Tang, Y; Xi, Z; Xu, M; Bäumer, S; Adam, A J L; Urbach, H P

    2016-09-15

    Hyperbolic metamaterials (HMMs) are anisotropic materials with a permittivity tensor that has both positive and negative eigenvalues. Here we report that by using a type II HMM as a cladding material, a waveguide that only supports higher-order modes can be achieved, while the lower-order modes become leaky and are absorbed in the HMM cladding. This counter-intuitive property can lead to novel application in optical communications and photonic integrated circuits. The loss in our HMM insulator-HMM (HIH) waveguide is smaller than that of similar guided modes in a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) waveguide. PMID:27628378

  15. CHARACTERIZATION OF HYDROGEN CONTENT IN ZIRCALOY-4 NUCLEAR FUEL CLADDING

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeif, E. A.; Mishra, B.; Olson, D. L.; Lasseigne, A. N.; Krzywosz, K.; Mader, E. V.

    2010-02-22

    Assessment of hydrogen uptake of underwater nuclear fuel clad and component materials will enable improved monitoring of fuel health. Zirconium alloys are used in nuclear reactors as fuel cladding, fuel channels, guide tubes and spacer grids, and are available for inspection in spent fuel pools. With increasing reactor exposure zirconium alloys experience hydrogen ingress due to neutron interactions and water-side corrosion that is not easily quantified without destructive hot cell examination. Contact and non-contact nondestructive techniques, using Seebeck coefficient measurements and low frequency impedance spectroscopy, to assess the hydrogen content and hydride formation within zircaloy 4 material that are submerged to simulate spent fuel pools are presented.

  16. Method and system for edge cladding of laser gain media

    SciTech Connect

    Bayramian, Andrew James; Caird, John Allyn; Schaffers, Kathleen Irene

    2014-03-25

    A gain medium operable to amplify light at a gain wavelength and having reduced transverse ASE includes an input surface and an output surface opposing the input surface. The gain medium also includes a central region including gain material and extending between the input surface and the output surface along a longitudinal optical axis of the gain medium. The gain medium further includes an edge cladding region surrounding the central region and extending between the input surface and the output surface along the longitudinal optical axis of the gain medium. The edge cladding region includes the gain material and a dopant operable to absorb light at the gain wavelength.

  17. U.S. Department of Energy Accident Resistant SiC Clad Nuclear Fuel Development

    SciTech Connect

    George W. Griffith

    2011-10-01

    A significant effort is being placed on silicon carbide ceramic matrix composite (SiC CMC) nuclear fuel cladding by Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Advanced Light Water Reactor Nuclear Fuels Pathway. The intent of this work is to invest in a high-risk, high-reward technology that can be introduced in a relatively short time. The LWRS goal is to demonstrate successful advanced fuels technology that suitable for commercial development to support nuclear relicensing. Ceramic matrix composites are an established non-nuclear technology that utilizes ceramic fibers embedded in a ceramic matrix. A thin interfacial layer between the fibers and the matrix allows for ductile behavior. The SiC CMC has relatively high strength at high reactor accident temperatures when compared to metallic cladding. SiC also has a very low chemical reactivity and doesn't react exothermically with the reactor cooling water. The radiation behavior of SiC has also been studied extensively as structural fusion system components. The SiC CMC technology is in the early stages of development and will need to mature before confidence in the developed designs can created. The advanced SiC CMC materials do offer the potential for greatly improved safety because of their high temperature strength, chemical stability and reduced hydrogen generation.

  18. Properties and features of structure formation CuCr-contact alloys in electron beam cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Durakov, Vasiliy G.; Dampilon, Bair V. E-mail: gnusov@rambler.ru; Gnyusov, Sergey F. E-mail: gnusov@rambler.ru

    2014-11-14

    The microstructure and properties of the contact CuCr alloy produced by electron-beam cladding have been investigated. The effect of the electron beam cladding parameters and preheating temperature of the base metal on the structure and the properties of the coatings has been determined. The bimodal structure of the cladding coating has been established. The short circuit currents tests have been carried out according to the Weil-Dobke synthetic circuit simulating procedure developed for vacuum circuit breakers (VCB) test in real electric circuits. Test results have shown that the electron beam cladding (EBC) contact material has better breaking capacity than that of commercially fabricated sintered contact material. The application of the technology of electron beam cladding for production of contact material would significantly improve specific characteristics and reliability of vacuum switching equipment.

  19. Advanced materials and concepts for energy storage devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Shiang Jen

    Over the last decade, technological progress and advances in the miniaturization of electronic devices have increased demands for light-weight, high-efficiency, and carbon-free energy storage devices. These energy storage devices are expected to play important roles in automobiles, the military, power plants, and consumer electronics. Two main types of electrical energy storage systems studied in this research are Li ion batteries and supercapacitors. Several promising solid state electrolytes and supercapacitor electrode materials are investigated in this research. The first section of this dissertation is focused on the novel results on pulsed laser annealing of Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO). LLZO powders with a tetragonal structure were prepared by a sol-gel technique, then a pulsed laser annealing process was employed to convert the tetragonal powders to cubic LLZO without any loss of lithium. The second section of the dissertation reports on how Li5La 3Nb2O12 (LLNO) was successfully synthesized via a novel molten salt synthesis (MSS) method at the relatively low temperature of 900°C. The low sintering temperature prevented the loss of lithium that commonly occurs during synthesis using conventional solid state or wet chemical reactions. The second type of energy storage device studied is supercapacitors. Currently, research on supercapacitors is focused on increasing their energy densities and lowering their overall production costs by finding suitable electrode materials. The third section of this dissertation details how carbonized woods electrodes were used as supercapacitor electrode materials. A high energy density of 45.6 Wh/kg and a high power density of 2000 W/kg were obtained from the supercapacitor made from carbonized wood electrodes. The high performance of the supercapacitor was discovered to originate from the hierarchical porous structures of the carbonized wood. Finally, the fourth section of this dissertation is on the electrochemical effects of

  20. Recent advances in the molten salt destruction of energetic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pruneda, C. O., LLNL

    1996-09-01

    We have demonstrated the use of the Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) Process for destroying explosives, liquid gun propellant, and explosives-contaminated materials on a 1.5 kg of explosive/hr bench- scale unit (1, 2, 3, 4, 5). In our recently constructed 5 kg/hr pilot- scale unit we have also demonstrated the destruction of a liquid gun propellant and simulated wastes containing HMX (octogen). MSD converts the organic constituents of the waste into non-hazardous substances such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and water. Any inorganic constituents of the waste, such as metallic particles, are retained in the molten salt. The destruction of energetic materials waste is accomplished by introducing it, together with air, into a vessel containing molten salt (a eutectic mixture of sodium, potassium, and lithium carbonates). The following pure explosives have been destroyed in our bench-scale experimental unit located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL) High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF): ammonium picrate, HMX, K- 6 (keto-RDX), NQ, NTO, PETN, RDX, TATB, and TNT. In addition, the following compositions were also destroyed: Comp B, LX- IO, LX- 1 6, LX- 17, PBX-9404, and XM46 (liquid gun propellant). In this 1.5 kg/hr bench-scale unit, the fractions of carbon converted to CO and of chemically bound nitrogen converted to NO{sub x} were found to be well below 1%. In addition to destroying explosive powders and compositions we have also destroyed materials that are typical of residues which result from explosives operations. These include shavings from machined pressed parts of plastic-bonded explosives and sump waste containing both explosives and non-explosive debris. Based on the process data obtained on the bench-scale unit we designed and constructed a next-generation 5 kg/hr pilot-scale unit, incorporating LLNL`s advanced chimney design. The pilot unit has completed process implementation operations and explosives safety reviews. To date, in this

  1. Final report on accident tolerant fuel performance analysis of APMT-Steel Clad/UO₂ fuel and APMT-Steel Clad/UN-U₃Si₅ fuel concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Unal, Cetin; Galloway, Jack D.

    2014-09-12

    In FY2014 our group completed and documented analysis of new Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) concepts using BISON. We have modeled the viability of moving from Zircaloy to stainless steel cladding in traditional light water reactors (LWRs). We have explored the reactivity penalty of this change using the MCNP-based burnup code Monteburns, while attempting to minimize this penalty by increasing the fuel pellet radius and decreasing the cladding thickness. Fuel performance simulations using BISON have also been performed to quantify changes to structural integrity resulting from thinner stainless steel claddings. We account for thermal and irradiation creep, fission gas swelling, thermal swelling and fuel relocation in the models for both Zircaloy and stainless steel claddings. Additional models that account for the lower oxidation stainless steel APMT are also invoked where available. Irradiation data for HT9 is used as a fallback in the absence of appropriate models. In this study the isotopic vectors within each natural element are varied to assess potential reactivity gains if advanced enrichment capabilities were levied towards cladding technologies. Recommendations on cladding thicknesses for a robust cladding as well as the constitutive components of a less penalizing composition are provided. In the first section (section 1-3), we present results accepted for publication in the 2014 TOPFUEL conference regarding the APMT/UO₂ ATF concept (J. Galloway & C. Unal, Accident Tolerant and Neutronically Favorable LWR Cladding, Proceedings of WRFPM 2014, Sendai, Japan, Paper No.1000050). Next we discuss our preliminary findings from the thermo-mechanical analysis of UN-U₃Si₅ fuel with APMT clad. In this analysis we used models developed from limited data that need to be updated when the irradiation data from ATF-1 test is available. Initial results indicate a swelling rate less than 1.5% is needed to prevent excessive clad stress.

  2. Design of intrinsically single-mode double clad crystalline fiber waveguides for high power lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Da; Hong, Pengda; Meissner, Stephanie K.; Meissner, Helmuth E.

    2016-03-01

    Recently, double-clad crystalline fiber waveguides (CFWs), consisting of single crystalline or ceramic RE3+:YAG cores of square cross section and inner claddings of either undoped or laser-inactive-ion-doped YAG and outer claddings of sapphire, have been successfully demonstrated. These waveguides, manufactured by an Adhesive-Free Bonding (AFB®) technique, can be precisely engineered and fabricated with predictable beam propagation behavior. In this work, with high power laser designs in mind, minimum thicknesses for inner cladding are derived for different core cross sections and refractive index differences between the core and inner cladding and sapphire as outer cladding material for common laser core dopants such as Nd3+, Yb3+, Er3+, Tm3+ and Ho3+. All designs are intended to use high NA high power laser diode pumping to obtain high power intrinsically single transverse mode laser output. The obtained data are applicable to any crystalline fiber waveguide design, regardless of fabrication technique. As an example, a CFW with 40 μm × 40 μm 4% Tm:YAG core, 5% Yb:YAG inner cladding, and sapphire outer cladding was calculated to be intrinsically single transverse mode, with the minimum inner cladding width of 21.7 μm determined by the effective index technique [1].

  3. Structure-property correlations in nanostructured WC-12Co microwave clad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zafar, Sunny; Sharma, Apurbba Kumar

    2016-05-01

    Nanostructured materials are known for enhanced properties as compared to their conventional counterparts. In the present work, microwave cladding technique was explored for depositing nanostructured WC-12Co clads on stainless steel substrates. Phase analysis of the WC-12Co microwave clads revealed the presence of Co6W6C, Co7W6, Co3W9C4, W2C and WC phases. The microstructure of the WC-12Co clads confirmed uniform distribution of nano-carbides in the form of clusters enclosed in the carbide network. Mechanical characterisation of the nanostructured clads was carried in terms of microhardness assessment and flexural strength measurement. The microwave induced clads exhibited excellent metallurgical bonding with the substrate and were free from interfacial cracks. The average microhardness of the developed clads was found in the order of 1760 ± 128HV. The flexural strength of the developed clads was observed to be 671 ± 28 MPa. The nanostructured clads exhibited good adhesion with the substrate without getting peeled-off under a load of 3.75 kN and a displacement of 3.72 mm.

  4. Study on the characteristics of an Er/Yb co-doped double cladding fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Zhou; Li, Qiushi; Yan, Mingliang

    2009-07-01

    An Er/Yb co-doped double cladding fiber laser pumped at 980 nm was optimized. The double-cladding fiber laser with whole fiber was obtained by end-pumping and utilizing fiber bragg grating as a resonator. The output power of laser was analyzed along the changes of output grating reflectance (L=10m) as well as the fiber length (R2=4%). Consequently, a fiber with 4 m Er / Yb co-doped double cladding was employed as gain medium while a fiber of which the reflectance was approximately 15% was used as output resonator mirror. Thereafter the technical indexes of EYDF(Er / Yb Double cladding Fiber) were measured. The absorption maximum of fiber core Er3+ was higher than 30dB/m and material gain maximum was observed at 1535nm. Moreover, the diameters of fiber core and inner cladding of double-cladding fiber grating were 6μm and 125μm respectively however the diameters of fiber core and inner cladding of Er/Yb co-doped double cladding fiber were 7μm and 130μm separately.According to the experimental data, a fiber laser with 4 m Er / Yb co-doped double cladding and launched maximum pump power of 3.4 W was set up. Proposed laser shows the maximum output power of 1.25 W and slope efficiency of 40%.

  5. Ultrathin coatings of nanoporous materials as property enhancements for advanced functional materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Coker, Eric Nicholas

    2010-11-01

    This report summarizes the findings of a five-month LDRD project funded through Sandia's NTM Investment Area. The project was aimed at providing the foundation for the development of advanced functional materials through the application of ultrathin coatings of microporous or mesoporous materials onto the surface of substrates such as silicon wafers. Prior art teaches that layers of microporous materials such as zeolites may be applied as, e.g., sensor platforms or gas separation membranes. These layers, however, are typically several microns to several hundred microns thick. For many potential applications, vast improvements in the response of a device could be realized if the thickness of the porous layer were reduced to tens of nanometers. However, a basic understanding of how to synthesize or fabricate such ultra-thin layers is lacking. This report describes traditional and novel approaches to the growth of layers of microporous materials on silicon wafers. The novel approaches include reduction of the quantity of nutrients available to grow the zeolite layer through minimization of solution volume, and reaction of organic base (template) with thermally-oxidized silicon wafers under a steam atmosphere to generate ultra-thin layers of zeolite MFI.

  6. Depleted uranium hexafluoride: The source material for advanced shielding systems

    SciTech Connect

    Quapp, W.J.; Lessing, P.A.; Cooley, C.R.

    1997-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a management challenge and financial liability problem in the form of 50,000 cylinders containing 555,000 metric tons of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) that are stored at the gaseous diffusion plants. DOE is evaluating several options for the disposition of this UF{sub 6}, including continued storage, disposal, and recycle into a product. Based on studies conducted to date, the most feasible recycle option for the depleted uranium is shielding in low-level waste, spent nuclear fuel, or vitrified high-level waste containers. Estimates for the cost of disposal, using existing technologies, range between $3.8 and $11.3 billion depending on factors such as the disposal site and the applicability of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Advanced technologies can reduce these costs, but UF{sub 6} disposal still represents large future costs. This paper describes an application for depleted uranium in which depleted uranium hexafluoride is converted into an oxide and then into a heavy aggregate. The heavy uranium aggregate is combined with conventional concrete materials to form an ultra high density concrete, DUCRETE, weighing more than 400 lb/ft{sup 3}. DUCRETE can be used as shielding in spent nuclear fuel/high-level waste casks at a cost comparable to the lower of the disposal cost estimates. Consequently, the case can be made that DUCRETE shielded casks are an alternative to disposal. In this case, a beneficial long term solution is attained for much less than the combined cost of independently providing shielded casks and disposing of the depleted uranium. Furthermore, if disposal is avoided, the political problems associated with selection of a disposal location are also avoided. Other studies have also shown cost benefits for low level waste shielded disposal containers.

  7. Using advanced electron microscopy for the characterization of catalytic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyrz, William D.

    Catalysis will continue to be vitally important to the advancement and sustainability of industrialized societies. Unfortunately, the petroleum-based resources that currently fuel the energy and consumer product needs of an advancing society are becoming increasingly difficult and expensive to extract as supplies diminish and the quality of sources degrade. Therefore, the development of sustainable energy sources and the improvement of the carbon efficiency of existing chemical processes are critical. Further challenges require that these initiatives are accomplished in an environmentally friendly fashion since the effects of carbon-based emissions are proving to be a serious threat to global climate stability. In this dissertation, materials being developed for sustainable energy and process improvement initiatives are studied. Our approach is to use materials characterization, namely advanced electron microscopy, to analyze the targeted systems at the nano- or Angstrom-scale with the goal of developing useful relationships between structure, composition, crystalline order, morphology, and catalytic performance. One area of interest is the complex Mo-V-M-O (M=Te, Sb, Ta, Nb) oxide system currently being developed for the selective oxidation/ammoxidation of propane to acrylic acid or acrylonitrile, respectively. Currently, the production of acrylic acid and acrylonitrile rely on propylene-based processes, yet significant cost savings could be realized if the olefin-based feeds could be replaced by paraffin-based ones. The major challenge preventing this feedstock replacement is the development of a suitable paraffin-activating catalyst. Currently, the best candidate is the Mo-V-Nb-Te-O complex oxide catalyst that is composed of two majority phases that are commonly referred to as M1 and M2. However, there is a limited understanding of the roles of each component with respect to how they contribute to catalyst stability and the reaction mechanism. Aberration

  8. Materials and Area of Study for Advanced Placement Program in American History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Peter A.

    This paper describes and evaluates benefits of advanced placement programs and identifies materials which can help high school history classroom teachers develop effective advanced placement programs. An advanced placement program is defined as a program which requires a student to do extensive research and writing throughout the school year.…

  9. The Materials Data Facility: Data Services to Advance Materials Science Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaiszik, B.; Chard, K.; Pruyne, J.; Ananthakrishnan, R.; Tuecke, S.; Foster, I.

    2016-07-01

    With increasingly strict data management requirements from funding agencies and institutions, expanding focus on the challenges of research replicability, and growing data sizes and heterogeneity, new data needs are emerging in the materials community. The materials data facility (MDF) operates two cloud-hosted services, data publication and data discovery, with features to promote open data sharing, self-service data publication and curation, and encourage data reuse, layered with powerful data discovery tools. The data publication service simplifies the process of copying data to a secure storage location, assigning data a citable persistent identifier, and recording custom (e.g., material, technique, or instrument specific) and automatically-extracted metadata in a registry while the data discovery service will provide advanced search capabilities (e.g., faceting, free text range querying, and full text search) against the registered data and metadata. The MDF services empower individual researchers, research projects, and institutions to (I) publish research datasets, regardless of size, from local storage, institutional data stores, or cloud storage, without involvement of third-party publishers; (II) build, share, and enforce extensible domain-specific custom metadata schemas; (III) interact with published data and metadata via representational state transfer (REST) application program interfaces (APIs) to facilitate automation, analysis, and feedback; and (IV) access a data discovery model that allows researchers to search, interrogate, and eventually build on existing published data. We describe MDF's design, current status, and future plans.

  10. The Materials Data Facility: Data Services to Advance Materials Science Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaiszik, B.; Chard, K.; Pruyne, J.; Ananthakrishnan, R.; Tuecke, S.; Foster, I.

    2016-08-01

    With increasingly strict data management requirements from funding agencies and institutions, expanding focus on the challenges of research replicability, and growing data sizes and heterogeneity, new data needs are emerging in the materials community. The materials data facility (MDF) operates two cloud-hosted services, data publication and data discovery, with features to promote open data sharing, self-service data publication and curation, and encourage data reuse, layered with powerful data discovery tools. The data publication service simplifies the process of copying data to a secure storage location, assigning data a citable persistent identifier, and recording custom (e.g., material, technique, or instrument specific) and automatically-extracted metadata in a registry while the data discovery service will provide advanced search capabilities (e.g., faceting, free text range querying, and full text search) against the registered data and metadata. The MDF services empower individual researchers, research projects, and institutions to (I) publish research datasets, regardless of size, from local storage, institutional data stores, or cloud storage, without involvement of third-party publishers; (II) build, share, and enforce extensible domain-specific custom metadata schemas; (III) interact with published data and metadata via representational state transfer (REST) application program interfaces (APIs) to facilitate automation, analysis, and feedback; and (IV) access a data discovery model that allows researchers to search, interrogate, and eventually build on existing published data. We describe MDF's design, current status, and future plans.

  11. Mechanochemical synthesis of maghemite/silica nanocomposites: advanced materials for aqueous room-temperature catalysis.

    PubMed

    Ojeda, Manuel; Pineda, Antonio; Romero, Antonio A; Barrón, Vidal; Luque, Rafael

    2014-07-01

    A simple, environmentally friendly, and highly reproducible protocol has been developed for the mechanochemical preparation of advanced nanocatalytic materials in a one-pot process. The materials proved to have unprecedented activities in aqueous Suzuki couplings at room temperature, paving the way for a new generation of highly active and stable advanced nanocatalysts.

  12. Analysis of the influence of advanced materials for aerospace products R&D and manufacturing cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, A. W.; Guo, J. L.; Wang, Z. J.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we pointed out the deficiency of traditional cost estimation model about aerospace products Research & Development (R&D) and manufacturing based on analyzing the widely use of advanced materials in aviation products. Then we put up with the estimating formulas of cost factor, which representing the influences of advanced materials on the labor cost rate and manufacturing materials cost rate. The values ranges of the common advanced materials such as composite materials, titanium alloy are present in the labor and materials two aspects. Finally, we estimate the R&D and manufacturing cost of F/A-18, F/A- 22, B-1B and B-2 aircraft based on the common DAPCA IV model and the modified model proposed by this paper. The calculation results show that the calculation precision improved greatly by the proposed method which considering advanced materials. So we can know the proposed method is scientific and reasonable.

  13. Cost/benefit analysis of advanced materials technologies for future aircraft turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bisset, J. W.

    1976-01-01

    The cost/benefits of advance commercial gas turbine materials are described. Development costs, estimated payoffs and probabilities of success are discussed. The materials technologies investigated are: (1) single crystal turbine blades, (2) high strength hot isostatic pressed turbine disk, (3) advanced oxide dispersion strengthened burner liner, (4) bore entry cooled hot isostatic pressed turbine disk, (5) turbine blade tip - outer airseal system, and (6) advance turbine blade alloys.

  14. ADVANCED CERAMIC MATERIALS FOR NEXT-GENERATION NUCLEAR APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, J.

    2010-09-29

    proliferation), the worldwide community is working to develop and deploy new nuclear energy systems and advanced fuel cycles. These new nuclear systems address the key challenges and include: (1) extracting the full energy value of the nuclear fuel; (2) creating waste solutions with improved long term safety; (3) minimizing the potential for the misuse of the technology and materials for weapons; (4) continually improving the safety of nuclear energy systems; and (5) keeping the cost of energy affordable.

  15. Prediction of Corrosion of Advanced Materials and Fabricated Components

    SciTech Connect

    A. Anderko; G. Engelhardt; M.M. Lencka; M.A. Jakab; G. Tormoen; N. Sridhar

    2007-09-29

    The goal of this project is to provide materials engineers, chemical engineers and plant operators with a software tool that will enable them to predict localized corrosion of process equipment including fabricated components as well as base alloys. For design and revamp purposes, the software predicts the occurrence of localized corrosion as a function of environment chemistry and assists the user in selecting the optimum alloy for a given environment. For the operation of existing plants, the software enables the users to predict the remaining life of equipment and help in scheduling maintenance activities. This project combined fundamental understanding of mechanisms of corrosion with focused experimental results to predict the corrosion of advanced, base or fabricated, alloys in real-world environments encountered in the chemical industry. At the heart of this approach is the development of models that predict the fundamental parameters that control the occurrence of localized corrosion as a function of environmental conditions and alloy composition. The fundamental parameters that dictate the occurrence of localized corrosion are the corrosion and repassivation potentials. The program team, OLI Systems and Southwest Research Institute, has developed theoretical models for these parameters. These theoretical models have been applied to predict the occurrence of localized corrosion of base materials and heat-treated components in a variety of environments containing aggressive and non-aggressive species. As a result of this project, a comprehensive model has been established and extensively verified for predicting the occurrence of localized corrosion as a function of environment chemistry and temperature by calculating the corrosion and repassivation potentials.To support and calibrate the model, an experimental database has been developed to elucidate (1) the effects of various inhibiting species as well as aggressive species on localized corrosion of nickel

  16. Reactor vessel cladding separate effects studies

    SciTech Connect

    Corwin, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    The existence of a layer of tough weld overlay cladding on the interior of a light-water reactor pressure vessel could mitigate damage caused during certain overcooling transients. The potential benefit of the cladding is that it could keep a short surface flaw, which would otherwise become long, from growing either by impeding crack initiation or by arresting a running crack. Two aspects critical to cladding behavior will be reported: irradiation effects on cladding toughness and the response of mechanically loaded, flawed structures in the presence of cladding. 15 refs., 24 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. A comparative study on the wear behaviors of cladding candidates for accident-tolerant fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young-Ho; Byun, Thak Sang

    2015-10-01

    Accident-tolerant fuels are expected to have considerably longer coping time to respond to the loss of active cooling under severe accidents and, at the same time, have comparable or improved fuel performance during normal operation. The wear resistance of accident tolerant fuels, therefore, needs to be examined to determine the applicability of these cladding candidates to the current operating PWRs because the most common failure of nuclear fuel claddings is still caused by grid-to-rod fretting during normal operations. In this study, reciprocating sliding wear tests on three kinds of cladding candidates for accident-tolerant fuels have been performed to investigate the tribological compatibilities of self-mated cladding candidates and to determine the direct applicability of conventional Zirconium-based alloys as supporting structural materials. The friction coefficients of the cladding candidates are strongly influenced by the test environments and coupled materials. The wear test results under water lubrication conditions indicate that the supporting structural materials for the cladding candidates of accident-tolerant fuels need to be replaced with the same cladding materials instead of using conventional Zirconium-based alloys.

  18. DECONTAMINATION OF ZIRCALOY SPENT FUEL CLADDING HULLS

    SciTech Connect

    Rudisill, T; John Mickalonis, J

    2006-09-27

    process by obstructing the removal of contamination. The thermal decomposition of this material is also undesirable if the cladding hulls are melted for volume reduction or to produce waste forms. Handling and disposal of the corrosive off-gas stream and ZrO{sub 2}-containing dross must be addressed. The stability of Zr{sup 4+} in the NHF{sub 4}/NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} solution is also a concern. Precipitation of ammonium zirconium fluorides upon cooling of the dissolving solution was observed in the feasibility experiments. Precipitation of the solids was attributed to the high fluoride to Zr ratios used in the experiments. The solubility of Zr{sup 4+} in NH{sub 4}F solutions decreases as the free fluoride concentration increases. The removal of the ZrO{sub 2} layer from Zircaloy-4 coupons with HF showed a strong dependence on both the concentration and temperature. Very rapid dissolution of the oxide layer and significant amounts of metal was observed in experiments using HF concentrations {ge} 2.5 M. Treatment of the coupons using HF concentrations {le} 1.0 M was very effective in removing the oxide layer. The most effective conditions resulted in dissolution rates which were less than approximately 2 mg/cm{sup 2}-min. With dissolution rates in this range, uniform removal of the oxide layer was obtained and a minimal amount of Zircaloy metal was dissolved. Future HF dissolution studies should focus on the decontamination of actual spent fuel cladding hulls to determine if the treated hulls meet criteria for disposal as a LLW.

  19. Advances in Materials Science for Environmental and Energy Technologies II

    SciTech Connect

    Matyas, Dr Josef; Ohji, Tatsuki; Liu, Xingbo; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Devanathan, Ram; Fox, Kevin; Singh, Mrityunjay; Wong-ng, Winnie

    2013-01-01

    The Materials Science and Technology 2012 Conference and Exhibition (MS&T'12) was held October 7-11, 2012, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. One of the major themes of the conference was Environmental and Energy Issues. Papers from five of the symposia held under that theme are invluded in this volume. These symposia included Materials Issues in Nuclear Waste Management for the 21st Century; Green Technologies for Materials Manufacturing and Processing IV; Energy Storage: Materials, Systems and Applications; Energy Conversion-Photovoltaic, Concentraing Solar Power and Thermoelectric; and Materials Development for Nuclear Applications and Extreme Environments.

  20. Characterisation of pore structures in nanoporous materials for advanced bionanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Heo, K; Yoon, J; Jin, K S; Jin, S; Ree, M

    2006-08-01

    Porous materials are potential candidates for applications in various fields, such as bionanotechnology, gas separation, catalysts and micro-electronics. In particular, their applications in bionanotechnology include biosensors, biomedical implants and microdevices, biosupporters, bio-encapsules, biomolecule separations and biomedical therapy. All these bionanotechnology applications utilise the shape, size and size distribution of pores in porous materials. Therefore the controlled creation of pores with desired shape, size and size distribution is most important in the development of nanoporous materials. Accordingly, the accurate evaluation of pore structure is necessary in the development of nanoporous materials and their applications. This article reviews recent developments in analytical techniques to characterise the pore structures of nanoporous materials.

  1. Part A - Advanced turbine systems. Part B - Materials/manufacturing element of the Advanced Turbine Systems Program

    SciTech Connect

    Karnitz, M.A.

    1996-06-01

    The DOE Offices of Fossil Energy and Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy have initiated a program to develop advanced turbine systems for power generation. The objective of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program is to develop ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior, and cost competitive gas turbine systems for utility and industrial applications. One of the supporting elements of the ATS Program is the Materials/Manufacturing Technologies Task. The objective of this element is to address the critical materials and manufacturing issues for both industrial and utility gas turbines.

  2. Characterization and development of materials for advanced textile composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartness, J. Timothy; Greene, Timothy L.; Taske, Leo E.

    1993-01-01

    Work ongoing under the NASA Langley - Advanced Composite Technology (ACT) program is discussed. The primary emphasis of the work centers around the development and characterization of graphite fiber that has been impregnated with an epoxy powder. Four epoxies have been characterized in towpreg form as to their weaveability and braidability. Initial mechanical properties have been generated on each resin system. These include unidirectional as well as 8-harness satin cloth. Initial 2D and 3D weaving and braiding trials will be reported on as well as initial efforts to develop towpreg suitable for advanced tow placement.

  3. Simulated transient behavior of HT9 cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, N.S.; Huang, F.H.; Hamilton, M.L.

    1988-09-01

    Simulated transient tests were performed on sections of HT9 fast- reactor fuel pin cladding irradiated to a fast fluence of nearly 16 /times/ 10/sup 22/ n/cm/sup 2/ at temperatures ranging from 370 to 620/degree/C. After removing fuel, these specimens were internally pressurized and heated at one of several constant rates (0.56, 5.6, or 110/degree/C/s) until specimen failure occurred. A slight reduction of strength was observed in irradiated cladding, particularly at 110/degree/C/s, when compared with transient results from unirradiated HT9 control specimens; however, this strength reduction did not correlate with either fluence or irradiation temperature. A small reduction of ductility was also observed for irradiated cladding failing at temperatures above 800/degree/C at the lower heating rates (0.56 or 5.6/degree/C/s); irradiated cladding was generally more ductile at 110/degree/C/s than unirradiated HT9 cladding. The HT9 cladding results were compared with similar transient data obtained previously from 20% Cold-Worked Type 316 Stainless Steel (316 SS) cladding. In the unirradiated state, this austenitic cladding is stronger and less ductile than HT9 cladding. However, the 316 SS cladding undergoes a significant loss of strength and ductility during irradiation when in contact with oxide fuel, by a mechanism labeled the fuel adjacency effect (FAE). The FAE is believed to be liquid metal embrittlement from fission products. The HT9 fuel pin cladding remained as strong or stronger than the 316 SS cladding when irradiated in contact with fuel, showing no evidence of the FAE up to the high fluences reported here. The ductility of the irradiated HT9 fuel pin cladding remained significantly greater than that of irradiated 316 SS cladding. 14 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Advanced low-activation materials. Fibre-reinforced ceramic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenici, P.; Scholz, H. W.

    1994-09-01

    A serious safety and environmental concern for thermonuclear fusion reactor development regards the induced radioactivity of the first wall and structural components. The use of low-activation materials (LAM) in a demonstration reactor would reduce considerably its potential risk and facilitate its maintenance. Moreover, decommissioning and waste management including disposal or even recycling of structural materials would be simplified. Ceramic fibre-reinforced SiC materials offer highly appreciable low activation characteristics in combination with good thermomechanical properties. This class of materials is now under experimental investigation for structural application in future fusion reactors. An overview on the recent results is given, covering coolant leak rates, thermophysical properties, compatibility with tritium breeder materials, irradiation effects, and LAM-consistent purity. SiC/SiC materials present characteristics likely to be optimised in order to meet the fusion application challenge. The scope is to put into practice the enormous potential of inherent safety with fusion energy.

  5. Image processing applied to laser cladding process

    SciTech Connect

    Meriaudeau, F.; Truchetet, F.

    1996-12-31

    The laser cladding process, which consists of adding a melt powder to a substrate in order to improve or change the behavior of the material against corrosion, fatigue and so on, involves a lot of parameters. In order to perform good tracks some parameters need to be controlled during the process. The authors present here a low cost performance system using two CCD matrix cameras. One camera provides surface temperature measurements while the other gives information relative to the powder distribution or geometric characteristics of the tracks. The surface temperature (thanks to Beer Lambert`s law) enables one to detect variations in the mass feed rate. Using such a system the authors are able to detect fluctuation of 2 to 3g/min in the mass flow rate. The other camera gives them information related to the powder distribution, a simple algorithm applied to the data acquired from the CCD matrix camera allows them to see very weak fluctuations within both gaz flux (carriage or protection gaz). During the process, this camera is also used to perform geometric measurements. The height and the width of the track are obtained in real time and enable the operator to find information related to the process parameters such as the speed processing, the mass flow rate. The authors display the result provided by their system in order to enhance the efficiency of the laser cladding process. The conclusion is dedicated to a summary of the presented works and the expectations for the future.

  6. Creep and fatigue research efforts on advanced materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayda, John

    1987-01-01

    Two of the more important materials problems encountered in turbine blades of aircraft engines are creep and fatigue. To withstand these high-temperature phenomena modern engines utilize single-crystal, nickel-based superalloys as the material of choice in critical applications. Recent research activities at Lewis on single-crystal blading material as well as future research initiatives on metal matrix composites related to creep and fatigue are discussed. The goal of these research efforts is improving the understanding of microstructure-property relationships and thereby guide material development.

  7. Creep and fatigue research efforts on advanced materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayda, John

    1990-01-01

    Two of the more important materials problems encountered in turbine blades of aircraft engines are creep and fatigue. To withstand these high-temperature phenomena, modern engines utilize single-crystal, nickel-base superalloys as the material of choice in critical applications. This paper will present recent research activities at NASA's Lewis Research Center on single-crystal blading material, related to creep and fatique. The goal of these research efforts is to improve the understanding of microstructure-property relationships and thereby guide material development.

  8. Advanced Industrial Materials Program. Annual progress report, FY 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Stooksbury, F.

    1994-06-01

    Mission of the AIM program is to commercialize new/improved materials and materials processing methods that will improve energy efficiency, productivity, and competitiveness. Program investigators in the DOE national laboratories are working with about 100 companies, including 15 partners in CRDAs. Work is being done on intermetallic alloys, ceramic composites, metal composites, polymers, engineered porous materials, and surface modification. The program supports other efforts in the Office of Industrial Technologies to assist the energy-consuming process industries. The aim of the AIM program is to bring materials from basic research to industrial application to strengthen the competitive position of US industry and save energy.

  9. Neutronic analysis of candidate accident-tolerant cladding concepts in pressurized water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    George, Nathan Michael; Terrani, Kurt A.; Powers, Jeffrey J.; Worrall, Andrew; Maldonado, Ivan

    2014-09-29

    A study analyzed the neutronics of alternate cladding materials in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) environment. Austenitic type 310 (310SS) and 304 stainless steels, ferritic Fe-20Cr-5Al (FeCrAl) and APMT™ alloys, and silicon carbide (SiC)-based materials were considered and compared with Zircaloy-4. SCALE 6.1 was used to analyze the associated neutronics penalty/advantage, changes in reactivity coefficients, and spectral variations once a transition in the cladding was made. In the cases examined, materials containing higher absorbing isotopes invoked a reduction in reactivity due to an increase in neutron absorption in the cladding. Higher absorbing materials produced a harder neutron spectrum in the fuel pellet, leading to a slight increase in plutonium production. A parametric study determined the geometric conditions required to match cycle length requirements for each alternate cladding material in a PWR. A method for estimating the end of cycle reactivity was implemented to compare each model to that of standard Zircaloy-4 cladding. By using a thinner cladding of 350 μm and keeping a constant outer diameter, austenitic stainless steels require an increase of no more than 0.5 wt% enriched 235U to match fuel cycle requirements, while the required increase for FeCrAl was about 0.1%. When modeling SiC (with slightly lower thermal absorption properties than that of Zircaloy), a standard cladding thickness could be implemented with marginally less enriched uranium (~0.1%). Moderator temperature and void coefficients were calculated throughout the depletion cycle. Nearly identical reactivity responses were found when coolant temperature and void properties were perturbed for each cladding material. By splitting the pellet into 10 equal areal sections, relative fission power as a function of radius was found to be similar for each cladding material. FeCrAl and 310SS cladding have a slightly higher fission power near the pellet’s periphery due to

  10. Neutronic analysis of candidate accident-tolerant cladding concepts in pressurized water reactors

    DOE PAGES

    George, Nathan Michael; Terrani, Kurt A.; Powers, Jeffrey J.; Worrall, Andrew; Maldonado, Ivan

    2014-09-29

    A study analyzed the neutronics of alternate cladding materials in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) environment. Austenitic type 310 (310SS) and 304 stainless steels, ferritic Fe-20Cr-5Al (FeCrAl) and APMT™ alloys, and silicon carbide (SiC)-based materials were considered and compared with Zircaloy-4. SCALE 6.1 was used to analyze the associated neutronics penalty/advantage, changes in reactivity coefficients, and spectral variations once a transition in the cladding was made. In the cases examined, materials containing higher absorbing isotopes invoked a reduction in reactivity due to an increase in neutron absorption in the cladding. Higher absorbing materials produced a harder neutron spectrum in themore » fuel pellet, leading to a slight increase in plutonium production. A parametric study determined the geometric conditions required to match cycle length requirements for each alternate cladding material in a PWR. A method for estimating the end of cycle reactivity was implemented to compare each model to that of standard Zircaloy-4 cladding. By using a thinner cladding of 350 μm and keeping a constant outer diameter, austenitic stainless steels require an increase of no more than 0.5 wt% enriched 235U to match fuel cycle requirements, while the required increase for FeCrAl was about 0.1%. When modeling SiC (with slightly lower thermal absorption properties than that of Zircaloy), a standard cladding thickness could be implemented with marginally less enriched uranium (~0.1%). Moderator temperature and void coefficients were calculated throughout the depletion cycle. Nearly identical reactivity responses were found when coolant temperature and void properties were perturbed for each cladding material. By splitting the pellet into 10 equal areal sections, relative fission power as a function of radius was found to be similar for each cladding material. FeCrAl and 310SS cladding have a slightly higher fission power near the pellet’s periphery due to the

  11. Bricklaying Curriculum: Advanced Bricklaying Techniques. Instructional Materials. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turcotte, Raymond J.; Hendrix, Laborn J.

    This curriculum guide is designed to assist bricklaying instructors in providing performance-based instruction in advanced bricklaying. Included in the first section of the guide are units on customized or architectural masonry units; glass block; sills, lintels, and copings; and control (expansion) joints. The next two units deal with cut,…

  12. Vocabulary Materials and Study Strategies at Advanced Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauwels, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on a quasi-experimental study of the effect of different vocabulary study materials and strategies used by upper-intermediate English as a foreign language students in higher education. Students were assigned a selection of 163 words from the Academic Word List and were provided with different types of study materials. They were…

  13. Cladding burst behavior of Fe-based alloys under LOCA

    DOE PAGES

    Terrani, Kurt A.; Dryepondt, Sebastien N.; Pint, Bruce A.; Massey, Caleb P.

    2015-12-17

    Burst behavior of austenitic and ferritic Fe-based alloy tubes has been examined under a simulated large break loss of coolant accident. Specifically, type 304 stainless steel (304SS) and oxidation resistant FeCrAl tubes were studied alongside Zircaloy-2 and Zircaloy-4 that are considered reference fuel cladding materials. Following the burst test, characterization of the cladding materials was carried out to gain insights regarding the integral burst behavior. Given the widespread availability of a comprehensive set of thermo-mechanical data at elevated temperatures for 304SS, a modeling framework was implemented to simulate the various processes that affect burst behavior in this Fe-based alloy. Themore » most important conclusion is that cladding ballooning due to creep is negligible for Fe-based alloys. Thus, unlike Zr-based alloys, cladding cross-sectional area remains largely unchanged up to the point of burst. Furthermore, for a given rod internal pressure, the temperature onset of burst in Fe-based alloys appears to be simply a function of the alloy's ultimate tensile strength, particularly at high rod internal pressures.« less

  14. Cladding burst behavior of Fe-based alloys under LOCA

    SciTech Connect

    Terrani, Kurt A.; Dryepondt, Sebastien N.; Pint, Bruce A.; Massey, Caleb P.

    2015-12-17

    Burst behavior of austenitic and ferritic Fe-based alloy tubes has been examined under a simulated large break loss of coolant accident. Specifically, type 304 stainless steel (304SS) and oxidation resistant FeCrAl tubes were studied alongside Zircaloy-2 and Zircaloy-4 that are considered reference fuel cladding materials. Following the burst test, characterization of the cladding materials was carried out to gain insights regarding the integral burst behavior. Given the widespread availability of a comprehensive set of thermo-mechanical data at elevated temperatures for 304SS, a modeling framework was implemented to simulate the various processes that affect burst behavior in this Fe-based alloy. The most important conclusion is that cladding ballooning due to creep is negligible for Fe-based alloys. Thus, unlike Zr-based alloys, cladding cross-sectional area remains largely unchanged up to the point of burst. Furthermore, for a given rod internal pressure, the temperature onset of burst in Fe-based alloys appears to be simply a function of the alloy's ultimate tensile strength, particularly at high rod internal pressures.

  15. Advanced material separation technique based on dual energy CT scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamyatin, Alexander A.; Natarajan, Anusha; Zou, Yu

    2009-02-01

    We propose a method for material separation using dual energy data. Our method is suitable to separation of three or more materials. In this work we describe our method and show results of numerical simulation and with real dual-energy data of a head phantom. The proposed method of constructing the material separation map consists of the following steps: Data-domain dual energy decomposition - Vector plot - Density plot - Clustering - Color assignment. Density plots are introduced to allow automatic cluster separation. We use special image processing methods, including Gaussian decomposition, to improve the accuracy of material separation. We also propose using the HSL color model for better visualization and to bring a new dimension in material separation display. We study applications of bone removal and virtual contrast removal. Evaluation shows improved accuracy compared to standard methods.

  16. 10 CFR 37.77 - Advance notification of shipment of category 1 quantities of radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of radioactive material. 37.77 Section 37.77 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF CATEGORY 1 AND CATEGORY 2 QUANTITIES OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Physical Protection in Transit § 37.77 Advance notification of shipment of category 1 quantities of radioactive material. As specified...

  17. Recent Advances in Materials for All-Ceramic Restorations

    PubMed Central

    Griggs, Jason A.

    2010-01-01

    SYNOPSIS The past three years of research on materials for all-ceramic veneers, inlays, onlays, single-unit crowns, and multi-unit restorations are reviewed. The primary changes in the field were the proliferation of zirconia-based frameworks and computer-aided fabrication of prostheses, as well as, a trend toward more clinically relevant in vitro test methods. This report includes an overview of ceramic fabrication methods, suggestions for critical assessment of material property data, and a summary of clinical longevity for prostheses constructed of various materials. PMID:17586152

  18. Advanced Modeling and Materials in Kraft Pulp Mills

    SciTech Connect

    Keiser, J.R.; Gorog, J.P.

    2002-05-15

    This CRADA provided technical support to the Weyerhaeuser Company on a number of issues related to the performance and/or selection of materials at a number of locations in a pulp and paper mill. The studies related primarily to components for black liquor recovery boilers, but some effort was directed toward black liquor gasifiers and rolls for paper machines. The purpose of this CRADA was to assist Weyerhaeuser in the evaluation of materials exposed in various paper mill environments and to provide direction in the selection of alternate materials, when appropriate.

  19. Advanced composites: Fabrication processes for selected resin matrix materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welhart, E. K.

    1976-01-01

    This design note is based on present state of the art for epoxy and polyimide matrix composite fabrication technology. Boron/epoxy and polyimide and graphite/epoxy and polyimide structural parts can be successfully fabricated. Fabrication cycles for polyimide matrix composites have been shortened to near epoxy cycle times. Nondestructive testing has proven useful in detecting defects and anomalies in composite structure elements. Fabrication methods and tooling materials are discussed along with the advantages and disadvantages of different tooling materials. Types of honeycomb core, material costs and fabrication methods are shown in table form for comparison. Fabrication limits based on tooling size, pressure capabilities and various machining operations are also discussed.

  20. [Advances in polymer materials as chiral stationary phase].

    PubMed

    Dai, Rongji; Wang, Huiting; Sun, Weiwei; Deng, Yulin; Lü, Fang; Liu, Xiujie

    2016-01-01

    The applications of chiral drugs had a profound impact on human health. With the development of disciplines of chemistry, materials and life science, the research on the separation and analysis of chiral drugs became intensified. Chromatography and the selection of chiral stationary phase played important roles in resolving chiral drugs. The optimization of polymer materials and their derivatives as chiral stationary phase become the main issue in recent years. Recent studies as well as prospects in polymer materials used as chiral stationary phase are presented in this paper. PMID:27319162

  1. Recent advances on polyoxometalate-based molecular and composite materials.

    PubMed

    Song, Yu-Fei; Tsunashima, Ryo

    2012-11-21

    Polyoxometalates (POMs) are a subset of metal oxides with unique physical and chemical properties, which can be reliably modified through various techniques and methods to develop sophisticated materials and devices. In parallel with the large number of new crystal structures reported in the literature, the application of these POMs towards multifunctional materials has attracted considerable attention. This critical review summarizes recent progress on POM-based molecular and composite materials, and particularly highlights the emerging areas that are closely related to surface, electronic, energy, environment, life science, etc. (171 references). PMID:22850732

  2. Recent advances in 2D materials for photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Bin; Liu, Gang; Wang, Lianzhou

    2016-04-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted increasing attention for photocatalytic applications because of their unique thickness dependent physical and chemical properties. This review gives a brief overview of the recent developments concerning the chemical synthesis and structural design of 2D materials at the nanoscale and their applications in photocatalytic areas. In particular, recent progress on the emerging strategies for tailoring 2D material-based photocatalysts to improve their photo-activity including elemental doping, heterostructure design and functional architecture assembly is discussed.

  3. Advances in monoliths and related porous materials for microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Knob, Radim; Sahore, Vishal; Sonker, Mukul; Woolley, Adam T

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, the use of monolithic porous polymers has seen significant growth. These materials present a highly useful support for various analytical and biochemical applications. Since their introduction, various approaches have been introduced to produce monoliths in a broad range of materials. Simple preparation has enabled their easy implementation in microchannels, extending the range of applications where microfluidics can be successfully utilized. This review summarizes progress regarding monoliths and related porous materials in the field of microfluidics between 2010 and 2015. Recent developments in monolith preparation, solid-phase extraction, separations, and catalysis are critically discussed. Finally, a brief overview of the use of these porous materials for analysis of subcellular and larger structures is given. PMID:27190564

  4. Progress in advanced high temperature turbine materials, coatings, and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freche, J. C.; Ault, G. M.

    1977-01-01

    Material categories as well as coatings and recent turbine cooling developments are reviewed. Current state of the art is identified, and as assessment, when appropriate, of progress, problems, and future directions is provided.

  5. Advance assessment for movement of Haz Cat 3 radioactive materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Vosburg, Susan K.

    2010-04-01

    The current packaging of most HC-3 radioactive materials at SNL/NM do not meet DOT requirements for offsite shipment. SNL/NM is transporting HC-3 quantities of radioactive materials from their storage locations in the Manzano Nuclear Facilities bunkers to facilities in TA-5 to be repackaged for offsite shipment. All transportation of HC-3 rad material by SNL/NM is onsite (performed within the confines of KAFB). Transport is performed only by the Regulated Waste/Nuclear Material Disposition Department. Part of the HC3T process is to provide the CAT with the following information at least three days prior to the move: (1) RFt-Request for transfer; (2) HC3T movement report; (3) Radiological survey; and (4) Transportation Route Map.

  6. Development of Processing Techniques for Advanced Thermal Protection Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selvaduray, Guna; Lacson, Jamie; Collazo, Julian

    1997-01-01

    During the period June 1, 1996 through May 31, 1997, the main effort has been in the development of materials for high temperature applications. Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) are constantly being tested and evaluated for thermal shock resistance, high temperature dimensional stability, and tolerance to environmental effects. Materials development was carried out by using many different instruments and methods, ranging from intensive elemental analysis to testing the physical attributes of a material. The material development concentrated on two key areas: (1) development of coatings for carbon/carbon composites, and (2) development of ultra-high temperature ceramics (UHTC). This report describes the progress made in these two areas of research during this contract period.

  7. Recent Advances in Pulp Capping Materials: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Asma; E., Soujanya; Nandakumar; Pratapkumar; Sambashivarao

    2014-01-01

    Emphasis has shifted from the “doomed” organ concept of an exposed pulp to one of hope and recovery. The era of vital-pulp therapy has been greatly enhanced with the introduction of various pulp capping materials. The aim of this article is to summarize and discuss about the various and newer pulp capping materials used for protection of the dentin-pulp complex. PMID:24596805

  8. Advanced and In Situ Analytical Methods for Solar Fuel Materials.

    PubMed

    Chan, Candace K; Tüysüz, Harun; Braun, Artur; Ranjan, Chinmoy; La Mantia, Fabio; Miller, Benjamin K; Zhang, Liuxian; Crozier, Peter A; Haber, Joel A; Gregoire, John M; Park, Hyun S; Batchellor, Adam S; Trotochaud, Lena; Boettcher, Shannon W

    2016-01-01

    In situ and operando techniques can play important roles in the development of better performing photoelectrodes, photocatalysts, and electrocatalysts by helping to elucidate crucial intermediates and mechanistic steps. The development of high throughput screening methods has also accelerated the evaluation of relevant photoelectrochemical and electrochemical properties for new solar fuel materials. In this chapter, several in situ and high throughput characterization tools are discussed in detail along with their impact on our understanding of solar fuel materials.

  9. Advances in Suture Material for Obstetric and Gynecologic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, James A; Clark, Rachel M

    2009-01-01

    Despite millennia of experience with wound closure biomaterials, no study or surgeon has yet identified the perfect suture for all situations. Tissue characteristics, tensile strength, reactivity, absorption rates, and handling properties should be taken into account when selecting a wound closure suture. This review discusses the wound healing process and the biomechanical properties of currently available suture materials to better understand how to choose suture material in obstetrics and gynecology. PMID:19826572

  10. Advanced techniques for characterization of ion beam modified materials

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yanwen; Debelle, Aurélien; Boulle, Alexandre; Kluth, Patrick; Tuomisto, Filip

    2014-10-30

    Understanding the mechanisms of damage formation in materials irradiated with energetic ions is essential for the field of ion-beam materials modification and engineering. Utilizing incident ions, electrons, photons, and positrons, various analysis techniques, including Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), electron RBS, Raman spectroscopy, high-resolution X-ray diffraction, small-angle X-ray scattering, and positron annihilation spectroscopy, are routinely used or gaining increasing attention in characterizing ion beam modified materials. The distinctive information, recent developments, and some perspectives in these techniques are reviewed in this paper. Applications of these techniques are discussed to demonstrate their unique ability for studying ion-solid interactions and the corresponding radiation effects in modified depths ranging from a few nm to a few tens of μm, and to provide information on electronic and atomic structure of the materials, defect configuration and concentration, as well as phase stability, amorphization and recrystallization processes. Finally, such knowledge contributes to our fundamental understanding over a wide range of extreme conditions essential for enhancing material performance and also for design and synthesis of new materials to address a broad variety of future energy applications.

  11. Advanced techniques for characterization of ion beam modified materials

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Yanwen; Debelle, Aurélien; Boulle, Alexandre; Kluth, Patrick; Tuomisto, Filip

    2014-10-30

    Understanding the mechanisms of damage formation in materials irradiated with energetic ions is essential for the field of ion-beam materials modification and engineering. Utilizing incident ions, electrons, photons, and positrons, various analysis techniques, including Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), electron RBS, Raman spectroscopy, high-resolution X-ray diffraction, small-angle X-ray scattering, and positron annihilation spectroscopy, are routinely used or gaining increasing attention in characterizing ion beam modified materials. The distinctive information, recent developments, and some perspectives in these techniques are reviewed in this paper. Applications of these techniques are discussed to demonstrate their unique ability for studying ion-solid interactions and the corresponding radiationmore » effects in modified depths ranging from a few nm to a few tens of μm, and to provide information on electronic and atomic structure of the materials, defect configuration and concentration, as well as phase stability, amorphization and recrystallization processes. Finally, such knowledge contributes to our fundamental understanding over a wide range of extreme conditions essential for enhancing material performance and also for design and synthesis of new materials to address a broad variety of future energy applications.« less

  12. Advanced structural analysis of nanoporous materials by thermal response measurements.

    PubMed

    Oschatz, Martin; Leistner, Matthias; Nickel, Winfried; Kaskel, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    Thermal response measurements based on optical adsorption calorimetry are presented as a versatile tool for the time-saving and profound characterization of the pore structure of porous carbon-based materials. This technique measures the time-resolved temperature change of an adsorbent during adsorption of a test gas. Six carbide and carbon materials with well-defined nanopore architecture including micro- and/or mesopores are characterized by thermal response measurements based on n-butane and carbon dioxide as the test gases. With this tool, the pore systems of the model materials can be clearly distinguished and accurately analyzed. The obtained calorimetric data are correlated with the adsorption/desorption isotherms of the materials. The pore structures can be estimated from a single experiment due to different adsorption enthalpies/temperature increases in micro- and mesopores. Adsorption/desorption cycling of n-butane at 298 K/1 bar with increasing desorption time allows to determine the pore structure of the materials in more detail due to different equilibration times. Adsorption of the organic test gas at selected relative pressures reveals specific contributions of particular pore systems to the increase of the temperature of the samples and different adsorption mechanisms. The use of carbon dioxide as the test gas at 298 K/1 bar provides detailed insights into the ultramicropore structure of the materials because under these conditions the adsorption of this test gas is very sensitive to the presence of pores smaller than 0.7 nm. PMID:25773383

  13. DECONTAMINATION OF ZIRCALOY CLADDING HULLS FROM SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Rudisill, T.

    2010-09-29

    The feasibility of decontaminating spent fuel cladding hulls using hydrofluoric acid (HF) was investigated as part of the Global Energy Nuclear Partnership (GNEP) Separations Campaign. The concentrations of the fission product and transuranic (TRU) isotopes in the decontaminated hulls were compared to the limits for determining the low level waste (LLW) classification in the United States (US). The {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs concentrations met the disposal criteria for a Class C LLW; although, in a number of experiments the criteria for disposal as a Class B LLW were met. The TRU concentration in the hulls generally exceeded the Class C LLW limit by at least an order of magnitude. The concentration decreased sharply as the initial 30-40 {micro}m of the cladding hull surface were removed. At depths beyond this point, the TRU activity remained relatively constant, well above the Class C limit. Reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel generates a cladding waste which would likely require disposal as a Greater than Class C LLW in the US. If the cladding hulls could be treated to remove a majority of the actinide and fission product contamination, the hulls could potentially meet acceptance criteria for disposal as a LLW or allow recycle of the Zr metal. Discard of the hulls as a LLW would result in significant cost savings compared to disposal as a Greater than Class C waste which currently has no disposition path. During fuel irradiation and reprocessing, radioactive materials are produced and deposited in the Zircaloy cladding. Due to short depths of penetration, the majority of the fission products and actinide elements are located in the ZrO{sub 2} layer which forms on the surface of the cladding during fuel irradiation. Therefore, if the oxide layer is removed, the majority of the contamination should also be removed. It is very difficult, if not impossible to remove all of the activity from spent fuel cladding since traces of U and Th in the unirradiated Zircaloy

  14. Evaluation of Missing Pellet Surface Geometry on Cladding Stress Distribution and Magnitude

    SciTech Connect

    Capps, Nathan A.; Montgomery, Robert O.; Sunderland, Dion J.; Spencer, Ben; Pytel, Martin; Wirth, Brian D.

    2014-10-01

    Missing pellet surface (MPS) defects are local geometric defects that periodically occur in nuclear fuel pellets, usually as a result of the mishandling during the manufacturing process. The presences of these defects can lead to clad stress concentrations that are substantial enough to cause a through wall failure for certain conditions of power level, burnup, and power increase. Consequently, the impact of potential MPS defects has limited the rate of power increase or ramp rates in both PWR and BWR systems. Improved 3D MPS models that consider the effect of the MPS geometry can provide better understanding of the margins against PCMI clad failure. The Peregrine fuel performance code has been developed as a part the Consortium of Advanced Simulations of Light Water Reactors (CASL) to consider the inherently multi-physics and multi-dimensional mechanisms that control fuel behavior, including cladding failure by the presence of MPS defects. This paper presents an evaluation of the cladding stress concentrations as a function of MPS defect geometry. The results are the first step in a probabilistic approach to assess cladding failure during power maneuvers. This analysis provides insight into how varying pellet defect geometries affect the distribution of the cladding stress and fuel and cladding temperature and will be used to develop stress concentration factors for 2D and 3D models.

  15. Fabrication of advanced electrochemical energy materials using sol-gel processing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, C. T.; Chu, Jay; Zheng, Haixing

    1995-01-01

    Advanced materials play an important role in electrochemical energy devices such as batteries, fuel cells, and electrochemical capacitors. They are being used as both electrodes and electrolytes. Sol-gel processing is a versatile solution technique used in fabrication of ceramic materials with tailored stoichiometry, microstructure, and properties. The application of sol-gel processing in the fabrication of advanced electrochemical energy materials will be presented. The potentials of sol-gel derived materials for electrochemical energy applications will be discussed along with some examples of successful applications. Sol-gel derived metal oxide electrode materials such as V2O5 cathodes have been demonstrated in solid-slate thin film batteries; solid electrolytes materials such as beta-alumina for advanced secondary batteries had been prepared by the sol-gel technique long time ago; and high surface area transition metal compounds for capacitive energy storage applications can also be synthesized with this method.

  16. Models for the Configuration and Integrity of Partially Oxidized Fuel Rod Cladding at High Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Siefken, L.J.

    1999-01-01

    Models were designed to resolve deficiencies in the SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3.2 calculations of the configuration and integrity of hot, partially oxidized cladding. These models are expected to improve the calculations of several important aspects of fuel rod behavior. First, an improved mapping was established from a compilation of PIE results from severe fuel damage tests of the configuration of melted metallic cladding that is retained by an oxide layer. The improved mapping accounts for the relocation of melted cladding in the circumferential direction. Then, rules based on PIE results were established for calculating the effect of cladding that has relocated from above on the oxidation and integrity of the lower intact cladding upon which it solidifies. Next, three different methods were identified for calculating the extent of dissolution of the oxidic part of the cladding due to its contact with the metallic part. The extent of dissolution effects the stress and thus the integrity of the oxidic part of the cladding. Then, an empirical equation was presented for calculating the stress in the oxidic part of the cladding and evaluating its integrity based on this calculated stress. This empirical equation replaces the current criterion for loss of integrity which is based on temperature and extent of oxidation. Finally, a new rule based on theoretical and experimental results was established for identifying the regions of a fuel rod with oxidation of both the inside and outside surfaces of the cladding. The implementation of these models is expected to eliminate the tendency of the SCDAP/RELAP5 code to overpredict the extent of oxidation of the upper part of fuel rods and to underpredict the extent of oxidation of the lower part of fuel rods and the part with a high concentration of relocated material. This report is a revision and reissue of the report entitled, Improvements in Modeling of Cladding Oxidation and Meltdown.

  17. Analysis of Cladding Residues from the Dissolution of Irradiated Dresden-1 Reactor Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    KESSINGER, GF.

    2004-05-27

    The primary goal of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of the chop-leach spent fuel dissolution process, with nitric acid dissolvent, for removing actinides and fission products from Zircaloy cladding to produce a cladding capable of meeting low-level waste (LLW) disposal criteria. Analysis of the cladding shows that actinides are present in the cladding at concentrations 50 to 400 times greater than the acceptable TRU limit in LLW. It appears that the nitric acid used for dissolution (initial concentration 4 M, with 10 M added as the dissolution proceeded) was inadequate for solubilizing the fuel meat. Scanning electron micrographs of the as-sampled cladding surface showed particles of material high in U on the surface of the cut samples, suggesting the fuel meat was not completely dissolved. If the cladding is to meet LLW disposal limits, it is likely that a more robust chemical treatment will be required to more completely digest the fuel meat. Based on the available analytical results, and the interpretation of those results, the following conclusions are drawn. The chop-leach method, as performed initially was inadequate for complete digestion of the fuel meat present in the Dresden-1 fuel samples studied. This failure of the dissolution process resulted in cladding samples that contained TRU actinides about 400 times more TRU content than is allowable in LLW. The inductively-coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP-ES) method appears to overestimate the quantities of a variety of elements, such as Ag, Ce, Gd, La, and Sb. It is believed this phenomenon is related to spectral interferences from d-block and f-block elements. Future studies should be performed to determine the efficacy of leaching to chemically polish the cladding surface and remove undissolved fuel meat. Further analyses of cladding samples, to more thoroughly characterize the nature of the U- and TRU-bearing phases present in the cladding, are recommended.

  18. Analysis of Advanced Thermoelectric Materials and Their Functional Limits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hyun Jung

    2015-01-01

    The world's demand for energy is increasing dramatically, but the best energy conversion systems operate at approximately 30% efficiency. One way to decrease energy loss is in the recovery of waste heat using thermoelectric (TE) generators. A TE generator is device that generates electricity by exploiting heat flow across a thermal gradient. The efficiency of a TE material for power generation and cooling is determined by the dimensionless Figure of Merit (ZT): ZT = S(exp. 2)sigmaT/?: where S is the Seebeck coefficient, sigma is the electrical conductivity, T is the absolute temperature, and ? is the thermal conductivity. The parameters are not physically independent, but intrinsically coupled since they are a function of the transport properties of electrons. Traditional research on TE materials has focused on synthesizing bulk semiconductor-type materials that have low thermal conductivity and high electrical conductivity affording ZT values of 1. The optimization of the s/? ratio is difficult to achieve using current material formats, as these material constants are complementary. Recent areas of research are focusing on using nanostructural artifacts that introduce specific dislocations and boundary conditions that scatter the phonons. This disrupts the physical link between thermal (phonon) and electrical (electron) transport. The result is that ? is decreased without decreasing s. These material formats give ZT values of up to 2 which represent approximately 18% energy gain from waste heat recovery. The next challenge in developing the next generation of TE materials with superior performance is to tailor the interconnected thermoelectric physical parameters of the material system. In order to approach this problem, the fundamental physics of each parameter S, sigma, and ? need to be physically understood in their context of electron/phonon interaction for the construction of new high ZT thermoelectric devices. Is it possible to overcome the physical limit

  19. Novel Super-Elastic Materials for Advanced Bearing Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Tribological surfaces of mechanical components encounter harsh conditions in terrestrial, marine and aerospace environments. Brinell denting, abrasive wear and fatigue often lead to life-limiting bearing and gear failures. Novel superelastic materials based upon Ni-Ti alloys are an emerging solution. Ni-Ti alloys are intermetallic materials that possess characteristics of both metals and ceramics. Ni-Ti alloys have intrinsically good aqueous corrosion resistance (they cannot rust), high hardness, relatively low elastic modulus, are chemically inert and readily lubricated. Ni-Ti alloys also belong to the family of superelastics and, despite high hardness, are able to withstand large strains without suffering permanent plastic deformation. In this paper, the use of hard, resilient Ni-Ti alloys for corrosion-proof, shockproof bearing and gear applications are presented. Through a series of bearing and gear development projects, it is demonstrated that Ni-Tis unique blend of materials properties lead to significantly improved load capacity, reduced weight and intrinsic corrosion resistance not found in any other bearing materials. Ni-Ti thus represents a new materials solution to demanding tribological applications.

  20. Overview of bacterial cellulose composites: a multipurpose advanced material.

    PubMed

    Shah, Nasrullah; Ul-Islam, Mazhar; Khattak, Waleed Ahmad; Park, Joong Kon

    2013-11-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) has received substantial interest owing to its unique structural features and impressive physico-mechanical properties. BC has a variety of applications in biomedical fields, including use as biomaterial for artificial skin, artificial blood vessels, vascular grafts, scaffolds for tissue engineering, and wound dressing. However, pristine BC lacks certain properties, which limits its applications in various fields; therefore, synthesis of BC composites has been conducted to address these limitations. A variety of BC composite synthetic strategies have been developed based on the nature and relevant applications of the combined materials. BC composites are primarily synthesized through in situ addition of reinforcement materials to BC synthetic media or the ex situ penetration of such materials into BC microfibrils. Polymer blending and solution mixing are less frequently used synthetic approaches. BC composites have been synthesized using numerous materials ranging from organic polymers to inorganic nanoparticles. In medical fields, these composites are used for tissue regeneration, healing of deep wounds, enzyme immobilization, and synthesis of medical devices that could replace cardiovascular and other connective tissues. Various electrical products, including biosensors, biocatalysts, E-papers, display devices, electrical instruments, and optoelectronic devices, are prepared from BC composites with conductive materials. In this review, we compiled various synthetic approaches for BC composite synthesis, classes of BC composites, and applications of BC composites. This study will increase interest in BC composites and the development of new ideas in this field.

  1. Advanced algorithms for radiographic material discrimination and inspection system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Andrew J.; McDonald, Benjamin S.; Deinert, Mark R.

    2016-10-01

    X-ray and neutron radiography are powerful tools for non-invasively inspecting the interior of objects. However, current methods are limited in their ability to differentiate materials when multiple materials are present, especially within large and complex objects. Past work has demonstrated that the spectral shift that X-ray beams undergo in traversing an object can be used to detect and quantify nuclear materials. The technique uses a spectrally sensitive detector and an inverse algorithm that varies the composition of the object until the X-ray spectrum predicted by X-ray transport matches the one measured. Here we show that this approach can be adapted to multi-mode radiography, with energy integrating detectors, and that the Cramér-Rao lower bound can be used to choose an optimal set of inspection modes a priori. We consider multi-endpoint X-ray radiography alone, or in combination with neutron radiography using deuterium-deuterium (DD) or deuterium-tritium (DT) sources. We show that for an optimal mode choice, the algorithm can improve discrimination between high-Z materials, specifically between tungsten and plutonium, and estimate plutonium mass within a simulated nuclear material storage system to within 1%.

  2. Development of Processing Techniques for Advanced Thermal Protection Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selvaduray, Guna; Cox, Michael; Srinivasan, Vijayakumar

    1997-01-01

    Thermal Protection Materials Branch (TPMB) has been involved in various research programs to improve the properties and structural integrity of the existing aerospace high temperature materials. Specimens from various research programs were brought into the analytical laboratory for the purpose of obtaining and refining the material characterization. The analytical laboratory in TPMB has many different instruments which were utilized to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of materials. Some of the instruments that were utilized by the SJSU students are: Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray Diffraction Spectrometer (XRD), Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Ultra Violet Spectroscopy/Visible Spectroscopy (UV/VIS), Particle Size Analyzer (PSA), and Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICP-AES). The above mentioned analytical instruments were utilized in the material characterization process of the specimens from research programs such as: aerogel ceramics (I) and (II), X-33 Blankets, ARC-Jet specimens, QUICFIX specimens and gas permeability of lightweight ceramic ablators. In addition to analytical instruments in the analytical laboratory at TPMB, there are several on-going experiments. One particular experiment allows the measurement of permeability of ceramic ablators. From these measurements, physical characteristics of the ceramic ablators can be derived.

  3. Advancing Materials Science using Neutrons at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, John

    2014-04-24

    Jack Carpenter, pioneer of accelerator-based pulsed spallation neutron sources, talks about neutron science at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and a need for a second target station at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). ORNL is the Department of Energy's largest multiprogram science and energy laboratory, and is home to two scientific user facilities serving the neutron science research community: the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and SNS. HFIR and SNS provide researchers with unmatched capabilities for understanding the structure and properties of materials, macromolecular and biological systems, and the fundamental physics of the neutron. Neutrons provide a window through which to view materials at a microscopic level that allow researchers to develop better materials and better products. Neutrons enable us to understand materials we use in everyday life. Carpenter explains the need for another station to produce long wavelength neutrons, or cold neutrons, to answer questions that are addressed only with cold neutrons. The second target station is optimized for that purpose. Modern technology depends more and more upon intimate atomic knowledge of materials, and neutrons are an ideal probe.

  4. Advanced ceramic material for high temperature turbine tip seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, N. G.; Vogan, J. W.

    1978-01-01

    Ceramic material systems are being considered for potential use as turbine blade tip gas path seals at temperatures up to 1370 1/4 C. Silicon carbide and silicon nitride structures were selected for study since an initial analysis of the problem gave these materials the greatest potential for development into a successful materials system. Segments of silicon nitride and silicon carbide materials over a range of densities, processed by various methods, a honeycomb structure of silicon nitride and ceramic blade tip inserts fabricated from both materials by hot pressing were tested singly and in combination. The evaluations included wear under simulated engine blade tip rub conditions, thermal stability, impact resistance, machinability, hot gas erosion and feasibility of fabrication into engine components. The silicon nitride honeycomb and low-density silicon carbide using a selected grain size distribution gave the most promising results as rub-tolerant shroud liners. Ceramic blade tip inserts made from hot-pressed silicon nitride gave excellent test results. Their behavior closely simulated metal tips. Wear was similar to that of metals but reduced by a factor of six.

  5. Advancing Materials Science using Neutrons at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    ScienceCinema

    Carpenter, John

    2016-07-12

    Jack Carpenter, pioneer of accelerator-based pulsed spallation neutron sources, talks about neutron science at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and a need for a second target station at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). ORNL is the Department of Energy's largest multiprogram science and energy laboratory, and is home to two scientific user facilities serving the neutron science research community: the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and SNS. HFIR and SNS provide researchers with unmatched capabilities for understanding the structure and properties of materials, macromolecular and biological systems, and the fundamental physics of the neutron. Neutrons provide a window through which to view materials at a microscopic level that allow researchers to develop better materials and better products. Neutrons enable us to understand materials we use in everyday life. Carpenter explains the need for another station to produce long wavelength neutrons, or cold neutrons, to answer questions that are addressed only with cold neutrons. The second target station is optimized for that purpose. Modern technology depends more and more upon intimate atomic knowledge of materials, and neutrons are an ideal probe.

  6. Recent Advances in Self-Oscillating Polymer Material Systems.

    PubMed

    Tamate, Ryota; Mizutani Akimoto, Aya; Yoshida, Ryo

    2016-08-01

    In 1996, we first reported self-oscillating polymer gels exhibiting autonomous swelling-deswelling oscillations driven by the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction. In contrast to conventional stimuli-responsive gels, the self-oscillating gel can autonomously and periodically change its volume in a closed solution without any external stimuli. Since the first report, the novel concept of self-oscillating gels has been expanded into various polymer and gel systems. Herein, we summarize recent advances in self-oscillating polymers and gels. PMID:27265869

  7. Advanced Materials Research with 3RD Generation Synchrotron Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soukiassian, P.; D'angelo, M.; Enriquez, H.; Aristov, V. Yu.

    H and D surface nanochemistry on an advanced wide band gap semiconductor, silicon carbide is investigated by synchrotron radiation-based core level and valence band photoemission, infrared absorption and scanning tunneling spectroscopy, showing the 1st example of H/D-induced semiconductor surface metallization, that also occurs on a pre-oxidized surface. These results are compared to recent state-of-the-art ab-initio total energy calculations. Most interestingly, an amazing isotopic behavior is observed with a smaller charge transfer from D atoms suggesting the role of dynamical effects. Such findings are especially exciting in semiconductor physics and in interface with biology.

  8. Advanced Process Technology: Combi Materials Science and Atmospheric Processing (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-06-01

    Capabilities fact sheet for the National Center for Photovoltaics: Process Technology and Advanced Concepts -- High-Throughput Combi Material Science and Atmospheric Processing that includes scope, core competencies and capabilities, and contact/web information.

  9. Advanced materials development for multi-junction monolithic photovoltaic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, L.R.; Reno, J.L.

    1996-07-01

    We report results in three areas of research relevant to the fabrication of monolithic multi-junction photovoltaic devices. (1) The use of compliant intervening layers grown between highly mismatched materials, GaAs and GaP (same lattice constant as Si), is shown to increase the structural quality of the GaAs overgrowth. (2) The use of digital alloys applied to the MBE growth of GaAs{sub x}Sb{sub l-x} (a candidate material for a two junction solar cell) provides increased control of the alloy composition without degrading the optical properties. (3) A nitrogen plasma discharge is shown to be an excellent p-type doping source for CdTe and ZnTe, both of which are candidate materials for a two junction solar cell.

  10. Recent Advances and Developments in Composite Dental Restorative Materials

    PubMed Central

    Cramer, N.B.; Stansbury, J.W.; Bowman, C.N.

    2011-01-01

    Composite dental restorations represent a unique class of biomaterials with severe restrictions on biocompatibility, curing behavior, esthetics, and ultimate material properties. These materials are presently limited by shrinkage and polymerization-induced shrinkage stress, limited toughness, the presence of unreacted monomer that remains following the polymerization, and several other factors. Fortunately, these materials have been the focus of a great deal of research in recent years with the goal of improving restoration performance by changing the initiation system, monomers, and fillers and their coupling agents, and by developing novel polymerization strategies. Here, we review the general characteristics of the polymerization reaction and recent approaches that have been taken to improve composite restorative performance. PMID:20924063

  11. Recent advances and developments in composite dental restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Cramer, N B; Stansbury, J W; Bowman, C N

    2011-04-01

    Composite dental restorations represent a unique class of biomaterials with severe restrictions on biocompatibility, curing behavior, esthetics, and ultimate material properties. These materials are presently limited by shrinkage and polymerization-induced shrinkage stress, limited toughness, the presence of unreacted monomer that remains following the polymerization, and several other factors. Fortunately, these materials have been the focus of a great deal of research in recent years with the goal of improving restoration performance by changing the initiation system, monomers, and fillers and their coupling agents, and by developing novel polymerization strategies. Here, we review the general characteristics of the polymerization reaction and recent approaches that have been taken to improve composite restorative performance. PMID:20924063

  12. Development of processing techniques for advanced thermal protection materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selvaduray, Guna S.

    1995-01-01

    The main purpose of this work has been in the development and characterization of materials for high temperature applications. Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) are constantly being tested, and evaluated for increased thermal shock resistance, high temperature dimensional stability, and tolerance to environmental effects. Materials development was carried out through the use of many different instruments and methods, ranging from extensive elemental analysis to physical attributes testing. The six main focus areas include: (1) protective coatings for carbon/carbon composites; (2) TPS material characterization; (3) improved waterproofing for TPS; (4) modified ceramic insulation for bone implants; (5) improved durability ceramic insulation blankets; and (6) ultra-high temperature ceramics. This report describes the progress made in these research areas during this contract period.

  13. Advanced Strain-Isolation-Pad Material with Bonded Fibrous Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seibold, R. W.; Saito, C. A.; Buller, B. W.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of utilizing air lay and liquid lay felt deposition techniques to fabricate strain isolation pad (SIP) materials for the Space Shuttle Orbiter was demonstrated. These materials were developed as candidate replacements for the present needled felt SIP used between the ceramic tiles and the aluminum skin on the undersurface of the Orbiter. The SIP materials that were developed consisted of high temperature aramid fibers deposited by controlled fluid (air or liquid) carriers to form low density unbonded felts. The deposited felts were then bonded at the fiber intersections with a small amount of high temperature polyimide resin. This type of bonded felt construction can potentially eliminate two of the problems associated with the present SIP, viz., transmittal of localized stresses into the tiles and load history dependent mechanical response. However, further work is needed to achieve adequate through thickness tensile strength in the bonded felts.

  14. Design and preparation of materials for advanced electrochemical storage.

    PubMed

    Melot, Brent C; Tarascon, J-M

    2013-05-21

    To meet the growing global demand for energy while preserving the environment, it is necessary to drastically reduce the world's dependence on non-renewable energy sources. At the core of this effort will be the ability to efficiently convert, store, transport and access energy in a variety of ways. Batteries for use in small consumer devices have saturated society; however, if they are ever to be useful in large-scale applications such as automotive transportation or grid-storage, they will require new materials with dramatically improved performance. Efforts must also focus on using Earth-abundant and nontoxic compounds so that whatever developments are made will not create new environmental problems. In this Account, we describe a general strategy for the design and development of new insertion electrode materials for Li(Na)-ion batteries that meet these requirements. We begin by reviewing the current state of the art of insertion electrodes and highlighting the intrinsic material properties of electrodes that must be re-engineered for extension to larger-scale applications. We then present a detailed discussion of the relevant criteria for the conceptual design and appropriate selection of new electrode chemical compositions. We describe how the open-circuit voltage of Li-ion batteries can be manipulated and optimized through structural and compositional tuning by exploiting differences in the electronegativity among possible electrode materials. We then discuss which modern synthetic techniques are most sustainable, allowing the creation of new materials via environmentally responsible reactions that minimize the use of energy and toxic solvents. Finally, we present a case study showing how we successfully employed these approaches to develop a large number of new, useful electrode materials within the recently discovered family of transition metal fluorosulfates. This family has attracted interest as a possible source of improved Li-ion batteries in larger

  15. A Novel superconducting toroidal field magnet concept using advanced materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, J.

    1992-03-01

    The plasma physics database indicates that two distinct approaches to tokamak design may lead to commercial fusion reactors: low Aspect ratio, high plasma current, relatively low magnetic field devices, and high Aspect ratio, high field devices. The former requires significant enhancements in plasma performance, while the latter depends primarily upon technology development. The key technology for the commercialization of the high-field approach is large, high magnetic field superconducting magnets. In this paper, the physics motivation for the high field approach and key superconducting magnet (SCM) development issues are reviewed. Improved SCM performance may be obtained from improved materials and/or improved engineering. Superconducting materials ranging from NbTi to high- T c oxides are reviewed, demonstrating the broad range of potential superconducting materials. Structural material options are discussed, including cryogenic steel alloys and fiber-reinforced composite materials. Again, the breadth of options is highlighted. The potential for improved magnet engineering is quantified in terms of the Virial Theorem Limit, and two examples of approaches to highly optimized magnet configurations are discussed. The force-reduced concept, which is a finite application of the force-free solutions to Ampere's Law, appear promising for large SCMs but may be limited by the electromagnetics of a fusion plasma. The Solid Superconducting Cylinder (SSC) concept is proposed. This concept combines the unique properties of high- T c superconductors within a low- T c SCM to obtain (1) significant reductions in the structural material volume, (2) a decoupling of the tri-axial (compressive and tensile) stress state, and (3) a demountable TF magnet system. The advantages of this approach are quantified in terms of a 24 T commercial reactor TF magnet system. Significant reductions in the mechanical stress and the TF radial build are demonstrated.

  16. Advances in Organic Near-Infrared Materials and Emerging Applications.

    PubMed

    Qi, Ji; Qiao, Wenqiang; Wang, Zhi Yuan

    2016-06-01

    Much progress has been made in the field of research on organic near-infrared materials for potential applications in photonics, communications, energy, and biophotonics. This account mainly describes our research work on organic near-infrared materials; in particular, donor-acceptor small molecules, organometallics, and donor-acceptor polymers with the bandgaps less than 1.2 eV. The molecular designs, structure-property relationships, unique near-infrared absorption, emission and color/wavelength-changing properties, and some emerging applications are discussed.

  17. Advances in dental veneers: materials, applications, and techniques.

    PubMed

    Pini, Núbia Pavesi; Aguiar, Flávio Henrique Baggio; Lima, Débora Alves Nunes Leite; Lovadino, José Roberto; Terada, Raquel Sano Suga; Pascotto, Renata Corrêa

    2012-01-01

    Laminate veneers are a conservative treatment of unaesthetic anterior teeth. The continued development of dental ceramics offers clinicians many options for creating highly aesthetic and functional porcelain veneers. This evolution of materials, ceramics, and adhesive systems permits improvement of the aesthetic of the smile and the self-esteem of the patient. Clinicians should understand the latest ceramic materials in order to be able to recommend them and their applications and techniques, and to ensure the success of the clinical case. The current literature was reviewed to search for the most important parameters determining the long-term success, correct application, and clinical limitations of porcelain veneers.

  18. Advances in dental veneers: materials, applications, and techniques

    PubMed Central

    Pini, Núbia Pavesi; Aguiar, Flávio Henrique Baggio; Lima, Débora Alves Nunes Leite; Lovadino, José Roberto; Terada, Raquel Sano Suga; Pascotto, Renata Corrêa

    2012-01-01

    Laminate veneers are a conservative treatment of unaesthetic anterior teeth. The continued development of dental ceramics offers clinicians many options for creating highly aesthetic and functional porcelain veneers. This evolution of materials, ceramics, and adhesive systems permits improvement of the aesthetic of the smile and the self-esteem of the patient. Clinicians should understand the latest ceramic materials in order to be able to recommend them and their applications and techniques, and to ensure the success of the clinical case. The current literature was reviewed to search for the most important parameters determining the long-term success, correct application, and clinical limitations of porcelain veneers. PMID:23674920

  19. Advances in optical property measurements of spacecraft materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Charles A.; Dever, Joyce A.; Jaworske, Donald A.

    1997-01-01

    Some of the instruments and experimental approaches, used for measuring the optical properties of thermal control systems, are presented. The instruments' use in studies concerning the effects of combined contaminants and space environment on these materials, and in the qualification of hardware for spacecraft, are described. Instruments for measuring the solar absorptance and infrared emittance offer improved speed, accuracy and data handling. A transient method for directly measuring material infrared emittance is described. It is shown that oxygen exposure before measuring the solar absorptance should be avoided.

  20. Advanced ceramic material for high temperature turbine tip seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogan, J. W.; Solomon, N. G.; Stetson, A. R.

    1980-01-01

    Forty-one material systems were evaluated for potential use in turbine blade tip seal applications at 1370 C. Both ceramic blade tip inserts and abradable ceramic tip shoes were tested. Hot gas erosion, impact resistance, thermal stability, and dynamic rub performance were the criteria used in rating the various materials. Silicon carbide and silicon nitride were used, both as blade tips and abradables. The blade tip inserts were fabricated by hot pressing while low density and honeycomb abradables were sintered or reaction bonded.

  1. Advanced composites: Environmental effects on selected resin matrix materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welhart, E. K.

    1976-01-01

    The effects that expected space flight environment has upon the mechanical properties of epoxy and polyimide matrix composites were analyzed. Environmental phenomena covered water immersion, high temperature aging, humidity, lightning strike, galvanic action, electromagnetic interference, thermal shock, rain and sand erosion, and thermal/vacuum outgassing. The technology state-of-the-art for graphite and boron reinforced epoxy and polyimide matrix materials is summarized to determine the relative merit of using composites in the space shuttle program. Resin matrix composites generally are affected to some degree by natural environmental phenomena with polyimide resin matrix materials less affected than epoxies.

  2. Weld overlay cladding with iron aluminides

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, G.M.

    1995-08-01

    The hot and cold cracking tendencies of some early iron aluminide alloy compositions have limited their use in applications where good weldability is required. Using hot crack testing techniques invented at ORNL, and experimental determinations of preheat and postweld heat treatment needed to avoid cold cracking, we have developed iron aluminide filler metal compositions which can be successfully used to weld overlay clad various substrate materials, including 9Cr-1Mo steel, 2-1/4Cr-1Mo steel, and 300-series austenitic stainless steels. Dilution must be carefully controlled to avoid crack-sensitive deposit compositions. The technique used to produce the current filler metal compositions is aspiration-casting, i.e. drawing the liquid from the melt into glass rods. Future development efforts will involve fabrication of composite wires of similar compositions to permit mechanized gas tungsten arc (GTA) and/or gas metal arc (GMA) welding.

  3. Summary of work on coatings and claddings for fossil energy applications

    SciTech Connect

    Swindeman, R.W.

    1993-05-01

    A summary of efforts to examine coatings and cladding materials for high-strength austenitic steels is provided. Chromized coatings on 17--14CuMo stainless steel and a modified type 316 (HT-UPS) stainless steel were investigated. Claddings included alloy 671, 690, and an iron-aluminide intermetallic alloy. Structural alloys that were clad included type 304 stainless steel, modified type 316 stainless steel, and modified alloy 800H. The capability of producing co-extruded tubing of the experimental alloys was demonstrated.

  4. Life prediction of advanced materials for gas turbine application

    SciTech Connect

    Zamrik, S.Y.; Ray, A.; Koss, D.A.

    1995-12-31

    Emphasis is placed on life characterization based on low cycle fatigue under isothermal conditions and thermomechanical fatigue. Microstructure of failed coated and uncoated specimens is being analyzed. IN 738 LC is the material; the coating is either overlay (NiCoCrAly) or NiAl-based aluminide.

  5. Advanced nanostructured materials for energy storage and conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchings, Gregory S.

    Due to a global effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to utilize renewable sources of energy, much effort has been directed towards creating new alternatives to fossil fuels. Identifying novel materials for energy storage and conversion can enable radical changes to the current fuel production infrastructure and energy utilization. The use of engineered nanostructured materials in these systems unlocks unique catalytic activity in practical configurations. In this work, research efforts have been focused on the development of nanostructured materials to address the need for both better energy conversion and storage, with applications toward Li-O2 battery electrocatalysts, electrocatalytic generation of H2, conversion of furfural to useful chemicals and fuels, and Li battery anode materials. Highly-active alpha-MnO2 materials were synthesized for use as bifunctional oxygen reduction (ORR) and evolution (OER) catalysts in Li-O2 batteries, and were evaluated under operating conditions with a novel in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy configuration. Through detailed analysis of local coordination and oxidation states of Mn atoms at key points in the electrochemical cycle, a self-switching behavior affecting the bifunctional activity was identified and found to be critical. In an additional study of materials for lithium batteries, nanostructured TiO2 anode materials doped with first-row transition metals were synthesized and evaluated for improving battery discharge capacity and rate performance, with Ni and Co doping at low levels found to cause the greatest enhancement. In addition to battery technology research, I have also sought to find inexpensive and earth-abundant electrocatalysts to replace state-of-the-art Pt/C in the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), a systematic computational study of Cu-based bimetallic electrocatalysts was performed. During the screening of dilute surface alloys of Cu mixed with other first-row transition metals, materials with

  6. 77 FR 31834 - Clad Steel Plate from Japan: Final Results of the Expedited Third Sunset Review of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ... Five-Year (Sunset) Review, 77 FR 4995 (Feb. 1, 2012) (Notice of Initiation). On February 15, 2012, the... Value: Clad Steel Plate From Japan, 61 FR 21158, 21159 (May 9, 1996). ] Weighted- average Manufacturers... layer of cladding material (usually stainless steel or nickel) which is metallurgically bonded to a...

  7. Termination of plastic-clad fiber. [Plastic-clad silica

    SciTech Connect

    Nance, W.R.

    1982-03-01

    Optical waveguides are ideal in a nuclear weapon environment because of their resistance to electromagnetic interference. Of the fibers on today's market, plastic-clad silica (PCS) is the most radiation resistant and therfore the best choice. Because terminating PCS is complex, this paper attemps to address the major problems associated with these terminations including selecting the proper connector and optimizing the terminating procedures. The sources of losses in the connectors are summarized and typical loss values are given for four connectors which were tested.

  8. Fabrication and testing of U-7Mo monolithic plate fuel with Zircaloy cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasqualini, E. E.; Robinson, A. B.; Porter, D. L.; Wachs, D. M.; Finlay, M. R.

    2016-10-01

    Nuclear fuel designs are being developed to replace highly enriched fuel used in research and test reactors with fuels of low enrichment. In the most challenging cases, U-(7-10 wt%)Mo monolithic plate fuels are proposed. One of the considered designs includes aluminum-alloy cladding, which provides some challenges in fabrication and fuel/cladding interaction during service. Zircaloy cladding, specifically Zry-4, was investigated as an alternative cladding, and development of a fabrication method was performed by researchers with the Comisión Nacionalde Energia Atómica (CNEA) in Argentina, resulting in test fuel plates (Zry-4 clad U-7Mo) which were subsequently tested in the Advanced Test Reactor in Idaho. Because Zry-4 and U-(7-10)Mo have similar high-temperature mechanical properties, fabrication was simplified in that the fuel foil and cladding could be co-rolled and bonded. The challenge was to prevent a thermal-expansion mismatch, which could destroy the fuel/cladding bond before complete bonding was achieved; the solution was to prevent the composites from cooling significantly during or between roll passes. The final product performed very well in-reactor, showing good bonding, very little fuel/cladding interaction-either from fabrication or in-reactor testing-and little swelling, especially no detectable heterogeneous bubble formation at the fuel/cladding interface tested to a fission density of up to 2.7E+21 (average) fissions/cm3, 3.8E+21 (peak).

  9. Advanced materials and techniques for fibre-optic sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Philip J.

    2014-06-01

    Fibre-optic monitoring systems came of age in about 1999 upon the emergence of the world's first significant commercialising company - a spin-out from the UK's collaborative MAST project. By using embedded fibre-optic technology, the MAST project successfully measured transient strain within high-performance composite yacht masts. Since then, applications have extended from smart composites into civil engineering, energy, military, aerospace, medicine and other sectors. Fibre-optic sensors come in various forms, and may be subject to embedment, retrofitting, and remote interrogation. The unique challenges presented by each implementation require careful scrutiny before widespread adoption can take place. Accordingly, various aspects of design and reliability are discussed spanning a range of representative technologies that include resonant microsilicon structures, MEMS, Bragg gratings, advanced forms of spectroscopy, and modern trends in nanotechnology. Keywords: Fibre-optic sensors, fibre Bragg gratings, MEMS, MOEMS, nanotechnology, plasmon.

  10. Protective claddings for high strength chromium alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, J. F.

    1971-01-01

    The application of a Cr-Y-Hf-Th alloy as a protective cladding for a high strength chromium alloy was investigated for its effectiveness in inhibiting nitrogen embrittlement of a core alloy. Cladding was accomplished by a combination of hot gas pressure bonding and roll cladding techniques. Based on bend DBTT, the cladding alloy was effective in inhibiting nitrogen embrittlement of the chromium core alloy for up to 720 ks (200hours) in air at 1422 K (2100 F). A significant increase in the bend DBTT occurred with longer time exposures at 1422 K or short time exposures at 1589 K (2400 F).

  11. Characterization and Application of Colloidal Nanocrystalline Materials for Advanced Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhandari, Khagendra P.

    Solar energy is Earth's primary source of renewable energy and photovoltaic solar cells enable the direct conversion of sunlight into electricity. Crystalline silicon solar cells and modules have dominated photovoltaic technology from the beginning and they now constitute more than 90% of the PV market. Thin film (CdTe and CIGS) solar cells and modules come in second position in market share. Some organic, dye-sensitized and perovskite solar cells are emerging in the market but are not yet in full commercial scale. Solar cells made from colloidal nanocrystalline materials may eventually provide both low cost and high efficiency because of their promising properties such as high absorption coefficient, size tunable band gap, and quantum confinement effect. It is also expected that the greenhouse gas emission and energy payback time from nanocrystalline solar PV systems will also be least compared to all other types of PV systems mainly due to the least embodied energy throughout their life time. The two well-known junction architectures for the fabrication of quantum dot based photovoltaic devices are the Schottky junction and heterojunction. In Schottky junction cells, a heteropartner semiconducting material is not required. A low work function metal is used as the back contact, a transparent conducting layer is used as the front contact, and the layer of electronically-coupled quantum dots is placed between these two materials. Schottky junction solar cells explain the usefulness of nanocrystalline materials for high efficiency heterojunction solar cells. For heterojunction devices, n-type semiconducting materials such as ZnO , CdS or TiO2 have been used as suitable heteropartners. Here, PbS quantum dot solar cells were fabricated using ZnO and CdS semiconductor films as window layers. Both of the heteropartners are sputter-deposited onto TCO coated glass substrates; ZnO was deposited with the substrate held at room temperature and for CdS the substrate was at 250

  12. The Effect of Rare Earth on the Structure and Performance of Laser Clad Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Ruiliang; Yu, Huijun; Chen, Chuanzhong; Dong, Qing

    Laser cladding is one kind of advanced surface modification technology and has the abroad prospect in making the wear-resistant coating on metal substrates. However, the application of laser cladding technology does not achieve the people's expectation in the practical production because of many defects such as cracks, pores and so on. The addiction of rare earth can effectively reduce the number of cracks in the clad coating and enhance the coating wear-resistance. In the paper, the effects of rare earth on metallurgical quality, microstructure, phase structure and wear-resistance are analyzed in turns. The preliminary discussion is also carried out on the effect mechanism of rare earth. At last, the development tendency of rare earth in the laser cladding has been briefly elaborated.

  13. Material Innovation in Advancing Organometal Halide Perovskite Functionality.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Fan; Saldana-Greco, Diomedes; Liu, Shi; Rappe, Andrew M

    2015-12-01

    Organometal halide perovskites (OMHPs) have garnered much attention recently for their unprecedented rate of increasing power conversion efficiency (PCE), positioning them as a promising basis for the next-generation photovoltaic devices. However, the gap between the rapid increasing PCE and the incomplete understanding of the structure-property-performance relationship prevents the realization of the true potential of OMHPs. This Perspective aims to provide a concise overview of the current status of OMHP research, highlighting the unique properties of OMHPs that are critical for solar applications but still not adequately explained. Stability and performance challenges of OMHP solar cells are discussed, calling upon combined experimental and theoretical efforts to address these challenges for pioneering commercialization of OMHP solar cells. Various material innovation strategies for improving the performance and stability of OMHPs are surveyed, showing that the OMHP architecture can serve as a promising and robust platform for the design and optimization of materials with desired functionalities.

  14. Material Innovation in Advancing Organometal Halide Perovskite Functionality.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Fan; Saldana-Greco, Diomedes; Liu, Shi; Rappe, Andrew M

    2015-12-01

    Organometal halide perovskites (OMHPs) have garnered much attention recently for their unprecedented rate of increasing power conversion efficiency (PCE), positioning them as a promising basis for the next-generation photovoltaic devices. However, the gap between the rapid increasing PCE and the incomplete understanding of the structure-property-performance relationship prevents the realization of the true potential of OMHPs. This Perspective aims to provide a concise overview of the current status of OMHP research, highlighting the unique properties of OMHPs that are critical for solar applications but still not adequately explained. Stability and performance challenges of OMHP solar cells are discussed, calling upon combined experimental and theoretical efforts to address these challenges for pioneering commercialization of OMHP solar cells. Various material innovation strategies for improving the performance and stability of OMHPs are surveyed, showing that the OMHP architecture can serve as a promising and robust platform for the design and optimization of materials with desired functionalities. PMID:26631361

  15. Strongly coupled inorganic/nanocarbon hybrid materials for advanced electrocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yongye; Li, Yanguang; Wang, Hailiang; Dai, Hongjie

    2013-02-13

    Electrochemical systems, such as fuel cell and water splitting devices, represent some of the most efficient and environmentally friendly technologies for energy conversion and storage. Electrocatalysts play key roles in the chemical processes but often limit the performance of the entire systems due to insufficient activity, lifetime, or high cost. It has been a long-standing challenge to develop efficient and durable electrocatalysts at low cost. In this Perspective, we present our recent efforts in developing strongly coupled inorganic/nanocarbon hybrid materials to improve the electrocatalytic activities and stability of inorganic metal oxides, hydroxides, sulfides, and metal-nitrogen complexes. The hybrid materials are synthesized by direct nucleation, growth, and anchoring of inorganic nanomaterials on the functional groups of oxidized nanocarbon substrates including graphene and carbon nanotubes. This approach affords strong chemical attachment and electrical coupling between the electrocatalytic nanoparticles and nanocarbon, leading to nonprecious metal-based electrocatalysts with improved activity and durability for the oxygen reduction reaction for fuel cells and chlor-alkali catalysis, oxygen evolution reaction, and hydrogen evolution reaction. X-ray absorption near-edge structure and scanning transmission electron microscopy are employed to characterize the hybrids materials and reveal the coupling effects between inorganic nanomaterials and nanocarbon substrates. Z-contrast imaging and electron energy loss spectroscopy at single atom level are performed to investigate the nature of catalytic sites on ultrathin graphene sheets. Nanocarbon-based hybrid materials may present new opportunities for the development of electrocatalysts meeting the requirements of activity, durability, and cost for large-scale electrochemical applications.

  16. Task 2: Materials for Advanced Boiler and Oxy-combustion Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Holcolm, Gordon R.; McGhee, Barry

    2009-05-01

    The PowerPoint presentation provides an overview of the tasks for the project: Characterize advanced boiler (oxy-fuel combustion, biomass co-fired) gas compositions and ash deposits; Generate critical data on the effects of environmental conditions; develop a unified test method with a view to future standardization; Generate critical data for coating systems for use in advanced boiler systems; Generate critical data for flue gas recycle piping materials for oxy-fuel systems; and, Compile materials performance data from laboratory and pilot plant exposures of candidate alloys for use in advanced boiler systems.

  17. Gravitational Effects on Combustion Synthesis of Advanced Porous Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, X.; Moore, J. J.; Schowengerdt, F. D.; Thorne, K.

    2000-01-01

    Combustion Synthesis (self-Propagating high-temperature synthesis-(SHS)) of porous Ti-TiB(x), composite materials has been studied with respect to the sensitivity to the SHS reaction parameters of stoichiometry, green density, gasifying agents, ambient pressure, diluents and gravity. The main objective of this research program is to engineer the required porosity and mechanical properties into the composite materials to meet the requirements of a consumer, such as for the application of bone replacement materials. Gravity serves to restrict the gas expansion and the liquid movement during SHS reaction. As a result, gravitational forces affect the microstructure and properties of the SHS products. Reacting these SHS systems in low gravity in the KC-135 aircraft has extended the ability to form porous products. This paper will emphasize the effects of gravity (low g, 1g and 2g) on the SHS reaction process, and the microstructure and properties of the porous composite. Some of biomedical results are also discussed.

  18. Advanced materials development for fossil energy conversion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, J.L.; Chick, L.A.; Kingsley, J.J.; Pederson, L.R.; Weber, W.J.; Youngblood, G.E.; Hurst, J.K.; Bell, A.E.; Grainger, D.W.; Rananavare, S.B.; Roe, D.K.; Thompson, D.H.

    1992-05-01

    Research activities being conducted as part of this project include: (1) fundamental studies of electrochemical processes occurring at surfaces and interfaces in fuel cells, and (2) development of novel materials synthesis and processing methodologies for fossil energy conversion applications. Complex impedance and dc polarization studies of the electrocatalytic activity at the cathode have allowed intrinsic materials properties to be separated from extrinsic properties related to morphology. Mixed conduction in cathode materials was shown to dramatically enhance electrocatalytic activity with this approach. Combustion synthesis methods were used to prepare multicomponent perovskite catalysts in the La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}Co{sub 1-y}Fe{sub y}O{sub 3} system. Electronic properties of these catalysts can be altered by adjusting the composition, which affects both catalytic activity and selectivity. Inverse micelles have been utilized to prepare nanosized nickel sulfide particles, which show promise as hydrodesulfurization catalysts for liquefied coal. Self-assembling organic monolayers and derivatized inorganic surfaces have been used to control nucleation and crystal morphology of inorganic phases.

  19. Antimicrobial Materials for Advanced Microbial Control in Spacecraft Water Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birmele, Michele; Caro, Janicce; Newsham, Gerard; Roberts, Michael; Morford, Megan; Wheeler, Ray

    2012-01-01

    Microbial detection, identification, and control are essential for the maintenance and preservation of spacecraft water systems. Requirements set by NASA put limitations on the energy, mass, materials, noise, cost, and crew time that can be devoted to microbial control. Efforts are being made to attain real-time detection and identification of microbial contamination in microgravity environments. Research for evaluating technologies for capability enhancement on-orbit is currently focused on the use of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) analysis for detection purposes and polymerase chain reaction (peR) for microbial identification. Additional research is being conducted on how to control for microbial contamination on a continual basis. Existing microbial control methods in spacecraft utilize iodine or ionic silver biocides, physical disinfection, and point-of-use sterilization filters. Although these methods are effective, they require re-dosing due to loss of efficacy, have low human toxicity thresholds, produce poor taste, and consume valuable mass and crew time. Thus, alternative methods for microbial control are needed. This project also explores ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs), surface passivation methods for maintaining residual biocide levels, and several antimicrobial materials aimed at improving current microbial control techniques, as well as addressing other materials presently under analysis and future directions to be pursued.

  20. Advances in Materials Research: An Internship at Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrios, Elizabeth A.; Roberson, Luke B.

    2011-01-01

    My time at Kennedy Space Center. was spent immersing myself in research performed in the Materials Science Division of the Engineering Directorate. My Chemical Engineering background provided me the ability to assist in many different projects ranging from tensile testing of composite materials to making tape via an extrusion process. However, I spent the majority of my time on the following three projects: (1) testing three different materials to determine antimicrobial properties; (2) fabricating and analyzing hydrogen sensing tapes that were placed at the launch pad for STS-133 launch; and (3) researching molten regolith electrolysis at KSC to prepare me for my summer internship at MSFC on a closely related topic. This paper aims to explain, in detail, what I have learned about these three main projects. It will explain why this research is happening and what we are currently doing to resolve the issues. This paper will also explain how the hard work and experiences that I have gained as an intern have provided me with the next big step towards my career at NASA.

  1. The demand for advanced materials in the automotive industry: Projections for the next decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupnick, Edwin; Graham, Jon

    1996-03-01

    We provide early results of an ongoing study to forecast the market for advanced high strength-to-weight materials in the U.S. automotive industry based on three supporting tasks. The first is a systematic case study of material substitution which emphasizes the application of advanced composite materials and aluminum alloys. This is accomplished by using a minimization model that considers the economic and engineering factors involved in materials substitution for one specific automobile model and is the focus of this paper. The second task will be to predict the weight reduction that would be required for each car type in the domestic fleet to meet post 2000 fuel efficiency requirements. This task will be accomplished using an analytical model of the domestic automobile fleet. The third task involves projections on the size and composition of the eventual market for advanced composite materials and aluminum alloys. This task will be performed using the results of the analytical model and the case study to project graphite fiber, fiberglass, and aluminum alloy use. The result will provide an estimate of the quantity of advanced materials that would be used by the U.S. automobile industry in the time period after 2000 as a function of technology, automobile performance standards and the costs of advanced composites, aluminum alloys, and other materials used in automobile manufacturing. As a follow-on to the subject study, ECON is examining specific market opportunities in this area for private industry clients.

  2. Materials/manufacturing support element for the Advanced Turbine Systems Program

    SciTech Connect

    Karnitz, M.A.; Hoffman, E.E.; Parks, W.P.

    1994-12-31

    In 1993, DOE initiated a program to develop advanced gas turbines for power generation in utility and industrial applications. A materials/manufacturing plan was developed in several stages with input from gas turbine manufacturers, materials suppliers, universities, and government laboratories. This plan was developed by a small advanced materials and turbine technology team over a 6-month period. The technology plan calls for initiation of several high priority projects in FY 1995. The technical program for the materials/manufacturing element focuses on generic materials issues, components, and manufacturing processes. Categories include coatings and process development, turbine airfoil development, ceramics adaptation, directional solidification and single crystal airfoils manufactoring technology, materials characterization, catalytic combustor materials, and technology information exchange.

  3. Advanced materials for next generation NiMH portable, HEV and EV batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Ovshinsky, S.R.; Dhar, S.K.; Fetcenko, M.A.; Corrigan, D.A.; Reichman, B.; Young, K.; Fierro, C.; Venkatesan, S.; Gifford, P.; Koch, J.

    1998-07-01

    While Ovonic NiMH batteries are already in high volume commercial production for portable applications, advances in materials technology have enabled performance improvements in specific energy (100 Wh/kg), specific power (600-1000 W/kg), high temperature operation, charge retention, and voltage stability. Concurrent with technology advances, Ovonic NiMH batteries have established performance and commercial milestones in electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, as well as scooter, motorcycle and bicycle applications. As important as these advances, significant manufacturing cost reductions have also occurred which allow continued growth of NiMH technology. In this paper, advances in performance, applications and cost reduction are discussed with particular emphasis on the improved proprietary metal hydride and nickel hydroxide materials that make such advances possible.

  4. Materials and structural aspects of advanced gas-turbine helicopter engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freche, J. C.; Acurio, J.

    1979-01-01

    The key to improved helicopter gas turbine engine performance lies in the development of advanced materials and advanced structural and design concepts. The modification of the low temperature components of helicopter engines (such as the inlet particle separator), the introduction of composites for use in the engine front frame, the development of advanced materials with increased use-temperature capability for the engine hot section, can result in improved performance and/or decreased engine maintenance cost. A major emphasis in helicopter engine design is the ability to design to meet a required lifetime. This, in turn, requires that the interrelated aspects of higher operating temperatures and pressures, cooling concepts, and environmental protection schemes be integrated into component design. The major material advances, coatings, and design life-prediction techniques pertinent to helicopter engines are reviewed; the current state-of-the-art is identified; and when appropriate, progress, problems, and future directions are assessed.

  5. Microwave Processing for Advance Electro-Optic Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Boatner, L.A.

    2000-06-01

    This project addressed the technical and scientific goals of developing new methods for the formation of striation-free single crystals of potassium tantalate niobate. This solid-solution system has the potential for serving as a general electro-optic material with a wide range of optical applications. The performance of the material is, however, severely limited by the effects of compositional inhomogeneity that is generally induced during the single crystal growth process due to the nature of the binary phase diagram of the mixed tantalatehiobate system. Single-crystal boules of potassium tantalate niobate (KTa{sub 1-x}Nb{sub x}O{sub 3} or KTN) with varying tantalum-to-niobium ratios (or values of x) were grown under a variety of experimental conditions. The resulting single crystals were characterized in terms of their compositional homogeneity and optical quality. Single crystals were grown using both the most-favorable established set of growth parameters as well as in the presence of programmed oscillatory temperature variations. The purpose of these deliberately induced variations was to introduce controlled compositional variations and associated optical striations in the solid-solution single crystals. The overall objective of the effort was to utilize microwave heating and processing methods to treat the inhomogeneous single crystals for the purpose of eliminating the compositional variations that lead to striations and the associated varying changes in the refractive index of the material. In order to realize the ultimate goal of the effort, it was necessary to develop methods that would lead to the effective coupling of the microwave field to the KTN single crystals. Achieving the technical and commercial goals of this effort would have made it possible to introduce an important new electro-optic product into the market place, to improve our fundamental understanding of solid-state diffusion processes in general (and of microwave-assisted thermal

  6. Compatibility of molten salts with advanced solar dynamic receiver materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, D. A.; Perry, W. D.

    1989-01-01

    Metal-coated graphite fibers are being considered as a thermal conductivity enhancement filler material for molten salts in solar dynamic thermal energy storage systems. The successful metal coating chosen for this application must exhibit acceptable wettability and must be compatible with the molten salt environment. Contact angle values between molten lithium fluoride and several metal, metal fluoride, and metal oxide substrates have been determined at 892 C using a modification of the Wilhelmy plate technique. Reproducible contact angles with repeated exposure to the molten LiF indicated compatibility.

  7. Cost - The challenge for advanced materials and structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, John G., Jr.; Freeman, William T., Jr.; Siddiqi, Shahid

    1992-01-01

    Information is presented on the cost of various aircraft structures, together with methods for predicting and reducing cost. The need for the development of cost models, and of a comparative cost algorithm which could function as an engineering design tool to evaluate different design concepts, is emphasized. Efforts are underway to develop cost models that establish building-block unit cell elements that represent different material forms, geometric shapes, fabrication processes, and methods of assembly, with the purpose of expressing cost per pound or labor per pound data, with physical design and manufacture variables that a designer can visualize.

  8. Nonlinear mechanical behavior of thermoplastic matrix materials for advanced composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arenz, R. J.; Landel, R. F.

    1989-01-01

    Two recent theories of nonlinear mechanical response are quantitatively compared and related to experimental data. Computer techniques are formulated to handle the numerical integration and iterative procedures needed to solve the associated sets of coupled nonlinear differential equations. Problems encountered during these formulations are discussed and some open questions described. Bearing in mind these cautions, the consequences of changing parameters that appear in the formulations on the resulting engineering properties are discussed. Hence, engineering approaches to the analysis of thermoplastic matrix material can be suggested.

  9. Statistical Methods Handbook for Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Materials

    SciTech Connect

    J. J. Einerson

    2005-05-01

    Fuel materials such as kernels, coated particles, and compacts are being manufactured for experiments simulating service in the next generation of high temperature gas reactors. These must meet predefined acceptance specifications. Many tests are performed for quality assurance, and many of these correspond to criteria that must be met with specified confidence, based on random samples. This report describes the statistical methods to be used. The properties of the tests are discussed, including the risk of false acceptance, the risk of false rejection, and the assumption of normality. Methods for calculating sample sizes are also described.

  10. Advanced Porous Coating for Low-Density Ceramic Insulation Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leiser, Daniel B.; Churchward, Rex; Katvala, Victor; Stewart, David; Balter, Aliza

    1988-01-01

    The need for improved coatings on low-density reusable surface insulation (RSI) materials used on the space shuttle has stimulated research into developing tougher coatings. The processing of a new porous composite "coating" for RST called toughened unipiece fibrous insulation Is discussed. Characteristics including performance in a simulated high-speed atmospheric entry, morphological structure before and after this exposure, resistance to Impact, and thermal response to a typical heat pulse are described. It is shown that this coating has improved impact resistance while maintaining optical and thermal properties comparable to the previously available reaction-cured glass coating.

  11. Recent advances in the mechanical durability of superhydrophobic materials.

    PubMed

    Milionis, Athanasios; Loth, Eric; Bayer, Ilker S

    2016-03-01

    Large majority of superhydrophobic surfaces have very limited mechanical wear robustness and long-term durability. This problem has restricted their utilization in commercial or industrial applications and resulted in extensive research efforts on improving resistance against various types of wear damage. In this review, advances and developments since 2011 in this field will be covered. As such, we summarize progress on fabrication, design and understanding of mechanically durable superhydrophobic surfaces. This includes an overview of recently published diagnostic techniques for probing and demonstrating tribo-mechanical durability against wear and abrasion as well as other effects such as solid/liquid spray or jet impact and underwater resistance. The review is organized in terms of various types of mechanical wear ranging from substrate adhesion, tangential surface abrasion, and dynamic impact to ultrasonic processing underwater. In each of these categories, we highlight the most successful approaches to produce robust surfaces that can maintain their non-wetting state after the wear or abrasive action. Finally, various recommendations for improvement of mechanical wear durability and its quantitative evaluation are discussed along with potential future directions towards more systematic testing methods which will also be acceptable for industry.

  12. Advances in materials for room temperature hydrogen sensors.

    PubMed

    Arya, Sunil K; Krishnan, Subramanian; Silva, Hayde; Jean, Sheila; Bhansali, Shekhar

    2012-06-21

    Hydrogen (H(2)), as a source of energy, continues to be a compelling choice in applications ranging from fuel cells and propulsion systems to feedstock for chemical, metallurgical and other industrial processes. H(2), being a clean, reliable, and affordable source, is finding ever increasing use in distributed electric power generation and H(2) fuelled cars. Although still under 0.1%, the distributed use of H(2) is the fastest growing area. In distributed H(2) storage, distribution, and consumption, safety continues to be a critical aspect. Affordable safety systems for distributed H(2) applications are critical for the H(2) economy to take hold. Advances in H(2) sensors are driven by specificity, reliability, repeatability, stability, cost, size, response time, recovery time, operating temperature, humidity range, and power consumption. Ambient temperature sensors for H(2) detection are increasingly being explored as they offer specificity, stability and robustness of high temperature sensors with lower operational costs and significantly longer operational lifetimes. This review summarizes and highlights recent developments in room temperature H(2) sensors.

  13. Recent advances in the mechanical durability of superhydrophobic materials.

    PubMed

    Milionis, Athanasios; Loth, Eric; Bayer, Ilker S

    2016-03-01

    Large majority of superhydrophobic surfaces have very limited mechanical wear robustness and long-term durability. This problem has restricted their utilization in commercial or industrial applications and resulted in extensive research efforts on improving resistance against various types of wear damage. In this review, advances and developments since 2011 in this field will be covered. As such, we summarize progress on fabrication, design and understanding of mechanically durable superhydrophobic surfaces. This includes an overview of recently published diagnostic techniques for probing and demonstrating tribo-mechanical durability against wear and abrasion as well as other effects such as solid/liquid spray or jet impact and underwater resistance. The review is organized in terms of various types of mechanical wear ranging from substrate adhesion, tangential surface abrasion, and dynamic impact to ultrasonic processing underwater. In each of these categories, we highlight the most successful approaches to produce robust surfaces that can maintain their non-wetting state after the wear or abrasive action. Finally, various recommendations for improvement of mechanical wear durability and its quantitative evaluation are discussed along with potential future directions towards more systematic testing methods which will also be acceptable for industry. PMID:26792021

  14. Temperature controlled material irradiation in the advanced test reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Furstenau, R.V.; Ingrahm, F.W.

    1995-12-31

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) near Idaho Falls, Idaho, USA and is owned and regulated by the U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE). The ATR is operated for the US DOE by Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies. In recent years, prime irradiation space in the ATR has been made available for use by customers having irradiation service needs in addition to the reactor`s principal user, the U.S. Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program. To enhance the reactor`s capabilities, the US DOE has initiated the development of an Irradiation Test Vehicle (ITV) capable of providing neutron spectral tailoring and temperature control for up to 28 experiments. The ATR-ITV will have the flexibility to simultaneously support a variety of experiments requiring fast, thermal or mixed spectrum neutron environments. Temperature control is accomplished by varying the thermal conductivity across a gas gap established between the experiment specimen capsule wall and the experiment `in-pile tube (IPT)` inside diameter. Thermal conductivity is adjusted by alternating the control gas mixture ratio of two gases with different thermal conductivities.

  15. Application of advanced material systems to composite frame elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Llorente, Steven; Minguet, Pierre; Fay, Russell; Medwin, Steven

    1992-01-01

    A three phase program has been conducted to investigate DuPont's Long Discontinuous Fiber (LDF) composites. Additional tests were conducted to compare LDF composites against toughened thermosets and a baseline thermoset system. Results have shown that the LDF AS4/PEKK offers improved interlaminar (flange bending) strength with little reduction in mechanical properties due to the discontinuous nature of the fibers. In the third phase, a series of AS4/PEKK LDF C-section curved frames (representing a typical rotorcraft light frame) were designed, manufactured and tested. Specimen reconsolidation after 'stretch forming' and frame thickness were found to be key factors in this light frame's performance. A finite element model was constructed to correlate frame test results with expected strain levels determined from material property tests. Adequately reconsolidated frames performed well and failed at strain levels at or above baseline thermoset material test strains. Finally a cost study was conducted which has shown that the use of LDF for this frame would result in a significant cost savings, for moderate to large lot sizes compared with the hand lay-up of a thermoset frame.

  16. Advanced materials and device technology for photonic electric field sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toney, James E.; Stenger, Vincent E.; Kingsley, Stuart A.; Pollick, Andrea; Sriram, Sri; Taylor, Edward

    2012-10-01

    Photonic methods for electric field sensing have been demonstrated across the electromagnetic spectrum from near-DC to millimeter waves, and at field strengths from microvolts-per-meter to megavolts-per-meter. The advantages of the photonic approach include a high degree of electrical isolation, wide bandwidth, minimum perturbation of the incident field, and the ability to operate in harsh environments. Aerospace applications of this technology span a wide range of frequencies and field strengths. They include, at the high-frequency/high-field end, measurement of high-power electromagnetic pulses, and at the low-frequency/low-field end, in-flight monitoring of electrophysiological signals. The demands of these applications continue to spur the development of novel materials and device structures to achieve increased sensitivity, wider bandwidth, and greater high-field measurement capability. This paper will discuss several new directions in photonic electric field sensing technology for defense applications. The first is the use of crystal ion slicing to prepare high-quality, single-crystal electro-optic thin films on low-dielectricconstant, RF-friendly substrates. The second is the use of two-dimensional photonic crystal structures to enhance the electro-optic response through slow-light propagation effects. The third is the use of ferroelectric relaxor materials with extremely high electro-optic coefficients.

  17. Advanced aerospace composite material structural design using artificial intelligent technology

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, S.H.; Chen, J.L.; Hwang, W.C.

    1993-12-31

    Due to the complexity in the prediction of property and behavior, composite material has not substituted for metal widely yet, though it has high specific-strength and high specific-modulus that are more important in the aerospace industry. In this paper two artificial intelligent techniques, the expert systems and neural network technology, were introduced to the structural design of composite material. Expert System which has good ability in symbolic processing can helps us to solve problem by saving experience and knowledge. It is, therefore, a reasonable way to combine expert system technology to tile composite structural design. The development of a prototype expert system to help designer during the process of composite structural design is presented. Neural network is a network similar to people`s brain that can simulate the thinking way of people and has the ability of learning from the training data by adapting the weights of network. Because of the bottleneck in knowledge acquisition processes, the application of neural network and its learning ability to strength design of composite structures are presented. Some examples are in this paper to demonstrate the idea.

  18. Joining advanced materials into hybrid structures using pressurized combustion synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Messler, R.W. Jr.; Orling, T.T.

    1994-12-31

    Demanding design requirements frequently call for the use and joining of combinations of oxide and nonoxide ceramics, intermetallics, and metals in virtually every imaginable combination in both monolithic and reinforced forms, resulting in hybrid structures. Such new, nontraditional materials and structures can be expected to require new, nontraditional joining processes. One attractive, but embryonic option, is pressurized combustion synthesis, a form of exothermic welding or brazing. Pressurized combustion synthesis or self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) joining is being systematically studied to understand the mechanism(s) of joint formation, understand the role of processing parameters, evaluate and optimize joint properties, and develop a process model for use in joint design, parameter selection, property prediction, and intelligent process control. This paper presents the results of a study on a model system of 3Ni + Al > Ni{sub 3}Al filler or intermediate between nickel-base superalloy end elements. A Gleeble thermal-mechanical simulator was used to investigate the effects of reaction temperature, hold time, applied pressure, reactant composition, and heating rate, and good insight has been gained to enable more intensive studies of process fundamentals and of techniques for producing more complex, functional gradient material (FGM) joints between dissimilar combinations of ceramics, intermetallics and metals.

  19. Proceedings of the 4th Annual Workshop: Advances in Smart Materials for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, Robin C. (Editor); Simpson, Joycelyn O. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the Fourth Annual Conference on Advances in Smart Materials for Aerospace Applications was to provide a forum for technical dialogue on numerous topics in the area of smart materials. The proceedings presented herein represent the technical contributions of the participants of the workshop. Topics addressed include shape memory alloys, ferroelectrics, fiber optics, finite element simulation, and active control.

  20. Traditional Materials and Techniques Used as Instructional Devices in an Advanced Business Spanish Conversation Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdivieso, Jorge

    Spanish language training at the Thunderbird Graduate School of International Management is discussed, focusing on the instructional materials and classroom techniques used in advanced Spanish conversation classes. While traditional materials (dialogues, dictation, literature, mass media, video- and audiotapes) and learning activities (recitation,…

  1. Test methodology for elemental sulfur resistant advanced materials for oil and gas field equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Steinbeck, G.; Bruckhoff, W.; Koehler, M.; Schlerkmann, H.; Schmitt, G.

    1995-10-01

    The great variety of methodologies for testing the performance of advanced materials for resistance to elemental sulfur in oil and gas industry prompted the Technical Committee for Corrosion of the German Iron and Steel Institute (VDEh) to define recommended test procedures. These procedures have already found wide acceptance in the German materials and oil and gas industry.

  2. Coatings and claddings for the reduction of plasma contamination and surface erosion in fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminsky, M.

    1980-01-01

    For the successful operation of plasma devices and future fusion reactors it is necessary to control plasma impurity release and surface erosion. Effective methods to obtain such controls include the application of protective coatings to, and the use of clad materials for, certain first wall components. Major features of the development programs for coatings and claddings for fusion applications will be described together with an outline of the testing program. A discussion of some pertinent test results will be included.

  3. Characterization of Fuel-Cladding Bond Strength Using Laser Shock

    SciTech Connect

    James A. Smith; David L. Cottle; Barry H. Rabin

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes new laser-based capabilities for characterization of fuel-cladding bond strength in nuclear fuels, and presents preliminary results obtained from studies on as-fabricated monolithic fuel consisting of uranium-10 wt.% molybdenum alloys clad in 6061 aluminum by hot isostatic pressing. Two complementary experimental methods are employed, laser-shock testing and laser-ultrasonic imaging. Measurements are spatially localized, non-contacting and require minimum specimen preparation, and are therefore ideally suited for applications involving radioactive materials, including irradiated materials. The theoretical principles and experimental approaches employed in characterization of nuclear fuel plates are described. The ability to measure layer thicknesses, elastic properties of the constituents, and the location and nature of laser-shock induced debonds is demonstrated, and preliminary bond strength measurement results are discussed.

  4. HIP-clad products for the plastics industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Morley F.; Nickel, Clinton F.

    1999-07-01

    The production of plastics and plastics components requires equipment that can withstand severe wear and, in a high percentage of cases, wear and corrosion environments. There are two basic elements of plastic extrusion equipment: the barrels and the screws. Both must manifest similar properties, but since screw elements are less costly and easier to replace, they are usually designed to wear out first. Due to the high cost of wear/corrosion-resistance materials, the industry used clad (i.e., bimetallic) components. Barrel sections and screw segments are both produced as hot-isostatic press clad components using similar processes. There are any number of material combinations that are used and that are possible for the right application.

  5. Advanced Materials and Processing for Drug Delivery: The Past and the Future

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Chan, Hon Fai; Leong, Kam W.

    2012-01-01

    Design and synthesis of efficient drug delivery systems are of vital importance for medicine and healthcare. Materials innovation and nanotechnology have synergistically fueled the advancement of drug delivery. Innovation in material chemistry allows the generation of biodegradable, biocompatible, environment-responsive, and targeted delivery systems. Nanotechnology enables control over size, shape and multi-functionality of particulate drug delivery systems. In this review, we focus on the materials innovation and processing of drug delivery systems and how these advances have shaped the past and may influence the future of drug delivery. PMID:23088863

  6. The DOE Center of Excellence for the Synthesis and Processing of Advanced Materials: Research briefs

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    This publication is designed to inform present and potential customers and partners of the DOE Center of Excellence for the Synthesis and Processing of Advanced Materials about significant advances resulting from Center-coordinated research. The format is an easy-to-read, not highly technical, concise presentation of the accomplishments. Selected accomplishments from each of the Center`s seven initial focused projects are presented. The seven projects are: (1) conventional and superplastic forming; (2) materials joining; (3) nanoscale materials for energy applications; (4) microstructural engineering with polymers; (5) tailored microstructures in hard magnets; (6) processing for surface hardness; and (7) mechanically reliable surface oxides for high-temperature corrosion resistance.

  7. Cost benefit study of advanced materials technology for aircraft turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillery, R. V.; Johnston, R. P.

    1977-01-01

    The cost/benefits of eight advanced materials technologies were evaluated for two aircraft missions. The overall study was based on a time frame of commercial engine use of the advanced material technologies by 1985. The material technologies evaluated were eutectic turbine blades, titanium aluminide components, ceramic vanes, shrouds and combustor liners, tungsten composite FeCrAly blades, gamma prime oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloy blades, and no coat ODS alloy combustor liners. They were evaluated in two conventional takeoff and landing missions, one transcontinental and one intercontinental.

  8. Advanced materials and processing for drug delivery: the past and the future.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Chan, Hon Fai; Leong, Kam W

    2013-01-01

    Design and synthesis of efficient drug delivery systems are of vital importance for medicine and healthcare. Materials innovation and nanotechnology have synergistically fueled the advancement of drug delivery. Innovation in material chemistry allows the generation of biodegradable, biocompatible, environment-responsive, and targeted delivery systems. Nanotechnology enables control over size, shape and multi-functionality of particulate drug delivery systems. In this review, we focus on the materials innovation and processing of drug delivery systems and how these advances have shaped the past and may influence the future of drug delivery.

  9. Advances in Materials and System Technology for Portable Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram R.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the materials and systems engineering used for portable fuel cells. The contents include: 1) Portable Power; 2) Technology Solution; 3) Portable Hydrogen Systems; 4) Direct Methanol Fuel Cell; 5) Direct Methanol Fuel Cell System Concept; 6) Overview of DMFC R&D at JPL; 7) 300-Watt Portable Fuel Cell for Army Applications; 8) DMFC units from Smart Fuel Cell Inc, Germany; 9) DMFC Status and Prospects; 10) Challenges; 11) Rapid Screening of Well-Controlled Catalyst Compositions; 12) Screening of Ni-Zr-Pt-Ru alloys; 13) Issues with New Membranes; 14) Membranes With Reduced Methanol Crossover; 15) Stacks; 16) Hybrid DMFC System; 17) Small Compact Systems; 18) Durability; and 19) Stack and System Parameters for Various Applications.

  10. Nanostructured material for advanced energy storage : magnesium battery cathode development.

    SciTech Connect

    Sigmund, Wolfgang M.; Woan, Karran V.; Bell, Nelson Simmons

    2010-11-01

    Magnesium batteries are alternatives to the use of lithium ion and nickel metal hydride secondary batteries due to magnesium's abundance, safety of operation, and lower toxicity of disposal. The divalency of the magnesium ion and its chemistry poses some difficulties for its general and industrial use. This work developed a continuous and fibrous nanoscale network of the cathode material through the use of electrospinning with the goal of enhancing performance and reactivity of the battery. The system was characterized and preliminary tests were performed on the constructed battery cells. We were successful in building and testing a series of electrochemical systems that demonstrated good cyclability maintaining 60-70% of discharge capacity after more than 50 charge-discharge cycles.

  11. Advanced Material Developments with Laser Engineered Net Shaping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Glenn A.; Cooper, Ken; McGill, Preston; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS(Trademark)) process is a new technology to fabricate three-dimensional metallic components directly from CAD solid models. It directly fabricates metal hardware by injecting the metal powder of choice into the focal point of a 700W Nd:Yag laser as it traces the perimeter and fills of a part. The Rapid Prototype Laboratory at Marshall Space Flight Center is currently operating a OPTOMEC 750 LENS machine in evaluation experiments involving integration of this technology into various manufacturing processes associated with aerospace applications. This paper will cover our research finding about properties of samples created from Inconel 718 & SS316 using this process versus the same materials in cast & wrought conditions.

  12. Irradiation creep of candidate materials for advanced nuclear plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Jung, P.; Hoffelner, W.

    2013-10-01

    In the present paper, irradiation creep results of an intermetallic TiAl alloy and two ferritic oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels are summarized. In situ irradiation creep measurements were performed using homogeneous implantation with α- and p-particles to maximum doses of 0.8 dpa at displacement damage rates of 2-8 × 10-6 dpa/s. The strains of miniaturized flat dog-bone specimens were monitored under uniaxial tensile stresses ranging from 20 to 400 MPa at temperatures of 573, 673 and 773 K, respectively. The effects of material composition, ODS particle size, and bombarding particle on the irradiation creep compliance was studied and results are compared to literature data. Evolution of microstructure during helium implantation was investigated in detail by TEM and is discussed with respect to irradiation creep models.

  13. Reliability assessment in advanced nanocomposite materials for orthopaedic applications.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Jérôme; Taddei, Paola; Gremillard, Laurent; Deville, Sylvain; Fantozzi, Gilbert; Bartolomé, J F; Pecharroman, C; Moya, J S; Diaz, L A; Torrecillas, R; Affatato, Saverio

    2011-04-01

    Alumina-zirconia nano-composites were recently developed as alternative bearing materials for orthopedics. Previous, preliminary reports show that such alumina-zirconia nanocomposites exhibit high crack resistance and low wear rate. In this paper, additional information is given in terms of wear, crack resistance and ageing behaviour: femoral heads are inspected after 7 million cycles of wear testing on a hip simulator, crack resistance is measured and compared to other ceramics used today in orthopedics, slow crack growth is reported under static and cyclic fatigue, and aging resistance is assessed. We also report on the load to failure of femoral heads prototypes during compression tests. This overall reliability assessment ensures a potential future development for these kinds of new nanocomposites in the orthopedic field.

  14. Damage Prediction Models for Advanced Materials and Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xie, Ming; Ahmad, Jalees; Grady, Joseph E. (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, the assessment and evaluation of various acoustic tile designs were conducted using three-dimensional finite element analysis, which included static analysis, thermal analysis and modal analysis of integral and non-integral tile design options. Various benchmark specimens for acoustic tile designs, including CMC integral T-joint and notched CMC plate, were tested in both room and elevated temperature environment. Various candidate ceramic matrix composite materials were used in the numerical modeling and experimental study. The research effort in this program evolved from numerical modeling and concept design to a combined numerical analysis and experimental study. Many subjects associated with the design and performance of the acoustic tile in jet engine exhaust nozzle have been investigated.

  15. Advances in optical materials for large aperture lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Stokowski, S.E.; Lowdermilk, W.H.; Marchi, F.T.; Swain, J.E.; Wallerstein, E.P.; Wirtenson, G.R.

    1981-12-15

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is using large aperture Nd: glass lasers to investigate the feasibility of inertial confinement fusion. In our experiments high power laser light is focussed onto a small (100 to 500 micron) target containing a deuterium-tritium fuel mixture. During the short (1 to 5 ns) laser pulse the fuel is compressed and heated, resulting in fusion reactions. The generation and control of the powerful laser pulses for these experiments is a challenging scientific and engineering task, which requires the development of new optical materials, fabrication techniques, and coatings. LLNL with the considerable cooperation and support from the optical industry, where most of the research and development and almost all the manufacturing is done, has successfully applied several new developments in these areas.

  16. New materials systems for advanced tribological and environmental applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Wei

    In this study, two different materials systems were developed to address current industrial problems of wear. The first system consisted of sterically hindered aliphatic polyester (SHAP) lubricants for use in hard disk magnetic recording applications. Specific goals included improved adhesion, durability and tribochemical stability compared to commercial perfluoropolyethers. While commercial perfluoropolyether lubricants are subject to catalytic degradation and mechanical scission, or suffer from severe stiction and dewetting problems, SHAP lubricants manifest greatly reduced stiction, superb thermal and oxidation stability, and excellent friction property, and make good candidates for broader applications, such as lubricants for MEMs or general purpose lubricants. The second material system involved a blend of Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and an Aromatic Thermosetting Polyester (ATSP) to achieve greatly improved mechanical properties and wear resistance compared to currently available blends of PTFE. The unique solid bonding capability and liquid crystalline nature of ATSP help form high aspect ratio microstructures, which allows fabrication of PTFE/ATSP composites across the entire composition range with greatly improved performance under greatly simplified conditions. A third project involved the design of new wide-spectrum antibacterial filters for point-of-use systems that are robust and can be easily regenerated and maintained. Silver coated fiberglass with colloidal sized silver particles was developed. Systems made of silver coated fiberglass are highly effective, have high capacity and can be regenerated easily. These disinfection units do not leach silver ions, or add taste or disinfection by-products into the treated water. Protozoa such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia can be held by the filter and destroyed during regeneration. They are an inexpensive, cleaner alternative to current point-of-use systems.

  17. PREFACE: Advances in Cryogenic Engineering - Materials: Proceedings of the International Cryogenic Materials Conference (ICMC) 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kittel, Peter; Sumption, Michael

    2015-12-01

    The 2015 joint Cryogenic Engineering and International Cryogenic Materials Conferences were held from June 28 through July 2 at the JW Marriott Starr Pass Resort & Spa in Tucson, Arizona. As at past conferences, the international scope of these meetings was strongly maintained with 26 countries being represented by 561 attendees who gathered to enjoy the joint technical programs, industrial exhibits, special events, and natural beauty of the surrounding Sonoran Desert. The program for the joint conferences included a total of 363 presentations in the plenary, oral, and poster sessions. Four plenary talks gave in-depth discussions of the readiness of bulk superconductors for applications, the role of cryogenics in the development of the hydrogen bomb and vice versa, superconducting turboelectric aircraft propulsion and UPS's uses and plans for LNG fuel. Contributed papers covered a wide range of topics including large-scale and small-scale cryogenics, advances in superconductors and their applications. In total, 234 papers were submitted for publication of which 224 are published in these proceedings. The CEC/ICMC Cryo Industrial Expo displayed the products and services of 38 industrial exhibitors and provided a congenial venue for a reception and refreshments throughout the week as well as the conference poster sessions. Spectacular panoramic views of Saguaro National Park, the Sonoran Desert and the night time lights of Tucson set the stage for a memorable week in the American Southwest. Conference participants enjoyed scenic hikes and bike rides, exploring Old Town Tucson, hot and spicy southwestern cuisine, a nighttime lightning display and a hailstorm. Conference Chairs for 2015 were Peter Kittel, Consultant, for CEC and Michael Sumption from The Ohio State University, Materials Science Department for ICMC. Program Chairs were Jonathan Demko from the LeTourneau University for CEC and Timothy Haugan from AFRL/RQQM for ICMC, assisted by the CEC Program Vice Chair

  18. Reliability of hard plastic clad silica fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skutnik, Bolesh J.; Spaniol, Stefan

    2006-04-01

    New formulations of cladding materials have become available in recent times for Hard Plastic Clad Silica (HPCS) fibers, Initial data showed gains in some properties, particularly dynamic strength, especially for high numerical aperture (NA) fibers. A systematic study has been undertaken to determine the full strength and fatigue behavior of these HPCS fibers and to make comparisons to earlier HPCS fibers. Preliminary results, now confirmed, has shown improved median dynamic strength and higher Weibull slope. Full results are presented below including fatigue behavior and optical properties. These fibers have many applications and benefits in the high power delivery and medical laser uses as highlighted below. High power diode laser systems with their laser diode bars and arrays not only require special fibers to couple directly to the diode emitters, but also require special fibers to couple from the laser to application sites. These latter power delivery fibers are much larger than the internal fibers but still must be flexible, and have not only good strength but also good fatigue behavior. This particularly important industrial systems using robotic arms to apply the high power laser energy at a treatment site. The optical properties of HPCS fibers are well suited for the needs of the delivery of high power from diode laser bars and arrays to an application site. Benefits of strong median dynamic strengths and tighter flaw distributions in such cases will be discussed. Many medical applications, especially endoscopic ones, can benefit from the use of highly flexible, high NA, cost effective, HPCS optical fibers. Benefits of high strength and good fatigue behavior for such fibers in endoscopic procedures, including laser surgery, are discussed briefly including implications for mechanical reliability in medical and industrial settings.

  19. Advanced Materials for RSOFC Dual Operation with Low Degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Eric, Tang; Tony, Wood; Sofiane, Benhaddad; Casey, Brown; Hongpeng, He; Jeff, Nelson; Oliver, Grande; Ben, Nuttall; Mark, Richards; Randy, Petri

    2012-12-27

    Reversible solid oxide fuel cells (RSOFCs) are energy conversion devices. They are capable of operating in both power generation mode (SOFC) and electrolysis modes (SOEC). RSOFC can integrate renewable production of electricity and hydrogen when power generation and steam electrolysis are coupled in a system, which can turn intermittent solar and wind energy into "firm power." In this DOE EERE project, VPS continuously advanced RSOFC cell stack technology in the areas of endurance and performance. Over 20 types of RSOFC cells were developed in the project. Many of those exceeded performance (area specific resistance less than 300 mohmcm2) and endurance (degradation rate less than 4% per 1000 hours) targets in both fuel cell and electrolysis modes at 750C. One of those cells, RSOFC-7, further demonstrated the following: Steady-state electrolysis with a degradation rate of 1.5% per 1000 hours. Ultra high current electrolysis over 3 A/cm2 at 75% water electrolysis efficiency voltage of 1.67 V. Daily SOFC/SOEC cyclic test of over 600 days with a degradation rate of 1.5% per 1000 hours. Over 6000 SOFC/SOEC cycles in an accelerated 20-minute cycling with degradation less than 3% per 1000 cycles. In RSOFC stack development, a number of kW-class RSOFC stacks were developed and demonstrated the following: Steady-state electrolysis operation of over 5000 hours. Daily SOFC/SOEC cyclic test of 100 cycles. Scale up capability of using large area cells with 550 cm2 active area showing the potential for large-scale RSOFC stack development in the future. Although this project is an open-ended development project, this effort, leveraging Versa Power Systems' years of development experience, has the potential to bring renewable energy RSOFC storage systems significantly closer to commercial viability through improvements in RSOFC durability, performance, and cost. When unitized and deployed in renewable solar and wind installations, an RSOFC system can enable higher availability for

  20. FY 2014 Status Report: of Vibration Testing of Clad Fuel (M4FT-14OR0805033)

    SciTech Connect

    Bevard, Bruce Balkcom

    2014-03-28

    The DOE Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) tasked Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to investigate the behavior of light-water-reactor (LWR) fuel cladding material performance related to extended storage and transportation of UNF. ORNL has been tasked to perform a systematic study on UNF integrity under simulated normal conditions of transportation (NCT) by using the recently developed hot-cell testing equipment, Cyclic Integrated Reversible-Bending Fatigue Tester (CIRFT). To support the testing on actual high-burnup UNF, fast-neutron irradiation of pre-hydrided zirconium-alloy cladding in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at elevated temperatures will be used to simulate the effects of high-burnup on fuel cladding for help in understanding the cladding materials properties relevant to extended storage and subsequent transportation. The irradiated pre-hydrided metallic materials testing will generate baseline data to benchmark hot-cell testing of the actual high-burnup UNF cladding. More importantly, the HFIR-irradiated samples will be free of alpha contamination and can be provided to researchers who do not have hot cell facilities to handle highly contaminated high-burnup UNF cladding to support their research projects for the UFDC.