Science.gov

Sample records for advanced clinical chemistry

  1. American Association for Clinical Chemistry

    MedlinePlus

    ... indispensable patient care tool. Learn more IN CLINICAL CHEMISTRY ddPCR Quantification of Lymphoma Mutations Researchers have developed ... Online Harmonization.net Commission on Accreditation in Clinical Chemistry American Board of Clinical Chemistry Clinical Chemistry Trainee ...

  2. ADVANCED CHEMISTRY BASINS MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    William Goddard III; Lawrence Cathles III; Mario Blanco; Paul Manhardt; Peter Meulbroek; Yongchun Tang

    2004-05-01

    The advanced Chemistry Basin Model project has been operative for 48 months. During this period, about half the project tasks are on projected schedule. On average the project is somewhat behind schedule (90%). Unanticipated issues are causing model integration to take longer then scheduled, delaying final debugging and manual development. It is anticipated that a short extension will be required to fulfill all contract obligations.

  3. An Advanced Chemistry Laboratory Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, John H.

    The Advanced Chemistry Laboratory Program is a project designed to devise experiments to coordinate the use of instruments in the laboratory programs of physical chemistry, instrumental analysis, and inorganic chemistry at the advanced undergraduate level. It is intended that such experiments would incorporate an introduction to the instrument…

  4. Advanced Chemistry Basins Model

    SciTech Connect

    William Goddard; Mario Blanco; Lawrence Cathles; Paul Manhardt; Peter Meulbroek; Yongchun Tang

    2002-11-10

    The DOE-funded Advanced Chemistry Basin model project is intended to develop a public domain, user-friendly basin modeling software under PC or low end workstation environment that predicts hydrocarbon generation, expulsion, migration and chemistry. The main features of the software are that it will: (1) afford users the most flexible way to choose or enter kinetic parameters for different maturity indicators; (2) afford users the most flexible way to choose or enter compositional kinetic parameters to predict hydrocarbon composition (e.g., gas/oil ratio (GOR), wax content, API gravity, etc.) at different kerogen maturities; (3) calculate the chemistry, fluxes and physical properties of all hydrocarbon phases (gas, liquid and solid) along the primary and secondary migration pathways of the basin and predict the location and intensity of phase fractionation, mixing, gas washing, etc.; and (4) predict the location and intensity of de-asphaltene processes. The project has be operative for 36 months, and is on schedule for a successful completion at the end of FY 2003.

  5. Advances in analytical chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arendale, W. F.; Congo, Richard T.; Nielsen, Bruce J.

    1991-01-01

    Implementation of computer programs based on multivariate statistical algorithms makes possible obtaining reliable information from long data vectors that contain large amounts of extraneous information, for example, noise and/or analytes that we do not wish to control. Three examples are described. Each of these applications requires the use of techniques characteristic of modern analytical chemistry. The first example, using a quantitative or analytical model, describes the determination of the acid dissociation constant for 2,2'-pyridyl thiophene using archived data. The second example describes an investigation to determine the active biocidal species of iodine in aqueous solutions. The third example is taken from a research program directed toward advanced fiber-optic chemical sensors. The second and third examples require heuristic or empirical models.

  6. Advanced Chemistry Basins Model

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco, Mario; Cathles, Lawrence; Manhardt, Paul; Meulbroek, Peter; Tang, Yongchun

    2003-02-13

    The objective of this project is to: (1) Develop a database of additional and better maturity indicators for paleo-heat flow calibration; (2) Develop maturation models capable of predicting the chemical composition of hydrocarbons produced by a specific kerogen as a function of maturity, heating rate, etc.; assemble a compositional kinetic database of representative kerogens; (3) Develop a 4 phase equation of state-flash model that can define the physical properties (viscosity, density, etc.) of the products of kerogen maturation, and phase transitions that occur along secondary migration pathways; (4) Build a conventional basin model and incorporate new maturity indicators and data bases in a user-friendly way; (5) Develop an algorithm which combines the volume change and viscosities of the compositional maturation model to predict the chemistry of the hydrocarbons that will be expelled from the kerogen to the secondary migration pathways; (6) Develop an algorithm that predicts the flow of hydrocarbons along secondary migration pathways, accounts for mixing of miscible hydrocarbon components along the pathway, and calculates the phase fractionation that will occur as the hydrocarbons move upward down the geothermal and fluid pressure gradients in the basin; and (7) Integrate the above components into a functional model implemented on a PC or low cost workstation.

  7. Advanced fuel chemistry for advanced engines.

    SciTech Connect

    Taatjes, Craig A.; Jusinski, Leonard E.; Zador, Judit; Fernandes, Ravi X.; Miller, James A.

    2009-09-01

    Autoignition chemistry is central to predictive modeling of many advanced engine designs that combine high efficiency and low inherent pollutant emissions. This chemistry, and especially its pressure dependence, is poorly known for fuels derived from heavy petroleum and for biofuels, both of which are becoming increasingly prominent in the nation's fuel stream. We have investigated the pressure dependence of key ignition reactions for a series of molecules representative of non-traditional and alternative fuels. These investigations combined experimental characterization of hydroxyl radical production in well-controlled photolytically initiated oxidation and a hybrid modeling strategy that linked detailed quantum chemistry and computational kinetics of critical reactions with rate-equation models of the global chemical system. Comprehensive mechanisms for autoignition generally ignore the pressure dependence of branching fractions in the important alkyl + O{sub 2} reaction systems; however we have demonstrated that pressure-dependent 'formally direct' pathways persist at in-cylinder pressures.

  8. Recent Advances in Azaborine Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Patrick G.; Marwitz, Adam J. V.

    2013-01-01

    The chemistry of organoboron compounds has been primarily dominated by their use as powerful reagents in synthetic organic chemistry. Recently, the incorporation of boron as part of a functional target structure has emerged as a useful way to generate diversity in organic compounds. A commonly applied strategy is the replacement of a CC unit with its isoelectronic BN unit. In particular, the BN/CC isosterism of the ubiquitous arene motif has undergone a renaissance in the past decade. The parent molecule of the 1,2-dihydro-1,2-azaborine family has now been isolated. New mono- and polycyclic BN heterocycles have been synthesized for potential use in biomedical and materials science applications. This review is a tribute to Dewar's first synthesis of a monocyclic 1,2-dihydro-1,2-azaborine 50 years ago and discusses recent advances in the synthesis and characterization of carbon(C)-boron(B)-nitrogen(N)-containing heterocycles. PMID:22644658

  9. THE ADVANCED CHEMISTRY BASINS PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    William Goddard; Peter Meulbroek; Yongchun Tang; Lawrence Cathles III

    2004-04-05

    In the next decades, oil exploration by majors and independents will increasingly be in remote, inaccessible areas, or in areas where there has been extensive shallow exploration but deeper exploration potential may remain; areas where the collection of data is expensive, difficult, or even impossible, and where the most efficient use of existing data can drive the economics of the target. The ability to read hydrocarbon chemistry in terms of subsurface migration processes by relating it to the evolution of the basin and fluid migration is perhaps the single technological capability that could most improve our ability to explore effectively because it would allow us to use a vast store of existing or easily collected chemical data to determine the major migration pathways in a basin and to determine if there is deep exploration potential. To this end a the DOE funded a joint effort between California Institute of Technology, Cornell University, and GeoGroup Inc. to assemble a representative set of maturity and maturation kinetic models and develop an advanced basin model able to predict the chemistry of hydrocarbons in a basin from this input data. The four year project is now completed and has produced set of public domain maturity indicator and maturation kinetic data set, an oil chemistry and flash calculation tool operable under Excel, and a user friendly, graphically intuitive basin model that uses this data and flash tool, operates on a PC, and simulates hydrocarbon generation and migration and the chemical changes that can occur during migration (such as phase separation and gas washing). The DOE Advanced Chemistry Basin Model includes a number of new methods that represent advances over current technology. The model is built around the concept of handling arbitrarily detailed chemical composition of fluids in a robust finite-element 2-D grid. There are three themes on which the model focuses: chemical kinetic and equilibrium reaction parameters, chemical

  10. Teaching Techniques in Clinical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Diane

    This master's thesis presents several instructional methods and techniques developed for each of eleven topics or subject areas in clinical chemistry: carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, diagnostic enzymology, endocrinology, toxicology, quality control, electrolytes, acid base balance, hepatic function, nonprotein nitrogenous compounds, and…

  11. Advanced diagnostics for plasma chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, C.H.

    1994-03-01

    Since July 15, 1992, the High Temperature Gasdynamics Laboratory in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Stanford University has been engaged in a four-year research program on Advanced Diagnostics for Plasma Chemistry. The goal of this program is to develop state-of-the-art laser-based diagnostics of molecular species in harsh chemical environments, particularly those encountered in plasma synthesis of new materials. Emphasis has been placed on exploiting a new nonlinear spectroscopy, degenerate four wave mixing, as well as linear laser induced fluorescence to accomplish these goals. The present submittal is a proposal for the continuation funding for the third year of this program, from July 15, 1994, until July 14, 1995. Section 2 summarizes the research accomplished during the first eighteen months of the program. Section 3 discusses the plans for continuing research activities. Publications and presentations to date resulting from this program are listed in Section 4. The proposed budget for the third year is given in Section 5.

  12. Advanced Placement Chemistry: Project Advance and the Advanced Placement Program: A Comparison of Students' Performance on the AP Chemistry Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercurio, Joseph; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Compared performance of Syracuse University Project Advance (PA) chemistry students (N=35) with advanced placement (AP) candidates on the AP chemistry examination. PA students scored slightly above the national average on the examination, and students who performed well (B or better) in AP chemistry also did well on the examination. (JN)

  13. Contributions of Analytical Chemistry to the Clinical Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skogerboe, Kristen J.

    1988-01-01

    Highlights several analytical techniques that are being used in state-of-the-art clinical labs. Illustrates how other advances in instrumentation may contribute to clinical chemistry in the future. Topics include: biosensors, polarization spectroscopy, chemiluminescence, fluorescence, photothermal deflection, and chromatography in clinical…

  14. Advancing manufacturing through computational chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Noid, D.W.; Sumpter, B.G.; Tuzun, R.E.

    1995-12-31

    The capabilities of nanotechnology and computational chemistry are reaching a point of convergence. New computer hardware and novel computational methods have created opportunities to test proposed nanometer-scale devices, investigate molecular manufacturing and model and predict properties of new materials. Experimental methods are also beginning to provide new capabilities that make the possibility of manufacturing various devices with atomic precision tangible. In this paper, we will discuss some of the novel computational methods we have used in molecular dynamics simulations of polymer processes, neural network predictions of new materials, and simulations of proposed nano-bearings and fluid dynamics in nano- sized devices.

  15. Photoelectron Spectroscopy in Advanced Placement Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benigna, James

    2014-01-01

    Photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) is a new addition to the Advanced Placement (AP) Chemistry curriculum. This article explains the rationale for its inclusion, an overview of how the PES instrument records data, how the data can be analyzed, and how to include PES data in the course. Sample assessment items and analysis are included, as well as…

  16. Continuing Education Instrumentation Training in Clinical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBlanc, Jacqueline; Frankel, Saundra

    1980-01-01

    Describes the continuing education program for clinical chemistry instrumentation training established at The College of Staten Island, New York. A course consisting of 14 sessions is outlined and discussed. (CS)

  17. Radiation Chemistry of Advanced TALSPEAK Flowsheet

    SciTech Connect

    Mincher, Bruce; Peterman, Dean; Mcdowell, Rocklan; Olson, Lonnie; Lumetta, Gregg J.

    2013-08-28

    This report summarizes the results of initial experiments designed to understand the radiation chemistry of an Advanced TALSPEAK process for separating trivalent lanthanides form the actinides. Biphasic aerated samples were irradiated and then analyzed for post-irradiation constituent concentrations and solvent extraction distribution ratios. The effects of irradiation on the TALSPEAK and Advanced TALSPEAK solvents were similar, with very little degradation of the organic phase extractant. Decomposition products were detected, with a major product in common for both solvents. This product may be responsible for the slight increase in distribution ratios for Eu and Am with absorbed dose, however; separation factors were not greatly affected.

  18. Advanced Chemistry Collection, 2nd Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-11-01

    Software requirements are given in Table 3. Some programs have additional special requirements. Please see the individual program abstracts at JCE Online or the documentation included on the CD-ROM for more specific information. Table 3. General software requirements for the Advanced Chemistry Collection.

    ComputerSystemOther Software(Required by one or more programs)
    Mac OS compatibleSystem 7.6.1 or higherAcrobat Reader (included)Mathcad; Mathematica;MacMolecule2; QuickTime 4; HyperCard Player
    Windows CompatibleWindows 2000, 98, 95, NT 4Acrobat Reader (included)Mathcad; Mathematica;PCMolecule2; QuickTime 4;HyperChem; Excel

    Literature Cited

    1. General Chemistry Collection, 5th ed.; J. Chem. Educ. Software, 2001, SP16.
    2. Advanced Chemistry Collection; J. Chem. Educ. Software, 2001, SP28.

  19. Using Clinical Cases to Teach General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewprashad, Brahmadeo; Kosky, Charles; Vaz, Geraldine S.; Martin, Charlotte L.

    2004-01-01

    A clinical study was designed and used to show the relationship of health and medicine, in a typical clinical scenario, where many chemical principles are involved and that an integrated knowledge of chemistry and biology is essential to the understanding, diagnosing and treating of illnesses. A case study would be a positive learning experience…

  20. Recent advances in computational actinoid chemistry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongqi; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F; Chai, Zhifang

    2012-09-01

    We briefly review advances in computational actinoid (An) chemistry during the past ten years in regard to two issues: the geometrical and electronic structures, and reactions. The former addresses the An-O, An-C, and M-An (M is a metal atom including An) bonds in the actinoid molecular systems, including actinoid oxo and oxide species, actinoid-carbenoid, dinuclear and diatomic systems, and the latter the hydration and ligand exchange, the disproportionation, the oxidation, the reduction of uranyl, hydroamination, and the photolysis of uranium azide. Concerning their relevance to the electronic structures and reactions of actinoids and their importance in the development of an advanced nuclear fuel cycle, we also mentioned the work on actinoid carbides and nitrides, which have been proposed to be candidates of the next generation of nuclear fuel, and the oxidation of PuO(x), which is important to understand the speciation of actinoids in the environment, followed by a brief discussion on the urgent need for a heavier involvement of computational actinoid chemistry in developing advanced reprocessing protocols of spent nuclear fuel. The paper is concluded with an outlook. PMID:22777520

  1. Integrating Advanced High School Chemistry Research with Organic Chemistry and Instrumental Methods of Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Brian J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes and discusses the unique chemistry course opportunities beyond the advanced placement-level available at a science and technology magnet high school. Students may select entry-level courses such as honors and advanced placement chemistry; they may also take electives in organic chemistry with instrumental methods of analysis;…

  2. Advances take stage - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    Regulatory advances in proteomics will be taking center stage at a Symposia scheduled to occur at the 2011 American Association for Clinical Chemistry (AACC) Annual Meeting. The symposium entitled "Enabling Translational Proteomics with NCI's Clinical Proteomic Technologies for Cancer" is scheduled for July 25, 2011 at AACC's annual Meeting.

  3. Advances in clinical cardiology.

    PubMed

    McNeice, Andrew H; McAleavey, Neil M; Menown, Ian B A

    2014-08-01

    Multiple, potentially practice-changing cardiology trials have been presented or published over the past year. In this paper, we summarize and place in clinical context, new data regarding management of acute coronary syndrome and ST-elevation myocardial infarction (copeptin assessment, otamixaban, cangrelor, prasugrel, sodium nitrite, inclacumab, ranolazine, preventive coronary intervention of non-culprit lesions, immediate thrombolytic therapy versus transfer for primary intervention), new coronary intervention data (thrombectomy, radial access, pressure wire fractional flow reserve, antiplatelet therapy duration and gene-guidance, permanent and biodegradable polymers, coronary bifurcation and strategies), and coronary artery bypass data (off pump vs. on pump). Latest trials in trans-aortic valve implantation, heart failure (eplerenone, aliskiren, spironolactone, sildenafil, dopamine, nesiritide, omecamtiv mecarbil, the algisyl left ventricular augmentation device, and echo-guided cardiac resynchronization), atrial fibrillation (edoxaban, dabigatran, and ablation), cardiac arrest (hypothermia, LUCAS™ mechanical chest compression), and cardiovascular prevention (vitamins, renal denervation for resistant hypertension, renal artery stenting, saxagliptin, alogliptin, and gastric banding) are also discussed. PMID:25074280

  4. Computing Advances in the Teaching of Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskett, W. P.; Matthews, G. P.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses three trends in computer-oriented chemistry instruction: (1) availability of interfaces to integrate computers with experiments; (2) impact of the development of higher resolution graphics and greater memory capacity; and (3) role of videodisc technology on computer assisted instruction. Includes program listings for auto-titration and…

  5. Recent advances in technetium halide chemistry.

    PubMed

    Poineau, Frederic; Johnstone, Erik V; Czerwinski, Kenneth R; Sattelberger, Alfred P

    2014-02-18

    Transition metal binary halides are fundamental compounds, and the study of their structure, bonding, and other properties gives chemists a better understanding of physicochemical trends across the periodic table. One transition metal whose halide chemistry is underdeveloped is technetium, the lightest radioelement. For half a century, the halide chemistry of technetium has been defined by three compounds: TcF6, TcF5, and TcCl4. The absence of Tc binary bromides and iodides in the literature was surprising considering the existence of such compounds for all of the elements surrounding technetium. The common synthetic routes that scientists use to obtain binary halides of the neighboring elements, such as sealed tube reactions between elements and flowing gas reactions between a molecular complex and HX gas (X = Cl, Br, or I), had not been reported for technetium. In this Account, we discuss how we used these routes to revisit the halide chemistry of technetium. We report seven new phases: TcBr4, TcBr3, α/β-TcCl3, α/β-TcCl2, and TcI3. Technetium tetrachloride and tetrabromide are isostructural to PtX4 (X = Cl or Br) and consist of infinite chains of edge-sharing TcX6 octahedra. Trivalent technetium halides are isostructural to ruthenium and molybdenum (β-TcCl3, TcBr3, and TcI3) and to rhenium (α-TcCl3). Technetium tribromide and triiodide exhibit the TiI3 structure-type and consist of infinite chains of face-sharing TcX6 (X = Br or I) octahedra. Concerning the trichlorides, β-TcCl3 crystallizes with the AlCl3 structure-type and consists of infinite layers of edge-sharing TcCl6 octahedra, while α-TcCl3 consists of infinite layers of Tc3Cl9 units. Both phases of technetium dichloride exhibit new structure-types that consist of infinite chains of [Tc2Cl8] units. For the technetium binary halides, we studied the metal-metal interaction by theoretical methods and magnetic measurements. The change of the electronic configuration of the metal atom from d(3) (Tc

  6. Rewards and advancements for clinical pharmacists.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, S Diane; Kane-Gill, Sandra L; Ng, Tien M H; Melroy, Joel T; Hess, Mary M; Tallian, Kimberly; Trujillo, Toby C; Vermeulen, Lee C

    2010-01-01

    The American College of Clinical Pharmacy charged the Clinical Practice Affairs Committee to review and update the College's 1995 White Paper, "Rewards and Advancements for Clinical Pharmacy Practitioners." Because of the limited data on the present state of rewards and advancements for clinical pharmacists, an online survey of "front-line" clinical pharmacists and pharmacy managers was conducted (1126 total respondents, 14% response rate). The resulting White Paper discusses motivators and existing systems of rewards and advancements for clinical pharmacists, as well as perceived barriers to implementation of these systems. Clinical pharmacists reported work-life balance, a challenging position, and opportunities for professional advancement as the most important factors for career success. At the time of the survey, financial rewards appeared not to be a major motivator for clinical pharmacists. Managers underestimated the importance that clinical pharmacists place on work-life balance and favorable work schedules. Although almost two thirds of the clinical pharmacists surveyed had not developed a professional development plan, 84% indicated an interest in career planning. Both clinical pharmacists and managers rated the lack of a clear reward and advancement structure as the most important barrier to effective systems of rewards and advancements. Pharmacy managers and administrators are encouraged to develop effective systems of rewards and advancements for clinical pharmacists that positively impact patient care and the institution's mission; these systems will benefit the clinical pharmacist, the health care institution, and the patient. PMID:20030483

  7. 78 FR 13347 - Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Toxicology Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Toxicology Devices Panel of... Chemistry and Clinical Toxicology Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee. General...

  8. Recent advances in click chemistry applied to dendrimer synthesis.

    PubMed

    Arseneault, Mathieu; Wafer, Caroline; Morin, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Dendrimers are monodisperse polymers grown in a fractal manner from a central point. They are poised to become the cornerstone of nanoscale devices in several fields, ranging from biomedicine to light-harvesting. Technical difficulties in obtaining these molecules has slowed their transfer from academia to industry. In 2001, the arrival of the "click chemistry" concept gave the field a major boost. The flagship reaction, a modified Hüisgen cycloaddition, allowed researchers greater freedom in designing and building dendrimers. In the last five years, advances in click chemistry saw a wider use of other click reactions and a notable increase in the complexity of the reported structures. This review covers key developments in the click chemistry field applied to dendrimer synthesis from 2010 to 2015. Even though this is an expert review, basic notions and references have been included to help newcomers to the field. PMID:26007183

  9. Research for the advancement of green chemistry practice: Studies in atmospheric and educational chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullipher, Steven Gene

    Green chemistry is a philosophy of chemistry that emphasizes a decreasing dependence on limited non-renewable resources and an increasing focus on preventing pollution byproducts of the chemical industry. In short, it is the discipline of chemistry practiced through the lens of environmental stewardship. In an effort to advance the practice of green chemistry, three studies will be described that have ramifications for the practice. The first study examines the atmospheric oxidation of a hydrofluorinated ether, a third-generation CFC replacement compound with primarily unknown atmospheric degradation products. Determination of these products has the potential to impact decisions on refrigerant usage in the future. The second study examines chemistry students' development of understanding benefits-costs-risks analysis when presented with two real-world scenarios: refrigerant choice and fuel choice. By studying how benefits-costs-risks thinking develops, curricular materials and instructional approaches can be designed to better foster the development of an ability that is both necessary for green chemists and important in daily decision-making for non-chemists. The final study uses eye tracking technology to examine students' abilities to interpret molecular properties from structural information in the context of global warming. Such abilities are fundamental if chemists are to appropriately assess risks and hazards of chemistry practice.

  10. Advances in actinide solid-state and coordination chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, Peter C; Ikeda, Y.; Czerwinski, K.

    2011-01-31

    Actinide solid-state and coordination chemistry has advanced through unexpected results that have further revealed the complex nature of the 5f elements. Nanoscale control of actinide materials is emerging, as shown by the creation of a considerable range of cluster and tubular topologies. Departures from established structural trends for actinyl ions are provided by cation-cation interactions in which an O atom of one actinyl ion is an equatorial ligand of a bipyramid of another actinyl ion. The solid-state structural complexity of actinide materials has been further demonstrated by open framework materials with interesting properties. The U(VI) tetraoxide core has been added to this cation's repertoire of coordination possibilities. The emergence of pentavalent uranium solid-state and coordination chemistry has resulted from the prudent selection of ligands. Finally, analogues of the uranyl ion have challenged our understanding of this normally unreactive functional group.

  11. Cell-based biosensors in clinical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Kintzios, Spiridon E

    2007-10-01

    Cell-based biosensors represent the next revolution in medical diagnostics, offering a number of significant advantages, such as high speed, portability and low cost. The present review focuses on the most successful technologies used for the detection of ultra-low concentrations of bioactive analytes (such as metabolic markers and pathogens) in clinical samples. PMID:17979804

  12. Selenium in oncology: from chemistry to clinics.

    PubMed

    Micke, Oliver; Schomburg, Lutz; Buentzel, Jens; Kisters, Klaus; Muecke, Ralph

    2009-01-01

    The essential trace element selenium, which is a crucial cofactor in the most important endogenous antioxidative systems of the human body, is attracting more and more the attention of both laypersons and expert groups. The interest of oncologists mainly focuses in the following clinical aspects: radioprotection of normal tissues, radiosensitizing in malignant tumors, antiedematous effect, prognostic impact of selenium, and effects in primary and secondary cancer prevention. Selenium is a constituent of the small group of selenocysteine-containing selenoproteins and elicits important structural and enzymatic functions. Selenium deficiency has been linked to increased infection risk and adverse mood states. It has been shown to possess cancer-preventive and cytoprotective activities in both animal models and humans. It is well established that Se has a key role in redox regulation and antioxidant function, and hence in membrane integrity, energy metabolism and protection against DNA damage. Recent clinical trials have shown the importance of selenium in clinical oncology. Our own clinical study involving 48 patients suggest that selenium has a positive effect on radiation-associated secondary lymphedema in patients with limb edemas, as well as in the head and neck region, including endolaryngeal edema. Another randomized phase III study of our group was performed to examine the cytoprotective properties of selenium in radiation oncology. The aim was to evaluate whether sodium selenite is able to compensate a preexisting selenium deficiency and to prevent radiation induced diarrhea in adjuvant radiotherapy for pelvic gynecologic malignancies. Through this study, the significant benefits of sodium selenite supplementation with regards to selenium deficiency and radiotherapy induced diarrhea in patients with cervical and uterine cancer has been shown for the first time in a prospective randomized trial. Survival data imply that supplementation with selenium does not

  13. 21 CFR 862.2170 - Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use. 862... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2170 Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A micro...

  14. 21 CFR 862.2170 - Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use. 862... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2170 Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A micro...

  15. 21 CFR 862.2140 - Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2140 Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A...

  16. 21 CFR 862.2140 - Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2140 Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A...

  17. 21 CFR 862.2170 - Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use. 862... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2170 Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A micro...

  18. 21 CFR 862.2170 - Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use. 862... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2170 Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A micro...

  19. 21 CFR 862.2170 - Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use. 862... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2170 Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A micro...

  20. 21 CFR 862.2140 - Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2140 Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A...

  1. 21 CFR 862.2140 - Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2140 Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A...

  2. 21 CFR 862.2140 - Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2140 Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A...

  3. Specialized Gas Chromatography--Mass Spectrometry Systems for Clinical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gochman, Nathan; And Others

    1979-01-01

    A discussion of the basic design and characteristics of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry systems used in clinical chemistry. A comparison of three specific systems: the Vitek Olfax IIA, Hewlett-Packard HP5992, and Du Pont DP-102 are included. (BB)

  4. Towards advanced OCT clinical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillin, Mikhail; Panteleeva, Olga; Agrba, Pavel; Pasukhin, Mikhail; Sergeeva, Ekaterina; Plankina, Elena; Dudenkova, Varvara; Gubarkova, Ekaterina; Kiseleva, Elena; Gladkova, Natalia; Shakhova, Natalia; Vitkin, Alex

    2015-07-01

    In this paper we report on our recent achievement in application of conventional and cross-polarization OCT (CP OCT) modalities for in vivo clinical diagnostics in different medical areas including gynecology, dermatology, and stomatology. In gynecology, CP OCT was employed for diagnosing fallopian tubes and cervix; in dermatology OCT for monitoring of treatment of psoriasis, scleroderma and atopic dermatitis; and in stomatology for diagnosis of oral diseases. For all considered application, we propose and develop different image processing methods which enhance the diagnostic value of the technique. In particular, we use histogram analysis, Fourier analysis and neural networks, thus calculating different tissue characteristics as revealed by OCT's polarization evolution. These approaches enable improved OCT image quantification and increase its resultant diagnostic accuracy.

  5. Influence of a Regular, Standardized Meal on Clinical Chemistry Analytes

    PubMed Central

    Salvagno, Gian Luca; Lippi, Giuseppe; Gelati, Matteo; Montagnana, Martina; Danese, Elisa; Picheth, Geraldo; Guidi, Gian Cesare

    2012-01-01

    Background Preanalytical variability, including biological variability and patient preparation, is an important source of variability in laboratory testing. In this study, we assessed whether a regular light meal might bias the results of routine clinical chemistry testing. Methods We studied 17 healthy volunteers who consumed light meals containing a standardized amount of carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids. We collected blood for routine clinical chemistry tests before the meal and 1, 2, and 4 hr thereafter. Results One hour after the meal, triglycerides (TG), albumin (ALB), uric acid (UA), phosphatase (ALP), Ca, Fe, and Na levels significantly increased, whereas blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and P levels decreased. TG, ALB, Ca, Na, P, and total protein (TP) levels varied significantly. Two hours after the meal, TG, ALB, Ca, Fe, and Na levels remained significantly high, whereas BUN, P, UA, and total bilirubin (BT) levels decreased. Clinically significant variations were recorded for TG, ALB, ALT, Ca, Fe, Na, P, BT, and direct bilirubin (BD) levels. Four hours after the meal, TG, ALB, Ca, Fe, Na, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), P, Mg, and K levels significantly increased, whereas UA and BT levels decreased. Clinically significant variations were observed for TG, ALB, ALT, Ca, Na, Mg, K, C-reactive protein (CRP), AST, UA, and BT levels. Conclusions A significant variation in the clinical chemistry parameters after a regular meal shows that fasting time needs to be carefully considered when performing tests to prevent spurious results and reduce laboratory errors, especially in an emergency setting. PMID:22779065

  6. 21 CFR 862.2160 - Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2160 Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for clinical use....

  7. 21 CFR 862.2160 - Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2160 Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for clinical use....

  8. 21 CFR 862.2160 - Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2160 Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for clinical use....

  9. 21 CFR 862.2160 - Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2160 Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for clinical use....

  10. 21 CFR 862.2160 - Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2160 Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for clinical use....

  11. Recent Advances in the Chemistry and Biology of Naturally Occurring Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jason S.; Edmonds, David J.; Estrada, Anthony A.

    2009-01-01

    Lead-in Ever since the world-shaping discovery of penicillin, nature’s molecular diversity has been extensively screened for new medications and lead compounds in drug discovery. The search for anti-infective agents intended to combat infectious diseases has been of particular interest and has enjoyed a high degree of success. Indeed, the history of antibiotics is marked with impressive discoveries and drug development stories, the overwhelming majority of which have their origins in nature. Chemistry, and in particular chemical synthesis, has played a major role in bringing naturally occurring antibiotics and their derivatives to the clinic, and no doubt these disciplines will continue to be key enabling technologies for future developments in the field. In this review article, we highlight a number of recent discoveries and advances in the chemistry, biology, and medicine of naturally occurring antibiotics, with particular emphasis on the total synthesis, analog design, and biological evaluation of molecules with novel mechanisms of action. PMID:19130444

  12. Adapting Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Lecture and Laboratory Instruction for a Legally Blind Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miecznikowski, John R.; Guberman-Pfeffer, Matthew J.; Butrick, Elizabeth E.; Colangelo, Julie A.; Donaruma, Cristine E.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the strategies and techniques used to successfully teach advanced inorganic chemistry, in the lecture and laboratory, to a legally blind student are described. At Fairfield University, these separate courses, which have a physical chemistry corequisite or a prerequisite, are taught for junior and senior chemistry and biochemistry…

  13. 78 FR 19717 - Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Toxicology Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-02

    ... notice that appeared in the Federal Register of Wednesday, February 27, 2013 (78 FR 13347). The meeting... for up-to-date information on this meeting. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In FR doc. 2013-04543... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Toxicology Devices Panel...

  14. Modern advances in heterocyclic chemistry in drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Alexandria P; Robinson, Ralph P; Fobian, Yvette M; Blakemore, David C; Jones, Lyn H; Fadeyi, Olugbeminiyi

    2016-07-12

    New advances in synthetic methodologies that allow rapid access to a wide variety of functionalized heterocyclic compounds are of critical importance to the medicinal chemist as it provides the ability to expand the available drug-like chemical space and drive more efficient delivery of drug discovery programs. Furthermore, the development of robust synthetic routes that can readily generate bulk quantities of a desired compound help to accelerate the drug development process. While established synthetic methodologies are commonly utilized during the course of a drug discovery program, the development of innovative heterocyclic syntheses that allow for different bond forming strategies are having a significant impact in the pharmaceutical industry. This review will focus on recent applications of new methodologies in C-H activation, photoredox chemistry, borrowing hydrogen catalysis, multicomponent reactions, regio- and stereoselective syntheses, as well as other new, innovative general syntheses for the formation and functionalization of heterocycles that have helped drive project delivery. Additionally, the importance and value of collaborations between industry and academia in shaping the development of innovative synthetic approaches to functionalized heterocycles that are of greatest interest to the pharmaceutical industry will be highlighted. PMID:27282396

  15. Advances in cardiology: clinical trial update.

    PubMed

    Howe, Andrew J; Shand, James A; Menown, Ian B A

    2011-05-01

    Multiple key cardiology trials have been presented or published over recent months, several with the potential to change clinical practice. In this article, we summarize and place in clinical context new trial findings regarding anticoagulation in the cardiac catheterization laboratory (enoxaparin, fondaparinux and unfractionated heparin), the implications of genetic polymorphisms and functional testing for antiplatelet therapy (clopidogrel and ticagrelor), new oral anticoagulants for use in atrial fibrillation (apixiban and rivaroxaban), optimal pacing strategies and pharmacological agents in heart failure (ivabradine, eplerenone, cardiac resynchronization therapy, telemonitoring and intracoronary bone marrow stem cell infusion). Clinical trials in percutaneous structural intervention (transcatheter aortic valve implantation, MONARC™ mitral annular implant, STARFlex(®) patent foramen ovale device) and advanced percutaneous coronary intervention (everolimus-eluting stents, biodegradable polymer/polymer-free technologies and contemporary use of intravascular ultrasound) are also discussed. PMID:21627472

  16. The chemistry of acrylic bone cements and implications for clinical use in image-guided therapy.

    PubMed

    Nussbaum, David A; Gailloud, Philippe; Murphy, Kieran

    2004-02-01

    Advances in image-guided therapy for vertebral fractures and other bone-related disorders have made acrylic bone cement an integral part of the interventional armamentarium. Unfortunately, information on the properties and chemistry of these compounds is mostly published in the biomaterial sciences literature, a source with which the interventional community is generally unfamiliar. This review focuses on the chemistry of bone cement polymerization and the properties of components in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)-based polymers, the most commonly used bone cements in interventional procedures such as percutaneous vertebroplasty. The effects of altering the concentration of components such as methylmethacrylate monomers, PMMA beads, benzoyl peroxide activator, N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine (DMPT) initiator, and radiopacifiers on the setting time, polymerization temperature, and compressive strength of the cement are also considered. This information will allow interventional radiologists to manipulate bone cement characteristics for specific applications and maximize the clinical potential of image-guided interventions. PMID:14963178

  17. Nanomaterial surface chemistry design for advancements in capillary electrophoresis modes.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Michael R; Haes, Amanda J

    2011-01-01

    Tailored surface chemistry impacts nanomaterial function and stability in applications including in various capillary electrophoresis (CE) modes. Although colloidal nanoparticles were first integrated as colouring agents in artwork and pottery over 2000 years ago, recent developments in nanoparticle synthesis and surface modification increased their usefulness and incorporation in separation science. For instance, precise control of surface chemistry is critically important in modulating nanoparticle functionality and stability in dynamic environments. Herein, recent developments in nanomaterial pseudostationary and stationary phases will be summarized. First, nanomaterial core and surface chemistry compositions will be classified. Next, characterization methods will be described and related to nanomaterial function in various CE modes. Third, methods and implications of nanomaterial incorporation into CE will be discussed. Finally, nanoparticle-specific mechanisms likely involved in CE will be related to nanomaterial surface chemistry. Better understanding of surface chemistry will improve nanoparticle design for the integration into separation techniques. PMID:20967383

  18. Advanced clinical insights & practice: ischemic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Benner, Randall W; Zavarella, Matthew S

    2008-03-01

    This issue sees the debut of a new series of continuing education articles. The series, Advanced Clinical Insights & Practice, is designed to provide continuing education to an ever-expanding realm of paramedicine that needs more of it: the critical care transport paramedic. Secondly, and equally important, are the benefits that can be reaped by other certification levels reading this feature. For EMT-Basics and Intermediates, it will provide a great enhancement to your core knowledge, although most of the interventions discussed will be beyond your traditional scope. For paramedics, it will augment both your pathophysiological understanding and clinical assessment/management skills of diseases and injuries discussed. Ultimately though, it is hoped that anyone who reads these articles will become a better clinician. The next article will appear in the July issue. PMID:18814637

  19. Preanalytical management: serum vacuum tubes validation for routine clinical chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Lima-Oliveira, Gabriel; Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Montagnana, Martina; Picheth, Geraldo; Guidi, Gian Cesare

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The validation process is essential in accredited clinical laboratories. Aim of this study was to validate five kinds of serum vacuum tubes for routine clinical chemistry laboratory testing. Materials and methods: Blood specimens from 100 volunteers in five diff erent serum vacuum tubes (Tube I: VACUETTE®, Tube II: LABOR IMPORT®, Tube III: S-Monovette®, Tube IV: SST® and Tube V: SST II®) were collected by a single, expert phlebotomist. The routine clinical chemistry tests were analyzed on cobas® 6000 module. The significance of the diff erences between samples was assessed by paired Student’s t-test after checking for normality. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.005. Finally, the biases from Tube I, Tube II, Tube III, Tube IV and Tube V were compared with the current desirable quality specifications for bias (B), derived from biological variation. Results and conclusions: Basically, our validation will permit the laboratory or hospital managers to select the brand’s vacuum tubes validated according him/her technical or economical reasons, in order to perform the following laboratory tests: glucose, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein, albumin, blood urea nitrogen, uric acid, alkaline phosphatise, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, calcium, iron, sodium and potassium. On the contrary special attention will be required if the laboratory already performs creatinine, amylase, phosphate and magnesium determinations and the quality laboratory manager intend to change the serum tubes. We suggest that laboratory management should both standardize the procedures and frequently evaluate the quality of in vitro diagnostic devices. PMID:22838184

  20. Integration of a Communicating Science Module into an Advanced Chemistry Laboratory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renaud, Jessica; Squier, Christopher; Larsen, Sarah C.

    2006-01-01

    A communicating science module was introduced into an advanced undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory course. The module was integrated into the course such that students received formal instruction in communicating science interwoven with the chemistry laboratory curriculum. The content of the communicating science module included three…

  1. Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). Teachers' and Technicians' Notes for First Year Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inner London Education Authority (England).

    The Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC) has produced units of study for students in A-level chemistry. Students completing ILPAC units assume a greater responsibility for their own learning and can work, to some extent, at their own pace. By providing guidance, and detailed solutions to exercises in the units, supported by…

  2. What Does a Student Know Who Earns a Top Score on the Advanced Placement Chemistry Exam?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claesgens, Jennifer; Daubenmire, Paul L.; Scalise, Kathleen M.; Balicki, Scott; Gochyyev, Perman; Stacy, Angelica M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares the performance of students at a high-performing U.S. public school (n = 64) on the advanced placement (AP) chemistry exam to their performance on the ChemQuery assessment system. The AP chemistry exam was chosen because, as the National Research Council acknowledges, it is the "perceived standard of excellence and school…

  3. Development of an Advanced Training Course for Teachers and Researchers in Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dragisich, Vera; Keller, Valerie; Black, Rebecca; Heaps, Charles W.; Kamm, Judith M.; Olechnowicz, Frank; Raybin, Jonathan; Rombola, Michael; Zhao, Meishan

    2016-01-01

    Based on our long-standing Intensive Training Program for Effective Teaching Assistants in Chemistry, we have developed an Advanced Training Course for Teachers and Researchers in Chemistry at The University of Chicago. The topics in this course are designed to train graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) to become effective teachers and well-rounded…

  4. ADVANCES IN GREEN CHEMISTRY: CHEMICAL SYNTHESES USING MICROWAVE IRRADIATION, ISBN 81-901238-5-8

    EPA Science Inventory

    16. Abstract Advances in Green Chemistry: Chemical Syntheses Using Microwave Irradiation
    Microwave-accelerated chemical syntheses in solvents as well as under solvent-free conditions have witnessed an explosive growth. The technique has found widespread application predomi...

  5. Surface chemistry: Key to control and advance myriad technologies

    PubMed Central

    Yates, John T.; Campbell, Charles T.

    2011-01-01

    This special issue on surface chemistry is introduced with a brief history of the field, a summary of the importance of surface chemistry in technological applications, a brief overview of some of the most important recent developments in this field, and a look forward to some of its most exciting future directions. This collection of invited articles is intended to provide a snapshot of current developments in the field, exemplify the state of the art in fundamental research in surface chemistry, and highlight some possibilities in the future. Here, we show how those articles fit together in the bigger picture of this field. PMID:21245359

  6. 21 CFR 862.2150 - Continuous flow sequential multiple chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Continuous flow sequential multiple chemistry..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2150 Continuous flow sequential multiple...

  7. 21 CFR 862.2150 - Continuous flow sequential multiple chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Continuous flow sequential multiple chemistry..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2150 Continuous flow sequential multiple...

  8. 21 CFR 862.2150 - Continuous flow sequential multiple chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Continuous flow sequential multiple chemistry..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2150 Continuous flow sequential multiple...

  9. 21 CFR 862.2150 - Continuous flow sequential multiple chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Continuous flow sequential multiple chemistry..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2150 Continuous flow sequential multiple...

  10. 21 CFR 862.2150 - Continuous flow sequential multiple chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Continuous flow sequential multiple chemistry..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2150 Continuous flow sequential multiple...

  11. Interferences from blood collection tube components on clinical chemistry assays

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Raffick A.R.; Remaley, Alan T.

    2014-01-01

    Improper design or use of blood collection devices can adversely affect the accuracy of laboratory test results. Vascular access devices, such as catheters and needles, exert shear forces during blood flow, which creates a predisposition to cell lysis. Components from blood collection tubes, such as stoppers, lubricants, surfactants, and separator gels, can leach into specimens and/or adsorb analytes from a specimen; special tube additives may also alter analyte stability. Because of these interactions with blood specimens, blood collection devices are a potential source of pre-analytical error in laboratory testing. Accurate laboratory testing requires an understanding of the complex interactions between collection devices and blood specimens. Manufacturers, vendors, and clinical laboratorians must consider the pre-analytical challenges in laboratory testing. Although other authors have described the effects of endogenous substances on clinical assay results, the effects/impact of blood collection tube additives and components have not been well systematically described or explained. This review aims to identify and describe blood collection tube additives and their components and the strategies used to minimize their effects on clinical chemistry assays. PMID:24627713

  12. Interference of cationic polymeric nanoparticles with clinical chemistry tests--clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Shcharbin, Dzmitry; Shcharbina, Natallia; Milowska, Katarzyna; de la Mata, Francisco Javier; Muñoz-Fernandez, Maria Angeles; Mignani, Serge; Gomez-Ramirez, Rafael; Majoral, Jean-Pierre; Bryszewska, Maria

    2014-10-01

    The development of medical nanosystems requires knowledge of their behavior in vivo. Clinical chemistry tests are widely used to estimate the systemic toxicity of nanoparticles. In this paper we have explored the impact of small positively charged nanoparticles-poly(amidoamine), phosphorous and carbosilane dendrimers - on biochemical parameters of standardized serum in vitro. All the dendrimers could shift the main biochemical parameters. Thus, in the case of patients having the normal, but 'boundary', values of biochemical parameters, nanoparticle-induced changes can be wrongly interpreted as evidence of some dysfunctions (hepatic, renal, etc.). Moreover, the effects of nanoparticles of metals, carbon nanotubes, quantum dots, fullerenes, dendrimers having been sized up to 4000 nm and the hundreds of reactive groups, can be significantly higher. Thus, preliminary evaluation of any nanomaterial in vitro is required in clinical chemistry tests before its application in vivo to draw the correct conclusions and benefit animals. PMID:25091374

  13. Assessing Advanced High School and Undergraduate Students' Thinking Skills: The Chemistry--From the Nanoscale to Microelectronics Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dori, Yehudit Judy; Dangur, Vered; Avargil, Shirly; Peskin, Uri

    2014-01-01

    Chemistry students in Israel have two options for studying chemistry: basic or honors (advanced placement). For instruction in high school honors chemistry courses, we developed a module focusing on abstract topics in quantum mechanics: Chemistry--From the Nanoscale to Microelectronics. The module adopts a visual-conceptual approach, which…

  14. Laboratory Exercises to Teach Clinically Relevant Chemistry of Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Chelette, Candace T.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To design, implement, and evaluate student performance on clinically relevant chemical and spectral laboratory exercises on antibiotics. Design. In the first of 2 exercises, second-year pharmacy students enrolled in an integrated laboratory sequence course studied the aqueous stability of ß-lactam antibiotics using a spectral visual approach. In a second exercise, students studied the tendency of tetracycline, rifamycins, and fluoroquinolones to form insoluble chelate complexes (turbidity) with polyvalent metals. Assessment. On a survey to assess achievement of class learning objectives, students agreed the laboratory activities helped them better retain important information concerning antibiotic stability and interactions. A significant improvement was observed in performance on examination questions related to the laboratory topics for 2012 and 2013 students compared to 2011 students who did not complete the laboratory. A 1-year follow-up examination question administered in a separate course showed >75% of the students were able to identify rifamycins-food interactions compared with <25% of students who had not completed the laboratory exercises. Conclusion. The use of spectral visual approaches allowed students to investigate antibiotic stability and interactions, thus reinforcing the clinical relevance of medicinal chemistry. Students’ performance on questions at the 1-year follow-up suggested increased retention of the concepts learned as a result of completing the exercises. PMID:24672070

  15. The European Register for Clinical Chemists. (European Communities Confederation of Clinical Chemistry, Working Group on Registration).

    PubMed

    Sanders, G T; Kelly, A M; Breuer, J; Kohse, K P; Mocarelli, P; Sachs, C

    1997-10-01

    To ensure freedom of movement in the European Union, a limited number of professions is regulated by a so-called Sectorial Directive; all other disciplines, including clinical chemistry, fall under a General Directive. However, clinical chemists in the EU wish their specialty to be more specifically regulated; this means that common standards of education, training, experience and compliance with continuing professional developments must be guaranteed. Therefore, the European Communities Confederation of Clinical Chemistry (EC4) is about to implement the European Register for clinical chemists, and has composed a guide to this Register. The document describes the conditions for entry to specialty training, the minimum standards for registration (university education and postgraduate vocational training with a minimum total of eight years), the competencies of those qualifying for registration, and the operation of the register. Registration guarantees professional and managerial competencies; the title conferred is "European Clinical Chemist". EC4 recognises the existing national registers as far as they are based on the minimal requirements as indicated. An EC4 Register Commission (EC4RC) will maintain and control the European Register, supported by National Clinical Chemistry Registration Committees (NCCRC). An NCCRC controls the quality of the education in each country and assesses candidates. An individual (EU citizen or non-EU citizen trained in an EU country) applies privately for the European Register to EC4RC and, where applicable, the application is accompanied by a document from the NCCRC of the country of registration, stating that the applicant has the necessary qualifications. For EU citizens trained outside the EU the final decision is with EC4RC; non-EU citizens not trained in an EU country are not eligible for registration. Registration is renewed once every five years. PMID:9368800

  16. Advances in atmospheric chemistry modeling: the LLNL impact tropospheric/stratospheric chemistry model

    SciTech Connect

    Rotman, D A; Atherton, C

    1999-10-07

    We present a unique modeling capability to understand the global distribution of trace gases and aerosols throughout both the troposphere and stratosphere. It includes the ability to simulate tropospheric chemistry that occurs both in the gas phase as well as on the surfaces of solid particles. We have used this capability to analyze observations from particular flight campaigns as well as averaged observed data. Results show the model to accurately simulate the complex chemistry occurring near the tropopause and throughout the troposphere and stratosphere.

  17. A Selection of Recent Advances in C1 Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Mesters, Carl

    2016-06-01

    This review presents a selection of recent publications related to the chemistry and catalysis of C1 molecules, including methane, methanol, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. These molecules play an important role in the current supply of energy and chemicals and will likely become even more relevant because of the need to decarbonize fuels (shift from coal to natural gas) in line with CO2 capture and use to mitigate global warming, as well as a gradual shift on the supply side from crude oil to natural gas. This review includes both recent industrial developments, such as the huge increase in methanol-to-olefins-capacity build in China and the demonstration of oxidative coupling of methane, and scientific developments in these chemistries facilitated by improved capabilities in, for example, analytical tools and computational modeling. PMID:27276549

  18. Continuous Symmetry and Chemistry Teachers: Learning Advanced Chemistry Content through Novel Visualization Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuvi-Arad, Inbal; Blonder, Ron

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we describe the learning process of a group of experienced chemistry teachers in a specially designed workshop on molecular symmetry and continuous symmetry. The workshop was based on interactive visualization tools that allow molecules and their symmetry elements to be rotated in three dimensions. The topic of continuous symmetry is…

  19. Evaluation of the clinical chemistry analyser Olympus AU400.

    PubMed

    Lasnier, E; Mario, N; Boque, M C; You, S N; Vaubourdolle, M

    2000-10-01

    The Olympus AU400 analyser (Olympus, Tokyo, Japan) is an automated chemistry instrument for turbidimetric, spectrophotometric and ion selective electrode measurements. Overall analytical performances of the AU400 and the reagents provided by Olympus were evaluated according to the French Society of Clinical Biology guidelines. Twenty parameters including specific proteins, substrates, enzyme activities and electrolytes were tested. The linearity exceeded the specifications given by the manufacturer. Within- and between-run imprecision (CV%), evaluated at two levels, was below 1.5% for ion selective electrode parameters and 3% for other analytes, except for CO2, alkaline phosphatase at low levels and magnesium. Results compared well with those obtained with the analysers routinely used in our laboratory (Behring BNII, Olympus AU800 and Beckman CX3 Delta). The usual positive interferences from lipaemia and haemoglobin on total protein measurement were observed. Creatine kinase and alkaline phosphatase assays were the subject of positive and negative interference by haemoglobin, respectively. There was a negative interference by bilirubin in the uric acid, aspartate-amino transferase, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase assays and a positive interference in the calcium assay. The system was found to be very easy to use and the workstation is user-friendly. PMID:11140621

  20. Advances in Chemistry and Bioactivity of the Genus Chisocheton Blume.

    PubMed

    Shilpi, Jamil A; Saha, Sanjib; Chong, Soon-Lim; Nahar, Lutfun; Sarker, Satyajit D; Awang, Khalijah

    2016-05-01

    Chisocheton is one of the genera of the family Meliaceae and consists of ca. 53 species; the distribution of most of those are confined to the Indo-Malay region. Species of broader geographic distribution have undergone extensive phytochemical investigations. Previous phytochemical investigations of this genus resulted in the isolation of mainly limonoids, apotirucallane, tirucallane, and dammarane triterpenes. Reported bioactivities of the isolated compounds include cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antimalarial, antimycobacterial, antifeedant, and lipid droplet inhibitory activities. Aside from chemistry and biological activities, this review also deals briefly with botany, distribution, and uses of various species of this genus. PMID:26970405

  1. Advances in solid-phase extraction disks for environmental chemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thurman, E.M.; Snavely, K.

    2000-01-01

    The development of solid-phase extraction (SPE) for environmental chemistry has progressed significantly over the last decade to include a number of new sorbents and new approaches to SPE. One SPE approach in particular, the SPE disk, has greatly reduced or eliminated the use of chlorinated solvents for the analysis of trace organic compounds. This article discusses the use and applicability of various SPE disks, including micro-sized disks, prior to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the analysis of trace organic compounds in water. Copyright (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.

  2. Visualizing Chemistry: The Progess and Promise of Advanced Chemical Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Committee on Revealing Chemistry Through Advanced Chemical Imaging

    2006-09-01

    The field of chemical imaging can provide detailed structural, functional, and applicable information about chemistry and chemical engineering phenomena that have enormous impacts on medicine, materials, and technology. In recognizing the potential for more research development in the field of chemical imaging, the National Academies was asked by the National Science Foundation, Department of Energy, U.S. Army, and National Cancer Institute to complete a study that would review the current state of molecular imaging technology, point to promising future developments and their applications, and suggest a research and educational agenda to enable breakthrough improvements in the ability to image molecular processes simultaneously in multiple physical dimensions as well as time. The study resulted in a consensus report that provides guidance for a focused research and development program in chemical imaging and identifies research needs and possible applications of imaging technologies that can provide the breakthrough knowledge in chemistry, materials science, biology, and engineering for which we should strive. Public release of this report is expected in early October.

  3. Integrative Chemistry: Advanced functional cellular materials bearing multiscale porosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depardieu, M.; Kinadjian, N.; Backov, R.

    2015-07-01

    With this mini review we show through the sol-gel and emulsion-based Integrative Chemistry how it is possible to trigger materials dimensionality and beyond their functionalities when reaching enhanced applications. In here we focus on 3D macrocellular monolithic foams bearing hierarchical porosities and applications thereof. We first depict the general background of emulsions focusing on concentrated ones, acting as soft templates for the design of PolyHIPE foams, HIPE being the acronym of High Internal Phase Emulsions while encompassing both sol-gel and polymer chemistry. Secondly we extend this approach toward the design of hybrid organic-inorganic foams, labeled Organo-Si(HIPE), where photonics and heterogeneous catalysis applications are addressed. In a third section we show how inorganic Si(HIPE) matrices can be employed as sacrificial hard templates for the generation carbonaceous foams, labeled Carbon(HIPE). These foams being conductive we show applications when employed as electrodes for Li-S battery and as hosts for Li(BH4)-based hydrogen storage.

  4. A Simultaneous Analysis Problem for Advanced General Chemistry Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leary, J. J.; Gallaher, T. N.

    1983-01-01

    Oxidation of magnesium metal in air has been used as an introductory experiment for determining the formula of a compound. The experiment described employs essentially the same laboratory procedure but is significantly more advanced in terms of information sought. Procedures and sample calculations/results are provided. (JN)

  5. Amphiphile nanoarchitectonics: from basic physical chemistry to advanced applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanathan, Nathan Muruganathan; Shrestha, Lok Kumar; Mori, Taizo; Ji, Dr. Qingmin; Hill, Dr. Jonathan P; Ariga, Katsuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Amphiphiles, either synthetic or natural, are structurally simple molecules with the unprecedented capacity to self-assemble into complex, hierarchical geometries in nanospace. Effective self-assembly processes of amphiphiles are often used to mimic biological systems, such as, assembly of lipids and proteins, which has paved a way for bottom-up nanotechnology with bio-like advanced functions. Recent developments on nanostructure formation combine simple processes of assembly with the more advanced concept of nanoarchitectonics. In this pespective, we summarize research on self-assembly of amphiphilic molecules such as lipids, surfactants or block copolymers that are a focus of interest for many colloid, polymer, and materials scientists and which have become increasingly important in emerging nanotechnology. Because the fundamental science of amphiphiles was initially developed for their solution assembly then transferred to assemblies on surfaces as a development of nanotechnological technique, this perspective attempts to mirro this development by introducing solution systems and progressing to interfacial systems, which are roughly categorized as (i) basic properties of amphiphiles, (ii) self-assembly of amphiphiles in bulk phases, (iii) assembly on static surfaces, (iv) assembly at dynamic interfaces, and (v) advanced topics from simulation to application. This progression also represents the evolution of amphiphile science and technology from simple assemblies to advanced assemblies to nanoarchitectonics.

  6. Amphiphile nanoarchitectonics: from basic physical chemistry to advanced applications.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Muruganathan; Shrestha, Lok Kumar; Mori, Taizo; Ji, Qingmin; Hill, Jonathan P; Ariga, Katsuhiko

    2013-07-14

    Amphiphiles, either synthetic or natural, are structurally simple molecules with the unprecedented capacity to self-assemble into complex, hierarchical geometries in nanospace. Effective self-assembly processes of amphiphiles are often used to mimic biological systems, such as assembly of lipids and proteins, which has paved a way for bottom-up nanotechnology with bio-like advanced functions. Recent developments in nanostructure formation combine simple processes of assembly with the more advanced concept of nanoarchitectonics. In this perspective, we summarize research on self-assembly of amphiphilic molecules such as lipids, surfactants or block copolymers that are a focus of interest for many colloid, polymer, and materials scientists and which have become increasingly important in emerging nanotechnology and practical applications, latter of which are often accomplished by amphiphile-like polymers. Because the fundamental science of amphiphiles was initially developed for their solution assembly then transferred to assemblies on surfaces as a development of nanotechnological techniques, this perspective attempts to mirror this development by introducing solution systems and progressing to interfacial systems, which are roughly categorized as (i) basic properties of amphiphiles, (ii) self-assembly of amphiphiles in bulk phases, (iii) assembly on static surfaces, (iv) assembly at dynamic interfaces, and (v) advanced topics from simulation to application. This progression also represents the evolution of amphiphile science and technology from simple assemblies to advanced assemblies to nanoarchitectonics. PMID:23639971

  7. Recent Advances in Glycerol Polymers: Chemistry and Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Heng

    2015-01-01

    Glycerol polymers are attracting increased attention due to the diversity of polymer compositions and architectures available. This article provides a brief chronological review on the current status of these polymers along with representative examples of their use for biomedical applications. First, we describe the underlying chemistry of glycerol, which provides access to a range of monomers for subsequent polymerizations. We then review the various synthetic methodologies to prepare glycerol-based polymers including polyethers, polycarbonates, polyesters, and so forth. Next, we describe several biomedical applications where glycerol polymers are being investigated including carriers for drug delivery, sealants or coatings for tissue repair, and agents possessing antibacterial activity. Fourth, we describe the growing market opportunity for the use of polymers in medicine. Finally we conclude and summarize the findings, as well as discuss potential opportunities for continued research efforts. PMID:25308354

  8. A Bridge between Two Cultures: Uncovering the Chemistry Concepts Relevant to the Nursing Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Corina E.; Henry, Melissa L. M.; Barbera, Jack; Hyslop, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on the undergraduate course that covers basic topics in general, organic, and biological (GOB) chemistry at a mid-sized state university in the western United States. The central objective of the research was to identify the main topics of GOB chemistry relevant to the clinical practice of nursing. The collection of data was…

  9. ADVANCED SOLIDS NMR STUDIES OF COAL STRUCTURE AND CHEMISTRY

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This report covers the progress made on the title project for the project period. The study of coal chemical structure is a vital component of research efforts to develop better chemical utilization of coals, and for furthering our basic understanding of coal geochemistry. In this grant we are addressing several structural questions pertaining to coals with advances in state of the art solids NMR methods. The main activity during this granting period was a completion of a detailed comparative analysis of the suite of spectral editing techniques developed in our laboratory for this purpose. The appended report is a manuscript being submitted to the Journal of Magnetic Resonance on this subject.

  10. ADVANCED SOLIDS NMR STUDIES OF COAL STRUCTURE AND CHEMISTRY

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    This report covers the progress made on the title project for the project period. The study of coal chemical structure is a vital component of research efforts to develop better chemical utilization of coals, and for furthering our basic understanding of coal geochemistry. In this grant we are addressing several structural questions pertaining to coals with advances in state of the art solids NMR methods. The main activity during this granting period was a detailed comparative analysis of the suite of spectral editing results obtained on the Argonne coals. We have extended our fitting procedure to include carbons of all types in the analysis.

  11. s-Block Elements. Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). Unit I1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inner London Education Authority (England).

    This unit is one of 10 first year units produced by the Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). The unit, which consists of two sections and an appendix, focuses on the elements and compounds of Groups I and II (the s-block) of the periodic table. The groups are treated concurrently to note comparisons between groups and to…

  12. Hydrocarbons. Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). Unit O1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inner London Education Authority (England).

    This unit on hydrocarbons is one of 10 first year units produced by the Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). The unit is divided into sections dealing with alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, arenes, and several aspects of the petroleum industry. Two experiments, exercises (with answers), and pre- and post-tests are included.…

  13. Equilibrium I: Principles. Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). Unit P2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inner London Education Authority (England).

    This unit on the principles of equilibrium is one of 10 first year units produced by the Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). The unit consists of two levels. After a treatment of non-mathematical aspects in level one (the idea of a reversible reaction, characteristics of an equilibrium state, the Le Chatelier's principle),…

  14. An Advanced Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory Experiment Exploring NIR Spectroscopy and Chemometrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanke, Randall; Stauffer, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    An advanced undergraduate chemistry laboratory experiment to study the advantages and hazards of the coupling of NIR spectroscopy and chemometrics is described. The combination is commonly used for analysis and process control of various ingredients used in agriculture, petroleum and food products.

  15. Integrating Project-Based Service-Learning into an Advanced Environmental Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, Alison J.

    2004-01-01

    An active service-learning research work is conducted in the field of advanced environmental chemistry. Multiple projects are assigned to students, which promote individual learning skills, self-confidence as scientists, and a deep understanding of the environmental chemist's profession.

  16. The Halogens. Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). Unit I2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inner London Education Authority (England).

    This unit is one of 10 first year units produced by the Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). The unit, which consists of two levels, focuses on the elements and compounds of Group IV (halogens) of the periodic table. Level one deals with the physical and chemical properties of the individual elements. Level two considers…

  17. Atomic Structure. Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). Unit S2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inner London Education Authority (England).

    This unit on atomic structure is one of 10 first year units produced by the Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). The unit consists of two levels. Level one focuses on the atomic nucleus. Level two focuses on the arrangement of extranuclear electrons, approaching atomic orbitals through both electron bombardment and spectra.…

  18. The Mole. Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). Unit S1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inner London Education Authority (England).

    This unit on the mole is one of 10 first year units produced by the Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). The unit, designed to help students consolidate some of the ideas about the mole learned in previous courses, consists of two levels. The first level focuses on: (1) relative mass; (2) the concept of the mole as the unit…

  19. A Comprehensive Microfluidics Device Construction and Characterization Module for the Advanced Undergraduate Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piunno, Paul A. E.; Zetina, Adrian; Chu, Norman; Tavares, Anthony J.; Noor, M. Omair; Petryayeva, Eleonora; Uddayasankar, Uvaraj; Veglio, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    An advanced analytical chemistry undergraduate laboratory module on microfluidics that spans 4 weeks (4 h per week) is presented. The laboratory module focuses on comprehensive experiential learning of microfluidic device fabrication and the core characteristics of microfluidic devices as they pertain to fluid flow and the manipulation of samples.…

  20. A Study on Advanced Lithium-Based Battery Cell Chemistries to Enhance Lunar Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.; Bennett, William R.

    2010-01-01

    NASAs Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) Energy Storage Project conducted an advanced lithium-based battery chemistry feasibility study to determine the best advanced chemistry to develop for the Altair Lunar Lander and the Extravehicular Activities (EVA) advanced Lunar surface spacesuit. These customers require safe, reliable batteries with extremely high specific energy as compared to state-of-the-art. The specific energy goals for the development project are 220 watt-hours per kilogram (Wh/kg) delivered at the battery-level at 0 degrees Celsius ( C) at a C/10 discharge rate. Continuous discharge rates between C/5 and C/2, operation between 0 and 30 C and 200 cycles are targeted. Electrode materials that were considered include layered metal oxides, spinel oxides, and olivine-type cathode materials, and lithium metal, lithium alloy, and silicon-based composite anode materials. Advanced cell chemistry options were evaluated with respect to multiple quantitative and qualitative attributes while considering their projected performance at the end of the available development timeframe. Following a rigorous ranking process, a chemistry that combines a lithiated nickel manganese cobalt oxide Li(LiNMC)O2 cathode with a silicon-based composite anode was selected as the technology that can potentially offer the best combination of safety, specific energy, energy density, and likelihood of success.

  1. Chemical Energetics. Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). Unit S3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inner London Education Authority (England).

    This unit on chemical energetics is one of 10 first year units produced by the Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). The unit, which consists of two levels, provides a clear yet detailed and thorough introduction to the topic. Level one extends ideas from previous courses, introduces and emphasizes the importance of Hess'…

  2. The Gaseous State. Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). Unit P1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inner London Education Authority (England).

    This unit on the gaseous state is one of 10 first year units produced by the Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). The unit consists of two levels. Level one deals with the distinctive characteristics of gases, then considers the gas laws, in particular the ideal gas equation and its applications. Level two concentrates on…

  3. Bonding and Structure. Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). Unit S4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inner London Education Authority (England).

    This unit on chemical bonding is one of 10 first year units produced by the Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). The unit, which consists of two levels, provides an introduction to the main types of chemical bonding and important aspects of structure. The main emphasis is placed on such topics as ionic and covalent bonding,…

  4. Equilibrium II: Acids and Bases. Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). Unit P3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inner London Education Authority (England).

    This unit on equilibrium is one of 10 first year units produced by the Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). The unit, which consists of two levels, focuses on the application of equilibrium principles to equilibria involving weak acids and bases, including buffer solutions and indicators. Level one uses Le Chatelier's…

  5. Advanced practice: the clinical nurse specialist.

    PubMed

    Sparacino, P

    1992-01-01

    Historically, the clinically expert nurse who wanted to continue in direct patient care had few career options. That dilemma is changing in response to the recognised need for greater knowledge and clinical expertise in the domain of patient care. The clinical nurse specialist role is an answer to this concern. The clinical nurse specialist practices within a framework of theoretically-based knowledge and combines that knowledge with clinical expertise. The role is also pivotal in the promotion of patient care focused scientific inquiry and in the generation and refinement of nursing theories. Career options are more versatile than for the educator, researcher, or administrator. While the clinical nurse specialist is an essential person in influencing quality care in the traditional practice settings, there are now opportunities with clientele and practice settings which have expanded beyond the conventional boundaries. PMID:1528295

  6. Recent advances in clinical/molecular andrology.

    PubMed

    Hafez, B

    1998-01-01

    During the last decade there were extensive investigations in clinical and molecular andrology with emphasis on assisted reproduction, micromanipulation techniques of gametes, sperm/egg interaction, male contraception, diabetes mellitus, varicocele, andropause versus menopause, sexual dysfunction, associated hypertension/stress, prostatic carcinoma and molecular parameters of male reproduction. Sperm hyperactivation is a required step in capacitation sequence. Sperm motility is measured by videotape to evaluate the Straight Line Velocity (microm/s) (VSLI). Fertilization/embryonic development results from single sperm transfer (S-MIST) and multiple sperm transfer. Fertilization/embryo development is achieved by injection of immotile sperm into the perivitelline space. To assess sperm viability, a supravital stain suitable for use in combination with immunofluorescent assay, Hoeschst 33258, is used. The dye fluoresces with an intense blue when bound to DNA. To assess sperm plasma membrane integrity, a hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST) is performed, using fluoresceinated D-mannose enriched albumin (FITC-DMA). The ability of sperm to swell under hypo-osmotic conditions indicates an intact membrane. A human protein, C-peptide, thought to be a useless byproduct of insulin may protect against devastating heart and nerve damage that diabetes causes. Human diabetics may benefit from the substance. Over 15 million Americans have diabetes, in which blood sugar levels rise out of control. There are two types of diabetics: Type I diabetics produce no insulin, the hormone that regulates blood sugar. Type II diabetics are unable to use their insulin properly. Diabetics are at great risk of heart disease and nerve damage, as arteries throughout the body leak and nerve-cell impulses fail. C-peptide is a byproduct of insulin production; it can be produced by the body or synthetically. Production of this protein is not induced by insulin, so diabetics who take insulin do not get C

  7. Advanced clinical practitioner role in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Fawdon, Helen; Adams, John

    2013-12-18

    The advanced clinical practitioner role in emergency departments in the UK has developed in an ad hoc manner, without a national framework of registration requirements. This article describes the structure adopted by one NHS trust in England to certify the clinical competence of advanced clinical practitioners in emergency departments through the completion of two portfolios, with a third portfolio to record professional development. The portfolios cover history taking, clinical examination, and interpretation of information and basic investigations to enable the practitioner to undertake medical clerking of a patient attending the emergency department. The portfolios contain evidence of learning and observation of practitioners by middle-grade doctors and consultants. PMID:24345153

  8. ADVANCED SOLIDS NMR STUDIES OF COAL STRUCTURE AND CHEMISTRY

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This report covers the progress made on the title project for the project period. The study of coal chemical structure is a vital component of research efforts to develop better chemical utilization of coals, and for furthering our basic understanding of coal geochemistry. In this grant we are addressing several structural questions pertaining to coals with advances in state of the art solids NMR methods. Our goals are twofold. First, we are interested in developing new methods that will enable us to measure important structural parameters in whole coals not directly accessible by other techniques. In parallel with these efforts we will apply these NMR methods in a study of the chemical differences between gas-sourcing and oil-sourcing coals. The NMR methods work will specifically focus on determination of the number and types of methylene groups, determination of the number and types of methane groups, identification of carbons adjacent to nitrogen and sites with exchangeable protons, and methods to more finely characterize the distribution of hydrogen in coals. The motivation for investigating these specific structural features of coals arises from their relevance to the chemical reactivity of coals, and their suitability for possible correlations with the oil sourcing potential of some types of coals. The coals to be studied and contrasted include oil-prone coals from Australia and Indonesia, those comprising the Argonne Premium Coal Sample bank, and other relevant samples. In this report period we have focused our work on 1 segment of the program. Our last report outlined progress in using our NMR editing methods with higher field operation where higher magic angle spinning rates are required. Significant difficulties were identified, and these have been the main subject of study during the most recent granting period.

  9. Recent advances in the chemistry of positron emitters

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, A.P.; Fowler, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    With the increasing active interest in PET as a method for studying biochemistry in normal and pathological states in humans we can expect to see the development of new techniques for precursor preparation and synthesis. We have seen a doubling of the publication rate in the past three to four years over the previous three to four year period. As the need for these compounds, especially in the tumor and receptor areas, in a purely clinical setting, increases the trend towards true automation of production of the most needeed compounds will accelerate. The cyclotron manufacturers all offer ''black boxes'' for synthesis but the optimum approach to user friendly automation yet needs to be defined. I would note that this paper was not intended as a comprehensive review but rather my goal was to highlight just some of the exciting developments of the past several years. We are entering what may well be the most extensive and active period of research in the synthesis of positron emitter labeled compounds. If 1984 to 1985 is any gauge, many new methods and compounds will appear in the next several years. 37 refs.

  10. Advances in clinical study of curcumin.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunfen; Su, Xun; Liu, Anchang; Zhang, Lin; Yu, Aihua; Xi, Yanwei; Zhai, Guangxi

    2013-01-01

    Curcumin has been estimated as a potential agent for many diseases and attracted great attention owing to its various pharmacological activities, including anti-cancer, and anti-inflammatory. Now curcumin is being applied to a number of patients with breast cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, colorectal cancer, psoriatic, etc. Several clinical trials have stated that curcumin is safe enough and effective. The objective of this article was to summarize the clinical studies of curcumin, and give a reference for future studies. PMID:23116307

  11. Advanced Experiments in Nuclear Science, Volume I: Advanced Nuclear Physics and Chemistry Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duggan, Jerome L.; And Others

    The experiments in this manual represent state-of-the-art techniques which should be within the budgetary constraints of a college physics or chemistry department. There are fourteen experiments divided into five modules. The modules are on X-ray fluorescence, charged particle detection, neutron activation analysis, X-ray attenuation, and…

  12. How Physicians Integrate Advances into Clinical Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockyer, Jocelyn M.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Family physicians and specialists were asked to identify the sources of information they used in the process of making changes in their clinical practices. An average of 3.08 sources of information were utilized for each change and over 50 percent of the changes were complete in less than one year. (CT)

  13. An Enzymatic Clinical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment Incorporating an Introduction to Mathematical Method Comparison Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duxbury, Mark

    2004-01-01

    An enzymatic laboratory experiment based on the analysis of serum is described that is suitable for students of clinical chemistry. The experiment incorporates an introduction to mathematical method-comparison techniques in which three different clinical glucose analysis methods are compared using linear regression and Bland-Altman difference…

  14. Integrative clinical genomics of advanced prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Dan; Van Allen, Eliezer M; Wu, Yi-Mi; Schultz, Nikolaus; Lonigro, Robert J; Mosquera, Juan-Miguel; Montgomery, Bruce; Taplin, Mary-Ellen; Pritchard, Colin C; Attard, Gerhardt; Beltran, Himisha; Abida, Wassim; Bradley, Robert K; Vinson, Jake; Cao, Xuhong; Vats, Pankaj; Kunju, Lakshmi P; Hussain, Maha; Feng, Felix Y; Tomlins, Scott A; Cooney, Kathleen A; Smith, David C; Brennan, Christine; Siddiqui, Javed; Mehra, Rohit; Chen, Yu; Rathkopf, Dana E; Morris, Michael J; Solomon, Stephen B; Durack, Jeremy C; Reuter, Victor E; Gopalan, Anuradha; Gao, Jianjiong; Loda, Massimo; Lis, Rosina T; Bowden, Michaela; Balk, Stephen P; Gaviola, Glenn; Sougnez, Carrie; Gupta, Manaswi; Yu, Evan Y; Mostaghel, Elahe A; Cheng, Heather H; Mulcahy, Hyojeong; True, Lawrence D; Plymate, Stephen R; Dvinge, Heidi; Ferraldeschi, Roberta; Flohr, Penny; Miranda, Susana; Zafeiriou, Zafeiris; Tunariu, Nina; Mateo, Joaquin; Perez-Lopez, Raquel; Demichelis, Francesca; Robinson, Brian D; Schiffman, Marc; Nanus, David M; Tagawa, Scott T; Sigaras, Alexandros; Eng, Kenneth W; Elemento, Olivier; Sboner, Andrea; Heath, Elisabeth I; Scher, Howard I; Pienta, Kenneth J; Kantoff, Philip; de Bono, Johann S; Rubin, Mark A; Nelson, Peter S; Garraway, Levi A; Sawyers, Charles L; Chinnaiyan, Arul M

    2015-05-21

    Toward development of a precision medicine framework for metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), we established a multi-institutional clinical sequencing infrastructure to conduct prospective whole-exome and transcriptome sequencing of bone or soft tissue tumor biopsies from a cohort of 150 mCRPC affected individuals. Aberrations of AR, ETS genes, TP53, and PTEN were frequent (40%-60% of cases), with TP53 and AR alterations enriched in mCRPC compared to primary prostate cancer. We identified new genomic alterations in PIK3CA/B, R-spondin, BRAF/RAF1, APC, β-catenin, and ZBTB16/PLZF. Moreover, aberrations of BRCA2, BRCA1, and ATM were observed at substantially higher frequencies (19.3% overall) compared to those in primary prostate cancers. 89% of affected individuals harbored a clinically actionable aberration, including 62.7% with aberrations in AR, 65% in other cancer-related genes, and 8% with actionable pathogenic germline alterations. This cohort study provides clinically actionable information that could impact treatment decisions for these affected individuals. PMID:26000489

  15. Integrative clinical genomics of advanced prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dan, Robinson; Van Allen, Eliezer M.; Wu, Yi-Mi; Schultz, Nikolaus; Lonigro, Robert J.; Mosquera, Juan-Miguel; Montgomery, Bruce; Taplin, Mary-Ellen; Pritchard, Colin C; Attard, Gerhardt; Beltran, Himisha; Abida, Wassim M.; Bradley, Robert K.; Vinson, Jake; Cao, Xuhong; Vats, Pankaj; Kunju, Lakshmi P.; Hussain, Maha; Feng, Felix Y.; Tomlins, Scott A.; Cooney, Kathleen A.; Smith, David C.; Brennan, Christine; Siddiqui, Javed; Mehra, Rohit; Chen, Yu; Rathkopf, Dana E.; Morris, Michael J.; Solomon, Stephen B.; Durack, Jeremy C.; Reuter, Victor E.; Gopalan, Anuradha; Gao, Jianjiong; Loda, Massimo; Lis, Rosina T.; Bowden, Michaela; Balk, Stephen P.; Gaviola, Glenn; Sougnez, Carrie; Gupta, Manaswi; Yu, Evan Y.; Mostaghel, Elahe A.; Cheng, Heather H.; Mulcahy, Hyojeong; True, Lawrence D.; Plymate, Stephen R.; Dvinge, Heidi; Ferraldeschi, Roberta; Flohr, Penny; Miranda, Susana; Zafeiriou, Zafeiris; Tunariu, Nina; Mateo, Joaquin; Lopez, Raquel Perez; Demichelis, Francesca; Robinson, Brian D.; Schiffman, Marc A.; Nanus, David M.; Tagawa, Scott T.; Sigaras, Alexandros; Eng, Kenneth W.; Elemento, Olivier; Sboner, Andrea; Heath, Elisabeth I.; Scher, Howard I.; Pienta, Kenneth J.; Kantoff, Philip; de Bono, Johann S.; Rubin, Mark A.; Nelson, Peter S.; Garraway, Levi A.; Sawyers, Charles L.; Chinnaiyan, Arul M.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Toward development of a precision medicine framework for metastatic, castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), we established a multi-institutional clinical sequencing infrastructure to conduct prospective whole exome and transcriptome sequencing of bone or soft tissue tumor biopsies from a cohort of 150 mCRPC affected individuals. Aberrations of AR, ETS genes, TP53 and PTEN were frequent (40–60% of cases), with TP53 and AR alterations enriched in mCRPC compared to primary prostate cancer. We identified novel genomic alterations in PIK3CA/B, R-spondin, BRAF/RAF1, APC, β-catenin and ZBTB16/PLZF. Aberrations of BRCA2, BRCA1 and ATM were observed at substantially higher frequencies (19.3% overall) than seen in primary prostate cancers. 89% of affected individuals harbored a clinically actionable aberration including 62.7% with aberrations in AR, 65% in other cancer-related genes, and 8% with actionable pathogenic germline alterations. This cohort study provides evidence that clinical sequencing in mCRPC is feasible and could impact treatment decisions in significant numbers of affected individuals. PMID:26000489

  16. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: recent advances in clinical management

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Zhiguo; Chong, Jiehan; Ong, Albert C. M.

    2016-01-01

    The first clinical descriptions of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) go back at least 500 years to the late 16 th century. Advances in understanding disease presentation and pathophysiology have mirrored the progress of clinical medicine in anatomy, pathology, physiology, cell biology, and genetics. The identification of PKD1 and PKD2, the major genes mutated in ADPKD, has stimulated major advances, which in turn have led to the first approved drug for this disorder and a fresh reassessment of patient management in the 21 st century. In this commentary, we consider how clinical management is likely to change in the coming decade. PMID:27594986

  17. Clinical Research Informatics: Recent Advances and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives To summarize significant developments in Clinical Research Informatics (CRI) over the past two years and discuss future directions. Methods Survey of advances, open problems and opportunities in this field based on exploration of current literature. Results Recent advances are structured according to three use cases of clinical research: Protocol feasibility, patient identification/recruitment and clinical trial execution. Discussion CRI is an evolving, dynamic field of research. Global collaboration, open metadata, content standards with semantics and computable eligibility criteria are key success factors for future developments in CRI. PMID:26293865

  18. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: recent advances in clinical management.

    PubMed

    Mao, Zhiguo; Chong, Jiehan; Ong, Albert C M

    2016-01-01

    The first clinical descriptions of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) go back at least 500 years to the late 16 (th) century. Advances in understanding disease presentation and pathophysiology have mirrored the progress of clinical medicine in anatomy, pathology, physiology, cell biology, and genetics. The identification of PKD1 and PKD2, the major genes mutated in ADPKD, has stimulated major advances, which in turn have led to the first approved drug for this disorder and a fresh reassessment of patient management in the 21 (st) century. In this commentary, we consider how clinical management is likely to change in the coming decade. PMID:27594986

  19. Recent Advances in chemistry and pharmacology of 2-methoxyestradiol: An anticancer investigational drug.

    PubMed

    Kumar, B Sathish; Raghuvanshi, Dushyant Singh; Hasanain, Mohammad; Alam, Sarfaraz; Sarkar, Jayanta; Mitra, Kalyan; Khan, Feroz; Negi, Arvind S

    2016-06-01

    2-Methoxyestradiol (2ME2), an estrogen hormone metabolite is a potential cancer chemotherapeutic agent. Presently, it is an investigational drug under various phases of clinical trials alone or in combination therapy. Its anticancer activity has been attributed to its antitubulin, antiangiogenic, pro-apoptotic and ROS induction properties. This anticancer drug candidate has been explored extensively in last twenty years for its detailed chemistry and pharmacology. Present review is an update of its chemistry and biological activity. It also extends an assessment of potential of 2ME2 and its analogues as possible anticancer drug in future. PMID:27020471

  20. Personalizing Drug Selection Using Advanced Clinical Decision Support

    PubMed Central

    Pestian, John; Spencer, Malik; Matykiewicz, Pawel; Zhang, Kejian; Vinks, Alexander A.; Glauser, Tracy

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the process of developing an advanced pharmacogenetics clinical decision support at one of the United States’ leading pediatric academic medical centers. This system, called CHRISTINE, combines clinical and genetic data to identify the optimal drug therapy when treating patients with epilepsy or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. In the discussion a description of clinical decision support systems is provided, along with an overview of neurocognitive computing and how it is applied in this setting. PMID:19898682

  1. Dyslexia: advances in clinical and imaging studies.

    PubMed

    Koeda, Tatsuya; Seki, Ayumi; Uchiyama, Hitoshi; Sadato, Norihiro

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this report is to describe the characteristics of Japanese dyslexia, and to demonstrate several of our studies about the extraction of these characteristic and their neurophysiological and neuroimaging abnormalities, as well as advanced studies of phonological awareness and the underlying neural substrate. Based on these results, we have proposed a 2-step approach for remedial education (e-learning web site: http://www.dyslexia-koeda.jp/). The first step is decoding, which decreases reading errors, and the second is vocabulary learning, which improves reading fluency. This 2-step approach is designed to serve first grade children. In addition, we propose the RTI (response to intervention) model as a desirable system for remedial education. PMID:21146943

  2. Advances in Clinical PET/MRI Instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Hans; Lerche, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    In 2010, the first whole-body PET/MRI scanners installed for clinical use were the sequential Philips PET/MRI with PMT-based, TOF-capable technology and the integrated simultaneous Siemens PET/MRI. Avalanche photodiodes as non-magneto-sensitive readout electronics allowed PET integrated within the MRI. The experiences with these scanners showed that improvements of software aspects, such as attenuation correction, were necessary and that efficient protocols combining optimally PET and MRI must be still developed. In 2014, General Electric issued an integrated PET/MRI with SiPM-based PET detectors, allowing TOF-PET. Looking at the MRI components of current PET/MR imaging systems, primary improvements come from sequences and new coils. PMID:26952724

  3. Advance modern medicine with clinical case reports

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Randomized clinical trial (RCT) can fail to demonstrate the richness of individual patient characteristics. Given the unpredictable nature of medicine, a patient may present in an unusual way, have a strange new pathology, or react to a medical intervention in a manner not seen before. The publication of these novelties as case reports is a fundamental way of conveying medical knowledge. Throughout history there have been famous case studies that shaped the way we view health and disease. Case reports can have the following functions: (I) descriptions of new diseases; (II) study of mechanisms; (III) discovery new therapies; (IV) recognition of side effects; and (V) education. Before submitting a case report, it is worthwhile to refer to the Case Report Check Sheet described by Green and Johnson [2006]. PMID:25525572

  4. Advancing cell wall inhibitors towards clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Maffioli, Sonia I; Cruz, João C S; Monciardini, Paolo; Sosio, Margherita; Donadio, Stefano

    2016-03-01

    Natural products represent a major source of approved drugs and still play an important role in supplying chemical diversity. Consistently, 2014 has seen new, natural product-derived antibiotics approved for human use by the US Food and Drug Administration. One of the recently approved second-generation glycopeptides is dalbavancin, a semi-synthetic derivative of the natural product A40,926. This compound inhibits bacterial growth by binding to lipid intermediate II (Lipid II), a key intermediate in peptidoglycan biosynthesis. Like other recently approved antibiotics, dalbavancin has a complex history of preclinical and clinical development, with several companies contributing to different steps in different years. While our work on dalbavancin development stopped at the previous company, intriguingly our current pipeline includes two more Lipid II-binding natural products or derivatives thereof. In particular, we will focus on the properties of NAI-107 and related lantibiotics, which originated from recent screening and characterization efforts. PMID:26515981

  5. Advances in myelofibrosis: a clinical case approach.

    PubMed

    Mascarenhas, John O; Orazi, Attilio; Bhalla, Kapil N; Champlin, Richard E; Harrison, Claire; Hoffman, Ronald

    2013-10-01

    Primary myelofibrosis is a member of the myeloproliferative neoplasms, a diverse group of bone marrow malignancies. Symptoms of myelofibrosis, particularly those associated with splenomegaly (abdominal distention and pain, early satiety, dyspnea, and diarrhea) and constitutional symptoms, represent a substantial burden to patients. Most patients eventually die from the disease, with a median survival ranging from approximately 5-7 years. Mutations in Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), a kinase that is essential for the normal development of erythrocytes, granulocytes, and platelets, notably the V617F mutation, have been identified in approximately 50% of patients with myelofibrosis. The approval of a JAK2 inhibitor in 2011 has improved the outlook of many patients with myelofibrosis and has changed the treatment landscape. This article focuses on some of the important issues in current myelofibrosis treatment management, including differentiation of myelofibrosis from essential thrombocythemia and polycythemia vera, up-dated data on the results of JAK2 inhibitor therapy, the role of epigenetic mechanisms in myelofibrosis pathogenesis, investigational therapies for myelofibrosis, and advances in hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Three myelofibrosis cases are included to underscore the issues in diagnosing and treating this complex disease. PMID:24091929

  6. Advances in Clinical Management of Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Dellon, Evan S.; Liacouras, Chris A.

    2014-01-01

    EoE is a chronic immune/antigen-mediated clinicopathologic condition that has become an increasingly important cause of upper gastrointestinal morbidity in adults and children over the past 2 decades. It is diagnosed based on symptoms of esophageal dysfunction, the presence of at least 15 eosinophils/high-power field in esophageal biopsies, and exclusion of competing causes of esophageal eosinophilia, including proton pump inhibitor-responsive esophageal eosinophilia (PPI-REE). We review what we have recently learned about the clinical aspects of EoE, discussing the clinical, endoscopic, and histologic features of EoE in adults and children. We explain the current diagnostic criteria and challenges to diagnosis, including the role of gastroesophageal reflux disease and PPI-REE. It is also important to consider the epidemiology of EoE (current incidence of 1/10,000 new cases per year and prevalence of 0.5-1/1,000 cases per year) and disease progression. We review the main treatment approaches and new treatment options; EoE can be treated with topical corticosteroids such as fluticasone and budesonide, or dietary strategies, such as amino acid-based formulas, allergy test-directed elimination diets, and non-directed empiric elimination diets. Endoscopic dilation has also become an important tool for treatment of fibrostenostic complications of EoE. There are number of unresolved issues in EoE, including phenotypes, optimal treatment endpoints, the role of maintenance therapy, and treatment of refractory EoE. The care of patients with EoE and the study of the disease span many disciplines—EoE is ideally managed by a multidisciplinary team of gastroenterologists, allergists, pathologists, and dieticians. PMID:25109885

  7. Recent activities of EC4 in the harmonization of clinical chemistry in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Sanders, G T; Jansen, R T; Beastall, G; Gurr, E; Kenny, D; Kohse, K P; Zérah, S

    1999-04-01

    This article describes the recent activities of the European Communities Confederation of Clinical Chemistry (EC4). Main goal of EC4 is harmonization of clinical chemistry in the European Union and Europe. EC4's actions connected to that are training and registration of professionals, and accreditation of laboratories. The 35000 professionals practising clinical chemistry in the EU have different backgrounds (medical, pharmaceutical, science-oriented, veterinary, or microbiological). Thus, for the harmonization of training of clinical chemists, EC4 has published a European Syllabus for Postgraduate Training, and instituted a European Union Register for Clinical Chemists. The Syllabus is an indication of the level of requirements in postgraduate training. The EC4 initiative to implement the European Register for Clinical Chemists is based on the 8 years vocational training necessary to obtain sufficient knowledge in clinical chemistry according to the European Syllabus. A guide to the EC4 Register has been published; registration leads to the title European Clinical Chemist (EurClinChem). The accreditation of laboratories must be based on a total quality management system. EC4 has described guidelines (essential criteria) which it judges appropriate for establishing the quality of medical laboratory service; it does not wish to fulfil the role of an accrediting body. Moreover, a working group has been set up to seek to harmonize the work of national accrediting bodies. Therefore, it is logical that EC4 monitors the activities of the different standardizing bodies that might influence the practice of clinical chemistry in the EU. Finally, some aspects concerning the future strategy of EC4 are brought forward. PMID:10369121

  8. Construction of databases: advances and significance in clinical research.

    PubMed

    Long, Erping; Huang, Bingjie; Wang, Liming; Lin, Xiaoyu; Lin, Haotian

    2015-12-01

    Widely used in clinical research, the database is a new type of data management automation technology and the most efficient tool for data management. In this article, we first explain some basic concepts, such as the definition, classification, and establishment of databases. Afterward, the workflow for establishing databases, inputting data, verifying data, and managing databases is presented. Meanwhile, by discussing the application of databases in clinical research, we illuminate the important role of databases in clinical research practice. Lastly, we introduce the reanalysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cloud computing techniques, showing the most recent advancements of databases in clinical research. PMID:27215009

  9. Introduction to Homogenous Catalysis with Ruthenium-Catalyzed Oxidation of Alcohols: An Experiment for Undergraduate Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miecznikowski, John R.; Caradonna, John P.; Foley, Kathleen M.; Kwiecien, Daniel J.; Lisi, George P.; Martinez, Anthony M.

    2011-01-01

    A three-week laboratory experiment, which introduces students in an advanced inorganic chemistry course to air-sensitive chemistry and catalysis, is described. During the first week, the students synthesize RuCl[subscript 2](PPh[subscript 3])[subscript 3]. During the second and third weeks, the students characterize the formed coordination…

  10. Advancing Chemistry with the Lanthanide and Actinide Elements Final Report, September 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, William John

    2013-09-11

    The objective of this research is to use the unique chemistry available from complexes of the lanthanides and actinides, as well as related heavy metals such as scandium, yttrium, and bismuth to advance chemistry in energy-related areas. The lanthanides and actinides have a combination of properties in terms of size, charge, electropositive character, and f valence orbitals that provides special opportunities to probe reactivity and catalysis in ways not possible with the other metals in the periodic table. We seek to discover reaction pathways and structural types that reveal new options in reaction chemistry related to energy. Identification of new paradigms in structure and reactivity should stimulate efforts to develop new types of catalytic processes that at present are not under consideration because either the transformation or the necessary intermediates are unknown. This project is one half of my laboratory’s DOE research which was split 50:50 between Catalysis and Heavy Element Chemistry programs in 2010. Hence, this report is for a half-project.

  11. Design, Development, and Psychometric Analysis of a General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Topic Inventory Based on the Identified Main Chemistry Topics Relevant to Nursing Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Corina E.

    2013-01-01

    This two-stage study focused on the undergraduate nursing course that covers topics in general, organic, and biological (GOB) chemistry. In the first stage, the central objective was to identify the main concepts of GOB chemistry relevant to the clinical practice of nursing. The collection of data was based on open-ended interviews of both nursing…

  12. Symposium on research advances in clinical PET. Final performance report

    SciTech Connect

    J. Michael McGehee

    1992-01-01

    The Institute for Clinical PET and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) co-sponsored a symposium entitled 'Research in PET: International and Institutional Perspectives' that highlighted the activities of many leading investigators in the U.S. and throughout the world. Research programs at the DOE were discussed as were potential directions of PET research. International as well as institutional perspectives on PET research were presented. This symposium was successful in reaching those interested in research advances of clinical PET.

  13. Introducing Advanced Clinical Reasoning to an Adult Learning Disability Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Jois; Matthews, Alison

    2014-01-01

    The advanced clinical reasoning approach is widely adopted in speech and language therapy practice. This article reports on the introduction of the approach across a multidisciplinary adult learning disability service and staff reports on the impact of this initiative. Staff and team managers reported that the training had a positive impact on…

  14. The use of hirudin as universal anticoagulant in haematology, clinical chemistry and blood grouping.

    PubMed

    Menssen, H D; Melber, K; Brandt, N; Thiel, E

    2001-12-01

    Undesirable interactions between anticoagulants and diagnostic test kit procedures so far have prevented the development of a single uniform blood sampling tube. Contrary to K2-EDTA, heparin and other anticoagulants, hirudin only minimally alters blood cells and dissolved blood constituents, thus qualifying as a universal anticoagulant for diagnostic purposes. Automated complete blood counts, automated analyses of clinical chemistry analytes and immunohaematology were performed from hirudinised and routinely processed blood obtained from healthy volunteers (n=35) and hospitalised patients (n=45). Hirudin (400 ATU/ml blood) sufficiently anticoagulated blood for diagnostic purposes. The measurements of automated complete blood counts obtained from K2-EDTA-anticoagulated and hirudinised blood correlated significantly as did the measurements of 24 clinical chemistry analytes from hirudinised plasma and serum. Regression analysis revealed that the results of complete blood counts and clinical chemistry tests were predictable from the respective measurements from hirudinised blood (p=0.001). Immunohaematological tests and cross-matching from hirudinised and native blood of the same donors gave identical results. Single clotting factors, but not global coagulation analytes, could be measured from hirudinised blood. Therefore, a universal hirudin-containing blood sampling tube could be designed for automated analysis of haematological, serological and clinical chemistry analytes. PMID:11798089

  15. Introducing advanced clinical reasoning to an adult learning disability service.

    PubMed

    Stansfield, Jois; Matthews, Alison

    2014-03-01

    The advanced clinical reasoning approach is widely adopted in speech and language therapy practice. This article reports on the introduction of the approach across a multidisciplinary adult learning disability service and staff reports on the impact of this initiative. Staff in the service were offered training in the approach. Staff completed pre-course questionnaires, immediate post-course evaluations of the training and questionnaires a year after initial training. Semi-structured interviews took place with three team managers a year after the training. Staff and team managers reported that the training had a positive impact on their practice. All respondents demonstrated confidence in the use of the advanced clinical reasoning terminology and a clear understanding of the nature of duty of care and clinical risk. Enhanced knowledge about caseloads and greater confidence in managing episodes of care were reported by staff and team managers to have resulted in a more efficient and effective service. PMID:24288213

  16. Stability of human sera collected for clinical chemistry determinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, F. M.

    1969-01-01

    Problems in collecting and shipping human sera for clinical chemical analyses affect their stability and require proper preservation methods. It is shown that glutamic pyruvate transaminase is very unstable and serum cannot be shipped unless the shipping time is carefully controlled and is less than two days under refrigeration. A limit of four days handling time and avoidance of light exposure are required in bilirubin testing of specimens. Addition of 11 mg of a 10 to 1 mixture of finely powdered sodium fluoride and thymol per ml of blood to preserve specimen stability en route to a central laboratory prevents glycolysis. A citrate buffer at pH 6.2 in serum to be tested for alkaline phosphatase lessens decline at room temperature.

  17. Chromatography of fat-soluble vitamins in clinical chemistry.

    PubMed

    De Leenheer, A P; Nelis, H J; Lambert, W E; Bauwens, R M

    1988-07-29

    A review is presented of current gas and liquid chromatographic methods for the determination of the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K and the provitamin A beta-carotene in biological samples of human origin. For each vitamin, the discussion successively focuses on procedures for sample preparation, gas and liquid chromatographic systems and principles of detection. The emphasis is on liquid chromatography, which is gradually becoming a standard technique in fat-soluble vitamin assays. New trends in the liquid chromatography of these compounds include the use of smaller particles and shorter columns, to improve speed, and the advance of electrochemical detection as an alternative to absorbance and fluorescence detection. Bonded phases, both normal and reversed phase, tend to be preferred over underivatized silica as column supports. Gas chromatography remains of particular value in combination with mass spectrometry, a technique which may form the basis of reference methods. In general, despite the availability of well established analytical methods for fat-soluble vitamins, the wealth of recent literature in this area indicates that there continues to be a need for new assays with enhanced speed, specificity and sensitivity. PMID:3062023

  18. Advances in methods and algorithms in a modern quantum chemistry program package.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yihan; Molnar, Laszlo Fusti; Jung, Yousung; Kussmann, Jörg; Ochsenfeld, Christian; Brown, Shawn T; Gilbert, Andrew T B; Slipchenko, Lyudmila V; Levchenko, Sergey V; O'Neill, Darragh P; DiStasio, Robert A; Lochan, Rohini C; Wang, Tao; Beran, Gregory J O; Besley, Nicholas A; Herbert, John M; Lin, Ching Yeh; Van Voorhis, Troy; Chien, Siu Hung; Sodt, Alex; Steele, Ryan P; Rassolov, Vitaly A; Maslen, Paul E; Korambath, Prakashan P; Adamson, Ross D; Austin, Brian; Baker, Jon; Byrd, Edward F C; Dachsel, Holger; Doerksen, Robert J; Dreuw, Andreas; Dunietz, Barry D; Dutoi, Anthony D; Furlani, Thomas R; Gwaltney, Steven R; Heyden, Andreas; Hirata, So; Hsu, Chao-Ping; Kedziora, Gary; Khalliulin, Rustam Z; Klunzinger, Phil; Lee, Aaron M; Lee, Michael S; Liang, Wanzhen; Lotan, Itay; Nair, Nikhil; Peters, Baron; Proynov, Emil I; Pieniazek, Piotr A; Rhee, Young Min; Ritchie, Jim; Rosta, Edina; Sherrill, C David; Simmonett, Andrew C; Subotnik, Joseph E; Woodcock, H Lee; Zhang, Weimin; Bell, Alexis T; Chakraborty, Arup K; Chipman, Daniel M; Keil, Frerich J; Warshel, Arieh; Hehre, Warren J; Schaefer, Henry F; Kong, Jing; Krylov, Anna I; Gill, Peter M W; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2006-07-21

    Advances in theory and algorithms for electronic structure calculations must be incorporated into program packages to enable them to become routinely used by the broader chemical community. This work reviews advances made over the past five years or so that constitute the major improvements contained in a new release of the Q-Chem quantum chemistry package, together with illustrative timings and applications. Specific developments discussed include fast methods for density functional theory calculations, linear scaling evaluation of energies, NMR chemical shifts and electric properties, fast auxiliary basis function methods for correlated energies and gradients, equation-of-motion coupled cluster methods for ground and excited states, geminal wavefunctions, embedding methods and techniques for exploring potential energy surfaces. PMID:16902710

  19. A Study on Advanced Lithium-Based Battery Cell Chemistries to Enhance Lunar Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha; Bennett, William

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) Energy Storage Project conducted an advanced lithium-based battery chemistry feasibility study to determine the best advanced chemistry to develop for the Altair lunar lander and the Extravehicular Activities (EVA) advanced lunar surface spacesuit. These customers require safe, reliable energy storage systems with extremely high specific energy as compared to today's state-of-the-art batteries. Based on customer requirements, the specific energy goals for the development project are 220 watt-hours per kilogram (Wh/kg) delivered at the battery level at 0 degrees Celsius (degrees Celcius) at a C/10 discharge rate. Continuous discharge rates between C/5 and C/2, operation over 0 to 30 degrees C, and 200 cycles are targeted. The team, consisting of members from NASA Glenn Research Center, Johnson Space Center, and Jet Propulsion laboratory, surveyed the literature, compiled information on recent materials developments, and consulted with other battery experts in the community to identify advanced battery materials that might be capable of achieving the desired results with further development. A variety of electrode materials were considered, including layered metal oxides, spinel oxides, and olivine-type cathode materials, and lithium metal, lithium alloy, and silicon-based composite anode materials. lithium-sulfur systems were also considered. Hypothetical cell constructs that combined compatible anode and cathode materials with suitable electrolytes, separators, current collectors, headers, and cell enclosures were modeled. While some of these advanced materials are projected to obtain the desired electrical performance, there are risks that also factored into the decision making process. The risks include uncertainties due to issues such as safety of a system containing some of these materials, ease of scaling-up of large batches of raw materials, adaptability of the materials to processing using established

  20. Mass spectrometry in clinical chemistry: the case of newborn screening.

    PubMed

    la Marca, Giancarlo

    2014-12-01

    Newborn screening (NBS) program is a complex and organized system consisting of family and personnel education, biochemical tests, confirmatory biochemical and genetic tests, diagnosis, therapy, and patient follow up. The program identifies treatable metabolic disorders possibly when asymptomatic by using dried blood spot (DBS). During the last 20 years tandem mass spectrometry (TMS) has become the leading technology in NBS programs demonstrating to be versatile, sensitive and specific. There is consistent evidence of benefits from NBS for many disorders detected by TMS as well as for congenital hypothyroidism, cystic fibrosis, congenital adrenal hyperplasia by immune-enzymatic methods. Real time PCR tests have more recently been proposed for the detection of some severe combined immunodeficiences (SCID) along with the use of TMS for ADA and PNP SCID; a first evaluation of their cost-benefit ratio is still ongoing. Avoiding false negative results by using specific biomarkers and reducing the false positive rate by using second tier tests, is fundamental for a successful NBS program. The fully integration of NBS and diagnostic laboratories with clinical service is crucial to have the best effectiveness in a comprehensive NBS system. PMID:24844843

  1. Hypercalcemia of advanced chronic liver disease: a forgotten clinical entity!

    PubMed Central

    Kuchay, Mohammad Shafi; Mishra, Sunil Kumar; Farooqui, Khalid Jamal; Bansal, Beena; Wasir, Jasjeet Singh; Mithal, Ambrish

    2016-01-01

    Summary Hypercalcemia caused by advanced chronic liver disease (CLD) without hepatic neoplasia is uncommonly reported and poorly understood condition. We are reporting two cases of advanced CLD who developed hypercalcemia in the course of the disease. This diagnosis of exclusion was made only after meticulous ruling out of all causes of hypercalcemia. The unique feature of this type of hypercalcemia is its transient nature that may or may not require treatment. This clinical condition in patients with CLD should be kept in mind while evaluating the cause of hypercalcemia in them. PMID:27252737

  2. Technological advances in perioperative monitoring: Current concepts and clinical perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Chilkoti, Geetanjali; Wadhwa, Rachna; Saxena, Ashok Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Minimal mandatory monitoring in the perioperative period recommended by Association of Anesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland and American Society of Anesthesiologists are universally acknowledged and has become an integral part of the anesthesia practice. The technologies in perioperative monitoring have advanced, and the availability and clinical applications have multiplied exponentially. Newer monitoring techniques include depth of anesthesia monitoring, goal-directed fluid therapy, transesophageal echocardiography, advanced neurological monitoring, improved alarm system and technological advancement in objective pain assessment. Various factors that need to be considered with the use of improved monitoring techniques are their validation data, patient outcome, safety profile, cost-effectiveness, awareness of the possible adverse events, knowledge of technical principle and ability of the convenient routine handling. In this review, we will discuss the new monitoring techniques in anesthesia, their advantages, deficiencies, limitations, their comparison to the conventional methods and their effect on patient outcome, if any. PMID:25788767

  3. Confocal microscopy of skin cancers: Translational advances toward clinical utility

    PubMed Central

    Rajadhyaksha, Milind

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in translational research in and technology for confocal microscopy of skin cancers, toward clinical applications, are described. Advances in translational research are in diagnosis of melanoma in vivo, pre-operative mapping of lentigo maligna melanoma margins to guide surgery and intra-operative imaging of residual basal cell carcinomas to guide shave-biopsy. Advances in technology include mosaicing microscopy for detection of basal cell carcinomas in large areas of excised tissue, toward rapid pathology-at-the-bedside, and development of small, simple and low-cost line-scanning confocal microscopes for worldwide use in diverse primary healthcare settings. Current limitations and future opportunities and challenges for both clinicians and technologists are discussed. PMID:19964286

  4. Clinical utility of ramucirumab in advanced gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Matthew MK; Sjoquist, Katrin M; Zalcberg, John R

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer is currently the third most common cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Prognosis remains poor with most patients presenting with advanced or metastatic disease. A better understanding of angiogenesis has led to the investigation of drugs that inhibit the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway including anti-VEGF antibody therapy (eg, bevacizumab), inhibitors of angiogenic receptor tyrosine kinases (eg, sunitinib, sorafenib, apatinib, regorafenib), and inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs) (eg, ramucirumab). Ramucirumab, a VEGFR-2 inhibitor, is the first anti-angiogenic agent approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in the treatment of advanced gastric cancers. This review will focus on the clinical utility and potential use of ramucirumab in advanced gastric cancer. PMID:26451083

  5. Nitroreductase gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy: insights and advances toward clinical utility.

    PubMed

    Williams, Elsie M; Little, Rory F; Mowday, Alexandra M; Rich, Michelle H; Chan-Hyams, Jasmine V E; Copp, Janine N; Smaill, Jeff B; Patterson, Adam V; Ackerley, David F

    2015-10-15

    This review examines the vast catalytic and therapeutic potential offered by type I (i.e. oxygen-insensitive) nitroreductase enzymes in partnership with nitroaromatic prodrugs, with particular focus on gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT; a form of cancer gene therapy). Important first indications of this potential were demonstrated over 20 years ago, for the enzyme-prodrug pairing of Escherichia coli NfsB and CB1954 [5-(aziridin-1-yl)-2,4-dinitrobenzamide]. However, it has become apparent that both the enzyme and the prodrug in this prototypical pairing have limitations that have impeded their clinical progression. Recently, substantial advances have been made in the biodiscovery and engineering of superior nitroreductase variants, in particular development of elegant high-throughput screening capabilities to enable optimization of desirable activities via directed evolution. These advances in enzymology have been paralleled by advances in medicinal chemistry, leading to the development of second- and third-generation nitroaromatic prodrugs that offer substantial advantages over CB1954 for nitroreductase GDEPT, including greater dose-potency and enhanced ability of the activated metabolite(s) to exhibit a local bystander effect. In addition to forging substantial progress towards future clinical trials, this research is supporting other fields, most notably the development and improvement of targeted cellular ablation capabilities in small animal models, such as zebrafish, to enable cell-specific physiology or regeneration studies. PMID:26431849

  6. Mentoring for retention and advancement in the multigenerational clinical laboratory.

    PubMed

    Laudicina, R J

    2001-01-01

    Retention of recent graduates and other laboratory practitioners in the workplace will play a key role in addressing current and projected shortages of clinical laboratory scientists (CLS) and technicians (CLT). In addition, with overrepresentation of the aging Baby Boomer generation in laboratory supervisory and management positions, it is crucial not only to retain younger practitioners, but to prepare them for assuming these important functions in the future. Mentoring, a practice commonly employed in other professions, is widely considered to be useful in employee retention and career advancement. Mentoring has probably been used in the clinical laboratory profession, but has not been well documented. In the clinical laboratory environment, potential mentors are in the Veteran and Baby Boomer generations, and new practitioners who could benefit from mentoring are in Generation X. Generational differences among these groups may present challenges to the use of mentoring. This article will attempt to provide a better understanding of generational differences and show how mentoring can be applied in the setting of the clinical laboratory in order to increase retention and promote career advancement of younger practitioners. A panel of five laboratory managers provided examples of mentoring strategies. Definitions, benefits, and examples of mentoring are addressed in the accompanying article, "Passing the Torch: Mentoring the Next Generation of Laboratory Professionals". PMID:15633495

  7. Clinical Trial Results Vary Widely, But Always Advance Research | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Clinical Trials Clinical Trial Results Vary Widely, But Always Advance Research Past ... very emotional." Should You Be Interested in a Clinical Trial People volunteer to take part in clinical trials ...

  8. Clinical Trial Results Vary Widely, But Always Advance Research | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Clinical Trials Clinical Trial Results Vary Widely, But Always Advance Research ... very emotional." Should You Be Interested in a Clinical Trial People volunteer to take part in clinical ...

  9. Insights into the physical chemistry of materials from advances in HAADF-STEM

    SciTech Connect

    Sohlberg, Karl; Pennycook, Timothy J.; Zhou, Wu; Pennycook, Stephen J.

    2014-11-13

    The observation that, ‘‘New tools lead to new science’’[P. S. Weiss, ACS Nano., 2012, 6(3), 1877–1879], is perhaps nowhere more evident than in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Advances in STEM have endowed this technique with several powerful and complimentary capabilities. For example, the application of high-angle annular dark-field imaging has made possible real-space imaging at subangstrom resolution with Z-contrast (Z = atomic number). Further advances have wrought: simultaneous real-space imaging and elemental identification by using electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS); 3-dimensional (3D) mapping by depth sectioning; monitoring of surface diffusion by time-sequencing of images; reduced electron energy imaging for probing graphenes; etc. In this paper we review how these advances, often coupled with first-principles theory, have led to interesting and important new insights into the physical chemistry of materials. We then review in detail a few specific applications that highlight some of these STEM capabilities.

  10. Insights into the physical chemistry of materials from advances in HAADF-STEM

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sohlberg, Karl; Pennycook, Timothy J.; Zhou, Wu; Pennycook, Stephen J.

    2014-11-13

    The observation that, ‘‘New tools lead to new science’’[P. S. Weiss, ACS Nano., 2012, 6(3), 1877–1879], is perhaps nowhere more evident than in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Advances in STEM have endowed this technique with several powerful and complimentary capabilities. For example, the application of high-angle annular dark-field imaging has made possible real-space imaging at subangstrom resolution with Z-contrast (Z = atomic number). Further advances have wrought: simultaneous real-space imaging and elemental identification by using electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS); 3-dimensional (3D) mapping by depth sectioning; monitoring of surface diffusion by time-sequencing of images; reduced electron energy imaging formore » probing graphenes; etc. In this paper we review how these advances, often coupled with first-principles theory, have led to interesting and important new insights into the physical chemistry of materials. We then review in detail a few specific applications that highlight some of these STEM capabilities.« less

  11. Advances in Probes and Methods for Clinical EPR Oximetry

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Huagang; Khan, Nadeem; Jarvis, Lesley A.; Chen, Eunice Y.; Williams, Benjamin B.; Kuppusamy, Periannan

    2015-01-01

    EPR oximetry, which enables reliable, accurate, and repeated measurements of the partial pressure of oxygen in tissues, provides a unique opportunity to investigate the role of oxygen in the pathogenesis and treatment of several diseases including cancer, stroke, and heart failure. Building on significant advances in the in vivo application of EPR oximetry for small animal models of disease, we are developing suitable probes and instrumentation required for use in human subjects. Our laboratory has established the feasibility of clinical EPR oximetry in cancer patients using India ink, the only material presently approved for clinical use. We now are developing the next generation of probes, which are both superior in terms of oxygen sensitivity and biocompatibility including an excellent safety profile for use in humans. Further advances include the development of implantable oxygen sensors linked to an external coupling loop for measurements of deep-tissue oxygenations at any depth, overcoming the current limitation of 10 mm. This paper presents an overview of recent developments in our ability to make meaningful measurements of oxygen partial pressures in human subjects under clinical settings. PMID:24729217

  12. Development and Analysis of an Instrument to Assess Student Understanding of GOB Chemistry Knowledge Relevant to Clinical Nursing Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Corina E.; Hyslop, Richard M.; Barbera, Jack

    2015-01-01

    The General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Knowledge Assessment (GOB-CKA) is a multiple-choice instrument designed to assess students' understanding of the chemistry topics deemed important to clinical nursing practice. This manuscript describes the development process of the individual items along with a psychometric evaluation of the…

  13. Recent developments in choledochoscopy: technical and clinical advances

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ming-Ming; Kahaleh, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Peroral cholangioscopy has become an important tool in the diagnosis and treatment of a variety of biliary diseases, ranging from indeterminate biliary strictures to bile duct stones. Although the first cholangioscopy was performed in the 1970s, recent technological advances have provided us with cholangioscopes that yield high-resolution images, possess single-operator capability, and have ultrathin design to allow easier maneuverability and detailed imaging of the biliary tract. We review here the currently available devices for peroral cholangioscopy, their clinical applications, limitations, and complications. PMID:27274300

  14. Semibullvalene and diazasemibullvalene: recent advances in the synthesis, reaction chemistry, and synthetic applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shaoguang; Zhang, Wen-Xiong; Xi, Zhenfeng

    2015-07-21

    applications of NSBV. Several novel reaction patterns have been explored, including thermolysis, C-N bond insertion, rearrangement-cycloaddition, oxidation, and nucleophilic ring-opening reactions. Diverse and interesting N-containing polycyclic skeletons can be constructed, such as nickelaazetidine, 1,5-diazatriquinacenes, and triazabrexadienes, which are not available by other means. Our results show that NSBV not only features a rapid aza-Cope rearrangement with a low activation barrier but also acts as unique synthetic reagent that is significantly different from aziridine. The strained rigid ring systems as a whole can be involved in the reactions. Our achievements highlight two significant advances: (i) the well-established efficient synthesis and isolation of NSBV has greatly accelerated the development of NSBV chemistry, and (ii) the previously unattainable molecules have become "normal" and routine starting materials for the synthesis of otherwise unavailable but interesting structures. We expect that our pursuits will inspire and help direct future chemical and physical research on NSBV. PMID:26061608

  15. Reference Intervals of Hematology and Clinical Chemistry Analytes for 1-Year-Old Korean Children

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye Ryun; Roh, Eun Youn; Chang, Ju Young

    2016-01-01

    Background Reference intervals need to be established according to age. We established reference intervals of hematology and chemistry from community-based healthy 1-yr-old children and analyzed their iron status according to the feeding methods during the first six months after birth. Methods A total of 887 children who received a medical check-up between 2010 and 2014 at Boramae Hospital (Seoul, Korea) were enrolled. A total of 534 children (247 boys and 287 girls) were enrolled as reference individuals after the exclusion of data obtained from children with suspected iron deficiency. Hematology and clinical chemistry analytes were measured, and the reference value of each analyte was estimated by using parametric (mean±2 SD) or nonparametric methods (2.5-97.5th percentile). Iron, total iron-binding capacity, and ferritin were measured, and transferrin saturation was calculated. Results As there were no differences in the mean values between boys and girls, we established the reference intervals for 1-yr-old children regardless of sex. The analysis of serum iron status according to feeding methods during the first six months revealed higher iron, ferritin, and transferrin saturation levels in children exclusively or mainly fed formula than in children exclusively or mainly fed breast milk. Conclusions We established reference intervals of hematology and clinical chemistry analytes from community-based healthy children at one year of age. These reference intervals will be useful for interpreting results of medical check-ups at one year of age. PMID:27374715

  16. Recent advances of kinesin motor inhibitors and their clinical progress.

    PubMed

    Voultsiadou, Antiopi; Sarli, Vasiliki

    2011-09-01

    Antimitotic chemotherapy remains the most effective approach to treat a variety of human neoplasms. Since the discovery of tubulin-targeting agents, vinca alkaloids and the taxanes including paclitaxel and docetaxel are used clinically to treat several solid tumors of the head and neck, breast, lung, ovary, and bladder. Despite the preclinical and clinical success of tubulin-targeting agents, the ability of tumors to develop an acquired resistance to drugs used for treatment and neurotoxicity severely limited their long-term effectiveness to cancer cure. Lately, advances in antimitotic treatments led to the identification of novel mitosis-specific agents that are expected to show higher selectivity and less cytotoxicity compared to known antimitotics. This review focuses on the progress of kinesin motor inhibitors that target proteins that function predominantly in mitosis. PMID:21682672

  17. Polymeric nanotherapeutics: clinical development and advances in stealth functionalization strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Che-Ming J.; Fang, Ronnie H.; Luk, Brian T.; Zhang, Liangfang

    2013-12-01

    Long-circulating polymeric nanotherapeutics have garnered increasing interest in research and in the clinic owing to their ability to improve the solubility and pharmacokinetics of therapeutic cargoes. Modulation of carrier properties promises more effective drug localization at the disease sites and can lead to enhanced drug safety and efficacy. In the present review, we highlight the current development of polymeric nanotherapeutics in the clinic. In light of the importance of stealth properties in therapeutic nanoparticles, we also review the advances in stealth functionalization strategies and examine the performance of different stealth polymers in the literature. In addition, we discuss the recent development of biologically inspired ``self'' nanoparticles, which present a differing stealth concept from conventional approaches.

  18. Comprehensive Reference Ranges for Hematology and Clinical Chemistry Laboratory Parameters Derived from Normal Nigerian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Miri-Dashe, Timzing; Osawe, Sophia; Tokdung, Monday; Daniel, Nenbammun; Choji, Rahila Pam; Mamman, Ille; Deme, Kurt; Damulak, Dapus; Abimiku, Alash’le

    2014-01-01

    Background Interpretation of laboratory test results with appropriate diagnostic accuracy requires reference or cutoff values. This study is a comprehensive determination of reference values for hematology and clinical chemistry in apparently healthy voluntary non-remunerated blood donors and pregnant women. Methods and findings Consented clients were clinically screened and counseled before testing for HIV, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and Syphilis. Standard national blood donors’ questionnaire was administered to consented blood donors. Blood from qualified volunteers was used for measurement of complete hematology and chemistry parameters. Blood samples were analyzed from a total of 383 participants, 124 (32.4%) males, 125 (32.6%) non-pregnant females and 134 pregnant females (35.2%) with a mean age of 31 years. Our results showed that the red blood cells count (RBC), Hemoglobin (HB) and Hematocrit (HCT) had significant gender difference (p = 0.000) but not for total white blood count (p>0.05) which was only significantly higher in pregnant verses non-pregnant women (p = 0.000). Hemoglobin and Hematocrit values were lower in pregnancy (P = 0.000). Platelets were significantly higher in females than men (p = 0.001) but lower in pregnant women (p = 0.001) with marked difference in gestational period. For clinical chemistry parameters, there was no significant difference for sodium, potassium and chloride (p>0.05) but gender difference exists for Bicarbonate (HCO3), Urea nitrogen, Creatinine as well as the lipids (p<0.05). Total bilirubin was significantly higher in males than females (p = 0.000). Significant differences exist for all chemistry parameters between pregnant and non-pregnant women in this study (p<0.05), except Amylase and total cholesterol (p>0.05). Conclusions Hematological and Clinical Chemistry reference ranges established in this study showed significant gender differences. Pregnant women also differed from non

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental chemistry is applied to estimating the exposure of ecosystems and humans to various chemical environmental stressors. Among the stressors of concern are mercury, pesticides, and arsenic. Advanced analytical chemistry techniques are used to measure these stressors ...

  20. Using an Advanced Computational Laboratory Experiment to Extend and Deepen Physical Chemistry Students' Understanding of Atomic Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Gary G.

    2015-01-01

    A computational laboratory experiment is described, which involves the advanced study of an atomic system. The students use concepts and techniques typically covered in a physical chemistry course but extend those concepts and techniques to more complex situations. The students get a chance to explore the study of atomic states and perform…

  1. An Advanced Analytical Chemistry Experiment Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, MATLAB, and Chemometrics to Predict Biodiesel Blend Percent Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Karisa M.; Schale, Stephen P.; Le, Trang M.; Larson, Joel C.

    2011-01-01

    We present a laboratory experiment for an advanced analytical chemistry course where we first focus on the chemometric technique partial least-squares (PLS) analysis applied to one-dimensional (1D) total-ion-current gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-TIC) separations of biodiesel blends. Then, we focus on n-way PLS (n-PLS) applied to…

  2. Advancing Porous Silicon Biosensor Technology for Use in Clinical Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonanno, Lisa Marie

    Inexpensive and robust analytical techniques for detecting molecular recognition events are in great demand in healthcare, food safety, and environmental monitoring. Despite vast research in this area, challanges remain to develop practical biomolecular platforms that, meet the rigorous demands of real-world applications. This includes maintaining low-cost devices that are sensitive and specific in complex test specimens, are stable after storage, have short assay time, and possess minimal complexity of instrumentation for readout. Nanostructured porous silicon (PSi) material has been identified as an ideal candidate towards achieving these goals and the past decade has seen diverse proof-of-principle studies developing optical-based sensing techniques. In Part 1 of this thesis, the impact of surface chemistry and PSi morphology on detection sensitivity of target molecules is investigated. Initial proof-of-concept that PSi devices facilitate detection of protein in whole blood is demonstrated. This work highlights the importance of material stability and blocking chemistry for sensor use in real world biological samples. In addition, the intrinisic filtering capability of the 3-D PSi morphology is shown as an advantage in complex solutions, such as whole blood. Ultimately, this initial work identified a need to improve detection sensitivity of the PSI biosensor technique to facilitate clinical diagnostic use over relevant target concentration ranges. The second part of this thesis, builds upon sensitivity challenges that are highlighted in the first part of the thesis and development of a surface-bound competitive inhibition immunoassay facilitated improved detection sensitivity of small molecular weight targets (opiates) over a relevant clinical concentration range. In addition, optimization of assay protocol addressed issues of maintaining stability of sensors after storage. Performance of the developed assay (specificity and sensitivity) was then validated in a

  3. The biology of infertility: research advances and clinical challenges

    PubMed Central

    Matzuk, Martin M; Lamb, Dolores J

    2013-01-01

    Reproduction is required for the survival of all mammalian species, and thousands of essential ‘sex’ genes are conserved through evolution. Basic research helps to define these genes and the mechanisms responsible for the development, function and regulation of the male and female reproductive systems. However, many infertile couples continue to be labeled with the diagnosis of idiopathic infertility or given descriptive diagnoses that do not provide a cause for their defect. For other individuals with a known etiology, effective cures are lacking, although their infertility is often bypassed with assisted reproductive technologies (ART), some accompanied by safety or ethical concerns. Certainly, progress in the field of reproduction has been realized in the twenty-first century with advances in the understanding of the regulation of fertility, with the production of over 400 mutant mouse models with a reproductive phenotype and with the promise of regenerative gonadal stem cells. Indeed, the past six years have witnessed a virtual explosion in the identification of gene mutations or polymorphisms that cause or are linked to human infertility. Translation of these findings to the clinic remains slow, however, as do new methods to diagnose and treat infertile couples. Additionally, new approaches to contraception remain elusive. Nevertheless, the basic and clinical advances in the understanding of the molecular controls of reproduction are impressive and will ultimately improve patient care. PMID:18989307

  4. Photodynamic therapy for locally advanced pancreatic cancer: early clinical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandanayake, N. S.; Huggett, M. T.; Bown, S. G.; Pogue, B. W.; Hasan, T.; Pereira, S. P.

    2010-02-01

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma ranks as the fourth most common cause of cancer death in the USA. Patients usually present late with advanced disease, limiting attempted curative surgery to 10% of cases. Overall prognosis is poor with one-year survival rates of less than 10% with palliative chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Given these dismal results, a minimally invasive treatment capable of local destruction of tumor tissue with low morbidity may have a place in the treatment of this disease. In this paper we review the preclinical photodynamic therapy (PDT) studies which have shown that it is possible to achieve a zone of necrosis in normal pancreas and implanted tumour tissue. Side effects of treatment and evidence of a potential survival advantage are discussed. We describe the only published clinical study of pancreatic interstitial PDT, which was carried out by our group (Bown et al Gut 2002), in 16 patients with unresectable locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma. All patients had evidence of tumor necrosis on follow-up imaging, with a median survival from diagnosis of 12.5 months. Finally, we outline a phase I dose-escalation study of verteporfin single fibre PDT followed by standard gemcitabine chemotherapy which our group is currently undertaking in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer. Randomized controlled studies are also planned.

  5. [Advanced data analysis and visualization for clinical laboratory].

    PubMed

    Inada, Masanori; Yoneyama, Akiko

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes visualization techniques that help identify hidden structures in clinical laboratory data. The visualization of data is helpful for a rapid and better understanding of the characteristics of data sets. Various charts help the user identify trends in data. Scatter plots help prevent misinterpretations due to invalid data by identifying outliers. The representation of experimental data in figures is always useful for communicating results to others. Currently, flexible methods such as smoothing methods and latent structure analysis are available owing to the presence of advanced hardware and software. Principle component analysis, which is a well-known technique used to reduce multidimensional data sets, can be carried out on a personal computer. These methods could lead to advanced visualization with regard to exploratory data analysis. In this paper, we present 3 examples in order to introduce advanced data analysis. In the first example, a smoothing spline was fitted to a time-series from the control chart which is not in a state of statistical control. The trend line was clearly extracted from the daily measurements of the control samples. In the second example, principal component analysis was used to identify a new diagnostic indicator for Graves' disease. The multi-dimensional data obtained from patients were reduced to lower dimensions, and the principle components thus obtained summarized the variation in the data set. In the final example, a latent structure analysis for a Gaussian mixture model was used to draw complex density functions suitable for actual laboratory data. As a result, 5 clusters were extracted. The mixed density function of these clusters represented the data distribution graphically. The methods used in the above examples make the creation of complicated models for clinical laboratories more simple and flexible. PMID:21404582

  6. Support for chemistry symposia at the 2011 American Association for the Advancement of Science meeting, February 17-21 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Charles Casey

    2011-08-20

    This proposal supported Chemistry Symposia at the 2011 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Meeting in Washington, DC February 17-21, 2011. The Chemistry Section of AAAS presented an unusually strong set of symposia for the 2011 AAAS meeting to help celebrate the 2011 International Year of Chemistry. The AAAS meeting provided an unusual opportunity to convey the excitement and importance of chemistry to a very broad audience and allowed access to a large contingent of the scientific press. Excellent suggestions for symposia were received from AAAS Chemistry Fellows and from the chairs of the American Chemical Society Technical Divisions. The AAAS Chemistry executive committee selected topics that would have wide appeal to scientists, the public, and the press for formal proposals of symposia. The symposia proposals were peer reviewed by AAAS. The Chemistry Section made a strong case to the program selection committee for approval of the chemistry symposia and 6 were approved for the 2011 annual meeting. The titles of the approved symposia were: (1) Powering the Planet: Generation of Clean Fuels from Sunlight and Water, (2) Biological Role and Consequences of Intrinsic Protein Disorder, (3) Chemically Speaking: How Organisms Talk to Each Other, (4) Molecular Self-Assembly and Artificial Molecular Machines, (5) Frontiers in Organic Materials for Information Processing, Energy and Sensors, and (6) Celebrating Marie Curie's 100th Anniversary of Her Nobel Prize in Chemistry. The Chemistry Section of AAAS is provided with funds to support only 1-2 symposia a year. Because of the much greater number of symposia approved in conjunction with observance of the 2011 International Year of Chemistry, additional support was sought from DOE to help support the 30 invited speakers and 8 symposia moderators/organizers. Support for the symposia provided the opportunity to highlight the excitement of current chemical research, to educate the public about the

  7. SUPPORT FOR CHEMISTRY SYMPOSIA AT THE 2011 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE MEETING FEBRUARY 17-21, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Prof. Charles Casey, University of Wisconsin-Madison

    2011-08-20

    This proposal supported Chemistry Symposia at the 2011 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Meeting in Washington, DC February 17-21, 2011. The Chemistry Section of AAAS presented an unusually strong set of symposia for the 2011 AAAS meeting to help celebrate the 2011 International Year of Chemistry. The AAAS meeting provided an unusual opportunity to convey the excitement and importance of chemistry to a very broad audience and allowed access to a large contingent of the scientific press. Excellent suggestions for symposia were received from AAAS Chemistry Fellows and from the chairs of the American Chemical Society Technical Divisions. The AAAS Chemistry executive committee selected topics that would have wide appeal to scientists, the public, and the press for formal proposals of symposia. The symposia proposals were peer reviewed by AAAS. The Chemistry Section made a strong case to the program selection committee for approval of the chemistry symposia and 6 were approved for the 2011 annual meeting. The titles of the approved symposia were: (1) Powering the Planet: Generation of Clean Fuels from Sunlight and Water, (2) Biological Role and Consequences of Intrinsic Protein Disorder, (3) Chemically Speaking: How Organisms Talk to Each Other, (4) Molecular Self-Assembly and Artificial Molecular Machines, (5) Frontiers in Organic Materials for Information Processing, Energy and Sensors, and (6) Celebrating Marie Curie's 100th Anniversary of Her Nobel Prize in Chemistry. The Chemistry Section of AAAS is provided with funds to support only 1-2 symposia a year. Because of the much greater number of symposia approved in conjunction with observance of the 2011 International Year of Chemistry, additional support was sought from DOE to help support the 30 invited speakers and 8 symposia moderators/organizers. Support for the symposia provided the opportunity to highlight the excitement of current chemical research, to educate the public about the

  8. Advances in designs for Alzheimer’s disease clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Jeffrey; Gould, Heath; Zhong, Kate

    2012-01-01

    There is an urgent need to identify new treatments for the rapidly growing population of people with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Innovations in clinical trial designs many help to reduce development time, provide more definitive answers regarding drug efficacy, and facilitate prioritizing compounds to be advanced to Phase III clinical trials. Standard designs compare drug and placebo changes from baseline on a rating scale. Baysian adaptive clinical trials allow the use of data collected in the trial to modify doses, sample size, trial duration, and entry criteria in an ongoing way as the data are collected. Disease-modification is supported by findings on staggered start and delayed withdrawal designs. Futility designs can use historical controls and may shorten trial duration. Combination therapy designs may allow investigation of additive or synergistic treatment effects. Novel trial selection criteria allow investigation of treatment effects in asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic, prodromal AD populations. The Clinical Dementia Rating-Sum of Boxes (CDR-SOB) can be considered as a single trial outcome in early disease populations. Alternate forms of the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Portion (ADAS-cog), computerized measures, and pharmacoeconomic scales provide new and relevant information on drug effects. Comparative dose strategies are used in trials of symptomatic agents, and novel methods including withdrawal designs, symptom emergence analyses, and sequential designs are being utilized to assess the efficacy of putative psychotropic agents. The choice of trial design is driven by the question to be answered by the clinical trial; an increasing number of design approaches are available and may be useful in accelerating and refining AD drug development. PMID:23383393

  9. Advances and applications of molecular cloning in clinical microbiology.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Kamal; Mishra, Ajay Kumar; Mehraj, Vikram; Duraisamy, Ganesh Selvaraj

    2014-10-01

    Molecular cloning is based on isolation of a DNA sequence of interest to obtain multiple copies of it in vitro. Application of this technique has become an increasingly important tool in clinical microbiology due to its simplicity, cost effectiveness, rapidity, and reliability. This review entails the recent advances in molecular cloning and its application in the clinical microbiology in the context of polymicrobial infections, recombinant antigens, recombinant vaccines, diagnostic probes, antimicrobial peptides, and recombinant cytokines. Culture-based methods in polymicrobial infection have many limitation, which has been overcome by cloning techniques and provide gold standard technique. Recombinant antigens produced by cloning technique are now being used for screening of HIV, HCV, HBV, CMV, Treponema pallidum, and other clinical infectious agents. Recombinant vaccines for hepatitis B, cholera, influenza A, and other diseases also use recombinant antigens which have replaced the use of live vaccines and thus reduce the risk for adverse effects. Gene probes developed by gene cloning have many applications including in early diagnosis of hereditary diseases, forensic investigations, and routine diagnosis. Industrial application of this technology produces new antibiotics in the form of antimicrobial peptides and recombinant cytokines that can be used as therapeutic agents. PMID:25023463

  10. Baseline hematology and clinical chemistry results from captive-raised trumpeter swans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, G.H.; Rininger, D.L.; Ets, M.K.; Sladen, William J. L.

    2002-01-01

    Results from hematology and clinical chemistry tests are presented for healthy captive-raised Trumpeter Swans (Cygnus buccinator) to help establish baseline data. Blood samples were obtained from 14 cygnets between the ages of three to four and seven to eight months that were the subjects of a study to teach migration routes to swans. Males and females differed significantly in asparatate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and total protein. Age categories differed significantly in hematocrit, white blood cell counts, alkaline phosphatase, aspar-rate aminotransferase, glucose, cholesterol and uric acid. There were no significant differences among age categories in values of alanine aminotransferase, calcium, triglycerides and total protein.

  11. Clinical Chemistry Laboratory Automation in the 21st Century - Amat Victoria curam (Victory loves careful preparation)

    PubMed Central

    Armbruster, David A; Overcash, David R; Reyes, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    The era of automation arrived with the introduction of the AutoAnalyzer using continuous flow analysis and the Robot Chemist that automated the traditional manual analytical steps. Successive generations of stand-alone analysers increased analytical speed, offered the ability to test high volumes of patient specimens, and provided large assay menus. A dichotomy developed, with a group of analysers devoted to performing routine clinical chemistry tests and another group dedicated to performing immunoassays using a variety of methodologies. Development of integrated systems greatly improved the analytical phase of clinical laboratory testing and further automation was developed for pre-analytical procedures, such as sample identification, sorting, and centrifugation, and post-analytical procedures, such as specimen storage and archiving. All phases of testing were ultimately combined in total laboratory automation (TLA) through which all modules involved are physically linked by some kind of track system, moving samples through the process from beginning-to-end. A newer and very powerful, analytical methodology is liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). LC-MS/MS has been automated but a future automation challenge will be to incorporate LC-MS/MS into TLA configurations. Another important facet of automation is informatics, including middleware, which interfaces the analyser software to a laboratory information systems (LIS) and/or hospital information systems (HIS). This software includes control of the overall operation of a TLA configuration and combines analytical results with patient demographic information to provide additional clinically useful information. This review describes automation relevant to clinical chemistry, but it must be recognised that automation applies to other specialties in the laboratory, e.g. haematology, urinalysis, microbiology. It is a given that automation will continue to evolve in the clinical laboratory

  12. Clinical Chemistry Laboratory Automation in the 21st Century - Amat Victoria curam (Victory loves careful preparation).

    PubMed

    Armbruster, David A; Overcash, David R; Reyes, Jaime

    2014-08-01

    The era of automation arrived with the introduction of the AutoAnalyzer using continuous flow analysis and the Robot Chemist that automated the traditional manual analytical steps. Successive generations of stand-alone analysers increased analytical speed, offered the ability to test high volumes of patient specimens, and provided large assay menus. A dichotomy developed, with a group of analysers devoted to performing routine clinical chemistry tests and another group dedicated to performing immunoassays using a variety of methodologies. Development of integrated systems greatly improved the analytical phase of clinical laboratory testing and further automation was developed for pre-analytical procedures, such as sample identification, sorting, and centrifugation, and post-analytical procedures, such as specimen storage and archiving. All phases of testing were ultimately combined in total laboratory automation (TLA) through which all modules involved are physically linked by some kind of track system, moving samples through the process from beginning-to-end. A newer and very powerful, analytical methodology is liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). LC-MS/MS has been automated but a future automation challenge will be to incorporate LC-MS/MS into TLA configurations. Another important facet of automation is informatics, including middleware, which interfaces the analyser software to a laboratory information systems (LIS) and/or hospital information systems (HIS). This software includes control of the overall operation of a TLA configuration and combines analytical results with patient demographic information to provide additional clinically useful information. This review describes automation relevant to clinical chemistry, but it must be recognised that automation applies to other specialties in the laboratory, e.g. haematology, urinalysis, microbiology. It is a given that automation will continue to evolve in the clinical laboratory

  13. Autoverification in a core clinical chemistry laboratory at an academic medical center

    PubMed Central

    Krasowski, Matthew D.; Davis, Scott R.; Drees, Denny; Morris, Cory; Kulhavy, Jeff; Crone, Cheri; Bebber, Tami; Clark, Iwa; Nelson, David L.; Teul, Sharon; Voss, Dena; Aman, Dean; Fahnle, Julie; Blau, John L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Autoverification is a process of using computer-based rules to verify clinical laboratory test results without manual intervention. To date, there is little published data on the use of autoverification over the course of years in a clinical laboratory. We describe the evolution and application of autoverification in an academic medical center clinical chemistry core laboratory. Subjects and Methods: At the institution of the study, autoverification developed from rudimentary rules in the laboratory information system (LIS) to extensive and sophisticated rules mostly in middleware software. Rules incorporated decisions based on instrument error flags, interference indices, analytical measurement ranges (AMRs), delta checks, dilution protocols, results suggestive of compromised or contaminated specimens, and ‘absurd’ (physiologically improbable) values. Results: The autoverification rate for tests performed in the core clinical chemistry laboratory has increased over the course of 13 years from 40% to the current overall rate of 99.5%. A high percentage of critical values now autoverify. The highest rates of autoverification occurred with the most frequently ordered tests such as the basic metabolic panel (sodium, potassium, chloride, carbon dioxide, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, calcium, glucose; 99.6%), albumin (99.8%), and alanine aminotransferase (99.7%). The lowest rates of autoverification occurred with some therapeutic drug levels (gentamicin, lithium, and methotrexate) and with serum free light chains (kappa/lambda), mostly due to need for offline dilution and manual filing of results. Rules also caught very rare occurrences such as plasma albumin exceeding total protein (usually indicative of an error such as short sample or bubble that evaded detection) and marked discrepancy between total bilirubin and the spectrophotometric icteric index (usually due to interference of the bilirubin assay by immunoglobulin (Ig) M monoclonal gammopathy

  14. Development of new methods and polyphosphazene chemistries for advanced materials applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hindenlang, Mark D.

    The work described within this thesis focuses on the design, synthesis, and characterization of new phosphazenes with potential in advanced materials applications. Additionally, these unique polymers required the development of novel reaction methods or the investigation of new phosphazene chemistry to achieve their synthesis. Chapter 1 lays out some of the basic principles and fundamentals of polymer chemistry. Chapter 2 investigates the use of iodinated polyphosphazenes as x-ray opaque materials. Single-substituent polymers with 4-iodophenoxy or 4-iodophenylanaline ethyl ester units as the only side groups were prepared. Although a single-substitutent polymer with 3,5-diiodotyrosine ethyl ester groups was difficult to synthesize, probably because of steric hindrance, mixed-substituent polymers that contained the non-iodinated ethyl esters of glycyine, alanine, or phenylalanine plus a corresponding iodinated substituent, could be synthesized. Multinuclear NMR spectroscopy was used to follow the substitution of side groups onto the phosphazene back bone and judge the ratio of substituents. Chapter 3 details the initial investigation into 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine ethyl ester and dopamine substituted polyphosphazenes that could be applied to a number of applications. L-DOPAEE was acetonide protected to prevent crosslinking reactions by the catechole functionality. Cyclic small molecule studies and macromolecular substitution reactions on the linear high polymer were conducted with the protected L-DOPA. Continuing studies into protection of the dopamine catechol have elucidated a viable method for the synthesis of amino-linked dopamine polymers. Chapter 4 describes a method for the synthesis of phosphazenes with quaternary amine complexes as potential antibacterial agents. Replacement reactions of pyridine alkoxides and chlorophosphazenes were first attempted at the small molecule level to study the reactivities of pyridine alkoxides. The formation of an

  15. Use of Protecting Groups in Carbohydrate Chemistry: An Advanced Organic Synthesis Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunha, Anna C.; Pereira, Leticia O. R.; de Souza, Maria Cecília B. V.; Ferreira, Vitor F.

    1999-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive three-step reaction sequence for advanced experimental organic chemistry using D-glucosamine hydrochloride as starting material for the synthesis of 2-amino-2-deoxy-1,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-b-D-glucopyranose hydrochloride is described. D-Glucosamine hydrochloride is a carbohydrate derivative isolated from crab shells. It is inexpensive and readily available from most chemical companies. This reaction sequence is appropriate for teaching undergraduate students the correct use of protecting groups. This is a major concept in organic synthesis and one of the determinant factors in the successful realization of multiple-step synthetic projects. The aim of the experiment is to protect the hydroxyl groups of D-glucosamine leaving its amino group as hydrochloride salt. The experiment deals only with protection and deprotection reactions. All products are crystalline substances. The amino group of d-glucosamine hydrochloride is protected by a condensation reaction with p-methoxybenzaldehyde to produce the Schiff's base as a mixture of a- and b-anomers. The second step involves the protection of all hydroxyl groups by esterification reaction using acetic anhydride, forming the imino-tetraacetate derivative as the b-anomer. The stereospecificity of this reaction at the anomeric center is due to the voluminous imino group at C-2. Removal of the amino protection group of this derivative is the final step, which can be accomplished by a selective acid hydrolysis affording the desired peracylated D-glucosamine hydrochloride.

  16. Integrating Project-Based Service-Learning into an Advanced Environmental Chemistry Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draper, Alison J.

    2004-02-01

    In an advanced environmental chemistry course, the inclusion of semester-long scientific service projects successfully integrated the research process with course content. Each project involved a unique community-based environmental analysis in which students assessed an aspect of environmental health. The projects were due in small pieces at even intervals, and students worked independently or in pairs. Initially, students wrote a project proposal in which they chose and justified a project. Following a literature review of their topic, they drafted sampling and analysis plans using methods in the literature. Samples were collected and analyzed, and all students assembled scientific posters describing the results of their study. In the last week of the semester, the class traveled to a regional professional meeting to present the posters. In all, students found the experience valuable. They learned to be professional environmental chemists and learned the value of the discipline to community health. Students not only learned about their own project in depth, but they were inspired to learn textbook material, not for an exam, but because it helped them understand their own project. Finally, having a community to answer to at the end of the project motivated students to do careful work.

  17. Advances in molecular quantum chemistry contained in the Q-Chem 4 program package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Yihan; Gan, Zhengting; Epifanovsky, Evgeny; Gilbert, Andrew T. B.; Wormit, Michael; Kussmann, Joerg; Lange, Adrian W.; Behn, Andrew; Deng, Jia; Feng, Xintian; Ghosh, Debashree; Goldey, Matthew; Horn, Paul R.; Jacobson, Leif D.; Kaliman, Ilya; Khaliullin, Rustam Z.; Kuś, Tomasz; Landau, Arie; Liu, Jie; Proynov, Emil I.; Rhee, Young Min; Richard, Ryan M.; Rohrdanz, Mary A.; Steele, Ryan P.; Sundstrom, Eric J.; Woodcock, H. Lee, III; Zimmerman, Paul M.; Zuev, Dmitry; Albrecht, Ben; Alguire, Ethan; Austin, Brian; Beran, Gregory J. O.; Bernard, Yves A.; Berquist, Eric; Brandhorst, Kai; Bravaya, Ksenia B.; Brown, Shawn T.; Casanova, David; Chang, Chun-Min; Chen, Yunqing; Chien, Siu Hung; Closser, Kristina D.; Crittenden, Deborah L.; Diedenhofen, Michael; DiStasio, Robert A., Jr.; Do, Hainam; Dutoi, Anthony D.; Edgar, Richard G.; Fatehi, Shervin; Fusti-Molnar, Laszlo; Ghysels, An; Golubeva-Zadorozhnaya, Anna; Gomes, Joseph; Hanson-Heine, Magnus W. D.; Harbach, Philipp H. P.; Hauser, Andreas W.; Hohenstein, Edward G.; Holden, Zachary C.; Jagau, Thomas-C.; Ji, Hyunjun; Kaduk, Benjamin; Khistyaev, Kirill; Kim, Jaehoon; Kim, Jihan; King, Rollin A.; Klunzinger, Phil; Kosenkov, Dmytro; Kowalczyk, Tim; Krauter, Caroline M.; Lao, Ka Un; Laurent, Adèle D.; Lawler, Keith V.; Levchenko, Sergey V.; Lin, Ching Yeh; Liu, Fenglai; Livshits, Ester; Lochan, Rohini C.; Luenser, Arne; Manohar, Prashant; Manzer, Samuel F.; Mao, Shan-Ping; Mardirossian, Narbe; Marenich, Aleksandr V.; Maurer, Simon A.; Mayhall, Nicholas J.; Neuscamman, Eric; Oana, C. Melania; Olivares-Amaya, Roberto; O'Neill, Darragh P.; Parkhill, John A.; Perrine, Trilisa M.; Peverati, Roberto; Prociuk, Alexander; Rehn, Dirk R.; Rosta, Edina; Russ, Nicholas J.; Sharada, Shaama M.; Sharma, Sandeep; Small, David W.; Sodt, Alexander; Stein, Tamar; Stück, David; Su, Yu-Chuan; Thom, Alex J. W.; Tsuchimochi, Takashi; Vanovschi, Vitalii; Vogt, Leslie; Vydrov, Oleg; Wang, Tao; Watson, Mark A.; Wenzel, Jan; White, Alec; Williams, Christopher F.; Yang, Jun; Yeganeh, Sina; Yost, Shane R.; You, Zhi-Qiang; Zhang, Igor Ying; Zhang, Xing; Zhao, Yan; Brooks, Bernard R.; Chan, Garnet K. L.; Chipman, Daniel M.; Cramer, Christopher J.; Goddard, William A., III; Gordon, Mark S.; Hehre, Warren J.; Klamt, Andreas; Schaefer, Henry F., III; Schmidt, Michael W.; Sherrill, C. David; Truhlar, Donald G.; Warshel, Arieh; Xu, Xin; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Baer, Roi; Bell, Alexis T.; Besley, Nicholas A.; Chai, Jeng-Da; Dreuw, Andreas; Dunietz, Barry D.; Furlani, Thomas R.; Gwaltney, Steven R.; Hsu, Chao-Ping; Jung, Yousung; Kong, Jing; Lambrecht, Daniel S.; Liang, WanZhen; Ochsenfeld, Christian; Rassolov, Vitaly A.; Slipchenko, Lyudmila V.; Subotnik, Joseph E.; Van Voorhis, Troy; Herbert, John M.; Krylov, Anna I.; Gill, Peter M. W.; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2015-01-01

    A summary of the technical advances that are incorporated in the fourth major release of the Q-Chem quantum chemistry program is provided, covering approximately the last seven years. These include developments in density functional theory methods and algorithms, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) property evaluation, coupled cluster and perturbation theories, methods for electronically excited and open-shell species, tools for treating extended environments, algorithms for walking on potential surfaces, analysis tools, energy and electron transfer modelling, parallel computing capabilities, and graphical user interfaces. In addition, a selection of example case studies that illustrate these capabilities is given. These include extensive benchmarks of the comparative accuracy of modern density functionals for bonded and non-bonded interactions, tests of attenuated second order Møller-Plesset (MP2) methods for intermolecular interactions, a variety of parallel performance benchmarks, and tests of the accuracy of implicit solvation models. Some specific chemical examples include calculations on the strongly correlated Cr2 dimer, exploring zeolite-catalysed ethane dehydrogenation, energy decomposition analysis of a charged ter-molecular complex arising from glycerol photoionisation, and natural transition orbitals for a Frenkel exciton state in a nine-unit model of a self-assembling nanotube.

  18. Major clinical research advances in gynecologic cancer in 2014

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung-Hun; Kim, Kidong; Kang, Sokbom

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, 9 topics were selected as major advances in clinical research for gynecologic oncology: 2 each in cervical and corpus cancer, 4 in ovarian cancer, and 1 in breast cancer. For cervical cancer, several therapeutic agents showed viable antitumor clinical response in recurrent and metastatic disease: bevacizumab, cediranib, and immunotherapies including human papillomavirus (HPV)-tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and Z-100. The HPV test received FDA approval as the primary screening tool of cervical cancer in women aged 25 and older, based on the results of the ATHENA trial, which suggested that the HPV test was a more sensitive and efficient strategy for cervical cancer screening than methods based solely on cytology. For corpus cancers, results of a phase III Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) 249 study of early-stage endometrial cancer with high-intermediate risk factors are followed by the controversial topic of uterine power morcellation in minimally invasive gynecologic surgery. Promising results of phase II studies regarding the effectiveness of olaparib in various ovarian cancer settings are summarized. After a brief review of results from a phase III study on pazopanib maintenance therapy in advanced ovarian cancer, 2 outstanding 2014 ASCO presentations cover the topic of using molecular subtypes in predicting response to bevacizumab. A review of the use of opportunistic bilateral salpingectomy as an ovarian cancer preventive strategy in the general population is presented. Two remarkable studies that discussed the effectiveness of adjuvant ovarian suppression in premenopausal early breast cancer have been selected as the last topics covered in this review. PMID:25872896

  19. Correspondence of linearity evaluations to the performance of clinical chemistry instrument and reagent systems.

    PubMed

    Shires, G W

    1992-07-01

    The importance of demonstrating linearity for a clinical chemistry analytical system has caused considerable debate. Disagreement about the way linearity is demonstrated has led to some misunderstanding about just what linearity means to the analytical goals. In many cases where linearity is evaluated by statistical means, the outcome will indicate a nonlinear condition. A subsequent graph plot of the same data usually produces a line that is virtually straight. Confusion over which linearity evaluation outcome to accept creates a lack of confidence in either approach owing to the sometimes obvious disagreement between the two outcomes and the ill-defined impact linearity has on analytical error or clinical usefulness. Models of analytical performance can be constructed in such a way that the paradox of conflicting linearity evaluations can be examined through their effects on the analytical goals. PMID:1497450

  20. Advances in nanomedicine towards clinical application in oncology and immunology.

    PubMed

    Herreros, Eduardo; Morales, Sebastián; Cortés, Cristian; Cabaña, Mauricio; Peñaloza, Juan P; Jara, Lilian; Geraldo, Daniela; Otero, Carolina; Fernández-Ramires, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in nanotechnology and nanobiotechnology have contributed to the development of nanomaterials, able to be used as drug carriers, probes, targets or cytostatic drugs by itself. Nanomedicine is now the leading area in nanotechnology where a large number and types of nanoparticles (NPs) has been developed and several are already in the clinical practice. Chemotherapy is one of the most widely used strategies to treat cancer. Most chemotherapeutic agents have poor solubility, low bioavailability, and are formulated with toxic solvents. NPs have been designed to overcome the lack of specificity of chemotherapeutic agents as well to improve circulation time in blood, taking advantages on tumor cells characteristics. In immunology, recent advances regarding the activation of the innate immune system artificially enhanced by NPs functionalized with immune-stimulators open a new window as novel methods in vaccines. Also, viruses and virus-like particles (VLPs) engineered to stimulate immune response against their similar virus or as molecular platforms for the presentation of foreign epitopes have been described. In this review we focused in the use of different types of NPs in oncology and immunology, pinpointing the main novelties regarding their development and use of nanotechnology in a broad array of applications, ranging from tumor diagnostics, immune-modulation up to cancer therapeutics. PMID:25213311

  1. 75 FR 63188 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Early Clinical Trials With Live Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Control Information; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug... Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Control Information'' dated September 2010. The draft... Live Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Control Information'' dated September...

  2. Clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine in Croatia: regulation of the profession.

    PubMed

    Simundic, Ana-Maria; Topic, Elizabeta; Cvoriscec, Dubravka; Cepelak, Ivana

    2011-01-01

    Heterogeneity exists across Europe in the definition of the profession of clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine and also in academic background of specialists in this discipline. This article provides an overview of the standards of education and training of laboratory professionals and quality regulations in Croatia. Clinical chemistry in Croatia is almost exclusively practiced by medical biochemists. Although term Medical biochemist often relates to medical doctors in other European countries, in Croatia medical biochemists are not medical doctors, but university degree professionals who are qualified scientifically. Practicing the medical biochemistry is regulated by The Health Care Law, The Law of the Medical Biochemistry Profession and The Law of the State and Private Health Insurance. According to the law, only medical biochemists are entitled to run and work in the medical biochemistry laboratory. University degree is earned after the 5 years of the studies. Register for medical biochemists is kept by the Croatian Chamber of Medical Biochemists. Licensing is mandatory, valid for 6 years and regulated by the government (Law on the Health Care, 1993). Vocational training for medical biochemists lasts 44 months and is regulated by the national regulatory document issued by the Ministry of Health. Accreditation is not mandatory and is provided by an independent, non-commercial national accreditation body. The profession has interdisciplinary character and a level of required competence and skills comparable to other European countries. PMID:22141201

  3. Advances in thyroid cancer treatment: latest evidence and clinical potential

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Gordoa, T.; Díez, J.J.; Durán, M.

    2015-01-01

    Advanced thyroid carcinoma is an infrequent tumor entity with limited treatment possibilities until recently. The extraordinary improvement in the comprehension of genetic and molecular alterations involving the RAS/RAF/mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling and interacting pathways that are involved in tumor survival, proliferation, differentiation, motility and angiogenesis have been the rationale for the development of new effective targeted therapies. Data coming from phase II clinical trials have confirmed the efficacy of those targeted agents against receptors in cell membrane and cytoplasmic molecules. Moreover, four of those investigational drugs, vandetanib, cabozantinib, sorafenib and lenvatinib, have reached a phase III clinical trial with favorable results in progression-free survival and overall survival in medullary thyroid carcinoma and differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Further analysis for an optimal approach has been conducted according to mutational profile and tumor subtypes. However, consistent results are still awaited and the research for adequate prognostic and predictive biomarkers is ongoing. The following report offers a comprehensive review from the rationale to the basis of targeted agents in the treatment of thyroid carcinoma. In addition, current and future therapeutic developments by the inhibition of further molecular targets are discussed in this setting. PMID:25553081

  4. Artificial placenta: Recent advances and potential clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Metelo-Coimbra, Catarina; Roncon-Albuquerque, Roberto

    2016-06-01

    Lung immaturity remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in extremely premature infants. Positive-pressure mechanical ventilation, the method of choice for respiratory support in premature infants, frequently promotes by itself lung injury and a negative impact in the circulatory function. Extracorporeal lung support has been proposed for more than 50 years as a potential alternative to mechanical ventilation in the treatment of severe respiratory failure of extremely premature infants. Recent advances in this field included the development of miniaturized centrifugal pumps and polymethylpentene oxygenators, as well as the successful use of pump-assisted veno-venous extracorporeal gas exchange systems in experimental artificial placenta models. This review, which includes studies published from 1958 to 2015, presents an update on the artificial placenta concept and its potential clinical applications. Special focus will be devoted to the milestones achieved so far and to the limitations that must be overcome before its clinical application. Notwithstanding, the artificial placenta stands as a promising alternative to mechanical ventilation in extremely premature infants. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2016;51:643-649. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26915478

  5. Risk of discontinuation of Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Eve; Rémuzat, Cecile; Auquier, Pascal; Toumi, Mondher

    2016-01-01

    Objective Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) constitute a class of innovative products that encompasses gene therapy, somatic cell therapy, and tissue-engineered products (TEP). There is an increased investment of commercial and non-commercial sponsors in this field and a growing number of ATMPs randomized clinical trials (RCT) and patients enrolled in such trials. RCT generate data to prove the efficacy of a new therapy, but the discontinuation of RCTs wastes scarce resources. Our objective is to identify the number and characteristics of discontinued ATMPs trials in order to evaluate the rate of discontinuation. Methods We searched for ATMPs trials conducted between 1999 to June 2015 using three databases, which are Clinicaltrials.gov, the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP), and the EU Drug Regulating Authorities Clinical Trials (EudraCT). We selected the ATMPs trials after elimination of the duplicates. We identified the disease areas and the sponsors as commercial or non-commercial organizations. We classified ATMPs by type and trial status, that is, ongoing, completed, terminated, discontinued, and prematurely ended. Then, we calculated the rate of discontinuation. Results Between 1999 and June 2015, 143 withdrawn, terminated, or prematurely ended ATMPs clinical trials were identified. Between 1999 and June 2013, 474 ongoing and completed clinical trials were identified. Therefore, the rate of discontinuation of ATMPs trials is 23.18%, similar to that for non-ATMPs drugs in development. The probability of discontinuation is, respectively, 27.35, 16.28, and 16.34% for cell therapies, gene therapies, and TEP. The highest discontinuation rate is for oncology (43%), followed by cardiology (19.2%). It is almost the same for commercial and non-commercial sponsors; therefore, the discontinuation reason may not be financially driven. Conclusion No failure risk rate per development phase is available for ATMPs. The discontinuation rate may

  6. Clinical implications of hepatitis B virus mutations: recent advances.

    PubMed

    Lazarevic, Ivana

    2014-06-28

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major cause of acute and chronic hepatitis, and of its long-term complications. It is the most variable among DNA viruses, mostly because of its unique life cycle which includes the activity of error-prone enzyme, reverse transcriptase, and the very high virion production per day. In last two decades, numerous research studies have shown that the speed of disease progression, reliability of diagnostic methods and the success of antiviral therapy and immunization are all influenced by genetic variability of this virus. It was shown that mutations in specific regions of HBV genome could be responsible for unwanted clinical outcomes or evasion of detection by diagnostic tools, thus making the monitoring for these mutations a necessity in proper evaluation of patients. The success of the vaccination programs has now been challenged by the discovery of mutant viruses showing amino acid substitutions in hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), which may lead to evasion of vaccine-induced immunity. However, the emergence of these mutations has not yet raised concern since it was shown that they develop slowly. Investigations of HBV genetic variability and clinical implications of specific mutations have resulted in significant advances over the past decade, particularly in regard to management of resistance to antiviral drugs. In the era of drugs with high genetic barrier for resistance, on-going monitoring for possible resistance is still essential since prolonged therapy is often necessary. Understanding the frequencies and clinical implications of viral mutations may contribute to improvement of diagnostic procedures, more proper planning of immunization programs and creating the most efficient therapeutic protocols. PMID:24976703

  7. Clinical implications of hepatitis B virus mutations: Recent advances

    PubMed Central

    Lazarevic, Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major cause of acute and chronic hepatitis, and of its long-term complications. It is the most variable among DNA viruses, mostly because of its unique life cycle which includes the activity of error-prone enzyme, reverse transcriptase, and the very high virion production per day. In last two decades, numerous research studies have shown that the speed of disease progression, reliability of diagnostic methods and the success of antiviral therapy and immunization are all influenced by genetic variability of this virus. It was shown that mutations in specific regions of HBV genome could be responsible for unwanted clinical outcomes or evasion of detection by diagnostic tools, thus making the monitoring for these mutations a necessity in proper evaluation of patients. The success of the vaccination programs has now been challenged by the discovery of mutant viruses showing amino acid substitutions in hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), which may lead to evasion of vaccine-induced immunity. However, the emergence of these mutations has not yet raised concern since it was shown that they develop slowly. Investigations of HBV genetic variability and clinical implications of specific mutations have resulted in significant advances over the past decade, particularly in regard to management of resistance to antiviral drugs. In the era of drugs with high genetic barrier for resistance, on-going monitoring for possible resistance is still essential since prolonged therapy is often necessary. Understanding the frequencies and clinical implications of viral mutations may contribute to improvement of diagnostic procedures, more proper planning of immunization programs and creating the most efficient therapeutic protocols. PMID:24976703

  8. Test Review: Advanced Clinical Solutions for WAIS-IV and WMS-IV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Yiting; Lai, Mark H. C.; Xu, Yining; Zhou, Yuanyuan

    2012-01-01

    The authors review the "Advanced Clinical Solutions for WAIS-IV and WMS-IV". The "Advanced Clinical Solutions (ACS) for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition" (WAIS-IV; Wechsler, 2008) and the "Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition" (WMS-IV; Wechsler, 2009) was published by Pearson in 2009. It is a clinical tool for extending the…

  9. Recent technological advances in computed tomography and the clinical impact therein.

    PubMed

    Runge, Val M; Marquez, Herman; Andreisek, Gustav; Valavanis, Anton; Alkadhi, Hatem

    2015-02-01

    Current technological advances in CT, specifically those with a major impact on clinical imaging, are discussed. The intent was to provide for both medical physicists and practicing radiologists a summary of the clinical impact of each advance, offering guidance in terms of utility and day-to-day clinical implementation, with specific attention to radiation dose reduction. PMID:25521851

  10. A brief history of lipid and lipoprotein measurements and their contribution to clinical chemistry.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Judith R; Warnick, G Russell; Cooper, Gerald R

    2006-07-23

    The study of modern lipid chemistry began in the 17th and 18th centuries with early observations by Robert Boyle, Poulletier de la Salle, Antoine François de Fourcroy and others. The 19th century chemist, Chevreul, identified several fatty acids, suggested the name 'cholesterine' for the fatty substance in gallstones, coined the word 'glycerine', and showed that fats were comprised of glycerol and fatty acids. The 20th century brought many advances in the understanding of lipoprotein structure and function, and explored relationships between lipoproteins and disease states. The development of the ultracentrifuge and other lipoprotein separation techniques, and reagents for accurate, standardized quantitative measurement have steadily increased our understanding of the important role of lipoprotein metabolism in both healthy and disease states. PMID:16740255

  11. Surface chemistry improvement of 100mm GaSb for advanced space based applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, L. P.; Flint, J. P.; Meshew, G.; Trevethan, J.; Furlong, M. J.; Martinez, B.; Mobray, A.

    2012-01-01

    As size requirements and pixel viabilities for infrared focal plane arrays (IRFPAs) continue to increase, resolution and sensitivity requirements for high performance advanced imaging systems must meet or surpass stringent demands. Strain layer superlattice (SLS) grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on 100mm GaSb has necessitated changes in crystal processing and finishing parameters. Device layer growth typically requires a thin (2-5 nm) and highly desorbable surface oxide on very flat substrates for successful MBE. This study compares the ability for rapid pre-epi desoprtion of three different chemo-mechanical (CMP) finishes on 100mm n:GaSb: CMP-1 with sequential double side polished (DSP), CMP-2 with sequential DSP, and CMP-2 with simultaneous double side polished (S-DSP). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) reveals the improvement from a CMP-1 (Ga-oxide rich) to CMP-2 (Sb-oxide rich) surface. No difference in surface chemistry was found between the CMP-2 of the sequential vs. simultaneous DSP. Tropel flatness measurements of the 100mm n:GaSb substrates show that both DSP and SDSP substrate batches yield excellent (<5μm) wafer warp. However, initial studies have shown a more consistent wafer flatness with use of the simultaneous-DSP process. MBE growth on the Sb-rich surface was examined by high resolution XRD and resulted in a 64.7A periodicity and excellent FWHM (~20 arcsec) which verified the GaSb surface finish effectiveness. The resultant surface finish and flatness may provide a benefit for larger diameter GaSb IRFPA applications.

  12. Recent advances in the application of electron tomography to materials chemistry.

    PubMed

    Leary, Rowan; Midgley, Paul A; Thomas, John Meurig

    2012-10-16

    Nowadays, tomography plays a central role in pureand applied science, in medicine, and in many branches of engineering and technology. It entails reconstructing the three-dimensional (3D) structure of an object from a tilt series of two-dimensional (2D) images. Its origin goes back to 1917, when Radon showed mathematically how a series of 2D projection images could be converted to the 3D structural one. Tomographic X-ray and positron scanning for 3D medical imaging, with a resolution of ∼1 mm, is now ubiquitous in major hospitals. Electron tomography, a relatively new chemical tool, with a resolution of ∼1 nm, has been recently adopted by materials chemists as an invaluable aid for the 3D study of the morphologies, spatially-discriminating chemical compositions, and defect properties of nanostructured materials. In this Account, we review the advances that have been made in facilitating the recording of the required series of 2D electron microscopic images and the subsequent process of 3D reconstruction of specimens that are vulnerable, to a greater or lesser degree, to electron beam damage. We describe how high-fidelity 3D tomograms may be obtained from relatively few 2D images by incorporating prior structural knowledge into the reconstruction process. In particular, we highlight the vital role of compressed sensing, a recently developed procedure well-known to information theorists that exploits ideas of image compression and "sparsity" (that the important image information can be captured in a reduced data set). We also touch upon another promising approach, "discrete" tomography, which builds into the reconstruction process a prior assumption that the object can be described in discrete terms, such as the number of constituent materials and their expected densities. Other advances made recently that we outline, such as the availability of aberration-corrected electron microscopes, electron wavelength monochromators, and sophisticated specimen goniometers

  13. Implementation of an advanced clinical and administrative hospital information system.

    PubMed

    Vegoda, P R; Dyro, J F

    1986-01-01

    Over the last six years since University Hospital opened, the University Hospital Information System (UHIS) has continued to evolve to what is today an advanced administrative and clinical information system. At University Hospital UHIS is the way of conducting business. A wide range of patient care applications are operational including Patient Registration, ADT for Inpatient/Outpatient/Emergency Room visits, Advanced Order Entry/Result Reporting, Medical Records, Lab Automated Data Acquisition/Quality Control, Pharmacy, Radiology, Dietary, Respiratory Therapy, ECG, EEG, Cardiology, Physical/Occupational Therapy and Nursing. These systems and numerous financial systems have been installed in a highly tuned, efficient computer system. All applications are real-time, on-line, and data base oriented. Each system is provided with multiple data security levels, forward file recovery, and dynamic transaction backout of in-flight tasks. Sensitive medical information is safeguarded by job function passwords, identification codes, need-to-know master screens and terminal keylocks. University Hospital has an IBM 3083 CPU with five 3380 disk drives, four dual density tape drives, and a 3705 network controller. The network of 300 terminals and 100 printers is connected to the computer center by an RF broadband cable. The software is configured around the IBM/MVS operating system using CICS as the telecommunication monitor, IMS as the data base management system and PCS/ADS as the application enabling tool. The most extensive clinical system added to UHIS is the Physiological Monitoring/Patient Data Management System with serves 92 critical care beds. In keeping with the Hospital's philosophy of integrated computing, the PMS/PDMS with its network of minicomputers was linked to the UHIS system. In a pilot program, remote access to UHIS through the IBM personal computer has been implemented in several physician offices in the local community, further extending the communications

  14. Bridging the Cognitive-Affective Gaps: Teaching Chemistry while Advancing Affective Objectives. The Singapore Curricular Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Kok Siang; Goh, Ngoh Khang; Chia, Lian Sai

    2006-01-01

    Chemistry teachers face constraints when trying to integrate cognitive and affective objectives, and hence thoughtful lesson planning is required to achieve the goal. Chemistry teachers can educate students to be knowledgeable about chemical concepts, processes and the benefits of responsible practice by the chemical industry, while being aware,…

  15. Cancer Pharmacogenomics: Integrating Discoveries in Basic, Clinical and Population Sciences to Advance Predictive Cancer Care

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer Pharmacogenomics: Integrating Discoveries in Basic, Clinical and Population Sciences to Advance Predictive Cancer Care, a 2010 workshop sponsored by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program.

  16. Hairy cell leukemia: clinical features and therapeutic advances.

    PubMed

    Lembersky, B C; Golomb, H M

    1987-01-01

    Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is a rare chronic lymphoproliferative disorder which has been extensively studied over the past decade. Much has been learned regarding the diagnosis, natural history, biology, and treatment of this unique neoplasm. The disease most commonly affects middle aged men and characteristic clinical features include splenomegaly, cytopenias, and usually the presence in the peripheral blood of distinctive 'hairy cells' with irregular cytoplasmic projections. Diagnosis can usually be confirmed by bone marrow biopsy. Although the natural history can be extremely variable among patients, complications are usually referable to the cytopenias, with anemia and infection being most frequent. In addition to pyogenic infections, patients are susceptible to unusual organisms including atypical mycobacterium, legionella, and fungi. The requirement of red blood cell transfusion, severe granulocytopenia or thrombocytopenia, frequent infections, or painful splenomegaly are all indications for treatment. Splenectomy is the standard initial treatment of choice. However, in the past few years there have been exciting major advances in the therapeutic modalities for HCL. Recombinant alpha-interferon is highly effective, with beneficial responses occurring in close to 90% of patients. The Food and Drug Administration has recently approved the use of interferon for HCL. This represents the first time a biological response modifier has been approved for the treatment of human disease. In addition, preliminary results with the adenosine deaminase inhibitor, 2'deoxycoformycin (dcf), have been encouraging. Further clinical trials are required in order to determine the optimal sequential treatment strategy for HCL. The exact mechanisms of action of both interferon and dcf in HCL remain to be elucidated. A better understanding of the unusual features of the hairy cell and the underlying biological effect of these two agents in HCL may have important applications in other

  17. Functional neuroimaging of traumatic brain injury: advances and clinical utility

    PubMed Central

    Irimia, Andrei; Van Horn, John Darrell

    2015-01-01

    Functional deficits due to traumatic brain injury (TBI) can have significant and enduring consequences upon patients’ life quality and expectancy. Although functional neuroimaging is essential for understanding TBI pathophysiology, an insufficient amount of effort has been dedicated to the task of translating functional neuroimaging findings into information with clinical utility. The purpose of this review is to summarize the use of functional neuroimaging techniques – especially functional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and electroencephalography – for advancing current knowledge of TBI-related brain dysfunction and for improving the rehabilitation of TBI patients. We focus on seven core areas of functional deficits, namely consciousness, motor function, attention, memory, higher cognition, personality, and affect, and, for each of these, we summarize recent findings from neuroimaging studies which have provided substantial insight into brain function changes due to TBI. Recommendations are also provided to aid in setting the direction of future neuroimaging research and for understanding brain function changes after TBI. PMID:26396520

  18. Advances, practice, and clinical perspectives in high-throughput sequencing.

    PubMed

    Park, S-J; Saito-Adachi, M; Komiyama, Y; Nakai, K

    2016-07-01

    Remarkable advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies have fundamentally changed our understanding of the genetic and epigenetic molecular bases underlying human health and diseases. As these technologies continue to revolutionize molecular biology leading to fresh perspectives, it is imperative to thoroughly consider the enormous excitement surrounding the technologies by highlighting the characteristics of platforms and their global trends as well as potential benefits and limitations. To date, with a variety of platforms, the technologies provide an impressive range of applications, including sequencing of whole genomes and transcriptomes, identifying of genome modifications, and profiling of protein interactions. Because these applications produce a flood of data, simultaneous development of bioinformatics tools is required to efficiently deal with the big data and to comprehensively analyze them. This review covers the major achievements and performances of the high-throughput sequencing and further summarizes the characteristics of their applications along with introducing applicable bioinformatics tools. Moreover, a step-by-step procedure for a practical transcriptome analysis is described employing an analytical pipeline. Clinical perspectives with special consideration to human oral health and diseases are also covered. PMID:26602181

  19. Protein kinase small molecule inhibitors for rheumatoid arthritis: Medicinal chemistry/clinical perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Malemud, Charles J; Blumenthal, David E

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal chemistry strategies have contributed to the development, experimental study of and clinical trials assessment of the first type of protein kinase small molecule inhibitor to target the Janus kinase/Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling pathway. The orally administered small molecule inhibitor, tofacitinib, is the first drug to target the JAK/STAT pathway for entry into the armamentarium of the medical therapy of rheumatoid arthritis. The introduction of tofacitinib into general rheumatologic practice coupled with increasing understanding that additional cellular signal transduction pathways including the mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositide-3-kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin pathways as well as spleen tyrosine kinase also contribute to immune-mediated inflammatory in rheumatoid arthritis makes it likely that further development of orally administered protein kinase small molecule inhibitors for rheumatoid arthritis will occur in the near future. PMID:25232525

  20. Bioinformatics Methods and Tools to Advance Clinical Care

    PubMed Central

    Lecroq, T.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives To summarize excellent current research in the field of Bioinformatics and Translational Informatics with application in the health domain and clinical care. Method We provide a synopsis of the articles selected for the IMIA Yearbook 2015, from which we attempt to derive a synthetic overview of current and future activities in the field. As last year, a first step of selection was performed by querying MEDLINE with a list of MeSH descriptors completed by a list of terms adapted to the section. Each section editor has evaluated separately the set of 1,594 articles and the evaluation results were merged for retaining 15 articles for peer-review. Results The selection and evaluation process of this Yearbook’s section on Bioinformatics and Translational Informatics yielded four excellent articles regarding data management and genome medicine that are mainly tool-based papers. In the first article, the authors present PPISURV a tool for uncovering the role of specific genes in cancer survival outcome. The second article describes the classifier PredictSNP which combines six performing tools for predicting disease-related mutations. In the third article, by presenting a high-coverage map of the human proteome using high resolution mass spectrometry, the authors highlight the need for using mass spectrometry to complement genome annotation. The fourth article is also related to patient survival and decision support. The authors present datamining methods of large-scale datasets of past transplants. The objective is to identify chances of survival. Conclusions The current research activities still attest the continuous convergence of Bioinformatics and Medical Informatics, with a focus this year on dedicated tools and methods to advance clinical care. Indeed, there is a need for powerful tools for managing and interpreting complex, large-scale genomic and biological datasets, but also a need for user-friendly tools developed for the clinicians in their

  1. Filling a Plastic Bag with Carbon Dioxide: A Student-Designed Guided-Inquiry Lab for Advanced Placement and College Chemistry Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanni, Laura M.

    2014-01-01

    A guided-inquiry lab, suitable for first-year general chemistry or high school advanced placement chemistry, is presented that uses only inexpensive, store-bought materials. The reaction of sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) with aqueous acetic acid (vinegar), under the constraint of the challenge to completely fill a sealable plastic bag with the…

  2. Application of Advances in Learning Theory and Philosophy of Science to the Improvement of Chemistry Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Joseph D.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses seven key concepts in Ausubel's learning theory which function to guide research and teaching. Also discusses concept mapping and Gowins Vee, providing examples of how they are used in chemistry instruction. (JN)

  3. Role of Water in Electron-Initiated Processes and Radical Chemistry: Issues and Scientific Advances

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, Bruce C.; Dixon, David A.; Camaioni, Donald M.; Chipman, Daniel M.; Johnson, Mark A.; Jonah, Charles D.; Kimmel, Greg A.; Miller, John H.; Rescigno, Tom; Rossky, Peter J.; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Colson, Steve D.; Laufer, Allan H.; Ray, Douglas; Barbara, Paul F.; Bartels, David M.; Bowen, Kit H.; Becker, Kurt H.; Bradforth, Stephen E.; Carmichael, Ian; Coe, James V.; Corrales, L. Rene; Cowin, James P.; Dupuis, Michel; Eisenthal, Kenneth B.; Franz, James A.; Gutowski, Maciej S.; Jordon, Kenneth D.; Kay, Bruce D.; La Verne, Jay A.; Lymar, Sergei V.; Madey, Theodore E.; Mccurdy, C. W.; Meisel, Dan; Mukamel, Shaul; Nilsson, Anders R.; Orlando, Thomas M.; Petrik, Nikolay G.; Pimblott, Simon M.; Rustad, James R.; Schenter, Gregory K.; Singer, Sherwin J.; Tokmakoff, Andrei; Wang, Lai-Sheng; Wittig, Curt; Zwier, Timothy S.

    2005-01-12

    An understanding of electron-initiated processes in aqueous systems and the subsequent radical chemistry these processes induce is significant in such diverse fields as waste remediation and environmental cleanup, radiation processing, nuclear reactors, and medical diagnosis and therapy. We review the state of the art in the physical chemistry and chemical physics of electron-initiated processes in aqueous systems and raise critical research issues and fundamental questions that remain unanswered.

  4. Free Radical Reactions in Aqueous Solutions: Examples from Advanced Oxidation Processes for Wastewater from the Chemistry in Airborne Water Droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baird, N. Colin

    1997-07-01

    Inorganic chemistry involving free radicals in aqueous solutions can be important in environmental processes. A common free radical reaction in aqueous solution is electron transfer, especially to the hydroxyl radical and to ozone. Hydrogen peroxide and free radicals related to it act as weak acids, so both their neutral and deprotonated forms must be considered in reactions. In Advanced Oxidation Processes, the hydroxyl radical concentration in water is greatly increased by reactions involving ozone and/or ultraviolet light. Irradiation of solid titanium dioxide can also be used to generate the radicals. The hydroxyl radicals are used in the Processes to initiate the oxidation of dissolved organic pollutants. Free radical reactions also play an important role in the chemistry of water droplets suspended in air in clouds and fogs. The radicals arise indirectly from the photoionization of dissolved organic compounds such as aldehydes and from the iron-catalyzed decomposition of dissolved hydrogen peroxide. They oxidize dissolved sulfur dioxide and certain organic compounds.

  5. Advances in endodontics: Potential applications in clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Kishen, Anil; Peters, Ove A.; Zehnder, Matthias; Diogenes, Anibal R.; Nair, Madhu K.

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary endodontics has seen an unprecedented advance in technology and materials. This article aimed to review some of the challenges and advances in the following sections: (1) endodontic imaging, (2) root canal preparation, (3) root canal disinfection, (4) root canal filling, and (4) regenerative endodontic procedures (REPs). Jointly, these advances are aimed at improving the state of the art and science of root canal treatment. PMID:27217630

  6. Advances in endodontics: Potential applications in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Kishen, Anil; Peters, Ove A; Zehnder, Matthias; Diogenes, Anibal R; Nair, Madhu K

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary endodontics has seen an unprecedented advance in technology and materials. This article aimed to review some of the challenges and advances in the following sections: (1) endodontic imaging, (2) root canal preparation, (3) root canal disinfection, (4) root canal filling, and (4) regenerative endodontic procedures (REPs). Jointly, these advances are aimed at improving the state of the art and science of root canal treatment. PMID:27217630

  7. Advances in Quantitative UV-Visible Spectroscopy for Clinical and Pre-clinical Application in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Brown, J. Quincy; Vishwanath, Karthik; Palmer, Gregory M.; Ramanujam, Nirmala

    2009-01-01

    Summary Methods of optical spectroscopy which provide quantitative, physically or physiologically meaningful measures of tissue properties are an attractive tool for the study, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of various cancers. Recent development of methodologies to convert measured reflectance and fluorescence spectra from tissue to cancer-relevant parameters such as vascular volume, oxygenation, extracellular matrix extent, metabolic redox states, and cellular proliferation have significantly advanced the field of tissue optical spectroscopy. The number of publications reporting quantitative tissue spectroscopy results in the UV-visible wavelength range has increased sharply in the last 3 years, and includes new and emerging studies which correlate optically-measured parameters with independent measures such as immunohistochemistry, which should aid in increased clinical acceptance of these technologies. PMID:19268567

  8. Hospital clinical career advancement programs: comparing perceptions of nurse participants and nonparticipants.

    PubMed

    Thornhill, S K

    1994-09-01

    The study reported in this article describes nurse participants and nonparticipants in hospital clinical career advancement programs (clinical ladders) and compares perceptions in relation to program intrinsic outcomes, needs, and criteria for level advancement. A stratified random sample consisted of 120 participants and 480 nonparticipants drawn from 1,769 clinical nurses employed full time at five regional general hospitals. The findings suggest that nurses' demographic characteristics do not influence program participation status and that clinical advancement programs have limited impact upon job enrichment designed to recruit and retain clinical nurses providing direct patient care. Program participants (106; 88.3 percent) differed significantly at the .05 level from nonparticipants (385; 80.2 percent) on each factor area measuring perceptions of clinical advancement programs. PMID:10136982

  9. Advanced modelling of the multiphase DMS chemistry with the CAPRAM DMS module 1.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Erik Hans; Tilgner, Andreas; Schrödner, Roland; Wolke, Ralf; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2016-04-01

    Oceans are the general emitter of dimethyl sulphide (DMS), the major natural sulphur source (Andreae, 1990), and cover approximately 70 % of earth's surface. The main DMS oxidation products are SO2, H2SO4 and methyl sulfonic acid (MSA). Hence, DMS is very important for formation of non-sea salt sulphate (nss SO42-) aerosols and secondary particulate matter and thus global climate. Despite many previous model studies, there are still important knowledge gaps, especially in aqueous phase DMS chemistry, of its atmospheric fate (Barnes et al., 2006). Therefore, a comprehensive multiphase DMS chemistry mechanism, the CAPRAM DMS module 1.0 (DM1.0), has been developed. The DM1.0 includes 103 gas phase reactions, 5 phase transfers and 54 aqueous phase reactions. It was coupled with the multiphase chemistry mechanism MCMv3.2/CAPRAM4.0α (Rickard et al., 2015; Bräuer et al., 2016) and the extended CAPRAM halogen module 2.1 (HM2.1, Bräuer et al., 2013) for investigation of multiphase DMS oxidation in the marine boundary layer. Then, a pristine ocean scenario was simulated using the air parcel model SPACCIM (Wolke et al., 2005) including 8 non-permanent cloud passages - 4 at noon and 4 at midnight. This allows the investigation of the influence of deliquesced particles and clouds on multiphase DMS chemistry during both daytime and nighttime conditions as well as under cloud formation and evaporation. To test the influence of various subsystems on multiphase DMS chemistry different sensitivity runs were performed. Investigations of multiphase chemistry of DMS and its important oxidation products were done using concentration-time profiles and detailed time-resolved reaction flux analyses. The model studies revealed the importance of aqueous phase chemistry for DMS and its oxidation products. Overall about 7.0% of DMS is effectively oxidised by O3 in the aqueous phase of clouds. The simulations revealed the importance of halogen and aqueous phase chemistry for DMS and its

  10. On the physics, chemistry and toxicology of ultrafine anthropogenic, atmospheric aerosols (UAAA): new advances.

    PubMed

    Spurny, K R

    1998-08-01

    The existing data about the epidemiology, toxicology, physics and chemistry of atmospheric particulate pollutants were recently essentially completed and extended. They do support the hypothesis that the fine and very fine dispersed fraction of the atmospheric anthropogenic aerosols (UAAA) are responsible for the aggravation of the health risk potential of the polluted atmosphere during the last decade. The recently published data dealing primarily with the physics, chemistry, sampling and analysis of these highly dispersed particulate air pollutants are reviewed, summarized and critically evaluated. PMID:9820675

  11. Clinical chemistry profiles in injection heroin users from Coastal Region, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the co-burden of injection drug use and HIV is increasing in Africa, little is known about the laboratory markers of injection drug use and anti-retroviral treatment (ART) in Kenyan injection drug users. This study, therefore, aimed at determining the clinical chemistry profiles and identifying the key laboratory markers of HIV infection during ART in injection heroin users (IHUs). Methods Clinical chemistry measurements were performed on serum samples collected from HIV-1 infected ART-experienced (n = 22), naive (n = 16) and HIV-1 negative (n = 23) IHUs, and healthy controls (n = 15) from Mombasa, coastal Kenya. Results HIV uninfected IHUs had lower alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels (P = 0.023) as ART-exposed IHUs exhibited lower albumin (P = 0.014) and higher AST to platelet index (APRI) (P < 0.0001). All IHUs presented with lower aspartate aminotransferase to ALT values (P = 0.001) and higher C-reactive protein (CRP) levels (P = 0.002). ART-naive IHUs had higher globulin levels (P = 0.013) while ART-experienced and naive IHUs had higher albumin to total protein (P < 0.0001) and albumin to globulin (P < 0.0001) values. In addition, CD4+ T cells correlated with ALT (ρ = −0.522, P = 0.011) and CRP (rho, ρ = 0.529, P = 0.011) in HIV negative and ART-experienced IHUs, respectively. HIV-1 viral load correlated with albumin to globulin index in ART-experienced (ρ = −0.468, P = 0.037) and naive (ρ = −0.554, P = 0.040) IHUs; and with albumin to total protein index (ρ = −0.554, P = 0.040) and globulin (ρ = 0.570, P = 0.033) in ART-naive IHUs. Conclusion Absolute ALT, albumin, globulin, and CRP measurements in combination with APRI, AST to ALT, albumin to total protein and albumin to globulin indices may be useful laboratory markers for screening IHUs for initiating and monitoring treatment. PMID:25057262

  12. Developing more open and equitable relationships with industry to improve advancements in clinical research in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Campa, M; Ryan, C; Menter, A

    2016-06-01

    Relationships between physicians, scientists, and the pharmaceutical industry can be complicated by conflicts of interest. Honest and equitable relationships, however, are essential to the advancement of dermatologic clinical research. Several factors can increase transparency in clinical trials including preregistration of clinical trials, reporting of all data produced from clinical trials, non-industry ownership of clinical trial data, clarity of statistical methods and publication of both positive and negative results. Through collaborative, scientifically rigorous studies, physicians and industry can achieve significant advances in dermatologic care. PMID:27317287

  13. Green Oxidation of Menthol Enantiomers and Analysis by Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy: An Advanced Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, H. Cristina; Donohoe, James S.

    2012-01-01

    Green chemistry addresses environmental concerns associated with chemical processes and increases awareness of possible harmful effects of chemical reagents. Efficient reactions that eliminate or reduce the use of organic solvents or toxic reagents are increasingly available. A two-week experiment is reported that entails the calcium hypochlorite…

  14. Advanced Chemistry for Operators. Training Module 1.321.3.77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood Community Coll., Cedar Rapids, IA.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with inorganic and general organic chemistry as applied to water and wastewater treatment. Included are objectives, instructor guides, and student handouts. The module contains material related to chemical reactions in water solutions,…

  15. Exploring Interactive and Dynamic Simulations Using a Computer Algebra System in an Advanced Placement Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsumoto, Paul S.

    2014-01-01

    The article describes the use of Mathematica, a computer algebra system (CAS), in a high school chemistry course. Mathematica was used to generate a graph, where a slider controls the value of parameter(s) in the equation; thus, students can visualize the effect of the parameter(s) on the behavior of the system. Also, Mathematica can show the…

  16. Green, Enzymatic Syntheses of Divanillin and Diapocynin for the Organic, Biochemistry, or Advanced General Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishimura, Rachel T.; Giammanco, Chiara H.; Vosburg, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Environmentally benign chemistry is an increasingly important topic both in the classroom and the laboratory. In this experiment, students synthesize divanillin from vanillin or diapocynin from apocynin, using horseradish peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide in water. The dimerized products form rapidly at ambient temperature and are isolated by…

  17. Clinical practice: new challenges for the advanced practice nurse.

    PubMed

    Bartel, J C; Buturusis, B

    2000-12-01

    This report describes the challenges for advanced practice nurses (APNs) relative to supply and demand issues. The article also includes opportunities with the Balanced Budget Act, physician acceptance of Advanced Practice Nurses, and expanding practice opportunities. The challenges include the nursing shortage (both in nursing students and faculty), the aging of the nursing workforce, and a lag in nursing salaries; increased demand for nursing based on aging baby boomers, increasing patient acuity and technology, and new arenas for practice. The Balanced Budget Act of 1997 provided new opportunities for advanced practice nurses, including enhanced autonomy to provide services and bill independently of physicians. With these changes come new opportunities for advanced practice nurse entrepreneurs in the areas of independent practice, including opportunities to positively impact the health of families and communities in alignment with the Federal government's vision for "Healthy People 2010." As physician acceptance of advanced practice nurses continues to grow and in light of the changes in medical practice and education (residency reduction), opportunities to expand collaborative practice arrangements also exist. APNs are best suited to make the most of these changes. One example of an opportunity for independent practice, a Community Wellness Center, is developed as an entrepreneurial venture benefiting both the APN and the health of a community. Who better than registered nurses (RNs), especially those practicing at the advanced level, can ensure that these opportunities and challenges are addressed in an ethical manner and focused on the needs and health of the community? PMID:12029667

  18. Effect of repeated freezing and thawing on 18 clinical chemistry analytes in rat serum.

    PubMed

    Kale, Vijay P; Patel, Sweta G; Gunjal, Prashant S; Wakchaure, Santosh U; Sundar, Rajesh S; Ranvir, Ramchandra K; Jain, Mukul R

    2012-07-01

    In a preclinical research laboratory, using serum samples that have been frozen and thawed repeatedly is sometimes unavoidable when needing to confirm previous results or perform additional analysis. Here we determined the effects of multiple cycles of refrigeration or freezing and thawing of rat serum at 3 temperature conditions for different storage times on clinical chemistry analytes. Serum samples obtained from adult Wistar rats were stored at 2 to 8 °C and -10 to -20 °C for as long as 72 h and at -70 °C for as long as 30 d. At different time points (24, 48, and 72 h for samples stored at 2 to 8 °C or -10 to -20 °C and 1, 7, and 30 d for samples stored at -70 °C), the samples were brought to room temperature, analyzed, and then stored again at the designated temperature. The results obtained after each storage cycle were compared with those obtained from the initial analysis of fresh samples. Of the 18 serum analytes evaluated, 14 were stable without significant changes, even after 3 freeze-thaw cycles at the tested temperature ranges. Results from this study will help researchers working with rat serum to interpret the biochemical data obtained from serum samples that have been frozen and thawed repeatedly. PMID:23043814

  19. Chemokine Receptor CCR5 Antagonist Maraviroc: Medicinal Chemistry and Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Guoyan G.; Guo, Jia; Wu, Yuntao

    2015-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes acquired immumodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), one of the worst global pandemic. The virus infects human CD4 T cells and macrophages, and causes CD4 depletion. HIV enters target cells through the binding of the viral envelope glycoprotein to CD4 and the chemokine coreceptor, CXCR4 or CCR5. In particular, the CCR5-utilizing viruses predominate in the blood during the disease course. CCR5 is expressed on the surface of various immune cells including macrophages, monocytes, microglia, dendric cells, and active memory CD4 T cells. In the human population, the CCR5 genomic mutation, CCR5Δ32, is associated with relative resistance to HIV. These findings paved the way for the discovery and development of CCR5 inhibitors to block HIV transmission and replication. Maraviroc, discovered as a CCR5 antagonist, is the only CCR5 inhibitor that has been approved by both US FDA and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) for treating HIV/AIDS patients. In this review, we summarize the medicinal chemistry and clinical studies of Maraviroc. PMID:25159165

  20. A 10-year analysis of "revenues," costs, staffing, and workload in an academic medical center clinical chemistry laboratory.

    PubMed

    Benge, H; Csako, G; Parl, F F

    1993-09-01

    From 1980 to 1990 we found progressive increases in workload (number of billable tests; 12.1% per year), staffing [number of full-time equivalents (FTEs); 5.6% per year], "revenues" (gross billings; 25.8% per year), and direct cost (12.9% per year) in the clinical chemistry laboratory of a large tertiary-care university medical center. The increase in direct cost was mainly attributable to an increase in salary cost (23.7% per year), whereas the impact of increasing "consumable" cost was relatively small (5.3% per year). In fact, after adjustment for inflation, the consumable cost was virtually unchanged or decreased during the 10-year study period. Initially, consumables represented about 60% of the direct cost, and the remaining 40% was for salaries. After 1982/83, however, the relative contribution of consumables and salaries to direct cost gradually reversed. Because the workload grew at a higher rate than staffing, the workload per FTE increased from 1980 to 1990. This was paralleled by gradual increases in both "revenue" per FTE and salary per FTE in actual dollars, but by lesser increases to no increases in inflation-corrected dollars. After adjusting for inflation with different indices, the direct cost per test, the consumable cost per test, and the salary cost per test either remained unchanged or decreased in the 1980s. The findings are discussed in the context of technical advancements in laboratory testing, nationwide shortages of medical technologists, and implementation of prospective fixed-fee reimbursement practices during the study period. PMID:8375047

  1. An Academic-Business Partnership for Advancing Clinical Informatics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, Helen R.; Weaver, Charlotte; Warren, Judith; Miller, Karen L.

    2002-01-01

    A partnership between a university school of nursing and a health care information technology supplier resulted in the Simulated E-hEalth Delivery System (SEEDS). This program enables nursing students to learn clinical skills in a state-of-the-art environment using a live-production, clinical information system designed for care delivery. (JOW)

  2. Supramolecular Chemistry and Mechanochemistry of Macromolecules: Recent Advances by Single-Molecule Force Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Bo; Cui, Shuxun

    2015-01-01

    Atomic force spectroscopy (AFM)-based single-molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) was invented in the 1990s. Since then, SMFS has been developed into a powerful tool to study the inter- and intra-molecular interactions of macromolecules. Using SMFS, a number of problems in the field of supramolecular chemistry and mechanochemistry have been studied at the single-molecule level, which are not accessible by traditional ensemble characterization methods. In this review, the principles of SMFS are introduced, followed by the discussion of several problems of contemporary interest at the interface of supramolecular chemistry and mechanochemistry of macromolecules, including single-chain elasticity of macromolecules, interactions between water and macromolecules, interactions between macromolecules and solid surface, and the interactions in supramolecular polymers. PMID:25860255

  3. The Advancing Clinical Impact of Molecular Imaging in Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Osborn, Eric A; Jaffer, Farouc A

    2013-01-01

    Molecular imaging seeks to unravel critical molecular and cellular events in living subjects by providing complementary biological information to current structural clinical imaging modalities. In recent years, molecular imaging efforts have marched forward into the clinical cardiovascular arena, and are now actively illuminating new biology in a broad range of conditions, including atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, thrombosis, vasculitis, aneurysm, cardiomyopathy, and valvular disease. Development of novel molecular imaging reporters is occurring for many clinical cardiovascular imaging modalities (PET, SPECT, MRI), as well in translational platforms such as intravascular fluorescence imaging. The ability to image, track, and quantify molecular biomarkers in organs not routinely amenable to biopsy (e.g. the heart and vasculature) open new clinical opportunities to tailor therapeutics based on a cardiovascular disease molecular profile. In addition, molecular imaging is playing an increasing role in atherosclerosis drug development in Phase II clinical trials. Here we present state-of-the-art clinical cardiovascular molecular imaging strategies, and explore promising translational approaches positioned for clinical testing in the near term. PMID:24332285

  4. The advancing clinical impact of molecular imaging in CVD.

    PubMed

    Osborn, Eric A; Jaffer, Farouc A

    2013-12-01

    Molecular imaging seeks to unravel critical molecular and cellular events in living subjects by providing complementary biological information to current structural clinical imaging modalities. In recent years, molecular imaging efforts have marched forward into the clinical cardiovascular arena, and are now actively illuminating new biology in a broad range of conditions, including atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, thrombosis, vasculitis, aneurysm, cardiomyopathy, and valvular disease. Development of novel molecular imaging reporters is occurring for many clinical cardiovascular imaging modalities (positron emission tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging), as well as in translational platforms such as intravascular fluorescence imaging. The ability to image, track, and quantify molecular biomarkers in organs not routinely amenable to biopsy (e.g., the heart and vasculature) open new clinical opportunities to tailor therapeutics based on a cardiovascular disease molecular profile. In addition, molecular imaging is playing an increasing role in atherosclerosis drug development in phase II clinical trials. Here, we present state-of-the-art clinical cardiovascular molecular imaging strategies, and explore promising translational approaches positioned for clinical testing in the near term. PMID:24332285

  5. Recent advances in crosslinking chemistry of biomimetic poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chien-Chi

    2015-01-01

    The design and application of biomimetic hydrogels have become an important and integral part of modern tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Many of these hydrogels are prepared from synthetic macromers (e.g., poly(ethylene glycol) or PEG) as they provide high degrees of tunability for matrix crosslinking, degradation, and modification. For a hydrogel to be considered biomimetic, it has to recapitulate key features that are found in the native extracellular matrix, such as the appropriate matrix mechanics and permeability, the ability to sequester and deliver drugs, proteins, and or nucleic acids, as well as the ability to provide receptor-mediated cell-matrix interactions and protease-mediated matrix cleavage. A variety of chemistries have been employed to impart these biomimetic features into hydrogel crosslinking. These chemistries, such as radical-mediated polymerizations, enzyme-mediated crosslinking, bio-orthogonal click reactions, and supramolecular assembly, may be different in their crosslinking mechanisms but are required to be efficient for gel crosslinking and ligand bioconjugation under aqueous reaction conditions. The prepared biomimetic hydrogels should display a diverse array of functionalities and should also be cytocompatible for in vitro cell culture and/or in situ cell encapsulation. The focus of this article is to review recent progress in the crosslinking chemistries of biomimetic hydrogels with a special emphasis on hydrogels crosslinked from poly(ethylene glycol)-based macromers. PMID:26029357

  6. 77 FR 9947 - Guidance for Industry: Early Clinical Trials With Live Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ... otherwise. In the Federal Register of October 14, 2010 (75 FR 63188), FDA announced the availability of the... Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Control Information; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug... Products: Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Control Information '' dated February 2012. The guidance...

  7. Clinical and Experimental Advances in Regeneration of Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Jung Keun; Kim, Hae-Won

    2010-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is one of the major disabilities dealt with in clinical rehabilitation settings and is multifactorial in that the patients suffer from motor and sensory impairments as well as many other complications throughout their lifetimes. Many clinical trials have been documented during the last two decades to restore damaged spinal cords. However, only a few pharmacological therapies used in clinical settings which still have only limited effects on the regeneration, recovery speed, or retraining of the spinal cord. In this paper, we will introduce recent clinical trials, which performed pharmacological treatments and cell transplantations for patients with SCI, and evaluate recent in vivo studies for the regeneration of injured spinal cord, including stem-cell transplantation, application of neurotrophic factors and suppressor of inhibiting factors, development of biomaterial scaffolds and delivery systems, rehabilitation, and the combinations of these therapies to evaluate what can be appropriately applied in the future to the patients with SCI. PMID:21350645

  8. Advances in clinical applications of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bandettini, W P; Arai, A E

    2008-01-01

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is an evolving technology with growing indications within the clinical cardiology setting. This review article summarises the current clinical applications of CMR. The focus is on the use of CMR in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease with summaries of validation literature in CMR viability, myocardial perfusion, and dobutamine CMR. Practical uses of CMR in non-coronary diseases are also discussed. PMID:18208827

  9. Parameters of haematology, clinical chemistry and lipid metabolism in the common marmoset and alterations under stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Kuehnel, F; Grohmann, J; Buchwald, U; Koeller, G; Teupser, D; Einspanier, A

    2012-08-01

    Common marmosets are suitable non-human primate models for many human diseases. Standard values for blood parameters are required to evaluate physiological and pathological situations. Two studies were conducted: study I to determine standard values and study II to examine these under changed housing conditions. In study I, all parameters for clinical chemistry were similar in range for both genders with these specifics: male marmosets had significantly higher total and LDL cholesterol levels than females, whereas the mean corpuscular volume and the mean corpuscular haemoglobin were significantly lower than in females. In study II, glucose, lymphocytes and salivary cortisol were significantly lower, and faecal cortisol was increased during the change of housing conditions. In conclusion, standard values for haematology and clinical chemistry for the common marmoset were determined. Further on, parameters that are influenced by relocation stress and its importance for experimental results are described. PMID:22765494

  10. Advances in Clinical and Biomedical Applications of Photoacoustic Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jimmy L.; Wang, Bo; Wilson, Katheryne E.; Bayer, Carolyn L.; Chen, Yun-Sheng; Kim, Seungsoo; Homan, Kimberly A.; Emelianov, Stanislav Y.

    2010-01-01

    Importance of the field Photoacoustic imaging is an imaging modality that derives image contrast from the optical absorption coefficient of the tissue being imaged. The imaging technique is able to differentiate between healthy and diseased tissue with either deeper penetration or higher resolution than other functional imaging modalities currently available. From a clinical standpoint, photoacoustic imaging has demonstrated safety and effectiveness in diagnosing diseased tissue regions using either endogenous tissue contrast or exogenous contrast agents. Furthermore, the potential of photoacoustic imaging has been demonstrated in various therapeutic interventions ranging from drug delivery and release to image-guided therapy and monitoring. Areas covered in this review This article reviews the current state of photoacoustic imaging in biomedicine from a technological perspective, highlights various biomedical and clinical applications of photoacoustic imaging, and gives insights on future directions. What the reader will gain Readers will learn about the various applications of photoacoustic imaging, as well as the various contrast agents that can be used to assist photoacoustic imaging. This review will highlight both pre-clinical and clinical uses for photoacoustic imaging, as well as discuss some of the challenges that must be addressed to move photoacoustic imaging into the clinical realm. Take home message Photoacoustic imaging offers unique advantages over existing imaging modalities. The imaging field is broad with many exciting applications for detecting and diagnosing diseased tissue or processes. Photoacoustics is also used in therapeutic applications to identify and characterize the pathology and then to monitor the treatment. Although the technology is still in its infancy, much work has been done in the pre-clinical arena, and photoacoustic imaging is fast approaching the clinical setting. PMID:21344060

  11. Recent advances in the chemistry of Rh carbenoids: multicomponent reactions of diazocarbonyl compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedev, J. J.; Nikolaev, V. A.

    2015-07-01

    Multicomponent reactions of diazo compounds catalyzed by RhII complexes become a powerful tool for organic synthesis. They enable three- or four-step processes to be carried out as one-pot procedures (actually as one step) with high stereoselectivity to give complex organic molecules, including biologically active compounds. This review addresses recent results in the chemistry of Rh-catalyzed multicomponent reactions of diazocarbonyl compounds with the intermediate formation of N-, O- and C=O-ylides. The diastereo- and enantioselectivity of these reactions and the possibility of using various co-catalysts to increase the efficiency of the processes under consideration are discussed. The bibliography includes 120 references.

  12. Accreditation and postgraduate training in European countries: an FESCC survey. Federation of European Societies of Clinical Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Blaton, V

    2001-07-20

    The mission of the Federation of European Societies of Clinical Chemistry is to support and promote clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine in Europe, to aid communication between the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) and National Scientific Societies, to develop education and quality in the discipline, and to encourage young scientists to take an active role in these activities. One recent initiative of the Federation was a survey on accreditation of medical laboratories and training in laboratory medicine in Europe. Among European countries, three promote accreditation according to EN 45001, several countries apply systems based on professional and nationally defined standards (e.g. CPA in the UK) and other countries are moving to define accreditation standards at a national level. Data on vocational training demonstrate that this is based on a postgraduate education with duration ranging from 6 months to 11 years; in most countries the average length of university education is 5 years and that of postgraduate training is 4 years. A great difference, moreover, exists regarding the polyvalent versus monovalent training. Taken together, these data indicate that a great effort should be made by the Federation for promoting harmonization and coordination in Europe. PMID:11438289

  13. Effect of sampling site and collection method on variations in baseline clinical pathology parameters in Fischer-344 rats. 1. Clinical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Neptun, D A; Smith, C N; Irons, R D

    1985-12-01

    An analysis of the influence of blood sampling site and collection method on clinical chemistry parameters was conducted in male Fischer-344 rats. Sampling sites compared included the right ventricle, aorta, vena cava, retroorbital sinus, and tail. Methods of collection included Vacutainer (3 ml sample), syringe (exsanguination), and capillary tube. Nineteen frequently measured clinical chemistry procedures were determined, including serum enzymes, cholesterol, and triglycerides. Significant differences were noted for almost every parameter as a function of sampling site. Samples collected from the right ventricle with a Vacutainer produced the most representative results for most but not all procedures when compared to the overall mean (for all methods). The largest differences were encountered in samples obtained from tail and retroorbital plexus. Exanguination also resulted in significant differences for some parameters when compared to smaller sample volumes obtained from the same site. It was concluded that sampling site and collection method can be a major source of variation in clinical chemistry measurements, and in selection of an appropriate method, one should consider which parameters are likely to be of major interest. PMID:4092880

  14. Advances in nanoscale alloys and intermetallics: low temperature solution chemistry synthesis and application in catalysis.

    PubMed

    Jana, Subhra

    2015-11-21

    Based on the bottom-up chemistry techniques, the size, shape, and composition controlled synthesis of nanoparticles can now be achieved uniformly, which is of great importance to the nanoscience community as well as in modern catalysis research. The low-temperature solution-phase synthesis approach represents one of the most attractive strategies and has been utilized to synthesize nanoscale metals, alloys and intermetallics, including a number of new metastable phases. This perspective will highlight the solution-based nanoparticle synthesis techniques, a low-temperature platform, for the synthesis of size and shape-tunable nanoscale transition metals, alloys, and intermetallics from the literature, keeping a focus on the utility of these nanomaterials in understanding the catalysis. For each solution-based nanoparticle synthesis technique, a comprehensive overview has been given for the reported nanoscale metals, alloys, and intermetallics, followed by critical comments. Finally, their enhanced catalytic activity and durability as novel catalysts have been discussed towards several hydrogenation/dehydrogenation reactions and also for different inorganic to organic reactions. Hence, the captivating advantages of this controllable low-temperature solution chemistry approach have several important implications and together with them this approach provides a promising route to the development of next-generation nanostructured metals, alloys, and intermetallics since they possess fascinating properties as well as outstanding catalytic activity. PMID:26477400

  15. Advances in data exchange for the clinical laboratory.

    PubMed

    Dolin, R H

    1999-06-01

    The focus of the article is on the nuts and bolts of those standards relevant to the exchange of data between a clinical laboratory and an electronic health record. These include: Health Level 7 (HL7), Logical Observation Identifier Names and Codes (LOINC), Systematized Nomenclature of Human and Veterinary Medicine (SNOMED), and, most recently, the Extensible Markup Language (XML). PMID:10421962

  16. Clinical Curriculum Reform and Advanced Care Training at the New England College of Optometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Roger

    1998-01-01

    Discusses how the New England College of Optometry has expanded clinical education so graduates are equipped to handle new and advanced clinical and patient-care responsibilities and meet the changing standards of professional entry-level competency. The reform process, third- and fourth-year curriculum components, rotations, and plans for…

  17. Online, directed journaling in community health advanced practice nursing clinical education.

    PubMed

    Daroszewski, Ellen Beth; Kinser, Anita G; Lloyd, Susan L

    2004-04-01

    The sharing of experiences in advanced practice nursing clinical courses allows for application of core principals to different facets of practice, with the potential to promote discussions beyond the course objectives, create opportunities for mentoring, foster critical thinking, and facilitate change and socialization into advanced practice. A pilot test of online, directed journaling, an innovative sharing and reflection strategy, was incorporated in a two-quarter community health advanced practice nursing clinical course in an attempt to enhance clinical learning. Six female graduate nursing students completed the journaling. A 10-item evaluation measure demonstrated that the online journaling strategy was highly effective and valuable for the students. An assessment of the journaling entries found multiple examples of discussion, mentoring, critical thinking, and socialization. Innovative online strategies should become the standard for sharing in advanced practice nursing education. PMID:15098912

  18. Reverse phase protein microarrays advance to use in clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Claudius; Liotta, Lance A; Espina, Virginia

    2010-12-01

    Individualizing cancer therapy for molecular targeted inhibitors requires a new class of molecular profiling technology that can map the functional state of the cancer cell signal pathways containing the drug targets. Reverse phase protein microarrays (RPMA) are a technology platform designed for quantitative, multiplexed analysis of specific phosphorylated, cleaved, or total (phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated) forms of cellular proteins from a limited amount of sample. This class of microarray can be used to interrogate tissue samples, cells, serum, or body fluids. RPMA were previously a research tool; now this technology has graduated to use in research clinical trials with clinical grade sensitivity and precision. In this review we describe the application of RPMA for multiplexed signal pathway analysis in therapeutic monitoring, biomarker discovery, and evaluation of pharmaceutical targets, and conclude with a summary of the technical aspects of RPMA construction and analysis. PMID:20974554

  19. Opioid-induced constipation: advances and clinical guidance.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Alfred D; Camilleri, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Currently opioids are the most frequently used medications for chronic noncancer pain. Opioid-induced constipation is the most common adverse effect associated with prolonged use of opioids, having a major impact on quality of life. There is an increasing need to treat opioid-induced constipation. With the recent approval of medications for the treatment of opioid-induced constipation, there are several therapeutic approaches. This review addresses the clinical presentation and diagnosis of opioid-induced constipation, barriers to its diagnosis, effects of opioids in the gastrointestinal tract, differential tolerance to opiates in different gastrointestinal organs, medications approved and in development for the treatment of opioid-induced constipation, and a proposed clinical management algorithm for treating opioid-induced constipation in patients with noncancer pain. PMID:26977281

  20. Enteroviral encephalitis in children: clinical features, pathophysiology, and treatment advances

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Shikha; Patel, Bhupeswari; Bhatt, Girish Chandra

    2014-01-01

    Enteroviruses (EVs) have emerged as one of the important etiological agents as a causative organism for encephalitis, especially in children and adults. After the first report of EV encephalitis cases in 1950s, there have been increasing reports of regular outbreaks of EV encephalitis worldwide. Enteroviruses are RNA viruses of the family Picornaviridae that consists of more than 100 serotypes, which are characterized by a single positive-strand genomic RNA. The clinical features are pleomorphic and can be accompanied by mucocutaneous manifestations or isolated encephalitis only. The incidence of encephalitis in EV infection is reported to be about 3% and is associated with high mortality and morbidity. A number of newer therapeutic agents have been used in EV encephalitis with variable results. This review will focus on clinical features, pathophysiology, and newer treatment modality in EV encephalitis. PMID:25175874

  1. Opioid-induced constipation: advances and clinical guidance

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Alfred D.; Camilleri, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Currently opioids are the most frequently used medications for chronic noncancer pain. Opioid-induced constipation is the most common adverse effect associated with prolonged use of opioids, having a major impact on quality of life. There is an increasing need to treat opioid-induced constipation. With the recent approval of medications for the treatment of opioid-induced constipation, there are several therapeutic approaches. This review addresses the clinical presentation and diagnosis of opioid-induced constipation, barriers to its diagnosis, effects of opioids in the gastrointestinal tract, differential tolerance to opiates in different gastrointestinal organs, medications approved and in development for the treatment of opioid-induced constipation, and a proposed clinical management algorithm for treating opioid-induced constipation in patients with noncancer pain. PMID:26977281

  2. Advanced Chinese NiTi alloy wire and clinical observations.

    PubMed

    Chen, R; Zhi, Y F; Arvystas, M G

    1992-01-01

    Chinese NiTi wire was studied on the bench with six other nickel-titanium-alloy wires. Bending and torsional tests were conducted and temperatures of phase transformation compared. The Chinese NiTi wire was found to have a low stiffness, high springback and constant bending and torsional moments on unloading, in a very large deformation region. It can produce a gentle, nearly constant force. These factors make it desirable for clinical application. Included in this paper are clinical observations of case selected from over 100 patients in current treatment with Chinese NiTi wires. Chinese NiTi wire reduced the leveling and alignment phase of treatment without discomfort to the patient. Chinese NiTi wire can be used in both children and adults. PMID:1445516

  3. Recent Advances in Understanding Xenotransplantation: Implications for the Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, David K. C.; Bottino, Rita

    2016-01-01

    Summary The results of organ and cell allotransplantation continue to improve, but the field remains limited by a lack of deceased donor organs. Xenotransplantation, e.g., between pig and human, offers unlimited organs and cells for clinical transplantation. The immune barriers include a strong innate immune response in addition to the adaptive T cell response. The innate response has largely been overcome by the transplantation of organs from pigs with genetic modifications that protect their tissues from this response. T cell-mediated rejection can be controlled by immunosuppressive agents that inhibit costimulation. Coagulation dysfunction between the pig and primate remains problematic but is being overcome by the transplantation of organs from pigs that express human coagulation-regulatory proteins. The remaining barriers will be resolved by the introduction of novel genetically-engineered pigs. Limited clinical trials of pig islet and corneal transplantation are already underway. PMID:26548357

  4. Clinical results of proton beam therapy for advanced neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the efficacy of proton beam therapy (PBT) for pediatric patients with advanced neuroblastoma. Methods PBT was conducted at 21 sites in 14 patients with neuroblastoma from 1984 to 2010. Most patients were difficult to treat with photon radiotherapy. Two and 6 patients were classified into stages 3 and 4, respectively, and 6 patients had recurrent disease. Seven of the 8 patients who received PBT as the initial treatment were classified as the high risk group. Twelve patients had gross residual disease before PBT and 2 had undergone intraoperative radiotherapy before PBT. Five patients received PBT for multiple sites, including remote metastases. Photon radiotherapy was used in combination with PBT for 3 patients. The PBT doses ranged from 19.8 to 45.5 GyE (median: 30.6 GyE). Results Seven patients are alive with no evidence of disease, 1 is alive with disease progression, and 6 died due to the tumor. Recurrence in the treatment field was not observed and the 3-year locoregional control rate was 82%. Severe acute radiotoxicity was not observed, but 1 patient had narrowing of the aorta and asymptomatic vertebral compression fracture at 28 years after PBT, and hair loss was prolonged in one patient. Conclusion PBT may be a better alternative to photon radiotherapy for children with advanced neuroblastoma, and may be conducted safely for patients with neuroblastoma that is difficult to manage using photon beams. PMID:23758770

  5. Advanced multimodal nanoparticles delay tumor progression with clinical radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Detappe, Alexandre; Kunjachan, Sijumon; Sancey, Lucie; Motto-Ros, Vincent; Biancur, Douglas; Drane, Pascal; Guieze, Romain; Makrigiorgos, G Mike; Tillement, Olivier; Langer, Robert; Berbeco, Ross

    2016-09-28

    Radiation therapy is a major treatment regimen for more than 50% of cancer patients. The collateral damage induced on healthy tissues during radiation and the minimal therapeutic effect on the organ-of-interest (target) is a major clinical concern. Ultra-small, renal clearable, silica based gadolinium chelated nanoparticles (SiGdNP) provide simultaneous MR contrast and radiation dose enhancement. The high atomic number of gadolinium provides a large photoelectric cross-section for increased photon interaction, even for high-energy clinical radiation beams. Imaging and therapy functionality of SiGdNP were tested in cynomolgus monkeys and pancreatic tumor-bearing mice models, respectively. A significant improvement in tumor cell damage (double strand DNA breaks), growth suppression, and overall survival under clinical radiation therapy conditions were observed in a human pancreatic xenograft model. For the first time, safe systemic administration and systematic renal clearance was demonstrated in both tested species. These findings strongly support the translational potential of SiGdNP for MR-guided radiation therapy in cancer treatment. PMID:27423325

  6. Using evidence-based practice for managing clinical outcomes in advanced practice nursing.

    PubMed

    Glanville, I; Schirm, V; Wineman, N M

    2000-10-01

    Preparation of advanced practice nurses to assume leadership positions for clinical decision making requires that traditional ways of solving clinical problems be augmented with information from relevant, research-derived evidence. In this article, the authors describe how one graduate program prepares advanced practice nurses to use the best scientific evidence with clinical expertise to influence patient outcomes. The assignments that students complete in their program provide examples of evidence-based practice that apply quality improvement principles and science-based nursing interventions to create best practices. PMID:11008434

  7. Clinical utility of nivolumab in the treatment of advanced melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Asmar, Ramsey; Yang, Jessica; Carvajal, Richard D

    2016-01-01

    Melanomas are highly immunogenic tumors that evade the immune system by exploiting innate checkpoint pathways, rendering effector T-cells anergic. The immunotherapeutic approach of checkpoint inhibition can restore and invigorate endogenous antitumor T-cell responses and has become an important treatment option for patients with advanced melanoma. The CTLA-4 inhibitor ipilimumab and the PD-1 inhibitors nivolumab and pembrolizumab have been shown to induce durable responses and improve overall survival in metastatic, refractory melanoma. Optimization and validation of pretreatment biomarkers to predict response to these agents is a crucial area of ongoing research. Combination immunotherapy has recently demonstrated superior response rates compared to monotherapy; further investigation is needed to refine combinatorial strategies. PMID:27013881

  8. Major clinical research advances in gynecologic cancer in 2012.

    PubMed

    Suh, Dong Hoon; Kim, Jae-Weon; Kim, Kidong; Kim, Hak Jae; Lee, Kyung-Hun

    2013-01-01

    Ten topics were chosen among major clinical research achievements in gynecologic oncology in 2012. For ovarian cancer, comprehensive review of the history of bevacizumab studies was followed by poly adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitors and other molecular targeted agents such as epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor and AMG 386. For the development of genomic study in gynecologic cancers, BRCA and DICER1 mutations were covered in epithelial and nonepithelial ovarian cancer, respectively. For endometrial cancer, targeted agents including mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors and bevacizumab were discussed. Radiation therapy "sandwiched" between combination chemotherapy schedules for the treatment of uterine papillary serous carcinoma was also reviewed. Preoperative prediction of lymph node metastasis, definition of low-risk group, and recurrence and survival outcomes of laparoscopic approaches were addressed. For cervical cancer, we reviewed long-term benefit of human papillomavirus test and efficacy of paclitaxel/carboplatin versus paclitaxel/cisplatin in stage IVB, persistent or recurrent disease. In addition, the effect of three dimensional image-based high-dose rate brachytherapy was also reviewed. For vulvar cancer, the diagnostic value of sentinel lymph node biopsy was discussed. For breast cancer, positive results of three outstanding phase III randomized clinical trials, CLEOPATRA, EMILIA, and BOLERO-2 were introduced. Lastly, updates of major practice guidelines were summarized. PMID:23346316

  9. Advancing Clostridia to Clinical Trial: Past Lessons and Recent Progress

    PubMed Central

    Mowday, Alexandra M.; Guise, Christopher P.; Ackerley, David F.; Minton, Nigel P.; Lambin, Philippe; Dubois, Ludwig J.; Theys, Jan; Smaill, Jeff B.; Patterson, Adam V.

    2016-01-01

    Most solid cancers contain regions of necrotic tissue. The extent of necrosis is associated with poor survival, most likely because it reflects aggressive tumour outgrowth and inflammation. Intravenously injected spores of anaerobic bacteria from the genus Clostridium infiltrate and selectively germinate in these necrotic regions, providing cancer-specific colonisation. The specificity of this system was first demonstrated over 60 years ago and evidence of colonisation has been confirmed in multiple tumour models. The use of “armed” clostridia, such as in Clostridium Directed Enzyme Prodrug Therapy (CDEPT), may help to overcome some of the described deficiencies of using wild-type clostridia for treatment of cancer, such as tumour regrowth from a well-vascularised outer rim of viable cells. Successful preclinical evaluation of a transferable gene that metabolises both clinical stage positron emission tomography (PET) imaging agents (for whole body vector visualisation) as well as chemotherapy prodrugs (for conditional enhancement of efficacy) would be a valuable early step towards the prospect of “armed” clostridia entering clinical evaluation. The ability to target the immunosuppressive hypoxic tumour microenvironment using CDEPT may offer potential for synergy with recently developed immunotherapy strategies. Ultimately, clostridia may be most efficacious when combined with conventional therapies, such as radiotherapy, that sterilise viable aerobic tumour cells. PMID:27367731

  10. Major clinical research advances in gynecologic cancer in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Dong Hoon; Kim, Kidong; Kim, Hak Jae; Lee, Kyung-Hun

    2013-01-01

    Ten topics were chosen among major clinical research achievements in gynecologic oncology in 2012. For ovarian cancer, comprehensive review of the history of bevacizumab studies was followed by poly adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitors and other molecular targeted agents such as epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor and AMG 386. For the development of genomic study in gynecologic cancers, BRCA and DICER1 mutations were covered in epithelial and nonepithelial ovarian cancer, respectively. For endometrial cancer, targeted agents including mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors and bevacizumab were discussed. Radiation therapy "sandwiched" between combination chemotherapy schedules for the treatment of uterine papillary serous carcinoma was also reviewed. Preoperative prediction of lymph node metastasis, definition of low-risk group, and recurrence and survival outcomes of laparoscopic approaches were addressed. For cervical cancer, we reviewed long-term benefit of human papillomavirus test and efficacy of paclitaxel/carboplatin versus paclitaxel/cisplatin in stage IVB, persistent or recurrent disease. In addition, the effect of three dimensional image-based high-dose rate brachytherapy was also reviewed. For vulvar cancer, the diagnostic value of sentinel lymph node biopsy was discussed. For breast cancer, positive results of three outstanding phase III randomized clinical trials, CLEOPATRA, EMILIA, and BOLERO-2 were introduced. Lastly, updates of major practice guidelines were summarized. PMID:23346316

  11. Clinical holistic health: advanced tools for holistic medicine.

    PubMed

    Ventegodt, Søren; Clausen, Birgitte; Nielsen, May Lyck; Merrick, Joav

    2006-01-01

    According to holistic medical theory, the patient will heal when old painful moments, the traumatic events of life that are often called "gestalts", are integrated in the present "now". The advanced holistic physician's expanded toolbox has many different tools to induce this healing, some that are more dangerous and potentially traumatic than others. The more intense the therapeutic technique, the more emotional energy will be released and contained in the session, but the higher also is the risk for the therapist to lose control of the session and lose the patient to his or her own dark side. To avoid harming the patient must be the highest priority in holistic existential therapy, making sufficient education and training an issue of highest importance. The concept of "stepping up" the therapy by using more and more "dramatic" methods to get access to repressed emotions and events has led us to a "therapeutic staircase" with ten steps: (1) establishing the relationship; (2) establishing intimacy, trust, and confidentiality; (3) giving support and holding; (4) taking the patient into the process of physical, emotional, and mental healing; (5) social healing of being in the family; (6) spiritual healing--returning to the abstract wholeness of the soul; (7) healing the informational layer of the body; (8) healing the three fundamental dimensions of existence: love, power, and sexuality in a direct way using, among other techniques, "controlled violence" and "acupressure through the vagina"; (9) mind-expanding and consciousness-transformative techniques like psychotropic drugs; and (10) techniques transgressing the patient's borders and, therefore, often traumatizing (for instance, the use of force against the will of the patient). We believe that the systematic use of the staircase will greatly improve the power and efficiency of holistic medicine for the patient and we invite a broad cooperation in scientifically testing the efficiency of the advanced holistic

  12. Recent Advances in Clinical Glycoproteomics of Immunoglobulins (Igs).

    PubMed

    Plomp, Rosina; Bondt, Albert; de Haan, Noortje; Rombouts, Yoann; Wuhrer, Manfred

    2016-07-01

    Antibody glycosylation analysis has seen methodological progress resulting in new findings with regard to antibody glycan structure and function in recent years. For example, antigen-specific IgG glycosylation analysis is now applicable for clinical samples because of the increased sensitivity of measurements, and this has led to new insights in the relationship between IgG glycosylation and various diseases. Furthermore, many new methods have been developed for the purification and analysis of IgG Fc glycopeptides, notably multiple reaction monitoring for high-throughput quantitative glycosylation analysis. In addition, new protocols for IgG Fab glycosylation analysis were established revealing autoimmune disease-associated changes. Functional analysis has shown that glycosylation of IgA and IgE is involved in transport across the intestinal epithelium and receptor binding, respectively. PMID:27009965

  13. [Dapoxetine for premature ejaculation: Advances in clinical studies].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ting-you; Li, Yan-feng

    2015-10-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a most common sexual dysfunction, for which dapoxetine, a novel selective serotonin (5-HT) re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI), is the only licensed oral medicine at present. With the advantages of fast absorption, rapid action, on-demand medication, and short half-life time, dapoxetine has been proved by clinical trials to be effective in prolonging the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) and improving the overall condition of PE patients in various areas and populations. Compared with the traditional SSRIs, dapoxetine has a better safety and tolerability. The most frequently reported dapoxetine-related adverse events include nausea, diarrhea, headache and dizziness, but with very few severe or serious cases. PMID:26665685

  14. Recent Advances in Clinical Glycoproteomics of Immunoglobulins (Igs)*

    PubMed Central

    Plomp, Rosina; Bondt, Albert; de Haan, Noortje; Rombouts, Yoann; Wuhrer, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Antibody glycosylation analysis has seen methodological progress resulting in new findings with regard to antibody glycan structure and function in recent years. For example, antigen-specific IgG glycosylation analysis is now applicable for clinical samples because of the increased sensitivity of measurements, and this has led to new insights in the relationship between IgG glycosylation and various diseases. Furthermore, many new methods have been developed for the purification and analysis of IgG Fc glycopeptides, notably multiple reaction monitoring for high-throughput quantitative glycosylation analysis. In addition, new protocols for IgG Fab glycosylation analysis were established revealing autoimmune disease-associated changes. Functional analysis has shown that glycosylation of IgA and IgE is involved in transport across the intestinal epithelium and receptor binding, respectively. PMID:27009965

  15. Translating Advances in Cardiogenetics Into Effective Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Silverstein, Louise Bordeaux; Stolerman, Marina; Hidayatallah, Nadia; McDonald, Thomas; Walsh, Christine A.; Paljevic, Esma; Cohen, Lilian L.; Marion, Robert W.; Wasserman, David; Dolan, Siobhan M.

    2015-01-01

    In this article we describe a qualitative research study in which we explored individuals’ subjective experiences of both genetic testing and cardiogenetic disorders. Using a grounded theory approach, we coded and analyzed interview and focus group transcripts from 50 participants. We found that just under half of the participants who received their diagnosis during the study reported difficulty understanding information about both the purpose of genetic testing and their cardiac disease. A high level of anxiety about genetic testing and cardiac symptoms exacerbated individuals’ cognitive confusion. Participants reported both positive and negative interactions with the medical community, depending on health care professionals’ knowledge of cardiogenetic disorders. Overall, participants expressed a range of attitudes—positive, negative, and ambivalent—toward genetic testing. We conclude with a discussion of the barriers to achieving effective clinical care for genetic conditions and offer suggestions for improving collaborative decision making between physicians and patients. PMID:25114027

  16. Shotgun proteomics of bacterial pathogens: advances, challenges and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Semanjski, Maja; Macek, Boris

    2016-02-01

    Mass spectrometry-based proteomics is increasingly used in analysis of bacterial pathogens. Simple experimental set-ups based on high accuracy mass spectrometry and powerful biochemical and bioinformatics tools are capable of reliably quantifying levels of several thousand bacterial proteins in a single experiment, reaching the analytical capacity to completely map whole proteomes. Here the authors present the state-of-the-art in bacterial pathogen proteomics and discuss challenges that the field is facing, especially in analysis of low abundant, modified proteins from organisms that are difficult to culture. Constant improvements in speed and sensitivity of mass spectrometers, as well as in bioinformatic and biochemical workflows will soon allow for comprehensive analysis of regulatory mechanisms of pathogenicity and enable routine application of proteomics in the clinical setting. PMID:26653908

  17. Free Radical Addition Polymerization Kinetics without Steady-State Approximations: A Numerical Analysis for the Polymer, Physical, or Advanced Organic Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iler, H. Darrell; Brown, Amber; Landis, Amanda; Schimke, Greg; Peters, George

    2014-01-01

    A numerical analysis of the free radical addition polymerization system is described that provides those teaching polymer, physical, or advanced organic chemistry courses the opportunity to introduce students to numerical methods in the context of a simple but mathematically stiff chemical kinetic system. Numerical analysis can lead students to an…

  18. Learning Nuclear Chemistry through Practice: A High School Student Project Using PET in a Clinical Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liguori, Lucia; Adamsen, Tom Christian Holm

    2013-01-01

    Practical experience is vital for promoting interest in science. Several aspects of chemistry are rarely taught in the secondary school curriculum, especially nuclear and radiochemistry. Therefore, we introduced radiochemistry to secondary school students through positron emission tomography (PET) associated with computer tomography (CT). PET-CT…

  19. Histopathology and serum clinical chemistry evaluation of broilers with femoral head separation disorder

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Femoral head disarticulation (FHD) and necrosis is a sporadic leg problem of unknown etiology in broiler breeders. To determine the underlying physiology of FHD, the blood chemistry and the histopathology of the femoral heads of the affected chickens were compared with their age matched controls. Ch...

  20. Advancing the Chemistry of CuWO4 for Photoelectrochemical Water Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Lhermitte, Charles R; Bartlett, Bart M

    2016-06-21

    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells are an ongoing area of exploration that provide a means of converting solar energy into a storable chemical form (molecular bonds). In particular, using PEC cells to drive the water splitting reaction to obtain H2 could provide a clean and sustainable route to convert solar energy into chemical fuels. Since the discovery of catalytic water splitting on TiO2 photoelectrodes by Fujishima and Honda, significant efforts have been directed toward developing high efficiency metal oxides to use as photocatalysts for this reaction. Improving the efficiency of PEC cells requires developing chemically stable, and highly catalytic anodes for the oxygen-evolution reaction (OER). This water oxidation half reaction requires four protons and four electrons coupling in two bond making steps to form O2, which limits the rate. Our group has accelerated efforts in CuWO4 as a candidate for PEC OER chemistry. Its small band gap of 2.3 eV allows for using visible light to drive OER, and the reaction proceeds with a high degree of chemoselectivity, even in the presence of more kinetically accessible anions such as chloride, which is common to seawater. Furthermore, CuWO4 is a chemically robust material when subjected to the highly oxidizing conditions of PEC OER. The next steps for accelerating research using this (and other), ternary phase oxides, is to move beyond reporting the basic PEC measurements to understanding fundamental chemical reaction mechanisms operative during OER on semiconductor surfaces. In this Account, we outline the process for PEC OER on CuWO4 thin films with emphasis on the chemistry of this reaction, the reaction rate and selectivity (determined by controlled-potential coulometry and oxygen-detection experiments). We discuss key challenges with CuWO4 such as slow kinetics and the presence of an OER-mediating mid-gap state, probed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. We propose that this mid-gap state imparts the observed

  1. Advances in basic and clinical immunology in 2006.

    PubMed

    Chinen, Javier; Shearer, William T

    2007-08-01

    This article reviews the progress in the field of basic and clinical immunology in 2006, focusing on the articles published in the Journal. The role of Toll-like receptors in the immune response was explored in detail in several articles. The knowledge gained in these investigations is being used to develop strategies that enhance the immunogenicity of vaccines to prevent infectious diseases and to have an immunomodulatory effect on allergic diseases. Other components of the innate immunity reported on were the recognition of allergens with lipid-derived motifs by CD1d-restricted T cells and the role of dendritic cells in the development of an allergic response. More than 120 primary immunodeficiencies were defined at a molecular level, and biological agents such as TNF-alpha antagonists and IFN-alpha were shown to have therapeutic use. New anti-HIV drugs that block cell entry were proven to be effective, thus offering alternative therapies to respond to the development of multidrug-resistant HIV strains. The modern understanding of immunologic concepts is helping to elucidate the mechanisms of defense against viruses, bacteria, and parasites; as a result, strategies to improve management and prevention continue to emerge. PMID:17590425

  2. Advanced clinical monitoring: considerations for real-time hemodynamic diagnostics.

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, J. M.; Cordova, M. J.

    1994-01-01

    In an effort to ease staffing burdens and potentially improve patient outcome in an intensive care unit (ICU) environment, we are developing a real-time system to accurately and efficiently diagnose cardiopulmonary emergencies. The system is being designed to utilize all relevant routinely-monitored physiological data in order to automatically diagnose potentially fatal events. The initial stage of this project involved formulating the overall system design and appropriate methods for real-time data acquisition, data storage, data trending, waveform analysis, and implementing diagnostic rules. Initially, we defined a conceptual analysis of the minimum physiologic data set, and the monitoring time-frames (trends) which would be required to diagnose cardiopulmonary emergencies. Following that analysis, we used a fuzzy logic diagnostic engine to analyze physiological data during a simulated arrhythmic cardiac arrest (ACA) in order to assess the validity of our diagnostic methodology. We used rate, trend, and morphologic data extracted from the following signals: expired CO2 time-concentration curve (capnogram), electrocardiogram, and arterial blood pressure. The system performed well: The fuzzy logic engine effectively diagnosed the likelihood of ACA from the subtle hemodynamic trends which preceded the complete arrest. As the clinical picture worsened, the fuzzy logic-based system accurately indicated the change in patient condition. Termination of the simulated arrest was rapidly detected by the diagnostic engine. In view of the effectiveness of this fuzzy logic implementation, we plan to develop additional fuzzy logic modules to diagnose other cardiopulmonary emergencies. PMID:7950025

  3. Vision 20/20: Automation and advanced computing in clinical radiation oncology

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Kevin L. Moiseenko, Vitali; Kagadis, George C.; McNutt, Todd R.; Mutic, Sasa

    2014-01-15

    This Vision 20/20 paper considers what computational advances are likely to be implemented in clinical radiation oncology in the coming years and how the adoption of these changes might alter the practice of radiotherapy. Four main areas of likely advancement are explored: cloud computing, aggregate data analyses, parallel computation, and automation. As these developments promise both new opportunities and new risks to clinicians and patients alike, the potential benefits are weighed against the hazards associated with each advance, with special considerations regarding patient safety under new computational platforms and methodologies. While the concerns of patient safety are legitimate, the authors contend that progress toward next-generation clinical informatics systems will bring about extremely valuable developments in quality improvement initiatives, clinical efficiency, outcomes analyses, data sharing, and adaptive radiotherapy.

  4. Effects of probiotic supplementation over 5 months on routine haematology and clinical chemistry measures in healthy active adults.

    PubMed

    Cox, A J; West, N P; Horn, P L; Lehtinen, M J; Koerbin, G; Pyne, D B; Lahtinen, S J; Fricker, P A; Cripps, A W

    2014-11-01

    Use of probiotic-containing foods and probiotic supplements is increasing; however, few studies document safety and tolerability in conjunction with defined clinical end points. This paper reports the effects of 150 days of supplementation with either a single- (Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bl-04) or a double-strain (Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bi-07) probiotic on routine haematology and clinical chemistry measures in healthy active adults. Pre- to post-intervention changes in laboratory measures were determined and compared between supplement and placebo groups. Overall there were few differences in routine haematology and clinical chemistry measures between supplement and placebo groups post-intervention. Exceptions included plasma calcium (P=0.03) and urea (P=0.015); however, observed changes were small and within assay-specific laboratory reference ranges. These data provide evidence supporting the use of these probiotic supplements over a period of 5 months in healthy active adults without obvious safety or tolerability issues. PMID:25052229

  5. Exploring Atmospheric Aerosol Chemistry with Advanced High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry and Particle Imaging Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nizkorodov, S.

    2014-12-01

    Physical and chemical complexity of atmospheric aerosols presents significant challenges both to experimentalists working on aerosol characterization and to modelers trying to parameterize critical aerosol properties. Multi-modal approaches that combine state-of-the-art experimental, theoretical, and modeling methods are becoming increasingly important in aerosol research. This presentation will discuss recent applications of unique high-resolution mass spectrometry and particle imaging tools developed at two Department of Energy's user facilities, the Environmental Molecular Science Laboratory (EMSL) and Advanced Light Source (ALS), to studies of molecular composition, photochemical aging, and properties of laboratory-generated and field aerosols. Specifically, this presentation will attempt to address the following questions: (a) how do NO2, SO2, and NH3 affect molecular level composition of anthropogenic aerosols?; (b) what factors determine viscosity/surface tension of organic aerosol particles?; (c) how does photolysis affect molecular composition and optical properties of organic aerosols?

  6. Clinical and radiographic evaluation of maxillary central incisors exposure in patients undergoing maxillary advancement

    PubMed Central

    Trento, Guilherme dos Santos; Bernabé, Felipe Bueno Rosettti; da Costa, Delson João; Rebellato, Nelson Luis Barbosa; Klüppel, Leandro Eduardo; Scariot, Rafaela

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Patients with dentofacial deformities may undergo orthodontic or orthodontic-surgical treatment. Both modalities can affect esthetics. Objective: This study aims to evaluate clinical and radiographic changes in exposure of maxillary central incisors occurring after orthognathic surgery for maxillary advancement. Methods: A total of 17 patients who underwent orthognathic surgery for maxillary advancement between September, 2010 and July, 2011 were selected. Exposure of maxillary central incisors was evaluated clinically and by lateral cephalograms. Measurements were taken one week before and three months after surgery. Data were paired in terms of sex, age, nasolabial angle, height and thickness of the upper lip, the amount of maxillary advancement, clinical exposure and inclination of maxillary central incisor by statistical tests (CI 95%). Results: After maxillary advancement, incisor clinical exposure had increased even with relaxed lips and under forced smile. Moreover, there was a mean increase of 23.33% revealed by lateral cephalograms. There was an inverse correlation between upper lip thickness and incisors postsurgical exposure revealed by radiographic images (p = 0.002). Conclusions: Significant changes in the exposure of maxillary central incisors occur after maxillary advancement, under the influence of some factors, especially lip thickness. PMID:26691970

  7. Recent clinical and translational advances in pediatric hypertension.

    PubMed

    Falkner, Bonita

    2015-05-01

    Epidemiological reports describe a child population increase in BP level and an increase in prevalence of hypertension, that is largely, but not entirely, driven by a concurrent increase in childhood obesity. Given current estimates, ≈10% of adolescents have hypertension or prehypertension. In addition to obesity, dietary salt intake and waist circumference, a marker of visceral obesity, are found to be independently associated with the rise in BP among children and adolescents. Dietary salt intake in urban children is well above recommended levels largely because of consumption of processed and fast foods. Childhood exposures, such as stress,52 salt, and fructose, as well as lifestyles, including food sources, sleep patterns, and reductions in physical activity may have a role in obesity-high BP associations. In addition, clinical and translational evidence is mounting that intrauterine exposures alter can effect changes in fetal development that have an enduring effect on cardiovascular and metabolic function later in life. These effects can be detected even in children who are products of a term otherwise normal pregnancy. Hypertension in childhood has been defined statistically (BP ≥ 95th percentile) because of lack of outcome data that links a BP level with heightened risk for future cardiovascular events. Therefore, primary hypertension had been considered a risk factor for later hypertension in adulthood. Intermediate markers of TOD, including cardiac hypertrophy, vascular stiffness, and increases in cIMT, are detectable in adolescents with primary hypertension. Evidence that vascular injury is present in the early phase of hypertension and even in prehypertension warrants consideration on the current definition of pediatric hypertension. With further studies on TOD and other risk factors in addition to high BP, it may be possible to shift from a statistical definition to a definition of childhood hypertension that is evidence based. Preventing or

  8. Development and analysis of an instrument to assess student understanding of GOB chemistry knowledge relevant to clinical nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Brown, Corina E; Hyslop, Richard M; Barbera, Jack

    2015-01-01

    The General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Knowledge Assessment (GOB-CKA) is a multiple-choice instrument designed to assess students' understanding of the chemistry topics deemed important to clinical nursing practice. This manuscript describes the development process of the individual items along with a psychometric evaluation of the final version of the items and instrument. In developing items for the GOB-CKA, essential topics were identified through a series of expert interviews (with practicing nurses, nurse educators, and GOB chemistry instructors) and confirmed through a national survey. Individual items were tested in qualitative studies with students from the target population for clarity and wording. Data from pilot and beta studies were used to evaluate each item and narrow the total item count to 45. A psychometric analysis performed on data from the 45-item final version was used to provide evidence of validity and reliability. The final version of the instrument has a Cronbach's alpha value of 0.76. Feedback from an expert panel provided evidence of face and content validity. Convergent validity was estimated by comparing the results from the GOB-CKA with the General-Organic-Biochemistry Exam (Form 2007) of the American Chemical Society. Instructors who wish to use the GOB-CKA for teaching and research may contact the corresponding author for a copy of the instrument. PMID:25418988

  9. Application to cows and horses of Spotchem, a dry-chemistry blood analyzer for use in veterinary clinics.

    PubMed

    Hoshi, F; Satho, M; Koyama, S; Nakadaka, K; Chiba, M; Ikeda, N; Hakamada, R; Higuchi, S; Kawamura, S

    1994-02-01

    The usefulness of a dry-chemistry blood analyzer, Spotchem SP-4410 (SP-4410) in a veterinary clinic for analysis of bovine and equine blood chemistry was studied. We quantitated total protein (TP), albumin (Alb), total bilirubin (T-Bil), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), total cholesterol (T-Cho), glucose (Glu), calcium (Ca), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), creatinine phosphokinase (CPK), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in bovine sera. Each sample was assayed with both the SP-4410 and an automated blood analyzer which served as a wet-chemistry reference system, and the data were analyzed with regression analysis. The correlation coefficient for AST was 0.997 being the highest for all the parameters, and all the correlation coefficients were 0.93 or higher. The coefficients of variation were lower than 5.0 except in the case of bovine T-Bil where it was 5,756. The ranges of normal reference values measured by SP-4410 were the same as those reported by other investigators in most cases, but those for GGT and CPK were slightly higher. The strongest interference was observed with hemoglobin. It seems that dry-chemical-analysis of blood serum using the SP-4410 is useful for analysis of bovine and equine blood. PMID:8085395

  10. Stratospheric chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Brune, W.H. )

    1991-01-01

    Advances in stratospheric chemistry made by investigators in the United States from 1987 to 1990 are reviewed. Subject areas under consideration include photochemistry of the polar stratosphere, photochemistry of the global stratosphere, and assessments of inadvertent modification of the stratosphere by anthropogenic activity. Particular attention is given to early observations and theories, gas phase chemistry, Antarctic observations, Arctic observations, odd-oxygen, odd-hydrogen, odd-nitrogen, halogens, aerosols, modeling of stratospheric ozone, and reactive nitrogen effects.

  11. Advancing understanding of executive function impairments and psychopathology: bridging the gap between clinical and cognitive approaches.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Hannah R; Miyake, Akira; Hankin, Benjamin L

    2015-01-01

    Executive function (EF) is essential for successfully navigating nearly all of our daily activities. Of critical importance for clinical psychological science, EF impairments are associated with most forms of psychopathology. However, despite the proliferation of research on EF in clinical populations, with notable exceptions clinical and cognitive approaches to EF have remained largely independent, leading to failures to apply theoretical and methodological advances in one field to the other field and hindering progress. First, we review the current state of knowledge of EF impairments associated with psychopathology and limitations to the previous research in light of recent advances in understanding and measuring EF. Next, we offer concrete suggestions for improving EF assessment. Last, we suggest future directions, including integrating modern models of EF with state of the art, hierarchical models of dimensional psychopathology as well as translational implications of EF-informed research on clinical science. PMID:25859234

  12. Advancing understanding of executive function impairments and psychopathology: bridging the gap between clinical and cognitive approaches

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Hannah R.; Miyake, Akira; Hankin, Benjamin L.

    2015-01-01

    Executive function (EF) is essential for successfully navigating nearly all of our daily activities. Of critical importance for clinical psychological science, EF impairments are associated with most forms of psychopathology. However, despite the proliferation of research on EF in clinical populations, with notable exceptions clinical and cognitive approaches to EF have remained largely independent, leading to failures to apply theoretical and methodological advances in one field to the other field and hindering progress. First, we review the current state of knowledge of EF impairments associated with psychopathology and limitations to the previous research in light of recent advances in understanding and measuring EF. Next, we offer concrete suggestions for improving EF assessment. Last, we suggest future directions, including integrating modern models of EF with state of the art, hierarchical models of dimensional psychopathology as well as translational implications of EF-informed research on clinical science. PMID:25859234

  13. Review of old chemistry and new catalytic advances in the on-purpose synthesis of butadiene.

    PubMed

    Makshina, Ekaterina V; Dusselier, Michiel; Janssens, Wout; Degrève, Jan; Jacobs, Pierre A; Sels, Bert F

    2014-11-21

    Increasing demand for renewable feedstock-based chemicals is driving the interest of both academic and industrial research to substitute petrochemicals with renewable chemicals from biomass-derived resources. The search towards novel platform chemicals is challenging and rewarding, but the main research activities are concentrated on finding efficient pathways to produce familiar drop-in chemicals and polymer building blocks. A diversity of industrially important monomers like alkenes, conjugated dienes, unsaturated carboxylic acids and aromatic compounds are thus targeted from renewable feedstock. In this context, on-purpose production of 1,3-butadiene from biomass-derived feedstock is an interesting example as its production is under pressure by uncertainty of the conventional fossil feedstock. Ethanol, obtained via fermentation or (biomass-generated) syngas, can be converted to butadiene, although there is no large commercial activity today. Though practised on a large scale in the beginning of the 20th century, there is a growing worldwide renewed interest in the butadiene-from-ethanol route. An alternative route to produce butadiene from biomass is through direct carbohydrate and gas fermentation or indirectly via the dehydration of butanediols. This review starts with a brief discussion on the different feedstock possibilities to produce butadiene, followed by a comprehensive summary of the current state of knowledge regarding advances and achievements in the field of the chemocatalytic conversion of ethanol and butanediols to butadiene, including thermodynamics and kinetic aspects of the reactions with discussions on the reaction pathways and the type of catalysts developed. PMID:24993100

  14. Development of Advanced In-Situ Techniques for Chemistry Monitoring and Corrosion Mitigation in SCWO Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Macdonald, D. D.; Lvov, S. N.

    2000-03-31

    This project is developing sensing technologies and corrosion monitoring techniques for use in super critical water oxidation (SCWO) systems to reduce the volume of mixed low-level nuclear waste by oxidizing organic components in a closed cycle system where CO2 and other gaseous oxides are produced, leaving the radioactive elements concentrated in ash. The technique uses water at supercritical temperatures under highly oxidized conditions by maintaining a high fugacity of molecular oxygen in the system, which causes high corrosion rates of even the most corrosive resistant reactor materials. This project significantly addresses the high corrosion shortcoming through development of (a) advanced electrodes and sensors for in situ potentiometric monitoring of pH in high subcritical and supercritical aqueous solutions, (b) an approach for evaluating the association constants for 1-1 aqueous electrolytes using a flow-through electrochemical thermocell; (c) an electrochemical noise sensor for the in situ measurement of corrosion rate in subcritical and supercritical aqueous systems; (d) a model for estimating the effect of pressure on reaction rates, including corrosion reactions, in high subcritical and supercritical aqueous systems. The project achieved all objectives, except for installing some of the sensors into a fully operating SCWO system.

  15. Translating Advances from the Basic Biology of Aging into Clinical Application

    PubMed Central

    Kirkland, James L.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, lifespan and healthspan have been extended in experimental animals using interventions that are potentially translatable into humans. A great deal of thought and work are needed beyond the usual steps in drug development to advance these findings into clinical application. Realistic pre-clinical and clinical trials paradigms need to be devised. Focusing on subjects with symptoms of age-related diseases or frailty or who are at imminent risk of developing these problems, measuring effects on short-term, clinically relevant outcomes, as opposed to long-term outcomes such as healthspan or lifespan, and developing biomarkers and outcome measures acceptable to regulatory agencies will be important. Research funding is a major roadblock, as is lack of investigators with combined expertise in the basic biology of aging, clinical geriatrics, and conducting investigational new drug clinical trials. Options are reviewed for developing a path from the bench to the bedside for interventions that target fundamental aging processes. PMID:23237984

  16. Recent advances in the study of (-)clausenamide: chemistry, biological activities and mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Chu, Shi-Feng; Zhang, Jun-Tian

    2014-12-01

    Clausenamide (clau) is one of seven novel compounds isolated from Clausena lansium (Lour) skeels. Clau is unusual in that it contains 4 chiral centers yielding 8 pairs of enantiomers. After identification of the configuration of these enantiomers, the synthesis of 16 enantiomers, including optically active clau and (+) and (-)clau was carried out. During this study, many stereochemical and synthetic difficulties were solved and the Baldwin principle was updated. Production scale is now sufficient to meet the needs of clinical practice. In a pharmacological study numerous models and indicators showed that (-)clau is the active enantiomer, while (+)clau is inactive and elicits greater toxicity than (-)clau. The principal pharmacological effects of (-)clau are to increase cognition, demonstrated in ten models of memory impairment, as well as to inhibit β-amyloid (Aβ) toxicity, blocking neurofibrillary tangle formation by inhibiting the phosphorylation of tau protein. This anti-dementia effect is characterized by increased synaptic plasticity both in efficacy and in structure and provides new support for the theory that synaptic loss is the main cause of dementia. (-)Clau is considered to be a promising drug candidate for treatment of Alzheimer׳s disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:26579412

  17. Benefits planning for advanced clinical information systems implementation at Allina hospitals and clinics.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Douglas Ivan; Henry, Sharon; Lockwood, Linda; Anderson, Brian; Atkinson, Susan

    2005-01-01

    Allina Hospitals and Clinics is implementing an enterprise-wide information system with inpatient and ambulatory clinical documentation and orders, clinical decision support, and revenue cycle applications. Allina has adopted a rigorous approach to planning for and realizing the expected clinical and financial benefits from this investment. Allina's strategies include: Forming a benefits realization team with formal responsibility for analysis, education, facilitation, and measurement; Studying system design to consider requirements for benefits realization; Integrating cultural, organizational and process change plans with system implementation plans; Measuring benefits using a measurement framework that matches organizational reporting, enables multi-level sequential analysis and adjusts for bias in quantifying benefits; Assigning accountability for achieving benefits by matching every benefit with an individual and an operational group; system executives, hospital executives, and department managers are held accountable for benefits within their scope of responsibility, and expected financial benefits are part of their yearly budgets. This article describes Allina's approach for benefits planning, contrasting it with the typical provider's approach to benefits realization. It argues that this approach may greatly increase the likelihood of realizing the value of investments in integrated clinical and business IT PMID:15682677

  18. A Low-order Coupled Chemistry Meteorology Model for Testing Online and Offline Advanced Data Assimilation Schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocquet, M.; Haussaire, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Bocquet and Sakov have recently introduced a low-order model based on the coupling of thechaotic Lorenz-95 model which simulates winds along a mid-latitude circle, with thetransport of a tracer species advected by this wind field. It has been used to testadvanced data assimilation methods with an online model that couples meteorology andtracer transport. In the present study, the tracer subsystem of the model is replacedwith a reduced photochemistry module meant to emulate reactive air pollution. Thiscoupled chemistry meteorology model, the L95-GRS model, mimics continental andtranscontinental transport and photochemistry of ozone, volatile organic compounds andnitrogen dioxides.The L95-GRS is specially useful in testing advanced data assimilation schemes, such as theiterative ensemble Kalman smoother (IEnKS) that combines the best of ensemble andvariational methods. The model provides useful insights prior to any implementation ofthe data assimilation method on larger models. For instance, online and offline dataassimilation strategies based on the ensemble Kalman filter or the IEnKS can easily beevaluated with it. It allows to document the impact of species concentration observationson the wind estimation. The model also illustrates a long standing issue in atmosphericchemistry forecasting: the impact of the wind chaotic dynamics and of the chemical speciesnon-chaotic but highly nonlinear dynamics on the selected data assimilation approach.

  19. Systematic genomic identification of colorectal cancer genes delineating advanced from early clinical stage and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States. The initial assessment of colorectal cancer involves clinical staging that takes into account the extent of primary tumor invasion, determining the number of lymph nodes with metastatic cancer and the identification of metastatic sites in other organs. Advanced clinical stage indicates metastatic cancer, either in regional lymph nodes or in distant organs. While the genomic and genetic basis of colorectal cancer has been elucidated to some degree, less is known about the identity of specific cancer genes that are associated with advanced clinical stage and metastasis. Methods We compiled multiple genomic data types (mutations, copy number alterations, gene expression and methylation status) as well as clinical meta-data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We used an elastic-net regularized regression method on the combined genomic data to identify genetic aberrations and their associated cancer genes that are indicators of clinical stage. We ranked candidate genes by their regression coefficient and level of support from multiple assay modalities. Results A fit of the elastic-net regularized regression to 197 samples and integrated analysis of four genomic platforms identified the set of top gene predictors of advanced clinical stage, including: WRN, SYK, DDX5 and ADRA2C. These genetic features were identified robustly in bootstrap resampling analysis. Conclusions We conducted an analysis integrating multiple genomic features including mutations, copy number alterations, gene expression and methylation. This integrated approach in which one considers all of these genomic features performs better than any individual genomic assay. We identified multiple genes that robustly delineate advanced clinical stage, suggesting their possible role in colorectal cancer metastatic progression. PMID:24308539

  20. Clinical cancer advances 2007: major research advances in cancer treatment, prevention, and screening--a report from the American Society of Clinical Oncology.

    PubMed

    Gralow, Julie; Ozols, Robert F; Bajorin, Dean F; Cheson, Bruce D; Sandler, Howard M; Winer, Eric P; Bonner, James; Demetri, George D; Curran, Walter; Ganz, Patricia A; Kramer, Barnett S; Kris, Mark G; Markman, Maurie; Mayer, Robert J; Raghavan, Derek; Ramsey, Scott; Reaman, Gregory H; Sawaya, Raymond; Schuchter, Lynn M; Sweetenham, John W; Vahdat, Linda T; Davidson, Nancy E; Schilsky, Richard L; Lichter, Allen S

    2008-01-10

    A MESSAGE FROM ASCO'S PRESIDENT: For the third year, the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) is publishing Clinical Cancer Advances: Major Research Advances in Cancer Treatment, Prevention, and Screening, an annual review of the most significant cancer research presented or published over the past year. ASCO publishes this report to demonstrate the important progress being made on the front lines of clinical cancer research today. The report is intended to give all those with an interest in cancer care-the general public, cancer patients and organizations, policymakers, oncologists, and other medical professionals-an accessible summary of the year's most important cancer research advances. These pages report on the use of magnetic resonance imaging for breast cancer screening, the association between hormone replacement therapy and breast cancer incidence, the link between human papillomavirus and head and neck cancers, and the use of radiation therapy to prevent lung cancer from spreading. They also report on effective new targeted therapies for cancers that have been historically difficult to treat, such as liver cancer and kidney cancer, among many others. A total of 24 advances are featured in this year's report. These advances and many more over the past several years show that the nation's long-term investment in cancer research is paying off. But there are disturbing signs that progress could slow. We are now in the midst of the longest sustained period of flat government funding for cancer research in history. The budgets for the National Institutes of Health and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) have been unchanged for four years. When adjusted for inflation, cancer research funding has actually declined 12% since 2004. These budget constraints limit the NCI's ability to fund promising cancer research. In the past several years the number of grants that the NCI has been able to fund has significantly decreased; this year, in response to just the

  1. Identifying components of advanced-level clinical nutrition practice: a Delphi study.

    PubMed

    Brody, Rebecca A; Byham-Gray, Laura; Touger-Decker, Riva; Passannante, Marian R; O'Sullivan Maillet, Julie

    2012-06-01

    The dietetics profession lacks a comprehensive definition of advanced-level practice. Using a three-round Delphi study with mailed surveys, expert consensus on four dimensions of advanced-level practice that define advanced practice registered dietitians (RDs) in clinical nutrition was explored. Purposive sampling identified 117 RDs who met advanced-level practice criteria. In round 1, experts rated the essentiality of statements on a 7-point ordinal scale and generated open-ended practice activity statements regarding the following four dimensions of advanced-level practice: professional knowledge, abilities and skills, approaches to practice, roles and relationships, and practice behaviors. Median ratings of 1.0 to 3.0 were defined as essential, 4.0 was neutral, and 5.0 to 7.0 were nonessential. In rounds 2 and 3, experts re-rated statements not reaching consensus by evaluating their previous responses, group median rating, and comments. Consensus was reached when the interquartile range of responses to a statement was ≤2.0. Eighty-five experts enrolled (72.6%); 76 (89.4%) completed all rounds. In total, 233 statements were rated, with 100% achieving consensus; 211 (90.6%) were essential to advanced practice RD clinical practice. Having a master's degree; completing an advanced practice residency; research coursework; and advanced continuing education were essential, as were having 8 years of experience; clinical nutrition knowledge/expertise; specialization; participation in research activities; and skills in technology and communication. Highly essential approaches to practice were systematic yet adaptable and used critical thinking and intuition and highly essential values encompassed professional growth and service to patients. Roles emphasized patient care and leadership. Essential practice activities within the nutrition care process included provision of complex patient-centered nutrition care using application of advanced knowledge/expertise and

  2. Lost in Translation: The Unintended Consequences of Advance Directive Law on Clinical Care

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Lesley S.; Williams, Brie A.; Hooper, Sarah M.; Sabatino, Charles P.; Weithorn, Lois A.; Sudore, Rebecca L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Advance directive law may compromise the clinical effectiveness of advance directives. Purpose To identify unintended legal consequences of advance directive law that may prevent patients from communicating end-of-life preferences. Data Sources Advance directive legal statutes for all 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia and English-language searches of LexisNexis, Westlaw, and MEDLINE from 1966 to August 2010. Study Selection Two independent reviewers selected 51 advance directive statutes and 20 articles. Three independent legal reviewers selected 105 legal proceedings. Data Extraction Two reviewers independently assessed data sources and used critical content analysis to determine legal barriers to the clinical effectiveness of advance directives. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. Data Synthesis Legal and content-related barriers included poor readability (that is, laws in all states were written above a 12th-grade reading level), health care agent or surrogate restrictions (for example, 40 states did not include same-sex or domestic partners as default surrogates), and execution requirements needed to make forms legally valid (for example, 35 states did not allow oral advance directives, and 48 states required witness signatures, a notary public, or both). Vulnerable populations most likely to be affected by these barriers included patients with limited literacy, limited English proficiency, or both who cannot read or execute advance directives; same-sex or domestic partners who may be without legally valid and trusted surrogates; and unbefriended, institutionalized, or homeless patients who may be without witnesses and suitable surrogates. Limitation Only appellate-level legal cases were available, which may have excluded relevant cases. Conclusion Unintended negative consequences of advance directive legal restrictions may prevent all patients, and particularly vulnerable patients, from making and communicating their end

  3. The clinical impact of recent advances in LC-MS for cancer biomarker discovery and verification

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Shi, Tujin; Qian, Wei-Jun; Liu, Tao; Kagan, Jacob; Srivastava, Sudhir; Smith, Richard D.; Rodland, Karin D.; Camp, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) -based proteomics has become an indispensable tool with broad applications in systems biology and biomedical research. With recent advances in liquid chromatography (LC) and MS instrumentation, LC–MS is making increasingly significant contributions to clinical applications, especially in the area of cancer biomarker discovery and verification. To overcome challenges associated with analyses of clinical samples (for example, a wide dynamic range of protein concentrations in bodily fluids and the need to perform high throughput and accurate quantification of candidate biomarker proteins), significant efforts have been devoted to improve the overall performance of LC–MS-based clinical proteomics platforms. Reviewed here are the recent advances in LC–MS and its applications in cancer biomarker discovery and quantification, along with the potentials, limitations and future perspectives. PMID:26581546

  4. The Clinical Impact of Recent Advances in LC-MS for Cancer Biomarker Discovery and Verification

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hui; Shi, Tujin; Qian, Weijun; Liu, Tao; Kagan, Jacob; Srivastava, Sudhir; Smith, Richard D.; Rodland, Karin D.; Camp, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Mass spectrometry-based proteomics has become an indispensable tool in biomedical research with broad applications ranging from fundamental biology, systems biology, and biomarker discovery. Recent advances in LC-MS have made it become a major technology in clinical applications, especially in cancer biomarker discovery and verification. To overcome the challenges associated with the analysis of clinical samples, such as extremely wide dynamic range of protein concentrations in biofluids and the need to perform high throughput and accurate quantification, significant efforts have been devoted to improve the overall performance of LC-MS bases clinical proteomics. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in LC-MS in the aspect of cancer biomarker discovery and quantification, and discuss its potentials, limitations, and future perspectives.

  5. The clinical impact of recent advances in LC-MS for cancer biomarker discovery and verification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Shi, Tujin; Qian, Wei-Jun; Liu, Tao; Kagan, Jacob; Srivastava, Sudhir; Smith, Richard D; Rodland, Karin D; Camp, David G

    2016-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) -based proteomics has become an indispensable tool with broad applications in systems biology and biomedical research. With recent advances in liquid chromatography (LC) and MS instrumentation, LC-MS is making increasingly significant contributions to clinical applications, especially in the area of cancer biomarker discovery and verification. To overcome challenges associated with analyses of clinical samples (for example, a wide dynamic range of protein concentrations in bodily fluids and the need to perform high throughput and accurate quantification of candidate biomarker proteins), significant efforts have been devoted to improve the overall performance of LC-MS-based clinical proteomics platforms. Reviewed here are the recent advances in LC-MS and its applications in cancer biomarker discovery and quantification, along with the potentials, limitations and future perspectives. PMID:26581546

  6. Recent Advances in Clinical Natural Language Processing in Support of Semantic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mowery, D.; South, B. R.; Kvist, M.; Dalianis, H.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives We present a review of recent advances in clinical Natural Language Processing (NLP), with a focus on semantic analysis and key subtasks that support such analysis. Methods We conducted a literature review of clinical NLP research from 2008 to 2014, emphasizing recent publications (2012-2014), based on PubMed and ACL proceedings as well as relevant referenced publications from the included papers. Results Significant articles published within this time-span were included and are discussed from the perspective of semantic analysis. Three key clinical NLP subtasks that enable such analysis were identified: 1) developing more efficient methods for corpus creation (annotation and de-identification), 2) generating building blocks for extracting meaning (morphological, syntactic, and semantic subtasks), and 3) leveraging NLP for clinical utility (NLP applications and infrastructure for clinical use cases). Finally, we provide a reflection upon most recent developments and potential areas of future NLP development and applications. Conclusions There has been an increase of advances within key NLP subtasks that support semantic analysis. Performance of NLP semantic analysis is, in many cases, close to that of agreement between humans. The creation and release of corpora annotated with complex semantic information models has greatly supported the development of new tools and approaches. Research on non-English languages is continuously growing. NLP methods have sometimes been successfully employed in real-world clinical tasks. However, there is still a gap between the development of advanced resources and their utilization in clinical settings. A plethora of new clinical use cases are emerging due to established health care initiatives and additional patient-generated sources through the extensive use of social media and other devices. PMID:26293867

  7. Military medical advances resulting from the conflict in Korea, Part II: Historic clinical accomplishments.

    PubMed

    Baker, Michael S

    2012-04-01

    Throughout the recorded history of civilization, there has been armed conflict. Warfare has been associated with advances in care for the wounded. Many of these advances when shown effective on the battlefield become incorporated into civilian health care. It is a laboratory where there is unfortunately much clinical material and presents opportunity for the creative, curious, and innovative. This article reviews the medical advances that resulted from the Korean War. There were notable advances in neurosurgery, vascular surgery, and plastic surgery. Tools from prior wars were rediscovered, dusted off, and used to stop combat losses from psychiatric trauma. A treatment was developed for cleft lip by a plastic surgeon, thus giving hope to young lives. War is a disruptive, destructive, and harrowing experience--but can lead to improvements in care for the wounded and these developments can improve the lives of people everywhere. PMID:22594134

  8. African American Advanced Placement chemistry students and their developing study habits: A phenomenologically-based interpretive study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Natalie D.

    The academic achievement gap between African American and White students has gained much attention in recent years. Much has been written about the causes of and reasons for this problem ranging from the vestigial effects of slavery to poor parenting. Much less has been written or understood about its solution. While it is impossible for educators to change the pasts of their African American students, it is possible to effect change for the few minutes in which they are in direct contact with them each day. If African American science students are taught effective study skills and habits, then perhaps they might have the tools to close the achievement gap themselves. The participants in this phenomenologically based interpretive study were five African American Advanced Placement Chemistry students from an inner-city high school. Three in-depth interviews were conducted with each of the participants during the beginning, middle and end of a semester. The purpose of the interviews was to locate the students in terms of their thought processes, experiences and perceived barriers concerning the nature and practice of effective study and retention of chemistry content. The interviews were recorded and transcribed. The texts were then analyzed for common themes. Five common themes emerged from the interviews. These were: (1) Homework vs. Study: a distinction between homework---which students knew how to approach; and study---which they did not. (2) Student Effort: their changing perception of adequate and effective study practices while in a rigorous course. (3) Teacher Rigor: they perceived high expectations and challenging work as a sign of respect from their teachers. (4) Parental Involvement: students' admission that they desired more input from parents regarding their academic performance. (5) Racial Considerations: their need to disprove negative stereotypes and their personal observations regarding racial differences in studying. A discussion of the themes and

  9. Advances in clinical research in gynecologic radiation oncology: an RTOG symposium.

    PubMed

    Gaffney, David; Mundt, Arno; Schwarz, Julie; Eifel, Patricia

    2012-05-01

    There have been inexorable improvements in gynecologic radiation oncology through technologically advances, 3-dimensional imaging, and clinical research. Investment in these 3 critical areas has improved, and will continue to improve, the lives of patients with gynecologic cancer. Advanced technology delivery in gynecologic radiation oncology is challenging owing to the following: (1) setup difficulties, (2) managing considerable internal organ motion, and (3) responding to tumor volume reduction during treatment. Image guidance is a potential route to solve these problems and improve delivery to tumor and sparing organs at risk. Imaging with positron emission tomography-computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are contributing significantly to improved accuracy in diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up in cancer of the cervix. Functional imaging by exploiting tumor biology may improve prognosis and treatment. Clinical trials have been the greatest mechanism to improve and establish standards of care in women with vulvar, endometrial, and cervical cancer. There have been multiple technological advances and practice changing trials within the past several decades. Many important questions remain in optimizing care for women with gynecologic malignancies. The performance of clinical trials will be advanced with the use of consistent language (ie, similar staging system and criteria), eligibility criteria that fit the research question, end points that matter, adequate statistical power, complete follow-up, and prompt publication of mature results. PMID:22398709

  10. Science Update: Analytical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthy, Ward

    1980-01-01

    Briefly discusses new instrumentation in the field of analytical chemistry. Advances in liquid chromatography, photoacoustic spectroscopy, the use of lasers, and mass spectrometry are also discussed. (CS)

  11. Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography: recent advances toward clinical utility

    PubMed Central

    Bouma, Brett E; Yun, Seok-Hyun; Vakoc, Benjamin J; Suter, Melissa J; Tearney, Guillermo J

    2009-01-01

    With the advent of Fourier-domain techniques, optical coherence tomography (OCT) has advanced from high-resolution ‘point’ imaging over small fields-of-view to comprehensive microscopic imaging over three-dimensional volumes that are comparable to the dimensions of luminal internal organs. This advance has required the development of new lasers, improved spectrometers, minimally invasive catheters and endoscopes, and novel optical and signal processing strategies. In recent cardiovascular, ophthalmic, and gastrointestinal clinical studies, the capabilities of Fourier-domain OCT have enabled a new paradigm for diagnostic screening of large tissue areas, which addresses the shortcomings of existing technologies and focal biopsy. PMID:19264475

  12. Clinical cancer advances 2011: Annual Report on Progress Against Cancer from the American Society of Clinical Oncology.

    PubMed

    Vogelzang, Nicholas J; Benowitz, Steven I; Adams, Sylvia; Aghajanian, Carol; Chang, Susan Marina; Dreyer, Zoann Eckert; Janne, Pasi A; Ko, Andrew H; Masters, Greg A; Odenike, Olatoyosi; Patel, Jyoti D; Roth, Bruce J; Samlowski, Wolfram E; Seidman, Andrew D; Tap, William D; Temel, Jennifer S; Von Roenn, Jamie H; Kris, Mark G

    2012-01-01

    A message from ASCO'S President. It has been forty years since President Richard Nixon signed the National Cancer Act of 1971, which many view as the nation's declaration of the "War on Cancer." The bill has led to major investments in cancer research and significant increases in cancer survival. Today, two-thirds of patients survive at least five years after being diagnosed with cancer compared with just half of all diagnosed patients surviving five years after diagnosis in 1975. The research advances detailed in this year's Clinical Cancer Advances demonstrate that improvements in cancer screening, treatment, and prevention save and improve lives. But although much progress has been made, cancer remains one of the world's most serious health problems. In the United States, the disease is expected to become the nation's leading cause of death in the years ahead as our population ages. I believe we can accelerate the pace of progress, provided that everyone involved in cancer care works together to achieve this goal. It is this viewpoint that has shaped the theme for my presidential term: Collaborating to Conquer Cancer. In practice, this means that physicians and researchers must learn from every patient's experience, ensure greater collaboration between members of a patient's medical team, and involve more patients in the search for cures through clinical trials. Cancer advocates, insurers, and government agencies also have important roles to play. Today, we have an incredible opportunity to improve the quality of cancer care by drawing lessons from the real-world experiences of patients. The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) is taking the lead in this area, in part through innovative use of health information technology. In addition to our existing quality initiatives, ASCO is working with partners to develop a comprehensive rapid-learning system for cancer care. When complete, this system will provide physicians with personalized, real

  13. Genetic algorithms and genetic programming for multiscale modeling: Applications in materials science and chemistry and advances in scalability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sastry, Kumara Narasimha

    2007-03-01

    Effective and efficient rnultiscale modeling is essential to advance both the science and synthesis in a, wide array of fields such as physics, chemistry, materials science; biology, biotechnology and pharmacology. This study investigates the efficacy and potential of rising genetic algorithms for rnultiscale materials modeling and addresses some of the challenges involved in designing competent algorithms that solve hard problems quickly, reliably and accurately. In particular, this thesis demonstrates the use of genetic algorithms (GAs) and genetic programming (GP) in multiscale modeling with the help of two non-trivial case studies in materials science and chemistry. The first case study explores the utility of genetic programming (GP) in multi-timescaling alloy kinetics simulations. In essence, GP is used to bridge molecular dynamics and kinetic Monte Carlo methods to span orders-of-magnitude in simulation time. Specifically, GP is used to regress symbolically an inline barrier function from a limited set of molecular dynamics simulations to enable kinetic Monte Carlo that simulate seconds of real time. Results on a non-trivial example of vacancy-assisted migration on a surface of a face-centered cubic (fcc) Copper-Cobalt (CuxCo 1-x) alloy show that GP predicts all barriers with 0.1% error from calculations for less than 3% of active configurations, independent of type of potentials used to obtain the learning set of barriers via molecular dynamics. The resulting method enables 2--9 orders-of-magnitude increase in real-time dynamics simulations taking 4--7 orders-of-magnitude less CPU time. The second case study presents the application of multiobjective genetic algorithms (MOGAs) in multiscaling quantum chemistry simulations. Specifically, MOGAs are used to bridge high-level quantum chemistry and semiempirical methods to provide accurate representation of complex molecular excited-state and ground-state behavior. Results on ethylene and benzene---two common

  14. Comparison of plastic vs. glass evacuated serum-separator (SST) blood-drawing tubes for common clinical chemistry determinations.

    PubMed

    Hill, B M; Laessig, R H; Koch, D D; Hassemer, D J

    1992-08-01

    We evaluated a plastic evacuated blood-drawing tube containing an integral serum-separating barrier gel, by direct comparison with a glass counterpart. The plastic tube demonstrated no differences when compared for common clinical chemistry analytes with multiple types of instruments and systems. A total of 260 such different combinations were studied with emphasis on tests sensitive to drawing and handling indexes such as lactate dehydrogenase and potassium. A total of six separate blood drawings were tested with no significant differences noted in these tests. The total study included subjective evaluations of the plastic tube's use as a blood-drawing device and objective studies based on quantitative test results from normal and hospitalized patients and use of the primary sampling tubes (both plastic and glass) for 48-h storage. PMID:1643717

  15. Development and Implementation of a Series of Laboratory Field Trips for Advanced High School Students to Connect Chemistry to Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubrecht, Katherine B.; Padwa, Linda; Shen, Xiaoqi; Bazargan, Gloria

    2015-01-01

    We describe the content and organization of a series of day-long field trips to a university for high school students that connect chemistry content to issues of sustainability. The seven laboratory activities are in the areas of environmental degradation, energy production, and green chemistry. The laboratory procedures have been modified from…

  16. When Is a Molecule Three Dimensional? A Task-Specific Role for Imagistic Reasoning in Advanced Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stieff, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Imagistic reasoning appears to be a critical strategy for learning and problem solving in the sciences, particularly chemistry; however, little is known about how students use imagistic reasoning on genuine assessment tasks in chemistry. The present study employed a think-aloud protocol to explore when and how students use imagistic reasoning for…

  17. EPA Green Chemistry Advances

    EPA Science Inventory

    As an invited speaker, Dr. Leazer will deliver a plenary lecture and participate in a panel discussion at the 2013 AIChE National Meeting in San Francisco, CA. AIChE has embraced sustainability and is looking for guidance and leadership in building their sustainability program. ...

  18. Design and development of microcontroller-based clinical chemistry analyser for measurement of various blood biochemistry parameters.

    PubMed

    Taneja, S R; Gupta, R C; Kumar, Jagdish; Thariyan, K K; Verma, Sanjeev

    2005-01-01

    Clinical chemistry analyser is a high-performance microcontroller-based photometric biochemical analyser to measure various blood biochemical parameters such as blood glucose, urea, protein, bilirubin, and so forth, and also to measure and observe enzyme growth occurred while performing the other biochemical tests such as ALT (alkaline amino transferase), amylase, AST (aspartate amino transferase), and so forth. These tests are of great significance in biochemistry and used for diagnostic purposes and classifying various disorders and diseases such as diabetes, liver malfunctioning, renal diseases, and so forth. An inexpensive clinical chemistry analyser developed by the authors is described in this paper. This is an open system in which any reagent kit available in the market can be used. The system is based on the principle of absorbance transmittance photometry. System design is based around 80C31 microcontroller with RAM, EPROM, and peripheral interface devices. The developed system incorporates light source, an optical module, interference filters of various wave lengths, peltier device for maintaining required temperature of the mixture in flow cell, peristaltic pump for sample aspiration, graphic LCD display for displaying blood parameters, patients test results and kinetic test graph, 40 columns mini thermal printer, and also 32-key keyboard for executing various functions. The lab tests conducted on the instrument include versatility of the analyzer, flexibility of the software, and treatment of sample. The prototype was tested and evaluated over 1000 blood samples successfully for seventeen blood parameters. Evaluation was carried out at Government Medical College and Hospital, the Department of Biochemistry. The test results were found to be comparable with other standard instruments. PMID:18924737

  19. Medicinal chemistry for 2020

    PubMed Central

    Satyanarayanajois, Seetharama D; Hill, Ronald A

    2011-01-01

    Rapid advances in our collective understanding of biomolecular structure and, in concert, of biochemical systems, coupled with developments in computational methods, have massively impacted the field of medicinal chemistry over the past two decades, with even greater changes appearing on the horizon. In this perspective, we endeavor to profile some of the most prominent determinants of change and speculate as to further evolution that may consequently occur during the next decade. The five main angles to be addressed are: protein–protein interactions; peptides and peptidomimetics; molecular diversity and pharmacological space; molecular pharmacodynamics (significance, potential and challenges); and early-stage clinical efficacy and safety. We then consider, in light of these, the future of medicinal chemistry and the educational preparation that will be required for future medicinal chemists. PMID:22004084

  20. Medicinal chemistry for 2020.

    PubMed

    Satyanarayanajois, Seetharama D; Hill, Ronald A

    2011-10-01

    Rapid advances in our collective understanding of biomolecular structure and, in concert, of biochemical systems, coupled with developments in computational methods, have massively impacted the field of medicinal chemistry over the past two decades, with even greater changes appearing on the horizon. In this perspective, we endeavor to profile some of the most prominent determinants of change and speculate as to further evolution that may consequently occur during the next decade. The five main angles to be addressed are: protein-protein interactions; peptides and peptidomimetics; molecular diversity and pharmacological space; molecular pharmacodynamics (significance, potential and challenges); and early-stage clinical efficacy and safety. We then consider, in light of these, the future of medicinal chemistry and the educational preparation that will be required for future medicinal chemists. PMID:22004084

  1. Recent Advances towards the Clinical Application of Stem Cells for Retinal Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Silke; Jayaram, Hari; Limb, G. Astrid

    2012-01-01

    Retinal degenerative diseases constitute a major cause of irreversible blindness in the world. Stem cell-based therapies offer hope for these patients at risk of or suffering from blindness due to the deterioration of the neural retina. Various sources of stem cells are currently being investigated, ranging from human embryonic stem cells to adult-derived induced pluripotent stem cells as well as human Müller stem cells, with the first clinical trials to investigate the safety and tolerability of human embryonic stem cell-derived retinal pigment epithelium cells having recently commenced. This review aims to summarize the latest advances in the development of stem cell strategies for the replacement of retinal neurons and their supportive cells, the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) affected by retinal degenerative conditions. Particular emphasis will be given to the advances in stem cell transplantation and the challenges associated with their translation into clinical practice. PMID:24710533

  2. A Bright Future for Precision Medicine: Advances in Fluorescent Chemical Probe Design and Their Clinical Application.

    PubMed

    Garland, Megan; Yim, Joshua J; Bogyo, Matthew

    2016-01-21

    The Precision Medicine Initiative aims to use advances in basic and clinical research to develop therapeutics that selectively target and kill cancer cells. Under the same doctrine of precision medicine, there is an equally important need to visualize these diseased cells to enable diagnosis, facilitate surgical resection, and monitor therapeutic response. Therefore, there is a great opportunity for chemists to develop chemically tractable probes that can image cancer in vivo. This review focuses on recent advances in the development of optical probes, as well as their current and future applications in the clinical management of cancer. The progress in probe development described here suggests that optical imaging is an important and rapidly developing field of study that encourages continued collaboration among chemists, biologists, and clinicians to further refine these tools for interventional surgical imaging, as well as for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. PMID:26933740

  3. The Use of Computers for Clinical Care: A Case Series of Advanced U.S. Sites

    PubMed Central

    Doolan, David F.; Bates, David W.; James, Brent C.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To describe advanced clinical information systems in the context in which they have been implemented and are being used. Design: Case series of five U.S. hospitals, including inpatient, ambulatory and emergency units. Descriptive study with data collected from interviews, observations, and document analysis. Measurements: The use of computerized results, notes, orders, and event monitors and the type of decision support; data capture mechanisms and data form; impact on clinician satisfaction and clinical processes and outcomes; and the organizational factors associated with successful implementation. Results: All sites have implemented a wide range of clinical information systems with extensive decision support. The systems had been well accepted by clinicians and have improved clinical processes. Successful implementation required leadership and long-term commitment, a focus on improving clinical processes, and gaining clinician involvement and maintaining productivity. Conclusion: Despite differences in approach there are many similarities between sites in the clinical information systems in use and the factors important to successful implementation. The experience of these sites may provide a valuable guide for others who are yet to start, or are just beginning, the implementation of clinical information systems. PMID:12509360

  4. Advances and Challenges in Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics Profiling for Clinical Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Weijun; Jacobs, Jon M.; Liu, Tao; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.

    2006-08-01

    The advances in proteomic technologies provide tremendous opportunities for applying these technologies in biomarker-related clinical applications; however, the unique characteristics of human biofluids such as high dynamic range in protein abundances and extreme complexity of human proteomes present tremendous challenges for current analytical technologies. In this review, we focus on summarizing the recent advances in LC-MS based proteomic profiling and its applications in clinical proteomics as well as the major challenges for implementing these technologies for more effective biomarker discovery. Over the last few years, tremendous efforts have been directed towards the development of more effective approaches for characterizing the human plasma/serum and other biofluid proteomes. The developments in immunodepletion and various fractionation approaches in combination with much improved LC-MS platforms have enabled the profiling of the plasma proteome with much greater dynamic range of coverage, allowing many proteins at low ng/mL levels being confidently identified. Despite the significant advances and efforts, the dynamic range of measurements or extent of proteome coverage, the confidence of peptide/protein identification, the accuracy of quantitation, the throughput of analysis, and the robustness of the present instrumentation are still among the major challenges for implementation of a proteomic profiling platform suitable for efficient clinical applications.

  5. Synthesis of a Partially Protected Azidodeoxy Sugar. A Project Suitable for the Advanced Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, Peter; Freeze, Scott; Gabriel, Christopher J.

    2001-01-01

    The synthetic chemistry of carbohydrates provides a wealth of possible experiments for the undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory. However, few appropriate examples have been developed to date. With this simple two-step synthesis of a partially protected azidodeoxy sugar, we demonstrate several important concepts introduced in undergraduate chemistry (alcohol activation, steric hindrance, nucleophilic substitution) while offering products that are readily amenable to analysis by high field NMR. Students are exposed to techniques such as monitoring reactions by TLC, workup of reaction mixtures, and isolation by flash chromatography. Suitable methods for analysis of products include NMR, IR, MS, and polarimetry.

  6. Advanced image reconstruction strategies for 4D prostate DCE-MRI: steps toward clinical practicality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stinson, Eric G.; Borisch, Eric A.; Froemming, Adam T.; Kawashima, Akira; Young, Phillip M.; Warndahl, Brent A.; Grimm, Roger C.; Manduca, Armando; Riederer, Stephen J.; Trzasko, Joshua D.

    2015-09-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI is an important tool for the detection and characterization of primary and recurring prostate cancer. Advanced reconstruction strategies (e.g., sparse or low-rank regression) provide improved depiction of contrast dynamics and pharmacokinetic parameters; however, the high computation cost of reconstructing 4D (3D+time, 50+ frames) datasets typically inhibits their routine clinical use. Here, a novel alternating direction method-of-multipliers (ADMM) optimization strategy is described that enables these methods to be executed in ∠5 minutes, and thus within the standard clinical workflow. After overviewing the mechanics of this approach, high-performance implementation strategies will be discussed and demonstrated through clinical cases.

  7. Biology of Advanced Uveal Melanoma and Next Steps for Clinical Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Luke, Jason J.; Triozzi, Pierre L.; McKenna, Kyle C.; Van Meir, Erwin G.; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E.; Bastian, Boris C.; Gutkind, J. Silvio; Bowcock, Anne M.; Streicher, Howard Z.; Patel, Poulam M.; Sato, Takami; Sossman, Jeffery A.; Sznol, Mario; Welch, Jack; Thurin, Magdalena; Selig, Sara; Flaherty, Keith T.; Carvajal, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Uveal melanoma is the most common intraocular malignancy though it is a rare subset of all melanomas. Uveal melanoma has distinct biology relative to cutaneous melanoma, with widely divergent patient outcomes. Patients diagnosed with a primary uveal melanoma can be stratified for risk of metastasis by cytogenetics or gene expression profiling, with approximately half of patients developing metastatic disease, predominately hepatic in location, over a 15 year period. Historically, no systemic therapy has been associated with a clear clinical benefit for patients with advanced disease and median survival remains poor. Here, as a joint effort between CURE OM and the National Cancer Institute, the current understanding of the molecular and immunobiology of uveal melanoma is reviewed, and on-going laboratory research into the disease is highlighted. Finally, recent investigations relevant to clinical management via targeted and immunotherpies are reviewed and next steps in the development of clinical therapeutics are discussed. PMID:25113308

  8. Biology of advanced uveal melanoma and next steps for clinical therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Luke, Jason J; Triozzi, Pierre L; McKenna, Kyle C; Van Meir, Erwin G; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E; Bastian, Boris C; Gutkind, J Silvio; Bowcock, Anne M; Streicher, Howard Z; Patel, Poulam M; Sato, Takami; Sossman, Jeffery A; Sznol, Mario; Welch, Jack; Thurin, Magdalena; Selig, Sara; Flaherty, Keith T; Carvajal, Richard D

    2015-03-01

    Uveal melanoma is the most common intraocular malignancy although it is a rare subset of all melanomas. Uveal melanoma has distinct biology relative to cutaneous melanoma, with widely divergent patient outcomes. Patients diagnosed with a primary uveal melanoma can be stratified for risk of metastasis by cytogenetics or gene expression profiling, with approximately half of patients developing metastatic disease, predominately hepatic in location, over a 15-yr period. Historically, no systemic therapy has been associated with a clear clinical benefit for patients with advanced disease, and median survival remains poor. Here, as a joint effort between the Melanoma Research Foundation's ocular melanoma initiative, CURE OM and the National Cancer Institute, the current understanding of the molecular and immunobiology of uveal melanoma is reviewed, and on-going laboratory research into the disease is highlighted. Finally, recent investigations relevant to clinical management via targeted and immunotherapies are reviewed, and next steps in the development of clinical therapeutics are discussed. PMID:25113308

  9. Recent Advances in Nucleic Acid-Based Delivery: From Bench to Clinical Trials in Genetic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Cláudia; Ribeiro, António J; Veiga, Francisco; Silveira, Isabel

    2016-05-01

    Delivery of nucleic acids is the most promising therapy for many diseases that remain untreatable. Therefore, many research efforts have been put on finding a safe and efficient delivery system able to provide a sustained response. Viral vectors have proved to be the most efficient for delivery of nucleic acids and, thus, stand as the foremost vector used in current clinical trials. However, safety issues arise as a main concern and mitigate their use, impelling the improvement of non-viral alternatives. This review focuses on the recent advances in pre-clinical development of non-viral polyplexes and lipoplexes for nucleic acid-based delivery, in contrast with vectors being used in present clinical trials. Nucleic acid vectors for neurodegenerative ataxias, Parkinson's disease, retinitis pigmentosa, cystic fibrosis, hemophilia, pancreatic and lung cancer, and rheumatoid arthritis are discussed to illustrate current state of pre-clinical and clinical studies. Thereby, denoting the prospects for treatment of genetic diseases and elucidating the trend in non-viral vector development and improvement which is expected to significantly increase disease rescue exceeding the modest clinical successes observed so far. PMID:27305810

  10. The clinical chemistry and immunology of long-duration space missions.

    PubMed

    Wu, A H; Taylor, G R; Graham, G A; McKinley, B A

    1993-01-01

    Clinical laboratory diagnostic capabilities are needed to guide health and medical care of astronauts during long-duration space missions. Clinical laboratory diagnostics, as defined for medical care on Earth, offers a model for space capabilities. Interpretation of laboratory results for health and medical care of humans in space requires knowledge of specific physiological adaptations that occur, primarily because of the absence of gravity, and how these adaptations affect reference values. Limited data from American and Russian missions have indicated shifts of intra- and extracellular fluids and electrolytes, changes in hormone concentrations related to fluid shifts and stresses of the missions, reductions in bone and muscle mass, and a blunting of the cellular immune response. These changes could increase susceptibility to space-related illness or injury during a mission and after return to Earth. We review physiological adaptations and the risk of medical problems that occur during space missions. We describe the need for laboratory diagnostics as a part of health and medical care in space, and how this capability might be delivered. PMID:8419055

  11. Progress in the Discovery of Treatments for C. difficile Infection: A Clinical and Medicinal Chemistry Review

    PubMed Central

    Tsutsumi, Lissa S.; Owusu, Yaw B.; Hurdle, Julian G.; Sun, Dianqing

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic, Gram-positive pathogen that causes C. difficile infection, which results in significant morbidity and mortality. The incidence of C. difficile infection in developed countries has become increasingly high due to the emergence of newer epidemic strains, a growing elderly population, extensive use of broad spectrum antibiotics, and limited therapies for this diarrheal disease. Because treatment options currently available for C. difficile infection have some drawbacks, including cost, promotion of resistance, and selectivity problems, new agents are urgently needed to address these challenges. This review article focuses on two parts: the first part summarizes current clinical treatment strategies and agents under clinical development for C. difficile infection; the second part reviews newly reported anti-difficile agents that have been evaluated or reevaluated in the last five years and are in the early stages of drug discovery and development. Antibiotics are divided into natural product inspired and synthetic small molecule compounds that may have the potential to be more efficacious than currently approved treatments. This includes potency, selectivity, reduced cytotoxicity, and novel modes of action to prevent resistance. PMID:24236721

  12. A Competency-Based Clinical Chemistry Course for the Associate Degree Medical Laboratory Technician Graduate in a Medical Technology Baccalaureate Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buccelli, Pamela

    Presented is a project that developed a competency-based clinical chemistry course for associate degree medical laboratory technicians (MLT) in a medical technology (MT) baccalaureate program. Content of the course was based upon competencies expected of medical technologists at career-entry as defined in the statements adopted in 1976 by the…

  13. Self-organizing neural networks--an alternative way of cluster analysis in clinical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Reibnegger, G; Wachter, H

    1996-04-15

    Supervised learning schemes have been employed by several workers for training neural networks designed to solve clinical problems. We demonstrate that unsupervised techniques can also produce interesting and meaningful results. Using a data set on the chemical composition of milk from 22 different mammals, we demonstrate that self-organizing feature maps (Kohonen networks) as well as a modified version of error backpropagation technique yield results mimicking conventional cluster analysis. Both techniques are able to project a potentially multi-dimensional input vector onto a two-dimensional space whereby neighborhood relationships remain conserved. Thus, these techniques can be used for reducing dimensionality of complicated data sets and for enhancing comprehensibility of features hidden in the data matrix. PMID:8740573

  14. Coordination chemistry may explain pharmacokinetics and clinical response of vanadyl sulfate in type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Willsky, Gail R; Halvorsen, Katherine; Godzala, Michael E; Chi, Lai-Har; Most, Mathew J; Kaszynski, Peter; Crans, Debbie C; Goldfine, Allison B; Kostyniak, Paul J

    2013-11-01

    serum was dose-dependent, no correlation between total serum V concentration and the insulin-like response was found in this first attempt to correlate anti-diabetic activity with total serum V. This study suggests that V pools other than total serum V are likely related to the insulin-like effect of this metal. These results, obtained in diabetic patients, document the need for consideration of the coordination chemistry of metabolites and proteins with vanadium in anti-diabetic vanadium complexes. PMID:23982218

  15. Key discoveries in bile acid chemistry and biology and their clinical applications: history of the last eight decades

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Alan F.; Hagey, Lee R.

    2014-01-01

    During the last 80 years there have been extraordinary advances in our knowledge of the chemistry and biology of bile acids. We present here a brief history of the major achievements as we perceive them. Bernal, a physicist, determined the X-ray structure of cholesterol crystals, and his data together with the vast chemical studies of Wieland and Windaus enabled the correct structure of the steroid nucleus to be deduced. Today, C24 and C27 bile acids together with C27 bile alcohols constitute most of the bile acid “family”. Patterns of bile acid hydroxylation and conjugation are summarized. Bile acid measurement encompasses the techniques of GC, HPLC, and MS, as well as enzymatic, bioluminescent, and competitive binding methods. The enterohepatic circulation of bile acids results from vectorial transport of bile acids by the ileal enterocyte and hepatocyte; the key transporters have been cloned. Bile acids are amphipathic, self-associate in solution, and form mixed micelles with polar lipids, phosphatidylcholine in bile, and fatty acids in intestinal content during triglyceride digestion. The rise and decline of dissolution of cholesterol gallstones by the ingestion of 3,7-dihydroxy bile acids is chronicled. Scientists from throughout the world have contributed to these achievements. PMID:24838141

  16. Unmet clinical needs in the management of advanced melanoma: findings from a survey of oncologists.

    PubMed

    Jones, C; Clapton, G; Zhao, Z; Barber, B; Saltman, D; Corrie, P

    2015-11-01

    Advanced melanoma is a life-threatening cancer with limited life expectancy. The recent introduction of new targeted systemic therapies has provided clinicians with the means to potentially extend survival for the first time. However, the chance of cure remains very low and treatment-induced toxicity is well described. This qualitative study was undertaken to evaluate clinicians' assessment regarding the key concerns in managing advanced melanoma following the introduction of these new treatments. Three hundred and forty-three oncologists were surveyed online between August and November 2012 (in 11 countries) and March and April 2013 (in an additional country). Analysis of free-text responses identified 23 clinical issues of concern across all countries. Of these, the most common clinical concerns were drug toxicity and tolerability, followed by limited treatment effectiveness and limited treatment options. These results suggest that despite the promise of the two new agents in the field, clinicians are still concerned about the limitations of current treatment options, recognising that there remains a significant unmet need in the treatment of advanced melanoma. PMID:26222136

  17. Outcomes of patients with advanced cancer and KRAS mutations in phase I clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Said, Rabih; Ye, Yang; Falchook, Gerald Steven; Janku, Filip; Naing, Aung; Zinner, Ralph; Blumenschein, George R.; Fu, Siqing; Hong, David S.; Piha-Paul, Sarina Anne; Wheler, Jennifer J.; Kurzrock, Razelle; Palmer, Gary A.; Aldape, Kenneth; Hess, Kenneth R.; Tsimberidou, Apostolia Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background KRAS mutation is common in human cancer. We assessed the clinical factors, including type of KRAS mutation and treatment, of patients with advanced cancer and tumor KRAS mutations and their association with treatment outcomes. Methods Patients referred to the Phase I Clinic for treatment who underwent testing for KRAS mutations were analyzed. Results Of 1,781 patients, 365 (21%) had a KRAS mutation. The G12D mutation was the most common mutation (29%). PIK3CA mutations were found in 24% and 10% of patients with and without KRAS mutations (p<0.0001). Of 223 patients with a KRAS mutation who were evaluable for response, 56 were treated with a MEK inhibitor-containing therapy and 167 with other therapies. The clinical benefit (partial response and stable disease lasting ≥ 6 months) rates were 23% and 9%, respectively, for the MEK inhibitor versus other therapies (p=0.005). The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 3.3 and 2.2 months, respectively (p=0.09). The respective median overall survival was 8.4 and 7.0 months (p=0.38). Of 66 patients with a KRAS mutation and additional alterations, higher rates of clinical benefit (p=0.04), PFS (p=0.045), and overall survival (p=0.02) were noted in patients treated with MEK inhibitor-containing therapy (n=9) compared to those treated with targeted therapy matched to the additional alterations (n=24) or other therapy (n=33). Conclusions MEK inhibitors in patients with KRAS-mutated advanced cancer were associated with higher clinical benefit rates compared to other therapies. Therapeutic strategies that include MEK inhibitors or novel agents combined with other targeted therapies or chemotherapy need further investigation. PMID:25313136

  18. Increasing fetal ovine number per gestation alters fetal plasma clinical chemistry values.

    PubMed

    Zywicki, Micaela; Blohowiak, Sharon E; Magness, Ronald R; Segar, Jeffrey L; Kling, Pamela J

    2016-08-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is interconnected with developmental programming of lifelong pathophysiology. IUGR is seen in human multifetal pregnancies, with stepwise rises in fetal numbers interfering with placental nutrient delivery. It remains unknown whether fetal blood analyses would reflect fetal nutrition, liver, and excretory function in the last trimester of human or ovine IUGR In an ovine model, we hypothesized that fetal plasma biochemical values would reflect progressive placental, fetal liver, and fetal kidney dysfunction as the number of fetuses per gestation rose. To determine fetal plasma biochemical values in singleton, twin, triplet, and quadruplet/quintuplet ovine gestation, we investigated morphometric measures and comprehensive metabolic panels with nutritional measures, liver enzymes, and placental and fetal kidney excretory measures at gestational day (GD) 130 (90% gestation). As anticipated, placental dysfunction was supported by a stepwise fall in fetal weight, fetal plasma glucose, and triglyceride levels as fetal number per ewe rose. Fetal glucose and triglycerides were directly related to fetal weight. Plasma creatinine, reflecting fetal renal excretory function, and plasma cholesterol, reflecting placental excretory function, were inversely correlated with fetal weight. Progressive biochemical disturbances and growth restriction accompanied the rise in fetal number. Understanding the compensatory and adaptive responses of growth-restricted fetuses at the biochemical level may help explain how metabolic pathways in growth restriction can be predetermined at birth. This physiological understanding is important for clinical care and generating interventional strategies to prevent altered developmental programming in multifetal gestation. PMID:27565903

  19. Introductory and Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences Within Campus-based Influenza Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Eric J.; Hagemann, Tracy M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To describe the development, implementation, and assessment of an introductory and an advanced pharmacy practice experience (IPPE and APPE) integrated within campus-based influenza clinics. Design. The influenza clinics were designed to incorporate the learning objectives for the IPPE and APPE, and included preparatory sessions, online learning, and direct patient interactions tailored to the appropriate education level of the learner. Assessment. The clinics provided influenza vaccinations to 2,292 and 2,877 individuals in 2010 and 2011, respectively. The clinics allowed for experiential education of 39 students earning a total of 467 IPPE and APPE hours in 2010 and 58 students earning a total of 656 IPPE and APPE hours in 2011. Third-year students were assessed before and after completing the IPPE, and improvement was seen in knowledge and self-ratings of perceptions and attitudes toward administering immunizations. Conclusions. Integrating pharmacy practice experiences within campus-based influenza clinics was an effective way to provide students with direct patient care experience and preventive health services knowledge. PMID:23610479

  20. [Triple therapy in cirrhotic patients and those with advanced fibrosis: relevant aspects in clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Albillos, Agustín; Luis Calleja, José; Molina, Esther; Planas, Ramon; Romero-Gómez, Manuel; Turnes, Juan; Hernández-Guerra, Manuel

    2014-07-01

    The first-line option in the treatment of patients with advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis due to genotype 1 hepatitis C virus is currently triple therapy with boceprevir/telaprevir and pegylated interferon-ribavirin. However, certain limitations could constitute a barrier to starting treatment or achieving sustained viral response in these patients. These limitations include the patient's or physician's perception of treatment effectiveness in routine clinical practice-which can weight against the decision to start treatment-, the advanced stage of the disease with portal hypertension and comorbidity, treatment interruption due to poor adherence, and adverse effects, mainly anemia. In addition, it is now possible to identify patients who could benefit from a shorter therapeutic regimen with a similar cure rate. This review discusses these issues and their possible effect on the use of triple therapy. PMID:25907434

  1. Overview of clinical flow cytometry data analysis: recent advances and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Pedreira, Carlos E; Costa, Elaine S; Lecrevisse, Quentin; van Dongen, Jacques J M; Orfao, Alberto

    2013-07-01

    Major technological advances in flow cytometry (FC), both for instrumentation and reagents, have emerged over the past few decades. These advances facilitate simultaneous evaluation of more parameters in single cells analyzed at higher speed. Consequently, larger and more complex data files that contain information about tens of parameters for millions of cells are generated. This increasing complexity has challenged pre-existing data analysis tools and promoted the development of new algorithms and tools for data analysis and visualization. Here, we review the currently available (conventional and newly developed) data analysis and visualization strategies that aim for easier, more objective, and robust interpretation of FC data both in biomedical research and clinical diagnostic laboratories. PMID:23746659

  2. Evidence-based use of electronic clinical tracking systems in advanced practice registered nurse education: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Branstetter, M Laurie; Smith, Lynette S; Brooks, Andrea F

    2014-07-01

    Over the past decade, the federal government has mandated healthcare providers to incorporate electronic health records into practice by 2015. This technological update in healthcare documentation has generated a need for advanced practice RN programs to incorporate information technology into education. The National Organization of Nurse Practitioner Faculties created core competencies to guide program standards for advanced practice RN education. One core competency is Technology and Information Literacy. Educational programs are moving toward the utilization of electronic clinical tracking systems to capture students' clinical encounter data. The purpose of this integrative review was to evaluate current research on advanced practice RN students' documentation of clinical encounters utilizing electronic clinical tracking systems to meet advanced practice RN curriculum outcome goals in information technology as defined by the National Organization of Nurse Practitioner Faculties. The state of the science depicts student' and faculty attitudes, preferences, opinions, and data collections of students' clinical encounters. Although electronic clinical tracking systems were utilized to track students' clinical encounters, these systems have not been evaluated for meeting information technology core competency standards. Educational programs are utilizing electronic clinical tracking systems with limited evidence-based literature evaluating the ability of these systems to meet the core competencies in advanced practice RN programs. PMID:24814999

  3. Circulating Chromogranin A as A Marker for Monitoring Clinical Response in Advanced Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Na; Li, Yanyan; Lu, Ming; Li, Zhongwu; Lu, Zhihao; Li, Jie; Shen, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Chromogranin A (CgA), present in the chromaffin granules of neuroendocrine cells, is a useful biomarker for the diagnosis of patients with gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs). This study was conducted to investigate the potential role of circulating CgA in monitoring clinical response in Chinese patients with advanced GEP-NETs. Eighty patients with advanced GEP-NETs treated in Peking University Cancer Hospital from September 2011 to May 2014 and 65 healthy individuals were included in this study. Serum CgA levels were analyzed for relationship with patient’s baseline characteristics and clinical outcome. Median CgA levels were significantly higher in patients with advanced GEP-NETs than in healthy individuals (93.8 ng/mL vs. 37.1 ng/mL; P<0.01), as well as significantly higher in patients with carcinoid syndrome or liver metastasis than in those without carcinoid syndrome (298.8 ng/mL vs. 82.9 ng/mL; P = 0.011) or liver metastasis (137.0 ng/mL vs. 64.4 ng/mL; P = 0.023). A CgA cutoff value of 46.2 ng/mL was used in this study with a sensitivity of 78.8% and specificity of 73.8%. Patients with CgA levels higher than 46.2 ng/mL had a worse prognosis than patients with CgA levels lower than 46.2 ng/mL (P = 0.045). Notably, a weak correlation was observed between changes in serum CgA levels and clinical response to the IP regimen as well as SSAs. Our data also indicate that serum CgA could be a useful indicator of patient prognosis though there is more research required in order to validate such claims. PMID:27159453

  4. An infrastructure for cooperation and communication in an advanced clinical information system.

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, K.; Reichert, M.; Nathe, M.; Beuter, T.; Dadam, P.

    1994-01-01

    In a research project, organizational and technological requirements for an advanced clinical information system have been analysed, and a concept has been developed. From the application's perspective, medical personnel is more actively relieved from routine tasks by support of organizational tasks and by coordination of distributed activities. Program development is supported by a concept of simple and complex services with well-defined interfaces, and by the use of activity templates, i.e. pre-modeled activities describing possible sequences of services. The concept is based on an open systems approach, with a reliable and secure communication infrastructure. In addition, monitoring facilities are provided. PMID:7949982

  5. Overview of the 3rd isirv-Antiviral Group Conference – advances in clinical management

    PubMed Central

    Hurt, Aeron C; Hui, David S; Hay, Alan; Hayden, Frederick G

    2015-01-01

    This review highlights the main points which emerged from the presentations and discussions at the 3rd isirv-Antiviral Group Conference - advances in clinical management. The conference covered emerging and potentially pandemic influenza viruses and discussed novel/pre-licensure therapeutics and currently approved antivirals and vaccines for the control of influenza. Current data on approved and novel treatments for non-influenza respiratory viruses such as MERS-CoV, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and rhinoviruses and the challenges of treating immunocompromised patients with respiratory infections was highlighted. PMID:25399715

  6. Joint modeling of progression-free survival and death in advanced cancer clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Dejardin, David; Lesaffre, Emmanuel; Verbeke, Geert

    2010-07-20

    Progression-related endpoints (such as time to progression or progression-free survival) and time to death are common endpoints in cancer clinical trials. It is of interest to study the link between progression-related endpoints and time to death (e.g. to evaluate the degree of surrogacy). However, current methods ignore some aspects of the definitions of progression-related endpoints. We review those definitions and investigate their impact on modeling the joint distribution. Further, we propose a multi-state model in which the association between the endpoints is modeled through a frailty term. We also argue that interval-censoring needs to be taken into account to more closely match the latent disease evolution. The joint distribution and an expression for Kendall's tau are derived. The model is applied to data from a clinical trial in advanced metastatic ovarian cancer. PMID:20572123

  7. Tracking Patient Encounters and Clinical Skills to Determine Competency in Ambulatory Care Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Chrystian R.; Harris, Ila M.; Moon, Jean Y.; Westberg, Sarah M.; Kolar, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine if the amount of exposure to patient encounters and clinical skills correlates to student clinical competency on ambulatory care advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs). Design. Students in ambulatory care APPEs tracked the number of patients encountered by medical condition and the number of patient care skills performed. At the end of the APPE, preceptors evaluated students’ competency for each medical condition and skill, referencing the Dreyfus model for skill acquisition. Assessment. Data was collected from September 2012 through August 2014. Forty-six responses from a student tracking tool were matched to preceptor ratings. Students rated as competent saw more patients and performed more skills overall. Preceptors noted minimal impact on workload. Conclusions. Increased exposure to patient encounters and skills performed had a positive association with higher Dreyfus stage, which may represent a starting point in the conversation for more thoughtful design of ambulatory care APPEs. PMID:26941440

  8. Clinical studies in the second line setting of advanced pancreatic cancer: are we making any progress?

    PubMed

    Ramfidis, Vassilios S; Strimpakos, Alexios S; Syrigos, Kostas N; Saif, Muhammad W

    2012-07-01

    Despite the enormous advances in clinical research in oncology, the prognosis of pancreatic carcinoma remains poor. The therapeutic options in this type of cancer are very limited, with modest results at present. In the 2012 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting, four interesting trials on the second line treatment of pancreatic cancer were presented. The first study (Abstract #4017) with a phase II design suggested that maintenance therapy with sunitinib, after a complete course of standard first line treatment, was feasible and effective while the second phase I/II study (Abstract #4034) evaluated the role of trabedersen, an agent that inhibits TGF-β2 expression. Finally, the efficacy and toxicity of lapatinib combined with either FOLFOX (Abstract #e14533) or capecitabine (Abstract #e14569) were examined in the second line setting of pancreatic cancer. PMID:22797389

  9. Rational Combination of Immunotherapies with Clinical Efficacy in Mice with Advanced Cancer.

    PubMed

    Bransi, Ali; Salgado, Oscar Camilo; Beffinger, Michal; Milo, Karim; Silina, Karina; Yagita, Hideo; Becher, Burkhard; Knuth, Alexander; van den Broek, Maries

    2015-11-01

    In the context of cancer, naïve T cells are insufficiently primed and become progressively dysfunctional. Boosting antitumor responses by blocking PD-1 or CTLA-4 results in durable clinical responses only in a limited proportion of cancer patients, suggesting that other pathways must be targeted to improve clinical efficacy. Our preclinical study in TRAMP mice comparing 14 different immune interventions identified anti-CD40 + IL2/anti-IL2 complexes + IL12Fc as a uniquely efficacious treatment that prevents tolerance induction, promotes priming of sustained, protective tumor-specific CD8(+) T cells, and cures late-stage cancer when given together with adoptively transferred tumor-specific T cells. We propose that improving signals 2 (costimulation) and 3 (cytokines) together with fresh tumor-specific, rather than boosting of dysfunctional preexisting memory, T cells represents a potent therapy for advanced cancer. PMID:26141620

  10. Preliminary data from an advanced dementia consult service: integrating research, education, and clinical expertise.

    PubMed

    Catic, Angela G; Berg, Andrea I; Moran, Julie A; Knopp, Julie R; Givens, Jane L; Kiely, Dan K; Quinlan, Nicky; Mitchell, Susan L

    2013-11-01

    Hospitalized individuals with advanced dementia often receive care that is of limited clinical benefit and inconsistent with preferences. An advanced dementia consultation service was designed, and a pre and post pilot study was conducted in a Boston hospital to evaluate it. Geriatricians and a palliative care nurse practitioner conducted consultations, which consisted of structured consultation, counseling and provision of an information booklet to the family, and postdischarge follow-up with the family and primary care providers. Individuals aged 65 and older with advanced dementia who were admitted were identified, and consultations were solicited using pop-ups programmed into the computerized provider order entry (POE) system. In the initial 3-month period, 24 subjects received usual care. In the subsequent 3-month period, consultations were provided to five subjects for whom they were requested. Data were obtained from the electronic medical record and proxy interviews (admission, 1 month after discharge). Mean age of the combined sample (N = 29) was 85.4, 58.6% were from nursing homes, and 86.2% of their proxies stated that comfort was the goal of care. Nonetheless, their hospitalizations were characterized by high rates of intravenous antibiotics (86.2%), more than five venipunctures (44.8%), and radiological examinations (96.6%). Acknowledging the small sample size, there were trends toward better outcomes in the intervention group, including greater proxy knowledge of the disease, better communication between proxies and providers, more advance care planning, lower rehospitalization rates, and fewer feeding tube insertions after discharge. Targeted consultation for advanced dementia is feasible and may promote greater engagement of proxies and goal-directed care after discharge. PMID:24219202

  11. Forster Resonance Energy Transfer and Conformational Stability of Proteins: An Advanced Biophysical Module for Physical Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Katheryn M.; Schlamadinger, Diana E.; Gable, Jonathan E.; Kim, Judy E.

    2008-01-01

    Protein folding is an exploding area of research in biophysics and physical chemistry. Here, we describe the integration of several techniques, including absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements, to probe important topics in protein folding. Cytochrome c is used as a model…

  12. Teaching Thermodynamics and Kinetics to Advanced General Chemistry Students and to Upper-Level Undergraduate Students Using PV Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iyengar, Srinivasan S.; deSouza, Romualdo T.

    2014-01-01

    We describe how complex concepts in macroscopic chemistry, namely, thermodynamics and kinetics, can be taught at considerable depth both at the first-year undergraduate as well as upper levels. We begin with a careful treatment of PV diagrams, and by pictorially integrating the appropriate area in a PV diagram, we introduce work. This starting…

  13. Synthesis and Characterization of Europium(III) and Terbium(III) Complexes: An Advanced Undergraduate Inorganic Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swavey, Shawn

    2010-01-01

    Undergraduate laboratories rarely involve lanthanide coordination chemistry. This is unfortunate in light of the ease with which many of these complexes are made and the interesting and instructive photophysical properties they entail. The forbidden nature of the 4f transitions associated with the lanthanides is overcome by incorporation of…

  14. A Pharmacotherapy Capstone Course to Advance Pharmacy Students’ Clinical Documentation Skills

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Ghada F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To implement and assess the effectiveness of a capstone pharmacotherapy course designed to integrate in-class curriculum using patient cases and drug-information questions. The course was intended to improve third-year doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students' clinical documentation skills in preparation for beginning advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs). Design. This 2-credit, semester-long course consisted of 6 patient cases and 12 drug-information questions posted electronically on an Internet-based medical chart, a public health presentation, a knowledge examination, and an objective standardized performance assessment. In class, students engaged in active-learning exercises and clinical problem-solving. Students worked outside of class in small groups to retrieve and discuss assigned articles and review medication information in preparation for in-class discussions. Assessment. A rubric was used to assess the patient cases and questions that students completed and submitted individually. Data for 4 consecutive course offerings (n=622) were then analyzed. A significant improvement was found in the “misplaced” but not the “missing” documentation ratings for both assessment and plan notes in the final assessment compared with baseline. In course evaluations, the majority of students agreed that the course integrated material across the curriculum (97%) and improved their clinical writing skills (80.5%). Conclusion. A capstone pharmacy course was successful in integrating and reviewing much of the material covered across the PharmD curriculum and in improving students’ clinical documentation skills. PMID:23049106

  15. Advances in clinical determinants and neurological manifestations of B vitamin deficiency in adults.

    PubMed

    Sechi, GianPietro; Sechi, Elia; Fois, Chiara; Kumar, Neeraj

    2016-05-01

    B vitamin deficiency is a leading cause of neurological impairment and disability throughout the world. Multiple B vitamin deficiencies often coexist, and thus an understanding of the complex relationships between the different biochemical pathways regulated in the brain by these vitamins may facilitate prompter diagnosis and improved treatment. Particular populations at risk for multiple B vitamin deficiencies include the elderly, people with alcoholism, patients with heart failure, patients with recent obesity surgery, and vegetarians/vegans. Recently, new clinical settings that predispose individuals to B vitamin deficiency have been highlighted. Moreover, other data indicate a possible pathogenetic role of subclinical chronic B vitamin deficiency in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In light of these findings, this review examines the clinical manifestations of B vitamin deficiency and the effect of B vitamin deficiency on the adult nervous system. The interrelationships of multiple B vitamin deficiencies are emphasized, along with the clinical phenotypes related to B vitamin deficiencies. Recent advances in the clinical determinants and diagnostic clues of B vitamin deficiency, as well as the suggested therapies for B vitamin disorders, are described. PMID:27034475

  16. Hematology and Clinical Chemistry Measures During and After Pregnancy and Age- and Sex-Specific Reference Intervals in African Green Monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus)

    PubMed Central

    Chichester, Lee; Gee, Melaney K; Jorgensen, Matthew J; Kaplan, Jay R

    2015-01-01

    Clinical decisions and experimental analyses often involve the assessment of hematology and clinical chemistry. Using clinical pathology to assess the health status of NHP in breeding colonies or data from studies than involve pregnancy can often be complicated by pregnancy status. This study had 2 objectives regarding the hematology and clinical chemistry of African green monkeys (AGM, Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus): 1) to compare pregnant or recently postpartum animals with nonpregnant, nonlactating animals and 2) to create age- and sex-specific reference intervals. Subjects in this study were 491 AGM from the Vervet Research Colony of the Wake Forest University Primate Center. Results indicated that changes in BUN, serum total protein, albumin, ALP, GGT, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, cholesterol, total CO2, globulins, lipase, amylase, WBC, neutrophils, lymphocytes, platelets, RBC, Hgb, and Hct occur during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Age- and sex-specific reference intervals consistent with guidelines from the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology were established and further expand the understanding of how to define health in AGM on the basis of clinical pathology. The combination of understanding the changes that occur in pregnancy and postpartum and expansive reference intervals will help guide clinical and experimental decisions. PMID:26224434

  17. Hematology and Clinical Chemistry Measures During and After Pregnancy and Age- and Sex-Specific Reference Intervals in African Green Monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus).

    PubMed

    Chichester, Lee; Gee, Melaney K; Jorgensen, Matthew J; Kaplan, Jay R

    2015-07-01

    Clinical decisions and experimental analyses often involve the assessment of hematology and clinical chemistry. Using clinical pathology to assess the health status of NHP in breeding colonies or data from studies than involve pregnancy can often be complicated by pregnancy status. This study had 2 objectives regarding the hematology and clinical chemistry of African green monkeys (AGM, Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus): 1) to compare pregnant or recently postpartum animals with nonpregnant, nonlactating animals and 2) to create age- and sex-specific reference intervals. Subjects in this study were 491 AGM from the Vervet Research Colony of the Wake Forest University Primate Center. Results indicated that changes in BUN, serum total protein, albumin, ALP, GGT, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, cholesterol, total CO2, globulins, lipase, amylase, WBC, neutrophils, lymphocytes, platelets, RBC, Hgb, and Hct occur during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Age- and sex-specific reference intervals consistent with guidelines from the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology were established and further expand the understanding of how to define health in AGM on the basis of clinical pathology. The combination of understanding the changes that occur in pregnancy and postpartum and expansive reference intervals will help guide clinical and experimental decisions. PMID:26224434

  18. Developing clinical competency: Experiences and perceptions of Advanced Midwifery Practitioners in training.

    PubMed

    Gaskell, Lynne; Beaton, Susan

    2015-07-01

    This paper will describe the experiences and perception of a cohort of trainee Advanced Midwifery Practitioners (AMP's) during their training on an MSc in Advanced Practice. The educational philosophy underpinning the master's programme is interprofessional learning linked closely to work based learning and assessment. The focus group explored how the AMP's were developing core competencies within four domains: The links between the university and clinical assessments were instrumental in developing both midwifery and specialised skills required for extending their scope of practice. The changing demographics of their client group facilitated the need to provide safe assessment and management of ladies with complex health and social needs in pregnancy and childbirth; provide specialised clinics and the development of a robust staff training and assessment process. The generic competencies they gained improved collaborative working with their medical colleagues, raising the trainees profile and acceptance of their extended role. In addition to this, development of specialised midwifery skills promoted a high degree of decision making responsibilities within midwifery to facilitate service development and promote evidence based care. PMID:25892367

  19. [Clinical study of Peptide-cocktail vaccination with tegafur-uracil/leucovorin for advanced colorectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Fumiaki; Inoue, Keisuke; Okuno, Kiyotaka; Sukegawa, Yasushi

    2012-11-01

    cDNA microarray technology coupled with laser microdissection has been used to identify human leukocyte antigen(HLA)-A24-restricted epitope peptides as potential targets for cancer vaccination in colorectal cancer patients. These antigenic peptides were derived from 2 different testis cancer antigens, ring finger protein 43(RNF43) and translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 34(TOMM34). We conducted a clinical trial of vaccines against colorectal cancer specific peptides(RNF43 and TOMM34) with tegafur-uracil/Leucovorin( UFT/LV) for the treatment of advanced or recurrent colorectal cancer. The vaccinations were well tolerated without any adverse events. The highest long-term survival was observed in the group showing cytolytic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses against both RNF43 and TOMM34, followed by the group showing CTL responses against only RNF43 or only TOMM34. A new study has been planned in order to obtain more immunological responses, and we have started a clinical trial of vaccines against multiple peptides[RNF43, TOMM34, forkhead box protein M1(FOXM1), maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase(MELK), holliday junction recognition protein(HJURP), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)1, and VEGFR2]by using UFT/LV for the treatment of advanced or recurrent colorectal cancer. PMID:23267878

  20. Breast Cancer Clinical Trials: Past Half Century Moving Forward Advancing Patient Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kuerer, Henry M; van la Parra, Raquel F D

    2016-10-01

    Clinical trials in breast cancer have contributed immensely to the advancements of modern multimodal breast cancer treatment. Due to improved screening methods and more effective biologic-based tailored systemic therapies, the extent of surgery necessary for local and systemic control of disease is decreasing. Sequential trials for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) have changed the management of this disease and are culminating in randomized active surveillance studies in an effort potentially to prevent overtreatment of low- and intermediate-grade disease. For patients with initial node-positive disease, clipping and marking of the biopsy-proven nodal metastases before the start of neoadjuvant chemotherapy can allow for selective node dissection based on the axillary response. With the current advances in primary systemic therapy, feasibility trials are beginning to investigate the potential of nonoperative therapy for invasive cancers with percutaneously documented pathologic complete response. This article presents a review and update on landmark clinical trials related to DCIS, the extent of axillary surgery in node-positive disease, and the integration of systemic therapy with local therapy. PMID:27364503

  1. How institutional change and individual researchers helped advance clinical guidelines in American health care.

    PubMed

    Nigam, Amit

    2013-06-01

    Clinical guidelines are important tools for managing health care quality. Research on the origins of guidelines primarily focuses on the institutional causes of their emergence and growth. Individual medical researchers, however, have played important roles. This paper develops knowledge of the role of individual medical researchers in advancing guidelines, and of how researchers' efforts were enabled or constrained by broader institutional changes. Drawing on an analytical case study focused on the role of Kerr White, John Wennberg, and Robert Brook, it shows that guidelines were a product of the interplay between institutional change in the medical field and actions by individual researchers, acting as institutional entrepreneurs. Increased government involvement in the health care field triggered the involvement of a range of new actors in health care. These new organizations created a context that allowed individual researchers to advance guidelines by creating job opportunities, providing research funding, and creating opportunities for researchers to engage with the policy process. Individual researchers availed of this context to both advance their ideas, and to draw new actors into the field. PMID:23631774

  2. Clinically Apparent Internal Mammary Nodal Metastasis in Patients With Advanced Breast Cancer: Incidence and Local Control

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yujing; Oh, Julia L.; Whitman, Gary J.

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: To investigate the incidence and local control of internal mammary lymph node metastases (IMN+) in patients with clinical N2 or N3 locally advanced breast cancer. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 809 breast cancer patients diagnosed with advanced nodal disease (clinical N2-3) who received radiation treatment at our institution from January 2000 December 2006. Patients were considered IMN+ on the basis of imaging studies. Results: We identified 112 of 809 patients who presented with IMN+ disease (13.8%) detected on ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography/CT (PET/CT), and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. All 112 patients with IMN+ disease received anthracycline and taxane-based chemotherapy. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) resulted in a complete response (CR) on imaging studies of IMN disease in 72.1% of patients. Excluding 16 patients with progressive disease, 96 patients received adjuvant radiation to the breast or the chest wall and the regional lymphatics including the IMN chain with a median dose of 60 Gy if the internal mammary lymph nodes normalized after chemotherapy and 66 Gy if they did not. The median follow-up of surviving patients was 41 months (8-118 months). For the 96 patients able to complete curative therapy, the actuarial 5-year IMN control rate, locoregional control, overall survival, and disease-free survival were 89%, 80%, 76%, and 56%. Conclusion: Over ten percent of patients with advanced nodal disease will have IMN metastases on imaging studies. Multimodality therapy including IMN irradiation achieves excellent rates of control in the IMN region and a DFS of more than 50% after curative treatment.

  3. International Federation of Clinical Chemistry. Use of artificial intelligence in analytical systems for the clinical laboratory. IFCC Committee on Analytical Systems.

    PubMed

    Place, J F; Truchaud, A; Ozawa, K; Pardue, H; Schnipelsky, P

    1994-12-16

    The incorporation of information-processing technology into analytical systems in the form of standard computing software has recently been advanced by the introduction of artificial intelligence (AI) both as expert systems and as neural networks. This paper considers the role of software in system operation, control and automation and attempts to define intelligence. AI is characterized by its ability to deal with incomplete and imprecise information and to accumulate knowledge. Expert systems, building on standard computing techniques, depend heavily on the domain experts and knowledge engineers that have programmed them to represent the real world. Neural networks are intended to emulate the pattern-recognition and parallel-processing capabilities of the human brain and are taught rather than programmed. The future may lie in a combination of the recognition ability of the neural network and the rationalization capability of the expert system. In the second part of this paper, examples are given of applications of AI in stand-alone systems for knowledge engineering and medical diagnosis and in embedded systems for failure detection, image analysis, user interfacing, natural language processing, robotics and machine learning, as related to clinical laboratories. It is concluded that AI constitutes a collective form of intellectual property and that there is a need for better documentation, evaluation and regulation of the systems already being used widely in clinical laboratories. PMID:7889593

  4. From orphan drugs to adopted therapies: Advancing C3-targeted intervention to the clinical stage.

    PubMed

    Mastellos, Dimitrios C; Reis, Edimara S; Yancopoulou, Despina; Hajishengallis, George; Ricklin, Daniel; Lambris, John D

    2016-10-01

    Complement dysregulation is increasingly recognized as an important pathogenic driver in a number of clinical disorders. Complement-triggered pathways intertwine with key inflammatory and tissue destructive processes that can either increase the risk of disease or exacerbate pathology in acute or chronic conditions. The launch of the first complement-targeted drugs in the clinic has undeniably stirred the field of complement therapeutic design, providing new insights into complement's contribution to disease pathogenesis and also helping to leverage a more personalized, comprehensive approach to patient management. In this regard, a rapidly expanding toolbox of complement therapeutics is being developed to address unmet clinical needs in several immune-mediated and inflammatory diseases. Elegant approaches employing both surface-directed and fluid-phase inhibitors have exploited diverse components of the complement cascade as putative points of therapeutic intervention. Targeting C3, the central hub of the system, has proven to be a promising strategy for developing biologics as well as small-molecule inhibitors with clinical potential. Complement modulation at the level of C3 has recently shown promise in preclinical primate models, opening up new avenues for therapeutic intervention in both acute and chronic indications fueled by uncontrolled C3 turnover. This review highlights recent developments in the field of complement therapeutics, focusing on C3-directed inhibitors and alternative pathway (AP) regulator-based approaches. Translational perspectives and considerations are discussed, particularly with regard to the structure-guided drug optimization and clinical advancement of a new generation of C3-targeted peptidic inhibitors. PMID:27353192

  5. Toward a New U.S. Chemicals Policy: Rebuilding the Foundation to Advance New Science, Green Chemistry, and Environmental Health

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Michael P.; Schwarzman, Megan R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective We describe fundamental weaknesses in U.S. chemicals policy, present principles of chemicals policy reform, and articulate interdisciplinary research questions that should be addressed. With global chemical production projected to double over the next 24 years, federal policies that shape the priorities of the U.S. chemical enterprise will be a cornerstone of sustainability. To date, these policies have largely failed to adequately protect public health or the environment or motivate investment in or scientific exploration of cleaner chemical technologies, known collectively as green chemistry. On this trajectory, the United States will face growing health, environmental, and economic problems related to chemical exposures and pollution. Conclusions Existing policies have produced a U.S. chemicals market in which the safety of chemicals for human health and the environment is undervalued relative to chemical function, price, and performance. This market barrier to green chemistry is primarily a consequence of weaknesses in the Toxic Substances Control Act. These weaknesses have produced a chemical data gap, because producers are not required to investigate and disclose sufficient information on chemicals’ hazard traits to government, businesses that use chemicals, or the public; a safety gap, because government lacks the legal tools it needs to efficiently identify, prioritize, and take action to mitigate the potential health and environmental effects of hazardous chemicals; and a technology gap, because industry and government have invested only marginally in green chemistry research, development, and education. Policy reforms that close the three gaps—creating transparency and accountability in the market—are crucial for improving public and environmental health and reducing the barriers to green chemistry. The European Union’s REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals) regulation has opened an opportunity for

  6. UCSD Geothermal Chemical Modeling Project: DOE Advanced Brine Chemistry Program. [University of California at San Diego (UCSD)

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, N.; Weare, J.H.

    1992-04-01

    DOE funding to the UCSD Chemical Modeling Group supports research to provide computer models which will reliably characterize the equilibrium chemistry of geothermal brines (solution, solid and gas phases) under variable thermodynamic conditions. With this technology, it will be possible to rapidly and inexpensively predict the chemical behavior of geothermal brines during various resource recovery stages; exploration, production, plant energy extraction and rejection as well as in ancillary programs such as mineral recovery. Our modeling technology is based on recent progress in the physical chemistry of concentrated aqueous solutions. The behavior of these fluids has not been predicted from first principle theories. However, because of the importance of concentrated brines to many industrial and natural processes, there have been numerous efforts to develop accurate phenomenological expressions for predicting the chemical behavior of these brines. One of the most successful of these efforts is that of Pitzer and coworkers. Incorporating the semiempirical equations of Pitzer, we have shown at UCSD that we can create highly accurate models of brine-solid-gas chemistry.

  7. Recent advances in innovative therapeutic approaches for Duchenne muscular dystrophy: from discovery to clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu-Motohashi, Yuko; Miyatake, Shouta; Komaki, Hirofumi; Takeda, Shin’ichi; Aoki, Yoshitsugu

    2016-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked progressive degenerative muscle disorder caused by the absence of dystrophin. There is no curative therapy, although innovative therapeutic approaches have been aggressively investigated over recent years. Currently, the international clinical trial registry platform for this disease has been constructed and clinical trials for innovative therapeutic approaches are underway. Among these, exon skipping and read-through of nonsense mutations are in the most advanced stages, with exon skipping theoretically applicable to a larger number of patients. To date, exon skipping that targets exons 51, 44, 45, and 53 is being globally investigated including in USA, EU, and Japan. The latest announcement from Japan was made, demonstrating successful dystrophin production in muscles of patients with DMD after treating with exon 53 skipping antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs). However, the innovative therapeutic approaches have demonstrated limited efficacy. To address this issue in exon skipping, studies to unveil the mechanism underlying gymnotic delivery of ASO uptake in living cells have been conducted in an effort to improve in vivo delivery. Further, establishing the infrastructures to integrate multi-institutional clinical trials are needed to facilitate the development of successful therapies for DMD, which ultimately is applicable to other myopathies and neurodegenerative diseases, including spinal muscular atrophy and motor neuron diseases. PMID:27398133

  8. New clinical advances in immunotherapy for the treatment of solid tumours

    PubMed Central

    Zavala, Valentina A; Kalergis, Alexis M

    2015-01-01

    Advances in understanding the mechanisms of cancer cells for evading the immune system surveillance, including how the immune system modulates the phenotype of tumours, have allowed the development of new therapies that benefit from this complex cellular network to specifically target and destroy cancer cells. Immunotherapy researchers have mainly focused on the discovery of tumour antigens that could confer specificity to immune cells to detect and destroy cancer cells, as well as on the mechanisms leading to an improved activation of effector immune cells. The Food and Drug Administration approval in 2010 of ipilumumab for melanoma treatment and of pembrolizumab in 2014, monoclonal antibodies against T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 and programmed cell death 1, respectively, are encouraging examples of how research in this area can successfully translate into clinical use with promising results. Currently, several ongoing clinical trials are in progress testing new anti-cancer therapies based on the enhancement of immune cell activity against tumour antigens. Here we discuss the general concepts related to immunotherapy and the recent application to the treatment of cancer with positive results that support their consideration of clinical application to patients. PMID:25826229

  9. Differences in difficulty adjudicating clinical events in patients with advanced HIV disease.

    PubMed

    Eisenbud, R; Assmann, S F; Kalish, L A; van Der Horst, C; Collier, A C

    2001-09-01

    Adjudication of clinical events is often used as a quality assurance method in clinical research. During the design of the Viral Activation Transfusion Study (a clinical trial in patients with advanced HIV disease), a set of study endpoints was defined (primarily AIDS-defining conditions), criteria for confirmation of each event type were developed, and an adjudication procedure was established. The adjudication process included 1) an initial review of documentation of each event by two independent reviewers, 2) the opportunity to request additional information, 3) a second review either of additional documentation or of cases in which there was disagreement on first review, and 4) the consultation of a third reviewer if there was still disagreement. Overall, of 288 reported endpoints, 30% required additional documentation or more than one review, and 16% were not confirmed at the end of the adjudication process. However, these percentages varied widely over different types of events. For example, of 30 reported nonophthalmalogic cytomegalovirus events, 37% required additional documentation and 40% were not confirmed. In contrast, every one of 17 reported Pneumocystis cariini pneumonias were confirmed with no requirement for additional documentation. The results can be used to help design endpoint documentation and adjudication procedures for other studies, thereby improving data quality and reducing costs. PMID:11579276

  10. Natural products are the future of anticancer therapy: Preclinical and clinical advancements of Viscum album phytometabolites.

    PubMed

    Attar, R; Tabassum, S; Fayyaz, S; Ahmad, M S; Nogueira, D R; Yaylim, I; Timirci-Kahraman, O; Kucukhuseyin, O; Cacina, C; Farooqi, A A; Ismail, M

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a multifaceted and genomically complex disease. Research over the years has gradually provided a near complete resolution of cancer landscape and it is now known that genetic/epigenetic mutations, inactivation of tumor suppressors, Overexpression of oncogenes, spatio-temporally dysregulated intracellular signaling cascades, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), metastasis and loss of apoptosis are some of the most extensively studied biological mechanisms that underpin cancer development and progression. Increasingly it is being realized that current therapeutic interventions are becoming ineffective because of tumor heterogeneity and rapidly developing resistance against drugs. Considerable biological activities exerted by bioactive ingredients isolated from natural sources have revolutionized the field of natural product chemistry and rapid developments in preclinical studies are encouraging. Viscum album has emerged as a deeply studied natural source with substantial and multifaceted biological activities. In this review we have attempted to provide recent breakthroughs in existing scientific literature with emphasis on targeting of protein network in cancer cells. We partition this review into different sections, highlighting latest information from cell culture studies, preclinical and clinically oriented studies. We summarized how bioactive ingredients of Viscum album modulated extrinsic and intrinsic pathways in cancer cells. However, surprisingly, none of the study reported stimulatory effects on TRAIL receptors. The review provided in-depth analysis of how Viscum album modulated Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in cancer cells and how bioactive chemicals tactfully targeted cytoskeletal machinery in cancer cells as evidenced by cell culture studies. It is noteworthy that Viscum album has entered into various phases of clinical trials, however, there are still knowledge gaps in our understanding regarding how various bioactive constituents of

  11. Overall survival should be the primary endpoint in clinical trials for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cheema, P.K.; Burkes, R.L.

    2013-01-01

    An article in a recent edition of Current Oncology explored the validation of progression-free survival (pfs) as an endpoint in clinical trials of antineoplastic agents for metastatic colorectal cancer, metastatic renal cell carcinoma, and ovarian cancer. The support for pfs as a surrogate endpoint for overall survival (os) was elucidated. As with the aforementioned tumour types, advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (nsclc) has seen a rise in active agents since the year 2000. Those agents range from improved cytotoxics such as pemetrexed, to targeted therapies such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor and agents that target the EML4–ALK gene mutation. More recently, it has also become apparent that histology plays an important role in the response to and outcomes of treatment. With the therapeutic options for patients with advanced nsclc increasing, concerns are being raised that the efficacy of drugs measured by os may be diluted in clinical trials, thereby underestimating their true clinical benefit. That possibility, together with the need to have efficacious drugs available to patients earlier, has resulted in the search for a surrogate to the os endpoint in advanced nsclc. The present article follows up the recent article on pfs as a surrogate. Although advances in identifying pfs as a valid surrogate endpoint for os have been made in other tumour types, in advanced nsclc, such surrogacy has not been formally validated. Until it has, os should remain the primary endpoint of clinical trials in advanced nsclc. PMID:23559882

  12. Clinical accuracy of a continuous glucose monitoring system with an advanced algorithm.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Timothy S; Chang, Anna; Christiansen, Mark

    2015-03-01

    We assessed the performance of a modified Dexcom G4 Platinum system with an advanced algorithm, in comparison with frequent venous samples measured on a laboratory reference (YSI) during a clinic session and in comparison to self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG) during home use. Fifty-one subjects with diabetes were enrolled in a prospective multicenter study. Subjects wore 1 sensor for 7-day use and participated in one 12-hour in-clinic session on day 1, 4, or 7 to collect YSI reference venous glucose every 15 minutes and capillary SMBG test every 30 minutes. Carbohydrate consumption and insulin dosing and timing were manipulated to obtain data in low and high glucose ranges. In comparison with the laboratory reference method (n = 2,263) the system provided a mean and median absolute relative differences (ARD) of 9.0% and 7.0%, respectively. The mean absolute difference for CGM was 6.4 mg/dL when the YSIs were within hypoglycemia ranges (≤ 70 mg/dL). The percentage in the clinically accurate Clarke error grid A zone was 92.4% and in the benign error B zone was 7.1%. Majority of the sensors (73%) had an aggregated MARD in reference to YSI ≤ 10%. The MARD of CGM-SMBG for home use was 11.3%. The study showed that the point and rate accuracy, clinical accuracy, reliability, and consistency over the duration of wear and across glycemic ranges were superior to current commercial real-time CGM systems. The performance of this CGM is reaching that of a self-monitoring blood glucose meter in real use environment. PMID:25370149

  13. The effects of using screencasting as a multimedia pre-training tool to manage the intrinsic cognitive load of chemical equilibrium instruction for advanced high school chemistry students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musallam, Ramsey

    Chemistry is a complex knowledge domain. Specifically, research notes that Chemical Equilibrium presents greater cognitive challenges than other topics in chemistry. Cognitive Load Theory describes the impact a subject, and the learning environment, have on working memory. Intrinsic load is the facet of Cognitive Load Theory that explains the complexity innate to complex subjects. The purpose of this study was to build on the limited research into intrinsic cognitive load, by examining the effects of using multimedia screencasts as a pre-training technique to manage the intrinsic cognitive load of chemical equilibrium instruction for advanced high school chemistry students. A convenience sample of 62 fourth-year high school students enrolled in an advanced chemistry course from a co-ed high school in urban San Francisco were given a chemical equilibrium concept pre-test. Upon conclusion of the pre-test, students were randomly assigned to two groups: pre-training and no pre-training. The pre-training group received a 10 minute and 52 second pre-training screencast that provided definitions, concepts and an overview of chemical equilibrium. After pre-training both group received the same 50-minute instructional lecture. After instruction, all students were given a chemical equilibrium concept post-test. Independent sample t-tests were conducted to examine differences in performance and intrinsic load. No significant differences in performance or intrinsic load, as measured by ratings of mental effort, were observed on the pre-test. Significant differences in performance, t(60)=3.70, p=.0005, and intrinsic load, t(60)=5.34, p=.0001, were observed on the post-test. A significant correlation between total performance scores and total mental effort ratings was also observed, r(60)=-0.44, p=.0003. Because no significant differences in prior knowledge were observed, it can be concluded that pre-training was successful at reducing intrinsic load. Moreover, a significant

  14. Laboratory-based clinical audit as a tool for continual improvement: an example from CSF chemistry turnaround time audit in a South-African teaching hospital

    PubMed Central

    Imoh, Lucius C; Mutale, Mubanga; Parker, Christopher T; Erasmus, Rajiv T; Zemlin, Annalise E

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Timeliness of laboratory results is crucial to patient care and outcome. Monitoring turnaround times (TAT), especially for emergency tests, is important to measure the effectiveness and efficiency of laboratory services. Laboratory-based clinical audits reveal opportunities for improving quality. Our aim was to identify the most critical steps causing a high TAT for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) chemistry analysis in our laboratory. Materials and methods A 6-month retrospective audit was performed. The duration of each operational phase across the laboratory work flow was examined. A process-mapping audit trail of 60 randomly selected requests with a high TAT was conducted and reasons for high TAT were tested for significance. Results A total of 1505 CSF chemistry requests were analysed. Transport of samples to the laboratory was primarily responsible for the high average TAT (median TAT = 170 minutes). Labelling accounted for most delays within the laboratory (median TAT = 71 minutes) with most delays occurring after regular work hours (P < 0.05). CSF chemistry requests without the appropriate number of CSF sample tubes were significantly associated with delays in movement of samples from the labelling area to the technologist’s work station (caused by a preference for microbiological testing prior to CSF chemistry). Conclusion A laboratory-based clinical audit identified sample transportation, work shift periods and use of inappropriate CSF sample tubes as drivers of high TAT for CSF chemistry in our laboratory. The results of this audit will be used to change pre-analytical practices in our laboratory with the aim of improving TAT and customer satisfaction. PMID:27346964

  15. Circulating tumor cells: advances in isolation and analysis, and challenges for clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    Harouaka, Ramdane; Kang, Zhigang; Zheng, Siyang; Cao, Liang

    2013-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are rare cancer cells released from tumors into the bloodstream that are thought to have a key role in cancer metastasis. The presence of CTCs has been associated with worse prognosis in several major cancer types, including breast, prostate and colorectal cancer. There is considerable interest in CTC research and technologies for their potential use as cancer biomarkers that may enhance cancer diagnosis and prognosis, facilitate drug development, and improve the treatment of cancer patients. This review provides an update on recent progress in CTC isolation and molecular characterization technologies. Furthermore, the review covers significant advances and limitations in the clinical applications of CTC-based assays for cancer prognosis, response to anti-cancer therapies, and exploratory studies in biomarkers predictive of sensitivity and resistance to cancer therapies. PMID:24134902

  16. The cellular origin for malignant glioma and prospects for clinical advancements

    PubMed Central

    Zong, Hui; Verhaak, Roel GW; Canoll, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Glioma remains incurable despite great advancements in medicine. Targeting the cell of origin for gliomas could bring great hope for patients. However, as a collection of diverse diseases, each subtype of glioma could derive from a distinct cell of origin. To resolve such a complex problem, one must use multiple research approaches to gain deep insights. Here we review current evidence regarding the cell of origin from clinical observations, whole-genome molecular pathology and glioma animal models. We conclude that neural stem cells, glial progenitors (including oligodendrocyte progenitor cells) and astrocytes could all serve as cells of origin for gliomas, and that cells incurring initial mutations (cells of mutation) might not transform, while their progeny cells could instead transform and act as cells of origin. Further studies with multidisciplinary approaches are needed to link each subtype to a particular cell of origin, and to develop effective therapies that target the signaling network within these cells. PMID:22616703

  17. Clinical advances in geriatric psychiatry: a focus on prevention of mood and cognitive disorders

    PubMed Central

    Eyre, Harris; Baune, Bernhard; Lavretsky, Helen

    2015-01-01

    The world’s population is ageing in the 21st century at a rate unprecedented in human history, and this will place substantial pressure on health systems across the world along with concurrent rises in chronic diseases. In particular, rates of cognitive disorders and late-life affective disorders are expected to rise. In correlation with ageing, there are robust predictions suggesting rates of age-related cognitive decline and dementia, and geriatric depression, will rise with serious consequences. Clearly innovative prevention and treatment strategies are needed. Here we reviewed the latest promising clinical advances which hold promise for assisting the prevention and treatment of depression and cognitive decline and dementia. PMID:26300035

  18. An overview of the fundamentals of the chemistry of silica with relevance to biosilicification and technological advances.

    PubMed

    Belton, David J; Deschaume, Olivier; Perry, Carole C

    2012-05-01

    Biomineral formation is widespread in nature, and occurs in bacteria, single-celled protists, plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates. Minerals formed in the biological environment often show unusual physical properties (e.g. strength, degree of hydration) and often have structures that exhibit order on many length scales. Biosilica, found in single-celled organisms through to higher plants and primitive animals (sponges), is formed from an environment that is undersaturated with respect to silicon, and under conditions of approximately neutral pH and relatively low temperatures of 4-40 °C compared to those used industrially. Formation of the mineral may occur intracellularly or extracellularly, and specific biochemical locations for mineral deposition that include lipids, proteins and carbohydrates are known. In most cases, the formation of the mineral phase is linked to cellular processes, an understanding of which could lead to the design of new materials for biomedical, optical and other applications. In this contribution, we describe the aqueous chemistry of silica, from uncondensed monomers through to colloidal particles and 3D structures, that is relevant to the environment from which the biomineral forms. We then describe the chemistry of silica formation from alkoxides such as tetraethoxysilane, as this and other silanes have been used to study the chemistry of silica formation using silicatein, and such precursors are often used in the preparation of silicas for technological applications. The focus of this article is on the methods, experimental and computational, by which the process of silica formation can be studied, with an emphasis on speciation. PMID:22333209

  19. Phase I clinical trial of multiple-peptide vaccination for patients with advanced biliary tract cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The prognosis of patients with advanced biliary tract cancer (BTC) is extremely poor and only a few standard treatments are available for this condition. We performed a phase I trial to investigate the safety, immune response and anti-tumor effect of vaccination with three peptides derived from cancer-testis antigens. Methods This study was conducted as a phase I trial. Nine patients with advanced BTC who had unresectable tumors and were refractory to standard chemotherapy were enrolled. Three HLA-A*2402 restricted epitope peptides-cell division cycle associated 1 (CDCA1), cadherin 3 (CDH3) and kinesin family member 20A (KIF20A)-were administered subcutaneously, and the adverse events and immune response were assessed. The clinical effects observed were the tumor response, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Results The three-peptide vaccination was well-tolerated up to a dose of 3 mg per peptide (9 mg total). No grade 3 or 4 adverse events were observed after vaccination. Peptide-specific T cell immune responses were observed in all patients and stable disease was observed in 5 of 9 patients. The median PFS and OS were 3.4 and 9.7 months. The Grade 2 injection site reaction and continuous vaccination after PD judgment appeared to be prognostic of OS. Conclusions Multiple-peptide vaccination was well tolerated and induced peptide-specific T-cell responses. Trial registration This study was registered with the University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR000003229). PMID:24606884

  20. Clinical significance of systematic retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy during interval debulking surgery in advanced ovarian cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Takada, Toshio; Iitsuka, Chiaki; Nomura, Hidetaka; Abe, Akiko; Taniguchi, Tomoko; Takizawa, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical significance of systematic retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy during interval debulking surgery (IDS) in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 124 advanced EOC patients and analyzed the details of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT), IDS, postoperative treatment, and prognoses. Results Following IDS, 98 patients had no gross residual disease (NGRD), 15 had residual disease sized <1 cm (optimal), and 11 had residual disease sized ≥1 cm (suboptimal). Two-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) rates were 88.8% and 39.8% in the NGRD group, 40.0% and 13.3% in the optimal group (p<0.001 vs. NGRD for both), and 36.3% and 0% in the suboptimal group, respectively. Five-year OS and 2-year PFS rates were 62% and 56.1% in the lymph node-negative (LN-) group and 26.2% and 24.5% in the lymph node-positive (LN+) group (p=0.0033 and p=0.0024 vs. LN-, respectively). Furthermore, survival in the LN+ group, despite surgical removal of positive nodes, was the same as that in the unknown LN status group, in which lymphadenectomy was not performed (p=0.616 and p=0.895, respectively). Multivariate analysis identified gross residual tumor during IDS (hazard ratio, 3.68; 95% confidence interval, 1.31 to 10.33 vs. NGRD) as the only independent predictor of poor OS. Conclusion NGRD after IDS improved prognosis in advanced EOC patients treated with NACT-IDS. However, while systematic retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy during IDS may predict outcome, it does not confer therapeutic benefits. PMID:26197771

  1. Persistent Uroplakin Expression in Advanced Urothelial Carcinomas: Implications in Urothelial Tumor Progression and Clinical Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hong-Ying; Shariat, Shahrokh F.; Sun, Tung-Tien; Lepor, Herbert; Shapiro, Ellen; Hsieh, Jer-Tsong; Ashfaq, Raheela; Lotan, Yair; Wu, Xue-Ru

    2007-01-01

    As the terminal differentiation products of human urothelium, uroplakins (UPs) would be expected to diminish during urothelial tumorigenesis. Surprisingly, recent studies found UPs to be retained even by well-advanced urothelial carcinomas, suggesting that the loss of UPs does not strictly parallel urothelial transformation. Little is known, however, about whether the status of UPs is associated with a particular pathological parameter, tumor’s biological behavior or patient outcome. Here we assessed UP expression by immunohistochemistry on tissue arrays from 285 patients with bladder urothelial carcinomas or non-tumor conditions. UPs were expressed in all 9 normal urothelial specimens, 63/74 (85%) patients with non-muscle-invasive urothelial carcinomas on transurethral resection, 104/202 (51.5%) patients who underwent radical cystectomy for advanced urothelial carcinomas, and 33/50 (66%) lymph node metastases. Normally associated with urothelial apical surface, UPs were localized aberrantly in tumors, including micro-luminal, basal-laminal, cytoplasmic or uniform patterns. In non-muscle-invasive diseases, there was no association between UP expression and disease recurrence, progression or mortality. In contrast, in invasive diseases, absent UP expression was significantly associated with advanced pathologic stage, lymph node metastases, disease recurrence and bladder cancer-specific mortality (p=0.042, p=0.035, p=0.023 and p=0.022, respectively) in univariate analyses. Furthermore, UP status was independent of key cell-cycle regulators, including p53, pRb, p27 and cyclin D1, thus excluding a functional link between these two groups of proteins. Our data demonstrate for the first time that persistent UP expression is associated with a favorable clinical outcome and that UPs may be used as adjunct markers for predicting the prognoses of patients with invasive and metastatic bladder carcinomas. Our results also suggest that UP-positive and –negative carcinomas

  2. Plasma genetic and genomic abnormalities predict treatment response and clinical outcome in advanced prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Xia, Shu; Kohli, Manish; Du, Meijun; Dittmar, Rachel L; Lee, Adam; Nandy, Debashis; Yuan, Tiezheng; Guo, Yongchen; Wang, Yuan; Tschannen, Michael R; Worthey, Elizabeth; Jacob, Howard; See, William; Kilari, Deepak; Wang, Xuexia; Hovey, Raymond L; Huang, Chiang-Ching; Wang, Liang

    2015-06-30

    Liquid biopsies, examinations of tumor components in body fluids, have shown promise for predicting clinical outcomes. To evaluate tumor-associated genomic and genetic variations in plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) and their associations with treatment response and overall survival, we applied whole genome and targeted sequencing to examine the plasma cfDNAs derived from 20 patients with advanced prostate cancer. Sequencing-based genomic abnormality analysis revealed locus-specific gains or losses that were common in prostate cancer, such as 8q gains, AR amplifications, PTEN losses and TMPRSS2-ERG fusions. To estimate tumor burden in cfDNA, we developed a Plasma Genomic Abnormality (PGA) score by summing the most significant copy number variations. Cox regression analysis showed that PGA scores were significantly associated with overall survival (p < 0.04). After androgen deprivation therapy or chemotherapy, targeted sequencing showed significant mutational profile changes in genes involved in androgen biosynthesis, AR activation, DNA repair, and chemotherapy resistance. These changes may reflect the dynamic evolution of heterozygous tumor populations in response to these treatments. These results strongly support the feasibility of using non-invasive liquid biopsies as potential tools to study biological mechanisms underlying therapy-specific resistance and to predict disease progression in advanced prostate cancer. PMID:25915538

  3. In utero stem cell transplantation and gene therapy: rationale, history, and recent advances toward clinical application

    PubMed Central

    Almeida-Porada, Graça; Atala, Anthony; Porada, Christopher D

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in high-throughput molecular testing have made it possible to diagnose most genetic disorders relatively early in gestation with minimal risk to the fetus. These advances should soon allow widespread prenatal screening for the majority of human genetic diseases, opening the door to the possibility of treatment/correction prior to birth. In addition to the obvious psychological and financial benefits of curing a disease in utero, and thereby enabling the birth of a healthy infant, there are multiple biological advantages unique to fetal development, which provide compelling rationale for performing potentially curative treatments, such as stem cell transplantation or gene therapy, prior to birth. Herein, we briefly review the fields of in utero transplantation (IUTx) and in utero gene therapy and discuss the biological hurdles that have thus far restricted success of IUTx to patients with immunodeficiencies. We then highlight several recent experimental breakthroughs in immunology, hematopoietic/marrow ontogeny, and in utero cell delivery, which have collectively provided means of overcoming these barriers, thus setting the stage for clinical application of these highly promising therapies in the near future. PMID:27069953

  4. Plasma genetic and genomic abnormalities predict treatment response and clinical outcome in advanced prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Du, Meijun; Dittmar, Rachel L.; Lee, Adam; Nandy, Debashis; Yuan, Tiezheng; Guo, Yongchen; Wang, Yuan; Tschannen, Michael R.; Worthey, Elizabeth; Jacob, Howard; See, William; Kilari, Deepak; Wang, Xuexia; Hovey, Raymond L.; Huang, Chiang-Ching; Wang, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Liquid biopsies, examinations of tumor components in body fluids, have shown promise for predicting clinical outcomes. To evaluate tumor-associated genomic and genetic variations in plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) and their associations with treatment response and overall survival, we applied whole genome and targeted sequencing to examine the plasma cfDNAs derived from 20 patients with advanced prostate cancer. Sequencing-based genomic abnormality analysis revealed locus-specific gains or losses that were common in prostate cancer, such as 8q gains, AR amplifications, PTEN losses and TMPRSS2-ERG fusions. To estimate tumor burden in cfDNA, we developed a Plasma Genomic Abnormality (PGA) score by summing the most significant copy number variations. Cox regression analysis showed that PGA scores were significantly associated with overall survival (p < 0.04). After androgen deprivation therapy or chemotherapy, targeted sequencing showed significant mutational profile changes in genes involved in androgen biosynthesis, AR activation, DNA repair, and chemotherapy resistance. These changes may reflect the dynamic evolution of heterozygous tumor populations in response to these treatments. These results strongly support the feasibility of using non-invasive liquid biopsies as potential tools to study biological mechanisms underlying therapy-specific resistance and to predict disease progression in advanced prostate cancer. PMID:25915538

  5. In utero stem cell transplantation and gene therapy: rationale, history, and recent advances toward clinical application.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Porada, Graça; Atala, Anthony; Porada, Christopher D

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in high-throughput molecular testing have made it possible to diagnose most genetic disorders relatively early in gestation with minimal risk to the fetus. These advances should soon allow widespread prenatal screening for the majority of human genetic diseases, opening the door to the possibility of treatment/correction prior to birth. In addition to the obvious psychological and financial benefits of curing a disease in utero, and thereby enabling the birth of a healthy infant, there are multiple biological advantages unique to fetal development, which provide compelling rationale for performing potentially curative treatments, such as stem cell transplantation or gene therapy, prior to birth. Herein, we briefly review the fields of in utero transplantation (IUTx) and in utero gene therapy and discuss the biological hurdles that have thus far restricted success of IUTx to patients with immunodeficiencies. We then highlight several recent experimental breakthroughs in immunology, hematopoietic/marrow ontogeny, and in utero cell delivery, which have collectively provided means of overcoming these barriers, thus setting the stage for clinical application of these highly promising therapies in the near future. PMID:27069953

  6. Photodynamic therapy of locally advanced pancreatic cancer (VERTPAC study): final clinical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huggett, M. T.; Jermyn, M.; Gillams, A.; Mosse, S.; Kent, E.; Bown, S. G.; Hasan, T.; Pogue, B. W.; Pereira, S. P.

    2013-03-01

    We undertook a phase I dose-escalation study of verteporfin photodynamic therapy (PDT) in 15 patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer. Needle placement and laser delivery were technically successful in all patients. Thirteen patients were treated with a single laser fibre. Three treatments were carried out each at 5, 10 and 20 J/cm2; and 5 treatments (4 patients) at 40 J/cm2. A further 2 patients were treated with 2 or 3 laser fibres at 40 J/cm2. Tumour necrosis was measured on CT (computed tomography) by two radiologists 5 days after treatment. There was a clear dosedependent increase in necrosis with a median area of 20 x 16 mm (range 18 x 16 to 35 x 30 mm) at 40 J/cm2. In the 2 patients treated with multiple fibres, necrosis was 40 x 36 mm and 30 x 28 mm, respectively. There were no early complications in patients treated with a single fibre. Both patients treated with multiple fibres had evidence on CT of inflammatory change occurring anterior to the pancreas but without clinical deterioration. These results suggest that single fibre verteporfin PDT is safe in a clinical setting up to 40J/cm2 and produces a dose-dependent area of pancreatic necrosis.

  7. Advancing clinical development pathways for new CFTR modulators in cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Mayer-Hamblett, Nicole; Boyle, Michael; VanDevanter, Donald

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-shortening genetic disease affecting approximately 70 000 individuals worldwide. Until recently, drug development efforts have emphasised therapies treating downstream signs and symptoms resulting from the underlying CF biological defect: reduced function of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein. The current CF drug development landscape has expanded to include therapies that enhance CFTR function by either restoring wild-type CFTR protein expression or increasing (modulating) the function of mutant CFTR proteins in cells. To date, two systemic small-molecule CFTR modulators have been evaluated in pivotal clinical trials in individuals with CF and specific mutant CFTR genotypes that have led to regulatory review and/or approval. Advances in the discovery of CFTR modulators as a promising new class of therapies have been impressive, yet work remains to develop highly effective, disease-modifying modulators for individuals of all CF genotypes. The objectives of this review are to outline the challenges and opportunities in drug development created by systemic genotype-specific CFTR modulators, highlight the advantages of sweat chloride as an established biomarker of CFTR activity to streamline early-phase development and summarise options for later phase clinical trial designs that respond to the adoption of approved genotype-specific modulators into standard of care. An optimal development framework will be needed to move the most promising therapies efficiently through the drug development pipeline and ultimately deliver efficacious and safe therapies to all individuals with CF. PMID:26903594

  8. Current clinical advances and future perspectives in the psychiatry/mental health field of Latin America.

    PubMed

    Cía, Alfredo H; Rojas, Rodrigo Córdoba; Adad, Miguel Abib

    2010-01-01

    The history of Mental Health in Latin America is relatively young. It dates back to the mid nineteenth century and widely developed during the twentieth century, with formidable scientific, social, political, and ethical challenges. Latin American psychiatry has contributed in the fields of epidemiology, phenomenology, social psychiatry, psychiatric and epistemological research, and clinical genetics as well. More recent advances can also be seen in clinical psychotherapy and psychopharmacology. Now, there is a formal and informal recognition of various areas of expertise, such as children and adolescents, addictions, anxiety disorders, among others. However, we need to solve the health problems resulting from mental illnesses as well as the disorders related to the social, environmental, political, and economic factors of a continent marked by the precariousness of underdevelopment, which have a high impact on population health. Therefore, considering and trying to minimize the impact of those factors, contributing to the destigmatization of mental illnesses and their consequences, together with the growing number of non-governmental organizations (NGOs), human rights defenders, public figures, etc., and collaborating in building a society that guarantees the right to mental health and adequate treatment and rehabilitation are part of our present challenges in Latin America. PMID:20874063

  9. Advancing clinical development pathways for new CFTR modulators in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Mayer-Hamblett, Nicole; Boyle, Michael; VanDevanter, Donald

    2016-05-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-shortening genetic disease affecting approximately 70,000 individuals worldwide. Until recently, drug development efforts have emphasised therapies treating downstream signs and symptoms resulting from the underlying CF biological defect: reduced function of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein. The current CF drug development landscape has expanded to include therapies that enhance CFTR function by either restoring wild-type CFTR protein expression or increasing (modulating) the function of mutant CFTR proteins in cells. To date, two systemic small-molecule CFTR modulators have been evaluated in pivotal clinical trials in individuals with CF and specific mutant CFTR genotypes that have led to regulatory review and/or approval. Advances in the discovery of CFTR modulators as a promising new class of therapies have been impressive, yet work remains to develop highly effective, disease-modifying modulators for individuals of all CF genotypes. The objectives of this review are to outline the challenges and opportunities in drug development created by systemic genotype-specific CFTR modulators, highlight the advantages of sweat chloride as an established biomarker of CFTR activity to streamline early-phase development and summarise options for later phase clinical trial designs that respond to the adoption of approved genotype-specific modulators into standard of care. An optimal development framework will be needed to move the most promising therapies efficiently through the drug development pipeline and ultimately deliver efficacious and safe therapies to all individuals with CF. PMID:26903594

  10. Application of Molecular Profiling in Clinical Trials for Advanced Metastatic Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Williams, P. Mickey; Lih, Chih-Jian; Polley, Eric C.; Chen, Alice P.; Rubinstein, Larry V.; Zhao, Yingdong; Simon, Richard M.; Conley, Barbara A.; Doroshow, James H.

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in the application of molecular profiling, including sequencing, genotyping, and/or mRNA expression profiling, to the analysis of patient tumors with the objective of applying these data to inform therapeutic choices for patients with advanced cancers. Multiple clinical trials that are attempting to validate this personalized or precision medicine approach are in various stages of development and execution. Although preliminary data from some of these efforts have fueled excitement about the value and utility of these studies, their execution has also provoked many questions about the best way to approach complicating factors such as tumor heterogeneity and the choice of which genetic mutations to target. This commentary highlights some of the challenges confronting the clinical application of molecular tumor profiling and the various trial designs being utilized to address these challenges. Randomized trials that rigorously test patient response to molecularly targeted agents assigned based on the presence of a defined set of mutations in putative cancer-driving pathways are required to address some of the current challenges and to identify patients likely to benefit from this approach. PMID:25663694

  11. Chemistry in Microfluidic Channels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chia, Matthew C.; Sweeney, Christina M.; Odom, Teri W.

    2011-01-01

    General chemistry introduces principles such as acid-base chemistry, mixing, and precipitation that are usually demonstrated in bulk solutions. In this laboratory experiment, we describe how chemical reactions can be performed in a microfluidic channel to show advanced concepts such as laminar fluid flow and controlled precipitation. Three sets of…

  12. Complementary Spectroscopic Assays for Investigating Protein-Ligand Binding Activity: A Project for the Advanced Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascotti, David P.; Waner, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    A protein-ligand binding, guided-inquiry laboratory project with potential application across the advanced undergraduate curriculum is described. At the heart of the project are fluorescence and spectrophotometric assays utilizing biotin-4-fluorescein and streptavidin. The use of the same stock solutions for an assay that may be examined by two…

  13. MRI Helps Depict Clinically Undetectable Risk Factors in Advanced Stage Retinoblastomas

    PubMed Central

    Hadjistilianou, Theodora; Cerase, Alfonso; Toti, Paolo; Leonini, Sara; Bracco, Sandra; de Francesco, Sonia; Galimberti, Daniela; Balducci, Donatella; Piu, Pietro; Monti, Lucia; Bellini, Matteo; Caini, Mauro; Rossi, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY This study compared high-resolution MRI with histology in advanced stage retinoblastomas in which ophthalmoscopy and ultrasonography did not give an exhaustive depiction of the tumour and/or its extension. MRI of orbits and head in 28 retinoblastoma patients (28 eyes) treated with primary enucleation were evaluated. Iris neoangiogenesis, infiltrations of optic nerve, choroid, anterior segment and sclera suspected at MR and histology were compared. Abnormal anterior segment enhancement (AASE) was also correlated with histologically proven infiltrations. Brain images were also evaluated. Significant values were obtained for: prelaminar optic nerve (ON) sensitivity (0.88), positive predictive value (PPV) (0.75) and negative predictive value (NPV) (0.71); post-laminar ON sensitivity (0.50), specificity (0.83), PPV (0.50) and NPV (0.83); overall choroid sensitivity (0.82), and massive choroid NPV (0.69); scleral specificity (1), and NPV (1). AASE correlated with iris neoangiogenesis in 14 out of 19 eyes, and showed significant values for: overall ON PPV (0.65), prelaminar ON sensitivity (0.65), and PPV (0.61), post-laminar ON NPV (0.64); overall choroid sensitivity (0.77), PPV (0.59) and NPV (0.73); scleral NPV (0.83); anterior segment sensitivity (1), and NPV (1). Odds ratios (OR) and accuracy were significant in scleral and prelaminar optic nerve infiltration. Brain examination was unremarkable in all cases. High-resolution MRI may add important findings to clinical evaluation of advanced stage retinoblastomas. PMID:25924174

  14. Hypermetabolism and symptom burden in advanced cancer patients evaluated in a cachexia clinic

    PubMed Central

    Dev, Rony; Hui, David; Chisholm, Gary; Delgado-Guay, Marvin; Dalal, Shalini; Del Fabbro, Egidio; Bruera, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Background Elevated resting energy expenditure (REE) may contribute to weight loss and symptom burden in cancer patients. Aims The aim of this study was to compare the velocity of weight loss, symptom burden (fatigue, insomnia, anxiety, and anorexia—combined score as measured by the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Score), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and survival among cancer patients referred to a cachexia clinic with hypermetabolism, elevated REE > 110% of predicted, with normal REE. Methods A retrospective analysis of 60 advanced cancer patients evaluated in a cachexia clinic for either >5% weight loss or anorexia who underwent indirect calorimetry to measure REE. Patients were dichotomized to either elevated or normal REE. Descriptive statistics were generated, and a two-sample Student's t-tests were used to compare the outcomes between the groups. Kaplan–Meier and Cox regression methodology were used to examine the survival times between groups. Results Thirty-seven patients (62%) were men, 41 (68%) were White, 59 (98%) solid tumours, predominantly 23 gastrointestinal cancers (38%), with a median age of 60 (95% confidence interval 57.0–62.9). Thirty-five patients (58%) were hypermetabolic. Non-Caucasian patients were more likely to have high REE [odds ratio = 6.17 (1.56, 24.8), P = 0.01]. No statistical difference regarding age, cancer type, gender, active treatment with chemotherapy, and/or radiation between hypermetabolic and normal REE was noted. The velocity of weight loss over a 3 month period (−8.5 kg vs. −7.2 kg, P = 0.68), C-reactive protein (37.3 vs. 55.6 mg/L, P = 0.70), symptom burden (4.2 vs. 4.5, P = 0.54), and survival (288 vs. 276 days, P = 0.68) was not significantly different between high vs. normal REE, respectively. Conclusion Hypermetabolism is common in cancer patients with weight loss and noted to be more frequent in non-Caucasian patients. No association among velocity of weight loss

  15. Computational chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, J. O.

    1987-01-01

    With the advent of supercomputers, modern computational chemistry algorithms and codes, a powerful tool was created to help fill NASA's continuing need for information on the properties of matter in hostile or unusual environments. Computational resources provided under the National Aerodynamics Simulator (NAS) program were a cornerstone for recent advancements in this field. Properties of gases, materials, and their interactions can be determined from solutions of the governing equations. In the case of gases, for example, radiative transition probabilites per particle, bond-dissociation energies, and rates of simple chemical reactions can be determined computationally as reliably as from experiment. The data are proving to be quite valuable in providing inputs to real-gas flow simulation codes used to compute aerothermodynamic loads on NASA's aeroassist orbital transfer vehicles and a host of problems related to the National Aerospace Plane Program. Although more approximate, similar solutions can be obtained for ensembles of atoms simulating small particles of materials with and without the presence of gases. Computational chemistry has application in studying catalysis, properties of polymers, all of interest to various NASA missions, including those previously mentioned. In addition to discussing these applications of computational chemistry within NASA, the governing equations and the need for supercomputers for their solution is outlined.

  16. Advanced modeling of nitrogen oxide emissions in circulating fluidized bed combustors: Parametric study of coal combustion and nitrogen compound chemistries

    SciTech Connect

    Kilpinen, P.; Kallio, S.; Hupa, M.

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes work-in-progress aimed at developing an emission model for circulating fluidized bed combustors using detailed homogeneous and heterogeneous chemical kinetics. The main emphasis is on nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}, N{sub 2}O) but also unburned gases (CO, C{sub x}H{sub y}) and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) will be investigated in the long run. The hydrodynamics is described by a 1.5-dimensional model where the riser is divided into three regions: a dense bubbling bed at the bottom, a vigorously mixed splash zone, and a transport zone. The two latter zones are horizontally split into a core region and an annular region. The solids circulation rate is calculated from the known solids inventory and the pressure and mass balances over the entire circulation loop. The solids are divided into classes according to size and type or particle. The model assumes instantaneous fuel devolatilization at the bottom and an even distribution of volatiles in the suspension phase of the dense bed. For addition of secondary air, a complete penetration and an instantaneous mixing with the combustor gases in the core region is assumed. The temperature distribution is assumed to be known, and no energy balance is solved. A comprehensive kinetic scheme of about 300 elementary gas-phase reactions is used to describe the homogeneous oxidation of the volatiles including both hydrocarbon and volatile-nitrogen components (NH{sub 3}, HCN). Heterogeneous char combustion to CO and CO{sub 2}, and char-nitrogen conversion to NO, N{sub 2}O, and N{sub 2} are described by a single particle model that includes 15 reaction steps given in the form of 6 net reaction paths. In the paper, the model is briefly described. A special emphasis is put on the evaluation of chemistry submodels. Modeling results on nitrogen oxides' formation are compared with measured concentration profiles in a 12 MW CFBC riser from literature. The importance of accurate chemistry description on predictions is

  17. Computational Chemistry in the Pharmaceutical Industry: From Childhood to Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Hillisch, Alexander; Heinrich, Nikolaus; Wild, Hanno

    2015-12-01

    Computational chemistry within the pharmaceutical industry has grown into a field that proactively contributes to many aspects of drug design, including target selection and lead identification and optimization. While methodological advancements have been key to this development, organizational developments have been crucial to our success as well. In particular, the interaction between computational and medicinal chemistry and the integration of computational chemistry into the entire drug discovery process have been invaluable. Over the past ten years we have shaped and developed a highly efficient computational chemistry group for small-molecule drug discovery at Bayer HealthCare that has significantly impacted the clinical development pipeline. In this article we describe the setup and tasks of the computational group and discuss external collaborations. We explain what we have found to be the most valuable and productive methods and discuss future directions for computational chemistry method development. We share this information with the hope of igniting interesting discussions around this topic. PMID:26358802

  18. Chemistry of soil solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Elprince, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    Designed for advanced undergraduate and graduate students and researchers, this book serves as an introduction to the field of soil chemistry and associated fields such as aquatic chemistry, geochemistry, environmental chemistry, oceanography, and public health. The volume includes discussions on the structure of adsorbed water, adsorption of inorganics, solubility, redox, solute transport, chemical modeling, and sampling and monitoring the soil solution. Important papers on these topics together with editor's comments place each of the carefully chosen papers in the proper context. Because the chemistry of soil solutions requires the knowledge of many aspects of science, introductory information is provided for each topic to cover its history of development, present knowledge, and future prospects.

  19. Recent advances and clinical application of erythropoietin and erythropoiesis-stimulating agents.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Tetsuhiro; Nangaku, Masaomi

    2012-05-15

    Erythropoietin (EPO) is an essential glycoprotein that facilitates red blood cell maturation from erythroid progenitors and mediates erythropoiesis. The use of recombinant human EPO (rhEPO) dramatically changed management of anemic patients with chronic kidney disease and improved their quality of life. EPO is mainly produced in the fetal liver and the postnatal kidney, although the molecular determinants for tissue-specific expression are elusive. Meanwhile, recent advances established a role of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF) in transcriptionally upregulating EPO in hypoxia. Out of three HIF- isoforms, HIF-2 appears to play a central role. Prolyl hydroxylase domain-containing protein (PHD), a key regulator connecting oxygen availability and HIF-α expression, is also involved in hypoxic induction of EPO mRNA and the precise roles of PHD paralogs in erythropoiesis are now beginning to be uncovered. On the other hand, widespread expression of EPO receptors (EPOR) beyond erythroid progenitors led to the discovery of non-hematopoietic, pleiotropic roles of EPO in the brain, the heart and the kidney. The precise signal transduction pathways of pleiotropic EPO remain unclear, but carbamylated EPO, which fails to bind to the canonical EPOR homodimers or transduce the JAK2-STAT5 signaling, conferred organ protection through multimeric receptors composed of EPO-R and the common β subunit (βCR). The clinical benefit of normalization of anemia in pre-dialysis CKD by EPO therapy is controversial and recent large-scale, randomized-controlled trials do not favor normalization of anemia by EPO in improving cardiovascular as well as renal outcomes. The optimal EPO therapy should be determined based on the clinical context of individual patients. PMID:22414872

  20. Clinical factors of post-chemoradiotherapy as valuable indicators for pathological complete response in locally advanced rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Jianhong; Lin, Junzhong; Qiu, Miaozhen; Wu, Xiaojun; Lu, Zhenhai; Chen, Gong; Li, Liren; Ding, Peirong; Gao, Yuanhong; Zeng, Zhifan; Zhang, Huizhong; Wan, Desen; Pan, Zhizhong

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Pathological complete response has shown a better prognosis for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer after preoperative chemoradiotherapy. However, correlations between post-chemoradiotherapy clinical factors and pathologic complete response are not well confirmed. The aim of the current study was to identify post-chemoradiotherapy clinical factors that could serve as indicators of pathologic complete response in locally advanced rectal cancer. METHODS: This study retrospectively analyzed 544 consecutive patients with locally advanced rectal cancer treated at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center from December 2003 to June 2014. All patients received preoperative chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify post-chemoradiotherapy clinical factors that are significant indicators of pathologic complete response. RESULTS: In this study, 126 of 544 patients (23.2%) achieved pathological complete response. In multivariate analyses, increased pathological complete response rate was significantly associated with the following factors: post-chemoradiotherapy clinical T stage 0-2 (odds ratio=2.098, 95% confidence interval=1.023-4.304, p=0.043), post-chemoradiotherapy clinical N stage 0 (odds ratio=2.011, 95% confidence interval=1.264-3.201, p=0.003), interval from completion of preoperative chemoradiotherapy to surgery of >7 weeks (odds ratio=1.795, 95% confidence interval=1.151-2.801, p=0.010) and post-chemoradiotherapy carcinoembryonic antigen ≤2 ng/ml (odds ratio=1.579, 95% confidence interval=1.026-2.432, p=0.038). CONCLUSIONS: Post-chemoradiotherapy clinical T stage 0-2, post-chemoradiotherapy clinical N stage 0, interval from completion of chemoradiotherapy to surgery of >7 weeks and post-chemoradiotherapy carcinoembryonic antigen ≤2 ng/ml were independent clinical indicators for pathological complete response. These findings demonstrate that post-chemoradiotherapy clinical

  1. ‘You can’t just hit a button’: an ethnographic study of strategies to repurpose data from advanced clinical information systems for clinical process improvement

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Current policies encourage healthcare institutions to acquire clinical information systems (CIS) so that captured data can be used for secondary purposes, including clinical process improvement. Such policies do not account for the extra work required to repurpose data for uses other than direct clinical care, making their implementation problematic. This paper aims to analyze the strategies employed by clinical units to use data effectively for both direct clinical care and clinical process improvement. Methods Ethnographic methods were employed. A total of 54 contextual interviews with health professionals spanning various disciplines and 18 hours of observation were carried out in 5 intensive care units in England using an advanced CIS. Case studies of how the extra work was achieved in each unit were derived from the data and then compared. Results We found that extra work is required to repurpose CIS data for clinical process improvement. Health professionals must enter data not required for clinical care and manipulation of this data into a machine-readable form is often necessary. Ambiguity over who should be responsible for this extra work hindered CIS data usage for clinical process improvement. We describe 11 strategies employed by units to accommodate this extra work, distributing it across roles. Seven of these motivated data entry by health professionals and four addressed the machine readability of data. Many of the strategies relied heavily on the skill and leadership of local clinical customizers. Conclusions To realize the expected clinical process improvements by the use of CIS data, clinical leaders and policy makers need to recognize and support the redistribution of the extra work that is involved in data repurposing. Adequate time, funding, and appropriate motivation are needed to enable units to acquire and deliver the necessary skills in CIS customization. PMID:23574920

  2. Click Chemistry-Mediated Nanosensors for Biochemical Assays

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yiping; Xianyu, Yunlei; Wu, Jing; Yin, Binfeng; Jiang, Xingyu

    2016-01-01

    Click chemistry combined with functional nanoparticles have drawn increasing attention in biochemical assays because they are promising in developing biosensors with effective signal transformation/amplification and straightforward signal readout for clinical diagnostic assays. In this review, we focus on the latest advances of biochemical assays based on Cu (I)-catalyzed 1, 3-dipolar cycloaddition of azides and alkynes (CuAAC)-mediated nanosensors, as well as the functionalization of nanoprobes based on click chemistry. Nanoprobes including gold nanoparticles, quantum dots, magnetic nanoparticles and carbon nanomaterials are covered. We discuss the advantages of click chemistry-mediated nanosensors for biochemical assays, and give perspectives on the development of click chemistry-mediated approaches for clinical diagnosis and other biomedical applications. PMID:27217831

  3. Click Chemistry-Mediated Nanosensors for Biochemical Assays.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yiping; Xianyu, Yunlei; Wu, Jing; Yin, Binfeng; Jiang, Xingyu

    2016-01-01

    Click chemistry combined with functional nanoparticles have drawn increasing attention in biochemical assays because they are promising in developing biosensors with effective signal transformation/amplification and straightforward signal readout for clinical diagnostic assays. In this review, we focus on the latest advances of biochemical assays based on Cu (I)-catalyzed 1, 3-dipolar cycloaddition of azides and alkynes (CuAAC)-mediated nanosensors, as well as the functionalization of nanoprobes based on click chemistry. Nanoprobes including gold nanoparticles, quantum dots, magnetic nanoparticles and carbon nanomaterials are covered. We discuss the advantages of click chemistry-mediated nanosensors for biochemical assays, and give perspectives on the development of click chemistry-mediated approaches for clinical diagnosis and other biomedical applications. PMID:27217831

  4. Clinical Chemistry Reference Intervals for C57BL/6J, C57BL/6N, and C3HeB/FeJ Mice (Mus musculus).

    PubMed

    Otto, Gordon P; Rathkolb, Birgit; Oestereicher, Manuela A; Lengger, Christoph J; Moerth, Corinna; Micklich, Kateryna; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Wolf, Eckhard; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Although various mouse inbred strains are widely used to investigate disease mechanisms and to establish new therapeutic strategies, sex-specific reference intervals for laboratory diagnostic analytes that are generated from large numbers of animals have been unavailable. In this retrospective study, we screened data from more than 12,000 mice phenotyped in the German Mouse Clinic from January 2006 through June 2014 and selected animals with the genetic background of C57BL/6J, C57BL/6N, or C3HeB/FeJ. In addition, we distinguished between the C57BL/6NTac substrain and C57BL/6N mice received from other vendors. The corresponding data sets of electrolytes (sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, inorganic phosphate), lipids (cholesterol, triglyceride), and enzyme activities (ALT, AST, ALP, α-amylase) and urea, albumin, and total protein levels were analyzed. Significant effects of age and sex on these analytes were identified, and strain- or substrain- and sex-specific reference intervals for 90- to 135-d-old mice were calculated. In addition, we include an overview of the literature that reports clinical chemistry values for wild-type mice of different strains. Our results support researchers interpreting clinical chemistry values from various mouse mutants and corresponding wild-type controls based on the examined strains and substrains. PMID:27423143

  5. Advances in inducing adaptive immunity using cell-based cancer vaccines: Clinical applications in pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kajihara, Mikio; Takakura, Kazuki; Kanai, Tomoya; Ito, Zensho; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Shimodaira, Shigetaka; Okamoto, Masato; Ohkusa, Toshifumi; Koido, Shigeo

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is on the rise, and the prognosis is extremely poor because PDA is highly aggressive and notoriously difficult to treat. Although gemcitabine- or 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy is typically offered as a standard of care, most patients do not survive longer than 1 year. Therefore, the development of alternative therapeutic approaches for patients with PDA is imperative. As PDA cells express numerous tumor-associated antigens that are suitable vaccine targets, one promising treatment approach is cancer vaccines. During the last few decades, cell-based cancer vaccines have offered encouraging results in preclinical studies. Cell-based cancer vaccines are mainly generated by presenting whole tumor cells or dendritic cells to cells of the immune system. In particular, several clinical trials have explored cell-based cancer vaccines as a promising therapeutic approach for patients with PDA. Moreover, chemotherapy and cancer vaccines can synergize to result in increased efficacies in patients with PDA. In this review, we will discuss both the effect of cell-based cancer vaccines and advances in terms of future strategies of cancer vaccines for the treatment of PDA patients. PMID:27182156

  6. Advances in islet cell biology: from stem cell differentiation to clinical transplantation: conference report.

    PubMed

    Kandeel, Fouad; Smith, Craig V; Todorov, Ivan; Mullen, Yoko

    2003-10-01

    The 3rd Annual Rachmiel Levine Symposium entitled "Advances in Islet Cell Biology-From Stem Cell Differentiation to Clinical Transplantation" was organized by the Department of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism at the City of Hope National Medical Center, with the support of the Southern California Islet Cell Resources Center, American Diabetes Association-David Shapiro Research Fund, Ross Foundation, the National Center for Research Resources (NCRR), and the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) of the National Institutes of Health. The symposium was held at the Hilton Anaheim Hotel in Anaheim, CA, in October 2002, and was attended by nearly 400 participants from 23 countries and 30 U.S. states. The symposium consisted of 11 sessions focusing on 3 areas: (1) pancreas and islet cell differentiation and islet generation, (2) beta cell biology and insulin synthesis and/or secretion, and (3) pancreatic islet transplantation in patients with type I diabetes. Thirty-nine world experts lectured on the most current information in each field. Fifty-three abstracts were selected for presentation and discussed at the poster session. The first author of each of the top 10 posters received a Young Investigator Travel Award provided by the National Center for Research Resources and the Southern California Islet Cell Resources Center. The symposium also offered special Meet the Professor sessions, which gave the attendees an opportunity to closely interact with the participating speakers of the day. PMID:14508143

  7. Lost in Translation: The Gap in Scientific Advancements and Clinical Application

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Moure, Joseph S.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of medicine and medical technology hinges on the successful translation of basic science research from the bench to clinical implementation at the bedside. Out of the increasing need to facilitate the transfer of scientific knowledge to patients, translational research has emerged. Significant leaps in improving global health, such as antibiotics, vaccinations, and cancer therapies, have all seen successes under this paradigm, yet today, it has become increasingly difficult to realize this ideal scenario. As hospital revenue demand increases, and financial support declines, clinician-protected research time has been limited. Researchers, likewise, have been forced to abandon time- and resource-consuming translational research to focus on publication-generating work to maintain funding and professional advancement. Compared to the surge in scientific innovation and new fields of science, realization of transformational scientific findings in device development and materials sciences has significantly lagged behind. Herein, we describe: how the current scientific paradigm struggles in the new health-care landscape; the obstacles met by translational researchers; and solutions, both public and private, to overcoming those obstacles. We must rethink the old dogma of academia and reinvent the traditional pathways of research in order to truly impact the health-care arena and ultimately those that matter most: the patient. PMID:27376058

  8. A phase I clinical trial of thymidine kinase-based gene therapy in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sangro, B; Mazzolini, G; Ruiz, M; Ruiz, J; Quiroga, J; Herrero, I; Qian, C; Benito, A; Larrache, J; Olagüe, C; Boan, J; Peñuelas, I; Sádaba, B; Prieto, J

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this phase I clinical trial was to assess the feasibility and safety of intratumoral administration of a first-generation adenoviral vector encoding herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) gene (Ad.TK) followed by systemic ganciclovir to patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Secondarily, we have analyzed its antitumor effect. Ten patients were enrolled in five dose-level cohorts that received from 10¹⁰ to 2 × 10¹² viral particles (vp). Ad.TK was injected intratumorally and patients received up to three doses at 30-day intervals. Positron emission tomography was used to monitor TK gene expression. Ad.TK injection was feasible in 100% of cases. Treatment was well tolerated and dose-limiting toxicity was not achieved. Cumulative toxicity was not observed. Hepatic toxicity was absent even in cirrhotic patients. Fever, flu-like syndrome, pain at the injection site and pancytopenia were the most common side effects. No partial responses were observed and 60% of patients showed tumor stabilization of the injected lesion. Importantly, two patients who received the highest dose showed signs of intratumoral necrosis by imaging procedures. One of them achieved a sustained stabilization and survived for 26 months. In conclusion, Ad.TK can be safely administered by intratumoral injection to patients with HCC up to 2 × 10¹² vp per patient. PMID:20689572

  9. Clinical management of advanced gastric cancer: The role of new molecular drugs

    PubMed Central

    De Vita, Ferdinando; Di Martino, Natale; Fabozzi, Alessio; Laterza, Maria Maddalena; Ventriglia, Jole; Savastano, Beatrice; Petrillo, Angelica; Gambardella, Valentina; Sforza, Vincenzo; Marano, Luigi; Auricchio, Annamaria; Galizia, Gennaro; Ciardiello, Fortunato; Orditura, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the fourth most common malignant neoplasm and the second leading cause of death for cancer in Western countries with more than 20000 new cases yearly diagnosed in the United States. Surgery represents the main approach for this disease but, notwithstanding the advances in surgical techniques, we observed a minimal improvement in terms of overall survival with a significant increasing of relapsing disease rates. Despite the development of new drugs has significantly improved the effectiveness of chemotherapy, the prognosis of patients with unresectable or metastatic gastric adenocarcinoma remains poor. Recently, several molecular target agents have been investigated; in particular, trastuzumab represents the first target molecule showing improvements in overall survival in human epithelial growth factor 2-positive gastric cancer patients. New molecules targeting vascular epithelial growth factor, mammalian target of rapamycin, and anti hepatocyte growth factor-c-Met pathway are also under investigation, with interesting results. Anyway, it seems necessary to select more accurately the population to treat with new agents by the identification of new biomarkers in order to optimize the results. In this paper we review the actual “scenario” of targeted treatments, also focusing on the new agents in development for gastric cancer and gastro-esophageal carcinoma, discussing their efficacy and potential applications in clinical practice. PMID:25356019

  10. Advances in inducing adaptive immunity using cell-based cancer vaccines: Clinical applications in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Kajihara, Mikio; Takakura, Kazuki; Kanai, Tomoya; Ito, Zensho; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Shimodaira, Shigetaka; Okamoto, Masato; Ohkusa, Toshifumi; Koido, Shigeo

    2016-05-14

    The incidence of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is on the rise, and the prognosis is extremely poor because PDA is highly aggressive and notoriously difficult to treat. Although gemcitabine- or 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy is typically offered as a standard of care, most patients do not survive longer than 1 year. Therefore, the development of alternative therapeutic approaches for patients with PDA is imperative. As PDA cells express numerous tumor-associated antigens that are suitable vaccine targets, one promising treatment approach is cancer vaccines. During the last few decades, cell-based cancer vaccines have offered encouraging results in preclinical studies. Cell-based cancer vaccines are mainly generated by presenting whole tumor cells or dendritic cells to cells of the immune system. In particular, several clinical trials have explored cell-based cancer vaccines as a promising therapeutic approach for patients with PDA. Moreover, chemotherapy and cancer vaccines can synergize to result in increased efficacies in patients with PDA. In this review, we will discuss both the effect of cell-based cancer vaccines and advances in terms of future strategies of cancer vaccines for the treatment of PDA patients. PMID:27182156

  11. Proteasome-associated autoinflammatory syndromes: advances in pathogeneses, clinical presentations, diagnosis, and management.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Amelia; Jacks, Jennifer; Kessler, Marcus; Emanuel, Peter D; Gao, Ling

    2015-02-01

    The disease spectrum currently known as the proteasome-associated autoinflammatory syndromes (PRAAS) was first described in 1939 in patients who presented with recurrent fevers beginning in infancy or early childhood, which were accompanied by nodular erythema, a pernio-like rash, and joint contractures. Since then, several syndromes, such as chronic atypical neutrophilic dermatosis with lipodystrophy and elevated temperature (CANDLE) syndrome, Nakajo-Nishimura syndrome (NNS), joint contractures, muscle atrophy, microcytic anemia and panniculitis-induced lipodystrophy (JMP) syndrome, and Japanese autoinflammatory syndrome with lipodystrophy (JASL), have been used to categorize patients with diseases within the same spectrum. Recently, independent studies have identified mutations in the human proteasome subunit β type 8 (PSMB8) gene, which result in a sustained inflammatory response in all syndromes. Further functional studies not only suggest a causative role of PSMB8 mutations but also imply that they represent one disease spectrum, referred to as PRAAS. In this paper, we review the clinical presentations and laboratory findings of PRAAS, as well as the most recent advances in pathogeneses, diagnosis, and treatment options for patients with diseases in this spectrum. PMID:25521013

  12. Lost in Translation: The Gap in Scientific Advancements and Clinical Application.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Moure, Joseph S

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of medicine and medical technology hinges on the successful translation of basic science research from the bench to clinical implementation at the bedside. Out of the increasing need to facilitate the transfer of scientific knowledge to patients, translational research has emerged. Significant leaps in improving global health, such as antibiotics, vaccinations, and cancer therapies, have all seen successes under this paradigm, yet today, it has become increasingly difficult to realize this ideal scenario. As hospital revenue demand increases, and financial support declines, clinician-protected research time has been limited. Researchers, likewise, have been forced to abandon time- and resource-consuming translational research to focus on publication-generating work to maintain funding and professional advancement. Compared to the surge in scientific innovation and new fields of science, realization of transformational scientific findings in device development and materials sciences has significantly lagged behind. Herein, we describe: how the current scientific paradigm struggles in the new health-care landscape; the obstacles met by translational researchers; and solutions, both public and private, to overcoming those obstacles. We must rethink the old dogma of academia and reinvent the traditional pathways of research in order to truly impact the health-care arena and ultimately those that matter most: the patient. PMID:27376058

  13. Traumatic brain injury: advanced multimodal neuromonitoring from theory to clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Cecil, Sandy; Chen, Patrick M; Callaway, Sarah E; Rowland, Susan M; Adler, David E; Chen, Jefferson W

    2011-04-01

    Traumatic brain injury accounts for nearly 1.4 million injuries and 52 000 deaths annually in the United States. Intensive bedside neuromonitoring is critical in preventing secondary ischemic and hypoxic injury common to patients with traumatic brain injury in the days following trauma. Advancements in multimodal neuromonitoring have allowed the evaluation of changes in markers of brain metabolism (eg, glucose, lactate, pyruvate, and glycerol) and other physiological parameters such as intracranial pressure, cerebral perfusion pressure, cerebral blood flow, partial pressure of oxygen in brain tissue, blood pressure, and brain temperature. This article highlights the use of multimodal monitoring in the intensive care unit at a level I trauma center in the Pacific Northwest. The trends in and significance of metabolic, physiological, and hemodynamic factors in traumatic brain injury are reviewed, the technical aspects of the specific equipment used to monitor these parameters are described, and how multimodal monitoring may guide therapy is demonstrated. As a clinical practice, multimodal neuromonitoring shows great promise in improving bedside therapy in patients with traumatic brain injury, ultimately leading to improved neurological outcomes. PMID:20592189

  14. Analysis of clinical efficacy of CyberKnife® treatment for locally advanced pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yongchun; Yuan, Zhiyong; Li, Fengtong; Dong, Yang; Zhuang, Hongqing; Wang, Jingsheng; Chen, Huaming; Wang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of CyberKnife® treatment for locally-advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC). Methods The efficacy of CyberKnife® treatment was analyzed in 59 LAPC patients treated between October 2006 and September 2014. The median tumor volume was 27.1 mL (13.0–125.145 mL). The median prescribed dose was 45 Gy (35–50 Gy), delivered in 5 fractions (3–8 fractions). The overall survival (OS) rates and freedom from local progression (FFLP) rates were estimated using the Kaplan–Meier survival curve. Results The median follow-up for all patients was 10.9 months (3.2–48.7 months) and 15.6 months (3.9–37.6 months) among surviving patients. The median OS was 12.5 months, and the 1-year and 2-year survival rates were 53.9% and 35.1%, respectively. The 1-year FFLP rate was 90.8% based on the computed tomography (CT) evaluation. Grade 1–2 acute and late-stage gastrointestinal (GI) reactions were observed in 61% of the patients. One patient experienced grade 3 toxicity. Conclusion Excellent clinical efficacy was obtained after treatment of LAPC using CyberKnife®, with minimal toxicity. PMID:26109866

  15. X-ray phase-contrast imaging of the breast—advances towards clinical implementation

    PubMed Central

    Herzen, J; Willner, M; Grandl, S; Scherer, K; Bamberg, F; Reiser, M F; Pfeiffer, F; Hellerhoff, K

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer constitutes about one-quarter of all cancers and is the leading cause of cancer death in women. To reduce breast cancer mortality, mammographic screening programmes have been implemented in many Western countries. However, these programmes remain controversial because of the associated radiation exposure and the need for improvement in terms of diagnostic accuracy. Phase-contrast imaging is a new X-ray-based technology that has been shown to provide enhanced soft-tissue contrast and improved visualization of cancerous structures. Furthermore, there is some indication that these improvements of image quality can be maintained at reduced radiation doses. Thus, X-ray phase-contrast mammography may significantly contribute to advancements in early breast cancer diagnosis. Feasibility studies of X-ray phase-contrast breast CT have provided images that allow resolution of the fine structure of tissue that can otherwise only be obtained by histology. This implies that X-ray phase-contrast imaging may also lead to the development of entirely new (micro-) radiological applications. This review provides a brief overview of the physical characteristics of this new technology and describes recent developments towards clinical implementation of X-ray phase-contrast imaging of the breast. PMID:24452106

  16. New advanced surface modification technique: titanium oxide ceramic surface implants: long-term clinical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabo, Gyorgy; Kovacs, Lajos; Barabas, Jozsef; Nemeth, Zsolt; Maironna, Carlo

    2001-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the background to advanced surface modification technologies and to present a new technique, involving the formation of a titanium oxide ceramic coating, with relatively long-term results of its clinical utilization. Three general techniques are used to modify surfaces: the addition or removal of material and the change of material already present. Surface properties can also be changed without the addition or removal of material, through the laser or electron beam thermal treatment. The new technique outlined in this paper relates to the production of a corrosion-resistant 2000-2500 A thick, ceramic oxide layer with a coherent crystalline structure on the surface of titanium implants. The layer is grown electrochemically from the bulk of the metal and is modified by heat treatment. Such oxide ceramic-coated implants have a number of advantageous properties relative to implants covered with various other coatings: a higher external hardness, a greater force of adherence between the titanium and the oxide ceramic coating, a virtually perfect insulation between the organism and the metal (no possibility of metal allergy), etc. The coated implants were subjected to various physical, chemical, electronmicroscopic, etc. tests for a qualitative characterization. Finally, these implants (plates, screws for maxillofacial osteosynthesis and dental root implants) were applied in surgical practice for a period of 10 years. Tests and the experience acquired demonstrated the good properties of the titanium oxide ceramic-coated implants.

  17. Advancing clinical decision support using lessons from outside of healthcare: an interdisciplinary systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Greater use of computerized decision support (DS) systems could address continuing safety and quality problems in healthcare, but the healthcare field has struggled to implement DS technology. This study surveys DS experience across multiple non-healthcare disciplines for new insights that are generalizable to healthcare provider decisions. In particular, it sought design principles and lessons learned from the other disciplines that could inform efforts to accelerate the adoption of clinical decision support (CDS). Methods Our systematic review drew broadly from non-healthcare databases in the basic sciences, social sciences, humanities, engineering, business, and defense: PsychINFO, BusinessSource Premier, Social Sciences Abstracts, Web of Science, and Defense Technical Information Center. Because our interest was in DS that could apply to clinical decisions, we selected articles that (1) provided a review, overview, discussion of lessons learned, or an evaluation of design or implementation aspects of DS within a non-healthcare discipline and (2) involved an element of human judgment at the individual level, as opposed to decisions that can be fully automated or that are made at the organizational level. Results Clinical decisions share some similarities with decisions made by military commanders, business managers, and other leaders: they involve assessing new situations and choosing courses of action with major consequences, under time pressure, and with incomplete information. We identified seven high-level DS system design features from the non-healthcare literature that could be applied to CDS: providing broad, system-level perspectives; customizing interfaces to specific users and roles; making the DS reasoning transparent; presenting data effectively; generating multiple scenarios covering disparate outcomes (e.g., effective; effective with side effects; ineffective); allowing for contingent adaptations; and facilitating collaboration. The

  18. "Electro-clinical syndromes" with onset in paediatric age: the highlights of the clinical-EEG, genetic and therapeutic advances

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The genetic causes underlying epilepsy remain largely unknown, and the impact of available genetic data on the nosology of epilepsy is still limited. Thus, at present, classification of epileptic disorders should be mainly based on electroclinical features. Electro-clinical syndrome is a term used to identify a group of clinical entities showing a cluster of electro-clinical characteristics, with signs and symptoms that together define a distinctive, recognizable, clinical disorder. These often become the focus of treatment trials as well as of genetic, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging investigations. They are distinctive disorders identifiable on the basis of a typical age onset, specific EEG characteristics, seizure types, and often other features which, when taken together, permit a specific diagnosis which, in turn, often has implications for treatment, management, and prognosis. Each electro-clinical syndrome can be classified according to age at onset, cognitive and developmental antecedents and consequences, motor and sensory examinations, EEG features, provoking or triggering factors, and patterns of seizure occurrence with respect to sleep. Therefore, according to the age at onset, here we review the more frequently observed paediatric electro-clinical syndrome from their clinical-EEG, genetic and therapeutic point of views. PMID:22182677

  19. A clinical exploration of neoadjuvant chemotherapy with tegafur, gimeracil, and oteracil potassium capsules combined with oxaliplatin for advanced gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Xinting; Zhang, Li; Huang, Renjun; Song, Weiyong

    2015-01-01

    Background: Advanced gastric cancer refers to tumor invasion into the gastric muscularis propria or even the layer beyond, and has low early gastric cancer diagnosis rate. Purpose: To determine the clinical efficacy and side effects of neoadjuvant chemotherapy with tegafur, gimeracil, and oteracil potassium capsules (TGOP) combined with oxaliplatin (SOX regimen) in patients with advanced gastric cancer. Methods: We evaluated 25 patients with advanced gastric cancer who were admitted and treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy with the SOX regimen (intravenous injection of 130 mg/m2 oxaliplatin on day 1 followed by oral administration of 60 mg TGOP twice daily on days 1-14), every 3 weeks. The clinical efficacy and side effects of the SOX regimen were evaluated after two courses of treatment, before surgery. Results: Of the 25 patients enrolled in this study, 23 completed two courses of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and of these, 12 achieved downstaging as determined by the clinical TNM stage, resulting in a total response rate of 52.2%. The 23 patients underwent surgery, with 22 receiving radical resection (95.7%). Among these 23 patients, R0 resection was achieved in 16 (69.6%) and pathological complete remission was observed in one. Conclusion: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy with TGOP combined with oxaliplatin was effective for advanced gastric cancer and had tolerable side effects. PMID:26770529

  20. Current Molecular Targeted Therapy in Advanced Gastric Cancer: A Comprehensive Review of Therapeutic Mechanism, Clinical Trials, and Practical Application

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kaichun; Li, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Despite the great progress in the treatment of gastric cancer, it is still the third leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Patients often miss the opportunity for a surgical cure, because the cancer has already developed into advanced cancer when identified. Compared to best supportive care, chemotherapy can improve quality of life and prolong survival time, but the overall survival is often short. Due to the molecular study of gastric cancer, new molecular targeted drugs have entered the clinical use. Trastuzumab, an antibody targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), can significantly improve survival in advanced gastric cancer patients with HER2 overexpression. Second-line treatment of advanced gastric cancer with ramucirumab, an antibody targeting VEGFR-2, alone or in combination with paclitaxel, has been proved to provide a beneficial effect. The VEGFR-2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor, apatinib, can improve the survival of advanced gastric cancer patients after second-line chemotherapy failure. Unfortunately, none of the EGFR targeting antibodies (cetuximab or panitumumab), VEGF targeting monoclonal antibodies (bevacizumab), mTOR inhibitor (everolimus), or HGF/MET pathway targeting drugs has a significant survival benefit. Many other clinical trials based on molecular markers are underway. This review will summarize targeted therapies for advanced gastric cancer. PMID:26880889

  1. Current Molecular Targeted Therapy in Advanced Gastric Cancer: A Comprehensive Review of Therapeutic Mechanism, Clinical Trials, and Practical Application.

    PubMed

    Li, Kaichun; Li, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Despite the great progress in the treatment of gastric cancer, it is still the third leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Patients often miss the opportunity for a surgical cure, because the cancer has already developed into advanced cancer when identified. Compared to best supportive care, chemotherapy can improve quality of life and prolong survival time, but the overall survival is often short. Due to the molecular study of gastric cancer, new molecular targeted drugs have entered the clinical use. Trastuzumab, an antibody targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), can significantly improve survival in advanced gastric cancer patients with HER2 overexpression. Second-line treatment of advanced gastric cancer with ramucirumab, an antibody targeting VEGFR-2, alone or in combination with paclitaxel, has been proved to provide a beneficial effect. The VEGFR-2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor, apatinib, can improve the survival of advanced gastric cancer patients after second-line chemotherapy failure. Unfortunately, none of the EGFR targeting antibodies (cetuximab or panitumumab), VEGF targeting monoclonal antibodies (bevacizumab), mTOR inhibitor (everolimus), or HGF/MET pathway targeting drugs has a significant survival benefit. Many other clinical trials based on molecular markers are underway. This review will summarize targeted therapies for advanced gastric cancer. PMID:26880889

  2. Rapid hyperfractionated radiotherapy. Clinical results in 178 advanced squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, T.D.; Demange, L.; Froissart, D.; Panis, X.; Loirette, M.

    1985-07-01

    The authors present a series of 178 patients with Stage III or IV squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck treated by rapid irradiation using multiple and small fractions per day. An initial group of 91 patients (G1) received a total dose of 72 Gy in 80 sessions and 10 days, according to the following split course schedule: J1 to J5, 36 Gy in 40 sessions, eight daily fractions of .9 Gy separated by 2 hours; J6 to J20, rest period; J21 to J25, same as in J1 except that the spinal cord was shielded. This protocol was altered for the following 87 patients (G2) by lessening the total dose to 60 to 66 Gy and the number of fractions to 60. The rest period was lengthened to 4 weeks. All patients but five completed the whole program and the minimal follow-up period was 24 months. At the end of irradiation, 121 patients achieved a total remission, but local recurrences occurred in 56%. Moreover, acute intolerance was considered as severe in 34% of G1 patients, and included extensive mucosal necrosis and bleeding. Although this rate was significantly reduced in G2 patients, late complications were observed in 20 of the 25 survivors, and included trismus, cervical sclerosis, and recurrent laryngeal edema. The crude survival rate is 13% at 2 years. Although this study was not randomized, this particular type of accelerated and hyperfractionated combination of irradiation did not really improve the clinical results in advanced carcinoma of the head and neck. Other schedules and probably other tumors, less extended, should be tested.

  3. Advanced solids NMR studies of coal structure and chemistry. Progress report, September 1, 1995--February 28, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Zilm, K.W.

    1996-09-01

    This report covers the progress made on the title project for the project period. The study of coal chemical structure is a vital component of research efforts to develop better chemical utilization of coals, and for furthering our basic understanding of coal geochemistry. In this grant we are addressing several structural questions pertaining to coals with advances in state of the art solids NMR methods. Our goals are twofold. First, we are interested in developing new methods that will enable us to measure important structural parameters in whole coals not directly accessible by other techniques. In parallel with these efforts we will apply these NMR methods in a study of the chemical differences between gas-sourcing and oil-sourcing coals. The NMR methods work will specifically focus on determination of the number and types of methylene groups, determination of the number and types of methine groups, identification of carbons adjacent to nitrogen and sites with exchangeable protons, and methods to more finely characterize the distribution of hydrogen in coals. We will also develop NMR methods for probing coal macropore structure using hyperpolarized {sup 129}Xe as a probe, and study the molecular dynamics of what appear to be mobile, CH{sub 2} rich, long chain hydrocarbons. The motivation for investigating these specific structural features of coals arises from their relevance to the chemical reactivity of some types of coals. The coals to be studied and contrasted include oil-prone coals from Australia and Indonesia, those comprising the Argonne Premium Coal Sample bank, and other relevant samples.

  4. GMP facilities for manufacturing of advanced therapy medicinal products for clinical trials: an overview for clinical researchers.

    PubMed

    Alici, Evren; Blomberg, Pontus

    2010-12-01

    To be able to produce advanced therapy medicinal products, compliance with regulatory standards while maintaining flexibility is mandatory. For this purpose, careful planning is vital in the design or upgrade of a facility. Similarly, extensive foresight is elemental to anticipate upcoming needs and requirements. Failing this may lead to the facility's in-ability to meet the demands. In this chapter we aimed to outline the current issues with regards to the European Union Directives (EUD) and the proposal for Advanced Therapies, which are of importance to cellular and gene therapy facilities in Europe. This chapter is an attempt to elucidate what the minimum requirements for GMP facilities for cell and gene therapy products are and what is considered necessary to comply with the regulations in Europe. PMID:21054243

  5. CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessment of the health status of animals through measurement of cellular, biochemical, and macromolecular constituents in blood, secretions, and excretions has been variously referred to as clinical chemistry, clinical biochemistry, or clinical pathology. he genesis of this dis...

  6. Next-generation sequencing in patients with advanced cancer: are we ready for widespread clinical use? A single institute's experience.

    PubMed

    Grenader, Tal; Tauber, Rachel; Shavit, Linda

    2016-10-01

    The next-generation sequencing (NGS) assay targeting cancer-relevant genes has been adopted widely for use in patients with advanced cancer. The primary aim of this study was to assess the clinical utility of commercially available NGS. We retrospectively collected demographic and clinicopathologic data, recommended therapy, and clinical outcomes of 30 patients with a variety of advanced solid tumors referred to Foundation Medicine NGS. The initial pathologic examination was performed at the pathology department of the referring hospital. The comprehensive clinical NSG assay was performed on paraffin-embedded tumor samples using the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments-certified FoundationOne platform. The median number of genomic alterations was 3 (0-19). The median number of therapies with potential benefit was 2 (0-8). In 12 cases, a comprehensive clinical NGS assay did not indicate any therapy with potential benefit according to the genomic profile. Ten of the 30 patients received treatments recommended by genomic profile results. In six of the 10 cases, disease progressed within 2 months and four patients died within 3 months of treatment initiation. Three of the 30 patients benefited from a comprehensive clinical NGS assay and the subsequent recommended therapy. The median PFS was 12 weeks (95% confidence interval 10-57) in patients treated with molecularly targeted agents chosen on the basis of tumor genomic profiling versus 48 weeks (95% confidence interval 8-38) in the control group treated with physician choice therapy (P=0.12). Our study suggests that NGS can detect additional treatment targets in individual patients, but prospective medical research and appropriate clinical guidelines for proper clinical use are vital. PMID:27384593

  7. [Adequacy of clinical interventions in patients with advanced and complex disease. Proposal of a decision making algorithm].

    PubMed

    Ameneiros-Lago, E; Carballada-Rico, C; Garrido-Sanjuán, J A; García Martínez, A

    2015-01-01

    Decision making in the patient with chronic advanced disease is especially complex. Health professionals are obliged to prevent avoidable suffering and not to add any more damage to that of the disease itself. The adequacy of the clinical interventions consists of only offering those diagnostic and therapeutic procedures appropriate to the clinical situation of the patient and to perform only those allowed by the patient or representative. In this article, the use of an algorithm is proposed that should serve to help health professionals in this decision making process. PMID:25666087

  8. [Clinical trial of a seven-peptide vaccine and tegafur-uracil/leucovorin as combination therapy for advanced colorectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Inoue, Keisuke; Sugiura, Fumiaki; Kogita, Akihiro; Yoshioka, Yasumasa; Sukegawa, Yasushi; Hida, Jinichi; Okuno, Kiyotaka

    2014-10-01

    We conducted a clinical trial of a seven-peptide vaccine in combination with tegafur-uracil/Leucovorin for advanced colorectal cancer. These antigenic peptides were derived from 5 proteins identified as cancer-testis antigens(ring finger protein 43 [RNF43], translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 34[TOMM34], maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase[MELK], forkhead box M1[FOXM1], and holliday junction recognition protein[HJURP])and 2 vascular endothelial growth factor receptors(VEGFR1 and VEGFR2). Thirty patients with advanced colorectal cancer were enrolled. We found that 25 patients had Grade 1 injection-site redness/induration and 1 patient had Grade 3 anaphylaxis. Tumor imaging revealed that 3 patients had a partial response (PR), 15 had stable disease(SD)and 12 had progressive disease(PD). This trial showed that treatment with the seven-peptide vaccine and UFT/LV was well tolerated and feasible for advanced colorectal cancer. PMID:25335716

  9. Chemistry and biology of the potent endotoxin from a Burkholderia dolosa clinical isolate from a cystic fibrosis patient.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, Flaviana Di; Sturiale, Luisa; Palmigiano, Angelo; Lembo-Fazio, Luigi; Paciello, Ida; Coutinho, Carla P; Sá-Correia, Isabel; Bernardini, MariaLina; Lanzetta, Rosa; Garozzo, Domenico; Silipo, Alba; Molinaro, Antonio

    2013-06-17

    This is the first report of the chemical and biological properties of the lipooligosaccharide (LOS) endotoxin isolated from Burkholderia dolosa IST4208, an isolate recovered from a cystic fibrosis (CF) patient in a Portuguese CF center. B. dolosa is a member of the Burkholderia cepacia complex, a group of closely related species that are highly problematic and opportunistic pathogens in CF. B. dolosa infection leads to accelerated loss of lung function and decreased survival. The structural determination of its endotoxin was achieved using a combination of chemistry and spectroscopy, and has revealed a novel endotoxin structure. The purified LOS was tested for its immunostimulatory activity on human HEK 293 cells expressing TLR-4, MD-2, and CD-14. In these assays, the LOS showed strong proinflammatory activity. PMID:23733445

  10. The intention of advanced practice registered nurses to remain in positions at family planning clinics serving low-income women.

    PubMed

    Cheng, An-Lin; Kelly, Patricia J; Carlson, Kimberly; Witt, Jacki

    2014-01-01

    Federally funded Title X Family Planning Clinics are critical safety nets for reproductive health services in which advanced practice nurses (APRNs) provide the majority of care. The goal of this study was to identify factors affecting APRN's intention to remain in positions at these clinics. An Internet-administered survey was completed by 406 APRNs working in Title X clinics. The survey, based on a causal model of retention adapted for APRN practice, included 10 factors. Factor significance and model selection criteria were used to determine model fit. Intention to remain in current positions was associated with greater family responsibilities and lower levels of involvement in professional associations. Less routinization, more integration, and a greater sense of distributive justice were significant causal paths to job satisfaction (a significant mediator for intention to remain). Results provide Title X administrators information that can guide them in policy development to maximize APRN retention. PMID:24503318

  11. Advances in clinical NK cell studies: Donor selection, manufacturing and quality control

    PubMed Central

    Koehl, U.; Kalberer, C.; Spanholtz, J.; Lee, D. A.; Miller, J. S.; Cooley, S.; Lowdell, M.; Uharek, L.; Klingemann, H.; Curti, A.; Leung, W.; Alici, E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Natural killer (NK) cells are increasingly used in clinical studies in order to treat patients with various malignancies. The following review summarizes platform lectures and 2013–2015 consortium meetings on manufacturing and clinical use of NK cells in Europe and United States. A broad overview of recent pre-clinical and clinical results in NK cell therapies is provided based on unstimulated, cytokine-activated, as well as genetically engineered NK cells using chimeric antigen receptors (CAR). Differences in donor selection, manufacturing and quality control of NK cells for cancer immunotherapies are described and basic recommendations are outlined for harmonization in future NK cell studies. PMID:27141397

  12. Clinical research of genetically modified dendritic cells in combination with cytokine-induced killer cell treatment in advanced renal cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a malignant disease that demonstrates resistance to standard chemotherapeutic agents. Yet Active immunization using genetically modified dendritic cells holds promise for the adjuvant treatment of malignancies to eradicate or control residual disease. Cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells are a heterogeneous population of effector CD8+ T cells with diverse TCR specificities, possessing non-MHC-restricted cytolytic activities against tumor cells. Clinical studies have confirmed benefit and safety of CIK cell-based therapy for patients with malignancies. This clinical trial was conducted to evaluate efficacy and safety of genetically modified dendritic cells in combination with Cytokine-Induced Killer Cell (gmDCs-CIK) treatment of patients with RCC. Methods 28 patients with advanced renal cancer were admitted to Affiliated Hospital of Academy of Military Medical Sciences from December 2010 to March 2012 and treated by gmDCs-CIK. Clinical efficacy and safety between pre- and post-treatment were compared. Results This analysis showed an objective response rate (ORR) of 39% and a disease control rate (DCR) of as 75%. There is no significant relationship between clinical efficacy and whether metastasis occurred or not (P > 0.05). There is no significant relationship between ORR and cycles of treatment (P > 0.05), but DCR was significantly related with cycles of treatment (P < 0.05). No clinically significant side effects were observed. There were no significant changes of T cell subsets including CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD4+ CD25+ Treg cells except Th1 in peripheral blood between day 30 after immunotherapy and 1 day before immunotherapy in 11 patients. Conclusion DC-CIK is feasible and effective in treating advanced renal cancer and thus provides a new approach. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01924156. Registration date: August 14, 2013. PMID:24720900

  13. Echinacea species (Echinacea angustifolia (DC.) Hell., Echinacea pallida (Nutt.) Nutt.,Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench): a review of their chemistry, pharmacology and clinical properties.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Joanne; Anderson, Linda A; Gibbons, Simon; Phillipson, J David

    2005-08-01

    This paper reviews the chemistry, pharmacology and clinical properties of Echinacea species used medicinally. The Echinacea species Echinacea angustifolia, Echinacea pallida and Echinacea purpurea have a long history of medicinal use for a variety of conditions, particularly infections, and today echinacea products are among the best-selling herbal preparations in several developed countries. Modern interest in echinacea is focused on its immunomodulatory effects, particularly in the prevention and treatment of upper respiratory tract infections. The chemistry of Echinacea species is well documented, and several groups of constituents, including alkamides and caffeic acid derivatives, are considered important for activity. There are, however, differences in the constituent profile of the three species. Commercial echinacea samples and marketed echinacea products may contain one or more of the three species, and analysis of samples of raw material and products has shown that some do not meet recognized standards for pharmaceutical quality. Evidence from preclinical studies supports some of the traditional and modern uses for echinacea, particularly the reputed immunostimulant (or immunomodulatory) properties. Several, but not all, clinical trials of echinacea preparations have reported effects superior to those of placebo in the prevention and treatment of upper respiratory tract infections. However, evidence of efficacy is not definitive as studies have included different patient groups and tested various different preparations and dosage regimens of echinacea. On the basis of the available limited safety data, echinacea appears to be well tolerated. However, further investigation and surveillance are required to establish the safety profiles of different echinacea preparations. Safety issues include the possibility of allergic reactions, the use of echinacea by patients with autoimmune diseases and the potential for echinacea preparations to interact with

  14. A phenomenological analysis of the essence of the science education experience as perceived by female high school physics and advanced chemistry students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadimitriou, Michael

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe the essential elements of the current science education experience as constructed by twelve female high school physics and advanced chemistry students. The expressed desired outcome was a description of the phenomenon from a participant point of view. Student recollections and interpretations of experiences were assessed for a twelve-week period. Data sources were student journals, autobiographies, interviews, focus group interviews and researcher observations. In addition, each participant completed the Test of Science Related Attitudes (Fraser, 1981) in order to create attitude profiles for triangulation with other data. While a wide range of aspects of the science education experience emerged, results showed that female students describe and interpret their science education experiences on the basis of actual interest in science, early science experiences, perception of ability, self-confidence, teacher attributes, parental and peer interaction, societal expectations, the nature of science, and gender. Of these factors, specifically, interest and curiosity, societal influence, the nature of science, lack of in-school experiences, the desire to help others, and general parent support were most impacting upon experience and the desire to continue science study. Moreover, the interaction of these factors is relevant. Very simply, early experiences are crucial to interest development. In general, parents can enhance this interest by providing science-related experiences. In the absence of early in-school experiences (i.e., which the participants reported), these out-of-school experiences become crucial. More importantly, quality instruction and parent and peer support are needed to foster science interest and to overcome the powerfully negative influence of society, the discriminatory nature of science, and the lack of experiences.

  15. Practical Guidance on How to Handle Levodopa/Carbidopa Intestinal Gel Therapy of Advanced PD in a Movement Disorder Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Stephen Wørlich; Clausen, Jesper; Gregerslund, Mie Manon

    2012-01-01

    Continuous dopaminergic delivery is recognized for the capacity to ameliorate symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (PD). In advanced PD the short comings of orally administered Levodopa/Carbidopa include fluctuations resulting in unstable effect and dyskinesia. Levodopa/Carbidopa intestinal gel, LCIG, (Duodopa®, Abbott Laboratories) is delivered continuously through a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy with the inner tube placed in the duodenum by means of a device (CADD legacy Duodopa pump (CE 0473)). The therapy implies continuous dopaminergic delivery directly to the duodenum and is therefore unaffected by gastric emptying and represents a major adjuvant in the treatment of advanced PD with significant improvement in motor and non-motor symptoms. The aim of this paper is to suggest the prerequisites for a LCIG clinic and propose a feasible set-up and lean organization of a movement disorder clinic. Secondly, the paper proposes practical handling of patients in LCIG treatment for advanced PD based on experience and initiation of LCIG treatment and follow-up in forty patients. PMID:22848335

  16. Recent advances in isoxazole chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galenko, A. V.; Khlebnikov, A. F.; Novikov, M. S.; Pakalnis, V. V.; Rostovskii, N. V.

    2015-04-01

    The preparation methods and reactions of isoxazoles are described and systematized on the basis of analysis of the literature published from 2005 to present. In the discussion of synthesis, major attention is focused on the most efficient approaches: condensation of hydroxylamine with 1,3-dielectrophiles and reactions of nitrile oxides with alkenes and alkynes. Five-membered ring opening reactions leading to acyclic functionalized or other heterocyclic compounds are considered. The transformations of isoxazole derivatives that occur without ring cleavage to form fused heterocyclic systems, as well as reactions that lead to the introduction of C-substituents into isoxazoles, are considered. Data on the biological activity of some isoxazole derivatives are reported. The bibliography includes 439 references.

  17. PNNL's 'PEGASUS' Advances Atmospheric Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, Carl M.; Eades, Robert A.

    2001-04-16

    Presented an overview of software design to maximize computational efficiency on a massively parallel computing system. Also gave highlights of scientific results from this code, focusing primarily on how we can distinguish between stratospheric ozone in remote atmospheres and ozone generated from NOx/VOC chemical mechanisms.

  18. Spreadsheets in Advanced Physical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kari, Roy

    1990-01-01

    Described are several spreadsheet templates which use the functions of iteration and logical look-up which allow students to calculate and graph quantum mechanical functions and to simulate rotational and vibrational energy level and spectra. The templates are listed in the appendix. (KR)

  19. Recent Advances in Our Understanding of the Environmental, Epidemiological, Immunological, and Clinical Dimensions of Coccidioidomycosis

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Chinh; Barker, Bridget Marie; Hoover, Susan; Nix, David E.; Ampel, Neil M.; Frelinger, Jeffrey A.; Orbach, Marc J.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Coccidioidomycosis is the endemic mycosis caused by the fungal pathogens Coccidioides immitis and C. posadasii. This review is a summary of the recent advances that have been made in the understanding of this pathogen, including its mycology, genetics, and niche in the environment. Updates on the epidemiology of the organism emphasize that it is a continuing, significant problem in areas of endemicity. For a variety of reasons, the number of reported coccidioidal infections has increased dramatically over the past decade. While continual improvements in the fields of organ transplantation and management of autoimmune disorders and patients with HIV have led to dilemmas with concurrent infection with coccidioidomycosis, they have also led to advances in the understanding of the human immune response to infection. There have been some advances in therapeutics with the increased use of newer azoles. Lastly, there is an overview of the ongoing search for a preventative vaccine. PMID:23824371

  20. Hedgehog pathway inhibition in advanced basal cell carcinoma: latest evidence and clinical usefulness.

    PubMed

    Silapunt, Sirunya; Chen, Leon; Migden, Michael R

    2016-09-01

    Treatment of locally advanced basal cell carcinomas (laBCCs) with large, aggressive, destructive, and disfiguring tumors, or metastatic disease is challenging. Dysregulation of the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway has been identified in the vast majority of basal cell carcinomas (BCCs). There are two United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA)-approved Hh pathway inhibitors (HPIs) that exhibit antitumor activity in advanced BCC with an acceptable safety profile. Common adverse effects include muscle spasms, dysgeusia, alopecia, fatigue, nausea and weight loss. PMID:27583029

  1. Hedgehog pathway inhibition in advanced basal cell carcinoma: latest evidence and clinical usefulness

    PubMed Central

    Silapunt, Sirunya; Chen, Leon; Migden, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of locally advanced basal cell carcinomas (laBCCs) with large, aggressive, destructive, and disfiguring tumors, or metastatic disease is challenging. Dysregulation of the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway has been identified in the vast majority of basal cell carcinomas (BCCs). There are two United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA)-approved Hh pathway inhibitors (HPIs) that exhibit antitumor activity in advanced BCC with an acceptable safety profile. Common adverse effects include muscle spasms, dysgeusia, alopecia, fatigue, nausea and weight loss. PMID:27583029

  2. Usefulness of an Implantable Loop Recorder to Detect Clinically Relevant Arrhythmias in Patients With Advanced Fabry Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Weidemann, Frank; Maier, Sebastian K G; Störk, Stefan; Brunner, Thomas; Liu, Dan; Hu, Kai; Seydelmann, Nora; Schneider, Andreas; Becher, Jan; Canan-Kühl, Sima; Blaschke, Daniela; Bijnens, Bart; Ertl, Georg; Wanner, Christoph; Nordbeck, Peter

    2016-07-15

    Patients with genetic cardiomyopathy that involves myocardial hypertrophy often develop clinically relevant arrhythmias that increase the risk of sudden death. Consequently, guidelines for medical device therapy were established for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, but not for conditions with only anecdotal evidence of arrhythmias, like Fabry cardiomyopathy. Patients with Fabry cardiomyopathy progressively develop myocardial fibrosis, and sudden cardiac death occurs regularly. Because 24-hour Holter electrocardiograms (ECGs) might not detect clinically important arrhythmias, we tested an implanted loop recorder for continuous heart rhythm surveillance and determined its impact on therapy. This prospective study included 16 patients (12 men) with advanced Fabry cardiomyopathy, relevant hypertrophy, and replacement fibrosis in "loco typico." No patients previously exhibited clinically relevant arrhythmias on Holter ECGs. Patients received an implantable loop recorder and were prospectively followed with telemedicine for a median of 1.2 years (range 0.3 to 2.0 years). The primary end point was a clinically meaningful event, which required a therapy change, captured with the loop recorder. Patients submitted data regularly (14 ± 11 times per month). During follow-up, 21 events were detected (including 4 asystole, i.e., ECG pauses ≥3 seconds) and 7 bradycardia events; 5 episodes of intermittent atrial fibrillation (>3 minutes) and 5 episodes of ventricular tachycardia (3 sustained and 2 nonsustained). Subsequently, as defined in the primary end point, 15 events leaded to a change of therapy. These patients required therapy with a pacemaker or cardioverter-defibrillator implantation and/or anticoagulation therapy for atrial fibrillation. In conclusion, clinically relevant arrhythmias that require further device and/or medical therapy are often missed with Holter ECGs in patients with advanced stage Fabry cardiomyopathy, but they can be detected by telemonitoring with

  3. Advanced Practice Registered Nurses and Physician Assistants in Sleep Centers and Clinics: A Survey of Current Roles and Educational Background

    PubMed Central

    Colvin, Loretta; Cartwright, Ann; Collop, Nancy; Freedman, Neil; McLeod, Don; Weaver, Terri E.; Rogers, Ann E.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To survey Advanced Practice Registered Nurse (APRN) and Physician Assistant (PA) utilization, roles and educational background within the field of sleep medicine. Methods: Electronic surveys distributed to American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) member centers and APRNs and PAs working within sleep centers and clinics. Results: Approximately 40% of responding AASM sleep centers reported utilizing APRNs or PAs in predominantly clinical roles. Of the APRNs and PAs surveyed, 95% reported responsibilities in sleep disordered breathing and more than 50% in insomnia and movement disorders. Most APRNs and PAs were prepared at the graduate level (89%), with sleep-specific education primarily through “on the job” training (86%). All APRNs surveyed were Nurse Practitioners (NPs), with approximately double the number of NPs compared to PAs. Conclusions: APRNs and PAs were reported in sleep centers at proportions similar to national estimates of NPs and PAs in physicians' offices. They report predominantly clinical roles, involving common sleep disorders. Given current predictions that the outpatient healthcare structure will change and the number of APRNs and PAs will increase, understanding the role and utilization of these professionals is necessary to plan for the future care of patients with sleep disorders. Surveyed APRNs and PAs reported a significant deficiency in formal and standardized sleep-specific education. Efforts to provide formal and standardized educational opportunities for APRNs and PAs that focus on their clinical roles within sleep centers could help fill a current educational gap. Citation: Colvin L, Cartwright Ann, Collop N, Freedman N, McLeod D, Weaver TE, Rogers AE. Advanced practice registered nurses and physician assistants in sleep centers and clinics: a survey of current roles and educational background. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(5):581-587. PMID:24812545

  4. [Advance of femtosecond small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) in clinic application].

    PubMed

    Liang, Gang; Zhang, Fengju

    2016-01-01

    Femtosecond small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) had been performed in clinic more than 5 years in China. With the gradual development of the technology, SMILE has caused more and more attention because of the remarkable clinical effect, micro incision, minimally invasive and refractive stability. The reuse of the refractive lenticule (RL) from SMILE has recently become extensive focus, which brings potential method to corneal refractive surgery from subtraction to addition. This review has clarified the technology of SMILE on the aspects of corneal refractive correct, the clinical effect of reuse the materials (RL), the basis of related research and the possible improvement in the future. PMID:26899224

  5. Intestinal microbiota, probiotics and mental health: from Metchnikoff to modern advances: part III - convergence toward clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bested, Alison C; Logan, Alan C; Selhub, Eva M

    2013-01-01

    Rapid scientific and technological advances have allowed for a more detailed understanding of the relevance of intestinal microbiota, and the entire body-wide microbiome, to human health and well-being. Rodent studies have provided suggestive evidence that probiotics (e.g. lactobacillus and bifidobacteria) can influence behavior. More importantly, emerging clinical studies indicate that the administration of beneficial microbes, via supplementation and/or fecal microbial transplant (FMT), can influence end-points related to mood state (glycemic control, oxidative status, uremic toxins), brain function (functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI), and mental outlook (depression, anxiety). However, despite the advances in the area of gastro-biological psychiatry, it becomes clear that there remains an urgent need to explore the value of beneficial microbes in controlled clinical investigations. With the history explored in this series, it is fair to ask if we are now on the cusp of major clinical breakthroughs, or are we merely in the quicksand of Autointoxication II? PMID:23497650

  6. Intestinal microbiota, probiotics and mental health: from Metchnikoff to modern advances: part III – convergence toward clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Rapid scientific and technological advances have allowed for a more detailed understanding of the relevance of intestinal microbiota, and the entire body-wide microbiome, to human health and well-being. Rodent studies have provided suggestive evidence that probiotics (e.g. lactobacillus and bifidobacteria) can influence behavior. More importantly, emerging clinical studies indicate that the administration of beneficial microbes, via supplementation and/or fecal microbial transplant (FMT), can influence end-points related to mood state (glycemic control, oxidative status, uremic toxins), brain function (functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI), and mental outlook (depression, anxiety). However, despite the advances in the area of gastro-biological psychiatry, it becomes clear that there remains an urgent need to explore the value of beneficial microbes in controlled clinical investigations. With the history explored in this series, it is fair to ask if we are now on the cusp of major clinical breakthroughs, or are we merely in the quicksand of Autointoxication II? PMID:23497650

  7. The Role of Technical Advances in the Adoption and Integration of Patient-Reported Outcomes in Clinical Care

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Roxanne E.; Rothrock, Nan E.; DeWitt, Esi Morgan; Spiegel, Brennan; Tucker, Carole A.; Crane, Heidi M.; Forrest, Christopher B.; Patrick, Donald L.; Fredericksen, Rob; Shulman, Lisa M.; Cella, David; Crane, Paul K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are gaining recognition as key measures for improving the quality of patient care in clinical care settings. Three factors have made the implementation of PROs in clinical care more feasible: increased use of modern measurement methods in PRO design and validation, rapid progression of technology (e.g., touch screen tablets, Internet accessibility, and electronic health records (EHRs)), and greater demand for measurement and monitoring of PROs by regulators, payers, accreditors, and professional organizations. As electronic PRO collection and reporting capabilities have improved, the challenges of collecting PRO data have changed. Objectives To update information on PRO adoption considerations in clinical care, highlighting electronic and technical advances with respect to measure selection, clinical workflow, data infrastructure, and outcomes reporting. Methods Five practical case studies across diverse healthcare settings and patient populations are used to explore how implementation barriers were addressed to promote the successful integration of PRO collection into the clinical workflow. The case studies address selecting and reporting of relevant content, workflow integration, pre-visit screening, effective evaluation, and EHR integration. Conclusions These case studies exemplify elements of well-designed electronic systems, including response automation, tailoring of item selection and reporting algorithms, flexibility of collection location, and integration with patient health care data elements. They also highlight emerging logistical barriers in this area, such as the need for specialized technological and methodological expertise, and design limitations of current electronic data capture systems. PMID:25588135

  8. An external portable device for adaptive deep brain stimulation (aDBS) clinical research in advanced Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Arlotti, Mattia; Rossi, Lorenzo; Rosa, Manuela; Marceglia, Sara; Priori, Alberto

    2016-05-01

    Compared to conventional deep brain stimulation (DBS) for patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD), the newer approach of adaptive DBS (aDBS), regulating stimulation on the basis of the patient's clinical state, promises to achieve better clinical outcomes, avoid adverse-effects and save time for tuning parameters. A remaining challenge before aDBS comes into practical use is to prove its feasibility and its effectiveness in larger groups of patients and in more ecological conditions. We developed an external portable aDBS system prototype designed for clinical testing in freely-moving PD patients with externalized DBS electrodes. From a single-channel bipolar artifact-free recording, it analyses local field potentials (LFPs), during ongoing DBS for tuning stimulation parameters, independent from the specific feedback algorithm implemented. We validated the aDBS system in vitro, by testing both its sensing and closed-loop stimulation capabilities, and then tested it in vivo, focusing on the sensing capabilities. By applying the aDBS system prototype in a patient with PD, we provided evidence that it can track levodopa and DBS-induced LFP spectral power changes among different patient's clinical states. Our system, intended for testing LFP-based feedback strategies for aDBS, should help understanding how and whether aDBS therapy works in PD and indicating future technical and clinical advances. PMID:27029510

  9. Mutation Profiling of Clinically Advanced Cancers Using Next-Generation Sequencing for Targeted Therapy: A Lifespan Experience.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Kenneth; Resnick, Murray B; Safran, Howard

    2015-10-01

    The application of modern molecular tests such as next-generation sequencing (NGS) to human malignancies has led to better understanding of tumor biology and the design of targeted molecular therapies. In the research setting, important genomic alterations in tumors have been discovered with potential therapeutic implications but data regarding the impact of this technology in a real world oncology practice is limited. As a result, we decided to review the results of NGS in 144 advanced-stage cancer patients referred to the oncology practices of Lifespan-affiliated centers in Rhode Island. Most cancers revealed genomic alterations in genes commonly mutated in cancer. However, several unexpected genomic alterations were discovered in certain cancers with potential therapeutic intervention. Most cancers contained "actionable" genomic alterations despite being of advanced stage. Our experience demonstrates that application of NGS in the clinical setting contributes both to increasing the therapeutic armamentarium as well as our understanding of tumor biology. PMID:26422540

  10. A Clinical Assessment Tool for Advanced Theory of Mind Performance in 5 to 12 Year Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hare, Anne E.; Bremner, Lynne; Nash, Marysia; Happe, Francesca; Pettigrew, Luisa M.

    2009-01-01

    One hundred forty typically developing 5- to 12-year-old children were assessed with a test of advanced theory of mind employing Happe's strange stories. There was no significant difference in performance between boys and girls. The stories discriminated performance across the different ages with the lowest performance being in the younger…

  11. Clinical applications of recent molecular advances in urologic malignancies: no longer chasing a "mirage"?

    PubMed

    Netto, George J

    2013-05-01

    As our understanding of the molecular events leading to the development and progression of genitourologic malignancies, new markers of detection, prognostication, and therapy prediction can be exploited in the management of these prevalent tumors. The current review discusses the recent advances in prostate, bladder, renal, and testicular neoplasms that are pertinent to the anatomic pathologist. PMID:23574774

  12. Mogamulizumab for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: recent advances and clinical potential

    PubMed Central

    Duvic, Madeleine; Evans, Mark; Wang, Casey

    2016-01-01

    Mogamulizumab (KW-0761) is a humanized immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) monoclonal antibody (mAb) that targets CC chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4). It has shown promising therapeutic potential in phase I and II clinical trials and is currently being investigated for efficacy in treating cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). We review the mechanism of action of mogamulizumab and its role in treating CTCL. We also discuss the results of major clinical trials. PMID:27247757

  13. International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry 2. Properties and Units in the Clinical Laboratory Sciences. VI. Properties and Units in IOC Prohibited Drugs (IFCC-IUPAC Recommendations 1997).

    PubMed

    Olesen, H; Cowan, D; Bruunshuus, I; Klempel, K; Hill, G

    1997-12-10

    The term designating a substance being an active ingredient of a drug may be a generic name, a nonproprietary name, a registered trade name, a fantasy name or other. This causes difficulties in the transmission of request and report on such substances to and from the clinical laboratories, and in the collating of this information from different sources. The document comprises a list of properties of drugs of abuse in biological fluids as defined by the International Olympic Committee Medical Code for use in electronic transmission systems. Standard systematic names are presented with a code value for each. The coding schemes thus prepared are accessible on Internet from C-NPU Home page address: http://inet.uni-c.dk/ qukb7642. PMID:9495577

  14. A Quantum Chemistry Concept Inventory for Physical Chemistry Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dick-Perez, Marilu; Luxford, Cynthia J.; Windus, Theresa L.; Holme, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    A 14-item, multiple-choice diagnostic assessment tool, the quantum chemistry concept inventory or QCCI, is presented. Items were developed based on published student misconceptions and content coverage and then piloted and used in advanced physical chemistry undergraduate courses. In addition to the instrument itself, data from both a pretest,…

  15. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Thirteen ideas are presented that may be of use to chemistry teachers. Topics covered include vitamin C, industrial chemistry, electrical conductivity, electrolysis, alkali metals, vibration modes infra-red, dynamic equilibrium, and some new demonstrations in gaseous combinations. (PS)

  16. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Described are eight chemistry experiments and demonstrations applicable to introductory chemistry courses. Activities include: measure of lattice enthalpy, Le Chatelier's principle, decarboxylation of soap, use of pocket calculators in pH measurement, and making nylon. (SL)

  17. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Presents background information, laboratory procedures, classroom materials/activities, and chemistry experiments. Topics include sublimation, electronegativity, electrolysis, experimental aspects of strontianite, halide test, evaluation of present and future computer programs in chemistry, formula building, care of glass/saturated calomel…

  18. Annual, seasonal and individual variation in hematology and clinical blood chemistry profiles in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from Sarasota Bay, Florida.

    PubMed

    Hall, Ailsa J; Wells, Randall S; Sweeney, Jay C; Townsend, Forrest I; Balmer, Brian C; Hohn, Aleta A; Rhinehart, Howard L

    2007-10-01

    Hematology and clinical blood chemistry (HCBC) profiles in free-living bottlenose dolphins from Sarasota Bay, Florida have been monitored over a 14-year period. This long-term dataset includes samples from recaptured dolphins, enabling individual variation to be accounted for when investigating seasonal and annual variability. Four different laboratories carried out the assays and inter-laboratory comparisons found significant differences in 31 of 39 parameters measured. However, variability in comparable HCBCs by sex, age, condition, season and year could be investigated. Significant relationships with the independent variables were found for the majority of the HCBCs. Notable consistent seasonal differences included significantly elevated glucose and significantly lower creatinine concentrations in winter compared to summer. These differences may be due to energetic or thermoregulatory fluctuations in the animals by season and do not necessarily have any clinical significance. Erythrocyte counts were significantly lower in the winter, possibly also due to nutritional differences. Albumin and calcium levels in this population have increased significantly over the years of monitoring and consistently across seasons, being higher in the winter than the summer. Again, nutritional and thermal constraints seem to be the most likely environmental factors influencing these patterns. PMID:17524692

  19. Patient-controlled encrypted genomic data: an approach to advance clinical genomics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The revolution in DNA sequencing technologies over the past decade has made it feasible to sequence an individual’s whole genome at a relatively low cost. The potential value of the information generated by genomic technologies for medicine and society is enormous. However, in order for exome sequencing, and eventually whole genome sequencing, to be implemented clinically, a number of major challenges need to be overcome. For instance, obtaining meaningful informed-consent, managing incidental findings and the great volume of data generated (including multiple findings with uncertain clinical significance), re-interpreting the genomic data and providing additional counselling to patients as genetic knowledge evolves are issues that need to be addressed. It appears that medical genetics is shifting from the present “phenotype-first” medical model to a “data-first” model which leads to multiple complexities. Discussion This manuscript discusses the different challenges associated with integrating genomic technologies into clinical practice and describes a “phenotype-first” approach, namely, “Individualized Mutation-weighed Phenotype Search”, and its benefits. The proposed approach allows for a more efficient prioritization of the genes to be tested in a clinical lab based on both the patient’s phenotype and his/her entire genomic data. It simplifies “informed-consent” for clinical use of genomic technologies and helps to protect the patient’s autonomy and privacy. Overall, this approach could potentially render widespread use of genomic technologies, in the immediate future, practical, ethical and clinically useful. Summary The “Individualized Mutation-weighed Phenotype Search” approach allows for an incremental integration of genomic technologies into clinical practice. It ensures that we do not over-medicalize genomic data but, rather, continue our current medical model which is based on serving the patient’s concerns

  20. Gene therapy for cardiovascular disease: advances in vector development, targeting, and delivery for clinical translation

    PubMed Central

    Rincon, Melvin Y.; VandenDriessche, Thierry; Chuah, Marinee K.

    2015-01-01

    Gene therapy is a promising modality for the treatment of inherited and acquired cardiovascular diseases. The identification of the molecular pathways involved in the pathophysiology of heart failure and other associated cardiac diseases led to encouraging preclinical gene therapy studies in small and large animal models. However, the initial clinical results yielded only modest or no improvement in clinical endpoints. The presence of neutralizing antibodies and cellular immune responses directed against the viral vector and/or the gene-modified cells, the insufficient gene expression levels, and the limited gene transduction efficiencies accounted for the overall limited clinical improvements. Nevertheless, further improvements of the gene delivery technology and a better understanding of the underlying biology fostered renewed interest in gene therapy for heart failure. In particular, improved vectors based on emerging cardiotropic serotypes of the adeno-associated viral vector (AAV) are particularly well suited to coax expression of therapeutic genes in the heart. This led to new clinical trials based on the delivery of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase protein (SERCA2a). Though the first clinical results were encouraging, a recent Phase IIb trial did not confirm the beneficial clinical outcomes that were initially reported. New approaches based on S100A1 and adenylate cyclase 6 are also being considered for clinical applications. Emerging paradigms based on the use of miRNA regulation or CRISPR/Cas9-based genome engineering open new therapeutic perspectives for treating cardiovascular diseases by gene therapy. Nevertheless, the continuous improvement of cardiac gene delivery is needed to allow the use of safer and more effective vector doses, ultimately bringing gene therapy for heart failure one step closer to reality. PMID:26239654

  1. Gene therapy for cardiovascular disease: advances in vector development, targeting, and delivery for clinical translation.

    PubMed

    Rincon, Melvin Y; VandenDriessche, Thierry; Chuah, Marinee K

    2015-10-01

    Gene therapy is a promising modality for the treatment of inherited and acquired cardiovascular diseases. The identification of the molecular pathways involved in the pathophysiology of heart failure and other associated cardiac diseases led to encouraging preclinical gene therapy studies in small and large animal models. However, the initial clinical results yielded only modest or no improvement in clinical endpoints. The presence of neutralizing antibodies and cellular immune responses directed against the viral vector and/or the gene-modified cells, the insufficient gene expression levels, and the limited gene transduction efficiencies accounted for the overall limited clinical improvements. Nevertheless, further improvements of the gene delivery technology and a better understanding of the underlying biology fostered renewed interest in gene therapy for heart failure. In particular, improved vectors based on emerging cardiotropic serotypes of the adeno-associated viral vector (AAV) are particularly well suited to coax expression of therapeutic genes in the heart. This led to new clinical trials based on the delivery of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase protein (SERCA2a). Though the first clinical results were encouraging, a recent Phase IIb trial did not confirm the beneficial clinical outcomes that were initially reported. New approaches based on S100A1 and adenylate cyclase 6 are also being considered for clinical applications. Emerging paradigms based on the use of miRNA regulation or CRISPR/Cas9-based genome engineering open new therapeutic perspectives for treating cardiovascular diseases by gene therapy. Nevertheless, the continuous improvement of cardiac gene delivery is needed to allow the use of safer and more effective vector doses, ultimately bringing gene therapy for heart failure one step closer to reality. PMID:26239654

  2. Further consideration of Advanced Clinical Solutions Word Choice: comparison to the Recognition Memory Test-words and classification accuracy in a clinical sample.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jeremy J

    2014-01-01

    Word Choice (WC), a test in the Advanced Clinical Solutions package for Wechsler measures, was examined in two studies. The first study compared WC to the Recognition Memory Test-Words (RMT-W) in a clinical sample (N = 46). WC scores were significantly higher than RMT-W scores overall and in sample subsets grouped by separate validity indicators. In item-level analyses, WC items demonstrated lower frequency, greater imageability, and higher concreteness than RMT-W items. The second study explored WC classification accuracy in a different clinical sample grouped by separate validity indicators into Pass (n = 54), Fail-1 (n = 17), and Fail-2 (n = 8) groups. WC scores were significantly higher in the Pass group (M = 49.1, SD = 1.9) than in the Fail-1 (M = 46.0, SD = 5.3) and Fail-2 (M = 44.1, SD = 4.8) groups. WC demonstrated area under the curve of .81 in classifying Pass and Fail-2 participants. Using the test manual cutoff associated with a 10% false positive rate, sensitivity was 38% and specificity was 96% in Pass and Fail-2 groups with 24% of Fail-1 participants scoring below cutoff. WC may be optimally used in combination with other measures given observed sensitivity. PMID:25372961

  3. Chronic marijuana smoke exposure in the rhesus monkey. I. Plasma cannabinoid and blood carboxyhemoglobin concentrations and clinical chemistry parameters.

    PubMed

    Slikker, W; Paule, M G; Ali, S F; Scallet, A C; Bailey, J R

    1991-08-01

    This report is the first in a series about a large multidisciplinary study designed to determine whether chronic marijuana (MJ) smoke exposure results in residual behavioral and/or neuropathological alterations in the rhesus monkey. Prior to the initiation of a year of chronic MJ smoke exposure, 64 periadolescent male rhesus monkeys were trained for 1 year to perform five operant behavioral tasks and then divided, according to their performance in these tasks, into four exposure groups (n = 15-16/group): (1) a high dose (HI) group, exposed 7 days/week to the smoke of one standard MJ cigarette; (2) a low dose (LO) group, exposed on weekend days only to the smoke of a standard MJ cigarette; (3) an extracted MJ cigarette (EX) group, exposed 7 days/week to the smoke of one ethanol-extracted MJ cigarette; and (4) a sham group (SH), exposed 7 days/week to sham exposure conditions. Daily exposures for 1 year were accomplished using a mask that covered the subjects' nose and mouth. Average body weights (initially 3.7 +/- 0.5 kg, mean +/- SD) and rates of weight gain (approximately 0.1 kg/month) were the same for all groups throughout the entire experiment. During the first week of exposure, plasma concentrations of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC in the HI group were 59 +/- 7 (mean +/- SE) and 5.5 +/- 1.5 ng/ml, respectively, 45 min after MJ smoke administration and did not change significantly at similar times after exposure throughout the remainder of the year. Whole blood carboxyhemoglobin levels increased to approximately 13% 1 min after exposure to smoke in either the MJ or the EX groups. Comparison of blood chemistry and hematology values before, during, and after exposure indicated no differences for most parameters. During exposure, lymphocytes, alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transferase were depressed in the HI group compared to in the SH group. During exposure, aspartate aminotransferase was elevated for both the HI and EX groups

  4. Proceedings of the 2015 Santa Fe Bone Symposium: Clinical Applications of Scientific Advances in Osteoporosis and Metabolic Bone Disease.

    PubMed

    Lewiecki, E Michael; Baron, Roland; Bilezikian, John P; Gagel, Robert E; Leonard, Mary B; Leslie, William D; McClung, Michael R; Miller, Paul D

    2016-01-01

    The 2015 Santa Fe Bone Symposium was a venue for healthcare professionals and clinical researchers to present and discuss the clinical relevance of recent advances in the science of skeletal disorders, with a focus on osteoporosis and metabolic bone disease. Symposium topics included new developments in the translation of basic bone science to improved patient care, osteoporosis treatment duration, pediatric bone disease, update of fracture risk assessment, cancer treatment-related bone loss, fracture liaison services, a review of the most significant studies of the past year, and the use of telementoring with Bone Health Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes, a force multiplier to improve the care of osteoporosis in underserved communities. PMID:26750746

  5. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents background information, laboratory procedures, classroom materials/activities, and experiments for chemistry. Topics include superheavy elements, polarizing power and chemistry of alkali metals, particulate carbon from combustion, tips for the chemistry laboratory, interesting/colorful experiments, behavior of bismuth (III) iodine, and…

  6. Barrett’s Esophagus and Cancer Risk: How Research Advances Can Impact Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    di Pietro, Massimiliano; Alzoubaidi, Durayd; Fitzgerald, Rebecca C.

    2014-01-01

    Barrett’s esophagus (BE) is the only known precursor to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), whose incidence has increased sharply in the last 4 decades. The annual conversion rate of BE to cancer is significant, but small. The identification of patients at a higher risk of cancer therefore poses a clinical conundrum. Currently, endoscopic surveillance is recommended in BE patients, with the aim of diagnosing either dysplasia or cancer at early stages, both of which are curable with minimally invasive endoscopic techniques. There is a large variation in clinical practice for endoscopic surveillance, and dysplasia as a marker of increased risk is affected by sampling error and high interobserver variability. Screening programs have not yet been formally accepted, mainly due to the economic burden that would be generated by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Screening programs have not yet been formally accepted, mainly due to the economic burden that would be generated by widespread indication to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. In fact, it is currently difficult to formulate an accurate algorithm to confidently target the population at risk, based on the known clinical risk factors for BE and EAC. This review will focus on the clinical and molecular factors that are involved in the development of BE and its conversion to cancer and on how increased knowledge in these areas can improve the clinical management of the disease. PMID:25071900

  7. Developing a clinical trial unit to advance research in an academic institution.

    PubMed

    Croghan, Ivana T; Viker, Steven D; Limper, Andrew H; Evans, Tamara K; Cornell, Alissa R; Ebbert, Jon O; Gertz, Morie A

    2015-11-01

    Research, clinical care, and education are the three cornerstones of academic health centers in the United States. The research climate has always been riddled with ebbs and flows, depending on funding availability. During a time of reduced funding, the number and scope of research studies have been reduced, and in some instances, a field of study has been eliminated. Recent reductions in the research funding landscape have led institutions to explore new ways to continue supporting research. Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN has developed a clinical trial unit within the Department of Medicine, which provides shared resources for many researchers and serves as a solution for training and mentoring new investigators and study teams. By building on existing infrastructure and providing supplemental resources to existing research, the Department of Medicine clinical trial unit has evolved into an effective mechanism for conducting research. This article discusses the creation of a central unit to provide research support in clinical trials and presents the advantages, disadvantages, and required building blocks for such a unit. PMID:26454064

  8. Barrett's esophagus and cancer risk: how research advances can impact clinical practice.

    PubMed

    di Pietro, Massimiliano; Alzoubaidi, Durayd; Fitzgerald, Rebecca C

    2014-07-01

    Barrett's esophagus (BE) is the only known precursor to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), whose incidence has increased sharply in the last 4 decades. The annual conversion rate of BE to cancer is significant, but small. The identification of patients at a higher risk of cancer therefore poses a clinical conundrum. Currently, endoscopic surveillance is recommended in BE patients, with the aim of diagnosing either dysplasia or cancer at early stages, both of which are curable with minimally invasive endoscopic techniques. There is a large variation in clinical practice for endoscopic surveillance, and dysplasia as a marker of increased risk is affected by sampling error and high interobserver variability. Screening programs have not yet been formally accepted, mainly due to the economic burden that would be generated by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Screening programs have not yet been formally accepted, mainly due to the economic burden that would be generated by widespread indication to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. In fact, it is currently difficult to formulate an accurate algorithm to confidently target the population at risk, based on the known clinical risk factors for BE and EAC. This review will focus on the clinical and molecular factors that are involved in the development of BE and its conversion to cancer and on how increased knowledge in these areas can improve the clinical management of the disease. PMID:25071900

  9. The efficacy and safety of nivolumab in the treatment of advanced melanoma: a meta-analysis of clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Conghui; Zhang, Xunlei; Zhao, Kuiling; Xu, Jun; Zhao, Min; Xu, Xiaohong

    2016-01-01

    Background Nivolumab has become a therapeutic regimen for the treatment of patients with advanced melanoma. The goal of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of nivolumab in patients with advanced melanoma. Methods A systematic search from January 2008 to August 2015 with “nivolumab” and “advanced melanoma” as search terms was performed for possible clinical trials. According to the hazard ratio and the 95% confidence interval (CI) for progression-free survival (PFS), rates of objective response, complete response, partial response, rates of toxic effects, and the efficacy and safety of nivolumab were assessed. Using the software Review Manager (version 5.3) a meta-analysis was performed. Results There were four trials with 1,910 patients included. Based on the four trials, the pooled hazard ratio of PFS was 0.53 (95% CI, 0.43–0.66; P<0.001). The pooled risk ratio for the objective response rate, complete response, and partial response was 2.98% (95% CI, 2.38%–3.73%; P<0.001), 3.71% (95% CI, 2.67%–5.14%; P<0.001), and 2.51% (95% CI, 2.12%–2.99%; P<0.001), respectively. Nivolumab plus ipilimumab therapy significantly increased the risk of grade 3/4 rash and fatigue. Conclusion Nivolumab-based therapy prolonged PFS in treatment of advanced melanoma, with less adverse effects. Nivolumab appears to be a favorable treatment option as a novel, targeted anticancer agent, for patients with advanced melanoma. PMID:27051297

  10. Extrapyramidal features in advanced Down's syndrome: clinical evaluation and family history.

    PubMed Central

    Vieregge, P; Ziemens, G; Freudenberg, M; Piosinski, A; Muysers, A; Schulze, B

    1991-01-01

    Extrapyramidal, frontal release, and other neurological signs were studied in 54 demented and non-demented patients with Down's syndrome (DS). Fourteen patients were demented and five showed extrapyramidal signs, mainly of the rigid-hypokinetic spectrum and similar to Parkinsonian features in advanced Alzheimer's disease (AD). None of the non-demented patients had Parkinsonian signs. The mean age of the demented DS patients with extrapyramidal signs was significantly higher than that of the patients without. Frontal release signs were present in demented and non-demented patients. A questionnaire showed no increase in either the proportion of early- or senile-onset dementia or Parkinsonism among first- and second-degree relatives of DS patients. Parkinsonian signs appear to be present at a lower frequency in DS than in advanced AD. A speculative hypothesis about a gene dosage effect of Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase in preventing toxic radical formation in the substantia nigra of DS patients is presented. PMID:1826326

  11. Recent Advances in Molecular Biology of Thyroid Cancer and Their Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Mingzhao

    2009-01-01

    Synopsis Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy with a rapid rising incidence in recent years. Novel efficient management strategies are increasingly needed for this cancer. Remarkable advances have occurred in recent years in understanding the molecular biology of thyroid cancer. This is reflected in several major biological areas of thyroid cancer, including the molecular alterations for the loss of radioiodine avidity of thyroid cancer, the pathogenic role of the MAP kinase and PI3K/Akt pathways and their related genetic alterations, and the aberrant methylation of functionally important genes in thyroid tumorigenesis and pathogenesis. These exciting advances in molecular biology of thyroid cancer provide unprecedented opportunities for the development of molecular-based novel diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic strategies for this cancer. PMID:19040974

  12. A chronic oral exposure of pigs with deoxynivalenol partially prevents the acute effects of lipopolysaccharides on hepatic histopathology and blood clinical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Stanek, Cassandra; Reinhardt, Nicole; Diesing, Anne-Kathrin; Nossol, Constanze; Kahlert, Stefan; Panther, Patricia; Kluess, Jeannette; Rothkötter, Hermann-Josef; Kuester, Doerthe; Brosig, Bianca; Kersten, Susanne; Dänicke, Sven

    2012-12-17

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), a cell wall component of gram-negative bacteria, and deoxynivalenol (DON), a prevalent Fusarium-derived contaminant of cereal grains, are each reported to have detrimental effects on the liver. A potentiating toxic effect of the combined exposure was reported previously in a mouse model and hepatocytes in vitro, but not in swine as the most DON-susceptible species. Thus, pigs were fed either a control diet (CON) or a Fusarium contaminated diet (DON, 3.1mg DON/kg diet) for 37 days. At day 37 control pigs were infused for 1h either with physiological saline (CON_CON), 100μg/kg BW DON (CON_DON), 7.5μg/kg BW LPS (CON_LPS), or both toxins (CON_DON/LPS) and Fusarium-pigs with saline (DON_CON) or 7.5μg/kg BW LPS (DON_LPS). Blood samples were taken before and after infusion (-30, +30, +60, +120, and +180min) for clinical blood chemistry. Pigs were sacrificed at +195min and liver histopathology was performed. LPS resulted in higher relative liver weight (p<0.05), portal, periportal and acinar inflammation (p<0.05), haemorrhage (p<0.01) and pathological bilirubin levels (CON_CON 1.0μmol/L vs. CON_LPS 5.4μmol/L, CON_DON/LPS 8.3μmol/L; p<0.001). DON feeding alleviated effects of LPS infusion on histopathology and blood chemistry to control levels, whereas DON infusion alone had no impact. PMID:23123154

  13. Academia, advocacy, and industry: a collaborative method for clinical research advancement.

    PubMed

    Vanzo, Rena J; Lortz, Amanda; Calhoun, Amy R U L; Carey, John C

    2014-07-01

    Professionals who work in academia, advocacy, and industry often carry out mutually exclusive activities related to research and clinical care. However, there are several examples of collaboration among such professionals that ultimately allows for improved scientific and clinical understanding. This commentary recounts our particular experience (a collaboration between geneticists at the Universities of Minnesota and Utah, the 4p- Support Group, and Lineagen, Inc) and reviews other similar projects. We formally propose this collaborative method as a conduit for future clinical research programs. Specifically, we encourage academicians, directors of family/advocacy/support groups, and members of industry to establish partnerships and document their experiences. The medical community as a whole will benefit from such partnerships and, specifically, families will teach us lessons that could never be learned in a laboratory or textbook. PMID:24700599

  14. From PET/CT to PET/MRI: advances in instrumentation and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhenhua; Yang, Weidong; Liu, Haixiao; Wang, Kun; Bao, Chengpeng; Song, Tianming; Wang, Jing; Tian, Jie

    2014-11-01

    Multimodality imaging of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) provides both metabolic information and the anatomic structure, which is significantly superior to either PET or CT alone and has greatly improved its clinical applications. Because of the higher soft-tissue contrast of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and no extra ionizing radiation, PET/MRI imaging is the hottest topic currently. PET/MRI is swiftly making its way into clinical practice. However, it has many technical difficulties to overcome, such as photomultiplier tubes, which cannot work properly in a magnetic field, and the inability to provide density information on the object for attenuation correction. This paper introduces the technique process of PET/MRI and summarizes its clinical applications, including imaging in oncology, neurology, and cardiology. PMID:25058336

  15. Bench to bedside: integrating advances in basic science into daily clinical practice.

    PubMed

    McGoldrick, Rory B; Hui, Kenneth; Chang, James

    2014-08-01

    This article focuses on the initial steps of commercial development of a patentable scientific discovery from an academic center through to marketing a clinical product. The basics of partnering with a technology transfer office (TTO) and the complex process of patenting are addressed, followed by a discussion on marketing and licensing the patent to a company in addition to starting a company. Finally, the authors address the basic principles of obtaining clearance from the Food and Drugs Administration, production in a good manufacturing practice (GMP) facility, and bringing the product to clinical trial. PMID:25066849

  16. Advances in clinical and molecular understanding of the FMR1 premutation and fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hagerman, Randi; Hagerman, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Summary Fragile X syndrome, the leading heritable form of cognitive impairment, is caused by epigenetic silencing of the fragile X (FMR1) gene consequent to large expansions (>200 repeats) of a non-coding CGG-repeat element. Smaller, “premutation” expansions (55–200 repeats) can give rise to a family of neurodevelopmental (ADHD, autism spectrum disorder, seizure disorder) and neurodegenerative (FXTAS) clinical phenotypes through an entirely distinct molecular mechanism involving increased FMR1 mRNA production and toxicity. Basic cellular, animal, and human studies have helped to elucidate the underlying RNA toxicity mechanism, while clinical research is providing a more nuanced picture of the spectrum of clinical involvement. Whereas advances on both mechanistic and clinical fronts are driving new approaches to targeted treatment, two important issues/needs are emerging: to define the extent to which the mechanisms contributing to FXTAS also contribute to other neurodegenerative and medical disorders, and to redefine FXTAS in light of its differing presentations and associated features. PMID:23867198

  17. The Chemistry of Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of General Medical Sciences (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This booklet, geared toward an advanced high school or early college-level audience, describes how basic chemistry and biochemistry research can spur a better understanding of human health. It reveals how networks of chemical reactions keep our bodies running smoothly. Some of the tools and technologies used to explore these reactions are…

  18. Accreditation of medical laboratories in Croatia--experiences of the Institute of Clinical Chemistry, University Hospital "Merkur", Zagreb.

    PubMed

    Flegar-Mestrić, Zlata; Nazor, Aida; Perkov, Sonja; Surina, Branka; Kardum-Paro, Mirjana Mariana; Siftar, Zoran; Sikirica, Mirjana; Sokolić, Ivica; Ozvald, Ivan; Vidas, Zeljko

    2010-03-01

    Since 2003 when the international norm for implementation of quality management in medical laboratories (EN ISO 15189, Medical laboratories--Particular requirements for quality and competence) was established and accepted, accreditation has become practical, generally accepted method of quality management and confirmation of technical competence of medical laboratories in the whole world. This norm has been translated into Croatian and accepted by the Croatian Institute for Norms as Croatian norm. Accreditation is carried out on voluntary basis by the Croatian Accreditation Agency that has up to now accredited two clinical medical biochemical laboratories in the Republic of Croatia. Advantages of accredited laboratory lie in its documented management system, constant improvement and training, reliability of test results, establishing users' trust in laboratory services, test results comparability and interlaboratory (international) test results acceptance by adopting the concept of metrological traceability in laboratory medicine. PMID:20437640

  19. CLUSTER CHEMISTRY

    SciTech Connect

    Muetterties, Earl L.

    1980-05-01

    Metal cluster chemistry is one of the most rapidly developing areas of inorganic and organometallic chemistry. Prior to 1960 only a few metal clusters were well characterized. However, shortly after the early development of boron cluster chemistry, the field of metal cluster chemistry began to grow at a very rapid rate and a structural and a qualitative theoretical understanding of clusters came quickly. Analyzed here is the chemistry and the general significance of clusters with particular emphasis on the cluster research within my group. The importance of coordinately unsaturated, very reactive metal clusters is the major subject of discussion.

  20. Forensic Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Suzanne

    2009-07-01

    Forensic chemistry is unique among chemical sciences in that its research, practice, and presentation must meet the needs of both the scientific and the legal communities. As such, forensic chemistry research is applied and derivative by nature and design, and it emphasizes metrology (the science of measurement) and validation. Forensic chemistry has moved away from its analytical roots and is incorporating a broader spectrum of chemical sciences. Existing forensic practices are being revisited as the purview of forensic chemistry extends outward from drug analysis and toxicology into such diverse areas as combustion chemistry, materials science, and pattern evidence.

  1. Improved locus-specific database for OPA1 mutations allows inclusion of advanced clinical data.

    PubMed

    Ferré, Marc; Caignard, Angélique; Milea, Dan; Leruez, Stéphanie; Cassereau, Julien; Chevrollier, Arnaud; Amati-Bonneau, Patrizia; Verny, Christophe; Bonneau, Dominique; Procaccio, Vincent; Reynier, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Autosomal-dominant optic atrophy (ADOA) is the most common inherited optic neuropathy, due to mutations in the optic atrophy 1 gene (OPA1) in about 60%-80% of cases. At present, the clinical heterogeneity of patients carrying OPA1 variants renders genotype-phenotype correlations difficulty. Since 2005, when we published the first locus-specific database (LSDB) dedicated to OPA1, a large amount of new clinical and genetic knowledge has emerged, prompting us to update this database. We have used the Leiden Open-Source Variation Database to develop a clinico-biological database, aiming to add clinical phenotypes related to OPA1 variants. As a first step, we validated this new database by registering several patients previously reported in the literature, as well as new patients from our own institution. Contributors may now make online submissions of clinical and molecular descriptions of phenotypes due to OPA1 variants, including detailed ophthalmological and neurological data, with due respect to patient anonymity. The updated OPA1 LSDB (http://opa1.mitodyn.org/) should prove useful for molecular diagnoses, large-scale variant statistics, and genotype-phenotype correlations in ADOA studies. PMID:25243597

  2. Advancing and Sustaining a Clinical Teacher Preparation Partnership: An Exploratory Qualitative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrido, Melissa Downey

    2012-01-01

    The national call to "turn [teacher education] upside down" (National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education, Report of the Blue Ribbon Panel on Clinical Preparation and Partnerships for Improved Student Learning [NCATE], 2010, p. ii) and states' subsequent commitments to pilot recommendations necessitates study of…

  3. Advances in the Molecular Analysis of Soft Tissue Tumors and Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Marino-Enriquez, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    SYNOPSIS The emergence of high-throughput molecular technologies has accelerated the discovery of novel diagnostic, prognostic and predictive molecular markers. Clinical implementation of these technologies is expected to transform the practice of surgical pathology. In soft tissue tumor pathology, accurate interpretation of comprehensive genomic data provides useful diagnostic and prognostic information, and informs therapeutic decisions. Most clinical molecular data will be likely generated by high-throughput genomic technologies, and reporting clinically actionable somatic mutations will be part of the routine pathology workflow, informing patient management and treatment. The purpose of this review is to introduce recently developed molecular technologies and to briefly discuss their potential for clinical implementation, focusing on various applications to the evaluation of soft tissue tumors. A special emphasis is made on practical diagnostic uses relevant to the surgical pathologist, with illustrative examples of how these technologies have helped characterize and diagnose soft tissue lesions. The concept of genomically-informed therapies will be mentioned, as an essential motivation to implement molecular tests to identify targetable molecular alterations in sarcoma. PMID:26297069

  4. In the End What Matters Most? A Review of Clinical Endpoints in Advanced Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    McLeod, Deanna; Batist, Gerald; Robidoux, André; Martins, Ilídio R. S.; Mackey, John R.

    2011-01-01

    Many agents are being studied for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer (MBC), yet few studies have demonstrated longer overall survival (OS), the primary measure of clinical benefit in MBC. This paper examines the key endpoints in clinical trials and U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approvals of drugs for MBC. PubMed was searched (1980 to October 2009) for reports of phase III trials investigating chemotherapy and/or targeted therapy agents in MBC. FDA approval histories (1996–2009) for cytotoxic and biological agents indicated for MBC were reviewed. Of the 73 phase III MBC trials reviewed, a strikingly small proportion of trials demonstrated a gain in OS duration (12%, n = 9). OS gains were less frequently noted in first-line trials (8%) than in trials of second-line plus other lines of therapy (22%). Few trials were designed with the capacity to detect OS effects. Among 37 phase III trials conducted in the last 15 years, only three systemic therapies were approved for first-line use and nine were approved for use as second-line or other lines of therapy. Of these, only four were supported by results showing longer survival times. There is substantial discordance among the design and conduct of clinical trials, FDA drug approval, and the current view of OS as the ultimate measure of clinical benefit. There is an urgent need to reassess standards for clinical benefit in MBC and to establish guidelines for study design and conduct and drug approval. In the end, what matters most is ensuring rapid access to safe and effective oncology treatments. PMID:21212428

  5. Advanced Multi-Axis Spine Testing: Clinical Relevance and Research Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Holsgrove, Timothy P.; Nayak, Nikhil R.; Welch, William C.

    2015-01-01

    Back pain and spinal degeneration affect a large proportion of the general population. The economic burden of spinal degeneration is significant, and the treatment of spinal degeneration represents a large proportion of healthcare costs. However, spinal surgery does not always provide improved clinical outcomes compared to non-surgical alternatives, and modern interventions, such as total disc replacement, may not offer clinically relevant improvements over more established procedures. Although psychological and socioeconomic factors play an important role in the development and response to back pain, the variation in clinical success is also related to the complexity of the spine, and the multi-faceted manner by which spinal degeneration often occurs. The successful surgical treatment of degenerative spinal conditions requires collaboration between surgeons, engineers, and scientists in order to provide a multi-disciplinary approach to managing the complete condition. In this review, we provide relevant background from both the clinical and the basic research perspectives, which is synthesized into several examples and recommendations for consideration in increasing translational research between communities with the goal of providing improved knowledge and care. Current clinical imaging, and multi-axis testing machines, offer great promise for future research by combining invivo kinematics and loading with in-vitro testing in six degrees of freedom to offer more accurate predictions of the performance of new spinal instrumentation. Upon synthesis of the literature, it is recommended that in-vitro tests strive to recreate as many aspects of the in-vivo environment as possible, and that a physiological preload is a critical factor in assessing spinal biomechanics in the laboratory. A greater link between surgical procedures, and the outcomes in all three anatomical planes should be considered in both the in-vivo and in-vitro settings, to provide data relevant to

  6. Description of the clinical practice of advanced practice nurses in family-centered early intervention in two rural settings.

    PubMed

    Kang, R; Barnard, K; Oshio, S

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the scope of clinical practice of advanced practice nurses who were involved in a project designed to increase access of families with at-risk and disabled young children, newborn to 3 years of age, to early intervention services in rural Washington State. The findings from this study are based on the retrospective review of records of clients seen by the advanced practice nurses. Nursing diagnoses and nursing interventions were assigned to chart recordings. The most frequently occurring nursing diagnoses assigned to parents were Altered Parenting, Altered Family Processes, Fear, Noncompliance, and Knowledge Deficit. The most frequently occurring nursing diagnoses assigned to children were Impaired Physical Mobility, Impaired Verban Communication, Altered Nutrition: Less than Body Requirements, Sensory-Perceptual Alteration, and Altered Thought Processes. Categories of nursing intervention recorded most frequently were Monitoring, Planning and Information. Discussion of findings addresses the roles and reimbursement of advanced practice nurses who provide family-centered early intervention services in rural communities. PMID:7870654

  7. Efficacy of mandibular advancement device in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: A randomized controlled crossover clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Crovetto-Martínez, Rafael; Alkhraisat, Mohammad-Hamdan; Crovetto, Miguel; Municio, Antonio; Kutz, Ramón; Aizpuru, Felipe; Miranda, Erika; Anitua, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Background Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of a mandibular advancement device (MAD) (KlearwayTM) in the treatment of mild-to-moderate obstructive sleep apnea and chronic roncopathy. Material and Methods A randomized, placebo-controlled, double blinded, and crossover clinical trial was conducted. Placebo device (PD) defined as a splint in the centric occlusion that did not induce a mandibular advancement served as a control. The mandible was advanced to the maximum tolerable distance or to a minimum of 65% of the maximum protrusion. After each sequence of treatment, patients were assessed by questionnaires, conventional polysomnography, and objective measurement of snoring at the patient’s own home. Results Forty two patients participated in the study and 38 completed the study. Patients mean age was 46 ±9 years and the 79% were males. The mean mandibular advancement was 8.6 ±2.8 mm. Patients used the MAD and the PD for 6.4 +2.4 hours and 6.2 +2.0 hours, respectively. Secondary effects (mostly mild) occurred in the 85.7% and the 86.8% of the users of MAD and PD, respectively. The MAD induced a decrease in the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) from 15.3 +10.2 to 11.9 +15.5. The 50% reduction in the AHI was achieved in the 46.2% and the 18.4% of the patients treated with MAD and PD, respectively. The use of the MAD induced a reduction in the AHI by 3.4 +15.9 while the PD induced an increase by 10.6 +26.1. The subjective evaluation of the roncopathy indicated an improvement by the MAD and an increase in the perceptive quality of sleep. However, the objective evaluation of the roncopathy did not show significant improvements. Conclusions The use of MAD is efficient to reduce the AHI and improve subjectively the roncopathy. MAD could be considered in the treatment of mild-to-moderate OSA and chronic roncopathy. Key words:Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), mandibular advance device, treatment, efficacy, clinical assay. PMID:26241460

  8. Argus T® versus Advance® Sling for postprostatectomy urinary incontinence: A randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Lima, João Paulo Cunha; Pompeo, Antonio Carlos Lima; Bezerra, Carlos Alberto

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To compare the results of two slings, Argus T® and Advance®, for the treatment of postprostatectomy urinary incontinence (PPUI). Material and Methods: From December 2010 to December 2011, 22 patients with PPUI were randomized as follows: 11 (mean age 62.09(±5.30)) underwent treatment with Advance® and 11 (mean age 62.55(±8.54)) with Argus T®. All patients were evaluated preoperatively with urodynamic testing, quality of life questionnaire (ICIQ-SF), voiding diary and 24-hour pad test. Exclusion criteria were: neurological diseases, severe detrusor overactivity and urethral stenosis. Evaluation was performed at 6, 12 and 18 months after the surgery. After implantation of the Argus T® sling, patients who experienced urine leakage equal to or greater than the initial volume underwent adjustment of the sling tension. Results were statistically analyzed using the Fisher’s test, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Friedman’s non-parametric test or the Mann-Whitney test. Results Significant improvement of the 24-hour pad test was observed with the Argus T® sling (p=0.038) , With regard to the other parameters, there was no significant difference between the two groups. Removal of the Argus T® device due to perineal pain was performed in one patient (9%). Despite non uniform results, both devices were considered useful to improve quality of life (ICIQ-SF): Argus T® (p=0.018) and Advance® (p=0.017). Conclusions Better results were observed in the 24h pad test and in levels of satisfaction with the Argus T® device. Both slings contributed to improve quality of life (ICIQ-SF), with acceptable side effects. PMID:27286117

  9. [Clinical study of recombinant interferon alpha-2 (Sch 30500) in advanced gynecological cancers].

    PubMed

    Kasamatsu, T; Ohmi, K; Takeuchi, S; Takamizawa, H; Matsuzawa, M; Kawana, T; Ueda, K; Kubo, H; Tsumuji, Y; Kawashima, Y

    1985-08-01

    Recombinant interferon alpha-2 (Sch 30500) was administered to 29 patients with advanced gynecological cancers (14 patients with cancer of the cervix, 8 with ovarian cancer, 4 with uterine sarcoma, 2 with endometrial cancer and 1 with unclassified cancer). No antitumor effects (CR and PR) were noted in 23 evaluable patients. Side effects observed were fever, tachycardia, diarrhea, chills, general fatigue, anorexia, nausea and vomiting. In some patients, leukopenia, decrease of hemoglobin and elevation of SGOT and SGPT were observed. No production of antibody for Sch 30500 was noted. PMID:3896157

  10. Advanced Renal Failure in Patients with Sickle Cell Anemia: Clinical Course and Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Iluminado A.; Hosten, Adrian O.; Dillard, Martin G.; Castro, Oswaldo L.

    1982-01-01

    Advanced renal failure occurred in nine adult sickle cell disease patients. There were six men and three women with a mean age of 38.6 years. Eight patients had homozygous SS disease, one had sickle cell thalassemia. Three patients had acute renal failure from which they partially recovered. Six developed endstage kidney disease requiring dialysis. Two of these received a kidney transplant, and there was one death in the immediate postoperative period. Angina pectoris, hyperkalemia, and severe anemia complicated chronic dialysis, suggesting that early transplantation should be considered for sickle cell anemia patients with renal failure. PMID:6757451

  11. PTEN polymorphisms contribute to clinical outcomes of advanced lung adenocarcinoma patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Xu, Wen; Liu, Di; Ding, Xi; Su, Bo; Sun, Yifeng; Gao, Wen

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to elucidate the impact of PTEN single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on clinical outcomes for advanced lung adenocarcinoma (LAC) patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. Three functional SNPs (rs11202607 G>A, rs701848 A>G, and rs11202592 G>C) of PTEN gene were genotyped by using DNA from blood samples of 618 advanced LAC patients, and their relationships with clinical outcomes were analyzed. The carriers of homozygous mutant of rs701848 and rs11202592 polymorphisms revealed significantly worse overall survival (OS) than those with heterozygote or wild-type homozygote (18.83 vs. 21.47 vs. 24.37 months, P = 0.034 and 13.40 vs. 19.03 vs. 21.90 months, P = 0.025, respectively). Subgroup analysis revealed that this association was particularly significant in tumor-lymph-node metastasis (TNM) stage III patients. The objective response rates (ORR) and disease control rates (DCR) of patients with genotype AA, AG, and GG in PTEN rs701848 polymorphism were statistically different (24.1 vs 16.6 vs 12.2 %, P = 0.017 and 82.7 vs 76.0 vs 70.2 %, P = 0.029, respectively). Haplotype analysis revealed a protective effect of the haplotype G-A-A (in the order of rs11202592, rs701848, and rs11202607) on chemotherapy efficacy and survival. Taken together, PTEN polymorphisms may contribute to survival and chemotherapy efficacy of advanced LAC patients treated with platinum-based agents. PMID:26695147

  12. Clinical benefits of combined chemotherapy with S-1, oxaliplatin, and docetaxel in advanced gastric cancer patients with palliative surgery

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan; Feng, Ye; Gao, Yongjian; Hou, Ruizhi

    2016-01-01

    Background and aim Advanced gastric cancer accounts for a substantial portion of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Surgical intervention is the curative therapeutic approach, but patients with advanced gastric cancer are not eligible for the radical resection. The present work aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of palliative surgery combined with S-1, oxaliplatin, and docetaxel chemotherapy in the treatment of patients with advanced gastric cancer. Method A total of 20 patients who underwent palliative resection of gastric cancer in China–Japan Union Hospital of Jilin University from 2010 to 2011 were evaluated. Days 20–30 postoperative, these patients started to receive chemotherapy of S-1 (40 mg/m2, oral intake twice a day) and intravenous infusion of oxaliplatin (135 mg/m2) and docetaxel (75 mg/m2). After three cycles of chemotherapy (21 days/cycle), patients were evaluated, and only those who responded toward the treatment continued to receive six to eight cycles of the treatment and were included in end point evaluation. Patients’ survival time and adverse reactions observed along the treatment were compared with those treated with FOLFOX. Results Out of 20 patients evaluated, there was one case of complete response, nine cases of partial response, six cases of stable disease, and four cases of progressive disease. The total efficacy (complete response + partial response) and clinical benefit rates were 50% and 80%, respectively. Of importance, the treatment achieved a significantly longer survival time compared to FOLFOX, despite the fact that both regimens shared common adverse reactions. The adverse reactions were gastrointestinal reaction, reduction in white blood cells, and peripheral neurotoxicity. All of them were mild, having no impact on the treatment. Conclusion Combination therapy of S-1, oxaliplatin, and docetaxel improves the survival of gastric cancer patients treated with palliative resection, with adverse reactions being

  13. The use of metronidazole and amoxicillin in the treatment of advanced periodontal disease. A prospective, controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Berglundh, T; Krok, L; Liljenberg, B; Westfelt, E; Serino, G; Lindhe, J

    1998-05-01

    The present clinical trial was performed to study the effect of systemic administration of metronidazole and amoxicillin as an adjunct to mechanical therapy in patients with advanced periodontal disease. 16 individuals, 10 female and 6 male, aged 35-58 years, with advanced periodontal disease were recruited. A baseline examination included assessment of clinical, radiographical, microbiological and histopathological characteristics of periodontal disease. The 16 patients were randomly distributed into 2 different samples of 8 subjects each. One sample of subjects received during the first 2 weeks of active periodontal therapy, antibiotics administered via the systemic route (metronidazole and amoxicillin). During the corresponding period, the 2nd sample of subjects received a placebo drug (placebo sample). In each of the 16 patients, 2 quadrants (1 in the maxilla and 1 in the mandible) were exposed to non-surgical subgingival scaling and root planing. The contralateral quadrants were left without subgingival instrumentation. Thus, 4 different treatment groups were formed; group 1: antibiotic therapy but no scaling, group 2: antibiotic therapy plus scaling, group 3: placebo therapy but no scaling, group 4: placebo therapy plus scaling. Re-examinations regarding the clinical parameters were performed, samples of the subgingival microbiota harvested and 1 soft tissue biopsy from 1 scaled and 1 non-scaled quadrant obtained 2 months and 12 months after the completion of active therapy. The teeth included in groups 1 and 3 were following the 12-month examination exposed to non-surgical periodontal therapy, and subsequently exited from the study. Groups 2 and 4 were also re-examined 24 months after baseline. The findings demonstrated that in patients with advanced periodontal disease, systemic administration of metronidazole plus amoxicillin resulted in (i) an improvement of the periodontal conditions, (ii) elimination/suppression of putative periodontal pathogens such as

  14. Anxiety, Substance Use, and Their Co-Occurrence: Advances in Clinical Science

    PubMed Central

    Zvolensky, Michael J.; Buckner, Julia D.; Norton, Peter J.; Smits, Jasper A. J.

    2011-01-01

    Research and clinical literatures are replete with examples that psychological disorders are related to drug use, abuse, and dependence. The preponderance of scientific work addressing relations among psychopathological processes and drug use, abuse, and dependence has been focused primarily on psychotic disorders, major depression, antisocial personality disorder, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. This corpus of empirical work has indicated that there are clinically meaningful relations among particular types of psychopathology and the onset and maintenance of substance use behaviors and disorders and, in turn, that substance use and use-related problems can impact vulnerability for psychopathology. Within this public health context, it is striking that despite the fact that anxiety disorders are one of the most common classes of psychological problems (Kessler et al., 2005), there has been limited programmatic study of the relations between anxiety vulnerability processes and substance use disorders. PMID:21857769

  15. Advances in the medical research and clinical applications on the plasma DNA

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuanyuan; Wu, Zhanhe

    2014-01-01

    Plasma DNA has had a strong impact and influence on basic medical research and clinical practice since the discovery of low levels of plasma DNA in healthy individuals under different physiological conditions. Although the source of circulating DNA still requires further investigation, a wide range of research has also proven the value of qualitative and quantitative measurements of plasma DNA in many disease conditions. The use of plasma DNA has a biomarker is advantageous due to accessibility, reliability, reproducibility, sensitivity, specific and relatively low cost. Recently, the detection of circulating (plasma) DNA quantitative changes have been using in the studies on the tumor gene mutations and to monitor disease progressing and to predict the disease prognosis. Such technique also has been using other many different fields, particularly in prenatal diagnosis, for which plasma DNA testing is preferable due to non-invasiveness. This article reviews the research progression and clinical applications of plasma DNA in the last several years. PMID:26835332

  16. Current advances in research and clinical applications of PLGA-based nanotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Lü, Jian-Ming; Wang, Xinwen; Marin-Muller, Christian; Wang, Hao; Lin, Peter H; Yao, Qizhi; Chen, Changyi

    2009-01-01

    Co-polymer poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanotechnology has been developed for many years and has been approved by the US FDA for the use of drug delivery, diagnostics and other applications of clinical and basic science research, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, vaccine and tissue engineering. This article presents the more recent successes of applying PLGA-based nanotechnologies and tools in these medicine-related applications. It focuses on the possible mechanisms, diagnosis and treatment effects of PLGA preparations and devices. This updated information will benefit to both new and established research scientists and clinical physicians who are interested in the development and application of PLGA nanotechnology as new therapeutic and diagnostic strategies for many diseases. PMID:19435455

  17. Plant-based vaccines for animals and humans: recent advances in technology and clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Takeyama, Natsumi; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Yuki, Yoshikazu

    2015-01-01

    It has been about 30 years since the first plant engineering technology was established. Although the concept of plant-based pharmaceuticals or vaccines motivates us to develop practicable commercial products using plant engineering, there are some difficulties in reaching the final goal: to manufacture an approved product. At present, the only plant-made vaccine approved by the United States Department of Agriculture is a Newcastle disease vaccine for poultry that is produced in suspension-cultured tobacco cells. The progress toward commercialization of plant-based vaccines takes much effort and time, but several candidate vaccines for use in humans and animals are in clinical trials. This review discusses plant engineering technologies and regulations relevant to the development of plant-based vaccines and provides an overview of human and animal vaccines currently under clinical trials. PMID:26668752

  18. Plant-based vaccines for animals and humans: recent advances in technology and clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Takeyama, Natsumi; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Yuki, Yoshikazu

    2015-09-01

    It has been about 30 years since the first plant engineering technology was established. Although the concept of plant-based pharmaceuticals or vaccines motivates us to develop practicable commercial products using plant engineering, there are some difficulties in reaching the final goal: to manufacture an approved product. At present, the only plant-made vaccine approved by the United States Department of Agriculture is a Newcastle disease vaccine for poultry that is produced in suspension-cultured tobacco cells. The progress toward commercialization of plant-based vaccines takes much effort and time, but several candidate vaccines for use in humans and animals are in clinical trials. This review discusses plant engineering technologies and regulations relevant to the development of plant-based vaccines and provides an overview of human and animal vaccines currently under clinical trials. PMID:26668752

  19. Recent Advances in Dipeptidyl-Peptidase-4 Inhibition Therapy: Lessons from the Bench and Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Jixin; Gong, Quan; Goud, Aditya; Srinivasamaharaj, Srividya; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    DPP4 inhibitors (DPP4i) are a class of newly developed antidiabetic drugs which preserve incretin hormones and promote postprandial insulin secretion. Although the cardiovascular effect of DPP4 inhibition has been substantially studied, the exact role of DPP4 in cardiovascular disease especially in humans remains elusive. Previous small studies and meta-analyses have suggested a benefit in both surrogate outcomes and cardiovascular events for these agents. However, there was growing evidence in recent years questioning the cardioprotective effect of DPP4i. Further, a signal of heart failure hospitalization in a recent large scale clinical trial SAVOR-TIMI 53 has called into question the safety of these agents and their utility in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. In this review, we will revisit the physiologic function of DPP4 and discuss its role in cardiometabolic disease based on recent experimental and clinical studies. PMID:26075284

  20. Applying knowledge-anchored hypothesis discovery methods to advance clinical and translational research: the OAMiner project

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Rebecca D; Best, Thomas M; Borlawsky, Tara B; Lai, Albert M; James, Stephen; Gurcan, Metin N

    2012-01-01

    The conduct of clinical and translational research regularly involves the use of a variety of heterogeneous and large-scale data resources. Scalable methods for the integrative analysis of such resources, particularly when attempting to leverage computable domain knowledge in order to generate actionable hypotheses in a high-throughput manner, remain an open area of research. In this report, we describe both a generalizable design pattern for such integrative knowledge-anchored hypothesis discovery operations and our experience in applying that design pattern in the experimental context of a set of driving research questions related to the publicly available Osteoarthritis Initiative data repository. We believe that this ‘test bed’ project and the lessons learned during its execution are both generalizable and representative of common clinical and translational research paradigms. PMID:22647689

  1. Latest research and clinical treatment of advanced-stage epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Robert L.; Monk, Bradley J.; Sood, Anil K.; Herzog, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    The natural history of ovarian cancer continues to be characterized by late-stage presentation, metastatic bulky disease burden and stagnant mortality statistics despite prolific drug development. Robust clinical investigation, particularly with modifications to primary treatment surgical goals and adjuvant therapy are increasing median progression-free and overall survival, although the cure rates have only modestly been affected. Maintenance therapy holds promise, but studies have yet to identify an agent and/or strategy that can affect survival. Recurrent disease is largely an incurable state; however, current intervention with selected surgery, combination and targeted therapy and investigational protocols are impacting progression-free survival. Ovarian cancer is a diverse and genomically complex disease, which commands global attention. Rational investigation must balance the high rate of discovery with lagging clinical investigation and limited patient resources. Nevertheless, armamentarium growth offers unprecedented opportunities for patients suffering with this disease. This Review presents and reviews the contemporary management of the disease spectrum termed epithelial ‘ovarian’ cancer and introduces the direction and early results of clinical investigation. PMID:23381004

  2. Clinical implication of computed tomography findings in patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx and hypopharynx.

    PubMed

    Ryu, In Sun; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Roh, Jong-Lyel; Choi, Seung-Ho; Nam, Soon Yuhl; Kim, Sang Yoon; Cho, Kyung-Ja

    2015-10-01

    Accurate tumor staging including involvement of laryngeal cartilage is important to treatment planning. Clinicians rely on imaging findings and determine initial laryngectomy for T4-stage cancer with functionless larynx or extralaryngeal spread (ELS). We examined the accuracy and prognostic value of preoperative CT findings for tumor staging in patients with locally advanced laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer. Ninety-four consecutive patients with clinically T3-T4-stage squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx or hypopharynx who underwent curative resection of primary tumor were reviewed. Preoperative CT findings were interpreted by a radiologist without pathologic information. Pathologic findings were used as the gold standard for correlating radiographic findings. CT imaging identified 23 (72%) of 32 cases of pathologically documented thyroid cartilage penetration and 24 (73%) of 33 cases of pathologically documented ELS. The positive predictive values for thyroid cartilage penetration and ELS were 70 and 80%, respectively. Pretreatment CT imaging up-staged 6 of 46 pT3 cases and all of 8 pT2 cases, while it down-staged 7 of 40 pT4 cases. The accuracy for clinical staging by CT imaging was 78%. Subglottic extension of the CT image was an independent variable for predicting thyroid cartilage penetration and ELS (P = 0.014). Thyroid cartilage penetration with or without ELS on CT scans is significantly associated with unfavorable DFS outcome of patients (P = 0.020). CT imaging is suboptimal in diagnosing TCP or ELS of advanced laryngeal cancer, but may be useful to predict patient survival by identifying clinically TCP. PMID:25149290

  3. Sorafenib treatment of radioiodine-refractory advanced thyroid cancer in daily clinical practice: a cohort study from a single center.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Marco; Michelon, Federica; Castiglione, Anna; Felicetti, Francesco; Viansone, Alessandro Adriano; Nervo, Alice; Zichi, Clizia; Ciccone, Giovannino; Piovesan, Alessandro; Arvat, Emanuela

    2015-08-01

    Treatment options for recurrent or metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) refractory to radioactive iodine (RAI) are inadequate. Multitargeted kinase inhibitors have recently shown promising results in phase 2-3 studies. This retrospective study aimed to document our clinical experience on the effects of sorafenib in the setting of daily clinical practice. Retrospective study evaluating the efficacy and safety of sorafenib in a cohort of patients consecutively treated with sorafenib at a single center. Twenty patients with advanced RAI-refractory thyroid carcinoma were enrolled (March 2011-March 2014). Patients generally started with 400 mg of sorafenib twice daily, tapering the dose in case of side effects. Radiological response and toxicity were measured during follow-up, together with safety parameters. CT scans were performed by a single experienced radiologist every 3-4 months. Five patients stopped sorafenib within 90 days due to severe toxicities. Median progression-free survival was 248 days. Five patients had a partial response (PR), achieved in all cases within 3 months, whereas 5 had stable disease (SD) at 12 months. Durable response rate (PR plus SD) for at least 6 months was 50 %, among those who received sorafenib for at least 3 months. Commonest adverse events included skin toxicity, gastrointestinal and constitutional symptoms. In our cohort of patients with advanced RAI-refractory thyroid carcinoma, sorafenib confirmed antitumor activity leading to SD or PR in the majority of cases, at the expense of clinically relevant side effects. More effective and tolerable agents are still needed in the treatment of RAI-refractory DTC. PMID:25414068

  4. Phase II clinical trial of ex vivo-expanded cytokine-induced killer cells therapy in advanced pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Chung, Moon Jae; Park, Jeong Youp; Bang, Seungmin; Park, Seung Woo; Song, Si Young

    2014-09-01

    Second-line chemotherapy in patients with gemcitabine-refractory advanced pancreatic cancer has shown disappointing survival outcomes due to rapid disease progression and performance deterioration. The aim of this phase II trial was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of adoptive immunotherapy using ex vivo-expanded, cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells in gemcitabine-refractory advanced pancreatic cancer. Patients with advanced pancreatic cancer who showed disease progression during gemcitabine-based chemotherapy were enrolled in this study. For generation of CIK cells, peripheral blood samples were collected from each patient and cultured with anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody and IL-2. Patients received CIK cells intravenously 10 times, every week for 5 weeks and then every other week for 10 weeks. Twenty patients were enrolled between November 2009 and September 2010. The disease control rate was 25 % (4/16 patients). The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 11.0 weeks (95 % CI 8.8-13.2), and the median overall survival (OS) was 26.6 weeks (95 % CI 8.6-44.6). Grade 3 toxicities included general weakness in two patients and thrombocytopenia in one patient. Grade 4 hematologic or non-hematologic toxicity was not observed. Patients showed improvement in pancreatic pain, gastrointestinal distress, jaundice, body image alterations, altered bowel habits, health satisfaction, and sexuality when assessing quality of life (QoL). Adoptive immunotherapy using CIK cells showed comparable PFS and OS to survival data of previous trials that assessed conventional chemotherapies while maintaining tolerability and showing encouraging results in terms of patient QoL in gemcitabine-refractory advanced pancreatic cancer (clinicalTrials.gov number NCT00965718). PMID:24916038

  5. The Clinical Significance of MiR-148a as a Predictive Biomarker in Patients with Advanced Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Masanobu; Cuatrecasas, Miriam; Balaguer, Francesc; Hur, Keun; Toiyama, Yuji; Castells, Antoni; Boland, C. Richard; Goel, Ajay

    2012-01-01

    Aim Development of robust prognostic and/or predictive biomarkers in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) is imperative for advancing treatment strategies for this disease. We aimed to determine whether expression status of certain miRNAs might have prognostic/predictive value in CRC patients treated with conventional cytotoxic chemotherapies. Methods We studied a cohort of 273 CRC specimens from stage II/III patients treated with 5-fluorouracil-based adjuvant chemotherapy and stage IV patients subjected to 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy. In a screening set (n = 44), 13 of 21 candidate miRNAs were successfully quantified by multiplex quantitative RT-PCR. In the validation set comprising of the entire patient cohort, miR-148a expression status was assessed by quantitative RT-PCR, and its promoter methylation was quantified by bisulfite pyrosequencing. Lastly, we analyzed the associations between miR-148a expression and patient survival. Results Among the candidate miRNAs studied, miR-148a expression was most significantly down-regulated in advanced CRC tissues. In stage III and IV CRC, low miR-148a expression was associated with significantly shorter disease free-survival (DFS), a worse therapeutic response, and poor overall survival (OS). Furthermore, miR-148a methylation status correlated inversely with its expression, and was associated with worse survival in stage IV CRC. In multivariate analysis, miR-148a expression was an independent prognostic/predictive biomarker for advanced CRC patients (DFS in stage III, low vs. high expression, HR 2.11; OS in stage IV, HR 1.93). Discussion MiR-148a status has a prognostic/predictive value in advanced CRC patients treated with conventional chemotherapy, which has important clinical implications in improving therapeutic strategies and personalized management of this malignancy. PMID:23056401

  6. Clinical evaluation of the effect of platelet rich plasma on the coronally advanced flap root coverage procedure

    PubMed Central

    Biradar, Sharashchandra Madhavarao; Satyanarayan, Ashok; Kulkarni, Arun J; Patti, Basavaraj; Mysore, Sunil K; Patil, Ambika

    2015-01-01

    Background: Coronally advanced flap (CAF) has been shown to effectively treat gingival recession. Platelet rich plasma (PRP), containing autologous growth factors, has been shown to promote soft tissue healing. The aim of this clinical study was to determine whether the addition of an autologous PRP to a CAF when compared to a CAF alone would improve the clinical outcome for treatment of multiple gingival recessions. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with Miller's class I and class II buccal recession defect were randomly assigned to control (CAF alone) or test (CAF with PRP) groups. Recession depth (RD), recession width (RW), probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), width of keratinized tissue, wound healing index, percentage of root coverage was assessed. Patients were followed at 2, 4, 12 and 16 weeks post-surgery. Statistical analysis for intra and inter group comparisons was done using Wilcoxon sign rank and Wilcoxon rank sum tests respectively. P < 0.05 denoted statistical significance. Results: The differences between the test and control groups were not significant with respect to all the clinical variables. The RD at 16 weeks was significantly reduced from 2.88 ± 0.69 to 0.76 ± 0.24 mm in control group (P < 0.05) and from 2.95 ± 0.43 to 0.76 ± 0.35 mm in the test group (P < 0.05). The mean percentage of root coverage was 73.1 ± 7.3 in the control group and 75.0 ± 8.3 in test group (P < 0.05). The CAL gain was 3.17 ± 0.84 mm within the control group and 3.17 ± 0.79 mm within test group. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, PRP with CAF can provide an early healing of soft tissues, but does not provide clinically measurable improvement in the final therapeutics outcome in CAF. PMID:26604962

  7. Click chemistry patents and their impact on drug discovery and chemical biology.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hua; Jones, Lyn H

    2015-01-01

    First introduced by K Barry Sharpless in 2001, the term 'click chemistry' soon became a widely used description of chemical reactions that proceed rapidly, cleanly and in a manner that is often compatible with aqueous solutions. Click chemistry is frequently employed throughout the process of drug discovery, and greatly helps advance research programs in the pharmaceutical industry. It facilitates library synthesis to support medicinal chemistry optimization, helps identify the targets and off-targets of drug candidates, and can facilitate the determination of drug efficacy in clinical trials. In the last decade, a large number of patent applications covering the various types and utilities of click chemistry have been filed. In this review, we provide the first analysis of click chemistry applications. PMID:25853470

  8. Chemistry-nuclear chemistry division. Progress report, October 1979-September 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, R.R.

    1981-05-01

    This report presents the research and development programs pursued by the Chemistry-Nuclear Chemistry Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Topics covered include advanced analytical methods, atmospheric chemistry and transport, biochemistry, biomedical research, element migration and fixation, inorganic chemistry, isotope separation and analysis, atomic and molecular collisions, molecular spectroscopy, muonic x rays, nuclear cosmochemistry, nuclear structure and reactions, radiochemical separations, theoretical chemistry, and unclassified weapons research.

  9. Perimetric progression using the Visual Field Index and the Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study score and its clinical correlations

    PubMed Central

    Gros-Otero, Juan; Castejón, Miguel; Paz-Moreno, Javier; Mikropoulos, Dimitrios; Teus, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the association between clinical parameters and the diagnosis of progression using VFI (Visual Field Index) and AGIS (Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study) score in primary open angle glaucoma. Methods Retrospective study of 517 visual fields of 78 eyes with primary open angle glaucoma analyzed with VFI and AGIS score. Clinical data registered included: age, sphere, pachimetry, basal intraocular pressure (IOP), and IOP during the follow up. Results Only the AGIS score diagnosis of progression was associated with the clinical parameters registered. Among the analyzed data, the mean IOP during follow up (p = 0.0005) and IOP at the third month of follow up (p = 0.004) were statistically associated with progression using the AGIS criteria. Conclusion The diagnosis of perimetric progression using the AGIS score in the current study was closer to the real functional progression than the diagnosis using the VFI, as the former was associated with known risk factors for progression in glaucoma. PMID:25182851

  10. Mineral Process Chemistry: A Special Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudeney, A. W. L.

    1982-01-01

    Mineral Process Chemistry is one of the special study options of the Nuffield Advanced Science course in chemistry. Following general comments on mineral process chemistry, the subject matter of the option is described, focusing on copper and china clay. (Author/JN)

  11. [Domains in the clinical practice of Clinical Nursing Experts in Germany and their correspondence with the internationally described "Advanced Nursing Practice"].

    PubMed

    Mendel, Simon; Feuchtinger, Johanna

    2009-06-01

    In spite of a growing trend toward academic education and increasing numbers of "nursing experts" functioning as change agents in Germany, actual nursing experts as in the internationally described Advanced Nursing Practice (ANP) are scarce. Drawing from a ten-year experience in implementing the international concept, the University Hospital Freiburg (UKF), Germany, constitutes a notable exception, as it presently employs ten clinically practicing nursing experts. Based on this background of educating nursing experts, this presentation aims at describing the implementation of the nursing expert's role and its fit and conformance with the international ANP. A 3-stage Delphi design was used for interviewing all the nursing experts at the hospital (n = 10) about their expert opinions; in addition, all nursing managers (n = 7) as well as unit and team leaders (n = 49) were asked about their opinion to relevant functions and domains of nursing experts. The following clinical practice domains of nursing experts were identified: Direct patient care, patient education, support and supervision of nurses, maintenance and expansion of professional skills and knowledge of the nursing staff, counselling of managers, quality assurance and organizational development, theory to practice transfer, nursing research, maintenance of own professional skills and knowledge and continuing education, and publicity work. Additionally, a three-year nursing education, a longer lasting professional experience, a degree in nursing science or nursing education, and specialist skills in the respective area of expertise were identified as credentials for nursing expert practice. The nursing expert concept at UKF shows elements of the international ANP with similarities to the role of a Clinical Nurse Specialist. PMID:19496033

  12. Clinical challenges in HIV/AIDS: Hints for advancing prevention and patient management strategies.

    PubMed

    Sued, Omar; Figueroa, María Inés; Cahn, Pedro

    2016-08-01

    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome has been one of the most devastating epidemics of the last century. The current estimate for people living with the HIV is 36.9 million. Today, despite availability of potent and safe drugs for effective treatment, lifelong therapy is required for preventing HIV re-emergence from a pool of latently infected cells. However, recent evidence show the importance to expand HIV testing, to offer antiretroviral treatment to all infected individuals, and to ensure retention through all the cascade of care. In addition, circumcision, pre-exposure prophylaxis, and other biomedical tools are now available for included in a comprehensive preventive package. Use of all the available tools might allow cutting the HIV transmission in 2030. In this article, we review the status of the epidemic, the latest advances in prevention and treatment, the concept of treatment as prevention and the challenges and opportunities for the HIV cure agenda. PMID:27117711

  13. A Chemical Proteomics Approach for the Search of Pharmacological Targets of the Antimalarial Clinical Candidate Albitiazolium in Plasmodium falciparum Using Photocrosslinking and Click Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Penarete-Vargas, Diana Marcela; Boisson, Anaïs; Urbach, Serge; Chantelauze, Hervé; Peyrottes, Suzanne; Fraisse, Laurent; Vial, Henri J.

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for severe malaria which is one of the most prevalent and deadly infectious diseases in the world. The antimalarial therapeutic arsenal is hampered by the onset of resistance to all known pharmacological classes of compounds, so new drugs with novel mechanisms of action are critically needed. Albitiazolium is a clinical antimalarial candidate from a series of choline analogs designed to inhibit plasmodial phospholipid metabolism. Here we developed an original chemical proteomic approach to identify parasite proteins targeted by albitiazolium during their native interaction in living parasites. We designed a bifunctional albitiazolium-derived compound (photoactivable and clickable) to covalently crosslink drug–interacting parasite proteins in situ followed by their isolation via click chemistry reactions. Mass spectrometry analysis of drug–interacting proteins and subsequent clustering on gene ontology terms revealed parasite proteins involved in lipid metabolic activities and, interestingly, also in lipid binding, transport, and vesicular transport functions. In accordance with this, the albitiazolium-derivative was localized in the endoplasmic reticulum and trans-Golgi network of P. falciparum. Importantly, during competitive assays with albitiazolium, the binding of choline/ethanolamine phosphotransferase (the enzyme involved in the last step of phosphatidylcholine synthesis) was substantially displaced, thus confirming the efficiency of this strategy for searching albitiazolium targets. PMID:25470252

  14. A chemical proteomics approach for the search of pharmacological targets of the antimalarial clinical candidate albitiazolium in Plasmodium falciparum using photocrosslinking and click chemistry.

    PubMed

    Penarete-Vargas, Diana Marcela; Boisson, Anaïs; Urbach, Serge; Chantelauze, Hervé; Peyrottes, Suzanne; Fraisse, Laurent; Vial, Henri J

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for severe malaria which is one of the most prevalent and deadly infectious diseases in the world. The antimalarial therapeutic arsenal is hampered by the onset of resistance to all known pharmacological classes of compounds, so new drugs with novel mechanisms of action are critically needed. Albitiazolium is a clinical antimalarial candidate from a series of choline analogs designed to inhibit plasmodial phospholipid metabolism. Here we developed an original chemical proteomic approach to identify parasite proteins targeted by albitiazolium during their native interaction in living parasites. We designed a bifunctional albitiazolium-derived compound (photoactivable and clickable) to covalently crosslink drug-interacting parasite proteins in situ followed by their isolation via click chemistry reactions. Mass spectrometry analysis of drug-interacting proteins and subsequent clustering on gene ontology terms revealed parasite proteins involved in lipid metabolic activities and, interestingly, also in lipid binding, transport, and vesicular transport functions. In accordance with this, the albitiazolium-derivative was localized in the endoplasmic reticulum and trans-Golgi network of P. falciparum. Importantly, during competitive assays with albitiazolium, the binding of choline/ethanolamine phosphotransferase (the enzyme involved in the last step of phosphatidylcholine synthesis) was substantially displaced, thus confirming the efficiency of this strategy for searching albitiazolium targets. PMID:25470252

  15. Advances in the management of multiple sclerosis spasticity: experiences from recent studies and everyday clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Pozzilli, Carlo

    2013-12-01

    Although spasticity of varying severity affects up to 80% of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) during the course of their disease, the symptom is often overlooked and undertreated. Despite the availability of oral antispasticity treatments (baclofen, tizanidine and others), approximately one-third of MS patients in Europe and the USA experience moderate or severe nonfocalized spasticity. At present, a thorough clinical evaluation of MS-related spasticity that takes into account the patient's own perception of spasms, spasticity-related pain and other associated symptoms is not common in daily neurological practice. Some of the usual spasticity scales, such as the Ashworth and modified Ashworth scales, reflect the observer's measurement of spasticity at a particular point in time. Herbal (smoked) cannabis has long been recognized as a possible option for relief of spasticity and neuropathic pain, but pertinent concerns about psychoactive effects and addiction risk have prevented its common use. An innovative method of benefiting from the mode of action of cannabinoids while limiting their drawbacks is to reduce peak plasma levels of 9-delta-tetrahydrocannabinol and counteract psychoactivity with higher than naturally occurring proportions of a second cannabinoid, cannabidiol. Sativex® oromucosal spray (1:1 ratio of 9-delta-tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol) has recently been approved in a number of EU countries and elsewhere for use in patients with MS-related spasticity who are resistant to treatment with other antispasticity medications. In clinical trials, Sativex provided initial relief of spasticity symptoms within the first 4 weeks of treatment (trial period) in up to about half of patients resistant to other available oral antispasticity medications and demonstrated clinically significant improvement in spasticity (30% or higher reduction from baseline) in three-quarters of the initial responders. Adverse events were limited mainly to mild or moderate

  16. In vitro fertilization (IVF): a review of 3 decades of clinical innovation and technological advancement

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jeff; Sauer, Mark V

    2006-01-01

    In vitro fertilization, popularly referred to as IVF, has captured the attention of the public since its sensational introduction in 1978. Today assisted reproductive technology is available throughout most of the civilized world, and the practice is largely different from that used during the early days. Refinements in laboratory technology and clinical practice have allowed IVF to evolve into a medical procedure that is efficient, safe, readily accessible, and relatively affordable. More than 2 million IVF children have been born to date, and it is likely that continued enhancements will widen its appeal and applicability. PMID:18360648

  17. The advancement of human pluripotent stem cell-derived therapies into the clinic.

    PubMed

    Thies, R Scott; Murry, Charles E

    2015-09-15

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) offer many potential applications for drug screening and 'disease in a dish' assay capabilities. However, a more ambitious goal is to develop cell therapeutics using hPSCs to generate and replace somatic cells that are lost as a result of disease or injury. This Spotlight article will describe the state of progress of some of the hPSC-derived therapeutics that offer the most promise for clinical use. Lessons from developmental biology have been instrumental in identifying signaling molecules that can guide these differentiation processes in vitro, and will be described in the context of these cell therapy programs. PMID:26395136

  18. Systematic review of herbals as potential anti-inflammatory agents: Recent advances, current clinical status and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Beg, Sarwar; Swain, Suryakanta; Hasan, Hameed; Barkat, M Abul; Hussain, Md Sarfaraz

    2011-01-01

    Many synthetic drugs reported to be used for the treatment of inflammatory disorders are of least interest now a days due to their potential side effects and serious adverse effects and as they are found to be highly unsafe for human assistance. Since the last few decades, herbal drugs have regained their popularity in treatment against several human ailments. Herbals containing anti-inflammatory activity (AIA) are topics of immense interest due to the absence of several problems in them, which are associated with synthetic preparations. The primary objective of this review is to provide a deep overview of the recently explored anti-inflammatory agents belonging to various classes of phytoconstituents like alkaloids, glycosides, terpenoids, steroids, polyphenolic compounds, and also the compounds isolated from plants of marine origin, algae and fungi. Also, it enlists a distended view on potential interactions between herbals and synthetic preparations, related adverse effects and clinical trials done on herbals for exploring their AIA. The basic aim of this review is to give updated knowledge regarding plants which will be valuable for the scientists working in the field of anti-inflammatory natural chemistry. PMID:22279370

  19. PET/SPECT molecular imaging in clinical neuroscience: recent advances in the investigation of CNS diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Feng-Mei

    2015-01-01

    Molecular imaging is an attractive technology widely used in clinical practice that greatly enhances our understanding of the pathophysiology and treatment in central nervous system (CNS) diseases. It is a novel multidisciplinary technique that can be defined as real-time visualization, in vivo characterization and qualification of biological processes at the molecular and cellular level. It involves the imaging modalities and the corresponding imaging agents. Nowadays, molecular imaging in neuroscience has provided tremendous insights into disturbed human brain function. Among all of the molecular imaging modalities, positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) have occupied a particular position that visualize and measure the physiological processes using high-affinity and high-specificity molecular radioactive tracers as imaging probes in intact living brain. In this review, we will put emphasis on the PET/SPECT applications in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD) as major CNS disorders. We will first give an overview of the main classical molecular neuroimaging modalities. Then, the major clinical applications of PET and SPECT along with molecular probes in the fields of psychiatry and neurology will be discussed. PMID:26029646

  20. A Psychometric Evaluation of an Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience Clinical Competency Framework

    PubMed Central

    Doty, Randell E.; Nemire, Ruth E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To assess the psychometric properties of the clinical competency framework known as the System of Universal Clinical Competency Evaluation in the Sunshine State (SUCCESS), including its internal consistency and content, construct, and criterion validity. Methods. Sub-competency items within each hypothesized competency pair were subjected to principal components factor analysis to demonstrate convergent and discriminant validity. Varimax rotation was conducted for each competency pair (eg, competency 1 vs competency 2, competency 1 vs competency 3, competency 2 vs competency 3). Internal consistency was evaluated using Cronbach alpha. Results. Of the initial 78 pairings, 44 (56%) demonstrated convergent and discriminant validity. Five pairs of competencies were unidimensional. Of the 34 pairs where at least 1 competency was multidimensional, most (91%) were from competencies 7, 11, and 12, indicating modifications were warranted in those competencies. After reconfiguring the competencies, 76 (94%) of the 81 pairs resulted in 2 factors as required. A unidimensional factor emerged when all 13 of the competencies were entered into a factor analysis. The internal consistency of all of the competencies was satisfactory. Conclusion. Psychometric evaluation shows the SUCCESS framework demonstrates adequate reliability and validity for most competencies. However, it also provides guidance where improvements are needed as part of a continuous quality improvement program. PMID:25861100