Science.gov

Sample records for advanced clinical development

  1. Polymeric nanotherapeutics: clinical development and advances in stealth functionalization strategies.

    PubMed

    Hu, Che-Ming J; Fang, Ronnie H; Luk, Brian T; Zhang, Liangfang

    2014-01-01

    Long-circulating polymeric nanotherapeutics have garnered increasing interest in research and in the clinic owing to their ability to improve the solubility and pharmacokinetics of therapeutic cargoes. Modulation of carrier properties promises more effective drug localization at the disease sites and can lead to enhanced drug safety and efficacy. In the present review, we highlight the current development of polymeric nanotherapeutics in the clinic. In light of the importance of stealth properties in therapeutic nanoparticles, we also review the advances in stealth functionalization strategies and examine the performance of different stealth polymers in the literature. In addition, we discuss the recent development of biologically inspired "self" nanoparticles, which present a differing stealth concept from conventional approaches.

  2. Polymeric nanotherapeutics: clinical development and advances in stealth functionalization strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Che-Ming J.; Fang, Ronnie H.; Luk, Brian T.; Zhang, Liangfang

    2013-12-01

    Long-circulating polymeric nanotherapeutics have garnered increasing interest in research and in the clinic owing to their ability to improve the solubility and pharmacokinetics of therapeutic cargoes. Modulation of carrier properties promises more effective drug localization at the disease sites and can lead to enhanced drug safety and efficacy. In the present review, we highlight the current development of polymeric nanotherapeutics in the clinic. In light of the importance of stealth properties in therapeutic nanoparticles, we also review the advances in stealth functionalization strategies and examine the performance of different stealth polymers in the literature. In addition, we discuss the recent development of biologically inspired ``self'' nanoparticles, which present a differing stealth concept from conventional approaches.

  3. Recent developments in choledochoscopy: technical and clinical advances

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ming-Ming; Kahaleh, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Peroral cholangioscopy has become an important tool in the diagnosis and treatment of a variety of biliary diseases, ranging from indeterminate biliary strictures to bile duct stones. Although the first cholangioscopy was performed in the 1970s, recent technological advances have provided us with cholangioscopes that yield high-resolution images, possess single-operator capability, and have ultrathin design to allow easier maneuverability and detailed imaging of the biliary tract. We review here the currently available devices for peroral cholangioscopy, their clinical applications, limitations, and complications. PMID:27274300

  4. Professional excellence and career advancement in nursing: a conceptual framework for clinical leadership development.

    PubMed

    Adeniran, Rita Kudirat; Bhattacharya, Anand; Adeniran, Anthony A

    2012-01-01

    Increasingly, stakeholders in the health care community are recognizing nursing as key to solving the nation's health care issues. This acknowledgment provides a unique opportunity for nursing to demonstrate leadership by developing clinical nurse leaders to collaborate with the multidisciplinary care team in driving evidence-based, safe quality, cost-effective health care services. One approach for nursing success is standardizing the entry-level education for nurses and developing a uniform professional development and career advancement trajectory with appropriate incentives to encourage participation. A framework to guide and provide scientific evidence of how frontline nurses can be engaged will be paramount. The model for professional excellence and career advancement provides a framework that offers a clear path for researchers to examine variables influencing nurses' professional development and career advancement in a systematic manner. Professional Excellence and Career Advancement in Nursing underscores professional preparedness of a registered nurse as central to leadership development. It also describes the elements that influence nurses' participation in professional development and career advancement under 4 main categories emphasizing mentorship and self-efficacy as essential variables.

  5. Developing clinical competency: Experiences and perceptions of Advanced Midwifery Practitioners in training.

    PubMed

    Gaskell, Lynne; Beaton, Susan

    2015-07-01

    This paper will describe the experiences and perception of a cohort of trainee Advanced Midwifery Practitioners (AMP's) during their training on an MSc in Advanced Practice. The educational philosophy underpinning the master's programme is interprofessional learning linked closely to work based learning and assessment. The focus group explored how the AMP's were developing core competencies within four domains: The links between the university and clinical assessments were instrumental in developing both midwifery and specialised skills required for extending their scope of practice. The changing demographics of their client group facilitated the need to provide safe assessment and management of ladies with complex health and social needs in pregnancy and childbirth; provide specialised clinics and the development of a robust staff training and assessment process. The generic competencies they gained improved collaborative working with their medical colleagues, raising the trainees profile and acceptance of their extended role. In addition to this, development of specialised midwifery skills promoted a high degree of decision making responsibilities within midwifery to facilitate service development and promote evidence based care.

  6. Developing more open and equitable relationships with industry to improve advancements in clinical research in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Campa, M; Ryan, C; Menter, A

    2016-06-01

    Relationships between physicians, scientists, and the pharmaceutical industry can be complicated by conflicts of interest. Honest and equitable relationships, however, are essential to the advancement of dermatologic clinical research. Several factors can increase transparency in clinical trials including preregistration of clinical trials, reporting of all data produced from clinical trials, non-industry ownership of clinical trial data, clarity of statistical methods and publication of both positive and negative results. Through collaborative, scientifically rigorous studies, physicians and industry can achieve significant advances in dermatologic care. PMID:27317287

  7. Advancing clinical development pathways for new CFTR modulators in cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Mayer-Hamblett, Nicole; Boyle, Michael; VanDevanter, Donald

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-shortening genetic disease affecting approximately 70 000 individuals worldwide. Until recently, drug development efforts have emphasised therapies treating downstream signs and symptoms resulting from the underlying CF biological defect: reduced function of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein. The current CF drug development landscape has expanded to include therapies that enhance CFTR function by either restoring wild-type CFTR protein expression or increasing (modulating) the function of mutant CFTR proteins in cells. To date, two systemic small-molecule CFTR modulators have been evaluated in pivotal clinical trials in individuals with CF and specific mutant CFTR genotypes that have led to regulatory review and/or approval. Advances in the discovery of CFTR modulators as a promising new class of therapies have been impressive, yet work remains to develop highly effective, disease-modifying modulators for individuals of all CF genotypes. The objectives of this review are to outline the challenges and opportunities in drug development created by systemic genotype-specific CFTR modulators, highlight the advantages of sweat chloride as an established biomarker of CFTR activity to streamline early-phase development and summarise options for later phase clinical trial designs that respond to the adoption of approved genotype-specific modulators into standard of care. An optimal development framework will be needed to move the most promising therapies efficiently through the drug development pipeline and ultimately deliver efficacious and safe therapies to all individuals with CF. PMID:26903594

  8. Advancing clinical development pathways for new CFTR modulators in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Mayer-Hamblett, Nicole; Boyle, Michael; VanDevanter, Donald

    2016-05-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-shortening genetic disease affecting approximately 70,000 individuals worldwide. Until recently, drug development efforts have emphasised therapies treating downstream signs and symptoms resulting from the underlying CF biological defect: reduced function of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein. The current CF drug development landscape has expanded to include therapies that enhance CFTR function by either restoring wild-type CFTR protein expression or increasing (modulating) the function of mutant CFTR proteins in cells. To date, two systemic small-molecule CFTR modulators have been evaluated in pivotal clinical trials in individuals with CF and specific mutant CFTR genotypes that have led to regulatory review and/or approval. Advances in the discovery of CFTR modulators as a promising new class of therapies have been impressive, yet work remains to develop highly effective, disease-modifying modulators for individuals of all CF genotypes. The objectives of this review are to outline the challenges and opportunities in drug development created by systemic genotype-specific CFTR modulators, highlight the advantages of sweat chloride as an established biomarker of CFTR activity to streamline early-phase development and summarise options for later phase clinical trial designs that respond to the adoption of approved genotype-specific modulators into standard of care. An optimal development framework will be needed to move the most promising therapies efficiently through the drug development pipeline and ultimately deliver efficacious and safe therapies to all individuals with CF. PMID:26903594

  9. Advancing clinical development pathways for new CFTR modulators in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Mayer-Hamblett, Nicole; Boyle, Michael; VanDevanter, Donald

    2016-05-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-shortening genetic disease affecting approximately 70,000 individuals worldwide. Until recently, drug development efforts have emphasised therapies treating downstream signs and symptoms resulting from the underlying CF biological defect: reduced function of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein. The current CF drug development landscape has expanded to include therapies that enhance CFTR function by either restoring wild-type CFTR protein expression or increasing (modulating) the function of mutant CFTR proteins in cells. To date, two systemic small-molecule CFTR modulators have been evaluated in pivotal clinical trials in individuals with CF and specific mutant CFTR genotypes that have led to regulatory review and/or approval. Advances in the discovery of CFTR modulators as a promising new class of therapies have been impressive, yet work remains to develop highly effective, disease-modifying modulators for individuals of all CF genotypes. The objectives of this review are to outline the challenges and opportunities in drug development created by systemic genotype-specific CFTR modulators, highlight the advantages of sweat chloride as an established biomarker of CFTR activity to streamline early-phase development and summarise options for later phase clinical trial designs that respond to the adoption of approved genotype-specific modulators into standard of care. An optimal development framework will be needed to move the most promising therapies efficiently through the drug development pipeline and ultimately deliver efficacious and safe therapies to all individuals with CF.

  10. A framework for advanced clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Sukvinder; Radford, Mark; Arblaster, Gillian

    The NHS needs a skilled, knowledgeable workforce of advanced clinical practitioners, who require multidisciplinary approach to their postgraduate development. To meet these demands we set up a regional programme to help clinical practitioners move into these new and demanding roles. As a result, health professionals who want to progress their career and advance their practice have an opportunity in the West Midlands to qualify as advanced clinical practitioners. PMID:27328598

  11. Developing a clinical trial unit to advance research in an academic institution.

    PubMed

    Croghan, Ivana T; Viker, Steven D; Limper, Andrew H; Evans, Tamara K; Cornell, Alissa R; Ebbert, Jon O; Gertz, Morie A

    2015-11-01

    Research, clinical care, and education are the three cornerstones of academic health centers in the United States. The research climate has always been riddled with ebbs and flows, depending on funding availability. During a time of reduced funding, the number and scope of research studies have been reduced, and in some instances, a field of study has been eliminated. Recent reductions in the research funding landscape have led institutions to explore new ways to continue supporting research. Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN has developed a clinical trial unit within the Department of Medicine, which provides shared resources for many researchers and serves as a solution for training and mentoring new investigators and study teams. By building on existing infrastructure and providing supplemental resources to existing research, the Department of Medicine clinical trial unit has evolved into an effective mechanism for conducting research. This article discusses the creation of a central unit to provide research support in clinical trials and presents the advantages, disadvantages, and required building blocks for such a unit.

  12. Advances in the clinical development of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitors in cancers

    PubMed Central

    Jhaveri, Komal; Taldone, Tony; Modi, Shanu; Chiosis, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    Hsp90 is an ATP dependent molecular chaperone protein which integrates multiple oncogenic pathways. As such, Hsp90 inhibition is a promising anti-cancer strategy. Several inhibitors that act on Hsp90 by binding to its N-terminal ATP pocket have entered clinical evaluation. Robust pre-clinical data suggested anti-tumor activity in multiple cancer types. Clinically, encouraging results have been demonstrated in melanoma, acute myeloid leukemia, castrate refractory prostate cancer, non-small cell lung carcinoma and multiple myeloma. In breast cancer, proof-of-concept was demonstrated by first generation Hsp90 inhibitors in combination with trastuzumab mainly in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) + metastatic breast cancer. There are a multitude of second generation Hsp90 inhibitors currently under investigation. To date, however, there is no FDA approved Hsp90 inhibitor nor standardized assay to ascertain Hsp90 inhibition. This review summarizes the current status of both first and second generation Hsp90 inhibitors based on their chemical classification and stage of clinical development. It also discusses the pharmacodynamic assays currently implemented in clinic as well as other novel strategies aimed at enhancing the effectiveness of Hsp90 inhibitors. Ultimately, these efforts will aid in maximizing the full potential of this class of agents. PMID:22062686

  13. Developing a clinical trial unit to advance research in an academic institution.

    PubMed

    Croghan, Ivana T; Viker, Steven D; Limper, Andrew H; Evans, Tamara K; Cornell, Alissa R; Ebbert, Jon O; Gertz, Morie A

    2015-11-01

    Research, clinical care, and education are the three cornerstones of academic health centers in the United States. The research climate has always been riddled with ebbs and flows, depending on funding availability. During a time of reduced funding, the number and scope of research studies have been reduced, and in some instances, a field of study has been eliminated. Recent reductions in the research funding landscape have led institutions to explore new ways to continue supporting research. Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN has developed a clinical trial unit within the Department of Medicine, which provides shared resources for many researchers and serves as a solution for training and mentoring new investigators and study teams. By building on existing infrastructure and providing supplemental resources to existing research, the Department of Medicine clinical trial unit has evolved into an effective mechanism for conducting research. This article discusses the creation of a central unit to provide research support in clinical trials and presents the advantages, disadvantages, and required building blocks for such a unit. PMID:26454064

  14. Developing treatment and control conditions in a clinical trial of massage therapy for advanced cancer.

    PubMed

    Smith, Marlaine; Kutner, Jean; Hemphill, Linnea; Yamashita, Traci; Felton, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the challenges faced by a research team in developing treatment and control conditions in a study of the efficacy of massage therapy for advanced cancer. Five design considerations were addressed related to developing a massage therapy protocol: (1) dosage, that is, the number, spacing and length of treatments; (2) type of massage therapy; (3) degree to which the protocol for the treatment is standardized; (4) qualifications of the persons providing the treatment; and (5) conditions under which the treatment is provided. Five criteria for structuring the control condition of the study are elaborated: (1) equivalency of contact; (2) similarity of form; (3) minimum adverse or negative effects; (4) expectancy of therapeutic benefit; and (5) minimum therapeutic benefit.

  15. Clinical development of nintedanib for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Masayuki; Okamoto, Isamu; Nakagawa, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenesis is an essential process in the development, growth, and metastasis of malignant tumors including lung cancer. Several angiogenesis inhibitors have been developed as potential therapies for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Nintedanib is a small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor that targets receptors for vascular endothelial growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, and fibroblast growth factor as well as RET (rearranged during transfection) and Flt3. When administered as monotherapy, nintedanib was well tolerated at doses up to 250 mg or 200 mg twice daily in European and Japanese patients, respectively, with liver toxicity featuring prominently among dose-limiting toxicities in both populations. A recent Phase III trial demonstrated that treatment with the combination of nintedanib and docetaxel resulted in a significant and clinically meaningful improvement in both progression-free survival and overall survival compared with docetaxel alone in predefined NSCLC patients with adenocarcinoma tumor histology. Although the incidence of elevated alanine aminotransferase or aspartate aminotransferase as well as of diarrhea was higher in patients treated with nintedanib plus docetaxel, most of these adverse events were manageable with supportive treatment or dose reduction. The results of completed and ongoing clinical trials of nintedanib monotherapy and combination therapy for the treatment of NSCLC are summarized in this study. PMID:26622180

  16. Advances in recent patent and clinical trial drug development for Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haibin; Wang, Lirong; Su, Weiwei; Xie, Xiang-Qun

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease, involving a large number of genes, proteins and their complex interactions. Currently, no effective therapeutic agents are available to either stop or reverse the progression of this disease, likely due to its polygenic nature. The complicated pathophysiology of AD remains unresolved. Although it has been hypothesized that the amyloid β cascade and the hyper-phosphorylated tau protein may be primarily involved, other mechanisms, such as oxidative stress, deficiency of central cholinergic neurotransmitter, mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation have also been implicated. The main focus of this review is to document current therapeutic agents in clinical trials and patented candidate compounds under development based on their main mechanisms of action. It also discusses the relationship between the recent understanding of key targets and the development of potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of AD. PMID:25291315

  17. Developing advanced clinical skills in the management of breathlessness: evaluation of an educational intervention.

    PubMed

    Froggatt, Katherine; Walford, Carole

    2005-09-01

    The dissemination of knowledge regarding care interventions is often supported through educational initiatives. However, the efficacy of education to make a difference to practice is not always demonstrated. An educational course has been developed and piloted that aimed to educate nurses about skills for the management of breathlessness. The course was developed with, and utilised the expertise of, researchers, practitioners and educators experienced in the management of breathlessness. Twelve clinical nurse specialists, from Scotland and South East England, working in oncology and palliative care, participated in the first course. A longitudinal evaluation was undertaken to consider the impact of the course upon the participants' practice and the care of people who are breathless. Interviews were conducted at two time points and a self-rated familiarity and confidence tool was completed by the participants at three time points. The participants rated themselves as improving their familiarity and confidence with the different aspects of the intervention. Attendance on the course also impacted upon the care of people who were breathless, improving their ability to self-manage their condition. Recommendations for future educational developments of this type are provided. PMID:16112528

  18. Advances in the development of tau PET radiotracers and their clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Okamura, Nobuyuki; Harada, Ryuichi; Furukawa, Katsutoshi; Furumoto, Shozo; Tago, Tetsuro; Yanai, Kazuhiko; Arai, Hiroyuki; Kudo, Yukitsuka

    2016-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative dementias belong to the family of tauopathies. These diseases are characterized by the deposition of insoluble tau aggregates possessing an enriched β-sheet structure. In vivo imaging of the tau deposits by positron emission tomography (PET) will facilitate the early and accurate diagnosis of these diseases, tracking of disease progression, assessment of disease severity, and prediction of disease prognosis. Furthermore, this technology is expected to play a vital role in the monitoring of treatment outcomes and in the selection of patients for the therapeutic trials of anti-dementia drugs. Recently, several tau PET tracers have been successfully developed and demonstrated as having high binding affinity and selectivity to tau protein deposits. Recent clinical studies using these tracers have demonstrated significant tracer retention in sites susceptible to tau deposition in Alzheimer's disease, as well as correlations with the disease severity and cognitive impairment in cases with dementia. These tracers, thus, have the potential to effectively diagnose the tauopathies. Further longitudinal assessment will clarify the effect of the tau deposition on the neurodegenerative process and cognitive decline and the interaction of tau with amyloid-β in the human brain.

  19. Gene therapy for cardiovascular disease: advances in vector development, targeting, and delivery for clinical translation.

    PubMed

    Rincon, Melvin Y; VandenDriessche, Thierry; Chuah, Marinee K

    2015-10-01

    Gene therapy is a promising modality for the treatment of inherited and acquired cardiovascular diseases. The identification of the molecular pathways involved in the pathophysiology of heart failure and other associated cardiac diseases led to encouraging preclinical gene therapy studies in small and large animal models. However, the initial clinical results yielded only modest or no improvement in clinical endpoints. The presence of neutralizing antibodies and cellular immune responses directed against the viral vector and/or the gene-modified cells, the insufficient gene expression levels, and the limited gene transduction efficiencies accounted for the overall limited clinical improvements. Nevertheless, further improvements of the gene delivery technology and a better understanding of the underlying biology fostered renewed interest in gene therapy for heart failure. In particular, improved vectors based on emerging cardiotropic serotypes of the adeno-associated viral vector (AAV) are particularly well suited to coax expression of therapeutic genes in the heart. This led to new clinical trials based on the delivery of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase protein (SERCA2a). Though the first clinical results were encouraging, a recent Phase IIb trial did not confirm the beneficial clinical outcomes that were initially reported. New approaches based on S100A1 and adenylate cyclase 6 are also being considered for clinical applications. Emerging paradigms based on the use of miRNA regulation or CRISPR/Cas9-based genome engineering open new therapeutic perspectives for treating cardiovascular diseases by gene therapy. Nevertheless, the continuous improvement of cardiac gene delivery is needed to allow the use of safer and more effective vector doses, ultimately bringing gene therapy for heart failure one step closer to reality.

  20. Advances in clinical cardiology.

    PubMed

    McNeice, Andrew H; McAleavey, Neil M; Menown, Ian B A

    2014-08-01

    Multiple, potentially practice-changing cardiology trials have been presented or published over the past year. In this paper, we summarize and place in clinical context, new data regarding management of acute coronary syndrome and ST-elevation myocardial infarction (copeptin assessment, otamixaban, cangrelor, prasugrel, sodium nitrite, inclacumab, ranolazine, preventive coronary intervention of non-culprit lesions, immediate thrombolytic therapy versus transfer for primary intervention), new coronary intervention data (thrombectomy, radial access, pressure wire fractional flow reserve, antiplatelet therapy duration and gene-guidance, permanent and biodegradable polymers, coronary bifurcation and strategies), and coronary artery bypass data (off pump vs. on pump). Latest trials in trans-aortic valve implantation, heart failure (eplerenone, aliskiren, spironolactone, sildenafil, dopamine, nesiritide, omecamtiv mecarbil, the algisyl left ventricular augmentation device, and echo-guided cardiac resynchronization), atrial fibrillation (edoxaban, dabigatran, and ablation), cardiac arrest (hypothermia, LUCAS™ mechanical chest compression), and cardiovascular prevention (vitamins, renal denervation for resistant hypertension, renal artery stenting, saxagliptin, alogliptin, and gastric banding) are also discussed. PMID:25074280

  1. Clinical development of an advanced intranasal delivery system of azelastine hydrochloride and fluticasone propionate.

    PubMed

    Derendorf, H; Meltzer, E O; Hermann, R; Canonica, G W

    2014-01-01

    There is no shortage of pharmacologic treatments available for the management of allergic rhinitis (AR), but none regularly provide full relief from all symptoms. MP29-02 (Dymista®) is a novel intranasal formulation of azelastine hydrochloride (AZE) and fluticasone propionate (FP), benefiting from an enhanced formulation and improved device characteristics compared to marketed intranasal corticosteroid (INS) formulations. Results from large, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, head-to-head trials versus first-line therapies, confirmed MP29-02 as the evidence-based drug-of-choice for AR treatment. MP29-02 was twice as effective as AZE or FP for nasal and ocular symptom relief in moderate to severe seasonal AR patients, with superiority documented regardless of season, and in more severe patients. More MP29-02-treated patients experienced clinically relevant responses (i.e., halving of nasal symptom burden and complete/near-to-complete relief) days faster than those on INS or intranasal antihistamine monotherapy. MP29-02's efficacy was sustained long-term versus FP (up to 52 weeks) in chronic rhinitis patients (perennial AR or nonallergic rhinitis), with 7 out of 10 patients first becoming symptom-free following 1 month's treatment with MP29-02, and days faster than with the INS. These results confirm MP29-02's superiority over the historical gold-standard therapy for AR (i.e., INS), and position it now as first-line treatment for moderate to severe AR patients, the majority of whom are uncontrolled on existing medications. PMID:24524103

  2. Avionics advanced development strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyer, D.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed here is the problem of how to put together an integrated, phased, and affordable avionics advanced development program that links and applies to operational, evolving, and developing programs/vehicles, as well as those in the planning phases. Collecting technology needs from individual programs/vehicles and proposed technology items from individual developers usually results in a mismatch and something that is unaffordable. A strategy to address this problem is outlined with task definitions which will lead to avionics advanced development items that will fit within an overall framework, prioritized to support budgeting, and support the scope of NASA space transportations needs.

  3. Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, John

    2015-09-30

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratories, Siemens has completed the Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development Program to develop an advanced gas turbine for incorporation into future coal-based Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants. All the scheduled DOE Milestones were completed and significant technical progress was made in the development of new technologies and concepts. Advanced computer simulations and modeling, as well as subscale, full scale laboratory, rig and engine testing were utilized to evaluate and select concepts for further development. Program Requirements of: A 3 to 5 percentage point improvement in overall plant combined cycle efficiency when compared to the reference baseline plant; 20 to 30 percent reduction in overall plant capital cost when compared to the reference baseline plant; and NOx emissions of 2 PPM out of the stack. were all met. The program was completed on schedule and within the allotted budget

  4. Infant Development: Recent Advances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bremner, Gavin, Ed.; Slater, Alan, Ed.; Butterworth, George, Ed.

    Noting that the last 30 years have seen enormous increases in the understanding of infancy, this book examines the current state of knowledge regarding infant development. The book's contents stem from meetings of the British Infancy Research Group. Although the book was intended for advanced undergraduates, it would also be useful for advanced…

  5. Advanced servomanipulator development

    SciTech Connect

    Kuban, D.P.

    1985-01-01

    The Advanced Servomanipulator (ASM) System consists of three major components: the ASM slave, the dual arm master controller (DAMC) or master, and the control system. The ASM is remotely maintainable force-reflecting servomanipulator developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program. This new manipulator addresses requirements of advanced nuclear fuel reprocessing with emphasis on force reflection, remote maintainability, reliability, radiation tolerance, and corrosion resistance. The advanced servomanipulator is uniquely subdivided into remotely replaceable modules which will permit in situ manipulator repair by spare module replacement. Manipulator modularization and increased reliability are accomplished through a force transmission system that uses gears and torque tubes. Digital control algorithms and mechanical precision are used to offset the increased backlash, friction, and inertia resulting from the gear drives. This results in the first remotely maintainable force-reflecting servomanipulator in the world.

  6. Advanced CCD camera developments

    SciTech Connect

    Condor, A.

    1994-11-15

    Two charge coupled device (CCD) camera systems are introduced and discussed, describing briefly the hardware involved, and the data obtained in their various applications. The Advanced Development Group Defense Sciences Engineering Division has been actively designing, manufacturing, fielding state-of-the-art CCD camera systems for over a decade. These systems were originally developed for the nuclear test program to record data from underground nuclear tests. Today, new and interesting application for these systems have surfaced and development is continuing in the area of advanced CCD camera systems, with the new CCD camera that will allow experimenters to replace film for x-ray imaging at the JANUS, USP, and NOVA laser facilities.

  7. Advanced battery development

    SciTech Connect

    Diegle, R.B.; McWilliams, J.Y.

    1989-01-01

    In order to promote national security by ensuring that the United States has an adequate supply of safe, assured, affordable, and environmentally acceptable energy, the Storage Batteries Division at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Albuquerque, is responsible for engineering development of advanced rechargeable batteries for energy applications. This effort is conducted within the Exploratory Battery Technology Development and Testing (ETD) Lead center, whose activities are coordinated by staff within the Storage Batteries Division. The ETD Project, directed by SNL, is supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Energy Systems Research, Energy Storage and Distribution Division (DOE/OESD). SNL is also responsible for technical management of the Electric Vehicle Advanced Battery Systems (EV-ABS) Development Project, which is supported by the US Department Of Energy's Office of Transportation Systems (OTS). The ETD Project is operated in conjunction with the Technology Base Research (TBR) Project, which is under the direction of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Together these two projects seek to: establish the scientific feasibility of advanced electrochemical energy storage systems, and conduct the initial engineering development on systems suitable for mobile and stationary commercial applications. 6 figs.

  8. [Clinical trials with advanced therapy medicinal products].

    PubMed

    Schüssler-Lenz, M; Schneider, C K

    2010-01-01

    For advanced therapies, the same basic principles for assessment apply as for any other biotechnological medicinal product. Nevertheless, the extent of data for quality, safety, and efficacy can be highly specific. Until recently, advanced therapies were not uniformly regulated across Europe, e.g., tissue engineered products were regulated either as medicinal products or medical devices. Thus, for some products no data from clinical studies are available, e.g., for autologous chondrocyte products. The draft guideline on Good Clinical Practice for clinical trials with advanced therapies describes specific additional requirements, e.g., ensuring traceability. Most clinical studies with advanced therapies in Germany are still in early phase I or II trials with highly divergent types of products and clinical indications. The Committee for Advanced Therapies (CAT) at the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) has been established to meet the scientific and regulatory challenges with advanced therapies.

  9. Advances in clinical nutrition in GI surgery.

    PubMed

    Holst, Mette; Rasmussen, Henrik H; Irtun, Oivind

    2015-04-01

    This review addresses recent relevant advances to clinical nutrition regarding gastrointestinal disease surgery. Medline Ovid, EMBASE and Central were searched systematically in April 2014. Inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials, non-randomized controlled trials and observational studies evaluating nutritional support in gastrointestinal surgery published within 5 years. The review included 56 relevant studies. Themes were: nutrition screening and risk factors predict outcome; preoperative nutritional support; shortening fasting periods and including carbohydrate solutions; early nutrition after surgery; immune modulating nutrition; synbiotics, growth hormone, omega-3 and oral, enteral and parenteral nutrition in combination. Screening for nutritional risk is profound, with special focus on dietary intake in the past week. Age and severity of disease need to be included in the screening system. Patients at severe nutritional risk benefit from nutritional therapy before surgery. New standards are developing quickly and clinical guidelines on surgery should include updated knowledge within clinical nutrition.

  10. Towards advanced OCT clinical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillin, Mikhail; Panteleeva, Olga; Agrba, Pavel; Pasukhin, Mikhail; Sergeeva, Ekaterina; Plankina, Elena; Dudenkova, Varvara; Gubarkova, Ekaterina; Kiseleva, Elena; Gladkova, Natalia; Shakhova, Natalia; Vitkin, Alex

    2015-07-01

    In this paper we report on our recent achievement in application of conventional and cross-polarization OCT (CP OCT) modalities for in vivo clinical diagnostics in different medical areas including gynecology, dermatology, and stomatology. In gynecology, CP OCT was employed for diagnosing fallopian tubes and cervix; in dermatology OCT for monitoring of treatment of psoriasis, scleroderma and atopic dermatitis; and in stomatology for diagnosis of oral diseases. For all considered application, we propose and develop different image processing methods which enhance the diagnostic value of the technique. In particular, we use histogram analysis, Fourier analysis and neural networks, thus calculating different tissue characteristics as revealed by OCT's polarization evolution. These approaches enable improved OCT image quantification and increase its resultant diagnostic accuracy.

  11. Advanced centrifugal contactor development

    SciTech Connect

    DeMuth, S.F.; Jubin, R.T.; Ladd, L.D.

    1988-01-01

    As part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), compact centrifugal contactors were designed and prototypes were built for the Breeder Reprocessing Engineering Test (BRET) facility. These contactors were designed for a nominal throughput of 0.1 metric tons of heavy metal per day. While construction of BRET has been put on indefinite hold, development of the 5.5-cm-diam rotor centrifugal contactors has advanced due to their broad applicability in other areas of reprocessing. Development has been concentrated in three areas: (1) mass transfers, (2) hydraulics, and (3) fabrication. Mass transfer development has involved determining how the stage efficiency is affected by the rotor speed, phase ratio, and feed flow rate. Hydraulic efforts have focused on the cascade operation with individual stage failures. Fabrication development has resulted in reducing the number of rotor components from seven to four. This paper discusses the results of these development efforts. 20 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Soliciting Strategies for Developing Cell-Based Reference Materials to Advance Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Research and Clinical Translation

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, Sowmya; Keating, Armand; Deans, Robert; Hematti, Peiman; Prockop, Darwin; Stroncek, David F.; Stacey, Glyn; Weiss, Dan J.; Mason, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) field continues to rapidly progress with a number of clinical trials initiated and completed, with some reported successes in multiple clinical indications, and a growing number of companies established. The field, nevertheless, faces several challenges. Persistent issues include the definition of a MSC and comparability between MSC preparations. This is because of inherent cell heterogeneity, the absence of markers that are unique to MSCs, and the difficulty in precisely defining them by developmental origin. Differences in the properties of MSCs also depend on the site of tissue harvest, phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of the donor and the isolation, and storage and expansion methods used. These differences may be sufficient to ensure that attributes of the final MSC product could differ in potentially significant ways. Since there are currently no gold standards, we propose using a reference material to establish methods of comparability among MSC preparations. We suggest four possible “ruler scenarios” and a method for global distribution. We further suggest that critical to establishing a reference material is the need to define protocols for comparing cells. The main purpose of this article is to solicit input in establishing a consensus-based comparison. A comparative approach will be critical to all stages of translation to better clarify mechanisms of MSC actions, define an optimal cell manufacturing process, ensure best practice clinical investigations, extend the use of an MSC product for new indications, protect an MSC product from imitators, and develop uniform reimbursement policies. Importantly, a reference material may enable a consensus on a practical definition of MSCs. PMID:24422625

  13. Soliciting strategies for developing cell-based reference materials to advance mesenchymal stromal cell research and clinical translation.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, Sowmya; Keating, Armand; Deans, Robert; Hematti, Peiman; Prockop, Darwin; Stroncek, David F; Stacey, Glyn; Weiss, Dan J; Mason, Christopher; Rao, Mahendra S

    2014-06-01

    The mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) field continues to rapidly progress with a number of clinical trials initiated and completed, with some reported successes in multiple clinical indications, and a growing number of companies established. The field, nevertheless, faces several challenges. Persistent issues include the definition of a MSC and comparability between MSC preparations. This is because of inherent cell heterogeneity, the absence of markers that are unique to MSCs, and the difficulty in precisely defining them by developmental origin. Differences in the properties of MSCs also depend on the site of tissue harvest, phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of the donor and the isolation, and storage and expansion methods used. These differences may be sufficient to ensure that attributes of the final MSC product could differ in potentially significant ways. Since there are currently no gold standards, we propose using a reference material to establish methods of comparability among MSC preparations. We suggest four possible "ruler scenarios" and a method for global distribution. We further suggest that critical to establishing a reference material is the need to define protocols for comparing cells. The main purpose of this article is to solicit input in establishing a consensus-based comparison. A comparative approach will be critical to all stages of translation to better clarify mechanisms of MSC actions, define an optimal cell manufacturing process, ensure best practice clinical investigations, extend the use of an MSC product for new indications, protect an MSC product from imitators, and develop uniform reimbursement policies. Importantly, a reference material may enable a consensus on a practical definition of MSCs.

  14. Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development

    SciTech Connect

    Joesph Fadok

    2008-01-01

    advanced hydrogen turbine that meets the aggressive targets set forth for the advanced hydrogen turbine, including increased rotor inlet temperature (RIT), lower total cooling and leakage air (TCLA) flow, higher pressure ratio, and higher mass flow through the turbine compared to the baseline. Maintaining efficiency with high mass flow Syngas combustion is achieved using a large high AN2 blade 4, which has been identified as a significant advancement beyond the current state-of-the-art. Preliminary results showed feasibility of a rotor system capable of increased power output and operating conditions above the baseline. In addition, several concepts were developed for casing components to address higher operating conditions. Rare earth modified bond coat for the purpose of reducing oxidation and TBC spallation demonstrated an increase in TBC spallation life of almost 40%. The results from Phase 1 identified two TBC compositions which satisfy the thermal conductivity requirements and have demonstrated phase stability up to temperatures of 1850 C. The potential to join alloys using a bonding process has been demonstrated and initial HVOF spray deposition trials were promising. The qualitative ranking of alloys and coatings in environmental conditions was also performed using isothermal tests where significant variations in alloy degradation were observed as a function of gas composition. Initial basic system configuration schematics and working system descriptions have been produced to define key boundary data and support estimation of costs. Review of existing materials in use for hydrogen transportation show benefits or tradeoffs for materials that could be used in this type of applications. Hydrogen safety will become a larger risk than when using natural gas fuel as the work done to date in other areas has shown direct implications for this type of use. Studies were conducted which showed reduced CO{sub 2} and NOx emissions with increased plant efficiency. An approach to

  15. Placebo Effects: Biological, Clinical and Ethical Advances

    PubMed Central

    Kaptchuk, Ted J; Miller, Franklin; Benedetti, Fabrizio

    2010-01-01

    For many years, placebos have been conceptualised by their inert content and their use as controls in clinical trials and treatments in clinical practice. Recent research demonstrates that placebo effects are genuine psychobiological phenomenon attributable to the overall therapeutic context, and that placebo effects can be robust in both laboratory and clinical settings. Evidence has also emerged that placebo effects can exist in clinical practice, even if no placebo is given. Further promotion and integration of laboratory and clinical research will allow advances in the ethical harnessing of placebo mechanisms that are inherent in routine clinical care and the potential use of treatments to primarily promote placebo effects. PMID:20171404

  16. Advances in clinical analysis 2012.

    PubMed

    Couchman, Lewis; Mills, Graham A

    2013-01-01

    A report on the meeting organized by The Chromatographic Society and the Separation Science Group, Analytical Division of the Royal Society of Chemistry. Over 60 delegates and commercial exhibitors attended this event, held to celebrate the careers of Robert Flanagan and David Perrett, and acknowledge their extensive contributions in the field of clinical analysis. PMID:23330556

  17. Clinical development of Ebola vaccines.

    PubMed

    Sridhar, Saranya

    2015-09-01

    The ongoing outbreak of Ebola virus disease in West Africa highlighted the lack of a licensed drug or vaccine to combat the disease and has renewed the urgency to develop a pipeline of Ebola vaccines. A number of different vaccine platforms are being developed by assessing preclinical efficacy in animal models and expediting clinical development. Over 15 different vaccines are in preclinical development and 8 vaccines are now in different stages of clinical evaluation. These vaccines include DNA vaccines, virus-like particles and viral vectors such as live replicating vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV), human and chimpanzee adenovirus, and vaccinia virus. Recently, in preliminary results reported from the first phase III trial of an Ebola vaccine, the rVSV-vectored vaccine showed promising efficacy. This review charts this rapidly advancing area of research focusing on vaccines in clinical development and discusses the future opportunities and challenges faced in the licensure and deployment of Ebola vaccines.

  18. Clinical development of Ebola vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Sridhar, Saranya

    2015-01-01

    The ongoing outbreak of Ebola virus disease in West Africa highlighted the lack of a licensed drug or vaccine to combat the disease and has renewed the urgency to develop a pipeline of Ebola vaccines. A number of different vaccine platforms are being developed by assessing preclinical efficacy in animal models and expediting clinical development. Over 15 different vaccines are in preclinical development and 8 vaccines are now in different stages of clinical evaluation. These vaccines include DNA vaccines, virus-like particles and viral vectors such as live replicating vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV), human and chimpanzee adenovirus, and vaccinia virus. Recently, in preliminary results reported from the first phase III trial of an Ebola vaccine, the rVSV-vectored vaccine showed promising efficacy. This review charts this rapidly advancing area of research focusing on vaccines in clinical development and discusses the future opportunities and challenges faced in the licensure and deployment of Ebola vaccines. PMID:26668751

  19. Clinical Research Informatics: Recent Advances and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives To summarize significant developments in Clinical Research Informatics (CRI) over the past two years and discuss future directions. Methods Survey of advances, open problems and opportunities in this field based on exploration of current literature. Results Recent advances are structured according to three use cases of clinical research: Protocol feasibility, patient identification/recruitment and clinical trial execution. Discussion CRI is an evolving, dynamic field of research. Global collaboration, open metadata, content standards with semantics and computable eligibility criteria are key success factors for future developments in CRI. PMID:26293865

  20. Personalizing Drug Selection Using Advanced Clinical Decision Support

    PubMed Central

    Pestian, John; Spencer, Malik; Matykiewicz, Pawel; Zhang, Kejian; Vinks, Alexander A.; Glauser, Tracy

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the process of developing an advanced pharmacogenetics clinical decision support at one of the United States’ leading pediatric academic medical centers. This system, called CHRISTINE, combines clinical and genetic data to identify the optimal drug therapy when treating patients with epilepsy or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. In the discussion a description of clinical decision support systems is provided, along with an overview of neurocognitive computing and how it is applied in this setting. PMID:19898682

  1. Advanced subsystems development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livingston, F. R.

    1978-01-01

    The concept design for a small (less than 10 MWe) solar thermal electric generating plant was completed using projected 1985 technology. The systems requirements were defined and specified. The components, including an engineering prototype for one 15 kWe module of the generating plant, were conceptually designed. Significant features of the small solar thermal power plant were identified as the following: (1) 15 kWe Stirling-cycle engine/alternator with constant power output; (2) 10 meter point-focusing paraboloidal concentrator with cantilevered cellular glass reflecting panels; (3) primary heat pipe with 800 C output solar cavity receiver; (4) secondary heat pipe with molten salt thermal energy storage unit; (5) electric energy transport system; and (6) advanced battery energy storage capability.

  2. Advanced Adaptive Optics Technology Development

    SciTech Connect

    Olivier, S

    2001-09-18

    The NSF Center for Adaptive Optics (CfAO) is supporting research on advanced adaptive optics technologies. CfAO research activities include development and characterization of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) deformable mirror (DM) technology, as well as development and characterization of high-resolution adaptive optics systems using liquid crystal (LC) spatial light modulator (SLM) technology. This paper presents an overview of the CfAO advanced adaptive optics technology development activities including current status and future plans.

  3. Development of clinical sites.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Mary

    2015-02-01

    Clinical experiences are vital to all types of healthcare educational programs. Supervised clinical experiences provide the opportunity for the learner to apply didactic knowledge and theory to real world situations and hone skills necessary for entry into practice. Nurse anesthesia programs utilize a wide variety of clinical sites to expose student registered nurse anesthetists to experiences that will prepare them clinically, academically and professionally to enter practice as a Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist. This article describes the process of developing a clinical site. A thorough evaluation will determine the types of experiences meant to be offered at the site, the resources available to house and educate the students, and how to evaluate the effectiveness of the clinical site. Open communication between the clinical coordinator and the program director or designee is essential to ensure success of the clinical site. The Council on Accreditation of Nurse Anesthesia Educational Programs has resources available to guide those interested in becoming a clinical site, as well as for program administrators who seek to add new experiences to their programs. PMID:25842629

  4. Advanced Interconnect Development

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Z.G.; Maupin, G.; Simner, S.; Singh, P.; Stevenson, J.; Xia, G.

    2005-01-27

    The objectives of this project are to develop cost-effective, optimized materials for intermediate temperature SOFC interconnect and interconnect/electrode interface applications and identify and understand degradation processes in interconnects and at their interfaces with electrodes.

  5. Advanced Seal Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Under this cooperative agreement, the work conducted was in support of the Directors Discretionary Fund and the Smart Efficient Components (SEC) Program. The goal of this continuing program is to develop an innovative Acoustic-Based Seal that shows the potential of operating with zero-leakage and zero-wear by exploiting recent developments in acoustics. By oscillating specially shaped resonating cavities at frequencies equivalent to the resonant frequency of the fluid contained by the cavity, the research group has demonstrated that high- amplitude standing pressure waves can be produced. While others are applying this technology to compressors, NASA proposes to develop a revolutionary new class of seals that will impact the turbine engine and power generation industries. The intent of this activity is to continue the formation of a strong relationship between the research initiatives at the Ohio Aerospace Institute (OAI) and the NASA Glenn Research Center (NASA GRC).

  6. Advanced telemedicine development

    SciTech Connect

    Forslund, D.W.; George, J.E.; Gavrilov, E.M.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project was to develop a Java-based, electronic, medical-record system that can handle multimedia data and work over a wide-area network based on open standards, and that can utilize an existing database back end. The physician is to be totally unaware that there is a database behind the scenes and is only aware that he/she can access and manage the relevant information to treat the patient.

  7. Advanced development: Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramohalli, K.

    1981-01-01

    The solar thermal fuels and chemicals program at Jet Propulsion Laboratory are described. High technology is developed and applied to displace fossil fuel (oil) use in the production/processing of valuable fuels and chemicals. The technical and economic feasibility is demonstrated to extent that enables the industry to participate and commercialize the product. A representative process, namely Furfural production with a bottoming of acetone, butanol and ethanol, is described. Experimental data from all solar production of furfural is discussed. Estimates are given to show the attractiveness of this process, considering its flexibility to be adaptable to dishes, troughs or central receivers. Peat, lignite and low rank coal processing, heavy oil stripping and innovative technologies for process diagnostics and control are mentioned as examples of current projects under intensive development.

  8. ADVANCED SORBENT DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1998-06-16

    The overall objective of this program was to develop regenerable sorbents for use in the temperature range of 343 to 538 C (650 to 1000 F) to remove hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal-derived fuel gases in a fluidized-bed reactor. The goal was to develop sorbents that are capable of reducing the H{sub 2}S level in the fuel gas to less than 20 ppmv in the specified temperature range and pressures in the range of 1 to 20 atmospheres, with chemical characteristics that permit cyclic regeneration over many cycles without a drastic loss of activity, as well as physical characteristics that are compatible with the fluidized bed application.

  9. Advanced Dewatering Systems Development

    SciTech Connect

    R.H. Yoon; G.H. Luttrell

    2008-07-31

    A new fine coal dewatering technology has been developed and tested in the present work. The work was funded by the Solid Fuels and Feedstocks Grand Challenge PRDA. The objective of this program was to 'develop innovative technical approaches to ensure a continued supply of environmentally sound solid fuels for existing and future combustion systems with minimal incremental fuel cost.' Specifically, this solicitation is aimed at developing technologies that can (i) improve the efficiency or economics of the recovery of carbon when beneficiating fine coal from both current production and existing coal slurry impoundments and (ii) assist in the greater utilization of coal fines by improving the handling characteristics of fine coal via dewatering and/or reconstitution. The results of the test work conducted during Phase I of the current project demonstrated that the new dewatering technologies can substantially reduce the moisture from fine coal, while the test work conducted during Phase II successfully demonstrated the commercial viability of this technology. It is believed that availability of such efficient and affordable dewatering technology is essential to meeting the DOE's objectives.

  10. Accelerating development of advanced inverters :

    SciTech Connect

    Neely, Jason C.; Gonzalez, Sigifredo; Ropp, Michael; Schutz, Dustin

    2013-11-01

    The high penetration of utility interconnected photovoltaic (PV) systems is causing heightened concern over the effect that variable renewable generation will have on the electrical power system (EPS). These concerns have initiated the need to amend the utility interconnection standard to allow advanced inverter control functionalities that provide: (1) reactive power control for voltage support, (2) real power control for frequency support and (3) better tolerance of grid disturbances. These capabilities are aimed at minimizing the negative impact distributed PV systems may have on EPS voltage and frequency. Unfortunately, these advanced control functions may interfere with island detection schemes, and further development of advanced inverter functions requires a study of the effect of advanced functions on the efficacy of antiislanding schemes employed in industry. This report summarizes the analytical, simulation and experimental work to study interactions between advanced inverter functions and anti-islanding schemes being employed in distributed PV systems.

  11. Advanced Radiation Detector Development

    SciTech Connect

    The University of Michigan

    1998-07-01

    Since our last progress report, the project at The University of Michigan has continued to concentrate on the development of gamma ray spectrometers fabricated from cadmium zinc telluride (CZT). This material is capable of providing energy resolution that is superior to that of scintillation detectors, while avoiding the necessity for cooling associated with germanium systems. In our past reports, we have described one approach (the coplanar grid electrode) that we have used to partially overcome some of the major limitations on charge collection that is found in samples of CZT. This approach largely eliminates the effect of hole motion in the formation of the output signal, and therefore leads to pulses that depend only on the motion of a single carrier (electrons). Since electrons move much more readily through CZT than do holes, much better energy resolution can be achieved under these conditions. In our past reports, we have described a 1 cm cube CZT spectrometer fitted with coplanar grids that achieved an energy resolution of 1.8% from the entire volume of the crystal. This still represents, to our knowledge, the best energy resolution ever demonstrated in a CZT detector of this size.

  12. Advanced accelerator theory development

    SciTech Connect

    Sampayan, S.E.; Houck, T.L.; Poole, B.; Tishchenko, N.; Vitello, P.A.; Wang, I.

    1998-02-09

    A new accelerator technology, the dielectric wall accelerator (DWA), is potentially an ultra compact accelerator/pulsed power driver. This new accelerator relies on three new components: the ultra-high gradient insulator, the asymmetric Blumlein and low jitter switches. In this report, we focused our attention on the first two components of the DWA system the insulators and the asymmetric Blumlein. First, we sought to develop the necessary design tools to model and scale the behavior of the high gradient insulator. To perform this task we concentrated on modeling the discharge processes (i.e., initiation and creation of the surface discharge). In addition, because these high gradient structures exhibit favorable microwave properties in certain accelerator configurations, we performed experiments and calculations to determine the relevant electromagnetic properties. Second, we performed circuit modeling to understand energy coupling to dynamic loads by the asymmetric Blumlein. Further, we have experimentally observed a non-linear coupling effect in certain asymmetric Blumlein configurations. That is, as these structures are stacked into a complete module, the output voltage does not sum linearly and a lower than expected output voltage results. Although we solved this effect experimentally, we performed calculations to understand this effect more fully to allow better optimization of this DWA pulse-forming line system.

  13. Clinical vaccine development

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination is regarded as one of the biggest triumphs in the history of medicine. We are living in the most successful period of vaccine development. The accumulation of multidisciplinary knowledge and the investment of massive funding have enabled the development of vaccines against many infectious diseases as well as other diseases including malignant tumors. The paradigm of clinical vaccine evaluation and licensure has also been modernized based on scientific improvements and historical experience. However, there remain a number of hurdles to overcome. Continuous efforts are focused on increasing the efficacy and reducing the risks related to vaccine use. Cutting-edge knowledge about immunology and microbiology is being rapidly translated to vaccine development. Thus, physicians and others involved in the clinical development of vaccines should have sufficient understanding of the recent developmental trends in vaccination and the diseases of interest. PMID:25648742

  14. Advanced cryogenic tank development status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, G. F.; Tack, W. T.; Scholz, E. F.

    1993-06-01

    Significant advances have been made in the development of materials, structures, and manufacturing technologies for the next generation of cryogenic propellant tanks under the auspices of a joint U.S. Air Force/NASA sponsored advanced development program. This paper summarizes the achievements of this three-year program, particularly in the evolution and properties of Weldalite 049, net shape component technology, Al-Li welding technology, and efficient manufacturing concepts. Results of a recent mechanical property characterization of a full-scale integrally stiffened barrel panel extrusion are presented, as well as plans for an additional weld process optimization program using response surface design of experiment techniques. A further discussion is given to the status of hardware completed for the Advanced Manufacturing Development Center and Martin Marietta's commitment to the integration of these technologies into the production of low-cost, light-weight cryogenic propellant tanks.

  15. Advancing your career in clinical engineering or biomedical technology.

    PubMed

    Brush, L C

    1991-01-01

    Career advancement options available to the aspiring biomedical technician, clinical engineer or supervisor are described. "Paths" to professional development include: obtaining additional education, getting certified, joining professional associations, finding a mentor, on-the-job training and improving working style. Suggestions are offered on how to start this process in one's own career. PMID:10115432

  16. Clinical Application and Research Advances of CT Myocardial Perfusion Imaging.

    PubMed

    2016-06-10

    Computed tomography (CT)-based myocardial perfusion imaging (CTP)has been widely recognized as a one-station solution for the imaging of myocardial ischemia-related diseases. This article reviews the clinical scanning protocols,analytical methods,and research advances of CTP in recent years and briefly discusses its limitations and future development. PMID:27469926

  17. Advanced hot gas filter development

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, T.J.

    1998-12-31

    Advanced coal-based power generation systems require hot gas cleanup under high-temperature, high-pressure process conditions in order to realize high efficiency and superior environmental performance. A key component of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion systems is the hot gas filtration system, which removes particulate matter from the gas stream before it enters the gas turbine. The US DOE is currently sponsoring a program to develop and test hot gas filtration systems, demonstrating their reliability and commercial readiness. Reliability of individual filter elements is a major factor in determining the overall system reliability, and testing has shown that conventional ceramic filter elements are subject to brittle failure and thermal stress damage. In order to increase filter element reliability, a program was initiated to develop ceramic and metal filter elements resistant to brittle failure and thermal stress damage. Filter elements have been developed using advanced materials including continuous fiber ceramic composites, other novel ceramics, and corrosion resistant metals. The general approach taken under this program has been to first develop porous filter media from advanced materials that meet permeability and strength requirements, followed by fabrication of porous media into full scale filter elements. Filter elements and filter media were subjected to laboratory scale corrosion and filtration testing. Filter elements successfully passing laboratory testing have been tested under pilot scale conditions. This paper will summarize the development and testing of these advanced hot gas filters.

  18. Advanced clinical KCD scanner for digital radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiBianca, Frank A.; Davis, Keana M.; Jordan, Lawrence M.; Laughter, Joseph S.; Krishnamurthy, Anand; Hu, Bo

    1998-07-01

    One of the goals of medical imaging scientists and bioengineers remains the development of digital electronic technologies that can replace film-based methods of acquiring x-ray images. With the achievement of this goal, all diagnostic imaging technologies would be based on digital techniques with all the attending benefits. Based on the performance of numerous research prototype small-field and one large-field Kinestatic Charge Detector (KCD) system for digital radiography, a large-field clinical KCD scanner is currently being designed and built for technical evaluation and for clinical evaluation of 200 volunteer patients (including clinical comparisons with film, storage phosphor, and other available clinical systems). The state of development of this clinical KCD system, including detector, data-acquisition system and scanning gantry design, is reviewed in this paper.

  19. Clinical implications of advances in liver regeneration.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yong Jin; Lee, Kyeong Geun; Choi, Dongho

    2015-03-01

    Remarkable advances have been made recently in the area of liver regeneration. Even though liver regeneration after liver resection has been widely researched, new clinical applications have provided a better understanding of the process. Hepatic damage induces a process of regeneration that rarely occurs in normal undamaged liver. Many studies have concentrated on the mechanism of hepatocyte regeneration following liver damage. High mortality is usual in patients with terminal liver failure. Patients die when the regenerative process is unable to balance loss due to liver damage. During disease progression, cellular adaptations take place and the organ microenvironment changes. Portal vein embolization and the associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy are relatively recent techniques exploiting the remarkable progress in understanding liver regeneration. Living donor liver transplantation is one of the most significant clinical outcomes of research on liver regeneration. Another major clinical field involving liver regeneration is cell therapy using adult stem cells. The aim of this article is to provide an outline of the clinical approaches being undertaken to examine regeneration in liver diseases.

  20. ADVANCED EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    G.A. Farthing

    2001-02-06

    The primary objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs, or air toxics) from coal-fired boilers. The project goal is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), fabric filters (baghouses), and wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) systems. Development work initially concentrated on the capture of trace metals, fine particulate, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen fluoride. Recent work has focused almost exclusively on the control of mercury emissions.

  1. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    G. A. Farthing; G. T. Amrhein; G. A. Kudlac; D. A. Yurchison; D. K. McDonald; M. G. Milobowski

    2001-03-31

    The primary objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs, or air toxics) from coal-fired boilers. This objective is being met by identifying ways to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), fabric filters (fabric filters), and wet flue gas desulfurization (wet FGD) systems. Development work initially concentrated on the capture of trace metals, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen fluoride. Recent work has focused almost exclusively on the control of mercury emissions.

  2. Advances in clinical research methodology for pain clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Farrar, John T

    2010-11-01

    Pain is a ubiquitous phenomenon, but the experience of pain varies considerably from person to person. Advances in understanding of the growing number of pathophysiologic mechanisms that underlie the generation of pain and the influence of the brain on the experience of pain led to the investigation of numerous compounds for treating pain. Improved knowledge of the subjective nature of pain, the variations in the measurement of pain, the mind-body placebo effect and the impact of differences in the conduct of a clinical trial on the outcome have changed approaches to design and implement studies. Careful consideration of how these concepts affect the choice of study population, the randomization and blinding process, the measurement and collection of data, and the analysis and interpretation of results should improve the quality of clinical trials for potential pain therapies.

  3. Development of advanced thermoelectric materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The development of an advanced thermoelectric material for radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) applications is reported. A number of materials were explored. The bulk of the effort, however, was devoted to improving silicon germanium alloys by the addition of gallium phosphide, the synthesis and evaluation of lanthanum chrome sulfide and the formulation of various mixtures of lanthanum sulfide and chrome sulfide. It is found that each of these materials exhibits promise as a thermoelectric material.

  4. Hypercalcemia of advanced chronic liver disease: a forgotten clinical entity!

    PubMed Central

    Kuchay, Mohammad Shafi; Mishra, Sunil Kumar; Farooqui, Khalid Jamal; Bansal, Beena; Wasir, Jasjeet Singh; Mithal, Ambrish

    2016-01-01

    Summary Hypercalcemia caused by advanced chronic liver disease (CLD) without hepatic neoplasia is uncommonly reported and poorly understood condition. We are reporting two cases of advanced CLD who developed hypercalcemia in the course of the disease. This diagnosis of exclusion was made only after meticulous ruling out of all causes of hypercalcemia. The unique feature of this type of hypercalcemia is its transient nature that may or may not require treatment. This clinical condition in patients with CLD should be kept in mind while evaluating the cause of hypercalcemia in them. PMID:27252737

  5. Energy Storage (II): Developing Advanced Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Arthur L

    1974-01-01

    Energy storage, considered by some scientists to be the best technological and economic advancement after advanced nuclear power, still rates only modest funding for research concerning the development of advanced technologies. (PEB)

  6. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    A.P.Evans; K.E. Redinger; M.J. Holmes

    1998-04-01

    The objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. Ideally, the project aim is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPS), fabric filters (baghouse), and wet flue gas desulfurization. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate and hydrogen chloride. Following the construction and evaluation of a representative air toxics test facility in Phase I, Phase II focused on the evaluation of mercury and several other air toxics emissions. The AECDP is jointly funded by the United States Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development (oCDO), and Babcock& Wilcox-a McDermott company (B&W).

  7. Application development environment for advanced digital workstations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentino, Daniel J.; Harreld, Michael R.; Liu, Brent J.; Brown, Matthew S.; Huang, Lu J.

    1998-06-01

    One remaining barrier to the clinical acceptance of electronic imaging and information systems is the difficulty in providing intuitive access to the information needed for a specific clinical task (such as reaching a diagnosis or tracking clinical progress). The purpose of this research was to create a development environment that enables the design and implementation of advanced digital imaging workstations. We used formal data and process modeling to identify the diagnostic and quantitative data that radiologists use and the tasks that they typically perform to make clinical decisions. We studied a diverse range of radiology applications, including diagnostic neuroradiology in an academic medical center, pediatric radiology in a children's hospital, screening mammography in a breast cancer center, and thoracic radiology consultation for an oncology clinic. We used object- oriented analysis to develop software toolkits that enable a programmer to rapidly implement applications that closely match clinical tasks. The toolkits support browsing patient information, integrating patient images and reports, manipulating images, and making quantitative measurements on images. Collectively, we refer to these toolkits as the UCLA Digital ViewBox toolkit (ViewBox/Tk). We used the ViewBox/Tk to rapidly prototype and develop a number of diverse medical imaging applications. Our task-based toolkit approach enabled rapid and iterative prototyping of workstations that matched clinical tasks. The toolkit functionality and performance provided a 'hands-on' feeling for manipulating images, and for accessing textual information and reports. The toolkits directly support a new concept for protocol based-reading of diagnostic studies. The design supports the implementation of network-based application services (e.g., prefetching, workflow management, and post-processing) that will facilitate the development of future clinical applications.

  8. A conversation about practice development and knowledge translation as mechanisms to align the academic and clinical contexts for the advancement of nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kenneth; Kitson, Alison; Cross, Wendy; Thoms, Debra; Thornton, Anna; Moss, Cheryle; Campbell, Steve; Graham, Iain

    2012-01-01

    Practice development (PD) and knowledge translation (KT) have emerged recently as methodologies which assist advancement in gathering and using evidence in practice. For nursing to benefit from these methodologies there is a need to advance the dialogue between academia and the service sector concerning the use and further development of these methodologies as well as how we create the most effective partnerships between academia and practice. To advance this dialogue and to gain insights into the similarities and differences between KT and PD and between the academic and the service sectors, four conversations from different leaders in these sectors have been gathered and are presented here. These four discrete narratives are presented to showcase the diversity of sector contexts in relation to PD and KT methodologies. Narrative One focuses on some of the theoretical and policy issues related to creating partnerships between traditional "knowledge creation systems" (universities) and "knowledge utilization systems" Narrative Two discusses how a large school of nursing responded to the challenge of creating partnerships for practice development in an attempt to bridge the academic/service divide and produce benefits to both organisations. Narratives Three and Four describe the view of practice development from the service side. The final section of the paper presents an agenda for discussion and action based on the emerging set of principles.

  9. Rewards and advancements for clinical pharmacy practitioners. American College of Clinical Pharmacy.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    It is important to recognize that pharmacy practice models are changing quickly. Although the concepts of pharmaceutical care depict all pharmacists as clinical practitioners, there are still significant opportunities for individuals to develop advanced and refined skills and knowledge, and to seek recognition. Criteria for professional advancement need to be reevaluated and modified periodically. As departments become more effective in implementing pharmaceutical care, and practice skills advance, criteria for advancement must be updated. Recognition and advancement within newer models of practice such as patient focus units, clinical path teams, and quality improvement teams complicate assessment and evaluation strategies. In the future, pharmacy managers will need to look at reward and advancement systems that incorporate the recommendations of the team manager or members for these newer models of practice. Perhaps there will be a shift in responsibility for recognition to the team manager. Career ladders may need to provide for new roles, and reward practitioners for behaviors not currently represented in most departmental performance evaluations. Performance evaluation, standards of practice, and advancement criteria will need to be carefully reviewed and integrated with the patient focus team's objectives, structure, and processes to assure that appropriate recognition is given to pharmacists in this exciting new environment. Career ladders provide one form of reward and advancement for practitioners. Institutions can include many elements of career ladder process, function, and structure, as well as implement many other management tools for reward and recognition, without implementing a complete career ladder.

  10. Confocal microscopy of skin cancers: Translational advances toward clinical utility

    PubMed Central

    Rajadhyaksha, Milind

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in translational research in and technology for confocal microscopy of skin cancers, toward clinical applications, are described. Advances in translational research are in diagnosis of melanoma in vivo, pre-operative mapping of lentigo maligna melanoma margins to guide surgery and intra-operative imaging of residual basal cell carcinomas to guide shave-biopsy. Advances in technology include mosaicing microscopy for detection of basal cell carcinomas in large areas of excised tissue, toward rapid pathology-at-the-bedside, and development of small, simple and low-cost line-scanning confocal microscopes for worldwide use in diverse primary healthcare settings. Current limitations and future opportunities and challenges for both clinicians and technologists are discussed. PMID:19964286

  11. Advanced Mirror & Modelling Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Effinger, Michael; Stahl, H. Philip; Abplanalp, Laura; Maffett, Steven; Egerman, Robert; Eng, Ron; Arnold, William; Mosier, Gary; Blaurock, Carl

    2014-01-01

    The 2020 Decadal technology survey is starting in 2018. Technology on the shelf at that time will help guide selection to future low risk and low cost missions. The Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) team has identified development priorities based on science goals and engineering requirements for Ultraviolet Optical near-Infrared (UVOIR) missions in order to contribute to the selection process. One key development identified was lightweight mirror fabrication and testing. A monolithic, stacked, deep core mirror was fused and replicated twice to achieve the desired radius of curvature. It was subsequently successfully polished and tested. A recently awarded second phase to the AMTD project will develop larger mirrors to demonstrate the lateral scaling of the deep core mirror technology. Another key development was rapid modeling for the mirror. One model focused on generating optical and structural model results in minutes instead of months. Many variables could be accounted for regarding the core, face plate and back structure details. A portion of a spacecraft model was also developed. The spacecraft model incorporated direct integration to transform optical path difference to Point Spread Function (PSF) and between PSF to modulation transfer function. The second phase to the project will take the results of the rapid mirror modeler and integrate them into the rapid spacecraft modeler.

  12. Recent advances in basic and clinical nanomedicine.

    PubMed

    Morrow, K John; Bawa, Raj; Wei, Chiming

    2007-09-01

    Nanomedicine is a global business enterprise. Industry and governments clearly are beginning to envision nanomedicine's enormous potential. A clear definition of nanotechnology is an issue that requires urgent attention. This problem exists because nanotechnology represents a cluster of technologies, each of which may have different characteristics and applications. Although numerous novel nanomedicine-related applications are under development or nearing commercialization, the process of converting basic research in nanomedicine into commercially viable products will be long and difficult. Although realization of the full potential of nanomedicine may be years or decades away, recent advances in nanotechnology-related drug delivery, diagnosis, and drug development are beginning to change the landscape of medicine. Site-specific targeted drug delivery and personalized medicine are just a few concepts that are on the horizon.

  13. ARPA advanced fuel cell development

    SciTech Connect

    Dubois, L.H.

    1995-08-01

    Fuel cell technology is currently being developed at the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) for several Department of Defense applications where its inherent advantages such as environmental compatibility, high efficiency, and low noise and vibration are overwhelmingly important. These applications range from man-portable power systems of only a few watts output (e.g., for microclimate cooling and as direct battery replacements) to multimegawatt fixed base systems. The ultimate goal of the ARPA program is to develop an efficient, low-temperature fuel cell power system that operates directly on a military logistics fuel (e.g., DF-2 or JP-8). The absence of a fuel reformer will reduce the size, weight, cost, and complexity of such a unit as well as increase its reliability. In order to reach this goal, ARPA is taking a two-fold, intermediate time-frame approach to: (1) develop a viable, low-temperature proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell that operates directly on a simple hydrocarbon fuel (e.g., methanol or trimethoxymethane) and (2) demonstrate a thermally integrated fuel processor/fuel cell power system operating on a military logistics fuel. This latter program involves solid oxide (SOFC), molten carbonate (MCFC), and phosphoric acid (PAFC) fuel cell technologies and concentrates on the development of efficient fuel processors, impurity scrubbers, and systems integration. A complementary program to develop high performance, light weight H{sub 2}/air PEM and SOFC fuel cell stacks is also underway. Several recent successes of these programs will be highlighted.

  14. Advances in flavivirus vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Coller, Beth-Ann G; Clements, David E; Martyak, Timothy; Yelmene, Michele; Thorne, Mike; Parks, D Elliot

    2010-12-01

    Flaviviruses comprise a diverse family of viruses that are cumulatively responsible for hundreds of millions of cases of infection annually. The Flavivirus genus includes both insect-vectored viruses, such as yellow fever and dengue, and non-vectored viruses such as HCV; the viruses have a broad range of disease presentation and geographic distribution. No specific antiviral therapies are currently available for the diseases caused by insect-vectored flaviviruses. Thus, efforts have been focused on the prevention of disease, through either vaccination or vector control, rather than on the treatment of infected individuals. While vector control can occasionally be successful in controlling the spread of flavivirus outbreaks, vaccines appear to be a more cost-effective, sustainable, and environmentally friendly approach. A review of vaccines for the medically important flaviviruses presents the full spectrum of vaccine options and complexity levels, and provides examples of successes and major challenges. The insect-borne flavivirus vaccine field is dynamic, with new and improved vaccines being advanced to replace existing vaccines, and novel vaccine approaches being developed for those targets that currently lack an approved vaccine. Advances in scientific knowledge and in the application of new technologies are helping to overcome some of the key challenges that have stymied the field for decades. New, safe and effective vaccines to protect against yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis, West Nile and dengue viruses will likely result. PMID:21154147

  15. Advanced Modular Inverter Technology Development

    SciTech Connect

    Adam Szczepanek

    2006-02-04

    Electric and hybrid-electric vehicle systems require an inverter to convert the direct current (DC) output of the energy generation/storage system (engine, fuel cells, or batteries) to the alternating current (AC) that vehicle propulsion motors use. Vehicle support systems, such as lights and air conditioning, also use the inverter AC output. Distributed energy systems require an inverter to provide the high quality AC output that energy system customers demand. Today's inverters are expensive due to the cost of the power electronics components, and system designers must also tailor the inverter for individual applications. Thus, the benefits of mass production are not available, resulting in high initial procurement costs as well as high inverter maintenance and repair costs. Electricore, Inc. (www.electricore.org) a public good 501 (c) (3) not-for-profit advanced technology development consortium assembled a highly qualified team consisting of AeroVironment Inc. (www.aerovironment.com) and Delphi Automotive Systems LLC (Delphi), (www.delphi.com), as equal tiered technical leads, to develop an advanced, modular construction, inverter packaging technology that will offer a 30% cost reduction over conventional designs adding to the development of energy conversion technologies for crosscutting applications in the building, industry, transportation, and utility sectors. The proposed inverter allows for a reduction of weight and size of power electronics in the above-mentioned sectors and is scalable over the range of 15 to 500kW. The main objective of this program was to optimize existing AeroVironment inverter technology to improve power density, reliability and producibility as well as develop new topology to reduce line filter size. The newly developed inverter design will be used in automotive and distribution generation applications. In the first part of this program the high-density power stages were redesigned, optimized and fabricated. One of the main tasks

  16. Gastroenterology in developing countries: Issues and advances

    PubMed Central

    Mandeville, Kate L; Krabshuis, Justus; Ladep, Nimzing Gwamzhi; Mulder, Chris JJ; Quigley, Eamonn MM; Khan, Shahid A

    2009-01-01

    Developing countries shoulder a considerable burden of gastroenterological disease. Infectious diseases in particular cause enormous morbidity and mortality. Diseases which afflict both western and developing countries are often seen in more florid forms in poorer countries. Innovative techniques continuously improve and update gastroenterological practice. However, advances in diagnosis and treatment which are commonplace in the West, have yet to reach many developing countries. Clinical guidelines, based on these advances and collated in resource-rich environments, lose their relevance outside these settings. In this two-part review, we first highlight the global burden of gastroenterological disease in three major areas: diarrhoeal diseases, hepatitis B, and Helicobacter pylori. Recent progress in their management is explored, with consideration of future solutions. The second part of the review focuses on the delivery of clinical services in developing countries. Inadequate numbers of healthcare workers hamper efforts to combat gastroenterological disease. Reasons for this shortage are examined, along with possibilities for increased specialist training. Endoscopy services, the mainstay of gastroenterology in the West, are in their infancy in many developing countries. The challenges faced by those setting up a service are illustrated by the example of a Nigerian endoscopy unit. Finally, we highlight the limited scope of many clinical guidelines produced in western countries. Guidelines which take account of resource limitations in the form of “cascades” are advocated in order to make these guidelines truly global. Recognition of the different working conditions facing practitioners worldwide is an important step towards narrowing the gap between gastroenterology in rich and poor countries. PMID:19533805

  17. Advances in kinase targeting: current clinical use and clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Rask-Andersen, Mathias; Zhang, Jin; Fabbro, Doriano; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2014-11-01

    Phosphotransferases, also known as kinases, are the most intensively studied protein drug target category in current pharmacological research, as evidenced by the vast number of kinase-targeting agents enrolled in active clinical trials. This development has emerged following the great success of small-molecule, orally available protein kinase inhibitors for the treatment of cancer, starting with the introduction of imatinib (Gleevec®) in 2003. The pharmacological utility of kinase-targeting has expanded to include treatment of inflammatory diseases, and rapid development is ongoing for kinase-targeted therapies in a broad array of indications in ophthalmology, analgesia, central nervous system (CNS) disorders, and the complications of diabetes, osteoporosis, and otology. In this review we highlight specifically the kinase drug targets and kinase-targeting agents being explored in current clinical trials. This analysis is based on a recent estimate of all established and clinical trial drug mechanisms of action, utilizing private and public databases to create an extensive dataset detailing aspects of more than 3000 approved and experimental drugs. PMID:25312588

  18. ADVANCED EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    M.J. Holmes

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop practical strategies and systems for the simultaneous control of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, particulate matter, and air toxics emissions from coal-fired boilers in such a way as to keep coal economically and environmentally competitive as a utility boiler fuel. Of particular interest is the control of air toxics emissions through the cost-effective use of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESP's), fabric filters (baghouses), and SO{sub 2} removal systems such as wet scrubbers and various clean coal technologies. This objective will be achieved through extensive development testing in the state-of-the art, 10 MW{sub e} equivalent, Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF). The project has extended the capabilities of the CEDF to facilitate air toxics emissions control development work on backend flue gas cleanup equipment. Specifically, an ESP, a baghouse, and a wet scrubber for SO{sub 2} (and air toxics) control were added--all designed to yield air toxics emissions data under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. A schematic of the CEDF and the project test equipment is shown in Figure 1. The specific objectives of the project are to: (1) Measure and understand production and partitioning of air toxics species in coal-fired power plant systems; (2) Optimize the air toxics removal performance of conventional flue gas cleanup systems; (3) Quantify the impacts of coal cleaning on air toxics emissions; (4) Identify and/or develop advanced air toxics emissions control concepts; (5) Develop and validate air toxics emissions measurement and monitoring techniques; (6) Establish an air toxics data library to facilitate studies of the impacts of coal selection, coal cleaning, and emissions control strategies on the emissions of coal-fired power plants.

  19. ADVANCED EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    M.J. Holmes

    1998-10-01

    The objective of this project is to develop practical strategies and systems for the simultaneous control of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, particulate matter, and air toxics emissions from coal-fired boilers in such a way as to keep coal economically and environmentally competitive as a utility boiler fuel. Of particular interest is the control of air toxics emissions through the cost-effective use of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESP's), fabric filters (baghouses), and SO{sub 2} removal systems such as wet scrubbers and various clean coal technologies. This objective will be achieved through extensive development testing in the state-of-the art, 10 MW{sub e} equivalent, Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF). The project has extended the capabilities of the CEDF to facilitate air toxics emissions control development work on backend flue gas cleanup equipment. Specifically, an ESP, a baghouse, and a wet scrubber for SO{sub 2} (and air toxics) control were added--all designed to yield air toxics emissions data under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. A schematic of the CEDF and the project test equipment is shown in Figure 1. The specific objectives of the project are to: (1) Measure and understand production and partitioning of air toxics species in coal-fired power plant systems; (2) Optimize the air toxics removal performance of conventional flue gas cleanup systems; (3) Quantify the impacts of coal cleaning on air toxics emissions; (4) Identify and/or develop advanced air toxics emissions control concepts; (5) Develop and validate air toxics emissions measurement and monitoring techniques; (6) Establish an air toxics data library to facilitate studies of the impacts of coal selection, coal cleaning, and emissions control strategies on the emissions of coal-fired power plants.

  20. ADVANCED EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    M.J. Holmes

    1998-07-01

    The objective of this project is to develop practical strategies and systems for the simultaneous control of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, particulate matter, and air toxics emissions from coal-fired boilers in such a way as to keep coal economically and environmentally competitive as a utility boiler fuel. Of particular interest is the control of air toxics emissions through the cost-effective use of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESP's), fabric filters (baghouses), and SO{sub 2} removal systems such as wet scrubbers and various clean coal technologies. This objective will be achieved through extensive development testing in the state-of-the art, 10 MW{sub e} equivalent, Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF). The project has extended the capabilities of the CEDF to facilitate air toxics emissions control development work on backend flue gas cleanup equipment. Specifically, an ESP, a baghouse, and a wet scrubber for SO{sub 2} (and air toxics) control were added--all designed to yield air toxics emissions data under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. A schematic of the CEDF and the project test equipment is shown in Figure 1. The specific objectives of the project are to: (1) Measure and understand production and partitioning of air toxics species in coal-fired power plant systems; (2) Optimize the air toxics removal performance of conventional flue gas cleanup systems; (3) Quantify the impacts of coal cleaning on air toxics emissions; (4) Identify and/or develop advanced air toxics emissions control concepts; (5) Develop and validate air toxics emissions measurement and monitoring techniques; (6) Establish an air toxics data library to facilitate studies of the impacts of coal selection, coal cleaning, and emissions control strategies on the emissions of coal-fired power plants.

  1. Solar Concentrator Advanced Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knasel, Don; Ehresman, Derik

    1989-01-01

    The Solar Concentrator Advanced Development Project has successfully designed, fabricated, and tested a full scale prototypical solar dynamic concentrator for space station applications. A Truss Hexagonal Panel reflector was selected as a viable solar concentrator concept to be used for space station applications. This concentrator utilizes a modular design approach and is flexible in attainable flux profiles and assembly techniques. The detailed design of the concentrator, which included structural, thermal and optical analysis, identified the feasibility of the design and specific technologies that were required to fabricate it. The needed surface accuracy of the reflectors surface was found to be very tight, within 5 mrad RMS slope error, and results in very close tolerances for fabrication. To meet the design requirements, a modular structure composed of hexagonal panels was used. The panels, made up of graphite epoxy box beams provided the strength, stiffness and dimensional stability needed. All initial project requirements were met or exceeded by hardware demonstration. Initial testing of structural repeatability of a seven panel portion of the concentrator was followed by assembly and testing of the full nineteen panel structure. The testing, which consisted of theodolite and optical measurements over an assembly-disassembly-reassembly cycle, demonstrated that the concentrator maintained the as-built contour and optical characteristics. The facet development effort within the project, which included developing the vapor deposited reflective facet, produced a viable design with demonstrated optical characteristics that are within the project goals.

  2. Report on Advanced Detector Development

    SciTech Connect

    James K. Jewell

    2012-09-01

    Neutron, gamma and charged particle detection improvements are key to supporting many of the foreseen measurements and systems envisioned in the R&D programs and the future fuel cycle requirements, such as basic nuclear physics and data, modeling and simulation, reactor instrumentation, criticality safety, materials management and safeguards. This task will focus on the developmental needs of the FCR&D experimental programs, such as elastic/inelastic scattering, total cross sections and fission neutron spectra measurements, and will leverage a number of existing neutron detector development efforts and programs, such as those at LANL, PNNL, INL, and IAC as well as those at many universities, some of whom are funded under NE grants and contracts. Novel materials and fabrication processes combined with state-of-the-art electronics and computing provide new opportunities for revolutionary detector systems that will be able to meet the high precision needs of the program. This work will be closely coordinated with the Nuclear Data Crosscut. The Advanced Detector Development effort is a broadly-focused activity that supports the development of improved nuclear data measurements and improved detection of nuclear reactions and reactor conditions. This work supports the design and construction of large-scale, multiple component detectors to provide nuclear reaction data of unprecedented quality and precision. Examples include the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) and the DANCE detector at LANL. This work also supports the fabrication and end-user application of novel scintillator materials detection and monitoring.

  3. Advancing cell wall inhibitors towards clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Maffioli, Sonia I; Cruz, João C S; Monciardini, Paolo; Sosio, Margherita; Donadio, Stefano

    2016-03-01

    Natural products represent a major source of approved drugs and still play an important role in supplying chemical diversity. Consistently, 2014 has seen new, natural product-derived antibiotics approved for human use by the US Food and Drug Administration. One of the recently approved second-generation glycopeptides is dalbavancin, a semi-synthetic derivative of the natural product A40,926. This compound inhibits bacterial growth by binding to lipid intermediate II (Lipid II), a key intermediate in peptidoglycan biosynthesis. Like other recently approved antibiotics, dalbavancin has a complex history of preclinical and clinical development, with several companies contributing to different steps in different years. While our work on dalbavancin development stopped at the previous company, intriguingly our current pipeline includes two more Lipid II-binding natural products or derivatives thereof. In particular, we will focus on the properties of NAI-107 and related lantibiotics, which originated from recent screening and characterization efforts. PMID:26515981

  4. Advancing cell wall inhibitors towards clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Maffioli, Sonia I; Cruz, João C S; Monciardini, Paolo; Sosio, Margherita; Donadio, Stefano

    2016-03-01

    Natural products represent a major source of approved drugs and still play an important role in supplying chemical diversity. Consistently, 2014 has seen new, natural product-derived antibiotics approved for human use by the US Food and Drug Administration. One of the recently approved second-generation glycopeptides is dalbavancin, a semi-synthetic derivative of the natural product A40,926. This compound inhibits bacterial growth by binding to lipid intermediate II (Lipid II), a key intermediate in peptidoglycan biosynthesis. Like other recently approved antibiotics, dalbavancin has a complex history of preclinical and clinical development, with several companies contributing to different steps in different years. While our work on dalbavancin development stopped at the previous company, intriguingly our current pipeline includes two more Lipid II-binding natural products or derivatives thereof. In particular, we will focus on the properties of NAI-107 and related lantibiotics, which originated from recent screening and characterization efforts.

  5. Advanced uncooled sensor product development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, A.; Masini, P.; Lamb, M.; Hamers, J.; Kocian, T.; Gordon, E.; Parrish, W.; Williams, R.; LeBeau, T.

    2015-06-01

    The partnership between RVS, Seek Thermal and Freescale Semiconductor continues on the path to bring the latest technology and innovation to both military and commercial customers. The partnership has matured the 17μm pixel for volume production on the Thermal Weapon Sight (TWS) program in efforts to bring advanced production capability to produce a low cost, high performance product. The partnership has developed the 12μm pixel and has demonstrated performance across a family of detector sizes ranging from formats as small as 206 x 156 to full high definition formats. Detector pixel sensitivities have been achieved using the RVS double level advanced pixel structure. Transition of the packaging of microbolometers from a traditional die level package to a wafer level package (WLP) in a high volume commercial environment is complete. Innovations in wafer fabrication techniques have been incorporated into this product line to assist in the high yield required for volume production. The WLP seal yield is currently > 95%. Simulated package vacuum lives >> 20 years have been demonstrated through accelerated life testing where the package has been shown to have no degradation after 2,500 hours at 150°C. Additionally the rugged assembly has shown no degradation after mechanical shock and vibration and thermal shock testing. The transition to production effort was successfully completed in 2014 and the WLP design has been integrated into multiple new production products including the TWS and the innovative Seek Thermal commercial product that interfaces directly to an iPhone or android device.

  6. Clinical registered dietitians, employers, and educators are interested in advanced practice education and professional doctorate degrees in clinical nutrition.

    PubMed

    Skipper, Annalynn; Lewis, Nancy M

    2006-12-01

    A subset of registered dietitians (RDs) is known to practice at an advanced level, but a clear educational pathway supporting advanced medical nutrition therapy practice has not been identified. Thus, an electronic survey was designed to investigate interest of clinical RDs, employers, and educators in advanced practice competencies and professional doctorate degree programs in clinical nutrition. Usable responses were obtained from 440 of 978 (45%) RDs, 61 of 107 (57%) employers, and 76 of 114 (67%) educators. Mean interest (5 = very interested, 1 = very uninterested) in obtaining advanced practice education was highest among RDs (3.93+/-1.01) and was significantly different (P < 0.01) from employers (3.74 +/-1.28) and educators (2.76+/-1.33). Interest in completing a professional doctorate in clinical nutrition was significantly (P < 0.01) different among RDs (3.05+/-1.28), employers (3.18+/-1.30), and educators (2.3+/-1.34). Employers' mean interest score for hiring RDs with a professional doctorate in clinical nutrition was 4.02+/-0.93. A subset of clinical RDs appears to be interested in obtaining advanced practice competency and enrolling in professional doctorate degrees in clinical nutrition. Clinical nutrition managers in academic medical centers may be interested in hiring advanced practice clinical RDs with professional doctorate degrees. Opportunities exist for educators to develop advanced practice educational experiences and professional doctorate degree programs.

  7. Developing a clinical research career.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Caroline

    The National Institute for Health Research helps to promote clinical research careers for health professionals working in clinical practice, and has developed a structure to support new researchers. This article explains how nurses can get involved in clinical research and the support available to them. PMID:27491187

  8. Developing a career advancement program.

    PubMed

    Pinette, Shirley L

    2003-01-01

    Have you ever asked yourself, "What will I be doing five or ten years from now?" "Will I be doing the same thing I'm doing right now?" How would you feel if the answer were "yes"? I often wonder if any of my employees think the same thing. If they do, and the answer is "yes," just how does that make them feel? A day's work for managers can run the gamut--from billing and coding, to patient issues, to staff performance reviews, to CQI, to JCAHO-just to name a few. We're NEVER bored. Can we say the same of our employees, or do they do the same thing day in and day out? If so, it's no wonder that attitudes may become negative and motivation and productivity may decline. What are we as healthcare managers and administrators doing to value and continually train our employees so that staff morale, productivity and patient satisfaction remain high? What are we doing to keep those highly motivated employees motivated and challenged so that they don't get bored and want to move across town to our neighboring hospital or healthcare center? What are we doing to stop our employees from developing the "same job, different day" attitude? A Career Ladder program holds many benefits and opportunities for the motivated employee who seeks and needs additional challenges on the job. It affords them opportunities to learn new skills, demonstrate initiative, accept additional responsibilities and possibly advance into new positions. It also affords them opportunities to grow, to be challenged and to feel like an important and valued member of the radiology team and radiology department. For the manager, a Career Ladder program affords opportunities to retain valuable employees, attract new high-quality employees and maintain a workforce of well-trained highly motivated employees, which in turn will provide high quality products and services to our customers. A Career Ladder program is a "win-win" situation for everyone. For the last twelve months, I have been working with other

  9. Developing a career advancement program.

    PubMed

    Pinette, Shirley L

    2003-01-01

    Have you ever asked yourself, "What will I be doing five or ten years from now?" "Will I be doing the same thing I'm doing right now?" How would you feel if the answer were "yes"? I often wonder if any of my employees think the same thing. If they do, and the answer is "yes," just how does that make them feel? A day's work for managers can run the gamut--from billing and coding, to patient issues, to staff performance reviews, to CQI, to JCAHO-just to name a few. We're NEVER bored. Can we say the same of our employees, or do they do the same thing day in and day out? If so, it's no wonder that attitudes may become negative and motivation and productivity may decline. What are we as healthcare managers and administrators doing to value and continually train our employees so that staff morale, productivity and patient satisfaction remain high? What are we doing to keep those highly motivated employees motivated and challenged so that they don't get bored and want to move across town to our neighboring hospital or healthcare center? What are we doing to stop our employees from developing the "same job, different day" attitude? A Career Ladder program holds many benefits and opportunities for the motivated employee who seeks and needs additional challenges on the job. It affords them opportunities to learn new skills, demonstrate initiative, accept additional responsibilities and possibly advance into new positions. It also affords them opportunities to grow, to be challenged and to feel like an important and valued member of the radiology team and radiology department. For the manager, a Career Ladder program affords opportunities to retain valuable employees, attract new high-quality employees and maintain a workforce of well-trained highly motivated employees, which in turn will provide high quality products and services to our customers. A Career Ladder program is a "win-win" situation for everyone. For the last twelve months, I have been working with other

  10. Advances in Clinical PET/MRI Instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Hans; Lerche, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    In 2010, the first whole-body PET/MRI scanners installed for clinical use were the sequential Philips PET/MRI with PMT-based, TOF-capable technology and the integrated simultaneous Siemens PET/MRI. Avalanche photodiodes as non-magneto-sensitive readout electronics allowed PET integrated within the MRI. The experiences with these scanners showed that improvements of software aspects, such as attenuation correction, were necessary and that efficient protocols combining optimally PET and MRI must be still developed. In 2014, General Electric issued an integrated PET/MRI with SiPM-based PET detectors, allowing TOF-PET. Looking at the MRI components of current PET/MR imaging systems, primary improvements come from sequences and new coils.

  11. ADVANCED HOT GAS FILTER DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    E.S. Connolly; G.D. Forsythe

    2000-09-30

    DuPont Lanxide Composites, Inc. undertook a sixty-month program, under DOE Contract DEAC21-94MC31214, in order to develop hot gas candle filters from a patented material technology know as PRD-66. The goal of this program was to extend the development of this material as a filter element and fully assess the capability of this technology to meet the needs of Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) and Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power generation systems at commercial scale. The principal objective of Task 3 was to build on the initial PRD-66 filter development, optimize its structure, and evaluate basic material properties relevant to the hot gas filter application. Initially, this consisted of an evaluation of an advanced filament-wound core structure that had been designed to produce an effective bulk filter underneath the barrier filter formed by the outer membrane. The basic material properties to be evaluated (as established by the DOE/METC materials working group) would include mechanical, thermal, and fracture toughness parameters for both new and used material, for the purpose of building a material database consistent with what is being done for the alternative candle filter systems. Task 3 was later expanded to include analysis of PRD-66 candle filters, which had been exposed to actual PFBC conditions, development of an improved membrane, and installation of equipment necessary for the processing of a modified composition. Task 4 would address essential technical issues involving the scale-up of PRD-66 candle filter manufacturing from prototype production to commercial scale manufacturing. The focus would be on capacity (as it affects the ability to deliver commercial order quantities), process specification (as it affects yields, quality, and costs), and manufacturing systems (e.g. QA/QC, materials handling, parts flow, and cost data acquisition). Any filters fabricated during this task would be used for product qualification tests

  12. Clinical perspectives on lupus genetics: advances and opportunities.

    PubMed

    James, Judith A

    2014-08-01

    In recent years, genome-wide association studies have led to an expansion in the identification of regions containing confirmed genetic risk variants within complex human diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Many of the strongest SLE genetic associations can be divided into groups based on their potential roles in different processes implicated in lupus pathogenesis, including ubiquitination, DNA degradation, innate immunity, cellular immunity, lymphocyte development, and antigen presentation. Recent advances have also shown several genetic associations with SLE subphenotypes and subcriteria. Many areas for further exploration remain to move lupus genetic studies toward clinically informative end points.

  13. Advances in myelofibrosis: a clinical case approach

    PubMed Central

    Mascarenhas, John O.; Orazi, Attilio; Bhalla, Kapil N.; Champlin, Richard E.; Harrison, Claire; Hoffman, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Primary myelofibrosis is a member of the myeloproliferative neoplasms, a diverse group of bone marrow malignancies. Symptoms of myelofibrosis, particularly those associated with splenomegaly (abdominal distention and pain, early satiety, dyspnea, and diarrhea) and constitutional symptoms, represent a substantial burden to patients. Most patients eventually die from the disease, with a median survival ranging from approximately 5–7 years. Mutations in Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), a kinase that is essential for the normal development of erythrocytes, granulocytes, and platelets, notably the V617F mutation, have been identified in approximately 50% of patients with myelofibrosis. The approval of a JAK2 inhibitor in 2011 has improved the outlook of many patients with myelofibrosis and has changed the treatment landscape. This article focuses on some of the important issues in current myelofibrosis treatment management, including differentiation of myelofibrosis from essential thrombocythemia and polycythemia vera, up-dated data on the results of JAK2 inhibitor therapy, the role of epigenetic mechanisms in myelofibrosis pathogenesis, investigational therapies for myelofibrosis, and advances in hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Three myelofibrosis cases are included to underscore the issues in diagnosing and treating this complex disease. PMID:24091929

  14. Advances in Antiviral vaccine development

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Barney S.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Antiviral vaccines have been the most successful biomedical intervention for preventing epidemic viral disease. Vaccination for smallpox in humans and rinderpest in cattle was the basis for disease eradication, and recent progress in polio eradication is promising. While early vaccines were developed empirically by passage in live animals or eggs, more recent vaccines have been developed because of the advent of new technologies, particularly cell culture and molecular biology. Recent technological advances in gene delivery and expression, nanoparticles, protein manufacturing, and adjuvants have created the potential for new vaccine platforms that may provide solutions for vaccines against viral pathogens for which no interventions currently exist. In addition, the technological convergence of human monoclonal antibody isolation, structural biology, and high throughput sequencing is providing new opportunities for atomic-level immunogen design. Selection of human monoclonal antibodies can identify immunodominant antigenic sites associated with neutralization and provide reagents for stabilizing and solving the structure of viral surface proteins. Understanding the structural basis for neutralization can guide selection of vaccine targets. Deep sequencing of the antibody repertoire and defining the ontogeny of the desired antibody responses can reveal the junctional recombination and somatic mutation requirements for B-cell recognition and affinity maturation. Collectively, this information will provide new strategic approaches for selecting vaccine antigens, formulations, and regimens. Moreover, it creates the potential for rational vaccine design and establishing a catalogue of vaccine technology platforms that would be effective against any given family or class of viral pathogens and improve our readiness to address new emerging viral threats. PMID:23947359

  15. Radiotherapy for lung cancer: clinical impact of recent technical advances.

    PubMed

    Haasbeek, Cornelis J A; Slotman, Ben J; Senan, Suresh

    2009-04-01

    Radiation oncology plays an important role in the curative treatment of patients with lung cancer. New technological developments have enabled delivery of higher radiation doses while better sparing surrounding normal tissues, thereby increasing the likelihood of local control without increased toxicity. Multi-modality imaging enables better target definition, improved planning software allows for correct calculation of delivered doses, and tools to verify accurate treatment delivery are now available. A good example of the results of applying these developments is the high local control rates achieved in stage I NSCLC with stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT). These advances are rapidly becoming available outside academic institutions, and pulmonologists, surgeons and medical oncologists need to understand and critically assess the potential impact of such developments in the routine care of their patients. Aspects of cost-effectiveness of technical innovations, as well as the level of evidence required before widespread clinical implementation, will be addressed.

  16. Positioning advanced practice nurses for financial success in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Kennerly, Susan

    2006-01-01

    Advanced practice nurses (APNs) are well prepared for patient care, but not for the financial aspects of clinical practice. A lack of reimbursement knowledge and skills limits the prospects for APNs to be key players in business and practice ventures. Faculty are challenged to strengthen the advanced practice reimbursement component of the financial management core to promote the reimbursement competency of APNs. The author discusses 4 primary content categories that are critical to financial success in clinical practice.

  17. The biology of infertility: research advances and clinical challenges

    PubMed Central

    Matzuk, Martin M; Lamb, Dolores J

    2013-01-01

    Reproduction is required for the survival of all mammalian species, and thousands of essential ‘sex’ genes are conserved through evolution. Basic research helps to define these genes and the mechanisms responsible for the development, function and regulation of the male and female reproductive systems. However, many infertile couples continue to be labeled with the diagnosis of idiopathic infertility or given descriptive diagnoses that do not provide a cause for their defect. For other individuals with a known etiology, effective cures are lacking, although their infertility is often bypassed with assisted reproductive technologies (ART), some accompanied by safety or ethical concerns. Certainly, progress in the field of reproduction has been realized in the twenty-first century with advances in the understanding of the regulation of fertility, with the production of over 400 mutant mouse models with a reproductive phenotype and with the promise of regenerative gonadal stem cells. Indeed, the past six years have witnessed a virtual explosion in the identification of gene mutations or polymorphisms that cause or are linked to human infertility. Translation of these findings to the clinic remains slow, however, as do new methods to diagnose and treat infertile couples. Additionally, new approaches to contraception remain elusive. Nevertheless, the basic and clinical advances in the understanding of the molecular controls of reproduction are impressive and will ultimately improve patient care. PMID:18989307

  18. Clinical relevance of advanced glycation endproducts for vascular surgery.

    PubMed

    Meerwaldt, R; van der Vaart, M G; van Dam, G M; Tio, R A; Hillebrands, J-L; Smit, A J; Zeebregts, C J

    2008-08-01

    Atherosclerosis is the main contributor to cardiovascular disease and leads to intimal plaque formation, which may progress to plaque rupture with subsequent thromboembolic events and/or occlusion of the arterial lumen. There is increasing evidence that the development or progression of atherosclerosis is associated with advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs). AGEs are a heterogeneous group of compounds formed by the non-enzymatic reaction of reducing sugars with proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. An increased understanding of the mechanisms of formation and interaction of AGEs has allowed the development of several potential anti-AGE strategies. This review summarizes AGE formation and biochemistry, the pathogeneic role of AGEs in cardiovascular disease, anti-AGE therapies and clinical relevance to vascular surgery. PMID:18356091

  19. Clinical relevance of advanced glycation endproducts for vascular surgery.

    PubMed

    Meerwaldt, R; van der Vaart, M G; van Dam, G M; Tio, R A; Hillebrands, J-L; Smit, A J; Zeebregts, C J

    2008-08-01

    Atherosclerosis is the main contributor to cardiovascular disease and leads to intimal plaque formation, which may progress to plaque rupture with subsequent thromboembolic events and/or occlusion of the arterial lumen. There is increasing evidence that the development or progression of atherosclerosis is associated with advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs). AGEs are a heterogeneous group of compounds formed by the non-enzymatic reaction of reducing sugars with proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. An increased understanding of the mechanisms of formation and interaction of AGEs has allowed the development of several potential anti-AGE strategies. This review summarizes AGE formation and biochemistry, the pathogeneic role of AGEs in cardiovascular disease, anti-AGE therapies and clinical relevance to vascular surgery.

  20. Advances in clinical study of curcumin.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunfen; Su, Xun; Liu, Anchang; Zhang, Lin; Yu, Aihua; Xi, Yanwei; Zhai, Guangxi

    2013-01-01

    Curcumin has been estimated as a potential agent for many diseases and attracted great attention owing to its various pharmacological activities, including anti-cancer, and anti-inflammatory. Now curcumin is being applied to a number of patients with breast cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, colorectal cancer, psoriatic, etc. Several clinical trials have stated that curcumin is safe enough and effective. The objective of this article was to summarize the clinical studies of curcumin, and give a reference for future studies. PMID:23116307

  1. How Physicians Integrate Advances into Clinical Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockyer, Jocelyn M.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Family physicians and specialists were asked to identify the sources of information they used in the process of making changes in their clinical practices. An average of 3.08 sources of information were utilized for each change and over 50 percent of the changes were complete in less than one year. (CT)

  2. Advances take stage - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    Regulatory advances in proteomics will be taking center stage at a Symposia scheduled to occur at the 2011 American Association for Clinical Chemistry (AACC) Annual Meeting. The symposium entitled "Enabling Translational Proteomics with NCI's Clinical Proteomic Technologies for Cancer" is scheduled for July 25, 2011 at AACC's annual Meeting.

  3. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: recent advances in clinical management.

    PubMed

    Mao, Zhiguo; Chong, Jiehan; Ong, Albert C M

    2016-01-01

    The first clinical descriptions of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) go back at least 500 years to the late 16 (th) century. Advances in understanding disease presentation and pathophysiology have mirrored the progress of clinical medicine in anatomy, pathology, physiology, cell biology, and genetics. The identification of PKD1 and PKD2, the major genes mutated in ADPKD, has stimulated major advances, which in turn have led to the first approved drug for this disorder and a fresh reassessment of patient management in the 21 (st) century. In this commentary, we consider how clinical management is likely to change in the coming decade. PMID:27594986

  4. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: recent advances in clinical management

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Zhiguo; Chong, Jiehan; Ong, Albert C. M.

    2016-01-01

    The first clinical descriptions of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) go back at least 500 years to the late 16 th century. Advances in understanding disease presentation and pathophysiology have mirrored the progress of clinical medicine in anatomy, pathology, physiology, cell biology, and genetics. The identification of PKD1 and PKD2, the major genes mutated in ADPKD, has stimulated major advances, which in turn have led to the first approved drug for this disorder and a fresh reassessment of patient management in the 21 st century. In this commentary, we consider how clinical management is likely to change in the coming decade. PMID:27594986

  5. Recent advances in dengue pathogenesis and clinical management.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Cameron P; McPherson, Kirsty; Van Vinh Chau, Nguyen; Hoai Tam, D T; Young, Paul; Mackenzie, Jason; Wills, Bridget

    2015-12-10

    This review describes and commentates on recent advances in the understanding of dengue pathogenesis and immunity, plus clinical research on vaccines and therapeutics. We expand specifically on the role of the dermis in dengue virus infection, the contribution of cellular and humoral immune responses to pathogenesis and immunity, NS1 and mechanisms of virus immune evasion. Additionally we review a series of therapeutic intervention trials for dengue, as well as recent clinical research aimed at improving clinical diagnosis, risk prediction and disease classification.

  6. Clinical Implementation of Novel Targeted Therapeutics in Advanced Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Chamberlin, Mary D; Bernhardt, Erica B; Miller, Todd W

    2016-11-01

    The majority of advanced breast cancers have genetic alterations that are potentially targetable with drugs. Through initiatives such as The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC), data can be mined to provide context for next-generation sequencing (NGS) results in the landscape of advanced breast cancer. Therapies for targets other than estrogen receptor alpha (ER) and HER2, such as cyclin-dependent kinases CDK4 and CDK6, were recently approved based on efficacy in patient subpopulations, but no predictive biomarkers have been found, leaving clinicians to continue a trial-and-error approach with each patient. Next-generation sequencing identifies potentially actionable alterations in genes thought to be drivers in the cancerous process including phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), AKT, fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs), and mutant HER2. Epigenetically directed and immunologic therapies have also shown promise for the treatment of breast cancer via histone deacetylases (HDAC) 1 and 3, programmed T cell death 1 (PD-1), and programmed T cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1). Identifying biomarkers to predict primary resistance in breast cancer will ultimately affect clinical decisions regarding adjuvant therapy in the first-line setting. However, the bulk of medical decision-making is currently made in the secondary resistance setting. Herein, we review the clinical potential of PI3K, AKT, FGFRs, mutant HER2, HDAC1/3, PD-1, and PD-L1 as therapeutic targets in breast cancer, focusing on the rationale for therapeutic development and the status of clinical testing. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2454-2463, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Space transfer vehicle avionics advanced development needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffaker, C. F.

    1990-01-01

    The assessment of preliminary transportation program options for the exploration initiative is underway. The exploration initiative for the Moon and Mars is outlined by mission phases. A typical lunar/Mars outpost technology/advanced development schedule is provided. An aggressive and focused technology development program is needed as early as possible to successfully support these new initiatives. The avionics advanced development needs, plans, laboratory facilities, and benefits from an early start are described.

  8. Manufacturing development of DC-10 advanced rudder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cominsky, A.

    1979-01-01

    The design, manufacture, and ground test activities during development of production methods for an advanced composite rudder for the DC-10 transport aircraft are described. The advanced composite aft rudder is satisfactory for airline service and a cost saving in a full production manufacturing mode is anticipated.

  9. Advanced Child Development. Reference Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This document examines many aspects of parenting, child care, and child development and is designed to be used in conjunction with a curriculum guide as part of secondary laboratory-oriented courses. The 12 chapters covering course subject matter are as follows: (1) parenting; (2) prenatal and neonatal development; (3) factors affecting prenatal…

  10. Advanced dendritic web growth development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    A program to develop the technology of the silicon dendritic web ribbon growth process is examined. The effort is being concentrated on the area rate and quality requirements necessary to meet the JPL/DOE goals for terrestrial PV applications. Closed loop web growth system development and stress reduction for high area rate growth is considered.

  11. ADVANCED HOT GAS FILTER DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    E.S. Connolly; G.D. Forsythe

    1998-12-22

    Advanced, coal-based power plants will require durable and reliable hot gas filtration systems to remove particulate contaminants from the gas streams to protect downstream components such as turbine blades from erosion damage. It is expected that the filter elements in these systems will have to be made of ceramic materials to withstand goal service temperatures of 1600 F or higher. Recent demonstration projects and pilot plant tests have indicated that the current generation of ceramic hot gas filters (cross-flow and candle configurations) are failing prematurely. Two of the most promising materials that have been extensively evaluated are clay-bonded silicon carbide and alumina-mullite porous monoliths. These candidates, however, have been found to suffer progressive thermal shock fatigue damage, as a result of rapid cooling/heating cycles. Such temperature changes occur when the hot filters are back-pulsed with cooler gas to clean them, or in process upset conditions, where even larger gas temperature changes may occur quickly and unpredictably. In addition, the clay-bonded silicon carbide materials are susceptible to chemical attack of the glassy binder phase that holds the SiC particles together, resulting in softening, strength loss, creep, and eventual failure.

  12. Advanced photovoltaic-trough development

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, R.; Yasuda, K.; Merson, B.

    1982-04-01

    The scope of the work on photvoltaic troughs includes analytical studies, hardware development, and component testing. Various aspects of the system have been optimized and improvements have been realized, particularly in the receiver and reflecting surface designs. An empirical system performance model has been developed that closely agrees with measured system performance. This in-depth study of single-axis reflecting linear focus photovoltaic concentrators will be very beneficial in the development of improved models for similar systems as well as other phtovoltaic concentrator designs.

  13. Advance modern medicine with clinical case reports

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Randomized clinical trial (RCT) can fail to demonstrate the richness of individual patient characteristics. Given the unpredictable nature of medicine, a patient may present in an unusual way, have a strange new pathology, or react to a medical intervention in a manner not seen before. The publication of these novelties as case reports is a fundamental way of conveying medical knowledge. Throughout history there have been famous case studies that shaped the way we view health and disease. Case reports can have the following functions: (I) descriptions of new diseases; (II) study of mechanisms; (III) discovery new therapies; (IV) recognition of side effects; and (V) education. Before submitting a case report, it is worthwhile to refer to the Case Report Check Sheet described by Green and Johnson [2006]. PMID:25525572

  14. Advances in Clinical Management of Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Dellon, Evan S.; Liacouras, Chris A.

    2014-01-01

    EoE is a chronic immune/antigen-mediated clinicopathologic condition that has become an increasingly important cause of upper gastrointestinal morbidity in adults and children over the past 2 decades. It is diagnosed based on symptoms of esophageal dysfunction, the presence of at least 15 eosinophils/high-power field in esophageal biopsies, and exclusion of competing causes of esophageal eosinophilia, including proton pump inhibitor-responsive esophageal eosinophilia (PPI-REE). We review what we have recently learned about the clinical aspects of EoE, discussing the clinical, endoscopic, and histologic features of EoE in adults and children. We explain the current diagnostic criteria and challenges to diagnosis, including the role of gastroesophageal reflux disease and PPI-REE. It is also important to consider the epidemiology of EoE (current incidence of 1/10,000 new cases per year and prevalence of 0.5-1/1,000 cases per year) and disease progression. We review the main treatment approaches and new treatment options; EoE can be treated with topical corticosteroids such as fluticasone and budesonide, or dietary strategies, such as amino acid-based formulas, allergy test-directed elimination diets, and non-directed empiric elimination diets. Endoscopic dilation has also become an important tool for treatment of fibrostenostic complications of EoE. There are number of unresolved issues in EoE, including phenotypes, optimal treatment endpoints, the role of maintenance therapy, and treatment of refractory EoE. The care of patients with EoE and the study of the disease span many disciplines—EoE is ideally managed by a multidisciplinary team of gastroenterologists, allergists, pathologists, and dieticians. PMID:25109885

  15. Advances in dengue vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Raviprakash, Kanakatte; Defang, Gabriel; Burgess, Timothy; Porter, Kevin

    2009-08-01

    Dengue viruses are the most important arboviruses causing human disease. Expansion of the disease in recent decades to include more geographical areas of the world, an appreciation of the disease burden and market potentials have spurred a flurry of activity in the development of vaccines to combat dengue viruses. Recent progress in this area and some of the obstacles associated with this development are discussed. PMID:19535912

  16. Breast cancer stem cells: current advances and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ming; Clouthier, Shawn G; Deol, Yadwinder; Liu, Suling; Nagrath, Sunitha; Azizi, Ebrahim; Wicha, Max S

    2015-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that many cancers, including breast cancer, are driven by a population of cells that display stem cell properties. These cells, termed cancer stem cells (CSCs) or tumor initiating cells, not only drive tumor initiation and growth but also mediate tumor metastasis and therapeutic resistance. In this chapter, we summarize current advances in CSC research with a major focus on breast CSCs (BCSCs). We review the prevailing methods to isolate and characterize BCSCs and recent evidence documenting their cellular origins and phenotypic plasticity that enables them to transition between mesenchymal and epithelial-like states. We describe in vitro and clinical evidence that these cells mediate metastasis and treatment resistance in breast cancer, the development of novel strategies to isolate circulating tumor cells (CTCs) that contain CSCs and the use of patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models in preclinical breast cancer research. Lastly, we highlight several signaling pathways that regulate BCSC self-renewal and describe clinical implications of targeting these cells for breast cancer treatment. The development of strategies to effectively target BCSCs has the potential to significantly improve the outcomes for patients with breast cancer.

  17. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    M. J. Holmes

    1998-12-03

    McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using the Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

  18. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    A. P. Evans

    1998-12-03

    McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using the Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and the inorganic species, hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

  19. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, A P

    1998-12-03

    Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using B&W's new Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and the inorganic species hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

  20. Advanced Emission Control Development Program.

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, A.P.

    1997-12-31

    Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using B&W`s new Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and the inorganic species hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

  1. Advanced technology satellite demodulator development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ames, Stephen A.

    1989-01-01

    Ford Aerospace has developed a proof-of-concept satellite 8 phase shift keying (PSK) modulation and coding system operating in the Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) mode at a data range of 200 Mbps using rate 5/6 forward error correction coding. The 80 Msps 8 PSK modem was developed in a mostly digital form and is amenable to an ASIC realization in the next phase of development. The codec was developed as a paper design only. The power efficiency goal was to be within 2 dB of theoretical at a bit error rate (BER) of 5x10(exp 7) while the measured implementation loss was 4.5 dB. The bandwidth efficiency goal was 2 bits/sec/Hz while the realized bandwidth efficiency was 1.8 bits/sec/Hz. The burst format used a preamble of only 40 8 PSK symbol times including 32 symbols of all zeros and an eight symbol unique word. The modem and associated special test equipment (STE) were fabricated mostly on a specially designed stitch-weld board although a few of the highest rate circuits were built on printed circuit cards. All the digital circuits were ECL to support the clock rates of from 80 MHz to 360 MHz. The transmitter and receiver matched filters were square-root Nyquist bandpass filters realized at the 3.37 GHz i.f. The modem operated as a coherent system although no analog phase locked (PLL) loop was employed. Within the budgetary constraints of the program, the approach to the demodulator has been proven and is eligible to proceed to the next phase of development of a satellite demodulator engineering model. This would entail the development of an ASIC version of the digital portion of the demodulator, and MMIC version of the quadrature detector, and SAW Nyquist filters to realize the bandwidth efficiency.

  2. Construction of databases: advances and significance in clinical research.

    PubMed

    Long, Erping; Huang, Bingjie; Wang, Liming; Lin, Xiaoyu; Lin, Haotian

    2015-12-01

    Widely used in clinical research, the database is a new type of data management automation technology and the most efficient tool for data management. In this article, we first explain some basic concepts, such as the definition, classification, and establishment of databases. Afterward, the workflow for establishing databases, inputting data, verifying data, and managing databases is presented. Meanwhile, by discussing the application of databases in clinical research, we illuminate the important role of databases in clinical research practice. Lastly, we introduce the reanalysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cloud computing techniques, showing the most recent advancements of databases in clinical research. PMID:27215009

  3. Cognitive Development: An Advanced Textbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H., Ed.; Lamb, Michael E., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This new text consists of parts of Bornstein and Lamb's Developmental Science, 6th edition along with new introductory material that as a whole provides a cutting edge and comprehensive overview of cognitive development. Each of the world-renowned contributors masterfully introduces the history and systems, methodologies, and measurement and…

  4. Advances in exotic mammal clinical therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Michelle G

    2015-05-01

    It is important that veterinarians treating exotic companion mammals stay abreast of the latest developments relating to medications and drug delivery approaches for safety, efficacy and welfare issues. Sustained release formulations of commonly used drugs as well as newer routes for administration of therapeutic agents allow the veterinarian treating exotic companion mammals to reduce the stress associated with drug administration. Interactions can occur between vehicle and drugs when formulations are compounded, therefore research studies are warranted regarding potential problems associated with these formulations.

  5. ADVANCED HOT GAS FILTER DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Matthew R. June; John L. Hurley; Mark W. Johnson

    1999-04-01

    Iron aluminide hot gas filters have been developed using powder metallurgy techniques to form seamless cylinders. Three alloys were short-term corrosion tested in simulated IGCC atmospheres with temperatures between 925 F and 1200 F with hydrogen sulfide concentrations ranging from 783 ppm{sub v} to 78,300 ppm{sub v}. Long-term testing was conducted for 1500 hours at 925 F with 78,300 ppm{sub v}. The FAS and FAL alloys were found to be corrosion resistant in the simulated environments. The FAS alloy has been commercialized.

  6. Advanced crew procedures development techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbet, J. D.; Benbow, R. L.; Mangiaracina, A. A.; Mcgavern, J. L.; Spangler, M. C.; Tatum, I. C.

    1975-01-01

    The development of an operational computer program, the Procedures and Performance Program (PPP), is reported which provides a procedures recording and crew/vehicle performance monitoring capability. The PPP provides real time CRT displays and postrun hardcopy of procedures, difference procedures, performance, performance evaluation, and training script/training status data. During post-run, the program is designed to support evaluation through the reconstruction of displays to any point in time. A permanent record of the simulation exercise can be obtained via hardcopy output of the display data, and via magnetic tape transfer to the Generalized Documentation Processor (GDP). Reference procedures data may be transferred from the GDP to the PPP.

  7. Advanced microbial check valve development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, G. V.; Greenley, D. R.

    1980-01-01

    A flight certified assembly identified as a Microbial Check Valve (MCV) was developed and tested. The MCV is a canister packed with an iodinated anionic exchange resin. The device is used to destroy organisms in a water stream as the water passes through the device. The device is equally effective for fluid flow in either direction and its primary method of organism removal is killing rather than filtering. The MCV was successfully developed for the space shuttle to: disinfect fuel cell water; and prevent back contamination of the stored potable water supply. One version of the device consists of a high residual iodinated resin bed that imparts approximately 2 ppm of iodine to the fuel cell water as it flows to the potable water tanks. A second version of the device consists of a low residual iodinated resin bed. One of these low residual beds is located at each use port in the potable water system for the dual purpose of removing some iodine from the potable water as it is dispensed and also to prevent back contamination of the potable supply.

  8. Advances in exotic mammal clinical therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Michelle G

    2015-05-01

    It is important that veterinarians treating exotic companion mammals stay abreast of the latest developments relating to medications and drug delivery approaches for safety, efficacy and welfare issues. Sustained release formulations of commonly used drugs as well as newer routes for administration of therapeutic agents allow the veterinarian treating exotic companion mammals to reduce the stress associated with drug administration. Interactions can occur between vehicle and drugs when formulations are compounded, therefore research studies are warranted regarding potential problems associated with these formulations. PMID:25902274

  9. Advanced infrared laser modulator development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheo, P. K.; Wagner, R.; Gilden, M.

    1984-01-01

    A parametric study was conducted to develop an electrooptic waveguide modulator for generating continuous tunable sideband power from an infrared CO2 laser. Parameters included were the waveguide configurations, microstrip dimensions device impedance, and effective dielectric constants. An optimum infrared laser modulator was established and was fabricated. This modulator represents the state-of-the-art integrated optical device, which has a three-dimensional topology to accommodate three lambda/4 step transformers for microwave impedance matching at both the input and output terminals. A flat frequency response of the device over 20 HGz or = 3 dB) was achieved. Maximum single sideband to carrier power greater than 1.2% for 20 W microwave input power at optical carrier wavelength of 10.6 microns was obtained.

  10. Targeting ALK in neuroblastoma--preclinical and clinical advancements.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Erica L; Mossé, Yael P

    2012-07-01

    Despite improvements in cancer therapies in the past 50 years, neuroblastoma remains a devastating clinical problem and a leading cause of childhood cancer deaths. Advances in treatments for children with high-risk neuroblastoma have, until recently, involved addition of cytotoxic therapy to dose-intensive regimens. In this era of targeted therapies, substantial efforts have been made to identify optimal targets for different types of cancer. The discovery of hereditary and somatic activating mutations in the oncogene ALK has now placed neuroblastoma among other cancers, such as melanoma and non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), which benefit from therapies with oncogene-specific small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Crizotinib, a small-molecule inhibitor of ALK, has transformed the landscape for the treatment of NSCLC harbouring ALK translocations and has demonstrated activity in preclinical models of ALK-driven neuroblastomas. However, inhibition of mutated ALK is complex when compared with translocated ALK and remains a therapeutic challenge. This Review discusses the biology of ALK in the development of neuroblastoma, preclinical and clinical progress with the use of ALK inhibitors and immunotherapy, challenges associated with resistance to such therapies and the steps being taken to overcome some of these hurdles.

  11. Artificial placenta: Recent advances and potential clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Metelo-Coimbra, Catarina; Roncon-Albuquerque, Roberto

    2016-06-01

    Lung immaturity remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in extremely premature infants. Positive-pressure mechanical ventilation, the method of choice for respiratory support in premature infants, frequently promotes by itself lung injury and a negative impact in the circulatory function. Extracorporeal lung support has been proposed for more than 50 years as a potential alternative to mechanical ventilation in the treatment of severe respiratory failure of extremely premature infants. Recent advances in this field included the development of miniaturized centrifugal pumps and polymethylpentene oxygenators, as well as the successful use of pump-assisted veno-venous extracorporeal gas exchange systems in experimental artificial placenta models. This review, which includes studies published from 1958 to 2015, presents an update on the artificial placenta concept and its potential clinical applications. Special focus will be devoted to the milestones achieved so far and to the limitations that must be overcome before its clinical application. Notwithstanding, the artificial placenta stands as a promising alternative to mechanical ventilation in extremely premature infants. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2016;51:643-649. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Symposium on research advances in clinical PET. Final performance report

    SciTech Connect

    J. Michael McGehee

    1992-01-01

    The Institute for Clinical PET and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) co-sponsored a symposium entitled 'Research in PET: International and Institutional Perspectives' that highlighted the activities of many leading investigators in the U.S. and throughout the world. Research programs at the DOE were discussed as were potential directions of PET research. International as well as institutional perspectives on PET research were presented. This symposium was successful in reaching those interested in research advances of clinical PET.

  13. ADVANCED HOT GAS FILTER DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    RICHARD A. WAGNER

    1998-09-04

    This report describes the fabrication and testing of continuous fiber ceramic composite (CFCC) based hot gas filters. The fabrication approach utilized a modified filament winding method that combined both continuous and chopped fibers into a novel microstructure. The work was divided into five primary tasks. In the first task, a preliminary set of compositions was fabricated in the form of open end tubes and characterized. The results of this task were used to identify the most promising compositions for sub-scale filter element fabrication and testing. In addition to laboratory measurements of permeability and strength, exposure testing in a coal combustion environment was performed to asses the thermo-chemical stability of the CFCC materials. Four candidate compositions were fabricated into sub-scale filter elements with integral flange and a closed end. Following the 250 hour exposure test in a circulating fluid bed combustor, the retained strength ranged from 70 t 145 percent of the as-fabricated strength. The post-test samples exhibited non-catastrophic failure behavior in contrast to the brittle failure exhibited by monolithic materials. Filter fabrication development continued in a filter improvement and cost reduction task that resulted in an improved fiber architecture, the production of a net shape flange, and an improved low cost bond. These modifications were incorporated into the process and used to fabricate 50 full-sized filter elements for testing in demonstration facilities in Karhula, Finland and at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) in Wilsonville, AL. After 581 hours of testing in the Karhula facility, the elements retained approximately 87 percent of their as-fabricated strength. In addition, mechanical response testing at Virginia Tech provided a further demonstration of the high level of strain tolerance of the vacuum wound filter elements. Additional testing in the M. W. Kellogg unit at the PSDF has accumulated over 1800 hours of

  14. Risk of discontinuation of Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Eve; Rémuzat, Cecile; Auquier, Pascal; Toumi, Mondher

    2016-01-01

    Objective Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) constitute a class of innovative products that encompasses gene therapy, somatic cell therapy, and tissue-engineered products (TEP). There is an increased investment of commercial and non-commercial sponsors in this field and a growing number of ATMPs randomized clinical trials (RCT) and patients enrolled in such trials. RCT generate data to prove the efficacy of a new therapy, but the discontinuation of RCTs wastes scarce resources. Our objective is to identify the number and characteristics of discontinued ATMPs trials in order to evaluate the rate of discontinuation. Methods We searched for ATMPs trials conducted between 1999 to June 2015 using three databases, which are Clinicaltrials.gov, the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP), and the EU Drug Regulating Authorities Clinical Trials (EudraCT). We selected the ATMPs trials after elimination of the duplicates. We identified the disease areas and the sponsors as commercial or non-commercial organizations. We classified ATMPs by type and trial status, that is, ongoing, completed, terminated, discontinued, and prematurely ended. Then, we calculated the rate of discontinuation. Results Between 1999 and June 2015, 143 withdrawn, terminated, or prematurely ended ATMPs clinical trials were identified. Between 1999 and June 2013, 474 ongoing and completed clinical trials were identified. Therefore, the rate of discontinuation of ATMPs trials is 23.18%, similar to that for non-ATMPs drugs in development. The probability of discontinuation is, respectively, 27.35, 16.28, and 16.34% for cell therapies, gene therapies, and TEP. The highest discontinuation rate is for oncology (43%), followed by cardiology (19.2%). It is almost the same for commercial and non-commercial sponsors; therefore, the discontinuation reason may not be financially driven. Conclusion No failure risk rate per development phase is available for ATMPs. The discontinuation rate may

  15. Development of advanced seal verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.; Kosten, Susan E.; Abushagur, Mustafa A.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop a technique to monitor and insure seal integrity with a sensor that has no active elements to burn-out during a long duration activity, such as a leakage test or especially during a mission in space. The original concept proposed is that by implementing fiber optic sensors, changes in the integrity of a seal can be monitored in real time and at no time should the optical fiber sensor fail. The electrical components which provide optical excitation and detection through the fiber are not part of the seal; hence, if these electrical components fail, they can be easily changed without breaking the seal. The optical connections required for the concept to work does present a functional problem to work out. The utility of the optical fiber sensor for seal monitoring should be general enough that the degradation of a seal can be determined before catastrophic failure occurs and appropriate action taken. Two parallel efforts were performed in determining the feasibility of using optical fiber sensors for seal verification. In one study, research on interferometric measurements of the mechanical response of the optical fiber sensors to seal integrity was studied. In a second study, the implementation of the optical fiber to a typical vacuum chamber was implemented and feasibility studies on microbend experiments in the vacuum chamber were performed. Also, an attempt was made to quantify the amount of pressure actually being applied to the optical fiber using finite element analysis software by Algor.

  16. Development of clinical practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Hollon, Steven D; Areán, Patricia A; Craske, Michelle G; Crawford, Kermit A; Kivlahan, Daniel R; Magnavita, Jeffrey J; Ollendick, Thomas H; Sexton, Thomas L; Spring, Bonnie; Bufka, Lynn F; Galper, Daniel I; Kurtzman, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are intended to improve mental, behavioral, and physical health by promoting clinical practices that are based on the best available evidence. The American Psychological Association (APA) is committed to generating patient-focused CPGs that are scientifically sound, clinically useful, and informative for psychologists, other health professionals, training programs, policy makers, and the public. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) 2011 standards for generating CPGs represent current best practices in the field. These standards involve multidisciplinary guideline development panels charged with generating recommendations based on comprehensive systematic reviews of the evidence. The IOM standards will guide the APA as it generates CPGs that can be used to inform the general public and the practice community regarding the benefits and harms of various treatment options. CPG recommendations are advisory rather than compulsory. When used appropriately, high-quality guidelines can facilitate shared decision making and identify gaps in knowledge.

  17. Challenges in Developing Clinical Workstation

    SciTech Connect

    Narayanan, Venkatesh; Vedula, Venumadhav

    2008-09-26

    Over the years, medical imaging has become very common and data intensive. New technology is needed to help visualize and analyze these large, complex data sets, especially in an acute care situation where time is of the essence. Also it is very important to present the data in an efficient and simple manner to aid the clinical decision making processes. There is a need for a clinical workstation that handles data from different modalities and performs the necessary post- processing operations on the data in order to enhance the image quality and improve the reliability of diagnosis. This paper briefly explains clinical workstation, emphasizing the requirements and challenges in design and architecture for the development of such systems.

  18. Advanced Electrical Materials and Component Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarze, Gene E.

    2003-01-01

    The primary means to develop advanced electrical components is to develop new and improved materials for magnetic components (transformers, inductors, etc.), capacitors, and semiconductor switches and diodes. This paper will give a description and status of the internal and external research sponsored by NASA Glenn Research Center on soft magnetic materials, dielectric materials and capacitors, and high quality silicon carbide (SiC) atomically smooth substrates. The rationale for and the benefits of developing advanced electrical materials and components for the PMAD subsystem and also for the total power system will be briefly discussed.

  19. Introducing Advanced Clinical Reasoning to an Adult Learning Disability Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Jois; Matthews, Alison

    2014-01-01

    The advanced clinical reasoning approach is widely adopted in speech and language therapy practice. This article reports on the introduction of the approach across a multidisciplinary adult learning disability service and staff reports on the impact of this initiative. Staff and team managers reported that the training had a positive impact on…

  20. Clinical implications of hepatitis B virus mutations: Recent advances

    PubMed Central

    Lazarevic, Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major cause of acute and chronic hepatitis, and of its long-term complications. It is the most variable among DNA viruses, mostly because of its unique life cycle which includes the activity of error-prone enzyme, reverse transcriptase, and the very high virion production per day. In last two decades, numerous research studies have shown that the speed of disease progression, reliability of diagnostic methods and the success of antiviral therapy and immunization are all influenced by genetic variability of this virus. It was shown that mutations in specific regions of HBV genome could be responsible for unwanted clinical outcomes or evasion of detection by diagnostic tools, thus making the monitoring for these mutations a necessity in proper evaluation of patients. The success of the vaccination programs has now been challenged by the discovery of mutant viruses showing amino acid substitutions in hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), which may lead to evasion of vaccine-induced immunity. However, the emergence of these mutations has not yet raised concern since it was shown that they develop slowly. Investigations of HBV genetic variability and clinical implications of specific mutations have resulted in significant advances over the past decade, particularly in regard to management of resistance to antiviral drugs. In the era of drugs with high genetic barrier for resistance, on-going monitoring for possible resistance is still essential since prolonged therapy is often necessary. Understanding the frequencies and clinical implications of viral mutations may contribute to improvement of diagnostic procedures, more proper planning of immunization programs and creating the most efficient therapeutic protocols. PMID:24976703

  1. Recent advances in dengue pathogenesis and clinical management.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Cameron P; McPherson, Kirsty; Van Vinh Chau, Nguyen; Hoai Tam, D T; Young, Paul; Mackenzie, Jason; Wills, Bridget

    2015-12-10

    This review describes and commentates on recent advances in the understanding of dengue pathogenesis and immunity, plus clinical research on vaccines and therapeutics. We expand specifically on the role of the dermis in dengue virus infection, the contribution of cellular and humoral immune responses to pathogenesis and immunity, NS1 and mechanisms of virus immune evasion. Additionally we review a series of therapeutic intervention trials for dengue, as well as recent clinical research aimed at improving clinical diagnosis, risk prediction and disease classification. PMID:26458808

  2. Ramucirumab: preclinical research and clinical development.

    PubMed

    Aprile, Giuseppe; Rijavec, Erika; Fontanella, Caterina; Rihawi, Karim; Grossi, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Ramucirumab (IMC-1121B, LY3009806), a fully humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the extracellular domain of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2), is a new therapeutic option that selectively inhibits the human VEGFR-2 with a much greater affinity than its natural ligands. Based on the promising results of both preclinical and early clinical studies, ramucirumab has been tested in different tumor types either alone or in combination with chemotherapy. While it has recently been granted its first US Food and Drug Administration approval for use as a single agent in patients with advanced or metastatic gastric cancer or gastroesophageal junction carcinoma, its role for metastatic breast cancer or advanced non-small-cell lung cancer is still debated. The aims of this review are to recall and discuss the most significant preclinical and clinical studies that led to the development of ramucirumab and to present the results of the randomized clinical trials that have tested its efficacy in different malignancies, including gastric and lung cancer.

  3. Clinical Assay Development Support - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI’s Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis and the Cancer Diagnosis Program announce a request for applications for the Clinical Assay Development Program (CADP) for investigators seeking clinical assay development and validation resources.

  4. Policy issues inherent in advanced technology development

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, P.D.

    1994-12-31

    In the development of advanced technologies, there are several forces which are involved in the success of the development of those technologies. In the overall development of new technologies, a sufficient number of these forces must be present and working in order to have a successful opportunity at developing, introducing and integrating into the marketplace a new technology. This paper discusses some of these forces and how they enter into the equation for success in advanced technology research, development, demonstration, commercialization and deployment. This paper limits itself to programs which are generally governmental funded, which in essence represent most of the technology development efforts that provide defense, energy and environmental technological products. Along with the identification of these forces are some suggestions as to how changes may be brought about to better ensure success in a long term to attempt to minimize time and financial losses.

  5. Translating Advances from the Basic Biology of Aging into Clinical Application

    PubMed Central

    Kirkland, James L.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, lifespan and healthspan have been extended in experimental animals using interventions that are potentially translatable into humans. A great deal of thought and work are needed beyond the usual steps in drug development to advance these findings into clinical application. Realistic pre-clinical and clinical trials paradigms need to be devised. Focusing on subjects with symptoms of age-related diseases or frailty or who are at imminent risk of developing these problems, measuring effects on short-term, clinically relevant outcomes, as opposed to long-term outcomes such as healthspan or lifespan, and developing biomarkers and outcome measures acceptable to regulatory agencies will be important. Research funding is a major roadblock, as is lack of investigators with combined expertise in the basic biology of aging, clinical geriatrics, and conducting investigational new drug clinical trials. Options are reviewed for developing a path from the bench to the bedside for interventions that target fundamental aging processes. PMID:23237984

  6. Advanced IGCC/Hydrogen Gas Turbine Development

    SciTech Connect

    York, William; Hughes, Michael; Berry, Jonathan; Russell, Tamara; Lau, Y. C.; Liu, Shan; Arnett, Michael; Peck, Arthur; Tralshawala, Nilesh; Weber, Joseph; Benjamin, Marc; Iduate, Michelle; Kittleson, Jacob; Garcia-Crespo, Andres; Delvaux, John; Casanova, Fernando; Lacy, Ben; Brzek, Brian; Wolfe, Chris; Palafox, Pepe; Ding, Ben; Badding, Bruce; McDuffie, Dwayne; Zemsky, Christine

    2015-07-30

    The objective of this program was to develop the technologies required for a fuel flexible (coal derived hydrogen or syngas) gas turbine for IGCC that met DOE turbine performance goals. The overall DOE Advanced Power System goal was to conduct the research and development (R&D) necessary to produce coal-based IGCC power systems with high efficiency, near-zero emissions, and competitive capital cost. To meet this goal, the DOE Fossil Energy Turbine Program had as an interim objective of 2 to 3 percentage points improvement in combined cycle (CC) efficiency. The final goal is 3 to 5 percentage points improvement in CC efficiency above the state of the art for CC turbines in IGCC applications at the time the program started. The efficiency goals were for NOx emissions of less than 2 ppm NOx (@15 % O2). As a result of the technologies developed under this program, the DOE goals were exceeded with a projected 8 point efficiency improvement. In addition, a new combustion technology was conceived of and developed to overcome the challenges of burning hydrogen and achieving the DOE’s NOx goal. This report also covers the developments under the ARRA-funded portion of the program that include gas turbine technology advancements for improvement in the efficiency, emissions, and cost performance of gas turbines for industrial applications with carbon capture and sequestration. Example applications could be cement plants, chemical plants, refineries, steel and aluminum plants, manufacturing facilities, etc. The DOE’s goal for more than 5 percentage point improvement in efficiency was met with cycle analyses performed for representative IGCC Steel Mill and IGCC Refinery applications. Technologies were developed in this program under the following areas: combustion, larger latter stage buckets, CMC and EBC, advanced materials and coatings, advanced configurations to reduce cooling, sealing and rotor purge flows, turbine aerodynamics, advanced sensors, advancements in first

  7. Vision 20/20: Automation and advanced computing in clinical radiation oncology

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Kevin L. Moiseenko, Vitali; Kagadis, George C.; McNutt, Todd R.; Mutic, Sasa

    2014-01-15

    This Vision 20/20 paper considers what computational advances are likely to be implemented in clinical radiation oncology in the coming years and how the adoption of these changes might alter the practice of radiotherapy. Four main areas of likely advancement are explored: cloud computing, aggregate data analyses, parallel computation, and automation. As these developments promise both new opportunities and new risks to clinicians and patients alike, the potential benefits are weighed against the hazards associated with each advance, with special considerations regarding patient safety under new computational platforms and methodologies. While the concerns of patient safety are legitimate, the authors contend that progress toward next-generation clinical informatics systems will bring about extremely valuable developments in quality improvement initiatives, clinical efficiency, outcomes analyses, data sharing, and adaptive radiotherapy.

  8. Development of advanced gas turbine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bannister, R.L.; Little, D.A.; Wiant, B.C.

    1993-11-01

    The objective of the Advanced Turbine Systems study is to investigate innovative natural gas fired cycle developments to determine the feasibility of achieving 60% efficiency within a 8-year time frame. The potential system was to be environmentally superior, cost competitive and adaptable to coal-derived fuels. Progress is described.

  9. Recent developments in clinical acupuncture.

    PubMed

    Tsuei, J J

    1983-01-01

    Recent developments in the field of clinical acupuncture in the USA and worldwide are reviewed. The discovery of beta-endorphin in support of acupuncture pain relief is discussed. Other neurotransmitters in relation to the mechanism of action of acupuncture are examined. The uses of acupuncture in treating functional disorders are listed and discussed. Supporting evidence from animal experimentation is examined. The electro-acupuncture according to Voll (EAV) system is introduced as a means to standardize the therapeutic effectiveness of acupuncture. With standardization of the therapeutic effectiveness of this procedure, the author sees acupuncture as a simple, economical and effective treatment modality.

  10. Bioinformatics Methods and Tools to Advance Clinical Care

    PubMed Central

    Lecroq, T.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives To summarize excellent current research in the field of Bioinformatics and Translational Informatics with application in the health domain and clinical care. Method We provide a synopsis of the articles selected for the IMIA Yearbook 2015, from which we attempt to derive a synthetic overview of current and future activities in the field. As last year, a first step of selection was performed by querying MEDLINE with a list of MeSH descriptors completed by a list of terms adapted to the section. Each section editor has evaluated separately the set of 1,594 articles and the evaluation results were merged for retaining 15 articles for peer-review. Results The selection and evaluation process of this Yearbook’s section on Bioinformatics and Translational Informatics yielded four excellent articles regarding data management and genome medicine that are mainly tool-based papers. In the first article, the authors present PPISURV a tool for uncovering the role of specific genes in cancer survival outcome. The second article describes the classifier PredictSNP which combines six performing tools for predicting disease-related mutations. In the third article, by presenting a high-coverage map of the human proteome using high resolution mass spectrometry, the authors highlight the need for using mass spectrometry to complement genome annotation. The fourth article is also related to patient survival and decision support. The authors present datamining methods of large-scale datasets of past transplants. The objective is to identify chances of survival. Conclusions The current research activities still attest the continuous convergence of Bioinformatics and Medical Informatics, with a focus this year on dedicated tools and methods to advance clinical care. Indeed, there is a need for powerful tools for managing and interpreting complex, large-scale genomic and biological datasets, but also a need for user-friendly tools developed for the clinicians in their

  11. Advances, practice, and clinical perspectives in high-throughput sequencing.

    PubMed

    Park, S-J; Saito-Adachi, M; Komiyama, Y; Nakai, K

    2016-07-01

    Remarkable advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies have fundamentally changed our understanding of the genetic and epigenetic molecular bases underlying human health and diseases. As these technologies continue to revolutionize molecular biology leading to fresh perspectives, it is imperative to thoroughly consider the enormous excitement surrounding the technologies by highlighting the characteristics of platforms and their global trends as well as potential benefits and limitations. To date, with a variety of platforms, the technologies provide an impressive range of applications, including sequencing of whole genomes and transcriptomes, identifying of genome modifications, and profiling of protein interactions. Because these applications produce a flood of data, simultaneous development of bioinformatics tools is required to efficiently deal with the big data and to comprehensively analyze them. This review covers the major achievements and performances of the high-throughput sequencing and further summarizes the characteristics of their applications along with introducing applicable bioinformatics tools. Moreover, a step-by-step procedure for a practical transcriptome analysis is described employing an analytical pipeline. Clinical perspectives with special consideration to human oral health and diseases are also covered. PMID:26602181

  12. Advanced Electrical Materials and Components Being Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarze, Gene E.

    2004-01-01

    All aerospace systems require power management and distribution (PMAD) between the energy and power source and the loads. The PMAD subsystem can be broadly described as the conditioning and control of unregulated power from the energy source and its transmission to a power bus for distribution to the intended loads. All power and control circuits for PMAD require electrical components for switching, energy storage, voltage-to-current transformation, filtering, regulation, protection, and isolation. Advanced electrical materials and component development technology is a key technology to increasing the power density, efficiency, reliability, and operating temperature of the PMAD. The primary means to develop advanced electrical components is to develop new and/or significantly improved electronic materials for capacitors, magnetic components, and semiconductor switches and diodes. The next important step is to develop the processing techniques to fabricate electrical and electronic components that exceed the specifications of presently available state-of-the-art components. The NASA Glenn Research Center's advanced electrical materials and component development technology task is focused on the following three areas: 1) New and/or improved dielectric materials for the development of power capacitors with increased capacitance volumetric efficiency, energy density, and operating temperature; 2) New and/or improved high-frequency, high-temperature soft magnetic materials for the development of transformers and inductors with increased power density, energy density, electrical efficiency, and operating temperature; 3) Packaged high-temperature, high-power density, high-voltage, and low-loss SiC diodes and switches.

  13. Prospects for the development of advanced reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Semenov, B.A.; Kupitz, J.; Cleveland, J.

    1992-12-31

    Energy supply is an important prerequisite for further socio-economic development, especially in developing countries where the per capita energy use is only a very small fraction of that in industrialized countries. Nuclear energy is an essentially unlimited energy resource with the potential to provide this energy in the form of electricity, district heat and process heat under environmentally acceptable conditions. However, this potential will be realized only if nuclear power plants can meet the challenges of increasingly demanding safety requirements, economic competitiveness and public acceptance. Worldwide a tremendous amount of experience has been accumulated during development, licensing, construction and operation of nuclear power reactors. The experience forms a sound basis for further improvements. Nuclear programmes in many countries are addressing the development of advanced reactors which are intended to have better economics, higher reliability and improved safety in order to overcome the current concerns of nuclear power. Advanced reactors now being developed could help to meet the demand for new plants in developed and developing countries, not only for electricity generation, but also for district heating, desalination and for process heat. The IAEA, as the only global international governmental organization dealing with nuclear power, promotes international information exchange and international co-operation between all countries with their own advanced nuclear power programmes and offers assistance to countries with an interest in exploratory or research programmes.

  14. Regulation of Clinical Trials with Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products in Germany.

    PubMed

    Renner, Matthias; Anliker, Brigitte; Sanzenbacher, Ralf; Schuele, Silke

    2015-01-01

    In the European Union, clinical trials for Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products are regulated at the national level, in contrast to the situation for a Marketing Authorisation Application, in which a centralised procedure is foreseen for these medicinal products. Although based on a common understanding regarding the regulatory requirement to be fulfilled before conduct of a clinical trial with an Advanced Therapy Investigational Medicinal Product, the procedures and partly the scientific requirements for approval of a clinical trial application differ between the European Union Member States. This chapter will thus give an overview about the path to be followed for a clinical trial application and the subsequent approval process for an Advanced Therapy Investigational Medicinal Product in Germany and will describe the role of the stakeholders that are involved. In addition, important aspects of manufacturing, quality control and non-clinical testing of Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products in the clinical development phase are discussed. Finally, current and future approaches for harmonisation of clinical trial authorisation between European Union Member States are summarised.

  15. Advanced launch system. Advanced development oxidizer turbopump program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-10-01

    On May 19, 1989, Pratt & Whitney was awarded contract NAS8-37595 by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville Alabama for an Advanced Development Program (ADP) to design, develop and demonstrate a highly reliable low cost, liquid oxygen turbopump for the Advanced Launch System (ALS). The ALS had an overall goal of reducing the cost of placing payloads in orbit by an order of magnitude. This goal would require a substantial reduction in life cycle costs, with emphasis on recurring costs, compared to current launch vehicles. Engine studies supporting these efforts were made for the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME). The emphasis on low cost required design simplification of components and subsystems such that the ground maintenance and test operations was minimized. The results of the Oxygen Turbopump ADP technology effort would provide data to be used in the STME. Initially the STME baseline was a gas generator cycle engine with a vacuum thrust level of 580,000 lbf. This was later increased to 650,000 lbf and the oxygen turbopump design approach was changed to reflect the new thrust level. It was intended that this ADP program be conducted in two phases. Phase 1, a basic phase, would encompass the preliminary design effort, and Phase II, an optional contract phase to cover design, fabrication and test evaluation of an oxygen turbopump at a component test facility at the NASA John C. Stennis Space Center in Mississippi. The basic phase included preliminary design and analysis, evaluation of low cost concepts, and evaluation of fabrication techniques. The option phase included design of the pump and support hardware, analysis of the final configuration to ensure design integrity, fabrication of hardware to demonstrate low cost, DVS Testing of hardware to verify the design, assembly of the turbopump and full scale turbopump testing. In December 1990, the intent of this ADP to support the design and development was

  16. Advanced launch system. Advanced development oxidizer turbopump program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    On May 19, 1989, Pratt & Whitney was awarded contract NAS8-37595 by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville Alabama for an Advanced Development Program (ADP) to design, develop and demonstrate a highly reliable low cost, liquid oxygen turbopump for the Advanced Launch System (ALS). The ALS had an overall goal of reducing the cost of placing payloads in orbit by an order of magnitude. This goal would require a substantial reduction in life cycle costs, with emphasis on recurring costs, compared to current launch vehicles. Engine studies supporting these efforts were made for the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME). The emphasis on low cost required design simplification of components and subsystems such that the ground maintenance and test operations was minimized. The results of the Oxygen Turbopump ADP technology effort would provide data to be used in the STME. Initially the STME baseline was a gas generator cycle engine with a vacuum thrust level of 580,000 lbf. This was later increased to 650,000 lbf and the oxygen turbopump design approach was changed to reflect the new thrust level. It was intended that this ADP program be conducted in two phases. Phase 1, a basic phase, would encompass the preliminary design effort, and Phase II, an optional contract phase to cover design, fabrication and test evaluation of an oxygen turbopump at a component test facility at the NASA John C. Stennis Space Center in Mississippi. The basic phase included preliminary design and analysis, evaluation of low cost concepts, and evaluation of fabrication techniques. The option phase included design of the pump and support hardware, analysis of the final configuration to ensure design integrity, fabrication of hardware to demonstrate low cost, DVS Testing of hardware to verify the design, assembly of the turbopump and full scale turbopump testing. In December 1990, the intent of this ADP to support the design and development was

  17. Advanced battery development in the US

    SciTech Connect

    Shimotake, H.; Nelson, P.A.

    1984-01-01

    Batteries for load-leveling and electric-vehicle applications are under development in the United States. The most difficult requirements for these applications are long cycle life, high power density, and low cost. Steady progress is being made in developing advanced batteries. The US Department of Energy is sponsoring development of sodium-sulfur, zinc-bromine, zinc-chloride, and aluminum-air batteries. Exploratory research is being conducted on a variety of cell systems, such as lithium-metal sulfide, alkali metal-sulfur, glass electrolyte, and low-temperature organic electrolyte. This paper reviews the US government effort in the development of advanced batteries and discusses some of the key systems.

  18. Advanced PPA Reactor and Process Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Raymond; Aske, James; Abney, Morgan B.; Miller, Lee A.; Greenwood, Zachary

    2012-01-01

    Design and development of a second generation Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) reactor is currently underway as part of NASA s Atmosphere Revitalization Resource Recovery effort. By recovering up to 75% of the hydrogen currently lost as methane in the Sabatier reactor effluent, the PPA helps to minimize life support resupply costs for extended duration missions. To date, second generation PPA development has demonstrated significant technology advancements over the first generation device by doubling the methane processing rate while, at the same time, more than halving the required power. One development area of particular interest to NASA system engineers is fouling of the PPA reactor with carbonaceous products. As a mitigation plan, NASA MSFC has explored the feasibility of using an oxidative plasma based upon metabolic CO2 to regenerate the reactor window and gas inlet ports. The results and implications of this testing are addressed along with the advanced PPA reactor development work.

  19. Advanced Technology Development for Stirling Convertors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thieme, Lanny G.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    2004-01-01

    A high-efficiency Stirling Radioisotope generator (SRG) for use on potential NASA space missions is being developed by the Department of Energy, Lockheed Martin, Stirling Technology Company, and NASA Glenn Research Center. GRC is also developing advanced technology for Stirling converters, aimed at substantially improving the specific power and efficiency of the converter.The status and results to date will be discussed in this paper.

  20. Advanced Cell Development and Degradation Studies

    SciTech Connect

    J. E. O'Brien; C. M. Stoots; J. S. Herring; R. C. O'Brien; K. G. Condie; M. Sohal; G. K. Housley; J. J. Hartvigsen; D. Larsen; G. Tao; B. Yildiz; V. Sharma; P. Singh; N. Petigny; T. L. Cable

    2010-09-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been researching the application of solid-oxide electrolysis cells for large-scale hydrogen production from steam over a temperature range of 800 to 900ºC. From 2003 – 2009, this work was sponsored by the DOE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI). Starting in 2010, the HTE research program has been sponsored by the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) program. HTSE research priorities in FY10 are centered on understanding and reducing cell and stack performance degradation to an acceptable level to advance the technology readiness level of HTSE and to justify further large-scale demonstration activities. This report provides a summary of our FY10 experimental program, which has been focused on advanced cell and stack development and degradation studies. Advanced cell and stack development activities are under way at five technology partners: MSRI, Versa Power, Ceramatec, NASA Glenn, and St. Gobain. Performance evaluation of the advanced technology cells and stacks has been performed by the technology partners, by MIT and the University of Connecticut and at the INL HTE Laboratory. Summaries of these development activities and test results are presented.

  1. Clinical utility of ramucirumab in advanced gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Chan, Matthew Mk; Sjoquist, Katrin M; Zalcberg, John R

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer is currently the third most common cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Prognosis remains poor with most patients presenting with advanced or metastatic disease. A better understanding of angiogenesis has led to the investigation of drugs that inhibit the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway including anti-VEGF antibody therapy (eg, bevacizumab), inhibitors of angiogenic receptor tyrosine kinases (eg, sunitinib, sorafenib, apatinib, regorafenib), and inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs) (eg, ramucirumab). Ramucirumab, a VEGFR-2 inhibitor, is the first anti-angiogenic agent approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in the treatment of advanced gastric cancers. This review will focus on the clinical utility and potential use of ramucirumab in advanced gastric cancer.

  2. Technological advances in perioperative monitoring: Current concepts and clinical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Chilkoti, Geetanjali; Wadhwa, Rachna; Saxena, Ashok Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Minimal mandatory monitoring in the perioperative period recommended by Association of Anesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland and American Society of Anesthesiologists are universally acknowledged and has become an integral part of the anesthesia practice. The technologies in perioperative monitoring have advanced, and the availability and clinical applications have multiplied exponentially. Newer monitoring techniques include depth of anesthesia monitoring, goal-directed fluid therapy, transesophageal echocardiography, advanced neurological monitoring, improved alarm system and technological advancement in objective pain assessment. Various factors that need to be considered with the use of improved monitoring techniques are their validation data, patient outcome, safety profile, cost-effectiveness, awareness of the possible adverse events, knowledge of technical principle and ability of the convenient routine handling. In this review, we will discuss the new monitoring techniques in anesthesia, their advantages, deficiencies, limitations, their comparison to the conventional methods and their effect on patient outcome, if any.

  3. Advanced Technology Development for Stirling Convertors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thieme, Lanny G.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    2004-01-01

    A high-efficiency Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG) for use on potential NASA Space Science missions is being developed by the Department of Energy, Lockheed Martin, Stirling Technology Company, and NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). These missions may include providing spacecraft onboard electric power for deep space missions or power for unmanned Mars rovers. GRC is also developing advanced technology for Stirling convertors, aimed at substantially improving the specific power and efficiency of the convertor and the overall power system. Performance and mass improvement goals have been established for second- and thirdgeneration Stirling radioisotope power systems. Multiple efforts are underway to achieve these goals, both in-house at GRC and under various grants and contracts. The status and results to date for these efforts will be discussed in this paper. Cleveland State University (CSU) is developing a multi-dimensional Stirling computational fluid dynamics code, capable of modeling complete convertors. A 2-D version of the code is now operational, and validation efforts at both CSU and the University of Minnesota are complementing the code development. A screening of advanced superalloy, refractory metal alloy, and ceramic materials has been completed, and materials have been selected for creep and joining characterization as part of developing a high-temperature heater head. A breadboard characterization is underway for an advanced controller using power electronics for active power factor control with a goal of eliminating the heavy tuning capacitors that are typically needed to achieve near unity power factors. Key Stirling developments just initiated under recent NRA (NASA Research Announcement) awards will also be discussed. These include a lightweight convertor to be developed by Sunpower Inc. and an advanced microfabricated regenerator to be done by CSU.

  4. Advanced Microgravity Acceleration Measurement Systems Being Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sicker, Ronald J.; Kacpura, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    The Advanced Microgravity Acceleration Measurement Systems (AMAMS) project at the NASA Glenn Research Center is part of the Instrument Technology Development program to develop advanced sensor systems. The primary focus of the AMAMS project is to develop microelectromechanical (MEMS) acceleration sensor systems to replace existing electromechanical-sensor-based systems presently used to assess relative gravity levels aboard spacecraft. These systems are used in characterizing both vehicle and payload responses to low-gravity vibroacoustic environments. The collection of microgravity acceleration data has cross-disciplinary utility to the microgravity life and physical sciences and the structural dynamics communities. The inherent advantages of semiconductor-based systems are reduced size, mass, and power consumption, while providing enhanced stability.

  5. Advanced Gas Turbine Powertrain System Development Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helms, H. E.

    1980-01-01

    A progress report on the Advanced Gas Turbine Powertrain System Development Project being performed under contract from NASA Lewis is presented. The goals and objectives of the project are described noting that funds from the DOE, Office of Transportation Programs are used to sponsor the project. Among the demonstration objectives are attaining a fuel economy of 42.5 miles per gallon in a 1985 Pontiac Phoenix, multifuel capability, and emission levels within the federal standards. Design objectives examined include competitive reliability and life as well as competitive initial and life cycle costs. Finally, it is stressed that high risk and key elements in this advanced powertrain project are the development of ceramic turbine engine components and the aerodynamic development of small size turbine components.

  6. Development of Advanced Ceramic Manufacturing Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Pujari, V.K.

    2001-04-05

    Advanced structural ceramics are enabling materials for new transportation engine systems that have the potential for significantly reducing energy consumption and pollution in automobiles and heavy vehicles. Ceramic component reliability and performance have been demonstrated in previous U.S. DOE initiatives, but high manufacturing cost was recognized as a major barrier to commercialization. Norton Advanced Ceramics (NAC), a division of Saint-Gobain Industrial Ceramics, Inc. (SGIC), was selected to perform a major Advanced Ceramics Manufacturing Technology (ACMT) Program. The overall objectives of NAC's program were to design, develop, and demonstrate advanced manufacturing technology for the production of ceramic exhaust valves for diesel engines. The specific objectives were (1) to reduce the manufacturing cost by an order of magnitude, (2) to develop and demonstrate process capability and reproducibility, and (3) to validate ceramic valve performance, durability, and reliability. The program was divided into four major tasks: Component Design and Specification, Component Manufacturing Technology Development, Inspection and Testing, and Process Demonstration. A high-power diesel engine valve for the DDC Series 149 engine was chosen as the demonstration part for this program. This was determined to be an ideal component type to demonstrate cost-effective process enhancements, the beneficial impact of advanced ceramics on transportation systems, and near-term commercialization potential. The baseline valve material was NAC's NT451 SiAION. It was replaced, later in the program, by an alternate silicon nitride composition (NT551), which utilized a lower cost raw material and a simplified powder-processing approach. The material specifications were defined based on DDC's engine requirements, and the initial and final component design tasks were completed.

  7. Clinical ladder to professional advancement program. An evolutionary process.

    PubMed

    Goodloe, L R; Sampson, R C; Munjas, B; Whitworth, T R; Lantz, C D; Tangley, E; Miller, W

    1996-06-01

    Since the early 1970s, clinical ladder programs have been a method of defining, recognizing, and rewarding nursing practice. As clinical practice in an institution grows and evolves, so must the program that supports the development of the practitioner. An in-depth evaluation of one clinical ladder program was conducted to determine if it was reflective of current practice. The authors discuss the method of evaluation, findings, and the revised program.

  8. Mentoring for retention and advancement in the multigenerational clinical laboratory.

    PubMed

    Laudicina, R J

    2001-01-01

    Retention of recent graduates and other laboratory practitioners in the workplace will play a key role in addressing current and projected shortages of clinical laboratory scientists (CLS) and technicians (CLT). In addition, with overrepresentation of the aging Baby Boomer generation in laboratory supervisory and management positions, it is crucial not only to retain younger practitioners, but to prepare them for assuming these important functions in the future. Mentoring, a practice commonly employed in other professions, is widely considered to be useful in employee retention and career advancement. Mentoring has probably been used in the clinical laboratory profession, but has not been well documented. In the clinical laboratory environment, potential mentors are in the Veteran and Baby Boomer generations, and new practitioners who could benefit from mentoring are in Generation X. Generational differences among these groups may present challenges to the use of mentoring. This article will attempt to provide a better understanding of generational differences and show how mentoring can be applied in the setting of the clinical laboratory in order to increase retention and promote career advancement of younger practitioners. A panel of five laboratory managers provided examples of mentoring strategies. Definitions, benefits, and examples of mentoring are addressed in the accompanying article, "Passing the Torch: Mentoring the Next Generation of Laboratory Professionals". PMID:15633495

  9. Mentoring for retention and advancement in the multigenerational clinical laboratory.

    PubMed

    Laudicina, R J

    2001-01-01

    Retention of recent graduates and other laboratory practitioners in the workplace will play a key role in addressing current and projected shortages of clinical laboratory scientists (CLS) and technicians (CLT). In addition, with overrepresentation of the aging Baby Boomer generation in laboratory supervisory and management positions, it is crucial not only to retain younger practitioners, but to prepare them for assuming these important functions in the future. Mentoring, a practice commonly employed in other professions, is widely considered to be useful in employee retention and career advancement. Mentoring has probably been used in the clinical laboratory profession, but has not been well documented. In the clinical laboratory environment, potential mentors are in the Veteran and Baby Boomer generations, and new practitioners who could benefit from mentoring are in Generation X. Generational differences among these groups may present challenges to the use of mentoring. This article will attempt to provide a better understanding of generational differences and show how mentoring can be applied in the setting of the clinical laboratory in order to increase retention and promote career advancement of younger practitioners. A panel of five laboratory managers provided examples of mentoring strategies. Definitions, benefits, and examples of mentoring are addressed in the accompanying article, "Passing the Torch: Mentoring the Next Generation of Laboratory Professionals".

  10. Tremelimumab: research and clinical development

    PubMed Central

    Comin-Anduix, Begoña; Escuin-Ordinas, Helena; Ibarrondo, Francisco Javier

    2016-01-01

    The immune checkpoint therapy is a relatively recent strategy that aims to tweak the immune system to effectively attack cancer cells. The understanding of the immune responses and their regulation at the intracellular level and the development of fully humanized monoclonal antibodies are the pillars of an approach that could elicit durable clinical responses and even remission in some patients with cancer. Most of the immune checkpoints that regulate the T-cell responses (activation and inhibition) operate through proteins present on the cytoplasmic membrane of the immune cells. Therefore, specific antibodies capable of blocking the inhibitory signals should lead to unrestrained immune responses that supersede the inhibitory mechanisms, which are naturally present in the tumor microenviroment. The best-known and most successful targets for immune checkpoint therapy are the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 and programmed cell death-1 coreceptors. Tremelimumab (CP-675,206) is a fully humanized monoclonal antibody specific for cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4, which has been successfully used to treat patients with metastatic melanoma and some other cancers. Although still a work in progress, the use of tremelimumab as an immune checkpoint therapeutic agent is a promising approach alone or in combination with other anticancer drugs. Here, we review the use of this antibody in a number of clinical trials against solid tumors. PMID:27042127

  11. Developing clinical trials for biosimilars.

    PubMed

    Bui, Lynne A; Taylor, Carrie

    2014-02-01

    Biosimilars offer the prospect of providing efficacious and safe treatment options for many diseases, including cancer, while potentially increasing accessibility with greater affordability relative to biologics. Because biologics are large, complex molecules that cannot be exactly duplicated, biosimilars cannot be considered "generic" versions of biologic drugs. This review will examine important considerations for biosimilar clinical trials. Since the aim of biosimilar manufacturing is to produce a molecule highly similar to the reference biologic, a comparability exercise is needed to demonstrate similarity with the reference biologic product based on physicochemical characterization. In vitro analytical studies and in vivo studies as well as pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) assessments also are conducted. Lastly, because it may not be possible to fully characterize a biosimilar in relation to its reference biologic, robust pharmacovigilance strategies are utilized to ensure that any matters in regard to safety can be monitored. Other key topics will be discussed, including regulatory guidance for the evaluation of biosimilars, clinical trial design considerations, and whether data submitted for the approval of a biosimilar for one indication can be extrapolated to other indications for which the reference biologic is approved. European and Canadian experiences in biosimilar development will be reviewed. PMID:24560024

  12. Solargenix Energy Advanced Parabolic Trough Development

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, R. C.; Hale, M. J.

    2005-11-01

    The Solargenix Advanced Trough Development Project was initiated in the Year 2000 with the support of the DOE CSP Program and, more recently, with the added support of the Nevada Southwest Energy Partnership. Parabolic trough plants are the most mature solar power technology, but no large-scale plants have been built in over a decade. Given this lengthy lull in deployment, our first Project objective was development of improved trough technology for near-term deployment, closely patterned after the best of the prior-generation troughs. The second objective is to develop further improvements in next-generation trough technology that will lead to even larger reductions in the cost of the delivered energy. To date, this Project has successfully developed an advanced trough, which is being deployed on a 1-MW plant in Arizona and will soon be deployed in a 64-MW plant in Nevada. This advanced trough offers a 10% increase in performance and over an 20% decrease in cost, relative to prior-generation troughs.

  13. Solar Concentrator Advanced Development Program, Task 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Solar dynamic power generation has been selected by NASA to provide power for the space station. Solar dynamic concentrator technology has been demonstrated for terrestrial applications but has not been developed for space applications. The object of the Solar Concentrator Advanced Development program is to develop the technology of solar concentrators which would be used on the space station. The first task of this program was to develop conceptual concentrator designs and perform trade-off studies and to develop a materials data base and perform material selection. Three unique concentrator concepts; Truss Hex, Spline Radial Panel and Domed Fresnel, were developed and evaluated against weighted trade criteria. The Truss Hex concept was recommended for the space station. Materials data base development demonstrated that several material systems are capable of withstanding extended periods of atomic oxygen exposure without undesirable performance degradation. Descriptions of the conceptual designs and materials test data are included.

  14. Clinical Trial Results Vary Widely, But Always Advance Research | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Clinical Trials Clinical Trial Results Vary Widely, But Always Advance Research Past ... very emotional." Should You Be Interested in a Clinical Trial People volunteer to take part in clinical trials ...

  15. Coronary Stents: The Impact of Technological Advances on Clinical Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mennuni, Marco G; Pagnotta, Paolo A; Stefanini, Giulio G

    2016-02-01

    Percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) were proposed in the late 1970s as an alternative to surgical coronary artery bypass grafting for the treatment of coronary artery disease. Important technological progress has been made since. Balloon angioplasty was replaced by bare metal stents, which allowed to permanently scaffold the coronary vessel avoiding acute recoil and abrupt occlusion. Thereafter, the introduction of early generation drug-eluting stents (DES) has significantly improved clinical outcomes, primarily by markedly reducing the risk of restenosis. New generation DES with thinner stent struts, novel durable or biodegradable polymer coatings, and new limus antiproliferative agents, have further improved upon the safety and efficacy profile of early generation DES. The present article aims to review the impact of technological advances on clinical outcomes in the field of PCI with coronary stents, and to provide a brief overview on clinical margins of improvement and unmet needs of available DES.

  16. Development of advanced fuel cell system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gitlow, B.; Meyer, A. P.; Bell, W. F.; Martin, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted continuing the development effort to improve the weight, life, and performance characteristics of hydrogen-oxygen alkaline fuel cells for advanced power systems. These advanced technology cells operate with passive water removal which contributes to a lower system weight and extended operating life. Endurance evaluation of two single cells and two, two-cell plaques was continued. Three new test articles were fabricated and tested. A single cell completed 7038 hours of endurance testing. This cell incorporated a Fybex matrix, hybrid-frame, PPF anode, and a 90 Au/10 Pt cathode. This configuration was developed to extend cell life. Two cell plaques with dedicated flow fields and manifolds for all fluids did not exhibit the cell-to-cell electrolyte transfer that limited the operating life of earlier multicell plaques.

  17. Advanced 80 We Stirling Convertor Development Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, J. Gary; Carroll, Cliff; Penswick, L. B.

    2005-02-01

    This paper presents progress on the Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) being developed by Sunpower and Boeing/Rocketdyne under NASA NRA funding. The ASC will use a high temperature heater head to allow for operation at 850 °C. The ASC is projected to have an efficiency approaching 40% (AC electrical out/ heat in) when operating at a temperature ratio of 3.0, and to have a convertor specific power of 90 We/kg (AC). An early developmental unit, the Frequency Test Bed (FTB) convertor, has already demonstrated 36% efficiency (based on AC electrical out) at this temperature ratio. The ASC is being developed for potential use in advanced radioisotope space power systems. The increased efficiency of this Stirling convertor compared to RTGs, would reduce the required amount of Plutonium fuel by a factor of approximately 5.

  18. Ganetespib: research and clinical development

    PubMed Central

    Jhaveri, Komal; Modi, Shanu

    2015-01-01

    Under stressful conditions, the heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) molecular chaperone protects cellular proteins (client proteins) from degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. HSP90 expression is upregulated in cancers, and this contributes to the malignant phenotype of increased proliferation and decreased apoptosis and maintenance of metastatic potential via conservation of its client proteins, including human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, anaplastic lymphoma kinase, androgen receptor, estrogen receptor, Akt, Raf-1, cell cycle proteins, and B-cell lymphoma 2 among others. Hence, inhibition of HSP90 leads to the simultaneous degradation of its many clients, thereby disrupting multiple oncogenic signaling cascades. This has sparked tremendous interest in the development of HSP90 inhibitors as an innovative anticancer strategy. Based on the wealth of compelling data from preclinical studies, a number of HSP90 inhibitors have entered into clinical testing. However, despite enormous promise and anticancer activity reported to date, none of the HSP90 inhibitors in development has been approved for cancer therapy, and the full potential of this class of agents is yet to be realized. This article provides a review on ganetespib, a small molecule HSP90 inhibitor that is currently under evaluation in a broad range of cancer types in combination with other therapeutic agents with the hope of further enhancing its efficacy and overcoming drug resistance. Based on our current understanding of the complex HSP90 machinery combined with the emerging data from these key clinical trials, ganetespib has the potential to be the first-in-class HSP90 inhibitor to be approved as a new anticancer therapy. PMID:26244021

  19. Recent advances towards the clinical application of DNA vaccines.

    PubMed

    Bins, A D; van den Berg, J H; Oosterhuis, K; Haanen, J B A G

    2013-04-01

    DNA vaccination is an attractive method for therapeutic vaccination against intracellular pathogens and cancer. This review provides an introduction into the DNA vaccination field and discusses the pre-clinical successes and most interesting clinical achievements thus far. Furthermore, general attributes, mechanism of action and safety of DNA vaccination will be discussed. Since clinical results with DNA vaccination so far show room for improvement, possibilities to improve the delivery and immunogenicity of DNA vaccines are reviewed. In the coming years, these new developments should show whether DNA vaccination is able to induce clinically relevant responses in patients.

  20. A Bright Future for Precision Medicine: Advances in Fluorescent Chemical Probe Design and Their Clinical Application.

    PubMed

    Garland, Megan; Yim, Joshua J; Bogyo, Matthew

    2016-01-21

    The Precision Medicine Initiative aims to use advances in basic and clinical research to develop therapeutics that selectively target and kill cancer cells. Under the same doctrine of precision medicine, there is an equally important need to visualize these diseased cells to enable diagnosis, facilitate surgical resection, and monitor therapeutic response. Therefore, there is a great opportunity for chemists to develop chemically tractable probes that can image cancer in vivo. This review focuses on recent advances in the development of optical probes, as well as their current and future applications in the clinical management of cancer. The progress in probe development described here suggests that optical imaging is an important and rapidly developing field of study that encourages continued collaboration among chemists, biologists, and clinicians to further refine these tools for interventional surgical imaging, as well as for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. PMID:26933740

  1. Advanced Space Radiation Detector Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Fralick, Gustave C.

    2013-01-01

    The advanced space radiation detector development team at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has the goal of developing unique, more compact radiation detectors that provide improved real-time data on space radiation. The team has performed studies of different detector designs using a variety of combinations of solid-state detectors, which allow higher sensitivity to radiation in a smaller package and operate at lower voltage than traditional detectors. Integration of multiple solid-state detectors will result in an improved detector system in comparison to existing state-of-the-art instruments for the detection and monitoring of the space radiation field for deep space and aerospace applications.

  2. Advanced Space Radiation Detector Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Fralick, Gustave C.

    2013-01-01

    The advanced space radiation detector development team at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has the goal of developing unique, more compact radiation detectors that provide improved real-time data on space radiation. The team has performed studies of different detector designs using a variety of combinations of solid-state detectors, which allow higher sensitivity to radiation in a smaller package and operate at lower voltage than traditional detectors. Integration of multiple solid-state detectors will result in an improved detector system in comparison to existing state-of-the-art instruments for the detection and monitoring of the space radiation field for deep space and aerospace applications.

  3. Astronomy Development in Nigeria: Challenges and Advances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okwe Chibueze, James

    2015-01-01

    Nigeria evidently has huge potentials to develop a strong astronomy community. Much of the strength lies in the great number of intelligent students with the potential of becoming good astronomers. Sadly, astronomy development in Nigeria has stagnated in the past decades owing to poor funding and/or indifferent attitude of the funding bodies, research-unfriendly environment, and non-existence of facilities. Currently, efforts toward fuelling advancement in astronomy are focused on building 'critical mass', establishing collaborations with universities/astronomy institutes outside Nigeria, converting out-of-use communication antennas into radio telescopes, and acquiring out-of-use telescopes for educational and low-level research purposes.

  4. Advanced Space Radiation Detector Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Fralick, Gustave C.

    2013-01-01

    The advanced space radiation detector development team at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has the goal of developing unique, more compact radiation detectors that provide improved real-time data on space radiation. The team has performed studies of different detector designs using a variety of combinations of solid-state detectors, which allow higher sensitivity to radiation in a smaller package and operate at lower voltage than traditional detectors. Integration of multiple solid-state detectors will result in an improved detector system in comparison to existing state-of-the-art (SOA) instruments for the detection and monitoring of the space radiation field for deep space and aerospace applications.

  5. Recent Advances in Clinical Natural Language Processing in Support of Semantic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mowery, D.; South, B. R.; Kvist, M.; Dalianis, H.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives We present a review of recent advances in clinical Natural Language Processing (NLP), with a focus on semantic analysis and key subtasks that support such analysis. Methods We conducted a literature review of clinical NLP research from 2008 to 2014, emphasizing recent publications (2012-2014), based on PubMed and ACL proceedings as well as relevant referenced publications from the included papers. Results Significant articles published within this time-span were included and are discussed from the perspective of semantic analysis. Three key clinical NLP subtasks that enable such analysis were identified: 1) developing more efficient methods for corpus creation (annotation and de-identification), 2) generating building blocks for extracting meaning (morphological, syntactic, and semantic subtasks), and 3) leveraging NLP for clinical utility (NLP applications and infrastructure for clinical use cases). Finally, we provide a reflection upon most recent developments and potential areas of future NLP development and applications. Conclusions There has been an increase of advances within key NLP subtasks that support semantic analysis. Performance of NLP semantic analysis is, in many cases, close to that of agreement between humans. The creation and release of corpora annotated with complex semantic information models has greatly supported the development of new tools and approaches. Research on non-English languages is continuously growing. NLP methods have sometimes been successfully employed in real-world clinical tasks. However, there is still a gap between the development of advanced resources and their utilization in clinical settings. A plethora of new clinical use cases are emerging due to established health care initiatives and additional patient-generated sources through the extensive use of social media and other devices. PMID:26293867

  6. Advanced Energy Industries, Inc. SEGIS developments.

    SciTech Connect

    Scharf, Mesa P.; Bower, Ward Isaac; Mills-Price, Michael A.; Sena-Henderson, Lisa; David, Carolyn; Akhil, Abbas Ali; Kuszmaul, Scott S.; Gonzalez, Sigifredo

    2012-03-01

    The Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems (SEGIS) initiative is a three-year, three-stage project that includes conceptual design and market analysis (Stage 1), prototype development/testing (Stage 2), and commercialization (Stage 3). Projects focus on system development of solar technologies, expansion of intelligent renewable energy applications, and connecting large-scale photovoltaic (PV) installations into the electric grid. As documented in this report, Advanced Energy Industries, Inc. (AE), its partners, and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) successfully collaborated to complete the final stage of the SEGIS initiative, which has guided new technology development and development of methodologies for unification of PV and smart-grid technologies. The combined team met all deliverables throughout the three-year program and commercialized a broad set of the developed technologies.

  7. New hepatitis C therapies in clinical development

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    With the current standard of care for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C, a combination of pegylated interferon alfa and ribavirin, sustained virologic response rates can be achieved in approximately 50% of patients only. Improved understanding of the viral life cycle has led to the identification of numerous potential targets for novel, direct-acting antiviral compounds. Inhibitors of the NS3/4A protease are currently the most advanced in clinical development. Recently completed phase 3 studies of the two protease inhibitors telaprevir and boceprevir, each given in combination with standard of care, yielded sustained virologic response rates in the range of 66-75% in treatment-naive patients and 59-66% in treatment-experienced patients with HCV genotype 1 infection. Studies of second-generation protease inhibitors, with the potential advantage of improved potency, drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics profile, are already underway. Inhibitors of the HCV NS5A protein and NS5B polymerase are potentially active across different HCV genotypes and have shown promising antiviral efficacy in early clinical studies. Other emerging mechanisms include silymarin components and inhibitors of cell proteins required for HCV replication. While improved formulations of current HCV therapies are also being developed, future hopes lie on the combination of direct-acting antivirals with the eventual possibility of interferon-free treatment regimens. PMID:21813371

  8. The advanced software development workstation project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fridge, Ernest M., III; Pitman, Charles L.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Software Development Workstation (ASDW) task is researching and developing the technologies required to support Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE) with the emphasis on those advanced methods, tools, and processes that will be of benefit to support all NASA programs. Immediate goals are to provide research and prototype tools that will increase productivity, in the near term, in projects such as the Software Support Environment (SSE), the Space Station Control Center (SSCC), and the Flight Analysis and Design System (FADS) which will be used to support the Space Shuttle and Space Station Freedom. Goals also include providing technology for development, evolution, maintenance, and operations. The technologies under research and development in the ASDW project are targeted to provide productivity enhancements during the software life cycle phase of enterprise and information system modeling, requirements generation and analysis, system design and coding, and system use and maintenance. On-line user's guides will assist users in operating the developed information system with knowledge base expert assistance.

  9. High Temperature Membrane & Advanced Cathode Catalyst Development

    SciTech Connect

    Protsailo, Lesia

    2006-04-20

    Current project consisted of three main phases and eighteen milestones. Short description of each phase is given below. Table 1 lists program milestones. Phase 1--High Temperature Membrane and Advanced Catalyst Development. New polymers and advanced cathode catalysts were synthesized. The membranes and the catalysts were characterized and compared against specifications that are based on DOE program requirements. The best-in-class membranes and catalysts were downselected for phase 2. Phase 2--Catalyst Coated Membrane (CCM) Fabrication and Testing. Laboratory scale catalyst coated membranes (CCMs) were fabricated and tested using the down-selected membranes and catalysts. The catalysts and high temperature membrane CCMs were tested and optimized. Phase 3--Multi-cell stack fabrication. Full-size CCMs with the down-selected and optimized high temperature membrane and catalyst were fabricated. The catalyst membrane assemblies were tested in full size cells and multi-cell stack.

  10. Laser light scattering instrument advanced technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, J. F.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this advanced technology development (ATD) project has been to provide sturdy, miniaturized laser light scattering (LLS) instrumentation for use in microgravity experiments. To do this, we assessed user requirements, explored the capabilities of existing and prospective laser light scattering hardware, and both coordinated and participated in the hardware and software advances needed for a flight hardware instrument. We have successfully breadboarded and evaluated an engineering version of a single-angle glove-box instrument which uses solid state detectors and lasers, along with fiber optics, for beam delivery and detection. Additionally, we have provided the specifications and written verification procedures necessary for procuring a miniature multi-angle LLS instrument which will be used by the flight hardware project which resulted from this work and from this project's interaction with the laser light scattering community.

  11. NASA's Space Launch System Advanced Booster Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Kimberly F.; Crumbly, Christopher M.; May, Todd A.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is making progress toward delivering a new capability for human space flight and scientific missions beyond Earth orbit. NASA is executing this development within flat budgetary guidelines by using existing engines assets and heritage technology to ready an initial 70 metric ton (t) lift capability for launch in 2017, and then employing a block upgrade approach to evolve a 130-t capability after 2021. A key component of the SLS acquisition plan is a three-phased approach for the first-stage boosters. The first phase is to expedite the 70-t configuration by completing development of the Space Shuttle heritage 5-segment solid rocket boosters (SRBs) for the initial flights of SLS. Since no existing boosters can meet the performance requirements for the 130-t class SLS, the next phases of the strategy focus on the eventual development of advanced boosters with an expected thrust class potentially double the current 5-segment solid rocket booster capability of 3.88 million pounds of thrust each. The second phase in the booster acquisition plan is the Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction (ABEDRR) effort, for which contracts were awarded beginning in 2012 after a full and open competition, with a stated intent to reduce risks leading to an affordable advanced booster. NASA has awarded ABEDRR contracts to four industry teams, which are looking into new options for liquid-fuel booster engines, solid-fuel-motor propellants, and composite booster structures. Demonstrations and/or risk reduction efforts were required to be related to a proposed booster concept directly applicable to fielding an advanced booster. This paper will discuss the status of this acquisition strategy and its results toward readying both the 70 t and 130 t configurations of SLS. The third and final phase will be a full and open

  12. Advanced Small Modular Reactor Economics Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Thomas J.

    2014-10-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Advanced Small Modular Reactor (SMR) research and development activities focus on four key areas: Developing assessment methods for evaluating advanced SMR technologies and characteristics; and Developing and testing of materials, fuels and fabrication techniques; and Resolving key regulatory issues identified by US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and industry; and Developing advanced instrumentation and controls and human-machine interfaces. This report focuses on development of assessment methods to evaluate advanced SMR technologies and characteristics. Specifically, this report describes the expansion and application of the economic modeling effort at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Analysis of the current modeling methods shows that one of the primary concerns for the modeling effort is the handling of uncertainty in cost estimates. Monte Carlo–based methods are commonly used to handle uncertainty, especially when implemented by a stand-alone script within a program such as Python or MATLAB. However, a script-based model requires each potential user to have access to a compiler and an executable capable of handling the script. Making the model accessible to multiple independent analysts is best accomplished by implementing the model in a common computing tool such as Microsoft Excel. Excel is readily available and accessible to most system analysts, but it is not designed for straightforward implementation of a Monte Carlo–based method. Using a Monte Carlo algorithm requires in-spreadsheet scripting and statistical analyses or the use of add-ons such as Crystal Ball. An alternative method uses propagation of error calculations in the existing Excel-based system to estimate system cost uncertainty. This method has the advantage of using Microsoft Excel as is, but it requires the use of simplifying assumptions. These assumptions do not necessarily bring into question the analytical results. In fact, the

  13. The Advanced Technology Development Center (ATDC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clements, G. R.; Willcoxon, R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA is building the Advanced Technology Development Center (ATDC) to provide a 'national resource' for the research, development, demonstration, testing, and qualification of Spaceport and Range Technologies. The ATDC will be located at Space Launch Complex 20 (SLC-20) at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) in Florida. SLC-20 currently provides a processing and launch capability for small-scale rockets; this capability will be augmented with additional ATDC facilities to provide a comprehensive and integrated in situ environment. Examples of Spaceport Technologies that will be supported by ATDC infrastructure include densified cryogenic systems, intelligent automated umbilicals, integrated vehicle health management systems, next-generation safety systems, and advanced range systems. The ATDC can be thought of as a prototype spaceport where industry, government, and academia, in partnership, can work together to improve safety of future space initiatives. The ATDC is being deployed in five separate phases. Major ATDC facilities will include a Liquid Oxygen Area; a Liquid Hydrogen Area, a Liquid Nitrogen Area, and a multipurpose Launch Mount; 'Iron Rocket' Test Demonstrator; a Processing Facility with a Checkout and Control System; and Future Infrastructure Developments. Initial ATDC development will be completed in 2006.

  14. The TPS Advanced Development Project for CEV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuther, James; Wercinski, Paul; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Ellerby, Don; Raiche, George; Bowman, Lynn; Jones, Craig; Kowal, John

    2006-01-01

    The CEV TPS Advanced Development Project (ADP) is a NASA in-house activity for providing two heatshield preliminary designs (a Lunar direct return as well as a LEO only return) for the CEV, including the TPS, the carrier structure, the interfaces and the attachments. The project s primary objective is the development of a single heatshield preliminary design that meets both Lunar direct return and LEO return requirements. The effort to develop the Lunar direct return capable heatshield is considered a high risk item for the NASA CEV development effort due to the low TRL (approx. 4) of the candidate TPS materials. By initiating the TPS ADP early in the development cycle, the intent is to use materials analysis and testing in combination with manufacturing demonstrations to reduce the programmatic risk of using advanced TPS technologies in the critical path for CEV. Due to the technical and schedule risks associated a Lunar return heatshield, the ADP will pursue a parallel path design approach, whereby a back-up TPS/heatshield design that only meets LEO return requirements is also developed. The TPS materials and carrier structure design concept selections will be based on testing, analysis, design and evaluation of scalability and manufacturing performed under the ADP. At the TPS PDR, the preferred programmatic strategy is to transfer the continued (detailed) design, development, testing and evaluation (DDT&E) of both the Lunar direct and LEO return designs to a government/prime contractor coordinated sub-system design team. The CEV prime contractor would have responsibility for the continued heatshield sub-system development. Continued government participation would include analysis, testing and evaluation as well as decision authority at TPS Final System Decision (FSD) (choosing between the primary and back-up heatshields) occurring between TPS PDR and TPS Critical Design Review (CDR). After TPS FSD the prime CEV contractor will complete the detailed design

  15. Advanced Electric Traction System Technology Development

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Iver

    2011-01-14

    As a subcontractor to General Motors (GM), Ames Laboratory provided the technical expertise and supplied experimental materials needed to assess the technology of high energy bonded permanent magnets that are injection or compression molded for use in the Advanced Electric Traction System motor. This support was a sustained (Phase 1: 6/07 to 3/08) engineering effort that builds on the research achievements of the primary FreedomCAR project at Ames Laboratory on development of high temperature magnet alloy particulate in both flake and spherical powder forms. Ames Lab also provide guidance and direction in selection of magnet materials and supported the fabrication of experimental magnet materials for development of injection molding and magnetization processes by Arnold Magnetics, another project partner. The work with Arnold Magnetics involved a close collaboration on particulate material design and processing to achieve enhanced particulate properties and magnetic performance in the resulting bonded magnets. The overall project direction was provided by GM Program Management and two design reviews were held at GM-ATC in Torrance, CA. Ames Lab utilized current expertise in magnet powder alloy design and processing, along with on-going research advances being achieved under the existing FreedomCAR Program project to help guide and direct work during Phase 1 for the Advanced Electric Traction System Technology Development Program. The technical tasks included review of previous GM and Arnold Magnets work and identification of improvements to the benchmark magnet material, Magnequench MQP-14-12. Other benchmark characteristics of the desired magnet material include 64% volumetric loading with PPS polymer and a recommended maximum use temperature of 200C. A collaborative relationship was maintained with Arnold Magnets on the specification and processing of the bonded magnet material required by GM-ATC.

  16. The Advancing Clinical Impact of Molecular Imaging in Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Osborn, Eric A; Jaffer, Farouc A

    2013-01-01

    Molecular imaging seeks to unravel critical molecular and cellular events in living subjects by providing complementary biological information to current structural clinical imaging modalities. In recent years, molecular imaging efforts have marched forward into the clinical cardiovascular arena, and are now actively illuminating new biology in a broad range of conditions, including atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, thrombosis, vasculitis, aneurysm, cardiomyopathy, and valvular disease. Development of novel molecular imaging reporters is occurring for many clinical cardiovascular imaging modalities (PET, SPECT, MRI), as well in translational platforms such as intravascular fluorescence imaging. The ability to image, track, and quantify molecular biomarkers in organs not routinely amenable to biopsy (e.g. the heart and vasculature) open new clinical opportunities to tailor therapeutics based on a cardiovascular disease molecular profile. In addition, molecular imaging is playing an increasing role in atherosclerosis drug development in Phase II clinical trials. Here we present state-of-the-art clinical cardiovascular molecular imaging strategies, and explore promising translational approaches positioned for clinical testing in the near term. PMID:24332285

  17. Development of advanced fuel cell system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grevstad, P. E.

    1972-01-01

    Weight, life and performance characteristics optimization of hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell power systems were considered. A promising gold alloy cathode catalyst was identified and tested in a cell for 5,000 hours. The compatibility characteristics of candidate polymer structural materials were measured after exposure to electrolyte and water vapor for 8,000 hours. Lightweight cell designs were prepared and fabrication techniques to produce them were developed. Testing demonstrated that predicted performance was achieved. Lightweight components for passive product water removal and evaporative cooling of cells were demonstrated. Systems studies identified fuel cell powerplant concepts for meeting the requirements of advanced spacecraft.

  18. Advanced nickel-hydrogen spacecraft battery development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coates, Dwaine K.; Fox, Chris L.; Standlee, D. J.; Grindstaff, B. K.

    1994-01-01

    Eagle-Picher currently has several advanced nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) cell component and battery designs under development including common pressure vessel (CPV), single pressure vessel (SPV), and dependent pressure vessel (DPV) designs. A CPV NiH2 battery, utilizing low-cost 64 mm (2.5 in.) cell diameter technology, has been designed and built for multiple smallsat programs, including the TUBSAT B spacecraft which is currently scheduled (24 Nov. 93) for launch aboard a Russian Proton rocket. An advanced 90 mm (3.5 in.) NiH2 cell design is currently being manufactured for the Space Station Freedom program. Prototype 254 mm (10 in.) diameter SPV batteries are currently under construction and initial boilerplate testing has shown excellent results. NiH2 cycle life testing is being continued at Eagle-Picher and IPV cells have currently completed more than 89,000 accelerated LEO cycles at 15% DOD, 49,000 real-time LEO cycles at 30 percent DOD, 37,800 cycles under a real-time LEO profile, 30 eclipse seasons in accelerated GEO, and 6 eclipse seasons in real-time GEO testing at 75 percent DOD maximum. Nickel-metal hydride battery development is continuing for both aerospace and electric vehicle applications. Eagle-Picher has also developed an extensive range of battery evaluation, test, and analysis (BETA) measurement and control equipment and software, based on Hewlett-Packard computerized data acquisition/control hardware.

  19. Advanced nickel-hydrogen spacecraft battery development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coates, Dwaine K.; Fox, Chris L.; Standlee, D. J.; Grindstaff, B. K.

    1994-02-01

    Eagle-Picher currently has several advanced nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) cell component and battery designs under development including common pressure vessel (CPV), single pressure vessel (SPV), and dependent pressure vessel (DPV) designs. A CPV NiH2 battery, utilizing low-cost 64 mm (2.5 in.) cell diameter technology, has been designed and built for multiple smallsat programs, including the TUBSAT B spacecraft which is currently scheduled (24 Nov. 93) for launch aboard a Russian Proton rocket. An advanced 90 mm (3.5 in.) NiH2 cell design is currently being manufactured for the Space Station Freedom program. Prototype 254 mm (10 in.) diameter SPV batteries are currently under construction and initial boilerplate testing has shown excellent results. NiH2 cycle life testing is being continued at Eagle-Picher and IPV cells have currently completed more than 89,000 accelerated LEO cycles at 15% DOD, 49,000 real-time LEO cycles at 30 percent DOD, 37,800 cycles under a real-time LEO profile, 30 eclipse seasons in accelerated GEO, and 6 eclipse seasons in real-time GEO testing at 75 percent DOD maximum. Nickel-metal hydride battery development is continuing for both aerospace and electric vehicle applications. Eagle-Picher has also developed an extensive range of battery evaluation, test, and analysis (BETA) measurement and control equipment and software, based on Hewlett-Packard computerized data acquisition/control hardware.

  20. Challenges in the Development of Advanced Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    P. Sabharwall; M.C. Teague; S.M. Bragg-Sitton; M.W. Patterson

    2012-08-01

    Past generations of nuclear reactors have been successively developed and the next generation is currently being developed, demonstrating the constant progress and technical and industrial vitality of nuclear energy. In 2000 US Department of Energy launched Generation IV International Forum (GIF) which is one of the main international frameworks for the development of future nuclear systems. The six systems that were selected were: sodium cooled fast reactor, lead cooled fast reactor, supercritical water cooled reactor, very high temperature gas cooled reactor (VHTR), gas cooled fast reactor and molten salt reactor. This paper discusses some of the proposed advanced reactor concepts that are currently being researched to varying degrees in the United States, and highlights some of the major challenges these concepts must overcome to establish their feasibility and to satisfy licensing requirements.

  1. Major clinical research advances in gynecologic cancer in 2014.

    PubMed

    Suh, Dong Hoon; Lee, Kyung Hun; Kim, Kidong; Kang, Sokbom; Kim, Jae Weon

    2015-04-01

    In 2014, 9 topics were selected as major advances in clinical research for gynecologic oncology: 2 each in cervical and corpus cancer, 4 in ovarian cancer, and 1 in breast cancer. For cervical cancer, several therapeutic agents showed viable antitumor clinical response in recurrent and metastatic disease: bevacizumab, cediranib, and immunotherapies including human papillomavirus (HPV)-tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and Z-100. The HPV test received FDA approval as the primary screening tool of cervical cancer in women aged 25 and older, based on the results of the ATHENA trial, which suggested that the HPV test was a more sensitive and efficient strategy for cervical cancer screening than methods based solely on cytology. For corpus cancers, results of a phase III Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) 249 study of early-stage endometrial cancer with high-intermediate risk factors are followed by the controversial topic of uterine power morcellation in minimally invasive gynecologic surgery. Promising results of phase II studies regarding the effectiveness of olaparib in various ovarian cancer settings are summarized. After a brief review of results from a phase III study on pazopanib maintenance therapy in advanced ovarian cancer, 2 outstanding 2014 ASCO presentations cover the topic of using molecular subtypes in predicting response to bevacizumab. A review of the use of opportunistic bilateral salpingectomy as an ovarian cancer preventive strategy in the general population is presented. Two remarkable studies that discussed the effectiveness of adjuvant ovarian suppression in premenopausal early breast cancer have been selected as the last topics covered in this review.

  2. Photodynamic therapy for locally advanced pancreatic cancer: early clinical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandanayake, N. S.; Huggett, M. T.; Bown, S. G.; Pogue, B. W.; Hasan, T.; Pereira, S. P.

    2010-02-01

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma ranks as the fourth most common cause of cancer death in the USA. Patients usually present late with advanced disease, limiting attempted curative surgery to 10% of cases. Overall prognosis is poor with one-year survival rates of less than 10% with palliative chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Given these dismal results, a minimally invasive treatment capable of local destruction of tumor tissue with low morbidity may have a place in the treatment of this disease. In this paper we review the preclinical photodynamic therapy (PDT) studies which have shown that it is possible to achieve a zone of necrosis in normal pancreas and implanted tumour tissue. Side effects of treatment and evidence of a potential survival advantage are discussed. We describe the only published clinical study of pancreatic interstitial PDT, which was carried out by our group (Bown et al Gut 2002), in 16 patients with unresectable locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma. All patients had evidence of tumor necrosis on follow-up imaging, with a median survival from diagnosis of 12.5 months. Finally, we outline a phase I dose-escalation study of verteporfin single fibre PDT followed by standard gemcitabine chemotherapy which our group is currently undertaking in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer. Randomized controlled studies are also planned.

  3. [Advanced data analysis and visualization for clinical laboratory].

    PubMed

    Inada, Masanori; Yoneyama, Akiko

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes visualization techniques that help identify hidden structures in clinical laboratory data. The visualization of data is helpful for a rapid and better understanding of the characteristics of data sets. Various charts help the user identify trends in data. Scatter plots help prevent misinterpretations due to invalid data by identifying outliers. The representation of experimental data in figures is always useful for communicating results to others. Currently, flexible methods such as smoothing methods and latent structure analysis are available owing to the presence of advanced hardware and software. Principle component analysis, which is a well-known technique used to reduce multidimensional data sets, can be carried out on a personal computer. These methods could lead to advanced visualization with regard to exploratory data analysis. In this paper, we present 3 examples in order to introduce advanced data analysis. In the first example, a smoothing spline was fitted to a time-series from the control chart which is not in a state of statistical control. The trend line was clearly extracted from the daily measurements of the control samples. In the second example, principal component analysis was used to identify a new diagnostic indicator for Graves' disease. The multi-dimensional data obtained from patients were reduced to lower dimensions, and the principle components thus obtained summarized the variation in the data set. In the final example, a latent structure analysis for a Gaussian mixture model was used to draw complex density functions suitable for actual laboratory data. As a result, 5 clusters were extracted. The mixed density function of these clusters represented the data distribution graphically. The methods used in the above examples make the creation of complicated models for clinical laboratories more simple and flexible.

  4. Advances in miniature spectrometer and sensor development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinen, Jouko; Rissanen, Anna; Saari, Heikki; Karioja, Pentti; Karppinen, Mikko; Aalto, Timo; Tukkiniemi, Kari

    2014-05-01

    Miniaturization and cost reduction of spectrometer and sensor technologies has great potential to open up new applications areas and business opportunities for analytical technology in hand held, mobile and on-line applications. Advances in microfabrication have resulted in high-performance MEMS and MOEMS devices for spectrometer applications. Many other enabling technologies are useful for miniature analytical solutions, such as silicon photonics, nanoimprint lithography (NIL), system-on-chip, system-on-package techniques for integration of electronics and photonics, 3D printing, powerful embedded computing platforms, networked solutions as well as advances in chemometrics modeling. This paper will summarize recent work on spectrometer and sensor miniaturization at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) tunable filter technology has been developed in two technical versions: Piezoactuated FPIs have been applied in miniature hyperspectral imaging needs in light weight UAV and nanosatellite applications, chemical imaging as well as medical applications. Microfabricated MOEMS FPIs have been developed as cost-effective sensor platforms for visible, NIR and IR applications. Further examples of sensor miniaturization will be discussed, including system-on-package sensor head for mid-IR gas analyzer, roll-to-roll printed Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) technology as well as UV imprinted waveguide sensor for formaldehyde detection.

  5. Development of advanced lightweight containment systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stotler, C.

    1981-01-01

    Parametric type data were obtained on advanced lightweight containment systems. These data were used to generate design methods and procedures necessary for the successful development of such systems. The methods were then demonstrated through the design of a lightweight containment system for a CF6 size engine. The containment concept evaluated consisted basically of a lightweight structural sandwich shell wrapped with dry Kevlar cloth. The initial testing was directed towards the determination of the amount of Kevlar required to result in threshold containment for a specific set of test conditions. A relationship was then developed between the thickness required and the energy of the released blade so that the data could be used to design for conditions other than those tested.

  6. Advances in Robotic Servicing Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gefke, Gardell G.; Janas, Alex; Pellegrino, Joseph; Sammons, Matthew; Reed, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Satellite Servicing Capabilities Office (SSCO) has matured robotic and automation technologies applicable to in-space robotic servicing and robotic exploration over the last six years. This paper presents the progress of technology development activities at the Goddard Space Flight Center Servicing Technology Center and on the ISS, with an emphasis on those occurring in the past year. Highlighted advancements are design reference mission analysis for servicing in low Earth orbit (LEO) and asteroid redirection; delivery of the engineering development unit of the NASA Servicing Arm; an update on International Space Station Robotic Refueling Mission; and status of a comprehensive ground-based space robot technology demonstration expanding in-space robotic servicing capabilities beginning fall 2015.

  7. Advances in Robotic Servicing Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gefke, Gardell G.; Janas, Alex; Pellegrino, Joseph; Sammons, Matthew; Reed, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Satellite Servicing Capabilities Office (SSCO) has matured robotic and automation technologies applicable to in-space robotic servicing and robotic exploration over the last six years. This paper presents the progress of technology development activities at the Goddard Space Flight Center Servicing Technology Center and on the ISS, with an emphasis on those occurring in the past year. Highlighted advancements are design reference mission analysis for servicing in low Earth orbit (LEO) and near Earth asteroid boulder retrieval; delivery of the engineering development unit of the NASA Servicing Arm; an update on International Space Station Robotic Refueling Mission; and status of a comprehensive ground-based space robot technology demonstration expanding in-space robotic servicing capabilities beginning fall 2015.

  8. Development of an advanced electromagnetic gun barrel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurn, T. W.; D'Aoust, J.; Sevier, L.; Johnson, R.; Wesley, J.

    1993-01-01

    An advanced EM gun (AEMG) barrel was developed for the USAF Wright Laboratory to repetitively accelerate large-mass projectiles. The AEMG barrel employed 5-m rails, had a 50 mm square bore, and was designed to operate at a peak current of 1.5 MA (bore pressure 25 ksi). Key technical achievements included (1) an efficient barrel containment structure that weighs approximately 25 percent of a similarly rated clamped barrel, (2) an insulator material that retains surface resistivity after repeated firings, and (3) a high-velocity water cooling system designed to remove a peak heat flux of 5 MJ/sq m per shot. The AEMG barrel's thermal management system employed a 500 psi blowdown system that generated high velocity coolant flow rates in five axial coolant channels within each rail. Innovative fabrication processes were used to develop the barrel. A 2-m prototype of the AEMG barrel was tested in the General Atomics 4 MJ EM launcher test facility.

  9. Automated Operations Development for Advanced Exploration Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddock, Angie T.; Stetson, Howard

    2012-01-01

    Automated space operations command and control software development and its implementation must be an integral part of the vehicle design effort. The software design must encompass autonomous fault detection, isolation, recovery capabilities and also provide "single button" intelligent functions for the crew. Development, operations and safety approval experience with the Timeliner system onboard the International Space Station (ISS), which provided autonomous monitoring with response and single command functionality of payload systems, can be built upon for future automated operations as the ISS Payload effort was the first and only autonomous command and control system to be in continuous execution (6 years), 24 hours a day, 7 days a week within a crewed spacecraft environment. Utilizing proven capabilities from the ISS Higher Active Logic (HAL) System, along with the execution component design from within the HAL 9000 Space Operating System, this design paper will detail the initial HAL System software architecture and interfaces as applied to NASA's Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) in support of the Advanced Exploration Systems, Autonomous Mission Operations project. The development and implementation of integrated simulators within this development effort will also be detailed and is the first step in verifying the HAL 9000 Integrated Test-Bed Component [2] designs effectiveness. This design paper will conclude with a summary of the current development status and future development goals as it pertains to automated command and control for the HDU.

  10. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program: Mercury Control

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, A.P.; Redinger, K.W.; Holmes, M.J.

    1997-07-01

    McDermott Technology, Inc. (a subsidiary of Babcock & Wilcox) is conducting the Advanced Emissions Control Development Project (AECDP) which is aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPS) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for such controls may arise as the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proceeds with implementation of requirements set forth in the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA`s) of 1990. Promulgation of air toxics emissions regulations for electric utility plants could dramatically impact utilities burning coal, their industrial and residential customers, and the coal industry. AECDP project work will supply the information needed by utilities to respond to potential HAPs regulations in a timely, cost-effective, enviromnentally-sound manner which supports the continued use of the Nation`s abundant reserves of coal, such as those in the State of Ohio. The development work is being carried out using the 10 MW Clean Environment Development Facility wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions. The specific objectives of the project are to (1) measure and understand production and partitioning of air toxics species for a variety of coals, (2) optimize the air toxics removal performance of conventional flue gas cleanup systems, (3) develop advanced air toxics emissions control concepts, (4) develop and validate air toxics emissions measurement and monitoring techniques, and (5) establish a comprehensive, self-consistent air toxics data library. This project is supported by the Department of Energy, the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development and Babcock & Wilcox. A comprehensive assessment of HAP emissions from coal-fired electric utility boilers sponsored by the Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute concluded that with the exception of selenium and mercury

  11. Advances in functional magnetic resonance imaging: technology and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, Bradford C

    2007-07-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) is a valuable method for use by clinical investigators to study task-related brain activation in patients with neurological or neuropsychiatric illness. Despite the relative infancy of the field, the rapid adoption of this functional neuroimaging technology has resulted from, among other factors, its ready availability, its relatively high spatial and temporal resolution, and its safety as a noninvasive imaging tool that enables multiple repeated scans over the course of a longitudinal study, and thus may lend itself well as a measure in clinical drug trials. Investigators have used fMRI to identify abnormal functional brain activity during task performance in a variety of patient populations, including those with neurodegenerative, demyelinating, cerebrovascular, and other neurological disorders that highlight the potential utility of fMRI in both basic and clinical spheres of research. In addition, fMRI studies reveal processes related to neuroplasticity, including compensatory hyperactivation, which may be a universally-occurring, adaptive neural response to insult. Functional MRI is being used to study the modulatory effects of genetic risk factors for neurological disease on brain activation; it is being applied to differential diagnosis, as a predictive biomarker of disease course, and as a means to identify neural correlates of neurotherapeutic interventions. Technological advances are rapidly occurring that should provide new applications for fMRI, including improved spatial resolution, which promises to reveal novel insights into the function of fine-scale neural circuitry of the human brain in health and disease.

  12. New developments in clinical CARS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinigel, Martin; Breunig, Hans Georg; Kellner-Höfer, Marcel; Bückle, Rainer; Darvin, Maxim; Lademann, Juergen; König, Karsten

    2013-02-01

    We combined two-photon fluorescence and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) imaging in a clinical hybrid multiphoton tomograph for in vivo imaging of human skin. The clinically approved TPEF/CARS system provides simultaneous imaging of endogenous fluorophores and non-fluorescent lipids. The Stokes laser for the two-beam configuration of CARS is based on spectral broadening of femtosecond laser pulses in a photonic crystal fiber (PCF). We report on the highly flexible medical TPEF/CARS tomograph MPTflex®-CARS with an articulated arm and first in vivo measurements on human skin.

  13. Development of Advanced Small Hydrogen Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Sapru, Krishna; Tan, Zhaosheng; Chao, Ben

    2010-09-30

    The main objective of the project is to develop advanced, low cost conversions of small (< 25 hp) gasoline internal combustion engines (ICEs) to run on hydrogen fuel while maintaining the same performance and durability. This final technical report summarizes the results of i) the details of the conversion of several small gasoline ICEs to run on hydrogen, ii) the durability test of a converted hydrogen engine and iii) the demonstration of a prototype bundled canister solid hydrogen storage system. Peak power of the hydrogen engine achieves 60% of the power output of the gasoline counterpart. The efforts to boost the engine power with various options including installing the over-sized turbocharger, retrofit of custom-made pistons with high compression ratio, an advanced ignition system, and various types of fuel injection systems are not realized. A converted Honda GC160 engine with ACS system to run with hydrogen fuel is successful. Total accumulative runtime is 785 hours. A prototype bundled canister solid hydrogen storage system having nominal capacity of 1.2 kg is designed, constructed and demonstrated. It is capable of supporting a wide range of output load of a hydrogen generator.

  14. Gaucher disease: clinical profile and therapeutic developments

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Timothy M

    2010-01-01

    era before enzyme therapy, bone marrow transplantation was shown to correct systemic disease in Gaucher patients by supplying a source of competent donor macrophages. As a radical advance on cell- or protein-replacement techniques, contemporary methods for transferring genes to autologous hematopoietic stem cells, and to the brain, merit further exploration. At present, the inflated pharmaceutical niche of Gaucher disease appears to be resilient, but if the remaining unmet needs of patients are to be convincingly addressed and commercial development sustained, courageous scientific investment and clinical experimentation will be needed. PMID:21209725

  15. Clinical Psychology: A Research and Development Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broskowski, Anthony

    The purpose of this paper is to present a clinical research and development (R and D) model along with the rationale for its implementation and a sample training program for clinical psychologists. Although it may be possible to correct some problems by a clearer restatement of the scientist-professional model, a new model of clinical R and D has…

  16. Certification and clinical ladder as the impetus for professional development.

    PubMed

    Watts, Misty D

    2010-01-01

    With today's healthcare challenges of nursing shortages and financial instability, it is imperative that healthcare organizations retain clinically competent nurses at the bedside. Professional development and recognition are key motivators to increase nursing job satisfaction, thus reducing shortages and turnover. Implementation of specialty certification and clinical advancement programs is of benefit to the public, employers, and nurses alike. Clinical ladder and Magnet recognition are often the impetus for specialty nursing certification in healthcare institutions. Clinical ladder history, purpose, models, perceptions, and satisfiers are discussed. Certification statistics, types, impetus, benefits, incentives, and barriers are highlighted, as well as a facility's innovative strategy to increase specialty certification. Certification and clinical ladder programs demonstrate commitment of healthcare organizations and nursing staff to provide high-quality care and professional nursing development, an investment that hospitals cannot afford to overlook. PMID:20019510

  17. [Anticoagulant therapy clinic: moving towards Advanced Nursing Practice].

    PubMed

    Romero Ruiz, Adolfo; Parrado Borrego, Gema; Rodríguez González, José; Caparrós Miranda, Isabel S; Vargas Lirio, M Isabel; Ortiz Fernández, Primitiva

    2014-01-01

    There is currently around one million people receiving oral anticoagulants in Spain. The drug most used is acenocoumarol, which requires coagulation monitoring to ensure that the patient is within its normal therapeutic range. Patients usually start this treatment in a hospital clinic and, when they are stabilised, they are referred to primary care, where they are followed-up by their community nurses. The usual practice is that nurses are responsible for changes in the dose when the patients are outside the range. This practice is not performed by hospital nurses, despite having sufficient experience and knowledge to adequately manage these types of patients. An Advanced Nursing Practice model has been introduced into the Haematology management unit of the Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Victoria, Málaga. This involves various aspects of attention and care of patients on anticoagulant therapy, and includes adjusting the doses of their treatment following a catalogue of therapeutic and diagnostic ranges.

  18. Design of clinical trials for therapeutic cancer vaccines development.

    PubMed

    Mackiewicz, Jacek; Mackiewicz, Andrzej

    2009-12-25

    Advances in molecular and cellular biology as well as biotechnology led to definition of a group of drugs referred to as medicinal products of advanced technologies. It includes gene therapy products, somatic cell therapeutics and tissue engineering. Therapeutic cancer vaccines including whole cell tumor cells vaccines or gene modified whole cells belong to somatic therapeutics and/or gene therapy products category. The drug development is a multistep complex process. It comprises of two phases: preclinical and clinical. Guidelines on preclinical testing of cell based immunotherapy medicinal products have been defined by regulatory agencies and are available. However, clinical testing of therapeutic cancer vaccines is still under debate. It presents a serious problem since recently clinical efficacy of the number of cancer vaccines has been demonstrated that focused a lot of public attention. In general clinical testing in the current form is very expensive, time consuming and poorly designed what may lead to overlooking of products clinically beneficial for patients. Accordingly regulatory authorities and researches including Cancer Vaccine Clinical Trial Working Group proposed three regulatory solutions to facilitate clinical development of cancer vaccines: cost-recovery program, conditional marketing authorization, and a new development paradigm. Paradigm includes a model in which cancer vaccines are investigated in two types of clinical trials: proof-of-principle and efficacy. The proof-of-principle trial objectives are: safety; dose selection and schedule of vaccination; and demonstration of proof-of-principle. Efficacy trials are randomized clinical trials with objectives of demonstrating clinical benefit either directly or through a surrogate. The clinical end points are still under debate. PMID:19835869

  19. Major clinical research advances in gynecologic cancer in 2014.

    PubMed

    Suh, Dong Hoon; Lee, Kyung Hun; Kim, Kidong; Kang, Sokbom; Kim, Jae Weon

    2015-04-01

    In 2014, 9 topics were selected as major advances in clinical research for gynecologic oncology: 2 each in cervical and corpus cancer, 4 in ovarian cancer, and 1 in breast cancer. For cervical cancer, several therapeutic agents showed viable antitumor clinical response in recurrent and metastatic disease: bevacizumab, cediranib, and immunotherapies including human papillomavirus (HPV)-tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and Z-100. The HPV test received FDA approval as the primary screening tool of cervical cancer in women aged 25 and older, based on the results of the ATHENA trial, which suggested that the HPV test was a more sensitive and efficient strategy for cervical cancer screening than methods based solely on cytology. For corpus cancers, results of a phase III Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) 249 study of early-stage endometrial cancer with high-intermediate risk factors are followed by the controversial topic of uterine power morcellation in minimally invasive gynecologic surgery. Promising results of phase II studies regarding the effectiveness of olaparib in various ovarian cancer settings are summarized. After a brief review of results from a phase III study on pazopanib maintenance therapy in advanced ovarian cancer, 2 outstanding 2014 ASCO presentations cover the topic of using molecular subtypes in predicting response to bevacizumab. A review of the use of opportunistic bilateral salpingectomy as an ovarian cancer preventive strategy in the general population is presented. Two remarkable studies that discussed the effectiveness of adjuvant ovarian suppression in premenopausal early breast cancer have been selected as the last topics covered in this review. PMID:25872896

  20. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: clinical features, diagnosis and medical treatment: advances

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Tetsuhide; Igarashi, Hisato; Jensen, Robert T.

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) comprise with gastrointestinal carcinoids, the main groups of gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors (GI-NETs). Although these two groups of GI-NETs share many features including histological aspects; over-/ectopic expression of somatostatin receptors; the ability to ectopically secrete hormones/peptides/amines which can result in distinct functional syndromes; similar approaches used for tumor localization and some aspects of treatment, it is now generally agreed they should be considered separate. They differ in their pathogenesis, hormonal syndromes produced, many aspects of biological behavior and most important, in their response to certain anti-tumor treatment (chemotherapy, molecular targeted therapies). In this chapter the clinical features of the different types of pNETs will be considered as well as aspects of their diagnosis and medical treatment of the hormone-excess state. Emphasis will be on controversial areas or recent advances. The other aspects of the management of these tumors (surgery, treatment of advanced disease, tumor localization) are not dealt with here, because they are covered in other chapters in this volume. PMID:23582916

  1. [Image guided and robotic treatment--the advance of cybernetics in clinical medicine].

    PubMed

    Fosse, E; Elle, O J; Samset, E; Johansen, M; Røtnes, J S; Tønnessen, T I; Edwin, B

    2000-01-10

    The introduction of advanced technology in hospitals has changed the treatment practice towards more image guided and minimal invasive procedures. Modern computer and communication technology opens up for robot aided and pre-programmed intervention. Several robotic systems are in clinical use today both in microsurgery and in major cardiac and orthopedic operations. As this trend develops, professions which are new in this context such as physicists, mathematicians and cybernetic engineers will be increasingly important in the treatment of patients.

  2. Advanced Nacelle Acoustic Lining Concepts Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bielak, G.; Gallman, J.; Kunze, R.; Murray, P.; Premo, J.; Kosanchick, M.; Hersh, A.; Celano, J.; Walker, B.; Yu, J.; Parrott, Tony L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The work reported in this document consisted of six distinct liner technology development subtasks: 1) Analysis of Model Scale ADP Fan Duct Lining Data (Boeing): An evaluation of an AST Milestone experiment to demonstrate 1995 liner technology superiority relative to that of 1992 was performed on 1:5.9 scale model fan rig (Advanced Ducted Propeller) test data acquired in the NASA Glenn 9 x 15 foot wind tunnel. The goal of 50% improvement was deemed satisfied. 2) Bias Flow Liner Investigation (Boeing, VCES): The ability to control liner impedance by low velocity bias flow through liner was demonstrated. An impedance prediction model to include bias flow was developed. 3) Grazing Flow Impedance Testing (Boeing): Grazing flow impedance tests were conducted for comparison with results achieved at four different laboratories. 4) Micro-Perforate Acoustic Liner Technology (BFG, HAE, NG): Proof of concept testing of a "linear liner." 5) Extended Reaction Liners (Boeing, NG): Bandwidth improvements for non-locally reacting liner were investigated with porous honeycomb core test liners. 6) Development of a Hybrid Active/Passive Lining Concept (HAE): Synergism between active and passive attenuation of noise radiated by a model inlet was demonstrated.

  3. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) technology development project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    This report is the final in a series of Technical Summary Reports for the Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) Technology Development Project, authorizrd under NASA Contract DEN3-167 and sponsored by the DOE. The project was administered by NASA-Lewis Research Center of Cleveland, Ohio. Plans and progress are summarized for the period October 1979 through June 1987. This program aims to provide the US automotive industry the high risk, long range technology necessary to produce gas turbine engines for automobiles that will reduce fuel consumption and reduce environmental impact. The intent is that this technology will reach the marketplace by the 1990s. The Garrett/Ford automotive AGT was designated AGT101. The AGT101 is a 74.5 kW (100 shp) engine, capable of speeds to 100,000 rpm, and operates at turbine inlet temperatures to 1370 C (2500 F) with a specific fuel consumption level of 0.18 kg/kW-hr (0.3 lbs/hp-hr) over most of the operating range. This final report summarizes the powertrain design, power section development and component/ceramic technology development.

  4. Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (AVGS) Development Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T.; Johnston, Albert S.; Bryan, Thomas C.; Book, Michael L.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center was the driving force behind the development of the Advanced Video Guidance Sensor, an active sensor system that provides near-range sensor data as part of an automatic rendezvous and docking system. The sensor determines the relative positions and attitudes between the active sensor and the passive target at ranges up to 300 meters. The AVGS uses laser diodes to illuminate retro-reflectors in the target, a solid-state camera to detect the return from the target, and image capture electronics and a digital signal processor to convert the video information into the relative positions and attitudes. The AVGS will fly as part of the Demonstration of Autonomous Rendezvous Technologies (DART) in October, 2004. This development effort has required a great deal of testing of various sorts at every phase of development. Some of the test efforts included optical characterization of performance with the intended target, thermal vacuum testing, performance tests in long range vacuum facilities, EMI/EMC tests, and performance testing in dynamic situations. The sensor has been shown to track a target at ranges of up to 300 meters, both in vacuum and ambient conditions, to survive and operate during the thermal vacuum cycling specific to the DART mission, to handle EM1 well, and to perform well in dynamic situations.

  5. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) Technology Development Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    This report is the eleventh in the series of Technical Summary reports for the Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) Technology Development Project, authorized under NASA Contract DEN3-167, and sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). This report was prepared by Garrett Turbine Engine Company, A Division of the Garrett Corporation, and includes information provided by Ford Motor Company, the Standard Oil Company, and AiResearch Casting Company. This report covers plans and progress for the period July 1, 1985 through June 30, 1986. Technical progress during the reported period was highlighted by the 85-hour endurance run of an all-ceramic engine operating in the 2000 to 2250 F temperature regime. Component development continued in the areas of the combustion/fuel injection system, regenerator and seals system, and ceramic turbine rotor attachment design. Component rig testing saw further refinements. Ceramic materials showed continued improvements in required properties for gas turbine applications; however, continued development is needed before performance and reliability goals can be set.

  6. Advanced planar array development for space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The results of the Advanced Planar Array Development for the Space Station contract are presented. The original objectives of the contract were: (1) to develop a process for manufacturing superstrate assemblies, (2) to demonstrate superstrate technology through fabrication and test, (3) to develop and analyze a preliminary solar array wing design, and (4) to fabricate a wing segment based on wing design. The primary tasks completed were designing test modules, fabricating, and testing them. LMSC performed three tasks which included thermal cycle testing for 2000 thermal cycles, thermal balance testing at the Boeing Environmental Test Lab in Kent, Washington, and acceptance testing a 15 ft x 50 in panel segment for 100 thermal cycles. The surperstrate modules performed well during both thermal cycle testing and thermal balance testing. The successful completion of these tests demonstrate the technical feasibility of a solar array power system utilizing superstrate technology. This final report describes the major elements of this contract including the manufacturing process used to fabricate modules, the tests performed, and the results and conclusions of the tests.

  7. Recent advances in antimultiple myeloma drug development

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Nuozhou; Bartlow, Patrick; Ouyang, Qin; Xie, Xiang-Qun

    2015-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is the second most common hematological malignancy and is characterized by the aberrant proliferation of terminally differentiated plasma B cells with impairment in apoptosis capacity. Particularly, osteolytic bone diseases and renal failure resulting from hyperparaproteinemia and hypercalcemia have been the major serious sequelae that are inextricably linked with MM tumor progression. Despite the introduction of new treatment regimens, problematic neuropathy, thrombocytopenia, drug resistance and high MM relapse rates continue to plague the current therapies. New chemical agents are in development on the basis of understanding several signaling pathways and molecular mechanisms like tumor necrosis factor-α, proteasome, PI3K and MARKs. This review focuses on the most recent patents and clinical trials in the development of new medicine for the treatment of multiple myeloma. Furthermore, the important signaling pathways involved in the proliferation, survival and apoptosis of myeloma cells will be discussed. PMID:24998287

  8. Quality assurance issues in conducting multi-institutional advanced technology clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Purdy, James A

    2008-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute-sponsored Advanced Technology Quality Assurance (QA) Consortium, which consisted of the Image-Guided Therapy QA Center, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Radiological Physics Center, Quality Assurance Review Center, and Resource Center for Emerging Technologies, has pioneered the development of an infrastructure and QA method for advanced technology clinical trials that requires volumetric digital data submission of a protocol patient's treatment plan and verification data. In particular, the Image-Guided Therapy QA Center has nearly 15 years experience in facilitating QA review for Radiation Therapy Oncology Group advanced technology clinical trials. This QA process includes (1) a data integrity review for completeness of protocol required elements, the format of data, and possible data corruption, and recalculation of dose-volume histograms; (2) a review of compliance with target volume and organ-at-risk contours by study chairs; and (3) a review of dose prescription and dose heterogeneity compliance by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Headquarters Dosimetry Group or the Radiological Physics Center dosimetrists (for brachytherapy protocols). This report reviews the lessons learned and the QA challenges presented by the use of advanced treatment modalities in clinical trials requiring volumetric digital data submission.

  9. Quality Assurance Issues in Conducting Multi-Institutional Advanced Technology Clinical Trials

    SciTech Connect

    Purdy, James A.

    2008-05-01

    The National Cancer Institute-sponsored Advanced Technology Quality Assurance (QA) Consortium, which consisted of the Image-Guided Therapy QA Center, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Radiological Physics Center, Quality Assurance Review Center, and Resource Center for Emerging Technologies, has pioneered the development of an infrastructure and QA method for advanced technology clinical trials that requires volumetric digital data submission of a protocol patient's treatment plan and verification data. In particular, the Image-Guided Therapy QA Center has nearly 15 years experience in facilitating QA review for Radiation Therapy Oncology Group advanced technology clinical trials. This QA process includes (1) a data integrity review for completeness of protocol required elements, the format of data, and possible data corruption, and recalculation of dose-volume histograms; (2) a review of compliance with target volume and organ-at-risk contours by study chairs; and (3) a review of dose prescription and dose heterogeneity compliance by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Headquarters Dosimetry Group or the Radiological Physics Center dosimetrists (for brachytherapy protocols). This report reviews the lessons learned and the QA challenges presented by the use of advanced treatment modalities in clinical trials requiring volumetric digital data submission.

  10. Quality assurance issues in conducting multi-institutional advanced technology clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Purdy, James A

    2008-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute-sponsored Advanced Technology Quality Assurance (QA) Consortium, which consisted of the Image-Guided Therapy QA Center, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Radiological Physics Center, Quality Assurance Review Center, and Resource Center for Emerging Technologies, has pioneered the development of an infrastructure and QA method for advanced technology clinical trials that requires volumetric digital data submission of a protocol patient's treatment plan and verification data. In particular, the Image-Guided Therapy QA Center has nearly 15 years experience in facilitating QA review for Radiation Therapy Oncology Group advanced technology clinical trials. This QA process includes (1) a data integrity review for completeness of protocol required elements, the format of data, and possible data corruption, and recalculation of dose-volume histograms; (2) a review of compliance with target volume and organ-at-risk contours by study chairs; and (3) a review of dose prescription and dose heterogeneity compliance by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Headquarters Dosimetry Group or the Radiological Physics Center dosimetrists (for brachytherapy protocols). This report reviews the lessons learned and the QA challenges presented by the use of advanced treatment modalities in clinical trials requiring volumetric digital data submission. PMID:18406941

  11. [Clinical studies and accepted therapies of advanced melanoma].

    PubMed

    Liszkay, Gabriella

    2016-03-01

    The objective of the work is presentation of the available therapeutic results of the clinical trials with anti CTLA-4 and anti PD-1 treatment, which are operating on the immune checkpoints registered in advanced melanoma, and the results of T-VEC vaccination (NCT00094653, NCT00324155, KEYNOTE-001, -002, -006, CheckMate-066, -037, -067, NCT00769704). With ipilimumab therapy, long-term survival can be achieved in the case of 20% of patients, with low (10%) therapeutic response, and grade 3-4 treatment related, predominantly autoimmune adverse events occurring in 10-15% of patients. Anti-PD-1 therapy proved more effective compared to ipilimumab, resulting in 21-40% therapeutic response, with 60-74% one-year survival rate and significantly less severe and frequent side effects. Progression-free survival achieved with ipilimumab/nivolumab combination was 11.5 months with grade 3-4 side effects occurring in 55% of patients. T-VEC therapy resulted in 26.4% objective response rate without a significant survival advantage. In the possession of the new immunotherapeutic possibilities, knowledge of the results of clinical studies is essential for the optimal complex therapy of melanoma. PMID:26934345

  12. Recent technological advances in computed tomography and the clinical impact therein.

    PubMed

    Runge, Val M; Marquez, Herman; Andreisek, Gustav; Valavanis, Anton; Alkadhi, Hatem

    2015-02-01

    Current technological advances in CT, specifically those with a major impact on clinical imaging, are discussed. The intent was to provide for both medical physicists and practicing radiologists a summary of the clinical impact of each advance, offering guidance in terms of utility and day-to-day clinical implementation, with specific attention to radiation dose reduction.

  13. Test Review: Advanced Clinical Solutions for WAIS-IV and WMS-IV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Yiting; Lai, Mark H. C.; Xu, Yining; Zhou, Yuanyuan

    2012-01-01

    The authors review the "Advanced Clinical Solutions for WAIS-IV and WMS-IV". The "Advanced Clinical Solutions (ACS) for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition" (WAIS-IV; Wechsler, 2008) and the "Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition" (WMS-IV; Wechsler, 2009) was published by Pearson in 2009. It is a clinical tool for extending the…

  14. Ramucirumab Clinical Development: an Emerging Role in Gastrointestinal Tumors.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Gastaldo, Amparo; Gonzalez-Exposito, Reyes; Garcia-Carbonero, Rocío

    2016-08-01

    Ramucirumab (IMC-1121B, LY3009806) is a fully human G1 monoclonal antibody that specifically targets vascular endotelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) with a substantially greater binding affinity than that of its natural ligands. Early clinical trials in patients with advanced solid tumors demonstrated that biologically relevant blood target concentrations are achievable with tolerable doses, and also showed some preliminary evidence of clinical activity. Several pivotal phase III trials have now been concluded and have led regulatory agencies to grant marketing authorization to ramucirumab for use as second line therapy in patients with advanced gastric or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinoma (as single agent or in combination with paclitaxel), in patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma (CRC) (in combination with infusional fluorouracil and irinotecan (FOLFIRI regimen)) and in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (in combination with docetaxel). In contrast, ramucirumab failed to significantly improve survival versus placebo as second line therapy in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of this review is to summarize the clinical development and emerging role of ramucirumab in gastrointestinal (GI) tumors, including relevant aspects of its mechanism of action, pharmacology, safety profile, and antitumor activity in gastric, HCC, and CRC carcinomas.

  15. Ramucirumab Clinical Development: an Emerging Role in Gastrointestinal Tumors.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Gastaldo, Amparo; Gonzalez-Exposito, Reyes; Garcia-Carbonero, Rocío

    2016-08-01

    Ramucirumab (IMC-1121B, LY3009806) is a fully human G1 monoclonal antibody that specifically targets vascular endotelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) with a substantially greater binding affinity than that of its natural ligands. Early clinical trials in patients with advanced solid tumors demonstrated that biologically relevant blood target concentrations are achievable with tolerable doses, and also showed some preliminary evidence of clinical activity. Several pivotal phase III trials have now been concluded and have led regulatory agencies to grant marketing authorization to ramucirumab for use as second line therapy in patients with advanced gastric or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinoma (as single agent or in combination with paclitaxel), in patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma (CRC) (in combination with infusional fluorouracil and irinotecan (FOLFIRI regimen)) and in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (in combination with docetaxel). In contrast, ramucirumab failed to significantly improve survival versus placebo as second line therapy in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of this review is to summarize the clinical development and emerging role of ramucirumab in gastrointestinal (GI) tumors, including relevant aspects of its mechanism of action, pharmacology, safety profile, and antitumor activity in gastric, HCC, and CRC carcinomas. PMID:26887374

  16. Development in laser peening of advanced ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Pratik; Smith, Graham C.; Waugh, David G.; Lawrence, Jonathan

    2015-07-01

    Laser peening is a well-known process applicable to surface treat metals and alloys in various industrial sectors. Research in the area of laser peening of ceramics is still scarce and a complete laser-ceramic interaction is still unreported. This paper focuses on laser peening of SiC ceramics employed for cutting tools, armor plating, dental and biomedical implants, with a view to elucidate the unreported work. A detailed investigation was conducted with 1064nm Nd:YAG ns pulse laser to first understand the surface effects, namely: the topography, hardness, KIc and the microstructure of SiC advanced ceramics. The results showed changes in surface roughness and microstructural modification after laser peening. An increase in surface hardness was found by almost 2 folds, as the diamond footprints and its flaws sizes were considerably reduced, thus, enhancing the resistance of SiC to better withstand mechanical impact. This inherently led to an enhancement in the KIc by about 42%. This is attributed to an induction of compressive residual stress and phase transformation. This work is a first-step towards the development of a 3-dimensional laser peening technique to surface treat many advanced ceramic components. This work has shown that upon tailoring the laser peening parameters may directly control ceramic topography, microstructure, hardness and the KIc. This is useful for increasing the performance of ceramics used for demanding applications particularly where it matters such as in military. Upon successful peening of bullet proof vests could result to higher ballistic strength and resistance against higher sonic velocity, which would not only prevent serious injuries, but could also help to save lives of soldiers on the battle fields.

  17. Advances in Hot-Structure Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivers, H. Kevin; Glass, David E.

    2006-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has actively participated in the development of hot structures technology for application to hypersonic flight systems. Hot structures have been developed for vehicles including the X-43A, X-37, and the Space Shuttle. These trans-atmospheric and atmospheric entry flight systems that incorporate hot-structures technology are lighter weight and require less maintenance than those that incorporate parasitic, thermal-protection materials that attach to warm or cool substructure. The development of hot structures requires a thorough understanding of material performance in an extreme environment, boundary conditions and load interactions, structural joint performance, and thermal and mechanical performance of integrated structural systems that operate at temperatures ranging from 1500 C to 3000 C, depending on the application. This paper will present recent advances in the development of hot structures, including development of environmentally durable, high temperature leading edges and control surfaces, integrated thermal protection systems, and repair technologies. The X-43A Mach-10 vehicle utilized carbon/carbon (C/C) leading edges on the nose, horizontal control surface, and vertical tail. The nose and vertical and horizontal tail leading edges were fabricated out of a 3:1 biased, high thermal conductivity C/C. The leading edges were coated with a three-layer coating comprised of a SiC conversion of the C/C, followed by a CVD layer of SiC, followed by a thin CVD layer of HfC. Work has also been performed on the development of an integrated structure and was focused on both hot and warm (insulated) structures and integrated fuselage/tank/TPS systems. The objective was to develop integrated multifunctional airframe structures that eliminate fragile external thermal-protection systems and incorporate the insulating function within the structure. The approach taken to achieve this goal was to develop candidate hypersonic

  18. Development of Advanced Tools for Cryogenic Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugby, D. C.; Marland, B. C.; Stouffer, C. J.; Kroliczek, E. J.

    2004-06-01

    This paper describes four advanced devices (or tools) that were developed to help solve problems in cryogenic integration. The four devices are: (1) an across-gimbal nitrogen cryogenic loop heat pipe (CLHP); (2) a miniaturized neon CLHP; (3) a differential thermal expansion (DTE) cryogenic thermal switch (CTSW); and (4) a dual-volume nitrogen cryogenic thermal storage unit (CTSU). The across-gimbal CLHP provides a low torque, high conductance solution for gimbaled cryogenic systems wishing to position their cryocoolers off-gimbal. The miniaturized CLHP combines thermal transport, flexibility, and thermal switching (at 35 K) into one device that can be directly mounted to both the cooler cold head and the cooled component. The DTE-CTSW, designed and successfully tested in a previous program using a stainless steel tube and beryllium (Be) end-pieces, was redesigned with a polymer rod and high-purity aluminum (Al) end-pieces to improve performance and manufacturability while still providing a miniaturized design. Lastly, the CTSU was designed with a 6063 Al heat exchanger and integrally welded, segmented, high purity Al thermal straps for direct attachment to both a cooler cold head and a Be component whose peak heat load exceeds its average load by 2.5 times. For each device, the paper will describe its development objective, operating principles, heritage, requirements, design, test data and lessons learned.

  19. Developing an Advanced Environment for Collaborative Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becerra-Fernandez, Irma; Stewart, Helen; DelAlto, Martha; DelAlto, Martha; Knight, Chris

    1999-01-01

    Knowledge management in general tries to organize and make available important know-how, whenever and where ever is needed. Today, organizations rely on decision-makers to produce "mission critical" decisions that am based on inputs from multiple domains. The ideal decision-maker has a profound understanding of specific domains that influence the decision-making process coupled with the experience that allows them to act quickly and decisively on the information. In addition, learning companies benefit by not repeating costly mistakes, and by reducing time-to-market in Research & Development projects. Group-decision making tools can help companies make better decisions by capturing the knowledge from groups of experts. Furthermore, companies that capture their customers preferences can improve their customer service, which translates to larger profits. Therefore collaborative computing provides a common communication space, improves sharing of knowledge, provides a mechanism for real-time feedback on the tasks being performed, helps to optimize processes, and results in a centralized knowledge warehouse. This paper presents the research directions. of a project which seeks to augment an advanced collaborative web-based environment called Postdoc, with workflow capabilities. Postdoc is a "government-off-the-shelf" document management software developed at NASA-Ames Research Center (ARC).

  20. Asset health monitors: development, sustainment, advancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauss, Fredrick J.

    2011-04-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed the Captive Carry Health Monitor Unit (HMU) and the Humidity Indicator HMU. Each of these devices provides end users information that can be used to ensure the proper maintenance and performance of the missile. These two efforts have led to the ongoing development and evolution of the next generation Captive Carry HMU and the next generation Humidity Indicator HMU. These next generation efforts are in turn, leading to the future of HMUs. This evolutionary development process inherently allows for direct and indirect impact toward new HMU functionality, operability and performance characteristics by influencing their requirements, testing, communications, data archival, and user interaction. Current designs allow systems to operate in environments outside the limits of typical consumer electronics for up to or exceeding 10 years. These designs are battery powered and typically provided in custom mechanical packages that employ sensors for temperature, shock/vibration, and humidity measurements. The data taken from these sensors is then analyzed onboard using unique algorithms. The algorithms are developed from test data and fielded prototypes. Onboard data analysis provides field users with a simple indication of missile exposure. The HMU provides missile readiness information to the user based on storage and use conditions observed. To continually advance current designs PNNL evaluates the potential for enhancing sensor capabilities by improving performance or power saving features, increasing algorithm and processing abilities, and adding new features. Future work at PNNL includes the utilization of power harvesting, using a defined wireless protocol, and defining a data/information structure. These efforts will lead to improved performance allowing the HMUs to benefit users with direct access to HMUs in the field as well as benefiting those with the ability to make strategic and high-level supply and

  1. Clinical Impact of Vaccine Development.

    PubMed

    Nambiar, Puja H; Daza, Alejandro Delgado; Livornese, Lawrence L

    2016-01-01

    The discovery and development of immunization has been a singular improvement in the health of mankind. This chapter reviews currently available vaccines, their historical development, and impact on public health. Specific mention is made in regard to the challenges and pursuit of a vaccine for the human immunodeficiency virus as well as the unfounded link between autism and measles vaccination. PMID:27076123

  2. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program: Phase III

    SciTech Connect

    G.T. Amrhein; R.T. Bailey; W. Downs; M.J. Holmes; G.A. Kudlac; D.A. Madden

    1999-07-01

    The primary objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. The project goal is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), fabric filters (baghouses - BH), and wet flue gas desulfurization systems (WFGD). Development work concentrated on the capture of trace metals, fine particulate, hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride, with an emphasis on the control of mercury. The AECDP project is jointly funded by the US Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development (OCDO), and Babcock and Wilcox, a McDermott company (B and W). This report discusses results of all three phases of the AECDP project with an emphasis on Phase III activities. Following the construction and evaluation of a representative air toxics test facility in Phase I, Phase II focused on characterization of the emissions of mercury and other air toxics and the control of these emissions for typical operating conditions of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment. Some general comments that can be made about the control of air toxics while burning a high-sulfur bituminous coal are as follows: (1) particulate control devices such as ESP's and baghouses do a good job of removing non-volatile trace metals, (2) particulate control devices (ESPs and baghouses) effectively remove the particulate-phase mercury, but the particulate-phase mercury was only a small fraction of the total for the coals tested, (3) wet scrubbing can effectively remove hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride, and (4) wet scrubbers show good potential for the removal of mercury when operated under certain conditions, however, for certain applications, system enhancements can be required to achieve high

  3. Biology of Advanced Uveal Melanoma and Next Steps for Clinical Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Luke, Jason J.; Triozzi, Pierre L.; McKenna, Kyle C.; Van Meir, Erwin G.; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E.; Bastian, Boris C.; Gutkind, J. Silvio; Bowcock, Anne M.; Streicher, Howard Z.; Patel, Poulam M.; Sato, Takami; Sossman, Jeffery A.; Sznol, Mario; Welch, Jack; Thurin, Magdalena; Selig, Sara; Flaherty, Keith T.; Carvajal, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Uveal melanoma is the most common intraocular malignancy though it is a rare subset of all melanomas. Uveal melanoma has distinct biology relative to cutaneous melanoma, with widely divergent patient outcomes. Patients diagnosed with a primary uveal melanoma can be stratified for risk of metastasis by cytogenetics or gene expression profiling, with approximately half of patients developing metastatic disease, predominately hepatic in location, over a 15 year period. Historically, no systemic therapy has been associated with a clear clinical benefit for patients with advanced disease and median survival remains poor. Here, as a joint effort between CURE OM and the National Cancer Institute, the current understanding of the molecular and immunobiology of uveal melanoma is reviewed, and on-going laboratory research into the disease is highlighted. Finally, recent investigations relevant to clinical management via targeted and immunotherpies are reviewed and next steps in the development of clinical therapeutics are discussed. PMID:25113308

  4. Cancer Pharmacogenomics: Integrating Discoveries in Basic, Clinical and Population Sciences to Advance Predictive Cancer Care

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer Pharmacogenomics: Integrating Discoveries in Basic, Clinical and Population Sciences to Advance Predictive Cancer Care, a 2010 workshop sponsored by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program.

  5. Development of advanced barium ferrite tape media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Osamu; Oyanagi, Masahito; Morooka, Atsushi; Mori, Masahiko; Kurihashi, Yuich; Tada, Toshio; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Harasawa, Takeshi

    2016-02-01

    We developed an advanced particulate magnetic tape using fine barium ferrite (BaFe) particles for magnetic-tape storage systems. The new tape showed a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) that was 3.5 dB higher than that of the commercially available BaFe tape used for the Linear Tape Open generation 6 tape-storage system, at a linear density of 300 kfci measured with a giant magnetoresistive head with a reader width of 0.45 μm. Such significant increase in SNR was achieved by reducing the magnetic particle volume from 1950 to 1350 nm3, while maintaining a sufficiently high thermal stability, improving the perpendicular squareness ratio from 0.66 to 0.83, and improving the surface roughness from 2.5 to 2.0 nm when measured by atomic force microscopy and from 2.4 to 0.9 nm when measured by optical interferometry. This paper describes the characteristics of the new BaFe particles and media, which are expected to be employed for future high-capacity linear-tape systems.

  6. Development of advanced inductive scenarios for ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luce, T. C.; Challis, C. D.; Ide, S.; Joffrin, E.; Kamada, Y.; Politzer, P. A.; Schweinzer, J.; Sips, A. C. C.; Stober, J.; Giruzzi, G.; Kessel, C. E.; Murakami, M.; Na, Y.-S.; Park, J. M.; Polevoi, A. R.; Budny, R. V.; Citrin, J.; Garcia, J.; Hayashi, N.; Hobirk, J.; Hudson, B. F.; Imbeaux, F.; Isayama, A.; McDonald, D. C.; Nakano, T.; Oyama, N.; Parail, V. V.; Petrie, T. W.; Petty, C. C.; Suzuki, T.; Wade, M. R.; the ITPA Integrated Operation Scenario Topical Group Members; the ASDEX-Upgrade Team; the DIII-D Team; EFDA Contributors, JET; the JT-60U Team

    2014-01-01

    Since its inception in 2002, the International Tokamak Physics Activity topical group on Integrated Operational Scenarios (IOS) has coordinated experimental and modelling activity on the development of advanced inductive scenarios for applications in the ITER tokamak. The physics basis and the prospects for applications in ITER have been advanced significantly during that time, especially with respect to experimental results. The principal findings of this research activity are as follows. Inductive scenarios capable of higher normalized pressure (βN ⩾ 2.4) than the ITER baseline scenario (βN = 1.8) with normalized confinement at or above the standard H-mode scaling are well established under stationary conditions on the four largest diverted tokamaks (AUG, DIII-D, JET, JT-60U), demonstrated in a database of more than 500 plasmas from these tokamaks analysed here. The parameter range where high performance is achieved is broad in q95 and density normalized to the empirical density limit. MHD modes can play a key role in reaching stationary high performance, but also define the limits to achieved stability and confinement. Projection of performance in ITER from existing experiments uses empirical scalings and theory-based modelling. The status of the experimental validation of both approaches is summarized here. The database shows significant variation in the energy confinement normalized to standard H-mode confinement scalings, indicating the possible influence of additional physics variables absent from the scalings. Tests using the available information on rotation and the ratio of the electron and ion temperatures indicate neither of these variables in isolation can explain the variation in normalized confinement observed. Trends in the normalized confinement with the two dimensionless parameters that vary most from present-day experiments to ITER, gyroradius and collision frequency, are significant. Regression analysis on the multi-tokamak database has been

  7. Hairy cell leukemia: clinical features and therapeutic advances.

    PubMed

    Lembersky, B C; Golomb, H M

    1987-01-01

    Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is a rare chronic lymphoproliferative disorder which has been extensively studied over the past decade. Much has been learned regarding the diagnosis, natural history, biology, and treatment of this unique neoplasm. The disease most commonly affects middle aged men and characteristic clinical features include splenomegaly, cytopenias, and usually the presence in the peripheral blood of distinctive 'hairy cells' with irregular cytoplasmic projections. Diagnosis can usually be confirmed by bone marrow biopsy. Although the natural history can be extremely variable among patients, complications are usually referable to the cytopenias, with anemia and infection being most frequent. In addition to pyogenic infections, patients are susceptible to unusual organisms including atypical mycobacterium, legionella, and fungi. The requirement of red blood cell transfusion, severe granulocytopenia or thrombocytopenia, frequent infections, or painful splenomegaly are all indications for treatment. Splenectomy is the standard initial treatment of choice. However, in the past few years there have been exciting major advances in the therapeutic modalities for HCL. Recombinant alpha-interferon is highly effective, with beneficial responses occurring in close to 90% of patients. The Food and Drug Administration has recently approved the use of interferon for HCL. This represents the first time a biological response modifier has been approved for the treatment of human disease. In addition, preliminary results with the adenosine deaminase inhibitor, 2'deoxycoformycin (dcf), have been encouraging. Further clinical trials are required in order to determine the optimal sequential treatment strategy for HCL. The exact mechanisms of action of both interferon and dcf in HCL remain to be elucidated. A better understanding of the unusual features of the hairy cell and the underlying biological effect of these two agents in HCL may have important applications in other

  8. Advanced CO2 Removal Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finn, John E.; Verma, Sunita; Forrest, Kindall; LeVan, M. Douglas

    2001-01-01

    The Advanced CO2 Removal Technical Task Agreement covers three active areas of research and development. These include a study of the economic viability of a hybrid membrane/adsorption CO2 removal system, sorbent materials development, and construction of a database of adsorption properties of important fixed gases on several adsorbent material that may be used in CO2 removal systems. The membrane/adsorption CO2 removal system was proposed as a possible way to reduce the energy consumption of the four-bed molecular sieve system now in use. Much of the energy used by the 4BMS is used to desorb water removed in the device s desiccant beds. These beds might be replaced by a desiccating membrane that moves the water from [he incoming stream directly into the outlet stream. The approach may allow the CO2 removal beds to operate at a lower temperature. A comparison between models of the 4BMS and hybrid systems is underway at Vanderbilt University. NASA Ames Research Center has been investigating a Ag-exchanged zeolites as a possible improvement over currently used Ca and Na zeolites for CO2 removal. Silver ions will complex with n:-bonds in hydrocarbons such as ethylene, giving remarkably improved selectivity for adsorption of those materials. Bonds with n: character are also present in carbon oxides. NASA Ames is also continuing to build a database for adsorption isotherms of CO2, N2, O2, CH4, and Ar on a variety of sorbents. This information is useful for analysis of existing hardware and design of new processes.

  9. Chemotherapy in advanced ovarian cancer: an overview of randomised clinical trials. Advanced Ovarian Cancer Trialists Group.

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To consider the role of platinum and the relative merits of single agent and combination chemotherapy in the treatment of advanced ovarian cancer. DESIGN--Formal quantitative overview using updated individual patient data from all available randomised trials (published and unpublished). SUBJECTS--8139 patients (6408 deaths) included in 45 different trials. RESULTS--No firm conclusions could be reached. Nevertheless, the results suggest that in terms of survival immediate platinum based treatment was better than non-platinum regimens (overall relative risk 0.93; 95% confidence interval 0.83 to 1.05); platinum in combination was better than single agent platinum when used in the same dose (overall relative risk 0.85; 0.72 to 1.00); and cisplatin and carboplatin were equally effective (overall relative risk 1.05; 0.94 to 1.18). CONCLUSIONS--In the past, randomised clinical trials of chemotherapy in advanced ovarian cancer have been much too small to detect the degree of benefit which this overview suggests is realistic for currently available chemotherapeutic regimens. Hence a new trial comparing cisplatin, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide (CAP) with carboplatin has been launched and plans to accrue 2000 patients. PMID:1834291

  10. Opioid-induced constipation: advances and clinical guidance

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Alfred D.; Camilleri, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Currently opioids are the most frequently used medications for chronic noncancer pain. Opioid-induced constipation is the most common adverse effect associated with prolonged use of opioids, having a major impact on quality of life. There is an increasing need to treat opioid-induced constipation. With the recent approval of medications for the treatment of opioid-induced constipation, there are several therapeutic approaches. This review addresses the clinical presentation and diagnosis of opioid-induced constipation, barriers to its diagnosis, effects of opioids in the gastrointestinal tract, differential tolerance to opiates in different gastrointestinal organs, medications approved and in development for the treatment of opioid-induced constipation, and a proposed clinical management algorithm for treating opioid-induced constipation in patients with noncancer pain. PMID:26977281

  11. Functional neuroimaging of traumatic brain injury: advances and clinical utility

    PubMed Central

    Irimia, Andrei; Van Horn, John Darrell

    2015-01-01

    Functional deficits due to traumatic brain injury (TBI) can have significant and enduring consequences upon patients’ life quality and expectancy. Although functional neuroimaging is essential for understanding TBI pathophysiology, an insufficient amount of effort has been dedicated to the task of translating functional neuroimaging findings into information with clinical utility. The purpose of this review is to summarize the use of functional neuroimaging techniques – especially functional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and electroencephalography – for advancing current knowledge of TBI-related brain dysfunction and for improving the rehabilitation of TBI patients. We focus on seven core areas of functional deficits, namely consciousness, motor function, attention, memory, higher cognition, personality, and affect, and, for each of these, we summarize recent findings from neuroimaging studies which have provided substantial insight into brain function changes due to TBI. Recommendations are also provided to aid in setting the direction of future neuroimaging research and for understanding brain function changes after TBI. PMID:26396520

  12. Performance-based staff development. A baseline for clinical competence.

    PubMed

    Snyder-Halpern, R; Buczkowski, E

    1990-01-01

    Changes in health-care financing, complex technological advancements, and an expanding nursing knowledge base have made it increasingly difficult for health care educators to assess and enhance the development of professional nurses. Using a set of objective evaluation methods and tools, educators assessed the competency of novice and experienced staff. This information identified learning and practice needs that formed the bases for individualized orientation and clinical educational programs.

  13. [Adaptive clinical study methodologies in drug development].

    PubMed

    Antal, János

    2015-11-29

    The evolution of drug development in human, clinical phase studies triggers the overview of those technologies and procedures which are labelled as adaptive clinical trials. The most relevant procedural and operational aspects will be discussed in this overview from points of view of clinico-methodological aspect.

  14. Clinical cancer advances 2007: major research advances in cancer treatment, prevention, and screening--a report from the American Society of Clinical Oncology.

    PubMed

    Gralow, Julie; Ozols, Robert F; Bajorin, Dean F; Cheson, Bruce D; Sandler, Howard M; Winer, Eric P; Bonner, James; Demetri, George D; Curran, Walter; Ganz, Patricia A; Kramer, Barnett S; Kris, Mark G; Markman, Maurie; Mayer, Robert J; Raghavan, Derek; Ramsey, Scott; Reaman, Gregory H; Sawaya, Raymond; Schuchter, Lynn M; Sweetenham, John W; Vahdat, Linda T; Davidson, Nancy E; Schilsky, Richard L; Lichter, Allen S

    2008-01-10

    A MESSAGE FROM ASCO'S PRESIDENT: For the third year, the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) is publishing Clinical Cancer Advances: Major Research Advances in Cancer Treatment, Prevention, and Screening, an annual review of the most significant cancer research presented or published over the past year. ASCO publishes this report to demonstrate the important progress being made on the front lines of clinical cancer research today. The report is intended to give all those with an interest in cancer care-the general public, cancer patients and organizations, policymakers, oncologists, and other medical professionals-an accessible summary of the year's most important cancer research advances. These pages report on the use of magnetic resonance imaging for breast cancer screening, the association between hormone replacement therapy and breast cancer incidence, the link between human papillomavirus and head and neck cancers, and the use of radiation therapy to prevent lung cancer from spreading. They also report on effective new targeted therapies for cancers that have been historically difficult to treat, such as liver cancer and kidney cancer, among many others. A total of 24 advances are featured in this year's report. These advances and many more over the past several years show that the nation's long-term investment in cancer research is paying off. But there are disturbing signs that progress could slow. We are now in the midst of the longest sustained period of flat government funding for cancer research in history. The budgets for the National Institutes of Health and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) have been unchanged for four years. When adjusted for inflation, cancer research funding has actually declined 12% since 2004. These budget constraints limit the NCI's ability to fund promising cancer research. In the past several years the number of grants that the NCI has been able to fund has significantly decreased; this year, in response to just the

  15. Faculty Development for Institutional Change: Lessons from an Advance Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laursen, Sandra; Rocque, Bill

    2009-01-01

    The ADVANCE Institutional Transformation projects are remarkably diverse in their theories of action and choice of strategies. However, faculty development plays a role in many, and it was the central change strategy chosen by Leadership Education for Advancement and Promotion (LEAP), the 2002-2008 ADVANCE project at the University of Colorado at…

  16. Nitroreductase gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy: insights and advances toward clinical utility.

    PubMed

    Williams, Elsie M; Little, Rory F; Mowday, Alexandra M; Rich, Michelle H; Chan-Hyams, Jasmine V E; Copp, Janine N; Smaill, Jeff B; Patterson, Adam V; Ackerley, David F

    2015-10-15

    This review examines the vast catalytic and therapeutic potential offered by type I (i.e. oxygen-insensitive) nitroreductase enzymes in partnership with nitroaromatic prodrugs, with particular focus on gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT; a form of cancer gene therapy). Important first indications of this potential were demonstrated over 20 years ago, for the enzyme-prodrug pairing of Escherichia coli NfsB and CB1954 [5-(aziridin-1-yl)-2,4-dinitrobenzamide]. However, it has become apparent that both the enzyme and the prodrug in this prototypical pairing have limitations that have impeded their clinical progression. Recently, substantial advances have been made in the biodiscovery and engineering of superior nitroreductase variants, in particular development of elegant high-throughput screening capabilities to enable optimization of desirable activities via directed evolution. These advances in enzymology have been paralleled by advances in medicinal chemistry, leading to the development of second- and third-generation nitroaromatic prodrugs that offer substantial advantages over CB1954 for nitroreductase GDEPT, including greater dose-potency and enhanced ability of the activated metabolite(s) to exhibit a local bystander effect. In addition to forging substantial progress towards future clinical trials, this research is supporting other fields, most notably the development and improvement of targeted cellular ablation capabilities in small animal models, such as zebrafish, to enable cell-specific physiology or regeneration studies.

  17. Advanced heat exchanger development for molten salts

    DOE PAGES

    Sabharwall, Piyush; Clark, Denis; Glazoff, Michael; Zheng, Guiqiu; Sridharan, Kumar; Anderson, Mark

    2014-12-01

    This study addresses present work concerned with advanced heat exchanger development for molten salt in nuclear and non nuclear thermal systems. The molten salt systems discussed herein use alloys, such as Hastelloy N and 242, which show corrosion resistance to molten salt at nominal operating temperatures up to 700°C. These alloys were diffusion welded, and the corresponding information is presented. Test specimens were prepared for exposing diffusion welds to molten salt environments. Hastelloy N and 242 were found to be weldable by diffusion welding, with ultimate tensile strengths about 90% of base metal values. Both diffusion welds and sheet materialmore » in Hastelloy N were corrosion tested in?58 mol% KF and 42 mol% ZrF4 at 650, 700, and 850°C for 200, 500, and 1,000 hours. Corrosion rates found were similar between welded and nonwelded materials, typically <10 mils per year. For materials of construction, nickel and alloys with dense nickel coatings are effectively inert to corrosion in fluorides, but not so in chlorides. Hence, additional testing of selected alloys for resistance to intergranular corrosion is needed, as is a determination of corrosion rate as a function of contaminant type and alloy composition with respect to chromium and carbon to better define the optimal chromium and carbon composition, independent of galvanic or differential solubility effects. Also presented is the division of the nuclear reactor and high temperature components per ASME standards, along with design requirements for a subcritical Rankine power cycle heat exchanger that has to overcome pressure difference of about 17 MPa.« less

  18. Advanced heat exchanger development for molten salts

    SciTech Connect

    Sabharwall, Piyush; Clark, Denis; Glazoff, Michael; Zheng, Guiqiu; Sridharan, Kumar; Anderson, Mark

    2014-12-01

    This study addresses present work concerned with advanced heat exchanger development for molten salt in nuclear and non nuclear thermal systems. The molten salt systems discussed herein use alloys, such as Hastelloy N and 242, which show corrosion resistance to molten salt at nominal operating temperatures up to 700°C. These alloys were diffusion welded, and the corresponding information is presented. Test specimens were prepared for exposing diffusion welds to molten salt environments. Hastelloy N and 242 were found to be weldable by diffusion welding, with ultimate tensile strengths about 90% of base metal values. Both diffusion welds and sheet material in Hastelloy N were corrosion tested in?58 mol% KF and 42 mol% ZrF4 at 650, 700, and 850°C for 200, 500, and 1,000 hours. Corrosion rates found were similar between welded and nonwelded materials, typically <10 mils per year. For materials of construction, nickel and alloys with dense nickel coatings are effectively inert to corrosion in fluorides, but not so in chlorides. Hence, additional testing of selected alloys for resistance to intergranular corrosion is needed, as is a determination of corrosion rate as a function of contaminant type and alloy composition with respect to chromium and carbon to better define the optimal chromium and carbon composition, independent of galvanic or differential solubility effects. Also presented is the division of the nuclear reactor and high temperature components per ASME standards, along with design requirements for a subcritical Rankine power cycle heat exchanger that has to overcome pressure difference of about 17 MPa.

  19. Recent Advances in Nucleic Acid-Based Delivery: From Bench to Clinical Trials in Genetic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Cláudia; Ribeiro, António J; Veiga, Francisco; Silveira, Isabel

    2016-05-01

    Delivery of nucleic acids is the most promising therapy for many diseases that remain untreatable. Therefore, many research efforts have been put on finding a safe and efficient delivery system able to provide a sustained response. Viral vectors have proved to be the most efficient for delivery of nucleic acids and, thus, stand as the foremost vector used in current clinical trials. However, safety issues arise as a main concern and mitigate their use, impelling the improvement of non-viral alternatives. This review focuses on the recent advances in pre-clinical development of non-viral polyplexes and lipoplexes for nucleic acid-based delivery, in contrast with vectors being used in present clinical trials. Nucleic acid vectors for neurodegenerative ataxias, Parkinson's disease, retinitis pigmentosa, cystic fibrosis, hemophilia, pancreatic and lung cancer, and rheumatoid arthritis are discussed to illustrate current state of pre-clinical and clinical studies. Thereby, denoting the prospects for treatment of genetic diseases and elucidating the trend in non-viral vector development and improvement which is expected to significantly increase disease rescue exceeding the modest clinical successes observed so far. PMID:27305810

  20. Recent Advances in Nucleic Acid-Based Delivery: From Bench to Clinical Trials in Genetic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Cláudia; Ribeiro, António J; Veiga, Francisco; Silveira, Isabel

    2016-05-01

    Delivery of nucleic acids is the most promising therapy for many diseases that remain untreatable. Therefore, many research efforts have been put on finding a safe and efficient delivery system able to provide a sustained response. Viral vectors have proved to be the most efficient for delivery of nucleic acids and, thus, stand as the foremost vector used in current clinical trials. However, safety issues arise as a main concern and mitigate their use, impelling the improvement of non-viral alternatives. This review focuses on the recent advances in pre-clinical development of non-viral polyplexes and lipoplexes for nucleic acid-based delivery, in contrast with vectors being used in present clinical trials. Nucleic acid vectors for neurodegenerative ataxias, Parkinson's disease, retinitis pigmentosa, cystic fibrosis, hemophilia, pancreatic and lung cancer, and rheumatoid arthritis are discussed to illustrate current state of pre-clinical and clinical studies. Thereby, denoting the prospects for treatment of genetic diseases and elucidating the trend in non-viral vector development and improvement which is expected to significantly increase disease rescue exceeding the modest clinical successes observed so far.

  1. Developing a web page: bringing clinics online.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Ronnie; Berns, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Introducing clinical staff education, along with new policies and procedures, to over 50 different clinical sites can be a challenge. As any staff educator will confess, getting people to attend an educational inservice session can be difficult. Clinical staff request training, but no one has time to attend training sessions. Putting the training along with the policies and other information into "neat" concise packages via the computer and over the company's intranet was the way to go. However, how do you bring the clinics online when some of the clinical staff may still be reluctant to turn on their computers for anything other than to gather laboratory results? Developing an easy, fun, and accessible Web page was the answer. This article outlines the development of the first training Web page at the University of Wisconsin Medical Foundation, Madison, WI.

  2. Development of treatment strategies for advanced neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Hara, Junichi

    2012-06-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most common cancer in childhood. The majority of patients with neuroblastoma are assigned to the high-risk group based on age at diagnosis, stage, histology, MYCN status, and DNA ploidy. Their prognosis remains unsatisfactory; the 5-year event-free survival (EFS) rate is generally 40 %. During the past 20 years, much effort has been made to reinforce chemotherapy, including the introduction of high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue, resulting in a 5-year EFS rate of around 30 %. Subsequently, maintenance therapy aimed at eradicating residual tumors after induction and consolidation therapies was introduced, consisting of differentiation-inducing agents, retinoids, and immunotherapy using anti-GD2 antibodies combined with cytokines. However, such additional treatment provided benefit to only 10-20 % of patients, while the prognosis of about half the patients remains poor. Currently, novel targeted agents are under development. Among them, anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitors and aurora kinase A inhibitors are promising. ALK somatic mutation or gene amplification predisposing neuroblastoma development occurs in up to 15 % of neuroblastomas. Crizotinib is a dual-specific inhibitor of ALK/Met and inhibits proliferation of neuroblastoma cells harboring R1275Q-mutated ALK or amplified wild-type ALK, but not cells harboring F1174L. Instead, cells with F1174L are sensitive to another small molecule ALK inhibitor, TAE684. Aurora kinase A plays a pivotal role in centrosome maturation and spindle formation during mitosis. MLN8237 (alisertib) is a small molecule inhibitor of aurora kinase A that is currently in early-phase clinical testing. Future treatment will be individually planned, adapting targeted agents based on personal biological tumor characteristics.

  3. Advancing Porous Silicon Biosensor Technology for Use in Clinical Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonanno, Lisa Marie

    Inexpensive and robust analytical techniques for detecting molecular recognition events are in great demand in healthcare, food safety, and environmental monitoring. Despite vast research in this area, challanges remain to develop practical biomolecular platforms that, meet the rigorous demands of real-world applications. This includes maintaining low-cost devices that are sensitive and specific in complex test specimens, are stable after storage, have short assay time, and possess minimal complexity of instrumentation for readout. Nanostructured porous silicon (PSi) material has been identified as an ideal candidate towards achieving these goals and the past decade has seen diverse proof-of-principle studies developing optical-based sensing techniques. In Part 1 of this thesis, the impact of surface chemistry and PSi morphology on detection sensitivity of target molecules is investigated. Initial proof-of-concept that PSi devices facilitate detection of protein in whole blood is demonstrated. This work highlights the importance of material stability and blocking chemistry for sensor use in real world biological samples. In addition, the intrinisic filtering capability of the 3-D PSi morphology is shown as an advantage in complex solutions, such as whole blood. Ultimately, this initial work identified a need to improve detection sensitivity of the PSI biosensor technique to facilitate clinical diagnostic use over relevant target concentration ranges. The second part of this thesis, builds upon sensitivity challenges that are highlighted in the first part of the thesis and development of a surface-bound competitive inhibition immunoassay facilitated improved detection sensitivity of small molecular weight targets (opiates) over a relevant clinical concentration range. In addition, optimization of assay protocol addressed issues of maintaining stability of sensors after storage. Performance of the developed assay (specificity and sensitivity) was then validated in a

  4. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) Technology Development Project, ceramic component developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teneyck, M. O.; Macbeth, J. W.; Sweeting, T. B.

    1987-01-01

    The ceramic component technology development activity conducted by Standard Oil Engineered Materials Company while performing as a principal subcontractor to the Garrett Auxiliary Power Division for the Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) Technology Development Project (NASA Contract DEN3-167) is summarized. The report covers the period October 1979 through July 1987, and includes information concerning ceramic technology work categorized as common and unique. The former pertains to ceramic development applicable to two parallel AGT projects established by NASA contracts DEN3-168 (AGT100) and DEN3-167 (AGT101), whereas the unique work solely pertains to Garrett directed activity under the latter contract. The AGT101 Technology Development Project is sponsored by DOE and administered by NASA-Lewis. Standard Oil directed its efforts toward the development of ceramic materials in the silicon-carbide family. Various shape forming and fabrication methods, and nondestructive evaluation techniques were explored to produce the static structural components for the ceramic engine. This permitted engine testing to proceed without program slippage.

  5. Advanced EVA Suit Camera System Development Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mock, Kyla

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) is developing a new extra-vehicular activity (EVA) suit known as the Advanced EVA Z2 Suit. All of the improvements to the EVA Suit provide the opportunity to update the technology of the video imagery. My summer internship project involved improving the video streaming capabilities of the cameras that will be used on the Z2 Suit for data acquisition. To accomplish this, I familiarized myself with the architecture of the camera that is currently being tested to be able to make improvements on the design. Because there is a lot of benefit to saving space, power, and weight on the EVA suit, my job was to use Altium Design to start designing a much smaller and simplified interface board for the camera's microprocessor and external components. This involved checking datasheets of various components and checking signal connections to ensure that this architecture could be used for both the Z2 suit and potentially other future projects. The Orion spacecraft is a specific project that may benefit from this condensed camera interface design. The camera's physical placement on the suit also needed to be determined and tested so that image resolution can be maximized. Many of the options of the camera placement may be tested along with other future suit testing. There are multiple teams that work on different parts of the suit, so the camera's placement could directly affect their research or design. For this reason, a big part of my project was initiating contact with other branches and setting up multiple meetings to learn more about the pros and cons of the potential camera placements we are analyzing. Collaboration with the multiple teams working on the Advanced EVA Z2 Suit is absolutely necessary and these comparisons will be used as further progress is made for the overall suit design. This prototype will not be finished in time for the scheduled Z2 Suit testing, so my time was

  6. Assessing Clinical Research Capacity in Vietnam: A Framework for Strengthening Capability for Clinical Trials in Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    Kagan, Jonathan; Giang, Dao Duc; Iademarco, Michael F; Phung, Van Tt; Lau, Chuen-Yen; Quang, Nguyen Ngo

    2016-01-01

    Although improving health systems promises important benefits, most developing nations lack the resources to support nationally driven clinical research. Strengthened clinical research capacity can advance national health goals by supporting greater autonomy in aligning research with national priorities. From March through June 2010, we assessed six elements of clinical research capacity in Vietnam: research agenda; clinical investigators and biostatisticians; donors and sponsors; community involvement; scientific, ethical, safety, and quality oversight; and clinical research institutions. Assessments were drawn from interviews with investigators, Ministry of Health staff members, nongovernment organizations, and U.S. Mission staff members, and document review. Observations and recommendations were shared with collaborators. Reassessment in 2015 found growth in the number of clinical trials, improved regulation in human subjects protection and community engagement, and modest advances in research agenda setting. Training and investment in institutions remain challenging. A framework for assessing clinical research capacity can affirm strengths and weaknesses and guide the coordination of capacity-building efforts. PMID:27252559

  7. Nanomedicine in the ROS-Mediated Pathophysiology: Applications and Clinical Advances

    PubMed Central

    Nash, Kevin M.; Ahmed, Salahuddin

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important in regulating normal cell physiological functions, but when produced in excess lead to the augmented pathogenesis of various diseases. Among these ischemia reperfusion injury, Alzheimer’s disease and rheumatoid arthritis, are particularly important. Since ROS can be counteracted by a variety of antioxidants, natural and synthetic antioxidants have been developed. However, due to the ubiquitous production of ROS in living systems, poor in vivo efficiency of these agents and lack of target specificity, the current clinical modalities to treat oxidative stress damage are limited. Advances in the developing field of nanomedicine have yielded nanoparticles that can prolong antioxidant activity, and target specificity of these agents. Thus, catalytic antioxidants such as recombinant superoxide dismutase (SOD), in combination with platinum and cerium oxide nanoparticles manifest higher efficacy at smaller doses with potentially lower toxicity. This article reviews recent advances in antioxidant nanoparticles and their applications to manage oxidative stress-mediated diseases. PMID:26255114

  8. Overview of clinical flow cytometry data analysis: recent advances and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Pedreira, Carlos E; Costa, Elaine S; Lecrevisse, Quentin; van Dongen, Jacques J M; Orfao, Alberto

    2013-07-01

    Major technological advances in flow cytometry (FC), both for instrumentation and reagents, have emerged over the past few decades. These advances facilitate simultaneous evaluation of more parameters in single cells analyzed at higher speed. Consequently, larger and more complex data files that contain information about tens of parameters for millions of cells are generated. This increasing complexity has challenged pre-existing data analysis tools and promoted the development of new algorithms and tools for data analysis and visualization. Here, we review the currently available (conventional and newly developed) data analysis and visualization strategies that aim for easier, more objective, and robust interpretation of FC data both in biomedical research and clinical diagnostic laboratories.

  9. Recent Advances in the Clinical Management of Lead Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Kianoush, Sina; Sadeghi, Mahmood; Balali-Mood, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Lead poisoning is a historic universal disease. Acute or chronic lead exposure may cause reversible or even permanent damages in human beings. Environmental lead exposure is a global health concern in children. Occupational lead poisoning is still a health issue, particularly in developing countries. During the last decades, new methods and medications have been advocated for the prevention and treatment of lead poisoning. This review deals mainly with recent developments in the management of lead poisoning. Sources of lead exposure are introduced, and methods for the primary prevention of lead poisoning are discussed. Details for the screening of adults and children are also explained to serve as a practical guideline for the secondary prevention. Standard chelation therapy in different groups and up-to-date less toxic new medications for the treatment of lead poisoning are finally discussed. Our published clinical research on the therapeutic effects of garlic tablets in mild to moderate occupational lead poisoning will also be discussed.

  10. Development of Specialized Advanced Materials Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malmgren, Thomas; And Others

    This course is intended to give students a comprehensive experience in current and future manufacturing materials and processes. It familiarizes students with: (1) base of composite materials; (2) composites--a very light, strong material used in spacecraft and stealth aircraft; (3) laminates; (4) advanced materials--especially aluminum alloys;…

  11. Advanced Electronics. Curriculum Development. Bulletin 1778.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eppler, Thomas

    This document is a curriculum guide for a 180-hour course in advanced electronics for 11th and 12th grades that has four instructional units. The instructional units are orientation, discrete components, integrated circuits, and electronic systems. The document includes a course flow chart; a two-page section that describes the course, lists…

  12. Development of advanced macrosphelides: potent anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Paek, Seung-Mann

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic approaches to macrosphelide derivatives, based on medicinal chemistry, are summarized. This review contains conventional medicinal chemistry approaches, combinatorial chemistry, fluorous tagging techniques and affinity chromatography preparation. In addition, advances in their apoptosis-inducing activities are also included. PMID:25764486

  13. Advances in endodontics: Potential applications in clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Kishen, Anil; Peters, Ove A.; Zehnder, Matthias; Diogenes, Anibal R.; Nair, Madhu K.

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary endodontics has seen an unprecedented advance in technology and materials. This article aimed to review some of the challenges and advances in the following sections: (1) endodontic imaging, (2) root canal preparation, (3) root canal disinfection, (4) root canal filling, and (4) regenerative endodontic procedures (REPs). Jointly, these advances are aimed at improving the state of the art and science of root canal treatment. PMID:27217630

  14. Advances in endodontics: Potential applications in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Kishen, Anil; Peters, Ove A; Zehnder, Matthias; Diogenes, Anibal R; Nair, Madhu K

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary endodontics has seen an unprecedented advance in technology and materials. This article aimed to review some of the challenges and advances in the following sections: (1) endodontic imaging, (2) root canal preparation, (3) root canal disinfection, (4) root canal filling, and (4) regenerative endodontic procedures (REPs). Jointly, these advances are aimed at improving the state of the art and science of root canal treatment. PMID:27217630

  15. Advanced Power Plant Development and Analyses Methodologies

    SciTech Connect

    G.S. Samuelsen; A.D. Rao

    2006-02-06

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory, a multi-disciplinary team led by the Advanced Power and Energy Program of the University of California at Irvine is defining the system engineering issues associated with the integration of key components and subsystems into advanced power plant systems with goals of achieving high efficiency and minimized environmental impact while using fossil fuels. These power plant concepts include ''Zero Emission'' power plants and the ''FutureGen'' H{sub 2} co-production facilities. The study is broken down into three phases. Phase 1 of this study consisted of utilizing advanced technologies that are expected to be available in the ''Vision 21'' time frame such as mega scale fuel cell based hybrids. Phase 2 includes current state-of-the-art technologies and those expected to be deployed in the nearer term such as advanced gas turbines and high temperature membranes for separating gas species and advanced gasifier concepts. Phase 3 includes identification of gas turbine based cycles and engine configurations suitable to coal-based gasification applications and the conceptualization of the balance of plant technology, heat integration, and the bottoming cycle for analysis in a future study. Also included in Phase 3 is the task of acquiring/providing turbo-machinery in order to gather turbo-charger performance data that may be used to verify simulation models as well as establishing system design constraints. The results of these various investigations will serve as a guide for the U. S. Department of Energy in identifying the research areas and technologies that warrant further support.

  16. Advanced Power Plant Development and Analysis Methodologies

    SciTech Connect

    A.D. Rao; G.S. Samuelsen; F.L. Robson; B. Washom; S.G. Berenyi

    2006-06-30

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory, a multi-disciplinary team led by the Advanced Power and Energy Program of the University of California at Irvine is defining the system engineering issues associated with the integration of key components and subsystems into advanced power plant systems with goals of achieving high efficiency and minimized environmental impact while using fossil fuels. These power plant concepts include 'Zero Emission' power plants and the 'FutureGen' H2 co-production facilities. The study is broken down into three phases. Phase 1 of this study consisted of utilizing advanced technologies that are expected to be available in the 'Vision 21' time frame such as mega scale fuel cell based hybrids. Phase 2 includes current state-of-the-art technologies and those expected to be deployed in the nearer term such as advanced gas turbines and high temperature membranes for separating gas species and advanced gasifier concepts. Phase 3 includes identification of gas turbine based cycles and engine configurations suitable to coal-based gasification applications and the conceptualization of the balance of plant technology, heat integration, and the bottoming cycle for analysis in a future study. Also included in Phase 3 is the task of acquiring/providing turbo-machinery in order to gather turbo-charger performance data that may be used to verify simulation models as well as establishing system design constraints. The results of these various investigations will serve as a guide for the U. S. Department of Energy in identifying the research areas and technologies that warrant further support.

  17. Advancing Clostridia to Clinical Trial: Past Lessons and Recent Progress

    PubMed Central

    Mowday, Alexandra M.; Guise, Christopher P.; Ackerley, David F.; Minton, Nigel P.; Lambin, Philippe; Dubois, Ludwig J.; Theys, Jan; Smaill, Jeff B.; Patterson, Adam V.

    2016-01-01

    Most solid cancers contain regions of necrotic tissue. The extent of necrosis is associated with poor survival, most likely because it reflects aggressive tumour outgrowth and inflammation. Intravenously injected spores of anaerobic bacteria from the genus Clostridium infiltrate and selectively germinate in these necrotic regions, providing cancer-specific colonisation. The specificity of this system was first demonstrated over 60 years ago and evidence of colonisation has been confirmed in multiple tumour models. The use of “armed” clostridia, such as in Clostridium Directed Enzyme Prodrug Therapy (CDEPT), may help to overcome some of the described deficiencies of using wild-type clostridia for treatment of cancer, such as tumour regrowth from a well-vascularised outer rim of viable cells. Successful preclinical evaluation of a transferable gene that metabolises both clinical stage positron emission tomography (PET) imaging agents (for whole body vector visualisation) as well as chemotherapy prodrugs (for conditional enhancement of efficacy) would be a valuable early step towards the prospect of “armed” clostridia entering clinical evaluation. The ability to target the immunosuppressive hypoxic tumour microenvironment using CDEPT may offer potential for synergy with recently developed immunotherapy strategies. Ultimately, clostridia may be most efficacious when combined with conventional therapies, such as radiotherapy, that sterilise viable aerobic tumour cells. PMID:27367731

  18. Major clinical research advances in gynecologic cancer in 2012.

    PubMed

    Suh, Dong Hoon; Kim, Jae-Weon; Kim, Kidong; Kim, Hak Jae; Lee, Kyung-Hun

    2013-01-01

    Ten topics were chosen among major clinical research achievements in gynecologic oncology in 2012. For ovarian cancer, comprehensive review of the history of bevacizumab studies was followed by poly adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitors and other molecular targeted agents such as epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor and AMG 386. For the development of genomic study in gynecologic cancers, BRCA and DICER1 mutations were covered in epithelial and nonepithelial ovarian cancer, respectively. For endometrial cancer, targeted agents including mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors and bevacizumab were discussed. Radiation therapy "sandwiched" between combination chemotherapy schedules for the treatment of uterine papillary serous carcinoma was also reviewed. Preoperative prediction of lymph node metastasis, definition of low-risk group, and recurrence and survival outcomes of laparoscopic approaches were addressed. For cervical cancer, we reviewed long-term benefit of human papillomavirus test and efficacy of paclitaxel/carboplatin versus paclitaxel/cisplatin in stage IVB, persistent or recurrent disease. In addition, the effect of three dimensional image-based high-dose rate brachytherapy was also reviewed. For vulvar cancer, the diagnostic value of sentinel lymph node biopsy was discussed. For breast cancer, positive results of three outstanding phase III randomized clinical trials, CLEOPATRA, EMILIA, and BOLERO-2 were introduced. Lastly, updates of major practice guidelines were summarized.

  19. Advanced technologies impact on compressor design and development: A perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ball, Calvin L.

    1989-01-01

    A historical perspective of the impact of advanced technologies on compression system design and development for aircraft gas turbine applications is presented. A bright view of the future is projected in which further advancements in compression system technologies will be made. These advancements will have a significant impact on the ability to meet the ever-more-demanding requirements being imposed on the propulsion system for advanced aircraft. Examples are presented of advanced compression system concepts now being studied. The status and potential impact of transitioning from an empirically derived design system to a computationally oriented system are highlighted. A current NASA Lewis Research Center program to enhance this transitioning is described.

  20. Advanced technology's impact on compressor design and development - A perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ball, Calvin L.

    1989-01-01

    A historical perspective of the impact of advanced technologies on compression system design and development for aircraft gas turbine applications is presented. A bright view of the future is projected in which further advancements in compression system technologies will be made. These advancements will have a significant impact on the ability to meet the ever-more-demanding requirements being imposed on the propulsion system for advanced aircraft. Examples are presented of advanced compression system concepts now being studied. The status and potential impact of transitioning from an empirically derived design system to a computationally oriented system are highlighted. A current NASA Lewis Research Center program to enhance this transitioning is described.

  1. Clinical skills assessment of procedural and advanced communication skills: performance expectations of residency program directors

    PubMed Central

    Langenau, Erik E.; Zhang, Xiuyuan; Roberts, William L.; DeChamplain, Andre F.; Boulet, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Background High stakes medical licensing programs are planning to augment and adapt current examinations to be relevant for a two-decision point model for licensure: entry into supervised practice and entry into unsupervised practice. Therefore, identifying which skills should be assessed at each decision point is critical for informing examination development, and gathering input from residency program directors is important. Methods Using data from previously developed surveys and expert panels, a web-delivered survey was distributed to 3,443 residency program directors. For each of the 28 procedural and 18 advanced communication skills, program directors were asked which clinical skills should be assessed, by whom, when, and how. Descriptive statistics were collected, and Intraclass Correlations (ICC) were conducted to determine consistency across different specialties. Results Among 347 respondents, program directors reported that all advanced communication and some procedural tasks are important to assess. The following procedures were considered ‘important’ or ‘extremely important’ to assess: sterile technique (93.8%), advanced cardiovascular life support (ACLS) (91.1%), basic life support (BLS) (90.0%), interpretation of electrocardiogram (89.4%) and blood gas (88.7%). Program directors reported that most clinical skills should be assessed at the end of the first year of residency (or later) and not before graduation from medical school. A minority were considered important to assess prior to the start of residency training: demonstration of respectfulness (64%), sterile technique (67.2%), BLS (68.9%), ACLS (65.9%) and phlebotomy (63.5%). Discussion Results from this study support that assessing procedural skills such as cardiac resuscitation, sterile technique, and phlebotomy would be amenable to assessment at the end of medical school, but most procedural and advanced communications skills would be amenable to assessment at the end of the first

  2. Recent Advances in Clinical Glycoproteomics of Immunoglobulins (Igs)*

    PubMed Central

    Plomp, Rosina; Bondt, Albert; de Haan, Noortje; Rombouts, Yoann; Wuhrer, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Antibody glycosylation analysis has seen methodological progress resulting in new findings with regard to antibody glycan structure and function in recent years. For example, antigen-specific IgG glycosylation analysis is now applicable for clinical samples because of the increased sensitivity of measurements, and this has led to new insights in the relationship between IgG glycosylation and various diseases. Furthermore, many new methods have been developed for the purification and analysis of IgG Fc glycopeptides, notably multiple reaction monitoring for high-throughput quantitative glycosylation analysis. In addition, new protocols for IgG Fab glycosylation analysis were established revealing autoimmune disease-associated changes. Functional analysis has shown that glycosylation of IgA and IgE is involved in transport across the intestinal epithelium and receptor binding, respectively. PMID:27009965

  3. Development of an Advanced Annular Combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rusnak, J. P.; Shadowen, J. H.

    1969-01-01

    The objective of the effort described in this report was to determine the structural durability of a full-scale advanced annular turbojet combustor using ASTM A-1 type fuel and operating at conditions typical of advanced supersonic aircraft. A full-scale annular combustor of the ram-induction type was fabricated and subjected to a 325-hour cyclic endurance test at conditions representative of operation in a Mach 3.0 aircraft. The combustor exhibited extensive cracking and scoop burning at the end of the test program. But these defects had no appreciable effect on combustor performance, as performance remained at a high level throughout the endurance program. Most performance goals were achieved with pressure loss values near 6% and 8%, and temperature rise variation ratio (deltaTVR) values near 1.25 and l.22 at takeoff and cruise conditions, respectively. Combustion efficiencies approached l004 and the exit radial temperature profiles were approximately as desired.

  4. Development of Advanced Plant Habitat Flight Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Curtis J., Jr

    2013-01-01

    With NASA's current goals and resources moving forward to bring the idea of Manned Deep-Space missions from a long-thought concept to a reality, innovative research methods and expertise are being utilized for studies that integrate human needs with that of technology to make for the most efficient operations possible. Through the capability to supply food, provide oxygen from what was once carbon dioxide, and various others which help to make plant research one of the prime factors of future long-duration mission, the Advanced Plant Habitat will be the largest microgravity plant growth chamber on the International Space Station when it is launched in the near future (2014- 2015). Soon, the Advanced Plant Habitat unit will continue on and enrich the discoveries and studies on the long-term effects of microgravity on plants.

  5. Clinical cancer advances 2011: Annual Report on Progress Against Cancer from the American Society of Clinical Oncology.

    PubMed

    Vogelzang, Nicholas J; Benowitz, Steven I; Adams, Sylvia; Aghajanian, Carol; Chang, Susan Marina; Dreyer, Zoann Eckert; Janne, Pasi A; Ko, Andrew H; Masters, Greg A; Odenike, Olatoyosi; Patel, Jyoti D; Roth, Bruce J; Samlowski, Wolfram E; Seidman, Andrew D; Tap, William D; Temel, Jennifer S; Von Roenn, Jamie H; Kris, Mark G

    2012-01-01

    A message from ASCO'S President. It has been forty years since President Richard Nixon signed the National Cancer Act of 1971, which many view as the nation's declaration of the "War on Cancer." The bill has led to major investments in cancer research and significant increases in cancer survival. Today, two-thirds of patients survive at least five years after being diagnosed with cancer compared with just half of all diagnosed patients surviving five years after diagnosis in 1975. The research advances detailed in this year's Clinical Cancer Advances demonstrate that improvements in cancer screening, treatment, and prevention save and improve lives. But although much progress has been made, cancer remains one of the world's most serious health problems. In the United States, the disease is expected to become the nation's leading cause of death in the years ahead as our population ages. I believe we can accelerate the pace of progress, provided that everyone involved in cancer care works together to achieve this goal. It is this viewpoint that has shaped the theme for my presidential term: Collaborating to Conquer Cancer. In practice, this means that physicians and researchers must learn from every patient's experience, ensure greater collaboration between members of a patient's medical team, and involve more patients in the search for cures through clinical trials. Cancer advocates, insurers, and government agencies also have important roles to play. Today, we have an incredible opportunity to improve the quality of cancer care by drawing lessons from the real-world experiences of patients. The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) is taking the lead in this area, in part through innovative use of health information technology. In addition to our existing quality initiatives, ASCO is working with partners to develop a comprehensive rapid-learning system for cancer care. When complete, this system will provide physicians with personalized, real

  6. Development of Advanced Multi-Modality Radiation Treatment Planning Software

    SciTech Connect

    Nigg, D W; Hartmann Siantar, C

    2002-02-19

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has long been active in development of advanced Monte-Carlo based computational dosimetry and treatment planning methods and software for advanced radiotherapy, with a particular focus on Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT) and, to a somewhat lesser extent, Fast-Neutron Therapy. The most recent INEEL software product system of this type is known as SERA, Simulation Environment for Radiotherapy Applications. SERA is at a mature level in its life cycle, it has been licensed for research use worldwide, and it has become well established as a computational tool for research. However, along with its strengths, SERA also has some limitations in its structure and computational methodologies. More specifically, it is optimized only for neutron-based applications. Although photon transport can be computed with SERA, the simplified model that is used is designed primarily for photons produced in the neutron transport process. Thus SERA is not appropriate for applications to, for example, standard external-beam photon radiotherapy, which is by far more commonly used in the clinic than neutron based therapy.

  7. The clinical relevance of assessing advanced glycation endproducts accumulation in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Meerwaldt, Robbert; Links, Thera; Zeebregts, Clark; Tio, Rene; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk; Smit, Andries

    2008-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of morbidity and mortality associated with diabetes. There is increasing evidence that advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) play a pivotal role in atherosclerosis, in particular in diabetes. AGE accumulation is a measure of cumulative metabolic and oxidative stress, and may so represent the "metabolic memory". Furthermore, increased AGE accumulation is closely related to the development of cardiovascular complications in diabetes. This review article will focus on the clinical relevance of measuring AGE accumulation in diabetic patients by focusing on AGE formation, AGEs as predictors of long-term complications, and interventions against AGEs. PMID:18840258

  8. The clinical relevance of assessing advanced glycation endproducts accumulation in diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Meerwaldt, Robbert; Links, Thera; Zeebregts, Clark; Tio, Rene; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk; Smit, Andries

    2008-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of morbidity and mortality associated with diabetes. There is increasing evidence that advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) play a pivotal role in atherosclerosis, in particular in diabetes. AGE accumulation is a measure of cumulative metabolic and oxidative stress, and may so represent the "metabolic memory". Furthermore, increased AGE accumulation is closely related to the development of cardiovascular complications in diabetes. This review article will focus on the clinical relevance of measuring AGE accumulation in diabetic patients by focusing on AGE formation, AGEs as predictors of long-term complications, and interventions against AGEs. PMID:18840258

  9. The clinical relevance of assessing advanced glycation endproducts accumulation in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Meerwaldt, Robbert; Links, Thera; Zeebregts, Clark; Tio, Rene; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk; Smit, Andries

    2008-10-07

    Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of morbidity and mortality associated with diabetes. There is increasing evidence that advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) play a pivotal role in atherosclerosis, in particular in diabetes. AGE accumulation is a measure of cumulative metabolic and oxidative stress, and may so represent the "metabolic memory". Furthermore, increased AGE accumulation is closely related to the development of cardiovascular complications in diabetes. This review article will focus on the clinical relevance of measuring AGE accumulation in diabetic patients by focusing on AGE formation, AGEs as predictors of long-term complications, and interventions against AGEs.

  10. Genitourinary tumours in the targeted therapies era: new advances in clinical practice and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Messina, Carlo; Buzzatti, Giulia; Dellepiane, Chiara; Cavo, Alessia; Tolomeo, Francesco; Cattrini, Carlo; Boccardo, Francesco

    2016-11-01

    Genitourinary cancers represent a heterogeneous group of malignancies arising from genitourinary tract, and are responsible for almost 359 000 newly diagnosed cases and 58 420 related deaths in USA. Continuous advances in cancer genetics and genomics have contributed towards changing the management paradigms of these neoplasms. Neoangiogenesis, through the activation of the tyrosine-kinase receptors signalling pathways, represents the key mediator event in promoting tumour proliferation, differentiation, invasiveness and motility. In the last decade, several treatments have been developed with the specific aim of targeting different cell pathways that have been recognized to drive tumour progression. The following review attempts to provide a comprehensive overview of the literature, focusing on new advances in targeted therapies for genitourinary tumours. Furthermore, the promising results of the latest clinical trials and future perspectives will be discussed.

  11. Clinical advances in molecular biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and therapy.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Seema; Ali, Shadan; Philip, Philip A; Sarkar, Fazlul H

    2013-07-16

    Cancer diagnosis is currently undergoing a paradigm shift with the incorporation of molecular biomarkers as part of routine diagnostic panel. The molecular alteration ranges from those involving the DNA, RNA, microRNAs (miRNAs) and proteins. The miRNAs are recently discovered small non-coding endogenous single-stranded RNAs that critically regulates the development, invasion and metastasis of cancers. They are altered in cancers and have the potential to serve as diagnostic markers for cancer. Moreover, deregulating their activity offers novel cancer therapeutic approaches. The availability of high throughput techniques for the identification of altered cellular molecules allowed their use in cancer diagnosis. Their application to a variety of body specimens from blood to tissues has been helpful for appreciating their use in the clinical context. The development of innovative antibodies for immunohistochemical detection of proteins also assists in diagnosis and risk stratification. Overall, the novel cancer diagnostic tools have extended their application as prognostic risk factors and can be used as targets for personalized medicine.

  12. Advanced clinical monitoring: considerations for real-time hemodynamic diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Goldman, J M; Cordova, M J

    1994-01-01

    In an effort to ease staffing burdens and potentially improve patient outcome in an intensive care unit (ICU) environment, we are developing a real-time system to accurately and efficiently diagnose cardiopulmonary emergencies. The system is being designed to utilize all relevant routinely-monitored physiological data in order to automatically diagnose potentially fatal events. The initial stage of this project involved formulating the overall system design and appropriate methods for real-time data acquisition, data storage, data trending, waveform analysis, and implementing diagnostic rules. Initially, we defined a conceptual analysis of the minimum physiologic data set, and the monitoring time-frames (trends) which would be required to diagnose cardiopulmonary emergencies. Following that analysis, we used a fuzzy logic diagnostic engine to analyze physiological data during a simulated arrhythmic cardiac arrest (ACA) in order to assess the validity of our diagnostic methodology. We used rate, trend, and morphologic data extracted from the following signals: expired CO2 time-concentration curve (capnogram), electrocardiogram, and arterial blood pressure. The system performed well: The fuzzy logic engine effectively diagnosed the likelihood of ACA from the subtle hemodynamic trends which preceded the complete arrest. As the clinical picture worsened, the fuzzy logic-based system accurately indicated the change in patient condition. Termination of the simulated arrest was rapidly detected by the diagnostic engine. In view of the effectiveness of this fuzzy logic implementation, we plan to develop additional fuzzy logic modules to diagnose other cardiopulmonary emergencies.

  13. Translational Paradigms in Scientific and Clinical Imaging of Cardiac Development

    PubMed Central

    Gregg, Chelsea L.; Butcher, Jonathan T.

    2015-01-01

    Congenital heart defects (CHD) are the most prevalent congenital disease with 45% of deaths resulting from a congenital defect are due to a cardiac malformation. Clinically significant CHD permit survival upon birth but may become immediately life threatening. Advances in surgical intervention have significantly reduced perinatal mortality, but the outcome for many malformations is bleak. Furthermore, patients living while tolerating a CHD often acquire additional complications due to the long-term systemic blood flow changes caused by even subtle anatomical abnormalities. Accurate diagnosis of defects during fetal development is critical for interventional planning and improving patient outcomes. Advances in quantitative, multi-dimensional imaging is necessary to uncover the basic scientific and clinically relevant morphogenetic changes and associated hemodynamic consequences influencing normal and abnormal heart development. Ultrasound is the most widely used clinical imaging technology for assessing fetal cardiac development. Ultrasound-based fetal assessment modalities include M-mode, 2D, and 3D/4D imaging. These datasets can be combined with computational fluid dynamics analysis to yield quantitative, volumetric and physiological data. Additional imaging modalities, however are available to study basic mechanisms of cardiogenesis, including optical coherence tomography, micro-computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Each imaging technology has its advantages and disadvantages regarding resolution, depth of penetration, soft tissue contrast considerations, and cost. In this review, we analyze the current clinical and scientific imaging technologies, research studies utilizing them, and appropriate animal models reflecting clinically relevant cardiogenesis and cardiac malformations. We conclude with discussing the translational impact and future opportunities for cardiovascular development imaging research. PMID:23897595

  14. Development and evaluation of advanced austenitic alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Swindeman, R.W.; Maziasz, P.J.; King, J.F.; Bolling, E.

    1990-01-01

    Research was performed on advanced austenitic alloys for tubing in heat recovery systems. Evaluations addressed the need to optimize strength, fabricability, and surface protection for specific environments and temperatures. Alloys studied included advanced lean austenitic stainless steels and higher chromium alloys to 760{degree}C, nickel-chromium-iron aluminides at temperature to 760{degree}C, and Ni--Cr alloys with capability for service to 1000{degree}C. Coordinated research was performed at a number of universities and industrial research facilities. Evaluation of the lean stainless steels focused on MC-forming alloys and a family of modified 316 stainless steels. Work nearing completion revealed that many of the alloy design criteria for the lean stainless steels could be met. With the judicious selection of thermal-mechanical processing, data indicated that high strength and ductility could be achieved in both base metal and weldments. Fabrication requirements needed to produce optimum performance called for high solution treating temperatures and small levels of cold or warm work. Evaluations of high chromium stainless steels and modifications of alloy 800H were encouraging, and good properties were observed for temperatures to 760{degree}C. Work on the alloys and claddings for service to 1000{degree}C was begun on two commercial alloys of nearest in PBFC hot gas cleanup systems. 20 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Recent advances in oral vaccine development

    PubMed Central

    De Smet, Rebecca; Allais, Liesbeth; Cuvelier, Claude A

    2014-01-01

    Oral vaccination is the most challenging vaccination method due to the administration route. However, oral vaccination has socio-economic benefits and provides the possibility of stimulating both humoral and cellular immune responses at systemic and mucosal sites. Despite the advantages of oral vaccination, only a limited number of oral vaccines are currently approved for human use. During the last decade, extensive research regarding antigen-based oral vaccination methods have improved immunogenicity and induced desired immunological outcomes. Nevertheless, several factors such as the harsh gastro-intestinal environment and oral tolerance impede the clinical application of oral delivery systems. To date, human clinical trials investigating the efficacy of these systems are still lacking. This review addresses the rationale and key biological and physicochemical aspects of oral vaccine design and highlights the use of yeast-derived β-glucan microparticles as an oral vaccine delivery platform. PMID:24553259

  16. Course strategies for clinical nurse leader development.

    PubMed

    Gerard, Sally; Grossman, Sheila; Godfrey, Marjorie

    2012-01-01

    The scope of the clinical nurse leader (CNL) is evolving in practice across the country. The preparation of this pivotal role in a complex healthcare environment has prompted the collaboration of nurse academics, nurse administrators, and clinicians to design unique educational experiences to maximize best practice. Knowledge attained regarding healthcare improvement and patient safety must not only be theoretical, but personal and application focused. Utilizing the American Association of Colleges of Nursing's CNL white paper and published resources faculty developed a clinical leadership course focused on active learning and reflection. Students explore concepts of improvement and quality related to business models of high functioning organizations including healthcare. Three key components of the course are described in detail; "quality is personal", executive interviews and the "5P" clinical microsystems assessment. Evaluation outcomes are discussed. Course content and innovative teaching/learning strategies for CNL are shared which may support the growth of CNL program development nationally.

  17. Early Childhood Development Policy Advances in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ejuu, Godfrey

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the history and development of early childhood development in Uganda is paramount if we are to know how far we have come and where we are going. This article explores the introduction of early childhood development in Ugandan policy and government interventions from 1960 to 2011. Data was obtained from a review of available early…

  18. Advances in Child Development: Theory and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesdale, Andrew R., Ed.; And Others

    This book consists of 31 papers focusing on aspects of child development. Mainly reports of research, papers are grouped topically into four sections dealing respectively with perceptual, language/communication, cognitive, and social development. Most of the nine papers in section 1 focus on the perceptual development of infants. Topics include…

  19. Developing a "Clinical" Model for Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conroy, James; Hulme, Moira; Menter, Ian

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the introduction of a "clinical model" of teacher education at the University of Glasgow in 2011. The account is set against the backdrop of a review of major contemporary developments in teacher education. The common focus in this work is on such themes as the key function of the practicum, on "teaching…

  20. An Academic-Business Partnership for Advancing Clinical Informatics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, Helen R.; Weaver, Charlotte; Warren, Judith; Miller, Karen L.

    2002-01-01

    A partnership between a university school of nursing and a health care information technology supplier resulted in the Simulated E-hEalth Delivery System (SEEDS). This program enables nursing students to learn clinical skills in a state-of-the-art environment using a live-production, clinical information system designed for care delivery. (JOW)

  1. Development of advanced fuel cell system, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handley, L. M.; Meyer, A. P.; Bell, W. F.

    1973-01-01

    A multiple task research and development program was performed to improve the weight, life, and performance characteristics of hydrogen-oxygen alkaline fuel cells for advanced power systems. Development and characterization of a very stable gold alloy catalyst was continued from Phase I of the program. A polymer material for fabrication of cell structural components was identified and its long term compatibility with the fuel cell environment was demonstrated in cell tests. Full scale partial cell stacks, with advanced design closed cycle evaporative coolers, were tested. The characteristics demonstrated in these tests verified the feasibility of developing the engineering model system concept into an advanced lightweight long life powerplant.

  2. Schedule Risks Due to Delays in Advanced Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, John D. Jr.; Kayat, Kamal A.; Lim, Evan

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses a methodology and modeling capability that probabilistically evaluates the likelihood and impacts of delays in advanced technology development prior to the start of design, development, test, and evaluation (DDT&E) of complex space systems. The challenges of understanding and modeling advanced technology development considerations are first outlined, followed by a discussion of the problem in the context of lunar surface architecture analysis. The current and planned methodologies to address the problem are then presented along with sample analyses and results. The methodology discussed herein provides decision-makers a thorough understanding of the schedule impacts resulting from the inclusion of various enabling advanced technology assumptions within system design.

  3. Platinum analogues in preclinical and clinical development.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, T C; O'Dwyer, P J; Ozols, R F

    1993-11-01

    The impact of cisplatin on chemotherapy for solid tumors has led to the synthesis of many molecules with platinum as their central building block. These so-called platinum analogues have been developed with the obvious goals of improving the antitumor activity of cisplatin and hopefully, at the same time, altering the dose-limiting side effects of the prototype drug. At least 10 such molecules are in clinical development, whereas several others are at various stages of preclinical testing. PMID:8305533

  4. [The significance of biobanks for clinical development].

    PubMed

    Thomas, Marlene; Kiermaier, Astrid; Cannarile, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Access to samples in biobanks and collection of samples for evaluation of biomarkers in clinical trials are an essential basis for the identification and development of biomarkers. From the perspective of a research-based pharmaceutical company identification of biomarkers and the accompanying diagnostics are an essential prerequisite for the further evolution of personalised healthcare-and the key to more effective and efficient healthcare. Research-based pharmaceutical companies can basically use four types of biobanks: biobanks of university hospitals, commercial providers, collaborative groups and company-owned biobanks. Areas of application, arising from the use of biobanks in the context of clinical development, are collection of prevalence data, evaluation of biomarker stability in different disease stages, technical validation of assays, an optimized course of clinical studies by focusing on defined, biomarker-stratified groups of patients and pharmacogenetic research. Challenges are, in particular, the availability of clinically annotated samples and tissue matching blood samples, in addition to sample quality, number and amount. An acceptable legal and regulatory framework, as well as the positive perception of biomarker data by politicians and the public, are important prerequisites for translational research for identification of biomarkers in clinical studies. Also, the early establishment of research alliances between academia and the pharmaceutical industry are required to transfer research results in new strategies for prevention, diagnosis and treatment of patients. PMID:26847235

  5. A national strategy to develop pragmatic clinical trials infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Concannon, Thomas W; Guise, Jeanne-Marie; Dolor, Rowena J; Meissner, Paul; Tunis, Sean; Krishnan, Jerry A; Pace, Wilson D; Saltz, Joel; Hersh, William R; Michener, Lloyd; Carey, Timothy S

    2014-04-01

    An important challenge in comparative effectiveness research is the lack of infrastructure to support pragmatic clinical trials, which compare interventions in usual practice settings and subjects. These trials present challenges that differ from those of classical efficacy trials, which are conducted under ideal circumstances, in patients selected for their suitability, and with highly controlled protocols. In 2012, we launched a 1-year learning network to identify high-priority pragmatic clinical trials and to deploy research infrastructure through the NIH Clinical and Translational Science Awards Consortium that could be used to launch and sustain them. The network and infrastructure were initiated as a learning ground and shared resource for investigators and communities interested in developing pragmatic clinical trials. We followed a three-stage process of developing the network, prioritizing proposed trials, and implementing learning exercises that culminated in a 1-day network meeting at the end of the year. The year-long project resulted in five recommendations related to developing the network, enhancing community engagement, addressing regulatory challenges, advancing information technology, and developing research methods. The recommendations can be implemented within 24 months and are designed to lead toward a sustained national infrastructure for pragmatic trials.

  6. Advanced Mating System Development for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, James L.

    2004-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the development of space flight sealing and the work required for the further development of a dynamic interface seal for the use on space mating systems to support a fully androgynous mating interface. This effort has resulted in the advocacy of developing a standard multipurpose interface for use with all modern modular space architecture. This fully androgynous design means a seal-on-seal (SOS) system.

  7. Advances in Technology, Education and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouwenhoven, Wim, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    From 3rd to 5th March 2008 the International Association of Technology, Education and Development organised its International Technology, Education and Development Conference in Valencia, Spain. Over a hundred papers were presented by participants from a great variety of countries. Summarising, this book provides a kaleidoscopic view of work that…

  8. Changing the Face of Veterinary Medicine: Research and Clinical Developments at AAVMC Institutions.

    PubMed

    Smith, Donald F; Hagstrom, Melena R

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a 50-year overview of research and clinical advances in AAVMC member colleges in four representative fields of veterinary medicine: oncology, vaccine development, production medicine, and public health. Though emphasis is on the progress since the mid-1960s, the salient background and associated personnel in each field are also identified to the extent that their description informs more recent events. Advances in board certification and post-graduate clinical and research educational opportunities are also described.

  9. An advanced thermionic theory: Recent developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Albert C.

    2000-01-01

    In previous papers I have shown that a revision is required to the basic approach for predicting net currents in thermionic energy conversion diodes. Revised equations were developed to properly account for electron reflection and temperature coefficient effects. Electron spectrum equations for averaging transmission coefficients were also developed. In this paper the spectrum equations are simplified and several new developments are presented that relate to the revised methodology. Recent developments include a demonstration of the general applicability of the new equations, equations for space charge that include the effects of reflection and an emitting collector, and electron cooling equations with electron reflection effects included. In addition, methods are developed to apply the new equations to non-uniform surfaces. .

  10. ALS liquid hydrogen turbopump: Advanced Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimp, Nancy R.; Claffy, George J.

    1989-01-01

    The point of departure (POD) turbopump concept was reviewed and finalized. The basis for the POD was the configuration presented in the Aerojet proposal. After reviewing this proposal concept, several modifications were made. These modifications include the following: (1) the dual pump discharge arrangement was changed to a single discharge; (2) commonality of the turbine inlet manifold with the advanced launch system (ALS) liquid oxygen (LOX) TPA was dropped for this program; (3) the turbine housing flange arrangement was improved by relocating it away from the first stage nozzles; (4) a ten percent margin (five percent diameter increase) was built into the impeller design to ensure meeting the required discharge pressure without the need for increasing speed; (5) a ten percent turbine power margin was imposed which is to be obtained by increasing turbine inlet pressure if required; and (6) the backup concept, as an alternative to the use of cast impellers, now incorporates forged/machined shrouded impellers, rather than the unshrouded type originally planned.

  11. Multiscale Modeling in the Clinic: Drug Design and Development.

    PubMed

    Clancy, Colleen E; An, Gary; Cannon, William R; Liu, Yaling; May, Elebeoba E; Ortoleva, Peter; Popel, Aleksander S; Sluka, James P; Su, Jing; Vicini, Paolo; Zhou, Xiaobo; Eckmann, David M

    2016-09-01

    A wide range of length and time scales are relevant to pharmacology, especially in drug development, drug design and drug delivery. Therefore, multiscale computational modeling and simulation methods and paradigms that advance the linkage of phenomena occurring at these multiple scales have become increasingly important. Multiscale approaches present in silico opportunities to advance laboratory research to bedside clinical applications in pharmaceuticals research. This is achievable through the capability of modeling to reveal phenomena occurring across multiple spatial and temporal scales, which are not otherwise readily accessible to experimentation. The resultant models, when validated, are capable of making testable predictions to guide drug design and delivery. In this review we describe the goals, methods, and opportunities of multiscale modeling in drug design and development. We demonstrate the impact of multiple scales of modeling in this field. We indicate the common mathematical and computational techniques employed for multiscale modeling approaches used in pharmacometric and systems pharmacology models in drug development and present several examples illustrating the current state-of-the-art models for (1) excitable systems and applications in cardiac disease; (2) stem cell driven complex biosystems; (3) nanoparticle delivery, with applications to angiogenesis and cancer therapy; (4) host-pathogen interactions and their use in metabolic disorders, inflammation and sepsis; and (5) computer-aided design of nanomedical systems. We conclude with a focus on barriers to successful clinical translation of drug development, drug design and drug delivery multiscale models. PMID:26885640

  12. Multiscale Modeling in the Clinic: Drug Design and Development.

    PubMed

    Clancy, Colleen E; An, Gary; Cannon, William R; Liu, Yaling; May, Elebeoba E; Ortoleva, Peter; Popel, Aleksander S; Sluka, James P; Su, Jing; Vicini, Paolo; Zhou, Xiaobo; Eckmann, David M

    2016-09-01

    A wide range of length and time scales are relevant to pharmacology, especially in drug development, drug design and drug delivery. Therefore, multiscale computational modeling and simulation methods and paradigms that advance the linkage of phenomena occurring at these multiple scales have become increasingly important. Multiscale approaches present in silico opportunities to advance laboratory research to bedside clinical applications in pharmaceuticals research. This is achievable through the capability of modeling to reveal phenomena occurring across multiple spatial and temporal scales, which are not otherwise readily accessible to experimentation. The resultant models, when validated, are capable of making testable predictions to guide drug design and delivery. In this review we describe the goals, methods, and opportunities of multiscale modeling in drug design and development. We demonstrate the impact of multiple scales of modeling in this field. We indicate the common mathematical and computational techniques employed for multiscale modeling approaches used in pharmacometric and systems pharmacology models in drug development and present several examples illustrating the current state-of-the-art models for (1) excitable systems and applications in cardiac disease; (2) stem cell driven complex biosystems; (3) nanoparticle delivery, with applications to angiogenesis and cancer therapy; (4) host-pathogen interactions and their use in metabolic disorders, inflammation and sepsis; and (5) computer-aided design of nanomedical systems. We conclude with a focus on barriers to successful clinical translation of drug development, drug design and drug delivery multiscale models.

  13. Regulatory considerations for clinical development of cancer vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Heelan, Bridget Theresa

    2015-01-01

    Cancer vaccines are aimed at stimulating an immune response to tumor tissue. There is a high level of clinical activity in this rapidly advancing field with over 1,400 trials registered on Clincaltrials.gov. The recent approval of Sipuleucel-T which is the first cancer vaccine approved in the US and EU has encouraged developers in this field. In contrast to more established approaches for treating cancer such as chemotherapy, regulatory guidelines have been developed relatively recently for cancer vaccines. These guidelines advise on general clinical requirements. As there is an increase in innovative strategies with novel products, a 2-way dialog with regulators is recommended on a case-by-case basis to justify the clinical development plan, taking into account specific quality issues related to the product(s) in development. It is important that the rationale, background and justification for the planned development is convincing when interacting with the regulatory authorities, to enable drug developers and regulators to reach agreement. PMID:25625933

  14. Advancing description and explanation in clinical linguistics: a legacy of Martin J. Ball.

    PubMed

    Damico, Jack S; Damico, Holly L; Nelson, Ryan L

    2011-11-01

    This article asserts the importance of explication of order and disorder in language as a privileged objective of clinical linguistics and service delivery and reviews the contributions of Martin Ball in advancing this agenda.

  15. The biology and clinical development of MEK inhibitors for cancer.

    PubMed

    Luke, Jason J; Ott, Patrick A; Shapiro, Geoffrey I

    2014-12-01

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MAPKK) MEK1 and MEK2 are integral members of the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway and are of interest in the development of anti-cancer therapeutics. The MAPK/ERK pathway is dysregulated in more than 30 % of cancers, predominately by mutations in RAS and BRAF proteins, and MEK serves as a potential downstream target for both of these. The biology of MEK inhibition is complex, as the molecule is differentially regulated by upstream RAS or RAF. This has impacted on the past development of MEK inhibitors as treatments for cancer and may be exploited in more rational, molecularly selected drug development plans in the future. The role of MEK in cancer and the mechanism of action of MEK inhibitors is reviewed. Furthermore, MEK inhibitors that are available in standard practice, as well as those most advanced in clinical development, are discussed. Finally, next steps in the development of MEK inhibitors are considered.

  16. Advances in basic and clinical immunology in 2014.

    PubMed

    Chinen, Javier; Notarangelo, Luigi D; Shearer, William T

    2015-05-01

    Genetic identification of immunodeficiency syndromes has become more efficient with the availability of whole-exome sequencing, expediting the identification of relevant genes and complementing traditional linkage analysis and homozygosity mapping. New genes defects causing immunodeficiency include phophoglucomutase 3 (PGM3), cytidine 5' triphosphate synthase 1 (CTPS1), nuclear factor κB-inducing kinase (NIK), cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA4), B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia/lymphoma 10 (BCL10), phosphoinositide-3 kinase regulatory subunit 1 (PIK3R1), IL21, and Jagunal homolog 1 (JAGN1). New case reports expanded the clinical spectrum of gene defects. For example, a specific recombination-activating gene 1 variant protein with partial recombinant activity might produce Omenn syndrome or a common variable immunodeficiency phenotype. Central and peripheral B-cell tolerance was investigated in patients with several primary immunodeficiencies, including common variable immunodeficiency and Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, to explain the occurrence of autoimmunity and inflammatory disorders. The role of IL-12 and IL-15 in the enhancement of natural killer cell activity was reported. Newborn screening for T-cell deficiency is being implemented in more states and is achieving its goal of defining the true incidence of severe combined immunodeficiency and providing early treatment that offers the highest survival for these patients. Definitive treatment of severe immunodeficiency with both hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and gene therapy was reported to be successful, with increasing definition of conditions needed for optimal outcomes. Progress in HIV infection is directed toward the development of an effective vaccine and the eradication of hidden latent virus reservoirs.

  17. Advanced Technology Development for Active Acoustic Liners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheplak, Mark; Cattafesta, Louis N., III; Nishida, Toshikazu; Kurdila, Andrew J.

    2001-01-01

    Objectives include: (1) Develop electro-mechanical/acoustic models of a Helmholtz resonator possessing a compliant diaphragm coupled to a piezoelectric device; (2) Design and fabricate the energy reclamation module and active Helmholtz resonator; (3) Develop and build appropriate energy reclamation/storage circuit; (4) Develop and fabricate appropriate piezoelectric shunt circuit to tune the compliance of the active Helmholtz resonator via a variable capacitor; (5) Quantify energy reclamation module efficiency in a grazing-flow plane wave tube possessing known acoustic energy input; and (6) Quantify actively tuned Helmholtz resonator performance in grazing-flow plane wave tube for a white-noise input

  18. Polymer therapeutics - Sixth International Symposium: from laboratory to clinical practice. Industrial development and clinical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kochendoerfer, Gerd

    2004-02-01

    This biannual conference was organized, as is now customary, by Professor Ruth Duncan of the Welsh School of Pharmacy and focused on novel technology and pharmaceutical compounds in the area of polymer therapeutics. This meeting has established itself as an important interface between discovery research and preclinical and clinical development in this field. Sufficient time was allocated for informal interaction between the delegates, which allowed for plenty of discussion and initiation of collaboration. The emphasis in most presentations was on the use of polymers and dendrimers as active ingredients, or for conjugation with other entities for the purpose of improving drug properties such as pharmacodynamic (PD) and pharmacokinetic (PK) profile, drug handling, or targeting and delivery. Several talks and posters focused on novel and proven techniques for the biophysical characterization of polymer constructs and their metabolites. To date, the most successful therapeutic class are conjugates of polymers to protein drugs; six drugs are approved and approximately a dozen are in various stages of clinical development. However, several covalent and non-covalent conjugates of small-molecule cancer chemotherapy agents are now in more advanced clinical trials, and several other polymer constructs and dendrimers are in early clinical trials. This meeting clearly demonstrated that there are many promising approaches for the application of a variety of polymers, but that the viability of many of the approaches still needs to be proven in late-stage clinical trials as well as in the market place.

  19. Advances in the Pathogenesis of Adhesion Development

    PubMed Central

    Awonuga, Awoniyi O.; Belotte, Jimmy; Abuanzeh, Suleiman; Fletcher, Nicole M.; Diamond, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past several years, there has been increasing recognition that pathogenesis of adhesion development includes significant contributions of hypoxia induced at the site of surgery, the resulting oxidative stress, and the subsequent free radical production. Mitochondrial dysfunction generated by surgically induced tissue hypoxia and inflammation can lead to the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species as well as antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase which when optimal have the potential to abrogate mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress, preventing the cascade of events leading to the development of adhesions in injured peritoneum. There is a significant cross talk between the several processes leading to whether or not adhesions would eventually develop. Several of these processes present avenues for the development of measures that can help in abrogating adhesion formation or reformation after intraabdominal surgery. PMID:24520085

  20. Colorectal cancer development and advances in screening

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Most colon tumors develop via a multistep process involving a series of histological, morphological, and genetic changes that accumulate over time. This has allowed for screening and detection of early-stage precancerous polyps before they become cancerous in individuals at average risk for colorectal cancer (CRC), which may lead to substantial decreases in the incidence of CRC. Despite the known benefits of early screening, CRC remains the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Hence, it is important for health care providers to have an understanding of the risk factors for CRC and various stages of disease development in order to recommend appropriate screening strategies. This article provides an overview of the histological/molecular changes that characterize the development of CRC. It describes the available CRC screening methods and their advantages and limitations and highlights the stages of CRC development in which each screening method is most effective. PMID:27486317

  1. Development of advanced acreage estimation methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guseman, L. F., Jr. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The use of the AMOEBA clustering/classification algorithm was investigated as a basis for both a color display generation technique and maximum likelihood proportion estimation procedure. An approach to analyzing large data reduction systems was formulated and an exploratory empirical study of spatial correlation in LANDSAT data was also carried out. Topics addressed include: (1) development of multiimage color images; (2) spectral spatial classification algorithm development; (3) spatial correlation studies; and (4) evaluation of data systems.

  2. Space Launch System Advanced Development Office, FY 2013 Annual Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crumbly, C. M.; Bickley, F. P.; Hueter, U.

    2013-01-01

    The Advanced Development Office (ADO), part of the Space Launch System (SLS) program, provides SLS with the advanced development needed to evolve the vehicle from an initial Block 1 payload capability of 70 metric tons (t) to an eventual capability Block 2 of 130 t, with intermediary evolution options possible. ADO takes existing technologies and matures them to the point that insertion into the mainline program minimizes risk. The ADO portfolio of tasks covers a broad range of technical developmental activities. The ADO portfolio supports the development of advanced boosters, upper stages, and other advanced development activities benefiting the SLS program. A total of 34 separate tasks were funded by ADO in FY 2013.

  3. Development of a health screening clinic.

    PubMed

    Millar, H L

    2010-06-01

    Medical morbidity and mortality levels remain elevated in people with schizophrenia compared with the general population. Despite the increasing recognition of an excess of physical health problems in this population, health screening remains limited. Medical risk in this population can be related to a variety of sources. The disease process itself as well as poor diet and sedentary lifestyle contribute to the overall physical health problems. In addition antipsychotic medication can contribute to the risk of cardiovascular and metabolic problems. The Dundee Health Screening Clinic was developed to address the needs of this population by monitoring physical health and providing follow-up to ensure that patients received the necessary care. The Clinic demonstrates how a coordinated approach can be used to take simple steps to improve the overall well-being of these patients. It was set up by adapting the manpower resources and procedures of the community mental health team and local resource centre, without specific additional funding. Simple clinical measurements and tests were conducted in the Clinic and patients clearly demonstrated on a satisfaction questionnaire that they considered the health checks important. This Clinic is an example of how a holistic approach can impact on both the physical and mental well-being of patients and offer them improved care and therefore a better quality of life. PMID:20620883

  4. Development of a health screening clinic.

    PubMed

    Millar, H L

    2010-06-01

    Medical morbidity and mortality levels remain elevated in people with schizophrenia compared with the general population. Despite the increasing recognition of an excess of physical health problems in this population, health screening remains limited. Medical risk in this population can be related to a variety of sources. The disease process itself as well as poor diet and sedentary lifestyle contribute to the overall physical health problems. In addition antipsychotic medication can contribute to the risk of cardiovascular and metabolic problems. The Dundee Health Screening Clinic was developed to address the needs of this population by monitoring physical health and providing follow-up to ensure that patients received the necessary care. The Clinic demonstrates how a coordinated approach can be used to take simple steps to improve the overall well-being of these patients. It was set up by adapting the manpower resources and procedures of the community mental health team and local resource centre, without specific additional funding. Simple clinical measurements and tests were conducted in the Clinic and patients clearly demonstrated on a satisfaction questionnaire that they considered the health checks important. This Clinic is an example of how a holistic approach can impact on both the physical and mental well-being of patients and offer them improved care and therefore a better quality of life.

  5. Technology Readiness Levels for Advanced Nuclear Fuels and Materials Development

    SciTech Connect

    Jon Carmack

    2014-01-01

    The Technology Readiness Level (TRL) process is used to quantitatively assess the maturity of a given technology. The TRL process has been developed and successfully used by the Department of Defense (DOD) for development and deployment of new technology and systems for defense applications. In addition, NASA has also successfully used the TRL process to develop and deploy new systems for space applications. Advanced nuclear fuels and materials development is a critical technology needed for closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Because the deployment of a new nuclear fuel forms requires a lengthy and expensive research, development, and demonstration program, applying the TRL concept to the advanced fuel development program is very useful as a management and tracking tool. This report provides definition of the technology readiness level assessment process as defined for use in assessing nuclear fuel technology development for the Advanced Fuel Campaign (AFC).

  6. Advances in Clinical and Biomedical Applications of Photoacoustic Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jimmy L.; Wang, Bo; Wilson, Katheryne E.; Bayer, Carolyn L.; Chen, Yun-Sheng; Kim, Seungsoo; Homan, Kimberly A.; Emelianov, Stanislav Y.

    2010-01-01

    Importance of the field Photoacoustic imaging is an imaging modality that derives image contrast from the optical absorption coefficient of the tissue being imaged. The imaging technique is able to differentiate between healthy and diseased tissue with either deeper penetration or higher resolution than other functional imaging modalities currently available. From a clinical standpoint, photoacoustic imaging has demonstrated safety and effectiveness in diagnosing diseased tissue regions using either endogenous tissue contrast or exogenous contrast agents. Furthermore, the potential of photoacoustic imaging has been demonstrated in various therapeutic interventions ranging from drug delivery and release to image-guided therapy and monitoring. Areas covered in this review This article reviews the current state of photoacoustic imaging in biomedicine from a technological perspective, highlights various biomedical and clinical applications of photoacoustic imaging, and gives insights on future directions. What the reader will gain Readers will learn about the various applications of photoacoustic imaging, as well as the various contrast agents that can be used to assist photoacoustic imaging. This review will highlight both pre-clinical and clinical uses for photoacoustic imaging, as well as discuss some of the challenges that must be addressed to move photoacoustic imaging into the clinical realm. Take home message Photoacoustic imaging offers unique advantages over existing imaging modalities. The imaging field is broad with many exciting applications for detecting and diagnosing diseased tissue or processes. Photoacoustics is also used in therapeutic applications to identify and characterize the pathology and then to monitor the treatment. Although the technology is still in its infancy, much work has been done in the pre-clinical arena, and photoacoustic imaging is fast approaching the clinical setting. PMID:21344060

  7. Developing assessment: involving the sessional clinical teacher.

    PubMed

    Bateman, H; Thomason, J M; McCracken, G; Ellis, J

    2016-02-12

    Assessment development is a fundamental element of curriculum management and a requirement for providers of education to consistently demonstrate attainment of educational standards. Development of authentic, valid and reliable assessment is, however, both challenging and resource intensive. In the UK, dental education standards are regulated by the General Dental Council (GDC). The 'safe beginner' is the threshold determined by the GDC for the passing student - but how do we apply this? This article describes an approach the School of Dental Sciences at Newcastle University has adopted to address the challenges associated with developing assessments. Sessional clinical teachers contribute a significant proportion of the clinical supervision within the BDS programme and also have a good appreciation of both the standard and concept of the 'safe beginner'. By implementing a process of active timetable management, we have identified time where this group could contribute to assessment development. We believe that aspects, which could be enhanced by their involvement, include writing, validation, standard-setting and utilisation of assessment. To achieve this, we recognise a requirement for investment in careful manpower planning and training, but consider that it is realistic and beneficial to include sessional clinical teachers in this essential part of learning and teaching. PMID:26868802

  8. Clinical applications of advanced lipoprotein testing in diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Moin, Danyaal S; Rohatgi, Anand

    2011-01-01

    Traditional lipid profiles often fail to fully explain the elevated cardiovascular risk of individuals with diabetes mellitus. Advanced lipoprotein testing offers a novel means to evaluate dyslipidemia and refine risk estimation. Numerous observational studies have demonstrated a characteristic pattern of elevated levels of small, dense LDL particles, out of proportion to traditional lipid levels, in patients with both diabetes mellitus and the metabolic syndrome. Commonly used glucose and lipid-lowering agents have varied effects in patients with diabetes on both LDL and HDL subfractions. The exact role of advanced lipoprotein testing in patients with diabetes mellitus and the metabolic syndrome remains unclear but may offer improved assessment of cardiovascular risk compared with traditional lipid measurements. PMID:22162979

  9. Advancing Administrative Supports for Research Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briar-Lawson, Katharine; Korr, Wynne; White, Barbara; Vroom, Phyllis; Zabora, James; Middleton, Jane; Shank, Barbara; Schatz, Mona

    2008-01-01

    Research administrative supports must parallel and reinforce faculty initiatives in research grant procurement. This article features several types of developments that draw on presentations at the National Association of Deans and Directors of Schools of Social Work meetings. Key changes in social work programs are addressed, including the…

  10. Research and Development: Advances in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC. Bureau of Research.

    This document presents vignettes illustrating improvements in learning resulting from educational innovations developed through research sponsored by the Cooperative Research Act of 1954, the National Defense Education Act of 1958, the Vocational Education Act of 1963, the Higher Education Act of 1965, and the Elementary and Secondary Education…

  11. Continuation of advanced crew procedures development techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbet, J. D.; Benbow, R. L.; Evans, M. E.; Mangiaracina, A. A.; Mcgavern, J. L.; Spangler, M. C.; Tatum, I. C.

    1976-01-01

    An operational computer program, the Procedures and Performance Program (PPP) which operates in conjunction with the Phase I Shuttle Procedures Simulator to provide a procedures recording and crew/vehicle performance monitoring capability was developed. A technical synopsis of each task resulting in the development of the Procedures and Performance Program is provided. Conclusions and recommendations for action leading to the improvements in production of crew procedures development and crew training support are included. The PPP provides real-time CRT displays and post-run hardcopy output of procedures, difference procedures, performance data, parametric analysis data, and training script/training status data. During post-run, the program is designed to support evaluation through the reconstruction of displays to any point in time. A permanent record of the simulation exercise can be obtained via hardcopy output of the display data and via transfer to the Generalized Documentation Processor (GDP). Reference procedures data may be transferred from the GDP to the PPP. Interface is provided with the all digital trajectory program, the Space Vehicle Dynamics Simulator (SVDS) to support initial procedures timeline development.

  12. Social and Personality Development: An Advanced Textbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Michael E., Ed.; Bornstein, Marc H., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This new text contains parts of Bornstein and Lamb's "Developmental Science, 6th edition", along with new introductory material, providing a cutting edge and comprehensive overview of social and personality development. Each of the world-renowned contributors masterfully introduces the history and systems, methodologies, and measurement and…

  13. Development of advanced acreage estimation methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guseman, L. F., Jr. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The development of an accurate and efficient algorithm for analyzing the structure of MSS data, the application of the Akaiki information criterion to mixture models, and a research plan to delineate some of the technical issues and associated tasks in the area of rice scene radiation characterization are discussed. The AMOEBA clustering algorithm is refined and documented.

  14. Advanced Child Development. Vocational Home Economics Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This curriculum guide, developed for use in secondary vocational home economics education in Texas, is correlated closely with the essential elements prescribed by the State Board of Education. The competencies in each guide are the essential elements, and the subcompetencies are the subelements prescribed in the Texas Administrative Codes for…

  15. Advances in asthma, allergy and immunology series 2004: basic and clinical immunology.

    PubMed

    Chinen, Javier; Shearer, William T

    2004-08-01

    This review highlights some of the most significant advances in basic and clinical immunology that were published from August 2002 to December 2003, focusing on manuscripts that appeared in the Journal. Articles selected were those considered most relevant to Journal readers. With regard to basic immunology, this report includes articles describing FcepsilonRI expression in mucosal Langerhans cells and type II dendritic cells, mechanisms of TH1 and TH2 regulation, the role of Foxp3 in the development of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells, and the increasing importance of Toll receptors in immunity. Articles related to clinical immunology that were selected include the first report of lymphocyte subsets values from a large cohort of normal children; the description of new genetic defects in primary immunodeficiencies; a description of the complications of gene therapy for X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency; a report of 79 patients with hyper-IgM syndrome; a report of the mechanism of action and complications of intravenous immunoglobulin; a report of new approaches for immunotherapy; and an article on advances in HIV infection and management, including a report of defensins, small molecules with anti-HIV properties. Also summarized is an article that studied the immune system during a prolonged stay in the Antarctic, a model for human studies on the effect of environmental conditions similar to space expeditions.

  16. Major clinical research advances in gynecologic cancer in 2015

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, fourteen topics were selected as major research advances in gynecologic oncology. For ovarian cancer, high-level evidence for annual screening with multimodal strategy which could reduce ovarian cancer deaths was reported. The best preventive strategies with current status of evidence level were also summarized. Final report of chemotherapy or upfront surgery (CHORUS) trial of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in advanced stage ovarian cancer and individualized therapy based on gene characteristics followed. There was no sign of abating in great interest in immunotherapy as well as targeted therapies in various gynecologic cancers. The fifth Ovarian Cancer Consensus Conference which was held in November 7–9 in Tokyo was briefly introduced. For cervical cancer, update of human papillomavirus vaccines regarding two-dose regimen, 9-valent vaccine, and therapeutic vaccine was reviewed. For corpus cancer, the safety concern of power morcellation in presumed fibroids was explored again with regard to age and prevalence of corpus malignancy. Hormone therapy and endometrial cancer risk, trabectedin as an option for leiomyosarcoma, endometrial cancer and Lynch syndrome, and the radiation therapy guidelines were also discussed. In addition, adjuvant therapy in vulvar cancer and the updated of targeted therapy in gynecologic cancer were addressed. For breast cancer, palbociclib in hormone-receptor-positive advanced disease, oncotype DX Recurrence Score in low-risk patients, regional nodal irradiation to internal mammary, supraclavicular, and axillary lymph nodes, and cavity shave margins were summarized as the last topics covered in this review. PMID:27775259

  17. 76 FR 68197 - Clinical Development Programs for Sedation Products; Public Workshop; Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Clinical Development Programs for Sedation Products; Public... advance. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Introduction In the Federal Register of November 29, 2010 (75 FR... be considered clinically meaningful (e.g., subjective and objective assessments of memory,...

  18. How institutional change and individual researchers helped advance clinical guidelines in American health care.

    PubMed

    Nigam, Amit

    2013-06-01

    Clinical guidelines are important tools for managing health care quality. Research on the origins of guidelines primarily focuses on the institutional causes of their emergence and growth. Individual medical researchers, however, have played important roles. This paper develops knowledge of the role of individual medical researchers in advancing guidelines, and of how researchers' efforts were enabled or constrained by broader institutional changes. Drawing on an analytical case study focused on the role of Kerr White, John Wennberg, and Robert Brook, it shows that guidelines were a product of the interplay between institutional change in the medical field and actions by individual researchers, acting as institutional entrepreneurs. Increased government involvement in the health care field triggered the involvement of a range of new actors in health care. These new organizations created a context that allowed individual researchers to advance guidelines by creating job opportunities, providing research funding, and creating opportunities for researchers to engage with the policy process. Individual researchers availed of this context to both advance their ideas, and to draw new actors into the field. PMID:23631774

  19. Recent clinical and translational advances in pediatric hypertension.

    PubMed

    Falkner, Bonita

    2015-05-01

    Epidemiological reports describe a child population increase in BP level and an increase in prevalence of hypertension, that is largely, but not entirely, driven by a concurrent increase in childhood obesity. Given current estimates, ≈10% of adolescents have hypertension or prehypertension. In addition to obesity, dietary salt intake and waist circumference, a marker of visceral obesity, are found to be independently associated with the rise in BP among children and adolescents. Dietary salt intake in urban children is well above recommended levels largely because of consumption of processed and fast foods. Childhood exposures, such as stress,52 salt, and fructose, as well as lifestyles, including food sources, sleep patterns, and reductions in physical activity may have a role in obesity-high BP associations. In addition, clinical and translational evidence is mounting that intrauterine exposures alter can effect changes in fetal development that have an enduring effect on cardiovascular and metabolic function later in life. These effects can be detected even in children who are products of a term otherwise normal pregnancy. Hypertension in childhood has been defined statistically (BP ≥ 95th percentile) because of lack of outcome data that links a BP level with heightened risk for future cardiovascular events. Therefore, primary hypertension had been considered a risk factor for later hypertension in adulthood. Intermediate markers of TOD, including cardiac hypertrophy, vascular stiffness, and increases in cIMT, are detectable in adolescents with primary hypertension. Evidence that vascular injury is present in the early phase of hypertension and even in prehypertension warrants consideration on the current definition of pediatric hypertension. With further studies on TOD and other risk factors in addition to high BP, it may be possible to shift from a statistical definition to a definition of childhood hypertension that is evidence based. Preventing or

  20. Recent clinical and translational advances in pediatric hypertension.

    PubMed

    Falkner, Bonita

    2015-05-01

    Epidemiological reports describe a child population increase in BP level and an increase in prevalence of hypertension, that is largely, but not entirely, driven by a concurrent increase in childhood obesity. Given current estimates, ≈10% of adolescents have hypertension or prehypertension. In addition to obesity, dietary salt intake and waist circumference, a marker of visceral obesity, are found to be independently associated with the rise in BP among children and adolescents. Dietary salt intake in urban children is well above recommended levels largely because of consumption of processed and fast foods. Childhood exposures, such as stress,52 salt, and fructose, as well as lifestyles, including food sources, sleep patterns, and reductions in physical activity may have a role in obesity-high BP associations. In addition, clinical and translational evidence is mounting that intrauterine exposures alter can effect changes in fetal development that have an enduring effect on cardiovascular and metabolic function later in life. These effects can be detected even in children who are products of a term otherwise normal pregnancy. Hypertension in childhood has been defined statistically (BP ≥ 95th percentile) because of lack of outcome data that links a BP level with heightened risk for future cardiovascular events. Therefore, primary hypertension had been considered a risk factor for later hypertension in adulthood. Intermediate markers of TOD, including cardiac hypertrophy, vascular stiffness, and increases in cIMT, are detectable in adolescents with primary hypertension. Evidence that vascular injury is present in the early phase of hypertension and even in prehypertension warrants consideration on the current definition of pediatric hypertension. With further studies on TOD and other risk factors in addition to high BP, it may be possible to shift from a statistical definition to a definition of childhood hypertension that is evidence based. Preventing or

  1. Developing a mentoring program in clinical nutrition.

    PubMed

    Martindale, Robert G; McClave, Stephen; Heyland, Daren; August, David

    2010-01-01

    Mentoring programs in nutrition are essential to the survival of clinical nutrition as we know it today. The best method known to maintain an influx of talent to a discipline is by developing an active mentoring program. This paper describes 1 concept for development of a viable mentor program. Mentoring should be flexible and based on mentees' training background. Realistic goals should be set, with written and verbal feedback, to sustain a successful program. Programs should incorporate the Socratic Method whenever possible. Factors that leave doubt about the survival of nutrition as a viable area of focus for physicians include the inability to generate adequate funds to support oneself and limited numbers of mentors available with dedicated time to be a mentor. A healthy, sustainable mentoring program in clinical nutrition will ensure survival of physician-based nutrition programs.

  2. Phonological development in young bilinguals: clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Core, Cynthia; Scarpelli, Chiara

    2015-05-01

    This article reviews recent research on bilingual phonological development and describes the nature of bilingual phonology, focusing on characteristics of cross-linguistic influence on bilingual phonological abilities. There is evidence of positive and negative transfer (acceleration and deceleration) on children's phonological abilities. Several methodological issues limit the ability to generalize findings from previous research to larger groups of bilingual children (e.g., small sample size, lack of consideration of age of acquisition of each language, and language abilities of the participants). Sources of heterogeneity in language development are presented and discussed. Phonological abilities are related to language abilities in bilingual first language learners of English and Spanish. Empirical evidence from research in our laboratory supports this claim. We discuss implications of research findings and limitations for future research and clinical practice. We provide specific recommendations for bilingual research and for clinical assessment of young bilingual children.

  3. Vascular disrupting agents in clinical development

    PubMed Central

    Hinnen, P; Eskens, F A L M

    2007-01-01

    Growth of human tumours depends on the supply of oxygen and nutrients via the surrounding vasculature. Therefore tumour vasculature is an attractive target for anticancer therapy. Apart from angiogenesis inhibitors that compromise the formation of new blood vessels, a second class of specific anticancer drugs has been developed. These so-called vascular disrupting agents (VDAs) target the established tumour vasculature and cause an acute and pronounced shutdown of blood vessels resulting in an almost complete stop of blood flow, ultimately leading to selective tumour necrosis. As a number of VDAs are now being tested in clinical studies, we will discuss their mechanism of action and the results obtained in preclinical studies. Also data from clinical studies will be reviewed and some considerations with regard to the future development are given. PMID:17375046

  4. Recent advances and developments in refractory alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Nieh, T.G.; Wadsworth, J.

    1993-11-01

    Refractory metal alloys based on Mo, W, Re, Ta, and Nb (Cb) find applications in a wide range of aerospace applications because of their high melting points and high-temperature strength. This paper, presents recent progress in understanding and applications of these alloys. Recent studies to improve the oxidation and mechanical behavior of refractory metal alloys, and particularly Nb alloys, are also discussed. Some Re structures, for extremely high temperature applications (> 2000C), made by CVD and P/M processes, are also illustrated. Interesting work on the development of new W alloys (W-HfC-X) and the characterization of some commercial refractory metals, e.g., K-doped W, TZM, and Nb-1%Zr, continues. Finally, recent developments in high temperature composites reinforced with refractory metal filaments, and refractory metal-based intermetallics, e.g., Nb{sub 3}Al, Nb{sub 2}Be{sub 17}, and MoSi{sub 2}, are briefly described.

  5. Advanced high temperature static strain sensor development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hulse, C. O.; Stetson, K. A.; Grant, H. P.; Jameikis, S. M.; Morey, W. W.; Raymondo, P.; Grudkowski, T. W.; Bailey, R. S.

    1986-01-01

    An examination was made into various techniques to be used to measure static strain in gas turbine liners at temperatures up to 1150 K (1600 F). The methods evaluated included thin film and wire resistive devices, optical fibers, surface acoustic waves, the laser speckle technique with a heterodyne readout, optical surface image and reflective approaches and capacitive devices. A preliminary experimental program to develop a thin film capacitive device was dropped because calculations showed that it would be too sensitive to thermal gradients. In a final evaluation program, the laser speckle technique appeared to work well up to 1150 K when it was used through a relatively stagnant air path. The surface guided acoustic wave approach appeared to be interesting but to require too much development effort for the funds available. Efforts to develop a FeCrAl resistive strain gage system were only partially successful and this part of the effort was finally reduced to a characterization study of the properties of the 25 micron diameter FeCrAl (Kanthal A-1) wire. It was concluded that this particular alloy was not suitable for use as the resistive element in a strain gage above about 1000 K.

  6. Advances and challenges in malaria vaccine development

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ruobing; Smith, Joseph D.; Kappe, Stefan H.I.

    2010-01-01

    Malaria remains one of the most devastating infectious diseases that threaten humankind. Human malaria is caused by five different species of Plasmodium parasites, each transmitted by the bite of female Anopheles mosquitoes. Plasmodia are eukaryotic protozoans with more than 5000 genes and a complex life cycle that takes place in the mosquito vector and the human host. The life cycle can be divided into pre-erythrocytic stages, erythrocytic stages and mosquito stages. Malaria vaccine research and development faces formidable obstacles because many vaccine candidates will probably only be effective in a specific species at a specific stage. In addition, Plasmodium actively subverts and escapes immune responses, possibly foiling vaccine-induced immunity. Although early successful vaccinations with irradiated, live-attenuated malaria parasites suggested that a vaccine is possible, until recently, most efforts have focused on subunit vaccine approaches. Blood-stage vaccines remain a primary research focus, but real progress is evident in the development of a partially efficacious recombinant pre-erythrocytic subunit vaccine and a live-attenuated sporozoite vaccine. It is unlikely that partially effective vaccines will eliminate malaria; however, they might prove useful in combination with existing control strategies. Elimination of malaria will probably ultimately depend on the development of highly effective vaccines. PMID:20003658

  7. Lessons Learned for Collaborative Clinical Content Development

    PubMed Central

    Collins, S.A.; Bavuso, K.; Zuccotti, G.; Rocha, R.A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Site-specific content configuration of vendor-based Electronic Health Records (EHRs) is a vital step in the development of standardized and interoperable content that can be used for clinical decision-support, reporting, care coordination, and information exchange. The multi-site, multi-stakeholder Acute Care Documentation (ACD) project at Partners Healthcare Systems (PHS) aimed to develop highly structured clinical content with adequate breadth and depth to meet the needs of all types of acute care clinicians at two academic medical centers. The Knowledge Management (KM) team at PHS led the informatics and knowledge management effort for the project. Objectives We aimed to evaluate the role, governance, and project management processes and resources for the KM team’s effort as part of the standardized clinical content creation. Methods We employed the Center for Disease Control’s six step Program Evaluation Framework to guide our evaluation steps. We administered a forty-four question, open-ended, semi-structured voluntary survey to gather focused, credible evidence from members of the KM team. Qualitative open-coding was performed to identify themes for lessons learned and concluding recommendations. Results Six surveys were completed. Qualitative data analysis informed five lessons learned and thirty specific recommendations associated with the lessons learned. The five lessons learned are: 1) Assess and meet knowledge needs and set expectations at the start of the project; 2) Define an accountable decision-making process; 3) Increase team meeting moderation skills; 4) Ensure adequate resources and competency training with online asynchronous collaboration tools; 5) Develop focused, goal-oriented teams and supportive, consultative service based teams. Conclusions Knowledge management requirements for the development of standardized clinical content within a vendor-based EHR among multi-stakeholder teams and sites include: 1) assessing and meeting

  8. Advanced CIDI Emission Control System Development

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, Christine

    2006-05-31

    Ford Motor Company, with ExxonMobil and FEV, participated in the Department of Energy's (DOE) Ultra-Clean Transportation Fuels Program with the goal to develop an innovative emission control system for light-duty diesel vehicles. The focus on diesel engine emissions was a direct result of the improved volumetric fuel economy (up to 50%) and lower CO2 emissions (up to 25%) over comparable gasoline engines shown in Europe. Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) with aqueous urea as the NOx reductant and a Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter (CDPF) were chosen as the primary emission control system components. The program expected to demonstrate more than 90% durable reduction in particulate matter (PM) and NOx emissions on a light-duty truck application, based on the FTP-75 drive cycle. Very low sulfur diesel fuel (<15 ppm-wt) enabled lower PM emissions, reduced fuel economy penalty due to the emission control system and improved long-term system durability. Significant progress was made toward a durable system to meet Tier 2 Bin 5 emission standards on a 6000 lbs light-duty truck. A 40% reduction in engine-out NOx emissions was achieved with a mid-size prototype diesel engine through engine recalibration and increased exhaust gas recirculation. Use of a rapid warm-up strategy and urea SCR provided over 90% further NOx reduction while the CDPF reduced tailpipe PM to gasoline vehicle levels. Development work was conducted to separately improve urea SCR and CDPF system durability, as well as improved oxidation catalyst function. Exhaust gas NOx and ammonia sensors were also developed further. While the final emission control system did not meet Tier 2 Bin 5 NOx after 120k mi of aging on the dynamometer, it did meet the standards for HC, NMOG, and PM, and an improved SCR catalyst was shown to have potential to meet the NOx standard, assuming the DOC durability could be improved further. Models of DOC and SCR function were developed to guide the study of several key design

  9. Advanced Life Support Research and Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kliss, Mark

    2001-01-01

    A videograph outlining life support research. The Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Enterprise's goals are to provide life support self-sufficiency for human beings to carry out research and exploration productively in space, to open the door for planetary exploration, and for benefits on Earth. Topics presented include the role of NASA Ames, funding, and technical monitoring. The focused research areas discussed include air regeneration, carbon dioxide removal, Mars Life Support, water recovery, Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal (VPCAR), solid waste treatment, and Supercritical Water Oxidation (SCWC). Focus is placed on the utilization of Systems Integration, Modeling and Analysis (SIMA) and Dynamic Systems Modeling in this research.

  10. Myositis registries and biorepositories: powerful tools to advance clinical, epidemiologic and pathogenic research

    PubMed Central

    Rider, Lisa G.; Dankó, Katalin; Miller, Frederick W.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Clinical registries and biorepositories have proven extremely useful in many studies of diseases, especially rare diseases. Given their rarity and diversity, the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, or myositis syndromes, have benefited from individual researchers’ collections of cohorts of patients. Major efforts are being made to establish large registries and biorepositories that will allow many additional studies to be performed that were not possible before. Here we describe the registries developed by investigators and patient support groups that are currently available for collaborative research purposes. Recent findings We have identified 46 myositis research registries, including many with biorepositories, which have been developed for a wide variety of purposes and have resulted in great advances in understanding the range of phenotypes, clinical presentations, risk factors, pathogenic mechanisms, outcome assessment, therapeutic responses, and prognoses. These are now available for collaborative use to undertake additional studies. Two myositis patient registries have been developed for research, and myositis patient support groups maintain demographic registries with large numbers of patients available to be contacted for potential research participation. Summary Investigator-initiated myositis research registries and biorepositories have proven extremely useful in understanding many aspects of these rare and diverse autoimmune diseases. These registries and biorepositories, in addition to those developed by myositis patient support groups, deserve continued support to maintain the momentum in this field as they offer major opportunities to improve understanding of the pathogenesis and treatment of these diseases in cost-effective ways. PMID:25225838

  11. Development and Clinical Outcomes of a Dialectical Behavior Therapy Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lajoie, Travis; Sonkiss, Joshua; Rich, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe the first 6 months of a dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) clinic operated by trainees in a general adult psychiatry residency program. The purpose of this report is to provide a model for the creation and maintenance of a formalized resident DBT clinic. Methods: Residents participated in the DBT clinic, attended a…

  12. Autonomous power expert system advanced development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Todd M.; Walters, Jerry L.

    1991-01-01

    The autonomous power expert (APEX) system is being developed at Lewis Research Center to function as a fault diagnosis advisor for a space power distribution test bed. APEX is a rule-based system capable of detecting faults and isolating the probable causes. APEX also has a justification facility to provide natural language explanations about conclusions reached during fault isolation. To help maintain the health of the power distribution system, additional capabilities were added to APEX. These capabilities allow detection and isolation of incipient faults and enable the expert system to recommend actions/procedure to correct the suspected fault conditions. New capabilities for incipient fault detection consist of storage and analysis of historical data and new user interface displays. After the cause of a fault is determined, appropriate recommended actions are selected by rule-based inferencing which provides corrective/extended test procedures. Color graphics displays and improved mouse-selectable menus were also added to provide a friendlier user interface. A discussion of APEX in general and a more detailed description of the incipient detection, recommended actions, and user interface developments during the last year are presented.

  13. Advanced Stirling receiver development program, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lurio, Charles A.

    1990-01-01

    Critical technology experiments were designed and developed to evaluate the Stirling cavity heat pipe receiver for a space solar power system. Theoretical criteria were applied to the design of a module for containing energy storage phase change material while avoiding thermal ratcheting. Zero-g drop tower tests, without phase change, were conducted to affirm that the bubble location required to avoid ratcheting could be achieved without the use of container materials that are wetted by the phase change material. A full scale module was fabricated, but not tested. A fabrication method was successfully developed for the sodium evaporator dome, with a sintered screen wick, to be used as the focal point for the receiver. Crushing of the screen during hydroforming was substantially reduced over the results of other researchers by using wax impregnation. Superheating of the sodium in the wick under average flux conditions is expected to be under 10K. A 2000K furnace which will simulate solar flux conditions for testing the evaporator dome was successfully built and tested.

  14. Advanced Metallic Thermal Protection System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blosser, M. L.; Chen, R. R.; Schmidt, I. H.; Dorsey, J. T.; Poteet, C. C.; Bird, R. K.

    2002-01-01

    A new Adaptable, Robust, Metallic, Operable, Reusable (ARMOR) thermal protection system (TPS) concept has been designed, analyzed, and fabricated. In addition to the inherent tailorable robustness of metallic TPS, ARMOR TPS offers improved features based on lessons learned from previous metallic TPS development efforts. A specific location on a single-stage-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle was selected to develop loads and requirements needed to design prototype ARMOR TPS panels. The design loads include ascent and entry heating rate histories, pressures, acoustics, and accelerations. Additional TPS design issues were identified and discussed. An iterative sizing procedure was used to size the ARMOR TPS panels for thermal and structural loads as part of an integrated TPS/cryogenic tank structural wall. The TPS panels were sized to maintain acceptable temperatures on the underlying structure and to operate under the design structural loading. Detailed creep analyses were also performed on critical components of the ARMOR TPS panels. A lightweight, thermally compliant TPS support system (TPSS) was designed to connect the TPS to the cryogenic tank structure. Four 18-inch-square ARMOR TPS panels were fabricated. Details of the fabrication process are presented. Details of the TPSS for connecting the ARMOR TPS panels to the externally stiffened cryogenic tank structure are also described. Test plans for the fabricated hardware are presented.

  15. Advances in Therapeutic Development for Radiation Cystitis.

    PubMed

    Rajaganapathy, Bharathi Raja; Jayabalan, Nirmal; Tyagi, Pradeep; Kaufman, Jonathan; Chancellor, Michael B

    2014-01-01

    Radiation treatment for pelvic malignancies is typically associated with radiation injury to urinary bladder that can ultimately lead to radiation cystitis (RC). The late sequelae of radiation therapy may take many years to develop and include bothersome storage symptoms such as hematuria, which may be life-threatening in severe cases of hemorrhagic cystitis. Although no definitive treatment is currently available, various interventions are used for radiation and hemorrhagic cystitis including blood transfusion, bladder irrigation, intravesical instillation of substances such as alum, silver nitrate, prostaglandins or formalin, and fulguration of intravesical bleeding sites and surgery options such as supravesical urinary diversions and cystectomy. Effects of non-surgical treatments for radiation and hemorrhagic cystitis are of modest success and studies are lacking to control the effects caused by RC. When such measures have proven ineffective, use of bladder botulinum toxin injection has been reported. New therapy, such as intravesical immunosuppression with local tacrolimus formulation is being developed for the treatment of radiation hemorrhagic cystitis.

  16. Advances in Therapeutic Development for Radiation Cystitis.

    PubMed

    Rajaganapathy, Bharathi Raja; Jayabalan, Nirmal; Tyagi, Pradeep; Kaufman, Jonathan; Chancellor, Michael B

    2014-01-01

    Radiation treatment for pelvic malignancies is typically associated with radiation injury to urinary bladder that can ultimately lead to radiation cystitis (RC). The late sequelae of radiation therapy may take many years to develop and include bothersome storage symptoms such as hematuria, which may be life-threatening in severe cases of hemorrhagic cystitis. Although no definitive treatment is currently available, various interventions are used for radiation and hemorrhagic cystitis including blood transfusion, bladder irrigation, intravesical instillation of substances such as alum, silver nitrate, prostaglandins or formalin, and fulguration of intravesical bleeding sites and surgery options such as supravesical urinary diversions and cystectomy. Effects of non-surgical treatments for radiation and hemorrhagic cystitis are of modest success and studies are lacking to control the effects caused by RC. When such measures have proven ineffective, use of bladder botulinum toxin injection has been reported. New therapy, such as intravesical immunosuppression with local tacrolimus formulation is being developed for the treatment of radiation hemorrhagic cystitis. PMID:26663493

  17. Clinical Curriculum Reform and Advanced Care Training at the New England College of Optometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Roger

    1998-01-01

    Discusses how the New England College of Optometry has expanded clinical education so graduates are equipped to handle new and advanced clinical and patient-care responsibilities and meet the changing standards of professional entry-level competency. The reform process, third- and fourth-year curriculum components, rotations, and plans for…

  18. Clinical Cancer Advances 2008: Major Research Advances in Cancer Treatment, Prevention, and Screening—A Report From the American Society of Clinical Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Winer, Eric; Gralow, Julie; Diller, Lisa; Karlan, Beth; Loehrer, Patrick; Pierce, Lori; Demetri, George; Ganz, Patricia; Kramer, Barnett; Kris, Mark; Markman, Maurie; Mayer, Robert; Pfister, David; Raghavan, Derek; Ramsey, Scott; Reaman, Gregory; Sandler, Howard; Sawaya, Raymond; Schuchter, Lynn; Sweetenham, John; Vahdat, Linda; Schilsky, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    A MESSAGE FROM ASCO'S PRESIDENT Nearly 40 years ago, President Richard Nixon signed the National Cancer Act, mobilizing the country's resources to make the “conquest of cancer a national crusade.” That declaration led to a major investment in cancer research that has significantly improved cancer prevention, treatment, and survival. As a result, two thirds of people diagnosed with cancer today will live at least 5 years after diagnosis, compared with just half in the 1970s. In addition, there are now more than 12 million cancer survivors in the United States—up from 3 million in 1971. Scientifically, we have never been in a better position to advance cancer treatment. Basic scientific research, fueled in recent years by the tools of molecular biology, has generated unprecedented knowledge of cancer development. We now understand many of the cellular pathways that can lead to cancer. We have learned how to develop drugs that block those pathways; increasingly, we know how to personalize therapy to the unique genetics of the tumor and the patient. Yet in 2008, 1.4 million people in the United States will still be diagnosed with cancer, and more than half a million will die as a result of the disease. Some cancers remain stubbornly resistant to treatment, whereas others cannot be detected until they are in their advanced, less curable stages. Biologically, the cancer cell is notoriously wily; each time we throw an obstacle in its path, it finds an alternate route that must then be blocked. To translate our growing basic science knowledge into better treatments for patients, a new national commitment to cancer research is urgently needed. However, funding for cancer research has stagnated. The budgets of the National Institutes of Health and the National Cancer Institute have failed to keep pace with inflation, declining up to 13% in real terms since 2004. Tighter budgets reduce incentives to support high-risk research that could have the largest payoffs. The

  19. Development of advanced polymer nanocomposite capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Miguel

    The current development of modern electronics has driven the need for new series of energy storage devices with higher energy density and faster charge/discharge rate. Batteries and capacitors are two of the most widely used energy storage devices. Compared with batteries, capacitors have higher power density and significant higher charge/discharge rate. Therefore, high energy density capacitors play a significant role in modern electronic devices, power applications, space flight technologies, hybrid electric vehicles, portable defibrillators, and pulse power applications. Dielectric film capacitors represent an exceptional alternative for developing high energy density capacitors due to their high dielectric constants, outstanding breakdown voltages, and flexibility. The implementation of high aspect ratio dielectric inclusions such as nanowires into polymer capacitors could lead to further enhancement of its energy density. Therefore, this research effort is focused on the development of a new series of dielectric capacitors composed of nanowire reinforced polymer matrix composites. This concept of nanocomposite capacitors combines the extraordinary physical and chemical properties of the one-dimension (1D) nanoceramics and high dielectric strength of polymer matrices, leading to a capacitor with improved dielectric properties and energy density. Lead-free sodium niobate (NaNbO3) and lead-containing lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (0.65PMN-0.35PT) nanowires were synthesized following hydrothermal and sol-gel approaches, respectively. The as-prepared nanowires were mixed with a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) matrix using solution-casting method for nanocomposites fabrication. The dielectric constants and breakdown voltages of the NaNbO3/PVDF and 0.65PMN-0.35PT/PVDF nanocomposites were measured under different frequency ranges and temperatures in order to determine their maximum energy (J/cm3) and specific (J/g) densities. The electrical properties of the

  20. Advanced Turbo-Charging Research and Development

    SciTech Connect

    2008-02-27

    The objective of this project is to conduct analysis, design, procurement and test of a high pressure ratio, wide flow range, and high EGR system with two stages of turbocharging. The system needs to meet the stringent 2010MY emissions regulations at 20% + better fuel economy than its nearest gasoline competitor while allowing equivalent vehicle launch characteristics and higher torque capability than its nearest gasoline competitor. The system will also need to meet light truck/ SUV life requirements, which will require validation or development of components traditionally used only in passenger car applications. The conceived system is termed 'seriessequential turbocharger' because the turbocharger system operates in series at appropriate times and also sequentially when required. This is accomplished using intelligent design and control of flow passages and valves. Components of the seriessequential system will also be applicable to parallel-sequential systems which are also expected to be in use for future light truck/SUV applications.

  1. Dengue human infection models to advance dengue vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Christian P; Whitehead, Stephen S; Durbin, Anna P

    2015-12-10

    Dengue viruses (DENV) currently infect approximately 400 million people each year causing millions to seek care and overwhelming the health care infrastructure in endemic areas. Vaccines to prevent dengue and therapeutics to treat dengue are not currently available. The efficacy of the most advanced candidate vaccine against symptomatic dengue in general and DENV-2 in particular was much lower than expected, despite the ability of the vaccine to induce neutralizing antibody against all four DENV serotypes. Because seroconversion to the DENV serotypes following vaccination was thought to be indicative of induced protection, these results have made it more difficult to assess which candidate vaccines should or should not be evaluated in large studies in endemic areas. A dengue human infection model (DHIM) could be extremely valuable to down-select candidate vaccines or therapeutics prior to engaging in efficacy trials in endemic areas. Two DHIM have been developed to assess the efficacy of live attenuated tetravalent (LATV) dengue vaccines. The first model, developed by the Laboratory of Infectious Diseases at the U. S. National Institutes of Health, utilizes a modified DENV-2 strain DEN2Δ30. This virus was derived from the DENV-2 Tonga/74 that caused only very mild clinical infection during the outbreak from which it was recovered. DEN2Δ30 induced viremia in 100%, rash in 80%, and neutropenia in 27% of the 30 subjects to whom it was given. The Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR) is developing a DHIM the goal of which is to identify DENV that cause symptomatic dengue fever. WRAIR has evaluated seven viruses and has identified two that meet dengue fever criteria. Both of these models may be very useful in the evaluation and down-selection of candidate dengue vaccines and therapeutics. PMID:26424605

  2. Dengue human infection models to advance dengue vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Christian P; Whitehead, Stephen S; Durbin, Anna P

    2015-12-10

    Dengue viruses (DENV) currently infect approximately 400 million people each year causing millions to seek care and overwhelming the health care infrastructure in endemic areas. Vaccines to prevent dengue and therapeutics to treat dengue are not currently available. The efficacy of the most advanced candidate vaccine against symptomatic dengue in general and DENV-2 in particular was much lower than expected, despite the ability of the vaccine to induce neutralizing antibody against all four DENV serotypes. Because seroconversion to the DENV serotypes following vaccination was thought to be indicative of induced protection, these results have made it more difficult to assess which candidate vaccines should or should not be evaluated in large studies in endemic areas. A dengue human infection model (DHIM) could be extremely valuable to down-select candidate vaccines or therapeutics prior to engaging in efficacy trials in endemic areas. Two DHIM have been developed to assess the efficacy of live attenuated tetravalent (LATV) dengue vaccines. The first model, developed by the Laboratory of Infectious Diseases at the U. S. National Institutes of Health, utilizes a modified DENV-2 strain DEN2Δ30. This virus was derived from the DENV-2 Tonga/74 that caused only very mild clinical infection during the outbreak from which it was recovered. DEN2Δ30 induced viremia in 100%, rash in 80%, and neutropenia in 27% of the 30 subjects to whom it was given. The Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR) is developing a DHIM the goal of which is to identify DENV that cause symptomatic dengue fever. WRAIR has evaluated seven viruses and has identified two that meet dengue fever criteria. Both of these models may be very useful in the evaluation and down-selection of candidate dengue vaccines and therapeutics.

  3. Advanced Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle Development

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Mark; Sienicki, James; Moisseytsev, Anton; Nellis, Gregory; Klein, Sanford

    2015-10-21

    Fluids operating in the supercritical state have promising characteristics for future high efficiency power cycles. In order to develop power cycles using supercritical fluids, it is necessary to understand the flow characteristics of fluids under both supercritical and two-phase conditions. In this study, a Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) methodology was developed for supercritical fluids flowing through complex geometries. A real fluid property module was implemented to provide properties for different supercritical fluids. However, in each simulation case, there is only one species of fluid. As a result, the fluid property module provides properties for either supercritical CO2 (S-CO2) or supercritical water (SCW). The Homogeneous Equilibrium Model (HEM) was employed to model the two-phase flow. HEM assumes two phases have same velocity, pressure, and temperature, making it only applicable for the dilute dispersed two-phase flow situation. Three example geometries, including orifices, labyrinth seals, and valves, were used to validate this methodology with experimental data. For the first geometry, S-CO2 and SCW flowing through orifices were simulated and compared with experimental data. The maximum difference between the mass flow rate predictions and experimental measurements is less than 5%. This is a significant improvement as previous works can only guarantee 10% error. In this research, several efforts were made to help this improvement. First, an accurate real fluid module was used to provide properties. Second, the upstream condition was determined by pressure and density, which determines supercritical states more precise than using pressure and temperature. For the second geometry, the flow through labyrinth seals was studied. After a successful validation, parametric studies were performed to study geometric effects on the leakage rate. Based on these parametric studies, an optimum design strategy for the see

  4. Commercial development of advanced PFBC technology

    SciTech Connect

    McClung, J.D.

    1995-12-31

    In the 1970s, the coal-fired power generation industry recognized that the declining price of electricity over the previous five decades was coming to an end. Maximum use had been made of existing cycle efficiencies and scale-up. As researchers looked for a new approach, the focus shifted from the fully developed Rankine cycle to a new array of coal-fired plants using combined-cycle technology. Now, coal-fired combined-cycle plants are being introduced that shift power production to the Brayton cycle. Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) are two technologies at the forefront of this approach. The PFBC approach burns coal in a fluidized bed combustor at elevated pressure. The plant generates electricity from a gas turbine (expanding the hot, pressurized products of combustion) in addition to the conventional steam (bottoming) cycle. Such a plant can achieve thermal efficiencies of about 40 percent and have a levelized busbar cost below any competing coal-based technology. In addition to the economic benefits, the {open_quotes}built-in{close_quotes} feature of environmental control (SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}) in the combustion process eliminates the need for external gas cleanup such as scrubbers. A PFBC can burn a wider range of coals than a pulverized-coal-fired (PCF) boiler and is simpler to operate and maintain than an IGCC power plant.

  5. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A 74.5 kW (100 hp) automotive gas turbine was evaluated. The engine structure, bearings, oil system, and electronics were demonstrated and no shaft dynamics or other vibration problem were encountered. Areas identified during the five tests are the scroll retention features, and transient thermal deflection of turbine backplates. Modifications were designed. Seroll retention is addressed by modifying the seal arrangement in front of the gasifier turbine assembly, which will increase the pressure load on the scroll in the forward direction and thereby increase the retention forces. the backplate thermal deflection is addressed by geometric changes and thermal insulation to reduce heat input. Combustor rig proof testing of two ceramic combustor assemblies was completed. The combustor was modified to incorporate slots and reduce sharp edges, which should reduce thermal stresses. The development work focused on techniques to sinter these barrier materials onto the ceramic rotors with successes for both material systems. Silicon carbide structural parts, including engine configuration gasifier rotors (ECRs), preliminary gasifier scroll parts, and gasifier and power turbine vanes are fabricated.

  6. Advanced Power Regulator Developed for Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The majority of new satellites generate electrical power using photovoltaic solar arrays and store energy in batteries for use during eclipse periods. Careful regulation of battery charging during insolation can greatly increase the expected lifetime of the satellite. The battery charge regulator is usually custom designed for each satellite and its specific mission. Economic competition in the small satellite market requires battery charge regulators that are lightweight, efficient, inexpensive, and modular enough to be used in a wide variety of satellites. A new battery charge regulator topology has been developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center to address these needs. The new regulator topology uses industry-standard dc-dc converters and a unique interconnection to provide size, weight, efficiency, fault tolerance, and modularity benefits over existing systems. A transformer-isolated buck converter is connected such that the high input line is connected in series with the output. This "bypass connection" biases the converter's output onto the solar array voltage. Because of this biasing, the converter only processes the fraction of power necessary to charge the battery above the solar array voltage. Likewise, the same converter hookup can be used to regulate the battery output to the spacecraft power bus with similar fractional power processing.

  7. Regional characteristics relevant to advanced technology cogeneration development. [industrial energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manvi, R.

    1981-01-01

    To assist DOE in establishing research and development funding priorities in the area of advanced energy conversion technoloy, researchers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory studied those specific factors within various regions of the country that may influence cogeneration with advanced energy conversion systems. Regional characteristics of advanced technology cogeneration possibilities are discussed, with primary emphasis given to coal derived fuels. Factors considered for the study were regional industry concentration, purchased fuel and electricity prices, environmental constraints, and other data of interest to industrial cogeneration.

  8. Regional characteristics relevant to advanced technology cogeneration development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manvi, R.

    1981-07-01

    To assist DOE in establishing research and development funding priorities in the area of advanced energy conversion technoloy, researchers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory studied those specific factors within various regions of the country that may influence cogeneration with advanced energy conversion systems. Regional characteristics of advanced technology cogeneration possibilities are discussed, with primary emphasis given to coal derived fuels. Factors considered for the study were regional industry concentration, purchased fuel and electricity prices, environmental constraints, and other data of interest to industrial cogeneration.

  9. Advanced Chinese NiTi alloy wire and clinical observations.

    PubMed

    Chen, R; Zhi, Y F; Arvystas, M G

    1992-01-01

    Chinese NiTi wire was studied on the bench with six other nickel-titanium-alloy wires. Bending and torsional tests were conducted and temperatures of phase transformation compared. The Chinese NiTi wire was found to have a low stiffness, high springback and constant bending and torsional moments on unloading, in a very large deformation region. It can produce a gentle, nearly constant force. These factors make it desirable for clinical application. Included in this paper are clinical observations of case selected from over 100 patients in current treatment with Chinese NiTi wires. Chinese NiTi wire reduced the leveling and alignment phase of treatment without discomfort to the patient. Chinese NiTi wire can be used in both children and adults. PMID:1445516

  10. Recent Advances in Understanding Xenotransplantation: Implications for the Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, David K. C.; Bottino, Rita

    2016-01-01

    Summary The results of organ and cell allotransplantation continue to improve, but the field remains limited by a lack of deceased donor organs. Xenotransplantation, e.g., between pig and human, offers unlimited organs and cells for clinical transplantation. The immune barriers include a strong innate immune response in addition to the adaptive T cell response. The innate response has largely been overcome by the transplantation of organs from pigs with genetic modifications that protect their tissues from this response. T cell-mediated rejection can be controlled by immunosuppressive agents that inhibit costimulation. Coagulation dysfunction between the pig and primate remains problematic but is being overcome by the transplantation of organs from pigs that express human coagulation-regulatory proteins. The remaining barriers will be resolved by the introduction of novel genetically-engineered pigs. Limited clinical trials of pig islet and corneal transplantation are already underway. PMID:26548357

  11. Reverse phase protein microarrays advance to use in clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Claudius; Liotta, Lance A.; Espina, Virginia

    2010-01-01

    Individualizing cancer therapy for molecular targeted inhibitors requires a new class of molecular profiling technology that can map the functional state of the cancer cell signal pathways containing the drug targets. Reverse phase protein microarrays (RPMA) are a technology platform designed for quantitative, multiplexed analysis of specific phosphorylated, cleaved, or total (phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated) forms of cellular proteins from a limited amount of sample. This class of microarray can be used to interrogate tissue samples, cells, serum, or body fluids. RPMA were previously a research tool; now this technology has graduated to use in research clinical trials with clinical grade sensitivity and precision. In this review we describe the application of RPMA for multiplexed signal pathway analysis in therapeutic monitoring, biomarker discovery, and evaluation of pharmaceutical targets, and conclude with a summary of the technical aspects of RPMA construction and analysis. PMID:20974554

  12. Hereditary spastic paraplegia: clinical principles and genetic advances.

    PubMed

    Fink, John K

    2014-07-01

    Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) refers to inherited disorders in which spastic gait is either the only feature or is a major syndrome feature. There are more than 70 genetic types of HSP. Neuropathological studies, albeit limited to only a few genetic types of HSP, have identified axon degeneration involving the distal ends of the corticospinal tracts and fasciculus gracilis fibers. In this review, the author highlights the clinical and genetic features of HSP.

  13. Advanced multimodal nanoparticles delay tumor progression with clinical radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Detappe, Alexandre; Kunjachan, Sijumon; Sancey, Lucie; Motto-Ros, Vincent; Biancur, Douglas; Drane, Pascal; Guieze, Romain; Makrigiorgos, G Mike; Tillement, Olivier; Langer, Robert; Berbeco, Ross

    2016-09-28

    Radiation therapy is a major treatment regimen for more than 50% of cancer patients. The collateral damage induced on healthy tissues during radiation and the minimal therapeutic effect on the organ-of-interest (target) is a major clinical concern. Ultra-small, renal clearable, silica based gadolinium chelated nanoparticles (SiGdNP) provide simultaneous MR contrast and radiation dose enhancement. The high atomic number of gadolinium provides a large photoelectric cross-section for increased photon interaction, even for high-energy clinical radiation beams. Imaging and therapy functionality of SiGdNP were tested in cynomolgus monkeys and pancreatic tumor-bearing mice models, respectively. A significant improvement in tumor cell damage (double strand DNA breaks), growth suppression, and overall survival under clinical radiation therapy conditions were observed in a human pancreatic xenograft model. For the first time, safe systemic administration and systematic renal clearance was demonstrated in both tested species. These findings strongly support the translational potential of SiGdNP for MR-guided radiation therapy in cancer treatment. PMID:27423325

  14. Advanced Turbine Systems Program industrial system concept development

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, S.

    1995-10-01

    The objective of Phase II of the Advanced Turbine Systems Program is to develop conceptual designs of gas fired advanced turbine systems that can be adapted for operation on coal and biomass fuels. The technical, economic, and environmental performance operating on natural gas and in a coal fueled mode is to be assessed. Detailed designs and test work relating to critical components are to be completed and a market study is to be conducted.

  15. Advanced Power Regulator Developed for Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The majority of new satellites generate electrical power using photovoltaic solar arrays and store energy in batteries for use during eclipse periods. Careful regulation of battery charging during insolation can greatly increase the expected lifetime of the satellite. The battery charge regulator is usually custom designed for each satellite and its specific mission. Economic competition in the small satellite market requires battery charge regulators that are lightweight, efficient, inexpensive, and modular enough to be used in a wide variety of satellites. A new battery charge regulator topology has been developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center to address these needs. The new regulator topology uses industry-standard dc-dc converters and a unique interconnection to provide size, weight, efficiency, fault tolerance, and modularity benefits over existing systems. A transformer-isolated buck converter is connected such that the high input line is connected in series with the output. This "bypass connection" biases the converter's output onto the solar array voltage. Because of this biasing, the converter only processes the fraction of power necessary to charge the battery above the solar array voltage. Likewise, the same converter hookup can be used to regulate the battery output to the spacecraft power bus with similar fractional power processing. The advantages of this scheme are: 1) Because only a fraction of the power is processed through the dc-dc converter, the single- stage conversion efficiency is 94 to 98 percent; 2) Costly, high-efficiency dc-dc converters are not necessary for high end-to-end system efficiency; 3) The system is highly fault tolerant because the bypass connection will still deliver power if the dc-dc converter fails; and 4) The converters can easily be connected in parallel, allowing higher power systems to be built from a common building block. This new technology will be spaceflight tested in the Photovoltaic Regulator Kit Experiment

  16. Recent advances in innovative therapeutic approaches for Duchenne muscular dystrophy: from discovery to clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu-Motohashi, Yuko; Miyatake, Shouta; Komaki, Hirofumi; Takeda, Shin’ichi; Aoki, Yoshitsugu

    2016-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked progressive degenerative muscle disorder caused by the absence of dystrophin. There is no curative therapy, although innovative therapeutic approaches have been aggressively investigated over recent years. Currently, the international clinical trial registry platform for this disease has been constructed and clinical trials for innovative therapeutic approaches are underway. Among these, exon skipping and read-through of nonsense mutations are in the most advanced stages, with exon skipping theoretically applicable to a larger number of patients. To date, exon skipping that targets exons 51, 44, 45, and 53 is being globally investigated including in USA, EU, and Japan. The latest announcement from Japan was made, demonstrating successful dystrophin production in muscles of patients with DMD after treating with exon 53 skipping antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs). However, the innovative therapeutic approaches have demonstrated limited efficacy. To address this issue in exon skipping, studies to unveil the mechanism underlying gymnotic delivery of ASO uptake in living cells have been conducted in an effort to improve in vivo delivery. Further, establishing the infrastructures to integrate multi-institutional clinical trials are needed to facilitate the development of successful therapies for DMD, which ultimately is applicable to other myopathies and neurodegenerative diseases, including spinal muscular atrophy and motor neuron diseases. PMID:27398133

  17. Center to Advance Palliative Care palliative care clinical care and customer satisfaction metrics consensus recommendations.

    PubMed

    Weissman, David E; Morrison, R Sean; Meier, Diane E

    2010-02-01

    Data collection and analysis are vital for strategic planning, quality improvement, and demonstration of palliative care program impact to hospital administrators, private funders and policymakers. Since 2000, the Center to Advance Palliative Care (CAPC) has provided technical assistance to hospitals, health systems and hospices working to start, sustain, and grow nonhospice palliative care programs. CAPC convened a consensus panel in 2008 to develop recommendations for specific clinical and customer metrics that programs should track. The panel agreed on four key domains of clinical metrics and two domains of customer metrics. Clinical metrics include: daily assessment of physical/psychological/spiritual symptoms by a symptom assessment tool; establishment of patient-centered goals of care; support to patient/family caregivers; and management of transitions across care sites. For customer metrics, consensus was reached on two domains that should be tracked to assess satisfaction: patient/family satisfaction, and referring clinician satisfaction. In an effort to ensure access to reliably high-quality palliative care data throughout the nation, hospital palliative care programs are encouraged to collect and report outcomes for each of the metric domains described here. PMID:19922199

  18. Recent advances in innovative therapeutic approaches for Duchenne muscular dystrophy: from discovery to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Shimizu-Motohashi, Yuko; Miyatake, Shouta; Komaki, Hirofumi; Takeda, Shin'ichi; Aoki, Yoshitsugu

    2016-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked progressive degenerative muscle disorder caused by the absence of dystrophin. There is no curative therapy, although innovative therapeutic approaches have been aggressively investigated over recent years. Currently, the international clinical trial registry platform for this disease has been constructed and clinical trials for innovative therapeutic approaches are underway. Among these, exon skipping and read-through of nonsense mutations are in the most advanced stages, with exon skipping theoretically applicable to a larger number of patients. To date, exon skipping that targets exons 51, 44, 45, and 53 is being globally investigated including in USA, EU, and Japan. The latest announcement from Japan was made, demonstrating successful dystrophin production in muscles of patients with DMD after treating with exon 53 skipping antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs). However, the innovative therapeutic approaches have demonstrated limited efficacy. To address this issue in exon skipping, studies to unveil the mechanism underlying gymnotic delivery of ASO uptake in living cells have been conducted in an effort to improve in vivo delivery. Further, establishing the infrastructures to integrate multi-institutional clinical trials are needed to facilitate the development of successful therapies for DMD, which ultimately is applicable to other myopathies and neurodegenerative diseases, including spinal muscular atrophy and motor neuron diseases.

  19. New clinical advances in immunotherapy for the treatment of solid tumours

    PubMed Central

    Zavala, Valentina A; Kalergis, Alexis M

    2015-01-01

    Advances in understanding the mechanisms of cancer cells for evading the immune system surveillance, including how the immune system modulates the phenotype of tumours, have allowed the development of new therapies that benefit from this complex cellular network to specifically target and destroy cancer cells. Immunotherapy researchers have mainly focused on the discovery of tumour antigens that could confer specificity to immune cells to detect and destroy cancer cells, as well as on the mechanisms leading to an improved activation of effector immune cells. The Food and Drug Administration approval in 2010 of ipilumumab for melanoma treatment and of pembrolizumab in 2014, monoclonal antibodies against T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 and programmed cell death 1, respectively, are encouraging examples of how research in this area can successfully translate into clinical use with promising results. Currently, several ongoing clinical trials are in progress testing new anti-cancer therapies based on the enhancement of immune cell activity against tumour antigens. Here we discuss the general concepts related to immunotherapy and the recent application to the treatment of cancer with positive results that support their consideration of clinical application to patients. PMID:25826229

  20. Transmission blocking malaria vaccines: Assays and candidates in clinical development.

    PubMed

    Sauerwein, R W; Bousema, T

    2015-12-22

    Stimulated by recent advances in malaria control and increased funding, the elimination of malaria is now considered to be an attainable goal for an increasing number of malaria-endemic regions. This has boosted the interest in transmission-reducing interventions including vaccines that target sexual, sporogenic, and/or mosquito-stage antigens to interrupt malaria transmission (SSM-VIMT). SSM-VIMT aim to prevent human malaria infection in vaccinated communities by inhibiting parasite development within the mosquito after a blood meal taken from a gametocyte carrier. Only a handful of target antigens are in clinical development and progress has been slow over the years. Major stumbling blocks include (i) the expression of appropriately folded target proteins and their downstream purification, (ii) insufficient induction of sustained functional blocking antibody titers by candidate vaccines in humans, and (iii) validation of a number of (bio)-assays as correlate for blocking activity in the field. Here we discuss clinical manufacturing and testing of current SSM-VIMT candidates and the latest bio-assay development for clinical evaluation. New testing strategies are discussed that may accelerate the evaluation and application of SSM-VIMT.

  1. ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEM CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht H. Mayer

    2000-07-15

    Asea Brown Boveri (ABB) has completed its technology based program. The results developed under Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) 8, concentrated on technology development and demonstration have been partially implemented in newer turbine designs. A significant improvement in heat rate and power output has been demonstrated. ABB will use the knowledge gained to further improve the efficiency of its Advanced Cycle System, which has been developed and introduced into the marked out side ABB's Advanced Turbine System (ATS) activities. The technology will lead to a power plant design that meets the ATS performance goals of over 60% plant efficiency, decreased electricity costs to consumers and lowest emissions.

  2. Advanced Microgravity Acceleration Measurement Systems (AMAMS) Being Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sicker, Ronald J.; Kacpura, Thomas J.

    2003-01-01

    The Advanced Microgravity Acceleration Measurement Systems (AMAMS) project is part of NASA s Instrument Technology Development program to develop advanced sensor systems. The primary focus of the AMAMS project is to develop microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) for acceleration sensor systems to replace existing electromechanical sensor systems presently used to assess relative gravity levels aboard spacecraft. These systems are used to characterize both vehicle and payload responses to low-gravity vibroacoustic environments. The collection of microgravity acceleration data is useful to the microgravity life sciences, microgravity physical sciences, and structural dynamics communities. The inherent advantages of semiconductor-based systems are reduced size, mass, and power consumption, with enhanced long-term calibration stability.

  3. Development of advanced technologies for biomass pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ran

    the entering vapors and gases to spin, providing good heat transfer and driving the condensed droplets to the wall through cyclonic action. This condenser design has been successfully demonstrated for the application on the pilot fluidized bed pyrolysis unit. After condensation, a stable aerosol is also typically formed which is difficult to be efficiently captured with conventional technologies. A pilot scale helicoidal rotary demister, a novel technology for removing persistent fine bio-oil droplets from gases using dynamic centrifugal forces, has been developed. The demister uses a helicoidal element, which consists of a metal sheet wound as a spiral, designed to rotate at high speeds within a cyclone body. Larger droplets are separated as they enter the cyclone housing, while the smaller droplets are carried by the gas into the helicoidal path of the rotating element, where they are centrifuged towards the outer collecting walls and, as a result of a specially designed baffle, may flow counter-currently to the gas and are drained out from the bottom of the rotating element. The mist-free gas leaves through a channel located at the center of the spiral. This unique demister design has demonstrated a high separation efficiency when tested offline with artificial submicron mist and tested online for demisting bio-oil aerosol on the pyrolysis unit. Bio-oil Upgrading: Very often, phase separation of bio-oil occurs naturally upon condensation of the bio-oil vapors, typically through the use of cyclonic condensers. The bio-oil is separated into an organic phase and an aqueous phase. Research has been conducted on the possibility to enhance the fuel properties and energy performance of the organic phase by reducing its water content, enhancing its heating value and improving its stability. Through the use of drying agents, a remarkable reduction of water content and an increase of heating value can be achieved. Moreover, the volumetric energy density can be greatly

  4. Hyperprolactinemia--a review of recent clinical advances.

    PubMed

    Kirby, R W; Kotchen, T A; Rees, E D

    1979-12-01

    Since the radioimmunoassay for serum prolactin became available eight years ago, prolactin has become a hormone of considerable clinical interest. An elevated serum prolactin concentration is the most frequent hormone marker for pituitary tumors. Secreted in excess, prolactin causes dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, the gonads, and the adrenal cortex. In women, menstrual disturbances, galactorrhea, infertility, and hirsutism result. Impotence, oligospermia, and decreased libido are common in men. These metabolic abnormalities attributed to prolactin excess are corrected when prolactin concentrations are lowered by either medical or surgical therapy. The availability of effective therapy mandates early recognition and proper management of the patient with hyperprolactinemia.

  5. Hydrogen Vent Ground Umbilical Quick Disconnect - Flight Seal Advanced Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Girard, Doug; Jankowski, Fred; Minich, Mark C.; Yu, Weiping

    2012-01-01

    This project is a team effort between NASA Engineering (NE) and Team QNA Engineering personnel to provide support for the Umbilical Systems Development project which is funded by Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) and 21st Century Launch Complex. Specifically, this project seeks to develop a new interface between the PPBE baselined Legacy SSP LH2 Vent Arm QD probe and SLS vent seal.

  6. Advancing Empirical Scholarship to Further Develop Evaluation Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    Good theory development is grounded in empirical inquiry. In the context of educational evaluation, the development of empirically grounded theory has important benefits for the field and the practitioner. In particular, a shift to empirically derived theory will assist in advancing more systematic and contextually relevant evaluation practice, as…

  7. Advanced Materials Development Program: Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines program plan, 1983--1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    The purpose of the Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines (CTAHE) Project is the development of an industrial technology base capable of providing reliable and cost-effective high temperature ceramic components for application in advanced heat engines. There is a deliberate emphasis on industrial'' in the purpose statement. The project is intended to support the US ceramic and engine industries by providing the needed ceramic materials technology. The heat engine programs have goals of component development and proof-of-concept. The CTAHE Project is aimed at developing generic basic ceramic technology and does not involve specific engine designs and components. The materials research and development efforts in the CTAHE Project are focused on the needs and general requirements of the advanced gas turbine and low heat rejection diesel engines. The CTAHE Project supports the DOE Office of Transportation Systems' heat engine programs, Advanced Turbine Technology Applications (ATTAP) and Heavy Duty Transport (HDT) by providing the basic technology required for development of reliable and cost-effective ceramic components. The heat engine programs provide the iterative component design, fabrication, and test development logic. 103 refs., 18 figs., 11 tabs.

  8. Building Bridges: Leveraging Interdisciplinary Collaborations in the Development of Biomaterials to Meet Clinical Needs

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Eliza L.S.; Watson, Brendan M.; Kasper, F. Kurtis

    2013-01-01

    Our laboratory at Rice University has forged numerous collaborations with clinicians and basic scientists over the years to advance the development of novel biomaterials and modification of existing materials to meet clinical needs. This review highlights collaborative advances in biomaterials research from our laboratory in the areas of scaffold development, drug delivery and gene therapy, especially as related to applications in bone and cartilage tissue engineering. PMID:22821772

  9. Pharmacogenomics in early-phase clinical development

    PubMed Central

    Burt, Tal; Dhillon, Savita

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacogenomics (PGx) offers the promise of utilizing genetic fingerprints to predict individual responses to drugs in terms of safety, efficacy and pharmacokinetics. Early-phase clinical trial PGx applications can identify human genome variations that are meaningful to study design, selection of participants, allocation of resources and clinical research ethics. Results can inform later-phase study design and pipeline developmental decisions. Nevertheless, our review of the clinicaltrials.gov database demonstrates that PGx is rarely used by drug developers. Of the total 323 trials that included PGx as an outcome, 80% have been conducted by academic institutions after initial regulatory approval. Barriers for the application of PGx are discussed. We propose a framework for the role of PGx in early-phase drug development and recommend PGx be universally considered in study design, result interpretation and hypothesis generation for later-phase studies, but PGx results from underpowered studies should not be used by themselves to terminate drug-development programs. PMID:23837482

  10. Everolimus in advanced pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: the clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Yao, James C; Phan, Alexandria T; Jehl, Valentine; Shah, Gaurav; Meric-Bernstam, Funda

    2013-03-01

    The incidence of neuroendocrine tumors (NET) has increased dramatically in the past 30 years. This information has revitalized basic and clinical research into the molecular biology of NET and has resulted in the recent approval of new therapies for pancreatic NET (pNET), including the oral inhibitor of the mTOR everolimus. Everolimus significantly improved progression-free survival among patients with pNET in the phase III RADIANT-3 study. Here, we review the clinical studies showing the efficacy of everolimus in pNET and summarize the translational science from these studies. To understand the mechanisms of resistance and cause of treatment failure, we compared the type of progression events observed in the everolimus and placebo arms of the RADIANT-3 study. Comparison of the everolimus arm to the placebo arm indicated the fractions of progression events due to new metastasis only (21% vs. 22%), growth of preexisting lesions only (54% vs. 49%), and new metastasis along with growth of preexisting lesions (24% vs. 27%) were similar. These results suggest that although everolimus delays disease progression in patients with pNET, patients who experience disease progression while on everolimus do not appear to have a more aggressive metastatic phenotype than those whose disease progresses while on placebo.

  11. Clinical holistic health: advanced tools for holistic medicine.

    PubMed

    Ventegodt, Søren; Clausen, Birgitte; Nielsen, May Lyck; Merrick, Joav

    2006-02-24

    According to holistic medical theory, the patient will heal when old painful moments, the traumatic events of life that are often called "gestalts", are integrated in the present "now". The advanced holistic physician's expanded toolbox has many different tools to induce this healing, some that are more dangerous and potentially traumatic than others. The more intense the therapeutic technique, the more emotional energy will be released and contained in the session, but the higher also is the risk for the therapist to lose control of the session and lose the patient to his or her own dark side. To avoid harming the patient must be the highest priority in holistic existential therapy, making sufficient education and training an issue of highest importance. The concept of "stepping up" the therapy by using more and more "dramatic" methods to get access to repressed emotions and events has led us to a "therapeutic staircase" with ten steps: (1) establishing the relationship; (2) establishing intimacy, trust, and confidentiality; (3) giving support and holding; (4) taking the patient into the process of physical, emotional, and mental healing; (5) social healing of being in the family; (6) spiritual healing--returning to the abstract wholeness of the soul; (7) healing the informational layer of the body; (8) healing the three fundamental dimensions of existence: love, power, and sexuality in a direct way using, among other techniques, "controlled violence" and "acupressure through the vagina"; (9) mind-expanding and consciousness-transformative techniques like psychotropic drugs; and (10) techniques transgressing the patient's borders and, therefore, often traumatizing (for instance, the use of force against the will of the patient). We believe that the systematic use of the staircase will greatly improve the power and efficiency of holistic medicine for the patient and we invite a broad cooperation in scientifically testing the efficiency of the advanced holistic

  12. NASA's Advanced Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, David J.; Sankovic, John; Wilt, David; Abelson, Robert D.; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems (ARPS) project is developing the next generation of radioisotope power conversion technologies that will enable future missions that have requirements that cannot be met by either photovoltaic systems or by current radioisotope power systems (RPSs). Requirements of advanced RPSs include high efficiency and high specific power (watts/kilogram) in order to meet future mission requirements with less radioisotope fuel and lower mass so that these systems can meet requirements for a variety of future space applications, including continual operation surface missions, outer-planetary missions, and solar probe. These advances would enable a factor of 2 to 4 decrease in the amount of fuel required to generate electrical power. Advanced RPS development goals also include long-life, reliability, and scalability. This paper provides an update on the contractual efforts under the Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology (RPCT) NASA Research Announcement (NRA) for research and development of Stirling, thermoelectric, and thermophotovoltaic power conversion technologies. The paper summarizes the current RPCT NRA efforts with a brief description of the effort, a status and/or summary of the contractor's key accomplishments, a discussion of upcoming plans, and a discussion of relevant system-level benefits and implications. The paper also provides a general discussion of the benefits from the development of these advanced power conversion technologies and the eventual payoffs to future missions (discussing system benefits due to overall improvements in efficiency, specific power, etc.).

  13. Technology development program for an advanced microsheet glass concentrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richter, Scott W.; Lacy, Dovie E.

    1990-01-01

    Solar Dynamic Space Power Systems are candidate electrical power generating systems for future NASA missions. One of the key components in a solar dynamic power system is the concentrator which collects the sun's energy and focuses it into a receiver. In 1985, the NASA Lewis Research Center initiated the Advanced Solar Dynamic Concentrator Program with funding from NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST). The objectives of the Advanced Concentrator Program is to develop the technology that will lead to lightweight, highly reflective, accurate, scaleable, and long lived (7 to 10 years) space solar dynamic concentrators. The Advanced Concentrator Program encompasses new and innovative concepts, fabrication techniques, materials selection, and simulated space environmental testing. The Advanced Microsheet Glass Concentrator Program, a reflector concept, that is currently being investigated both in-house and under contract is discussed.

  14. Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program conceptual design and product development

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-31

    Achieving the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) goals of 60% efficiency, single-digit NO{sub x}, and 10% electric power cost reduction imposes competing characteristics on the gas turbine system. Two basic technical issues arise from this. The turbine inlet temperature of the gas turbine must increase to achieve both efficiency and cost goals. However, higher temperatures move in the direction of increased NO{sub x} emission. Improved coatings and materials technologies along with creative combustor design can result in solutions to achieve the ultimate goal. GE`s view of the market, in conjunction with the industrial and utility objectives, requires the development of Advanced Gas Turbine Systems which encompass two potential products: a new aeroderivative combined-cycle system for the industrial market, and a combined-cycle system for the utility sector that is based on an advanced frame machine. The GE Advanced Gas Turbine Development program is focused on two specific products: (1) a 70 MW class industrial gas turbine based on the GE90 core technology utilizing an innovative air cooling methodology; (2) a 200 MW class utility gas turbine based on an advanced Ge heavy-duty machine utilizing advanced cooling and enhancement in component efficiency. Both of these activities required the identification and resolution of technical issues critical to achieving ATS goals. The emphasis for the industrial ATS was placed upon innovative cycle design and low emission combustion. The emphasis for the utility ATS was placed on developing a technology base for advanced turbine cooling, while utilizing demonstrated and planned improvements in low emission combustion. Significant overlap in the development programs will allow common technologies to be applied to both products. GE Power Systems is solely responsible for offering GE products for the industrial and utility markets.

  15. New scene projector developments at the AMRDEC's advanced simulation center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saylor, Daniel A.; Bowden, Mark; Buford, James

    2006-05-01

    The Aviation and Missile Research, Engineering, and Development Center's (AMRDEC) System Simulation and Development Directorate (SS&DD) has an extensive history of applying all types of modeling and simulation (M&S) to weapon system development and has been a particularly strong advocate of hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) simulation and test for many years. Key to the successful application of HWIL testing at AMRDEC has been the use of state-of-the-art Scene Projector technologies. This paper describes recent advancements over the past year within the AMRDEC Advanced Simulation Center (ASC) HWIL facilities with a specific emphasis on the state of the various IRSP technologies employed. Areas discussed include application of FMS-compatible IR projectors, advancements in hybrid and multi-spectral projectors, and characterization of existing and emerging technologies.

  16. [Research advance on clinical blood transfusion and tumor therapy].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xue-Bing; Zhang, Li-Ping; Wang, Yan-Ju; Ma, Cong

    2010-08-01

    Clinical blood transfusion is one of the most important supportive therapy for patients with tumor. The blood transfusion has dual effects for patients with tumor. First, blood transfusion can rectify anemia and improve oxygen saturation, accelerate oxidation and necrosis for tumor cells; the second, blood transfusion can induce immunosuppression, tumor recurrence and postoperative infection for tumor patients. Filtering white blood cells (WBC) before blood transfusion can decrease the incidence of the adverse reactions. The rational perioperative autotransfusion for patients with tumors is focus to which the world medical sciences pay close attention. In this article, the support effect of blood transfusion for treatment of tumor patients, blood transfusion and immunosuppression, blood transfusion and postoperative infection and relapse of tumor patients, depleted leukocyte blood transfusion and autologous transfusion of tumor patients are reviewed.

  17. Investigational cancer drugs targeting cell metabolism in clinical development

    PubMed Central

    Sborov, Douglas W; Haverkos, Bradley M; Harris, Pamela J

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Malignant cell transformation and tumor progression are associated with alterations in glycolysis, fatty acid synthesis, amino acid delivery and production of reactive oxygen species. With increased understanding of the role of metabolism in tumors, there has been interest in developing agents that target tumor specific metabolic pathways. Numerous promising agents targeting altered metabolic pathways are currently in Phase I – III clinical trials. Areas covered This paper reviews the early phase clinical trial development of these agents and provides perspective on the future direction of this emerging field. Specifically, the authors describe novel and repurposed therapies, focusing on the effects of each agent on tumor metabolism and results from relevant Phase I and II clinical trials. Expert opinion Metabolism modulating agents, alone and in combinations with other classes of agents, have shown efficacy in the treatment of neoplasm, which, the authors believe, will bear positive results in future studies. Because of the significant crosstalk between metabolic pathways and oncogenic signaling pathways, the authors also believe that combining metabolic modifiers with targeted agents will be an important strategy. An increased understanding of cancer metabolism, in addition to the continued study of metabolic modulators, should lead to further advances in this nascent therapeutic field in the future. PMID:25224845

  18. Characterization and development of materials for advanced textile composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartness, J. Timothy; Greene, Timothy L.; Taske, Leo E.

    1993-01-01

    Work ongoing under the NASA Langley - Advanced Composite Technology (ACT) program is discussed. The primary emphasis of the work centers around the development and characterization of graphite fiber that has been impregnated with an epoxy powder. Four epoxies have been characterized in towpreg form as to their weaveability and braidability. Initial mechanical properties have been generated on each resin system. These include unidirectional as well as 8-harness satin cloth. Initial 2D and 3D weaving and braiding trials will be reported on as well as initial efforts to develop towpreg suitable for advanced tow placement.

  19. Advanced Engineering Environments for Space Transportation System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, L. Dale; Smith, Charles A.; Beveridge, James

    2000-01-01

    There are significant challenges facing today's launch vehicle industry. Global competition, more complex products, geographically-distributed design teams, demands for lower cost, higher reliability and safer vehicles, and the need to incorporate the latest technologies quicker, all face the developer of a space transportation system. Within NASA, multiple technology development and demonstration projects are underway toward the objectives of safe, reliable, and affordable access to space. New information technologies offer promising opportunities to develop advanced engineering environments to meet these challenges. Significant advances in the state-of-the-art of aerospace engineering practice are envisioned in the areas of engineering design and analytical tools, cost and risk tools, collaborative engineering, and high-fidelity simulations early in the development cycle. At the Marshall Space Flight Center, work has begun on development of an advanced engineering environment specifically to support the design, modeling, and analysis of space transportation systems. This paper will give an overview of the challenges of developing space transportation systems in today's environment and subsequently discuss the advanced engineering environment and its anticipated benefits.

  20. Current technological advances in magnetic resonance with critical impact for clinical diagnosis and therapy.

    PubMed

    Runge, Val M

    2013-12-01

    The last 5 years of technological advances with major impact on clinical magnetic resonance (MR) are discussed, with greater emphasis on those that are most recent. These developments have already had a critical positive effect on clinical diagnosis and therapy and presage continued rapid improvements for the next 5 years. This review begins with a discussion of 2 topics that encompass the breadth of MR, in terms of anatomic applications, contrast media, and MR angiography. Subsequently, innovations are discussed by anatomic category, picking the areas with the greatest development, starting with the brain, moving forward to the liver and kidney, and concluding with the musculoskeletal system, breast, and prostate. Two final topics are then considered, which will likely, with time, become independent major fields in their own right, interventional MR and MR positron emission tomography (PET).The next decade will bring a new generation of MR contrast media, with research focused on substantial improvements (>100-fold) in relaxivity (contrast effect), thus providing greater efficacy, safety, and tissue targeting. Magnetic resonance angiography will see major advances because of the use of compressed sensing, in terms of spatial and temporal resolution, with movement away from nondynamic imaging. The breadth of available techniques and tissue contrast has greatly expanded in brain imaging, benefiting both from the introduction of new basic categories of imaging techniques, such as readout-segmented echo planar imaging and 3D fast spin echo imaging with variable flip angles, and from new refinements specific to anatomic areas, such as double inversion recovery and MP2RAGE. Liver imaging has benefited from the development of techniques to easily and rapidly assess lipid, and will see, overall, a marked improvement in the next 5 years from new techniques on the verge of clinical introduction, such as controlled aliasing in parallel imaging results in higher acceleration

  1. In utero stem cell transplantation and gene therapy: rationale, history, and recent advances toward clinical application

    PubMed Central

    Almeida-Porada, Graça; Atala, Anthony; Porada, Christopher D

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in high-throughput molecular testing have made it possible to diagnose most genetic disorders relatively early in gestation with minimal risk to the fetus. These advances should soon allow widespread prenatal screening for the majority of human genetic diseases, opening the door to the possibility of treatment/correction prior to birth. In addition to the obvious psychological and financial benefits of curing a disease in utero, and thereby enabling the birth of a healthy infant, there are multiple biological advantages unique to fetal development, which provide compelling rationale for performing potentially curative treatments, such as stem cell transplantation or gene therapy, prior to birth. Herein, we briefly review the fields of in utero transplantation (IUTx) and in utero gene therapy and discuss the biological hurdles that have thus far restricted success of IUTx to patients with immunodeficiencies. We then highlight several recent experimental breakthroughs in immunology, hematopoietic/marrow ontogeny, and in utero cell delivery, which have collectively provided means of overcoming these barriers, thus setting the stage for clinical application of these highly promising therapies in the near future. PMID:27069953

  2. Plasma genetic and genomic abnormalities predict treatment response and clinical outcome in advanced prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Du, Meijun; Dittmar, Rachel L.; Lee, Adam; Nandy, Debashis; Yuan, Tiezheng; Guo, Yongchen; Wang, Yuan; Tschannen, Michael R.; Worthey, Elizabeth; Jacob, Howard; See, William; Kilari, Deepak; Wang, Xuexia; Hovey, Raymond L.; Huang, Chiang-Ching; Wang, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Liquid biopsies, examinations of tumor components in body fluids, have shown promise for predicting clinical outcomes. To evaluate tumor-associated genomic and genetic variations in plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) and their associations with treatment response and overall survival, we applied whole genome and targeted sequencing to examine the plasma cfDNAs derived from 20 patients with advanced prostate cancer. Sequencing-based genomic abnormality analysis revealed locus-specific gains or losses that were common in prostate cancer, such as 8q gains, AR amplifications, PTEN losses and TMPRSS2-ERG fusions. To estimate tumor burden in cfDNA, we developed a Plasma Genomic Abnormality (PGA) score by summing the most significant copy number variations. Cox regression analysis showed that PGA scores were significantly associated with overall survival (p < 0.04). After androgen deprivation therapy or chemotherapy, targeted sequencing showed significant mutational profile changes in genes involved in androgen biosynthesis, AR activation, DNA repair, and chemotherapy resistance. These changes may reflect the dynamic evolution of heterozygous tumor populations in response to these treatments. These results strongly support the feasibility of using non-invasive liquid biopsies as potential tools to study biological mechanisms underlying therapy-specific resistance and to predict disease progression in advanced prostate cancer. PMID:25915538

  3. Current Molecular Targeted Therapy in Advanced Gastric Cancer: A Comprehensive Review of Therapeutic Mechanism, Clinical Trials, and Practical Application

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kaichun; Li, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Despite the great progress in the treatment of gastric cancer, it is still the third leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Patients often miss the opportunity for a surgical cure, because the cancer has already developed into advanced cancer when identified. Compared to best supportive care, chemotherapy can improve quality of life and prolong survival time, but the overall survival is often short. Due to the molecular study of gastric cancer, new molecular targeted drugs have entered the clinical use. Trastuzumab, an antibody targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), can significantly improve survival in advanced gastric cancer patients with HER2 overexpression. Second-line treatment of advanced gastric cancer with ramucirumab, an antibody targeting VEGFR-2, alone or in combination with paclitaxel, has been proved to provide a beneficial effect. The VEGFR-2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor, apatinib, can improve the survival of advanced gastric cancer patients after second-line chemotherapy failure. Unfortunately, none of the EGFR targeting antibodies (cetuximab or panitumumab), VEGF targeting monoclonal antibodies (bevacizumab), mTOR inhibitor (everolimus), or HGF/MET pathway targeting drugs has a significant survival benefit. Many other clinical trials based on molecular markers are underway. This review will summarize targeted therapies for advanced gastric cancer. PMID:26880889

  4. Heuristics Applied in the Development of Advanced Space Mission Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nilsen, Erik N.

    1998-01-01

    Advanced mission studies are the first step in determining the feasibility of a given space exploration concept. A space scientist develops a science goal in the exploration of space. This may be a new observation method, a new instrument or a mission concept to explore a solar system body. In order to determine the feasibility of a deep space mission, a concept study is convened to determine the technology needs and estimated cost of performing that mission. Heuristics are one method of defining viable mission and systems architectures that can be assessed for technology readiness and cost. Developing a viable architecture depends to a large extent upon extending the existing body of knowledge, and applying it in new and novel ways. These heuristics have evolved over time to include methods for estimating technical complexity, technology development, cost modeling and mission risk in the unique context of deep space missions. This paper examines the processes involved in performing these advanced concepts studies, and analyzes the application of heuristics in the development of an advanced in-situ planetary mission. The Venus Surface Sample Return mission study provides a context for the examination of the heuristics applied in the development of the mission and systems architecture. This study is illustrative of the effort involved in the initial assessment of an advance mission concept, and the knowledge and tools that are applied.

  5. Advanced Seal Development for Large Industrial Gas Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chupp, Raymond E.

    2006-01-01

    Efforts are in progress to develop advanced sealing for large utility industrial gas turbine engines (combustion turbines). Such seals have been under developed for some time for aero gas turbines. It is desired to transition this technology to combustion turbines. Brush seals, film riding face and circumferential seals, and other dynamic and static sealing approaches are being incorporated into gas turbines for aero applications by several engine manufacturers. These seals replace labyrinth or other seals with significantly reduced leakage rates. For utility industrial gas turbines, leakage reduction with advanced sealing can be even greater with the enormous size of the components. Challenges to transitioning technology include: extremely long operating times between overhauls; infrequent but large radial and axial excursions; difficulty in coating larger components; and maintenance, installation, and durability requirements. Advanced sealing is part of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) engine development being done under a cooperative agreement between Westinghouse and the US Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy. Seal development focuses on various types of seals in the 501ATS engine both at dynamic and static locations. Each development includes rig testing of candidate designs and subsequent engine validation testing of prototype seals. This presentation gives an update of the ongoing ATS sealing efforts with special emphasis on brush seals.

  6. Development of Advanced Seals for Industrial Turbine Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chupp, Raymond E.; Aksit, Mahmut F.; Ghasripoor, Farshad; Turnquist, Norman A.; Dinc, Saim; Mortzheim, Jason; Demiroglu, Mehmet

    2002-10-01

    A critical area being addressed to improve industrial turbine performance is reducing the parasitic leakage flows through the various static and dynamic seals. Implementation of advanced seals into General Electric (GE) industrial turbines has progressed well over the last few years with significant operating performance gains achieved. Advanced static seals have been placed in gas turbine hot gas-path junctions and steam turbine packing ring segment end gaps. Brush seals have significantly decreased labyrinth seal leakages in gas turbine compressors and turbine interstages, steam turbine interstage and end packings, industrial compressor shaft seals, and generator seals. Abradable seals are being developed for blade-tip locations in various turbine locations. This presentation summarizes the status of advanced seal development for industrial turbines at GE.

  7. Development of Metal Matrix Composites for NASA'S Advanced Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jonathan A.

    2000-01-01

    The state-of-the-art development of several aluminum and copper based Metal Matrix Composites (MMC) for NASA's advanced propulsion systems will be presented. The presentation's goal is to provide an overview of NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center's planned and on-going activities in MMC for advanced liquid rocket engines such as the X-33 vehicle's Aerospike and X-34 Fastrac engine. The focus will be on lightweight and environmental compatibility with oxygen and hydrogen of key MMC materials, within each NASA's new propulsion application, that will provide a high payoff for NASA's reusable launch vehicle systems and space access vehicles. Advanced MMC processing techniques such as plasma spray, centrifugal casting, pressure infiltration casting will be discussed. Development of a novel 3D printing method for low cost production of composite preform, and functional gradient MMC to enhanced rocket engine's dimensional stability will be presented.

  8. Clinical and radiographic evaluation of maxillary central incisors exposure in patients undergoing maxillary advancement

    PubMed Central

    Trento, Guilherme dos Santos; Bernabé, Felipe Bueno Rosettti; da Costa, Delson João; Rebellato, Nelson Luis Barbosa; Klüppel, Leandro Eduardo; Scariot, Rafaela

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Patients with dentofacial deformities may undergo orthodontic or orthodontic-surgical treatment. Both modalities can affect esthetics. Objective: This study aims to evaluate clinical and radiographic changes in exposure of maxillary central incisors occurring after orthognathic surgery for maxillary advancement. Methods: A total of 17 patients who underwent orthognathic surgery for maxillary advancement between September, 2010 and July, 2011 were selected. Exposure of maxillary central incisors was evaluated clinically and by lateral cephalograms. Measurements were taken one week before and three months after surgery. Data were paired in terms of sex, age, nasolabial angle, height and thickness of the upper lip, the amount of maxillary advancement, clinical exposure and inclination of maxillary central incisor by statistical tests (CI 95%). Results: After maxillary advancement, incisor clinical exposure had increased even with relaxed lips and under forced smile. Moreover, there was a mean increase of 23.33% revealed by lateral cephalograms. There was an inverse correlation between upper lip thickness and incisors postsurgical exposure revealed by radiographic images (p = 0.002). Conclusions: Significant changes in the exposure of maxillary central incisors occur after maxillary advancement, under the influence of some factors, especially lip thickness. PMID:26691970

  9. Advanced Opto-Electronics (LIDAR and Microsensor Development)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderbilt, Vern C. (Technical Monitor); Spangler, Lee H.

    2005-01-01

    Our overall intent in this aspect of the project were to establish a collaborative effort between several departments at Montana State University for developing advanced optoelectronic technology for advancing the state-of-the-art in optical remote sensing of the environment. Our particular focus was on development of small systems that can eventually be used in a wide variety of applications that might include ground-, air-, and space deployments, possibly in sensor networks. Specific objectives were to: 1) Build a field-deployable direct-detection lidar system for use in measurements of clouds, aerosols, fish, and vegetation; 2) Develop a breadboard prototype water vapor differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system based on highly stable, tunable diode laser technology developed previously at MSU. We accomplished both primary objectives of this project, in developing a field-deployable direct-detection lidar and a breadboard prototype of a water vapor DIAL system. Paper summarizes each of these accomplishments.

  10. [Clinical competence certification for advanced heart failure: an emerging need also in Italy?].

    PubMed

    Marini, Marco; Pini, Daniela; Russo, Giulia; Milli, Massimo; De Maria, Renata; Di Tano, Giuseppe; Aspromonte, Nadia

    2015-02-01

    Advanced heart failure (HF) is a deadly condition. Fortunately, an increasing array of effective (but often expensive) therapies has become available. The management of patients with advanced HF is complex and requires a high level of expertise. The American Board of Internal Medicine was the first regulatory board to recognize the need for a subspecialty in Advanced HF and Transplant Cardiology. More recently, the HF Association of the European Society of Cardiology has proposed a curriculum for HF specialists that includes the optional module of advanced HF therapy. However, the successful completion of such a curriculum does not result in a European Certification in Heart Failure, because no European Board of Medicine does exist. While in some European countries the secondary specialty of HF has been implemented, no country has a subspecialty in advanced HF. The ANMCO HF Area has proposed a survey to 25 Italian centers with accredited programs for heart transplant or ventricular assist device implant as destination therapy with the aim to assess the actual need of a certification of clinical competence in advanced HF and a certification of institutional competence for the centers with the highest expertise in advanced HF management. The survey indicated that there is a perceived need. A first step towards education of advanced HF specialists could be the implementation of CME courses by Scientific Societies. As regards certification of institutional competence for the centers with the highest expertise in advanced HF management, the government appears to be the only entity that can grant it.

  11. Advances in Modeling Ventricular Arrhythmias: from Mechanisms to the Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Trayanova, Natalia A.; Boyle, Patrick M.

    2014-01-01

    Modern cardiovascular research has increasingly recognized that heart models and simulation can help interpret an array of experimental data and dissect important mechanisms and interrelationships, with developments rooted in the iterative interaction between modeling and experimentation. This article reviews the progress made in simulating cardiac electrical behavior at the level of the organ and, specifically, in the development of models of ventricular arrhythmias and fibrillation, as well as their termination (defibrillation). The ability to construct multi-scale models of ventricular arrhythmias, representing integrative behavior from the molecule to the entire organ, has enabled mechanistic inquiry into the dynamics of ventricular arrhythmias in the diseased myocardium, in understanding drug-induced pro-arrhythmia, and in the development of new modalities for defibrillation, to name a few. In this article we also review the initial use of ventricular models of arrhythmia in personalized diagnosis, treatment planning, and prevention of sudden cardiac death. Implementing individualized cardiac simulations at the patient bedside is poised to become one of the most thrilling examples of computational science and engineering approaches in translational medicine. PMID:24375958

  12. NASA Advanced Life Support Technology Testing and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2012-01-01

    Prior to 2010, NASA's advanced life support research and development was carried out primarily under the Exploration Life Support Project of NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate. In 2011, the Exploration Life Support Project was merged with other projects covering Fire Prevention/Suppression, Radiation Protection, Advanced Environmental Monitoring and Control, and Thermal Control Systems. This consolidated project was called Life Support and Habitation Systems, which was managed under the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate. In 2012, NASA re-organized major directorates within the agency, which eliminated the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate and created the Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT). Life support research and development is currently conducted within the Office of the Chief Technologist, under the Next Generation Life Support Project, and within the Human Exploration Operation Missions Directorate under several Advanced Exploration System projects. These Advanced Exploration Systems projects include various themes of life support technology testing, including atmospheric management, water management, logistics and waste management, and habitation systems. Food crop testing is currently conducted as part of the Deep Space Habitation (DSH) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems Program. This testing is focused on growing salad crops that could supplement the crew's diet during near term missions.

  13. The committee for advanced therapies' of the European Medicines Agency reflection paper on management of clinical risks deriving from insertional mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Aiuti, Alessandro; Cossu, Giulio; de Felipe, Pablo; Galli, Maria Cristina; Narayanan, Gopalan; Renner, Matthias; Stahlbom, Axel; Schneider, Christian K; Voltz-Girolt, Caroline

    2013-06-01

    In the European Union, the Committee for Advanced Therapies of the European Medicines Agency takes the lead in the scientific assessment for marketing authorization applications for advanced therapy medicinal products, which include gene therapy medicinal products, somatic cell therapy medicinal products, and tissue-engineered products. The Committee for Advanced Therapies also takes the lead in defining the scientific framework for the quality, nonclinical and clinical development of such products. This reflection paper represents the Committee's current thinking on management of clinical risks deriving from insertional mutagenesis. A multidisciplinary approach to insertional mutagenesis is provided. This reflection paper has been adopted by the committee in its April 2013 meeting.

  14. Advanced diesel engine component development program, tasks 4-14

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushal, Tony S.; Weber, Karen E.

    1994-11-01

    This report summarizes the Advanced Diesel Engine Component Development (ADECD) Program to develop and demonstrate critical technology needed to advance the heavy-duty low heat rejection engine concept. Major development activities reported are the design, analysis, and fabrication of monolithic ceramic components; vapor phase and solid film lubrication; electrohydraulic valve actuation; and high pressure common rail injection. An advanced single cylinder test bed was fabricated as a laboratory tool in studying these advanced technologies. This test bed simulates the reciprocator for a system having no cooling system, turbo compounding, Rankine bottoming cycle, common rail injection, and variable valve actuation to achieve fuel consumption of 160 g/kW-hr (.26 lb/hp-hr). The advanced concepts were successfully integrated into the test engine. All ceramic components met their functional and reliability requirements. The firedeck, cast-in-place ports, valves, valve guides, piston cap, and piston ring were made from silicon nitride. Breakthroughs required to implement a 'ceramic' engine included the fabrication of air-gap cylinder heads, elimination of compression gaskets, machining of ceramic valve seats within the ceramic firedeck, fabrication of cast-in-place ceramic port liners, implementation of vapor phase lubrication, and elimination of the engine coolant system. Silicon nitride valves were successfully developed to meet several production abuse test requirements and incorporated into the test bed with a ceramic valve guide and solid film lubrication. The ADECD cylinder head features ceramic port shields to increase insulation and exhaust energy recovery. The combustion chamber includes a ceramic firedeck and piston cap. The tribological challenge posed by top ring reversal temperatures of 550 C was met through the development of vapor phase lubrication using tricresyl phosphate at the ring-liner interface. A solenoid-controlled, variable valve actuation system

  15. Advanced diesel engine component development program, tasks 4-14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaushal, Tony S.; Weber, Karen E.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the Advanced Diesel Engine Component Development (ADECD) Program to develop and demonstrate critical technology needed to advance the heavy-duty low heat rejection engine concept. Major development activities reported are the design, analysis, and fabrication of monolithic ceramic components; vapor phase and solid film lubrication; electrohydraulic valve actuation; and high pressure common rail injection. An advanced single cylinder test bed was fabricated as a laboratory tool in studying these advanced technologies. This test bed simulates the reciprocator for a system having no cooling system, turbo compounding, Rankine bottoming cycle, common rail injection, and variable valve actuation to achieve fuel consumption of 160 g/kW-hr (.26 lb/hp-hr). The advanced concepts were successfully integrated into the test engine. All ceramic components met their functional and reliability requirements. The firedeck, cast-in-place ports, valves, valve guides, piston cap, and piston ring were made from silicon nitride. Breakthroughs required to implement a 'ceramic' engine included the fabrication of air-gap cylinder heads, elimination of compression gaskets, machining of ceramic valve seats within the ceramic firedeck, fabrication of cast-in-place ceramic port liners, implementation of vapor phase lubrication, and elimination of the engine coolant system. Silicon nitride valves were successfully developed to meet several production abuse test requirements and incorporated into the test bed with a ceramic valve guide and solid film lubrication. The ADECD cylinder head features ceramic port shields to increase insulation and exhaust energy recovery. The combustion chamber includes a ceramic firedeck and piston cap. The tribological challenge posed by top ring reversal temperatures of 550 C was met through the development of vapor phase lubrication using tricresyl phosphate at the ring-liner interface. A solenoid-controlled, variable valve actuation system

  16. JPL basic research review. [research and advanced development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Current status, projected goals, and results of 49 research and advanced development programs at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory are reported in abstract form. Areas of investigation include: aerodynamics and fluid mechanics, applied mathematics and computer sciences, environment protection, materials science, propulsion, electric and solar power, guidance and navigation, communication and information sciences, general physics, and chemistry.

  17. Advanced thermal barrier coating system development: Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-07

    Objectives are to provide an improved TBC system with increased temperature capability and improved reliability, for the Advanced Turbine Systems program (gas turbine). The base program consists of three phases: Phase I, program planning (complete); Phase II, development; and Phase III (selected specimen-bench test). Work is currently being performed in Phase II.

  18. DOE/NREL Advanced Wind Turbine Development Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butterfield, C. P.; Smith, B.; Laxson, A.; Thresher, B.; Goldman, P.

    1993-05-01

    The development of technologically advanced, high-efficiency wind turbines continues to be a high-priority activity of the US wind industry. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (formerly the Solar Energy Research Institute), sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated the Advanced Wind Turbine Program to assist the wind industry in the development of a new class of advanced wind turbines. The initial phase of the program focused on developing conceptual designs for near-term and advanced turbines. The goal of the second phase of this program is to use the experience gained over the last decade of turbine design and operation combined with the latest existing design tools to develop a turbine that will produce energy at $0.05 per kilowatt-hour (kWh) in a 5.8-m/s (13-mph) wind site. Three contracts have been awarded, and two more are under negotiation in the second phase. The third phase of the program will use new innovations and state-of-the-art wind turbine design technology to produce a turbine that will generate energy at $0.04/kWh in a 5.8-m/s wind site. Details of the third phase will be announced in early 1993.

  19. Engineering development of advanced froth flotation. Volume 2, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ferris, D.D.; Bencho, J.R.; Torak, E.R.

    1995-03-01

    This report is an account of findings related to the Engineering and Development of Advanced Froth Flotation project. The results from benchscale and proof-of-concept (POC) level testing are presented and the important results from this testing are used to refine a conceptual design and cost estimate for a 20 TPH Semi-Works Facility incorporating the final proposed technology.

  20. Industrialization and Economic Development in Advanced Placement Human Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Adrian J.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the industrialization and economic development section of the Advanced Placement (AP) human geography course, addressing four specific aspects: (1) the character of industrialization; (2) spatial aspects of the rise of industrial economies; (3) contemporary global patterns of industrialization and resource extraction; and (4) impacts of…

  1. Advanced software development workstation. OOPSLA 1992 Conference. Trip report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izygon, Michel E.

    1992-01-01

    This report summarizes the main trends observed at the Object Oriented Programming Systems, Languages, and Applications Conference held in Vancouver, British Columbia. This conference is the main object-oriented event that allows us to assess the dynamism of the technology and to meet the main actors of the field. It is an invaluable source of information for the advanced software development project.

  2. CROSSCUTTING TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT AT THE CENTER FOR ADVANCED SEPARATION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher E. Hull

    2005-11-04

    This Technical Progress Report describes progress made on the twenty nine subprojects awarded in the second year of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT41607: Crosscutting Technology Development at the Center for Advanced Separation Technologies. This work is summarized in the body of the main report: the individual sub-project Technical Progress Reports are attached as Appendices.

  3. CROSSCUTTING TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT AT THE CENTER FOR ADVANCED SEPARATION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher E. Hull

    2006-05-15

    This Technical Progress Report describes progress made on the twenty nine subprojects awarded in the second year of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT41607: Crosscutting Technology Development at the Center for Advanced Separation Technologies. This work is summarized in the body of the main report: the individual sub-project Technical Progress Reports are attached as Appendices.

  4. Crosscutting Technology Development at the Center for Advanced Separation Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher E. Hull

    2006-09-30

    This Technical Progress Report describes progress made on the twenty nine subprojects awarded in the second year of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT41607: Crosscutting Technology Development at the Center for Advanced Separation Technologies. This work is summarized in the body of the main report: the individual sub-project Technical Progress Reports are attached as Appendices.

  5. Advances in developing alternative treatments for postharvest pest control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    USDA-ARS made two significant advances in the last 10 years in the development of alternative treatments for postharvest pest control: oxygenated phosphine fumigation and nitric oxide fumigation. Oxygenated phosphine is phosphine fumigation in an oxygen enriched atmosphere. It is significantly more...

  6. Advancing understanding of executive function impairments and psychopathology: bridging the gap between clinical and cognitive approaches

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Hannah R.; Miyake, Akira; Hankin, Benjamin L.

    2015-01-01

    Executive function (EF) is essential for successfully navigating nearly all of our daily activities. Of critical importance for clinical psychological science, EF impairments are associated with most forms of psychopathology. However, despite the proliferation of research on EF in clinical populations, with notable exceptions clinical and cognitive approaches to EF have remained largely independent, leading to failures to apply theoretical and methodological advances in one field to the other field and hindering progress. First, we review the current state of knowledge of EF impairments associated with psychopathology and limitations to the previous research in light of recent advances in understanding and measuring EF. Next, we offer concrete suggestions for improving EF assessment. Last, we suggest future directions, including integrating modern models of EF with state of the art, hierarchical models of dimensional psychopathology as well as translational implications of EF-informed research on clinical science. PMID:25859234

  7. Pharmacogenomics in clinical practice and drug development

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Andrew R; Topol, Eric J

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of responses to drugs, including clopidogrel, pegylated-interferon and carbamazepine, have led to the identification of specific patient subgroups that benefit from therapy. However, the identification and replication of common sequence variants that are associated with either efficacy or safety for most prescription medications at odds ratios (ORs) >3.0 (equivalent to >300% increased efficacy or safety) has yet to be translated to clinical practice. Although some of the studies have been completed, the results have not been incorporated into therapy, and a large number of commonly used medications have not been subject to proper pharmacogenomic analysis. Adoption of GWAS, exome or whole genome sequencing by drug development and treatment programs is the most striking near-term opportunity for improving the drug candidate pipeline and boosting the efficacy of medications already in use. PMID:23138311

  8. Current clinical advances and future perspectives in the psychiatry/mental health field of Latin America.

    PubMed

    Cía, Alfredo H; Rojas, Rodrigo Córdoba; Adad, Miguel Abib

    2010-01-01

    The history of Mental Health in Latin America is relatively young. It dates back to the mid nineteenth century and widely developed during the twentieth century, with formidable scientific, social, political, and ethical challenges. Latin American psychiatry has contributed in the fields of epidemiology, phenomenology, social psychiatry, psychiatric and epistemological research, and clinical genetics as well. More recent advances can also be seen in clinical psychotherapy and psychopharmacology. Now, there is a formal and informal recognition of various areas of expertise, such as children and adolescents, addictions, anxiety disorders, among others. However, we need to solve the health problems resulting from mental illnesses as well as the disorders related to the social, environmental, political, and economic factors of a continent marked by the precariousness of underdevelopment, which have a high impact on population health. Therefore, considering and trying to minimize the impact of those factors, contributing to the destigmatization of mental illnesses and their consequences, together with the growing number of non-governmental organizations (NGOs), human rights defenders, public figures, etc., and collaborating in building a society that guarantees the right to mental health and adequate treatment and rehabilitation are part of our present challenges in Latin America.

  9. Translation and Clinical Development of Antithrombotic Aptamers.

    PubMed

    Nimjee, Shahid M; Povsic, Thomas J; Sullenger, Bruce A; Becker, Richard C

    2016-06-01

    Thrombosis is a necessary physiological process to protect the body from uncontrolled bleeding. Pathological thrombus formation can lead to devastating clinical events including heart attack, stroke, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Numerous drugs have been developed to inhibit thrombosis. These have been targeted to coagulation factors along with proteins and receptors that activate platelets. While these drugs are effective at preventing blood clotting, their major side effect is inadvertent hemorrhage that can result in significant morbidity and mortality. There exists a need for anticoagulants that are not only effective at preventing thrombosis but can also be readily reversed. Aptamers offer a potential solution, representing a new class of drug agents that can be isolated to any protein and where antidote oligonucleotides can be designed based on the sequence of the aptamer. We present a summary of the anticoagulant and antithrombotic aptamers that have been identified and their stage of development and comment on the future of aptamer-based drug development to treat thrombosis. PMID:26882082

  10. Advanced Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) Reactor and Process Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.; Hadley, Neal M.; Dahl, Roger W.; Abney, Morgan B.; Greenwood, Zachary; Miller, Lee; Medlen, Amber

    2012-01-01

    Design and development of a second generation Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) reactor is currently underway as part of NASA's Atmosphere Revitalization Resource Recovery effort. By recovering up to 75% of the hydrogen currently lost as methane in the Sabatier reactor effluent, the PPA helps to minimize life support resupply costs for extended duration missions. To date, second generation PPA development has demonstrated significant technology advancements over the first generation device by doubling the methane processing rate while, at the same time, more than halving the required power. One development area of particular interest to NASA system engineers is fouling of the PPA reactor with carbonaceous products. As a mitigation plan, NASA MSFC has explored the feasibility of using an oxidative plasma based upon metabolic CO2 to regenerate the reactor window and gas inlet ports. The results and implications of this testing are addressed along with the advanced PPA reactor development.

  11. Advanced helmet tracking technology developments for naval aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brindle, James H.

    1996-06-01

    There is a critical need across the Services to improve the effectiveness of aircrew within the crewstation by capitalizing on the natural psycho-motor skills of the pilot through the use of a variety of helmet-mounted visual display and control techniques. This has resulted in considerable interest and significant ongoing research and development efforts on the part of the Navy, as well as the Army and the Air Force, in the technology building blocks associated with this area, such as advanced head position sensing or head tracking technologies, helmet- mounted display optics and electronics, and advanced night vision or image intensification technologies.

  12. What clinical activities do advanced-practice registered dietitian nutritionists perform? Results of a Delphi study.

    PubMed

    Brody, Rebecca A; Byham-Gray, Laura; Touger-Decker, Riva; Passannante, Marian R; Rothpletz Puglia, Pamela; O'Sullivan Maillet, Julie

    2014-05-01

    Activities performed by advanced-practice registered dietitian nutritionists (RDNs) have yet to be clearly elucidated. The study aimed to gain consensus on the practice activities of advanced-practice RDNs who provide direct clinical nutrition care. A three-round Delphi study was conducted. Purposive sampling identified 117 RDN experts working as clinicians and/or managers in direct care settings that met inclusion criteria for advanced-level practice. In Round 1, 85 experts provided open-ended advanced-level practice activities linked to the Nutrition Care Process sections. Using content analysis, the responses were coded into activity statements. In Round 2, experts rated the essentiality of these activities. In Round 3, experts re-rated statements not reaching consensus while viewing their previous rating, the group median, and comments. Median ratings of 1.0 to 3.0 were defined as essential, 4.0 were neither essential nor nonessential, and 5.0 to 7.0 were nonessential. Consensus was reached when the interquartile range of responses to each question was <2.0. Seventy-six (89.4%) experts completed all rounds. From 770 comments, 129 activity statements were generated. All statements reached consensus: 97.7% as essential; 0.8% as nonessential; and 1.5% as neither. Of essential activities, 67.5% were highly essential with limited variability (median=1.0; interquartile range≤2.0). Advanced-practice RDNs' tasks are patient-centered and reflect complex care; involve a comprehensive and discriminating approach; are grounded in advanced knowledge and expertise in clinical nutrition; include use of advanced interviewing, education, and counseling strategies; and require communication with patient, families, and the health care team. The high-level of consensus from experts suggest advanced-level clinical nutrition practice exists and can be defined.

  13. The National Launch System Advanced Development Program: A brief overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Battenburg, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    A broad-based Advanced Development Program is being conducted to modernize the technological base and support the systems design of the National Launch System. While the principal concentration of efforts has been in propulsion, significant work is being accomplished in all of the disciplinary areas associated with space launch. Tasks are selected that offer reduced costs, increased reliability, and enhanced operability with anticipated task completion times which are consistent with NLS development.

  14. Developing a Critical Practice of Clinical Supervision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyth, W. John

    1985-01-01

    The etymology of the term "clinical supervision" is discussed. How clinical supervision can be used with teachers as an active force toward reform and change is then examined. Through clinical supervision teachers can assist each other to gain control over their own professional lives and destinies. (RM)

  15. Clinical and experimental advances in congenital and paediatric cataracts

    PubMed Central

    Churchill, Amanda; Graw, Jochen

    2011-01-01

    Cataracts (opacities of the lens) are frequent in the elderly, but rare in paediatric practice. Congenital cataracts (in industrialized countries) are mainly caused by mutations affecting lens development. Much of our knowledge about the underlying mechanisms of cataractogenesis has come from the genetic analysis of affected families: there are contributions from genes coding for transcription factors (such as FoxE3, Maf, Pitx3) and structural proteins such as crystallins or connexins. In addition, there are contributions from enzymes affecting sugar pathways (particularly the galactose pathway) and from a quite unexpected area: axon guidance molecules like ephrins and their receptors. Cataractous mouse lenses can be identified easily by visual inspection, and a remarkable number of mutant lines have now been characterized. Generally, most of the mouse mutants show a similar phenotype to their human counterparts; however, there are some remarkable differences. It should be noted that many mutations affect genes that are expressed not only in the lens, but also in tissues and organs outside the eye. There is increasing evidence for pleiotropic effects of these genes, and increasing consideration that cataracts may act as early and readily detectable biomarkers for a number of systemic syndromes. PMID:21402583

  16. Advanced High-Level Waste Glass Research and Development Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Peeler, David K.; Vienna, John D.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Fox, Kevin M.

    2015-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection (ORP) has implemented an integrated program to increase the loading of Hanford tank wastes in glass while meeting melter lifetime expectancies and process, regulatory, and product quality requirements. The integrated ORP program is focused on providing a technical, science-based foundation from which key decisions can be made regarding the successful operation of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) facilities. The fundamental data stemming from this program will support development of advanced glass formulations, key process control models, and tactical processing strategies to ensure safe and successful operations for both the low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste (HLW) vitrification facilities with an appreciation toward reducing overall mission life. The purpose of this advanced HLW glass research and development plan is to identify the near-, mid-, and longer-term research and development activities required to develop and validate advanced HLW glasses and their associated models to support facility operations at WTP, including both direct feed and full pretreatment flowsheets. This plan also integrates technical support of facility operations and waste qualification activities to show the interdependence of these activities with the advanced waste glass (AWG) program to support the full WTP mission. Figure ES-1 shows these key ORP programmatic activities and their interfaces with both WTP facility operations and qualification needs. The plan is a living document that will be updated to reflect key advancements and mission strategy changes. The research outlined here is motivated by the potential for substantial economic benefits (e.g., significant increases in waste throughput and reductions in glass volumes) that will be realized when advancements in glass formulation continue and models supporting facility operations are implemented. Developing and applying advanced

  17. Advanced Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology Research and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Wayne A.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology program is developing next generation power conversion technologies that will enable future missions that have requirements that cannot be met by either the ubiquitous photovoltaic systems or by current Radioisotope Power System (RPS) technology. Performance goals of advanced radioisotope power systems include improvement over the state-of-practice General Purpose Heat Source/Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator by providing significantly higher efficiency to reduce the number of radioisotope fuel modules, and increase specific power (watts/kilogram). Other Advanced RPS goals include safety, long-life, reliability, scalability, multi-mission capability, resistance to radiation, and minimal interference with the scientific payload. NASA has awarded ten contracts in the technology areas of Brayton, Stirling, Thermoelectric, and Thermophotovoltaic power conversion including five development contracts that deal with more mature technologies and five research contracts. The Advanced RPS Systems Assessment Team includes members from NASA GRC, JPL, DOE and Orbital Sciences whose function is to review the technologies being developed under the ten Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology contracts and assess their relevance to NASA's future missions. Presented is an overview of the ten radioisotope power conversion technology contracts and NASA's Advanced RPS Systems Assessment Team.

  18. Materials and Component Development for Advanced Turbine Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Alvin, M.A.; Pettit, F.; Meier, G.; Yanar, N.; Chyu, M.; Mazzotta, D.; Slaughter, W.; Karaivanov, V.; Kang, B.; Feng, C.; Chen, R.; Fu, T-C.

    2008-10-01

    In order to meet the 2010-2020 DOE Fossil Energy goals for Advanced Power Systems, future oxy-fuel and hydrogen-fired turbines will need to be operated at higher temperatures for extended periods of time, in environments that contain substantially higher moisture concentrations in comparison to current commercial natural gas-fired turbines. Development of modified or advanced material systems, combined with aerothermal concepts are currently being addressed in order to achieve successful operation of these land-based engines. To support the advanced turbine technology development, the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has initiated a research program effort in collaboration with the University of Pittsburgh (UPitt), and West Virginia University (WVU), working in conjunction with commercial material and coating suppliers as Howmet International and Coatings for Industry (CFI), and test facilities as Westinghouse Plasma Corporation (WPC) and Praxair, to develop advanced material and aerothermal technologies for use in future oxy-fuel and hydrogen-fired turbine applications. Our program efforts and recent results are presented.

  19. Advanced CO2 removal process control and monitor instrumentation development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heppner, D. B.; Dalhausen, M. J.; Klimes, R.

    1982-01-01

    A progam to evaluate, design and demonstrate major advances in control and monitor instrumentation was undertaken. A carbon dioxide removal process, one whose maturity level makes it a prime candidate for early flight demonstration was investigated. The instrumentation design incorporates features which are compatible with anticipated flight requirements. Current electronics technology and projected advances are included. In addition, the program established commonality of components for all advanced life support subsystems. It was concluded from the studies and design activities conducted under this program that the next generation of instrumentation will be greatly smaller than the prior one. Not only physical size but weight, power and heat rejection requirements were reduced in the range of 80 to 85% from the former level of research and development instrumentation. Using a microprocessor based computer, a standard computer bus structure and nonvolatile memory, improved fabrication techniques and aerospace packaging this instrumentation will greatly enhance overall reliability and total system availability.

  20. Development of an advanced photovoltaic concentrator system for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piszczor, Michael F., Jr.; O'Neill, Mark J.

    1987-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that significant increases in system performance (increased efficiency and reduced system mass) are possible for high power space based systems by incorporating technological developments with photovoltaic power systems. The Advanced Photovoltaic Concentrator Program is an effort to take advantage of recent advancements in refractive optical elements. By using a domed Fresnel lens concentrator and a prismatic cell cover, to eliminate metallization losses, dramatic reductions in the required area and mass over current space photovoltaic systems are possible. The advanced concentrator concept also has significant advantages when compared to solar dynamic Organic Rankine Cycle power systems in Low Earth Orbit applications where energy storage is required. The program is currently involved in the selection of a material for the optical element that will survive the space environment and a demonstration of the system performance of the panel design.

  1. NASA Advanced Refrigerator/Freezer Technology Development Project Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairelli, J. E.

    1995-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) has recently initiated a three-year project to develop the advanced refrigerator/freezer (R/F) technologies needed to support future life and biomedical sciences space experiments. Refrigerator/freezer laboratory equipment, most of which needs to be developed, is enabling to about 75 percent of the planned space station life and biomedical science experiments. These experiments will require five different classes of equipment; three storage freezers operating at -20 C, -70 C and less than 183 C, a -70 C freeze-dryer, and a cryogenic (less than 183 C) quick/snap freezer. This project is in response to a survey of cooling system technologies, performed by a team of NASA scientists and engineers. The team found that the technologies, required for future R/F systems to support life and biomedical sciences spaceflight experiments, do not exist at an adequate state of development and concluded that a program to develop the advanced R/F technologies is needed. Limitations on spaceflight system size, mass, and power consumption present a significant challenge in developing these systems. This paper presents some background and a description of the Advanced R/F Technology Development Project, project approach and schedule, general description of the R/F systems, and a review of the major R/F equipment requirements.

  2. Development in Diagnostics Application to Control Advanced Tokamak Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Koide, Y.

    2008-03-12

    For continuous operation expected in DEMO, all the plasma current must be non-inductively driven, with self-generated neoclassical bootstrap current being maximized. The control of such steady state high performance tokamak plasma (so-called 'Advanced Tokamak Plasma') is a challenge because of the strong coupling between the current density, the pressure profile and MHD stability. In considering diagnostic needs for the advanced tokamak research, diagnostics for MHD are the most fundamental, since discharges which violate the MHD stability criteria either disrupt or have significantly reduced confinement. This report deals with the development in diagnostic application to control advanced tokamak plasma, with emphasized on recent progress in active feedback control of the current profile and the pressure profile under DEMO-relevant high bootstrap-current fraction. In addition, issues in application of the present-day actuators and diagnostics for the advanced control to DEMO will be briefly addressed, where port space for the advanced control may be limited so as to keep sufficient tritium breeding ratio (TBR)

  3. SAR analysis of new anti-TB drugs currently in pre-clinical and clinical development.

    PubMed

    Poce, Giovanna; Cocozza, Martina; Consalvi, Sara; Biava, Mariangela

    2014-10-30

    Despite enormous efforts have been made in the hunt for new drugs, tuberculosis (TB) still remains the first bacterial cause of mortality worldwide, causing an estimated 8.6 million new cases and 1.3 million deaths in 2012. Multi-drug resistant-TB strains no longer respond to first-line drugs and are inexorably spreading with an estimated 650,000 cases as well as extensively-drug resistant-TB strains, which are resistant to any fluoroquinolone and at least one of the second-line drugs, with 60,000 cases. Thus the discovery and development of new medicines is a major keystone for tuberculosis treatment and control. After decades of dormancy in the field of TB drug development, recent efforts from various groups have generated a promising TB drug pipeline. Several new therapeutic agents are concurrently studied in clinical trials together with much activity in the hittolead and lead optimization stages. In this article we will review the recent advances in TB drug discovery with a special focus on structure activity relationship studies of the most advanced compound classes. PMID:25173852

  4. Thermal Protection System (Heat Shield) Development - Advanced Development Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowal, T. John

    2010-01-01

    The Orion Thermal Protection System (TPS) ADP was a 3 1/2 year effort to develop ablative TPS materials for the Orion crew capsule. The ADP was motivated by the lack of available ablative TPS's. The TPS ADP pursued a competitive phased development strategy with succeeding rounds of development, testing and down selections. The Project raised the technology readiness level (TRL) of 8 different TPS materials from 5 different commercial vendors, eventual down selecting to a single material system for the Orion heat shield. In addition to providing a heat shield material and design for Orion on time and on budget, the Project accomplished the following: 1) Re-invigorated TPS industry & re-established a NASA competency to respond to future TPS needs; 2) Identified a potentially catastrophic problem with the planned MSL heat shield, and provided a viable, high TRL alternate heat shield design option; and 3) Transferred mature heat shield material and design options to the commercial space industry, including TPS technology information for the SpaceX Dragon capsule.

  5. Advances in circulating tumor cells (ACTC): from basic research to clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The first 'Advances in Circulating Tumor Cells (ACTC): from Basic Research to Clinical Practice' meeting was held in Athens, Greece, September 26–29, 2012 (abstracts, presentations and a more detailed meeting report are freely available online: http://www.actc2012.org). We summarize in this report most major findings presented and the main conclusions derived during the expert panel sessions. PMID:24314311

  6. Systematic genomic identification of colorectal cancer genes delineating advanced from early clinical stage and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States. The initial assessment of colorectal cancer involves clinical staging that takes into account the extent of primary tumor invasion, determining the number of lymph nodes with metastatic cancer and the identification of metastatic sites in other organs. Advanced clinical stage indicates metastatic cancer, either in regional lymph nodes or in distant organs. While the genomic and genetic basis of colorectal cancer has been elucidated to some degree, less is known about the identity of specific cancer genes that are associated with advanced clinical stage and metastasis. Methods We compiled multiple genomic data types (mutations, copy number alterations, gene expression and methylation status) as well as clinical meta-data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We used an elastic-net regularized regression method on the combined genomic data to identify genetic aberrations and their associated cancer genes that are indicators of clinical stage. We ranked candidate genes by their regression coefficient and level of support from multiple assay modalities. Results A fit of the elastic-net regularized regression to 197 samples and integrated analysis of four genomic platforms identified the set of top gene predictors of advanced clinical stage, including: WRN, SYK, DDX5 and ADRA2C. These genetic features were identified robustly in bootstrap resampling analysis. Conclusions We conducted an analysis integrating multiple genomic features including mutations, copy number alterations, gene expression and methylation. This integrated approach in which one considers all of these genomic features performs better than any individual genomic assay. We identified multiple genes that robustly delineate advanced clinical stage, suggesting their possible role in colorectal cancer metastatic progression. PMID:24308539

  7. Architectural development of an advanced EVA Electronic System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavelle, Joseph

    1992-01-01

    An advanced electronic system for future EVA missions (including zero gravity, the lunar surface, and the surface of Mars) is under research and development within the Advanced Life Support Division at NASA Ames Research Center. As a first step in the development, an optimum system architecture has been derived from an analysis of the projected requirements for these missions. The open, modular architecture centers around a distributed multiprocessing concept where the major subsystems independently process their own I/O functions and communicate over a common bus. Supervision and coordination of the subsystems is handled by an embedded real-time operating system kernel employing multitasking software techniques. A discussion of how the architecture most efficiently meets the electronic system functional requirements, maximizes flexibility for future development and mission applications, and enhances the reliability and serviceability of the system in these remote, hostile environments is included.

  8. Advanced Refrigerator/Freezer Technology Development. Technology Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaseor, Thomas; Hunter, Rick; Hamill, Doris

    1996-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center, through contract with Oceaneering Space Systems, is engaged in a project to develop advanced refrigerator/freezer (R/F) technologies for future Life and Biomedical Sciences space flight missions. The first phase of this project, a technology assessment, has been completed to identify the advanced R/F technologies needed and best suited to meet the requirements for the five R/F classifications specified by Life and Biomedical Science researchers. Additional objectives of the technology assessment were to rank those technologies based on benefit and risk, and to recommend technology development activities that can be accomplished within this project. This report presents the basis, the methodology, and results of the R/F technology assessment, along with technology development recommendations.

  9. Renewable Energy Laboratory Development for Biofuels Advanced Combustion Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Soloiu, Valentin A.

    2012-03-31

    The research advanced fundamental science and applied engineering for increasing the efficiency of internal combustion engines and meeting emissions regulations with biofuels. The project developed a laboratory with new experiments and allowed investigation of new fuels and their combustion and emissions. This project supports a sustainable domestic biofuels and automotive industry creating economic opportunities across the nation, reducing the dependence on foreign oil, and enhancing U.S. energy security. The one year period of research developed fundamental knowledge and applied technology in advanced combustion, emissions and biofuels formulation to increase vehicle's efficiency. Biofuels combustion was investigated in a Compression Ignition Direct Injection (DI) to develop idling strategies with biofuels and an Indirect Diesel Injection (IDI) intended for auxiliary power unit.

  10. Foundational development of an advanced nuclear reactor integrated safety code.

    SciTech Connect

    Clarno, Kevin; Lorber, Alfred Abraham; Pryor, Richard J.; Spotz, William F.; Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Belcourt, Kenneth; Hooper, Russell Warren; Humphries, Larry LaRon

    2010-02-01

    This report describes the activities and results of a Sandia LDRD project whose objective was to develop and demonstrate foundational aspects of a next-generation nuclear reactor safety code that leverages advanced computational technology. The project scope was directed towards the systems-level modeling and simulation of an advanced, sodium cooled fast reactor, but the approach developed has a more general applicability. The major accomplishments of the LDRD are centered around the following two activities. (1) The development and testing of LIME, a Lightweight Integrating Multi-physics Environment for coupling codes that is designed to enable both 'legacy' and 'new' physics codes to be combined and strongly coupled using advanced nonlinear solution methods. (2) The development and initial demonstration of BRISC, a prototype next-generation nuclear reactor integrated safety code. BRISC leverages LIME to tightly couple the physics models in several different codes (written in a variety of languages) into one integrated package for simulating accident scenarios in a liquid sodium cooled 'burner' nuclear reactor. Other activities and accomplishments of the LDRD include (a) further development, application and demonstration of the 'non-linear elimination' strategy to enable physics codes that do not provide residuals to be incorporated into LIME, (b) significant extensions of the RIO CFD code capabilities, (c) complex 3D solid modeling and meshing of major fast reactor components and regions, and (d) an approach for multi-physics coupling across non-conformal mesh interfaces.

  11. Advanced Electrical Materials and Components Development: An Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarze, Gene E.

    2005-01-01

    The primary means to develop advanced electrical components is to develop new and improved materials for magnetic components (transformers, inductors, etc.), capacitors, and semiconductor switches and diodes. This paper will give an update of the Advanced Power Electronics and Components Technology being developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center for use in future Power Management and Distribution subsystems used in space power systems for spacecraft and lunar and planetary surface power. The initial description and status of this technology program was presented two years ago at the First International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference held at Portsmouth, Virginia, August 2003. The present paper will give a brief background of the previous work reported and a summary of research performed the past several years on soft magnetic materials characterization, dielectric materials and capacitor developments, high quality silicon carbide atomically smooth substrates, and SiC static and dynamic device characterization under elevated temperature conditions. The rationale for and the benefits of developing advanced electrical materials and components for the PMAD subsystem and also for the total power system will also be briefly discussed.

  12. Identifying components of advanced-level clinical nutrition practice: a Delphi study.

    PubMed

    Brody, Rebecca A; Byham-Gray, Laura; Touger-Decker, Riva; Passannante, Marian R; O'Sullivan Maillet, Julie

    2012-06-01

    The dietetics profession lacks a comprehensive definition of advanced-level practice. Using a three-round Delphi study with mailed surveys, expert consensus on four dimensions of advanced-level practice that define advanced practice registered dietitians (RDs) in clinical nutrition was explored. Purposive sampling identified 117 RDs who met advanced-level practice criteria. In round 1, experts rated the essentiality of statements on a 7-point ordinal scale and generated open-ended practice activity statements regarding the following four dimensions of advanced-level practice: professional knowledge, abilities and skills, approaches to practice, roles and relationships, and practice behaviors. Median ratings of 1.0 to 3.0 were defined as essential, 4.0 was neutral, and 5.0 to 7.0 were nonessential. In rounds 2 and 3, experts re-rated statements not reaching consensus by evaluating their previous responses, group median rating, and comments. Consensus was reached when the interquartile range of responses to a statement was ≤2.0. Eighty-five experts enrolled (72.6%); 76 (89.4%) completed all rounds. In total, 233 statements were rated, with 100% achieving consensus; 211 (90.6%) were essential to advanced practice RD clinical practice. Having a master's degree; completing an advanced practice residency; research coursework; and advanced continuing education were essential, as were having 8 years of experience; clinical nutrition knowledge/expertise; specialization; participation in research activities; and skills in technology and communication. Highly essential approaches to practice were systematic yet adaptable and used critical thinking and intuition and highly essential values encompassed professional growth and service to patients. Roles emphasized patient care and leadership. Essential practice activities within the nutrition care process included provision of complex patient-centered nutrition care using application of advanced knowledge/expertise and

  13. Silica suspension and coating developments for Advanced LIGO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cagnoli, G.; Armandula, H.; Cantley, C. A.; Crooks, D. R. M.; Cumming, A.; Elliffe, E.; Fejer, M. M.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Harry, G. M.; Heptonstall, A.; Hough, J.; Jones, R.; Mackowski, J.-M.; Martin, I.; Murray, P.; Penn, S. D.; Perreur-Lloyd, M.; Reid, S.; Route, R.; Rowan, S.; Robertson, N. A. A.; Sneddon, P. H.; Strain, K. A.

    2006-03-01

    The proposed upgrade to the LIGO detectors to form the Advanced LIGO detector system is intended to incorporate a low thermal noise monolithic fused silica final stage test mass suspension based on developments of the GEO 600 suspension design. This will include fused silica suspension elements jointed to fused silica test mass substrates, to which dielectric mirror coatings are applied. The silica fibres used for GEO 600 were pulled using a Hydrogen-Oxygen flame system. This successful system has some limitations, however, that needed to be overcome for the more demanding suspensions required for Advanced LIGO. To this end a fibre pulling machine based on a CO2 laser as the heating element is being developed in Glasgow with funding from EGO and PPARC. At the moment a significant limitation for proposed detectors like Advanced LIGO is expected to come from the thermal noise of the mirror coatings. An investigation on mechanical losses of silica/tantala coatings was carried out by several labs involved with Advanced LIGO R&D. Doping the tantala coating layer with titania was found to reduce the coating mechanical dissipation. A review of the results is given here.

  14. Integrating first-line treatment options into clinical practice: what's new in advanced melanoma?

    PubMed

    Dummer, Reinhard; Schadendorf, Dirk; Ascierto, Paolo A; Larkin, James; Lebbé, Celeste; Hauschild, Axel

    2015-12-01

    Melanoma remains a serious form of skin cancer in Europe and worldwide. Localized, early-stage melanomas can usually be treated with surgical excision. However, the prognosis is poorer for patients with advanced disease. Before 2011, treatment for advanced melanoma included palliative surgery and/or radiotherapy, and chemotherapy with or without immunotherapy, such as interleukin-2. As none of these treatments had shown survival benefits in patients with advanced melanoma, European guidelines had recommended that patients be entered into clinical trials. The lack of approved first-line options and varying access to clinical trials meant that European clinicians relied on experimental regimens and chemotherapy-based treatments when no other options were available. Since 2011, ipilimumab, an immuno-oncology therapy, and vemurafenib and dabrafenib, targeted agents that inhibit mutant BRAF, have been approved by the European Medicines Agency for the treatment of advanced melanoma. More recently, the MEK inhibitor, trametinib, received European marketing authorization for use in patients with BRAF mutation-positive advanced melanoma. In 2014, the anti-PD-1 antibody nivolumab was approved as a first-line therapy in Japan. Whereas nivolumab and another anti-PD-1 antibody, pembrolizumab, were approved as second-line therapies in the USA, their recent approval in Europe are for first-line use based on new clinical trial data in this setting. Together these agents are changing clinical practice and making therapeutic decisions more complex. Here, we discuss current and emerging therapeutic options for the first-line treatment of advanced melanoma, and how these therapies can be optimized to provide the best possible outcomes for patients. PMID:26426764

  15. Reflective journaling for clinical judgment development and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Lasater, Kathie; Nielsen, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Reflective journaling is a strategy used often in clinical education to gain insight into students' clinical thinking; however, studies indicate that students may benefit from guided reflections. Numerous tools have been used to structure student reflection with varying results. This article describes the outcomes from using the Guide for Reflection based on Tanner's Clinical Judgment Model. The Lasater Clinical Judgment Rubric, created from the Model, is used to evaluate development of clinical judgment and provides language to communicate about clinical thinking with students. Senior immersion course competencies, also developed with language from Tanner's Clinical Judgment Model,offer a comprehensive package that fosters students' clinical judgment development, faculty-student communication about clinical judgment, and evaluation of students' clinical thinking.

  16. The Clinical Impact of Recent Advances in LC-MS for Cancer Biomarker Discovery and Verification

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hui; Shi, Tujin; Qian, Weijun; Liu, Tao; Kagan, Jacob; Srivastava, Sudhir; Smith, Richard D.; Rodland, Karin D.; Camp, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Mass spectrometry-based proteomics has become an indispensable tool in biomedical research with broad applications ranging from fundamental biology, systems biology, and biomarker discovery. Recent advances in LC-MS have made it become a major technology in clinical applications, especially in cancer biomarker discovery and verification. To overcome the challenges associated with the analysis of clinical samples, such as extremely wide dynamic range of protein concentrations in biofluids and the need to perform high throughput and accurate quantification, significant efforts have been devoted to improve the overall performance of LC-MS bases clinical proteomics. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in LC-MS in the aspect of cancer biomarker discovery and quantification, and discuss its potentials, limitations, and future perspectives.

  17. Advancing Development and Greenhouse Gas Reductions in Vietnam's Wind Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Bilello, D.; Katz, J.; Esterly, S.; Ogonowski, M.

    2014-09-01

    Clean energy development is a key component of Vietnam's Green Growth Strategy, which establishes a target to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from domestic energy activities by 20-30 percent by 2030 relative to a business-as-usual scenario. Vietnam has significant wind energy resources, which, if developed, could help the country reach this target while providing ancillary economic, social, and environmental benefits. Given Vietnam's ambitious clean energy goals and the relatively nascent state of wind energy development in the country, this paper seeks to fulfill two primary objectives: to distill timely and useful information to provincial-level planners, analysts, and project developers as they evaluate opportunities to develop local wind resources; and, to provide insights to policymakers on how coordinated efforts may help advance large-scale wind development, deliver near-term GHG emission reductions, and promote national objectives in the context of a low emission development framework.

  18. Brain development in preterm infants assessed using advanced MRI techniques.

    PubMed

    Tusor, Nora; Arichi, Tomoki; Counsell, Serena J; Edwards, A David

    2014-03-01

    Infants who are born preterm have a high incidence of neurocognitive and neurobehavioral abnormalities, which may be associated with impaired brain development. Advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approaches, such as diffusion MRI (d-MRI) and functional MRI (fMRI), provide objective and reproducible measures of brain development. Indices derived from d-MRI can be used to provide quantitative measures of preterm brain injury. Although fMRI of the neonatal brain is currently a research tool, future studies combining d-MRI and fMRI have the potential to assess the structural and functional properties of the developing brain and its response to injury.

  19. Technology and development requirements for advanced coal conversion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A compendium of coal conversion process descriptions is presented. The SRS and MC data bases were utilized to provide information paticularly in the areas of existing process designs and process evaluations. Additional information requirements were established and arrangements were made to visit process developers, pilot plants, and process development units to obtain information that was not otherwise available. Plant designs, process descriptions and operating conditions, and performance characteristics were analyzed and requirements for further development identified and evaluated to determine the impact of these requirements on the process commercialization potential from the standpoint of economics and technical feasibility. A preliminary methodology was established for the comparative technical and economic assessment of advanced processes.

  20. Clinical management of advanced gastric cancer: The role of new molecular drugs

    PubMed Central

    De Vita, Ferdinando; Di Martino, Natale; Fabozzi, Alessio; Laterza, Maria Maddalena; Ventriglia, Jole; Savastano, Beatrice; Petrillo, Angelica; Gambardella, Valentina; Sforza, Vincenzo; Marano, Luigi; Auricchio, Annamaria; Galizia, Gennaro; Ciardiello, Fortunato; Orditura, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the fourth most common malignant neoplasm and the second leading cause of death for cancer in Western countries with more than 20000 new cases yearly diagnosed in the United States. Surgery represents the main approach for this disease but, notwithstanding the advances in surgical techniques, we observed a minimal improvement in terms of overall survival with a significant increasing of relapsing disease rates. Despite the development of new drugs has significantly improved the effectiveness of chemotherapy, the prognosis of patients with unresectable or metastatic gastric adenocarcinoma remains poor. Recently, several molecular target agents have been investigated; in particular, trastuzumab represents the first target molecule showing improvements in overall survival in human epithelial growth factor 2-positive gastric cancer patients. New molecules targeting vascular epithelial growth factor, mammalian target of rapamycin, and anti hepatocyte growth factor-c-Met pathway are also under investigation, with interesting results. Anyway, it seems necessary to select more accurately the population to treat with new agents by the identification of new biomarkers in order to optimize the results. In this paper we review the actual “scenario” of targeted treatments, also focusing on the new agents in development for gastric cancer and gastro-esophageal carcinoma, discussing their efficacy and potential applications in clinical practice. PMID:25356019

  1. Advancing medicine one research note at a time: the educational value in clinical case reports

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A case report—a brief written note that describes unique aspects of a clinical case—provides a significant function in medicine given its rapid, succinct, and educational contributions to scientific literature and clinical practice. Despite the growth of, and emphasis on, randomized clinical trials and evidenced-based medicine, case reports continue to provide novel and exceptional knowledge in medical education. The journal BMC Research Notes introduces a new “case reports” section to provide the busy clinician with a forum in which to document any authentic clinical case that provide educational value to current clinical practice. The aim is for this article type to be reviewed, wherever possible, by specialized Associate Editors for the journal, in order to provide rapid but thorough decision making. New ideas often garnered by and documented in case reports will support the advancement of medical science — one research note at a time. PMID:22697904

  2. Primary ciliary dyskinesia. Recent advances in diagnostics, genetics, and characterization of clinical disease.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Michael R; Daniels, Leigh Anne; Davis, Stephanie D; Zariwala, Maimoona A; Leigh, Margaret W

    2013-10-15

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a genetically heterogeneous recessive disorder of motile cilia that leads to oto-sino-pulmonary diseases and organ laterality defects in approximately 50% of cases. The estimated incidence of PCD is approximately 1 per 15,000 births, but the prevalence of PCD is difficult to determine, primarily because of limitations in diagnostic methods that focus on testing ciliary ultrastructure and function. Diagnostic capabilities have recently benefitted from (1) documentation of low nasal nitric oxide production in PCD and (2) discovery of biallelic mutations in multiple PCD-causing genes. The use of these complementary diagnostic approaches shows that at least 30% of patients with PCD have normal ciliary ultrastructure. More accurate identification of patients with PCD has also allowed definition of a strong clinical phenotype, which includes neonatal respiratory distress in >80% of cases, daily nasal congestion and wet cough starting soon after birth, and early development of recurrent/chronic middle-ear and sinus disease. Recent studies, using advanced imaging and pulmonary physiologic assessments, clearly demonstrate early onset of lung disease in PCD, with abnormal air flow mechanics by age 6-8 years that is similar to cystic fibrosis, and age-dependent onset of bronchiectasis. The treatment of PCD is not standardized, and there are no validated PCD-specific therapies. Most patients with PCD receive suboptimal management, which should include airway clearance, regular surveillance of pulmonary function and respiratory microbiology, and use of antibiotics targeted to pathogens. The PCD Foundation is developing a network of clinical centers, which should improve diagnosis and management of PCD.

  3. Development of Metal Matrix Composites for NASA's Advanced Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J.; Elam, S.

    2001-01-01

    The state-of-the-art development of several Metal Matrix Composites (MMC) for NASA's advanced propulsion systems will be presented. The goal is to provide an overview of NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center's on-going activities in MMC components for advanced liquid rocket engines such as the X-33 vehicle's Aerospike engine and X-34's Fastrac engine. The focus will be on lightweight, low cost, and environmental compatibility with oxygen and hydrogen of key MMC materials, within each of NASA's new propulsion application, that will provide a high payoff for NASA's Reusable Launch Vehicles and space access vehicles. In order to fabricate structures from MMC, effective joining methods must be developed to join MMC to the same or to different monolithic alloys. Therefore, a qualitative assessment of MMC's welding and joining techniques will be outlined.

  4. Advanced Life Support Research and Technology Development Metric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanford, A. J.

    2004-01-01

    The Metric is one of several measures employed by the NASA to assess the Agency s progress as mandated by the United States Congress and the Office of Management and Budget. Because any measure must have a reference point, whether explicitly defined or implied, the Metric is a comparison between a selected ALS Project life support system and an equivalently detailed life support system using technology from the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) for the International Space Station (ISS). This document provides the official calculation of the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Research and Technology Development Metric (the Metric) for Fiscal Year 2004. The values are primarily based on Systems Integration, Modeling, and Analysis (SIMA) Element approved software tools or reviewed and approved reference documents. For Fiscal Year 2004, the Advanced Life Support Research and Technology Development Metric value is 2.03 for an Orbiting Research Facility and 1.62 for an Independent Exploration Mission.

  5. Development of sensors for ceramic components in advanced propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, William H.; Cyr, M. A.; Strange, R. R.

    1994-01-01

    The 'Development of Sensors for Ceramics Components in Advanced Propulsion Systems' program was divided into two phases. The objectives of Phase 1 were to analyze, evaluate and recommend sensor concepts for the measurement of surface temperature, strain and heat flux on ceramic components for advanced propulsion systems. The results of this effort were previously published in NASA CR-182111. As a result of Phase 1, three approaches were recommended for further development: pyrometry, thin-film sensors, and thermographic phosphors. The objectives of Phase 2 were to fabricate and conduct laboratory demonstration tests of these systems. A summary report of the Phase 2 effort, together with conclusions and recommendations for each of the categories evaluated, has been submitted to NASA. Emittance tests were performed on six materials furnished by NASA Lewis Research Center. Measurements were made of various surfaces at high temperature using a Thermogage emissometer. This report describes the emittance test program and presents a summary of the results.

  6. Advanced Environmental Barrier Coatings Development for Si-Based Ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Choi, R. Sung; Robinson, Raymond C.; Lee, Kang N.; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.; Miller, Robert A.

    2005-01-01

    Advanced environmental barrier coating concepts based on multi-component HfO2 (ZrO2) and modified mullite systems are developed for monolithic Si3N4 and SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) applications. Comprehensive testing approaches were established using the water vapor cyclic furnace, high pressure burner rig and laser heat flux steam rig to evaluate the coating water vapor stability, cyclic durability, radiation and erosion resistance under simulated engine environments. Test results demonstrated the feasibility and durability of the environmental barrier coating systems for 2700 to 3000 F monolithic Si3N4 and SiC/SiC CMC component applications. The high-temperature-capable environmental barrier coating systems are being further developed and optimized in collaboration with engine companies for advanced turbine engine applications.

  7. Advanced Boost System Developing for High EGR Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Harold

    2012-09-30

    To support industry efforts of clean and efficient internal combustion engine development for passenger and commercial applications • This program focuses on turbocharger improvement for medium and light duty diesel applications, from complete system optimization percepective to enable commercialization of advanced diesel combustion technologies, such as HCCI/LTC. • Improve combined turbocharger efficiency up to 10% or fuel economy by 3% on FTP cycle at Tier II Bin 5 emission level.

  8. Fossil Energy Advanced Research and Technology Development Materials Program

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, N.C.; Judkins, R.R.

    1992-12-01

    Objective of this materials program is to conduct R and D on materials for fossil energy applications with focus on longer-term and generic needs of the various fossil fuel technologies. The projects are organized according to materials research areas: (1) ceramics, (2) new alloys: iron aluminides, advanced austenitics and chromium niobium alloys, and (3) technology development and transfer. Separate abstracts have been prepared.

  9. Progress to Develop an Advanced Solar-Selective Coating

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, C. E.

    2008-03-01

    The progress to develop a durable advanced solar-selective coating will be described. Experimental work has focused on modeling high-temperature, solar-selective coatings; depositing the individual layers and modeled coatings; measuring the optical, thermal, morphology, and compositional properties and using the data to validate the modeled and deposited properties; re-optimizing the coating; and testing the coating performance and durability.

  10. Advancement of CMOS Doping Technology in an External Development Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Amitabh; Chambers, James J.; Shaw, Judy B.

    2011-01-01

    The consumer appetite for a rich multimedia experience drives technology development for mobile hand-held devices and the infrastructure to support them. Enhancements in functionality, speed, and user experience are derived from advancements in CMOS technology. The technical challenges in developing each successive CMOS technology node to support these enhancements have become increasingly difficult. These trends have motivated the CMOS business towards a collaborative approach based on strategic partnerships. This paper describes our model and experience of CMOS development, based on multi-dimensional industrial and academic partnerships. We provide to our process equipment, materials, and simulation partners, as well as to our silicon foundry partners, the detailed requirements for future integrated circuit products. This is done very early in the development cycle to ensure that these requirements can be met. In order to determine these fundamental requirements, we rely on a strategy that requires strong interaction between process and device simulation, physical and chemical analytical methods, and research at academic institutions. This learning is shared with each project partner to address integration and manufacturing issues encountered during CMOS technology development from its inception through product ramp. We utilize TI's core strengths in physical analysis, unit processes and integration, yield ramp, reliability, and product engineering to support this technological development. Finally, this paper presents examples of the advancement of CMOS doping technology for the 28 nm node and beyond through this development model.

  11. Liquid Oxygen/Liquid Methane Propulsion and Cryogenic Advanced Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klem, Mark D.; Smith, Timothy D.; Wadel, Mary F.; Meyer, Michael L.; Free, James M.; Cikanek, Harry A., III

    2011-01-01

    Exploration Systems Architecture Study conducted by NASA in 2005 identified the liquid oxygen (LOx)/liquid methane (LCH4) propellant combination as a prime candidate for the Crew Exploration Vehicle Service Module propulsion and for later use for ascent stage propulsion of the lunar lander. Both the Crew Exploration Vehicle and Lunar Lander were part the Constellation architecture, which had the objective to provide global sustained lunar human exploration capability. From late 2005 through the end of 2010, NASA and industry matured advanced development designs for many components that could be employed in relatively high thrust, high delta velocity, pressure fed propulsion systems for these two applications. The major investments were in main engines, reaction control engines, and the devices needed for cryogenic fluid management such as screens, propellant management devices, thermodynamic vents, and mass gauges. Engine and thruster developments also included advanced high reliability low mass igniters. Extensive tests were successfully conducted for all of these elements. For the thrusters and engines, testing included sea level and altitude conditions. This advanced development provides a mature technology base for future liquid oxygen/liquid methane pressure fed space propulsion systems. This paper documents the design and test efforts along with resulting hardware and test results.

  12. Advanced Stirling Technology Development at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaltens, Richard K.; Wong, Wayne A.

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has been developing advanced energy-conversion technologies for use with both radioisotope power systems and fission surface power systems for many decades. Under NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Planetary Science Theme, Technology Program, Glenn is developing the next generation of advanced Stirling convertors (ASCs) for use in the Department of Energy/Lockheed Martin Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG). The next-generation power-conversion technologies require high efficiency and high specific power (watts electric per kilogram) to meet future mission requirements to use less of the Department of Energy's plutonium-fueled general-purpose heat source modules and reduce system mass. Important goals include long-life (greater than 14-yr) reliability and scalability so that these systems can be considered for a variety of future applications and missions including outer-planet missions and continual operation on the surface of Mars. This paper provides an update of the history and status of the ASC being developed for Glenn by Sunpower Inc. of Athens, Ohio.

  13. Advanced Launch System advanced development oxidizer turbopump program: Technical implementation plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferlita, F.

    1989-01-01

    The Advanced Launch Systems (ALS) Advanced Development Oxidizer Turbopump Program has designed, fabricated and demonstrated a low cost, highly reliable oxidizer turbopump for the Space Transportation Engine that minimizes the recurring cost for the ALS engines. Pratt and Whitney's (P and W's) plan for integrating the analyses, testing, fabrication, and other program efforts is addressed. This plan offers a comprehensive description of the total effort required to design, fabricate, and test the ALS oxidizer turbopump. The proposed ALS oxidizer turbopump reduces turbopump costs over current designs by taking advantage of design simplicity and state-of-the-art materials and producibility features without compromising system reliability. This is accomplished by selecting turbopump operating conditions that are within known successful operating regions and by using proven manufacturing techniques.

  14. Advances in clinical research in gynecologic radiation oncology: an RTOG symposium.

    PubMed

    Gaffney, David; Mundt, Arno; Schwarz, Julie; Eifel, Patricia

    2012-05-01

    There have been inexorable improvements in gynecologic radiation oncology through technologically advances, 3-dimensional imaging, and clinical research. Investment in these 3 critical areas has improved, and will continue to improve, the lives of patients with gynecologic cancer. Advanced technology delivery in gynecologic radiation oncology is challenging owing to the following: (1) setup difficulties, (2) managing considerable internal organ motion, and (3) responding to tumor volume reduction during treatment. Image guidance is a potential route to solve these problems and improve delivery to tumor and sparing organs at risk. Imaging with positron emission tomography-computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are contributing significantly to improved accuracy in diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up in cancer of the cervix. Functional imaging by exploiting tumor biology may improve prognosis and treatment. Clinical trials have been the greatest mechanism to improve and establish standards of care in women with vulvar, endometrial, and cervical cancer. There have been multiple technological advances and practice changing trials within the past several decades. Many important questions remain in optimizing care for women with gynecologic malignancies. The performance of clinical trials will be advanced with the use of consistent language (ie, similar staging system and criteria), eligibility criteria that fit the research question, end points that matter, adequate statistical power, complete follow-up, and prompt publication of mature results. PMID:22398709

  15. Advanced development of the digital tuberculosis tester for MDR-TB screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Jason E.; Simkulet, Michelle D.; Gutin, Alexander; Gutin, Alexy; Bardarov, Savco; Jacobs, William R., Jr.; Castracane, James; Tang, Oliver; Riska, Paul

    2001-05-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains the leading cause of death in the world from a single infectious disease, and the threat is becoming more critical with the spread of multi-drug resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB). TB detection, and susceptibility testing for drug resistant strain identification, is advancing with the development of Luciferase Reporter Mycobacteriophages (LRM). LRM will emit visible light at very low intensity when in the presence of live mycobacteria cells such as Tuberculosis strains. InterScience, Inc., together with its collaboration, is developing a highly sensitive, real-time digital detection system for the analysis of luminescent assays. Recent advances in system sensitivity, design, and implementation, as well as preliminary results of the development of individual test cartridges, will be presented. The ultimate goal of this work is to provide a versatile luminescence detection tool for widespread research and clinical applications.

  16. Assessing Clinical Reasoning (ASCLIRE): Instrument Development and Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunina-Habenicht, Olga; Hautz, Wolf E.; Knigge, Michel; Spies, Claudia; Ahlers, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    Clinical reasoning is an essential competency in medical education. This study aimed at developing and validating a test to assess diagnostic accuracy, collected information, and diagnostic decision time in clinical reasoning. A norm-referenced computer-based test for the assessment of clinical reasoning (ASCLIRE) was developed, integrating the…

  17. Develop Advanced Nonlinear Signal Analysis Topographical Mapping System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jong, Jen-Yi

    1997-01-01

    During the development of the SSME, a hierarchy of advanced signal analysis techniques for mechanical signature analysis has been developed by NASA and AI Signal Research Inc. (ASRI) to improve the safety and reliability for Space Shuttle operations. These techniques can process and identify intelligent information hidden in a measured signal which is often unidentifiable using conventional signal analysis methods. Currently, due to the highly interactive processing requirements and the volume of dynamic data involved, detailed diagnostic analysis is being performed manually which requires immense man-hours with extensive human interface. To overcome this manual process, NASA implemented this program to develop an Advanced nonlinear signal Analysis Topographical Mapping System (ATMS) to provide automatic/unsupervised engine diagnostic capabilities. The ATMS will utilize a rule-based Clips expert system to supervise a hierarchy of diagnostic signature analysis techniques in the Advanced Signal Analysis Library (ASAL). ASAL will perform automatic signal processing, archiving, and anomaly detection/identification tasks in order to provide an intelligent and fully automated engine diagnostic capability. The ATMS has been successfully developed under this contract. In summary, the program objectives to design, develop, test and conduct performance evaluation for an automated engine diagnostic system have been successfully achieved. Software implementation of the entire ATMS system on MSFC's OISPS computer has been completed. The significance of the ATMS developed under this program is attributed to the fully automated coherence analysis capability for anomaly detection and identification which can greatly enhance the power and reliability of engine diagnostic evaluation. The results have demonstrated that ATMS can significantly save time and man-hours in performing engine test/flight data analysis and performance evaluation of large volumes of dynamic test data.

  18. Calcitonin: discovery, development, and clinical application.

    PubMed

    Copp, D H

    1994-06-01

    In 1954, when I gave a talk on calcium homeostasis at the first Gordon Conference on Bones and Teeth, it was recognized that the level of ionic calcium in the plasma and body fluids must be maintained with precision, since it is critically important for a number of vital processes. However, very little was known of the mechanisms involved and I decided to make this the focus of my research career. With the assistance of a number of first-year medical students working during the summer, we developed a precise method for measuring calcium, demonstrated the remarkable constancy of plasma calcium in normal human subjects, and found that normal calcium levels were restored quickly after being artificially raised or lowered. We focussed on parathyroid hormone (PTH), which plays a key role in controlling hypocalcemia by stimulating osteolysis. While studying the control of its secretion in 1961, we discovered a second calcium-regulating hormone (calcitonin) which was released by hypercalcemia and lowered plasma calcium by inhibiting osteolysis. It is a straight-chain peptide with 32 amino acids and a 7-membered disulfide ring at the N terminal. It is produced by C cells which arise from the neural crest and is considered a neuropeptide hormone. It is produced in the thyroid of mammals and the ultimobranchial glands of lower vertebrates. We were involved in the isolation of salmon calcitonin, which is the form most widely used in therapy because of its high potency. In addition to inhibiting bone resorption, it is a powerful analgesic agent with a potency in certain circumstances which is 30-50 times that of morphine. It is widely used clinically for the treatment of Paget's disease, hypercalcemia, osteoporosis, and relief of bone pain. World sales in 1992 exceeded US$900 million, of which 85% was for osteoporosis. PMID:7924003

  19. Advancements in the development of subunit influenza vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Naru; Zheng, Bo-Jian; Lu, Lu; Zhou, Yusen; Jiang, Shibo; Du, Lanying

    2014-01-01

    The ongoing threat of influenza epidemics and pandemics has emphasized the importance of developing safe and effective vaccines against infections from divergent influenza viruses. In this review, we first introduce the structure and life cycle of influenza A viruses, describing major influenza A virus-caused pandemics. We then compare different types of influenza vaccines and discuss current advancements in the development of subunit influenza vaccines, particularly those based on nucleoprotein (NP), extracellular domain of matrix protein 2 (M2e) and hemagglutinin (HA) proteins. We also illustrate potential strategies for improving the efficacy of subunit influenza vaccines. PMID:25529753

  20. Advancements in the development of subunit influenza vaccines.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Naru; Zheng, Bo-Jian; Lu, Lu; Zhou, Yusen; Jiang, Shibo; Du, Lanying

    2015-02-01

    The ongoing threat of influenza epidemics and pandemics has emphasized the importance of developing safe and effective vaccines against infections from divergent influenza viruses. In this review, we first introduce the structure and life cycle of influenza A viruses, describing major influenza A virus-caused pandemics. We then compare different types of influenza vaccines and discuss current advancements in the development of subunit influenza vaccines, particularly those based on nucleoprotein (NP), extracellular domain of matrix protein 2 (M2e) and hemagglutinin (HA) proteins. We also illustrate potential strategies for improving the efficacy of subunit influenza vaccines.

  1. Advanced on-site power plant development technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemp, F. S.

    1985-01-01

    A 30-cell stack was tested for 7200 hours. At 6000 hours the stack was successfully refilled with acid with no loss of performance. A second stack containing the advanced Configuration B cell package was fabricated and assembled for testing in 1985. A 200-kW brassboard inverter was successfully evaluated, verifying the design of the two-bridge ASCR circuit design. A fuel processing catalyst train was tested for 2000 hours verifying the catalyst for use in a 200-kW development reformer. The development reformer was fabricated for evaluation in 1985. The initial test plan was prepared for a 200-kW verification test article.

  2. Hydrogen-bromine fuel cell advance component development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charleston, Joann; Reed, James

    1988-01-01

    Advanced cell component development is performed by NASA Lewis to achieve improved performance and longer life for the hydrogen-bromine fuel cells system. The state-of-the-art hydrogen-bromine system utilizes the solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) technology, similar to the SPE technology developed for the hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell system. These studies are directed at exploring the potential for this system by assessing and evaluating various types of materials for cell parts and electrode materials for Bromine-hydrogen bromine environment and fabricating experimental membrane/electrode-catalysts by chemical deposition.

  3. Advanced solar concentrator development in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Alpert, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is the lead laboratory for the United States Department of Energy's program to develop, build, and test advanced solar concentrators that are low in cost, have high performance, and demonstrate a long lifetime. The principal focus of DOE's concentrator program is on the development of heliostats for central receiver power plants and point focus parabolic dishes for use with a 25-kWe Stirling engine. The status and future plans of DOE's program in each area are reviewed. 29 refs., 7 figs.

  4. Advanced software development workstation project: Engineering scripting language. Graphical editor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Software development is widely considered to be a bottleneck in the development of complex systems, both in terms of development and in terms of maintenance of deployed systems. Cost of software development and maintenance can also be very high. One approach to reducing costs and relieving this bottleneck is increasing the reuse of software designs and software components. A method for achieving such reuse is a software parts composition system. Such a system consists of a language for modeling software parts and their interfaces, a catalog of existing parts, an editor for combining parts, and a code generator that takes a specification and generates code for that application in the target language. The Advanced Software Development Workstation is intended to be an expert system shell designed to provide the capabilities of a software part composition system.

  5. Advanced steel reheat furnaces: Research and development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Q.; Koppang, R.; Maly, P.; Moyeda, D.; Li, X.

    1999-01-14

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of two phases of a three-phase project to develop and evaluate an Advanced Steel Reheat Furnace (SSRF) concept which incorporates two proven and commercialized technologies, oxy-fuel enriched air (OEA) combustion and gas reburning (GR). The combined technologies aim to improve furnace productivity with higher flame radiant heat transfer in the heating zones of a steel reheat furnace while controlling potentially higher NOx emissions from these zones. The project was conducted under a contract sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). Specifically, this report summarizes the results of a modeling study and an experimental study to define and evaluate the issues which affect the integration and performance of the combined technologies. Section 2.0 of the report describes the technical approach uses in the development and evaluation of the advanced steel reheat furnace. Section 3.0 presents results of the modeling study applied to a model steel furnace. Experimental validation of the modeling results obtained from EER`s Fuel Evaluation Facility (FEF) pilot-scale furnace discussed in Section 4.0. Section 5.0 provides an economic evaluation on the cost effectiveness of the advanced reheat furnace concept. Section 6.0 concludes the report with recommendations on the applicability of the combined technologies of steel reheat furnaces.

  6. Recent Scientific Advances Towards the Development of Tendon Healing Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Sayegh, Eli T.; Sandy, John D.; Virk, Mandeep S.; Romeo, Anthony A.; Wysocki, Robert W.; Galante, Jorge O.; Trella, Katie J.; Plaas, Anna; Wang, Vincent M.

    2015-01-01

    There exists a range of surgical and non-surgical approaches to the treatment of both acute and chronic tendon injuries. Despite surgical advances in the management of acute tears and increasing treatment options for tendinopathies, strategies frequently are unsuccessful, due to impaired mechanical properties of the treated tendon and/or a deficiency in progenitor cell activities. Hence, there is an urgent need for effective therapeutic strategies to augment intrinsic and/or surgical repair. Such approaches can benefit both tendinopathies and tendon tears which, due to their severity, appear to be irreversible or irreparable. Biologic therapies include the utilization of scaffolds as well as gene, growth factor, and cell delivery. These treatment modalities aim to provide mechanical durability or augment the biologic healing potential of the repaired tissue. Here, we review the emerging concepts and scientific evidence which provide a rationale for tissue engineering and regeneration strategies as well as discuss the clinical translation of recent innovations. PMID:26753125

  7. Technology development of fabrication techniques for advanced solar dynamic concentrators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richter, Scott W.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the advanced concentrator program is to develop the technology that will lead to lightweight, highly reflective, accurate, scaleable, and long lived space solar dynamic concentrators. The advanced concentrator program encompasses new and innovative concepts, fabrication techniques, materials selection, and simulated space environmental testing. Fabrication techniques include methods of fabricating the substrates and coating substrate surfaces to produce high-quality optical surfaces, acceptable for further coating with vapor deposited optical films. The selected materials to obtain a high quality optical surface include microsheet glass and Eccocoat EP-3 epoxy, with DC-93-500 selected as a candidate silicone adhesive and levelizing layer. The following procedures are defined: cutting, cleaning, forming, and bonding microsheet glass. Procedures are also defined for surface cleaning, and EP-3 epoxy application. The results and analyses from atomic oxygen and thermal cycling tests are used to determine the effects of orbital conditions in a space environment.

  8. Technology development of fabrication techniques for advanced solar dynamic concentrators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richter, Scott W.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the advanced concentrator program is to develop the technology that will lead to lightweight, highly reflective, accurate, scaleable, and long lived space solar dynamic concentrators. The advanced concentrator program encompasses new and innovative concepts, fabrication techniques, materials selection, and simulated space environmental testing. Fabrication techniques include methods of fabricating the substrates and coating substrate surfaces to produce high quality optical surfaces, acceptable for further coating with vapor deposited optical films. The selected materials to obtain a high quality optical surface include microsheet glass and Eccocoat EP-3 epoxy, with DC-93-500 selected as a candidate silicone adhesive and levelizing layer. The following procedures are defined: cutting, cleaning, forming, and bonding microsheet glass. Procedures are also defined for surface cleaning, and EP-3 epoxy application. The results and analyses from atomic oxygen and thermal cycling tests are used to determine the effects of orbital conditions in a space environment.

  9. Lost in Translation: The Gap in Scientific Advancements and Clinical Application.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Moure, Joseph S

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of medicine and medical technology hinges on the successful translation of basic science research from the bench to clinical implementation at the bedside. Out of the increasing need to facilitate the transfer of scientific knowledge to patients, translational research has emerged. Significant leaps in improving global health, such as antibiotics, vaccinations, and cancer therapies, have all seen successes under this paradigm, yet today, it has become increasingly difficult to realize this ideal scenario. As hospital revenue demand increases, and financial support declines, clinician-protected research time has been limited. Researchers, likewise, have been forced to abandon time- and resource-consuming translational research to focus on publication-generating work to maintain funding and professional advancement. Compared to the surge in scientific innovation and new fields of science, realization of transformational scientific findings in device development and materials sciences has significantly lagged behind. Herein, we describe: how the current scientific paradigm struggles in the new health-care landscape; the obstacles met by translational researchers; and solutions, both public and private, to overcoming those obstacles. We must rethink the old dogma of academia and reinvent the traditional pathways of research in order to truly impact the health-care arena and ultimately those that matter most: the patient. PMID:27376058

  10. Lost in Translation: The Gap in Scientific Advancements and Clinical Application

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Moure, Joseph S.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of medicine and medical technology hinges on the successful translation of basic science research from the bench to clinical implementation at the bedside. Out of the increasing need to facilitate the transfer of scientific knowledge to patients, translational research has emerged. Significant leaps in improving global health, such as antibiotics, vaccinations, and cancer therapies, have all seen successes under this paradigm, yet today, it has become increasingly difficult to realize this ideal scenario. As hospital revenue demand increases, and financial support declines, clinician-protected research time has been limited. Researchers, likewise, have been forced to abandon time- and resource-consuming translational research to focus on publication-generating work to maintain funding and professional advancement. Compared to the surge in scientific innovation and new fields of science, realization of transformational scientific findings in device development and materials sciences has significantly lagged behind. Herein, we describe: how the current scientific paradigm struggles in the new health-care landscape; the obstacles met by translational researchers; and solutions, both public and private, to overcoming those obstacles. We must rethink the old dogma of academia and reinvent the traditional pathways of research in order to truly impact the health-care arena and ultimately those that matter most: the patient. PMID:27376058

  11. Lost in Translation: The Gap in Scientific Advancements and Clinical Application.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Moure, Joseph S

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of medicine and medical technology hinges on the successful translation of basic science research from the bench to clinical implementation at the bedside. Out of the increasing need to facilitate the transfer of scientific knowledge to patients, translational research has emerged. Significant leaps in improving global health, such as antibiotics, vaccinations, and cancer therapies, have all seen successes under this paradigm, yet today, it has become increasingly difficult to realize this ideal scenario. As hospital revenue demand increases, and financial support declines, clinician-protected research time has been limited. Researchers, likewise, have been forced to abandon time- and resource-consuming translational research to focus on publication-generating work to maintain funding and professional advancement. Compared to the surge in scientific innovation and new fields of science, realization of transformational scientific findings in device development and materials sciences has significantly lagged behind. Herein, we describe: how the current scientific paradigm struggles in the new health-care landscape; the obstacles met by translational researchers; and solutions, both public and private, to overcoming those obstacles. We must rethink the old dogma of academia and reinvent the traditional pathways of research in order to truly impact the health-care arena and ultimately those that matter most: the patient.

  12. Advances in inducing adaptive immunity using cell-based cancer vaccines: Clinical applications in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Kajihara, Mikio; Takakura, Kazuki; Kanai, Tomoya; Ito, Zensho; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Shimodaira, Shigetaka; Okamoto, Masato; Ohkusa, Toshifumi; Koido, Shigeo

    2016-05-14

    The incidence of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is on the rise, and the prognosis is extremely poor because PDA is highly aggressive and notoriously difficult to treat. Although gemcitabine- or 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy is typically offered as a standard of care, most patients do not survive longer than 1 year. Therefore, the development of alternative therapeutic approaches for patients with PDA is imperative. As PDA cells express numerous tumor-associated antigens that are suitable vaccine targets, one promising treatment approach is cancer vaccines. During the last few decades, cell-based cancer vaccines have offered encouraging results in preclinical studies. Cell-based cancer vaccines are mainly generated by presenting whole tumor cells or dendritic cells to cells of the immune system. In particular, several clinical trials have explored cell-based cancer vaccines as a promising therapeutic approach for patients with PDA. Moreover, chemotherapy and cancer vaccines can synergize to result in increased efficacies in patients with PDA. In this review, we will discuss both the effect of cell-based cancer vaccines and advances in terms of future strategies of cancer vaccines for the treatment of PDA patients. PMID:27182156

  13. Advances in inducing adaptive immunity using cell-based cancer vaccines: Clinical applications in pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kajihara, Mikio; Takakura, Kazuki; Kanai, Tomoya; Ito, Zensho; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Shimodaira, Shigetaka; Okamoto, Masato; Ohkusa, Toshifumi; Koido, Shigeo

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is on the rise, and the prognosis is extremely poor because PDA is highly aggressive and notoriously difficult to treat. Although gemcitabine- or 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy is typically offered as a standard of care, most patients do not survive longer than 1 year. Therefore, the development of alternative therapeutic approaches for patients with PDA is imperative. As PDA cells express numerous tumor-associated antigens that are suitable vaccine targets, one promising treatment approach is cancer vaccines. During the last few decades, cell-based cancer vaccines have offered encouraging results in preclinical studies. Cell-based cancer vaccines are mainly generated by presenting whole tumor cells or dendritic cells to cells of the immune system. In particular, several clinical trials have explored cell-based cancer vaccines as a promising therapeutic approach for patients with PDA. Moreover, chemotherapy and cancer vaccines can synergize to result in increased efficacies in patients with PDA. In this review, we will discuss both the effect of cell-based cancer vaccines and advances in terms of future strategies of cancer vaccines for the treatment of PDA patients. PMID:27182156

  14. AALIM: a cardiac clinical decision support system powered by advanced multi-modal analytics.

    PubMed

    Amir, Arnon; Beymer, David; Grace, Julia; Greenspan, Hayit; Gruhl, Daniel; Hobbs, Allen; Pohl, Kilian; Syeda-Mahmood, Tanveer; Terdiman, Joseph; Wang, Fei

    2010-01-01

    Modern Electronic Medical Record (EMR) systems often integrate large amounts of data from multiple disparate sources. To do so, EMR systems must align the data to create consistency between these sources. The data should also be presented in a manner that allows a clinician to quickly understand the complete condition and history of a patient's health. We develop the AALIM system to address these issues using advanced multimodal analytics. First, it extracts and computes multiple features and cues from the patient records and medical tests. This additional metadata facilitates more accurate alignment of the various modalities, enables consistency check and empowers a clear, concise presentation of the patient's complete health information. The system further provides a multimodal search for similar cases within the EMR system, and derives related conditions and drugs information from them. We applied our approach to cardiac data from a major medical care organization and found that it produced results with sufficient quality to assist the clinician making appropriate clinical decisions.

  15. Development of environmentally advanced hydropower turbine system design concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Franke, G.F.; Webb, D.R.; Fisher, R.K. Jr.

    1997-08-01

    A team worked together on the development of environmentally advanced hydro turbine design concepts to reduce hydropower`s impact on the environment, and to improve the understanding of the technical and environmental issues involved, in particular, with fish survival as a result of their passage through hydro power sites. This approach brought together a turbine design and manufacturing company, biologists, a utility, a consulting engineering firm and a university research facility, in order to benefit from the synergy of diverse disciplines. Through a combination of advanced technology and engineering analyses, innovative design concepts adaptable to both new and existing hydro facilities were developed and are presented. The project was divided into 4 tasks. Task 1 investigated a broad range of environmental issues and how the issues differed throughout the country. Task 2 addressed fish physiology and turbine physics. Task 3 investigated individual design elements needed for the refinement of the three concept families defined in Task 1. Advanced numerical tools for flow simulation in turbines are used to quantify characteristics of flow and pressure fields within turbine water passageways. The issues associated with dissolved oxygen enhancement using turbine aeration are presented. The state of the art and recent advancements of this technology are reviewed. Key elements for applying turbine aeration to improve aquatic habitat are discussed and a review of the procedures for testing of aerating turbines is presented. In Task 4, the results of the Tasks were assembled into three families of design concepts to address the most significant issues defined in Task 1. The results of the work conclude that significant improvements in fish passage survival are achievable.

  16. Developments of mass spectrometry-based technologies for effective drug development linked with clinical proteomes.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Noboru; Bando, Yasuhiko; Fukuda, Tetsuya; Kawamura, Takeshi; Nakamura, Haruhiko; Marko-Varga, György; Nishimura, Toshihide

    2016-02-01

    A strong demand in drug discovery and development today is to overcome "Big Gaps" encountered by differences in species and races, to accelerate effective developments in cost and time, and to meet medical needs. Moreover, drugs of various types have emerged which cover middle-size molecules and polymers rather than conventional small molecules. Upon those challenges, mass spectrometry (MS)-based technologies, which will be described in this paper, will play an increasingly important role, among which the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) platform will be powerful as rapid and molecule-based analysis more than ever. nanoPore Optical Interferometry (nPOI) newly introduced can detect even weak interactions in protein-protein and protein-compound, and can be connected directly to LC/MS/MS for identification of binding molecular species, which will be quite useful for affinity ranking and high-throughput interaction screening. Imaging MS provides the molecular information and spatial distribution of targeted molecules within a tissue specimen. MS-based clinical proteomics utilizing clinical specimens and empowered by advanced bioinformatics can attain both key protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks with major protein players responsible for functional mechanisms of a disease subtype. An integration of those MS-based technologies will deliver a seamless platform of drug development from molecules identified in human clinical specimens. PMID:26782309

  17. Participation of patients in the development of advanced therapy medicinal products.

    PubMed

    Bignami, F; Kent, A J; Lipucci di Paola, M; Meade, N

    2011-07-01

    An increasing number of advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) are under development and in clinical trials. Patients are central to this progress. In research, patients have funded, catalysed, coordinated and led projects. In regulation, patient groups have contributed to the creation of the political momentum for regulation of ATMPs, contributed to the debate and now participate in the regulatory process. Once licensed, patients will have a role in the pharmacovigilance, health technology assessment and reimbursement arrangements for these products. Patient groups contribute valuably as equal stakeholders at every step of the development of an ATMP.

  18. Evaluation, engineering and development of advanced cyclone processes

    SciTech Connect

    Durney, T.E.; Cook, A.; Ferris, D.D.

    1995-11-01

    This research and development project is one of three seeking to develop advanced, cost-effective, coal cleaning processes to help industry comply with 1990 Clean Air Act Regulations. The specific goal for this project is to develop a cycloning technology that will beneficiate coal to a level approaching 85% pyritic sulfur rejection while retaining 85% of the parent coal`s heating value. A clean coal ash content of less than 6% and a moisture content, for both clean coal and reject, of less than 30% are targeted. The process under development is a physical, gravimetric-based cleaning system that removes ash bearing mineral matter and pyritic sulfur. Since a large portion of the Nation`s coal reserves contain significant amounts of pyrite, physical beneficiation is viewed as a potential near-term, cost effective means of producing an environmentally acceptable fuel.

  19. Advances in space technology: the NSBRI Technology Development Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maurer, R. H.; Charles, H. K. Jr; Pisacane, V. L.

    2002-01-01

    As evidenced from Mir and other long-duration space missions, the space environment can cause significant alterations in the human physiology that could prove dangerous for astronauts. The NASA programme to develop countermeasures for these deleterious human health effects is being carried out by the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI). The NSBRI has 12 research teams, ten of which are primarily physiology based, one addresses on-board medical care, and the twelfth focuses on technology development in support of the other research teams. This Technology Development (TD) Team initially supported four instrumentation developments: (1) an advanced, multiple projection, dual energy X ray absorptiometry (AMPDXA) scanning system: (2) a portable neutron spectrometer; (3) a miniature time-of-flight mass spectrometer: and (4) a cardiovascular identification system. Technical highlights of the original projects are presented along with an introduction to the five new TD Team projects being funded by the NSBRI.

  20. CROSSCUTTING TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT AT THE CENTER FOR ADVANCED SEPARATION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Hugh W. Rimmer

    2004-05-12

    This Technical Progress Report describes progress made on the seventeen subprojects awarded in the first year of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT41607: Crosscutting Technology Development at the Center for Advanced Separation Technologies. This work is summarized in the body of the main report: the individual sub-project Technical Progress Reports are attached as Appendices. Due to the time taken up by the solicitation/selection process, these cover the initial 6-month period of project activity only. The U.S. is the largest producer of mining products in the world. In 1999, U.S. mining operations produced $66.7 billion worth of raw materials that contributed a total of $533 billion to the nation's wealth. Despite these contributions, the mining industry has not been well supported with research and development funds as compared to mining industries in other countries. To overcome this problem, the Center for Advanced Separation Technologies (CAST) was established to develop technologies that can be used by the U.S. mining industry to create new products, reduce production costs, and meet environmental regulations. Originally set up by Virginia Tech and West Virginia University, this endeavor has been expanded into a seven-university consortium--Virginia Tech, West Virginia University, University of Kentucky, University of Utah, Montana Tech, New Mexico Tech and University of Nevada, Reno--that is supported through U.S. DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-02NT41607: Crosscutting Technology Development at the Center for Advanced Separation Technologies. Much of the research to be conducted with Cooperative Agreement funds will be longer-term, high-risk, basic research and will be carried out in five broad areas: (1) Solid-solid separation (2) Solid-liquid separation (3) Chemical/Biological Extraction (4) Modeling and Control, and (5) Environmental Control.