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Sample records for advanced clinical decision

  1. Personalizing Drug Selection Using Advanced Clinical Decision Support.

    PubMed

    Pestian, John; Spencer, Malik; Matykiewicz, Pawel; Zhang, Kejian; Vinks, Alexander A; Glauser, Tracy

    2009-06-23

    This article describes the process of developing an advanced pharmacogenetics clinical decision support at one of the United States' leading pediatric academic medical centers. This system, called CHRISTINE, combines clinical and genetic data to identify the optimal drug therapy when treating patients with epilepsy or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. In the discussion a description of clinical decision support systems is provided, along with an overview of neurocognitive computing and how it is applied in this setting.

  2. Personalizing Drug Selection Using Advanced Clinical Decision Support

    PubMed Central

    Pestian, John; Spencer, Malik; Matykiewicz, Pawel; Zhang, Kejian; Vinks, Alexander A.; Glauser, Tracy

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the process of developing an advanced pharmacogenetics clinical decision support at one of the United States’ leading pediatric academic medical centers. This system, called CHRISTINE, combines clinical and genetic data to identify the optimal drug therapy when treating patients with epilepsy or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. In the discussion a description of clinical decision support systems is provided, along with an overview of neurocognitive computing and how it is applied in this setting. PMID:19898682

  3. Advancing clinical decision support using lessons from outside of healthcare: an interdisciplinary systematic review.

    PubMed

    Wu, Helen W; Davis, Paul K; Bell, Douglas S

    2012-08-17

    Greater use of computerized decision support (DS) systems could address continuing safety and quality problems in healthcare, but the healthcare field has struggled to implement DS technology. This study surveys DS experience across multiple non-healthcare disciplines for new insights that are generalizable to healthcare provider decisions. In particular, it sought design principles and lessons learned from the other disciplines that could inform efforts to accelerate the adoption of clinical decision support (CDS). Our systematic review drew broadly from non-healthcare databases in the basic sciences, social sciences, humanities, engineering, business, and defense: PsychINFO, BusinessSource Premier, Social Sciences Abstracts, Web of Science, and Defense Technical Information Center. Because our interest was in DS that could apply to clinical decisions, we selected articles that (1) provided a review, overview, discussion of lessons learned, or an evaluation of design or implementation aspects of DS within a non-healthcare discipline and (2) involved an element of human judgment at the individual level, as opposed to decisions that can be fully automated or that are made at the organizational level. Clinical decisions share some similarities with decisions made by military commanders, business managers, and other leaders: they involve assessing new situations and choosing courses of action with major consequences, under time pressure, and with incomplete information. We identified seven high-level DS system design features from the non-healthcare literature that could be applied to CDS: providing broad, system-level perspectives; customizing interfaces to specific users and roles; making the DS reasoning transparent; presenting data effectively; generating multiple scenarios covering disparate outcomes (e.g., effective; effective with side effects; ineffective); allowing for contingent adaptations; and facilitating collaboration. The article provides examples of

  4. Advancing clinical decision support using lessons from outside of healthcare: an interdisciplinary systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Greater use of computerized decision support (DS) systems could address continuing safety and quality problems in healthcare, but the healthcare field has struggled to implement DS technology. This study surveys DS experience across multiple non-healthcare disciplines for new insights that are generalizable to healthcare provider decisions. In particular, it sought design principles and lessons learned from the other disciplines that could inform efforts to accelerate the adoption of clinical decision support (CDS). Methods Our systematic review drew broadly from non-healthcare databases in the basic sciences, social sciences, humanities, engineering, business, and defense: PsychINFO, BusinessSource Premier, Social Sciences Abstracts, Web of Science, and Defense Technical Information Center. Because our interest was in DS that could apply to clinical decisions, we selected articles that (1) provided a review, overview, discussion of lessons learned, or an evaluation of design or implementation aspects of DS within a non-healthcare discipline and (2) involved an element of human judgment at the individual level, as opposed to decisions that can be fully automated or that are made at the organizational level. Results Clinical decisions share some similarities with decisions made by military commanders, business managers, and other leaders: they involve assessing new situations and choosing courses of action with major consequences, under time pressure, and with incomplete information. We identified seven high-level DS system design features from the non-healthcare literature that could be applied to CDS: providing broad, system-level perspectives; customizing interfaces to specific users and roles; making the DS reasoning transparent; presenting data effectively; generating multiple scenarios covering disparate outcomes (e.g., effective; effective with side effects; ineffective); allowing for contingent adaptations; and facilitating collaboration. The

  5. Clinical decision support systems for brain tumor characterization using advanced magnetic resonance imaging techniques.

    PubMed

    Tsolaki, Evangelia; Kousi, Evanthia; Svolos, Patricia; Kapsalaki, Efthychia; Theodorou, Kyriaki; Kappas, Constastine; Tsougos, Ioannis

    2014-04-28

    In recent years, advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy, diffusion weighted imaging, diffusion tensor imaging and perfusion weighted imaging have been used in order to resolve demanding diagnostic problems such as brain tumor characterization and grading, as these techniques offer a more detailed and non-invasive evaluation of the area under study. In the last decade a great effort has been made to import and utilize intelligent systems in the so-called clinical decision support systems (CDSS) for automatic processing, classification, evaluation and representation of MRI data in order for advanced MRI techniques to become a part of the clinical routine, since the amount of data from the aforementioned techniques has gradually increased. Hence, the purpose of the current review article is two-fold. The first is to review and evaluate the progress that has been made towards the utilization of CDSS based on data from advanced MRI techniques. The second is to analyze and propose the future work that has to be done, based on the existing problems and challenges, especially taking into account the new imaging techniques and parameters that can be introduced into intelligent systems to significantly improve their diagnostic specificity and clinical application.

  6. [Adequacy of clinical interventions in patients with advanced and complex disease. Proposal of a decision making algorithm].

    PubMed

    Ameneiros-Lago, E; Carballada-Rico, C; Garrido-Sanjuán, J A; García Martínez, A

    2015-01-01

    Decision making in the patient with chronic advanced disease is especially complex. Health professionals are obliged to prevent avoidable suffering and not to add any more damage to that of the disease itself. The adequacy of the clinical interventions consists of only offering those diagnostic and therapeutic procedures appropriate to the clinical situation of the patient and to perform only those allowed by the patient or representative. In this article, the use of an algorithm is proposed that should serve to help health professionals in this decision making process. Copyright © 2014 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Clinical decision support foundations.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Malcolm; Liaw, Siaw Teng

    2010-01-01

    This chapter gives an educational overview of: * The elements of a clinical decision; * The elements of decision making: prior probability, evidence (likelihood), posterior probability, actions, utility (value); * A framework for decision making, and support, encompassing validity, utility, importance and certainty; and * The required elements of a clinical decision support system. * The role of knowledge management in the construction and maintenance of clinical decision support.

  8. Quantitative imaging biomarkers: the application of advanced image processing and analysis to clinical and preclinical decision making.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Jeffrey William

    2013-02-01

    The importance of medical imaging for clinical decision making has been steadily increasing over the last four decades. Recently, there has also been an emphasis on medical imaging for preclinical decision making, i.e., for use in pharamaceutical and medical device development. There is also a drive towards quantification of imaging findings by using quantitative imaging biomarkers, which can improve sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and reproducibility of imaged characteristics used for diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. An important component of the discovery, characterization, validation and application of quantitative imaging biomarkers is the extraction of information and meaning from images through image processing and subsequent analysis. However, many advanced image processing and analysis methods are not applied directly to questions of clinical interest, i.e., for diagnostic and therapeutic decision making, which is a consideration that should be closely linked to the development of such algorithms. This article is meant to address these concerns. First, quantitative imaging biomarkers are introduced by providing definitions and concepts. Then, potential applications of advanced image processing and analysis to areas of quantitative imaging biomarker research are described; specifically, research into osteoarthritis (OA), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cancer is presented. Then, challenges in quantitative imaging biomarker research are discussed. Finally, a conceptual framework for integrating clinical and preclinical considerations into the development of quantitative imaging biomarkers and their computer-assisted methods of extraction is presented.

  9. Advances In Infection Surveillance and Clinical Decision Support With Fuzzy Sets and Fuzzy Logic.

    PubMed

    Koller, Walter; de Bruin, Jeroen S; Rappelsberger, Andrea; Adlassnig, Klaus-Peter

    2015-01-01

    By the use of extended intelligent information technology tools for fully automated healthcare-associated infection (HAI) surveillance, clinicians can be informed and alerted about the emergence of infection-related conditions in their patients. Moni--a system for monitoring nosocomial infections in intensive care units for adult and neonatal patients--employs knowledge bases that were written with extensive use of fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic, allowing the inherent un-sharpness of clinical terms and the inherent uncertainty of clinical conclusions to be a part of Moni's output. Thus, linguistic as well as propositional uncertainty became a part of Moni, which can now report retrospectively on HAIs according to traditional crisp HAI surveillance definitions, as well as support clinical bedside work by more complex crisp and fuzzy alerts and reminders. This improved approach can bridge the gap between classical retrospective surveillance of HAIs and ongoing prospective clinical-decision-oriented HAI support.

  10. Clinical reasoning and advanced practice privileges enable physical therapist point-of-care decisions in the military health care system: 3 clinical cases.

    PubMed

    Rhon, Daniel I; Deyle, Gail D; Gill, Norman W

    2013-09-01

    Physical therapists frequently make important point-of-care decisions for musculoskeletal injuries and conditions. In the Military Health System (MHS), these decisions may occur while therapists are deployed in support of combat troops, as well as in a more traditional hospital setting. Proficiency with the musculoskeletal examination, including a fundamental understanding of the diagnostic role of musculoskeletal imaging, is an important competency for physical therapists. The purpose of this article is to present 3 cases managed by physical therapists in unique MHS settings, highlighting relevant challenges and clinical decision making. Three cases are presented involving conditions where the physical therapist was significantly involved in the diagnosis and clinical management plan. The physical therapist's clinical privileges, including the ability to order appropriate musculoskeletal imaging procedures, were helpful in making clinical decisions that facilitate timely management. The cases involve patients with an ankle sprain and Maisonneuve fracture, a radial head fracture, and a pelvic neoplasm referred through medical channels as knee pain. Clinical pathways from point of care are discussed, as well as the reasoning that led to decisions affecting definitive care for each of these patients. In each case, emergent treatment and important combat evacuation decisions were based on a combination of examination and management decisions. Physical therapists can provide important contributions to the primary management of patients with musculoskeletal conditions in a variety of settings within the MHS. In the cases described, advanced clinical privileges contributed to the success in this role.

  11. Clinical judgment and decision making.

    PubMed

    Garb, Howard N

    2005-01-01

    When clinical psychologists make judgments, are they likely to be correct or incorrect? The following topics are reviewed: (a) methodological advances in evaluating the validity of descriptions of personality and psychopathology, (b) recent findings on the cognitive processes of clinicians, and (c) the validity of judgments and utility of decisions made by mental health professionals. Results from research on clinical judgment and decision making and their relationship to conflicts within the field of clinical psychology are discussed.

  12. Advanced Clinical Decision Support for Vaccine Adverse Event Detection and Reporting.

    PubMed

    Baker, Meghan A; Kaelber, David C; Bar-Shain, David S; Moro, Pedro L; Zambarano, Bob; Mazza, Megan; Garcia, Crystal; Henry, Adam; Platt, Richard; Klompas, Michael

    2015-09-15

    Reporting of adverse events (AEs) following vaccination can help identify rare or unexpected complications of immunizations and aid in characterizing potential vaccine safety signals. We developed an open-source, generalizable clinical decision support system called Electronic Support for Public Health-Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (ESP-VAERS) to assist clinicians with AE detection and reporting. ESP-VAERS monitors patients' electronic health records for new diagnoses, changes in laboratory values, and new allergies following vaccinations. When suggestive events are found, ESP-VAERS sends the patient's clinician a secure electronic message with an invitation to affirm or refute the message, add comments, and submit an automated, prepopulated electronic report to VAERS. High-probability AEs are reported automatically if the clinician does not respond. We implemented ESP-VAERS in December 2012 throughout the MetroHealth System, an integrated healthcare system in Ohio. We queried the VAERS database to determine MetroHealth's baseline reporting rates from January 2009 to March 2012 and then assessed changes in reporting rates with ESP-VAERS. In the 8 months following implementation, 91 622 vaccinations were given. ESP-VAERS sent 1385 messages to responsible clinicians describing potential AEs. Clinicians opened 1304 (94.2%) messages, responded to 209 (15.1%), and confirmed 16 for transmission to VAERS. An additional 16 high-probability AEs were sent automatically. Reported events included seizure, pleural effusion, and lymphocytopenia. The odds of a VAERS report submission during the implementation period were 30.2 (95% confidence interval, 9.52-95.5) times greater than the odds during the comparable preimplementation period. An open-source, electronic health record-based clinical decision support system can increase AE detection and reporting rates in VAERS. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society

  13. Advanced Clinical Decision Support for Transport of the Critically Ill Patient

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    resuscitation ,  antibiotic  and  osmotherapy  administration  and...like   temperature   control,   fluid   resuscitation   and   blood   pressure  management,   can   improve   clinical...outcomes.     Specialized  transport   teams  may  also   improve  outcomes  particularly   for   neonatal  and

  14. Decision time for clinical decision support systems.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Dympna; Fraccaro, Paolo; Carson, Ewart; Weller, Peter

    2014-08-01

    Clinical decision support systems are interactive software systems designed to help clinicians with decision-making tasks, such as determining a diagnosis or recommending a treatment for a patient. Clinical decision support systems are a widely researched topic in the computer science community, but their inner workings are less well understood by, and known to, clinicians. This article provides a brief explanation of clinical decision support systems and some examples of real-world systems. It also describes some of the challenges to implementing these systems in clinical environments and posits some reasons for the limited adoption of decision-support systems in practice. It aims to engage clinicians in the development of decision support systems that can meaningfully help with their decision-making tasks and to open a discussion about the future of automated clinical decision support as a part of healthcare delivery. © 2014 Royal College of Physicians.

  15. Clinical Influences on Nurse-Academics' Instructional Planning Decisions in the Implementation of Basic Nursing Curricula in Colleges of Advanced Education in New South Wales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Kathryn L.

    A study examined the clinical influences on the instructional planning decisions made by registered nurses who are lecturers in basic nursing at colleges of advanced education (CAEs) in New South Wales, Australia. Data were collected from a questionnaire that was completed by 98 nurse-academics from 12 of New South Wales' 15 CAEs offering basic…

  16. Clinical decision modeling system

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Haiwen; Lyons-Weiler, James

    2007-01-01

    Background Decision analysis techniques can be applied in complex situations involving uncertainty and the consideration of multiple objectives. Classical decision modeling techniques require elicitation of too many parameter estimates and their conditional (joint) probabilities, and have not therefore been applied to the problem of identifying high-performance, cost-effective combinations of clinical options for diagnosis or treatments where many of the objectives are unknown or even unspecified. Methods We designed a Java-based software resource, the Clinical Decision Modeling System (CDMS), to implement Naïve Decision Modeling, and provide a use case based on published performance evaluation measures of various strategies for breast and lung cancer detection. Because cost estimates for many of the newer methods are not yet available, we assume equal cost. Our use case reveals numerous potentially high-performance combinations of clinical options for the detection of breast and lung cancer. Results Naïve Decision Modeling is a highly practical applied strategy which guides investigators through the process of establishing evidence-based integrative translational clinical research priorities. CDMS is not designed for clinical decision support. Inputs include performance evaluation measures and costs of various clinical options. The software finds trees with expected emergent performance characteristics and average cost per patient that meet stated filtering criteria. Key to the utility of the software is sophisticated graphical elements, including a tree browser, a receiver-operator characteristic surface plot, and a histogram of expected average cost per patient. The analysis pinpoints the potentially most relevant pairs of clinical options ('critical pairs') for which empirical estimates of conditional dependence may be critical. The assumption of independence can be tested with retrospective studies prior to the initiation of clinical trials designed to

  17. The clinical decision analysis using decision tree

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Jong-Myon

    2014-01-01

    The clinical decision analysis (CDA) has used to overcome complexity and uncertainty in medical problems. The CDA is a tool allowing decision-makers to apply evidence-based medicine to make objective clinical decisions when faced with complex situations. The usefulness and limitation including six steps in conducting CDA were reviewed. The application of CDA results should be done under shared decision with patients’ value. PMID:25358466

  18. The clinical decision analysis using decision tree.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jong-Myon

    2014-01-01

    The clinical decision analysis (CDA) has used to overcome complexity and uncertainty in medical problems. The CDA is a tool allowing decision-makers to apply evidence-based medicine to make objective clinical decisions when faced with complex situations. The usefulness and limitation including six steps in conducting CDA were reviewed. The application of CDA results should be done under shared decision with patients' value.

  19. Clinical Impact of Education Provision on Determining Advance Care Planning Decisions among End Stage Renal Disease Patients Receiving Regular Hemodialysis in University Malaya Medical Centre

    PubMed Central

    Hing (Wong), Albert; Chin, Loh Ee; Ping, Tan Li; Peng, Ng Kok; Kun, Lim Soo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Advance care planning (ACP) is a process of shared decision-making about future health-care plans between patients, health care providers, and family members, should patients becomes incapable of participating in medical treatment decisions. ACP discussions enhance patient's autonomy, focus on patient's values and treatment preferences, and promote patient-centered care. ACP is integrated as part of clinical practice in Singapore and the United States. Aim: To assess the clinical impact of education provision on determining ACP decisions among end-stage renal disease patients on regular hemodialysis at University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC). To study the knowledge and attitude of patients toward ACP and end-of-life issues. Materials and Methods: Fifty-six patients were recruited from UMMC. About 43 questions pretest survey adapted from Lyon's ACP survey and Moss's cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) attitude survey was given to patients to answer. An educational brochure is then introduced to these patients, and a posttest survey carried out after that. The results were analyzed using SPSS version 22.0. Results: Opinion on ACP, including CPR decisions, showed an upward trend on the importance percentage after the educational brochure exposure, but this was statistically not significant. Seventy-five percent of participants had never heard of ACP before, and only 3.6% had actually prepared a written advanced directive. Conclusion: The ACP educational brochure clinically impacts patients’ preferences and decisions toward end-of-life care; however, this is statistically not significant. Majority of patients have poor knowledge on ACP. This study lays the foundation for execution of future larger scale clinical trials, and ultimately, the incorporation of ACP into clinical practice in Malaysia. PMID:27803566

  20. Creating clinical decision support systems for respiratory medicine.

    PubMed

    Tams, Carl G; Euliano, Neil R

    2015-01-01

    Clinical decision support systems are vital for advances in improving patient therapeutic care. We share lessons learned from creating two respiratory clinical decisions support systems for ventilating patients in a critical care setting.

  1. How clinical decisions are made.

    PubMed

    Bate, Louise; Hutchinson, Andrew; Underhill, Jonathan; Maskrey, Neal

    2012-10-01

    There is much variation in the implementation of the best available evidence into clinical practice. These gaps between evidence and practice are often a result of multiple individual decisions. When making a decision, there is so much potentially relevant information available, it is impossible to know or process it all (so called 'bounded rationality'). Usually, a limited amount of information is selected to reach a sufficiently satisfactory decision, a process known as satisficing. There are two key processes used in decision making: System 1 and System 2. System 1 involves fast, intuitive decisions; System 2 is a deliberate analytical approach, used to locate information which is not instantly recalled. Human beings unconsciously use System 1 processing whenever possible because it is quicker and requires less effort than System 2. In clinical practice, gaps between evidence and practice can occur when a clinician develops a pattern of knowledge, which is then relied on for decisions using System 1 processing, without the activation of a System 2 check against the best available evidence from high quality research. The processing of information and decision making may be influenced by a number of cognitive biases, of which the decision maker may be unaware. Interventions to encourage appropriate use of System 1 and System 2 processing have been shown to improve clinical decision making. Increased understanding of decision making processes and common sources of error should help clinical decision makers to minimize avoidable mistakes and increase the proportion of decisions that are better.

  2. Accuracy of a decision aid for advance care planning: simulated end-of-life decision making.

    PubMed

    Levi, Benjamin H; Heverley, Steven R; Green, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Advance directives have been criticized for failing to help physicians make decisions consistent with patients' wishes. This pilot study sought to determine if an interactive, computer-based decision aid that generates an advance directive can help physicians accurately translate patients' wishes into treatment decisions. We recruited 19 patient-participants who had each previously created an advance directive using a computer-based decision aid, and 14 physicians who had no prior knowledge of the patient-participants. For each advance directive, three physicians were randomly assigned to review the advance directive and make five to six treatment decisions for each of six (potentially) end-of-life clinical scenarios. From the three individual physicians' responses, a "consensus physician response" was generated for each treatment decision (total decisions = 32). This consensus response was shared with the patient whose advance directive had been reviewed, and she/he was then asked to indicate how well the physician translated his/her wishes into clinical decisions. Patient-participants agreed with the consensus physician responses 84 percent (508/608) of the time, including 82 percent agreement on whether to provide mechanical ventilation, and 75 percent on decisions about cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Across the six vignettes, patient-participants' rating of how well physicians translated their advance directive into medical decisions was 8.4 (range = 6.5-10, where 1 = extremely poorly, and 10 = extremely well). Physicians' overall rating of their confidence at accurately translating patients' wishes into clinical decisions was 7.8 (range = 6.1-9.3, 1 = not at all confident, 10 = extremely confident). For simulated cases, a computer-based decision aid for advance care planning can help physicians more confidently make end-of-life decisions that patients will endorse.

  3. Limited role of culture conversion for decision-making in individual patient care and for advancing novel regimens to confirmatory clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Patrick P J; Mendel, Carl M; Burger, Divan A; Crook, Angela M; Crook, Angela; Nunn, Andrew J; Dawson, Rodney; Diacon, Andreas H; Gillespie, Stephen H

    2016-02-04

    Despite recent increased clinical trials activity, no regimen has proved able to replace the standard 6-month regimen for drug-sensitive tuberculosis. Understanding the relationship between microbiological markers measured during treatment and long-term clinical outcomes is critical to evaluate their usefulness for decision-making for both individual patient care and for advancing novel regimens into time-consuming and expensive pivotal phase III trials. Using data from the randomized controlled phase III trial REMoxTB, we evaluated sputum-based markers of speed of clearance of bacilli: time to smear negative status; time to culture negative status on LJ or in MGIT; daily rate of change of log10(TTP) to day 56; and smear or culture results at weeks 6, 8 or 12; as individual- and trial-level surrogate endpoints for long-term clinical outcome. Time to culture negative status on LJ or in MGIT, time to smear negative status and daily rate of change in log10(TTP) were each independent predictors of clinical outcome, adjusted for treatment (p <0.001). However, discrimination between low and high risk patients, as measured by the c-statistic, was modest and not much higher than the reference model adjusted for BMI, history of smoking, HIV status, cavitation, gender and MGIT TTP. Culture conversion during treatment for tuberculosis, however measured, has only a limited role in decision-making for advancing regimens into phase III trials or in predicting the outcome of treatment for individual patients. REMoxTB ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT00864383.

  4. Advancing Alternative Analysis: Integration of Decision Science.

    PubMed

    Malloy, Timothy F; Zaunbrecher, Virginia M; Batteate, Christina M; Blake, Ann; Carroll, William F; Corbett, Charles J; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Lempert, Robert J; Linkov, Igor; McFadden, Roger; Moran, Kelly D; Olivetti, Elsa; Ostrom, Nancy K; Romero, Michelle; Schoenung, Julie M; Seager, Thomas P; Sinsheimer, Peter; Thayer, Kristina A

    2017-06-13

    Decision analysis-a systematic approach to solving complex problems-offers tools and frameworks to support decision making that are increasingly being applied to environmental challenges. Alternatives analysis is a method used in regulation and product design to identify, compare, and evaluate the safety and viability of potential substitutes for hazardous chemicals. We assessed whether decision science may assist the alternatives analysis decision maker in comparing alternatives across a range of metrics. A workshop was convened that included representatives from government, academia, business, and civil society and included experts in toxicology, decision science, alternatives assessment, engineering, and law and policy. Participants were divided into two groups and were prompted with targeted questions. Throughout the workshop, the groups periodically came together in plenary sessions to reflect on other groups' findings. We concluded that the further incorporation of decision science into alternatives analysis would advance the ability of companies and regulators to select alternatives to harmful ingredients and would also advance the science of decision analysis. We advance four recommendations: a) engaging the systematic development and evaluation of decision approaches and tools; b) using case studies to advance the integration of decision analysis into alternatives analysis; c) supporting transdisciplinary research; and d) supporting education and outreach efforts. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP483.

  5. Advancing Alternative Analysis: Integration of Decision Science.

    PubMed

    Malloy, Timothy F; Zaunbrecher, Virginia M; Batteate, Christina; Blake, Ann; Carroll, William F; Corbett, Charles J; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Lempert, Robert; Linkov, Igor; McFadden, Roger; Moran, Kelly D; Olivetti, Elsa; Ostrom, Nancy; Romero, Michelle; Schoenung, Julie; Seager, Thomas; Sinsheimer, Peter; Thayer, Kristina

    2016-10-28

    Decision analysis-a systematic approach to solving complex problems-offers tools and frameworks to support decision making that are increasingly being applied to environmental challenges. Alternatives analysis is a method used in regulation and product design to identify, compare, and evaluate the safety and viability of potential substitutes for hazardous chemicals. Assess whether decision science may assist the alternatives analysis decision maker in comparing alternatives across a range of metrics. A workshop was convened that included representatives from government, academia, business, and civil society and included experts in toxicology, decision science, alternatives assessment, engineering, and law and policy. Participants were divided into two groups and prompted with targeted questions. Throughout the workshop, the groups periodically came together in plenary sessions to reflect on other groups' findings. We conclude the further incorporation of decision science into alternatives analysis would advance the ability of companies and regulators to select alternatives to harmful ingredients, and would also advance the science of decision analysis. We advance four recommendations: (1) engaging the systematic development and evaluation of decision approaches and tools; (2) using case studies to advance the integration of decision analysis into alternatives analysis; (3) supporting transdisciplinary research; and (4) supporting education and outreach efforts.

  6. Advancing toward Shared Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Lisa; Thorn, Judi

    2007-01-01

    In May 2004, a group of 25 teachers at Jenks High School in Oklahoma received an invitation to the Summer 2004 Advance. Although many organizations hold retreats for their employees, the administrators wanted to send a different message: we're not retreating; we're advancing! Like many states, Oklahoma suffered a school budget crisis during the…

  7. [Comparison of the Cost-Effectiveness of the SOX and COX Regimens in Patients with Unresectable Advanced and Recurrent Colorectal Cancer Using a Clinical Decision Analysis Approach].

    PubMed

    Nagase, Satoshi; Iyoda, Tomokazu; Kanno, Hiroshi; Akase, Tomohide; Arakawa, Ichiro; Inoue, Tadao; Uetsuka, Yoshio

    2016-10-01

    Phase III clinical trials have comfirmed that the S-1 plus oxaliplatin(SOX)is inferior to the capecitabine plus oxaliplatin (COX)regimen in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer.On the basis of these findings, we compared, using a clinical decision analysis-based approach, the cost-effectiveness of the SOX and COX regimens.Herein, we simulated the expected effects and costs of the SOX and COX regimens using the markov model.Clinical data were obtained from Hong's 2012 report.The cost data comprised the costs for pharmacist labor, material, inspection, and treatment for adverse event, as well as the total cost of care at the advanced stage.The result showed that the expected cost of the SOX and COX regimen was 1,538,330 yen, and 1,429,596 yen, respectively, with an expected survival rate of 29.18 months, and 28.63 months, respectively.The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of the SOX regimen was 197,698 yen/month; thus, the SOX regimen was found to be more cost-effective that the COX regimen.

  8. Clinical Decision Support and Palivizumab

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, A.; Michel, J.; Localio, A.R.; Karavite, D.; Song, L.; Ramos, M.J.; Fiks, A.G.; Lorch, S.; Grundmeier, R.W.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Palivizumab can reduce hospitalizations due to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), but many eligible infants fail to receive the full 5-dose series. The efficacy of clinical decision support (CDS) in fostering palivizumab receipt has not been studied. We sought a comprehensive solution for identifying eligible patients and addressing barriers to palivizumab administration. Methods We developed workflow and CDS tools targeting patient identification and palivizumab administration. We randomized 10 practices to receive palivizumab-focused CDS and 10 to receive comprehensive CDS for premature infants in a 3-year longitudinal cluster-randomized trial with 2 baseline and 1 intervention RSV seasons. Results There were 356 children eligible to receive palivizumab, with 194 in the palivizumab-focused group and 162 in the comprehensive CDS group. The proportion of doses administered to children in the palivizumab-focused intervention group increased from 68.4% and 65.5% in the two baseline seasons to 84.7% in the intervention season. In the comprehensive intervention group, proportions of doses administered declined during the baseline seasons (from 71.9% to 62.4%) with partial recovery to 67.9% during the intervention season. The palivizumab-focused group improved by 19.2 percentage points in the intervention season compared to the prior baseline season (p < 0.001), while the comprehensive intervention group only improved 5.5 percentage points (p = 0.288). The difference in change between study groups was significant (p = 0.05). Conclusions Workflow and CDS tools integrated in an EHR may increase the administration of palivizumab. The support focused on palivizumab, rather than comprehensive intervention, was more effective at improving palivizumab administration. PMID:26767069

  9. ClinicalAccess: a clinical decision support tool.

    PubMed

    Crowell, Karen; Vardell, Emily

    2015-01-01

    ClinicalAccess is a new clinical decision support tool that uses a question-and-answer format to mirror clinical decision-making strategies. The unique format of ClinicalAccess delivers concise, authoritative answers to more than 120,000 clinical questions. This column presents a review of the product, a sample search, and a comparison with other point-of-care search engines.

  10. Clinical Decision Making of Rural Novice Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seright, Teresa J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop substantive theory regarding decision making by the novice nurse in a rural hospital setting. Interviews were guided by the following research questions: What cues were used by novice rural registered nurses in order to make clinical decisions? What were the sources of feedback which influenced subsequent…

  11. Clinical Decision Making of Rural Novice Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seright, Teresa J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop substantive theory regarding decision making by the novice nurse in a rural hospital setting. Interviews were guided by the following research questions: What cues were used by novice rural registered nurses in order to make clinical decisions? What were the sources of feedback which influenced subsequent…

  12. A shotgun wedding: business decision support meets clinical decision support.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Jason

    2002-01-01

    By effectively closing the loop between the data, analytics, processes, and methods supporting business and clinical decision making, a healthcare organization closes the loop between its knowledge generation activities and its actions at the bedside: knowledge guiding actions, actions generating knowledge.

  13. What can Natural Language Processing do for Clinical Decision Support?

    PubMed Central

    Demner-Fushman, Dina; Chapman, Wendy W.; McDonald, Clement J.

    2009-01-01

    Computerized Clinical Decision Support (CDS) aims to aid decision making of health care providers and the public by providing easily accessible health-related information at the point and time it is needed. Natural Language Processing (NLP) is instrumental in using free-text information to drive CDS, representing clinical knowledge and CDS interventions in standardized formats, and leveraging clinical narrative. The early innovative NLP research of clinical narrative was followed by a period of stable research conducted at the major clinical centers and a shift of mainstream interest to biomedical NLP. This review primarily focuses on the recently renewed interest in development of fundamental NLP methods and advances in the NLP systems for CDS. The current solutions to challenges posed by distinct sublanguages, intended user groups, and support goals are discussed. PMID:19683066

  14. Clinical decision analysis using microcomputers. A case of coexistent hepatocellular carcinoma and abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Wong, J B; Moskowitz, A J; Pauker, S G

    1986-12-01

    Many difficult medical decisions involve uncertainty. Decision analysis-an explicit, normative and analytic approach to making decisions under uncertainty-provides a probabilistic framework for exploring difficult problems in nondeterministic domains. As the methodology has advanced, clinical decision analysis has been applied to increasingly complex medical problems and disseminated widely in the medical literature. Unfortunately, this approach imposes a heavy computational burden on analysts. Microcomputer-based decision-support software can ease this burden.

  15. Advanced Technology Multiple Criteria Decision Model.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    significantly impact upon this decision. Initial cost would also certainly impact upon the economic feasibility of a particular weapon system. 1 It is also...SHUTDOON TIME Es56P LIABILITY .7 PAINT. AND OPER. *S6 LIFETIME THERMAL ENERGY .2 VOLUU LIZE .3 WEIGHT FUEL USED GROuTH POTENTIAL .2 ENVIPON. CONSTR. .3

  16. Entrustment Decision Making in Clinical Training.

    PubMed

    Ten Cate, Olle; Hart, Danielle; Ankel, Felix; Busari, Jamiu; Englander, Robert; Glasgow, Nicholas; Holmboe, Eric; Iobst, William; Lovell, Elise; Snell, Linda S; Touchie, Claire; Van Melle, Elaine; Wycliffe-Jones, Keith

    2016-02-01

    The decision to trust a medical trainee with the critical responsibility to care for a patient is fundamental to clinical training. When carefully and deliberately made, such decisions can serve as significant stimuli for learning and also shape the assessment of trainees. Holding back entrustment decisions too much may hamper the trainee's development toward unsupervised practice. When carelessly made, however, they jeopardize patient safety. Entrustment decision-making processes, therefore, deserve careful analysis.Members (including the authors) of the International Competency-Based Medical Education Collaborative conducted a content analysis of the entrustment decision-making process in health care training during a two-day summit in September 2013 and subsequently reviewed the pertinent literature to arrive at a description of the critical features of this process, which informs this article.The authors discuss theoretical backgrounds and terminology of trust and entrustment in the clinical workplace. The competency-based movement and the introduction of entrustable professional activities force educators to rethink the grounds for assessment in the workplace. Anticipating a decision to grant autonomy at a designated level of supervision appears to align better with health care practice than do most current assessment practices. The authors distinguish different modes of trust and entrustment decisions and elaborate five categories, each with related factors, that determine when decisions to trust trainees are made: the trainee, supervisor, situation, task, and the relationship between trainee and supervisor. The authors' aim in this article is to lay a theoretical foundation for a new approach to workplace training and assessment.

  17. Strategies for Teaching Clinical Decision-Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boney, Jo; Baker, Jacqueline D.

    1997-01-01

    Research and a literature review suggest that nurses lack skills for effective clinical decision making. An educational program that facilitated development of critical thinking focused on four qualities: determining accuracy of information, determining bias, identifying inconsistencies in reasoning, and evaluating the strength of an argument. (SK)

  18. Query Reformulation for Clinical Decision Support Search

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    Query Reformulation for Clinical Decision Support Search Luca Soldaini, Arman Cohan, Andrew Yates, Nazli Goharian, Ophir Frieder Information...work, we present a query reformulation approach that addresses the unique formulation of case reports, making them suitable to be used on a general... reformulation approach does not directly take into account the generic question type (diagnosis, test, treatment) provided with each approach. To ameliorate

  19. The role of emotions in clinical reasoning and decision making.

    PubMed

    Marcum, James A

    2013-10-01

    What role, if any, should emotions play in clinical reasoning and decision making? Traditionally, emotions have been excluded from clinical reasoning and decision making, but with recent advances in cognitive neuropsychology they are now considered an important component of them. Today, cognition is thought to be a set of complex processes relying on multiple types of intelligences. The role of mathematical logic (hypothetico-deductive thinking) or verbal linguistic intelligence in cognition, for example, is well documented and accepted; however, the role of emotional intelligence has received less attention-especially because its nature and function are not well understood. In this paper, I argue for the inclusion of emotions in clinical reasoning and decision making. To that end, developments in contemporary cognitive neuropsychology are initially examined and analyzed, followed by a review of the medical literature discussing the role of emotions in clinical practice. Next, a published clinical case is reconstructed and used to illustrate the recognition and regulation of emotions played during a series of clinical consultations, which resulted in a positive medical outcome. The paper's main thesis is that emotions, particularly in terms of emotional intelligence as a practical form of intelligence, afford clinical practitioners a robust cognitive resource for providing quality medical care.

  20. Computerized Clinical Decision Support: Contributions from 2015.

    PubMed

    Koutkias, V; Bouaud, J

    2016-11-10

    To summarize recent research and select the best papers published in 2015 in the field of computerized clinical decision support for the Decision Support section of the IMIA yearbook. A literature review was performed by searching two bibliographic databases for papers related to clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) and computerized provider order entry (CPOE) systems. The aim was to identify a list of candidate best papers from the retrieved papers that were then peer-reviewed by external reviewers. A consensus meeting between the two section editors and the IMIA editorial team was finally conducted to conclude in the best paper selection. Among the 974 retrieved papers, the entire review process resulted in the selection of four best papers. One paper reports on a CDSS routinely applied in pediatrics for more than 10 years, relying on adaptations of the Arden Syntax. Another paper assessed the acceptability and feasibility of an important CPOE evaluation tool in hospitals outside the US where it was developed. The third paper is a systematic, qualitative review, concerning usability flaws of medication-related alerting functions, providing an important evidence-based, methodological contribution in the domain of CDSS design and development in general. Lastly, the fourth paper describes a study quantifying the effect of a complex, continuous-care, guideline-based CDSS on the correctness and completeness of clinicians' decisions. While there are notable examples of routinely used decision support systems, this 2015 review on CDSSs and CPOE systems still shows that, despite methodological contributions, theoretical frameworks, and prototype developments, these technologies are not yet widely spread (at least with their full functionalities) in routine clinical practice. Further research, testing, evaluation, and training are still needed for these tools to be adopted in clinical practice and, ultimately, illustrate the benefits that they promise.

  1. IBM's Health Analytics and Clinical Decision Support.

    PubMed

    Kohn, M S; Sun, J; Knoop, S; Shabo, A; Carmeli, B; Sow, D; Syed-Mahmood, T; Rapp, W

    2014-08-15

    This survey explores the role of big data and health analytics developed by IBM in supporting the transformation of healthcare by augmenting evidence-based decision-making. Some problems in healthcare and strategies for change are described. It is argued that change requires better decisions, which, in turn, require better use of the many kinds of healthcare information. Analytic resources that address each of the information challenges are described. Examples of the role of each of the resources are given. There are powerful analytic tools that utilize the various kinds of big data in healthcare to help clinicians make more personalized, evidenced-based decisions. Such resources can extract relevant information and provide insights that clinicians can use to make evidence-supported decisions. There are early suggestions that these resources have clinical value. As with all analytic tools, they are limited by the amount and quality of data. Big data is an inevitable part of the future of healthcare. There is a compelling need to manage and use big data to make better decisions to support the transformation of healthcare to the personalized, evidence-supported model of the future. Cognitive computing resources are necessary to manage the challenges in employing big data in healthcare. Such tools have been and are being developed. The analytic resources, themselves, do not drive, but support healthcare transformation.

  2. Computerized Clinical Decision Support: Contributions from 2014.

    PubMed

    Bouaud, J; Koutkias, V

    2015-08-13

    To summarize recent research and propose a selection of best papers published in 2014 in the field of computerized clinical decision support for the Decision Support section of the IMIA yearbook. A literature review was performed by searching two bibliographic databases for papers related to clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) and computerized provider order entry systems in order to select a list of candidate best papers to be then peer-reviewed by external reviewers. A consensus meeting between the two section editors and the editorial team was finally organized to conclude on the selection of best papers. Among the 1,254 returned papers published in 2014, the full review process selected four best papers. The first one is an experimental contribution to a better understanding of unintended uses of CDSSs. The second paper describes the effective use of previously collected data to tailor and adapt a CDSS. The third paper presents an innovative application that uses pharmacogenomic information to support personalized medicine. The fourth paper reports on the long-term effect of the routine use of a CDSS for antibiotic therapy. As health information technologies spread more and more meaningfully, CDSSs are improving to answer users' needs more accurately. The exploitation of previously collected data and the use of genomic data for decision support has started to materialize. However, more work is still needed to address issues related to the correct usage of such technologies, and to assess their effective impact in the long term.

  3. Computerized Clinical Decision Support: Contributions from 2014

    PubMed Central

    Koutkias, V.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objective To summarize recent research and propose a selection of best papers published in 2014 in the field of computerized clinical decision support for the Decision Support section of the IMIA yearbook. Method A literature review was performed by searching two bibliographic databases for papers related to clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) and computerized provider order entry systems in order to select a list of candidate best papers to be then peer-reviewed by external reviewers. A consensus meeting between the two section editors and the editorial team was finally organized to conclude on the selection of best papers. Results Among the 1,254 returned papers published in 2014, the full review process selected four best papers. The first one is an experimental contribution to a better understanding of unintended uses of CDSSs. The second paper describes the effective use of previously collected data to tailor and adapt a CDSS. The third paper presents an innovative application that uses pharmacogenomic information to support personalized medicine. The fourth paper reports on the long-term effect of the routine use of a CDSS for antibiotic therapy. Conclusions As health information technologies spread more and more meaningfully, CDSSs are improving to answer users’ needs more accurately. The exploitation of previously collected data and the use of genomic data for decision support has started to materialize. However, more work is still needed to address issues related to the correct usage of such technologies, and to assess their effective impact in the long term. PMID:26293858

  4. Probability, clinical decision making and hypothesis testing

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, A.; Jadhav, S. L.; Bhawalkar, J. S.

    2009-01-01

    Few clinicians grasp the true concept of probability expressed in the ‘P value.’ For most, a statistically significant P value is the end of the search for truth. In fact, the opposite is the case. The present paper attempts to put the P value in proper perspective by explaining different types of probabilities, their role in clinical decision making, medical research and hypothesis testing. PMID:21234167

  5. Dialogic Consensus In Clinical Decision-Making.

    PubMed

    Walker, Paul; Lovat, Terry

    2016-12-01

    This paper is predicated on the understanding that clinical encounters between clinicians and patients should be seen primarily as inter-relations among persons and, as such, are necessarily moral encounters. It aims to relocate the discussion to be had in challenging medical decision-making situations, including, for example, as the end of life comes into view, onto a more robust moral philosophical footing than is currently commonplace. In our contemporary era, those making moral decisions must be cognizant of the existence of perspectives other than their own, and be attuned to the demands of inter-subjectivity. Applicable to clinical practice, we propose and justify a Habermasian approach as one useful means of achieving what can be described as dialogic consensus. The Habermasian approach builds around, first, his discourse theory of morality as universalizable to all and, second, communicative action as a cooperative search for truth. It is a concrete way to ground the discourse which must be held in complex medical decision-making situations, in its actual reality. Considerations about the theoretical underpinnings of the application of dialogic consensus to clinical practice, and potential difficulties, are explored.

  6. Nurses' Clinical Decision Making on Adopting a Wound Clinical Decision Support System.

    PubMed

    Khong, Peck Chui Betty; Hoi, Shu Yin; Holroyd, Eleanor; Wang, Wenru

    2015-07-01

    Healthcare information technology systems are considered the ideal tool to inculcate evidence-based nursing practices. The wound clinical decision support system was built locally to support nurses to manage pressure ulcer wounds in their daily practice. However, its adoption rate is not optimal. The study's objective was to discover the concepts that informed the RNs' decisions to adopt the wound clinical decision support system as an evidence-based technology in their nursing practice. This was an exploratory, descriptive, and qualitative design using face-to-face interviews, individual interviews, and active participatory observation. A purposive, theoretical sample of 14 RNs was recruited from one of the largest public tertiary hospitals in Singapore after obtaining ethics approval. After consenting, the nurses were interviewed and observed separately. Recruitment stopped when data saturation was reached. All transcribed interview data underwent a concurrent thematic analysis, whereas observational data were content analyzed independently and subsequently triangulated with the interview data. Eight emerging themes were identified, namely, use of the wound clinical decision support system, beliefs in the wound clinical decision support system, influences of the workplace culture, extent of the benefits, professional control over nursing practices, use of knowledge, gut feelings, and emotions (fear, doubt, and frustration). These themes represented the nurses' mental outlook as they made decisions on adopting the wound clinical decision support system in light of the complexities of their roles and workloads. This research has provided insight on the nurses' thoughts regarding their decision to interact with the computer environment in a Singapore context. It captured the nurses' complex thoughts when deciding whether to adopt or reject information technology as they practice in a clinical setting.

  7. From decision to shared-decision: Introducing patients' preferences into clinical decision analysis.

    PubMed

    Sacchi, Lucia; Rubrichi, Stefania; Rognoni, Carla; Panzarasa, Silvia; Parimbelli, Enea; Mazzanti, Andrea; Napolitano, Carlo; Priori, Silvia G; Quaglini, Silvana

    2015-09-01

    Taking into account patients' preferences has become an essential requirement in health decision-making. Even in evidence-based settings where directions are summarized into clinical practice guidelines, there might exist situations where it is important for the care provider to involve the patient in the decision. In this paper we propose a unified framework to promote the shift from a traditional, physician-centered, clinical decision process to a more personalized, patient-oriented shared decision-making (SDM) environment. We present the theoretical, technological and architectural aspects of a framework that encapsulates decision models and instruments to elicit patients' preferences into a single tool, thus enabling physicians to exploit evidence-based medicine and shared decision-making in the same encounter. We show the implementation of the framework in a specific case study related to the prevention and management of the risk of thromboembolism in atrial fibrillation. We describe the underlying decision model and how this can be personalized according to patients' preferences. The application of the framework is tested through a pilot clinical evaluation study carried out on 20 patients at the Rehabilitation Cardiology Unit at the IRCCS Fondazione Salvatore Maugeri hospital (Pavia, Italy). The results point out the importance of running personalized decision models, which can substantially differ from models quantified with population coefficients. This study shows that the tool is potentially able to overcome some of the main barriers perceived by physicians in the adoption of SDM. In parallel, the development of the framework increases the involvement of patients in the process of care focusing on the centrality of individual patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Thinking processes used by nurses in clinical decision making.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Kathryn A Smith; Donald, Janet G

    2002-04-01

    Clinical decision making forms the basis of expert clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to investigate and document the thinking processes used by nurses in clinical decision making situations so the processes could guide educational practice. Clinical data was analyzed to reveal that clinical decision making is complex and requires a variety of thinking processes. Medical and surgical nurses used different thinking processes, showing the importance of context in clinical decision making. The nursing exemplars and working vocabulary developed in this study to describe the thinking processes used in clinical decision making can be used in nursing education.

  9. Using the Situated Clinical Decision-Making framework to guide analysis of nurses' clinical decision-making.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Mary

    2010-11-01

    Nurses' clinical decision-making is a complex process that holds potential to influence the quality of care provided and patient outcomes. The evolution of nurses' decision-making that occurs with experience has been well documented. In addition, literature includes numerous strategies and approaches purported to support development of nurses' clinical decision-making. There has been, however, significantly less attention given to the process of assessing nurses' clinical decision-making and novice clinical educators are often challenged with knowing how to best support nurses and nursing students in developing their clinical decision-making capacity. The Situated Clinical Decision-Making framework is presented for use by clinical educators: it provides a structured approach to analyzing nursing students' and novice nurses' decision-making in clinical nursing practice, assists educators in identifying specific issues within nurses' clinical decision-making, and guides selection of relevant strategies to support development of clinical decision-making. A series of questions is offered as a guide for clinical educators when assessing nurses' clinical decision-making. The discussion presents key considerations related to analysis of various decision-making components, including common sources of challenge and errors that may occur within nurses' clinical decision-making. An exemplar illustrates use of the framework and guiding questions. Implications of this approach for selection of strategies that support development of clinical decision-making are highlighted.

  10. An Internationally Consented Standard for Nursing Process-Clinical Decision Support Systems in Electronic Health Records.

    PubMed

    Müller-Staub, Maria; de Graaf-Waar, Helen; Paans, Wolter

    2016-11-01

    Nurses are accountable to apply the nursing process, which is key for patient care: It is a problem-solving process providing the structure for care plans and documentation. The state-of-the art nursing process is based on classifications that contain standardized concepts, and therefore, it is named Advanced Nursing Process. It contains valid assessments, nursing diagnoses, interventions, and nursing-sensitive patient outcomes. Electronic decision support systems can assist nurses to apply the Advanced Nursing Process. However, nursing decision support systems are missing, and no "gold standard" is available. The study aim is to develop a valid Nursing Process-Clinical Decision Support System Standard to guide future developments of clinical decision support systems. In a multistep approach, a Nursing Process-Clinical Decision Support System Standard with 28 criteria was developed. After pilot testing (N = 29 nurses), the criteria were reduced to 25. The Nursing Process-Clinical Decision Support System Standard was then presented to eight internationally known experts, who performed qualitative interviews according to Mayring. Fourteen categories demonstrate expert consensus on the Nursing Process-Clinical Decision Support System Standard and its content validity. All experts agreed the Advanced Nursing Process should be the centerpiece for the Nursing Process-Clinical Decision Support System and should suggest research-based, predefined nursing diagnoses and correct linkages between diagnoses, evidence-based interventions, and patient outcomes.

  11. [Clinical decisions in a philosophical perspective].

    PubMed

    Wulff, H R

    1993-09-20

    Medicine is both a scientific and a humanistic discipline. The foundation for clinical decisions has four components (two scientific and two humanistic). 1) The biological component (reasoning based on biological theory). Biological thinking is currently being revolutionised, partly through the development of systems theory. 2) The empirical component (reasoning based on experience from earlier patients), which comprises both uncontrolled and controlled experience. 3) The empathic-hermeneutic component (reasoning based on an understanding of the patient as a fellow human being). Empathy requires hermeneutic knowledge which can be acquired through personal experience and by qualitative research. 4) The ethical component which comprises both utilitarian and deontological considerations.

  12. Subjective measures and clinical decision making.

    PubMed

    Delitto, A

    1989-07-01

    I have attempted to use Feinstein's model of clinimetric indexes and his criteria as a focus for further development of measures that in physical therapy are currently considered "soft" or "subjective". I feel this development will enhance the body of knowledge by objectifying a portion of clinical assessment (eg, the patient's complaints, "subjective" portion of the POMR's SOAP format) that is in tremendous need of quantification. By making these "soft" data "hard," I feel we will enhance the decision-making power of clinicians.

  13. Best Practices in Clinical Decision Support

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Adam; Phansalkar, Shobha; Bloomrosen, Meryl; Jenders, Robert A.; Bobb, Anne M.; Halamka, John D.; Kuperman, Gilad; Payne, Thomas H.; Teasdale, S.; Vaida, A. J.; Bates, D. W.

    2010-01-01

    Background Evidence demonstrates that clinical decision support (CDS) is a powerful tool for improving healthcare quality and ensuring patient safety. However, implementing and maintaining effective decision support interventions presents multiple technical and organizational challenges. Purpose To identify best practices for CDS, using the domain of preventive care reminders as an example. Methods We assembled a panel of experts in CDS and held a series of facilitated online and inperson discussions. We analyzed the results of these discussions using a grounded theory method to elicit themes and best practices. Results Eight best practice themes were identified as important: deliver CDS in the most appropriate ways, develop effective governance structures, consider use of incentives, be aware of workflow, keep content current, monitor and evaluate impact, maintain high quality data, and consider sharing content. Keys themes within each of these areas were also described. Conclusion Successful implementation of CDS requires consideration of both technical and socio-technical factors. The themes identified in this study provide guidance on crucial factors that need consideration when CDS is implemented across healthcare settings. These best practice themes may be useful for developers, implementers, and users of decision support. PMID:21991299

  14. Driving and dementia: a clinical decision pathway

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Kirsty; Monaghan, Sophie; O'Brien, John; Teodorczuk, Andrew; Mosimann, Urs; Taylor, John-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to develop a pathway to bring together current UK legislation, good clinical practice and appropriate management strategies that could be applied across a range of healthcare settings. Methods The pathway was constructed by a multidisciplinary clinical team based in a busy Memory Assessment Service. A process of successive iteration was used to develop the pathway, with input and refinement provided via survey and small group meetings with individuals from a wide range of regional clinical networks and diverse clinical backgrounds as well as discussion with mobility centres and Forum of Mobility Centres, UK. Results We present a succinct clinical pathway for patients with dementia, which provides a decision-making framework for how health professionals across a range of disciplines deal with patients with dementia who drive. Conclusions By integrating the latest guidance from diverse roles within older people's health services and key experts in the field, the resulting pathway reflects up-to-date policy and encompasses differing perspectives and good practice. It is potentially a generalisable pathway that can be easily adaptable for use internationally, by replacing UK legislation for local regulations. A limitation of this pathway is that it does not address the concern of mild cognitive impairment and how this condition relates to driving safety. © 2014 The Authors. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24865643

  15. Reducing Risk with Clinical Decision Support

    PubMed Central

    Maloney, F.L.; Feblowitz, J.; Samal, L.; Sato, L.; Wright, A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objective Identify clinical opportunities to intervene to prevent a malpractice event and determine the proportion of malpractice claims potentially preventable by clinical decision support (CDS). Materials and Methods Cross-sectional review of closed malpractice claims over seven years from one malpractice insurance company and seven hospitals in the Boston area. For each event, clinical opportunities to intervene to avert the malpractice event and the presence or absence of CDS that might have a role in preventing the event, were assigned by a panel of expert raters. Compensation paid out to resolve a claim (indemnity), was associated with each CDS type. Results Of the 477 closed malpractice cases, 359 (75.3%) were categorized as substantiated and 195 (54%) had at least one opportunity to intervene. Common opportunities to intervene related to performance of procedure, diagnosis, and fall prevention. We identified at least one CDS type for 63% of substantiated claims. The 41 CDS types identified included clinically significant test result alerting, diagnostic decision support and electronic tracking of instruments. Cases with at least one associated intervention accounted for $40.3 million (58.9%) of indemnity. Discussion CDS systems and other forms of health information technology (HIT) are expected to improve quality of care, but their potential to mitigate risk had not previously been quantified. Our results suggest that, in addition to their known benefits for quality and safety, CDS systems within HIT have a potential role in decreasing malpractice payments. Conclusion More than half of malpractice events and over $40 million of indemnity were potentially preventable with CDS. PMID:25298814

  16. Considerations for a successful clinical decision support system.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Ranielle S; Kelemen, Arpad

    2013-07-01

    Clinical decision support systems have the potential to improve patient care in a multitude of ways. Clinical decision support systems can aid in the reduction of medical errors and reduction in adverse drug events, ensure comprehensive treatment of patient illnesses and conditions, encourage the adherence to guidelines, shorten patient length of stay, and decrease expenses over time. A clinical decision support system is one of the key components for reaching compliance for Meaningful Use. In this article, the advantages, potential drawbacks, and clinical decision support system adoption barriers are discussed, followed by an in-depth review of the characteristics that make a clinical decision support system successful. The legal and ethical issues that come with the implementation of a clinical decision support system within an organization and the future expectations of clinical decision support system are reviewed.

  17. "Doctor, Make My Decisions": Decision Control Preferences, Advance Care Planning, and Satisfaction With Communication Among Diverse Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Catherine; Feuz, Mariko A; McMahan, Ryan D; Miao, Yinghui; Sudore, Rebecca L

    2016-01-01

    Culturally diverse older adults may prefer varying control over medical decisions. Decision control preferences (DCPs) may profoundly affect advance care planning (ACP) and communication. To determine the DCPs of diverse, older adults and whether DCPs are associated with participant characteristics, ACP, and communication satisfaction. A total of 146 participants were recruited from clinics and senior centers in San Francisco. We assessed DCPs using the control preferences scale: doctor makes all decisions (low), shares with doctor (medium), makes own decisions (high). We assessed associations between DCPs and demographics; prior advance directives; ability to make in-the-moment goals of care decisions; self-efficacy, readiness, and prior asked questions; and satisfaction with patient-doctor communication (on a five-point Likert scale), using Chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance. Mean age was 71 ± 10 years, 53% were non-white, 47% completed an advance directive, and 70% made goals of care decisions. Of the sample, 18% had low DCPs, 33% medium, and 49% high. Older age was the only characteristic associated with DCPs (low: 75 ± 11 years, medium: 69 ± 10 years, high: 70 ± 9 years, P = 0.003). DCPs were not associated with ACP, in-the-moment decisions, or communication satisfaction. Readiness was the only question-asking behavior associated (low: 3.8 ± 1.2, medium: 4.1 ± 1.2, high: 4.3 ± 1.2, P = 0.05). Nearly one-fifth of diverse, older adults want doctors to make their medical decisions. Older age and lower readiness to ask questions were the only demographic variables significantly associated with low DCPs. Yet, older adults with low DCPs still engaged in ACP, asked questions, and reported communication satisfaction. Clinicians can encourage ACP and questions for all patients, but should assess DCPs to provide the desired amount of decision support. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. All

  18. User Centered Clinical Decision Support Tools

    PubMed Central

    Sofianou, A.; Kannry, J.; Mann, D.M.; McGinn, T.G.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Dissemination and adoption of clinical decision support (CDS) tools is a major initiative of the Affordable Care Act’s Meaningful Use program. Adoption of CDS tools is multipronged with personal, organizational, and clinical settings factoring into the successful utilization rates. Specifically, the diffusion of innovation theory implies that ‘early adopters’ are more inclined to use CDS tools and younger physicians tend to be ranked in this category. Objective This study examined the differences in adoption of CDS tools across providers’ training level. Participants From November 2010 to 2011, 168 residents and attendings from an academic medical institution were enrolled into a randomized controlled trial. Intervention The intervention arm had access to the CDS tool through the electronic health record (EHR) system during strep and pneumonia patient visits. Main Measures The EHR system recorded details on how intervention arm interacted with the CDS tool including acceptance of the initial CDS alert, completion of risk-score calculators and the signing of medication order sets. Using the EHR data, the study performed bivariate tests and general estimating equation (GEE) modeling to examine the differences in adoption of the CDS tool across residents and attendings. Key Results The completion rates of the CDS calculator and medication order sets were higher amongst first year residents compared to all other training levels. Attendings were the less likely to accept the initial step of the CDS tool (29.3%) or complete the medication order sets (22.4%) that guided their prescription decisions, resulting in attendings ordering more antibiotics (37.1%) during an CDS encounter compared to residents. Conclusion There is variation in adoption of CDS tools across training levels. Attendings tended to accept the tool less but ordered more medications. CDS tools should be tailored to clinicians’ training levels. PMID:25589914

  19. Impact of Advanced Health Care Directives on Treatment Decisions by Physicians in Patients with Acute Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Adnan I; Chaudhry, Saqib A.; Connelly, Bo; Abott, Emily; Janjua, Tariq; Kim, Stanley H.; Miley, Jefferson T.; Rodriguez, Gustavo J.; Uzun, Guven; Watanabe, Masaki

    2012-01-01

    Background The implementation of advance health care directives, prepared by almost half of the adult population in United States remains relatively under studied. We determined the impact of advance health care directives on treatment decisions by multiple physicians in stroke patients. Methods A de-identified summary of clinical and radiological records of 28 patients with stroke was given to six stroke physicians who were not involved in the care of the patients. Each physician independently rated 28 treatment decisions per patient in the presence or absence of advance health care directives 1 month apart to allow memory washout. The percentage agreement to treat/intervene per patient and proportion of treatment withheld as a group were estimated for each of the 28 treatment decision items. We also determined the interobserver reliability between the two raters (attorneys) in interpretation of 6 items characterizing the adequacy of documentation within the 28 advance health care directives. Results The percentage agreement among physician raters for treatment decisions in 28 stroke patients was highest for treatment of hyperpyrexia (100%, 100%) and lowest for intensive care unit monitoring duration based on family-physician considerations outside of accepted criteria within institution (68%, 69%) in presence and absence of advance care health directives. The physician rater agreement in choosing “yes” was highest for “routine complexity” treatment decisions and lowest for “moderate complexity” treatment decisions. The choice of withholding treatment in routine complexity,” “moderate complexity,” or “high complexity” treatment decisions was remarkably similar among raters in presence or absence of advance care health directives. The only treatment decision that showed an impact of advance care health directives was intensive care unit monitoring withheld in 32% of treatment decisions in presence of directives (compared with 8% in the absence

  20. Clinical Decision Support Systems and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Njie, Gibril J.; Proia, Krista K.; Thota, Anilkrishna B.; Finnie, Ramona K.C.; Hopkins, David P.; Banks, Starr M.; Callahan, David B.; Pronk, Nicolaas P.; Rask, Kimberly J.; Lackland, Daniel T.; Kottke, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Context Clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) can help clinicians assess cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and manage CVD risk factors by providing tailored assessments and treatment recommendations based on individual patient data. The goal of this systematic review was to examine the effectiveness of CDSSs in improving screening for CVD risk factors, practices for CVD-related preventive care services such as clinical tests and prescribed treatments, and management of CVD risk factors. Evidence acquisition An existing systematic review (search period, January 1975–January 2011) of CDSSs for any condition was initially identified. Studies of CDSSs that focused on CVD prevention in that review were combined with studies identified through an updated search (January 2011–October 2012). Data analysis was conducted in 2013. Evidence synthesis A total of 45 studies qualified for inclusion in the review. Improvements were seen for recommended screening and other preventive care services completed by clinicians, recommended clinical tests completed by clinicians, and recommended treatments prescribed by clinicians (median increases of 3.8, 4.0, and 2.0 percentage points, respectively). Results were inconsistent for changes in CVD risk factors such as systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and hemoglobin A1C levels. Conclusions CDSSs are effective in improving clinician practices related to screening and other preventive care services, clinical tests, and treatments. However, more evidence is needed from implementation of CDSSs within the broad context of comprehensive service delivery aimed at reducing CVD risk and CVD-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:26477805

  1. Advanced management facilities for clinical laboratories.

    PubMed

    van Merode, G G; Hasman, A; Derks, J; Schoenmaker, B; Goldschmidt, H M

    1996-07-01

    As part of the OpenLabs (AIM 2028) programme a decision support system (DSS) for laboratory capacity management has been developed. This DSS contains a simulation module for determining the performance of planning rules given the equipment and staffing of the clinical laboratory and the demand for laboratory services. User requirements are discussed and a method is developed to (re-)define rules concerning various planning decisions. To show the functionality of the simulation module some simulation experiments are described.

  2. Shared decision making and the use of a patient decision aid in advanced serious illness: provider and patient perspectives.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jacqueline; Nowels, Carolyn; Kutner, Jean S; Matlock, Daniel D

    2015-12-01

    Patients with advanced serious illness face many complex decisions. Patient decision aids (PtDAs) can help with complex decision making but are underutilized. This study assessed barriers and facilitators to the use of a PtDA designed for serious illness. Providers and patients were asked about their experiences in making decisions around serious illness and their opinions towards the PtDA. Seven focus groups were digitally recorded, transcribed and analysed using a general qualitative inductive method. Domain 1 - clinical context within which the PtDA would be utilized including three themes: (1a) role: PtDA might compete with the physician's role; (1b) logistics: it was unclear when and how such a PtDA should be implemented; and (1c) meaning: what it will mean to the patient if the physician recommends viewing of this PtDA. Domain 2 - broader global context: (2a) death-denying culture; and (2b) physician concerns that the PtDA was biased towards palliative care. Physicians' concerns were rooted in deeper concerns about palliative care and a death-denying culture. Patients were more open to using the PtDA than physicians, suggesting 'it's never too early'. PtDAs for serious illness can maximize early opportunities for goals of care conversations and shared decision making. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. 32 CFR Appendix F to Part 282 - Requests for an Advance Decision

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Requests for an Advance Decision F Appendix F to... DECISION REQUESTS Pt. 282, App. F Appendix F to Part 282—Requests for an Advance Decision (a) Who May... according to appendix A to this part, paragraph (f). (ii) The decision is controlling in the case;...

  4. 32 CFR Appendix F to Part 282 - Requests for an Advance Decision

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requests for an Advance Decision F Appendix F to... DECISION REQUESTS Pt. 282, App. F Appendix F to Part 282—Requests for an Advance Decision (a) Who May... according to Appendix A to this part, paragraph (f). (ii) The decision is controlling in the case;...

  5. Challenges in shared decision making in advanced cancer care: a qualitative longitudinal observational and interview study.

    PubMed

    Brom, Linda; De Snoo-Trimp, Janine C; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D; Widdershoven, Guy A M; Stiggelbout, Anne M; Pasman, H Roeline W

    2017-02-01

    Patients' preferences and expectations should be taken into account in treatment decision making in the last phase of life. Shared decision making (SDM) is regarded as a way to give the patient a central role in decision making. Little is known about how SDM is used in clinical practice in advanced cancer care. To examine whether and how the steps of SDM can be recognized in decision making about second- and third-line chemotherapy. Fourteen advanced cancer patients were followed over time using face-to-face in-depth interviews and observations of the patients' out-clinic visits. Interviews and outpatient clinic visits in which treatment options were discussed or decisions made were transcribed verbatim and analysed using open coding. Patients were satisfied with the decision-making process, but the steps of SDM were barely seen in daily practice. The creation of awareness about available treatment options by physicians was limited and not discussed in an equal way. Patients' wishes and concerns were not explicitly assessed, which led to different expectations about improved survival from subsequent lines of chemotherapy. To reach SDM in daily practice, physicians should create awareness of all treatment options, including forgoing treatment, and communicate the risk of benefit and harm. Open and honest communication is needed in which patients' expectations and concerns are discussed. Through this, the difficult process of decision making in the last phase of life can be facilitated and the focus on the best care for the specific patient is strengthened. © 2015 The Authors. Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Advances in clinical analysis 2012.

    PubMed

    Couchman, Lewis; Mills, Graham A

    2013-01-01

    A report on the meeting organized by The Chromatographic Society and the Separation Science Group, Analytical Division of the Royal Society of Chemistry. Over 60 delegates and commercial exhibitors attended this event, held to celebrate the careers of Robert Flanagan and David Perrett, and acknowledge their extensive contributions in the field of clinical analysis.

  7. Placebo Effects: Biological, Clinical and Ethical Advances

    PubMed Central

    Kaptchuk, Ted J; Miller, Franklin; Benedetti, Fabrizio

    2010-01-01

    For many years, placebos have been conceptualised by their inert content and their use as controls in clinical trials and treatments in clinical practice. Recent research demonstrates that placebo effects are genuine psychobiological phenomenon attributable to the overall therapeutic context, and that placebo effects can be robust in both laboratory and clinical settings. Evidence has also emerged that placebo effects can exist in clinical practice, even if no placebo is given. Further promotion and integration of laboratory and clinical research will allow advances in the ethical harnessing of placebo mechanisms that are inherent in routine clinical care and the potential use of treatments to primarily promote placebo effects. PMID:20171404

  8. Advanced Modeling Reconciles Counterintuitive Decisions in Lead Optimization.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Ariel; Scott, L Ridgway

    2017-01-06

    Lead optimization (LO) is essential to fulfill the efficacy and safety requirements of drug-based targeted therapy. The ease with which water may be locally removed from around the target protein crucially influences LO decisions. However, inferred binding sites often defy intuition and the resulting LO decisions are often counterintuitive, with nonpolar groups in the drug placed next to polar groups in the target. We first introduce biophysical advances to reconcile these apparent mismatches. We incorporate three-body energy terms that account for the net stabilization of preformed target structures upon removal of interfacial water concurrent with drug binding. These unexplored drug-induced environmental changes enhancing the target electrostatics are validated against drug-target affinity data, yielding superior computational accuracy required to improve drug design.

  9. Heuristics in Managing Complex Clinical Decision Tasks in Experts' Decision Making.

    PubMed

    Islam, Roosan; Weir, Charlene; Del Fiol, Guilherme

    2014-09-01

    Clinical decision support is a tool to help experts make optimal and efficient decisions. However, little is known about the high level of abstractions in the thinking process for the experts. The objective of the study is to understand how clinicians manage complexity while dealing with complex clinical decision tasks. After approval from the Institutional Review Board (IRB), three clinical experts were interviewed the transcripts from these interviews were analyzed. We found five broad categories of strategies by experts for managing complex clinical decision tasks: decision conflict, mental projection, decision trade-offs, managing uncertainty and generating rule of thumb. Complexity is created by decision conflicts, mental projection, limited options and treatment uncertainty. Experts cope with complexity in a variety of ways, including using efficient and fast decision strategies to simplify complex decision tasks, mentally simulating outcomes and focusing on only the most relevant information. Understanding complex decision making processes can help design allocation based on the complexity of task for clinical decision support design.

  10. Heuristics in Managing Complex Clinical Decision Tasks in Experts’ Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Roosan; Weir, Charlene; Del Fiol, Guilherme

    2016-01-01

    Background Clinical decision support is a tool to help experts make optimal and efficient decisions. However, little is known about the high level of abstractions in the thinking process for the experts. Objective The objective of the study is to understand how clinicians manage complexity while dealing with complex clinical decision tasks. Method After approval from the Institutional Review Board (IRB), three clinical experts were interviewed the transcripts from these interviews were analyzed. Results We found five broad categories of strategies by experts for managing complex clinical decision tasks: decision conflict, mental projection, decision trade-offs, managing uncertainty and generating rule of thumb. Conclusion Complexity is created by decision conflicts, mental projection, limited options and treatment uncertainty. Experts cope with complexity in a variety of ways, including using efficient and fast decision strategies to simplify complex decision tasks, mentally simulating outcomes and focusing on only the most relevant information. Application Understanding complex decision making processes can help design allocation based on the complexity of task for clinical decision support design. PMID:27275019

  11. Medical Question Answering for Clinical Decision Support.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Travis R; Harabagiu, Sanda M

    2016-10-01

    The goal of modern Clinical Decision Support (CDS) systems is to provide physicians with information relevant to their management of patient care. When faced with a medical case, a physician asks questions about the diagnosis, the tests, or treatments that should be administered. Recently, the TREC-CDS track has addressed this challenge by evaluating results of retrieving relevant scientific articles where the answers of medical questions in support of CDS can be found. Although retrieving relevant medical articles instead of identifying the answers was believed to be an easier task, state-of-the-art results are not yet sufficiently promising. In this paper, we present a novel framework for answering medical questions in the spirit of TREC-CDS by first discovering the answer and then selecting and ranking scientific articles that contain the answer. Answer discovery is the result of probabilistic inference which operates on a probabilistic knowledge graph, automatically generated by processing the medical language of large collections of electronic medical records (EMRs). The probabilistic inference of answers combines knowledge from medical practice (EMRs) with knowledge from medical research (scientific articles). It also takes into account the medical knowledge automatically discerned from the medical case description. We show that this novel form of medical question answering (Q/A) produces very promising results in (a) identifying accurately the answers and (b) it improves medical article ranking by 40%.

  12. Medical Question Answering for Clinical Decision Support

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Travis R.; Harabagiu, Sanda M.

    2017-01-01

    The goal of modern Clinical Decision Support (CDS) systems is to provide physicians with information relevant to their management of patient care. When faced with a medical case, a physician asks questions about the diagnosis, the tests, or treatments that should be administered. Recently, the TREC-CDS track has addressed this challenge by evaluating results of retrieving relevant scientific articles where the answers of medical questions in support of CDS can be found. Although retrieving relevant medical articles instead of identifying the answers was believed to be an easier task, state-of-the-art results are not yet sufficiently promising. In this paper, we present a novel framework for answering medical questions in the spirit of TREC-CDS by first discovering the answer and then selecting and ranking scientific articles that contain the answer. Answer discovery is the result of probabilistic inference which operates on a probabilistic knowledge graph, automatically generated by processing the medical language of large collections of electronic medical records (EMRs). The probabilistic inference of answers combines knowledge from medical practice (EMRs) with knowledge from medical research (scientific articles). It also takes into account the medical knowledge automatically discerned from the medical case description. We show that this novel form of medical question answering (Q/A) produces very promising results in (a) identifying accurately the answers and (b) it improves medical article ranking by 40%. PMID:28758046

  13. Promoting perioperative advance care planning: a systematic review of advance care planning decision aids.

    PubMed

    Aslakson, Rebecca A; Schuster, Anne L R; Reardon, Jessica; Lynch, Thomas; Suarez-Cuervo, Catalina; Miller, Judith A; Moldovan, Rita; Johnston, Fabian; Anton, Blair; Weiss, Matthew; Bridges, John F P

    2015-11-01

    This systematic review identifies possible decision aids that promote perioperative advance care planning (ACP) and synthesizes the available evidence regarding their use. Using PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, SCOPUS, Web of Science, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Sociological Abstracts, researchers identified and screened articles for eligibility. Data were abstracted and risk of bias assessed for included articles. Thirty-nine of 5327 articles satisfied the eligibility criteria. Primarily completed in outpatient ambulatory populations, studies evaluated a variety of ACP decision aids. None were evaluated in a perioperative population. Fifty unique outcomes were reported with no head-to-head comparisons conducted. Findings are likely generalizable to a perioperative population and can inform development of a perioperative ACP decision aid. Future studies should compare the effectiveness of ACP decision aids.

  14. Medication-related Clinical Decision Support in Computerized Provider Order Entry Systems: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kuperman, Gilad J.; Bobb, Anne; Payne, Thomas H.; Avery, Anthony J.; Gandhi, Tejal K.; Burns, Gerard; Classen, David C.; Bates, David W.

    2007-01-01

    While medications can improve patients’ health, the process of prescribing them is complex and error prone, and medication errors cause many preventable injuries. Computer provider order entry (CPOE) with clinical decision support (CDS), can improve patient safety and lower medication-related costs. To realize the medication-related benefits of CDS within CPOE, one must overcome significant challenges. Healthcare organizations implementing CPOE must understand what classes of CDS their CPOE systems can support, assure that clinical knowledge underlying their CDS systems is reasonable, and appropriately represent electronic patient data. These issues often influence to what extent an institution will succeed with its CPOE implementation and achieve its desired goals. Medication-related decision support is probably best introduced into healthcare organizations in two stages, basic and advanced. Basic decision support includes drug-allergy checking, basic dosing guidance, formulary decision support, duplicate therapy checking, and drug–drug interaction checking. Advanced decision support includes dosing support for renal insufficiency and geriatric patients, guidance for medication-related laboratory testing, drug-pregnancy checking, and drug–disease contraindication checking. In this paper, the authors outline some of the challenges associated with both basic and advanced decision support and discuss how those challenges might be addressed. The authors conclude with summary recommendations for delivering effective medication-related clinical decision support addressed to healthcare organizations, application and knowledge base vendors, policy makers, and researchers. PMID:17068355

  15. The evidence-based clinical decision support guide: mucogingival/esthetics making clinical decisions in the absence of strong evidence.

    PubMed

    Merijohn, George K

    2007-09-01

    Although evidence-based decision-making in dentistry is quickly evolving, large gaps remain in our clinical knowledge base regarding every day decisions and procedures. Especially in the absence of strong evidence, as is the case with mucogingival conditions, risk assessment and identification are important components of the clinical decision-making process. Utilization of clinical decision support (CDS) guides, frameworks and systems enhances chairside decision-making and improves delivery of patient care. This article introduces an Evidence-Based Clinical Decision Support Guide for mucogingival/esthetic situations. This CDS guide delineates treatment strategies based upon evidence-based risk assessment and when possible, risk management. It provides the clinician with a framework that will support decision-making at the point of care. Recommendations for consultation, treatment and referral are reviewed.

  16. Advance care planning and proxy decision making for patients with advanced Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Jung; Wallendal, Maggie S; Fritsch, Thomas; Leo, Gary; Hyde, Trevor

    2014-03-01

    To examine advance care planning practices and proxy decision making by family healthcare proxies for patients with advanced Parkinson disease (PD). Sixty-four spouses and adult children, self-designated as a/the healthcare proxy for advanced patients with PD, participated in a cross-sectional survey study. Sixty patients with PD (95%) had completed a living will, but only 38% had shared the document with a physician. Among three life-support treatments--cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), ventilator, and feeding tube--47% of patients opted for CPR, 16% for ventilator, and 20% for feeding tube. Forty-two percent of proxies did not know patients' preferences for one or more of the three life-support treatments. Only 28% of proxies reported that patients wanted hospice. Patients who shared advance directives with a physician were significantly less likely to choose CPR and a feeding tube and they were more likely to choose hospice. In a hypothetical end-of-life (EOL) scenario, the majority of proxies chose comfort care as the EOL goal of care (53%) and pain and symptom management only as the course of treatment option (72%); these proxy choices for patients, however, were not associated with patients' preferences for life support. Patients' proxies preferred a form of shared decision making with other family members and physicians. Advance care planning is effective when patients, families, and healthcare professionals together consider future needs for EOL care decisions. Further efforts are needed by healthcare professionals to provide evidence-based education about care options and facilitate advanced discussion and shared decision making by the patient and families.

  17. Decision-theoretic refinement planning: a new method for clinical decision analysis.

    PubMed

    Doan, A; Haddawy, P; Kahn, C E

    1995-01-01

    Clinical decision analysis seeks to identify the optimal management strategy by modelling the uncertainty and risks entailed in the diagnosis, natural history, and treatment of a particular problem or disorder. Decision trees are the most frequently used model in clinical decision analysis, but can be tedious to construct, cumbersome to use, and computationally prohibitive, especially with large, complex decision problems. We present a new method for clinical decision analysis that combines the techniques of decision theory and artificial intelligence. Our model uses a modular representation of knowledge that simplifies model building and enables more fully automated decision making. Moreover, the model exploits problem structures to yield better computational efficiency. As an example we apply our techniques to the problem of management of acute deep venous thrombosis.

  18. Towards advanced OCT clinical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillin, Mikhail; Panteleeva, Olga; Agrba, Pavel; Pasukhin, Mikhail; Sergeeva, Ekaterina; Plankina, Elena; Dudenkova, Varvara; Gubarkova, Ekaterina; Kiseleva, Elena; Gladkova, Natalia; Shakhova, Natalia; Vitkin, Alex

    2015-07-01

    In this paper we report on our recent achievement in application of conventional and cross-polarization OCT (CP OCT) modalities for in vivo clinical diagnostics in different medical areas including gynecology, dermatology, and stomatology. In gynecology, CP OCT was employed for diagnosing fallopian tubes and cervix; in dermatology OCT for monitoring of treatment of psoriasis, scleroderma and atopic dermatitis; and in stomatology for diagnosis of oral diseases. For all considered application, we propose and develop different image processing methods which enhance the diagnostic value of the technique. In particular, we use histogram analysis, Fourier analysis and neural networks, thus calculating different tissue characteristics as revealed by OCT's polarization evolution. These approaches enable improved OCT image quantification and increase its resultant diagnostic accuracy.

  19. A review of clinical decision making: models and current research.

    PubMed

    Banning, Maggi

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to review the current literature clinical decision-making models and the educational application of models to clinical practice. This was achieved by exploring the function and related research of the three available models of clinical decision making: information-processing model, the intuitive-humanist model and the clinical decision-making model. Clinical decision making is a unique process that involves the interplay between knowledge of pre-existing pathological conditions, explicit patient information, nursing care and experiential learning. Historically, two models of clinical decision making are recognized from the literature; the information-processing model and the intuitive-humanist model. The usefulness and application of both models has been examined in relation the provision of nursing care and care related outcomes. More recently a third model of clinical decision making has been proposed. This new multidimensional model contains elements of the information-processing model but also examines patient specific elements that are necessary for cue and pattern recognition. Literature review. Evaluation of the literature generated from MEDLINE, CINAHL, OVID, PUBMED and EBESCO systems and the Internet from 1980 to November 2005. The characteristics of the three models of decision making were identified and the related research discussed. Three approaches to clinical decision making were identified, each having its own attributes and uses. The most recent addition to the clinical decision making is a theoretical, multidimensional model which was developed through an evaluation of current literature and the assessment of a limited number of research studies that focused on the clinical decision-making skills of inexperienced nurses in pseudoclinical settings. The components of this model and the relative merits to clinical practice are discussed. It is proposed that clinical decision making improves as the nurse gains experience of

  20. Risk assessment and clinical decision making for colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Schroy, Paul C; Caron, Sarah E; Sherman, Bonnie J; Heeren, Timothy C; Battaglia, Tracy A

    2015-10-01

    Shared decision making (SDM) related to test preference has been advocated as a potentially effective strategy for increasing adherence to colorectal cancer (CRC) screening, yet primary care providers (PCPs) are often reluctant to comply with patient preferences if they differ from their own. Risk stratification advanced colorectal neoplasia (ACN) provides a rational strategy for reconciling these differences. To assess the importance of risk stratification in PCP decision making related to test preference for average-risk patients and receptivity to use of an electronic risk assessment tool for ACN to facilitate SDM. Mixed methods, including qualitative key informant interviews and a cross-sectional survey. PCPs at an urban, academic safety-net institution. Screening preferences, factors influencing patient recommendations and receptivity to use of a risk stratification tool. Nine PCPs participated in interviews and 57 completed the survey. Despite an overwhelming preference for colonoscopy by 95% of respondents, patient risk (67%) and patient preferences (63%) were more influential in their decision making than patient comorbidities (31%; P < 0.001). Age was the single most influential risk factor (excluding family history), with <20% of respondents choosing factors other than age. Most respondents reported that they would be likely to use a risk stratification tool in their practice either 'often' (43%) or sometimes (53%). Risk stratification was perceived to be important in clinical decision making, yet few providers considered risk factors other than age for average-risk patients. Providers were receptive to the use of a risk assessment tool for ACN when recommending an appropriate screening test for select patients. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Four Factors of Clinical Decision Making: A Teaching Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leist, James C.; Konen, Joseph C.

    1996-01-01

    Four factors of clinical decision making identified by medical students include quality of care, cost, ethics, and legal concerns. This paper argues that physicians have two responsibilities in the clinical decision-making model: to be the primary advocate for quality health care and to ensure balance among the four factors, working in partnership…

  2. An Advanced Decision Support Tool for Electricity Infrastructure Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yousu; Huang, Zhenyu; Wong, Pak C.; Mackey, Patrick S.; Allwardt, Craig H.; Ma, Jian; Greitzer, Frank L.

    2010-01-31

    Electricity infrastructure, as one of the most critical infrastructures in the U.S., plays an important role in modern societies. Its failure would lead to significant disruption of people’s lives, industry and commercial activities, and result in massive economic losses. Reliable operation of electricity infrastructure is an extremely challenging task because human operators need to consider thousands of possible configurations in near real-time to choose the best option and operate the network effectively. In today’s practice, electricity infrastructure operation is largely based on operators’ experience with very limited real-time decision support, resulting in inadequate management of complex predictions and the inability to anticipate, recognize, and respond to situations caused by human errors, natural disasters, or cyber attacks. Therefore, a systematic approach is needed to manage the complex operational paradigms and choose the best option in a near-real-time manner. This paper proposes an advanced decision support tool for electricity infrastructure operations. The tool has the functions of turning large amount of data into actionable information to help operators monitor power grid status in real time; performing trend analysis to indentify system trend at the regional level or system level to help the operator to foresee and discern emergencies, studying clustering analysis to assist operators to identify the relationships between system configurations and affected assets, and interactively evaluating the alternative remedial actions to aid operators to make effective and timely decisions. This tool can provide significant decision support on electricity infrastructure operations and lead to better reliability in power grids. This paper presents examples with actual electricity infrastructure data to demonstrate the capability of this tool.

  3. Clinical models of decision making in addiction.

    PubMed

    Koffarnus, Mikhail N; Kaplan, Brent A

    2017-08-26

    As research on decision making in addiction accumulates, it is increasingly clear that decision-making processes are dysfunctional in addiction and that this dysfunction may be fundamental to the initiation and maintenance of addictive behavior. How drug-dependent individuals value and choose among drug and nondrug rewards is consistently different from non-dependent individuals. The present review focuses on the assessment of decision-making in addiction. We cover the common behavioral tasks that have shown to be fruitful in decision-making research and highlight analytical and graphical considerations, when available, to facilitate comparisons within and among studies. Delay discounting tasks, drug demand tasks, drug choice tasks, the Iowa Gambling Task, and the Balloon Analogue Risk Task are included. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Clinical decision-making in senior nursing students in Iran.

    PubMed

    Jahanpour, Faezeh; Sharif, Farkhondeh; Salsali, Mahvash; Kaveh, Mohammad H; Williams, Leonie M

    2010-12-01

    Clinical decision-making is the basis for professional nursing practice. This can be taught and learned through appropriate teaching and clinical experiences. Unfortunately, it has been observed that many graduates are unable to demonstrate suitable clinical decision-making skills. Research and study on the process of decision-making and factors influencing it assists educators to find the appropriate educational and clinical strategies to teach nursing students. To explore the experience of nursing students and their view points regarding the factors influencing their development of clinical decision-making skills. An exploratory qualitative approach utilizing grounded theory methods was used; focus group interviews were undertaken with 32 fourth year nursing students and data were analysed using constant comparative analysis. Four main themes emerged from the data: clinical instructor incompetency, low self-efficacy, unconducive clinical learning climate and experiencing stress. The data indicated that students could not make clinical decisions independently. The findings of this study support the need to reform aspects of the curriculum in Iran in order to increase theory-practice integration and prepare a conductive clinical learning climate that enhances learning clinical decision-making with less stress.

  5. Decisions to forgo hospitalization in advanced dementia: a nationwide study.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Susan L; Teno, Joan M; Intrator, Orna; Feng, Zhanlian; Mor, Vincent

    2007-03-01

    To examine the prevalence and factors associated with decisions to forgo hospitalization in nursing home (NH) residents with advanced dementia. Cross-sectional study. All Medicare- and Medicaid-certified NHs within the 48 contiguous U.S. states. NH residents with advanced dementia were identified using Minimum Data Set (MDS) assessments completed close to April 1, 2000 (N=91,521). Multilevel, multivariate logistic regression identified factors independently associated with having a do-not-hospitalize (DNH) directive. Independent variables included subject characteristics (MDS), facility factors (On-line Survey of Certification of Automated Records), and hospital referral region (HRR) features (Dartmouth Atlas). Nationwide, 7.1% (n=6,518) residents with advanced dementia had DNH orders (range 0.7% in Oklahoma to 25.9% in Rhode Island). Resident characteristics associated with having a DNH order were older age, white, living will, durable power of attorney for health care, and total functional dependence. Controlling for these factors, DNH orders were more likely in residents of facilities with the following features: not part of a chain, urban location, special care dementia unit, fewer black residents, nurse practitioner or physician assistant on staff, higher staffing ratios, and location in HRRs with fewer intensive care unit admissions during terminal hospitalizations. Directives to forgo hospitalization for U.S. NH residents with advanced dementia are uncommon and are associated with the organizational features of the facilities caring for them and the intensity of end-of-life care practiced in the region, as well as individual resident characteristics.

  6. Access to augmentative and alternative communication: new technologies and clinical decision-making.

    PubMed

    Fager, Susan; Bardach, Lisa; Russell, Susanne; Higginbotham, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Children with severe physical impairments require a variety of access options to augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) and computer technology. Access technologies have continued to develop, allowing children with severe motor control impairments greater independence and access to communication. This article will highlight new advances in access technology, including eye and head tracking, scanning, and access to mainstream technology, as well as discuss future advances. Considerations for clinical decision-making and implementation of these technologies will be presented along with case illustrations.

  7. Patient decision-making for clinical genetics.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Gwen

    2007-03-01

    Medicine is incorporating genetic services into all avenues of health-care, ranging from the rarest to the most common diseases. Cognitive theories of decision-making still dominate professionals' understanding of patient decision-making about how to use genetic information and whether to have testing. I discovered a conceptual model of decision-making while carrying out a phenomenological-hermeneutic descriptive study of a convenience sample of 12 couples who were interviewed while deciding whether to undergo prenatal genetic testing. Thirty-two interviews were conducted with 12 men and 12 women separately. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and all data were analyzed using three levels of coding that were sorted into 30 categories and then abstracted into three emergent meta-themes that described men's and women's attempts to make sense and find meaning in how to best use prenatal genetic technology. Their descriptions of how they thought about, communicated, and coped with their decision were so detailed it was possible to discern nine different types of thinking they engaged in while deciding to accept or decline testing. They believed that decision-making is a process of working through your own personal style of thinking. This might include only one or any combination of the following types of thinking: analytical, ethical, moral, reflective, practical, hypothetical, judgmental, scary, and second sight, as described in detail by these 12 couples.

  8. Hillsborough part 2: advance decisions and futile treatment.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Richard

    In the second article on the impact of the Hillsborough football stadium disaster on healthcare law, Richard Griffith discusses the case of Tony Bland, who suffered prolonged hypoxia due to the crushing crowd surge, leaving him in a persistent vegetative state. Some 3 years after the incident, the judicial committee of the House of Lords was asked to rule on whether it would be lawful to withdraw his artificial nutrition and hydration, resulting in death. The opinions of the law lords in Airedale NHS Trust v Bland [1993] continue to inform health law 25 years after the disaster, shaping and developing the use of advance decisions to refuse treatment and setting out when it would be lawful to withdraw futile life-sustaining treatment.

  9. Clinical inferences and decisions--III. Utility assessment and the Bayesian decision model.

    PubMed

    Aspinall, P A; Hill, A R

    1984-01-01

    It is accepted that errors of misclassifications, however small, can occur in clinical decisions but it cannot be assumed that the importance associated with false positive errors is the same as that for false negatives. The relative importance of these two types of error is frequently implied by a decision maker in the different weighting factors or utilities he assigns to the alternative consequences of his decisions. Formal procedures are available by which it is possible to make explicit in numerical form the value or worth of the outcome of a decision process. The two principal methods are described for generating utilities as associated with clinical decisions. The concept and application of utility is then expanded from a unidimensional to a multidimensional problem where, for example, one variable may be state of health and another monetary assets. When combined with the principles of subjective probability and test criterion selection outlined in Parts I and II of this series, the consequent use of utilities completes the framework upon which the general Bayesian model of clinical decision making is based. The five main stages in this general decision making model are described and applications of the model are illustrated with clinical examples from the field of ophthalmology. These include examples for unidimensional and multidimensional problems which are worked through in detail to illustrate both the principles and methodology involved in a rationalized normative model of clinical decision making behaviour.

  10. Development and Testing of a Decision Aid on Goals of Care for Advanced Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Einterz, Seth F.; Gilliam, Robin; Lin, Feng Chang; McBride, J. Marvin; Hanson, Laura C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Decision aids are effective to improve decision-making, yet they are rarely tested in nursing homes (NHs). Study objectives were to 1) examine the feasibility of a Goals of Care (GOC) decision aid for surrogate decision-makers (SDMs)of persons with dementia; and 2) test its effect on quality of communication and decision-making. Design Pre-post intervention to test a GOC decision aid intervention for SDMs for persons with dementia in NHs. Investigators collected data from reviews of resident health records and interviews with SDMs at baseline and 3-month follow up. Setting Two NHs in North Carolina. Participants 18 residents who were over 65 years of age, had moderate to severe dementia on the Global Deterioration Scale (GDS=5,6,7), and an English-speaking surrogate decision-maker. Intervention 1) GOC Decision Aid video viewed by the SDM, and 2) a structured care plan meeting between the SDM and interdisciplinary NH team Measurements Surrogate knowledge, quality of communication with health care providers, surrogate-provider concordance on goals of care, and palliative care domains addressed in the care plan. Results 89% of the SDMs thought the decision aid was relevant to their needs. After viewing the video decision aid, SDMs increased the number of correct responses on knowledge-based questions (12.5 vs 14.2, P<.001). At 3 months they reported improved quality of communication scores (6.1 vs 6.8, P=.01) and improved concordance on primary goal of care with nursing home team (50% vs 78%, P=.003). The number of palliative care domains addressed in the care plan increased (1.8 vs 4.3, P<.001). Conclusion The decision-support intervention piloted in this study was feasible and relevant for surrogate decision-makers of persons with advanced dementia in nursing homes, and it improved quality of communication between SDM and NH providers. A larger randomized clinical trial is underway to provide further evidence of the effects of this decision aid

  11. Advancing Aeronautics: A Decision Framework for Selecting Research Agendas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anton, Philip S.; Ecola, Liisa; Kallimani, James G.; Light, Thomas; Ohlandt, Chad J. R.; Osburg, Jan; Raman, Raj; Grammich, Clifford A.

    2011-01-01

    Publicly funded research has long played a role in the development of aeronautics, ranging from foundational research on airfoils to development of the air-traffic control system. Yet more than a century after the research and development of successful controlled, sustained, heavier-than-air flight vehicles, there are questions over the future of aeronautics research. The field of aeronautics is relatively mature, technological developments within it have become more evolutionary, and funding decisions are sometimes motivated by the continued pursuit of these evolutionary research tracks rather than by larger factors. These developments raise questions over whether public funding of aeronautics research continues to be appropriate or necessary and at what levels. Tightened federal budgets and increasing calls to address other public demands make these questions sharper still. To help it address the questions of appropriate directions for publicly funded aeronautics research, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) asked the RAND Corporation to assess the elements required to develop a strategic view of aeronautics research opportunities; identify candidate aeronautic grand challenges, paradigms, and concepts; outline a framework for evaluating them; and exercise the framework as an example of how to use it. Accordingly, this research seeks to address these questions: What aeronautics research should be supported by the U.S. government? What compelling and desirable benefits drive government-supported research? How should the government--especially NASA--make decisions about which research to support? Advancing aeronautics involves broad policy and decisionmaking challenges. Decisions involve tradeoffs among competing perspectives, uncertainties, and informed judgment.

  12. Advancing Aeronautics: A Decision Framework for Selecting Research Agendas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anton, Philip S.; Ecola, Liisa; Kallimani, James G.; Light, Thomas; Ohlandt, Chad J. R.; Osburg, Jan; Raman, Raj; Grammich, Clifford A.

    2011-01-01

    Publicly funded research has long played a role in the development of aeronautics, ranging from foundational research on airfoils to development of the air-traffic control system. Yet more than a century after the research and development of successful controlled, sustained, heavier-than-air flight vehicles, there are questions over the future of aeronautics research. The field of aeronautics is relatively mature, technological developments within it have become more evolutionary, and funding decisions are sometimes motivated by the continued pursuit of these evolutionary research tracks rather than by larger factors. These developments raise questions over whether public funding of aeronautics research continues to be appropriate or necessary and at what levels. Tightened federal budgets and increasing calls to address other public demands make these questions sharper still. To help it address the questions of appropriate directions for publicly funded aeronautics research, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) asked the RAND Corporation to assess the elements required to develop a strategic view of aeronautics research opportunities; identify candidate aeronautic grand challenges, paradigms, and concepts; outline a framework for evaluating them; and exercise the framework as an example of how to use it. Accordingly, this research seeks to address these questions: What aeronautics research should be supported by the U.S. government? What compelling and desirable benefits drive government-supported research? How should the government--especially NASA--make decisions about which research to support? Advancing aeronautics involves broad policy and decisionmaking challenges. Decisions involve tradeoffs among competing perspectives, uncertainties, and informed judgment.

  13. Family patterns of decision-making in pediatric clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Snethen, Julia A; Broome, Marion E; Knafl, Kathleen; Deatrick, Janet A; Angst, Denise B

    2006-06-01

    The decision-making process related to a child's participation in clinical trials often involves multiple family members. The aim of this study was to compare family patterns of decision-making within and across family units in pediatric clinical trials. Participants for this secondary analysis included 14 families from a larger study of informed consent. Four distinct patterns of decision-making were identified: Exclusionary, informative, collaborative, and delegated. These patterns varied with regard to three dimensions of parents' decision-making goals, child level of involvement, and the parental role. These patterns of decision-making affect how parents and children communicate with health professionals and influence the effectiveness of health care providers interactions with the family related to the decision-making process.

  14. Decision aids for people considering taking part in clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Gillies, Katie; Cotton, Seonaidh C; Brehaut, Jamie C; Politi, Mary C; Skea, Zoe

    2015-11-27

    Several interventions have been developed to promote informed consent for participants in clinical trials. However, many of these interventions focus on the content and structure of information (e.g. enhanced information or changes to the presentation format) rather than the process of decision making. Patient decision aids support a decision making process about medical options. Decision aids support the decision process by providing information about available options and their associated outcomes, alongside information that enables patients to consider what value they place on particular outcomes, and provide structured guidance on steps of decision making. They have been shown to be effective for treatment and screening decisions but evidence on their effectiveness in the context of informed consent for clinical trials has not been synthesised. To assess the effectiveness of decision aids for clinical trial informed consent compared to no intervention, standard information (i.e. usual practice) or an alternative intervention on the decision making process. We searched the following databases and to March 2015: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), The Cochrane Library; MEDLINE (OvidSP) (from 1950); EMBASE (OvidSP) (from 1980); PsycINFO (OvidSP) (from 1806); ASSIA (ProQuest) (from 1987); WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (http://apps.who.int/trialsearch/); ClinicalTrials.gov; ISRCTN Register (http://www.controlled-trials.com/isrctn/). We also searched reference lists of included studies and relevant reviews. We contacted study authors and other experts. There were no language restrictions. We included randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing decision aids in the informed consent process for clinical trials alone, or in conjunction with standard information (such as written or verbal) or alongside alternative interventions (e.g. paper-based versus web-based decision aids). Included trials involved

  15. Clinical Decision Making among Dental Students and General Practitioners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grembowski, David; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Senior dental students and family dental practitioners were surveyed concerning their choice of pairs of alternative treatments and the technical and patient factors influencing their decisions. Greater agreement in clinical decision-making was found among dentists than among students for all four pairs of alternative services. (MSE)

  16. The reliability of an epilepsy treatment clinical decision support system.

    PubMed

    Standridge, Shannon; Faist, Robert; Pestian, John; Glauser, Tracy; Ittenbach, Richard

    2014-10-01

    We developed a content validated computerized epilepsy treatment clinical decision support system to assist clinicians with selecting the best antiepilepsy treatments. Before disseminating our computerized epilepsy treatment clinical decision support system, further rigorous validation testing was necessary. As reliability is a precondition of validity, we verified proof of reliability first. We evaluated the consistency of the epilepsy treatment clinical decision support system in three areas including the preferred antiepilepsy drug choice, the top three recommended choices, and the rank order of the three choices. We demonstrated 100% reliability on 15,000 executions involving a three-step process on five different common pediatric epilepsy syndromes. Evidence for the reliability of the epilepsy treatment clinical decision support system was essential for the long-term viability of the system, and served as a crucial component for the next phase of system validation.

  17. The impact of simulation sequencing on perceived clinical decision making.

    PubMed

    Woda, Aimee; Hansen, Jamie; Paquette, Mary; Topp, Robert

    2017-09-01

    An emerging nursing education trend is to utilize simulated learning experiences as a means to optimize competency and decision making skills. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in students' perception of clinical decision making and clinical decision making-related self-confidence and anxiety based on the sequence (order) in which they participated in a block of simulated versus hospital-based learning experiences. A quasi-experimental crossover design was used. Between and within group differences were found relative to self-confidence with the decision making process. When comparing groups, at baseline the simulation followed by hospital group had significantly higher self-confidence scores, however, at 14-weeks both groups were not significantly different. Significant within group differences were found in the simulation followed by hospital group only, demonstrating a significant decrease in clinical decision making related anxiety across the semester. Finally, there were no significant difference in; perceived clinical decision making within or between the groups at the two measurement points. Preliminary findings suggest that simulated learning experiences can be offered with alternating sequences without impacting the process, anxiety or confidence with clinical decision making. This study provides beginning evidence to guide curriculum development and allow flexibility based on student needs and available resources. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Multi-criteria clinical decision support: A primer on the use of multiple criteria decision making methods to promote evidence-based, patient-centered healthcare.

    PubMed

    Dolan, James G

    2010-01-01

    Current models of healthcare quality recommend that patient management decisions be evidence-based and patient-centered. Evidence-based decisions require a thorough understanding of current information regarding the natural history of disease and the anticipated outcomes of different management options. Patient-centered decisions incorporate patient preferences, values, and unique personal circumstances into the decision making process and actively involve both patients along with health care providers as much as possible. Fundamentally, therefore, evidence-based, patient-centered decisions are multi-dimensional and typically involve multiple decision makers.Advances in the decision sciences have led to the development of a number of multiple criteria decision making methods. These multi-criteria methods are designed to help people make better choices when faced with complex decisions involving several dimensions. They are especially helpful when there is a need to combine "hard data" with subjective preferences, to make trade-offs between desired outcomes, and to involve multiple decision makers. Evidence-based, patient-centered clinical decision making has all of these characteristics. This close match suggests that clinical decision support systems based on multi-criteria decision making techniques have the potential to enable patients and providers to carry out the tasks required to implement evidence-based, patient-centered care effectively and efficiently in clinical settings.The goal of this paper is to give readers a general introduction to the range of multi-criteria methods available and show how they could be used to support clinical decision-making. Methods discussed include the balance sheet, the even swap method, ordinal ranking methods, direct weighting methods, multi-attribute decision analysis, and the analytic hierarchy process (AHP).

  19. Multi-criteria clinical decision support: A primer on the use of multiple criteria decision making methods to promote evidence-based, patient-centered healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Dolan, James G.

    2010-01-01

    Current models of healthcare quality recommend that patient management decisions be evidence-based and patient-centered. Evidence-based decisions require a thorough understanding of current information regarding the natural history of disease and the anticipated outcomes of different management options. Patient-centered decisions incorporate patient preferences, values, and unique personal circumstances into the decision making process and actively involve both patients along with health care providers as much as possible. Fundamentally, therefore, evidence-based, patient-centered decisions are multi-dimensional and typically involve multiple decision makers. Advances in the decision sciences have led to the development of a number of multiple criteria decision making methods. These multi-criteria methods are designed to help people make better choices when faced with complex decisions involving several dimensions. They are especially helpful when there is a need to combine “hard data” with subjective preferences, to make trade-offs between desired outcomes, and to involve multiple decision makers. Evidence-based, patient-centered clinical decision making has all of these characteristics. This close match suggests that clinical decision support systems based on multi-criteria decision making techniques have the potential to enable patients and providers to carry out the tasks required to implement evidence-based, patient-centered care effectively and efficiently in clinical settings. The goal of this paper is to give readers a general introduction to the range of multi-criteria methods available and show how they could be used to support clinical decision-making. Methods discussed include the balance sheet, the even swap method, ordinal ranking methods, direct weighting methods, multi-attribute decision analysis, and the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) PMID:21394218

  20. Clinical model for ethical cardiopulmonary resuscitation decision-making.

    PubMed

    Hayes, B

    2013-01-01

    Decisions to withhold cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) for future cardiac arrest continue to be problematic, with a lack of consistency in how doctors approach this decision. To develop a clinical model that can be used in education to improve consistency in CPR decision-making. A qualitative study, using semistructured interviews with a total of 33 senior doctors, junior doctors and nurses from two Melbourne hospitals explored how decisions to withhold CPR are made. Interviews explored: issues arising; how doctors learn to make these decisions; how they deal with disagreement and their experiences of performing CPR. The transcripts were coded and analysed thematically. Three major themes were identified: CPR as a life-and-death decision; good and bad dying; and trust. The research also defined the two elements to a CPR decision: (i) technical and (ii) ethical. Applying ethical principles commonly used in medicine, a model for ethical CPR decision-making has been developed that identifies four patient groups, each with a different discussion aim. This approach simplifies the complexities of the CPR decision, providing a structured way to teach CPR decision-making to doctors and thereby achieve greater consistency in the decisions made. © 2012 The Author; Internal Medicine Journal © 2012 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  1. The factors facilitating and inhibiting effective clinical decision-making in nursing: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Hagbaghery, Mohsen Adib; Salsali, Mahvash; Ahmadi, Fazlolah

    2004-04-06

    BACKGROUND: Nurses' practice takes place in a context of ongoing advances in research and technology. The dynamic and uncertain nature of health care environment requires nurses to be competent decision-makers in order to respond to clients' needs. Recently, the public and the government have criticized Iranian nurses because of poor quality of patient care. However nurses' views and experiences on factors that affect their clinical function and clinical decision-making have rarely been studied. METHODS: Grounded theory methodology was used to analyze the participants' lived experiences and their viewpoints regarding the factors affecting their clinical function and clinical decision-making. Semi-structured interviews and participant observation methods were used to gather the data. Thirty-eight participants were interviewed and twelve sessions of observation were carried out. Constant comparative analysis method was used to analyze the data. RESULTS: Five main themes emerged from the data. From the participants' points of view, "feeling competent", "being self-confident", "organizational structure", "nursing education", and "being supported" were considered as important factors in effective clinical decision-making. CONCLUSION: As participants in this research implied, being competent and self-confident are the most important personal factors influencing nurses clinical decision-making. Also external factors such as organizational structure, access to supportive resources and nursing education have strengthening or inhibiting effects on the nurses' decisions. Individual nurses, professional associations, schools of nursing, nurse educators, organizations that employ nurses and government all have responsibility for developing and finding strategies that facilitate nurses' effective clinical decision-making. They are responsible for identifying barriers and enhancing factors within the organizational structure that facilitate nurses' clinical decision-making.

  2. The factors facilitating and inhibiting effective clinical decision-making in nursing: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Hagbaghery, Mohsen Adib; Salsali, Mahvash; Ahmadi, Fazlolah

    2004-01-01

    Background Nurses' practice takes place in a context of ongoing advances in research and technology. The dynamic and uncertain nature of health care environment requires nurses to be competent decision-makers in order to respond to clients' needs. Recently, the public and the government have criticized Iranian nurses because of poor quality of patient care. However nurses' views and experiences on factors that affect their clinical function and clinical decision-making have rarely been studied. Methods Grounded theory methodology was used to analyze the participants' lived experiences and their viewpoints regarding the factors affecting their clinical function and clinical decision-making. Semi-structured interviews and participant observation methods were used to gather the data. Thirty-eight participants were interviewed and twelve sessions of observation were carried out. Constant comparative analysis method was used to analyze the data. Results Five main themes emerged from the data. From the participants' points of view, "feeling competent", "being self-confident", "organizational structure", "nursing education", and "being supported" were considered as important factors in effective clinical decision-making. Conclusion As participants in this research implied, being competent and self-confident are the most important personal factors influencing nurses clinical decision-making. Also external factors such as organizational structure, access to supportive resources and nursing education have strengthening or inhibiting effects on the nurses' decisions. Individual nurses, professional associations, schools of nursing, nurse educators, organizations that employ nurses and government all have responsibility for developing and finding strategies that facilitate nurses' effective clinical decision-making. They are responsible for identifying barriers and enhancing factors within the organizational structure that facilitate nurses' clinical decision-making. PMID

  3. A Framework and Model for Evaluating Clinical Decision Support Architectures

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Adam; Sittig, Dean F.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a four-phase model for evaluating architectures for clinical decision support that focuses on: defining a set of desirable features for a decision support architecture; building a proof-of-concept prototype; demonstrating that the architecture is useful by showing that it can be integrated with existing decision support systems and comparing its coverage to that of other architectures. We apply this framework to several well-known decision support architectures, including Arden Syntax, GLIF, SEBASTIAN and SAGE PMID:18462999

  4. Advanced text and video analytics for proactive decision making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, Elizabeth K.; Turek, Matt; Tunison, Paul; Porter, Reed; Thomas, Steve; Gintautas, Vadas; Shargo, Peter; Lin, Jessica; Li, Qingzhe; Gao, Yifeng; Li, Xiaosheng; Mittu, Ranjeev; Rosé, Carolyn Penstein; Maki, Keith; Bogart, Chris; Choudhari, Samrihdi Shree

    2017-05-01

    Today's warfighters operate in a highly dynamic and uncertain world, and face many competing demands. Asymmetric warfare and the new focus on small, agile forces has altered the framework by which time critical information is digested and acted upon by decision makers. Finding and integrating decision-relevant information is increasingly difficult in data-dense environments. In this new information environment, agile data algorithms, machine learning software, and threat alert mechanisms must be developed to automatically create alerts and drive quick response. Yet these advanced technologies must be balanced with awareness of the underlying context to accurately interpret machine-processed indicators and warnings and recommendations. One promising approach to this challenge brings together information retrieval strategies from text, video, and imagery. In this paper, we describe a technology demonstration that represents two years of tri-service research seeking to meld text and video for enhanced content awareness. The demonstration used multisource data to find an intelligence solution to a problem using a common dataset. Three technology highlights from this effort include 1) Incorporation of external sources of context into imagery normalcy modeling and anomaly detection capabilities, 2) Automated discovery and monitoring of targeted users from social media text, regardless of language, and 3) The concurrent use of text and imagery to characterize behaviour using the concept of kinematic and text motifs to detect novel and anomalous patterns. Our demonstration provided a technology baseline for exploiting heterogeneous data sources to deliver timely and accurate synopses of data that contribute to a dynamic and comprehensive worldview.

  5. Creating an advance-care-planning decision aid for high-risk surgery: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Anne Lr; Aslakson, Rebecca A; Bridges, John Fp

    2014-01-01

    High-risk surgery patients may lose decision-making capacity as a result of surgical complications. Advance care planning prior to surgery may be beneficial, but remains controversial and is hindered by a lack of appropriate decision aids. This study sought to examine stakeholders' views on the appropriateness of using decision aids, in general, to support advance care planning among high-risk surgery populations and the design of such a decision aid. Key informants were recruited through purposive and snowball sampling. Semi-structured interviews were conducted by phone until data collected reached theoretical saturation. Key informants were asked to discuss their thoughts about advance care planning and interventions to support advance care planning, particularly for this population. Researchers took de-identified notes that were analyzed for emerging concordant, discordant, and recurrent themes using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Key informants described the importance of initiating advance care planning preoperatively, despite potential challenges present in surgical settings. In general, decision aids were viewed as an appropriate approach to support advance care planning for this population. A recipe emerged from the data that outlines tools, ingredients, and tips for success that are needed to design an advance care planning decision aid for high-risk surgical settings. Stakeholders supported incorporating advance care planning in high-risk surgical settings and endorsed the appropriateness of using decision aids to do so. Findings will inform the next stages of developing the first advance care planning decision aid for high-risk surgery patients.

  6. Workflow-driven clinical decision support for personalized oncology.

    PubMed

    Bucur, Anca; van Leeuwen, Jasper; Christodoulou, Nikolaos; Sigdel, Kamana; Argyri, Katerina; Koumakis, Lefteris; Graf, Norbert; Stamatakos, Georgios

    2016-07-21

    The adoption in oncology of Clinical Decision Support (CDS) may help clinical users to efficiently deal with the high complexity of the domain, lead to improved patient outcomes, and reduce the current knowledge gap between clinical research and practice. While significant effort has been invested in the implementation of CDS, the uptake in the clinic has been limited. The barriers to adoption have been extensively discussed in the literature. In oncology, current CDS solutions are not able to support the complex decisions required for stratification and personalized treatment of patients and to keep up with the high rate of change in therapeutic options and knowledge. To address these challenges, we propose a framework enabling efficient implementation of meaningful CDS that incorporates a large variety of clinical knowledge models to bring to the clinic comprehensive solutions leveraging the latest domain knowledge. We use both literature-based models and models built within the p-medicine project using the rich datasets from clinical trials and care provided by the clinical partners. The framework is open to the biomedical community, enabling reuse of deployed models by third-party CDS implementations and supporting collaboration among modelers, CDS implementers, biomedical researchers and clinicians. To increase adoption and cope with the complexity of patient management in oncology, we also support and leverage the clinical processes adhered to by healthcare organizations. We design an architecture that extends the CDS framework with workflow functionality. The clinical models are embedded in the workflow models and executed at the right time, when and where the recommendations are needed in the clinical process. In this paper we present our CDS framework developed in p-medicine and the CDS implementation leveraging the framework. To support complex decisions, the framework relies on clinical models that encapsulate relevant clinical knowledge. Next to

  7. Developing and implementing computerized protocols for standardization of clinical decisions.

    PubMed

    Morris, A H

    2000-03-07

    Humans have only a limited ability to incorporate information in decision making. In certain situations, the mismatch between this limitation and the availability of extensive information contributes to the varying performance and high error rate of clinical decision makers. Variation in clinical practice is due in part to clinicians' poor compliance with guidelines and recommended therapies. The use of decision-support tools is a response to both the information revolution and poor compliance. Computerized protocols used to deliver decision support can be configured to contain much more detail than textual guidelines or paper-based flow diagrams. Such protocols can generate patient-specific instructions for therapy that can be carried out with little interclinician variability; however, clinicians must be willing to modify personal styles of clinical management. Protocols need not be perfect. Several defensible and reasonable approaches are available for clinical problems. However, one of these reasonable approaches must be chosen and incorporated into the protocol to promote consistent clinical decisions. This reasoning is the basis of an explicit method of decision support that allows the rigorous evaluation of interventions, including use of the protocols themselves. Computerized protocols for mechanical ventilation and management of intravenous fluid and hemodynamic factors in patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome provide case studies for this discussion.

  8. Treatment decisions in advanced disease: a conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Broeckaert, Bert

    2009-01-01

    This English translation, made by a professional translator in close cooperation with the author and kindly proofread by Dr. Phil Larkin, follows the original text as closely as possible. However, though we thought it was wise to maintain the official (but not unproblematic) Dutch/Belgian definition of euthanasia in the original text (written for Belgian readers), the English texts offers a new and clearer definition of euthanasia. From the very beginning of the Belgian euthanasia debate in 1999, the Flemish Palliative Care Federation has chosen not to stay on the sideline, but to take an active part in the discussion and formulate recommendations based on our expertise and experience. Time and again we have pointed out that the ethical issues at the end of life are not just restricted to those of euthanasia. We have found that there is still much confusion about, for example, the difference or the boundary between pain control and euthanasia or between euthanasia and withholding life-sustaining treatment. Therefore, we thought it appropriate to put the following conceptual framework with regard to treatment decisions in advanced illness forward.

  9. Advances in cardiology: clinical trial update.

    PubMed

    Howe, Andrew J; Shand, James A; Menown, Ian B A

    2011-05-01

    Multiple key cardiology trials have been presented or published over recent months, several with the potential to change clinical practice. In this article, we summarize and place in clinical context new trial findings regarding anticoagulation in the cardiac catheterization laboratory (enoxaparin, fondaparinux and unfractionated heparin), the implications of genetic polymorphisms and functional testing for antiplatelet therapy (clopidogrel and ticagrelor), new oral anticoagulants for use in atrial fibrillation (apixiban and rivaroxaban), optimal pacing strategies and pharmacological agents in heart failure (ivabradine, eplerenone, cardiac resynchronization therapy, telemonitoring and intracoronary bone marrow stem cell infusion). Clinical trials in percutaneous structural intervention (transcatheter aortic valve implantation, MONARC™ mitral annular implant, STARFlex(®) patent foramen ovale device) and advanced percutaneous coronary intervention (everolimus-eluting stents, biodegradable polymer/polymer-free technologies and contemporary use of intravascular ultrasound) are also discussed.

  10. Development of a video-based education and process change intervention to improve advance cardiopulmonary resuscitation decision-making.

    PubMed

    Waldron, Nicholas; Johnson, Claire E; Saul, Peter; Waldron, Heidi; Chong, Jeffrey C; Hill, Anne-Marie; Hayes, Barbara

    2016-10-06

    Advance cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) decision-making and escalation of care discussions are variable in routine clinical practice. We aimed to explore physician barriers to advance CPR decision-making in an inpatient hospital setting and develop a pragmatic intervention to support clinicians to undertake and document routine advance care planning discussions. Two focus groups, which involved eight consultants and ten junior doctors, were conducted following a review of the current literature. A subsequent iterative consensus process developed two intervention elements: (i) an updated 'Goals of Patient Care' (GOPC) form and process; (ii) an education video and resources for teaching advance CPR decision-making and communication. A multidisciplinary group of health professionals and policy-makers with experience in systems development, education and research provided critical feedback. Three key themes emerged from the focus groups and the literature, which identified a structure for the intervention: (i) knowing what to say; (ii) knowing how to say it; (iii) wanting to say it. The themes informed the development of a video to provide education about advance CPR decision-making framework, improving communication and contextualising relevant clinical issues. Critical feedback assisted in refining the video and further guided development and evolution of a medical GOPC approach to discussing and recording medical treatment and advance care plans. Through an iterative process of consultation and review, video-based education and an expanded GOPC form and approach were developed to address physician and systemic barriers to advance CPR decision-making and documentation. Implementation and evaluation across hospital settings is required to examine utility and determine effect on quality of care.

  11. New advances in understanding decisions among multiple alternatives.

    PubMed

    Churchland, Anne K; Ditterich, Jochen

    2012-12-01

    Experimental studies of decision-making have put a strong emphasis on choices between two alternatives. However, real-life decisions often involve multiple alternatives. This article provides an overview of theoretical frameworks that have been proposed to account for behavioral data from both economic and perceptual multialternative decision-making. We further review recent neurophysiological data collected in conjunction with decision-making behavior. These neural recordings provide constraints on putative models of the decision mechanism. For example, the time course of inhibition provides insight into how the competition between alternatives is mediated. Furthermore, whereas decision-related neural activity seems to reach a common threshold at the end of the decision period, the starting point tends to depend systematically on the number of alternatives. We discuss candidate mechanisms that could drive the reduction in firing rates on decisions among multiple alternatives.

  12. [Treatment evaluation and clinical decision making using HKT-30-ROM].

    PubMed

    Ter Horst, P; van Ham, M; Spreen, M; Bogaerts, S

    2014-01-01

    By means of repeated, well-supported measurements of clinical dynamic indicators from the Historical, Clinical and Future - 30 (HKT-30) it is possible to monitor behavioural changes on the basis of risks and needs. The addition of extra score parameters allows us to distinguish client-specific risks and needs. In treatment evaluation it is important to visualise changes in these indicators of treatment evaluation because they are the key to the clinical decision-making process that determines further treatment and rehabilitation. To investigate whether HKT-30 indicators can be used to measure and visualise behavioral changes for the purpose of treatment evaluation. A case study is used to illustrate how clinicians at the Forensic Psychiatric Clinic (FPK), De Woenselse Poort, ascertain risks, needs and changes and clarify these factors for the purpose of treatment evaluation and clinical decision-making. Routine treatment evaluation aided by visualised clinical HKT-30 indicators give the treatment team and the client a clearer picture of the behavioral changes for which the forensic treatment was prescribed. This evaluation provides significant starting-points for clinical decision making. Routine treatment evaluation along with a suitably adjusted HKT-30 make behavioural changes visible, render clinical decisions more transparent and provide valuable starting-points for a dialogue with the client about his treatment.

  13. Reducing Diagnostic Error with Computer-Based Clinical Decision Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenes, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Information technology approaches to delivering diagnostic clinical decision support (CDS) are the subject of the papers to follow in the proceedings. These will address the history of CDS and present day approaches (Miller), evaluation of diagnostic CDS methods (Friedman), and the role of clinical documentation in supporting diagnostic decision…

  14. Reducing Diagnostic Error with Computer-Based Clinical Decision Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenes, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Information technology approaches to delivering diagnostic clinical decision support (CDS) are the subject of the papers to follow in the proceedings. These will address the history of CDS and present day approaches (Miller), evaluation of diagnostic CDS methods (Friedman), and the role of clinical documentation in supporting diagnostic decision…

  15. Virtual medical record implementation for enhancing clinical decision support.

    PubMed

    Gomoi, Valentin-Sergiu; Dragu, Daniel; Stoicu-Tivadar, Vasile

    2012-01-01

    Development of clinical decision support systems (CDS) is a process which highly depends on the local databases, this resulting in low interoperability. To increase the interoperability of CDS a standard representation of clinical information is needed. The paper suggests a CDS architecture which integrates several HL7 standards and the new vMR (virtual Medical Record). The clinical information for the CDS systems (the vMR) is represented with Topic Maps technology. Beside the implementation of the vMR, the architecture integrates: a Data Manager, an interface, a decision making system (based on Egadss), a retrieving data module. Conclusions are issued.

  16. LIMSI @ 2014 Clinical Decision Support Track

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    UMLS semantics in mapping vocabularies. In Proceedings of the AMIA symposium, page 815. American Medical Informatics Association, 1998. [2] Aurélie...Elhadad, Carol Friedman, and Marianthi Markatou. Automated knowledge acquisition from clinical narrative reports. In AMIA Annual Symposium Proceedings

  17. Suicide Danger: Clinical Estimation and Decision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maltsberger, John T.

    1988-01-01

    Maintains that traditional mental status examination and clinical intuition or empathetic judgment are insufficient to predict suicide. Describes five components involved in the formulation of suicide risk: analysis of the patient's past response to stress, assessment of vulnerability to life-threatening affects, assessment of exterior sustaining…

  18. Cognitive Elements in Clinical Decision-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunphy, Bruce C.; Cantwell, Robert; Bourke, Sid; Fleming, Mark; Smith, Bruce; Joseph, K. S.; Dunphy, Stacey L

    2010-01-01

    Physician cognition, metacognition and affect may have an impact upon the quality of clinical reasoning. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between measures of physician metacognition and affect and patient outcomes in obstetric practice. Reflective coping (RC), proactive coping, need for cognition (NFC), tolerance for…

  19. Cognitive Elements in Clinical Decision-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunphy, Bruce C.; Cantwell, Robert; Bourke, Sid; Fleming, Mark; Smith, Bruce; Joseph, K. S.; Dunphy, Stacey L

    2010-01-01

    Physician cognition, metacognition and affect may have an impact upon the quality of clinical reasoning. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between measures of physician metacognition and affect and patient outcomes in obstetric practice. Reflective coping (RC), proactive coping, need for cognition (NFC), tolerance for…

  20. Integrating computerized clinical decision support systems into clinical work: A meta-synthesis of qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Miller, Anne; Moon, Brian; Anders, Shilo; Walden, Rachel; Brown, Steven; Montella, Diane

    2015-12-01

    Computerized clinical decision support systems (CDSS) are an emerging means for improving healthcare safety, quality and efficiency, but meta-analyses findings are mixed. This meta-synthesis aggregates qualitative research findings as possible explanations for variable quantitative research outcomes. Qualitative studies published between 2000 and 2013 in English, involving physicians, registered and advanced practice nurses' experience of CDSS use in clinical practice were included. PubMed and CINAHL databases were searched. Study titles and abstracts were screened against inclusion criteria. Retained studies were appraised against quality criteria. Findings were extracted iteratively from studies in the 4th quartile of quality scores. Two reviewers constructed themes inductively. A third reviewer applied the defined themes deductively achieving 92% agreement. 3798 unique records were returned; 56 met inclusion criteria and were reviewed against quality criteria. 9 studies were of sufficiently high quality for synthetic analysis. Five major themes (clinician-patient-system integration; user interface usability; the need for better 'algorithms'; system maturity; patient safety) were defined. Despite ongoing development, CDSS remains an emerging technology. Lack of understanding about and lack of consideration for the interaction between human decision makers and CDSS is a major reason for poor system adoption and use. Further high-quality qualitative research is needed to better understand human-system interaction issues. These issues may continue to confound quantitative study results if not addressed. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. Medical and nursing clinical decision making: a comparative epistemological analysis.

    PubMed

    Rashotte, Judy; Carnevale, F A

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this article is to explore the complex forms of knowledge involved in diagnostic and interventional decision making by comparing the processes in medicine and nursing, including nurse practitioners. Many authors assert that the practice of clinical decision making involves the application of theoretical knowledge (acquired in the classroom and textbooks) as well as research evidence, upon concrete particular cases. This approach draws on various universal principles and algorithms to facilitate the task. On the other hand, others argue that this involves an intuitive form of judgement that is difficult to teach, one that is acquired principally through experience. In an exploration of these issues, this article consists of three sections. A clarification of terms commonly used when discussing decision making is provided in the first section. In the second section, an epistemological analysis of decision making is presented by examining several perspectives and comparing them for their use in the nursing and medical literature. Bunge's epistemological framework for decision making (based on scientific realism) is explored for its fit with the aims of medicine and nursing. The final section presents a discussion of knowledge utilization and decision making as it relates to the implications for the education and ongoing development of nurse practitioners. It is concluded that Donald Schön's conception of reflective practice best characterizes the skillful conduct of clinical decision making.

  2. The thinking doctor: clinical decision making in contemporary medicine.

    PubMed

    Trimble, Michael; Hamilton, Paul

    2016-08-01

    Diagnostic errors are responsible for a significant number of adverse events. Logical reasoning and good decision-making skills are key factors in reducing such errors, but little emphasis has traditionally been placed on how these thought processes occur, and how errors could be minimised. In this article, we explore key cognitive ideas that underpin clinical decision making and suggest that by employing some simple strategies, physicians might be better able to understand how they make decisions and how the process might be optimised.

  3. Clinical decision support: the power behind the electronic health record.

    PubMed

    Glaser, John

    2008-07-01

    There are six strategic objectives for promoting adoption of clinical decision support: Use a standardized format for representing clinical data and CDS interventions. Ensure appropriate access to clinical data and CDS interventions. Provide support and incentives for providers to use CDS. Disseminate information about best practices for system design, CDS delivery, and CDS implementation. Continue national demonstrations and evaluation of CDS use. Leverage data interchange between EHRs.

  4. The need for clinical decision support integrated with the electronic health record for the clinical application of whole genome sequencing information.

    PubMed

    Welch, Brandon M; Kawamoto, Kensaku

    2013-12-18

    Whole genome sequencing (WGS) is rapidly approaching widespread clinical application. Technology advancements over the past decade, since the first human genome was decoded, have made it feasible to use WGS for clinical care. Future advancements will likely drive down the price to the point wherein WGS is routinely available for care. However, were this to happen today, most of the genetic information available to guide clinical care would go unused due to the complexity of genetics, limited physician proficiency in genetics, and lack of genetics professionals in the clinical workforce. Furthermore, these limitations are unlikely to change in the future. As such, the use of clinical decision support (CDS) to guide genome-guided clinical decision-making is imperative. In this manuscript, we describe the barriers to widespread clinical application of WGS information, describe how CDS can be an important tool for overcoming these barriers, and provide clinical examples of how genome-enabled CDS can be used in the clinical setting.

  5. A clinical decision algorithm for hospital inpatients with impaired decision-making capacity.

    PubMed

    Chase, Jack

    2014-08-01

    Impaired decision-making capacity is a frequent complication of inpatient hospitalization, with potential negative impacts on patients and the healthcare system. Studies of clinician behavior show difficulty in diagnosis and management of capacity impairment. Appropriate management of incapacitated patients may benefit safety, medical outcomes, and healthcare expenditure. To create a clinical decision algorithm for identification and management of hospital inpatients with impaired capacity. The Department of Risk Management at San Francisco General Hospital (SFGH) convened a multidisciplinary workgroup to improve management of incapacitated patients. The workgroup studied institutional data and case experience, solicited mental health expertise, and performed a brief review of published tools for management of incapacitated patients. The workgroup produced a clinical decision algorithm for hospital inpatients with impaired decision-making capacity. The algorithm is explained via 3 common scenarios, and notable details include identification and management in a single visual diagram, emphasis on safety planning for a high-risk subset of incapacitated patients, and explanation for multiple disciplines of consultation. The algorithm was disseminated to providers, workshops were conducted, and associated quality improvements were implemented. Initial feedback was positive, relating to clinical competency, decreased practice anxiety, and improved teamwork. Impaired decision-making capacity is frequent among hospitalized patients, including at SFGH. An algorithm, based on institutional review and prior published work, is presented as an example to address the common challenge of acutely ill patients with impaired decision-making capacity. © 2014 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  6. Identifying ultrasound and clinical features of breast cancer molecular subtypes by ensemble decision

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Li, Jing; Xiao, Yun; Cui, Hao; Du, Guoqing; Wang, Ying; Li, Ziyao; Wu, Tong; Li, Xia; Tian, Jiawei

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is molecularly heterogeneous and categorized into four molecular subtypes: Luminal-A, Luminal-B, HER2-amplified and Triple-negative. In this study, we aimed to apply an ensemble decision approach to identify the ultrasound and clinical features related to the molecular subtypes. We collected ultrasound and clinical features from 1,000 breast cancer patients and performed immunohistochemistry on these samples. We used the ensemble decision approach to select unique features and to construct decision models. The decision model for Luminal-A subtype was constructed based on the presence of an echogenic halo and post-acoustic shadowing or indifference. The decision model for Luminal-B subtype was constructed based on the absence of an echogenic halo and vascularity. The decision model for HER2-amplified subtype was constructed based on the presence of post-acoustic enhancement, calcification, vascularity and advanced age. The model for Triple-negative subtype followed two rules. One was based on irregular shape, lobulate margin contour, the absence of calcification and hypovascularity, whereas the other was based on oval shape, hypovascularity and micro-lobulate margin contour. The accuracies of the models were 83.8%, 77.4%, 87.9% and 92.7%, respectively. We identified specific features of each molecular subtype and expanded the scope of ultrasound for making diagnoses using these decision models. PMID:26046791

  7. Automating Guidelines for Clinical Decision Support: Knowledge Engineering and Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Tso, Geoffrey J.; Tu, Samson W.; Oshiro, Connie; Martins, Susana; Ashcraft, Michael; Yuen, Kaeli W.; Wang, Dan; Robinson, Amy; Heidenreich, Paul A.; Goldstein, Mary K.

    2016-01-01

    As utilization of clinical decision support (CDS) increases, it is important to continue the development and refinement of methods to accurately translate the intention of clinical practice guidelines (CPG) into a computable form. In this study, we validate and extend the 13 steps that Shiffman et al.5 identified for translating CPG knowledge for use in CDS. During an implementation project of ATHENA-CDS, we encoded complex CPG recommendations for five common chronic conditions for integration into an existing clinical dashboard. Major decisions made during the implementation process were recorded and categorized according to the 13 steps. During the implementation period, we categorized 119 decisions and identified 8 new categories required to complete the project. We provide details on an updated model that outlines all of the steps used to translate CPG knowledge into a CDS integrated with existing health information technology. PMID:28269916

  8. Integrative clinical genomics of advanced prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dan, Robinson; Van Allen, Eliezer M.; Wu, Yi-Mi; Schultz, Nikolaus; Lonigro, Robert J.; Mosquera, Juan-Miguel; Montgomery, Bruce; Taplin, Mary-Ellen; Pritchard, Colin C; Attard, Gerhardt; Beltran, Himisha; Abida, Wassim M.; Bradley, Robert K.; Vinson, Jake; Cao, Xuhong; Vats, Pankaj; Kunju, Lakshmi P.; Hussain, Maha; Feng, Felix Y.; Tomlins, Scott A.; Cooney, Kathleen A.; Smith, David C.; Brennan, Christine; Siddiqui, Javed; Mehra, Rohit; Chen, Yu; Rathkopf, Dana E.; Morris, Michael J.; Solomon, Stephen B.; Durack, Jeremy C.; Reuter, Victor E.; Gopalan, Anuradha; Gao, Jianjiong; Loda, Massimo; Lis, Rosina T.; Bowden, Michaela; Balk, Stephen P.; Gaviola, Glenn; Sougnez, Carrie; Gupta, Manaswi; Yu, Evan Y.; Mostaghel, Elahe A.; Cheng, Heather H.; Mulcahy, Hyojeong; True, Lawrence D.; Plymate, Stephen R.; Dvinge, Heidi; Ferraldeschi, Roberta; Flohr, Penny; Miranda, Susana; Zafeiriou, Zafeiris; Tunariu, Nina; Mateo, Joaquin; Lopez, Raquel Perez; Demichelis, Francesca; Robinson, Brian D.; Schiffman, Marc A.; Nanus, David M.; Tagawa, Scott T.; Sigaras, Alexandros; Eng, Kenneth W.; Elemento, Olivier; Sboner, Andrea; Heath, Elisabeth I.; Scher, Howard I.; Pienta, Kenneth J.; Kantoff, Philip; de Bono, Johann S.; Rubin, Mark A.; Nelson, Peter S.; Garraway, Levi A.; Sawyers, Charles L.; Chinnaiyan, Arul M.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Toward development of a precision medicine framework for metastatic, castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), we established a multi-institutional clinical sequencing infrastructure to conduct prospective whole exome and transcriptome sequencing of bone or soft tissue tumor biopsies from a cohort of 150 mCRPC affected individuals. Aberrations of AR, ETS genes, TP53 and PTEN were frequent (40–60% of cases), with TP53 and AR alterations enriched in mCRPC compared to primary prostate cancer. We identified novel genomic alterations in PIK3CA/B, R-spondin, BRAF/RAF1, APC, β-catenin and ZBTB16/PLZF. Aberrations of BRCA2, BRCA1 and ATM were observed at substantially higher frequencies (19.3% overall) than seen in primary prostate cancers. 89% of affected individuals harbored a clinically actionable aberration including 62.7% with aberrations in AR, 65% in other cancer-related genes, and 8% with actionable pathogenic germline alterations. This cohort study provides evidence that clinical sequencing in mCRPC is feasible and could impact treatment decisions in significant numbers of affected individuals. PMID:26000489

  9. Successful Clinical Trial Research in Nursing Homes: The Improving Decision-Making Study

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Laura C.; Gilliam, Robin; Lee, Tae Joon

    2015-01-01

    Background One in four Americans, and 70% of people who have dementia, will spend their final days in nursing home care. Clinical research, particularly clinical trials, rarely includes this population due to unique challenges in research methods and ethics. Families of advanced dementia patients make choices about tube feeding and other feeding options with limited access to information or communication. The cluster randomized trial, Improving Decision Making about Feeding Options for Dementia Patients, tests a decision aid intervention to improve the quality of decision making for this choice. Purpose Our objectives are 1) to describe the methods used in this trial; 2) to describe challenges and strategies for effective nursing home and nursing home resident recruitment and retention; and 3) to describe research ethics approaches to minimize harms and maximize benefits for this population. Methods The study is a cluster randomized trial of a decision aid to inform and support the choice between tube feeding and assisted oral feeding in advanced dementia. Study subjects are paired surrogate decision-makers and residents with advanced dementia and feeding problems, enrolled from nursing homes in North Carolina. Results This trial enrolled 256 paired surrogate decision-makers and residents in 24 nursing home sites, and 99% completed participation through the 3-month study period. The research team had prior clinical and investigative experience in this setting, and used multiple strategies to recruit and retain nursing home sites, providers, surrogates and the residents for whom they spoke. Informed consent and human subjects protections were designed to address the vulnerability of this population. Limitations Cluster randomization was necessary to avoid contamination between control and intervention subjects, but may introduce confounding by site and intra-class correlation effects in analyses. Conclusions Strategies that facilitate nursing home recruitment, study

  10. An advanced clinical track within a doctor of pharmacy program.

    PubMed

    New, James; Garner, Sandra; Ragucci, Kelly; Spencer, Anne

    2012-04-10

    To evaluate the advanced clinical track, a curricular track designed to prepare doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students for residency training and institutional practice. The advanced clinical track required completion of elective coursework, an additional advanced practice experience, 8 clinical experiences, and a skills checklist, and participation in a clinical skills competition. Thirty-two graduates of the advanced clinical track were surveyed. Of the 23 respondents, 95% of those who pursued residency training were successfully matched with a residency program. Ninety-one percent of respondents felt that the advanced clinical track increased their confidence and 74% felt it was definitely an advantage when applying to a residency program. All participants agreed that the advanced clinical track met their expectations or goals and would recommend it to other students. Completion of an advanced clinical track was viewed by PharmD graduates as valuable preparation for residency training and institutional practice and would be recommended to other students.

  11. Clinical Implementation of Novel Targeted Therapeutics in Advanced Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Chamberlin, Mary D; Bernhardt, Erica B; Miller, Todd W

    2016-11-01

    The majority of advanced breast cancers have genetic alterations that are potentially targetable with drugs. Through initiatives such as The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC), data can be mined to provide context for next-generation sequencing (NGS) results in the landscape of advanced breast cancer. Therapies for targets other than estrogen receptor alpha (ER) and HER2, such as cyclin-dependent kinases CDK4 and CDK6, were recently approved based on efficacy in patient subpopulations, but no predictive biomarkers have been found, leaving clinicians to continue a trial-and-error approach with each patient. Next-generation sequencing identifies potentially actionable alterations in genes thought to be drivers in the cancerous process including phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), AKT, fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs), and mutant HER2. Epigenetically directed and immunologic therapies have also shown promise for the treatment of breast cancer via histone deacetylases (HDAC) 1 and 3, programmed T cell death 1 (PD-1), and programmed T cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1). Identifying biomarkers to predict primary resistance in breast cancer will ultimately affect clinical decisions regarding adjuvant therapy in the first-line setting. However, the bulk of medical decision-making is currently made in the secondary resistance setting. Herein, we review the clinical potential of PI3K, AKT, FGFRs, mutant HER2, HDAC1/3, PD-1, and PD-L1 as therapeutic targets in breast cancer, focusing on the rationale for therapeutic development and the status of clinical testing. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2454-2463, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Semantic Interoperability in Clinical Decision Support Systems: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Marco-Ruiz, Luis; Bellika, Johan Gustav

    2015-01-01

    The interoperability of Clinical Decision Support (CDS) systems with other health information systems has become one of the main limitations to their broad adoption. Semantic interoperability must be granted in order to share CDS modules across different health information systems. Currently, numerous standards for different purposes are available to enable the interoperability of CDS systems. We performed a literature review to identify and provide an overview of the available standards that enable CDS interoperability in the areas of clinical information, decision logic, terminology, and web service interfaces.

  13. Recent advances in applying decision science to managing national forests

    Treesearch

    Bruce G. Marcot; Matthew P. Thompson; Michael C. Runge; Frank R. Thompson; Steven McNulty; David Cleaves; Monica Tomosy; Larry A. Fisher; Andrew Bliss

    2012-01-01

    Management of federal public forests to meet sustainability goals and multiple use regulations is an immense challenge. To succeed, we suggest use of formal decision science procedures and tools in the context of structured decision making (SDM). SDM entails four stages: problem structuring (framing the problem and defining objectives and evaluation criteria), problem...

  14. Recent advances in applying decision science to managing national forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marcot, Bruce G.; Thompson, Matthew P.; Runge, Michael C.; Thompson, Frank R.; McNulty, Steven; Cleaves, David; Tomosy, Monica; Fisher, Larry A.; Andrew, Bliss

    2012-01-01

    Management of federal public forests to meet sustainability goals and multiple use regulations is an immense challenge. To succeed, we suggest use of formal decision science procedures and tools in the context of structured decision making (SDM). SDM entails four stages: problem structuring (framing the problem and defining objectives and evaluation criteria), problem analysis (defining alternatives, evaluating likely consequences, identifying key uncertainties, and analyzing tradeoffs), decision point (identifying the preferred alternative), and implementation and monitoring the preferred alternative with adaptive management feedbacks. We list a wide array of models, techniques, and tools available for each stage, and provide three case studies of their selected use in National Forest land management and project plans. Successful use of SDM involves participation by decision-makers, analysts, scientists, and stakeholders. We suggest specific areas for training and instituting SDM to foster transparency, rigor, clarity, and inclusiveness in formal decision processes regarding management of national forests.

  15. Decision Aids Can Support Cancer Clinical Trials Decisions: Results of a Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Politi, Mary C; Kuzemchak, Marie D; Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Perkins, Hannah; Liu, Jingxia; Byrne, Margaret M

    2016-12-01

    Cancer patients often do not make informed decisions regarding clinical trial participation. This study evaluated whether a web-based decision aid (DA) could support trial decisions compared with our cancer center's website. Adults diagnosed with cancer in the past 6 months who had not previously participated in a cancer clinical trial were eligible. Participants were randomized to view the DA or our cancer center's website (enhanced usual care [UC]). Controlling for whether participants had heard of cancer clinical trials and educational attainment, multivariable linear regression examined group on knowledge, self-efficacy for finding trial information, decisional conflict (values clarity and uncertainty), intent to participate, decision readiness, and trial perceptions. Two hundred patients (86%) consented between May 2014 and April 2015. One hundred were randomized to each group. Surveys were completed by 87 in the DA group and 90 in the UC group. DA group participants reported clearer values regarding trial participation than UC group participants reported (least squares [LS] mean = 15.8 vs. 32, p < .0001) and less uncertainty (LS mean = 24.3 vs. 36.4, p = .025). The DA group had higher objective knowledge than the UC group's (LS mean = 69.8 vs. 55.8, p < .0001). There were no differences between groups in intent to participate. Improvements on key decision outcomes including knowledge, self-efficacy, certainty about choice, and values clarity among participants who viewed the DA suggest web-based DAs can support informed decisions about trial participation among cancer patients facing this preference-sensitive choice. Although better informing patients before trial participation could improve retention, more work is needed to examine DA impact on enrollment and retention. This paper describes evidence regarding a decision tool to support patients' decisions about trial participation. By improving knowledge, helping patients clarify preferences for

  16. Advances in basic and clinical immunology.

    PubMed

    Chinen, Javier; Finkelman, Fred; Shearer, William T

    2006-08-01

    This review comments on basic and clinical immunology articles that were published in 2005, with a focus on those that appeared in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. In the area of basic immunology, mechanisms of the innate immune system and its interaction with the adaptive immune system were described, with special consideration to applications in biodefense strategies. T regulatory cells were further characterized in their role for the control of allergic, autoimmune, and neoplastic disorders. The function of the thymus Hassall's corpuscles was reported to be the generation of T regulatory cells. Flavonoid molecules obtained from medicinal herbs, including astilbin and epigallocatechin gallate, were discovered to have immunomodulatory properties. Advances in clinical immunology resulted from efforts to develop a newborn screening test for severe combined immunodeficiency and the elucidation of the crystal structure of the IL-2 receptor gamma chain. Mutations in the membrane receptor transmembrane activator and calcium modulator and cyclophilin ligand interactor were found in patients with common variable immunodeficiency. New therapeutic options are described, such as the use of infliximab for granulomas and GM-CSF for chronic ulcers in patients with common variable immunodeficiency. The importance of mucosal immunity in acute HIV infection is cited, as is the role of CD8+ T-cell activation in HIV disease progression in children.

  17. Interactive financial decision support for clinical research trials.

    PubMed

    Holler, Benjamin; Forgione, Dana A; Baisden, Clinton E; Abramson, David A; Calhoon, John H

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a decision support approach useful for evaluating proposals to conduct clinical research trials. Physicians often do not have the time or background to account for all the expenses of a clinical trial. Their evaluation process may be limited and driven by factors that do not indicate the potential for financial losses that a trial may impose. We analyzed clinical trial budget templates used by hospitals, health science centers, research universities, departments of medicine, and medical schools. We compiled a databank of costs and reviewed recent research trials conducted by the Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery in a major academic health science center. We then developed an interactive spreadsheet-based budgetary decision support approach that accounts for clinical trial income and costs. It can be tailored to provide quick and understandable data entry, accurate cost rates per subject, and clear go/no-go signals for the physician.

  18. Hip Arthroplasty Pseudotumors: Pathogenesis, Imaging, and Clinical Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Derik L; Morrison, James J

    2016-01-01

    Pseudotumors are a complication of hip arthroplasty. The goal of this article is to review the clinical presentation, pathogenesis, histology, and the role of diagnostic imaging in clinical decision making for treatment, and surveillance of pseudotumors. We will discuss the multimodal imaging appearances, differential diagnosis, associated complications, treatment, and prognosis of pseudotumors, as an aid to the assessment of orthopedic prostheses at the hip. PMID:27195183

  19. A roadmap for national action on clinical decision support.

    PubMed

    Osheroff, Jerome A; Teich, Jonathan M; Middleton, Blackford; Steen, Elaine B; Wright, Adam; Detmer, Don E

    2007-01-01

    This document comprises an AMIA Board of Directors approved White Paper that presents a roadmap for national action on clinical decision support. It is published in JAMIA for archival and dissemination purposes. The full text of this material has been previously published on the AMIA Web site (www.amia.org/inside/initiatives/cds). AMIA is the copyright holder.

  20. A Roadmap for National Action on Clinical Decision Support

    PubMed Central

    Osheroff, Jerome A.; Teich, Jonathan M.; Middleton, Blackford; Steen, Elaine B.; Wright, Adam; Detmer, Don E.

    2007-01-01

    This document comprises an AMIA Board of Directors approved White Paper that presents a roadmap for national action on clinical decision support. It is published in JAMIA for archival and dissemination purposes. The full text of this material has been previously published on the AMIA Web site (www.amia.org/inside/initiatives/cds). AMIA is the copyright holder. PMID:17213487

  1. Thinking Processes Used by Nurses in Clinical Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higuchi, Kathryn A. Smith; Donald, Janet G.

    2002-01-01

    Interviews with eight medical and surgical nurses and audits of patient charts investigated clinical decision-making processes. Predominant thinking processes were description of facts, selection of information, inference, syntheses, and verification, with differences between medical and surgical specialties. Exemplars of thinking processes…

  2. Using Clinical Decision Support Software in Health Insurance Company

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konovalov, R.; Kumlander, Deniss

    This paper proposes the idea to use Clinical Decision Support software in Health Insurance Company as a tool to reduce the expenses related to Medication Errors. As a prove that this class of software will help insurance companies reducing the expenses, the research was conducted in eight hospitals in United Arab Emirates to analyze the amount of preventable common Medication Errors in drug prescription.

  3. Primary femininity: clinical advances and theoretical ambiguities.

    PubMed

    Kulish, N

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the use of the term "primary femininity" in current psychoanalytic thinking. The concept of primary femininity arose in reaction to early theories about female sexuality and development; based on a model of male development, these presented problems when applied to females. The author attempts to demonstrate the clinical advances that have resulted from the idea of primary femininity. At the same time she argues that the idea has been used to carry widely differing meanings, and has reflected many writers' differing frames of reference, which range from gender identity through biological traits, object relations, genital anxieties, and bisexuality. Like the terms it originally was intended to replace or augment, it has come to be used reductionistically or loosely. The author warns against its misuse and argues that primary femininity is not a unitary concept, but rather encompasses a related group of ideas about the female body and mind.

  4. Living Wills and Advance Directives for Medical Decisions

    MedlinePlus

    ... decision-making burdens during moments of crisis or grief. You also help reduce confusion or disagreement about ... Comfort care (palliative care) includes any number of interventions that may be used to keep you comfortable ...

  5. Adoption of clinical decision support in multimorbidity: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Fraccaro, Paolo; Arguello Casteleiro, Mercedes; Ainsworth, John; Buchan, Iain

    2015-01-07

    Patients with multiple conditions have complex needs and are increasing in number as populations age. This multimorbidity is one of the greatest challenges facing health care. Having more than 1 condition generates (1) interactions between pathologies, (2) duplication of tests, (3) difficulties in adhering to often conflicting clinical practice guidelines, (4) obstacles in the continuity of care, (5) confusing self-management information, and (6) medication errors. In this context, clinical decision support (CDS) systems need to be able to handle realistic complexity and minimize iatrogenic risks. The aim of this review was to identify to what extent CDS is adopted in multimorbidity. This review followed PRISMA guidance and adopted a multidisciplinary approach. Scopus and PubMed searches were performed by combining terms from 3 different thesauri containing synonyms for (1) multimorbidity and comorbidity, (2) polypharmacy, and (3) CDS. The relevant articles were identified by examining the titles and abstracts. The full text of selected/relevant articles was analyzed in-depth. For articles appropriate for this review, data were collected on clinical tasks, diseases, decision maker, methods, data input context, user interface considerations, and evaluation of effectiveness. A total of 50 articles were selected for the full in-depth analysis and 20 studies were included in the final review. Medication (n=10) and clinical guidance (n=8) were the predominant clinical tasks. Four studies focused on merging concurrent clinical practice guidelines. A total of 17 articles reported their CDS systems were knowledge-based. Most articles reviewed considered patients' clinical records (n=19), clinical practice guidelines (n=12), and clinicians' knowledge (n=10) as contextual input data. The most frequent diseases mentioned were cardiovascular (n=9) and diabetes mellitus (n=5). In all, 12 articles mentioned generalist doctor(s) as the decision maker(s). For articles reviewed

  6. Adoption of Clinical Decision Support in Multimorbidity: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Arguello Casteleiro, Mercedes; Ainsworth, John; Buchan, Iain

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with multiple conditions have complex needs and are increasing in number as populations age. This multimorbidity is one of the greatest challenges facing health care. Having more than 1 condition generates (1) interactions between pathologies, (2) duplication of tests, (3) difficulties in adhering to often conflicting clinical practice guidelines, (4) obstacles in the continuity of care, (5) confusing self-management information, and (6) medication errors. In this context, clinical decision support (CDS) systems need to be able to handle realistic complexity and minimize iatrogenic risks. Objective The aim of this review was to identify to what extent CDS is adopted in multimorbidity. Methods This review followed PRISMA guidance and adopted a multidisciplinary approach. Scopus and PubMed searches were performed by combining terms from 3 different thesauri containing synonyms for (1) multimorbidity and comorbidity, (2) polypharmacy, and (3) CDS. The relevant articles were identified by examining the titles and abstracts. The full text of selected/relevant articles was analyzed in-depth. For articles appropriate for this review, data were collected on clinical tasks, diseases, decision maker, methods, data input context, user interface considerations, and evaluation of effectiveness. Results A total of 50 articles were selected for the full in-depth analysis and 20 studies were included in the final review. Medication (n=10) and clinical guidance (n=8) were the predominant clinical tasks. Four studies focused on merging concurrent clinical practice guidelines. A total of 17 articles reported their CDS systems were knowledge-based. Most articles reviewed considered patients’ clinical records (n=19), clinical practice guidelines (n=12), and clinicians’ knowledge (n=10) as contextual input data. The most frequent diseases mentioned were cardiovascular (n=9) and diabetes mellitus (n=5). In all, 12 articles mentioned generalist doctor(s) as the

  7. Incorporating clinical guidelines through clinician decision-making

    PubMed Central

    Falzer, Paul R; Moore, Brent A; Garman, D Melissa

    2008-01-01

    Background It is generally acknowledged that a disparity between knowledge and its implementation is adversely affecting quality of care. An example commonly cited is the failure of clinicians to follow clinical guidelines. A guiding assumption of this view is that adherence should be gauged by a standard of conformance. At least some guideline developers dispute this assumption and claim that their efforts are intended to inform and assist clinical practice, not to function as standards of performance. However, their ability to assist and inform will remain limited until an alternative to the conformance criterion is proposed that gauges how evidence-based guidelines are incorporated into clinical decisions. Methods The proposed investigation has two specific aims to identify the processes that affect decisions about incorporating clinical guidelines, and then to develop ad test a strategy that promotes the utilization of evidence-based practices. This paper focuses on the first aim. It presents the rationale, introduces the clinical paradigm of treatment-resistant schizophrenia, and discusses an exemplar of clinician non-conformance to a clinical guideline. A modification of the original study is proposed that targets psychiatric trainees and draws on a cognitively rich theory of decision-making to formulate hypotheses about how the guideline is incorporated into treatment decisions. Twenty volunteer subjects recruited from an accredited psychiatry training program will respond to sixty-four vignettes that represent a fully crossed 2 × 2 × 2 × 4 within-subjects design. The variables consist of criteria contained in the clinical guideline and other relevant factors. Subjects will also respond to a subset of eight vignettes that assesses their overall impression of the guideline. Generalization estimating equation models will be used to test the study's principal hypothesis and perform secondary analyses. Implications The original design of phase two of the

  8. Clinical Decision Support Systems for Comorbidity: Architecture, Algorithms, and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Aihua; Tang, Yu

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present the design of a clinical decision support system (CDSS) for monitoring comorbid conditions. Specifically, we address the architecture of a CDSS by characterizing it from three layers and discuss the algorithms in each layer. Also we address the applications of CDSSs in a few real scenarios and analyze the accuracy of a CDSS in consideration of the potential conflicts when using multiple clinical practice guidelines concurrently. Finally, we compare the system performance in our design with that in the other design schemes. Our study shows that our proposed design can achieve a clinical decision in a shorter time than the other designs, while ensuring a high level of system accuracy. PMID:28373881

  9. Improving the implementation of clinical decision support systems.

    PubMed

    Rüping, Stefan; Anguita, Alberto; Bucur, Anca; Cirstea, Traian Cristian; Jacobs, Björn; Torge, Antje

    2013-01-01

    Clinical decision support (CDS) systems promise to improve the quality of clinical care by helping physicians to make better, more informed decisions efficiently. However, the design and testing of CDS systems for practical medical use is cumbersome. It has been recognized that this may easily lead to a problematic mismatch between the developers' idea of the system and requirements from clinical practice. In this paper, we will present an approach to reduce the complexity of constructing a CDS system. The approach is based on an ontological annotation of data resources, which improves standardization and the semantic processing of data. This, in turn, allows to use data mining tools to automatically create hypotheses for CDS models, which reduces the manual workload in the creation of a new model. The approach is implemented in the context of EU research project p-medicine. A proof of concept implementation on data from an existing Leukemia study is presented.

  10. Dynamic clinical data mining: search engine-based decision support.

    PubMed

    Celi, Leo Anthony; Zimolzak, Andrew J; Stone, David J

    2014-06-23

    The research world is undergoing a transformation into one in which data, on massive levels, is freely shared. In the clinical world, the capture of data on a consistent basis has only recently begun. We propose an operational vision for a digitally based care system that incorporates data-based clinical decision making. The system would aggregate individual patient electronic medical data in the course of care; query a universal, de-identified clinical database using modified search engine technology in real time; identify prior cases of sufficient similarity as to be instructive to the case at hand; and populate the individual patient's electronic medical record with pertinent decision support material such as suggested interventions and prognosis, based on prior outcomes. Every individual's course, including subsequent outcomes, would then further populate the population database to create a feedback loop to benefit the care of future patients.

  11. Clinical Decision Support for Immunizations (CDSi): A Comprehensive, Collaborative Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Arzt, Noam H.

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the requirements and current developments in clinical decision support technologies for immunizations (CDSi) in both the public health and clinical communities, with an emphasis on shareable solutions. The requirements of the Electronic Health Record Incentive Programs have raised some unique challenges for the clinical community, including vocabulary mapping, update of changing guidelines, single immunization schedule, and scalability. This article discusses new, collaborative approaches whose long-term goal is to make CDSi more sustainable for both the public and private sectors. PMID:27789956

  12. Teaching Advance Care Planning to Medical Students with a Computer-Based Decision Aid

    PubMed Central

    Levi, Benjamin H.

    2013-01-01

    Discussing end-of-life decisions with cancer patients is a crucial skill for physicians. This article reports findings from a pilot study evaluating the effectiveness of a computer-based decision aid for teaching medical students about advance care planning. Second-year medical students at a single medical school were randomized to use a standard advance directive or a computer-based decision aid to help patients with advance care planning. Students' knowledge, skills, and satisfaction were measured by self-report; their performance was rated by patients. 121/133 (91%) of students participated. The Decision-Aid Group (n=60) outperformed the Standard Group (n=61) in terms of students´ knowledge (p<0.01), confidence in helping patients with advance care planning (p<0.01), knowledge of what matters to patients (p=0.05), and satisfaction with their learning experience (p<0.01). Likewise, patients in the Decision Aid Group were more satisfied with the advance care planning method (p<0.01) and with several aspects of student performance. Use of a computer-based decision aid may be an effective way to teach medical students how to discuss advance care planning with cancer patients. PMID:20632222

  13. Eco-informatics for decision makers advancing a research agenda

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cushing, J.B.; Wilson, T.; Brandt, L.; Gregg, V.; Spengler, S.; Borning, A.; Delcambre, L.; Bowker, G.; Frame, M.; Fulop, J.; Hert, C.; Hovy, E.; Jones, J.; Landis, E.; Schnase, J.L.; Schweik, C.; Sonntag, W.; ,

    2005-01-01

    Resource managers often face significant information technology (IT) problems when integrating ecological or environmental information to make decisions. At a workshop sponsored by the NSF and USGS in December 2004, university researchers, natural resource managers, and information managers met to articulate IT problems facing ecology and environmental decision makers. Decision making IT problems were identified in five areas: 1) policy, 2) data presentation, 3) data gaps, 4) tools, and 5) indicators. To alleviate those problems, workshop participants recommended specific informatics research in modeling and simulation, data quality, information integration and ontologies, and social and human aspects. This paper reports the workshop findings, and briefly compares these with research that traditionally falls under the emerging eco-informatics rubric. ?? Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005.

  14. Complex contexts and relationships affect clinical decisions in group therapy.

    PubMed

    Tasca, Giorgio A; Mcquaid, Nancy; Balfour, Louise

    2016-09-01

    Clinical errors tend to be underreported even though examining them can provide important training and professional development opportunities. The group therapy context may be prone to clinician errors because of the added complexity within which therapists work and patients receive treatment. We discuss clinical errors that occurred within a group therapy in which a patient for whom group was not appropriate was admitted to the treatment and then was not removed by the clinicians. This was countertherapeutic for both patient and group. Two clinicians were involved: a clinical supervisor who initially assessed and admitted the patient to the group, and a group therapist. To complicate matters, the group therapy occurred within the context of a clinical research trial. The errors, possible solutions, and recommendations are discussed within Reason's Organizational Accident Model (Reason, 2000). In particular, we discuss clinician errors in the context of countertransference and clinician heuristics, group therapy as a local work condition that complicates clinical decision-making, and the impact of the research context as a latent organizational factor. We also present clinical vignettes from the pregroup preparation, group therapy, and supervision. Group therapists are more likely to avoid errors in clinical decisions if they engage in reflective practice about their internal experiences and about the impact of the context in which they work. Therapists must keep in mind the various levels of group functioning, especially related to the group-as-a-whole (i.e., group composition, cohesion, group climate, and safety) when making complex clinical decisions in order to optimize patient outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. The Relationship Between the Clinical Orientation of Substance Abuse Professionals and Their Clinical Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toriello, Paul J.; Leierer, Stephen J.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the relationship between the clinical orientations of substance abuse professionals (SAPs) and their clinical decisions. Cluster analysis grouped a sample of 245 SAPs on two clinical orientations that differed in their relative endorsement of traditional versus contemporary substance abuse counseling processes…

  16. The Relationship Between the Clinical Orientation of Substance Abuse Professionals and Their Clinical Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toriello, Paul J.; Leierer, Stephen J.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the relationship between the clinical orientations of substance abuse professionals (SAPs) and their clinical decisions. Cluster analysis grouped a sample of 245 SAPs on two clinical orientations that differed in their relative endorsement of traditional versus contemporary substance abuse counseling processes…

  17. The incremental impact of cardiac MRI on clinical decision-making

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Michael J; Richardson, James D; Child, Nicholas M; Maredia, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Despite a significant expansion in the use of cardiac MRI (CMR), there is inadequate evaluation of its incremental impact on clinical decision-making over and above other well-established modalities. We sought to determine the incremental utility of CMR in routine practice. Methods: 629 consecutive CMR studies referred by 44 clinicians from 9 institutions were evaluated. Pre-defined algorithms were used to determine the incremental influence on diagnostic thinking, influence on clinical management and thus the overall clinical utility. Studies were also subdivided and evaluated according to the indication for CMR. Results: CMR provided incremental information to the clinician in 85% of cases, with incremental influence on diagnostic thinking in 85% of cases and incremental impact on management in 42% of cases. The overall incremental utility of CMR exceeded 90% in 7 out of the 13 indications, whereas in settings such as the evaluation of unexplained ventricular arrhythmia or mild left ventricular systolic dysfunction, this was <50%. Conclusion: CMR was frequently able to inform and influence decision-making in routine clinical practice, even with analyses that accepted only incremental clinical information and excluded a redundant duplication of imaging. Significant variations in yield were noted according to the indication for CMR. These data support a wider integration of CMR services into cardiac imaging departments. Advances in knowledge: These data are the first to objectively evaluate the incremental value of a UK CMR service in clinical decision-making. Such data are essential when seeking justification for a CMR service. PMID:26493468

  18. Using nursing clinical decision support systems to achieve meaningful use.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Roberta L; Lyerla, Frank

    2012-07-01

    The Health Information Technology and Clinical Health Act (one component of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act) is responsible for providing incentive payments to hospitals and eligible providers in an effort to support the adoption of electronic health records. Future penalties are planned for electronic health record noncompliance. In order to receive incentives and avoid penalties, hospitals and eligible providers must demonstrate "meaningful use" of their electronic health records. One of the meaningful-use objectives established by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services involves the use of a clinical decision support rule that addresses a hospital-defined, high-priority condition. This article describes the Plan-Do-Study-Act process for creating and implementing a nursing clinical decision support system designed to improve guideline adherence for hypoglycemia management. This project identifies hypoglycemia management as the high-priority area. However, other facilities with different high-priority conditions may find the process presented in this article useful for implementing additional clinical decision support rules geared toward improving outcomes and meeting federal mandates.

  19. Mobile clinical decision support systems and applications: a literature and commercial review.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Pérez, Borja; de la Torre-Díez, Isabel; López-Coronado, Miguel; Sainz-de-Abajo, Beatriz; Robles, Montserrat; García-Gómez, Juan Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The latest advances in eHealth and mHealth have propitiated the rapidly creation and expansion of mobile applications for health care. One of these types of applications are the clinical decision support systems, which nowadays are being implemented in mobile apps to facilitate the access to health care professionals in their daily clinical decisions. The aim of this paper is twofold. Firstly, to make a review of the current systems available in the literature and in commercial stores. Secondly, to analyze a sample of applications in order to obtain some conclusions and recommendations. Two reviews have been done: a literature review on Scopus, IEEE Xplore, Web of Knowledge and PubMed and a commercial review on Google play and the App Store. Five applications from each review have been selected to develop an in-depth analysis and to obtain more information about the mobile clinical decision support systems. Ninety-two relevant papers and 192 commercial apps were found. Forty-four papers were focused only on mobile clinical decision support systems. One hundred seventy-one apps were available on Google play and 21 on the App Store. The apps are designed for general medicine and 37 different specialties, with some features common in all of them despite of the different medical fields objective. The number of mobile clinical decision support applications and their inclusion in clinical practices has risen in the last years. However, developers must be careful with their interface or the easiness of use, which can impoverish the experience of the users.

  20. Shared clinical decision making. A Saudi Arabian perspective.

    PubMed

    AlHaqwi, Ali I; AlDrees, Turki M; AlRumayyan, Ahmad; AlFarhan, Ali I; Alotaibi, Sultan S; AlKhashan, Hesham I; Badri, Motasim

    2015-12-01

    To determine preferences of patients regarding their involvement in the clinical decision making process and the related factors in Saudi Arabia.   This cross-sectional study was conducted in a major family practice center in King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between March and May 2012. Multivariate multinomial regression models were fitted to identify factors associated with patients preferences.  The study included 236 participants. The most preferred decision-making style was shared decision-making (57%), followed by paternalistic  (28%), and informed consumerism (14%). The preference for shared clinical decision making was significantly higher among male patients and those with higher level of education, whereas paternalism was significantly higher among older patients and those with chronic health conditions, and consumerism was significantly higher in younger age groups. In multivariate multinomial regression analysis, compared with the shared group, the consumerism group were more likely to be female [adjusted odds ratio  (AOR) =2.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.31-6.27, p=0.008] and non-dyslipidemic (AOR=2.90, 95% CI: 1.03-8.09, p=0.04), and the paternalism group were more likely to be older (AOR=1.03, 95% CI: 1.01-1.05, p=0.04), and female (AOR=2.47, 95% CI: 1.32-4.06, p=0.008).  Preferences of patients for involvement in the clinical decision-making varied considerably. In our setting, underlying factors that influence these preferences identified in this study should be considered and tailored individually to achieve optimal treatment outcomes.

  1. IBM’s Health Analytics and Clinical Decision Support

    PubMed Central

    Sun, J.; Knoop, S.; Shabo, A.; Carmeli, B.; Sow, D.; Syed-Mahmood, T.; Rapp, W.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives This survey explores the role of big data and health analytics developed by IBM in supporting the transformation of healthcare by augmenting evidence-based decision-making. Methods Some problems in healthcare and strategies for change are described. It is argued that change requires better decisions, which, in turn, require better use of the many kinds of healthcare information. Analytic resources that address each of the information challenges are described. Examples of the role of each of the resources are given. Results There are powerful analytic tools that utilize the various kinds of big data in healthcare to help clinicians make more personalized, evidenced-based decisions. Such resources can extract relevant information and provide insights that clinicians can use to make evidence-supported decisions. There are early suggestions that these resources have clinical value. As with all analytic tools, they are limited by the amount and quality of data. Conclusion Big data is an inevitable part of the future of healthcare. There is a compelling need to manage and use big data to make better decisions to support the transformation of healthcare to the personalized, evidence-supported model of the future. Cognitive computing resources are necessary to manage the challenges in employing big data in healthcare. Such tools have been and are being developed. The analytic resources, themselves, do not drive, but support healthcare transformation. PMID:25123736

  2. Clinical decision support systems: data quality management and governance.

    PubMed

    Liaw, Siaw-Teng

    2013-01-01

    This chapter examines data quality management (DQM) and information governance (IG) of electronic decision support (EDS) systems so that they are safe and fit for use by clinicians and patients and their carers. This is consistent with the ISO definition of data quality as being fit for purpose. The scope of DQM & IG should range from data creation and collection in clinical settings, through cleaning and, where obtained from multiple sources, linkage, storage, use by the EDS logic engine and algorithms, knowledge base and guidance provided, to curation and presentation. It must also include protocols and mechanisms to monitor the safety of EDS, which will feedback into DQM & IG activities. Ultimately, DQM & IG must be integrated across the data cycle to ensure that the EDS systems provide guidance that leads to safe and effective clinical decisions and care.

  3. Recent advances in limb lengthening. Part I: Clinical advances.

    PubMed

    Sproul, J T; Price, C T

    1992-03-01

    The discipline of limb lengthening has undergone numerous advances in recent years. An increased understanding of the biology of distraction osteogenesis, as well as technical advances, has made lengthening more feasible. However, significant problems remain unsolved, and complications--although less severe and long standing--still remain. Little is known about the effect of distraction on soft tissues. Lengthening in skeletally mature patients remains difficult. The myriad of conditions that require lengthening often confounds comparison of techniques. Uniform indications for limb lengthening may never exist, but increasing experience helps guide patient selection.

  4. Clinical Decision Support for Vascular Disease in Community Family Practice

    PubMed Central

    Keshavjee, K; Holbrook, AM; Lau, E; Esporlas-Jewer, I; Troyan, S

    2006-01-01

    The COMPETE III Vascular Disease Tracker (C3VT) is a personalized, Web-based, clinical decision support tool that provides patients and physicians access to a patient’s 16 individual vascular risk markers, specific advice for each marker and links to best practices in vascular disease management. It utilizes the chronic care model1 so that physicians can better manage patients with chronic diseases. Over 1100 patients have been enrolled into the COMPETE III study to date.

  5. What We Can Learn from Amazon for Clinical Decision Support Systems.

    PubMed

    Abid, Sidra; Keshavjee, Karim; Karim, Arsalan; Guergachi, Aziz

    2017-01-01

    Health care continue to lag behind other industries, such as retail and financial services, in the use of decision-support-like tools. Amazon is particularly prolific in the use of advanced predictive and prescriptive analytics to assist its customers to purchase more, while increasing satisfaction, retention, repeat-purchases and loyalty. How can we do the same in health care? In this paper, we explore various elements of the Amazon website and Amazon's data science and big data practices to gather inspiration for re-designing clinical decision support in the health care sector. For each Amazon element we identified, we present one or more clinical applications to help us better understand where Amazon's.

  6. Creating Shareable Clinical Decision Support Rules for a Pharmacogenomics Clinical Guideline Using Structured Knowledge Representation

    PubMed Central

    Linan, Margaret K.; Sottara, Davide; Freimuth, Robert R.

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacogenomics (PGx) guidelines contain drug-gene relationships, therapeutic and clinical recommendations from which clinical decision support (CDS) rules can be extracted, rendered and then delivered through clinical decision support systems (CDSS) to provide clinicians with just-in-time information at the point of care. Several tools exist that can be used to generate CDS rules that are based on computer interpretable guidelines (CIG), but none have been previously applied to the PGx domain. We utilized the Unified Modeling Language (UML), the Health Level 7 virtual medical record (HL7 vMR) model, and standard terminologies to represent the semantics and decision logic derived from a PGx guideline, which were then mapped to the Health eDecisions (HeD) schema. The modeling and extraction processes developed here demonstrate how structured knowledge representations can be used to support the creation of shareable CDS rules from PGx guidelines. PMID:26958298

  7. Creating Shareable Clinical Decision Support Rules for a Pharmacogenomics Clinical Guideline Using Structured Knowledge Representation.

    PubMed

    Linan, Margaret K; Sottara, Davide; Freimuth, Robert R

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacogenomics (PGx) guidelines contain drug-gene relationships, therapeutic and clinical recommendations from which clinical decision support (CDS) rules can be extracted, rendered and then delivered through clinical decision support systems (CDSS) to provide clinicians with just-in-time information at the point of care. Several tools exist that can be used to generate CDS rules that are based on computer interpretable guidelines (CIG), but none have been previously applied to the PGx domain. We utilized the Unified Modeling Language (UML), the Health Level 7 virtual medical record (HL7 vMR) model, and standard terminologies to represent the semantics and decision logic derived from a PGx guideline, which were then mapped to the Health eDecisions (HeD) schema. The modeling and extraction processes developed here demonstrate how structured knowledge representations can be used to support the creation of shareable CDS rules from PGx guidelines.

  8. Real-Time Clinical Decision Support Decreases Inappropriate Plasma Transfusion.

    PubMed

    Shah, Neil; Baker, Steven A; Spain, David; Shieh, Lisa; Shepard, John; Hadhazy, Eric; Maggio, Paul; Goodnough, Lawrence T

    2017-08-01

    To curtail inappropriate plasma transfusions, we instituted clinical decision support as an alert upon order entry if the patient's recent international normalized ratio (INR) was 1.7 or less. The alert was suppressed for massive transfusion and within operative or apheresis settings. The plasma order was automatically removed upon alert acceptance while clinical exception reasons allowed for continued transfusion. Alert impact was studied comparing a 7-month control period with a 4-month intervention period. Monthly plasma utilization decreased 17.4%, from a mean ± SD of 3.40 ± 0.48 to 2.82 ± 0.6 plasma units per hundred patient days (95% confidence interval [CI] of difference, -0.1 to 1.3). Plasma transfused below an INR of 1.7 or less decreased from 47.6% to 41.6% (P = .0002; odds ratio, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.69-0.89). The alert recommendation was accepted 33% of the time while clinical exceptions were chosen in the remaining cases (active bleeding, 31%; other clinical indication, 33%; and apheresis, 2%). Alert acceptance rate varied significantly among different provider specialties. Clinical decision support can help curtail inappropriate plasma use but needs to be part of a comprehensive strategy including audit and feedback for comprehensive, long-term changes.

  9. Advanced Email Risk Classification and Recipient Decision Assistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Email attacks comprise an overwhelming majority of the daily attacks on modern enterprise. "Phishing" is the leading attack vector for the world's most dangerous threats such as the so-called, Advanced Persistent Threat (APT), and hacktivist groups such as Anonymous and LulzSec. The leading mitigation strategy is a combination of user…

  10. Advanced Email Risk Classification and Recipient Decision Assistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Email attacks comprise an overwhelming majority of the daily attacks on modern enterprise. "Phishing" is the leading attack vector for the world's most dangerous threats such as the so-called, Advanced Persistent Threat (APT), and hacktivist groups such as Anonymous and LulzSec. The leading mitigation strategy is a combination of user…

  11. Accounting for Advanced High School Coursework in College Admission Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, Philip M.; Tai, Robert H.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to investigate the feasibility of accounting for student performance in advanced high school coursework through the adjustment of high school grade point average (HSGPA) while separating out variables that are independently considered in the admission process, e.g., SAT/ACT scores, community affluence, type of…

  12. Clinical Decision Support Capabilities of Commercially-available Clinical Information Systems

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Adam; Sittig, Dean F.; Ash, Joan S.; Sharma, Sapna; Pang, Justine E.; Middleton, Blackford

    2009-01-01

    Background The most effective decision support systems are integrated with clinical information systems, such as inpatient and outpatient electronic health records (EHRs) and computerized provider order entry (CPOE) systems. Purpose The goal of this project was to describe and quantify the results of a study of decision support capabilities in Certification Commission for Health Information Technology (CCHIT) certified electronic health record systems. Methods The authors conducted a series of interviews with representatives of nine commercially available clinical information systems, evaluating their capabilities against 42 different clinical decision support features. Results Six of the nine reviewed systems offered all the applicable event-driven, action-oriented, real-time clinical decision support triggers required for initiating clinical decision support interventions. Five of the nine systems could access all the patient-specific data items identified as necessary. Six of the nine systems supported all the intervention types identified as necessary to allow clinical information systems to tailor their interventions based on the severity of the clinical situation and the user's workflow. Only one system supported all the offered choices identified as key to allowing physicians to take action directly from within the alert. Discussion The principal finding relates to system-by-system variability. The best system in our analysis had only a single missing feature (from 42 total) while the worst had eighteen.This dramatic variability in CDS capability among commercially available systems was unexpected and is a cause for concern. Conclusions These findings have implications for four distinct constituencies: purchasers of clinical information systems, developers of clinical decision support, vendors of clinical information systems and certification bodies. PMID:19567796

  13. Clinical decision making in exercise prescription for fall prevention.

    PubMed

    Haas, Romi; Maloney, Stephen; Pausenberger, Eva; Keating, Jennifer L; Sims, Jane; Molloy, Elizabeth; Jolly, Brian; Morgan, Prue; Haines, Terry

    2012-05-01

    Physical therapists often prescribe exercises for fall prevention. Understanding the factors influencing the clinical decision-making processes used by expert physical therapists working in specialist fall and balance clinics may assist other therapists in prescribing exercises for fall prevention with greater efficacy. The objective of this study was to describe the factors influencing the clinical decision-making processes used by expert physical therapists to prescribe exercises for fall prevention. This investigation was a qualitative study from a phenomenological perspective. Semistructured telephone interviews were conducted with 24 expert physical therapists recruited primarily from the Victorian Falls Clinic Coalition. Interviews focused on 3 exercise prescription contexts: face-to-face individual therapy, group exercise programs, and home exercise programs. Interviews elicited information about therapist practices and the therapist, patient, and environmental factors influencing the clinical decision-making processes for the selection of exercise setting, type, dosage (intensity, quantity, rest periods, duration, and frequency), and progression. Strategies for promoting adherence and safety were also discussed. Data were analyzed with a framework approach by 3 investigators. Participants described highly individualized exercise prescription approaches tailored to address key findings from physical assessments. Dissonance between prescribing a program that was theoretically correct on the basis of physiological considerations and prescribing one that a client would adhere to was evident. Safety considerations also were highly influential on the exercise type and setting prescribed. Terminology for describing the intensity of balance exercises was vague relative to terminology for describing the intensity of strength exercises. Physical therapists with expertise in fall prevention adopted an individualized approach to exercise prescription that was based on

  14. Clinical decision support tools: analysis of online drug information databases

    PubMed Central

    Clauson, Kevin A; Marsh, Wallace A; Polen, Hyla H; Seamon, Matthew J; Ortiz, Blanca I

    2007-01-01

    Background Online drug information databases are used to assist in enhancing clinical decision support. However, the choice of which online database to consult, purchase or subscribe to is likely made based on subjective elements such as history of use, familiarity, or availability during professional training. The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical decision support tools for drug information by systematically comparing the most commonly used online drug information databases. Methods Five commercially available and two freely available online drug information databases were evaluated according to scope (presence or absence of answer), completeness (the comprehensiveness of the answers), and ease of use. Additionally, a composite score integrating all three criteria was utilized. Fifteen weighted categories comprised of 158 questions were used to conduct the analysis. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square were used to summarize the evaluation components and make comparisons between databases. Scheffe's multiple comparison procedure was used to determine statistically different scope and completeness scores. The composite score was subjected to sensitivity analysis to investigate the effect of the choice of percentages for scope and completeness. Results The rankings for the databases from highest to lowest, based on composite scores were Clinical Pharmacology, Micromedex, Lexi-Comp Online, Facts & Comparisons 4.0, Epocrates Online Premium, RxList.com, and Epocrates Online Free. Differences in scope produced three statistical groupings with Group 1 (best) performers being: Clinical Pharmacology, Micromedex, Facts & Comparisons 4.0, Lexi-Comp Online, Group 2: Epocrates Premium and RxList.com and Group 3: Epocrates Free (p < 0.05). Completeness scores were similarly stratified. Collapsing the databases into two groups by access (subscription or free), showed the subscription databases performed better than the free databases in the measured criteria (p < 0

  15. Clinical decision support tools: analysis of online drug information databases.

    PubMed

    Clauson, Kevin A; Marsh, Wallace A; Polen, Hyla H; Seamon, Matthew J; Ortiz, Blanca I

    2007-03-08

    Online drug information databases are used to assist in enhancing clinical decision support. However, the choice of which online database to consult, purchase or subscribe to is likely made based on subjective elements such as history of use, familiarity, or availability during professional training. The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical decision support tools for drug information by systematically comparing the most commonly used online drug information databases. Five commercially available and two freely available online drug information databases were evaluated according to scope (presence or absence of answer), completeness (the comprehensiveness of the answers), and ease of use. Additionally, a composite score integrating all three criteria was utilized. Fifteen weighted categories comprised of 158 questions were used to conduct the analysis. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square were used to summarize the evaluation components and make comparisons between databases. Scheffe's multiple comparison procedure was used to determine statistically different scope and completeness scores. The composite score was subjected to sensitivity analysis to investigate the effect of the choice of percentages for scope and completeness. The rankings for the databases from highest to lowest, based on composite scores were Clinical Pharmacology, Micromedex, Lexi-Comp Online, Facts & Comparisons 4.0, Epocrates Online Premium, RxList.com, and Epocrates Online Free. Differences in scope produced three statistical groupings with Group 1 (best) performers being: Clinical Pharmacology, Micromedex, Facts & Comparisons 4.0, Lexi-Comp Online, Group 2: Epocrates Premium and RxList.com and Group 3: Epocrates Free (p < 0.05). Completeness scores were similarly stratified. Collapsing the databases into two groups by access (subscription or free), showed the subscription databases performed better than the free databases in the measured criteria (p < 0.001). Online drug

  16. Development of a scalable pharmacogenomic clinical decision support service.

    PubMed

    Fusaro, Vincent A; Brownstein, Catherine; Wolf, Wendy; Clinton, Catherine; Savage, Sarah; Mandl, Kenneth D; Margulies, David; Manzi, Shannon

    2013-01-01

    Advances in sequencing technology are making genomic data more accessible within the healthcare environment. Published pharmacogenetic guidelines attempt to provide a clinical context for specific genomic variants; however, the actual implementation to convert genomic data into a clinical report integrated within an electronic medical record system is a major challenge for any hospital. We created a two-part solution that integrates with the medical record system and converts genetic variant results into an interpreted clinical report based on published guidelines. We successfully developed a scalable infrastructure to support TPMT genetic testing and are currently testing approximately two individuals per week in our production version. We plan to release an online variant to clinical interpretation reporting system in order to facilitate translation of pharmacogenetic information into clinical practice.

  17. Decision Aids for Airborne Intercept Operations in Advanced Aircrafts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madni, A.; Freedy, A.

    1981-01-01

    A tactical decision aid (TDA) for the F-14 aircrew, i.e., the naval flight officer and pilot, in conducting a multitarget attack during the performance of a Combat Air Patrol (CAP) role is presented. The TDA employs hierarchical multiattribute utility models for characterizing mission objectives in operationally measurable terms, rule based AI-models for tactical posture selection, and fast time simulation for maneuver consequence prediction. The TDA makes aspect maneuver recommendations, selects and displays the optimum mission posture, evaluates attackable and potentially attackable subsets, and recommends the 'best' attackable subset along with the required course perturbation.

  18. Pharmacists' awareness of clinical decision support in pharmacy information systems: an exploratory evaluation.

    PubMed

    Hines, Lisa E; Saverno, Kim R; Warholak, Terri L; Taylor, Ann; Grizzle, Amy J; Murphy, John E; Malone, Daniel C

    2011-12-01

    Clinical decision support (CDS), such as drug-drug interaction (DDI) and drug-allergy checking, has been used in pharmacy information systems for several decades; however, there has been limited research on CDS use by practicing pharmacists. The purpose of this study was to document pharmacists' awareness of DDI and other medication-related CDS features available within pharmacy information systems. Researchers conducted on-site interviews with pharmacists throughout the state of Arizona from December 2008 to November 2009 regarding their pharmacy information systems features. Pharmacists were asked to provide information about DDI and other medication-related decision support features of the pharmacy software at their practice site. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize interview responses. Sixty-one pharmacists from a variety of practice settings completed the interview. All respondents indicated that their pharmacy system provided drug-allergy and DDI alerts. Approximately 60% of the pharmacists reported that their DDI decision support systems included recommendations for managing drug interactions. Two-thirds of respondents reported that their pharmacy's computer system permitted the addition of medications from other pharmacies and/or over-the-counter products to a patient's profile. Approximately 40% of the pharmacists reported that some drugs entered into the pharmacy computer system were not included in (or linked to) the electronic DDI checking. Most pharmacists indicated the presence of other medication-related decision support features, such as drug-disease (78%), drug-age precautions (67%), and inappropriate dosage alerts (79%). However, fewer pharmacists reported more advanced functionality, such as laboratory recommendations (34%) and pediatric dosing (39%). Overall, pharmacists' awareness regarding the many decision support functionalities of their systems was limited. Based on the study findings, it appears that there are a number of

  19. Competence to Complete Psychiatric Advance Directives: Effects of Facilitated Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Jeffrey W.; Appelbaum, Paul S.; Swartz, Marvin S.; Ferron, Joelle; Van Dorn, Richard A.; Wagner, H. Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Psychiatric advance directives (PADs) statutes presume competence to complete these documents, but the range and dimensions of decisional competence among people who actually complete PADs is unknown. This study examines clinical and neuropsychological correlates of performance on a measure to assess competence to complete PADs and investigates the effects of a facilitated PAD intervention on decisional capacity. N = 469 adults with psychotic disorders were interviewed at baseline and then randomly assigned to either a control group in which they received written materials about PADs or to an intervention group in which they were offered an opportunity to meet individually with a trained facilitator to create a PAD. At baseline, domains on the Decisional Competence Assessment Tool for PADs (DCAT-PAD) were most strongly associated with IQ, verbal memory, abstract thinking, and psychiatric symptoms. At one-month follow-up, participants in the intervention group showed more improvement on the DCAT-PAD than controls, particularly among participants with pre-morbid IQ estimates below the median of 100. The results suggest that PAD facilitation is an effective method to boost competence of cognitively-impaired clients to write PADs and make treatment decisions within PADs, thereby maximizing the chances their advance directives will be valid. PMID:17294136

  20. Power and conflict in intensive care clinical decision making.

    PubMed

    Coombs, Maureen

    2003-06-01

    It is clear that current government policy places increasing emphasis on the need for flexible team working. This requires a shared understanding of roles and working practices. However, review of the current literature reveals that such a collaborative working environment has not as yet, been fully achieved. Role definitions and power bases based on traditional and historical boundaries continue to exist. This ethnographic study explores decision making between doctors and nurses in the intensive care environment in order to examine contemporary clinical roles in this clinical specialty. Three intensive care units were selected as field sites and data was collected through participant observation, ethnographic interviews and documentation. A key issue arising in this study is that whilst the nursing role in intensive care has changed, this has had little impact on how clinical decisions are made. Both medical and nursing staff identify conflict during patient management discussions. However, it is predominantly nurses who seek to redress this conflict area through developing specific behaviours for this clinical forum. Using this approach to resolve such team issues has grave implications if the government vision of interdisciplinary team working is to be realised.

  1. DYNAMICALLY EVOLVING CLINICAL PRACTICES AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PREDICTING MEDICAL DECISIONS

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, JONATHAN H; GOLDSTEIN, MARY K; ASCH, STEVEN M; ALTMAN, RUSS B

    2015-01-01

    Automatically data-mining clinical practice patterns from electronic health records (EHR) can enable prediction of future practices as a form of clinical decision support (CDS). Our objective is to determine the stability of learned clinical practice patterns over time and what implication this has when using varying longitudinal historical data sources towards predicting future decisions. We trained an association rule engine for clinical orders (e.g., labs, imaging, medications) using structured inpatient data from a tertiary academic hospital. Comparing top order associations per admission diagnosis from training data in 2009 vs. 2012, we find practice variability from unstable diagnoses with rank biased overlap (RBO)<0.35 (e.g., pneumonia) to stable admissions for planned procedures (e.g., chemotherapy, surgery) with comparatively high RBO>0.6. Predicting admission orders for future (2013) patients with associations trained on recent (2012) vs. older (2009) data improved accuracy evaluated by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC-AUC) 0.89 to 0.92, precision at ten (positive predictive value of the top ten predictions against actual orders) 30% to 37%, and weighted recall (sensitivity) at ten 2.4% to 13%, (P<10−10). Training with more longitudinal data (2009-2012) was no better than only using recent (2012) data. Secular trends in practice patterns likely explain why smaller but more recent training data is more accurate at predicting future practices. PMID:26776186

  2. How does Evidence Affect Clinical Decision-making?

    PubMed Central

    Fontelo, Paul; Liu, Fang; Uy, Raymonde C.

    2017-01-01

    In 1998, the “Evidence Cart” was introduced to provide decision-support tools at the point of care. A recent study showed that a majority of doctors who previously stated that evidence was not needed sought it nevertheless when it was easily available. In this study, invited clinicians were asked to rate the usefulness of evidence provided as abstracts and “the bottom-line summaries” (TBL) using a modified version of a Web app for searching PubMed and then specify reasons how it might affect their clinical decision-making. The responses were captured in the server’s log. One hundred and one reviews were submitted with 22 reviews for abstracts and 79 for TBLs. The overall usefulness Likert score (1=least useful, 7=most useful) was 5.02±1.96 (4.77±2.11 for abstracts and 5.09±1.92 for TBL). The basis for scores was specified in only about half (53/101) of reviews. The most frequent single reason (32%) was that it led to a new skill, diagnostic test, or treatment plan. Two or more reasons were given in 16 responses (30.2%). Two-thirds more responders used TBL summaries than abstracts confirming further that clinicians prefer convenient easy-to-read evidence at the point of care. This study seems to show similar results as the Evidence Cart study on the usefulness of evidence in clinical decision-making. PMID:26337628

  3. Informing clinical policy decision-making practices in ambulance services.

    PubMed

    Muecke, Sandy; Curac, Nada; Binks, Darryn

    2013-12-01

    This study aims to identify the processes and frameworks that support an evidence-based approach to clinical policy decision-making practices in ambulance services. This literature review focused on: (i) the setting (pre-hospital); and (ii) the process of evidence translation, for studies published after the year 2000. Searches of Medline, CINAHL and Google were undertaken. Reference lists of eligible publications were searched for relevant articles. A total of 954 articles were identified. Of these, 20 full text articles were assessed for eligibility and seven full text articles met the inclusion criteria. Three provided detailed descriptions of the evidence-based practice processes used to inform ambulance service protocol or guideline development or review. There is little published literature that describes the processes involved, and frameworks required, to inform clinical policy decision making within ambulance services. This review found that processes were iterative and involved collaborations across many internal and external stakeholders. In several jurisdictions, these were coordinated by a dedicated team. Success appears dependent on committed leadership and purposive human and structural resources. Although time consuming, structured processes have been developed in some jurisdictions to assist decision-making processes. Further insight is likely to be obtained from literature published by those from other disciplines. © 2013 The Authors. International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare © 2013 The Joanna Briggs Institute.

  4. A highly scalable, interoperable clinical decision support service

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Howard S; Paterno, Marilyn D; Rocha, Beatriz H; Schaeffer, Molly; Wright, Adam; Erickson, Jessica L; Middleton, Blackford

    2014-01-01

    Objective To create a clinical decision support (CDS) system that is shareable across healthcare delivery systems and settings over large geographic regions. Materials and methods The enterprise clinical rules service (ECRS) realizes nine design principles through a series of enterprise java beans and leverages off-the-shelf rules management systems in order to provide consistent, maintainable, and scalable decision support in a variety of settings. Results The ECRS is deployed at Partners HealthCare System (PHS) and is in use for a series of trials by members of the CDS consortium, including internally developed systems at PHS, the Regenstrief Institute, and vendor-based systems deployed at locations in Oregon and New Jersey. Performance measures indicate that the ECRS provides sub-second response time when measured apart from services required to retrieve data and assemble the continuity of care document used as input. Discussion We consider related work, design decisions, comparisons with emerging national standards, and discuss uses and limitations of the ECRS. Conclusions ECRS design, implementation, and use in CDS consortium trials indicate that it provides the flexibility and modularity needed for broad use and performs adequately. Future work will investigate additional CDS patterns, alternative methods of data passing, and further optimizations in ECRS performance. PMID:23828174

  5. Rethinking autonomy: decision making between patient and surgeon in advanced illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Hinshaw, Daniel B.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with advanced illness such as advanced stage cancer presenting with the need for possible surgical intervention can be some of the most challenging cases for a surgeon. Often there are multiple factors influencing the decisions made. For patients they are facing not just the effects of the disease on their body, but the stark realization that the disease will also limit their life. Not only are these factors a consideration when patients are making decisions, but also the desire to make the decision that is best for themselves, the autonomous decision. Also included in this process for the patient facing the possible need for an intervention is the surgeon. While patient autonomy remains one of the main principles within medicine, guiding treatment decisions, there is also the surgeon’s autonomy to be considered. Surgeons determine if there is even a possible intervention to be offered to patients, a decision making process that respects surgeons’ autonomous choices and includes elements of paternalism as surgeons utilize their expertise to make decisions. Included in the treatment decisions that are made and the care of the patient is the impact patients’ outcomes have on the surgeon, the inherent drive to be the best for the patient and desire for good outcomes for the patient. While both the patient’s and surgeon’s autonomy are a dynamic interface influencing decision making, the main goal for the patient facing a palliative procedure is that of making treatment decisions based on the concept of shared decision making, always giving primary consideration to the patient’s goals and values. Lastly, regardless of the decision made, it is the responsibility of surgeons to their patients to be a source of support through this challenging time. PMID:27004224

  6. Rethinking autonomy: decision making between patient and surgeon in advanced illnesses.

    PubMed

    Wancata, Lauren M; Hinshaw, Daniel B

    2016-02-01

    Patients with advanced illness such as advanced stage cancer presenting with the need for possible surgical intervention can be some of the most challenging cases for a surgeon. Often there are multiple factors influencing the decisions made. For patients they are facing not just the effects of the disease on their body, but the stark realization that the disease will also limit their life. Not only are these factors a consideration when patients are making decisions, but also the desire to make the decision that is best for themselves, the autonomous decision. Also included in this process for the patient facing the possible need for an intervention is the surgeon. While patient autonomy remains one of the main principles within medicine, guiding treatment decisions, there is also the surgeon's autonomy to be considered. Surgeons determine if there is even a possible intervention to be offered to patients, a decision making process that respects surgeons' autonomous choices and includes elements of paternalism as surgeons utilize their expertise to make decisions. Included in the treatment decisions that are made and the care of the patient is the impact patients' outcomes have on the surgeon, the inherent drive to be the best for the patient and desire for good outcomes for the patient. While both the patient's and surgeon's autonomy are a dynamic interface influencing decision making, the main goal for the patient facing a palliative procedure is that of making treatment decisions based on the concept of shared decision making, always giving primary consideration to the patient's goals and values. Lastly, regardless of the decision made, it is the responsibility of surgeons to their patients to be a source of support through this challenging time.

  7. Impact of advance directives and a health care proxy on doctors' decisions: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Escher, Monica; Perneger, Thomas V; Rudaz, Sandrine; Dayer, Pierre; Perrier, Arnaud

    2014-01-01

    Advance directives or proxy designations are widely recommended, but how they affect doctors' decision making is not well known. The aim of this study was to quantify the influence of advance directives and proxy opinions on doctors' decisions. We mailed to all the generalists and internists in French-speaking Switzerland (N = 1962) three vignettes describing difficult decisions involving incapacitated patients. In each case, the advance directive requested that further care be withheld. One vignette tested the impact of a written advance directive vs. a proxy. Another compared the impact of a handwritten directive vs. a formalized document. The third vignette compared the impact of a family member vs. a doctor as a proxy. Each vignette was prepared in three or four versions, including a control version in which no directive or proxy was present. Vignettes were randomly allocated to respondents. We used logistic regression to predict the decision to forgo a medical intervention. Compared with the control condition, the odds of forgoing a medical intervention were increased by the written advance directive (odds ratio [OR] 7.3; P < 0.001), the proxy (OR 7.9; P < 0.001), and the combination of the two (OR 35.7; P < 0.001). The handwritten directive had the same impact (OR 13.3) as the formalized directive (OR 13.8). The effect of proxy opinion was slightly stronger when provided by a doctor (OR 11.3) rather than by family (OR 7.8). Advance directives and proxy opinions are equally effective in influencing doctors' decisions, but having both has the strongest effect. The format of the advance directive and the identity of the proxy have little influence on decisions. Copyright © 2014 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Clinical decision support systems in child and adolescent psychiatry: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Koposov, Roman; Fossum, Sturla; Frodl, Thomas; Nytrø, Øystein; Leventhal, Bennett; Sourander, Andre; Quaglini, Silvana; Molteni, Massimo; de la Iglesia Vayá, María; Prokosch, Hans-Ulrich; Barbarini, Nicola; Milham, Michael Peter; Castellanos, Francisco Xavier; Skokauskas, Norbert

    2017-04-28

    Psychiatric disorders are amongst the most prevalent and impairing conditions in childhood and adolescence. Unfortunately, it is well known that general practitioners (GPs) and other frontline health providers (i.e., child protection workers, public health nurses, and pediatricians) are not adequately trained to address these ubiquitous problems (Braddick et al. Child and Adolescent mental health in Europe: infrastructures, policy and programmes, European Communities, 2009; Levav et al. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 13:395-401, 2004). Advances in technology may offer a solution to this problem with clinical decision support systems (CDSS) that are designed to help professionals make sound clinical decisions in real time. This paper offers a systematic review of currently available CDSS for child and adolescent mental health disorders prepared according to the PRISMA-Protocols (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols). Applying strict eligibility criteria, the identified studies (n = 5048) were screened. Ten studies, describing eight original clinical decision support systems for child and adolescent psychiatric disorders, fulfilled inclusion criteria. Based on this systematic review, there appears to be a need for a new, readily available CDSS for child neuropsychiatric disorder which promotes evidence-based, best practices, while enabling consideration of national variation in practices by leveraging data-reuse to generate predictions regarding treatment outcome, addressing a broader cluster of clinical disorders, and targeting frontline practice environments.

  9. The Effects of Advanced 'Glass Cockpit' Displayed Flight Instrumentation on In-flight Pilot Decision Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steigerwald, John

    The Cognitive Continuum Theory (CCT) was first proposed 25 years ago to explain the relationship between intuition and analytical decision making processes. In order for aircraft pilots to make these analytical and intuitive decisions, they obtain information from various instruments within the cockpit of the aircraft. Advanced instrumentation is used to provide a broad array of information about the aircraft condition and flight situation to aid the flight crew in making effective decisions. The problem addressed is that advanced instrumentation has not improved the pilot decision making in modern aircraft. Because making a decision is dependent upon the information available, this experimental quantitative study sought to determine how well pilots organize and interpret information obtained from various cockpit instrumentation displays when under time pressure. The population for this study was the students, flight instructors, and aviation faculty at the Middle Georgia State College School of Aviation campus in Eastman, Georgia. The sample was comprised of two groups of 90 individuals (45 in each group) in various stages of pilot licensure from student pilot to airline transport pilot (ATP). The ages ranged from 18 to 55 years old. There was a statistically significant relationship at the p < .05 level in the ability of the participants to organize and interpret information between the advanced glass cockpit instrumentation and the traditional cockpit instrumentation. It is recommended that the industry explore technological solutions toward creating cockpit instrumentation that could match the type of information display to the type of decision making scenario in order to aid pilots in making decisions that will result in better organization of information. Understanding the relationship between the intuitive and analytical decisions that pilots make and the information source they use to make those decisions will aid engineers in the design of instrumentation

  10. Patient-oriented Computerized Clinical Guidelines for Mobile Decision Support in Gestational Diabetes.

    PubMed

    García-Sáez, Gema; Rigla, Mercedes; Martínez-Sarriegui, Iñaki; Shalom, Erez; Peleg, Mor; Broens, Tom; Pons, Belén; Caballero-Ruíz, Estefanía; Gómez, Enrique J; Hernando, M Elena

    2014-03-01

    The risks associated with gestational diabetes (GD) can be reduced with an active treatment able to improve glycemic control. Advances in mobile health can provide new patient-centric models for GD to create personalized health care services, increase patient independence and improve patients' self-management capabilities, and potentially improve their treatment compliance. In these models, decision-support functions play an essential role. The telemedicine system MobiGuide provides personalized medical decision support for GD patients that is based on computerized clinical guidelines and adapted to a mobile environment. The patient's access to the system is supported by a smartphone-based application that enhances the efficiency and ease of use of the system. We formalized the GD guideline into a computer-interpretable guideline (CIG). We identified several workflows that provide decision-support functionalities to patients and 4 types of personalized advice to be delivered through a mobile application at home, which is a preliminary step to providing decision-support tools in a telemedicine system: (1) therapy, to help patients to comply with medical prescriptions; (2) monitoring, to help patients to comply with monitoring instructions; (3) clinical assessment, to inform patients about their health conditions; and (4) upcoming events, to deal with patients' personal context or special events. The whole process to specify patient-oriented decision support functionalities ensures that it is based on the knowledge contained in the GD clinical guideline and thus follows evidence-based recommendations but at the same time is patient-oriented, which could enhance clinical outcomes and patients' acceptance of the whole system. © 2014 Diabetes Technology Society.

  11. Clinical Decision Making—A Functional Medicine Perspective

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    As 21st century health care moves from a disease-based approach to a more patient-centric system that can address biochemical individuality to improve health and function, clinical decision making becomes more complex. Accentuating the problem is the lack of a clear standard for this more complex functional medicine approach. While there is relatively broad agreement in Western medicine for what constitutes competent assessment of disease and identification of related treatment approaches, the complex functional medicine model posits multiple and individualized diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, most or many of which have reasonable underlying science and principles, but which have not been rigorously tested in a research or clinical setting. This has led to non-rigorous thinking and sometimes to uncritical acceptance of both poorly documented diagnostic procedures and ineffective therapies, resulting in less than optimal clinical care. PMID:24278827

  12. Clinical decision making-a functional medicine perspective.

    PubMed

    Pizzorno, Joseph E

    2012-09-01

    As 21st century health care moves from a disease-based approach to a more patient-centric system that can address biochemical individuality to improve health and function, clinical decision making becomes more complex. Accentuating the problem is the lack of a clear standard for this more complex functional medicine approach. While there is relatively broad agreement in Western medicine for what constitutes competent assessment of disease and identification of related treatment approaches, the complex functional medicine model posits multiple and individualized diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, most or many of which have reasonable underlying science and principles, but which have not been rigorously tested in a research or clinical setting. This has led to non-rigorous thinking and sometimes to uncritical acceptance of both poorly documented diagnostic procedures and ineffective therapies, resulting in less than optimal clinical care.

  13. A Clinical Decision Support System for Breast Cancer Patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Ana S.; Alves, Pedro; Jarman, Ian H.; Etchells, Terence A.; Fonseca, José M.; Lisboa, Paulo J. G.

    This paper proposes a Web clinical decision support system for clinical oncologists and for breast cancer patients making prognostic assessments, using the particular characteristics of the individual patient. This system comprises three different prognostic modelling methodologies: the clinically widely used Nottingham prognostic index (NPI); the Cox regression modelling and a partial logistic artificial neural network with automatic relevance determination (PLANN-ARD). All three models yield a different prognostic index that can be analysed together in order to obtain a more accurate prognostic assessment of the patient. Missing data is incorporated in the mentioned models, a common issue in medical data that was overcome using multiple imputation techniques. Risk group assignments are also provided through a methodology based on regression trees, where Boolean rules can be obtained expressed with patient characteristics.

  14. Nurses’ Use of Race in Clinical Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Sellers, Sherrill L.; Moss, Melissa E.; Calzone, Kathleen; Abdallah, Khadijah E.; Jenkins, Jean F.; Bonham, Vence L.

    2017-01-01

    ancestry may increase in clinical decision making could allow nurses to more appropriately use of race in clinical care. Integrating patient demographic characteristics into clinical decisions is an important component of nursing practice. Clinical Relevance Registered nurses provide care for diverse racial and ethnic patient populations and stand on the front line of clinical care, making them essential for reducing racial and ethnic disparities in healthcare delivery. Exploring registered nurses’ individual-level characteristics and clinical use of race may provide a more comprehensive understanding of specific training needs and inform nursing education and practice. PMID:27676232

  15. Understanding complex clinical reasoning in infectious diseases for improving clinical decision support design.

    PubMed

    Islam, Roosan; Weir, Charlene R; Jones, Makoto; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Samore, Matthew H

    2015-11-30

    Clinical experts' cognitive mechanisms for managing complexity have implications for the design of future innovative healthcare systems. The purpose of the study is to examine the constituents of decision complexity and explore the cognitive strategies clinicians use to control and adapt to their information environment. We used Cognitive Task Analysis (CTA) methods to interview 10 Infectious Disease (ID) experts at the University of Utah and Salt Lake City Veterans Administration Medical Center. Participants were asked to recall a complex, critical and vivid antibiotic-prescribing incident using the Critical Decision Method (CDM), a type of Cognitive Task Analysis (CTA). Using the four iterations of the Critical Decision Method, questions were posed to fully explore the incident, focusing in depth on the clinical components underlying the complexity. Probes were included to assess cognitive and decision strategies used by participants. The following three themes emerged as the constituents of decision complexity experienced by the Infectious Diseases experts: 1) the overall clinical picture does not match the pattern, 2) a lack of comprehension of the situation and 3) dealing with social and emotional pressures such as fear and anxiety. All these factors contribute to decision complexity. These factors almost always occurred together, creating unexpected events and uncertainty in clinical reasoning. Five themes emerged in the analyses of how experts deal with the complexity. Expert clinicians frequently used 1) watchful waiting instead of over- prescribing antibiotics, engaged in 2) theory of mind to project and simulate other practitioners' perspectives, reduced very complex cases into simple 3) heuristics, employed 4) anticipatory thinking to plan and re-plan events and consulted with peers to share knowledge, solicit opinions and 5) seek help on patient cases. The cognitive strategies to deal with decision complexity found in this study have important

  16. AGU governance's decision-making process advances strategic plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhaden, Michael; Finn, Carol; McEntee, Chris

    2012-10-01

    A lot has happened in a little more than 2 years, and we want give AGU members an update on how things are working under AGU's strategic plan and governance model. AGU is an organization committed to its strategic plan (http://www.agu.org/about/strategic_plan.shtml), and if you have not read the plan lately, we encourage you to do so. AGU's vision is to be an organization that "galvanizes a community of Earth and space scientists that collaboratively advances and communicates science and its power to ensure a sustainable future." We are excited about the progress we have made under this plan and the future course we have set for the Union. Everything the Board of Directors, Council, and committees put on their agendas is intended to advance AGU's strategic goals and objectives. Together with headquarters staff, these bodies are working in an integrated, effective manner to carry out this plan. The best way to demonstrate the progress made and each group's role is to walk through a recent example: the creation of a new Union-level award (see Figure 1).

  17. Clinical applications of advanced rotational radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nalichowski, Adrian

    Purpose: With a fast adoption of emerging technologies, it is critical to fully test and understand its limits and capabilities. In this work we investigate new graphic processing unit (GPU) based treatment planning algorithm and its applications in helical tomotherapy dose delivery. We explore the limits of the system by applying it to challenging clinical cases of total marrow irradiation (TMI) and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). We also analyze the feasibility of alternative fractionation schemes for total body irradiation (TBI) and TMI based on reported historical data on lung dose and interstitial pneumonitis (IP) incidence rates. Methods and Materials: An anthropomorphic phantom was used to create TMI plans using the new GPU based treatment planning system and the existing CPU cluster based system. Optimization parameters were selected based on clinically used values for field width, modulation factor and pitch. Treatment plans were also created on Eclipse treatment planning system (Varian Medical Systems Inc, Palo Alto, CA) using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for dose delivery on IX treatment unit. A retrospective review was performed of 42 publications that reported IP rates along with lung dose, fractionation regimen, dose rate and chemotherapy. The analysis consisted of nearly thirty two hundred patients and 34 unique radiation regimens. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine parameters associated with IP and establish does response function. Results: The results showed very good dosimetric agreement between the GPU and CPU calculated plans. The results from SBRT study show that GPU planning system can maintain 90% target coverage while meeting all the constraints of RTOG 0631 protocol. Beam on time for Tomotherapy and flattening filter free RapidArc was much faster than for Vero or Cyberknife. Retrospective data analysis showed that lung dose and Cyclophosphomide (Cy) are both predictors of IP in TBI/TMI treatments. The

  18. Nurses' Use of Race in Clinical Decision Making.

    PubMed

    Sellers, Sherrill L; Moss, Melissa E; Calzone, Kathleen; Abdallah, Khadijah E; Jenkins, Jean F; Bonham, Vence L

    2016-11-01

    To examine nurses' self-reported use of race in clinical evaluation. This cross-sectional study analyzed data collected from three separate studies using the Genetics and Genomics in Nursing Practice Survey, which includes items about use of race and genomic information in nursing practice. The Racial Attributes in Clinical Evaluation (RACE) scale was used to measure explicit clinical use of race among nurses from across the United States. Multivariate regression analysis was used to examine associations between RACE score and individual-level characteristics and beliefs in 5,733 registered nurses. Analysis revealed significant relationships between RACE score and nurses' race and ethnicity, educational level, and views on the clinical importance of patient demographic characteristics. Asian nurses reported RACE scores 1.41 points higher than White nurses (p < .001), and Black nurses reported RACE scores 0.55 points higher than White nurses (p < .05). Compared to diploma-level nurses, the baccalaureate-level nurses reported 0.69 points higher RACE scores (p < .05), master's-level nurses reported 1.63 points higher RACE scores (p < .001), and doctorate-level nurses reported 1.77 points higher RACE scores (p < .01). In terms of clinical importance of patient characteristics, patient race and ethnicity corresponded to a 0.54-point increase in RACE score (p < .001), patient genes to a 0.21-point increase in RACE score (p < .001), patient family history to a 0.15-point increase in RACE score (p < .01), and patient age to a 0.19-point increase in RACE score (p < .001). Higher reported use of race among minority nurses may be due, in part, to differential levels of racial self-awareness. A relatively linear positive relationship between level of nursing degree nursing education and use of race suggests that a stronger foundation of knowledge about genetic ancestry, population genetics and the concept "race" and genetic ancestry may increase in clinical decision making

  19. Clinical equipoise and treatment decisions in cervical spondylotic myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Benatar, Michael

    2007-02-01

    The primary objective of this study is to evaluate clinician attitudes towards the treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) in order to determine whether clinical equipoise exists for a segment of this patient population. The secondary objective is to examine the factors that influence treatment decisions. Cross-sectional internet-based survey of neurologists, neurosurgeons and orthopedic surgeons. Between 40-60% of respondents recommended surgery for (1) patients with minimal or no symptoms, but incidentally discovered increased T2 signal within the cervical cord on MRI, (2) patients with mild symptoms and indentation of the cervical cord but without increased T2 signal and (3) those with at least moderately severe clinical findings accompanied by MRI showing effacement of the thecal sac but without indentation of the cord or increased T2 signal. The severity of the radiological abnormalities most strongly influence treatment decisions. We conclude that clinical equipoise does exist for certain groups of patients with CSM, suggesting that a randomized controlled trial could be performed in this population.

  20. Modeling decision support rule interactions in a clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Sordo, Margarita; Rocha, Beatriz H; Morales, Alfredo A; Maviglia, Saverio M; Oglio, Elisa Dell'Oglio; Fairbanks, Amanda; Aroy, Teal; Dubois, David; Bouyer-Ferullo, Sharon; Rocha, Roberto A

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, rule interactions are handled at implementation time through rule task properties that control the order in which rules are executed. By doing so, knowledge about the behavior and interactions of decision rules is not captured at modeling time. We argue that this is important knowledge that should be integrated in the modeling phase. In this project, we build upon current work on a conceptual schema to represent clinical knowledge for decision support in the form of if then rules. This schema currently captures provenance of the clinical content, context where such content is actionable (i.e. constraints) and the logic of the rule itself. For this project, we borrowed concepts from both the Semantic Web (i.e., Ontologies) and Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS), to explore a conceptual approach for modeling rule interactions in an enterprise-wide clinical setting. We expect that a more comprehensive modeling will facilitate knowledge authoring, editing and update; foster consistency in rules implementation and maintenance; and develop authoritative knowledge repositories to promote quality, safety and efficacy of healthcare.

  1. Decision aids for advance care planning: an overview of the state of the science.

    PubMed

    Butler, Mary; Ratner, Edward; McCreedy, Ellen; Shippee, Nathan; Kane, Robert L

    2014-09-16

    Advance care planning honors patients' goals and preferences for future care by creating a plan for when illness or injury impedes the ability to think or communicate about health decisions. Fewer than 50% of severely or terminally ill patients have an advance directive in their medical record, and physicians are accurate only about 65% of the time when predicting patient preferences for intensive care. Decision aids can support the advance care planning process by providing a structured approach to informing patients about care options and prompting them to document and communicate their preferences. This review, commissioned as a technical brief by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Effective Health Care Program, provides a broad overview of current use of and research related to decision aids for adult advance care planning. Using interviews of key informants and a search of the gray and published literature from January 1990 to May 2014, the authors found that many decision aids are widely available but are not assessed in the empirical literature. The 16 published studies testing decision aids as interventions for adult advance care planning found that most are proprietary or not publicly available. Some are constructed for the general population, whereas others address disease-specific conditions that have more predictable end-of-life scenarios and, therefore, more discrete choices. New decision aids should be designed that are responsive to diverse philosophical perspectives and flexible enough to change as patients gain experience with their personal illness courses. Future efforts should include further research, training of advance care planning facilitators, dissemination and access, and tapping potential opportunities in social media or other technologies.

  2. Impact of dysphagia severity on clinical decision making via telerehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Ward, Elizabeth C; Burns, Clare L; Theodoros, Deborah G; Russell, Trevor G

    2014-04-01

    Recent research supports the proposal that valid and reliable clinical swallow examinations (CSEs) can be conducted via telerehabilitation. However, no studies have explored whether dysphagia severity has an impact on the success of the session or its outcomes. The current study examined how dysphagia severity impacted on either (a) clinical decision making for safety of oral intake or (b) clinician perceptions of CSEs conducted via telerehabilitation. One hundred patients (25 nondysphagics and 25 mild, 25 moderate, and 25 severe dysphagics) were assessed using a telehealth system and methodology reported in prior research. For each assessment, the online and face-to-face (FTF) clinicians simultaneously completed a structured CSE. On session completion, the online clinician indicated level of agreement with two statements regarding the level of rapport and ability to competently assess the patient. In each of the four groups, acceptable levels of agreement were observed between raters for the three primary outcomes (decisions regarding oral/nonoral intake and safe food and fluids) as well as over 90% of the CSE items. Clinicians agreed they could develop good rapport with the majority of patients in all groups. However, for a small but significant (p<0.5) proportion of patents in the severe dysphagic group, clinicians disagreed they were able to satisfactorily and competently assess to the best of their abilities using the telerehabilitation system. Clinical decisions made during and as an outcome of the total CSE were found to be comparable to those made in the FTF environment regardless of dysphagia severity. Clinicians noted some difficulty assessing patients with greater complexity, which occurred in greater numbers in the group with severe dysphagia.

  3. Providers' Response to Clinical Decision Support for QT Prolonging Drugs.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sunita; Martijn Bos, J; Tarrell, Robert F; Simon, Gyorgy J; Morlan, Bruce W; Ackerman, Michael J; Caraballo, Pedro J

    2017-09-02

    Commonly used drugs in hospital setting can cause QT prolongation and trigger life-threatening arrhythmias. We evaluate changes in prescribing behavior after the implementation of a clinical decision support system to prevent the use of QT prolonging medications in the hospital setting. We conducted a quasi-experimental study, before and after the implementation of a clinical decision support system integrated in the electronic medical record (QT-alert system). This system detects patients at risk of significant QT prolongation (QTc>500ms) and alerts providers ordering QT prolonging drugs. We reviewed the electronic health record to assess the provider's responses which were classified as "action taken" (QT drug avoided, QT drug changed, other QT drug(s) avoided, ECG monitoring, electrolytes monitoring, QT issue acknowledged, other actions) or "no action taken". Approximately, 15.5% (95/612) of the alerts were followed by a provider's action in the pre-intervention phase compared with 21% (228/1085) in the post-intervention phase (p=0.006). The most common type of actions taken during pre-intervention phase compared to post-intervention phase were ECG monitoring (8% vs. 13%, p=0.002) and QT issue acknowledgment (2.1% vs. 4.1%, p=0.03). Notably, there was no significant difference for other actions including QT drug avoided (p=0.8), QT drug changed (p=0.06) and other QT drug(s) avoided (p=0.3). Our study demonstrated that the QT alert system prompted a higher proportion of providers to take action on patients at risk of complications. However, the overall impact was modest underscoring the need for educating providers and optimizing clinical decision support to further reduce drug-induced QT prolongation.

  4. Dissemination and Implementation of Shared Decision Making Into Clinical Practice: A Research Agenda.

    PubMed

    Kanzaria, Hemal K; Booker-Vaughns, Juanita; Itakura, Kaoru; Yadav, Kabir; Kane, Bryan G; Gayer, Christopher; Lin, Grace; LeBlanc, Annie; Gibson, Robert; Chen, Esther H; Williams, Pluscedia; Carpenter, Christopher R

    2016-12-01

    Shared decision making (SDM) is essential to advancing patient-centered care in emergency medicine. Despite many documented benefits of SDM, prior research has demonstrated persistently low levels of patient engagement by clinicians across many disciplines, including emergency medicine. An effective dissemination and implementation (D&I) framework could be used to alter the process of delivering care and to facilitate SDM in routine clinical emergency medicine practice. Here we outline a research and policy agenda to support the D&I strategy needed to integrate SDM into emergency care. © 2016 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  5. Clinical decision-making and secondary findings in systems medicine.

    PubMed

    Fischer, T; Brothers, K B; Erdmann, P; Langanke, M

    2016-05-21

    Systems medicine is the name for an assemblage of scientific strategies and practices that include bioinformatics approaches to human biology (especially systems biology); "big data" statistical analysis; and medical informatics tools. Whereas personalized and precision medicine involve similar analytical methods applied to genomic and medical record data, systems medicine draws on these as well as other sources of data. Given this distinction, the clinical translation of systems medicine poses a number of important ethical and epistemological challenges for researchers working to generate systems medicine knowledge and clinicians working to apply it. This article focuses on three key challenges: First, we will discuss the conflicts in decision-making that can arise when healthcare providers committed to principles of experimental medicine or evidence-based medicine encounter individualized recommendations derived from computer algorithms. We will explore in particular whether controlled experiments, such as comparative effectiveness trials, should mediate the translation of systems medicine, or if instead individualized findings generated through "big data" approaches can be applied directly in clinical decision-making. Second, we will examine the case of the Riyadh Intensive Care Program Mortality Prediction Algorithm, pejoratively referred to as the "death computer," to demonstrate the ethical challenges that can arise when big-data-driven scoring systems are applied in clinical contexts. We argue that the uncritical use of predictive clinical algorithms, including those envisioned for systems medicine, challenge basic understandings of the doctor-patient relationship. Third, we will build on the recent discourse on secondary findings in genomics and imaging to draw attention to the important implications of secondary findings derived from the joint analysis of data from diverse sources, including data recorded by patients in an attempt to realize their

  6. Is it the time to rethink clinical decision-making strategies? From a single clinical outcome evaluation to a Clinical Multi-criteria Decision Assessment (CMDA).

    PubMed

    Migliore, Alberto; Integlia, Davide; Bizzi, Emanuele; Piaggio, Tomaso

    2015-10-01

    There are plenty of different clinical, organizational and economic parameters to consider in order having a complete assessment of the total impact of a pharmaceutical treatment. In the attempt to follow, a holistic approach aimed to provide an evaluation embracing all clinical parameters in order to choose the best treatments, it is necessary to compare and weight multiple criteria. Therefore, a change is required: we need to move from a decision-making context based on the assessment of one single criteria towards a transparent and systematic framework enabling decision makers to assess all relevant parameters simultaneously in order to choose the best treatment to use. In order to apply the MCDA methodology to clinical decision making the best pharmaceutical treatment (or medical devices) to use to treat a specific pathology, we suggest a specific application of the Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis for the purpose, like a Clinical Multi-criteria Decision Assessment CMDA. In CMDA, results from both meta-analysis and observational studies are used by a clinical consensus after attributing weights to specific domains and related parameters. The decision will result from a related comparison of all consequences (i.e., efficacy, safety, adherence, administration route) existing behind the choice to use a specific pharmacological treatment. The match will yield a score (in absolute value) that link each parameter with a specific intervention, and then a final score for each treatment. The higher is the final score; the most appropriate is the intervention to treat disease considering all criteria (domain an parameters). The results will allow the physician to evaluate the best clinical treatment for his patients considering at the same time all relevant criteria such as clinical effectiveness for all parameters and administration route. The use of CMDA model will yield a clear and complete indication of the best pharmaceutical treatment to use for patients

  7. Artificial intelligence framework for simulating clinical decision-making: a Markov decision process approach.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Casey C; Hauser, Kris

    2013-01-01

    In the modern healthcare system, rapidly expanding costs/complexity, the growing myriad of treatment options, and exploding information streams that often do not effectively reach the front lines hinder the ability to choose optimal treatment decisions over time. The goal in this paper is to develop a general purpose (non-disease-specific) computational/artificial intelligence (AI) framework to address these challenges. This framework serves two potential functions: (1) a simulation environment for exploring various healthcare policies, payment methodologies, etc., and (2) the basis for clinical artificial intelligence - an AI that can "think like a doctor". This approach combines Markov decision processes and dynamic decision networks to learn from clinical data and develop complex plans via simulation of alternative sequential decision paths while capturing the sometimes conflicting, sometimes synergistic interactions of various components in the healthcare system. It can operate in partially observable environments (in the case of missing observations or data) by maintaining belief states about patient health status and functions as an online agent that plans and re-plans as actions are performed and new observations are obtained. This framework was evaluated using real patient data from an electronic health record. The results demonstrate the feasibility of this approach; such an AI framework easily outperforms the current treatment-as-usual (TAU) case-rate/fee-for-service models of healthcare. The cost per unit of outcome change (CPUC) was $189 vs. $497 for AI vs. TAU (where lower is considered optimal) - while at the same time the AI approach could obtain a 30-35% increase in patient outcomes. Tweaking certain AI model parameters could further enhance this advantage, obtaining approximately 50% more improvement (outcome change) for roughly half the costs. Given careful design and problem formulation, an AI simulation framework can approximate optimal

  8. Decision Support for Diabetes in Scotland: Implementation and Evaluation of a Clinical Decision Support System.

    PubMed

    Conway, Nicholas; Adamson, Karen A; Cunningham, Scott G; Emslie Smith, Alistair; Nyberg, Peter; Smith, Blair H; Wales, Ann; Wake, Deborah J

    2017-09-01

    Automated clinical decision support systems (CDSS) are associated with improvements in health care delivery to those with long-term conditions, including diabetes. A CDSS was introduced to two Scottish regions (combined diabetes population ~30 000) via a national diabetes electronic health record. This study aims to describe users' reactions to the CDSS and to quantify impact on clinical processes and outcomes over two improvement cycles: December 2013 to February 2014 and August 2014 to November 2014. Feedback was sought via patient questionnaires, health care professional (HCP) focus groups, and questionnaires. Multivariable regression was used to analyze HCP SCI-Diabetes usage (with respect to CDSS message presence/absence) and case-control comparison of clinical processes/outcomes. Cases were patients whose HCP received a CDSS messages during the study period. Closely matched controls were selected from regions outside the study, following similar clinical practice (without CDSS). Clinical process measures were screening rates for diabetes-related complications. Clinical outcomes included HbA1c at 1 year. The CDSS had no adverse impact on consultations. HCPs were generally positive toward CDSS and used it within normal clinical workflow. CDSS messages were generated for 5692 cases, matched to 10 667 controls. Following clinic, the probability of patients being appropriately screened for complications more than doubled for most measures. Mean HbA1c improved in cases and controls but more so in cases (-2.3 mmol/mol [-0.2%] versus -1.1 [-0.1%], P = .003). The CDSS was well received; associated with improved efficiencies in working practices; and large improvements in guideline adherence. These evidence-based, early interventions can significantly reduce costly and devastating complications.

  9. Evaluation of RxNorm for Medication Clinical Decision Support.

    PubMed

    Freimuth, Robert R; Wix, Kelly; Zhu, Qian; Siska, Mark; Chute, Christopher G

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the potential use of RxNorm to provide standardized representations of generic drug name and route of administration to facilitate management of drug lists for clinical decision support (CDS) rules. We found a clear representation of generic drug name but not route of administration. We identified several issues related to data quality, including erroneous or missing defined relationships, and the use of different concept hierarchies to represent the same drug. More importantly, we found extensive semantic precoordination of orthogonal concepts related to route and dose form, which would complicate the use of RxNorm for drug-based CDS. This study demonstrated that while RxNorm is a valuable resource for the standardization of medications used in clinical practice, additional work is required to enhance the terminology so that it can support expanded use cases, such as managing drug lists for CDS.

  10. Clinical Decision Support Knowledge Management: Strategies for Success.

    PubMed

    Khalifa, Mohamed; Alswailem, Osama

    2015-01-01

    Clinical Decision Support Systems have been shown to increase quality of care, patient safety, improve adherence to guidelines for prevention and treatment, and avoid medication errors. Such systems depend mainly on two types of content; the clinical information related to patients and the medical knowledge related to the specialty that informs the system rules and alerts. At King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Saudi Arabia, the Health Information Technology Affairs worked on identifying best strategies and recommendations for successful CDSS knowledge management. A review of literature was conducted to identify main areas of challenges and factors of success. A qualitative survey was used over six months' duration to collect opinions, experiences and suggestions from both IT and healthcare professionals. Recommendations were categorized into ten main topics that should be addressed during the development and implementation of CDSS knowledge management tools in the hospital.

  11. Studying the vendor perspective on clinical decision support.

    PubMed

    Ash, Joan S; Sittig, Dean F; McMullen, Carmit K; McCormack, James L; Wright, Adam; Bunce, Arwen; Wasserman, Joseph; Mohan, Vishnu; Cohen, Deborah J; Shapiro, Michael; Middleton, Blackford

    2011-01-01

    In prior work, using a Rapid Assessment Process (RAP), we have investigated clinical decision support (CDS) in ambulatory clinics and hospitals. We realized that individuals in these settings provide only one perspective related to the CDS landscape, which also includes content vendors and electronic health record (EHR) vendors. To discover content vendors' perspectives and their perceived challenges, we modified RAP for industrial settings. We describe how we employed RAP, and show its utility by describing two illustrative themes. We found that while the content vendors believe they provide unique much-needed services, the amount of labor involved in content development is underestimated by others. We also found that the content vendors believe their products are resources to be used by practitioners, so they are somewhat protected from liability issues. To promote adequate understanding about these issues, we recommend a "three way conversation" among content vendors, EHR vendors, and user organizations.

  12. Studying the Vendor Perspective on Clinical Decision Support

    PubMed Central

    Ash, Joan S.; Sittig, Dean F.; McMullen, Carmit K.; McCormack, James L.; Wright, Adam; Bunce, Arwen; Wasserman, Joseph; Mohan, Vishnu; Cohen, Deborah J.; Shapiro, Michael; Middleton, Blackford

    2011-01-01

    In prior work, using a Rapid Assessment Process (RAP), we have investigated clinical decision support (CDS) in ambulatory clinics and hospitals. We realized that individuals in these settings provide only one perspective related to the CDS landscape, which also includes content vendors and electronic health record (EHR) vendors. To discover content vendors’ perspectives and their perceived challenges, we modified RAP for industrial settings. We describe how we employed RAP, and show its utility by describing two illustrative themes. We found that while the content vendors believe they provide unique much-needed services, the amount of labor involved in content development is underestimated by others. We also found that the content vendors believe their products are resources to be used by practitioners, so they are somewhat protected from liability issues. To promote adequate understanding about these issues, we recommend a “three way conversation” among content vendors, EHR vendors, and user organizations. PMID:22195058

  13. Patient management scenario: a framework for clinical decision and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Gospodarowicz, Mary; O'Sullivan, Brian

    2003-01-01

    The depiction of prognosis is one of the main activities and a mainstay in medical practice. In cancer, as in other diseases, the prognosis differs for a variety of situations and evolves with time and with medical interventions. Although most commonly described at diagnosis, prognosis may be defined at any time during the course of the disease and for any endpoint including response to therapy, failure of treatment, survival, or preservation of function, and so forth. To facilitate the accurate portrayal of the future, the prognosis should be defined within a specific setting, referred to as a 'management scenario'. In the concept of a management scenario, the prognosis is defined using systematically considered prognostic factors, interventions and the outcome of interest. A deliberate and careful determination of prognosis is essential to clinical decision making and patient care. We illustrate the use of the concept of management scenario in several clinical examples.

  14. Evaluation of RxNorm for Medication Clinical Decision Support

    PubMed Central

    Freimuth, Robert R.; Wix, Kelly; Zhu, Qian; Siska, Mark; Chute, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the potential use of RxNorm to provide standardized representations of generic drug name and route of administration to facilitate management of drug lists for clinical decision support (CDS) rules. We found a clear representation of generic drug name but not route of administration. We identified several issues related to data quality, including erroneous or missing defined relationships, and the use of different concept hierarchies to represent the same drug. More importantly, we found extensive semantic precoordination of orthogonal concepts related to route and dose form, which would complicate the use of RxNorm for drug-based CDS. This study demonstrated that while RxNorm is a valuable resource for the standardization of medications used in clinical practice, additional work is required to enhance the terminology so that it can support expanded use cases, such as managing drug lists for CDS. PMID:25954360

  15. Rasmussen’s encephalitis: clinical features, pathobiology, and treatment advances

    PubMed Central

    Varadkar, Sophia; Bien, Christian G; Kruse, Carol A; Jensen, Frances E; Bauer, Jan; Pardo, Carlos A; Vincent, Angela; Mathern, Gary W; Cross, J Helen

    2014-01-01

    Rasmussen’s encephalitis is a rare chronic neurological disorder, characterised by unilateral inflammation of the cerebral cortex, drug-resistant epilepsy, and progressive neurological and cognitive deterioration. Neuropathological and immunological studies support the notion that Rasmussen’s encephalitis is probably driven by a T-cell response to one or more antigenic epitopes, with potential additional contribution by autoantibodies. Careful analysis of the association between histopathology and clinical presentation suggests that initial damage to the brain is mediated by T cells and microglia, suggesting a window for treatment if Rasmussen’s encephalitis can be diagnosed early. Advances in neuroimaging suggest that progression of the inflammatory process seen with MRI might be a good biomarker in Rasmussen’s encephalitis. For many patients, families, and doctors, choosing the right time to move from medical management to surgery is a real therapeutic dilemma. Cerebral hemispherectomy remains the only cure for seizures, but there are inevitable functional compromises. Decisions of whether or when surgery should be undertaken are challenging in the absence of a dense neurological deficit, and vary by institutional experience. Further, the optimum time for surgery, to give the best language and cognitive outcome, is not yet well understood. Immunomodulatory treatments seem to slow rather than halt disease progression in Rasmussen’s encephalitis, without changing the eventual outcome. PMID:24457189

  16. Clinical decision rules to distinguish between bacterial and aseptic meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Dubos, F; Lamotte, B; Bibi‐Triki, F; Moulin, F; Raymond, J; Gendrel, D; Bréart, G; Chalumeau, M

    2006-01-01

    Background Clinical decision rules have been derived to distinguish between bacterial and aseptic meningitis in the emergency room to avoid unnecessary antibiotic treatments and hospitalisations. Aims To evaluate the reproducibility and to compare the diagnostic performance of five clinical decision rules. Methods All children hospitalised for bacterial meningitis between 1995 and 2004 or aseptic meningitis between 2000 and 2004 have been included in a retrospective cohort study. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated by applying each rule to the patients. The best rule was a priori defined as the one yielding 100% sensitivity for bacterial meningitis, the highest specificity, and the greatest simplicity for a bedside application. Results Among the 166 patients included, 20 had bacterial meningitis and 146 had aseptic meningitis. Although three rules achieved 100% sensitivity (95% CI 84–100), one had a significantly lower specificity (13%, 95% CI 8–19) than those of the other two rules (57%, 95% CI 48–65; and 66%, 95% CI 57–73), which were not statistically different. The ease of manual computation of the rule developed by Nigrovic et al (a simple list of five items: seizure, blood neutrophil count, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Gram stain, CSF protein, CSF neutrophil count) was higher than the one developed by Bonsu and Harper. Conclusion On our population, the rule derived by Nigrovic et al had the best balance between accuracy and simplicity of manual computation and could help to avoid two thirds of unnecessary antibiotic treatments and hospitalisations. PMID:16595647

  17. Understanding patients' and doctors' attitudes about shared decision making for advance care planning.

    PubMed

    Hajizadeh, Negin; Uhler, Lauren M; Pérez Figueroa, Rafael E

    2015-12-01

    Although shared decision making (SDM) is the preferred model of making complex treatment decisions with patients, patients' and doctors' attitudes towards SDM for advance care planning are unknown. We sought to: (i) gain general insights into the current practice of SDM and attitudes about patient involvement, and (ii) gain specific insights into experience with, and attitudes about, SDM for advance care planning. Qualitative analysis of face-to-face semi-structured interviews. Patients with chronic lung disease and their doctors at a New York City public hospital. Although patients described participation in decision making, many deferred the final decision to their doctors. Doctors indicated a preference for SDM but expressed barriers including perceived lack of patient understanding and lack of patient empowerment. With regard to end-of-life discussions, patients were generally open to having these discussions with their doctors, although their openness sometimes depended on the circumstance (i.e. end-of-life discussions may be more acceptable to patients for whom the chance of dying is high). Doctors reported engaging in end-of-life treatment decisions with their patients, although expressed the need for conversations to take place earlier, in advance of acute illness, and identified a lack of prognostic estimates as one barrier to engaging in this discussion. Doctors should explore their patients' attitudes regarding end-of-life discussions and preferences for decision-making styles. There is a need for tools such as decision aids which can empower patients to participate in decision making and can support doctors with prognostic estimates pertinent to individual patients. © 2014 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Clinical genomics information management software linking cancer genome sequence and clinical decisions.

    PubMed

    Watt, Stuart; Jiao, Wei; Brown, Andrew M K; Petrocelli, Teresa; Tran, Ben; Zhang, Tong; McPherson, John D; Kamel-Reid, Suzanne; Bedard, Philippe L; Onetto, Nicole; Hudson, Thomas J; Dancey, Janet; Siu, Lillian L; Stein, Lincoln; Ferretti, Vincent

    2013-09-01

    Using sequencing information to guide clinical decision-making requires coordination of a diverse set of people and activities. In clinical genomics, the process typically includes sample acquisition, template preparation, genome data generation, analysis to identify and confirm variant alleles, interpretation of clinical significance, and reporting to clinicians. We describe a software application developed within a clinical genomics study, to support this entire process. The software application tracks patients, samples, genomic results, decisions and reports across the cohort, monitors progress and sends reminders, and works alongside an electronic data capture system for the trial's clinical and genomic data. It incorporates systems to read, store, analyze and consolidate sequencing results from multiple technologies, and provides a curated knowledge base of tumor mutation frequency (from the COSMIC database) annotated with clinical significance and drug sensitivity to generate reports for clinicians. By supporting the entire process, the application provides deep support for clinical decision making, enabling the generation of relevant guidance in reports for verification by an expert panel prior to forwarding to the treating physician. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparative impact of guidelines, clinical data, and decision support on prescribing decisions: an interactive web experiment with simulated cases.

    PubMed

    Sintchenko, Vitali; Coiera, Enrico; Iredell, Jonathan R; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the clinical impact of computerized decision support with and without electronic access to clinical guidelines and laboratory data on antibiotic prescribing decisions. A crossover trial was conducted of four levels of computerized decision support-no support, antibiotic guidelines, laboratory reports, and laboratory reports plus a decision support system (DSS), randomly allocated to eight simulated clinical cases accessed by the Web. Rate of intervention adoption was measured by frequency of accessing information support, cost of use was measured by time taken to complete each case, and effectiveness of decision was measured by correctness of and self-reported confidence in individual prescribing decisions. Clinical impact score was measured by adoption rate and decision effectiveness. Thirty-one intensive care and infectious disease specialist physicians (ICPs and IDPs) participated in the study. Ventilator-associated pneumonia treatment guidelines were used in 24 (39%) of the 62 case scenarios for which they were available, microbiology reports in 36 (58%), and the DSS in 37 (60%). The use of all forms of information support did not affect clinicians' confidence in their decisions. Their use of the DSS plus microbiology report improved the agreement of decisions with those of an expert panel from 65% to 97% (p=0.0002), or to 67% (p=0.002) when antibiotic guidelines only were accessed. Significantly fewer IDPs than ICPs accessed information support in making treatment decisions. On average, it took 245 seconds to make a decision using the DSS compared with 113 seconds for unaided prescribing (p<0.001). The DSS plus microbiology reports had the highest clinical impact score (0.58), greater than that of electronic guidelines (0.26) and electronic laboratory reports (0.45). When used, computer-based decision support significantly improved decision quality. In measuring the impact of decision support systems, both their

  20. Can patient decision aids help people make good decisions about participating in clinical trials? A study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Brehaut, Jamie C; Lott, Alison; Fergusson, Dean A; Shojania, Kaveh G; Kimmelman, Jonathan; Saginur, Raphael

    2008-01-01

    Background Evidence shows that the standard process for obtaining informed consent in clinical trials can be inadequate, with study participants frequently not understanding even basic information fundamental to giving informed consent. Patient decision aids are effective decision support tools originally designed to help patients make difficult treatment or screening decisions. We propose that incorporating decision aids into the informed consent process will improve the extent to which participants make decisions that are informed and consistent with their preferences. A mixed methods study will test this proposal. Methods Phase one of this project will involve assessment of a stratified random sample of 50 consent documents from recently completed investigator-initiated clinical trials, according to existing standards for supporting good decision making. Phase two will involve interviews of a purposive sample of 50 trial participants (10 participants from each of five different clinical areas) about their experience of the informed consent process, and how it could be improved. In phase three, we will convert consent forms for two completed clinical trials into decision aids and pilot test these new tools using a user-centered design approach, an iterative development process commonly employed in computer usability literature. In phase four, we will conduct a pilot observational study comparing the new tools to standard consent forms, with potential recruits to two hypothetical clinical trials. Outcomes will include knowledge of key aspects of the decision, knowledge of the probabilities of different outcomes, decisional conflict, the hypothetical participation decision, and qualitative impressions of the experience. Discussion This work will provide initial evidence about whether a patient decision aid can improve the informed consent process. The larger goal of this work is to examine whether study recruitment can be improved from (barely) informed consent

  1. Design Recommendations for Pharmacogenomics Clinical Decision Support Systems

    PubMed Central

    Khelifi, Maher; Tarczy-Hornoch, Peter; Devine, Emily B.; Pratt, Wanda

    2017-01-01

    The use of pharmacogenomics (PGx) in clinical practice still faces challenges to fully adopt genetic information in targeting drug therapy. To incorporate genetics into clinical practice, many support the use of Pharmacogenomics Clinical Decision Support Systems (PGx-CDS) for medication prescriptions. This support was fueled by new guidelines to incorporate genetics for optimizing drug dosage and reducing adverse events. In addition, the complexity of PGx led to exploring CDS outside the paradigm of the basic CDS tools embedded in commercial electronic health records. Therefore, designing the right CDS is key to unleashing the full potential of pharmacogenomics and making it a part of clinicians’ daily workflow. In this work, we 1) identify challenges and barriers of the implementation of PGx-CDS in clinical settings, 2) develop a new design approach to CDS with functional characteristics that can improve the adoption of pharmacogenomics guidelines and thus patient safety, and 3) create design guidelines and recommendations for such PGx-CDS tools. PMID:28815136

  2. Computers in pharmacokinetics. Choosing software for clinical decision making.

    PubMed

    Buffington, D E; Lampasona, V; Chandler, M H

    1993-09-01

    Over the past 20 years, pharmacokinetic programs have been developed for clinical decision making. These clinical pharmacokinetic software programs are designed to assist the clinician in the analysis, interpretation and reporting of serum drug concentration data for a variety of medications. The programs vary in the extent of features and range of medications supported and thus warrant careful review before selecting or purchasing such a program for routine use. A series of programs which are commercially available in the United States was reviewed for this article. The focus of the review is not to recommend a single program or to provide a ranked list of commercially available programs. Information is presented to clinicians to better their understanding of the features of these computer-based clinical resources. As an introduction to this topic, the information presented concentrates on the system and support features. Those programs that were reviewed demonstrate the ability to assist in the analysis of serum or plasma drug concentration data for most of the medications that warrant therapeutic drug monitoring. They provide both Bayesian and non-Bayesian methods for predicting serum drug concentrations. Standard personal computers were sufficient to run each of the programs reviewed. In addition, most programs offered technical and clinical support. However, the quality of the user manuals and training material varies among software programs. In-depth analytical comparisons are currently being conducted for future publication.

  3. Risk of discontinuation of Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Eve; Rémuzat, Cecile; Auquier, Pascal; Toumi, Mondher

    2016-01-01

    Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) constitute a class of innovative products that encompasses gene therapy, somatic cell therapy, and tissue-engineered products (TEP). There is an increased investment of commercial and non-commercial sponsors in this field and a growing number of ATMPs randomized clinical trials (RCT) and patients enrolled in such trials. RCT generate data to prove the efficacy of a new therapy, but the discontinuation of RCTs wastes scarce resources. Our objective is to identify the number and characteristics of discontinued ATMPs trials in order to evaluate the rate of discontinuation. We searched for ATMPs trials conducted between 1999 to June 2015 using three databases, which are Clinicaltrials.gov, the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP), and the EU Drug Regulating Authorities Clinical Trials (EudraCT). We selected the ATMPs trials after elimination of the duplicates. We identified the disease areas and the sponsors as commercial or non-commercial organizations. We classified ATMPs by type and trial status, that is, ongoing, completed, terminated, discontinued, and prematurely ended. Then, we calculated the rate of discontinuation. Between 1999 and June 2015, 143 withdrawn, terminated, or prematurely ended ATMPs clinical trials were identified. Between 1999 and June 2013, 474 ongoing and completed clinical trials were identified. Therefore, the rate of discontinuation of ATMPs trials is 23.18%, similar to that for non-ATMPs drugs in development. The probability of discontinuation is, respectively, 27.35, 16.28, and 16.34% for cell therapies, gene therapies, and TEP. The highest discontinuation rate is for oncology (43%), followed by cardiology (19.2%). It is almost the same for commercial and non-commercial sponsors; therefore, the discontinuation reason may not be financially driven. No failure risk rate per development phase is available for ATMPs. The discontinuation rate may prove helpful when assessing the

  4. Exploring the Utility of Advanced Placement Participation and Performance in College Admission Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Emily J.; Marini, Jessica P.; Mattern, Krista D.

    2013-01-01

    The current study evaluated the relationship between various operationalizations of the Advanced Placement[R] (AP) exam and course information with first-year grade point average (FYGPA) in college to better understand the role of AP in college admission decisions. In particular, the incremental validity of the different AP variables, above…

  5. Exploring the Utility of Advanced Placement Participation and Performance in College Admission Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Emily J.; Marini, Jessica P.; Mattern, Krista D.

    2013-01-01

    The current study evaluated the relationship between various operationalizations of the Advanced Placement[R] (AP) exam and course information with first-year grade point average (FYGPA) in college to better understand the role of AP in college admission decisions. In particular, the incremental validity of the different AP variables, above…

  6. Factors Influencing Women's Decisions to Enroll in Advanced Mathematics Courses. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stallings, Jane; Robertson, Anne

    This study was designed to identify the factors that relate to the decisions of females in secondary education to elect or decline advanced instruction in mathematics. The final sample included 91 classrooms in 11 high schools, with the focus of the investigation upon 489 students in 22 geometry classes. The findings indicate that the most…

  7. Factors Affecting Long-Term-Care Residents' Decision-Making Processes as They Formulate Advance Directives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Heather C.; McColl, Mary Ann; Gilbert, Julie; Wong, Jiahui; Murray, Gale; Shortt, Samuel E. D.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe factors contributing to the decision-making processes of elderly persons as they formulate advance directives in long-term care. Design and Methods: This study was qualitative, based on grounded theory. Recruitment was purposive and continued until saturation was reached. Nine residents of a…

  8. A clinical advancement process revisited: a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Ward, Cynthia W; Goodrich, Cynthia A

    2007-06-01

    Clinical advancement programs are not evaluated often for effectiveness and participant satisfaction. The advancement committee at this community hospital made the commitment to evaluate participant satisfaction periodically. Revisions were made in the program based on the evaluation findings and implemented in 2002. This re-evaluation was conducted to determine participant satisfaction.

  9. Defining features of advance directives in law and clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Olick, Robert S

    2012-01-01

    In the > 30 years since the New Jersey Supreme Court's seminal opinion in the case of Karen Ann Quinlan, all 50 states and the District of Columbia have enacted legislation to recognize the legal right of competent adults to write advance directives. The purpose of advance directives is to provide direction for health-care decisions near the end of life, when the ravages of illness, disease, or injury have taken the ability to decide for one's self. This article reviews the defining features of advance directives and the governing law, discusses some common practical concerns regarding the use and effectiveness of advance directives, and identifies several significant ethical-legal challenges for honoring advance directives at the bedside. With a primary focus on the health-care proxy, the anatomy of advance directives is analyzed under four general rubrics: formal requirements, decisional capacity and when the directive takes effect, rights and responsibilities of proxies and health-care providers, and the scope and limitations of decisions to forego life-sustaining treatment. There is much common ground among state laws, but particular legal provisions may vary from state to state. Physicians, nurses, social workers, and other health-care professionals should be familiar with the law of their home state.

  10. Biostatistics in clinical decision making for cardiothoracic radiologists.

    PubMed

    Zurakowski, David; Johnson, Victor M; Lee, Edward Y

    2013-11-01

    Cardiothoracic radiologists are intuitively aware of sensitivity and specificity as they pertain to diagnostic tests involving clinical information. However, many cardiothoracic radiologists are unfamiliar with odds ratios, likelihood ratios, predictive values, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, which provide more information about the performance of a test. Our article will first review the fundamental concepts of sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and likelihood ratios. The ROC curve methodology will be covered with an emphasis on creating a look-up table, a straightforward table that communicates important information to the clinician to aid in diagnosis. The article reviews sensitivity and specificity, as well as predictive values, logistic regression, and ROC curves, using conceptual principles without unnecessary mathematical rigor. We will apply principles of sensitivity and specificity to continuous measurements by constructing ROC curves in order to tie together key ideas in diagnostic decision making. Three clinical examples are presented to illustrate these fundamental statistical concepts: predictors of pulmonary embolism in children, use of dobutamine-cardiac magnetic resonance imaging to identify impaired ventricular function in patients who have suffered a myocardial infarction, and diagnostic accuracy of 64-multidetector row computed tomography to identify occluded vessels in adult patients with suspected coronary artery disease. In addition, a glossary is provided at the end of the article with key terms important in diagnostic imaging. An understanding of the concepts presented will assist cardiothoracic radiologists in critically discerning the usefulness of diagnostic tests and how these statistics can be applied to make judgments and decisions that are essential to clinical practice.

  11. Advances in clinical study of curcumin.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunfen; Su, Xun; Liu, Anchang; Zhang, Lin; Yu, Aihua; Xi, Yanwei; Zhai, Guangxi

    2013-01-01

    Curcumin has been estimated as a potential agent for many diseases and attracted great attention owing to its various pharmacological activities, including anti-cancer, and anti-inflammatory. Now curcumin is being applied to a number of patients with breast cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, colorectal cancer, psoriatic, etc. Several clinical trials have stated that curcumin is safe enough and effective. The objective of this article was to summarize the clinical studies of curcumin, and give a reference for future studies.

  12. Improving Decision Making for Feeding Options in Advanced Dementia: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Laura C.; Carey, Timothy S.; Caprio, Anthony J.; Lee, Tae Joon; Ersek, Mary; Garrett, Joanne; Jackman, Anne; Gilliam, Robin; Wessell, Kathryn; Mitchell, Susan L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Feeding problems are common in dementia, and decision-makers have limited understanding of treatment options. Objectives To test whether a decision aid improves quality of decision-making about feeding options in advanced dementia. Design Cluster randomized controlled trial. Setting 24 nursing homes in North Carolina Participants Residents with advanced dementia and feeding problems and their surrogates. Intervention Intervention surrogates received an audio or print decision aid on feeding options in advanced dementia. Controls received usual care. Measurements Primary outcome was the Decisional Conflict Scale (range 1–5) measured at 3 months; other main outcomes were surrogate knowledge, frequency of communication with providers, and feeding treatment use. Results 256 residents and surrogate decision-makers were recruited. Residents’ average age was 85; 67% were Caucasian and 79% were women. Surrogates’ average age was 59; 67% were Caucasian, and 70% were residents’ children. The intervention improved knowledge scores (16.8 vs 15.1, p<0.001). After 3 months, intervention surrogates had lower Decisional Conflict Scale scores than controls (1.65 vs. 1.90, p<0.001) and more often discussed feeding options with a health care provider (46% vs. 33%, p=0.04). Residents in the intervention group were more likely to receive a dysphagia diet (89% vs.76%, p=0.04), and showed a trend toward increased staff eating assistance (20% vs.10%, p=0.08). Tube feeding was rare in both groups even after 9 months (1 intervention vs. 3 control, p=0.34). Limitations Cluster randomization was necessary to avoid contamination, but limits blinding and may introduce bias by site effect. Conclusion A decision aid about feeding options in advanced dementia reduced decisional conflict for surrogates and increased their knowledge and communication about feeding options with providers. PMID:22091750

  13. InformedTogether: Usability Evaluation of a Web-Based Decision Aid to Facilitate Shared Advance Care Planning for Severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Uhler, Lauren M; Pérez Figueroa, Rafael E; Dickson, Mark; McCullagh, Lauren; Kushniruk, Andre; Monkman, Helen; Witteman, Holly O

    2015-01-01

    Background Advance care planning may help patients receive treatments that better align with their goals for care. We developed a Web-based decision aid called InformedTogether to facilitate shared advance care planning between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and their doctors. Objective Our objective was to assess the usability of the InformedTogether decision aid, including whether users could interact with the decision aid to engage in tasks required for shared decision making, whether users found the decision aid acceptable, and implications for redesign. Methods We conducted an observational study with 15 patients and 8 doctors at two ethnically and socioeconomically diverse outpatient clinics. Data included quantitative and qualitative observations of patients and doctors using the decision aid on tablet or laptop computers and data from semistructured interviews. Patients were shown the decision aid by a researcher acting as the doctor. Pulmonary doctors were observed using the decision aid independently and asked to think aloud (ie, verbalize their thoughts). A thematic analysis was implemented to explore key issues related to decision aid usability. Results Although patients and doctors found InformedTogether acceptable and would recommend that doctors use the decision aid with COPD patients, many patients had difficulty understanding the icon arrays that were used to communicate estimated prognoses and could not articulate the definitions of the two treatment choices—Full Code and Do Not Resuscitate (DNR). Minor usability problems regarding content, links, layout, and consistency were also identified and corresponding recommendations were outlined. In particular, participants suggested including more information about potential changes in quality of life resulting from the alternative advance directives. Some doctor participants thought the decision aid was too long and some thought it may cause nervousness among patients due to

  14. InformedTogether: Usability Evaluation of a Web-Based Decision Aid to Facilitate Shared Advance Care Planning for Severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Uhler, Lauren M; Pérez Figueroa, Rafael E; Dickson, Mark; McCullagh, Lauren; Kushniruk, Andre; Monkman, Helen; Witteman, Holly O; Hajizadeh, Negin

    2015-02-25

    Advance care planning may help patients receive treatments that better align with their goals for care. We developed a Web-based decision aid called InformedTogether to facilitate shared advance care planning between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and their doctors. Our objective was to assess the usability of the InformedTogether decision aid, including whether users could interact with the decision aid to engage in tasks required for shared decision making, whether users found the decision aid acceptable, and implications for redesign. We conducted an observational study with 15 patients and 8 doctors at two ethnically and socioeconomically diverse outpatient clinics. Data included quantitative and qualitative observations of patients and doctors using the decision aid on tablet or laptop computers and data from semistructured interviews. Patients were shown the decision aid by a researcher acting as the doctor. Pulmonary doctors were observed using the decision aid independently and asked to think aloud (ie, verbalize their thoughts). A thematic analysis was implemented to explore key issues related to decision aid usability. Although patients and doctors found InformedTogether acceptable and would recommend that doctors use the decision aid with COPD patients, many patients had difficulty understanding the icon arrays that were used to communicate estimated prognoses and could not articulate the definitions of the two treatment choices-Full Code and Do Not Resuscitate (DNR). Minor usability problems regarding content, links, layout, and consistency were also identified and corresponding recommendations were outlined. In particular, participants suggested including more information about potential changes in quality of life resulting from the alternative advance directives. Some doctor participants thought the decision aid was too long and some thought it may cause nervousness among patients due to the topic area. A decision aid for shared

  15. The role of clinical decision support in pharmacist response to drug-interaction alerts.

    PubMed

    Miller, Luke; Steinmetz Pater, Karen; Corman, Shelby

    2015-01-01

    With over 100,000 different types of drug-drug interactions health care professionals rely heavily on automated drug-interaction alerts. Substantial variance in drug-interaction alerts yields opportunities for the use of clinical decision support (CDS) as a potential benefit to pharmacists. The purpose of this research was to determine whether decision support during dispensing impacts pharmacist response to drug-interaction alerts. A brief survey was administered to pharmacists in the community consisting of three patient cases, each containing three drug-drug interactions of varying severity. For each interaction, pharmacists were asked how they would respond, one group of pharmacists was randomly assigned to receive CDS while the other group did not. There were no significant differences in pharmacist response to alerts between the two groups. The control group did appear to be more likely to consult a drug reference, but this difference was not significant. While this study did not demonstrate a significant difference, drug-interaction alerts are still an area where improvements could be made. Advancements have the potential to reduce risk to patients and limit unnecessary hospital admissions. This study suggests that this level of clinical decision support has limited impact, but may prove beneficial by reducing the need to consult additional references. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Clinical Decisions: Determining When to Save or Remove an Ailing Implant.

    PubMed

    Tarnow, Dennis P; Chu, Stephen J; Fletcher, Paul D

    2016-04-01

    The basis for the decision to either save or remove an ailing implant is multifactorial, and, as such, it has become one of the more controversial topics in the field of dental implantology. While bone lost to peri-implant disease can now be augmented with increasing predictability, the degree of success still varies depending on the size and configuration of the osseous defect. Concurrently, with the development of improved high-reverse torque instrumentation, minimally invasive techniques can be used to easily remove an implant that is malpositioned, causing an esthetic problem, or showing advanced bone loss. Any eventual decision regarding the retention or removal of an ailing implant must also be balanced with the desires of the patient, who typically will have already invested significant time and money to have the implant initially placed and restored. This article will present the variables involved in the decision-making process for when to save or remove an ailing implant. Clinical examples illustrating the management for these factors will be offered, providing clinicians a variety of alternatives available for managing different clinical circumstances that may be encountered.

  17. Cancer Multidisciplinary Team Meetings: Evidence, Challenges, and the Role of Clinical Decision Support Technology

    PubMed Central

    Patkar, Vivek; Acosta, Dionisio; Davidson, Tim; Jones, Alison; Fox, John; Keshtgar, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Multidisciplinary team (MDT) model in cancer care was introduced and endorsed to ensure that care delivery is consistent with the best available evidence. Over the last few years, regular MDT meetings have become a standard practice in oncology and gained the status of the key decision-making forum for patient management. Despite the fact that cancer MDT meetings are well accepted by clinicians, concerns are raised over the paucity of good-quality evidence on their overall impact. There are also concerns over lack of the appropriate support for this important but overburdened decision-making platform. The growing acceptance by clinical community of the health information technology in recent years has created new opportunities and possibilities of using advanced clinical decision support (CDS) systems to realise full potential of cancer MDT meetings. In this paper, we present targeted summary of the available evidence on the impact of cancer MDT meetings, discuss the reported challenges, and explore the role that a CDS technology could play in addressing some of these challenges. PMID:22295234

  18. WESVA: A decision aid for comparing warhead advanced surety R&D options

    SciTech Connect

    Homsy, R.V.; Sicherman, A.; Stephens, D.R.

    1993-10-01

    Newly designed warheads that incorporate advanced surety concepts can reduce the risks of accidental radiological material dispersal, nuclear detonation, and unauthorized use. But these potential surety benefits entail cost and performance penalties. Present constraints on R&D budgets, time, and allowable nuclear tests also create significant uncertainties as to whether new concepts can be successfully developed and implemented. These factors complicate the decisions involved in selecting surety concepts for more extensive R&D. To help decision makers compare R&D options, we developed a decision aid called Weapon Safety Value Assessment (WESVA). This paper describes WESVA and suggests how a WESVA-like approach can be of interest in other decision-making contexts.

  19. Doctors' attitudes to risk in difficult clinical decisions: application of decision analysis in hepatobiliary disease.

    PubMed

    Theodossi, A; Spiegelhalter, D J; McFarlane, I G; Williams, R

    1984-07-28

    Twelve doctors with special training in hepatology independently reviewed two to five cases each from a group of seven cases of complicated hepatobiliary problems. A doctor's willingness to take risks to improve his patients' health was quantified by a wagering technique based on the probability of achieving a successful intervention. These probabilities were then used to calculate "utilities," which represented the average opinion of the doctors about the relative worth of each of six predefined states of health. The results showed that, in the context of risky decisions for severely ill patients, a year of life was considered by the doctors to be worth 44% of a full recovery; being mobile for that year increased this value to 57%. Survival for up to five years with restricted mobility was considered to be worth 70% of a full recovery and the ability to work during that period increased this value to 85%. It is concluded that in clinical decision making the uncertainty and preferences implicit in a course of action can be quantified and thus made explicit.

  20. Clinical decision support for perioperative information management systems.

    PubMed

    Wanderer, Jonathan P; Ehrenfeld, Jesse M

    2013-12-01

    Clinical decision support (CDS) systems are being used to optimize the increasingly complex care that our health care system delivers. These systems have become increasingly important in the delivery of perioperative care for patients undergoing cardiac, thoracic, and vascular procedures. The adoption of perioperative information management systems (PIMS) has allowed these technologies to enter the operating room and support the clinical work flow of anesthesiologists and operational processes. Constructing effective CDS systems necessitates an understanding of operative work flow and technical considerations as well as achieving integration with existing information systems. In this review, we describe published examples of CDS for PIMS, including support for cardiopulmonary bypass separation physiological alarms, β-blocker guideline adherence, enhanced revenue capture for arterial line placement, and detection of hemodynamic monitoring gaps. Although these and other areas are amenable to CDS systems, the challenges of latency and data reliability represent fundamental limitations on the potential application of these tools to specific types of clinical issues. Ultimately, we expect that CDS will remain an important tool in our efforts to optimize the quality of care delivered.

  1. Remote clinical decision-making: a clinician's definition.

    PubMed

    Brady, Mike; Northstone, Kate

    2017-05-12

    Aims Remote clinical decision-making (RCDM), commonly known as 'telephone triage' or 'hear and treat', describes clinicians' non-face-to-face involvement with patient care, and is an established strategy in UK ambulance services for managing increasing demand. However, there is no suitable definition of RCDM that fully explains the roles undertaken by clinicians in 999 hubs, or for its use as an ambulance quality indicator (AQI). The aim of this study, which is part of a larger evaluation of a new RCDM module in higher education, is to determine how clinicians define RCDM. Methods Three participants were asked, during semi-structured interviews, to define RCDM. The interviews were recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed. Results Clinicians do not focus on outcomes when defining RCDM, but on the efficacy of the process and the appropriateness of the determined outcome. Conclusion There is no precise description of the role of healthcare professionals in 999 clinical hubs, but there is a need for role clarity, for employees and organisations. The study questions the suitability of the definition of hear and treat as an AQI, as it does not appear to represent fully the various duties undertaken by 999 clinical hub healthcare professionals. More research is needed to consider the definition of RCDM in all its forms.

  2. Lung Cancer Clinical Trials: Advances in Immunotherapy

    Cancer.gov

    New treatments for lung cancer and aspects of joining a clinical trial are discussed in this 30-minute Facebook Live event, hosted by NCI’s Dr. Shakun Malik, head of thoracic oncology therapeutics, and Janet Freeman-Daily, lung cancer patient activist and founding member of #LCSM.

  3. Advances in Basic and Clinical Immunology 2009

    PubMed Central

    Chinen, Javier; Shearer, William T.

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, reports on basic and clinical immunology had an increased focus on human disease mechanisms and management. The molecular pathogenesis of familial angioedema associated with estrogen was further explored to find possible factors affecting severity, including polymorphisms in enzymes and receptors related to bradykinin pathways. A placebo-controlled clinical trial of C1INH concentrate in hereditary angioedema patients demonstrated the safety of its use and the efficacy to reduce duration of angioedema attacks. The interaction of innate immunity and adaptive responses was further examined in several reports establishing the significant role of toll-like receptor stimulation for the development of optimal specific antibody responses. The 2009 update of the classification of primary immunodeficiencies introduced over 15 new genetic defects related to the immune response, including DOCK8 mutations responsible for the autosomal recessive form of the hyper IgE syndrome. Other reports expanded the clinical spectrum of disease and improved the characterization of conditions such as warts, hypogammaglobulinemia and myelokathexis (WHIM) syndrome, or the occurrence of mucormycosis and Serratia infections in chronic granulomatous disease. The frequent presentation of gastrointestinal disorders in humoral immunodeficiencies was recognized and recommendations for management were reviewed. Clinical research focused in severe combined immunodeficiency included the development and implementation of a state-wide newborn screening program for this condition, a desired goal considering the significant reduction of mortality rate when diagnosis is made early before opportunistic infections occur. PMID:20226292

  4. Clinical Decision Support for Early Recognition of Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Amland, Robert C; Hahn-Cover, Kristin E

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis is an inflammatory response triggered by infection, with a high in-hospital mortality rate. Early recognition and treatment can reverse the inflammatory response, with evidence of improved patient outcomes. One challenge clinicians face is identifying the inflammatory syndrome against the background of the patient's infectious illness and comorbidities. An approach to this problem is implementation of computerized early warning tools for sepsis. This multicenter retrospective study sought to determine clinimetric performance of a cloud-based computerized sepsis clinical decision support system (CDS), understand the epidemiology of sepsis, and identify opportunities for quality improvement. Data encompassed 6200 adult hospitalizations from 2012 through 2013. Of 13% patients screened-in, 51% were already suspected to have an infection when the system activated. This study focused on a patient cohort screened-in before infection was suspected; median time from arrival to CDS activation was 3.5 hours, and system activation to diagnostic collect was another 8.6 hours.

  5. Clinical decision support system for the diagnosis of adolescence health.

    PubMed

    Moutsouri, Irene; Nikou, Amalia; Pampalou, Machi; Lentza, Maria; Spyridakis, Paulos; Mathiopoulou, Natassa; Konsoulas, Dimitris; Lampou, Marianna; Alexiou, Athanasios

    2015-01-01

    It is common that children confront psychological problems when they reach puberty. These problems could easily be overcome, but in many cases they could be severe, leading to social estrangement or worse in madness or death. According to information collected we designed a questionnaire about the psychology of adolescents in order to help people in that age or their elders find out if they have health issues. We used already published researches and material concerning all the psychological problems a child can confront in order to make a reliable questionnaire and to develop the clinical decision support system. Our main objective is to publish and administrate a web-based free tool for sharing medical knowledge about any psychological disease a child can already have or develop during puberty.

  6. A Four-Phase Model of the Evolution of Clinical Decision Support Architectures

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Adam; Sittig, Dean F.

    2008-01-01

    Background A large body of evidence over many years suggests that clinical decision support systems can be helpful in improving both clinical outcomes and adherence to evidence-based guidelines. However, to this day, clinical decision support systems are not widely used outside of a small number of sites. One reason why decision support systems are not widely used is the relative difficulty of integrating such systems into clinical workflows and computer systems. Purpose To review and synthesize the history of clinical decision support systems, and to propose a model of various architectures for integrating clinical decision support systems with clinical systems. Methods The authors conducted an extensive review of the clinical decision support literature since 1959, sequenced the systems and developed a model. Results The model developed consists of four phases: standalone decision support systems, decision support integrated into clinical systems, standards for sharing clinical decision support content and service models for decision support. These four phases have not heretofore been identified, but they track remarkably well with the chronological history of clinical decision support, and show evolving and increasingly sophisticated attempts to ease integrating decision support systems into clinical workflows and other clinical systems. Conclusions Each of the four evolutionary approaches to decision support architecture has unique advantages and disadvantages. A key lesson was that there were common limitations that almost all the approaches faced, and no single approach has been able to entirely surmount: 1) fixed knowledge representation systems inherently circumscribe the type of knowledge that can be represented in them, 2) there are serious terminological issues, 3) patient data may be spread across several sources with no single source having a complete view of the patient, and 4) major difficulties exist in transferring successful interventions from one

  7. Robot decisions: on the importance of virtuous judgment in clinical decision making.

    PubMed

    Gelhaus, Petra

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this article is to argue for the necessity of emotional professional virtues in the understanding of good clinical practice. This understanding is required for a proper balance of capacities in medical education and further education of physicians. For this reason an ideal physician, incarnating the required virtues, skills and knowledge is compared with a non-emotional robot that is bound to moral rules. This fictive confrontation is meant to clarify why certain demands on the personality of the physician are justified, in addition to a rule- and principle-based moral orientation and biomedical knowledge and skills. Philosophical analysis of thought experiments inspired by science fiction literature by Isaac Asimov. Although prima facie a rule-oriented robot seems more reliable and trustworthy, the complexity of clinical judgment is not met by an encompassing and never contradictory set of rules from which one could logically derive decisions. There are different ways how the robot could still work, but at the cost of the predictability of its behaviour and its moral orientation. In comparison, a virtuous human doctor who is also bound to these rules, although less strictly, will more reliably keep at moral objectives, be understandable, be more flexible in case the rules come to their limits, and will be more predictable in these critical situations. Apart from these advantages of the virtuous human doctor referring to her own person, the most problematic deficit of the robot is its lacking deeper understanding of the inner mental events of patients which makes good contact, good communication and good influence impossible. Although an infallibly rule-oriented robot seems more reliable at first view, in situations that require complex decisions like clinical practice the agency of a moral human person is more trustworthy. Furthermore, the understanding of the patient's emotions must remain insufficient for a non-emotional, non-human being. Because

  8. Advanced practice nurses' scope of practice: a qualitative study of advanced clinical competencies.

    PubMed

    Nieminen, Anna-Lena; Mannevaara, Bodil; Fagerström, Lisbeth

    2011-12-01

    To describe and explore Advanced Practice Nurses' clinical competencies and how these are expressed in clinical practice. Discussion concerning advanced clinical practice has been ongoing in the USA since the 1960s and in the UK since the late 1980s. Approximately 24 countries, excluding the USA, have implemented the role of Advance Practice Nurse (APN). In the Nordic countries, especially Sweden and Finland, APNs have been introduced in some organizations but their competency domains have not yet been clearly defined. The study's theoretical framework emanates from Aristotle's three-dimensional view of knowledge that is epistêmê, technê, and phronesis. Between October 2005 and January 2006, focus group interviews of Clinical Nurse Specialists who provide expert functions in pediatric, internal medicine, and surgical units (n = 26) and APN students (n = 8) were conducted. The data material was analyzed using inductive content analysis. Grouped into five main themes, the study results indicate that APNs possess advanced level clinical competencies in: (A) assessment of patients' caring needs and nursing care activities, (B) the caring relationship, (C) multi-professional teamwork, (D) development of competence and nursing care, and (E) leadership in a learning and caring culture. Clinical competencies consist of advanced skills, which typify an expanding role that offers new possibilities for holistic patient care practice. APNs' scope of practice is characterized by responsibility and competence in making autonomous judgments based on expanded clinical competence. On an advanced level, clinical competence consists not merely of advanced skills for assessing and meeting the needs of patients but also the creation of safe and trustful relationships with patients and collaboration with colleagues. APNs can realize advanced skills in their actions through their manner of knowing, doing, and being. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2011

  9. Randomized Controlled Trial of a Video Decision Support Tool for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Decision Making in Advanced Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Volandes, Angelo E.; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K.; Mitchell, Susan L.; El-Jawahri, Areej; Davis, Aretha Delight; Barry, Michael J.; Hartshorn, Kevan L.; Jackson, Vicki Ann; Gillick, Muriel R.; Walker-Corkery, Elizabeth S.; Chang, Yuchiao; López, Lenny; Kemeny, Margaret; Bulone, Linda; Mann, Eileen; Misra, Sumi; Peachey, Matt; Abbo, Elmer D.; Eichler, April F.; Epstein, Andrew S.; Noy, Ariela; Levin, Tomer T.; Temel, Jennifer S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Decision making regarding cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is challenging. This study examined the effect of a video decision support tool on CPR preferences among patients with advanced cancer. Patients and Methods We performed a randomized controlled trial of 150 patients with advanced cancer from four oncology centers. Participants in the control arm (n = 80) listened to a verbal narrative describing CPR and the likelihood of successful resuscitation. Participants in the intervention arm (n = 70) listened to the identical narrative and viewed a 3-minute video depicting a patient on a ventilator and CPR being performed on a simulated patient. The primary outcome was participants' preference for or against CPR measured immediately after exposure to either modality. Secondary outcomes were participants' knowledge of CPR (score range of 0 to 4, with higher score indicating more knowledge) and comfort with video. Results The mean age of participants was 62 years (standard deviation, 11 years); 49% were women, 44% were African American or Latino, and 47% had lung or colon cancer. After the verbal narrative, in the control arm, 38 participants (48%) wanted CPR, 41 (51%) wanted no CPR, and one (1%) was uncertain. In contrast, in the intervention arm, 14 participants (20%) wanted CPR, 55 (79%) wanted no CPR, and 1 (1%) was uncertain (unadjusted odds ratio, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.7 to 7.2; P < .001). Mean knowledge scores were higher in the intervention arm than in the control arm (3.3 ± 1.0 v 2.6 ± 1.3, respectively; P < .001), and 65 participants (93%) in the intervention arm were comfortable watching the video. Conclusion Participants with advanced cancer who viewed a video of CPR were less likely to opt for CPR than those who listened to a verbal narrative. PMID:23233708

  10. Exploration Clinical Decision Support System: Medical Data Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, Tony; Shetye, Sandeep; Shaw, Tianna (Editor)

    2016-01-01

    The Exploration Clinical Decision Support (ECDS) System project is intended to enhance the Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) Element for extended duration, deep-space mission planning in HRP. A major development guideline is the Risk of "Adverse Health Outcomes & Decrements in Performance due to Limitations of In-flight Medical Conditions". ECDS attempts to mitigate that Risk by providing crew-specific health information, actionable insight, crew guidance and advice based on computational algorithmic analysis. The availability of inflight health diagnostic computational methods has been identified as an essential capability for human exploration missions. Inflight electronic health data sources are often heterogeneous, and thus may be isolated or not examined as an aggregate whole. The ECDS System objective provides both a data architecture that collects and manages disparate health data, and an active knowledge system that analyzes health evidence to deliver case-specific advice. A single, cohesive space-ready decision support capability that considers all exploration clinical measurements is not commercially available at present. Hence, this Task is a newly coordinated development effort by which ECDS and its supporting data infrastructure will demonstrate the feasibility of intelligent data mining and predictive modeling as a biomedical diagnostic support mechanism on manned exploration missions. The initial step towards ground and flight demonstrations has been the research and development of both image and clinical text-based computer-aided patient diagnosis. Human anatomical images displaying abnormal/pathological features have been annotated using controlled terminology templates, marked-up, and then stored in compliance with the AIM standard. These images have been filtered and disease characterized based on machine learning of semantic and quantitative feature vectors. The next phase will evaluate disease treatment response via quantitative linear

  11. [Cancer screening in clinical practice: the value of shared decision-making].

    PubMed

    Cornuz, Jacques; Junod, Noëlle; Pasche, Olivier; Guessous, Idris

    2010-07-14

    Shared decision-making approach to uncertain clinical situations such as cancer screening seems more appropriate than ever. Shared decision making can be defined as an interactive process where physician and patient share all the stages of the decision making process. For patients who wish to be implicated in the management of their health conditions, physicians might express difficulty to do so. Use of patient decision aids appears to improve such process of shared decision making.

  12. StrandAdvantage test for early-line and advanced-stage treatment decisions in solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Sen, Manimala; Katragadda, Shanmukh; Ravichandran, Aarthi; Deshpande, Gouri; Parulekar, Minothi; Nayanala, Swetha; Vittal, Vikram; Shen, Weiming; Phooi Nee Yong, Melanie; Jacob, Jemima; Parchuru, Sravanthi; Dhanuskodi, Kalpana; Eyring, Kenneth; Agrawal, Pooja; Agarwal, Smita; Shanmugam, Ashwini; Gupta, Satish; Vishwanath, Divya; Kumari, Kiran; Hariharan, Arun K; Balaji, Sai A; Liang, Qiaoling; Robolledo, Belen; Gauribidanur Raghavendrachar, Vijayashree; Oomer Farooque, Mohammed; Buresh, Cary J; Ramamoorthy, Preveen; Bahadur, Urvashi; Subramanian, Kalyanasundaram; Hariharan, Ramesh; Veeramachaneni, Vamsi; Sankaran, Satish; Gupta, Vaijayanti

    2017-05-01

    Comprehensive genetic profiling of tumors using next-generation sequencing (NGS) is gaining acceptance for guiding treatment decisions in cancer care. We designed a cancer profiling test combining both deep sequencing and immunohistochemistry (IHC) of relevant cancer targets to aid therapy choices in both standard-of-care (SOC) and advanced-stage treatments for solid tumors. The SOC report is provided in a short turnaround time for four tumors, namely lung, breast, colon, and melanoma, followed by an investigational report. For other tumor types, an investigational report is provided. The NGS assay reports single-nucleotide variants (SNVs), copy number variations (CNVs), and translocations in 152 cancer-related genes. The tissue-specific IHC tests include routine and less common markers associated with drugs used in SOC settings. We describe the standardization, validation, and clinical utility of the StrandAdvantage test (SA test) using more than 250 solid tumor formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples and control cell line samples. The NGS test showed high reproducibility and accuracy of >99%. The test provided relevant clinical information for SOC treatment as well as more information related to investigational options and clinical trials for >95% of advanced-stage patients. In conclusion, the SA test comprising a robust and accurate NGS assay combined with clinically relevant IHC tests can detect somatic changes of clinical significance for strategic cancer management in all the stages. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. SANDS: An Architecture for Clinical Decision Support in a National Health Information Network

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Adam; Sittig, Dean F.

    2007-01-01

    A new architecture for clinical decision support called SANDS (Service-oriented Architecture for NHIN Decision Support) is introduced and its performance evaluated. The architecture provides a method for performing clinical decision support across a network, as in a health information exchange. Using the prototype we demonstrated that, first, a number of useful types of decision support can be carried out using our architecture; and, second, that the architecture exhibits desirable reliability and performance characteristics. PMID:18693950

  14. Advances take stage - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    Regulatory advances in proteomics will be taking center stage at a Symposia scheduled to occur at the 2011 American Association for Clinical Chemistry (AACC) Annual Meeting. The symposium entitled "Enabling Translational Proteomics with NCI's Clinical Proteomic Technologies for Cancer" is scheduled for July 25, 2011 at AACC's annual Meeting.

  15. Advances take stage - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    Regulatory advances in proteomics will be taking center stage at a Symposia scheduled to occur at the 2011 American Association for Clinical Chemistry (AACC) Annual Meeting. The symposium entitled "Enabling Translational Proteomics with NCI's Clinical Proteomic Technologies for Cancer" is scheduled for July 25, 2011 at AACC's annual Meeting.

  16. A Scalable Architecture for Rule Engine Based Clinical Decision Support Systems.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Soumi; Banerjee, Ansuman; Banerjee, Nilanjan

    2015-01-01

    Clinical Decision Support systems (CDSS) have reached a fair level of sophistication and have emerged as the popular system of choice for their aid in clinical decision making. These decision support systems are based on rule engines navigate through a repertoire of clinical rules and multitudes of facts to assist a clinical expert to decide on the set of actuations in response to a medical situation. In this paper, we present the design of a scalable architecture for a rule engine based clinical decision system.

  17. Improving decision-making for feeding options in advanced dementia: a randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Laura C; Carey, Timothy S; Caprio, Anthony J; Lee, Tae Joon; Ersek, Mary; Garrett, Joanne; Jackman, Anne; Gilliam, Robin; Wessell, Kathryn; Mitchell, Susan L

    2011-11-01

    To test whether a decision aid improves quality of decision-making about feeding options in advanced dementia. Cluster randomized controlled trial. Twenty-four nursing homes in North Carolina. Residents with advanced dementia and feeding problems and their surrogates. Intervention surrogates received an audio or print decision aid on feeding options in advanced dementia. Controls received usual care. Primary outcome was the Decisional Conflict Scale (range: 1-5) measured at 3 months; other main outcomes were surrogate knowledge, frequency of communication with providers, and feeding treatment use. Two hundred fifty-six residents and surrogate decision-makers were recruited. Residents' average age was 85; 67% were Caucasian, and 79% were women. Surrogates' average age was 59; 67% were Caucasian, and 70% were residents' children. The intervention improved knowledge scores (16.8 vs 15.1, P < .001). After 3 months, intervention surrogates had lower Decisional Conflict Scale scores than controls (1.65 vs 1.90, P < .001) and more often discussed feeding options with a healthcare provider (46% vs 33%, P = .04). Residents in the intervention group were more likely to receive a dysphagia diet (89% vs 76%, P = .04) and showed a trend toward greater staff eating assistance (20% vs 10%, P = .08). Tube feeding was rare in both groups even after 9 months (1 intervention vs 3 control, P = .34). A decision aid about feeding options in advanced dementia reduced decisional conflict for surrogates and increased their knowledge and communication about feeding options with providers. © 2011, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2011, The American Geriatrics Society.

  18. HER2 Testing and Clinical Decision Making in Gastroesophageal Adenocarcinoma: Guideline From the College of American Pathologists, American Society for Clinical Pathology, and American Society of Clinical Oncology.

    PubMed

    Bartley, Angela N; Washington, Mary Kay; Ventura, Christina B; Ismaila, Nofisat; Colasacco, Carol; Benson, Al B; Carrato, Alfredo; Gulley, Margaret L; Jain, Dhanpat; Kakar, Sanjay; Mackay, Helen J; Streutker, Catherine; Tang, Laura; Troxell, Megan; Ajani, Jaffer A

    2016-12-01

    ERBB2 (erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 or HER2) is currently the only biomarker established for selection of a specific therapy for patients with advanced gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma (GEA). However, there are no comprehensive guidelines for the assessment of HER2 in patients with GEA. To establish an evidence-based guideline for HER2 testing in patients with GEA, to formalize the algorithms for methods to improve the accuracy of HER2 testing while addressing which patients and tumor specimens are appropriate, and to provide guidance on clinical decision making. The College of American Pathologists, American Society for Clinical Pathology, and American Society of Clinical Oncology convened an expert panel to conduct a systematic review of the literature to develop an evidence-based guideline with recommendations for optimal HER2 testing in patients with GEA. The panel is proposing 11 recommendations with strong agreement from the open-comment participants. The panel recommends that tumor specimen(s) from all patients with advanced GEA, who are candidates for HER2-targeted therapy, should be assessed for HER2 status before the initiation of HER2-targeted therapy. Clinicians should offer combination chemotherapy and a HER2-targeted agent as initial therapy for all patients with HER2-positive advanced GEA. For pathologists, guidance is provided for morphologic selection of neoplastic tissue, testing algorithms, scoring methods, interpretation and reporting of results, and laboratory quality assurance. This guideline provides specific recommendations for assessment of HER2 in patients with advanced GEA while addressing pertinent technical issues and clinical implications of the results. © 2016 College of American Pathologists, American Society for Clinical Pathology, and the American Society of Clinical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Clinical Research Informatics: Recent Advances and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives To summarize significant developments in Clinical Research Informatics (CRI) over the past two years and discuss future directions. Methods Survey of advances, open problems and opportunities in this field based on exploration of current literature. Results Recent advances are structured according to three use cases of clinical research: Protocol feasibility, patient identification/recruitment and clinical trial execution. Discussion CRI is an evolving, dynamic field of research. Global collaboration, open metadata, content standards with semantics and computable eligibility criteria are key success factors for future developments in CRI. PMID:26293865

  20. The Need for Clinical Decision Support Integrated with the Electronic Health Record for the Clinical Application of Whole Genome Sequencing Information

    PubMed Central

    Welch, Brandon M.; Kawamoto, Kensaku

    2013-01-01

    Whole genome sequencing (WGS) is rapidly approaching widespread clinical application. Technology advancements over the past decade, since the first human genome was decoded, have made it feasible to use WGS for clinical care. Future advancements will likely drive down the price to the point wherein WGS is routinely available for care. However, were this to happen today, most of the genetic information available to guide clinical care would go unused due to the complexity of genetics, limited physician proficiency in genetics, and lack of genetics professionals in the clinical workforce. Furthermore, these limitations are unlikely to change in the future. As such, the use of clinical decision support (CDS) to guide genome-guided clinical decision-making is imperative. In this manuscript, we describe the barriers to widespread clinical application of WGS information, describe how CDS can be an important tool for overcoming these barriers, and provide clinical examples of how genome-enabled CDS can be used in the clinical setting. PMID:25411643

  1. Implementation of wireless technology in advanced clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Øyri, Karl; Balasingham, Ilangko; Høgetveit, Jan Olav

    2006-01-01

    The Wireless Sensors in Healthcare Project focused on the implementation of wireless technology in healthcare. Wireless biomedical sensors for monitoring of continuous invasive arterial blood pressure were developed and evaluated under controlled conditions during laparoscopic surgery. The project has resulted in the first publication of clinical use of a wireless biomedical sensor for invasive measurement of arterial blood pressure in a pilot study. A second demonstrator for wireless clinical decision support based on the first demonstrator was developed. Wireless technologies used were Bluetooth, wireless local area network and GPRS/mobile telephones. Further research is needed to evaluate the wireless clinical decision support system. Critical care nurses and nurse anesthetists are potential users of wireless technology. Their clinical expertise is important in development of-, and future use of wireless technology.

  2. Bioinformatics Methods and Tools to Advance Clinical Care

    PubMed Central

    Lecroq, T.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives To summarize excellent current research in the field of Bioinformatics and Translational Informatics with application in the health domain and clinical care. Method We provide a synopsis of the articles selected for the IMIA Yearbook 2015, from which we attempt to derive a synthetic overview of current and future activities in the field. As last year, a first step of selection was performed by querying MEDLINE with a list of MeSH descriptors completed by a list of terms adapted to the section. Each section editor has evaluated separately the set of 1,594 articles and the evaluation results were merged for retaining 15 articles for peer-review. Results The selection and evaluation process of this Yearbook’s section on Bioinformatics and Translational Informatics yielded four excellent articles regarding data management and genome medicine that are mainly tool-based papers. In the first article, the authors present PPISURV a tool for uncovering the role of specific genes in cancer survival outcome. The second article describes the classifier PredictSNP which combines six performing tools for predicting disease-related mutations. In the third article, by presenting a high-coverage map of the human proteome using high resolution mass spectrometry, the authors highlight the need for using mass spectrometry to complement genome annotation. The fourth article is also related to patient survival and decision support. The authors present datamining methods of large-scale datasets of past transplants. The objective is to identify chances of survival. Conclusions The current research activities still attest the continuous convergence of Bioinformatics and Medical Informatics, with a focus this year on dedicated tools and methods to advance clinical care. Indeed, there is a need for powerful tools for managing and interpreting complex, large-scale genomic and biological datasets, but also a need for user-friendly tools developed for the clinicians in their

  3. Clinical Decision Support Systems (CDSS) in GRID Environments.

    PubMed

    Blanquer, Ignacio; Hernández, Vicente; Segrelles, Damià; Robles, Montserrat; García, Juan Miguel; Robledo, Javier Vicente

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture defined for searching and executing Clinical Decision Support Systems (CDSS) in a LCG2/GT2 Grid environment, using web-based protocols. A CDSS is a system that provides a classification of the patient illness according to the knowledge extracted from clinical practice and using the patient's information in a structured format. The CDSS classification engines can be installed in any site and can be used by different medical users from a Virtual Organization (VO). All users in a VO can consult and execute different classification engines that have been installed in the Grid independently of the platform, architecture or site where the engines are installed or the users are located. The present paper present a solution to requirements such as short-job execution, reducing the response delay on LCG2 environments and providing grid-enabled authenticated access through web portals. Resource discovering and job submission is performed through web services, which are also described in the article.

  4. A clinical decision rule for streptococcal pharyngitis management: An update

    PubMed Central

    Nasirian, Hosain; TarvijEslami, Saeedeh; Matini, Esfandiar; Bayesh, Seyedehsara; Omaraee, Yasaman

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Group A streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis is a common disease worldwide. We aimed to establish a pragmatic program as a clinical decision rule for GAS pharyngitis diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This article derived from a research project on children aged 6–15 years. Five hundred and seventy-one children met the enrollment criteria on whom throat culture and validities of clinical findings were assessed in positive and negative throat culture groups. RESULTS: Positive GAS throat culture group included 99 (17.3%) patients with a positive culture. Negative GAS throat culture group included 472 (82.6%) patients. Exudate or enlarged tender nodes each one had 63% and 68% sensitivity and 31.5% and 37.5% specificity with a high percentage of negative predictive value (NPV) 80.54% and 85.09%, respectively. Sequence test revealed validities of exudate plus enlarged nodes at 43.62% sensitivity and 57.19% specificity with 83% NPV. CONCLUSIONS: High NPV of 83% indicated that similar prevalence in the absence of either exudate or enlarged tender lymph nodes. Probability of GAS negative throat cultures among children suspected of GAS pharyngitis was 83% and would correctly not receive inopportune antibiotics. PMID:28367027

  5. Clinically relevant advances in rheumatoid arthritis therapy.

    PubMed

    Müller-Ladner, Ulf; Neumann, Elena; Tarner, Ingo H

    2009-09-14

    Owing to the success of biologics in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), several novel drugs have been introduced in the therapeutic armamentarium, although not all of them have been approved in all countries worldwide. Among the drugs are tumour necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors such as certolizumab pegol and golimumab (the latter of which was the first TNF blocker shown to be effective in patients who had been unsuccessfully treated with other TNF blockers and which can be applied only once a month), and the interleukin-6 receptor antagonist tocilizumab, which not only opens up a completely new field of anti-inflammatory modulation of RA pathophysiology, but also highlights the challenge of novel potential side effects. Moreover, aside from clinical studies showing efficacy in the inhibition of osteoclast activation by the anti-RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand) antibody denosumab, an improved form of steroid application known as slow-release 'tempus tablet' for treatment of RA and several developments in the small-molecule area have been addressed by clinical trials.

  6. A rule-based clinical decision model to support interpretation of multiple data in health examinations.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Kuan-Liang; Fuh, Chiou-Shann

    2011-12-01

    Health examinations can obtain relatively complete health information and thus are important for the personal and public health management. For clinicians, one of the most important works in the health examinations is to interpret the health examination results. Continuously interpreting numerous health examination results of healthcare receivers is tedious and error-prone. This paper proposes a clinical decision support system to assist solving above problems. In order to customize the clinical decision support system intuitively and flexibly, this paper also proposes the rule syntax to implement computer-interpretable logic for health examinations. It is our purpose in this paper to describe the methodology of the proposed clinical decision support system. The evaluation was performed by the implementation and execution of decision rules on health examination results and a survey on clinical decision support system users. It reveals the efficiency and user satisfaction of proposed clinical decision support system. Positive impact of clinical data interpretation is also noted.

  7. Untapped Potential of Observational Research to Inform Clinical Decision Making: American Society of Clinical Oncology Research Statement.

    PubMed

    Visvanathan, Kala; Levit, Laura A; Raghavan, Derek; Hudis, Clifford A; Wong, Sandra; Dueck, Amylou; Lyman, Gary H

    2017-06-01

    ASCO believes that high-quality observational studies can advance evidence-based practice for cancer care and are complementary to randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Observational studies can generate hypotheses by evaluating novel exposures or biomarkers and by revealing patterns of care and relationships that might not otherwise be discovered. Researchers can then test these hypotheses in RCTs. Observational studies can also answer or inform questions that either have not been or cannot be answered by RCTs. In addition, observational studies can be used for postmarketing surveillance of new cancer treatments, particularly in vulnerable populations. The incorporation of observational research as part of clinical decision making is consistent with the position of many leading institutions. ASCO identified five overarching recommendations to enhance the role of observational research in clinical decision making: (1) improve the quality of electronic health data available for research, (2) improve interoperability and the exchange of electronic health information, (3) ensure the use of rigorous observational research methodologies, (4) promote transparent reporting of observational research studies, and (5) protect patient privacy.

  8. Summary of the proceedings of the international forum 2016: "Imaging referral guidelines and clinical decision support - how can radiologists implement imaging referral guidelines in clinical routine?"

    PubMed

    2017-02-01

    The International Forum is held once a year by the ESR and its international radiological partner societies with the aim to address and discuss selected subjects of global relevance in radiology. In 2016, the issue of implementing imaging referral guidelines in clinical routine was analysed. The legal environment in the USA requires that after January 1, 2017, physicians must consult government-approved, evidence-based appropriate-use criteria through a clinical decision support system when ordering advanced diagnostic imaging exams. The ESR and the National Decision Support Company are developing "ESR iGuide", a clinical decision support system for European imaging referral guidelines using ESR imaging referral guidelines based on ACR Appropriateness Criteria. In many regions of the world, the situation is different and quite diverse, depending on the specific features of health care systems in different countries, but there are, unlike in the USA and EU, no legal obligations to implement imaging referral guidelines into the clinical practice. Imaging referral guidelines and clinical decision support implementation is a complex issue everywhere and the legal environment surrounding it even more so; how they will be implemented into the clinical practice in different areas of the world needs yet to be decided.

  9. Advances in Clinical PET/MRI Instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Hans; Lerche, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    In 2010, the first whole-body PET/MRI scanners installed for clinical use were the sequential Philips PET/MRI with PMT-based, TOF-capable technology and the integrated simultaneous Siemens PET/MRI. Avalanche photodiodes as non-magneto-sensitive readout electronics allowed PET integrated within the MRI. The experiences with these scanners showed that improvements of software aspects, such as attenuation correction, were necessary and that efficient protocols combining optimally PET and MRI must be still developed. In 2014, General Electric issued an integrated PET/MRI with SiPM-based PET detectors, allowing TOF-PET. Looking at the MRI components of current PET/MR imaging systems, primary improvements come from sequences and new coils.

  10. Advance modern medicine with clinical case reports

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Randomized clinical trial (RCT) can fail to demonstrate the richness of individual patient characteristics. Given the unpredictable nature of medicine, a patient may present in an unusual way, have a strange new pathology, or react to a medical intervention in a manner not seen before. The publication of these novelties as case reports is a fundamental way of conveying medical knowledge. Throughout history there have been famous case studies that shaped the way we view health and disease. Case reports can have the following functions: (I) descriptions of new diseases; (II) study of mechanisms; (III) discovery new therapies; (IV) recognition of side effects; and (V) education. Before submitting a case report, it is worthwhile to refer to the Case Report Check Sheet described by Green and Johnson [2006]. PMID:25525572

  11. Encounter Decision Aid vs. Clinical Decision Support or Usual Care to Support Patient-Centered Treatment Decisions in Osteoporosis: The Osteoporosis Choice Randomized Trial II.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Annie; Wang, Amy T; Wyatt, Kirk; Branda, Megan E; Shah, Nilay D; Van Houten, Holly; Pencille, Laurie; Wermers, Robert; Montori, Victor M

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis Choice, an encounter decision aid, can engage patients and clinicians in shared decision making about osteoporosis treatment. Its effectiveness compared to the routine provision to clinicians of the patient's estimated risk of fracture using the FRAX calculator is unknown. Patient-level, randomized, three-arm trial enrolling women over 50 with osteopenia or osteoporosis eligible for treatment with bisphosphonates, where the use of Osteoporosis Choice was compared to FRAX only and to usual care to determine impact on patient knowledge, decisional conflict, involvement in the decision-making process, decision to start and adherence to bisphosphonates. We enrolled 79 women in the three arms. Because FRAX estimation alone and usual care produced similar results, we grouped them for analysis. Compared to these, use of Osteoporosis Choice increased patient knowledge (median score 6 vs. 4, p = .01), improved understanding of fracture risk and risk reduction with bisphosphonates (p = .01 and p<.0001, respectively), had no effect on decision conflict, and increased patient engagement in the decision making process (OPTION scores 57% vs. 43%, p = .001). Encounters with the decision aid were 0.8 minutes longer (range: 33 minutes shorter to 3.0 minutes longer). There were twice as many patients receiving and filling prescriptions in the decision aid arm (83% vs. 40%, p = .07); medication adherence at 6 months was no different across arms. Supporting both patients and clinicians during the clinical encounter with the Osteoporosis Choice decision aid efficiently improves treatment decision making when compared to usual care with or without clinical decision support with FRAX results. clinical trials.gov NCT00949611.

  12. Advances in Clinical Management of Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Dellon, Evan S.; Liacouras, Chris A.

    2014-01-01

    EoE is a chronic immune/antigen-mediated clinicopathologic condition that has become an increasingly important cause of upper gastrointestinal morbidity in adults and children over the past 2 decades. It is diagnosed based on symptoms of esophageal dysfunction, the presence of at least 15 eosinophils/high-power field in esophageal biopsies, and exclusion of competing causes of esophageal eosinophilia, including proton pump inhibitor-responsive esophageal eosinophilia (PPI-REE). We review what we have recently learned about the clinical aspects of EoE, discussing the clinical, endoscopic, and histologic features of EoE in adults and children. We explain the current diagnostic criteria and challenges to diagnosis, including the role of gastroesophageal reflux disease and PPI-REE. It is also important to consider the epidemiology of EoE (current incidence of 1/10,000 new cases per year and prevalence of 0.5-1/1,000 cases per year) and disease progression. We review the main treatment approaches and new treatment options; EoE can be treated with topical corticosteroids such as fluticasone and budesonide, or dietary strategies, such as amino acid-based formulas, allergy test-directed elimination diets, and non-directed empiric elimination diets. Endoscopic dilation has also become an important tool for treatment of fibrostenostic complications of EoE. There are number of unresolved issues in EoE, including phenotypes, optimal treatment endpoints, the role of maintenance therapy, and treatment of refractory EoE. The care of patients with EoE and the study of the disease span many disciplines—EoE is ideally managed by a multidisciplinary team of gastroenterologists, allergists, pathologists, and dieticians. PMID:25109885

  13. Non-clinical influences on clinical decision-making: a major challenge to evidence-based practice

    PubMed Central

    Hajjaj, FM; Salek, MS; Basra, MKA; Finlay, AY

    2010-01-01

    Summary This article reviews an aspect of daily clinical practice which is of critical importance in virtually every clinical consultation, but which is seldom formally considered. Non-clinical influences on clinical decision-making profoundly affect medical decisions. These influences include patient-related factors such as socioeconomic status, quality of life and patient's expectations and wishes, physician-related factors such as personal characteristics and interaction with their professional community, and features of clinical practice such as private versus public practice as well as local management policies. This review brings together the different strands of knowledge concerning non-clinical influences on clinical decision-making. This aspect of decision-making may be the biggest obstacle to the reality of practising evidence-based medicine. It needs to be understood in order to develop clinical strategies that will facilitate the practice of evidence-based medicine. PMID:20436026

  14. Creating and sharing clinical decision support content with Web 2.0: Issues and examples.

    PubMed

    Wright, Adam; Bates, David W; Middleton, Blackford; Hongsermeier, Tonya; Kashyap, Vipul; Thomas, Sean M; Sittig, Dean F

    2009-04-01

    Clinical decision support is a powerful tool for improving healthcare quality and patient safety. However, developing a comprehensive package of decision support interventions is costly and difficult. If used well, Web 2.0 methods may make it easier and less costly to develop decision support. Web 2.0 is characterized by online communities, open sharing, interactivity and collaboration. Although most previous attempts at sharing clinical decision support content have worked outside of the Web 2.0 framework, several initiatives are beginning to use Web 2.0 to share and collaborate on decision support content. We present case studies of three efforts: the Clinfowiki, a world-accessible wiki for developing decision support content; Partners Healthcare eRooms, web-based tools for developing decision support within a single organization; and Epic Systems Corporation's Community Library, a repository for sharing decision support content for customers of a single clinical system vendor. We evaluate the potential of Web 2.0 technologies to enable collaborative development and sharing of clinical decision support systems through the lens of three case studies; analyzing technical, legal and organizational issues for developers, consumers and organizers of clinical decision support content in Web 2.0. We believe the case for Web 2.0 as a tool for collaborating on clinical decision support content appears strong, particularly for collaborative content development within an organization.

  15. Optimization of the decision-making process for the selection of therapeutics to undergo clinical testing for spinal cord injury in the North American Clinical Trials Network.

    PubMed

    Guest, James; Harrop, James S; Aarabi, Bizhan; Grossman, Robert G; Fawcett, James W; Fehlings, Michael G; Tator, Charles H

    2012-09-01

    The North American Clinical Trials Network (NACTN) includes 9 clinical centers funded by the US Department of Defense and the Christopher Reeve Paralysis Foundation. Its purpose is to accelerate clinical testing of promising therapeutics in spinal cord injury (SCI) through the development of a robust interactive infrastructure. This structure includes key committees that serve to provide longitudinal guidance to the Network. These committees include the Executive, Data Management, and Neurological Outcome Assessments Committees, and the Therapeutic Selection Committee (TSC), which is the subject of this manuscript. The NACTN brings unique elements to the SCI field. The Network's stability is not restricted to a single clinical trial. Network members have diverse expertise and include experts in clinical care, clinical trial design and methodology, pharmacology, preclinical and clinical research, and advanced rehabilitation techniques. Frequent systematic communication is assigned a high value, as is democratic process, fairness and efficiency of decision making, and resource allocation. This article focuses on how decision making occurs within the TSC to rank alternative therapeutics according to 2 main variables: quality of the preclinical data set, and fit with the Network's aims and capabilities. This selection process is important because if the Network's resources are committed to a therapeutic, alternatives cannot be pursued. A proposed methodology includes a multicriteria decision analysis that uses a Multi-Attribute Global Inference of Quality matrix to quantify the process. To rank therapeutics, the TSC uses a series of consensus steps designed to reduce individual and group bias and limit subjectivity. Given the difficulties encountered by industry in completing clinical trials in SCI, stable collaborative not-for-profit consortia, such as the NACTN, may be essential to clinical progress in SCI. The evolution of the NACTN also offers substantial

  16. Analytical Protein Microarrays: Advancements Towards Clinical Applications.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Ursula

    2017-01-29

    Protein microarrays represent a powerful technology with the potential to serve as tools for the detection of a broad range of analytes in numerous applications such as diagnostics, drug development, food safety, and environmental monitoring. Key features of analytical protein microarrays include high throughput and relatively low costs due to minimal reagent consumption, multiplexing, fast kinetics and hence measurements, and the possibility of functional integration. So far, especially fundamental studies in molecular and cell biology have been conducted using protein microarrays, while the potential for clinical, notably point-of-care applications is not yet fully utilized. The question arises what features have to be implemented and what improvements have to be made in order to fully exploit the technology. In the past we have identified various obstacles that have to be overcome in order to promote protein microarray technology in the diagnostic field. Issues that need significant improvement to make the technology more attractive for the diagnostic market are for instance: too low sensitivity and deficiency in reproducibility, inadequate analysis time, lack of high-quality antibodies and validated reagents, lack of automation and portable instruments, and cost of instruments necessary for chip production and read-out. The scope of the paper at hand is to review approaches to solve these problems.

  17. Analytical Protein Microarrays: Advancements Towards Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Sauer, Ursula

    2017-01-01

    Protein microarrays represent a powerful technology with the potential to serve as tools for the detection of a broad range of analytes in numerous applications such as diagnostics, drug development, food safety, and environmental monitoring. Key features of analytical protein microarrays include high throughput and relatively low costs due to minimal reagent consumption, multiplexing, fast kinetics and hence measurements, and the possibility of functional integration. So far, especially fundamental studies in molecular and cell biology have been conducted using protein microarrays, while the potential for clinical, notably point-of-care applications is not yet fully utilized. The question arises what features have to be implemented and what improvements have to be made in order to fully exploit the technology. In the past we have identified various obstacles that have to be overcome in order to promote protein microarray technology in the diagnostic field. Issues that need significant improvement to make the technology more attractive for the diagnostic market are for instance: too low sensitivity and deficiency in reproducibility, inadequate analysis time, lack of high-quality antibodies and validated reagents, lack of automation and portable instruments, and cost of instruments necessary for chip production and read-out. The scope of the paper at hand is to review approaches to solve these problems. PMID:28146048

  18. Using Data Mining Strategies in Clinical Decision Making: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lu-Yen A; Fawcett, Tonks N

    2016-10-01

    Several data-mining models have been embedded in the clinical environment to improve decision making and patient safety. Consequently, it is crucial to survey the principal data-mining strategies currently used in clinical decision making and to determine the disadvantages and advantages of using these strategies in data mining in clinical decision making. A literature review was conducted, which identified 21 relevant articles. The article findings showed that multiple models of data mining were used in clinical decision making. Although data mining is efficient and accurate, the models are limited with respect to disease and condition.

  19. Digital technology and clinical decision making in depression treatment: Current findings and future opportunities.

    PubMed

    Hallgren, Kevin A; Bauer, Amy M; Atkins, David C

    2017-06-01

    Clinical decision making encompasses a broad set of processes that contribute to the effectiveness of depression treatments. There is emerging interest in using digital technologies to support effective and efficient clinical decision making. In this paper, we provide "snapshots" of research and current directions on ways that digital technologies can support clinical decision making in depression treatment. Practical facets of clinical decision making are reviewed, then research, design, and implementation opportunities where technology can potentially enhance clinical decision making are outlined. Discussions of these opportunities are organized around three established movements designed to enhance clinical decision making for depression treatment, including measurement-based care, integrated care, and personalized medicine. Research, design, and implementation efforts may support clinical decision making for depression by (1) improving tools to incorporate depression symptom data into existing electronic health record systems, (2) enhancing measurement of treatment fidelity and treatment processes, (3) harnessing smartphone and biosensor data to inform clinical decision making, (4) enhancing tools that support communication and care coordination between patients and providers and within provider teams, and (5) leveraging treatment and outcome data from electronic health record systems to support personalized depression treatment. The current climate of rapid changes in both healthcare and digital technologies facilitates an urgent need for research, design, and implementation of digital technologies that explicitly support clinical decision making. Ensuring that such tools are efficient, effective, and usable in frontline treatment settings will be essential for their success and will require engagement of stakeholders from multiple domains. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. ADVANCES IN BASIC AND CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY 2013

    PubMed Central

    Chinen, Javier; Notarangelo, Luigi D.; Shearer, William T.

    2014-01-01

    A significant number of contributions to our understanding of primary immunodeficiencies in pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment were published in the Journal in 2013. For example, deficiency of mast cell degranulation due to STAT3 deficiency was demonstrated to contribute to the difference on frequency of severe allergic reactions in AD-HIES patients, compared to atopic individuals with similar high IgE serum levels. High levels of non-glycosylated IgA were found in WAS patients and these abnormal antibodies might contribute to nephropathy in WAS. New described genes causing immunodeficiency included caspase recruitment domain 11 (CARD11), mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue 1 (MALT1) for combined immunodeficiencies, and tetratricopeptide repeat domain 7A (TTC7A) for mutations associated to multiple atresia with combined immunodeficiency. Other observations expand the spectrum of clinical presentation of specific genes. (e.g., adult onset idiopathic T-cell lymphopenia and early onset autoimmunity might be due to hypomorphic mutations of the RAG genes). Newborn screening in California established incidence of SCID at 1/66,250 live births. The use of HSCT for primary immunodeficiencies was reviewed, with recommendations to give priority to research oriented to establish best regimens to improve safety and efficacy of bone marrow transplantation. These represent only a fraction of significant research done in primary immunodeficiencies that has accelerated the quality of care of these patients. Genetic analysis of patients has demonstrated multiple phenotypic expressions of immune deficiency in patients with nearly identical genotypes, suggesting that additional genetic factors, possibly gene dosage, or environmental factors are responsible for this diversity. PMID:24589342

  1. Privacy-Preserving Patient-Centric Clinical Decision Support System on Naïve Bayesian Classification.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ximeng; Lu, Rongxing; Ma, Jianfeng; Chen, Le; Qin, Baodong

    2016-03-01

    Clinical decision support system, which uses advanced data mining techniques to help clinician make proper decisions, has received considerable attention recently. The advantages of clinical decision support system include not only improving diagnosis accuracy but also reducing diagnosis time. Specifically, with large amounts of clinical data generated everyday, naïve Bayesian classification can be utilized to excavate valuable information to improve a clinical decision support system. Although the clinical decision support system is quite promising, the flourish of the system still faces many challenges including information security and privacy concerns. In this paper, we propose a new privacy-preserving patient-centric clinical decision support system, which helps clinician complementary to diagnose the risk of patients' disease in a privacy-preserving way. In the proposed system, the past patients' historical data are stored in cloud and can be used to train the naïve Bayesian classifier without leaking any individual patient medical data, and then the trained classifier can be applied to compute the disease risk for new coming patients and also allow these patients to retrieve the top- k disease names according to their own preferences. Specifically, to protect the privacy of past patients' historical data, a new cryptographic tool called additive homomorphic proxy aggregation scheme is designed. Moreover, to leverage the leakage of naïve Bayesian classifier, we introduce a privacy-preserving top- k disease names retrieval protocol in our system. Detailed privacy analysis ensures that patient's information is private and will not be leaked out during the disease diagnosis phase. In addition, performance evaluation via extensive simulations also demonstrates that our system can efficiently calculate patient's disease risk with high accuracy in a privacy-preserving way.

  2. Decision analysis in anaesthesia: a tool for developing and analysing clinical management plans.

    PubMed

    Yentis, S M

    2006-07-01

    Traditional medical decision making is unstructured and incorporates evidence haphazardly. I present a more structured approach based on decision analysis, a model that considers all relevant options and outcomes informed by evidence where appropriate. This method is useful both for planning clinical management and for analysing decisions already taken.

  3. Applying a family systems lens to proxy decision making in clinical practice and research.

    PubMed

    Rolland, John S; Emanuel, Linda L; Torke, Alexia M

    2017-03-01

    When patients are incapacitated and face serious illness, family members must make medical decisions for the patient. Medical decision sciences give only modest attention to the relationships among patients and their family members, including impact that these relationships have on the decision-making process. A review of the literature reveals little effort to systematically apply a theoretical framework to the role of family interactions in proxy decision making. A family systems perspective can provide a useful lens through which to understand the dynamics of proxy decision making. This article considers the mutual impact of family systems on the processes and outcomes of proxy decision making. The article first reviews medical decision science's evolution and focus on proxy decision making and then reviews a family systems approach, giving particular attention to Rolland's Family Systems Illness Model. A case illustrates how clinical practice and how research would benefit from bringing family systems thinking to proxy decisions. We recommend including a family systems approach in medical decision science research and clinical practices around proxy decisions making. We propose that clinical decisions could be less conflicted and less emotionally troubling for families and clinicians if family systems approaches were included. This perspective opens new directions for research and novel approaches to clinical care. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. Hemispheric Activation Differences in Novice and Expert Clinicians during Clinical Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hruska, Pam; Hecker, Kent G.; Coderre, Sylvain; McLaughlin, Kevin; Cortese, Filomeno; Doig, Christopher; Beran, Tanya; Wright, Bruce; Krigolson, Olav

    2016-01-01

    Clinical decision making requires knowledge, experience and analytical/non-analytical types of decision processes. As clinicians progress from novice to expert, research indicates decision-making becomes less reliant on foundational biomedical knowledge and more on previous experience. In this study, we investigated how knowledge and experience…

  5. Hemispheric Activation Differences in Novice and Expert Clinicians during Clinical Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hruska, Pam; Hecker, Kent G.; Coderre, Sylvain; McLaughlin, Kevin; Cortese, Filomeno; Doig, Christopher; Beran, Tanya; Wright, Bruce; Krigolson, Olav

    2016-01-01

    Clinical decision making requires knowledge, experience and analytical/non-analytical types of decision processes. As clinicians progress from novice to expert, research indicates decision-making becomes less reliant on foundational biomedical knowledge and more on previous experience. In this study, we investigated how knowledge and experience…

  6. Clinical update: communication issues and advance care planning.

    PubMed

    Moore, Crystal Dea; Reynolds, Ashley M

    2013-11-01

    To provide a clinical update on practical strategies to enhance the quality of communication in the palliative and end-of-life medical care settings. Published articles, textbooks, reports, and clinical experience. The components of effective and compassionate care throughout the advanced illness trajectory require thoughtful and strategic communication with patients, families, and members of the health care team. Unfortunately, few health care professionals are formally trained in communication skills. Nurses who possess self-awareness and are skilled in effective communication practices are integral to the provision of high-quality palliative care for patients and families coping with advanced malignancies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Clinical Decision Support Systems for the Practice of Evidence-based Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Ida; Gorman, Paul; Greenes, Robert A.; Haynes, R. Brian; Kaplan, Bonnie; Lehmann, Harold; Tang, Paul C.

    2001-01-01

    Background: The use of clinical decision support systems to facilitate the practice of evidence-based medicine promises to substantially improve health care quality. Objective: To describe, on the basis of the proceedings of the Evidence and Decision Support track at the 2000 AMIA Spring Symposium, the research and policy challenges for capturing research and practice-based evidence in machine-interpretable repositories, and to present recommendations for accelerating the development and adoption of clinical decision support systems for evidence-based medicine. Results: The recommendations fall into five broad areas—capture literature-based and practice-based evidence in machine-interpretable knowledge bases; develop maintainable technical and methodological foundations for computer-based decision support; evaluate the clinical effects and costs of clinical decision support systems and the ways clinical decision support systems affect and are affected by professional and organizational practices; identify and disseminate best practices for work flow–sensitive implementations of clinical decision support systems; and establish public policies that provide incentives for implementing clinical decision support systems to improve health care quality. Conclusions: Although the promise of clinical decision support system–facilitated evidence-based medicine is strong, substantial work remains to be done to realize the potential benefits. PMID:11687560

  8. An exploration of the correlates of nurse practitioners' clinical decision-making abilities.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shiah-Lian; Hsu, Hsiu-Ying; Chang, Chin-Fu; Lin, Esther Ching-Lan

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated nurse practitioners' clinical decision-making abilities and the factors that affect these abilities. Nurse practitioners play an important role in clinical care decision-making; however, studies exploring the factors that affect their decision-making abilities are lacking. A cross-sectional descriptive survey was employed. A purposive sample of 197 nurse practitioners was recruited from a medical centre in central Taiwan. Structured questionnaires consisting of the Knowledge Readiness Scale, the Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory and the Clinical Decision-Making Model Inventory were used to collect data. The intuitive-analytical type was the most commonly used decision-making model, and the intuitive type was the least frequently used model. The decision-making model used was significantly related to the nurse practitioners' work unit. Significant differences were noted between the nurse practitioners' clinical decision-making models and their critical thinking dispositions (openness and empathy). The nurse practitioners' years of work experience, work unit, professional knowledge and critical thinking disposition (openness and empathy as well as holistic and reflective dispositions) predicted the nurse practitioners' analytical decision-making scores. Age, years of nurse practitioner work experience, work unit and critical thinking disposition (holistic and reflective) predicted the nurse practitioners' intuitive decision-making scores. This study contributes to the topic of clinical decision-making by describing various types of nurse practitioner decision-making. The factors associated with analytic and intuitive decision-making scores were identified. These findings might be beneficial when planning continuing education programmes to enhance the clinical decision-making abilities of nurse practitioners. The study results showed that nurse practitioners demonstrated various clinical decision-making types across different work units

  9. Construction of databases: advances and significance in clinical research.

    PubMed

    Long, Erping; Huang, Bingjie; Wang, Liming; Lin, Xiaoyu; Lin, Haotian

    2015-12-01

    Widely used in clinical research, the database is a new type of data management automation technology and the most efficient tool for data management. In this article, we first explain some basic concepts, such as the definition, classification, and establishment of databases. Afterward, the workflow for establishing databases, inputting data, verifying data, and managing databases is presented. Meanwhile, by discussing the application of databases in clinical research, we illuminate the important role of databases in clinical research practice. Lastly, we introduce the reanalysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cloud computing techniques, showing the most recent advancements of databases in clinical research.

  10. Clinical decisions support malfunctions in a commercial electronic health record.

    PubMed

    Kassakian, Steven Z; Yackel, Thomas R; Gorman, Paul N; Dorr, David A

    2017-09-06

    Determine if clinical decision support (CDS) malfunctions occur in a commercial electronic health record (EHR) system, characterize their pathways and describe methods of detection. We retrospectively examined the firing rate for 226 alert type CDS rules for detection of anomalies using both expert visualization and statistical process control (SPC) methods over a five year period. Candidate anomalies were investigated and validated. Twenty-one candidate CDS anomalies were identified from 8,300 alert-months. Of these candidate anomalies, four were confirmed as CDS malfunctions, eight as false-positives, and nine could not be classified. The four CDS malfunctions were a result of errors in knowledge management: 1) inadvertent addition and removal of a medication code to the electronic formulary list; 2) a seasonal alert which was not activated; 3) a change in the base data structures; and 4) direct editing of an alert related to its medications. 154 CDS rules (68%) were amenable to SPC methods and the test characteristics were calculated as a sensitivity of 95%, positive predictive value of 29% and F-measure 0.44. CDS malfunctions were found to occur in our EHR. All of the pathways for these malfunctions can be described as knowledge management errors. Expert visualization is a robust method of detection, but is resource intensive. SPC-based methods, when applicable, perform reasonably well retrospectively. CDS anomalies were found to occur in a commercial EHR and visual detection along with SPC analysis represents promising methods of malfunction detection.

  11. Clinical Decision Support for Early Recognition of Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Amland, Robert C.; Hahn-Cover, Kristin E.

    2014-01-01

    Sepsis is an inflammatory response triggered by infection, with a high in-hospital mortality rate. Early recognition and treatment can reverse the inflammatory response, with evidence of improved patient outcomes. One challenge clinicians face is identifying the inflammatory syndrome against the background of the patient’s infectious illness and comorbidities. An approach to this problem is implementation of computerized early warning tools for sepsis. This multicenter retrospective study sought to determine clinimetric performance of a cloud-based computerized sepsis clinical decision support system (CDS), understand the epidemiology of sepsis, and identify opportunities for quality improvement. Data encompassed 6200 adult hospitalizations from 2012 through 2013. Of 13% patients screened-in, 51% were already suspected to have an infection when the system activated. This study focused on a patient cohort screened-in before infection was suspected; median time from arrival to CDS activation was 3.5 hours, and system activation to diagnostic collect was another 8.6 hours. PMID:25385815

  12. Decision support systems for clinical radiological practice — towards the next generation

    PubMed Central

    Stivaros, S M; Gledson, A; Nenadic, G; Zeng, X-J; Keane, J; Jackson, A

    2010-01-01

    The huge amount of information that needs to be assimilated in order to keep pace with the continued advances in modern medical practice can form an insurmountable obstacle to the individual clinician. Within radiology, the recent development of quantitative imaging techniques, such as perfusion imaging, and the development of imaging-based biomarkers in modern therapeutic assessment has highlighted the need for computer systems to provide the radiological community with support for academic as well as clinical/translational applications. This article provides an overview of the underlying design and functionality of radiological decision support systems with examples tracing the development and evolution of such systems over the past 40 years. More importantly, we discuss the specific design, performance and usage characteristics that previous systems have highlighted as being necessary for clinical uptake and routine use. Additionally, we have identified particular failings in our current methodologies for data dissemination within the medical domain that must be overcome if the next generation of decision support systems is to be implemented successfully. PMID:20965900

  13. Advanced clinical technology--clinical tool or expensive toy?

    PubMed

    Ganz, C H

    1995-10-01

    There should no longer be any doubt in dentists' minds when it comes to the importance of technology in the day-to-day activities of the dental office. But there is, and this doubt must be addressed if the profession is to grow and prosper to its full potential. Denying the importance of technology--or putting on blinders--only leads to complacency, and clearly does not support our professions goal of providing the finest dental care possible. This article addresses the use of technology in a clinically-related manner, and attempts to provide the practitioner with valuable practice management tools to allow for a prosperous and efficient dental practice.

  14. HER2 Testing and Clinical Decision Making in Gastroesophageal Adenocarcinoma: Guideline From the College of American Pathologists, American Society for Clinical Pathology, and American Society of Clinical Oncology.

    PubMed

    Bartley, Angela N; Washington, Mary Kay; Ventura, Christina B; Ismaila, Nofisat; Colasacco, Carol; Benson, Al B; Carrato, Alfredo; Gulley, Margaret L; Jain, Dhanpat; Kakar, Sanjay; Mackay, Helen J; Streutker, Catherine; Tang, Laura; Troxell, Megan; Ajani, Jaffer A

    2016-12-01

    - ERBB2 (erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 or HER2) is currently the only biomarker established for selection of a specific therapy for patients with advanced gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma (GEA). However, there are no comprehensive guidelines for the assessment of HER2 in patients with GEA. - To establish an evidence-based guideline for HER2 testing in patients with GEA, to formalize the algorithms for methods to improve the accuracy of HER2 testing while addressing which patients and tumor specimens are appropriate, and to provide guidance on clinical decision making. - The College of American Pathologists, American Society for Clinical Pathology, and American Society of Clinical Oncology convened an expert panel to conduct a systematic review of the literature to develop an evidence-based guideline with recommendations for optimal HER2 testing in patients with GEA. - The panel is proposing 11 recommendations with strong agreement from the open-comment participants. - The panel recommends that tumor specimen(s) from all patients with advanced GEA, who are candidates for HER2-targeted therapy, should be assessed for HER2 status before the initiation of HER2-targeted therapy. Clinicians should offer combination chemotherapy and a HER2-targeted agent as initial therapy for all patients with HER2-positive advanced GEA. For pathologists, guidance is provided for morphologic selection of neoplastic tissue, testing algorithms, scoring methods, interpretation and reporting of results, and laboratory quality assurance. - This guideline provides specific recommendations for assessment of HER2 in patients with advanced GEA while addressing pertinent technical issues and clinical implications of the results.

  15. Improving clinical practice using clinical decision support systems: a systematic review of trials to identify features critical to success

    PubMed Central

    Kawamoto, Kensaku; Houlihan, Caitlin A; Balas, E Andrew; Lobach, David F

    2005-01-01

    Objective To identify features of clinical decision support systems critical for improving clinical practice. Design Systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Data sources Literature searches via Medline, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register up to 2003; and searches of reference lists of included studies and relevant reviews. Study selection Studies had to evaluate the ability of decision support systems to improve clinical practice. Data extraction Studies were assessed for statistically and clinically significant improvement in clinical practice and for the presence of 15 decision support system features whose importance had been repeatedly suggested in the literature. Results Seventy studies were included. Decision support systems significantly improved clinical practice in 68% of trials. Univariate analyses revealed that, for five of the system features, interventions possessing the feature were significantly more likely to improve clinical practice than interventions lacking the feature. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified four features as independent predictors of improved clinical practice: automatic provision of decision support as part of clinician workflow (P < 0.00001), provision of recommendations rather than just assessments (P = 0.0187), provision of decision support at the time and location of decision making (P = 0.0263), and computer based decision support (P = 0.0294). Of 32 systems possessing all four features, 30 (94%) significantly improved clinical practice. Furthermore, direct experimental justification was found for providing periodic performance feedback, sharing recommendations with patients, and requesting documentation of reasons for not following recommendations. Conclusions Several features were closely correlated with decision support systems' ability to improve patient care significantly. Clinicians and other stakeholders should implement clinical decision support systems that incorporate these

  16. Issues of trust and ethics in computerized clinical decision support systems.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Gregory L

    2006-01-01

    Clinical decision support systems are computer technologies that model and provide support for human decision-making processes. Decision support mechanisms facilitate and enhance a clinician's ability to make decisions at the point of care. Decisions are facilitated through technology by using automated mechanisms that provide alerts or messages to clinicians about a potential patient problem. A clinician's level of trust in these technologies to support decision making is affected by how knowledge is represented in these tools, their ability to make reasonable decisions, and how they are designed. Furthermore, ethical tensions occur if these systems do not promote standards, if clinicians do not understand how to use these systems, and when professional relationships are affected. Issues of trust and ethical concerns will be examined in this article, using a research study of midwestern nursing homes that implemented a clinical decision support system.

  17. Decision Making in the PICU: An Examination of Factors Influencing Participation Decisions in Phase III Randomized Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Slosky, Laura E.; Burke, Natasha L.; Siminoff, Laura A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. In stressful situations, decision making processes related to informed consent may be compromised. Given the profound levels of distress that surrogates of children in pediatric intensive care units (PICU) experience, it is important to understand what factors may be influencing the decision making process beyond the informed consent. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of clinician influence and other factors on decision making regarding participation in a randomized clinical trial (RCT). Method. Participants were 76 children under sedation in a PICU and their surrogate decision makers. Measures included the Post Decision Clinician Survey, observer checklist, and post-decision interview. Results. Age of the pediatric patient was related to participation decisions in the RCT such that older children were more likely to be enrolled. Mentioning the sponsoring institution was associated with declining to participate in the RCT. Type of health care provider and overt recommendations to participate were not related to enrollment. Conclusion. Decisions to participate in research by surrogates of children in the PICU appear to relate to child demographics and subtleties in communication; however, no modifiable characteristics were related to increased participation, indicating that the informed consent process may not be compromised in this population. PMID:25161672

  18. Does clinical decision support reduce unwarranted variation in yield of CT pulmonary angiogram?

    PubMed

    Prevedello, Luciano M; Raja, Ali S; Ip, Ivan K; Sodickson, Aaron; Khorasani, Ramin

    2013-11-01

    The study objective was to determine whether previously documented effects of clinical decision support on computed tomography for pulmonary embolism in the emergency department (ie, decreased use and increased yield) are due to a decrease in unwarranted variation. We evaluated clinical decision support effect on intra- and inter-physician variability in the yield of pulmonary embolism computed tomography (PE-CT) in this setting. The study was performed in an academic adult medical center emergency department with 60,000 annual visits. We enrolled all patients who had PE-CT performed 18 months pre- and post-clinical decision support implementation. Intra- and inter-physician variability in yield (% PE-CT positive for acute pulmonary embolism) were assessed. Yield variability was measured using logistic regression accounting for patient characteristics. A total of 1542 PE-CT scans were performed before clinical decision support, and 1349 PE-CT scans were performed after clinical decision support. Use of PE-CT decreased from 26.5 to 24.3 computed tomography scans/1000 patient visits after clinical decision support (P < .02); yield increased from 9.2% to 12.6% (P < .01). Crude inter-physician variability in yield ranged from 2.6% to 20.5% before clinical decision support and from 0% to 38.1% after clinical decision support. After controlling for patient characteristics, the post-clinical decision support period showed significant inter-physician variability (P < .04). Intra-physician variability was significant in 3 of the 25 physicians (P < .04), all with increased yield post-clinical decision support. Overall PE-CT yield increased after clinical decision support implementation despite significant heterogeneity among physicians. Increased inter-physician variability in yield after clinical decision support was not explained by patient characteristics alone and may be due to variable physician acceptance of clinical decision support. Clinical decision support alone is

  19. Using evidence-based algorithms to improve clinical decision making: the case of a first-time anterior shoulder dislocation.

    PubMed

    Federer, Andrew E; Taylor, Dean C; Mather, Richard C

    2013-09-01

    Decision making in health care has evolved substantially over the last century. Up until the late 1970s, medical decision making was predominantly intuitive and anecdotal. It was based on trial and error and involved high levels of problem solving. The 1980s gave way to empirical medicine, which was evidence based probabilistic, and involved pattern recognition and less problem solving. Although this represented a major advance in the quality of medical decision making, limitations existed. The advantages of the gold standard of the randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT) are well-known and this technique is irreplaceable in its ability to answer critical clinical questions. However, the RCT does have drawbacks. RCTs are expensive and can only capture a snapshot in time. As treatments change and new technologies emerge, new expensive clinical trials must be undertaken to reevaluate them. Furthermore, in order to best evaluate a single intervention, other factors must be controlled. In addition, the study population may not match that of another organization or provider. Although evidence-based medicine has provided powerful data for clinicians, effectively and efficiently tailoring it to the individual has not yet evolved. We are now in a period of transition from this evidence-based era to one dominated by the personalization and customization of care. It will be fueled by policy decisions to shift financial responsibility to the patient, creating a powerful and sophisticated consumer, unlike any patient we have known before. The challenge will be to apply medical evidence and personal preferences to medical decisions and deliver it efficiently in the increasingly busy clinical setting. In this article, we provide a robust review of the concepts of customized care and some of techniques to deliver it. We will illustrate this through a personalized decision model for the treatment decision after a first-time anterior shoulder dislocation.

  20. Which clinical decisions benefit from automation? A task complexity approach.

    PubMed

    Sintchenko, Vitali; Coiera, Enrico W

    2003-07-01

    To describe a model for analysing complex medical decision making tasks and for evaluating their suitability for automation. Assessment of a decision task's complexity in terms of the number of elementary information processes (EIPs) and the potential for cognitive effort reduction through EIP minimisation using an automated decision aid. The model consists of five steps: (1) selection of the domain and relevant tasks; (2) evaluation of the knowledge complexity for tasks selected; (3) identification of cognitively demanding tasks; (4) assessment of unaided and aided effort requirements for this task accomplishment; and (5) selection of computational tools to achieve this complexity reduction. The model is applied to the task of antibiotic prescribing in critical care and the most complex components of the task identified. Decision aids to support these components can provide a significant reduction of cognitive effort suggesting this is a decision task worth automating. We view the role of decision support for complex decision to be one of task complexity reduction, and the model described allows for task automation without lowering decision quality and can assist decision support systems developers.

  1. Symposium on research advances in clinical PET. Final performance report

    SciTech Connect

    J. Michael McGehee

    1992-01-01

    The Institute for Clinical PET and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) co-sponsored a symposium entitled 'Research in PET: International and Institutional Perspectives' that highlighted the activities of many leading investigators in the U.S. and throughout the world. Research programs at the DOE were discussed as were potential directions of PET research. International as well as institutional perspectives on PET research were presented. This symposium was successful in reaching those interested in research advances of clinical PET.

  2. Partnering With Your Health System to Select and Implement Clinical Decision Support for Imaging.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jeff D; Durand, Daniel J

    2017-02-01

    Recent legislation mandates the documentation of appropriateness criteria consultation when ordering advanced imaging for Medicare patients to remain eligible for reimbursement. Implementation of imaging clinical decision support (CDS) is a solution adopted by many systems to automate compliance with the new requirements. This article is intended to help radiologists who are employed by, contracted with, or otherwise affiliated with systems planning to implement CDS in the near future and ensure that they are able to understand and contribute to the process wherever possible. It includes an in-depth discussion of the legislation, evidence for and against the efficacy of imaging CDS, considerations for selecting a CDS vendor, tips for configuring CDS in a fashion consistent with departmental goals, and pointers for implementation and change management. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Patients' Perceptions and Experiences of Shared Decision-Making in Primary HIV Care Clinics.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Shannon M; Koester, Kimberly A; Guinness, Ryan R; Steward, Wayne T

    Shared decision-making (SDM) is considered best practice in health care. Prior studies have explored attitudes and barriers/facilitators to SDM, with few specific to HIV care. We interviewed 53 patients in HIV primary care clinics in California to understand the factors and situations that may promote or hinder engagement in SDM. Studies in other populations have found that patients' knowledge about their diseases and their trust in providers facilitated SDM. We found these features to be more nuanced for HIV. Perceptions of personal agency, knowledge about one's disease, and trust in provider were factors that could work for or against SDM. Overall, we found that participants described few experiences of SDM, especially among those with no comorbidities. Opportunities for SDM in routine HIV care (e.g., determining antiretroviral therapy) may arise infrequently because of treatment advances. These findings yield considerations for adapting SDM to fit the context of HIV care.

  4. Mechanical versus clinical data combination in selection and admissions decisions: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kuncel, Nathan R; Klieger, David M; Connelly, Brian S; Ones, Deniz S

    2013-11-01

    In employee selection and academic admission decisions, holistic (clinical) data combination methods continue to be relied upon and preferred by practitioners in our field. This meta-analysis examined and compared the relative predictive power of mechanical methods versus holistic methods in predicting multiple work (advancement, supervisory ratings of performance, and training performance) and academic (grade point average) criteria. There was consistent and substantial loss of validity when data were combined holistically-even by experts who are knowledgeable about the jobs and organizations in question-across multiple criteria in work and academic settings. In predicting job performance, the difference between the validity of mechanical and holistic data combination methods translated into an improvement in prediction of more than 50%. Implications for evidence-based practice are discussed. (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Clinical decision support for drug related events: Moving towards better prevention

    PubMed Central

    Kane-Gill, Sandra L; Achanta, Archita; Kellum, John A; Handler, Steven M

    2016-01-01

    Clinical decision support (CDS) systems with automated alerts integrated into electronic medical records demonstrate efficacy for detecting medication errors (ME) and adverse drug events (ADEs). Critically ill patients are at increased risk for ME, ADEs and serious negative outcomes related to these events. Capitalizing on CDS to detect ME and prevent adverse drug related events has the potential to improve patient outcomes. The key to an effective medication safety surveillance system incorporating CDS is advancing the signals for alerts by using trajectory analyses to predict clinical events, instead of waiting for these events to occur. Additionally, incorporating cutting-edge biomarkers into alert knowledge in an effort to identify the need to adjust medication therapy portending harm will advance the current state of CDS. CDS can be taken a step further to identify drug related physiological events, which are less commonly included in surveillance systems. Predictive models for adverse events that combine patient factors with laboratory values and biomarkers are being established and these models can be the foundation for individualized CDS alerts to prevent impending ADEs. PMID:27896144

  6. [Advanced Parkinson's disease: clinical characteristics and treatment (part 1)].

    PubMed

    Kulisevsky, J; Luquin, M R; Arbelo, J M; Burguera, J A; Carrillo, F; Castro, A; Chacón, J; García-Ruiz, P J; Lezcano, E; Mir, P; Martinez-Castrillo, J C; Martínez-Torres, I; Puente, V; Sesar, A; Valldeoriola-Serra, F; Yañez, R

    2013-10-01

    A large percentage of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) develop motor fluctuations, dyskinesias, and severe non-motor symptoms within 3 to 5 years of starting dopaminergic therapy, and these motor complications are refractory to treatment. Several authors refer to this stage of the disease as advanced Parkinson's disease. To define the clinical manifestations of advanced PD and the risk factors for reaching this stage of the disease. This consensus document has been prepared by using an exhaustive literature search and by discussion of the contents by an expert group on movement disorders of the Sociedad Española de Neurología (Spanish Neurology Society), coordinated by two of the authors (JK and MRL). Severe motor fluctuations and dyskinesias, axial motor symptoms resistant to levodopa, and cognitive decline are the main signs in the clinical phenotype of advanced PD. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Population-based clinical decision support: a clinical and economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Eisenstein, Eric L; Anstrom, Kevin J; Edwards, Rex; Willis, Janese M; Simo, Jessica; Lobach, David F

    2012-01-01

    Governments are investing in health information technologies (HIT) to improve care quality and reduce medical costs. However, evidence of these benefits is limited. We conducted a randomized trial of three clinical decision support (CDS) interventions in 20,180 patients: email to care managers (n=3329), reports to primary care administrators (n=3368), letters to patients (n=3401), and controls (10,082). At 7-month follow-up, the letters to patients group had greater use of outpatient services and higher outpatient and total medical costs; whereas, the other groups had no change in clinical events or medical costs. As our CDS interventions were associated with no change or an increase in medical costs, it appears that investments in HIT without consideration for organizational context may not be sufficient to achieve improvements in clinical and economic outcomes.

  8. Introducing Advanced Clinical Reasoning to an Adult Learning Disability Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Jois; Matthews, Alison

    2014-01-01

    The advanced clinical reasoning approach is widely adopted in speech and language therapy practice. This article reports on the introduction of the approach across a multidisciplinary adult learning disability service and staff reports on the impact of this initiative. Staff and team managers reported that the training had a positive impact on…

  9. Introducing Advanced Clinical Reasoning to an Adult Learning Disability Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Jois; Matthews, Alison

    2014-01-01

    The advanced clinical reasoning approach is widely adopted in speech and language therapy practice. This article reports on the introduction of the approach across a multidisciplinary adult learning disability service and staff reports on the impact of this initiative. Staff and team managers reported that the training had a positive impact on…

  10. Psychometric Advances in Measuring Clinical Problem-Solving Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Leon J.

    1981-01-01

    Advances have been made in testing optometrists' clinical skills, particularly with the use of simulation techniques. Further research into these techniques will probably receive the most attention, although a shift in research emphasis from correlational studies of test validity and reliability to test development studies is needed. (MSE)

  11. Factors influencing the clinical decision-making of midwives: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Daemers, Darie O A; van Limbeek, Evelien B M; Wijnen, Hennie A A; Nieuwenhuijze, Marianne J; de Vries, Raymond G

    2017-10-06

    Although midwives make clinical decisions that have an impact on the health and well-being of mothers and babies, little is known about how they make those decisions. Wide variation in intrapartum decisions to refer women to obstetrician-led care suggests that midwives' decisions are based on more than the evidence based medicine (EBM) model - i.e. clinical evidence, midwife's expertise, and woman's values - alone. With this study we aimed to explore the factors that influence clinical decision-making of midwives who work independently. We used a qualitative approach, conducting in-depth interviews with a purposive sample of 11 Dutch primary care midwives. Data collection took place between May and September 2015. The interviews were semi-structured, using written vignettes to solicit midwives' clinical decision-making processes (Think Aloud method). We performed thematic analysis on the transcripts. We identified five themes that influenced clinical decision-making: the pregnant woman as a whole person, sources of knowledge, the midwife as a whole person, the collaboration between maternity care professionals, and the organisation of care. Regarding the midwife, her decisions were shaped not only by her experience, intuition, and personal circumstances, but also by her attitudes about physiology, woman-centredness, shared decision-making, and collaboration with other professionals. The nature of the local collaboration between maternity care professionals and locally-developed protocols dominated midwives' clinical decision-making. When midwives and obstetricians had different philosophies of care and different practice styles, their collaborative efforts were challenged. Midwives' clinical decision-making is a more varied and complex process than the EBM framework suggests. If midwives are to succeed in their role as promoters and protectors of physiological pregnancy and birth, they need to understand how clinical decisions in a multidisciplinary context are

  12. Safety of clinical and non-clinical decision makers in telephone triage: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Sheila Q; Greenberg, Mary E; Mahlmeister, Laura; Wolfe, Nicole

    2015-09-01

    Patient safety is a persistent problem in telephone triage research; however, studies have not differentiated between clinicians' and non-clinicians' respective safety. Currently, four groups of decision makers perform aspects of telephone triage: clinicians (physicians, nurses), and non-clinicians (emergency medical dispatchers (EMD) and clerical staff). Using studies published between 2002-2012, we applied Donabedian's structure-process-outcome model to examine groups' systems for evidence of system completeness (a minimum measure of structure and quality). We defined system completeness as the presence of a decision maker and four additional components: guidelines, documentation, training, and standards. Defining safety as appropriate referrals (AR) - (right time, right place with the right person), we measured each groups' corresponding AR rate percentages (outcomes). We analyzed each group's respective decision-making process as a safe match to the telephone triage task, based on each group's system structure completeness, process and AR rates (outcome). Studies uniformly noted system component presence: nurses (2-4), physicians (1), EMDs (2), clerical staff (1). Nurses had the highest average appropriate referral (AR) rates (91%), physicians' AR (82% average). Clerical staff had no system and did not perform telephone triage by standard definitions; EMDs may represent the use of the wrong system. Telephone triage appears least safe after hours when decision makers with the least complete systems (physicians, clerical staff) typically manage calls. At minimum, telephone triage decision makers should be clinicians; however, clinicians' safety calls for improvement. With improved training, standards and CDSS quality, the 24/7 clinical call center has potential to represent the national standard. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Clinical decision-making among new graduate nurses attending residency programs in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Dossary, Reem Nassar; Kitsantas, Panagiota; Maddox, P J

    2016-02-01

    This study examined the impact of residency programs on clinical decision-making of new Saudi graduate nurses who completed a residency program compared to new Saudi graduate nurses who did not participate in residency programs. This descriptive study employed a convenience sample (N=98) of new graduate nurses from three hospitals in Saudi Arabia. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Clinical decision-making skills were measured using the Clinical Decision Making in Nursing Scale. Descriptive statistics, independent t-tests, and multiple linear regression analysis were utilized to examine the effect of residency programs on new graduate nurses' clinical decision-making skills. On average, resident nurses had significantly higher levels of clinical decision-making skills than non-residents (t=23.25, p=0.000). Enrollment in a residency program explained 86.9% of the variance in total clinical decision making controlling for age and overall grade point average. The findings of this study support evidence in the nursing literature conducted primarily in the US and Europe that residency programs have a positive influence on new graduate nurses' clinical decision-making skills. This is the first study to examine the impact of residency programs on clinical decision-making among new Saudi graduate nurses who completed a residency program. The findings of this study underscore the need for the development and implementation of residency programs for all new nurses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis of Community Practice Clinical Decision-Making Skills in Pharmacy Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Marianne L.; Kirk, Kenneth W.

    1988-01-01

    A computerized, simulation-based instrument, consisting of four community practice clinical scenarios, collected information-searching data and the students' decisions. The appropriateness of the decisions, assessed by three clinical judges, and the focus of information search, based on the computer-collected process data, were the dependent…

  15. Surrogate decision making: reconciling ethical theory and clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Berger, Jeffrey T; DeRenzo, Evan G; Schwartz, Jack

    2008-07-01

    The care of adult patients without decision-making abilities is a routine part of medical practice. Decisions for these patients are typically made by surrogates according to a process governed by a hierarchy of 3 distinct decision-making standards: patients' known wishes, substituted judgments, and best interests. Although this framework offers some guidance, it does not readily incorporate many important considerations of patients and families and does not account for the ways in which many patients and surrogates prefer to make decisions. In this article, the authors review the research on surrogate decision making, compare it with normative standards, and offer ways in which the 2 can be reconciled for the patient's benefit.

  16. Decaying relevance of clinical data towards future decisions in data-driven inpatient clinical order sets.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jonathan H; Alagappan, Muthuraman; Goldstein, Mary K; Asch, Steven M; Altman, Russ B

    2017-06-01

    Determine how varying longitudinal historical training data can impact prediction of future clinical decisions. Estimate the "decay rate" of clinical data source relevance. We trained a clinical order recommender system, analogous to Netflix or Amazon's "Customers who bought A also bought B..." product recommenders, based on a tertiary academic hospital's structured electronic health record data. We used this system to predict future (2013) admission orders based on different subsets of historical training data (2009 through 2012), relative to existing human-authored order sets. Predicting future (2013) inpatient orders is more accurate with models trained on just one month of recent (2012) data than with 12 months of older (2009) data (ROC AUC 0.91 vs. 0.88, precision 27% vs. 22%, recall 52% vs. 43%, all P<10(-10)). Algorithmically learned models from even the older (2009) data was still more effective than existing human-authored order sets (ROC AUC 0.81, precision 16% recall 35%). Training with more longitudinal data (2009-2012) was no better than using only the most recent (2012) data, unless applying a decaying weighting scheme with a "half-life" of data relevance about 4 months. Clinical practice patterns (automatically) learned from electronic health record data can vary substantially across years. Gold standards for clinical decision support are elusive moving targets, reinforcing the need for automated methods that can adapt to evolving information. Prioritizing small amounts of recent data is more effective than using larger amounts of older data towards future clinical predictions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Advancing the educational and career pathway for clinical trials nurses.

    PubMed

    Scott, Kathleen; White, Kathryn; Roydhouse, Jessica K

    2013-04-01

    Clinical trials nurses play a pivotal role in the conduct of clinical research, but the educational and career pathway for these nurses remains unclear. This article reports findings from a survey of nurses working in cancer clinical trials research in Australia. Most participants held postgraduate qualifications (42 of 61); however, clinical trials education was primarily attained through short professional development courses. Interest in pursuing trial-specific postgraduate education was high, but barriers were identified, including cost, time, and unclear benefit for career advancement. Job titles varied substantially, which is indicative of an unclear employment pathway. These findings suggest that initiatives to improve the educational and career pathway for clinical trials nurses are needed and should include the following: formal educational preparation, greater consistency in employment status, and clearer career progression. These strategies should be underpinned by broad professional recognition of the clinical trials nurse as a specialized nursing role.

  18. System-Agnostic Clinical Decision Support Services: Benefits and Challenges for Scalable Decision Support

    PubMed Central

    Kawamoto, Kensaku; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Orton, Charles; Lobach, David F

    2010-01-01

    System-agnostic clinical decision support (CDS) services provide patient evaluation capabilities that are independent of specific CDS systems and system implementation contexts. While such system-agnostic CDS services hold great potential for facilitating the widespread implementation of CDS systems, little has been described regarding the benefits and challenges of their use. In this manuscript, the authors address this need by describing potential benefits and challenges of using a system-agnostic CDS service. This analysis is based on the authors’ formal assessments of, and practical experiences with, various approaches to developing, implementing, and maintaining CDS capabilities. In particular, the analysis draws on the authors’ experience developing and leveraging a system-agnostic CDS Web service known as SEBASTIAN. A primary potential benefit of using a system-agnostic CDS service is the relative ease and flexibility with which the service can be leveraged to implement CDS capabilities across applications and care settings. Other important potential benefits include facilitation of centralized knowledge management and knowledge sharing; the potential to support multiple underlying knowledge representations and knowledge resources through a common service interface; improved simplicity and componentization; easier testing and validation; and the enabling of distributed CDS system development. Conversely, important potential challenges include the increased effort required to develop knowledge resources capable of being used in many contexts and the critical need to standardize the service interface. Despite these challenges, our experiences to date indicate that the benefits of using a system-agnostic CDS service generally outweigh the challenges of using this approach to implementing and maintaining CDS systems. PMID:21603281

  19. System-agnostic clinical decision support services: benefits and challenges for scalable decision support.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Kensaku; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Orton, Charles; Lobach, David F

    2010-01-01

    System-agnostic clinical decision support (CDS) services provide patient evaluation capabilities that are independent of specific CDS systems and system implementation contexts. While such system-agnostic CDS services hold great potential for facilitating the widespread implementation of CDS systems, little has been described regarding the benefits and challenges of their use. In this manuscript, the authors address this need by describing potential benefits and challenges of using a system-agnostic CDS service. This analysis is based on the authors' formal assessments of, and practical experiences with, various approaches to developing, implementing, and maintaining CDS capabilities. In particular, the analysis draws on the authors' experience developing and leveraging a system-agnostic CDS Web service known as SEBASTIAN. A primary potential benefit of using a system-agnostic CDS service is the relative ease and flexibility with which the service can be leveraged to implement CDS capabilities across applications and care settings. Other important potential benefits include facilitation of centralized knowledge management and knowledge sharing; the potential to support multiple underlying knowledge representations and knowledge resources through a common service interface; improved simplicity and componentization; easier testing and validation; and the enabling of distributed CDS system development. Conversely, important potential challenges include the increased effort required to develop knowledge resources capable of being used in many contexts and the critical need to standardize the service interface. Despite these challenges, our experiences to date indicate that the benefits of using a system-agnostic CDS service generally outweigh the challenges of using this approach to implementing and maintaining CDS systems.

  20. SANDS: a service-oriented architecture for clinical decision support in a National Health Information Network.

    PubMed

    Wright, Adam; Sittig, Dean F

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we describe and evaluate a new distributed architecture for clinical decision support called SANDS (Service-oriented Architecture for NHIN Decision Support), which leverages current health information exchange efforts and is based on the principles of a service-oriented architecture. The architecture allows disparate clinical information systems and clinical decision support systems to be seamlessly integrated over a network according to a set of interfaces and protocols described in this paper. The architecture described is fully defined and developed, and six use cases have been developed and tested using a prototype electronic health record which links to one of the existing prototype National Health Information Networks (NHIN): drug interaction checking, syndromic surveillance, diagnostic decision support, inappropriate prescribing in older adults, information at the point of care and a simple personal health record. Some of these use cases utilize existing decision support systems, which are either commercially or freely available at present, and developed outside of the SANDS project, while other use cases are based on decision support systems developed specifically for the project. Open source code for many of these components is available, and an open source reference parser is also available for comparison and testing of other clinical information systems and clinical decision support systems that wish to implement the SANDS architecture. The SANDS architecture for decision support has several significant advantages over other architectures for clinical decision support. The most salient of these are:

  1. Assessing the sensibility of two clinical decision support systems.

    PubMed

    Graham, Timothy A D; Bullard, Michael J; Kushniruk, Andre W; Holroyd, Brian R; Rowe, Brian H

    2008-10-01

    Clinicians in Emergency Medicine (EM) are increasingly exposed to guidelines and treatment recommendations. To help access and recall these recommendations, electronic Clinical Decision Support Systems (CDSS) have been developed. This study examined the use and sensibility of two CDSS designed for emergency physicians. CDDS for community acquired pneumonia (CAP) and neutropenic fever (NF) were developed by multidisciplinary teams and have been accessed via an intranet-based homepage (eCPG) for several years. Sensibility is a term coined by Feinstein that describes common sense aspects of a survey instrument. It was modified by emergency researchers to include four main headings: (1) Appropriateness; (2) Objectivity; (3) Content; and (4) Discriminative Power. Sensibility surveys were developed using an iterative approach for both the CAP and NF CDSS and distributed to all 25 emergency physicians at one Canadian site. The overall response rate was 88%. Respondents were 88% male and 83% were less than 40; all were attending EM physicians with specialty designations. A number reported never having used the CAP (21%) or NF (33%) CDSS; 54% (CAP) and 21% (NF) of respondents had used the respective CDSS less than 10 times. Overall, both CDSS were rated highly by users with a mean response of 4.95 (SD 0.56) for CAP and 5.62 (SD 0.62) for NF on a seven-point Likert scale. The majority or respondents (CAP 59%, NF 80%) felt that the NF CDSS was more likely than the CAP CDSS to decrease the chances of making a medical error in medication dose, antibiotic choice or patient disposition (4.61 vs. 5.81, p=0.008). Despite being in place for several years, CDSS for CAP and NF are not used by all EM clinicians. Users were generally satisfied with the CDSS and felt that the NF was more likely than the CAP CDSS to decrease medical errors. Additional research is required to determine the barriers to CDSS use.

  2. Enhancing clinical decision making: development of a contiguous definition and conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Tiffen, Jennifer; Corbridge, Susan J; Slimmer, Lynda

    2014-01-01

    Clinical decision making is a term frequently used to describe the fundamental role of the nurse practitioner; however, other terms have been used interchangeably. The purpose of this article is to begin the process of developing a definition and framework of clinical decision making. The developed definition was "Clinical decision making is a contextual, continuous, and evolving process, where data are gathered, interpreted, and evaluated in order to select an evidence-based choice of action." A contiguous framework for clinical decision making specific for nurse practitioners is also proposed. Having a clear and unique understanding of clinical decision making will allow for consistent use of the term, which is relevant given the changing educational requirements for nurse practitioners and broadening scope of practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Integrating first-line treatment options into clinical practice: what's new in advanced melanoma?

    PubMed

    Dummer, Reinhard; Schadendorf, Dirk; Ascierto, Paolo A; Larkin, James; Lebbé, Celeste; Hauschild, Axel

    2015-12-01

    Melanoma remains a serious form of skin cancer in Europe and worldwide. Localized, early-stage melanomas can usually be treated with surgical excision. However, the prognosis is poorer for patients with advanced disease. Before 2011, treatment for advanced melanoma included palliative surgery and/or radiotherapy, and chemotherapy with or without immunotherapy, such as interleukin-2. As none of these treatments had shown survival benefits in patients with advanced melanoma, European guidelines had recommended that patients be entered into clinical trials. The lack of approved first-line options and varying access to clinical trials meant that European clinicians relied on experimental regimens and chemotherapy-based treatments when no other options were available. Since 2011, ipilimumab, an immuno-oncology therapy, and vemurafenib and dabrafenib, targeted agents that inhibit mutant BRAF, have been approved by the European Medicines Agency for the treatment of advanced melanoma. More recently, the MEK inhibitor, trametinib, received European marketing authorization for use in patients with BRAF mutation-positive advanced melanoma. In 2014, the anti-PD-1 antibody nivolumab was approved as a first-line therapy in Japan. Whereas nivolumab and another anti-PD-1 antibody, pembrolizumab, were approved as second-line therapies in the USA, their recent approval in Europe are for first-line use based on new clinical trial data in this setting. Together these agents are changing clinical practice and making therapeutic decisions more complex. Here, we discuss current and emerging therapeutic options for the first-line treatment of advanced melanoma, and how these therapies can be optimized to provide the best possible outcomes for patients.

  4. Randomized, Controlled Trial of an Advance Care Planning Video Decision Support Tool for Patients With Advanced Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    El-Jawahri, Areej; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K; Matlock, Dan; Stevenson, Lynne Warner; Lewis, Eldrin F; Stewart, Garrick; Semigran, Marc; Chang, Yuchiao; Parks, Kimberly; Walker-Corkery, Elizabeth S; Temel, Jennifer S; Bohossian, Hacho; Ooi, Henry; Mann, Eileen; Volandes, Angelo E

    2016-07-05

    Conversations about goals of care and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)/intubation for patients with advanced heart failure can be difficult. This study examined the impact of a video decision support tool and patient checklist on advance care planning for patients with heart failure. This was a multisite, randomized, controlled trial of a video-assisted intervention and advance care planning checklist versus a verbal description in 246 patients ≥64 years of age with heart failure and an estimated likelihood of death of >50% within 2 years. Intervention participants received a verbal description for goals of care (life-prolonging care, limited care, and comfort care) and CPR/intubation plus a 6-minute video depicting the 3 levels of care, CPR/intubation, and an advance care planning checklist. Control subjects received only the verbal description. The primary analysis compared the proportion of patients preferring comfort care between study arms immediately after the intervention. Secondary outcomes were CPR/intubation preferences and knowledge (6-item test; range, 0-6) after intervention. In the intervention group, 27 (22%) chose life-prolonging care, 31 (25%) chose limited care, 63 (51%) selected comfort care, and 2 (2%) were uncertain. In the control group, 50 (41%) chose life-prolonging care, 27 (22%) selected limited care, 37 (30%) chose comfort care, and 8 (7%) were uncertain (P<0.001). Intervention participants (compared with control subjects) were more likely to forgo CPR (68% versus 35%; P<0.001) and intubation (77% versus 48%; P<0.001) and had higher mean knowledge scores (4.1 versus 3.0; P<0.001). Patients with heart failure who viewed a video were more informed, more likely to select a focus on comfort, and less likely to desire CPR/intubation compared with patients receiving verbal information only. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01589120. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Recent advances in dengue pathogenesis and clinical management.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Cameron P; McPherson, Kirsty; Van Vinh Chau, Nguyen; Hoai Tam, D T; Young, Paul; Mackenzie, Jason; Wills, Bridget

    2015-12-10

    This review describes and commentates on recent advances in the understanding of dengue pathogenesis and immunity, plus clinical research on vaccines and therapeutics. We expand specifically on the role of the dermis in dengue virus infection, the contribution of cellular and humoral immune responses to pathogenesis and immunity, NS1 and mechanisms of virus immune evasion. Additionally we review a series of therapeutic intervention trials for dengue, as well as recent clinical research aimed at improving clinical diagnosis, risk prediction and disease classification. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Bacteriophage Therapy: Advances in Formulation Strategies and Human Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Vandenheuvel, Dieter; Lavigne, Rob; Brüssow, Harald

    2015-11-01

    Recently, a number of phage therapy phase I and II safety trials have been concluded, showing no notable safety concerns associated with the use of phage. Though hurdles for efficient treatment remain, these trials hold promise for future phase III clinical trials. Interestingly, most phage formulations used in these clinical trials are straightforward phage suspensions, and not much research has focused on the processing of phage cocktails in specific pharmaceutical dosage forms. Additional research on formulation strategies and the stability of phage-based drugs will be of key importance, especially with phage therapy advancing toward phase III clinical trials.

  7. Assessing clinical decision making: is the ideal system feasible?

    PubMed

    Dubois, R W; Brook, R H

    1988-01-01

    While caring for patients, physicians make a variety of decisions. Can current methods adequately determine whether these decisions are correct? If not, what improvements are needed? This paper begins with a review of several explicit methods to assess physician decision making. It then describes a more comprehensive system that would use Bayesian logic to assess whether a physician responded appropriately to the needs of an individual patient. Although sophisticated branching logic may be theoretically desirable, it may not be feasible. The paper concludes by proposing an explicit, potentially practical method that would judiciously use branching logic.

  8. Role of Advance Care Planning in Proxy Decision Making Among Individuals With Dementia and Their Family Caregivers.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Jung; De Larwelle, Jessica A; Valuch, Katharine O'Connell; Kesler, Toni

    2016-01-01

    Health care proxies make important end-of-life decisions for individuals with dementia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to examine the role of advance care planning in proxy decision making for 141 individuals with cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease, or other types of dementia. Proxies who did not know the preferences of individuals with dementia for life support treatments reported greater understanding of their values. Proxies of individuals with dementia who did not want life support treatments anticipated receiving less support and were more uncertain in decision making. The greater knowledge proxies had about dementia trajectory, family support, and trust of physicians, the more informed, clearer, and less uncertain they were in decision making. In addition to advance care planning, multiple factors influence proxy decision making, which should be considered in developing interventions and future research to support informed decision making for individuals with dementia and their families. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Clinical care paths: a role for finance in clinical decision-making.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Michael N; Cummings, Simone; Hage, Dana

    2012-12-01

    Care paths map the critical actions and decision points across a patient's course of medical treatment; their purpose is to guide physicians in the delivery of high-quality care while reducing care costs by avoiding services that do not contribute meaningfully to positive outcomes. Each care path development initiative should be led by a respected physician champion, whose specialty is in the area of the care episode being mapped, with the support of a clinician project manager. Once the care path has been developed and implemented, the finance leader's role begins in earnest with the tracking of financial and clinical data against care paths.

  10. Representation of Clinical Practice Guidelines in Conventional and Augmented Decision Tables

    PubMed Central

    Shiffman, Richard N.

    1997-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To develop a knowledge representation model for clinical practice guidelines that is linguistically adequate, comprehensible, reusable, and maintainable. Design: Decision tables provide the basic framework for the proposed knowledge representation model. Guideline logic is represented as rules in conventional decision tables. These tables are augmented by layers where collateral information is recorded in slots beneath the logic. Results: Decision tables organize rules into cohesive rule sets wherein complex logic is clarified. Decision table rule sets may be verified to assure completeness and consistency. Optimization and display of rule sets as sequential decision trees may enhance the comprehensibility of the logic. The modularity of the rule formats may facilitate maintenance. The augmentation layers provide links to descriptive language, information sources, decision variable characteristics, costs and expected values of policies, and evidence sources and quality. Conclusion: Augmented decision tables can serve as a unifying knowledge representation for developers and implementers of clinical practice guidelines. PMID:9292844

  11. User-centered design to improve clinical decision support in primary care.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Julian; Chuang, Emmeline; Goldzweig, Caroline; Cain, Cindy L; Sugar, Catherine; Yano, Elizabeth M

    2017-08-01

    A growing literature has demonstrated the ability of user-centered design to make clinical decision support systems more effective and easier to use. However, studies of user-centered design have rarely examined more than a handful of sites at a time, and have frequently neglected the implementation climate and organizational resources that influence clinical decision support. The inclusion of such factors was identified by a systematic review as "the most important improvement that can be made in health IT evaluations." (1) Identify the prevalence of four user-centered design practices at United States Veterans Affairs (VA) primary care clinics and assess the perceived utility of clinical decision support at those clinics; (2) Evaluate the association between those user-centered design practices and the perceived utility of clinical decision support. We analyzed clinic-level survey data collected in 2006-2007 from 170 VA primary care clinics. We examined four user-centered design practices: 1) pilot testing, 2) provider satisfaction assessment, 3) formal usability assessment, and 4) analysis of impact on performance improvement. We used a regression model to evaluate the association between user-centered design practices and the perceived utility of clinical decision support, while accounting for other important factors at those clinics, including implementation climate, available resources, and structural characteristics. We also examined associations separately at community-based clinics and at hospital-based clinics. User-centered design practices for clinical decision support varied across clinics: 74% conducted pilot testing, 62% conducted provider satisfaction assessment, 36% conducted a formal usability assessment, and 79% conducted an analysis of impact on performance improvement. Overall perceived utility of clinical decision support was high, with a mean rating of 4.17 (±.67) out of 5 on a composite measure. "Analysis of impact on performance

  12. Exploring the use of large clinical data to inform patients for shared decision making.

    PubMed

    Hill, Brent; Proulx, Joshua; Zeng-Treitler, Qing

    2013-01-01

    Barriers to patient participation in the shared decision making process prevent patients from fully participating in evaluating treatment options and treatment selection. Patients who use a decision aid are more informed and engaged in the shared decision making process. Patient decision aids do not use real clinical data for patient information and may not represent the data well. We designed an interface, for a shared decision making aid, that leverages clinical data to inform risk ratios and create patient stories, or vignettes, and present a visual representation of quantified treatment outcomes data. Usability testing was conducted with experts to evaluate the interface and the utility of using real clinical information that patients can explore. The experts' comments were transcribed and coded for themes. Themes were quantified and comments were interpreted for refinement and modification to the patient decision aid interface and data visualization.

  13. Knowledge Style Profiling: An Exploration of Cognitive, Temperament, Demographic and Organizational Characteristics among Decision Makers Using Advanced Analytical Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polito, Vincent A., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research was to explore the possibilities of identifying knowledge style factors that could be used as central elements of a professional business analyst's (PBA) performance attributes at work for those decision makers that use advanced analytical technologies on decision making tasks. Indicators of knowledge style were…

  14. Knowledge Style Profiling: An Exploration of Cognitive, Temperament, Demographic and Organizational Characteristics among Decision Makers Using Advanced Analytical Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polito, Vincent A., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research was to explore the possibilities of identifying knowledge style factors that could be used as central elements of a professional business analyst's (PBA) performance attributes at work for those decision makers that use advanced analytical technologies on decision making tasks. Indicators of knowledge style were…

  15. Extracting clinical information to support medical decision based on standards.

    PubMed

    Gomoi, Valentin; Vida, Mihaela; Stoicu-Tivadar, Lăcrămioara; Stoicu-Tivadar, Vasile

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a method connecting medical databases to a medical decision system, and describes a service created to extract the necessary information that is transferred based on standards. The medical decision can be improved based on many inputs from different medical locations. The developed solution is described for a concrete case concerning the management for chronic pelvic pain, based on the information retrieved from diverse healthcare databases.

  16. Microcomputer-Based Expert System for Clinical Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Donna L.; Estrin, Thelma

    1981-01-01

    A computerized rule-based expert system for chest pain analysis in the emergency room has been developed as a medical decision-making tool. The rules are based on a previously established criteria mapping procedure developed for evaluating emergency room decisions. The system is implemented in PASCAL, a standardized language, and hence is machine-independent, and also has modest memory requirements. The overall design permits usage by those unfamiliar with computers.

  17. Peritoneal tuberculosis in pregnancy mimicking advanced ovarian cancer: a plea to avoid hasty, radical and irreversible surgical decisions.

    PubMed

    Sakorafas, George H; Ntavatzikos, Anastasions; Konstantiadou, Ioanna; Karamitopoulou, Eva; Kavatha, Dimitra; Peros, George

    2009-09-01

    Tuberculous peritonitis is rare in most Western counties, and can cause significant diagnostic and therapeutic problems. A 28-year-old pregnant female presented with nausea and vomiting, right lower quadrant abdominal pain, fever and intra-abdominal fluid. During surgery for presumed complicated acute appendicitis, many small masses (considered to be 'implants') were found within the peritoneal cavity, with a larger mass in the pelvis, mainly on the right. The clinical intra-operative diagnosis was advanced ovarian cancer and multiple biopsies were taken. The histological diagnosis was peritoneal tuberculosis. The patient was successfully treated conservatively. Hasty decisions to undertake radical and irreversible surgery should be avoided; this type of surgery should be performed only after histological confirmation.

  18. Identifying and Managing Undue Influence From Family Members in End-of-Life Decisions for Patients With Advanced Cancer.

    PubMed

    Baker, Francis X; Gallagher, Colleen M

    2017-10-01

    Undue influence from family members of patients with advanced cancer remains a serious ethical problem in end-of-life decision making. Despite the wealth of articles discussing the problem of undue influence, little has been written by way of practical guidance to help clinicians identify and effectively manage situations of undue influence. This article briefly lays out how to identify and manage situations of undue influence sensitively and effectively. We explain how undue influence may present itself in the clinic and distinguish it from ethically permissible expressions of relational autonomy. In addition, we lay out a process by which any clinician suspecting undue influence may gather additional information and, if necessary, conduct a family meeting to address the undue influence. It is our hope that by providing clinicians at all levels of patient care with such guidance, they will feel empowered to respond to cases of undue influence when they arise.

  19. Advanced MR Imaging in Pediatric Brain Tumors, Clinical Applications.

    PubMed

    Lequin, Maarten; Hendrikse, Jeroen

    2017-02-01

    Advanced MR imaging techniques, such as spectroscopy, perfusion, diffusion, and functional imaging, have improved the diagnosis of brain tumors in children and also play an important role in defining surgical as well as therapeutic responses in these patients. In addition to the anatomic or structural information gained with conventional MR imaging sequences, advanced MR imaging techniques also provide physiologic information about tumor morphology, metabolism, and hemodynamics. This article reviews the physiology, techniques, and clinical applications of diffusion-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging, MR spectroscopy, perfusion MR imaging, susceptibility-weighted imaging, and functional MR imaging in the setting of neuro-oncology.

  20. Hypercalcemia of advanced chronic liver disease: a forgotten clinical entity!

    PubMed

    Kuchay, Mohammad Shafi; Mishra, Sunil Kumar; Farooqui, Khalid Jamal; Bansal, Beena; Wasir, Jasjeet Singh; Mithal, Ambrish

    2016-01-01

    Hypercalcemia caused by advanced chronic liver disease (CLD) without hepatic neoplasia is uncommonly reported and poorly understood condition. We are reporting two cases of advanced CLD who developed hypercalcemia in the course of the disease. This diagnosis of exclusion was made only after meticulous ruling out of all causes of hypercalcemia. The unique feature of this type of hypercalcemia is its transient nature that may or may not require treatment. This clinical condition in patients with CLD should be kept in mind while evaluating the cause of hypercalcemia in them.

  1. Hypercalcemia of advanced chronic liver disease: a forgotten clinical entity!

    PubMed Central

    Kuchay, Mohammad Shafi; Mishra, Sunil Kumar; Farooqui, Khalid Jamal; Bansal, Beena; Wasir, Jasjeet Singh; Mithal, Ambrish

    2016-01-01

    Summary Hypercalcemia caused by advanced chronic liver disease (CLD) without hepatic neoplasia is uncommonly reported and poorly understood condition. We are reporting two cases of advanced CLD who developed hypercalcemia in the course of the disease. This diagnosis of exclusion was made only after meticulous ruling out of all causes of hypercalcemia. The unique feature of this type of hypercalcemia is its transient nature that may or may not require treatment. This clinical condition in patients with CLD should be kept in mind while evaluating the cause of hypercalcemia in them. PMID:27252737

  2. By-person factor analysis in clinical ethical decision making: Q methodology in end-of-life care decisions.

    PubMed

    Wong, William; Eiser, Arnold R; Mrtek, Robert G; Heckerling, Paul S

    2004-01-01

    To determine the usefulness of Q methodology to locate and describe shared subjective influences on clinical decision making among participant physicians using hypothetical cases containing common ethical issues. Qualitative study using by-person factor analysis of subjective Q sort data matrix. University medical center. Convenience sample of internal medicine attending physicians and house staff (n = 35) at one midwestern academic health sciences center. Presented with four hypothetical cases involving urgent decision making near the end of life, participants selected one of three specific clinical actions offered for each case. Immediately afterward and while considering their decision, each respondent sorted twenty-five subjective self-referent items in terms of the influence of each statement on their decision-making process. By-person factor analysis, where participants are defined as variates, yielded information about the attitudinal background the physicians brought to their consideration of each hypothetical case. We performed a second-order factor analysis on all of the subjective viewpoints to determine if a smaller core of shared attitudes existed across some or all of the four case vignettes. Factor scores for each item and post-sort comments from interviews conducted individually with each respondent guided the interpretation of ethical perspective used by these respondents in making clinical decisions about the cases. Second-order factor analysis on seventeen viewpoints used by physicians in the four hypothetical urgent decision cases revealed three moderately correlated (r2 < 40%) subjective core attitudinal guides used broadly among all the cases and among sixteen of the seventeen original factors. Across all the cases, our participants were guided in general by: (1) patient-focused beneficence, (2) a patient- and surrogate-focused perspective that includes risk avoidance, and (3) best interest of the patient guided by ethical values. Economic

  3. A Representation for Gaining Insight into Clinical Decision Models

    PubMed Central

    Jimison, Holly B.

    1988-01-01

    For many medical domains uncertainty and patient preferences are important components of decision making. Decision theory is useful as a representation for such medical models in computer decision aids, but the methodology has typically had poor performance in the areas of explanation and user interface. The additional representation of probabilities and utilities as random variables serves to provide a framework for graphical and text insight into complicated decision models. The approach allows for efficient customization of a generic model that describes the general patient population of interest to a patient- specific model. Monte Carlo simulation is used to calculate the expected value of information and sensitivity for each model variable, thus providing a metric for deciding what to emphasize in the graphics and text summary. The computer-generated explanation includes variables that are sensitive with respect to the decision or that deviate significantly from what is typically observed. These techniques serve to keep the assessment and explanation of the patient's decision model concise, allowing the user to focus on the most important aspects for that patient.

  4. [International outcomes from attempts to implement a clinical decision support system in gastroenterology].

    PubMed

    Tenório, Josceli Maria; Hummel, Anderson Diniz; Sdepanian, Vera Lucia; Pisa, Ivan Torres; de Fátima Marin, Heimar

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at describing the recent experience acquired with the implementation and use of clinical decision support system in gastroenterology in order to determine the level of development, tests used and advantages that such a system can offer to the medical practice. A search in the PubMed, LILACS and ISI Web of Knowledge databases for studies in decision-making support systems in gastroenterology including original papers produced from 2005 to 2010 was performed. A total of 104 scientific papers were retrieved initially. These were analyzed using inclusion and exclusion criteria, thus yielding nine studies for further analysis. The clinical decision support system analyzed in the present study showed a great variety of clinical problems regarding the investigation of a disease and the determination of a diagnosis. Eighty-nine per cent of the studies showed experimental models for clinical decision support system development. Seventy-eight per cent of the studies described the outcomes obtained with artificial intelligence technique. Two studies compared the clinical decision support system performance with that of a doctor, and only one research work described a controlled study evidencing improvements in the medical practice. The studies analyzed showed evidence of potential benefits that clinical decision support system can bring to the clinical practice. However, further controlled studies performed in medical day-to-day conditions and environment should be performed in order to provide more clear evidence of the usefulness of clinical decision support system in the medical practice.

  5. Fluctuating capacity and advance decision-making in Bipolar Affective Disorder — Self-binding directives and self-determination

    PubMed Central

    Gergel, Tania; Owen, Gareth S.

    2015-01-01

    For people with Bipolar Affective Disorder, a self-binding (advance) directive (SBD), by which they commit themselves to treatment during future episodes of mania, even if unwilling, can seem the most rational way to deal with an imperfect predicament. Knowing that mania will almost certainly cause enormous damage to themselves, their preferred solution may well be to allow trusted others to enforce treatment and constraint, traumatic though this may be. No adequate provision exists for drafting a truly effective SBD and efforts to establish such provision are hampered by very valid, but also paralysing ethical, clinical and legal concerns. Effectively, the autonomy and rights of people with bipolar are being ‘protected’ through being denied an opportunity to protect themselves. From a standpoint firmly rooted in the clinical context and experience of mania, this article argues that an SBD, based on a patient-centred evaluation of capacity to make treatment decisions (DMC-T) and grounded within the clinician–patient relationship, could represent a legitimate and ethically coherent form of self-determination. After setting out background information on fluctuating capacity, mania and advance directives, this article proposes a framework for constructing such an SBD, and considers common objections, possible solutions and suggestions for future research. PMID:25939286

  6. Fluctuating capacity and advance decision-making in Bipolar Affective Disorder - Self-binding directives and self-determination.

    PubMed

    Gergel, Tania; Owen, Gareth S

    2015-01-01

    For people with Bipolar Affective Disorder, a self-binding (advance) directive (SBD), by which they commit themselves to treatment during future episodes of mania, even if unwilling, can seem the most rational way to deal with an imperfect predicament. Knowing that mania will almost certainly cause enormous damage to themselves, their preferred solution may well be to allow trusted others to enforce treatment and constraint, traumatic though this may be. No adequate provision exists for drafting a truly effective SBD and efforts to establish such provision are hampered by very valid, but also paralysing ethical, clinical and legal concerns. Effectively, the autonomy and rights of people with bipolar are being 'protected' through being denied an opportunity to protect themselves. From a standpoint firmly rooted in the clinical context and experience of mania, this article argues that an SBD, based on a patient-centred evaluation of capacity to make treatment decisions (DMC-T) and grounded within the clinician-patient relationship, could represent a legitimate and ethically coherent form of self-determination. After setting out background information on fluctuating capacity, mania and advance directives, this article proposes a framework for constructing such an SBD, and considers common objections, possible solutions and suggestions for future research.

  7. Ipilimumab in the treatment of advanced melanoma - a clinical update.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Won; Trinh, Van Anh; Hwu, Wen-Jen

    2014-11-01

    Ipilimumab has become an important treatment option for patients with advanced melanoma; however, active research perseveres to resolve many clinical practice issues and to further improve the therapeutic index of this agent. This article aims to provide an update on long-term data, current challenge and recent progress relating to the clinical application of ipilimumab in the treatment of advanced melanoma. A literature search using PubMed database was conducted using search words ipilimumab, melanoma, treatment sequencing, adjuvant therapy, combination therapy, and biomarkers. Data were also obtained from meeting abstracts and clinical trial registries. Signal of clinical activity as adjuvant therapy in patients with resected high-risk melanoma begins to emerge, but longer follow-up is required for confirmation. Many issues, such as optimal dosing schedules and therapeutic sequences, remain unraveled. At present, treatment should be individualized based on patient- and disease-specific factors. Immunotherapy like ipilimumab still represents the best treatment option for durable remission; however, targeted therapies are more appropriate for patients with BRAF V600-mutated tumor who are symptomatic or have rapidly growing disease. With novel therapeutic options in the pipeline, the role of ipilimumab continues to evolve in the rapidly changing treatment landscape of advanced melanoma. Most likely, this agent will be utilized in combinatorial or sequential approach.

  8. Modeling information flows in clinical decision support: key insights for enhancing system effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Medlock, Stephanie; Wyatt, Jeremy C; Patel, Vimla L; Shortliffe, Edward H; Abu-Hanna, Ameen

    2016-09-01

    A fundamental challenge in the field of clinical decision support is to determine what characteristics of systems make them effective in supporting particular types of clinical decisions. However, we lack such a theory of decision support itself and a model to describe clinical decisions and the systems to support them. This article outlines such a framework. We present a two-stream model of information flow within clinical decision-support systems (CDSSs): reasoning about the patient (the clinical stream), and reasoning about the user (the cognitive-behavioral stream). We propose that CDSS "effectiveness" be measured not only in terms of a system's impact on clinical care, but also in terms of how (and by whom) the system is used, its effect on work processes, and whether it facilitates appropriate decisions by clinicians and patients. Future research into which factors improve the effectiveness of decision support should not regard CDSSs as a single entity, but should instead differentiate systems based on their attributes, users, and the decision being supported. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. “Well, I Think There Is Great Variation…”: A Qualitative Study of Oncologists' Experiences and Views Regarding Medical Criteria and Other Factors Relevant to Treatment Decisions in Advanced Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Jacinta; Salloch, Sabine; Vollmann, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    Background. Surveys indicate considerable variation regarding the provision of cancer treatment at the end of life. The variation cannot be fully explained by differences concerning the clinical situation or patients' preferences. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore medical oncologists' experiences with advanced cancer, as well as their views of the relevance of medical and nonmedical criteria for decisions about limiting treatment. Methods. Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with physicians working in medical oncology in tertiary care hospitals or district general hospitals in England. Purposive sampling and qualitative analysis were performed. Results. Physicians reported that a number of nonmedical factors influence professional decisions about the offering or limiting of cancer treatment in advanced cancer in addition to medical criteria. Physicians' individual judgments about the benefit of treatment, as well as the amount of their clinical experience, were cited as such factors. In addition, the physicians' perceptions of the patient's age and life circumstances were reported to influence their treatment decisions. Multiprofessional team discussions and the systematic collection of relevant clinical data regarding the outcomes of different treatment approaches in advanced cancer were suggested as strategies to improve the quality of treatment decisions. Conclusion. The findings of this study provide explanations for the variation in treatment in advanced cancer. Making value judgments explicit and gathering more appropriate clinical data on the outcomes of treatment near the end of life are prerequisites for improved ethical and evidence-based treatment decisions in advanced cancer. PMID:23287883

  10. The NIAID Division of AIDS enterprise information system: integrated decision support for global clinical research programs.

    PubMed

    Kagan, Jonathan M; Gupta, Nitin; Varghese, Suresh; Virkar, Hemant

    2011-12-01

    The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Division of AIDS (DAIDS) Enterprise Information System (DAIDS-ES) is a web-based system that supports NIAID in the scientific, strategic, and tactical management of its global clinical research programs for HIV/AIDS vaccines, prevention, and therapeutics. Different from most commercial clinical trials information systems, which are typically protocol-driven, the DAIDS-ES was built to exchange information with those types of systems and integrate it in ways that help scientific program directors lead the research effort and keep pace with the complex and ever-changing global HIV/AIDS pandemic. Whereas commercially available clinical trials support systems are not usually disease-focused, DAIDS-ES was specifically designed to capture and incorporate unique scientific, demographic, and logistical aspects of HIV/AIDS treatment, prevention, and vaccine research in order to provide a rich source of information to guide informed decision-making. Sharing data across its internal components and with external systems, using defined vocabularies, open standards and flexible interfaces, the DAIDS-ES enables NIAID, its global collaborators and stakeholders, access to timely, quality information about NIAID-supported clinical trials which is utilized to: (1) analyze the research portfolio, assess capacity, identify opportunities, and avoid redundancies; (2) help support study safety, quality, ethics, and regulatory compliance; (3) conduct evidence-based policy analysis and business process re-engineering for improved efficiency. This report summarizes how the DAIDS-ES was conceptualized, how it differs from typical clinical trial support systems, the rationale for key design choices, and examples of how it is being used to advance the efficiency and effectiveness of NIAID's HIV/AIDS clinical research programs.

  11. The changing nature of clinical decision support systems: a focus on consumers, genomics, public health and decision safety.

    PubMed

    Coiera, E; Lau, A Y S; Tsafnat, G; Sintchenko, V; Magrabi, F

    2009-01-01

    To review the recent research literature in clinical decision support systems (CDSS). A review of recent literature was undertaken, focussing on CDSS evaluation, consumers and public health, the impact of translational bioinformatics on CDSS design, and CDSS safety. In recent years, researchers have concentrated much less on the development of decision technologies, and have focussed more on the impact of CDSS in the clinical world. Recent work highlights that traditional process measures of CDSS effectiveness, such as document relevance are poor proxy measures for decision outcomes. Measuring the dynamics of decision making, for example via decision velocity, may produce a more accurate picture of effectiveness. Another trend is the broadening of user base for CDSS beyond front line clinicians. Consumers are now a major focus for biomedical informatics, as are public health officials, tasked with detecting and managing disease outbreaks at a health system, rather than individual patient level. Bioinformatics is also changing the nature of CDSS. Apart from personalisation of therapy recommendations, translational bioinformatics is creating new challenges in the interpretation of the meaning of genetic data. Finally, there is much recent interest in the safety and effectiveness of computerised physician order entry (CPOE) systems, given that prescribing and administration errors are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Of note, there is still much controversy surrounding the contention that poorly designed, implemented or used CDSS may actually lead to harm. CDSS research remains an active and evolving area of research, as CDSS penetrate more widely beyond their traditional domain into consumer decision support, and as decisions become more complex, for example by involving sequence level genetic data.

  12. Confocal microscopy of skin cancers: Translational advances toward clinical utility

    PubMed Central

    Rajadhyaksha, Milind

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in translational research in and technology for confocal microscopy of skin cancers, toward clinical applications, are described. Advances in translational research are in diagnosis of melanoma in vivo, pre-operative mapping of lentigo maligna melanoma margins to guide surgery and intra-operative imaging of residual basal cell carcinomas to guide shave-biopsy. Advances in technology include mosaicing microscopy for detection of basal cell carcinomas in large areas of excised tissue, toward rapid pathology-at-the-bedside, and development of small, simple and low-cost line-scanning confocal microscopes for worldwide use in diverse primary healthcare settings. Current limitations and future opportunities and challenges for both clinicians and technologists are discussed. PMID:19964286

  13. Advance directives: the clinical nurse specialist as a change agent.

    PubMed

    Meehan, Karen Anne

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the impact the clinical nurse specialist (CNS) has on the advance directive process within the cardiac surgery patient population. As a change agent, the CNS needs to be able to increase the number of advance directives obtained and increase the provision of dignified, self-directed, quality patient care. With requirements from The Joint Commission and the Patient Self-determination Act, the change in process must take place to ensure that healthcare professionals are doing all they can do to carry out a patient's wishes. The 6-Source Influencer Model is applied to a case study to illustrate the role of the CNS as a change agent. Following this model, the CNS can facilitate lasting institutional change in the advance directive process. Based on the example, it is possible that a CNS can act as a change agent for other patient populations within the healthcare setting.

  14. Chest pain for coronary heart disease in general practice: clinical judgement and a clinical decision rule

    PubMed Central

    Haasenritter, Jörg; Donner-Banzhoff, Norbert; Bösner, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Background The Marburg Heart Score (MHS) is a simple, valid, and robust clinical decision rule assisting GPs in ruling out coronary heart disease (CHD) in patients presenting with chest pain. Aim To investigate whether using the rule adds to the GP’s clinical judgement. Design and setting A comparative diagnostic accuracy study was conducted using data from 832 consecutive patients with chest pain in general practice. Method Three diagnostic strategies were defined using the MHS: diagnosis based solely on the MHS; using the MHS as a triage test; and GP’s clinical judgement aided by the MHS. Their accuracy was compared with the GPs’ unaided clinical judgement. Results Sensitivity and specificity of the GPs’ unaided clinical judgement was 82.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 72.4 to 89.9) and 61.0% (95% CI = 56.7 to 65.2), respectively. In comparison, the sensitivity of the MHS was higher (difference 8.5%, 95% CI = −2.4 to 19.6) and the specificity was similar (difference −0.4%, 95% CI = −5.3 to 4.5); the sensitivity of the triage was similar (difference −1.5%, 95% CI = −9.8 to 7.0) and the specificity was higher (difference 11.6%, 95% CI = 7.8 to 15.4); and both the sensitivity and specificity of the aided clinical judgement were higher (difference 8.0%, 95% CI = −6.9 to 23.0 and 5.8%, 95% CI = −1.6 to 13.2, respectively). Conclusion Using the Marburg Heart Score for initial triage can improve the clinical diagnosis of CHD in general practice. PMID:26500322

  15. Urban/Rural Differences in Decision Making and the Use of Advance Directives Among Nursing Home Residents at Admission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Robert J.; Bolin, Jane; Wang, Suojin; Zhu, Li; Kim, MyungSuk

    2004-01-01

    Context: Advance directives promote patient autonomy and encourage greater awareness of final care options while reducing physician and family uncertainty regarding patient preferences. Purpose: To investigate differences in decision making authority and the use of advance directives among nursing home residents admitted from urban and rural…

  16. VisualDecisionLinc: a visual analytics approach for comparative effectiveness-based clinical decision support in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Mane, Ketan K; Bizon, Chris; Schmitt, Charles; Owen, Phillips; Burchett, Bruce; Pietrobon, Ricardo; Gersing, Kenneth

    2012-02-01

    Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER) is designed to provide research evidence on the effectiveness and risks of different therapeutic options on the basis of data compiled from subpopulations of patients with similar medical conditions. Electronic Health Record (EHR) system contain large volumes of patient data that could be used for CER, but the data contained in EHR system are typically accessible only in formats that are not conducive to rapid synthesis and interpretation of therapeutic outcomes. In the time-pressured clinical setting, clinicians faced with large amounts of patient data in formats that are not readily interpretable often feel 'information overload'. Decision support tools that enable rapid access at the point of care to aggregate data on the most effective therapeutic outcomes derived from CER would greatly aid the clinical decision-making process and individualize patient care. In this manuscript, we highlight the role that visual analytics can play in CER-based clinical decision support. We developed a 'VisualDecisionLinc' (VDL) tool prototype that uses visual analytics to provide summarized CER-derived data views to facilitate rapid interpretation of large amounts of data. We highlight the flexibility that visual analytics offers to gain an overview of therapeutic options and outcomes and if needed, to instantly customize the evidence to the needs of the patient or clinician. The VDL tool uses visual analytics to help the clinician evaluate and understand the effectiveness and risk of different therapeutic options for different subpopulations of patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Implementation of workflow engine technology to deliver basic clinical decision support functionality

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Workflow engine technology represents a new class of software with the ability to graphically model step-based knowledge. We present application of this novel technology to the domain of clinical decision support. Successful implementation of decision support within an electronic health record (EHR) remains an unsolved research challenge. Previous research efforts were mostly based on healthcare-specific representation standards and execution engines and did not reach wide adoption. We focus on two challenges in decision support systems: the ability to test decision logic on retrospective data prior prospective deployment and the challenge of user-friendly representation of clinical logic. Results We present our implementation of a workflow engine technology that addresses the two above-described challenges in delivering clinical decision support. Our system is based on a cross-industry standard of XML (extensible markup language) process definition language (XPDL). The core components of the system are a workflow editor for modeling clinical scenarios and a workflow engine for execution of those scenarios. We demonstrate, with an open-source and publicly available workflow suite, that clinical decision support logic can be executed on retrospective data. The same flowchart-based representation can also function in a prospective mode where the system can be integrated with an EHR system and respond to real-time clinical events. We limit the scope of our implementation to decision support content generation (which can be EHR system vendor independent). We do not focus on supporting complex decision support content delivery mechanisms due to lack of standardization of EHR systems in this area. We present results of our evaluation of the flowchart-based graphical notation as well as architectural evaluation of our implementation using an established evaluation framework for clinical decision support architecture. Conclusions We describe an implementation of

  18. Implementation of workflow engine technology to deliver basic clinical decision support functionality.

    PubMed

    Huser, Vojtech; Rasmussen, Luke V; Oberg, Ryan; Starren, Justin B

    2011-04-10

    Workflow engine technology represents a new class of software with the ability to graphically model step-based knowledge. We present application of this novel technology to the domain of clinical decision support. Successful implementation of decision support within an electronic health record (EHR) remains an unsolved research challenge. Previous research efforts were mostly based on healthcare-specific representation standards and execution engines and did not reach wide adoption. We focus on two challenges in decision support systems: the ability to test decision logic on retrospective data prior prospective deployment and the challenge of user-friendly representation of clinical logic. We present our implementation of a workflow engine technology that addresses the two above-described challenges in delivering clinical decision support. Our system is based on a cross-industry standard of XML (extensible markup language) process definition language (XPDL). The core components of the system are a workflow editor for modeling clinical scenarios and a workflow engine for execution of those scenarios. We demonstrate, with an open-source and publicly available workflow suite, that clinical decision support logic can be executed on retrospective data. The same flowchart-based representation can also function in a prospective mode where the system can be integrated with an EHR system and respond to real-time clinical events. We limit the scope of our implementation to decision support content generation (which can be EHR system vendor independent). We do not focus on supporting complex decision support content delivery mechanisms due to lack of standardization of EHR systems in this area. We present results of our evaluation of the flowchart-based graphical notation as well as architectural evaluation of our implementation using an established evaluation framework for clinical decision support architecture. We describe an implementation of a free workflow technology

  19. Automated/integrated real-time clinical decision support in acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Stuart L

    2015-12-01

    Health information technology advancements have resulted in recent increased sophistication of the electronic health record, whereby patient demographic, physiological, and laboratory data can be extracted real-time and integrated into clinical decision support (CDS). The implementation of health information technology advancements into CDS in the renal realm has been focused mainly on assessment of kidney function to guide medication dosing in the setting of reduced function or to reactively detect acute kidney injury (AKI) heralded by an abrupt increase in serum creatinine. More recent work has combined risk stratification algorithms to guide proactive diagnostic or therapeutic intervention to prevent AKI or reduce its severity. Early, real-time identification and notification to healthcare providers of patients at risk for, or with, acute or chronic kidney disease can drive simple interventions to reduce harm. Similarly, screening patients at risk for AKI with these platforms to alert research personnel will lead to improve study subject recruitment. However, sole reliance on electronic health record generated alerts without active healthcare team integration and assessment represents a major barrier to the realization of the potential of CDS to improve healthcare quality and outcomes.

  20. Automated/integrated real-time clinical decision support in acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Stuart L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Health information technology (HIT) advancements have resulted in recent increased sophistication of the electronic health record (EHR), whereby patient demographic, physiological and laboratory data can be extracted real-time and integrated into clinical decision support (CDS). Recent findings The implementation of HIT advancements into CDS in the renal realm have been focused mainly on assessment of kidney function, to guide medication dosing in the setting of reduced function, or to reactively detect acute kidney injury (AKI), heralded by an abrupt increase in serum creatinine. More recent work has combined risk stratification algorithms to guide proactive diagnostic or therapeutic intervention to prevent AKI or reduce its severity. Summary Early, real-time identification and notification to health care providers of patients at risk for, or with, acute or chronic kidney disease can drive simple interventions to reduce harm. Similarly, screening patients at risk for AKI with these platforms to alert research personnel will lead to improve study subject recruitment. However, sole reliance on EHR generated alerts without active health care team integration and assessment represents a major barrier to the realization of the potential of CDS to improve health care quality and outcomes. PMID:26539921

  1. The Use of Automated SNOMED CT Clinical Coding in Clinical Decision Support Systems for Preventive Care.

    PubMed

    Al-Hablani, Bader

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to discuss and analyze the use of automated SNOMED CT clinical coding in clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) for preventive care. The central question that this study seeks to answer is whether the utilization of SNOMED CT in CDSSs can improve preventive care. PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Library were searched for articles published in English between 2001 and 2012 on SNOMED CT, CDSS, and preventive care. Outcome measures were the sensitivity or specificity of SNOMED CT coded data and the positive predictive value or negative predictive value of SNOMED CT coded data. Additionally, we documented the publication year, research question, study design, results, and conclusions of these studies. The reviewed studies suggested that SNOMED CT successfully represents clinical terms and negated clinical terms. The use of SNOMED CT in CDSS can be considered to provide an answer to the problem of medical errors as well as for preventive care in general. Enhancement of the modifiers and synonyms found in SNOMED CT will be necessary to improve the expected outcome of the integration of SNOMED CT with CDSS. Moreover, the application of the tree-augmented naïve (TAN) Bayesian network method can be considered the best technique to search SNOMED CT data and, consequently, to help improve preventive health services.

  2. The Use of Automated SNOMED CT Clinical Coding in Clinical Decision Support Systems for Preventive Care

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hablani, Bader

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study is to discuss and analyze the use of automated SNOMED CT clinical coding in clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) for preventive care. The central question that this study seeks to answer is whether the utilization of SNOMED CT in CDSSs can improve preventive care. Method PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Library were searched for articles published in English between 2001 and 2012 on SNOMED CT, CDSS, and preventive care. Outcome Measures Outcome measures were the sensitivity or specificity of SNOMED CT coded data and the positive predictive value or negative predictive value of SNOMED CT coded data. Additionally, we documented the publication year, research question, study design, results, and conclusions of these studies. Results The reviewed studies suggested that SNOMED CT successfully represents clinical terms and negated clinical terms. Conclusion The use of SNOMED CT in CDSS can be considered to provide an answer to the problem of medical errors as well as for preventive care in general. Enhancement of the modifiers and synonyms found in SNOMED CT will be necessary to improve the expected outcome of the integration of SNOMED CT with CDSS. Moreover, the application of the tree-augmented naïve (TAN) Bayesian network method can be considered the best technique to search SNOMED CT data and, consequently, to help improve preventive health services. PMID:28566995

  3. Multiple perspectives on clinical decision support: a qualitative study of fifteen clinical and vendor organizations.

    PubMed

    Ash, Joan S; Sittig, Dean F; McMullen, Carmit K; Wright, Adam; Bunce, Arwen; Mohan, Vishnu; Cohen, Deborah J; Middleton, Blackford

    2015-04-24

    Computerized clinical decision support (CDS) can help hospitals to improve healthcare. However, CDS can be problematic. The purpose of this study was to discover how the views of clinical stakeholders, CDS content vendors, and EHR vendors are alike or different with respect to challenges in the development, management, and use of CDS. We conducted ethnographic fieldwork using a Rapid Assessment Process within ten clinical and five health information technology (HIT) vendor organizations. Using an inductive analytical approach, we generated themes from the clinical, content vendor, and electronic health record vendor perspectives and compared them. The groups share views on the importance of appropriate manpower, careful knowledge management, CDS that fits user workflow, the need for communication among the groups, and for mutual strategizing about the future of CDS. However, views of usability, training, metrics, interoperability, product use, and legal issues differed. Recommendations for improvement include increased collaboration to address legal, manpower, and CDS sharing issues. The three groups share thinking about many aspects of CDS, but views differ in a number of important respects as well. Until these three groups can reach a mutual understanding of the views of the other stakeholders, and work together, CDS will not reach its potential.

  4. A streamlined clinical advancement program improves RN participation and retention.

    PubMed

    Allen, Susan R; Fiorini, Pamela; Dickey, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Retaining expert nurses in direct care is essential to quality patient outcomes. The goal of the clinical advancement program at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center has always been to recruit, retain, recognize, and reward nurses in direct care. A program revision in 2002 markedly increased nursing promotions and a higher retention rate for program participants versus their peers' retention rate of 88%. Nearly 40% of the hospital's nurses now participate in the program.

  5. Critical care outreach: the need for effective decision-making in clinical practice (part 2).

    PubMed

    Hancock, Helen C; Durham, Lesley

    2007-04-01

    As the extension of nursing into roles previously within the domain of medicine and the demand for evidence based practice continue to increase, the quality of decision making becomes imperative. Making accurate decisions is essential, both for the practitioner and for the patient, especially in the provision of critical care outreach (CCOR), to improve outcomes of care. With changes in health care delivery and increased accountability for practitioners' decisions, it is important to understand more about how clinical decisions are made and what factors influence them in order to inform practice. The previous paper outlined the theoretical background of clinical decision making and the knowledge that underpins practice in CCOR. In this paper, the authors, a Nurse Consultant in CCOR and a research fellow, examine the process of a practitioner's decision making in the practice of CCOR, through a collaborative reflective account of a case study. From this, recommendations are made about the future development of CCOR practitioners and services.

  6. Quantitative Framework for Retrospective Assessment of Interim Decisions in Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Stanev, Roger

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a quantitative way of modeling the interim decisions of clinical trials. While statistical approaches tend to focus on the epistemic aspects of statistical monitoring rules, often overlooking ethical considerations, ethical approaches tend to neglect the key epistemic dimension. The proposal is a second-order decision-analytic framework. The framework provides means for retrospective assessment of interim decisions based on a clear and consistent set of criteria that combines both ethical and epistemic considerations. The framework is broadly Bayesian and addresses a fundamental question behind many concerns about clinical trials: What does it take for an interim decision (e.g., whether to stop the trial or continue) to be a good decision? Simulations illustrating the modeling of interim decisions counterfactually are provided. PMID:27353825

  7. Quantitative Framework for Retrospective Assessment of Interim Decisions in Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Stanev, Roger

    2016-11-01

    This article presents a quantitative way of modeling the interim decisions of clinical trials. While statistical approaches tend to focus on the epistemic aspects of statistical monitoring rules, often overlooking ethical considerations, ethical approaches tend to neglect the key epistemic dimension. The proposal is a second-order decision-analytic framework. The framework provides means for retrospective assessment of interim decisions based on a clear and consistent set of criteria that combines both ethical and epistemic considerations. The framework is broadly Bayesian and addresses a fundamental question behind many concerns about clinical trials: What does it take for an interim decision (e.g., whether to stop the trial or continue) to be a good decision? Simulations illustrating the modeling of interim decisions counterfactually are provided.

  8. Clinical Cancer Advances 2017: Annual Report on Progress Against Cancer From the American Society of Clinical Oncology.

    PubMed

    Burstein, Harold J; Krilov, Lada; Aragon-Ching, Jeanny B; Baxter, Nancy N; Chiorean, E Gabriela; Chow, Warren Allen; De Groot, John Frederick; Devine, Steven Michael; DuBois, Steven G; El-Deiry, Wafik S; Epstein, Andrew S; Heymach, John; Jones, Joshua Adam; Mayer, Deborah K; Miksad, Rebecca A; Pennell, Nathan A; Sabel, Michael S; Schilsky, Richard L; Schuchter, Lynn Mara; Tung, Nadine; Winkfield, Karen Marie; Wirth, Lori J; Dizon, Don S

    2017-02-01

    A MESSAGE FROM ASCO'S PRESIDENT I am pleased to present Clinical Cancer Advances 2017, which highlights the most promising advances in patient-oriented cancer research over the past year. The report gives us an opportunity to reflect on what an exciting time it is for cancer research and how swiftly our understanding of cancer has improved. One year ago, the White House announced the national Cancer Moonshot program to accelerate progress against cancer. This shared vision of progress has reinvigorated the research community, identified new areas of scientific collaboration, and raised our ambitions regarding what may be possible beyond the progress we have already made. When I entered the field 35 years ago, I could not have imagined where we would be today. We can now detect cancer earlier, target treatments more effectively, and manage adverse effects more effectively to enable patients to live better, more fulfilling lives. Today, two of three people with cancer live at least 5 years after diagnosis, up from roughly one of two in the 1970s. This progress has resulted from decades of incremental advances that have collectively expanded our understanding of the molecular underpinnings of cancer. There is no better current example of this than ASCO's 2017 Advance of the Year: Immunotherapy 2.0. Over the last year, there has been a wave of new successes with immunotherapy. Research has proven this approach can be effective against a wide range of hard-to-treat advanced cancers previously considered intractable. Researchers are now working to identify biologic markers that can help increase the effectiveness of treatment and determine who is most likely to benefit from immunotherapy. This knowledge will enable oncologists to make evidence-based decisions so as many patients as possible might benefit from this new type of treatment. Each successive advance builds on the previous hard work of generations of basic, translational, and clinical cancer researchers

  9. [Factors influencing nurses' clinical decision making--focusing on critical thinking disposition].

    PubMed

    Park, Seungmi; Kwon, In Gak

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors influencing nurses' clinical decision making focusing on critical thinking disposition. The subjects of this study consisted of 505 nurses working at one of the general hospitals located in Seoul. Data was collected by a self-administered questionnaire between December 2006 and January 2007. Data was analyzed by one way ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficients, and stepwise multiple regression using SPSS Win 14.0. The mean scores of critical thinking disposition and clinical decision making were 99.10 and 134.32 respectively. Clinical decision making scores were significantly higher in groups under continuing education, with a master or higher degree, with clinical experience more than 5 years, or with experts. Critical thinking disposition and its subscales have a significant correlation with clinical decision making. Intellectual eagerness/curiosity, prudence, clinical experience, intellectual honesty, self-confidence, and healthy skepticism were important factors influencing clinical decision making(adjusted R(2)=33%). Results of this study suggest that various strategies such as retaining experienced nurses, encouraging them to continue with education and enhancing critical thinking disposition are warranted for development of clinical decision making.

  10. The professional medical ethics model of decision making under conditions of clinical uncertainty.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Laurence B

    2013-02-01

    The professional medical ethics model of decision making may be applied to decisions clinicians and patients make under the conditions of clinical uncertainty that exist when evidence is low or very low. This model uses the ethical concepts of medicine as a profession, the professional virtues of integrity and candor and the patient's virtue of prudence, the moral management of medical uncertainty, and trial of intervention. These features combine to justifiably constrain clinicians' and patients' autonomy with the goal of preventing nondeliberative decisions of patients and clinicians. To prevent biased recommendations by the clinician that promote such nondeliberative decisions, medically reasonable alternatives supported by low or very low evidence should be offered but not recommended. The professional medical ethics model of decision making aims to improve the quality of decisions by reducing the unacceptable variation that can result from nondeliberative decision making by patients and clinicians when evidence is low or very low.

  11. Mental Workload as a Key Factor in Clinical Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Aidan

    2013-01-01

    The decision making process is central to the practice of a clinician and has traditionally been described in terms of the hypothetico-deductive model. More recently, models adapted from cognitive psychology, such as the dual process and script theories have proved useful in explaining patterns of practice not consistent with purely cognitive…

  12. Mental Workload as a Key Factor in Clinical Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Aidan

    2013-01-01

    The decision making process is central to the practice of a clinician and has traditionally been described in terms of the hypothetico-deductive model. More recently, models adapted from cognitive psychology, such as the dual process and script theories have proved useful in explaining patterns of practice not consistent with purely cognitive…

  13. An Arden-Syntax-based clinical decision support framework for medical guidelines--Lyme borreliosis as an example.

    PubMed

    Seitinger, Alexander; Fehre, Karsten; Adlassnig, Klaus-Peter; Rappelsberger, Andrea; Wurm, Elisabeth; Aberer, Elisabeth; Binder, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Medicine is evolving at a very fast pace. The overwhelming quantity of new data compels the practician to be consistently informed about the most recent scientific advances. While medical guidelines have proven to be an acceptable tool for bringing new medical knowledge into clinical practice and also support medical personnel, reading them may be rather time-consuming. Clinical decision support systems have been developed to simplify this process. However, the implementation or adaptation of such systems for individual guidelines involves substantial effort. This paper introduces a clinical decision support platform that uses Arden Syntax to implement medical guidelines using client-server architecture. It provides a means of implementing different guidelines without the need for adapting the system's source code. To implement a prototype, three Lyme borreliosis guidelines were aggregated and a knowledge base created. The prototype employs transfer objects to represent any text-based medical guideline. As part of the implementation, we show how Fuzzy Arden Syntax can improve the overall usability of a clinical decision support system.

  14. Clinical skills assessment of procedural and advanced communication skills: performance expectations of residency program directors

    PubMed Central

    Langenau, Erik E.; Zhang, Xiuyuan; Roberts, William L.; DeChamplain, Andre F.; Boulet, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Background High stakes medical licensing programs are planning to augment and adapt current examinations to be relevant for a two-decision point model for licensure: entry into supervised practice and entry into unsupervised practice. Therefore, identifying which skills should be assessed at each decision point is critical for informing examination development, and gathering input from residency program directors is important. Methods Using data from previously developed surveys and expert panels, a web-delivered survey was distributed to 3,443 residency program directors. For each of the 28 procedural and 18 advanced communication skills, program directors were asked which clinical skills should be assessed, by whom, when, and how. Descriptive statistics were collected, and Intraclass Correlations (ICC) were conducted to determine consistency across different specialties. Results Among 347 respondents, program directors reported that all advanced communication and some procedural tasks are important to assess. The following procedures were considered ‘important’ or ‘extremely important’ to assess: sterile technique (93.8%), advanced cardiovascular life support (ACLS) (91.1%), basic life support (BLS) (90.0%), interpretation of electrocardiogram (89.4%) and blood gas (88.7%). Program directors reported that most clinical skills should be assessed at the end of the first year of residency (or later) and not before graduation from medical school. A minority were considered important to assess prior to the start of residency training: demonstration of respectfulness (64%), sterile technique (67.2%), BLS (68.9%), ACLS (65.9%) and phlebotomy (63.5%). Discussion Results from this study support that assessing procedural skills such as cardiac resuscitation, sterile technique, and phlebotomy would be amenable to assessment at the end of medical school, but most procedural and advanced communications skills would be amenable to assessment at the end of the first

  15. Disciplined Decision Making in an Interdisciplinary Environment: Some Implications for Clinical Applications of Statistical Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hantula, Donald A.

    1995-01-01

    Clinical applications of statistical process control (SPC) in human service organizations are considered. SPC is seen as providing a standard set of criteria that serves as a common interface for data-based decision making, which may bring decision making under the control of established contingencies rather than the immediate contingencies of…

  16. Factors Predicting Oncology Care Providers' Behavioral Intention to Adopt Clinical Decision Support Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfenden, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative correlation study was to examine the predictors of user behavioral intention on the decision of oncology care providers to adopt or reject the clinical decision support system. The Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) formed the foundation of the research model and survey instrument. The…

  17. An Examination of Accelerated and Basic Baccalaureate Nursing Students' Perceptions of Clinical Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krumwiede, Kelly A.

    2010-01-01

    Developing decision-making skills is essential in education in order to be a competent nurse. The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the perceptions of clinical decision-making skills of students enrolled in accelerated and basic baccalaureate nursing programs. A comparative descriptive research design was used for this study.…

  18. An Examination of Accelerated and Basic Baccalaureate Nursing Students' Perceptions of Clinical Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krumwiede, Kelly A.

    2010-01-01

    Developing decision-making skills is essential in education in order to be a competent nurse. The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the perceptions of clinical decision-making skills of students enrolled in accelerated and basic baccalaureate nursing programs. A comparative descriptive research design was used for this study.…

  19. Factors Predicting Oncology Care Providers' Behavioral Intention to Adopt Clinical Decision Support Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfenden, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative correlation study was to examine the predictors of user behavioral intention on the decision of oncology care providers to adopt or reject the clinical decision support system. The Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) formed the foundation of the research model and survey instrument. The…

  20. Can computerized clinical decision support systems improve diabetes management? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Jeffery, R; Iserman, E; Haynes, R B

    2013-06-01

    To systematically review randomized trials that assessed the effects of computerized clinical decision support systems in ambulatory diabetes management compared with a non-computerized clinical decision support system control. We included all diabetes trials from a comprehensive computerized clinical decision support system overview completed in January 2010, and searched EMBASE, MEDLINE, INSPEC/COMPENDEX and Evidence-Based Medicine Reviews (EBMR) from January 2010 to April 2012. Reference lists of related reviews, included articles and Clinicaltrials.gov were also searched. Randomized controlled trials of patients with diabetes in ambulatory care settings comparing a computerized clinical decision support system intervention with a non-computerized clinical decision support system control, measuring either a process of care or a patient outcome, were included. Screening of studies, data extraction, risk of bias and quality of evidence assessments were carried out independently by two reviewers, and discrepancies were resolved through consensus or third-party arbitration. Authors were contacted for any missing data. Fifteen trials were included (13 from the previous review and two from the current search). Only one study was at low risk of bias, while the others were of moderate to high risk of bias because of methodological limitations. HbA1c (3 months' follow-up), quality of life and hospitalization (12 months' follow-up) were pooled and all favoured the computerized clinical decision support systems over the control, although none were statistically significant. Triglycerides and practitioner performance tended to favour computerized clinical decision support systems although results were too heterogeneous to pool. Computerized clinical decision support systems in diabetes management may marginally improve clinical outcomes, but confidence in the evidence is low because of risk of bias, inconsistency and imprecision. © 2012 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine

  1. Mentoring for retention and advancement in the multigenerational clinical laboratory.

    PubMed

    Laudicina, R J

    2001-01-01

    Retention of recent graduates and other laboratory practitioners in the workplace will play a key role in addressing current and projected shortages of clinical laboratory scientists (CLS) and technicians (CLT). In addition, with overrepresentation of the aging Baby Boomer generation in laboratory supervisory and management positions, it is crucial not only to retain younger practitioners, but to prepare them for assuming these important functions in the future. Mentoring, a practice commonly employed in other professions, is widely considered to be useful in employee retention and career advancement. Mentoring has probably been used in the clinical laboratory profession, but has not been well documented. In the clinical laboratory environment, potential mentors are in the Veteran and Baby Boomer generations, and new practitioners who could benefit from mentoring are in Generation X. Generational differences among these groups may present challenges to the use of mentoring. This article will attempt to provide a better understanding of generational differences and show how mentoring can be applied in the setting of the clinical laboratory in order to increase retention and promote career advancement of younger practitioners. A panel of five laboratory managers provided examples of mentoring strategies. Definitions, benefits, and examples of mentoring are addressed in the accompanying article, "Passing the Torch: Mentoring the Next Generation of Laboratory Professionals".

  2. Lessons learned from implementing service-oriented clinical decision support at four sites: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Wright, Adam; Sittig, Dean F; Ash, Joan S; Erickson, Jessica L; Hickman, Trang T; Paterno, Marilyn; Gebhardt, Eric; McMullen, Carmit; Tsurikova, Ruslana; Dixon, Brian E; Fraser, Greg; Simonaitis, Linas; Sonnenberg, Frank A; Middleton, Blackford

    2015-11-01

    To identify challenges, lessons learned and best practices for service-oriented clinical decision support, based on the results of the Clinical Decision Support Consortium, a multi-site study which developed, implemented and evaluated clinical decision support services in a diverse range of electronic health records. Ethnographic investigation using the rapid assessment process, a procedure for agile qualitative data collection and analysis, including clinical observation, system demonstrations and analysis and 91 interviews. We identified challenges and lessons learned in eight dimensions: (1) hardware and software computing infrastructure, (2) clinical content, (3) human-computer interface, (4) people, (5) workflow and communication, (6) internal organizational policies, procedures, environment and culture, (7) external rules, regulations, and pressures and (8) system measurement and monitoring. Key challenges included performance issues (particularly related to data retrieval), differences in terminologies used across sites, workflow variability and the need for a legal framework. Based on the challenges and lessons learned, we identified eight best practices for developers and implementers of service-oriented clinical decision support: (1) optimize performance, or make asynchronous calls, (2) be liberal in what you accept (particularly for terminology), (3) foster clinical transparency, (4) develop a legal framework, (5) support a flexible front-end, (6) dedicate human resources, (7) support peer-to-peer communication, (8) improve standards. The Clinical Decision Support Consortium successfully developed a clinical decision support service and implemented it in four different electronic health records and four diverse clinical sites; however, the process was arduous. The lessons identified by the Consortium may be useful for other developers and implementers of clinical decision support services. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Clinical Intuition Exploration Guide: A Decision-Making Tool for Counselors and Supervisors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffrey, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    Clinical intuition is a common experience among counselors, yet many do not know what to do with intuition when it occurs. This article reviews the role intuition plays in clinical work and presents the research-based Clinical Intuition Exploration Guide to help counselors navigate the decision-making process. The guide consists of self-reflection…

  4. Developing Key-Feature Problems and Examinations to Assess Clinical Decision-Making Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Gordon; And Others

    1995-01-01

    An approach to testing medical students' clinical decision-making skills identifies key features (critical steps in resolution of a clinical problem) and presents a clinical case scenario followed by questions focusing on those key features. Key-feature problems provide flexibility on issues of question format, multiple responses to questions, and…

  5. Uncertainty and objectivity in clinical decision making: a clinical case in emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Engebretsen, Eivind; Heggen, Kristin; Wieringa, Sietse; Greenhalgh, Trisha

    2016-12-01

    The evidence-based practice and evidence-based medicine (EBM) movements have promoted standardization through guideline development methodologies based on systematic reviews and meta-analyses of best available research. EBM has challenged clinicians to question their reliance on practical reasoning and clinical judgement. In this paper, we argue that the protagonists of EBM position their mission as reducing uncertainty through the use of standardized methods for knowledge evaluation and use. With this drive towards uniformity, standardization and control comes a suspicion towards intuition, creativity and uncertainty as integral parts of medical practice. We question the appropriateness of attempts to standardize professional practice through a discussion of the importance of uncertainty. Greenhalgh's taxonomy of uncertainty is used to inform an analysis of the clinical reasoning occurring in a potentially life threatening emergency situation with a young patient. The case analysis is further developed by the use of the Canadian philosopher Bernard Lonergan's theory about understanding and objective knowing. According to Lonergan it is not by getting rid of or even by reducing uncertainty, but by attending systematically to it and by relating to it in a self-conscious way, that objective knowledge can be obtained. The paper concludes that uncertainty is not a regrettable and unavoidable aspect of decision making but a productive component of clinical reasoning.

  6. A Randomized Controlled Trial of an Advance Care Planning Video Decision Support Tool for Patients with Advanced Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    El-Jawahri, Areej; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K.; Matlock, Dan; Stevenson, Lynne; Lewis, Eldrin F.; Stewart, Garrick; Semigran, Marc; Chang, Yuchiao; Parks, Kimberly; Walker-Corkery, Elizabeth S.; Temel, Jennifer S.; Bohossian, Hacho; Ooi, Henry; Mann, Eileen; Volandes, Angelo E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Conversations about goals of care and CPR/intubation for patients with advanced health failure (HF) can be difficult. This study examined the impact of a video decision support tool and a patient checklist on advance care planning (ACP) for patients with HF. Methods Multi-site randomized controlled trial of a video-assisted intervention and ACP checklist versus a verbal description in 246 patients ≥ 64 years with HF and an estimated likelihood of death of > 50% within two years. Intervention participants received a verbal description for goals of care (life-prolonging care, limited care, and comfort care) and CPR/intubation plus a six-minute video depicting the three levels of care and CPR/intubation as well as ACP checklist. Controls received only the verbal description. The primary analysis compared the proportion of patients preferring comfort care between study arms immediately after the intervention. Secondary outcomes were CPR/intubation preferences and knowledge (6-item test, range 0-6) after intervention. Results In the intervention group, 27 (22%) chose life-prolonging, 31 (25%) limited, 63 (51%) comfort, with two (2%) uncertain. In the control group, 50 (41%) chose life-prolonging, 27 (22%) limited, 37 (30%) comfort, with eight (7%) uncertain (P<0.001). Intervention participants (vs. controls) were more likely to forgo CPR (68% vs. 35%, P <0.001) and intubation (77% vs. 48%, P <0.001), and had higher mean knowledge scores (4.1 vs. 3.0; P < 0.001). Conclusions Patients with HF who viewed a video were more informed, more likely to select a focus on comfort, and less likely to desire CPR/intubation compared to patients receiving verbal information only. PMID:27358437

  7. SANDS: A Service-Oriented Architecture for Clinical Decision Support in a National Health Information Network

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Adam; Sittig, Dean F.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we describe and evaluate a new distributed architecture for clinical decision support called SANDS (Service-oriented Architecture for NHIN Decision Support), which leverages current health information exchange efforts and is based on the principles of a service-oriented architecture. The architecture allows disparate clinical information systems and clinical decision support systems to be seamlessly integrated over a network according to a set of interfaces and protocols described in this paper. The architecture described is fully defined and developed, and six use cases have been developed and tested using a prototype electronic health record which links to one of the existing prototype National Health Information Networks (NHIN): drug interaction checking, syndromic surveillance, diagnostic decision support, inappropriate prescribing in older adults, information at the point of care and a simple personal health record. Some of these use cases utilize existing decision support systems, which are either commercially or freely available at present, and developed outside of the SANDS project, while other use cases are based on decision support systems developed specifically for the project. Open source code for many of these components is available, and an open source reference parser is also available for comparison and testing of other clinical information systems and clinical decision support systems that wish to implement the SANDS architecture. PMID:18434256

  8. Hip fractures and dementia: clinical decisions for the future.

    PubMed

    Waran, Eswaran; William, Leeroy

    2016-02-01

    Severe dementia is a life-limiting condition; hip fractures are more common in patients who have dementia. This study outlines the case of a 92-year-old female with severe dementia who sustained a hip fracture. Despite having a terminal diagnosis (severe dementia and hip fracture) and poor premorbid quality of life, she had a life-prolonging surgery. The report outlines issues around treatment options in such circumstances, informed consent and substitute decision-making. The authors propose a 'goals of care' approach to manage patients in whom the best treatment is unclear, during their attendance to the emergency department. It is suggested that utilization of such a model may help with substitute decision-making and true informed consent.

  9. Clinical data warehousing for evidence based decision making.

    PubMed

    Narra, Lekha; Sahama, Tony; Stapleton, Peta

    2015-01-01

    Large volumes of heterogeneous health data silos pose a big challenge when exploring for information to allow for evidence based decision making and ensuring quality outcomes. In this paper, we present a proof of concept for adopting data warehousing technology to aggregate and analyse disparate health data in order to understand the impact various lifestyle factors on obesity. We present a practical model for data warehousing with detailed explanation which can be adopted similarly for studying various other health issues.

  10. From Value Assessment to Value Cocreation: Informing Clinical Decision-Making with Medical Claims Data.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Steven; Varvel, Stephen; Sasinowski, Maciek; Burke, James P

    2016-09-01

    Big data and advances in analytical processes represent an opportunity for the healthcare industry to make better evidence-based decisions on the value generated by various tests, procedures, and interventions. Value-based reimbursement is the process of identifying and compensating healthcare providers based on whether their services improve quality of care without increasing cost of care or maintain quality of care while decreasing costs. In this article, we motivate and illustrate the potential opportunities for payers and providers to collaborate and evaluate the clinical and economic efficacy of different healthcare services. We conduct a case study of a firm that offers advanced biomarker and disease state management services for cardiovascular and cardiometabolic conditions. A value-based analysis that comprised a retrospective case/control cohort design was conducted, and claims data for over 7000 subjects who received these services were compared to a matched control cohort. Study subjects were commercial and Medicare Advantage enrollees with evidence of CHD, diabetes, or a related condition. Analysis of medical claims data showed a lower proportion of patients who received biomarker testing and disease state management services experienced a MI (p < 0.01) or diabetic complications (p < 0.001). No significant increase in cost of care was found between the two cohorts. Our results illustrate the opportunity healthcare payers such as Medicare and commercial insurance companies have in terms of identifying value-creating healthcare interventions. However, payers and providers also need to pursue system integration efforts to further automate the identification and dissemination of clinically and economically efficacious treatment plans to ensure at-risk patients receive the treatments and interventions that will benefit them the most.

  11. Management of advanced pancreatic cancer in daily clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Jacopo; Piacentini, Paolo; Bonetti, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this outcome study was to evaluate the management of advanced pancreatic cancer in a real-world clinical practice; few such experiences have been reported in the literature. A retrospective analysis was performed of all consecutive patients with advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma followed at our medical oncology unit between January 2003 and December 2013. We evaluated 78 patients, mostly with metastatic disease (64.1%). Median follow-up was 10.77 months, by which time 74 patients (94.9%) had died. Median overall survival was 8.29 months. Median age was 67 years. In univariate analysis, pain at onset (p = 0.020), ECOG performance status (p<0.001), stage (p = 0.047), first-line chemotherapy (p<0.001), second-line chemotherapy (p<0.001) and weight loss at diagnosis (p = 0.029) were factors that had an impact on overall survival. In multivariate analysis, the presence of pain at onset (p = 0.043), stage (p = 0.003) and second-line chemotherapy (p = 0.004) were confirmed as independent prognostic factors. Our data, derived from daily clinical practice, confirmed advanced pancreatic cancer as an aggressive malignant disease with a very short expected survival. Second-line treatment seems to provide an advantage in terms of overall survival in patients who showed a partial response as their best response to first-line treatment.

  12. Doctors' decisions when faced with contradictory patient advance directives and health care proxy opinion: a randomized vignette-based study.

    PubMed

    Escher, Monica; Perrier, Arnaud; Rudaz, Sandrine; Dayer, Pierre; Perneger, Thomas V

    2015-03-01

    Sometimes a written advance directive contradicts the opinion of a health care proxy. How this affects doctors' decision making is unknown. To quantify the influence of contradictory instructions on doctors' decisions. All the generalists and internists in French-speaking Switzerland were mailed the questionnaire. Respondents (43.5%) evaluated three vignettes that described medical decisions for incapacitated patients. Each vignette was produced in four versions: one with an advance directive, one with a proxy opinion, one with both, and one with neither (control). In the first vignette, the directive and proxy agreed on the recommendation to forgo a medical intervention; in the second, the advance directive opposed, but the proxy favored the intervention; and in the third, the roles were reversed. Each doctor received one version of each vignette, attributed at random. The outcome variables were the doctor's decision to forgo the medical intervention and the rating of the decision as difficult. Written advance directives and proxy opinions significantly influenced doctors' decision making. When both were available and concordant, they reinforced each other (odds ratio [OR] of forgoing intervention 35.7, P < 0.001 compared with no instruction). When the directive and proxy disagreed, the resulting effect was to forgo the intervention (ORs 2.1 and 2.2 for the two discordant vignettes, both P < 0.001). Discordance between instructions was associated with increased odds of doctors rating the decision as difficult (both ORs 2.0, P ≤ 0.001). Contradictions between advance directives and proxy opinions result in a weak preference for abstention from treatment and increase the difficulty of the decision. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A patient with a large pulmonary saddle embolus eluding both clinical gestalt and validated decision rules.

    PubMed

    Hennessey, Adam; Setyono, Devy A; Lau, Wayne Bond; Fields, Jason Matthew

    2012-06-01

    We report a patient with chest pain who was classified as having low risk for pulmonary embolism with clinical gestalt and accepted clinical decision rules. An inadvertently ordered D-dimer and abnormal result, however, led to the identification of a large saddle embolus. This case illustrates the fallibility of even well-validated decision aids and that an embolism missed by these tools is not necessarily low risk or indicative of a low clot burden.

  14. Helping Health Care Providers and Clinical Scientists Understand Apparently Irrational Policy Decisions.

    PubMed

    Demeter, Sandor J

    2016-12-21

    Health care providers (HCP) and clinical scientists (CS) are generally most comfortable using evidence-based rational decision-making models. They become very frustrated when policymakers make decisions that, on the surface, seem irrational and unreasonable. However, such decisions usually make sense when analysed properly. The goal of this paper to provide a basic theoretical understanding of major policy models, to illustrate which models are most prevalent in publicly funded health care systems, and to propose a policy analysis framework to better understand the elements that drive policy decision-making. The proposed policy framework will also assist HCP and CS achieve greater success with their own proposals.

  15. Helping Health Care Providers and Clinical Scientists Understand Apparently Irrational Policy Decisions

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Health care providers (HCP) and clinical scientists (CS) are generally most comfortable using evidence-based rational decision-making models. They become very frustrated when policymakers make decisions that, on the surface, seem irrational and unreasonable. However, such decisions usually make sense when analysed properly. The goal of this paper to provide a basic theoretical understanding of major policy models, to illustrate which models are most prevalent in publicly funded health care systems, and to propose a policy analysis framework to better understand the elements that drive policy decision-making. The proposed policy framework will also assist HCP and CS achieve greater success with their own proposals. PMID:28123917

  16. Decision analysis in clinical cardiology: When is coronary angiography required in aortic stenosis

    SciTech Connect

    Georgeson, S.; Meyer, K.B.; Pauker, S.G. )

    1990-03-15

    Decision analysis offers a reproducible, explicit approach to complex clinical decisions. It consists of developing a model, typically a decision tree, that separates choices from chances and that specifies and assigns relative values to outcomes. Sensitivity analysis allows exploration of alternative assumptions. Cost-effectiveness analysis shows the relation between dollars spent and improved health outcomes achieved. In a tutorial format, this approach is applied to the decision whether to perform coronary angiography in a patient who requires aortic valve replacement for critical aortic stenosis.

  17. Accuracy of intuition in clinical decision-making among novice clinicians.

    PubMed

    Price, Amanda; Zulkosky, Kristen; White, Krista; Pretz, Jean

    2017-05-01

    To assess the reliance on intuitive and analytical approaches during clinical decision-making among novice clinicians and whether that reliance is associated with accurate decision-making. Nurse educators and managers tend to emphasize analysis over intuition during clinical decision-making though nurses typically report some reliance on intuition in their practice. We hypothesized that under certain conditions, reliance on intuition would support accurate decision-making, even among novices. This study utilized an experimental design with clinical complication (familiar vs. novel) and decision phase (cue acquisition, diagnosis and action) as within-subjects' factors, and simulation role (observer, family, auxiliary nurse and primary nurse) as between-subjects' factor. We examined clinical decision-making accuracy among final semester pre-licensure nursing students in a simulation experience. Students recorded their reasoning about emerging clinical complications with their patient during two distinct points in the simulation; one point involved a familiar complication and the other a relatively novel complication. All data were collected during Spring 2015. Although most participants relied more heavily on analysis than on intuition, use of intuition during the familiar complication was associated with more accurate decision-making, particularly in guiding attention to relevant cues. With the novel complication, use of intuition appeared to hamper decision-making, particularly for those in an observer role. Novice clinicians should be supported by educators and nurse managers to note when their intuitions are likely to be valid. Our findings emphasize the integrated nature of intuition and analysis in clinical decision-making. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Use of Simulation to Study Nurses' Acceptance and Nonacceptance of Clinical Decision Support Suggestions.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Vanessa E C; Lopez, Karen Dunn; Febretti, Alessandro; Stifter, Janet; Yao, Yingwei; Johnson, Andrew; Wilkie, Diana J; Keenan, Gail M

    2015-10-01

    Our long-term goal was to ensure nurse clinical decision support works as intended before full deployment in clinical practice. As part of a broader effort, this pilot project explored factors influencing acceptance/nonacceptance of eight clinical decision support suggestions displayed in an electronic health record-based nursing plan of care software prototype. A diverse sample of 21 nurses participated in this high-fidelity clinical simulation experience and completed a questionnaire to assess reasons for accepting/not accepting the clinical decision support suggestions. Of 168 total suggestions displayed during the experiment (eight for each of the 21 nurses), 123 (73.2%) were accepted, and 45 (26.8%) were not accepted. The mode number of acceptances by nurses was seven of eight, with only two of 21 nurses accepting all. The main reason for clinical decision support acceptance was the nurse's belief that the suggestions were good for the patient (100%), with other features providing secondary reinforcement. Reasons for nonacceptance were less clear, with fewer than half of the subjects indicating low confidence in the evidence. This study provides preliminary evidence that high-quality simulation and targeted questionnaires about specific clinical decision support selections offer a cost-effective means for testing before full deployment in clinical practice.

  19. Critical thinking and clinical decision making in critical care nursing: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Frank D; Merritt, Sharon L; Elstein, Arthur S

    2003-01-01

    This pilot study examined the relationship of education level, years of critical care nursing experience, and critical thinking (CT) ability (skills and dispositions) to consistency in clinical decision making among critical care nurses. Consistency was defined as the degree to which intuitive and analytical decision processes resulted in similar selection of interventions in tasks of low and high complexity. The study was nonexperimental and correlational. Critical care nurses (n = 54) from adult critical care units in 3 private teaching hospitals. The majority of nurses held a BSN or MSN and had an average of 9 years of direct clinical experience in the care of the critically ill. Decision-making consistency decreased significantly between low-complexity and high-complexity tasks. Both intuitive and analytical decision processes produced clear intervention selections in the low-complexity task, although the analytical process resulted in a more complete specification of interventions. In the high-complexity task, however, only the intuitive process resulted in a clear, plausible, and safe specification of interventions. Education and experience were not related to CT ability, nor was CT ability related to decision-making consistency. Only greater years of critical care nursing experience increased the likelihood of decision-making consistency. Overall, intuitive decision processes resulted in more clinically consistent selection of interventions across tasks. More investigation is needed to examine the influence of decision heuristics, and the conceptualization and measurement of CT abilities among practicing nurses.

  20. Features of computerized clinical decision support systems supportive of nursing practice: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seonah

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to organize the system features of decision support technologies targeted at nursing practice into assessment, problem identification, care plans, implementation, and outcome evaluation. It also aimed to identify the range of the five stage-related sequential decision supports that computerized clinical decision support systems provided. MEDLINE, CINAHL, and EMBASE were searched. A total of 27 studies were reviewed. The system features collected represented the characteristics of each category from patient assessment to outcome evaluation. Several features were common across the reviewed systems. For the sequential decision support, all of the reviewed systems provided decision support in sequence for patient assessment and care plans. Fewer than half of the systems included problem identification. There were only three systems operating in an implementation stage and four systems in outcome evaluation. Consequently, the key steps for sequential decision support functions were initial patient assessment, problem identification, care plan, and outcome evaluation. Providing decision support in such a full scope will effectively help nurses' clinical decision making. By organizing the system features, a comprehensive picture of nursing practice-oriented computerized decision support systems was obtained; however, the development of a guideline for better systems should go beyond the scope of a literature review.

  1. Complexity perspectives on clinical decision making in an intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    de Bock, Ben A; Willems, Dick L; Weinstein, Henry C

    2017-08-01

    How to clarify the implications of complexity thinking for decision making in the intensive care unit (ICU)? Retrospective qualitative empirical research. Practitioners in an ICU were interviewed on how their decisions were made regarding a particular patient in a difficult, clinical situation. Transcriptions of these interviews were coded and retrieved in Maxqda, a software program. Assisted by complexity thinking, researchers focused on the decision-making process and the shift from analytic approaches to complex approaches. Originally, practitioners took their decisions with negligible transdisciplinary interactivity, drawing on analytical knowledge. Later on, they shifted to transdisciplinary practices, paying attention to more participation in their decision-making processes within their complex environment. Complexity thinking demonstrates that this is a better model towards understanding transdisciplinary decision making then most analytical methodologies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Shared decision making: examining key elements and barriers to adoption into routine clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Légaré, France; Witteman, Holly O

    2013-02-01

    For many patients, the time spent meeting with their physician-the clinical encounter-is the most opportune moment for them to become engaged in their own health through the process of shared decision making. In the United States shared decision making is being promoted for its potential to improve the health of populations and individual patients, while also helping control care costs. In this overview we describe the three essential elements of shared decision making: recognizing and acknowledging that a decision is required; knowing and understanding the best available evidence; and incorporating the patient's values and preferences into the decision. To achieve the promise of shared decision making, more physicians need training in the approach, and more practices need to be reorganized around the principles of patient engagement. Additional research is also needed to identify the interventions that are most effective.

  3. Clinical Trial Results Vary Widely, But Always Advance Research | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Clinical Trials Clinical Trial Results Vary Widely, But Always Advance Research ... very emotional." Should You Be Interested in a Clinical Trial People volunteer to take part in clinical ...

  4. A decision support tool for synchronizing technology advances with strategic mission objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornstein, Rhoda S.; Willoughby, John K.

    1992-01-01

    Successful accomplishment of the objectives of many long-range future missions in areas such as space systems, land-use planning, and natural resource management requires significant technology developments. This paper describes the development of a decision-support data-derived tool called MisTec for helping strategic planners to determine technology development alternatives and to synchronize the technology development schedules with the performance schedules of future long-term missions. Special attention is given to the operations, concept, design, and functional capabilities of the MisTec. The MisTec was initially designed for manned Mars mission, but can be adapted to support other high-technology long-range strategic planning situations, making it possible for a mission analyst, planner, or manager to describe a mission scenario, determine the technology alternatives for making the mission achievable, and to plan the R&D activity necessary to achieve the required technology advances.

  5. A decision support tool for synchronizing technology advances with strategic mission objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornstein, Rhoda S.; Willoughby, John K.

    1992-01-01

    Successful accomplishment of the objectives of many long-range future missions in areas such as space systems, land-use planning, and natural resource management requires significant technology developments. This paper describes the development of a decision-support data-derived tool called MisTec for helping strategic planners to determine technology development alternatives and to synchronize the technology development schedules with the performance schedules of future long-term missions. Special attention is given to the operations, concept, design, and functional capabilities of the MisTec. The MisTec was initially designed for manned Mars mission, but can be adapted to support other high-technology long-range strategic planning situations, making it possible for a mission analyst, planner, or manager to describe a mission scenario, determine the technology alternatives for making the mission achievable, and to plan the R&D activity necessary to achieve the required technology advances.

  6. A clinical trial adriamycin (NSC 123127) in advanced sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Creagan, E T; Hahn, R G; Ahmann, D L; Bisel, H F

    1977-01-01

    22 patients with advanced sarcomas received adriamycin, 20--25 mg/m2/day for three days each three weeks. Two patients manifested objective response for a median of five months. Eight patients had stable disease for a median of three months. Nausea and vomiting occurred in 21 of 22 patients; leukopenia in eleven of 22; thrombocytopenia in four of 22. There was no clinically significant cardiotoxicity. Our study indicates that this regimen for adriamycin was relatively ineffective in the management of these inoperable or metastatic malignancies.

  7. Inconsistencies in classification by experts of cardiotocograms and subsequent clinical decision.

    PubMed

    Ayres-de-Campos, D; Bernardes, J; Costa-Pereira, A; Pereira-Leite, L

    1999-12-01

    Inter-observer agreement in the interpretation according to the FIGO guidelines of 33 cardiotocographic tracings by experts and subsequent clinical decision was evaluated, using the kappa statistic (K) and the proportions of agreement (Pa). Overall agreement in the classification of tracings was fair (K = 0.48) and was better for normal (Pa = 0.62), than for suspicious (Pa = 0.42) or pathologic tracings (Pa = 0.25). Overall agreement on clinical decision was slightly higher (K = 0.59), but mostly was centred on the decision to take 'no action' (Pa = 0.79). Experts especially disagreed over the decisions to 'monitor closely' (Pa = 0.14) or to 'intervene immediately' (Pa = 0.38). These limitations should be taken into account in clinical audits and in medical jurisprudence.

  8. Communication and decision support for children with advanced cancer and their families.

    PubMed

    Mack, Jennifer W; Feudtner, Chris; Hinds, Pamela S

    2012-01-01

    Clinician communication related to treatment decision making is a fundamentally important health care intervention and is often reported by parents of seriously ill children to be the most valued of clinician skills. Since different children and families have different communication styles and expectations, and since these may change over the course of the illness experience, one of the early and recurring tasks is to clarify and work with these diverse styles and expectations. Adopting a stance of compassionate desire to know more about patients and families, in addition to imparting information, is vital, and can be facilitated by following a general strategy of "ask, tell, ask." In addition to the exchange of information, communication between clinician and patient and family also involves the signaling and exchange of emotions, in which the pace, verbal inflection, and body language of the conversation are fundamental. Discussions about prognosis and goals of care, while needing to be handled in a gentle manner, should start early in the illness experience and be revised whenever there is a relapse or major complication. Children often want to participate in these conversations to a degree of their own choosing, which they themselves can clarify. Effective and empathetic clinician communication can greatly facilitate decision making and care for children with advanced cancer and their families, and provide a substantial source of comfort.

  9. Patient-Centered Decision Support: Formative Usability Evaluation of Integrated Clinical Decision Support With a Patient Decision Aid for Minor Head Injury in the Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Melnick, Edward R; Hess, Erik P; Guo, George; Breslin, Maggie; Lopez, Kevin; Pavlo, Anthony J; Abujarad, Fuad; Powsner, Seth M; Post, Lori A

    2017-05-19

    The Canadian Computed Tomography (CT) Head Rule, a clinical decision rule designed to safely reduce imaging in minor head injury, has been rigorously validated and implemented, and yet expected decreases in CT were unsuccessful. Recent work has identified empathic care as a key component in decreasing CT overuse. Health information technology can hinder the clinician-patient relationship. Patient-centered decision tools to support the clinician-patient relationship are needed to promote evidence-based decisions. Our objective is to formatively evaluate an electronic tool that not only helps clinicians at the bedside to determine the need for CT use based on the Canadian CT Head Rule but also promotes evidence-based conversations between patients and clinicians regarding patient-specific risk and patients' specific concerns. User-centered design with practice-based and participatory decision aid development was used to design, develop, and evaluate patient-centered decision support regarding CT use in minor head injury in the emergency department. User experience and user interface (UX/UI) development involved successive iterations with incremental refinement in 4 phases: (1) initial prototype development, (2) usability assessment, (3) field testing, and (4) beta testing. This qualitative approach involved input from patients, emergency care clinicians, health services researchers, designers, and clinical informaticists at every stage. The Concussion or Brain Bleed app is the product of 16 successive iterative revisions in accordance with UX/UI industry design standards. This useful and usable final product integrates clinical decision support with a patient decision aid. It promotes shared use by emergency clinicians and patients at the point of care within the emergency department context. This tablet computer app facilitates evidence-based conversations regarding CT in minor head injury. It is adaptable to individual clinician practice styles. The resultant tool

  10. Patient-Centered Decision Support: Formative Usability Evaluation of Integrated Clinical Decision Support With a Patient Decision Aid for Minor Head Injury in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Erik P; Guo, George; Breslin, Maggie; Lopez, Kevin; Pavlo, Anthony J; Abujarad, Fuad; Powsner, Seth M; Post, Lori A

    2017-01-01

    Background The Canadian Computed Tomography (CT) Head Rule, a clinical decision rule designed to safely reduce imaging in minor head injury, has been rigorously validated and implemented, and yet expected decreases in CT were unsuccessful. Recent work has identified empathic care as a key component in decreasing CT overuse. Health information technology can hinder the clinician-patient relationship. Patient-centered decision tools to support the clinician-patient relationship are needed to promote evidence-based decisions. Objective Our objective is to formatively evaluate an electronic tool that not only helps clinicians at the bedside to determine the need for CT use based on the Canadian CT Head Rule but also promotes evidence-based conversations between patients and clinicians regarding patient-specific risk and patients’ specific concerns. Methods User-centered design with practice-based and participatory decision aid development was used to design, develop, and evaluate patient-centered decision support regarding CT use in minor head injury in the emergency department. User experience and user interface (UX/UI) development involved successive iterations with incremental refinement in 4 phases: (1) initial prototype development, (2) usability assessment, (3) field testing, and (4) beta testing. This qualitative approach involved input from patients, emergency care clinicians, health services researchers, designers, and clinical informaticists at every stage. Results The Concussion or Brain Bleed app is the product of 16 successive iterative revisions in accordance with UX/UI industry design standards. This useful and usable final product integrates clinical decision support with a patient decision aid. It promotes shared use by emergency clinicians and patients at the point of care within the emergency department context. This tablet computer app facilitates evidence-based conversations regarding CT in minor head injury. It is adaptable to individual

  11. A study to explore if dentists' anxiety affects their clinical decision-making.

    PubMed

    Chipchase, S Y; Chapman, H R; Bretherton, R

    2017-02-24

    Aims To develop a measure of dentists' anxiety in clinical situations; to establish if dentists' anxiety in clinical situations affected their self-reported clinical decision-making; to establish if occupational stress, as demonstrated by burnout, is associated with anxiety in clinical situations and clinical decision-making; and to explore the relationship between decision-making style and the clinical decisions which are influenced by anxiety.Design Cross-sectional study.Setting Primary Dental Care.Subjects and methods A questionnaire battery [Maslach Burnout Inventory, measuring burnout; Melbourne Decision Making Questionnaire, measuring decision-making style; Dealing with Uncertainty Questionnaire (DUQ), measuring coping with diagnostic uncertainty; and a newly designed Dentists' Anxieties in Clinical Situations Scale, measuring dentists' anxiety (DACSS-R) and change of treatment (DACSS-C)] was distributed to dentists practicing in Nottinghamshire and Lincolnshire. Demographic data were collected and dentists gave examples of anxiety-provoking situations and their responses to them.Main outcome measure Respondents' self-reported anxiety in various clinical situations on a 11-point Likert Scale (DACSS-R) and self-reported changes in clinical procedures (Yes/No; DACSS-C). The DACSS was validated using multiple t-tests and a principal component analysis. Differences in DACSS-R ratings and burnout, decision-making and dealing with uncertainty were explored using Pearson correlations and multiple regression analysis. Qualitative data was subject to a thematic analysis.Results The DACSS-R revealed a four-factor structure and had high internal reliability (Cronbach's α = 0.94). Those with higher DACSS-R scores of anxiety were more likely to report changes in clinical procedures (DACSS-C scores). DACSS-R scores were associated with decision-making self-esteem and style as measured by the MDMQ and all burnout subscales, though not with scores on the DUQ scale

  12. Clinical decision-making described by Swedish prehospital emergency care nurse students - An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Tomas; Lindström, Veronica

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the PECN students' clinical decision-making during a seven-week clinical rotation in the ambulance services. Developing expertise in prehospital emergency care practices requires both theoretical and empirical learning. A prehospital emergency care nurse (PECN) is a Registered Nurse (RN) with one year of additional training in emergency care. There has been little investigation of how PECN students describe their decision-making during a clinical rotation. A qualitative study design was used, and 12 logbooks written by the Swedish PECN students were analysed using content analysis. The students wrote about 997 patient encounters - ambulance assignments during their clinical rotation. Four themes emerged as crucial for the students' decision-making: knowing the patient, the context-situation awareness in the ambulance service, collaboration, and evaluation. Based on the themes, students made decisions on how to respond to patients' illnesses. The PECN students used several variables in their decision-making. The decision- making was an on-going process during the whole ambulance assignment. The university has the responsibility to guide the students during their transition from an RN to a PECN. The findings of the study can support the educators and clinical supervisors in developing the programme of study for becoming a PECN. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of a novel electronic genetic screening and clinical decision support tool in prenatal clinical settings.

    PubMed

    Edelman, Emily A; Lin, Bruce K; Doksum, Teresa; Drohan, Brian; Edelson, Vaughn; Dolan, Siobhan M; Hughes, Kevin; O'Leary, James; Vasquez, Lisa; Copeland, Sara; Galvin, Shelley L; DeGroat, Nicole; Pardanani, Setul; Gregory Feero, W; Adams, Claire; Jones, Renee; Scott, Joan

    2014-07-01

    "The Pregnancy and Health Profile" (PHP) is a free prenatal genetic screening and clinical decision support (CDS) software tool for prenatal providers. PHP collects family health history (FHH) during intake and provides point-of-care risk assessment for providers and education for patients. This pilot study evaluated patient and provider responses to PHP and effects of using PHP in practice. PHP was implemented in four clinics. Surveys assessed provider confidence and knowledge and patient and provider satisfaction with PHP. Data on the implementation process were obtained through semi-structured interviews with administrators. Quantitative survey data were analyzed using Chi square test, Fisher's exact test, paired t tests, and multivariate logistic regression. Open-ended survey questions and interviews were analyzed using qualitative thematic analysis. Of the 83% (513/618) of patients that provided feedback, 97% felt PHP was easy to use and 98% easy to understand. Thirty percent (21/71) of participating physicians completed both pre- and post-implementation feedback surveys [13 obstetricians (OBs) and 8 family medicine physicians (FPs)]. Confidence in managing genetic risks significantly improved for OBs on 2/6 measures (p values ≤0.001) but not for FPs. Physician knowledge did not significantly change. Providers reported value in added patient engagement and reported mixed feedback about the CDS report. We identified key steps, resources, and staff support required to implement PHP in a clinical setting. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report on the integration of patient-completed, electronically captured and CDS-enabled FHH software into primary prenatal practice. PHP is acceptable to patients and providers. Key to successful implementation in the future will be customization options and interoperability with electronic health records.

  14. Polymeric nanotherapeutics: clinical development and advances in stealth functionalization strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Che-Ming J.; Fang, Ronnie H.; Luk, Brian T.; Zhang, Liangfang

    2013-12-01

    Long-circulating polymeric nanotherapeutics have garnered increasing interest in research and in the clinic owing to their ability to improve the solubility and pharmacokinetics of therapeutic cargoes. Modulation of carrier properties promises more effective drug localization at the disease sites and can lead to enhanced drug safety and efficacy. In the present review, we highlight the current development of polymeric nanotherapeutics in the clinic. In light of the importance of stealth properties in therapeutic nanoparticles, we also review the advances in stealth functionalization strategies and examine the performance of different stealth polymers in the literature. In addition, we discuss the recent development of biologically inspired ``self'' nanoparticles, which present a differing stealth concept from conventional approaches.

  15. FOCIS goes south: advances in translational and clinical immunology.

    PubMed

    Kalergis, Alexis M; Anegon, Ignacio; González, Pablo A

    2017-09-01

    FOCIS goes South: Advances in Translational and Clinical Immunology was the first Federation of Clinical Immunology Societies (FOCIS) ( www.focisnet.org ) meeting held in Latin America (May 15-17, 2017, Santiago de Chile, Chile). The meeting was organized as a 3-day workshop and was fostered by the Millennium Institute on Immunology and Immunotherapy, a recently nominated FOCIS Center of Excellence. The workshop brought together FOCIS associates, such as members of the FOCIS Board of Directors, Directors of different Centers of Excellence, regional speakers and 350 attendees. The Meeting covered aspects of immune regulation and modulation, as well as immunotherapy in areas of autoimmunity, transplantation, cancer and infectious diseases, among others. The activity also had a full-day immunology course and a day-long flow cytometry course.

  16. Supporting clinical decision making during deep brain stimulation surgery by means of a stochastic dynamical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karamintziou, Sofia D.; Tsirogiannis, George L.; Stathis, Pantelis G.; Tagaris, George A.; Boviatsis, Efstathios J.; Sakas, Damianos E.; Nikita, Konstantina S.

    2014-10-01

    Objective. During deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery for the treatment of advanced Parkinson's disease (PD), microelectrode recording (MER) in conjunction with functional stimulation techniques are commonly applied for accurate electrode implantation. However, the development of automatic methods for clinical decision making has to date been characterized by the absence of a robust single-biomarker approach. Moreover, it has only been restricted to the framework of MER without encompassing intraoperative macrostimulation. Here, we propose an integrated series of novel single-biomarker approaches applicable to the entire electrophysiological procedure by means of a stochastic dynamical model. Approach. The methods are applied to MER data pertinent to ten DBS procedures. Considering the presence of measurement noise, we initially employ a multivariate phase synchronization index for automatic delineation of the functional boundaries of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and determination of the acceptable MER trajectories. By introducing the index into a nonlinear stochastic model, appropriately fitted to pre-selected MERs, we simulate the neuronal response to periodic stimuli (130 Hz), and examine the Lyapunov exponent as an indirect indicator of the clinical effectiveness yielded by stimulation at the corresponding sites. Main results. Compared with the gold-standard dataset of annotations made intraoperatively by clinical experts, the STN detection methodology demonstrates a false negative rate of 4.8% and a false positive rate of 0%, across all trajectories. Site eligibility for implantation of the DBS electrode, as implicitly determined through the Lyapunov exponent of the proposed stochastic model, displays a sensitivity of 71.43%. Significance. The suggested comprehensive method exhibits remarkable performance in automatically determining both the acceptable MER trajectories and the optimal stimulation sites, thereby having the potential to accelerate precise

  17. Standards for Scalable Clinical Decision Support: Need, Current and Emerging Standards, Gaps, and Proposal for Progress

    PubMed Central

    Kawamoto, Kensaku; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Lobach, David F.; Jenders, Robert A

    2010-01-01

    Despite their potential to significantly improve health care, advanced clinical decision support (CDS) capabilities are not widely available in the clinical setting. An important reason for this limited availability of CDS capabilities is the application-specific and institution-specific nature of most current CDS implementations. Thus, a critical need for enabling CDS capabilities on a much larger scale is the development and adoption of standards that enable current and emerging CDS resources to be more effectively leveraged across multiple applications and care settings. Standards required for such effective scaling of CDS include (i) standard terminologies and information models to represent and communicate about health care data; (ii) standard approaches to representing clinical knowledge in both human-readable and machine-executable formats; and (iii) standard approaches for leveraging these knowledge resources to provide CDS capabilities across various applications and care settings. A number of standards do exist or are under development to meet these needs. However, many gaps and challenges remain, including the excessive complexity of many standards; the limited availability of easily accessible knowledge resources implemented using standard approaches; and the lack of tooling and other practical resources to enable the efficient adoption of existing standards. Thus, the future development and widespread adoption of current CDS standards will depend critically on the availability of tooling, knowledge bases, and other resources that make the adoption of CDS standards not only the right approach to take, but the cost-effective path to follow given the alternative of using a traditional, ad hoc approach to implementing CDS. PMID:21603283

  18. Standards for scalable clinical decision support: need, current and emerging standards, gaps, and proposal for progress.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Kensaku; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Lobach, David F; Jenders, Robert A

    2010-01-01

    Despite their potential to significantly improve health care, advanced clinical decision support (CDS) capabilities are not widely available in the clinical setting. An important reason for this limited availability of CDS capabilities is the application-specific and institution-specific nature of most current CDS implementations. Thus, a critical need for enabling CDS capabilities on a much larger scale is the development and adoption of standards that enable current and emerging CDS resources to be more effectively leveraged across multiple applications and care settings. Standards required for such effective scaling of CDS include (i) standard terminologies and information models to represent and communicate about health care data; (ii) standard approaches to representing clinical knowledge in both human-readable and machine-executable formats; and (iii) standard approaches for leveraging these knowledge resources to provide CDS capabilities across various applications and care settings. A number of standards do exist or are under development to meet these needs. However, many gaps and challenges remain, including the excessive complexity of many standards; the limited availability of easily accessible knowledge resources implemented using standard approaches; and the lack of tooling and other practical resources to enable the efficient adoption of existing standards. Thus, the future development and widespread adoption of current CDS standards will depend critically on the availability of tooling, knowledge bases, and other resources that make the adoption of CDS standards not only the right approach to take, but the cost-effective path to follow given the alternative of using a traditional, ad hoc approach to implementing CDS.

  19. [On the importance of the "decision-making model" view of diagnosis as a clinical framework in psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Ota, T

    2000-01-01

    After the advent of DSM-III, operational diagnostic criteria, along with the classification of disorders using such criteria, received considerable attention, and many studies on the reliability and validity of psychiatric diagnosis were conducted worldwide. Operational methodology was applied to diagnosis and classification, especially, in the area of research, and has contributed greatly to advances in reliable and refined clinical research. Such methodology, however, has not necessarily been accepted as a guiding principle in the area of clinical practice by all psychiatrists. Rather, some psychiatrists, especially more experienced psychiatrists, took a somewhat negative attitude toward the use of operational methodology. The author contends that one of the causes for the relatively poor acceptance of operational methodology in the area of clinical practice lies in the "classification model" view of diagnosis that forms the implicit background for the methodology. From a clinical perspective, it is not from the "classification model" basis but rather, from the "decision-making model" basis that the actual process of clinical diagnosis in psychiatry is explained properly. This is a very important point, because the latter model is potentially more useful both to psychiatric patients and to researchers in psychiatry than the former model. There have been however, few reports in psychiatry that highlight the importance of this model as the clinical framework. The author analyzes the limitations of the "classification model" view, and then, based on this analysis, lists prerequisites that a model for the framework of clinical practice should possess. The prerequisites listed are: that clinical information not sufficient to meet the disease criteria should be used as effectively as possible, that diseases low in probability but high in seriousness should be considered by clinicians in the differential diagnoses; that diagnosis should be readily changed when necessary

  20. Photodynamic therapy for locally advanced pancreatic cancer: early clinical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandanayake, N. S.; Huggett, M. T.; Bown, S. G.; Pogue, B. W.; Hasan, T.; Pereira, S. P.

    2010-02-01

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma ranks as the fourth most common cause of cancer death in the USA. Patients usually present late with advanced disease, limiting attempted curative surgery to 10% of cases. Overall prognosis is poor with one-year survival rates of less than 10% with palliative chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Given these dismal results, a minimally invasive treatment capable of local destruction of tumor tissue with low morbidity may have a place in the treatment of this disease. In this paper we review the preclinical photodynamic therapy (PDT) studies which have shown that it is possible to achieve a zone of necrosis in normal pancreas and implanted tumour tissue. Side effects of treatment and evidence of a potential survival advantage are discussed. We describe the only published clinical study of pancreatic interstitial PDT, which was carried out by our group (Bown et al Gut 2002), in 16 patients with unresectable locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma. All patients had evidence of tumor necrosis on follow-up imaging, with a median survival from diagnosis of 12.5 months. Finally, we outline a phase I dose-escalation study of verteporfin single fibre PDT followed by standard gemcitabine chemotherapy which our group is currently undertaking in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer. Randomized controlled studies are also planned.

  1. "Thinking aloud" as a strategy to improve clinical decision making.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, S; Narayan, S; Moreland, H

    1988-09-01

    Although "thinking aloud" has been used as a research method to collect data about nurses' knowledge and cognitive processes, it has not been used widely for instruction. We suggest that thinking aloud can be an effective teaching strategy for staff development. Two techniques are described for incorporating thinking aloud into dialogue among experienced nurses and into mentoring activities between experts and novices. An excerpt from a transcript of one nurse's thinking aloud while making a triage decision is presented to illustrate the types of knowledge and cognitive processes that can be elicited and revealed by using this strategy. Potential educational benefits are identified, along with suggestions for implementing thinking aloud as an instructional method.

  2. A knowledge authoring tool for clinical decision support.

    PubMed

    Dunsmuir, Dustin; Daniels, Jeremy; Brouse, Christopher; Ford, Simon; Ansermino, J Mark

    2008-06-01

    Anesthesiologists in the operating room are unable to constantly monitor all data generated by physiological monitors. They are further distracted by clinical and educational tasks. An expert system would ideally provide assistance to the anesthesiologist in this data-rich environment. Clinical monitoring expert systems have not been widely adopted, as traditional methods of knowledge encoding require both expert medical and programming skills, making knowledge acquisition difficult. A software application was developed for use as a knowledge authoring tool for physiological monitoring. This application enables clinicians to create knowledge rules without the need of a knowledge engineer or programmer. These rules are designed to provide clinical diagnosis, explanations and treatment advice for optimal patient care to the clinician in real time. By intelligently combining data from physiological monitors and demographical data sources the expert system can use these rules to assist in monitoring the patient. The knowledge authoring process is simplified by limiting connective relationships between rules. The application is designed to allow open collaboration between communities of clinicians to build a library of rules for clinical use. This design provides clinicians with a system for parameter surveillance and expert advice with a transparent pathway of reasoning. A usability evaluation demonstrated that anesthesiologists can rapidly develop useful rules for use in a predefined clinical scenario.

  3. An environmental scan of advance care planning decision AIDS for patients undergoing major surgery: a study protocol.

    PubMed

    Aslakson, Rebecca A; Schuster, Anne L R; Miller, Judith; Weiss, Matthew; Volandes, Angelo E; Bridges, John F P

    2014-01-01

    Patients who undergo major surgery are at risk for perioperative morbidity and mortality. It would be appropriate to initiate advance care planning with patients prior to surgery, but surgeons may experience difficulty initiating such conversations. Rather than focus on changing clinician behavior, advance care planning decision aids can be an innovative vehicle to motivate advance care planning among surgical patients and their families. The purpose of this paper is to describe a study protocol for conducting an environmental scan concerning advance care planning decision aids that may be relevant to patients undergoing high-risk surgery. This study will gather information from written or verbal data sources that incorporate professional and lay perspectives: a systematic review, a grey literature review, key informant interviews, and patient and family engagement. It is envisioned that this study will generate three outcomes: a synthesis of current evidence, a summary of gaps in knowledge, and a taxonomy of existing advance care planning decision aids. This environmental scan will demonstrate principles of patient-centered outcomes research, and it will exemplify a pioneering approach for reviewing complex interventions. Anticipated limitations are that information will be gathered from a small sample of patients and families, and that potentially relevant information could also be missing from the environmental scan due to the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Outcomes from the environmental scan will inform future patient-centered research to develop and evaluate a new decision aid.

  4. Major clinical research advances in gynecologic cancer in 2014.

    PubMed

    Suh, Dong Hoon; Lee, Kyung Hun; Kim, Kidong; Kang, Sokbom; Kim, Jae Weon

    2015-04-01

    In 2014, 9 topics were selected as major advances in clinical research for gynecologic oncology: 2 each in cervical and corpus cancer, 4 in ovarian cancer, and 1 in breast cancer. For cervical cancer, several therapeutic agents showed viable antitumor clinical response in recurrent and metastatic disease: bevacizumab, cediranib, and immunotherapies including human papillomavirus (HPV)-tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and Z-100. The HPV test received FDA approval as the primary screening tool of cervical cancer in women aged 25 and older, based on the results of the ATHENA trial, which suggested that the HPV test was a more sensitive and efficient strategy for cervical cancer screening than methods based solely on cytology. For corpus cancers, results of a phase III Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) 249 study of early-stage endometrial cancer with high-intermediate risk factors are followed by the controversial topic of uterine power morcellation in minimally invasive gynecologic surgery. Promising results of phase II studies regarding the effectiveness of olaparib in various ovarian cancer settings are summarized. After a brief review of results from a phase III study on pazopanib maintenance therapy in advanced ovarian cancer, 2 outstanding 2014 ASCO presentations cover the topic of using molecular subtypes in predicting response to bevacizumab. A review of the use of opportunistic bilateral salpingectomy as an ovarian cancer preventive strategy in the general population is presented. Two remarkable studies that discussed the effectiveness of adjuvant ovarian suppression in premenopausal early breast cancer have been selected as the last topics covered in this review.

  5. Clinical Application Of Advanced Infrared Thermography (IRT) In Locomotor Diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, Joachim-Michael

    1983-11-01

    Locomotor diseases is a wide range of about 450 different illnesses with all different pathologies, clinical and prognostic features and response to treatment. No single method will be able to cover the whole spectrum of local and systemic signs and symptoms. Nevertheless there is a need for objective measurements at the site of disease: clinical examination is often enough depending from subjective estimations and personal experiance of the clinician. Laboratory tests only show the systemic effect of the disease, like inflammation. X-rays are restricted to the detection of structural changes appearing late during the pathological process, even when using different techniques. Here IRT offers several advantages to the clinician as well as to the patient. As a non invasive method it monitors the course of disease at the anatomic site of pathology. Quantitative figures calculated from the thermogram,either taken at steady-state or during dynamic tests, are essential for differential diagnosis and follow-up. Advanced IRT camera systems fulfill all requirements set up for medical thermography recently by the National Bureau of Standards. Although, the user should check his system daily with regard to precision of absolute temperature measurements. Standardisation of recording technique is essential as well,to get reliable results. Ambient conditions must be adapted to the locomotor disease pathology under study. Advanced IRT systems , e.g. ZEISS-IKOTHERM, together with image processing capability and special software, e.g. THERMOTOM package, are valuable tools to the rheumatologist for diagnosing and monitoring locomotor diseases.

  6. The biology of infertility: research advances and clinical challenges

    PubMed Central

    Matzuk, Martin M; Lamb, Dolores J

    2013-01-01

    Reproduction is required for the survival of all mammalian species, and thousands of essential ‘sex’ genes are conserved through evolution. Basic research helps to define these genes and the mechanisms responsible for the development, function and regulation of the male and female reproductive systems. However, many infertile couples continue to be labeled with the diagnosis of idiopathic infertility or given descriptive diagnoses that do not provide a cause for their defect. For other individuals with a known etiology, effective cures are lacking, although their infertility is often bypassed with assisted reproductive technologies (ART), some accompanied by safety or ethical concerns. Certainly, progress in the field of reproduction has been realized in the twenty-first century with advances in the understanding of the regulation of fertility, with the production of over 400 mutant mouse models with a reproductive phenotype and with the promise of regenerative gonadal stem cells. Indeed, the past six years have witnessed a virtual explosion in the identification of gene mutations or polymorphisms that cause or are linked to human infertility. Translation of these findings to the clinic remains slow, however, as do new methods to diagnose and treat infertile couples. Additionally, new approaches to contraception remain elusive. Nevertheless, the basic and clinical advances in the understanding of the molecular controls of reproduction are impressive and will ultimately improve patient care. PMID:18989307

  7. Translating Advances in Cardiogenetics Into Effective Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Silverstein, Louise Bordeaux; Stolerman, Marina; Hidayatallah, Nadia; McDonald, Thomas; Walsh, Christine A.; Paljevic, Esma; Cohen, Lilian L.; Marion, Robert W.; Wasserman, David; Dolan, Siobhan M.

    2015-01-01

    In this article we describe a qualitative research study in which we explored individuals’ subjective experiences of both genetic testing and cardiogenetic disorders. Using a grounded theory approach, we coded and analyzed interview and focus group transcripts from 50 participants. We found that just under half of the participants who received their diagnosis during the study reported difficulty understanding information about both the purpose of genetic testing and their cardiac disease. A high level of anxiety about genetic testing and cardiac symptoms exacerbated individuals’ cognitive confusion. Participants reported both positive and negative interactions with the medical community, depending on health care professionals’ knowledge of cardiogenetic disorders. Overall, participants expressed a range of attitudes—positive, negative, and ambivalent—toward genetic testing. We conclude with a discussion of the barriers to achieving effective clinical care for genetic conditions and offer suggestions for improving collaborative decision making between physicians and patients. PMID:25114027

  8. The Effects of Computerized Clinical Decision Support Systems on Laboratory Test Ordering: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Delvaux, Nicolas; Van Thienen, Katrien; Heselmans, Annemie; de Velde, Stijn Van; Ramaekers, Dirk; Aertgeerts, Bert

    2017-04-01

    - Inappropriate laboratory test ordering has been shown to be as high as 30%. This can have an important impact on quality of care and costs because of downstream consequences such as additional diagnostics, repeat testing, imaging, prescriptions, surgeries, or hospital stays. - To evaluate the effect of computerized clinical decision support systems on appropriateness of laboratory test ordering. - We used MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Clinicaltrials.gov, Cochrane Library, and Inspec through December 2015. Investigators independently screened articles to identify randomized trials that assessed a computerized clinical decision support system aimed at improving laboratory test ordering by providing patient-specific information, delivered in the form of an on-screen management option, reminder, or suggestion through a computerized physician order entry using a rule-based or algorithm-based system relying on an evidence-based knowledge resource. Investigators extracted data from 30 papers about study design, various study characteristics, study setting, various intervention characteristics, involvement of the software developers in the evaluation of the computerized clinical decision support system, outcome types, and various outcome characteristics. - Because of heterogeneity of systems and settings, pooled estimates of effect could not be made. Data showed that computerized clinical decision support systems had little or no effect on clinical outcomes but some effect on compliance. Computerized clinical decision support systems targeted at laboratory test ordering for multiple conditions appear to be more effective than those targeted at a single condition.

  9. Clinical decision-making and therapeutic approaches in osteopathy - a qualitative grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Oliver P; Petty, Nicola J; Moore, Ann P

    2014-02-01

    There is limited understanding of how osteopaths make decisions in relation to clinical practice. The aim of this research was to construct an explanatory theory of the clinical decision-making and therapeutic approaches of experienced osteopaths in the UK. Twelve UK registered osteopaths participated in this constructivist grounded theory qualitative study. Purposive and theoretical sampling was used to select participants. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews which were audio-recorded and transcribed. As the study approached theoretical sufficiency, participants were observed and video-recorded during a patient appointment, which was followed by a video-prompted interview. Constant comparative analysis was used to analyse and code data. Data analysis resulted in the construction of three qualitatively different therapeutic approaches which characterised participants and their clinical practice, termed; Treater, Communicator and Educator. Participants' therapeutic approach influenced their approach to clinical decision-making, the level of patient involvement, their interaction with patients, and therapeutic goals. Participants' overall conception of practice lay on a continuum ranging from technical rationality to professional artistry, and contributed to their therapeutic approach. A range of factors were identified which influenced participants' conception of practice. The findings indicate that there is variation in osteopaths' therapeutic approaches to practice and clinical decision-making, which are influenced by their overall conception of practice. This study provides the first explanatory theory of the clinical decision-making and therapeutic approaches of osteopaths. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Clinical-decision support based on medical literature: A complex network approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jingchi; Zheng, Jichuan; Zhao, Chao; Su, Jia; Guan, Yi; Yu, Qiubin

    2016-10-01

    In making clinical decisions, clinicians often review medical literature to ensure the reliability of diagnosis, test, and treatment because the medical literature can answer clinical questions and assist clinicians making clinical decisions. Therefore, finding the appropriate literature is a critical problem for clinical-decision support (CDS). First, the present study employs search engines to retrieve relevant literature about patient records. However, the result of the traditional method is usually unsatisfactory. To improve the relevance of the retrieval result, a medical literature network (MLN) based on these retrieved papers is constructed. Then, we show that this MLN has small-world and scale-free properties of a complex network. According to the structural characteristics of the MLN, we adopt two methods to further identify the potential relevant literature in addition to the retrieved literature. By integrating these potential papers into the MLN, a more comprehensive MLN is built to answer the question of actual patient records. Furthermore, we propose a re-ranking model to sort all papers by relevance. We experimentally find that the re-ranking model can improve the normalized discounted cumulative gain of the results. As participants of the Text Retrieval Conference 2015, our clinical-decision method based on the MLN also yields higher scores than the medians in most topics and achieves the best scores for topics: #11 and #12. These research results indicate that our study can be used to effectively assist clinicians in making clinical decisions, and the MLN can facilitate the investigation of CDS.

  11. The Morningside Initiative: Collaborative Development of a Knowledge Repository to Accelerate Adoption of Clinical Decision Support

    PubMed Central

    Greenes, Robert; Bloomrosen, Meryl; Brown-Connolly, Nancy E.; Curtis, Clayton; Detmer, Don E; Enberg, Robert; Fridsma, Douglas; Fry, Emory; Goldstein, Mary K; Haug, Peter; Hulse, Nathan; Hongsermeier, Tonya; Maviglia, Saverio; Robbins, Craig W; Shah, Hemant

    2010-01-01

    The Morningside Initiative is a public-private activity that has evolved from an August, 2007, meeting at the Morningside Inn, in Frederick, MD, sponsored by the Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center (TATRC) of the US Army Medical Research Materiel Command. Participants were subject matter experts in clinical decision support (CDS) and included representatives from the Department of Defense, Veterans Health Administration, Kaiser Permanente, Partners Healthcare System, Henry Ford Health System, Arizona State University, and the American Medical Informatics Association (AMIA). The Morningside Initiative was convened in response to the AMIA Roadmap for National Action on Clinical Decision Support and on the basis of other considerations and experiences of the participants. Its formation was the unanimous recommendation of participants at the 2007 meeting which called for creating a shared repository of executable knowledge for diverse health care organizations and practices, as well as health care system vendors. The rationale is based on the recognition that sharing of clinical knowledge needed for CDS across organizations is currently virtually non-existent, and that, given the considerable investment needed for creating, maintaining and updating authoritative knowledge, which only larger organizations have been able to undertake, this is an impediment to widespread adoption and use of CDS. The Morningside Initiative intends to develop and refine (1) an organizational framework, (2) a technical approach, and (3) CDS content acquisition and management processes for sharing CDS knowledge content, tools, and experience that will scale with growing numbers of participants and can be expanded in scope of content and capabilities. Intermountain Healthcare joined the initial set of participants shortly after its formation. The efforts of the Morningside Initiative are intended to serve as the basis for a series of next steps in a national agenda for CDS. It

  12. [Advanced data analysis and visualization for clinical laboratory].

    PubMed

    Inada, Masanori; Yoneyama, Akiko

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes visualization techniques that help identify hidden structures in clinical laboratory data. The visualization of data is helpful for a rapid and better understanding of the characteristics of data sets. Various charts help the user identify trends in data. Scatter plots help prevent misinterpretations due to invalid data by identifying outliers. The representation of experimental data in figures is always useful for communicating results to others. Currently, flexible methods such as smoothing methods and latent structure analysis are available owing to the presence of advanced hardware and software. Principle component analysis, which is a well-known technique used to reduce multidimensional data sets, can be carried out on a personal computer. These methods could lead to advanced visualization with regard to exploratory data analysis. In this paper, we present 3 examples in order to introduce advanced data analysis. In the first example, a smoothing spline was fitted to a time-series from the control chart which is not in a state of statistical control. The trend line was clearly extracted from the daily measurements of the control samples. In the second example, principal component analysis was used to identify a new diagnostic indicator for Graves' disease. The multi-dimensional data obtained from patients were reduced to lower dimensions, and the principle components thus obtained summarized the variation in the data set. In the final example, a latent structure analysis for a Gaussian mixture model was used to draw complex density functions suitable for actual laboratory data. As a result, 5 clusters were extracted. The mixed density function of these clusters represented the data distribution graphically. The methods used in the above examples make the creation of complicated models for clinical laboratories more simple and flexible.

  13. Empirically and Clinically Useful Decision Making in Psychotherapy: Differential Predictions with Treatment Response Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutz, Wolfgang; Saunders, Stephen M.; Leon, Scott C.; Martinovich, Zoran; Kosfelder, Joachim; Schulte, Dietmar; Grawe, Klaus; Tholen, Sven

    2006-01-01

    In the delivery of clinical services, outcomes monitoring (i.e., repeated assessments of a patient's response to treatment) can be used to support clinical decision making (i.e., recurrent revisions of outcome expectations on the basis of that response). Outcomes monitoring can be particularly useful in the context of established practice research…

  14. Empirically and Clinically Useful Decision Making in Psychotherapy: Differential Predictions with Treatment Response Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutz, Wolfgang; Saunders, Stephen M.; Leon, Scott C.; Martinovich, Zoran; Kosfelder, Joachim; Schulte, Dietmar; Grawe, Klaus; Tholen, Sven

    2006-01-01

    In the delivery of clinical services, outcomes monitoring (i.e., repeated assessments of a patient's response to treatment) can be used to support clinical decision making (i.e., recurrent revisions of outcome expectations on the basis of that response). Outcomes monitoring can be particularly useful in the context of established practice research…

  15. Computer Decision Support to Improve Autism Screening and Care in Community Pediatric Clinics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Nerissa S.; Sturm, Lynne A.; Carroll, Aaron E.; Downs, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    An autism module was added to an existing computer decision support system (CDSS) to facilitate adherence to recommended guidelines for screening for autism spectrum disorders in primary care pediatric clinics. User satisfaction was assessed by survey and informal feedback at monthly meetings between clinical staff and the software team. To assess…

  16. Computer Decision Support to Improve Autism Screening and Care in Community Pediatric Clinics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Nerissa S.; Sturm, Lynne A.; Carroll, Aaron E.; Downs, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    An autism module was added to an existing computer decision support system (CDSS) to facilitate adherence to recommended guidelines for screening for autism spectrum disorders in primary care pediatric clinics. User satisfaction was assessed by survey and informal feedback at monthly meetings between clinical staff and the software team. To assess…

  17. The Effect of Multimedia Replacing Text in Resident Clinical Decision-Making Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Todd P.; Schrager, Sheree M.; Rake, Alyssa J.; Chan, Michael W.; Pham, Phung K.; Christman, Grant

    2017-01-01

    Multimedia in assessing clinical decision-making skills (CDMS) has been poorly studied, particularly in comparison to traditional text-based assessments. The literature suggests multimedia is more difficult for trainees. We hypothesize that pediatric residents score lower in diagnostic skill when clinical vignettes use multimedia rather than text…

  18. Recommendations for a Clinical Decision Support for the Management of Individuals with Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Patwardhan, Meenal B.; Kawamoto, Kensaku; Lobach, David; Patel, Uptal D.; Matchar, David B.

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives: Care for advanced CKD patients is suboptimal. CKD practice guidelines aim to close gaps in care, but making providers aware of guidelines is an ineffective implementation strategy. The Institute of Medicine has endorsed the use of clinical decision support (CDS) for implementing guidelines. The authors’ objective was to identify the requirements of an optimal CDS system for CKD management. Design, setting, participants, and measurements: The aims of this study expanded on those of previous work that used the facilitated process improvement (FPI) methodology. In FPI, an expert workgroup develops a set of quality improvement tools that can subsequently be utilized by practicing physicians. The authors conducted a discussion with a group of multidisciplinary experts to identify requirements for an optimal CDS system. Results: The panel considered the process of patient identification and management, associated barriers, and elements by which CDS could address these barriers. The panel also discussed specific knowledge needs in the context of a typical scenario in which CDS would be used. Finally, the group developed a set of core requirements that will likely facilitate the implementation of a CDS system aimed at improving the management of any chronic medical condition. Conclusions: Considering the growing burden of CKD and the potential healthcare and resource impact of guideline implementation through CDS, the relevance of this systematic process, consistent with Institute of Medicine recommendations, cannot be understated. The requirements described in this report could serve as a basis for the design of a CKD-specific CDS. PMID:19176797

  19. Evaluating the use of a computerized clinical decision support system for asthma by pediatric pulmonologists.

    PubMed

    Lomotan, Edwin A; Hoeksema, Laura J; Edmonds, Diana E; Ramírez-Garnica, Gabriela; Shiffman, Richard N; Horwitz, Leora I

    2012-03-01

    To investigate use of a new guideline-based, computerized clinical decision support (CCDS) system for asthma in a pediatric pulmonology clinic of a large academic medical center. We conducted a qualitative evaluation including review of electronic data, direct observation, and interviews with all nine pediatric pulmonologists in the clinic. Outcome measures included patterns of computer use in relation to patient care, and themes surrounding the relationship between asthma care and computer use. The pediatric pulmonologists entered enough data to trigger the decision support system in 397/445 (89.2%) of all asthma visits from January 2009 to May 2009. However, interviews and direct observations revealed use of the decision support system was limited to documentation activities after clinic sessions ended. Reasons for delayed use reflected barriers common to general medical care and barriers specific to subspecialty care. Subspecialist-specific barriers included the perceived high complexity of patients, the impact of subject matter expertise on the types of decision support needed, and unique workflow concerns such as the need to create letters to referring physicians. Pediatric pulmonologists demonstrated low use of a computerized decision support system for asthma care because of a combination of general and subspecialist-specific factors. Subspecialist-specific factors should not be underestimated when designing guideline-based, computerized decision support systems for the subspecialty setting. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Detecting fast, online reasoning processes in clinical decision making.

    PubMed

    Flores, Amanda; Cobos, Pedro L; López, Francisco J; Godoy, Antonio

    2014-06-01

    In an experiment that used the inconsistency paradigm, experienced clinical psychologists and psychology students performed a reading task using clinical reports and a diagnostic judgment task. The clinical reports provided information about the symptoms of hypothetical clients who had been previously diagnosed with a specific mental disorder. Reading times of inconsistent target sentences were slower than those of control sentences, demonstrating an inconsistency effect. The results also showed that experienced clinicians gave different weights to different symptoms according to their relevance when fluently reading the clinical reports provided, despite the fact that all the symptoms were of equal diagnostic value according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; American Psychiatric Association, 2000). The diagnostic judgment task yielded a similar pattern of results. In contrast to previous findings, the results of the reading task may be taken as direct evidence of the intervention of reasoning processes that occur very early, rapidly, and online. We suggest that these processes are based on the representation of mental disorders and that these representations are particularly suited to fast retrieval from memory and to making inferences. They may also be related to the clinicians' causal reasoning. The implications of these results for clinician training are also discussed.

  1. A Three-Question Framework to Facilitate Clinical Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibold, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Context: Highly developed critical thinking and the ability to discriminate among many possible therapeutic interventions is a core behavior for the practicing athletic trainer. However, while athletic training students receive a great deal of clinically applicable information, many are not explicitly trained in efficient methods for channeling…

  2. A Three-Question Framework to Facilitate Clinical Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibold, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Context: Highly developed critical thinking and the ability to discriminate among many possible therapeutic interventions is a core behavior for the practicing athletic trainer. However, while athletic training students receive a great deal of clinically applicable information, many are not explicitly trained in efficient methods for channeling…

  3. [Knowledge management system for laboratory work and clinical decision support].

    PubMed

    Inada, Masanori; Sato, Mayumi; Yoneyama, Akiko

    2011-05-01

    This paper discusses a knowledge management system for clinical laboratories. In the clinical laboratory of Toranomon Hospital, we receive about 20 questions relevant to laboratory tests per day from medical doctors or co-medical staff. These questions mostly involve the essence to appropriately accomplish laboratory tests. We have to answer them carefully and suitably because an incorrect answer may cause a medical accident. Up to now, no method has been in place to achieve a rapid response and standardized answers. For this reason, the laboratory staff have responded to various questions based on their individual knowledge. We began to develop a knowledge management system to promote the knowledge of staff working for the laboratory. This system is a type of knowledge base for assisting the work, such as inquiry management, laboratory consultation, process management, and clinical support. It consists of several functions: guiding laboratory test information, managing inquiries from medical staff, reporting results of patient consultation, distributing laboratory staffs notes, and recording guidelines for laboratory medicine. The laboratory test information guide has 2,000 records of medical test information registered in the database with flexible retrieval. The inquiry management tool provides a methos to record all questions, answer easily, and retrieve cases. It helps staff to respond appropriately in a short period of time. The consulting report system treats patients' claims regarding medical tests. The laboratory staffs notes enter a file management system so they can be accessed to aid in clinical support. Knowledge sharing using this function can achieve the transition from individual to organizational learning. Storing guidelines for laboratory medicine will support EBM. Finally, it is expected that this system will support intellectual activity concerning laboratory work and contribute to the practice of knowledge management for clinical work support.

  4. Monitoring the clinical outcomes in advanced prostate cancer: what imaging modalities and other markers are reliable?

    PubMed

    Morris, Michael J; Autio, Karen A; Basch, Ethan M; Danila, Daniel C; Larson, Steven; Scher, Howard I

    2013-06-01

    Effective patient care and efficient drug development require accurate tools to assess treatment effects. For metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), response biomarkers have historically been poorly reproducible, inaccurate, inconsistently applied, or only loosely associated with tangible clinical benefits such as survival. However, the field of response assessments for prostate cancer is maturing, in compliance with a rigorous process defined by analytic validation, clinical validation, and clinical qualification. For example, bone imaging with technetium-99m scintigraphy has historically been poorly used in prostate cancer clinical trials and routine patient care, and frequently has led to poor decision-making. However, contemporary clinical trial consensus criteria (Prostate Cancer Working Group 2 [PCWG2]) have standardized the definition of progression on bone scintigraphy and the clinical trials endpoint of radiographic progression-free survival (rPFS). A validated bone scan interpretation form captures the relevant data elements. rPFS and the forms have been undergoing prospective testing in multiple phase III studies. The first of these trials demonstrated a high degree of reproducibility and correlation with overall survival, and rPFS was used by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for approval of abiraterone in chemotherapy-naïve mCRPC. Circulating tumor cells (CTC) are another class of assays with significant promise as response-indicator biomarkers. CTC enumeration has undergone analytic validation and has been FDA-cleared for monitoring patients with prostate cancer in conjunction with other clinical methods. It is not yet a surrogate for survival. Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are direct indicators of patient benefit. The assays to measure PROs must undergo each of the steps of biomarker development, and are increasingly being standardized and used as clinical trial endpoints. In this review, we critically assess each of

  5. Clinical judgment and decision-making in wound assessment and management: is experience enough?

    PubMed

    Logan, Gemma

    2015-03-01

    The assessment and management of wounds forms a large proportion of community nurses' workload, often requiring judgment and decision-making in complex, challenging and uncertain circumstances. The processes through which nurses form judgments and make decisions within this context are reviewed in this article against existing theories on these subjects. There is variability in wound assessment and management practice which may be attributed to uncertainties within the context, a lack of knowledge in appropriate treatment choices and the inability to correctly value the importance of the clinical information presented. Nurses may be required to draw on intuition to guide their judgments and decision-making by association with experience and expertise. In addition, a step-by-step analytical approach underpinned by an evidence base may be required to ensure accuracy in practice. Developing an understanding of the different theories of judgment and decision-making may facilitate nurses' abilities to reflect on their own decision tasks, thereby enhancing the care provided.

  6. Shared decision making in mental health: the importance for current clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Alguera-Lara, Victoria; Dowsey, Michelle M; Ride, Jemimah; Kinder, Skye; Castle, David

    2017-10-01

    We reviewed the literature on shared decision making (regarding treatments in psychiatry), with a view to informing our understanding of the decision making process and the barriers that exist in clinical practice. Narrative review of published English-language articles. After culling, 18 relevant articles were included. Themes identified included models of psychiatric care, benefits for patients, and barriers. There is a paucity of published studies specifically related to antipsychotic medications. Shared decision making is a central part of the recovery paradigm and is of increasing importance in mental health service delivery. The field needs to better understand the basis on which decisions are reached regarding psychiatric treatments. Discrete choice experiments might be useful to inform the development of tools to assist shared decision making in psychiatry.

  7. [Diagnosis and clinical decision making: a conceptional framework for predictive pathology].

    PubMed

    Lorenz, W; Koller, M; Ehret, C; Klinkhammer-Schalke, M

    2006-01-01

    In the clinical pathway of diagnosis and therapy of diseases two decisions are distinguished: diagnostic and therapeutic decision. The former is analysed by decision tables, the latter by decision trees. In both decisions pathology plays a dominant role, especially as a gold standard that is a test to which most people have developed trust. This definition is remarkably soft. An efficient diagnostic prediction depends on a high prevalence of the disease. This is frequently forgotten when tests have a high sensitivity and specificity. The mathematical concept behind this observation is the Bayesian theorem. This is highly important for predictive pathology because it allows to combine attributes with high likelihood ratio simply by multiplication and has been shown to be remarkably stable, e. g. in the differential diagnosis of acute abdominal pain. Pathology should take the leadership in prediction since it has a considerable power as the gold standard of many tests. However, a network is advisable with other basic disciplines.

  8. Managing risk: clinical decision-making in mental health services.

    PubMed

    Muir-Cochrane, Eimear; Gerace, Adam; Mosel, Krista; O'Kane, Debra; Barkway, Patricia; Curren, David; Oster, Candice

    2011-01-01

    Risk assessment and management is a major component of contemporary mental health practice. Risk assessment in health care exists within contemporary perspectives of management and risk aversive practices in health care. This has led to much discussion about the best approach to assessing possible risks posed by people with mental health problems. In addition, researchers and commentators have expressed concern that clinical practice is being dominated by managerial models of risk management at the expense of meeting the patient's health and social care needs. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the risk assessment practices of a multidisciplinary mental health service. Findings indicate that mental health professionals draw on both managerial and therapeutic approaches to risk management, integrating these approaches into their clinical practice. Rather than being dominated by managerial concerns regarding risk, the participants demonstrate professional autonomy and concern for the needs of their clients.

  9. Clinical Decision Support for Nurses: A Fall Risk and Prevention Example.

    PubMed

    Lytle, Kathryn S; Short, Nancy M; Richesson, Rachel L; Horvath, Monica M

    2015-12-01

    Clinical decision support tools in electronic health records have demonstrated improvement with process measures and clinician performance, predominantly for providers. Clinical decision support tools could improve patient fall risk identification and prevention plans, a common concern for nursing. This quality-improvement project used clinical decision support to improve the rate of nurse compliance with documented fall risk assessments and, for patients at high risk, fall prevention plans of care in 16 adult inpatient units. Preintervention and postintervention data were compared using quarterly audits, retrospective chart review, safety reports, and falls and falls-with-injury rates. Documentation of fall risk assessments on the 16 units improved significantly according to quarterly audit data (P = .05), whereas documentation of the plans of care did not. Retrospective chart review on two units indicated improvement for admission fall risk assessment (P = .05) and a decrease in the documentation of the shift plan of care (P = .01); one unit had a statistically significant decrease in documentation of plans of care on admission (P = .00). Examination of safety reports for patients who fell showed all patients before and after clinical decision support had fall risk assessments documented. Falls and falls with injury did not change significantly before and after clinical decision support intervention.

  10. Cholinesterase inhibitors: applying pharmacokinetics to clinical decision making.

    PubMed

    Gomolin, Irving H; Smith, Candace; Jeitner, Thomas M

    2011-08-01

    Cholinesterase inhibitors are indicated for the treatment of Alzheimer-type dementia. There are few direct comparative studies of adverse effects or studies to suggest clinical superiority of one inhibitor over the others. The objective of this study was to relate pharmacokinetic differences among the agents to potential clinical considerations. Population pharmacokinetics were obtained from US Food and Drug Administration-approved label information and published literature. Plasma concentration-time profiles were derived from these parameters using noncompartmental pharmacokinetic modeling. Plasma concentration profiles differed significantly among different agents and between different formulations of the same agent. The initial choice among the various cholinesterase inhibitors requires consideration to adherence and cost. Consideration to differences in pharmacokinetics among these drugs provides a better understanding for the clinical practice of dose titration, identification and management of drug-related side effects, and lapses in therapy. Pharmacokinetic considerations among the various agents and formulations provide the clinician with options to enhance therapy when these agents are chosen for treatment of patients with Alzheimer-type dementia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A national clinical decision support infrastructure to enable the widespread and consistent practice of genomic and personalized medicine

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background In recent years, the completion of the Human Genome Project and other rapid advances in genomics have led to increasing anticipation of an era of genomic and personalized medicine, in which an individual's health is optimized through the use of all available patient data, including data on the individual's genome and its downstream products. Genomic and personalized medicine could transform healthcare systems and catalyze significant reductions in morbidity, mortality, and overall healthcare costs. Discussion Critical to the achievement of more efficient and effective healthcare enabled by genomics is the establishment of a robust, nationwide clinical decision support infrastructure that assists clinicians in their use of genomic assays to guide disease prevention, diagnosis, and therapy. Requisite components of this infrastructure include the standardized representation of genomic and non-genomic patient data across health information systems; centrally managed repositories of computer-processable medical knowledge; and standardized approaches for applying these knowledge resources against patient data to generate and deliver patient-specific care recommendations. Here, we provide recommendations for establishing a national decision support infrastructure for genomic and personalized medicine that fulfills these needs, leverages existing resources, and is aligned with the Roadmap for National Action on Clinical Decision Support commissioned by the U.S. Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology. Critical to the establishment of this infrastructure will be strong leadership and substantial funding from the federal government. Summary A national clinical decision support infrastructure will be required for reaping the full benefits of genomic and personalized medicine. Essential components of this infrastructure include standards for data representation; centrally managed knowledge repositories; and standardized approaches for

  12. A national clinical decision support infrastructure to enable the widespread and consistent practice of genomic and personalized medicine.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Kensaku; Lobach, David F; Willard, Huntington F; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S

    2009-03-23

    In recent years, the completion of the Human Genome Project and other rapid advances in genomics have led to increasing anticipation of an era of genomic and personalized medicine, in which an individual's health is optimized through the use of all available patient data, including data on the individual's genome and its downstream products. Genomic and personalized medicine could transform healthcare systems and catalyze significant reductions in morbidity, mortality, and overall healthcare costs. Critical to the achievement of more efficient and effective healthcare enabled by genomics is the establishment of a robust, nationwide clinical decision support infrastructure that assists clinicians in their use of genomic assays to guide disease prevention, diagnosis, and therapy. Requisite components of this infrastructure include the standardized representation of genomic and non-genomic patient data across health information systems; centrally managed repositories of computer-processable medical knowledge; and standardized approaches for applying these knowledge resources against patient data to generate and deliver patient-specific care recommendations. Here, we provide recommendations for establishing a national decision support infrastructure for genomic and personalized medicine that fulfills these needs, leverages existing resources, and is aligned with the Roadmap for National Action on Clinical Decision Support commissioned by the U.S. Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology. Critical to the establishment of this infrastructure will be strong leadership and substantial funding from the federal government. A national clinical decision support infrastructure will be required for reaping the full benefits of genomic and personalized medicine. Essential components of this infrastructure include standards for data representation; centrally managed knowledge repositories; and standardized approaches for leveraging these knowledge

  13. Advances in designs for Alzheimer's disease clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Jeffrey; Gould, Heath; Zhong, Kate

    2012-01-01

    There is an urgent need to identify new treatments for the rapidly growing population of people with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Innovations in clinical trial designs many help to reduce development time, provide more definitive answers regarding drug efficacy, and facilitate prioritizing compounds to be advanced to Phase III clinical trials. Standard designs compare drug and placebo changes from baseline on a rating scale. Baysian adaptive clinical trials allow the use of data collected in the trial to modify doses, sample size, trial duration, and entry criteria in an ongoing way as the data are collected. Disease-modification is supported by findings on staggered start and delayed withdrawal designs. Futility designs can use historical controls and may shorten trial duration. Combination therapy designs may allow investigation of additive or synergistic treatment effects. Novel trial selection criteria allow investigation of treatment effects in asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic, prodromal AD populations. The Clinical Dementia Rating-Sum of Boxes (CDR-SOB) can be considered as a single trial outcome in early disease populations. Alternate forms of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Portion (ADAS-cog), computerized measures, and pharmacoeconomic scales provide new and relevant information on drug effects. Comparative dose strategies are used in trials of symptomatic agents, and novel methods including withdrawal designs, symptom emergence analyses, and sequential designs are being utilized to assess the efficacy of putative psychotropic agents. The choice of trial design is driven by the question to be answered by the clinical trial; an increasing number of design approaches are available and may be useful in accelerating and refining AD drug development.

  14. Advances in designs for Alzheimer’s disease clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Jeffrey; Gould, Heath; Zhong, Kate

    2012-01-01

    There is an urgent need to identify new treatments for the rapidly growing population of people with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Innovations in clinical trial designs many help to reduce development time, provide more definitive answers regarding drug efficacy, and facilitate prioritizing compounds to be advanced to Phase III clinical trials. Standard designs compare drug and placebo changes from baseline on a rating scale. Baysian adaptive clinical trials allow the use of data collected in the trial to modify doses, sample size, trial duration, and entry criteria in an ongoing way as the data are collected. Disease-modification is supported by findings on staggered start and delayed withdrawal designs. Futility designs can use historical controls and may shorten trial duration. Combination therapy designs may allow investigation of additive or synergistic treatment effects. Novel trial selection criteria allow investigation of treatment effects in asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic, prodromal AD populations. The Clinical Dementia Rating-Sum of Boxes (CDR-SOB) can be considered as a single trial outcome in early disease populations. Alternate forms of the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Portion (ADAS-cog), computerized measures, and pharmacoeconomic scales provide new and relevant information on drug effects. Comparative dose strategies are used in trials of symptomatic agents, and novel methods including withdrawal designs, symptom emergence analyses, and sequential designs are being utilized to assess the efficacy of putative psychotropic agents. The choice of trial design is driven by the question to be answered by the clinical trial; an increasing number of design approaches are available and may be useful in accelerating and refining AD drug development. PMID:23383393

  15. Critical advances in bridging personal health informatics and clinical informatics.

    PubMed

    Koch, S; Vimarlund, V

    2012-01-01

    To provide a survey over significant developments in the area of linking personal health informatics and clinical informatics, to give insights into critical advances and to discuss open problems and opportunities in this area. A scoping review over the literature published in scientific journals and relevant conference proceedings in the intersection between personal health informatics and clinical informatics over the years 2010 and 2011 was performed. The publications analyzed are related to two main topics, namely "Sharing information and collaborating through personal health records, portals and social networks" and "Integration of personal health systems with clinical information systems". For the first topic, results are presented according to five different themes: "Patient expectations and attitudes", "Real use experiences", "Changes for care providers", "Barriers to adoption" and "Proposed technical infrastructures". For the second topic, two different themes were found, namely "Technical architectures and interoperability" and "Security, safety and privacy issues". Results show a number of gaps between the information needs of patients and the information care provider organizations provide to them as well as the lack of a trusted technical, ethical and regulatory framework regarding information sharing. Despite recent developments in the areas of personal health informatics and clinical informatics both fields have diverging needs. To support both clinical work processes and empower patients to effectively handle self-care, a number of issues remain unsolved. Open issues include privacy and confidentiality, including trusted sharing of health information and building collaborative environments between patients, their families and care providers. There are further challenges to meet around health and technology literacy as well as to overcome structural and organizational barriers. Frameworks for evaluating personal health informatics applications and

  16. Recommendations to improve the usability of drug-drug interaction clinical decision support alerts.

    PubMed

    Payne, Thomas H; Hines, Lisa E; Chan, Raymond C; Hartman, Seth; Kapusnik-Uner, Joan; Russ, Alissa L; Chaffee, Bruce W; Hartman, Christian; Tamis, Victoria; Galbreth, Brian; Glassman, Peter A; Phansalkar, Shobha; van der Sijs, Heleen; Gephart, Sheila M; Mann, Gordon; Strasberg, Howard R; Grizzle, Amy J; Brown, Mary; Kuperman, Gilad J; Steiner, Chris; Sullins, Amanda; Ryan, Hugh; Wittie, Michael A; Malone, Daniel C

    2015-11-01

    To establish preferred strategies for presenting drug-drug interaction (DDI) clinical decision support alerts. A DDI Clinical Decision Support Conference Series included a workgroup consisting of 24 clinical, usability, and informatics experts representing academia, health information technology (IT) vendors, healthcare organizations, and the Office of the National Coordinator for Health IT. Workgroup members met via web-based meetings 12 times from January 2013 to February 2014, and two in-person meetings to reach consensus on recommendations to improve decision support for DDIs. We addressed three key questions: (1) what, how, where, and when do we display DDI decision support? (2) should presentation of DDI decision support vary by clinicians? and (3) how should effectiveness of DDI decision support be measured? Our recommendations include the consistent use of terminology, visual cues, minimal text, formatting, content, and reporting standards to facilitate usability. All clinicians involved in the medication use process should be able to view DDI alerts and actions by other clinicians. Override rates are common but may not be a good measure of effectiveness. Seven core elements should be included with DDI decision support. DDI information should be presented to all clinicians. Finally, in their current form, override rates have limited capability to evaluate alert effectiveness. DDI clinical decision support alerts need major improvements. We provide recommendations for healthcare organizations and IT vendors to improve the clinician interface of DDI alerts, with the aim of reducing alert fatigue and improving patient safety. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. GELLO: An Object-Oriented Query and Expression Language for Clinical Decision Support

    PubMed Central

    Sordo, Margarita; Ogunyemi, Omolola; Boxwala, Aziz A.; Greenes, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    GELLO is a purpose-specific, object-oriented (OO) query and expression language [1]. GELLO is the result of a concerted effort of the Decision Systems Group (DSG) working with the HL7 Clinical Decision Support Technical Committee (CDSTC) to provide the HL7 community with a common format for data encoding and manipulation. GELLO will soon be submitted for ballot to the HL7 CDSTC for consideration as a standard. PMID:14728515

  18. What Is a "Good" Treatment Decision? Decisional Control, Knowledge, Treatment Decision Making, and Quality of Life in Men with Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Orom, Heather; Biddle, Caitlin; Underwood, Willie; Nelson, Christian J; Homish, D Lynn

    2016-08-01

    We explored whether active patient involvement in decision making and greater patient knowledge are associated with better treatment decision-making experiences and better quality of life (QOL) among men with clinically localized prostate cancer. Localized prostate cancer treatment decision making is an advantageous model for studying patient treatment decision-making dynamics because there are multiple treatment options and a lack of empirical evidence to recommend one over the other; consequently, it is recommended that patients be fully involved in making the decision. Men with newly diagnosed clinically localized prostate cancer (N = 1529) completed measures of decisional control, prostate cancer knowledge, and decision-making experiences (decisional conflict and decision-making satisfaction and difficulty) shortly after they made their treatment decision. Prostate cancer-specific QOL was assessed at 6 months after treatment. More active involvement in decision making and greater knowledge were associated with lower decisional conflict and higher decision-making satisfaction but greater decision-making difficulty. An interaction between decisional control and knowledge revealed that greater knowledge was only associated with greater difficulty for men actively involved in making the decision (67% of sample). Greater knowledge, but not decisional control, predicted better QOL 6 months after treatment. Although men who are actively involved in decision making and more knowledgeable may make more informed decisions, they could benefit from decisional support (e.g., decision-making aids, emotional support from providers, strategies for reducing emotional distress) to make the process easier. Men who were more knowledgeable about prostate cancer and treatment side effects at the time that they made their treatment decision may have appraised their QOL as higher because they had realistic expectations about side effects. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. What is a “good” treatment decision?: Decisional control, knowledge, treatment decision-making, and quality of life in men with clinically localized prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Orom, Heather; Biddle, Caitlin; Underwood, Willie; Nelson, Christian J.; Homish, D. Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Objective We explored whether active patient involvement in decision making and greater patient knowledge are associated with better treatment decision making experiences and better quality of life (QOL) among men with clinically localized prostate cancer. Localized prostate cancer treatment decision-making is an advantageous model for studying patient treatment decision-making dynamics as there are multiple treatment options and a lack of empirical evidence to recommend one over the other; consequently, it is recommended that patients be fully involved in making the decision. Methods Men with newly diagnosed clinically localized prostate cancer (N=1529) completed measures of decisional control, prostate cancer knowledge, and their decision-making experience (decisional conflict, and decision-making satisfaction and difficulty) shortly after they made their treatment decision. Prostate cancer-specific QOL was assessed 6-months after treatment. Results More active involvement in decision making and greater knowledge were associated with lower decisional conflict and higher decision-making satisfaction, but greater decision-making difficulty. An interaction between decisional control and knowledge revealed that greater knowledge was only associated with greater difficulty for men actively involved in making the decision (67% of sample). Greater knowledge, but not decisional control predicted better QOL 6-months post-treatment. Conclusion Although men who are actively involved in decision making and more knowledgeable may make more informed decisions, they could benefit from decisional support (e.g., decision-making aids, emotional support from providers, strategies for reducing emotional distress) to make the process easier. Men who were more knowledgeable about prostate cancer and treatment side effects at the time they made their treatment decision may have appraised their QOL as higher because they had realistic expectations about side effects. PMID:26957566

  20. Advances in functional magnetic resonance imaging: technology and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, Bradford C

    2007-07-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) is a valuable method for use by clinical investigators to study task-related brain activation in patients with neurological or neuropsychiatric illness. Despite the relative infancy of the field, the rapid adoption of this functional neuroimaging technology has resulted from, among other factors, its ready availability, its relatively high spatial and temporal resolution, and its safety as a noninvasive imaging tool that enables multiple repeated scans over the course of a longitudinal study, and thus may lend itself well as a measure in clinical drug trials. Investigators have used fMRI to identify abnormal functional brain activity during task performance in a variety of patient populations, including those with neurodegenerative, demyelinating, cerebrovascular, and other neurological disorders that highlight the potential utility of fMRI in both basic and clinical spheres of research. In addition, fMRI studies reveal processes related to neuroplasticity, including compensatory hyperactivation, which may be a universally-occurring, adaptive neural response to insult. Functional MRI is being used to study the modulatory effects of genetic risk factors for neurological disease on brain activation; it is being applied to differential diagnosis, as a predictive biomarker of disease course, and as a means to identify neural correlates of neurotherapeutic interventions. Technological advances are rapidly occurring that should provide new applications for fMRI, including improved spatial resolution, which promises to reveal novel insights into the function of fine-scale neural circuitry of the human brain in health and disease.

  1. Recent advances in medical imaging: anatomical and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Grignon, Bruno; Mainard, Laurence; Delion, Matthieu; Hodez, Claude; Oldrini, Guillaume

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this paper was to present an overview of the most important recent advances in medical imaging and their potential clinical and anatomical applications. Dramatic changes have been particularly observed in the field of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Computed tomography (CT) has been completely overturned by the successive development of helical acquisition, multidetector and large area-detector acquisition. Visualising brain function has become a new challenge for MRI, which is called functional MRI, currently based principally on blood oxygenation level-dependent sequences, which could be completed or replaced by other techniques such as diffusion MRI (DWI). Based on molecular diffusion due to the thermal energy of free water, DWI offers a spectrum of anatomical and clinical applications, ranging from brain ischemia to visualisation of large fibrous structures of the human body such as the anatomical bundles of white matter with diffusion tensor imaging and tractography. In the field of X-ray projection imaging, a new low-dose device called EOS has been developed through new highly sensitive detectors of X-rays, allowing for acquiring frontal and lateral images simultaneously. Other improvements have been briefly mentioned. Technical principles have been considered in order to understand what is most useful in clinical practice as well as in the field of anatomical applications. Nuclear medicine has not been included.

  2. Recent theoretical, neural, and clinical advances in sustained attention research.

    PubMed

    Fortenbaugh, Francesca C; DeGutis, Joseph; Esterman, Michael

    2017-03-05

    Models of attention often distinguish among attention subtypes, with classic models separating orienting, switching, and sustaining functions. Compared with other forms of attention, the neurophysiological basis of sustaining attention has received far less notice, yet it is known that momentary failures of sustained attention can have far-ranging negative effects in healthy individuals, and lasting sustained attention deficits are pervasive in clinical populations. In recent years, however, there has been increased interest in characterizing moment-to-moment fluctuations in sustained attention, in addition to the overall vigilance decrement, and understanding how these neurocognitive systems change over the life span and across various clinical populations. The use of novel neuroimaging paradigms and statistical approaches has allowed for better characterization of the neural networks supporting sustained attention and has highlighted dynamic interactions within and across multiple distributed networks that predict behavioral performance. These advances have also provided potential biomarkers to identify individuals with sustained attention deficits. These findings have led to new theoretical models explaining why sustaining focused attention is a challenge for individuals and form the basis for the next generation of sustained attention research, which seeks to accurately diagnose and develop theoretically driven treatments for sustained attention deficits that affect a variety of clinical populations.

  3. Clinical Advancements in the Targeted Therapies against Liver Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Nagórniewicz, Beata; Prakash, Jai

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic fibrosis, characterized by excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins leading to liver dysfunction, is a growing cause of mortality worldwide. Hepatocellular damage owing to liver injury leads to the release of profibrotic factors from infiltrating inflammatory cells that results in the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Upon activation, HSCs undergo characteristic morphological and functional changes and are transformed into proliferative and contractile ECM-producing myofibroblasts. Over recent years, a number of therapeutic strategies have been developed to inhibit hepatocyte apoptosis, inflammatory responses, and HSCs proliferation and activation. Preclinical studies have yielded numerous targets for the development of antifibrotic therapies, some of which have entered clinical trials and showed improved therapeutic efficacy and desirable safety profiles. Furthermore, advancements have been made in the development of noninvasive markers and techniques for the accurate disease assessment and therapy responses. Here, we focus on the clinical developments attained in the field of targeted antifibrotics for the treatment of liver fibrosis, for example, small molecule drugs, antibodies, and targeted drug conjugate. We further briefly highlight different noninvasive diagnostic technologies and will provide an overview about different therapeutic targets, clinical trials, endpoints, and translational efforts that have been made to halt or reverse the progression of liver fibrosis. PMID:27999454

  4. Advances and applications of molecular cloning in clinical microbiology.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Kamal; Mishra, Ajay Kumar; Mehraj, Vikram; Duraisamy, Ganesh Selvaraj

    2014-10-01

    Molecular cloning is based on isolation of a DNA sequence of interest to obtain multiple copies of it in vitro. Application of this technique has become an increasingly important tool in clinical microbiology due to its simplicity, cost effectiveness, rapidity, and reliability. This review entails the recent advances in molecular cloning and its application in the clinical microbiology in the context of polymicrobial infections, recombinant antigens, recombinant vaccines, diagnostic probes, antimicrobial peptides, and recombinant cytokines. Culture-based methods in polymicrobial infection have many limitation, which has been overcome by cloning techniques and provide gold standard technique. Recombinant antigens produced by cloning technique are now being used for screening of HIV, HCV, HBV, CMV, Treponema pallidum, and other clinical infectious agents. Recombinant vaccines for hepatitis B, cholera, influenza A, and other diseases also use recombinant antigens which have replaced the use of live vaccines and thus reduce the risk for adverse effects. Gene probes developed by gene cloning have many applications including in early diagnosis of hereditary diseases, forensic investigations, and routine diagnosis. Industrial application of this technology produces new antibiotics in the form of antimicrobial peptides and recombinant cytokines that can be used as therapeutic agents.

  5. A novel website to prepare diverse older adults for decision making and advance care planning: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sudore, Rebecca L; Knight, Sara J; McMahan, Ryan D; Feuz, Mariko; Farrell, David; Miao, Yinghui; Barnes, Deborah E

    2014-04-01

    We have reconceptualized advance care planning (ACP) as a multistep process focused on preparing patients with skills needed for communication and in-the-moment decision making. To operationalize this paradigm, we created an easy-to-use ACP website (prepareforyourcare.org) based on a theoretical framework of behavior change and pilot-tested its efficacy to engage older adults in ACP. At baseline and 1 week after viewing the PREPARE website, we assessed behavior change in ACP by using a validated survey that includes Process Measures (knowledge, contemplation, self-efficacy, and readiness, 5-point Likert scales) and Action Measures (yes/no whether an ACP behavior was completed). We also assigned participants into behavior change stages (i.e., precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance) and determined the percentage of participants who moved from precontemplation at baseline to higher stages at 1 week. We also assessed PREPARE ease-of-use (10-point scale, 10 being the easiest). Changes were assessed with Wilcoxon signed rank sum tests and McNemar's tests. Mean age of the participants was 68.4 years (SD 6.6), and 65% were nonwhite. Behavior Change Process Measures average Likert scores increased from 3.1 (0.9) to 3.7 (0.7), P < 0.001. Action Measures did not change significantly. However, precontemplation significantly decreased for most actions (e.g., talking to doctor about desired medical care, 61% to 35%, P < 0.003), with a mean decrease of 21% (range, 16%-33%). PREPARE was rated a nine of ten (±1.9) for ease-of-use. A new, patient-centered ACP website that focuses on preparing patients for communication and decision making significantly improves engagement in the process of ACP and behavior change. A clinical trial of PREPARE is currently underway. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. A Novel Website to Prepare Diverse Older Adults for Decision Making and Advance Care Planning: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Sudore, Rebecca L.; Knight, Sara J.; McMahan, Ryan D.; Feuz, Mariko; Farrell, David; Miao, Yinghui; Barnes, Deborah E.

    2014-01-01

    Context We have reconceptualized advance care planning (ACP) as a multi-step process focused on preparing patients with skills needed for communication and in-the-moment decision making. Objectives To operationalize this paradigm, we created an easy-to-use ACP website (prepareforyourcare.org) based on a theoretical framework of behavior change and pilot-tested its efficacy to engage older adults in ACP. Methods At baseline and one week after viewing the PREPARE website, we assessed behavior change in ACP using a validated survey that includes Process Measures (knowledge, contemplation, self-efficacy, and readiness, 5-point Likert scales) and Action Measures (yes/no whether an ACP behavior was completed). We also assigned participants into behavior change stages (i.e., precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance) and determined the percentage of participants who moved from precontemplation at baseline to higher stages at one week. We also assessed PREPARE ease-of-use (10-point scale, 10 being the easiest). Changes were assessed with paired t-tests and McNemar’s tests. Results Participants’ mean age was 68.4 years (SD 6.6) and 65% were non-white. Process Measures average Likert scores increased from 3.1 (0.9) to 3.7 (0.7), P <0.001. Action Measures did not change significantly. However, precontemplation significantly decreased for most actions, (e.g., talking to doctor about desired medical care, 61% to 35%, P<0.003), with a mean decrease of 21% (range, 16%-33%). PREPARE was rated a 9 out of 10 (±1.9) for ease-of-use. Conclusion A new, patient-centered ACP website that focuses on preparing patients for communication and decision making significantly improves engagement in the process of ACP and behavior change. A clinical trial of PREPARE is currently underway. PMID:23972574

  7. Teleconsultation and Clinical Decision Making: a Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Deldar, Kolsoum; Bahaadinbeigy, Kambiz; Tara, Seyed Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    Background: The goal of teleconsultation is to omit geographical and functional distance between two or more geographically separated health care providers. The purpose of present study is to review and analyze physician-physician teleconsultations. Method: The PubMed electronic database was searched. The primary search was done on January 2015 and was updated on December 2015. A fetch and tag plan was designed by the researchers using an online Zotero library. Results: 174 full-text articles of 1702 records met inclusion criteria. Teleconsultation for pediatric patients accounts for 14.36 percent of accepted articles. Surgery and general medicine were the most prevalent medical fields in the adults and pediatrics, respectively. Most teleconsultations were inland experiences (no=135), and the USA, Italy and Australia were the three top countries in this group. Non-specialists health care providers/centers were the dominant group who requested teleconsultation (no=130). Real time, store and forward, and hybrid technologies were used in 50, 31, and 16.7 percent of articles, respectively. The teleconsultation were reported to result in change in treatment plan, referral or evacuation rate, change in diagnosis, educational effects, and rapid decision making. Use of structured or semi-structured template had been noticed only in a very few articles. Conclusion: The present study focused on the recent ten years of published articles on physician-physician teleconsultations. Our findings showed that although there are positive impacts of teleconsultation as improving patient management, still have gaps that need to be repaired. PMID:27708494

  8. Implementing an integrative multi-agent clinical decision support system with open source software.

    PubMed

    Sayyad Shirabad, Jelber; Wilk, Szymon; Michalowski, Wojtek; Farion, Ken

    2012-02-01

    Clinical decision making is a complex multi-stage process. Decision support can play an important role at each stage of this process. At present, the majority of clinical decision support systems have been focused on supporting only certain stages. In this paper we present the design and implementation of MET3-a prototype multi-agent system providing an integrative decision support that spans over the entire decision making process. The system helps physicians with data collection, diagnosis formulation, treatment planning and finding supporting evidence. MET3 integrates with external hospital information systems via HL7 messages and runs on various computing platforms available at the point of care (e.g., tablet computers, mobile phones). Building MET3 required sophisticated and reliable software technologies. In the past decade the open source software movement has produced mature, stable, industrial strength software systems with a large user base. Therefore, one of the decisions that should be considered before developing or acquiring a decision support system is whether or not one could use open source technologies instead of proprietary ones. We believe MET3 shows that the answer to this question is positive.

  9. The utility of clinical decision tools for diagnosing osteoporosis in postmenopausal women with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Brand, Caroline; Lowe, Adrian; Hall, Stephen

    2008-01-29

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis have a higher risk of low bone mineral density than normal age matched populations. There is limited evidence to support cost effectiveness of population screening in rheumatoid arthritis and case finding strategies have been proposed as a means to increase cost effectiveness of diagnostic screening for osteoporosis. This study aimed to assess the performance attributes of generic and rheumatoid arthritis specific clinical decision tools for diagnosing osteoporosis in a postmenopausal population with rheumatoid arthritis who attend ambulatory specialist rheumatology clinics. A cross-sectional study of 127 ambulatory post-menopausal women with rheumatoid arthritis was performed. Patients currently receiving or who had previously received bone active therapy were excluded. Eligible women underwent clinical assessment and dual-energy-xray absorptiometry (DXA) bone mineral density assessment. Clinical decision tools, including those specific for rheumatoid arthritis, were compared to seven generic post-menopausal tools to predict osteoporosis (defined as T score < -2.5). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive and negative predictive values and area under the curve were assessed. The diagnostic attributes of the clinical decision tools were compared by examination of the area under the receiver-operator-curve. One hundred and twenty seven women participated. The median age was 62 (IQR 56-71) years. Median disease duration was 108 (60-168) months. Seventy two (57%) women had no record of a previous DXA examination. Eighty (63%) women had T scores at femoral neck or lumbar spine less than -1. The area under the ROC curve for clinical decision tool prediction of T score <-2.5 varied between 0.63 and 0.76. The rheumatoid arthritis specific decision tools did not perform better than generic tools, however, the National Osteoporosis Foundation score could potentially reduce the number of unnecessary DXA tests by approximately 45% in

  10. Clinical decision making in seizures and status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Teran, Felipe; Harper-Kirksey, Katrina; Jagoda, Andy

    2015-01-01

    Seizures and status epilepticus are frequent neurologic emergencies in the emergency department, accounting for 1% of all emergency department visits. The management of this time-sensitive and potentially life-threatening condition is challenging for both prehospital providers and emergency clinicians. The approach to seizing patients begins with differentiating seizure activity from mimics and follows with identifying potential secondary etiologies, such as alcohol-related seizures. The approach to the patient in status epilepticus and the patient with nonconvulsive status epilepticus constitutes a special clinical challenge. This review summarizes the best available evidence and recommendations regarding diagnosis and resuscitation of the seizing patient in the emergency setting.

  11. Implementing liquid biopsies into clinical decision making for cancer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Quandt, Dagmar; Zucht, Hans Dieter; Amann, Arno; Wulf-Goldenberg, Anne; Borrebaeck, Carl; Cannarile, Michael; Lambrechts, Diether; Oberacher, Herbert; Garrett, James; Nayak, Tapan; Kazinski, Michael; Massie, Charles; Schwarzenbach, Heidi; Maio, Michele; Prins, Robert; Wendik, Björn; Hockett, Richard; Enderle, Daniel; Noerholm, Mikkel; Hendriks, Hans; Zwierzina, Heinz; Seliger, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    During the last decade, novel immunotherapeutic strategies, in particular antibodies directed against immune checkpoint inhibitors, have revolutionized the treatment of different malignancies leading to an improved survival of patients. Identification of immune-related biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis, monitoring of immune responses and selection of patients for specific cancer immunotherapies is urgently required and therefore areas of intensive research. Easily accessible samples in particular liquid biopsies (body fluids), such as blood, saliva or urine, are preferred for serial tumor biopsies. Although monitoring of immune and tumor responses prior, during and post immunotherapy has led to significant advances of patients’ outcome, valid and stable prognostic biomarkers are still missing. This might be due to the limited capacity of the technologies employed, reproducibility of results as well as assay stability and validation of results. Therefore solid approaches to assess immune regulation and modulation as well as to follow up the nature of the tumor in liquid biopsies are urgently required to discover valuable and relevant biomarkers including sample preparation, timing of the collection and the type of liquid samples. This article summarizes our knowledge of the well-known liquid material in a new context as liquid biopsy and focuses on collection and assay requirements for the analysis and the technical developments that allow the implementation of different high-throughput assays to detect alterations at the genetic and immunologic level, which could be used for monitoring treatment efficiency, acquired therapy resistance mechanisms and the prognostic value of the liquid biopsies. PMID:28501851