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Sample records for advanced coal extraction

  1. Health requirements for advanced coal extraction systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, W. F.

    1980-01-01

    Health requirements were developed as long range goals for future advanced coal extraction systems which would be introduced into the market in the year 2000. The goal of the requirements is that underground coal miners work in an environment that is as close as possible to the working conditions of the general population, that they do not exceed mortality and morbidity rates resulting from lung diseases that are comparable to those of the general population, and that their working conditions comply as closely as possible to those of other industries as specified by OSHA regulations. A brief technique for evaluating whether proposed advanced systems meet these safety requirements is presented, as well as a discussion of the costs of respiratory disability compensation.

  2. A moving baseline for evaluation of advanced coal extraction systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickerton, C. R.; Westerfield, M. D.

    1981-01-01

    Results from the initial effort to establish baseline economic performance comparators for a program whose intent is to define, develop, and demonstrate advanced systems suitable for coal resource extraction beyond the year 2000 are reported. Systems used were selected from contemporary coal mining technology and from conservation conjectures of year 2000 technology. The analysis was also based on a seam thickness of 6 ft. Therefore, the results are specific to the study systems and the selected seam extended to other seam thicknesses.

  3. Evaluation of ADAM/1 model for advanced coal extraction concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deshpande, G. K.; Gangal, M. D.

    1982-01-01

    Several existing computer programs for estimating life cycle cost of mining systems were evaluated. A commercially available program, ADAM/1 was found to be satisfactory in relation to the needs of the advanced coal extraction project. Two test cases were run to confirm the ability of the program to handle nonconventional mining equipment and procedures. The results were satisfactory. The model, therefore, is recommended to the project team for evaluation of their conceptual designs.

  4. Regional price targets appropriate for advanced coal extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terasawa, K. L.; Whipple, D. M.

    1980-01-01

    A methodology is presented for predicting coal prices in regional markets for the target time frames 1985 and 2000 that could subsequently be used to guide the development of an advanced coal extraction system. The model constructed is a supply and demand model that focuses on underground mining since the advanced technology is expected to be developed for these reserves by the target years. Coal reserve data and the cost of operating a mine are used to obtain the minimum acceptable selling price that would induce the producer to bring the mine into production. Based on this information, market supply curves can be generated. Demand by region is calculated based on an EEA methodology that emphasizes demand by electric utilities and demand by industry. The demand and supply curves are then used to obtain the price targets. The results show a growth in the size of the markets for compliance and low sulphur coal regions. A significant rise in the real price of coal is not expected even by the year 2000. The model predicts heavy reliance on mines with thick seams, larger block size and deep overburden.

  5. Moving baseline for evaluation of advanced coal-extraction systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bickerton, C.R.; Westerfield, M.D.

    1981-04-15

    This document reports results from the initial effort to establish baseline economic performance comparators for a program whose intent is to define, develop, and demonstrate advanced systems suitable for coal resource extraction beyond the year 2000. Systems used in this study were selected from contemporary coal mining technology and from conservative conjectures of year 2000 technology. The analysis was also based on a seam thickness of 6 ft. Therefore, the results are specific to the study systems and the selected seam thickness. To be more beneficial to the program, the effort should be extended to other seam thicknesses. This document is one of a series which describe systems level requirements for advanced underground coal mining equipment. Five areas of performance are discussed: production cost, miner safety, miner health, environmental impact, and recovery efficiency. The projections for cost and production capability comprise a so-called moving baseline which will be used to assess compliance with the systems requirement for production cost. Separate projections were prepared for room and pillar, longwall, and shortwall technology all operating under comparable sets of mining conditions. This work is part of an effort to define and develop innovative coal extraction systems suitable for the significant resources remaining in the year 2000.

  6. Safety evaluation methodology for advanced coal extraction systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, W.F.

    1981-07-15

    To be acceptable to the coal industry, an advanced extraction system must provide a significant improvement over conventional systems in cost, safety, environmental impact, and conservation of unmined coal. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation methodologies were developed to assist the designer in determining if a proposed extraction design will be safer than existing systems. The qualitative analysis is a process which tests the new system against regulations and hazards of existing similar systems. The analysis examines the soundness of the design, whether or not the major hazards have been eliminated or reduced, and how the reduction would be accomplished. The quantitative methodology provides the designer with a means of establishing the approximate impact of hazards on injury levels. The results are further weighted by peculiar geological elements, specialized safety training, peculiar mine environmental aspects, and reductions in labor force. The outcome is compared with injury level requirements based on similar, safer industries to get a measure of the new system's success in reducing injuries. This approach provides a more detailed and comprehensive analysis of hazards and their effects than existing safety analyses.

  7. Resource targets for advanced underground coal extraction systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoag, J. H.; Whipple, D. W.; Habib-Agahi, H.; Lavin, M. L.

    1982-01-01

    Resource targets appropriate for federal sponsorship of research and development of advanced underground coal mining systems are identified. A comprehensive examination of conventional and unconventional coals with particular attention to exceptionally thin and thick seams, steeply dipping beds, and multiple seam geometry was made. The results indicate that the resource of primary importance is flat lying bituminous coal of moderate thickness, under moderate cover, and located within the lower 48 states. Resources of secondary importance are the flat lying multiple seams and thin seams (especially those in Appalachia). Steeply dipping coals, abandoned pillars, and exceptionally thick western coals may be important in some regions of subregions, but the limited tonnage available places them in a position of tertiary importance.

  8. Safety evaluation methodology for advanced coal extraction systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, W. F.

    1981-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative evaluation methods for coal extraction systems were developed. The analysis examines the soundness of the design, whether or not the major hazards have been eliminated or reduced, and how the reduction would be accomplished. The quantitative methodology establishes the approximate impact of hazards on injury levels. The results are weighted by peculiar geological elements, specialized safety training, peculiar mine environmental aspects, and reductions in labor force. The outcome is compared with injury level requirements based on similar, safer industries to get a measure of the new system's success in reducing injuries. This approach provides a more detailed and comprehensive analysis of hazards and their effects than existing safety analyses.

  9. Overall requirements for an advanced underground coal extraction system

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, M.; Lavin, M.L.

    1980-10-15

    This report presents overall requirements on underground mining systems suitable for coal seams exploitable in the year 2000, with particular relevance to the resources of Central Appalachia. These requirements may be summarized as follows: (1) Production Cost: demonstrate a return on incremental investment of 1.5 to 2.5 times the value required by a low-risk capital project. (2) Miner Safety: achieve at least a 50% reduction in deaths and disabling injuries per million man-hours. (3) Miner Health: meet the intent of all applicable regulations, with particular attention to coal dust, carcinogens, and mutagens; and with continued emphasis on acceptable levels of noise and vibration, lighting, humidity and temperature, and adequate work space. (4) Environmental Impact: maintain the value of mined and adjacent lands at the pre-mining value following reclamation; mitigation of off-site impacts should not cost more than the procedures used in contemporary mining. (5) Coal Conservation: the recovery of coal from the seam being mined should be at least as good as the best available contemporary technology operating in comparable conditions. No significant trade-offs between production cost and other performance indices were found.

  10. Advanced Coal-Extraction-Systems Project: report of activities for fiscal year 1980-1981. [By coal field and basin

    SciTech Connect

    Dutzi, E.J.

    1982-03-15

    The Advanced Coal Extraction Systems Project completed several major accomplishments in the definition of target resources, definition of conceptual design requirements for Central Appalachia coals, and initiation of the conceptual design effort. Geologically and economically significant resources were characterized, resulting in recommendations for additional target resources; conceptual design requirements for Central Appalachia coals in the areas of production cost, safety, health, environmental impact, and coal conservation were formulated; and strategies for internal and external design efforts were defined. In addition, an in-depth health and safety evaluation of a modified tunnel borer design for coal mining was completed. At the end of fiscal year 1980-1981, the project was prepared to begin evolution and evaluation of conceptual designs for advanced coal mining systems. The selection of Central Appalachia as the target region automatically imposes certain restrictions and constraints, pertinent to the geology, geography, and other aspects of the operating environment. Requirements imposed by the target resource are summarized. Figure 2-1 presents an overview of the relationship between the conceptual design requirements and the constraints imposed by the Central Appalachian target resource.

  11. Evaluation of ADAM/1 model for advanced coal-extraction concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Deshpande, G. K.; Gangal, M. D.

    1982-01-15

    The Advanced Coal Extraction Project is sponsored by the Department of Energy at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to define and develop advanced underground coal extraction systems which: (1) are suitable for significant remaining resources after the year 2000, and (2) promise a significant improvement in production cost and miner safety, with no degradation in miner health, environmental quality and resource recovery. System requirements in the five performance areas have been defined by Goldsmith and Lavin (1980). Several existing computer programs for estimating life-cycle cost of mining systems have been evaluated. A commercially available program ADAM/1 was found to be satisfactory in relation to the needs of the Advanced Coal Extraction Project. Two test cases were run to confirm the ability of the program to handle non-conventional mining equipment and procedures. The results were satisfactory. The model, therefore, is recommended to the project team for evaluation of their conceptual designs. Since the model is commercially available, data preparation instructions are not reproduced in this document; instead the reader is referred to the original documents for this information.

  12. Methodology for the environmental assessment of advanced coal extraction systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, P.J.; Hutchinson, C.F.; Makihara, J.; Evensizer, J.

    1980-06-15

    This document describes the methodology which was developed to identify and assess potential environmental impacts of advanced mining technology as it moves from a generic concept to a more precise systems definition. Two levels of assessment are defined in terms of the design stage of the technology being evaluated. The first level of analysis is appropriate to a conceptual design. At this level it is assumed that each mining process has known and potential environmental impacts that are generic to each mining activity. By using this assumption, potential environmental impacts can be identified for new mining systems. When two or more systems have been assessed, they can be evaluated by comparing potential environmental impacts. At the preliminary stage of design, a systems performance can be assessed again with more precision. At this level of systems definition, potential environmental impacts can be analyzed and their significance determined in a manner to facilitate comparisons between systems. An important output of each level of analysis is suggestions calculated to help the designer mitigate potentially harmful impacts.

  13. Regional price targets appropriate for advanced coal extraction. [Forecasting to 1985 and 2000; USA; Regional analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Terasawa, K.L.; Whipple, D.W.

    1980-12-01

    The object of the study is to provide a methodology for predicting coal prices in regional markets for the target time frames 1985 and 2000 that could subsequently be used to guide the development of an advanced coal extraction system. The model constructed for the study is a supply and demand model that focuses on underground mining, since the advanced technology is expected to be developed for these reserves by the target years. The supply side of the model is based on coal reserve data generated by Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc. (EEA). Given this data and the cost of operating a mine (data from US Department of Energy and Bureau of Mines), the Minimum Acceptable Selling Price (MASP) is obtained. The MASP is defined as the smallest price that would induce the producer to bring the mine into production, and is sensitive to the current technology and to assumptions concerning miner productivity. Based on this information, market supply curves can then be generated. On the demand side of the model, demand by region is calculated based on an EEA methodology that emphasizes demand by electric utilities and demand by industry. The demand and supply curves are then used to obtain the price targets. This last step is accomplished by allocating the demands among the suppliers so that the combined cost of producing and transporting coal is minimized.

  14. Hydromechanical Advanced Coal Excavator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estus, Jay M.; Summers, David

    1990-01-01

    Water-jet cutting reduces coal dust and its hazards. Advanced mining system utilizes full-face, hydromechanical, continuous miner. Coal excavator uses high-pressure water-jet lances, one in each of cutting heads and one in movable lance, to make cuts across top, bottom and middle height, respectively, of coal face. Wedge-shaped cutting heads advance into lower and upper cuts in turn, thereby breaking coal toward middle cut. Thrust cylinders and walking pads advance excavator toward coal face.

  15. Supercritical solvent coal extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, L. E. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Yields of soluble organic extract are increased up to about 50% by the supercritical extraction of particulate coal at a temperature below the polymerization temperature for coal extract fragments (450 C.) and a pressure from 500 psig to 5,000 psig by the conjoint use of a solvent mixture containing a low volatility, high critical temperature coal dissolution catalyst such as phenanthrene and a high volatility, low critical temperature solvent such as toluene.

  16. Coal extraction - environmental prediction

    SciTech Connect

    C. Blaine Cecil; Susan J. Tewalt

    2002-08-01

    To predict and help minimize the impact of coal extraction in the Appalachian region, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is addressing selected mine-drainage issues through the following four interrelated studies: spatial variability of deleterious materials in coal and coal-bearing strata; kinetics of pyrite oxidation; improved spatial geologic models of the potential for drainage from abandoned coal mines; and methodologies for the remediation of waters discharged from coal mines. As these goals are achieved, the recovery of coal resources will be enhanced. 2 figs.

  17. Coal Extraction - Environmental Prediction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cecil, C. Blaine; Tewalt, Susan J.

    2002-01-01

    Coal from the Appalachian region has supplied energy to the Nation for more than 200 years. Appalachian coal fueled America through a civil war and helped win two world wars. Appalachian coal has also provided fuel for keeping America warm in the winter and cool in the summer and has served as the basis for the steel, automobile, organic chemicals, chlorine, and aluminum industries. These benefits have not come without environmental costs, however. Coal extraction and utilization have had significant environmental impacts.

  18. Requirements for the conceptual design of advanced underground coal-extraction systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gangal, M.D.; Lavin, M.L.

    1981-12-15

    This document presents conceptual design requirements for underground coal mining systems having substantially improved performance in the areas of production cost and miner safety. Mandatory performance levels are also set for miner health, environmental impact, and coal recovery. In addition to mandatory design goals and constraints, the document identifies a number of desirable system characteristics which must be assessed in terms of their impact on production cost and their compatibility with other system elements. Although developed for the flat-lying, moderately thick seams of Central Appalachia, these requirements are designed to be easily adaptable to other coals. This document results from the initial phase of a program to define, develop, and demonstrate advanced equipment suitable for the resources remaining beyond the year 2000. The requirements developed are meant to implement the broad systems performance goals formulated by Goldsmith and Lavin (1980) by providing a rational point of departure for the design of underground mining systems with emphasis on Central Appalachian coals. Because no one has yet attempted to design to these requirements, they may contain some inconsistencies and need clarification in some areas. Accordingly, the authors would very much appreciate commments and suggestions from those who have used or critically reviewed these requirements.

  19. Overall requirements for an advanced underground coal extraction system. [environment effects, miner health and safety, production cost, and coal conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsmith, M.; Lavin, M. L.

    1980-01-01

    Underground mining systems suitable for coal seams expoitable in the year 2000 are examined with particular relevance to the resources of Central Appalachia. Requirements for such systems may be summarized as follows: (1) production cost; (2)miner safety; (3) miner health; (4) environmental impact; and (5) coal conservation. No significant trade offs between production cost and other performance indices were found.

  20. Requirements for the conceptual design of advanced underground coal extraction systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangal, M. D.; Lavin, M. L.

    1981-01-01

    Conceptual design requirements are presented for underground coal mining systems having substantially improved performance in the areas of production cost and miner safety. Mandatory performance levels are also set for miner health, environmental impact, and coal recovery. In addition to mandatory design goals and constraints, a number of desirable system characteristics are identified which must be assessed in terms of their impact on production cost and their compatibility with other system elements. Although developed for the flat lying, moderately thick seams of Central Appalachia, these requirements are designed to be easily adaptable to other coals.

  1. Report of activities of the advanced coal extraction systems definition project, 1979 - 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavin, M. L.; Isenberg, L.

    1981-01-01

    During this period effort was devoted to: formulation of system performance goals in the areas of production cost, miner safety, miner health, environmental impact, and coal conservation, survey and in depth assessment of promising technology, and characterization of potential resource targets. Primary system performance goals are to achieve a return on incremental investment of 150% of the value required for a low risk capital improvement project and to reduce deaths and disability injuries per million man-hour by 50%. Although these performance goals were developed to be immediately applicable to the Central Appalachian coal resources, they were also designed to be readily adaptable to other coals by appending a geological description of the new resource. The work done on technology assessment was concerned with the performance of the slurry haulage system.

  2. Supercritical multicomponent solvent coal extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, W. H.; Fong, W. S.; Pichaichanarong, P.; Chan, P. C. F.; Lawson, D. D. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    The yield of organic extract from the supercritical extraction of coal with larger diameter organic solvents such as toluene is increased by use of a minor amount of from 0.1 to 10% by weight of a second solvent such as methanol having a molecular diameter significantly smaller than the average pore diameter of the coal.

  3. A methodology for the environmental assessment of advanced coal extraction systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, P. J.; Hutchinson, C. F.; Makihara, J.; Evensizer, J.

    1980-01-01

    Procedures developed to identify and assess potential environment impacts of advanced mining technology as it moves from a generic concept to a more systems definition are described. Two levels of assessment are defined in terms of the design stage of the technology being evaluated. The first level of analysis is appropriate to a conceptual design. At this level it is assumed that each mining process has known and potential environmental impacts that are generic to each mining activity. By using this assumption, potential environmental impacts can be identified for new mining systems. When two or more systems have been assessed, they can be evaluated comparing potential environmental impacts. At the preliminary stage of design, a systems performance can be assessed again with more precision. At this level of systems definition, potential environmental impacts can be analyzed and their significane determined in a manner to facilitate comparisons between systems. At each level of analysis, suggestions calculated to help the designer mitigate potentially harmful impacts are provided.

  4. Method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile

    DOEpatents

    Yavorsky, Paul M.

    1991-01-01

    A method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile comprises soaking the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution and distributing an oxygen-containing gas throughout the coal refuse pile for a time period sufficient to effect oxidation of coal contained in the coal refuse pile. The method further comprises leaching the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution to solubilize and extract the oxidized coal as alkali salts of humic acids and collecting the resulting solution containing the alkali salts of humic acids. Calcium hydroxide may be added to the solution of alkali salts of humic acid to form precipitated humates useable as a low-ash, low-sulfur solid fuel.

  5. Improved Supercritical-Solvent Extraction of Coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, L.

    1982-01-01

    Raw coal upgraded by supercritical-solvent extraction system that uses two materials instead of one. System achieved extraction yields of 20 to 49 weight percent. Single-solvent yields are about 25 weight percent. Experimental results show extraction yields may be timedependent. Observed decreases in weight of coal agreed well with increases in ash content of residue.

  6. Report of activities of the advanced coal extraction systems definition project for the period 1979-1980

    SciTech Connect

    Lavin, M.L.; Isenberg, L.

    1981-08-01

    The primary focus of the Project during 1979-1980 was formulation of system level performance goals and the translation of these goals into conceptual design requirements. The overall performance goals, although presented as specific to the Central Appalachian resource, are general in all areas except mine size and regional geology. Five system performance areas were covered: production cost, miner safety and health, environmental impact, and coal conservation. During the latter portion of 1980, project attention turned to transformation into conceptual design requirements the previously identified opportunities to meet the systems requirements. The Central Appalachian coals were chosen as the focus of the early system definition work on the basis of a brief analysis. Preliminary estimates indicated substantial deposits of coal in the Gulf Coast and the Brooks Range region of Alaska. At the close of 1980, this resource study was in the midst of an in-depth analysis of substantial coal deposits within the five major coal provinces - Appalachia, the Interior, the Rocky Mountains, the Gulf Coast, and Alaska. Finally, the project launched a brief conceptual design activity in early 1979, and performed a broad survey of current R and D in underground mining technology. Subsequent work in the area of technology assessment focused on underground slurry transport.

  7. Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerstenau, D.W.; Sastry, K.V.S.; Hanson, J.S.; Narayanan, K.S.; Urbina, R.H.; Diao, J.; Yin, Y.; Harris, G.; Hu, Weibei; Zou, Y.; Chen, W.; Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Xhong, K.; Xiao, L.; Choudhry, V.; Shea, S.; Ghosh, A.; Sehgal, R.; Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT; Columbia Univ., New York, NY; Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA )

    1989-08-15

    The primary goal of this project is to develop advanced flotation methods for coal cleaning in order to achieve 90% pyritic sulfur removal at 90% Btu yield, using coal samples procured from six major US coal seams. Concomitantly, the ash content of these coals is to be reduced to 6% or less. Investigation of mechanisms for the control of coal and pyrite surfaces prior to fine coal flotation is an important aspect of the project objectives. Large quantities of coal samples have been procured from six major seams. Samples of the same coals are also to be supplied to the University of Pittsburgh for selective agglomeration research. A second objective is to investigate factors involved in the progressive weathering and oxidation of coal stored in three storage modes, namely, open, covered and in an argon-inerted atmosphere, over a period of twelve months. After regular intervals of weathering, samples of the three base coals are to be collected and shipped to both the University of Pittsburgh and the University of California at Berkeley for characterization studies of the weathered coals. Work is divided into 8 tasks: (1) project work plan; (2) coal procurement and weathering; (3) coal characterization; (4) standard beneficiation test; (5) grinding studies; (6) surface modification studies; (7) exploratory R D and support; and (8) task integration and project management. 8 refs., 50 figs., 38 tabs.

  8. AQUEOUS BIPHASE EXTRACTION FOR PROCESSING OF FINE COAL

    SciTech Connect

    K. Osseo-Asare; X. Zeng

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this research project is to develop an aqueous biphase extraction process for the treatment of fine coals. Aqueous biphase extraction is an advanced separation technology that relies on the ability of an aqueous system consisting of a water-soluble polymer and another component, e.g., another polymer, an inorganic salt, or a nonionic surfactant, to separate into two immiscible aqueous phases. The principle behind the partition of solid particles in aqueous biphase systems is the physicochemical interaction between the solid surface and the surrounding liquid solution. In order to remove sulfur and mineral matter from fine coal with aqueous biphasic extraction, it is necessary to know the partitioning behavior of coal, as well as the inorganic mineral components. Therefore, in this research emphasis was placed on the partitioning behavior of fine coal particles as well as model fine inorganic particles in aqueous biphase systems.

  9. Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerstenau, D.W.; Sastry, K.V.S.; Hanson, J.S.; Narayanan, K.S.; Herrera-Urbina, R.; Diao, J.; Yin, Y.; Sotillo, F.; Harris, G. ); Hu, Weibei; Zou, Y.; Chen, W. ); Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Xhong, K.; Xiao, L. ); Choudhry, V.; Shea, S.; Ghosh, A.; Sehgal, R. (Praxis Engineers, Inc., Mi

    1990-02-28

    The primary objective of this research project is to develop advanced flotation methods for coal cleaning in order to achieve 90% pyritic sulfur removal at 90% Btu recovery, using coal samples procured from six major US coal seams. Concomitantly, the ash content of these coals is to be reduced to 6% or less. Investigation of mechanisms for the control of coal and pyrite surfaces prior to fine coal flotation is an important aspect of the project objectives. The effect of the following additives on flotation response was investigated. These include methanol lethanol, butylbenzaldehyde, glyoxal and several monomers. A second major objective is to investigate factors involved in the progressive weathering and oxidation of coal that had been stored in three storage modes, namely, open, covered and in an argon-inerted'' atmosphere, over a period of twelve months. 33 refs., 134 figs., 98 tabs.

  10. Service Modules for Coal Extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangal, M. D.; Lewis, E. V.

    1985-01-01

    Service train follows group of mining machines, paying out utility lines as machines progress into coal face. Service train for four mining machines removes gases and coal and provides water and electricity. Flexible, coiling armored carriers protect cables and hoses. High coal production attained by arraying row of machines across face, working side by side.

  11. Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gray, R.; Streeter, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Chiarlli, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Perez, L.; Venkatadri, R.

    1992-01-01

    This final report presents the research work carried out on the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC). The project was to support the engineering development of the selective agglomeration technology in order to reduce the sulfur content of US coals for controlling SO[sub 2] emissions (i.e., acid rain precursors). The overall effort was a part of the DOE/PETCs Acid Rain Control Initiative (ARCI). The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 85% pyrite sulfur rejection at an energy recovery greater than 85% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning; methods for analysis of samples; development of standard beneficiation test; grinding studies; modification of particle surface; and exploratory R D and support. The coal samples used in this project include three base coals, Upper Freeport - Indiana County, PA, Pittsburgh NO. 8 - Belmont County, OH, and Illinois No. 6 - Randolph County, IL, and three additional coals, Upper Freeport - Grant County- WV, Kentucky No. 9 Hopkins County, KY, and Wyodak - Campbell County, WY. A total of 149 drums of coal were received.

  12. Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerstenau, D.W.; Sastry, K.V.S.; Hanson, J.S.; Diao, J.; De, A.; Sotillo, F.; Harris, G. ); Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C. ); Hu, Weibai; Zou, Y.; Chen, W. ); Choudhry, V.; Sehgal, R.; Ghosh, A. (Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (United

    1991-07-30

    The primary objective in the scope of this research project is to develop advanced flotation methods for coal cleaning in order to achieve near total pyritic-sulfur removal at 90% Btu recovery, using coal samples procured from three major US coal seams. Concomitantly, the ash content of these coals is to be reduced to 6% or less. Investigation of mechanisms for the control of coal and pyrite surfaces prior to fine coal flotation is the main aspect of the project objectives. The results of this research are to be made available to ICF Kaiser Engineers who are currently working on the Engineering Development of Advanced Flotation under a separate contract with DOE under the Acid Rain Control Initiative program. A second major objective is to investigate factors involved in the progressive weathering and oxidation of coal that had been exposed to varying degrees of weathering, namely, open to the atmosphere, covered and in an argon-inerted'' atmosphere, over a period of twelve months. After regular intervals of weathering, samples of the three base coals (Illinois No. 6, Pittsburgh No. 8 and Upper Freeport PA) were collected and shipped to both the University of Pittsburgh and the University of California at Berkeley for characterization studies of the weathered material. 29 figs., 29 tabs.

  13. Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerstenau, D.W.; Sastry, K.V.S.; Hanson, J.S.; Diao, J.; De, A.; Sotillo, F.; Harris, G. ); Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C. ); Hu, W.; Zou, Y.; Chen, W. ); Choudhry, V.; Sehgal, R.; Ghosh, A. (Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (United Stat

    1991-05-15

    The primary objective in the scope of this research project is to develop advanced flotation methods for coal cleaning in order to achieve near total pyritic-sulfur removal at 90% Btu recovery, using coal samples procured from three major US coal seams. Concomitantly, the ash content of these coals is to be reduced to 6% or less. Investigation of mechanisms for the control of coal and pyrite surfaces prior to fine coal flotation is the main aspect of the project objectives. Research topics covered during this quarter include the characterization of the base coals, various flotation studies on optimization and pyrite rejection, and a detailed flotation kinetic study. The effect of hexanol, butanol, dodecane, and polyethylene glycol on flotation is described. A second major objective is to investigate factors involved in the progressive weathering and oxidation of coal that had been exposed to varying weathered degrees, namely, open, covered and in an argon-inerted'' atmosphere, over a period of twelve months. After regular intervals if weathering, samples of the three base coals (Illinois No. 6, Pittsburgh No. 8 and Upper Freeport PA) were collected and shipped to both the University of Pittsburgh and the University of California at Berkeley for characterization studies of the weathered material. 35 figs., 17 tabs.

  14. Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerstenau, D.W.; Sastry, K.V.S.; Hanson, J.S.; Harris, G.; Sotillo, F.; Diao, J.; Yin, Y. ); Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C. ); Hu, Weibai; Zou, Y.; Chen, W. ); Choudhry, V.; Sehgal, R.; Ghosh, A. )

    1990-05-31

    The primary objective in the scope of this research project is to develop advanced flotation methods for coal cleaning in order to achieve near total pyritic sulfur removal at 90% Btu recovery, using coal samples procured from six major US coal seams. The ash content of these coals is to be reduced to 6% or less. Investigation of mechanisms for the control of coal and pyrite surfaces prior to fine coal flotation is an important aspect of the project objectives. A second major objective is to investigate factors involved in the progressive weathering and oxidation of coal that had been exposed to varying weathered degrees, namely, open, covered and in an argon-inerted'' atmosphere, over a period of twelve months. After regular intervals of weathering, samples of the three base coals (Illinois No. 6, Pittsburgh No. 8 and Upper Freeport PA) were collected and shipped to both the University of Pittsburgh and the University of California at Berkeley for characterization studies of the weathered material. Progress is described on weathering, washability studies (calorific value, ash analysis, pyritic sulfur rejection, variability analysis), coal grinding and flotation, pH effects and modification of surfaces on flotation. 26 figs., 20 tabs.

  15. COSTS FOR ADVANCED COAL COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of the development status of advanced coal combustion technologies and discusses the preparation of performance and economic models for their application to electric utility plants. he technologies addressed were atmospheric fluidized bed...

  16. Coal and Coal Constituent Studies by Advanced EMR Techniques.

    SciTech Connect

    Belford, R.L.; Clarkson, R.B.; Odintsov, B.; Ceroke, P.J.

    1997-09-30

    Advanced electronic magnetic resonance (EMR) methods are used to examine properties of coals, chars, and molecular species related to constituents of coal. During this grant period, progress was made on a high frequency EMR system particularly appropriate for such studies and on low-frequency dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) to examine the interaction between fluids such as water and the surface of suspended char particles.

  17. COAL AND COAL CONSTITUENT STUDIES BY ADVANCED EMR TECHNIQUES

    SciTech Connect

    R. Linn Belford; Robert B. Clarkson

    1997-03-28

    Advanced electronic magnetic resonance (EMR) methods are used to examine properties of coals, chars, and molecular species related to constituents of coal. During this grant period, progress was made on setting up a separate high frequency EMR system particularly appropriate for such studies and exploring the use of low-frequency dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) to examine the interaction between fluids such as water and the surface of suspended char particles.

  18. Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerstenau, D.W.; Sastry, K.V.; Hanson, J.S.; Harris, G.; Sotillo, F.; Diao, J.; De, A. ); Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C. ); Hu, Weibai; Zou, Y.; Chen, W. ); Choudhry, V.; Sehgal, R.; Ghosh, A. )

    1991-03-22

    The main goal of the project is to characterize the surface and control the behavior of coal during advanced flotation processing in order to achieve an overall objective of near-total pyritic sulfur removal with a high Btu recovery. Also, investigation of the effects of weathering on the surface characteristics of coal is another important aspect of this project. The effect of butanol, dodecane, lime, calcium cyanide, hydrogen peroxide, and ph on flotation performance is discussed. 2 refs., 26 figs., 18 tabs.

  19. Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerstenau, D.W.; Hanson, J.S.; Diao, J.; Harris, G.H.; De, A.; Sotillo, F. ); Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C. ); Hu, W.; Zou, Y.; Chen, W. ); Choudhry, V.; Shea, S.; Ghosh, A.; Sehgal, R. )

    1992-03-01

    The initial goal of the research project was to develop methods of coal surface control in advanced froth flotation to achieve 90% pyritic sulfur rejection, while operating at Btu recoveries above 90% based on run-of-mine quality coal. Moreover, the technology is to concomitantly reduce the ash content significantly (to six percent or less) to provide a high-quality fuel to the boiler (ash removal also increases Btu content, which in turn decreases a coal's emission potential in terms of lbs SO{sub 2}/million Btu). (VC)

  20. Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerstenau, D.W.; Sastry, K.V.S.; Hanson, J.S.; Narayanan, K.S.; Sotillo, F.; Diao, J.; Yin, Y.; Harris, G. ); Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Xhong, K.; Xiao, L. ); Hu, Weibai; Zou, Y.; Chen, W. ); Choudhry, V.; Shea, S.; Ghosh, A. (Praxis Engineers, Inc

    1990-02-12

    The primary goal of this research project is to develop advanced flotation methods for coal cleaning in order to achieve 90{percent} pyritic sulfur removal at 90{percent} Btu recovery, using coal samples procured from six major US coal seams. Concomitantly, the ash content of these coals is to be reduced to 6{percent} or less. Investigation of mechanisms for the control of coal and pyrite surfaces prior to fine coal flotation is an important aspect of the project objectives. A second major objective is to investigate factors involved in the progressive weathering and oxidation of three base coals stored in three storage modes, namely, open, covered and in an argon-inerted atmosphere, over a period of twelve months. This quarter results are presented under the following topics: effect of ph modifiers on flotation performance; effect of anionic reagents during grinding; effect of organic monomers; effect of non-ionic reagents; grinding with collector and flotation kinetics; and flotation behavior of weathered coals. (CBS)

  1. TRW advanced slagging coal combustor utility demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The TRW Advanced Entrained Coal Combustor Demonstration Project consists of retrofitting Orange and Rockland (O R) Utility Corporation's Lovett Plant Unit No. 3 with four (4) slagging combustors which will allow the gas/oil unit to fire 2.5% sulfur coal. The slagging combustor process will provide NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions that meet NSPS and New York State Environmental Standards. The TRW-Utility Demonstration Unit (UDU) is responsible for the implementation of program policies and overall direction of the project. The following projects will be carried out: process and design development of clean coal technology CCT-1 the development and operation of the entrained coal combustor will enable the boiler to burn low and medium sulfur coal while meeting all the Federal/State emission requirements; demonstrate sulfur dioxide emissions control by pulverized limestone injection into the entrained coal combustor system.

  2. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wenglarz, R.A.

    1994-08-01

    Several technology advances since the early coal-fueled turbine programs that address technical issues of coal as a turbine fuel have been developed in the early 1980s: Coal-water suspensions as fuel form, improved methods for removing ash and contaminants from coal, staged combustion for reducing NO{sub x} emissions from fuel-bound nitrogen, and greater understanding of deposition/erosion/corrosion and their control. Several Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Systems programs were awarded to gas turbine manufacturers for for components development and proof of concept tests; one of these was Allison. Tests were conducted in a subscale coal combustion facility and a full-scale facility operating a coal combustor sized to the Allison Model 501-K industrial turbine. A rich-quench-lean (RQL), low nitrogen oxide combustor design incorporating hot gas cleanup was developed for coal fuels; this should also be applicable to biomass, etc. The combustor tests showed NO{sub x} and CO emissions {le} levels for turbines operating with natural gas. Water washing of vanes from the turbine removed the deposits. Systems and economic evaluations identified two possible applications for RQL turbines: Cogeneration plants based on Allison 501-K turbine (output 3.7 MW(e), 23,000 lbs/hr steam) and combined cycle power plants based on 50 MW or larger gas turbines. Coal-fueled cogeneration plant configurations were defined and evaluated for site specific factors. A coal-fueled turbine combined cycle plant design was identified which is simple, compact, and results in lower capital cost, with comparable efficiency and low emissions relative to other coal technologies (gasification, advanced PFBC).

  3. Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerstenau, D.W.; Sastry, K.V.S.; Hanson, J.S.; Harris, G.; Sotillo, F.; Diao, J. ); Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C. ); Hu, Weibai; Zou, Y.; Chen, W. ); Choudhry, V.; Sehgal, R.; Ghosh, A. )

    1990-08-15

    The primary objective of this research project is to develop advanced flotation methods for coal cleaning in order to achieve near total pyritic-sulfur removal at 90% Btu recovery, using coal samples procured from six major US coal seams. Concomitantly, the ash content of these coals is to be reduced to 6% or less. Work this quarter concentrated on the following: washability studies, which included particle size distribution of the washability samples, and chemical analysis of washability test samples; characterization studies of induction time measurements, correlation between yield, combustible-material recovery (CMR), and heating-value recovery (HVR), and QA/QC for standard flotation tests and coal analyses; surface modification and control including testing of surface-modifying reagents, restoration of hydrophobicity to lab-oxidized coals, pH effects on coal flotation, and depression of pyritic sulfur in which pyrite depression with calcium cyanide and pyrite depression with xanthated reagents was investigated; flotation optimization and circuitry included staged reagent addition, cleaning and scavenging, and scavenging and middling recycling. Weathering studies are also discussed. 19 figs., 28 tabs.

  4. Resource targets for advanced underground coal-extraction systems. [Identification of location and geology of deposit for which greatest savings can be realized by advanced mining systems in 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Hoag, J.H.; Whipple, D.W.; Habib-Agahi, H.; Lavin, M.L.

    1982-08-01

    This report identifies resource targets appropriate for federal sponsorship of research and development of advanced underground coal mining systems. In contrast to previous research, which focused on a particular resource type, this study made a comprehensive examination of both conventional and unconventional coals, with particular attention to exceptionally thin and thick seams, steeply dipping beds, and multiple seam geometry. The major thrust of the targeting analysis was forecasting which coals would be of clear commercial significance at the beginning of the 21st century under three widely different scenarios for coal demand. The primary measure of commercial importance was an estimate of the aggregate dollar savings realized by consumers if advanced technology were available to mine coal at prices at or below the price projected for conventional technology in the year 2000. Both deterministic and probabilistic savings estimates were prepared for each demand scenario. The results indicate that the resource of primary importance is flat-lying bituminous coal of moderate thickness, under moderate cover, and located within the lower 48 states. Resources of secondary importance are the flat-lying multiple seams and thin seams (especially those in Appalachia). The rather substantial deposits of bituminous coal in North Alaska and the deeply buried lignites of the Gulf Coast present transportation and ground control problems which appear to postpone their commercial importance well beyond 2000. Steeply dipping coals, abandoned pillars, and exceptionally thick western coals may be important in some regions or sub-regions, but the limited tonnage available places them in a position of tertiary importance.

  5. Fluidized bed gasification of extracted coal

    DOEpatents

    Aquino, Dolores C.; DaPrato, Philip L.; Gouker, Toby R.; Knoer, Peter

    1986-01-01

    Coal or similar carbonaceous solids are extracted by contacting the solids in an extraction zone (12) with an aqueous solution having a pH above 12.0 at a temperature between 65.degree. C. and 110.degree. C. for a period of time sufficient to remove bitumens from the coal into said aqueous solution and the extracted solids are then gasified at an elevated pressure and temperature in a fluidized bed gasification zone (60) wherein the density of the fluidized bed is maintained at a value above 160 kg/m.sup.3. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, water is removed from the aqueous solution in order to redeposit the extracted bitumens onto the solids prior to the gasification step.

  6. Fluidized bed gasification of extracted coal

    DOEpatents

    Aquino, D.C.; DaPrato, P.L.; Gouker, T.R.; Knoer, P.

    1984-07-06

    Coal or similar carbonaceous solids are extracted by contacting the solids in an extraction zone with an aqueous solution having a pH above 12.0 at a temperature between 65/sup 0/C and 110/sup 0/C for a period of time sufficient to remove bitumens from the coal into said aqueous solution, and the extracted solids are then gasified at an elevated pressure and temperature in a fluidized bed gasification zone (60) wherein the density of the fluidized bed is maintained at a value above 160 kg/m/sup 3/. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, water is removed from the aqueous solution in order to redeposit the extracted bitumens onto the solids prior to the gasification step. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Steady advance of coal and gas bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanbing, Yu

    1988-02-01

    This paper establishes a one-dimensional model to analyse the mechanism of coal and gas bursts. It is found that the intrinsic factor governing bursts is the coupling of the initiation of the moving of coal fragments with the gas seepage. A typical (strong) burst can be treated as a steady advance process. The significant dimensionless parameters concerning bursts and an approximate burst criterion are given, and they are in good agreement with the statistics of field data.

  8. Advanced Coal-Based Power Generations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robson, F. L.

    1982-01-01

    Advanced power-generation systems using coal-derived fuels are evaluated in two-volume report. Report considers fuel cells, combined gas- and steam-turbine cycles, and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) energy conversion. Presents technological status of each type of system and analyzes performance of each operating on medium-Btu fuel gas, either delivered via pipeline to powerplant or generated by coal-gasification process at plantsite.

  9. Dewatering fine coal slurries by gel extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Gehrke, S.H.; Lyu, Lii-Hurng.

    1990-01-01

    A new technology called gel extraction has been evaluated to determine its economic viability in dewatering the fine and ultrafine coal slurries generated upon separation of sulfur and ash from clean coal during the physical coal cleaning process. Water must be removed from such slurries prior to transportation and combustion but the dewatering costs are substantial, especially for the fine particles below 28 mesh (0.6 mm). Gel extraction is a potential breakthrough in slurry dewatering technology. The goal of this project was to acquire the qualitative and quantitative data needed to estimate the potential of gel extraction for dewatering coal slurries. The specific objectives were to determine the maximum extents of dewatering (minimum surface moisture in the coal product), the clarity of the water removed (minimum solids content), the speed of the dewatering cycles, the service lifetime of the gels, and the factors which influence all of these. With the results obtained, an economic analysis of Ohio coal cleaning plant dewatering technologies was carried out. The polymer gel at the heart of this project, poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPA), can swell several times its shrunken weight at 32[degrees]C by absorbing water at 25[degrees]C. In gel extraction, a shrunken NIPA gel is contacted with a slurry at ambient temperature or cooler; the gel swells by absorbing water from the slurry. The gel is then removed from the dewatered slurry and warmed above its critical temperature of 33[degrees]C, which returns it to the shrunken state by releasing the absorbed water. The facts that the gel is reusable and the process is simple and driven by low-grade energy (warm temperatures), and not inherently limited by particle size, made the process an attractive possible alternative to centrifugation, screening, filtration, etc. for slurry dewatering.

  10. Supercritical-Multiple-Solvent Extraction From Coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, W.; Fong, W.; Pichaichanarong, P.; Chan, P.; Lawson, D.

    1983-01-01

    Large and small molecules dissolve different constituents. Experimental apparatus used to test supercritical extraction of hydrogen rich compounds from coal in various organic solvents. In decreasing order of importance, relevant process parameters were found to be temperature, solvent type, pressure, and residence time.

  11. Controlling air toxics through advanced coal preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Straszheim, W.E.; Buttermore, W.H.; Pollard, J.L.

    1995-11-01

    This project involves the assessment of advanced coal preparation methods for removing trace elements from coal to reduce the potential for air toxic emissions upon combustion. Scanning electron microscopy-based automated image analysis (SEM-AIA) and advanced washability analyses are being applied with state-of-the-art analytical procedures to predict the removal of elements of concern by advanced column flotation and to confirm the effectiveness of preparation on the quality of quantity of clean coal produced. Specific objectives are to maintain an acceptable recovery of combustible product, while improving the rejection of mineral-associated trace elements. Current work has focused on determining conditions for controlling column flotation system across its operating range and on selection and analysis of samples for determining trace element cleanability.

  12. Magnetic relaxation--coal swelling, extraction, pore size

    SciTech Connect

    Doetschman, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    The grant activities during this period fall into four categories: (1) Completion of preparatory work, (2) Procedure refinement and actual preparation of whole coal, coal residue, coal extract and swelled coal samples for NMR studies, (3) Related studies of coal photolysis that employ materials from preliminary extractions and that examine the u.v.-visible and mass spectra of the extracts and (4) Continued investigations of the pulsed EPR characteristics of the whole coal samples that were prepared in the first quarter of the grant.

  13. Prospects for advanced coal-fuelled fuel cell power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, D.; Vanderlaag, P. C.; Oudhuis, A. B. J.; Ribberink, J. S.

    1994-04-01

    As part of ECN's in-house R&D programs on clean energy conversion systems with high efficiencies and low emissions, system assessment studies have been carried out on coal gasification power plants integrated with high-temperature fuel cells (IGFC). The studies also included the potential to reduce CO2 emissions, and to find possible ways for CO2 extraction and sequestration. The development of this new type of clean coal technology for large-scale power generation is still far off. A significant market share is not envisaged before the year 2015. To assess the future market potential of coal-fueled fuel cell power plants, the promise of this fuel cell technology was assessed against the performance and the development of current state-of-the-art large-scale power generation systems, namely the pulverized coal-fired power plants and the integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants. With the anticipated progress in gas turbine and gas clean-up technology, coal-fueled fuel cell power plants will have to face severe competition from advanced IGCC power plants, despite their higher efficiency.

  14. 30 CFR 750.21 - Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.21 Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other...

  15. 30 CFR 750.21 - Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.21 Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other...

  16. Advanced clean coal utilization technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Moritomi, Hiroshi

    1993-12-31

    The most important greenhouse gas is CO{sub 2} from coal utilization. Ways of mitigating CO{sub 2} emissions include the use of alternative fuels, using renewable resources and increasing the efficiency of power generation and end use. Adding to such greenhouse gas mitigation technologies, post combustion control by removing CO{sub 2} from power station flue gases and then storing or disposing it will be available. Although the post combustion control have to be evaluated in a systematic manner relating them to whether they are presently available technology, to be available in the near future or long term prospects requiring considerable development, it is considered to be a less promising option owing to the high cost and energy penalty. By contrast, abatement technologies aimed at improving conversion efficiency or reducing energy consumption will reduce emissions while having their own commercial justification.

  17. Process to upgrade coal liquids by extraction prior to hydrodenitrogenation

    DOEpatents

    Schneider, Abraham; Hollstein, Elmer J.; Janoski, Edward J.; Scheibel, Edward G.

    1982-01-01

    Oxygen compounds are removed, e.g., by extraction, from a coal liquid prior to its hydrogenation. As a result, compared to hydrogenation of such a non-treated coal liquid, the rate of nitrogen removal is increased.

  18. TRW Advanced Slagging Coal Combustor Utility Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The TRW Advanced Slagging Coal Combustor Demonstration Project consists of retrofitting Orange and Rockland (O R) Utility Corporation's Lovett Plant Unit No. 3 with four (4) slagging combustors which will allow the gas/ou desip unit to fire 2.5 sulfur coal. The slogging combustor process will provide NO[sub x] and SO[sub x] emissions that meet NSPS and New York State Envirommental Standards. TRW-CBU scope of work includes the engineering, design and supply of the slogging combustors, coal and limestone feed systems and a control system for these components. During this report period, the design activities for all systems progressed to permit the release of specifications and requests for proposals. Award of contracts for long-delivery items and major equipment are being placed to meet the revised program schedule.

  19. Assessment of advanced coal gasification processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, J.; Ferrall, J.; Charng, T.; Houseman, J.

    1981-01-01

    A technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes is presented: high throughput gasification (HTG) process; single stage high mass flux (HMF) processes; (CS/R) hydrogasification process; and the catalytic coal gasification (CCG) process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce synthetic natural gas from a bituminous coal. Key similarities, differences, strengths, weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The HTG and the HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging, and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R hydrogasifier is also SRT, but is nonslagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic, fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier.

  20. Advanced systems for producing superclean coal

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.; Adel, G.T.

    1990-08-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop several advanced separation processes for producing superclean coal containing 0.4--2.0% ash and very little pyritic sulfur. Three physical and physico-chemical processes were studied: microbubble flotation, selective hydrophobic coagulation, and electrochemical coal cleaning. Information has been collected from bench-scale experiments in order to determine the basic mechanisms of all three processes. Additionally, because microbubble flotation has already been proven on a bench scale, preliminary scale-up models have been developed for this process. A fundamental study of the electrochemistry of coal pyrite has also been conducted in conjunction with this scale-up effort in order to provide information useful for improving sulfur rejection. The effects of additives (NaCl and kerosene) were also investigated. 94 refs., 167 figs., 25 tabs.

  1. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Phadke, Amol; Goldman, Charles; Larson, Doug; Carr, Tom; Rath, Larry; Balash, Peter; Yih-Huei, Wan

    2008-11-28

    Growing concern over climate change is prompting new thinking about the technologies used to generate electricity. In the future, it is possible that new government policies on greenhouse gas emissions may favor electric generation technology options that release zero or low levels of carbon emissions. The Western U.S. has abundant wind and coal resources. In a world with carbon constraints, the future of coal for new electrical generation is likely to depend on the development and successful application of new clean coal technologies with near zero carbon emissions. This scoping study explores the economic and technical feasibility of combining wind farms with advanced coal generation facilities and operating them as a single generation complex in the Western US. The key questions examined are whether an advanced coal-wind hybrid (ACWH) facility provides sufficient advantages through improvements to the utilization of transmission lines and the capability to firm up variable wind generation for delivery to load centers to compete effectively with other supply-side alternatives in terms of project economics and emissions footprint. The study was conducted by an Analysis Team that consists of staff from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and Western Interstate Energy Board (WIEB). We conducted a screening level analysis of the economic competitiveness and technical feasibility of ACWH generation options located in Wyoming that would supply electricity to load centers in California, Arizona or Nevada. Figure ES-1 is a simple stylized representation of the configuration of the ACWH options. The ACWH consists of a 3,000 MW coal gasification combined cycle power plant equipped with carbon capture and sequestration (G+CC+CCS plant), a fuel production or syngas storage facility, and a 1,500 MW wind plant. The ACWH project is connected to load centers by a 3,000 MW

  2. Assessment of Advanced Coal Gasification Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCarthy, John; Ferrall, Joseph; Charng, Thomas; Houseman, John

    1981-01-01

    This report represents a technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes: AVCO High Throughput Gasification (HTG) Process; Bell Single-Stage High Mass Flux (HMF) Process; Cities Service/Rockwell (CS/R) Hydrogasification Process; Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) Process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce SNG from a bituminous coal. In addition to identifying the new technology these processes represent, key similarities/differences, strengths/weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The AVCO HTG and the Bell HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R Hydrogasifier is also SRT but is non-slagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The Exxon CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic, fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier. The report makes the following assessments: 1) while each process has significant potential as coal gasifiers, the CS/R and Exxon processes are better suited for SNG production; 2) the Exxon process is the closest to a commercial level for near-term SNG production; and 3) the SRT processes require significant development including scale-up and turndown demonstration, char processing and/or utilization demonstration, and reactor control and safety features development.

  3. Sequential leaching of coal to investigate the elution of inorganic elements into coal extract (HyperCoal)

    SciTech Connect

    Lian Zhang; Toshimasa Takanohashi; Tetsuya Nakazato; Ikuo Saito; Hiroaki Tao

    2008-07-15

    Two Argonne premium coal samples, Illinois No. 6 (IL) and Wyodak-Anderson (WY), were extracted by 1-methynaphthalene for 1 h at 360{sup o}C and under 1 MPa nitrogen (cold) protection. Elution of inorganic elements into coal extracts as well as their chemistry has been mainly investigated. An indirect method for metallic speciation was employed by initially washing coal with a variety of acids. Subsequently, the washed coals as well as the respective raw coal were extracted. For a given metal, elution of its ion-exchangeable fraction was defined as the difference between its amounts eluted into the extracts of raw coal and acetic acid-washed coal. Elution of submicrometer discrete particles was defined as the difference between the extracts of acetic acid-washed coal and nitric acid-washed coal. Elution of its fraction insoluble in nitric acid was assigned as organometals which are chemically associated with coal carbonaceous matrix and/or those incorporated into fine clay minerals. About 822 and 1110 ppm inorganic elements were eluted into the extracts of IL and WY coals, respectively. Fe was the most prevalent. The transition metals including Cr, Ni, Mn, Co, Cu, and Zn were also abundant. These metals were mostly nitric-acid insoluble. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy characterization suggested the high-spin Fe{sup 3+} state for Fe that is virtually totally associated with coal functional groups. Regarding the remaining metals in coal extracts, they are mainly submicrometer discrete particles in IL extract. Elution of the ion-exchangeable carboxylates was however prominent during WY coal extraction. 43 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Advanced integrated solvent extraction systems

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.; Leonard, R.A.

    1997-10-01

    Advanced integrated solvent extraction systems are a series of novel solvent extraction (SX) processes that will remove and recover all of the major radioisotopes from acidic-dissolved sludge or other acidic high-level wastes. The major focus of this effort during the last 2 years has been the development of a combined cesium-strontium extraction/recovery process, the Combined CSEX-SREX Process. The Combined CSEX-SREX Process relies on a mixture of a strontium-selective macrocyclic polyether and a novel cesium-selective extractant based on dibenzo 18-crown-6. The process offers several potential advantages over possible alternatives in a chemical processing scheme for high-level waste treatment. First, if the process is applied as the first step in chemical pretreatment, the radiation level for all subsequent processing steps (e.g., transuranic extraction/recovery, or TRUEX) will be significantly reduced. Thus, less costly shielding would be required. The second advantage of the Combined CSEX-SREX Process is that the recovered Cs-Sr fraction is non-transuranic, and therefore will decay to low-level waste after only a few hundred years. Finally, combining individual processes into a single process will reduce the amount of equipment required to pretreat the waste and therefore reduce the size and cost of the waste processing facility. In an ongoing collaboration with Lockheed Martin Idaho Technology Company (LMITCO), the authors have successfully tested various segments of the Advanced Integrated Solvent Extraction Systems. Eichrom Industries, Inc. (Darien, IL) synthesizes and markets the Sr extractant and can supply the Cs extractant on a limited basis. Plans are under way to perform a test of the Combined CSEX-SREX Process with real waste at LMITCO in the near future.

  5. Coal and Coal Constituent Studies by Advanced EMR Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Alex I. Smirnov; Mark J. Nilges; R. Linn Belford; Robert B. Clarkson

    1998-03-31

    Advanced electronic magnetic resonance (EMR) methods are used to examine properties of coals, chars, and molecular species related to constituents of coal. We have achieved substantial progress on upgrading the high field (HF) EMR (W-band, 95 GHz) spectrometers that are especially advantageous for such studies. Particularly, we have built a new second W-band instrument (Mark II) in addition to our Mark I. Briefly, Mark II features: (i) an Oxford custom-built 7 T superconducting magnet which is scannable from 0 to 7 T at up to 0.5 T/min; (ii) water-cooled coaxial solenoid with up to ±550 G scan under digital (15 bits resolution) computer control; (iii) custom-engineered precision feed-back circuit, which is used to drive this solenoid, is based on an Ultrastab 860R sensor that has linearity better than 5 ppm and resolution of 0.05 ppm; (iv) an Oxford CF 1200 cryostat for variable temperature studies from 1.8 to 340 K. During this grant period we have completed several key upgrades of both Mark I and II, particularly microwave bridge, W-band probehead, and computer interfaces. We utilize these improved instruments for HF EMR studies of spin-spin interaction and existence of different paramagnetic species in carbonaceous solids.

  6. 30 CFR 941.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 941.702 Section 941.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction...

  7. 30 CFR 750.21 - Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 750.21 Section 750.21 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.21 Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other...

  8. 30 CFR 947.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 947.702 Section 947.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction...

  9. 30 CFR 903.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 903.702 Section 903.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  10. 30 CFR 921.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 921.702 Section 921.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of the chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction...

  11. 30 CFR 942.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 942.702 Section 942.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  12. 30 CFR 750.21 - Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 750.21 Section 750.21 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.21 Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other...

  13. 30 CFR 937.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 937.702 Section 937.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  14. 30 CFR 905.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 905.702 Section 905.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction...

  15. 30 CFR 922.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 922.702 Section 922.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  16. 30 CFR 933.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 933.702 Section 933.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction...

  17. 30 CFR 750.21 - Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 750.21 Section 750.21 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.21 Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other...

  18. 30 CFR 912.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 912.702 Section 912.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  19. 30 CFR 910.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 910.702 Section 910.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  20. 30 CFR 939.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 939.702 Section 939.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction...

  1. 30 CFR 939.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 939.702 Section 939.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  2. 30 CFR 910.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 910.702 Section 910.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  3. 30 CFR 922.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 922.702 Section 922.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  4. 30 CFR 947.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 947.702 Section 947.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON § 947.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  5. 30 CFR 905.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 905.702 Section 905.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA § 905.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  6. 30 CFR 941.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 941.702 Section 941.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA § 941.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  7. 30 CFR 921.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 921.702 Section 921.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS § 921.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  8. 30 CFR 942.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 942.702 Section 942.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  9. 30 CFR 903.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 903.702 Section 903.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  10. 30 CFR 937.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 937.702 Section 937.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  11. 30 CFR 941.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 941.702 Section 941.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA § 941.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  12. 30 CFR 937.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 937.702 Section 937.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  13. 30 CFR 903.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 903.702 Section 903.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  14. 30 CFR 939.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 939.702 Section 939.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  15. 30 CFR 942.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 942.702 Section 942.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  16. 30 CFR 903.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 903.702 Section 903.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  17. 30 CFR 910.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 910.702 Section 910.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  18. 30 CFR 922.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 922.702 Section 922.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  19. 30 CFR 933.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 933.702 Section 933.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA § 933.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  20. 30 CFR 910.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 910.702 Section 910.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  1. 30 CFR 937.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 937.702 Section 937.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  2. 30 CFR 922.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 922.702 Section 922.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  3. 30 CFR 933.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 933.702 Section 933.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA § 933.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  4. 30 CFR 921.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 921.702 Section 921.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS § 921.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  5. 30 CFR 941.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 941.702 Section 941.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA § 941.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  6. 30 CFR 947.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 947.702 Section 947.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON § 947.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  7. 30 CFR 947.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 947.702 Section 947.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON § 947.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  8. 30 CFR 942.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 942.702 Section 942.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  9. 30 CFR 937.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 937.702 Section 937.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  10. 30 CFR 905.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 905.702 Section 905.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA § 905.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  11. 30 CFR 905.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 905.702 Section 905.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA § 905.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  12. 30 CFR 933.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 933.702 Section 933.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA § 933.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  13. 30 CFR 942.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 942.702 Section 942.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  14. 30 CFR 922.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 922.702 Section 922.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  15. 30 CFR 903.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 903.702 Section 903.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  16. 30 CFR 905.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 905.702 Section 905.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA § 905.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  17. 30 CFR 939.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 939.702 Section 939.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  18. 30 CFR 939.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 939.702 Section 939.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  19. 30 CFR 910.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 910.702 Section 910.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  20. 30 CFR 947.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 947.702 Section 947.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON § 947.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  1. 30 CFR 921.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 921.702 Section 921.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS § 921.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  2. 30 CFR 921.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 921.702 Section 921.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS § 921.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction...

  3. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    Westinghouse's Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine System Program (DE-AC2l-86MC23167) was originally split into two major phases - a Basic Program and an Option. The Basic Program also contained two phases. The development of a 6 atm, 7 lb/s, 12 MMBtu/hr slagging combustor with an extended period of testing of the subscale combustor, was the first part of the Basic Program. In the second phase of the Basic Program, the combustor was to be operated over a 3-month period with a stationary cascade to study the effect of deposition, erosion and corrosion on combustion turbine components. The testing of the concept, in subscale, has demonstrated its ability to handle high- and low-sulfur bituminous coals, and low-sulfur subbituminous coal. Feeding the fuel in the form of PC has proven to be superior to CWM type feed. The program objectives relative to combustion efficiency, combustor exit temperature, NO[sub x] emissions, carbon burnout, and slag rejection have been met. Objectives for alkali, particulate, and SO[sub x] levels leaving the combustor were not met by the conclusion of testing at Textron. It is planned to continue this testing, to achieve all desired emission levels, as part of the W/NSP program to commercialize the slagging combustor technology.

  4. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    Western Energy Company (WECO) was selected by the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) which upgrades low rank coals into high Btu, low sulfur, synthetic bituminous coal. As specified in the Corporate Agreement, RSCP is required to develop an Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) which describes in detail the environmental monitoring activities to be performed during the project execution. The purpose of the EMP is to: (1) identify monitoring activities that will be undertaken to show compliance to applicable regulations, (2) confirm the specific environmental impacts predicted in the National Environmental Policy Act documentation, and (3) establish an information base of the assessment of the environmental performance of the technology demonstrated by the project. The EMP specifies the streams to be monitored (e.g. gaseous, aqueous, and solid waste), the parameters to be measured (e.g. temperature, pressure, flow rate), and the species to be analyzed (e.g. sulfur compounds, nitrogen compounds, trace elements) as well as human health and safety exposure levels. The operation and frequency of the monitoring activities is specified, as well as the timing for the monitoring activities related to project phase (e.g. preconstruction, construction, commissioning, operational, post-operational). The EMP is designed to assess the environmental impacts and the environmental improvements resulting from construction and operation of the project.

  5. Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerstenau, D.W.; Sastry, K.V.S.; Hanson, J.S.; Diao, J.; De, A.; Sotillo, F.; Harris, G. ); Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C. ); Hu, Weibei; Zou, Y.; Chen, W. ); Choudhry, V.; Shea, S.; Ghosh, A.; Sehgal, R. (Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA

    1991-01-15

    The majority of research conducted was designed to control and selectivity modify coal and pyrite surfaces during flotation. Numerous approaches were used as part of the effort to enhance the separation efficiency of the flotation process. These included the addition of emulsifiers, dispersants, xanthated polymers, straight-chained alcohols, calcium cyanides an pH modifiers. The most important finding from these studies are the delineation of the role of pH and the beneficial effects of alcohols on coal flotation. For minus 28-mesh coal, a detailed study of the role of particle size on the kinetics of flotation was undertaken in order to determine flotation rate constants for coal, ash and pyrite particles as a function of particle size. In general, the rate constants for the flotation of coal were found to be higher than those of pyrite and ash and they did not vary substantially with particle size. Characterization studies of weathered and fresh coal samples were also completed. Induction times measured for freshly ground coal were found to indicate the same order of hydrophobicity as determined by contact angle measurements and all other techniques used to assess wettability. DRIFT spectroscopy of weathered coals was not able to detect the effects of weathering while zeta potential measurements showed that the weathered coal had a slightly more negative surface charge. The induction times for the coals generally increased with weathering time. 4 refs., 69 figs., 82 tabs.

  6. Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Program

    SciTech Connect

    Horner, M.W.; Ekstedt, E.E.; Gal, E.; Jackson, M.R.; Kimura, S.G.; Lavigne, R.G.; Lucas, C.; Rairden, J.R.; Sabla, P.E.; Savelli, J.F.; Slaughter, D.M.; Spiro, C.L.; Staub, F.W.

    1989-02-01

    The objective of the original Request for Proposal was to establish the technological bases necessary for the subsequent commercial development and deployment of advanced coal-fueled gas turbine power systems by the private sector. The offeror was to identify the specific application or applications, toward which his development efforts would be directed; define and substantiate the technical, economic, and environmental criteria for the selected application; and conduct such component design, development, integration, and tests as deemed necessary to fulfill this objective. Specifically, the offeror was to choose a system through which ingenious methods of grouping subcomponents into integrated systems accomplishes the following: (1) Preserve the inherent power density and performance advantages of gas turbine systems. (2) System must be capable of meeting or exceeding existing and expected environmental regulations for the proposed application. (3) System must offer a considerable improvement over coal-fueled systems which are commercial, have been demonstrated, or are being demonstrated. (4) System proposed must be an integrated gas turbine concept, i.e., all fuel conditioning, all expansion gas conditioning, or post-expansion gas cleaning, must be integrated into the gas turbine system.

  7. Rocketdyne's advanced coal slurry pumping program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, D. E.; Wong, G. S.; Gilman, H. H.

    1977-01-01

    The Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International Corporation is conducting a program for the engineering, fabrication, and testing of an experimental/prototype high-capacity, high-pressure centrifugal slurry feed pump for coal liquefaction purposes. The abrasion problems in a centrifugal slurry pump are primarily due to the manner in which the hard, solid particles contained in the slurry are transported through the hydraulic flow passages within the pump. The abrasive particles can create scraping, grinding, cutting, and sandblasting effects on the various exposed parts of the pump. These critical areas involving abrasion and impact erosion wear problems in a centrifugal pump are being addressed by Rocketdyne. The mechanisms of abrasion and erosion are being studied through hydrodynamic analysis, materials evaluation, and advanced design concepts.

  8. Extracting value from coal mine methane

    SciTech Connect

    Liebert, B.

    2009-06-15

    Emerging US policy to regulate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through a cap-and-trade program presents mine managers with a new opportunity to explore and develop methane utilization or abatement projects that generate value from the anodization of carbon offset credits. In addition, the rising focus on US energy security and domestic energy supply is promoting mine managers and engineers to give further consideration to the importance of their methane gas by-products. The market through which coal mine methane offset projects can be developed and carbon offset credits monetized is quickly maturing. While many methane utilization projects have previously been uneconomical, the carbon offset credit market provides a new set of financing tools for mine engineers to capitalize these projects today. Currently , there are two certification programs that have approved project protocols for CMM projects. The Voluntary Carbon Standard (VCS) offers a methodology approved under the Clean Development Mechanism, the international compliance based offset market under the Kyoto Protocol. The VCS protocol is applicable to projects that combust ventilation air methane (VAM) and methane extracted from pre-and post-mine drainage systems. The Chicago Climate Exchange (CCX), which operates a voluntary yet binding cap-and-trade market, also has an approved protocol for CMM projects. CCX's protocol can be applied to projects combusting VAM, and methane extracted from pre-and-post-mine drainage systems, as well as abandoned mines. The article describes two case studies - Developing a gob gas utilization project financed by carbon offset credits and First VAM oxidation system to be commissioned at an operating mine in the US. 1 tab., 4 photos.

  9. ADVANCED SOLIDS NMR STUDIES OF COAL STRUCTURE AND CHEMISTRY

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    This report covers the progress made on the title project for the project period. The study of coal chemical structure is a vital component of research efforts to develop better chemical utilization of coals, and for furthering our basic understanding of coal geochemistry. In this grant we are addressing several structural questions pertaining to coals with advances in state of the art solids NMR methods. The main activity during this granting period was a detailed comparative analysis of the suite of spectral editing results obtained on the Argonne coals. We have extended our fitting procedure to include carbons of all types in the analysis.

  10. Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S-H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Venkatadri, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Perez, L.

    1990-01-01

    Research continued on surface control of coal. This report describes Task 7 of the program. The following topics are discussed: quantitative distribution of iron species; surface functional groups; comparison of wet and dry ground samples; study of Illinois No. 6 coal wet ground using additives; study of wet grinding using tall oil; elemental distribution of coal samples wet ground without additives; elemental distribution of coal samples wet ground with tall oil; direct determination of pyrite by x-ray diffraction; electron microprobe measurements; morphology; zeta potential measurements; pyrite size distribution; statistical analysis of grinding study data; grinding using N-pentane; cyclohexane, and N-heptane; study of the effects of the grinding method and time; study of the effects of the agglomeration time; and the pentane to coal ratio. 13 refs.

  11. Advances in the shell coal gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Doering, E.L.; Cremer, G.A.

    1995-12-31

    The Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) is a dry-feed, oxygen-blown, entrained flow coal gasification process which has the capability to convert virtually any coal or petroleum coke into a clean medium Btu synthesis gas, or syngas, consisting predominantly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. In SCGP, high pressure nitrogen or recycled syngas is used to pneumatically convey dried, pulverized coal to the gasifier. The coal enters the gasifier through diametrically opposed burners where it reacts with oxygen at temperatures in excess of 2500{degrees}F. The gasification temperature is maintained to ensure that the mineral matter in the coal is molten and will flow smoothly down the gasifier wall and out the slag tap. Gasification conditions are optimized, depending on coal properties, to achieve the highest coal to gas conversion efficiency, with minimum formation of undesirable byproducts.

  12. Impacts of Coal Seam Gas (Coal Bed Methane) Extraction on Water Resources in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, David

    2014-05-01

    While extraction of methane from shale gas deposits has been the principal source of the recent expansion of the industry in the United States and potentially in Europe, extraction of methane from coal bed methane deposits (termed 'coal seam gas' in Australia) has been the focus in Australia. The two sources of methane share many of the same characteristics, with hydraulic fracturing generally (but not always) required to extract coal seam gas also. However, as coal seam gas deposits generally occur at shallower depths than shale gas, the potential impacts of extraction and hydraulic fracturing on surface and groundwater resources may be potentially of more concern for coal seam gas than for shale gas. To determine the potential for coal seam gas extraction (and coal mining more generally) to impact on water resources and water-related assets in Australia, the Commonwealth Government has recently established an Independent Expert Scientific Committee (the IESC) to provide advice to Commonwealth and State Government regulators on potential water-related impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining developments. The IESC has in turn implemented a program of research termed 'bioregional assessments' to investigate these potential impacts. A bioregional assessment can be defined as a scientific analysis of the ecology, hydrology, geology and hydrogeology of a bioregion, with explicit assessment of the potential direct, indirect and cumulative impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining development on water resources. These bioregional assessments are now being carried out across large portions of eastern Australia which are underlain by coal reserves. Further details of the program can be found at http://www.environment.gov.au/coal-seam-gas-mining/bioregional-assessments.html. This presentation will provide an overview of the issues related to the impacts of coal seam gas extraction on surface and groundwater resources and water-related assets in Australia. The

  13. Advanced Hydrogen Transport Membrane for Coal Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Joseph; Porter, Jason; Patki, Neil; Kelley, Madison; Stanislowski, Josh; Tolbert, Scott; Way, J. Douglas; Makuch, David

    2015-12-23

    A pilot-scale hydrogen transport membrane (HTM) separator was built that incorporated 98 membranes that were each 24 inches long. This separator used an advanced design to minimize the impact of concentration polarization and separated over 1000 scfh of hydrogen from a hydrogen-nitrogen feed of 5000 scfh that contained 30% hydrogen. This mixture was chosen because it was representative of the hydrogen concentration expected in coal gasification. When tested with an operating gasifier, the hydrogen concentration was lower and contaminants in the syngas adversely impacted membrane performance. All 98 membranes survived the test, but flux was lower than expected. Improved ceramic substrates were produced that have small surface pores to enable membrane production and large pores in the bulk of the substrate to allow high flux. Pd-Au was chosen as the membrane alloy because of its resistance to sulfur contamination and good flux. Processes were developed to produce a large quantity of long membranes for use in the demonstration test.

  14. ADVANCED SOLIDS NMR STUDIES OF COAL STRUCTURE AND CHEMISTRY

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This report covers the progress made on the title project for the project period. The study of coal chemical structure is a vital component of research efforts to develop better chemical utilization of coals, and for furthering our basic understanding of coal geochemistry. In this grant we are addressing several structural questions pertaining to coals with advances in state of the art solids NMR methods. The main activity during this granting period was a completion of a detailed comparative analysis of the suite of spectral editing techniques developed in our laboratory for this purpose. The appended report is a manuscript being submitted to the Journal of Magnetic Resonance on this subject.

  15. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G.; Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT )

    1991-01-01

    The overall objective of this program is the development of predictive capability for the design, scale up, simulation, control and feedstock evaluation in advanced coal conversion devices. This program will merge significant advances made in measuring and quantitatively describing the mechanisms in coal conversion behavior. Comprehensive computer codes for mechanistic modeling of entrained-bed gasification. Additional capabilities in predicting pollutant formation will be implemented and the technology will be expanded to fixed-bed reactors.

  16. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research

    SciTech Connect

    Speight, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    Accomplishments for the past quarter are presented for the following five tasks: oil shale; tar sand; coal; advanced exploratory process technology; and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research covers oil shale process studies. Tar sand research is on process development of Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) Process. Coal research covers: coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts;advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process; NMR analysis of samples from the ocean drilling program; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; and solid state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens.

  17. Quality of economically extractable coal beds in the Gillette coal field as compared with other Tertiary coal beds in the Powder River basin, Wyoming and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, Margaret S.

    2002-01-01

    The Powder River Basin, and specifically the Gillette coal field, contains large quantities of economically extractable coal resources. These coal resources have low total sulfur content and ash yield, and most of the resources are subbituminous in rank. A recent U.S Geological Survey study of economically extractable coal in the Gillette coal field focused on five coal beds, the Wyodak rider, Upper Wyodak, Canyon, Lower Wyodak-Werner, and Gates/Kennedy. This report compares the coal quality of these economically extractable coal beds to coal in the Wyodak-Anderson coal zone in the Powder River Basin and in the Gillette coal field (Flores and others, 1999) and other produced coal in the Gillette coal field (Glass, 2000). The Upper Wyodak, Canyon, and Lower Wyodak/Werner beds are within the Wyodak-Anderson coal zone. Compared with all coal in the Wyodak-Anderson coal zone, both throughout the Powder River Basin and just within the Gillette coal field; the thick, persistent Upper Wyodak coal bed in the Gillette coal field has higher mean gross calorific value (8,569 Btu/lb), lower mean ash yield (5.8 percent), and lower mean total sulfur content (0.46 percent).

  18. Carbon cycle in advanced coal chemical engineering.

    PubMed

    Yi, Qun; Li, Wenying; Feng, Jie; Xie, Kechang

    2015-08-01

    This review summarizes how the carbon cycle occurs and how to reduce CO2 emissions in highly efficient carbon utilization from the most abundant carbon source, coal. Nowadays, more and more attention has been paid to CO2 emissions and its myriad of sources. Much research has been undertaken on fossil energy and renewable energy and current existing problems, challenges and opportunities in controlling and reducing CO2 emission with technologies of CO2 capture, utilization, and storage. The coal chemical industry is a crucial area in the (CO2 value chain) Carbon Cycle. The realization of clean and effective conversion of coal resources, improving the utilization and efficiency of resources, whilst reducing CO2 emissions is a key area for further development and investigation by the coal chemical industry. Under a weak carbon mitigation policy, the value and price of products from coal conversion are suggested in the carbon cycle. PMID:25978270

  19. PRODUCTION OF CARBON PRODUCTS USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Dady Dadyburjor; Chong Chen; Elliot B. Kennel; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2006-02-23

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop technologies for carbon products from coal-derived feedstocks. Carbon products can include precursor materials such as solvent extracted carbon ore (SECO) and synthetic pitch (Synpitch). In addition, derived products include carbon composites, fibers, foams and others. Key milestones included producing hydrogenated coal in the Hydrotreating Facility for the first time. The facility is now operational, although digital controls have not yet been completely wired. In addition, ultrasound is being used to investigate enhanced dissolution of coal. Experiments have been carried out.

  20. Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation. Final report, October 1, 1988--March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerstenau, D.W.; Hanson, J.S.; Diao, J.; Harris, G.H.; De, A.; Sotillo, F.; Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C.; Hu, W.; Zou, Y.; Chen, W.; Choudhry, V.; Shea, S.; Ghosh, A.; Sehgal, R.

    1992-03-01

    The initial goal of the research project was to develop methods of coal surface control in advanced froth flotation to achieve 90% pyritic sulfur rejection, while operating at Btu recoveries above 90% based on run-of-mine quality coal. Moreover, the technology is to concomitantly reduce the ash content significantly (to six percent or less) to provide a high-quality fuel to the boiler (ash removal also increases Btu content, which in turn decreases a coal`s emission potential in terms of lbs SO{sub 2}/million Btu). (VC)

  1. Materials of construction for advanced coal conversion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nangia, V.K.

    1982-01-01

    This book describes materials of construction, and materials problems for equipment used in advanced coal conversion systems. The need for cost effective industrial operation is always a prime concern, particularly in this age of energy consciousness. Industry is continually seeking improved materials for more efficient systems. The information presented here is intended to be of use in the design and planning of these systems. Coal conversion and utilization impose severe demands on construction materials because of high temperature, high pressure, corrosive/erosive, and other hostile environmental factors. Successful economic development of these processes can be achieved only to the extent that working materials can withstand increasingly more aggressive operating conditions. The book, which reviews present and past work on the behavior of materials in the environments of advanced coal conversion systems, is divided into three parts: atmospheric fluidized bed combustion, coal gasification and liquefaction, and advanced power systems.

  2. Method for extraction of quantitative information using remote sensing data of underground coal fire areas and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Fu-xing; Li, Zhi-zhong; Xiong, Sheng-qing; Fang, Hong-bin; Yang, Ri-hong

    2008-11-01

    Underground coal-bed spontaneous combustion is a dynamic process with complex physical, chemical and environmental interaction. The anomalous information on remote sensing spatial, spectral and thermal indexes is very meaningful for detecting underground coal fires and assessing its effects on environment. This paper, based on a series of advanced technical datum in Wu Da coalfield areas located in Inner-Mongolia, such as ground spectral testing, thermal infrared multispectral indexes, and high-spatial resolution images, analyzes the correlation between the underground coal-bed burning conditions and the remote sensing information. Besides, it provides a further discussion on the application potential for quantitative feature extraction of underground coal fire.

  3. ADVANCED SOLIDS NMR STUDIES OF COAL STRUCTURE AND CHEMISTRY

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This report covers the progress made on the title project for the project period. The study of coal chemical structure is a vital component of research efforts to develop better chemical utilization of coals, and for furthering our basic understanding of coal geochemistry. In this grant we are addressing several structural questions pertaining to coals with advances in state of the art solids NMR methods. Our goals are twofold. First, we are interested in developing new methods that will enable us to measure important structural parameters in whole coals not directly accessible by other techniques. In parallel with these efforts we will apply these NMR methods in a study of the chemical differences between gas-sourcing and oil-sourcing coals. The NMR methods work will specifically focus on determination of the number and types of methylene groups, determination of the number and types of methane groups, identification of carbons adjacent to nitrogen and sites with exchangeable protons, and methods to more finely characterize the distribution of hydrogen in coals. The motivation for investigating these specific structural features of coals arises from their relevance to the chemical reactivity of coals, and their suitability for possible correlations with the oil sourcing potential of some types of coals. The coals to be studied and contrasted include oil-prone coals from Australia and Indonesia, those comprising the Argonne Premium Coal Sample bank, and other relevant samples. In this report period we have focused our work on 1 segment of the program. Our last report outlined progress in using our NMR editing methods with higher field operation where higher magic angle spinning rates are required. Significant difficulties were identified, and these have been the main subject of study during the most recent granting period.

  4. Highwall miners extract coal cost effectively

    SciTech Connect

    2009-08-15

    Contour Mining Corp's Powellton site in West Virginia has produced over 60,000 tons of coal per month using the Terex Highwall Mining System (HWM). The HWM can use a lower or high-seam cutter module. MTS Systems' Sensors Division provides mobile hydraulic magnetostrictive sensors for the HWM system, to increase the accuracy and reliability of linear positioning. 1 photo.

  5. Advanced direct coal liquefaction concepts - appendix

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, D.J.; Parker, R.J.; Simpson, P.L.

    1994-07-01

    This detailed appendix presents the results of direct coal liquefaction studies performed by the contractor. Several hundred tables summarizing the chemical compostion for runs of a bench scale reactor are presented.

  6. Optimizing conditions for ultrasound extraction of fullerenes from coal matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Vitek, P.; Jehlicka, J.; Frank, O.; Hamplova, V.; Pokorna, Z.; Juha, L.; Bohacek, Z.

    2009-07-01

    Conditions for ultrasound toluene extraction of synthetic C60 added to powdered bituminous coal were tested. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine the fullerene content in the obtained extracts. The results indicated a possible negative effect of sample demineralization (HCl/HF) and N{sub 2} purging on the extraction yield of C60. On the contrary, a 30% yield increase was registered when the coal was pre-extracted with pentane or pentane/toluene. The best conditions for C60 recovery in the investigated mixtures are 30min of sonication at 280-285K. The effects of sample filtration, sequential extraction, ultrasound bath power and treatments of C60 solution alone are also discussed.

  7. 30 CFR 912.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... extraction of other minerals. 912.702 Section 912.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  8. 30 CFR 912.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... extraction of other minerals. 912.702 Section 912.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  9. 30 CFR 912.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... extraction of other minerals. 912.702 Section 912.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  10. 30 CFR 912.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... extraction of other minerals. 912.702 Section 912.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of...

  11. AQUEOUS BIPHASE EXTRACTION FOR PROCESSING OF FINE COAL

    SciTech Connect

    K. Osseo-Asare; X. Zeng

    2001-06-30

    Ever-stringent environmental constraints dictate that future coal cleaning technologies be compatible with micron-size particles. This research program seeks to develop an advanced coal cleaning technology uniquely suited to micron-size particles, i.e., aqueous biphase extraction. The partitioning behaviors of hematite in the dextran (Dex)/Triton X-100 (TX100) and polyethylene glycol (PEG)/dextran systems were investigated and the effects of some ionic surfactants on solid partition were studied. In both biphase systems, the particles stayed in the bottom dextran-rich phase under all pH conditions. This behavior is attributable to the fact that the hydrophilic oxide particles prefer the more hydrophilic bottom phase. Also, the strong favorable interaction between dextran and ferric oxide facilitates the dispersion of the solids in the polysaccharide-rich phase. In the Dex/TX100 system, addition of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) or potassium oleate had no effect on the solid partition; on the other hand, addition of dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) transferred the particles to the top phase or interface at high pH values. In the PEG/Dex system, the preferred location of hematite remained the bottom phase in the presence of either SDS or DTAB. The effects of anionic surfactants on the partition behavior are attributable to the fact that they are not able to replace the strongly adsorbed polysaccharide layer on the ferric oxide surface. The results with the cationic surfactant are due to electrostatic interaction between the cationic surfactant and the charged surface of the solid particles. The difference in solids partitioning in the two systems is the result of the different distribution of DTAB in these systems. In the Dex/TX100 system, DTAB prefers the top surfactant-rich phase, while it concentrates in the bottom phase in the PEG/dextran system.

  12. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology jointly sponsored research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Accomplishments for the quarter are presented for the following areas of research: oil shale, tar sand, coal, advanced exploratory process technology, and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research includes; oil shale process studies, environmental base studies for oil shale, and miscellaneous basic concept studies. Tar sand research covers process development. Coal research includes; underground coal gasification, coal combustion, integrated coal processing concepts, and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes; advanced process concepts, advanced mitigation concepts, and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesa Verde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced recovery techniques; and menu driven access to the WDEQ Hydrologic Data Management Systems.

  13. Development of an Advanced Fine Coal Suspension Dewatering Process

    SciTech Connect

    B. K. Parekh; D. P. Patil

    2008-04-30

    With the advancement in fine coal cleaning technology, recovery of fine coal (minus 28 mesh) has become an attractive route for the U.S. coal industry. The clean coal recovered using the advanced flotation technology i.e. column flotation, contains on average 20% solids and 80% water, with an average particle size of 35 microns. Fine coal slurry is usually dewatered using a vacuum dewatering technique, providing a material with about 25 to 30 percent moisture. The process developed in this project will improve dewatering of fine (0.6mm) coal slurry to less than 20 percent moisture. Thus, thermal drying of dewatered wet coal will be eliminated. This will provide significant energy savings for the coal industry along with some environmental benefits. A 1% increase in recovery of coal and producing a filter cake material of less than 20 % moisture will amount to energy savings of 1900 trillion Btu/yr/unit. In terms of the amount of coal it will be about 0.8% of the total coal being used in the USA for electric power generation. It is difficult to dewater the fine clean coal slurry to about 20% moisture level using the conventional dewatering techniques. The finer the particle, the larger the surface area and thus, it retains large amounts of moisture on the surface. The coal industry has shown some reluctance in using the advanced coal recovery techniques, because of unavailability of an economical dewatering technique which can provide a product containing less than 20% moisture. The U.S.DOE and Industry has identified the dewatering of coal fines as a high priority problem. The goal of the proposed program is to develop and evaluate a novel two stage dewatering process developed at the University of Kentucky, which involves utilization of two forces, namely, vacuum and pressure for dewatering of fine coal slurries. It has been observed that a fine coal filter cake formed under vacuum has a porous structure with water trapped in the capillaries. When this porous cake

  14. PRODUCTION OF CARBON PRODUCTS USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Dady Dadyburjor; Philip R. Biedler; Chong Chen; L. Mitchell Clendenin; Manoj Katakdaunde; Elliot B. Kennel; Nathan D. King; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2004-08-31

    This Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored project developed carbon products, using mildly hydrogenated solvents to extract the organic portion of coal to create synthetic pitches, cokes, carbon foam and carbon fibers. The focus of this effort was on development of lower cost solvents, milder hydrogenation conditions and improved yield in order to enable practical production of these products. This technology is needed because of the long-term decline in production of domestic feedstocks such as petroleum pitch and coal tar pitch. Currently, carbon products represents a market of roughly 5 million tons domestically, and 19 million tons worldwide. Carbon products are mainly derived from feedstocks such as petroleum pitch and coal tar pitch. The domestic supply of petroleum pitch is declining because of the rising price of liquid fuels, which has caused US refineries to maximize liquid fuel production. As a consequence, the long term trend has a decline in production of petroleum pitch over the past 20 years. The production of coal tar pitch, as in the case of petroleum pitch, has likewise declined significantly over the past two decades. Coal tar pitch is a byproduct of metallurgical grade coke (metcoke) production. In this industry, modern metcoke facilities are recycling coal tar as fuel in order to enhance energy efficiency and minimize environmental emissions. Metcoke production itself is dependent upon the production requirements for domestic steel. Hence, several metcoke ovens have been decommissioned over the past two decades and have not been replaced. As a consequence sources of coal tar are being taken off line and are not being replaced. The long-term trend is a reduction in coal tar pitch production. Thus import of feedstocks, mainly from Eastern Europe and China, is on the rise despite the relatively large transportation cost. To reverse this trend, a new process for producing carbon products is needed. The process must be

  15. Coal and char studies by advanced EMR techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Belford, R.L.; Clarkson, R.B.; Odintsov, B.M.

    1998-09-30

    Advanced magnetic resonance (EMR) methods are used to examine properties of coals, chars, and molecular species related to constituents of coal. During this grant period, further progress was made on proton NMR and low-frequency dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) to examine the interaction between fluids such as water and the surface of suspended char particles. Effects of char particle size on water nuclear spin relaxation, T2, were measured.

  16. Coal and char studies by advanced EMR techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Belford, R.L.; Clarkson, R.B.; Odintsov, B.M.

    1999-03-31

    Advanced magnetic resonance (EMR) methods are used to examine properties of coals, chars, and molecular species related to constituents of coal. During this grant period, further progress was made on proton NMR and low-frequency dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) to examine the interaction between fluids such as water and the surface of suspended char particles. Effects of char particle size and type on water nuclear spin relaxation, T2, were measured and modeled.

  17. Advanced progress concepts for direct coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.; Derbyshire, F.; Givens, E.

    1995-09-01

    Given the low cost of petroleum crude, direct coal liquefaction is still not an economically viable process. The DOE objectives are to further reduce the cost of coal liquefaction to a more competitive level. In this project the primary focus is on the use of low-rank coal feedstocks. A particular strength is the use of process-derived liquids rather than model compound solvents. The original concepts are illustrated in Figure 1, where they are shown on a schematic of the Wilsonville pilot plant operation. Wilsonville operating data have been used to define a base case scenario using run {number_sign}263J, and Wilsonville process materials have been used in experimental work. The CAER has investigated: low severity CO pretreatment of coal for oxygen rejection, increasing coal reactivity and mg inhibiting the propensity for regressive reactions; the application of more active. Low-cost Fe and Mo dispersed catalysts; and the possible use of fluid coking for solids rejection and to generate an overhead product for recycle. CONSOL has investigated: oil agglomeration for coal ash rejection, for the possible rejection of ash in the recycled resid, and for catalyst addition and recovery; and distillate dewaxing to remove naphthenes and paraffins, and to generate an improved quality feed for recycle distillate hydrogenation. At Sandia, research has been concerned with the production of active hydrogen donor distillate solvent fractions produced by the hydrogenation of dewaxed distillates and by fluid coking via low severity reaction with H{sub 2}/CO/H{sub 2}O mixtures using hydrous metal oxide and other catalysts.

  18. Dewatering fine coal slurries by gel extraction. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gehrke, S.H.; Lyu, Lii-Hurng

    1990-12-31

    A new technology called gel extraction has been evaluated to determine its economic viability in dewatering the fine and ultrafine coal slurries generated upon separation of sulfur and ash from clean coal during the physical coal cleaning process. Water must be removed from such slurries prior to transportation and combustion but the dewatering costs are substantial, especially for the fine particles below 28 mesh (0.6 mm). Gel extraction is a potential breakthrough in slurry dewatering technology. The goal of this project was to acquire the qualitative and quantitative data needed to estimate the potential of gel extraction for dewatering coal slurries. The specific objectives were to determine the maximum extents of dewatering (minimum surface moisture in the coal product), the clarity of the water removed (minimum solids content), the speed of the dewatering cycles, the service lifetime of the gels, and the factors which influence all of these. With the results obtained, an economic analysis of Ohio coal cleaning plant dewatering technologies was carried out. The polymer gel at the heart of this project, poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPA), can swell several times its shrunken weight at 32{degrees}C by absorbing water at 25{degrees}C. In gel extraction, a shrunken NIPA gel is contacted with a slurry at ambient temperature or cooler; the gel swells by absorbing water from the slurry. The gel is then removed from the dewatered slurry and warmed above its critical temperature of 33{degrees}C, which returns it to the shrunken state by releasing the absorbed water. The facts that the gel is reusable and the process is simple and driven by low-grade energy (warm temperatures), and not inherently limited by particle size, made the process an attractive possible alternative to centrifugation, screening, filtration, etc. for slurry dewatering.

  19. PRODUCTION OF CARBON PRODUCTS USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Dady Dadyburjor; Chong Chen; Elliot B. Kennel; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-12-12

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop technologies for carbon products from coal-derived feed-stocks. Carbon products can include precursor materials such as solvent extracted carbon ore (SECO) and synthetic pitch (Synpitch). In addition, derived products include carbon composites, fibers, foams and others.

  20. Glove permeation by shale oil and coal tar extract

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, G.O.; Carlson, G.J.; Buerer, A.L.

    1980-02-14

    The vapor penetration of shale oil and coal tar extract through protective gloves composed of either polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, vinyl, latex, neoprene, Buna-N, acrylonitrile, natural rubber, or nitrile rubber was tested and measured. We used flame ionization techniques to determine the permeation characteristics of the gloves. Neoprene, Buna-N, acrylonitrile and nitrile gloves offered the best protection against the vapors tested.

  1. AQUEOUS BIPHASE EXTRACTION FOR PROCESSING OF FINE COAL

    SciTech Connect

    K. Osseo-Asare

    2000-06-02

    Ever-stringent environmental constraints dictate that future coal cleaning technologies be compatible with micron-size particles. This research program seeks to develop an advanced coal cleaning technology uniquely suited to micron-size particles, i.e., aqueous biphase extraction. The partitioning behavior of fly ash in the PEG-2000 Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O system was studied and the solid in each fraction was characterized by CHN analysis (carbon content), X-ray diffraction (XRD; crystal component), and inductively coupled plasma spectrophotometry (ICP; elemental composition in the ash). In the pH range from 2 to 5, the particles separated into two different layers, i.e., the polymer-rich (top) and salt-rich (bottom) layers. However, above pH 5, the particles in the polymer-rich phase split into two zones. The percent carbon content of the solids in the upper zone ({approximately}80 wt%) was higher than that in the parent sample (63.2 wt%), while the lower zone in the polymer-rich phase had the same percent ash content as the original sample. The particles in the salt-rich phase were mainly composed of ash (with < 4 wt% carbon content). However, when the solid concentration in the whole system increased from 1 wt% to 2 wt%, this 3-fraction phenomenon only occurred above pH 10. XRD results showed that the main crystal components in the ash included quartz, hematite, and mullite. The ICP results showed that Si, Al, and Fe were the major elements in the fly ash, with minor elements of Na, K, Ca, Mg, and Ba. The composition of the ash in the lower zone of the polymer-rich phase remained almost the same as that in the parent fly ash. The largest amount of product ({approximately}60% yield) with the highest carbon content ({approximately}80 wt% C) was obtained in the range pH 6-9. Based on the experimental results obtained, a flowsheet is proposed for the beneficiation of high-carbon fly ash with the aqueous biphase extraction process.

  2. The application of advanced analytical techniques to direct coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.; Robbins, G.A.

    1991-12-31

    Consol is coordinating a program designed to bridge the gap between the advanced, modern techniques of the analytical chemist and the application of those techniques by the direct coal liquefaction process developer, and to advance our knowledge of the process chemistry of direct coal liquefaction. The program is designed to provide well-documented samples to researchers who are utilizing techniques potentially useful for the analysis of coal derived samples. The choice of samples and techniques was based on an extensive survey made by Consol of the present status of analytical methodology associated with direct coal liquefaction technology. Sources of information included process developers and analytical chemists. Identified in the survey are a number of broadly characterizable needs. These categories include a need for: A better understanding of the nature of the high molecular weight, non-distillable residual materials (both soluble and insoluble) in the process streams; improved techniques for molecular characterization, heteroatom and hydrogen speciation and a knowledge of the hydrocarbon structural changes across coal liquefaction systems; better methods for sample separation; application of advanced data analysis methods; the use of more advanced predictive models; on-line analytical techniques; and better methods for catalyst monitoring.

  3. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Progress made in five research programs is described. The subtasks in oil shale study include oil shale process studies and unconventional applications and markets for western oil shale.The tar sand study is on recycle oil pyrolysis and extraction (ROPE) process. Four tasks are described in coal research: underground coal gasification; coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and sold waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts; advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research covers: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; NMR analysis of sample from the ocean drilling program; and menu driven access to the WDEQ hydrologic data management system.

  4. Extraction of weakly reductive and reductive coals with sub- and supercritical water

    SciTech Connect

    Bo Wu; Haoquan Hu; Shiping Huang; Yunming Fang; Xian Li; Meng Meng

    2008-11-15

    On a semi-continuous apparatus, a weakly reductive Shenfu-Dongsheng (SD) coal and a reductive Pingshuo (PS) coal were non-isothermally extracted with sub- and supercritical water to explore the differences between the two coals. The effect of the temperature on the extract formation rate, conversion, and product composition under different pressures was investigated. The extraction results of two coal samples indicate that the extract formation rate has a maximum in the studied temperature range between room temperature and 500{degree}C. The temperature corresponding to the maximum extract formation rate, changing with the pressure, is between 390 and 410{degree}C. The gas yield, extract yield, and conversion of two coals increase with the increasing pressure. In comparison to PS coal, SD coal has a low temperature corresponding to the maximum extract formation rate under the same pressure. Both coals have a main fraction of asphaltene, but SD coal has a higher fraction of oil than PS coal. The main gas components are CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and H{sub 2}. The gas from PS coal has a higher CH{sub 4} content and lower CO{sub 2} content than that from SD coal. The analysis results of the extraction residue indicated that SD coal has a low residue yield and the residue shows a large surface area and small average pore diameter compared to PS coal. 17 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  5. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-24

    No combustion tests for this program were conducted during this reporting period of January 1 to March 31, 1992. DOE-sponsored slogging combustor tests have been suspended since December 1991 in order to perform combustion tests on Northern States Power Company (NSP) coals. The NSP coal tests were conducted to evaluate combustor performance when burning western sub bituminous coals. The results of these tests will guide commercialization efforts, which are being promoted by NSP, Westinghouse Electric, and Textron Defense Systems. The NSP testing has been completed and preparation of the final report for that effort is underway. Although the NSP testing program has been completed, the Westinghouse/DOE program will not be resumed immediately. The reason for this is that Textron Defense Systems (TDS) has embarked on an internally funded program requiring installation of a new liquid fuel combustor system at the Haverhill site. The facility modifications for this new system are significant and it is not possible to continue the Westinghouse/DOE testing while these modifications are being made. These facility modifications are being performed during the period February 15, 1992 through May 31, 1992. The Westinghouse/DOE program can be resumed upon completion of this work.

  6. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-04-01

    No combustion tests for this program were conducted during this reporting period of January 1 to March 31, 1992. DOE-sponsored slogging combustor tests have been suspended since December 1991 in order to perform combustion tests on Northern States Power Company (NSP) coals. The NSP coal tests were conducted to evaluate combustor performance when burning western sub bituminous coals. The results of these tests will guide commercialization efforts, which are being promoted by NSP, Westinghouse Electric, and Textron Defense Systems. The NSP testing has been completed and preparation of the final report for that effort is underway. Although the NSP testing program has been completed, the Westinghouse/DOE program will not be resumed immediately. The reason for this is that Textron Defense Systems (TDS) has embarked on an internally funded program requiring installation of a new liquid fuel combustor system at the Haverhill site. The facility modifications for this new system are significant and it is not possible to continue the Westinghouse/DOE testing while these modifications are being made. These facility modifications are being performed during the period February 15, 1992 through May 31, 1992. The Westinghouse/DOE program can be resumed upon completion of this work.

  7. 30 CFR 933.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 933.702 Section 933.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA §...

  8. 30 CFR 941.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 941.702 Section 941.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA §...

  9. RESEARCH ON CARBON PRODUCTS FROM COAL USING AN EXTRACTIVE PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo; Chong Chen; Brian Bland; David Fenton

    2002-03-31

    This report presents the results of a one-year effort directed at the exploration of the use of coal as a feedstock for a variety of industrially-relevant carbon products. The work was basically divided into three focus areas. The first area dealt with the acquisition of laboratory equipment to aid in the analysis and characterization of both the raw coal and the coal-derived feedstocks. Improvements were also made on the coal-extraction pilot plant which will now allow larger quantities of feedstock to be produced. Mass and energy balances were also performed on the pilot plant in an attempt to evaluate the scale-up potential of the process. The second focus area dealt with exploring hydrogenation conditions specifically aimed at testing several less-expensive candidate hydrogen-donor solvents. Through a process of filtration and vacuum distillation, viable pitch products were produced and evaluated. Moreover, a recycle solvent was also isolated so that the overall solvent balance in the system could be maintained. The effect of variables such as gas pressure and gas atmosphere were evaluated. The pitch product was analyzed and showed low ash content, reasonable yield, good coking value and a coke with anisotropic optical texture. A unique plot of coke yield vs. pitch softening point was discovered to be independent of reaction conditions or hydrogen-donor solvent. The third area of research centered on the investigation of alternate extraction solvents and processing conditions for the solvent extraction step. A wide variety of solvents, co-solvents and enhancement additives were tested with varying degrees of success. For the extraction of raw coal, the efficacy of the alternate solvents when compared to the benchmark solvent, N-methyl pyrrolidone, was not good. However when the same coal was partially hydrogenated prior to solvent extraction, all solvents showed excellent results even for extractions performed at room temperature. Standard analyses of the

  10. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system

    SciTech Connect

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

    1991-07-01

    Advances in coal-fueled gas turbine technology over the past few years, together with recent DOE-METC sponsored studies, have served to provide new optimism that the problems demonstrated in the past can be economically resolved and that the coal-fueled gas turbine can ultimately be the preferred system in appropriate market application sectors. The objective of the Solar/METC program is to prove the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of a coal-fired gas turbine for cogeneration applications through tests of a Centaur Type H engine system operated on coal fuel throughout the engine design operating range. The five-year program consists of three phases, namely: (1) system description; (2) component development; (3) prototype system verification. A successful conclusion to the program will initiate a continuation of the commercialization plan through extended field demonstration runs.

  11. Impacts of Coal Seam Gas (Coal Bed Methane) Extraction on Water Resources in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, David

    2015-04-01

    While extraction of methane from shale gas deposits has been the principal source of the recent expansion of the industry in the United States and Europe, in Australia extraction of methane from coal bed methane deposits (termed 'coal seam gas' in Australia) has been the focus to date. The two sources of methane share many of the same characteristics including the potential requirement for hydraulic fracturing. However as coal seam gas deposits generally occur at shallower depths than shale gas the potential impacts of extraction and hydraulic fracturing on surface and groundwater resources may be of even greater concern for coal seam gas than for shale gas. In Australia an Independent Expert Scientific Committee (IESC) has been established to provide scientific advice to federal and state government regulators on the impact that coal seam gas and large coal mining developments may have on water resources. This advice is provided to enable decisions to be informed by the best available science about the potential water-related impacts associated with these developments. To support this advice the Australian Government Department of the Environment has implemented a three-year programme of research termed 'bioregional assessments' to investigate these potential impacts. A bioregional assessment is defined as a scientific analysis of the ecology, hydrology, geology and hydrogeology of a bioregion with explicit assessment of the potential direct, indirect and cumulative impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining development on water resources. These bioregional assessments are currently being carried out across large portions of eastern Australia underlain by coal reserves. Further details of the program and results to date can be found at http://www.bioregionalassessments.gov.au. In this presentation the methodology for undertaking bioregional assessments will be described and the application of this methodology to six priority bioregions in eastern Australia

  12. Impacts of Coal Seam Gas (Coal Bed Methane) Extraction on Water Resources in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, David

    2016-04-01

    While extraction of methane from shale gas deposits has been the principal source of the recent expansion of the industry in the United States and Europe, in Australia extraction of methane from coal bed methane deposits (termed 'coal seam gas' in Australia) has been the focus to date. The two sources of methane share many of the same characteristics including the potential requirement for hydraulic fracturing. However, as coal seam gas deposits generally occur at shallower depths than shale gas, the potential impacts of extraction on surface and groundwater resources may be of even greater concern. In Australia, an Independent Expert Scientific Committee (IESC) has been established to provide scientific advice to federal and state government regulators on the impact that coal seam gas and large coal mining developments may have on water resources. This advice is provided to enable decisions to be informed by the best available science about the potential water-related impacts associated with these developments. To support this advice, the Australian Government Department of the Environment has implemented a programme of research termed 'bioregional assessments' to investigate these potential impacts. A bioregional assessment is defined as a scientific analysis of the ecology, hydrology, geology and hydrogeology of a bioregion with explicit assessment of the potential direct, indirect and cumulative impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining development on water resources. These bioregional assessments are currently being carried out across large portions of eastern Australia underlain by coal reserves. Further details of the programme and results to date can be found at http://www.bioregionalassessments.gov.au. Surface water and groundwater modelling is now complete for two regions where coal seam gas development may proceed, namely the Clarence-Moreton and Gloucester regions in eastern New South Wales. This presentation will discuss how the results of these

  13. Recent technology advances in the KRW coal gasification development program

    SciTech Connect

    Haldipur, G.B.; Bachovchin, D.; Cherish, P.; Smith, K.J.

    1984-08-01

    This paper presents an update of the technological advances made at the coal gasification PDU during 1982 and 1983. These process improvements have resulted in higher carbon conversion efficiency, greater operational simplicity and enhanced potential for low grade or highly reactive feedstocks such as subbituminous coals and lignites. Process and component performance data are presented on the following topics: Application of advanced non-mechanical fines recycle techniques in a pressurized fluidized bed process, Demonstration of fines consumption and 95+% carbon conversion in recent tests, including results of a successful 15 day process feasibility test; and, Techniques to produce low carbon containing (less than 5%) ash agglomerates from highly reactive feedstocks, such as Wyoming subbituminous coal and North Dakota lignite.

  14. Field study of disposed wastes from advanced coal processes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop information to be used by private industry and government agencies for planning waste disposal practices associated with advanced coal processes. DOE has contracted Radian Corporation and the North Dakota Energy Environmental Research Center (EERC) to design, construct and monitor a limited number of field disposal tests with advanced coal process wastes. These field tests will be monitored over a three year period with the emphasis on collecting data on the field disposal of these wastes. This report discusses waste composition from fluidized bed coal combustion. Also presented is analytical data from the leaching of waste sampled from storage soils and of soil samples collected. 6 figs., 13 tabs.

  15. AQUEOUS BIPHASE EXTRACTION FOR PROCESSING OF FINE COAL

    SciTech Connect

    K. Osseo-Asare; X. Zeng

    2001-06-30

    Ever-stringent environmental constraints dictate that future coal cleaning technologies be compatible with micron-size particles. This research program seeks to develop an advanced coal cleaning technology uniquely suited to micron-size particles, i.e., aqueous biphase extraction. The partitioning behaviors of silica in the polyethylene glycol (PEG)/dextran (Dex) and dextran/Triton X-100 (TX100) systems have been investigated, and the effects of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) and dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) on solid partition have been studied. In both biphase systems, silica particles stayed in the top PEG-rich phase at low pH. With increase in pH, the particles moved from the top phase to the interface, then to the bottom phase. At very high pH, the solids preferred the top phase again. These trends are attributable to variations in the polymer/solid and nonionic surfactant/solid interactions. Addition of ionic surfactants into these two systems introduces a weakly charged environment, since ionic surfactants concentrate into one phase, either the top phase or the bottom phase. Therefore, coulombic forces also play a key role in the partition of silica particles because electrostatic attractive or repulsive forces are produced between the solid surface and the ionic-surfactant-concentrated phase. For the PEG/dextran system in the presence of SDS, SiO{sub 2} preferred the bottom dextran-rich phase above its pH{sub PZC}. However, addition of DTAB moved the oxide particles from the top phase to the interface, and then to the bottom phase, with increase in pH. These different behaviors are attributable to the fact that SDS and DTAB concentrated into the opposite phase of the PEG/dextran system. On the other hand, in the dextran/Triton X-100 system, both ionic surfactants concentrated in the top surfactant-rich phase and formed mixed micelles with TX100. Therefore, addition of the anionic surfactant, SDS, moved the silica particles from top phase to the

  16. Low-Rank Coal and Advanced Technologies for Power Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang', Dong-ke; Jackson, Peter J.; Vuthaluru, Hari B.

    Fluidised-bed based advanced power generation technologies offer higher efficiencies than conventional pulverised fuel fired power plants and better prospects in reducing ash-related problems associated with low-rank coal in such plants. However, bed material agglomeration and bed defluidisation present significant operational difficulties for the utilisation of the low-rank coal in fluidised-bed processes. Alkali and alkaline-earth elements and sulphur compounds, often found in low-rank coals, form low melting point eutectics at typical fluidised-bed combustion and gasification operating temperatures. These low melting-point materials are subsequently transferred onto the bed material particle surfaces, and the ash-coated particles then become adhesive and agglomerate. Defluidisation can occur either as an extension of agglomeration as a rate process gradually leading to defluidisation or as an instantaneous event without agglomeration. A critical thickness of the ash coating layer on the particle surface exists, above which defluidisation occurs. This critical thickness decreases with an increase in bed temperature. Several mineral additives, alternative bed materials and pretreatment of coal have been shown to suppress, to different extents, particle agglomeration and bed defluidisation when burning a high sodium, high sulphur low-rank coal in a spouted fluidised-bed combustor. Sillimanite as an alternative bed material is found to be most effective for defluidisation control. Alternative advanced technologies such as low-temperature pyrolysis and co-production are proposed for future investigation.

  17. Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility, Wilsonville, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This report presents the results of Run 260 performed at the Advanced Coal Liquefaction R D Facility in Wilsonville. The run was started on July 17, 1990 and continued until November 14, 1990, operating in the Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction mode processing Black Thunder mine subbituminous coal (Wyodak-Anderson seam from Wyoming Powder River Basin). Both thermal/catalytic and catalytic/thermal tests were performed to determine the methods for reducing solids buildup in a subbituminous coal operation, and to improve product yields. A new, smaller interstage separator was tested to reduce solids buildup by increasing the slurry space velocity in the separator. In order to obtain improved coal and resid conversions (compared to Run 258) full-volume thermal reactor and 3/4-volume catalytic reactor were used. Shell 324 catalyst, 1/16 in. cylindrical extrudate, at a replacement rate of 3 lb/ton of MF coal was used in the catalytic stage. Iron oxide was used as slurry catalyst at a rate of 2 wt % MF coal throughout the run. (TNPS was the sulfiding agent.)

  18. Performance and economics of advanced energy conversion systems for coal and coal-derived fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corman, J. C.; Fox, G. R.

    1978-01-01

    The desire to establish an efficient Energy Conversion System to utilize the fossil fuel of the future - coal - has produced many candidate systems. A comparative technical/economic evaluation was performed on the seven most attractive advanced energy conversion systems. The evaluation maintains a cycle-to-cycle consistency in both performance and economic projections. The technical information base can be employed to make program decisions regarding the most attractive concept. A reference steam power plant was analyzed to the same detail and, under the same ground rules, was used as a comparison base. The power plants were all designed to utilize coal or coal-derived fuels and were targeted to meet an environmental standard. The systems evaluated were two advanced steam systems, a potassium topping cycle, a closed cycle helium system, two open cycle gas turbine combined cycles, and an open cycle MHD system.

  19. Partitioning of boron during the generation of ultraclean fuel (HyperCoal) by solvent extraction of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Lian Zhang; Hiroyuki Kawashima; Toshimasa Takanohashi; Tetsuya Nakazato; Ikuo Saito; Hiroaki Tao

    2008-03-15

    In this paper, the partitioning behavior of boron has been investigated in one coal extraction process, named HyperCoal (HPC) generation, developed in Japan. Five coals were extracted by both 1-methynaphthalene and its mixture with 20 wt % polar indole for 1 h at 360{sup o}C. Boron in coal extract (HPC), coal residues, and raw coals has been examined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy and solid-state {sup 11}B magic angle spinning-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results indicate that, regardless of the coal rank, boron has a lower concentration in HPC than in the corresponding raw coal and coal residue. Up to 20% of the original boron could be eluted. The eluted boron is an organoboron complex associated chemically within the coal matrix which has the following characteristics: resonates from -5.88 to -7.00 ppm in {sup 11}B NMR spectra, completely decomposes when coal is ashed by plasma at 150-200 {sup o}C, and is insoluble in acetic acid while preferentially extracted by organic solvents. No boron-bearing mineral particles have been detected in HPCs. Regarding the elution amount of boron, it is a function of the fraction of organoboron in raw coal and HPC yield. For raw coal having more organoboron as well as a higher HPC yield, a larger fraction of its original boron could be extracted accordingly. The eluted boron could also in part undergo chemical reactions with coal radicals and/or polar indole to form new coordination states in HPCs. 37 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. ); Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. )

    1990-01-01

    The overall objective of this program is the development of predictive capability for the design, scale up, simulation, control and feedstock evaluation in advanced coal conversion devices. This technology is important to reduce the technical and economic risks inherent in utilizing coal, a feedstock whose variable and often unexpected behavior presents a significant challenge. This program will merge significant advances made at Advanced Fuel Research, Inc. (AFR) in measuring and quantitatively describing the mechanisms in coal conversion behavior, with technology being developed at Brigham Young University (BYU) in comprehensive computer codes for mechanistic modeling of entrained-bed gasification. Additional capabilities in predicting pollutant formation will be implemented and the technology will be expanded to fixed-bed reactors. The foundation to describe coal-specified conversion behavior is ARF's Functional Group (FG) and Devolatilization, Vaporization, and Crosslinking (DVC) models, developed under previous and on-going METC sponsored programs. These models have demonstrated the capability to describe the time dependent evolution of individual gas species, and the amount and characteristics of tar and char. The combined FG-DVC model will be integrated with BYU's comprehensive two-dimensional reactor model, PCGC-2, which is currently the most widely used reactor simulation for combustion or gasification. The program includes: (1) validation of the submodels by comparison with laboratory data obtained in this program, (2) extensive validation of the modified comprehensive code by comparison of predicted results with data from bench-scale and process scale investigations of gasification, mild gasification and combustion of coal or coal-derived products in heat engines, and (3) development of well documented user friendly software applicable to a workstation'' environment.

  1. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. ); Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. )

    1990-01-01

    The overall objective of this program is the development of predictive capability for the design, scale up, simulation, control and feedstock evaluation in advanced coal conversion devices. This technology is important to reduce the technical and economic risks inherent in utilizing coal, a feedstock whose variable and often unexpected behavior presents a significant challenge. This program will merge significant advances made at Advanced Fuel Research, Inc. (AFR) in measuring and quantitatively describing the mechanisms in coal conversion behavior, with technology being developed at Brigham Young University (BYU) in comprehensive computer codes for mechanistic modeling of entrained-bed gasification. Additional capabilities in predicting pollutant formation will be implemented and the technology will be expanded to fixed-bed reactors. The foundation to describe coal-specific conversion behavior is AFR's Functional Group (FG) and Devolatilization, Vaporization, and Crosslinking (DVC) models, developed under previous and on-going METC sponsored programs. These models have demonstrated the capability to describe the time dependent evolution of individual gas species, and the amount and characteristics of tar and char. The combined FG-DVC model will be integrated with BYU's comprehensive two-dimensional reactor model, PCGC-2, which is currently the most widely used reactor simulation for combustion or gasification. Success in this program will be a major step in improving in predictive capabilities for coal conversion processes including: demonstrated accuracy and reliability and a generalized first principles'' treatment of coals based on readily obtained composition data. The progress during the fifteenth quarterly of the program is presented. 56 refs., 41 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Economic aspects of advanced coal-fired gas turbine locomotives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liddle, S. G.; Bonzo, B. B.; Houser, B. C.

    1983-01-01

    Increases in the price of such conventional fuels as Diesel No. 2, as well as advancements in turbine technology, have prompted the present economic assessment of coal-fired gas turbine locomotive engines. A regenerative open cycle internal combustion gas turbine engine may be used, given the development of ceramic hot section components. Otherwise, an external combustion gas turbine engine appears attractive, since although its thermal efficiency is lower than that of a Diesel engine, its fuel is far less expensive. Attention is given to such a powerplant which will use a fluidized bed coal combustor. A life cycle cost analysis yields figures that are approximately half those typical of present locomotive engines.

  3. Development of significantly improved catalysts for coal liquefaction and upgrading of coal extracts

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, V.T.; Kutzenco, P.D.; Preston, W.J.; Brinen, J.S.; Graham, S.W.; Butensky, M.; Muchnick, T.L.; Hyman, D.

    1982-01-01

    During 1979-80, a new generation of very active, long-lived catlaysts for hydrotrating was discovered at the Stamford Research Laboratories of the American Cyanamid Company. The catalysts are based on a unique substrate prepared in bead form from a rehydratable alumina. Their spherical shape, crush strength, and abrasion resistance seem ideally suited for the ebullated bed reactors used in the H-COAL process developed by Hydrocarbon Research, Inc. (HRI). The beads have internal pore structures that are controllable over a wider range than conventional alumina supports, leading to active catalysts that are resistant to poisoning. In September, 1981, the Department of Energy granted a 3-year contract to the American Cyanamid Company for the development of significantly improved catalysts for coal liquefaction anf for upgrading coal extracts, particularly in reactors used in the H-COAL process. Catalysts will first be screened in a batch reactor to identify promising candidated. The latter will be tested in a continuous aging reactor to evaluate their resistance to deactivation under col-liquefaction and extract upgrading conditions. Cold flow ebullation tests of catalysts of different head size are presented, along with some screening and crying of experimental catalysts. Spherical methods for examining catalysts are described.

  4. A procedure for the supercritical fluid extraction of coal samples, with subsequent analysis of extracted hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Jonathan J. Kolak

    2006-07-01

    This report provides a detailed, step-by-step procedure for conducting extractions with supercritical carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) using the ISCO SFX220 supercritical fluid extraction system. Protocols for the subsequent separation and analysis of extracted hydrocarbons are also included in this report. These procedures were developed under the auspices of the project 'Assessment of geologic reservoirs for carbon dioxide sequestration', to investigate possible environmental ramifications associated with CO{sub 2} storage (sequestration) in geologic reservoirs, such as deep coal beds. Supercritical CO{sub 2} has been used previously to extract contaminants from geologic matrices. Pressure-temperature conditions within deep coal beds may render CO{sub 2} supercritical. In this context, the ability of supercritical CO{sub 2} to extract contaminants from geologic materials may serve to mobilize noxious compounds from coal, possibly complicating storage efforts. There currently exists little information on the physicochemical interactions between supercritical CO{sub 2} and coal in this setting. The procedures described were developed to improve the understanding of these interactions and provide insight into the fate of CO{sub 2} and contaminants during simulated CO{sub 2} injections. 4 figs., 3 tabs., 1 app.

  5. A Procedure for the supercritical fluid extraction of coal samples, with subsequent analysis of extracted hydrocarbons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolak, Jonathan J.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: This report provides a detailed, step-by-step procedure for conducting extractions with supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) using the ISCO SFX220 supercritical fluid extraction system. Protocols for the subsequent separation and analysis of extracted hydrocarbons are also included in this report. These procedures were developed under the auspices of the project 'Assessment of Geologic Reservoirs for Carbon Dioxide Sequestration' (see http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/fs026-03/fs026-03.pdf) to investigate possible environmental ramifications associated with CO2 storage (sequestration) in geologic reservoirs, such as deep (~1 km below land surface) coal beds. Supercritical CO2 has been used previously to extract contaminants from geologic matrices. Pressure-temperature conditions within deep coal beds may render CO2 supercritical. In this context, the ability of supercritical CO2 to extract contaminants from geologic materials may serve to mobilize noxious compounds from coal, possibly complicating storage efforts. There currently exists little information on the physicochemical interactions between supercritical CO2 and coal in this setting. The procedures described herein were developed to improve the understanding of these interactions and provide insight into the fate of CO2 and contaminants during simulated CO2 injections.

  6. COAL AND CHAR STUDIES BY ADVANCED EMR TECHNIQUES

    SciTech Connect

    R. Linn Belford; Robert B. Clarkson; Mark J. Nilges; Boris M. Odintsov; Alex I. Smirnov

    2001-04-30

    Advanced electronic magnetic resonance (EMR) as well as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods have been used to examine properties of coals, chars, and molecular species related to constituents of coal. During the span of this grant, progress was made on construction and applications to coals and chars of two high frequency EMR systems particularly appropriate for such studies--48 GHz and 95 GHz electron magnetic resonance spectrometer, on new low-frequency dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) experiments to examine the interaction between water and the surfaces of suspended char particulates in slurries, and on a variety of proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques to measure characteristics of the water directly in contact with the surfaces and pore spaces of carbonaceous particulates.

  7. Air extraction in gas turbines burning coal-derived gas

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Tah-teh; Agrawal, A.K.; Kapat, J.S.

    1993-11-01

    In the first phase of this contracted research, a comprehensive investigation was performed. Principally, the effort was directed to identify the technical barriers which might exist in integrating the air-blown coal gasification process with a hot gas cleanup scheme and the state-of-the-art, US made, heavy-frame gas turbine. The guiding rule of the integration is to keep the compressor and the expander unchanged if possible. Because of the low-heat content of coal gas and of the need to accommodate air extraction, the combustor and perhaps, the flow region between the compressor exit and the expander inlet might need to be modified. In selecting a compressed air extraction scheme, one must consider how the scheme affects the air supply to the hot section of the turbine and the total pressure loss in the flow region. Air extraction must preserve effective cooling of the hot components, such as the transition pieces. It must also ensure proper air/fuel mixing in the combustor, hence the combustor exit pattern factor. The overall thermal efficiency of the power plant can be increased by minimizing the total pressure loss in the diffusers associated with the air extraction. Therefore, a study of airflow in the pre- and dump-diffusers with and without air extraction would provide information crucial to attaining high-thermal efficiency and to preventing hot spots. The research group at Clemson University suggested using a Griffith diffuser for the prediffuser and extracting air from the diffuser inlet. The present research establishes that the analytically identified problems in the impingement cooling flow are factual. This phase of the contracted research substantiates experimentally the advantage of using the Griffith diffuser with air extraction at the diffuser inlet.

  8. Advanced hot gas cleaning system for coal gasification processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newby, R. A.; Bannister, R. L.

    1994-04-01

    The United States electric industry is entering a period where growth and the aging of existing plants will mandate a decision on whether to repower, add capacity, or do both. The power generation cycle of choice, today, is the combined cycle that utilizes the Brayton and Rankine cycles. The combustion turbine in a combined cycle can be used in a repowering mode or in a greenfield plant installation. Today's fuel of choice for new combined cycle power generation is natural gas. However, due to a 300-year supply of coal within the United States, the fuel of the future will include coal. Westinghouse has supported the development of coal-fueled gas turbine technology over the past thirty years. Working with the U.S. Department of Energy and other organizations, Westinghouse is actively pursuing the development and commercialization of several coal-fueled processes. To protect the combustion turbine and environment from emissions generated during coal conversion (gasification/combustion) a gas cleanup system must be used. This paper reports on the status of fuel gas cleaning technology and describes the Westinghouse approach to developing an advanced hot gas cleaning system that contains component systems that remove particulate, sulfur, and alkali vapors. The basic process uses ceramic barrier filters for multiple cleaning functions.

  9. PRODUCTION OF CARBON PRODUCTS USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Dady Dadyburjor; Chong Chen; Elliot B. Kennel; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-12-12

    High melting temperature synthetic pitches (Synpitches) were created using coal derivatives produced from a solvent extraction technique. Solvent extraction is used to separate hydrocarbons from mineral matter as well as other insolubles. Mild hydrogenation can be used to chemically modify resultant material to produce a true pitch. There are three main techniques which can be used to tailor the softening point of the Synpitch. First, the softening point can be controlled by varying the conditions of hydrogenation, chiefly the temperature, pressure and residence time in a hydrogen overpressure. Second, by selectively distilling light hydrocarbons, the softening point of the remaining pitch can be raised. Third, the Synpitch can be blended with another mutually soluble pitch or hydrocarbon liquid. Through such techniques, spinnable isotropic Synpitches have been created from coal feedstocks. Characteristics of Synpitches include high cross-linking reactivity and high molecular weight, resulting in carbon fibers with excellent mechanical properties. To date, mechanical properties have been achieved which are comparable to the state of the art achievable with conventional coal tar pitch or petroleum pitch.

  10. GEOTECHNICAL/GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ADVANCED COAL PROCESS WASTE STREAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Edwin S. Olson; Charles J. Moretti

    1999-11-01

    Thirteen solid wastes, six coals and one unreacted sorbent produced from seven advanced coal utilization processes were characterized for task three of this project. The advanced processes from which samples were obtained included a gas-reburning sorbent injection process, a pressurized fluidized-bed coal combustion process, a coal-reburning process, a SO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, RO{sub x}, BOX process, an advanced flue desulfurization process, and an advanced coal cleaning process. The waste samples ranged from coarse materials, such as bottom ashes and spent bed materials, to fine materials such as fly ashes and cyclone ashes. Based on the results of the waste characterizations, an analysis of appropriate waste management practices for the advanced process wastes was done. The analysis indicated that using conventional waste management technology should be possible for disposal of all the advanced process wastes studied for task three. However, some wastes did possess properties that could present special problems for conventional waste management systems. Several task three wastes were self-hardening materials and one was self-heating. Self-hardening is caused by cementitious and pozzolanic reactions that occur when water is added to the waste. All of the self-hardening wastes setup slowly (in a matter of hours or days rather than minutes). Thus these wastes can still be handled with conventional management systems if care is taken not to allow them to setup in storage bins or transport vehicles. Waste self-heating is caused by the exothermic hydration of lime when the waste is mixed with conditioning water. If enough lime is present, the temperature of the waste will rise until steam is produced. It is recommended that self-heating wastes be conditioned in a controlled manner so that the heat will be safely dissipated before the material is transported to an ultimate disposal site. Waste utilization is important because an advanced process waste will not require

  11. Advanced coal-fired glass melting development program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-05-01

    The objective of Phase 1 of the current contract was to verify the technical feasibility and economic benefits of Vortec's advanced combustion/melting technology using coal as the fuel of choice. The objective of the Phase 2 effort was to improve the performance of the primary components and demonstrate the effective operation of a subscale process heater system integrated with a glass separator/reservoir. (VC)

  12. Induction of sister chromatid exchanges by coal dust and tobacco snuff extracts in human peripheral lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, J.D.; Ong, T.

    1985-01-01

    The organic solvent extracts of sub-bituminous coal dust and tobacco snuff, both together and separately, were tested for the induction of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in human peripheral lymphocytes. The results indicate that these extracts induced SCEs, and that when tested together synergistically induced SCEs in two of three donors. Studies with the organic solvent extracts of all five ranks of coal indicate that the extracts of bituminous, lignite, and peat, but not anthracite, induced SCEs. Similar experiments conducted with water extracts, induced SCEs, and that anthracite was equivocal. To determine whether individuals differed in their SCE responses to coal dust extracts, lymphocytes from five donors were tested with organic solvent extracts of bituminous and sub-bituminous coal. An analysis of variance indicates that the SCE response was significantly influenced by the donor and each of the two coal extracts. The findings presented here suggest that coal dust, with or without tobacco snuff, may play a role in the elevated incidence of gastric cancer in coal miners. Because water extracts of some ranks of coal induced SCEs, there exists the possibility of adverse environmental effects due to coal leachates.

  13. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. ); Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. )

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of this proposed study are to establish the mechanisms and rates of basic steps in coal conversion processes, to integrate and incorporate this information into comprehensive computer models for coal conversion processes, to evaluate these models and to apply them to gasification, mild gasification and combustion in heat engines. This report describes progress during twenty second quarter of the program. Specifically, the paper discusses progress in three task areas: (1) Submodel development and evaluation: coal to char chemistry submodel; fundamental high-pressure reaction rate data; secondary reaction of pyrolysis product and burnout submodels; ash physics and chemistry submodel; large particle submodels; large char particle oxidation at high pressures; and SO[sub x]-NO[sub x] submodel development and evaluation; (2) Comprehensive model development and evaluation: integration of advanced submodels into entrained-flow code, with evaluation and documentation; comprehensive fixed-bed modeling review, development evaluation and implementation; and generalized fuels feedstock submodel; and (3) Application of integrated codes: application of generalized pulverized coal comprehensive code and application of fixed-bed code.

  14. Development of an advanced high efficiency coal combustor for boiler retrofit. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    LaFlesh, R.C.; Rini, M.J.; McGowan, J.G.; Beer, J.M.; Toqan, M.A.

    1990-04-01

    The objective of the program was to develop an advanced coal combustion system for firing beneficiated coal fuels (BCFs) capable of being retrofitted to industrial boilers originally designed for firing natural gas. The High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor system is capable of firing microfine coal-water fuel (MCWF), MCWF with alkali sorbent (for SO{sub 2} reduction), and dry microfine coal. Design priorities for the system were that it be simple to operate and offer significant reductions in NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulate emissions as compared with current coal-fired combustor technology. (VC)

  15. Development of an advanced high efficiency coal combustor for boiler retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    LaFlesh, R.C.; Rini, M.J.; McGowan, J.G.; Beer, J.M.; Toqan, M.A.

    1990-04-01

    The objective of the program was to develop an advanced coal combustion system for firing beneficiated coal fuels (BCFs) capable of being retrofitted to industrial boilers originally designed for firing natural gas. The High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor system is capable of firing microfine coal-water fuel (MCWF), MCWF with alkali sorbent (for SO{sub 2} reduction), and dry microfine coal. Design priorities for the system were that it be simple to operate and offer significant reductions in NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulate emissions as compared with current coal-fired combustor technology. (VC)

  16. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.; Phillips, D.I.; Yoon, R.H.

    1997-04-25

    The goal of this project is engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. Its scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by design and construction of a 2 t/h process development unit (PDU). Large lots of clean coal are to be produced in the PDU from three project coals. Investigation of the near-term applicability of the two advanced fine coal cleaning processes in an existing coal preparation plant is another goal of the project and is the subject of this report.

  17. Performance of a high efficiency advanced coal combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Toqan, M.A.; Paloposki, T.; Yu, T.; Teare, J.D.; Beer, J.M. )

    1989-12-01

    Under contract from DOE-PETC, Combustion Engineering, Inc. undertook the lead-role in a multi-task R D program aimed at development of a new burner system for coal-based fuels; the goal was that this burner system should be capable of being retrofitted in oil- or gas-fired industrial boilers, or usable in new units. In the first phase of this program a high efficiency advanced coal combustor was designed jointly by CE and MIT. Its burner is of the multiannular design with a fixed shrouded swirler in the center immediately surrounding the atomizer gun to provide the primary act,'' and three further annuli for the supply of the secondary air.'' The degree of rotation (swirl) in the secondary air is variable. The split of the combustion air into primary and secondary air flows serves the purpose of flame stabilization and combustion staging, the latter to reduce NO{sub x} formation.

  18. Evaluation of reverse coal-pyrite flotation for a proposed Ohio advanced coal-cleaning test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, K.J.

    1989-07-01

    A laboratory test program was conducted at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center with precleaned and classified middlings samples of three high-sulfur Ohio coals. The test program was run to evaluate the possible application of the US Department of Energy's two-stage reverse coal-pyrite flotation process in a new coal-cleaning test facility to be built in Ohio by the Ohio Coal Development Office. Results showed that the pyritic sulfur content of all three of the prepared coal samples could be substantially lowered via the coal-pyrite flotation process. But with two of the three coals, the organic sulfur levels were so high that removal of all of the pyrite would have contributed little to total sulfur reduction. Thus, processes aimed at pyritic sulfur reduction alone (such as the reverse coal-pyrite flotation process) would have limited impact on total sulfur reduction with some Ohio coals. However, with other coals in which sulfur is predominantly in the form of pyrite and marcasite, the process would likely prove beneficial. Therefore, the inclusion of reverse coal-pyrite flotation circuitry in the new facility would be prudent, especially since the proposed advanced coal-cleaning test plant will contain other deep-cleaning circuitry to ensure maximum ash reduction to achieve the lowest possible SO/sub 2/ per Btu emission levels. 13 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation: Quarterly report No. 2, January 1--March 31, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerstenau, D.W.; Sastry, K.V.S.; Hanson, J.S.; Narayanan, K.S.; Khan, L.; Diao, J.; Yin, Y.; Waltermire, M.; Hu, W.; Zou, Y.

    1989-06-01

    The primary goal of this research project is to develop advanced flotation methods of coal cleaning in order to achieve 90% pyritic sulfur removal at 90% Btu yield, using coal samples procured from six major US coal seams. Concomitantly, the ash content of these coals is to be reduced to 6% or less. The investigation of mechanisms for the control of coal and pyrite surfaces prior to fine coal flotation is an important aspect of the project objectives. A second major objective is to investigate the factors involved in the progressive weathering and oxidation of coal stored in three storage modes, namely, open, covered and in an argon-inerted atmosphere, over a period of twelve months. 37 figs., 41 tabs.

  20. Elution of Ti during solvent extraction of coal and the transformation of eluted Ti upon combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, L.A.; Takanohashi, T.; Saito, I.; Wang, Q.Y.; Ninomiya, Y.

    2008-06-15

    Solvent extraction of coal is an effective method for removing coal ash, thereby generating the ultraclean fuel that can be directly combusted in gas turbine. Due to their organic affinity, a few inorganic elements can be extracted as well. Ti in coal extract, its elution from raw coal as well as the transformation of eluted Ti during coal extract combustion, have been investigated. Two coals of the U.S. and their acid-washed samples were extracted under 1 MPa N{sub 2} (cold) at 360{sup o}C. The solvents used include nonpolar 1-methylnaphthalene and its mixtures with polar indole. The results indicate that, Ti in coal extracts is mainly composed of nanoparticles including TiO{sub 2} (anatase) and Ti associated with quartz. These particles are insoluble in any acids, having a fine dispersion into coal matrix. Upon coal fragmentation at 360{sup o}C, they could be liberated, and, hence, traversed the filter for isolating coal extracts. The organo-Ti was preferentially extracted as well, which is most likely in a form of Ti porphyrin or Ti chelated with phenol-oxygen. These findings also have implications for revealing the modes of occurrence of Ti in the raw coals. Combustion of coal extract at 1,000{sup o}C resulted in the formation of nanometric TiO{sub 2} polymorphs and complex compounds like FeZnTiO{sub 4}. The former species could be mainly formed by the phase change of TiO{sub 2} (anatase) at high-temperatures, while formation of the latter one could involve the capture of metallic vapors like Zn on TiO{sub 2} polymorphs.

  1. The knowledge of underground coal gasification (UCG) applied to coalbed methane extraction (CBM) and natural coal fires (NCF)

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, K.H.A.A.; Hettema, M.H.H.; Bruining, J.; Schreurs, H.C.E.

    1997-12-31

    This paper will give a general view on the application of underground coal gasification (UCG) for the improvement of coalbed methane (CBM) production enhancement and the utilization of natural coal fires (NCF). In general UCG techniques will improve the opportunities for the enhancement and utilization of potential energy sources. When all options, UCG, CBM and NCF are placed in a Clean Coal Exploitation Program, it can be divided into a ``cold program`` and a ``hot program.`` In a cold program the authors propose the development and exploitation of second generation cold coal-energy, i.e., coal gas extraction (CBM). The hot program considers the activities in which in-situ burning coals make the core issue for exploitation (UCG, NCF). In both programs UCG-technologies could be important tools for energy acquisition and production improvement.

  2. Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies. Final report, September 19, 1988--August 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gray, R.; Streeter, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Chiarlli, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Perez, L.; Venkatadri, R.

    1992-12-31

    This final report presents the research work carried out on the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC). The project was to support the engineering development of the selective agglomeration technology in order to reduce the sulfur content of US coals for controlling SO{sub 2} emissions (i.e., acid rain precursors). The overall effort was a part of the DOE/PETCs Acid Rain Control Initiative (ARCI). The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 85% pyrite sulfur rejection at an energy recovery greater than 85% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning; methods for analysis of samples; development of standard beneficiation test; grinding studies; modification of particle surface; and exploratory R&D and support. The coal samples used in this project include three base coals, Upper Freeport - Indiana County, PA, Pittsburgh NO. 8 - Belmont County, OH, and Illinois No. 6 - Randolph County, IL, and three additional coals, Upper Freeport - Grant County- WV, Kentucky No. 9 Hopkins County, KY, and Wyodak - Campbell County, WY. A total of 149 drums of coal were received.

  3. Coal tar phototherapy for psoriasis reevaluated: erythemogenic versus suberythemogenic ultraviolet with a tar extract in oil and crude coal tar

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, N.J.; Wortzman, M.S.; Breeding, J.; Koudsi, H.; Taylor, L.

    1983-06-01

    Recent studies have questioned the therapeutic value of coal tar versus ultraviolet (UV) radiation and their relative necessity in phototherapy for psoriasis. In this investigation, different aspects of tar phototherapy have been studied in single-blind bilateral paired comparison studies. The effects of 1% crude coal tar were compared with those of petrolatum in conjunction with erythemogenic and suberythemogenic doses of ultraviolet light (UVB) using a FS72 sunlamp tubed cabinet. Crude coal tar was clinically superior to petrolatum with suberythemogenic ultraviolet. With the erythemogenic UVB, petrolatum was equal in efficacy to crude coal tar. Suberythemogenic UVB was also used adjunctively to compare the effects of a 5% concentration of a tar extract in an oil base to 5% crude coal tar in petrolatum or the oil base without tar. The tar extract in oil plus suberythemogenic UVB produced significantly more rapid improvement than the oil base plus UVB. The direct bilateral comparison of equal concentrations of tar extract in oil base versus crude coal tar in petrolatum in a suberythemogenic UV photo regimen revealed no statistical differences between treatments. In a study comparing tar extract in oil and the oil base without ultraviolet radiation, the tar extract in oil side responded more rapidly.

  4. Technology and development requirements for advanced coal conversion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A compendium of coal conversion process descriptions is presented. The SRS and MC data bases were utilized to provide information paticularly in the areas of existing process designs and process evaluations. Additional information requirements were established and arrangements were made to visit process developers, pilot plants, and process development units to obtain information that was not otherwise available. Plant designs, process descriptions and operating conditions, and performance characteristics were analyzed and requirements for further development identified and evaluated to determine the impact of these requirements on the process commercialization potential from the standpoint of economics and technical feasibility. A preliminary methodology was established for the comparative technical and economic assessment of advanced processes.

  5. Technological and Social Impact Assessment of Resource Extraction: The Case of Coal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebs, Girard

    1975-01-01

    This paper is a preliminary report of work in progress on the assessment of the social impact of coal extraction. The research is directed at examining the implications for the human community of the underground and surface mining methods of coal extraction. (BT)

  6. Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility, Wilsonville, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    This report presents the results of Run 261 performed at the Advanced Coal Liquefaction R D Facility in Wilsonville, Alabama. The run started on January 12, 1991 and continued until May 31, 1991, operating in the Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction mode processing Illinois No. 6 seam bituminous coal (from Burning star No. 2 mine). In the first part of Run 261, a new bimodal catalyst, EXP-AO-60, was tested for its performance and attrition characteristics in the catalytic/catalytic mode of the CC-ITSL process. The main objective of this part of the run was to obtain good process performance in the low/high temperature mode of operation along with well-defined distillation product end boiling points. In the second part of Run 261, Criterion (Shell) 324 catalyst was tested. The objective of this test was to evaluate the operational stability and catalyst and process performance while processing the high ash Illinois No. 6 coal. Increasing viscosity and preasphaltenes made it difficult to operate at conditions similar to EXP-AO-60 catalyst operation, especially at lower catalyst replacement rates.

  7. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project. Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    Western Energy Company (WECO) was selected by the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) which upgrades low rank coals into high Btu, low sulfur, synthetic bituminous coal. As specified in the Corporate Agreement, RSCP is required to develop an Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) which describes in detail the environmental monitoring activities to be performed during the project execution. The purpose of the EMP is to: (1) identify monitoring activities that will be undertaken to show compliance to applicable regulations, (2) confirm the specific environmental impacts predicted in the National Environmental Policy Act documentation, and (3) establish an information base of the assessment of the environmental performance of the technology demonstrated by the project. The EMP specifies the streams to be monitored (e.g. gaseous, aqueous, and solid waste), the parameters to be measured (e.g. temperature, pressure, flow rate), and the species to be analyzed (e.g. sulfur compounds, nitrogen compounds, trace elements) as well as human health and safety exposure levels. The operation and frequency of the monitoring activities is specified, as well as the timing for the monitoring activities related to project phase (e.g. preconstruction, construction, commissioning, operational, post-operational). The EMP is designed to assess the environmental impacts and the environmental improvements resulting from construction and operation of the project.

  8. Extraction, separation and analysis of high sulfur coal

    SciTech Connect

    Olesik, S.V.

    1990-04-02

    In summary, significant bond cleavage was found only for thiophenol under the supercritical conditions studied. Less than 5% yield was found for the observed reaction products for all the other organosulfur compounds. The hydrogen sulfur bond in thiophenol is clearly the weakest of those studied and therefore it is the easiest to rupture. Also a general trend was observed the solvolysis reaction products such as ethylthiobenzene were the products initially formed at lower temperatures. But with higher temperatures the reaction product were those typically produced from the bimolecular association of free-radicals, such as phenylsulfide for the thiophenol sample. This type of reaction would be expected in pyrolysis reactions. Bimolecular reactions between organosulfur compounds would not be expected when the reaction is occurring at the surface of the solid coal matrix. The probability of the extracted organosulfur radicals having such bimolecular reactions is quite low. However, the reactions that are observed from the interaction of supercritical ethanol and the model coal compounds are not ones that show obvious indications of desulfurization of the compound.

  9. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1993-01-18

    This project is a step in the Department of Energy's program to show that ultra-clean fuel can be produced from selected coals and that the fuel will be a cost-effective replacement for oil and natural gas now fueling boilers in this country. The replacement of premium fossil fuels with coal can only be realized if retrofit costs are kept to a minimum and retrofit boiler emissions meet national goals for clean air. These concerns establish the specifications for maximum ash and sulfur levels and combustion properties of the ultra-clean coal. The primary objective is to develop the design base for prototype commercial advanced fine coal cleaning facilities capable of producing ultra-clean coals suitable for conversion to coal-water slurry fuel. The fine coal cleaning technologies are advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration. A secondary objective is to develop the design base for near-term commercial integration of advanced fine coal cleaning technologies in new or existing coal preparation plants for economically and efficiently processing minus 28-mesh coal fines. A third objective is to determine the distribution of toxic trace elements between clean coal and refuse when applying the advance column flotation and selective agglomeration technologies. The project team consists of Amax Research Development Center (Amax R D), Amax Coal industries, Bechtel Corporation, Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) at the University of Kentucky, and Arcanum Corporation.

  10. 76 FR 55837 - Workshops To Discuss Revisions to Federal and Indian Coal Valuation Regulations: Advance Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... Revisions to Federal and Indian Coal Valuation Regulations: Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking AGENCY... existing royalty valuation regulations at 30 CFR parts 1202 and 1206 for coal produced from Federal and... Notice ] of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPR) for Federal and Indian coal valuation closed on July 26, 2011....

  11. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration. Technical progress report, July 1, 1993--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from July 1, 1993, through September 30, 1993. The ACCP Demonstration Project is a US DOE Clean Coal Technology Project. This project demonstrates an advanced thermal coal drying process coupled with physical cleaning techniques that are designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel registered as the SynCoal{reg_sign} process. The coal is processed through three stages of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After drying, the coal is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal.

  12. Optical properties of supercritical toluene extraction residues obtained from Turkish coals

    SciTech Connect

    Vayisoglu, E.S. |; Bartle, K.D.; Erbatur, N.G.

    1997-07-01

    Two Turkish coals of subbituminous C and high-volatile bituminous rank were subjected to supercritical toluene extraction at 400 C and 100 atm. The solid residues were examined microscopically in order to gain useful insight into the mechanisms involved in supercritical toluene extraction. The disappearance of liptinite macerals is a feature of the optical texture of both coals subjected to the extraction process. Residues of the two coals produced high-reflecting vitroplast. The amount of inertinite macerals in the residues increased and showed higher reflectance. No other alterations were observed for the inertinite macerals in the extraction residues.

  13. Development of clean coal and clean soil technologies using advanced agglomeration technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Ignasiak, B.; Pawlak, W.; Szymocha, K.; Marr, J.

    1990-04-01

    The specific objectives of the bituminous coal program were to explore and evaluate the application of advanced agglomeration technology for: (1)desulphurization of bituminous coals to sulphur content acceptable within the current EPA SO{sub 2} emission guidelines; (2) deashing of bituminous coals to ash content of less than 10 percent; and (3)increasing the calorific value of bituminous coals to above 13,000 Btu/lb. (VC)

  14. 30 CFR 937.707 - Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incident to... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.707 Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction. Part 707 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incident...

  15. 30 CFR 937.707 - Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incident to... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.707 Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction. Part 707 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incident...

  16. 30 CFR 937.707 - Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incident to... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.707 Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction. Part 707 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incident...

  17. 30 CFR 937.707 - Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incident to... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.707 Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction. Part 707 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incident...

  18. 30 CFR 937.707 - Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incident to... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.707 Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction. Part 707 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incident...

  19. Engineering design and analysis of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-20

    This project is sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) for the Engineering Design and Analysis of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies. The major goal is to provide the simulation tools for modeling both conventional and advanced coal cleaning technologies. This DOE project is part of a major research initiative by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) aimed at advancing three advanced coal cleaning technologies-heavy-liquid cylconing, selective agglomeration, and advanced froth flotation through the proof-of-concept (POC) level.

  20. Advanced coal-gasification technical analyses. Appendix 2: coal fines disposal. Final report, December 1982-September 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Cover, A.E.; Hubbard, D.A.; Jain, S.K.; Shah, K.V.

    1986-01-01

    This report is a compilation of several studies conducted by KRSI under the Advanced Coal Gasification Technical Analyses contract with GRI. It addresses the issue of disposal and/or utilization of the coal fines that cannot be used as feedstock for fixed-bed (i.e. Lurgi) gasifiers. Specific items addressed are: (1) Technical, legal and economic aspects of fines burial, (2) Estimation of the premium for fines-free coal delivered to an SNG plant and resulting reduction in SNG production costs, (3) Comparison of the relative advantages and limitations of Winkler and GKT gasifiers to consuming fines, (4) Review of coal-size consist curves in the GRI Guidelines to assess the fines content of ROM coals, (5) a first-pass design and cost estimate using GKT gasifiers in tandem with Lurgi gasifiers in an North Dakota lignite-to-SNG plant to consume full range of coal-size consist, (6) Evaluation of the General Electric technology for extrusion of coal fines and testing of the extrudates in a fixed-bed gasifier, and (7) Investigation of equipment and variables involved in briquetting of coal fines, such that fines could be fed to the gasifiers along with the lump coal.

  1. Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Horner, M.W.; Ekstedt, E.E.; Gal, E.; Jackson, M.R.; Kimura, S.G.; Lavigne, R.G.; Lucas, C.; Rairden, J.R.; Sabla, P.E.; Savelli, J.F.; Slaughter, D.M.; Spiro, C.L.; Staub, F.W.

    1989-02-01

    The objective of the original Request for Proposal was to establish the technological bases necessary for the subsequent commercial development and deployment of advanced coal-fueled gas turbine power systems by the private sector. The offeror was to identify the specific application or applications, toward which his development efforts would be directed; define and substantiate the technical, economic, and environmental criteria for the selected application; and conduct such component design, development, integration, and tests as deemed necessary to fulfill this objective. Specifically, the offeror was to choose a system through which ingenious methods of grouping subcomponents into integrated systems accomplishes the following: (1) Preserve the inherent power density and performance advantages of gas turbine systems. (2) System must be capable of meeting or exceeding existing and expected environmental regulations for the proposed application. (3) System must offer a considerable improvement over coal-fueled systems which are commercial, have been demonstrated, or are being demonstrated. (4) System proposed must be an integrated gas turbine concept, i.e., all fuel conditioning, all expansion gas conditioning, or post-expansion gas cleaning, must be integrated into the gas turbine system.

  2. Advanced coal gasifier-fuel cell power plant systems design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heller, M. E.

    1983-01-01

    Two advanced, high efficiency coal-fired power plants were designed, one utilizing a phosphoric acid fuel cell and one utilizing a molten carbonate fuel cell. Both incorporate a TRW Catalytic Hydrogen Process gasifier and regenerator. Both plants operate without an oxygen plant and without requiring water feed; they, instead, require makeup dolomite. Neither plant requires a shift converter; neither plant has heat exchangers operating above 1250 F. Both plants have attractive efficiencies and costs. While the molten carbonate version has a higher (52%) efficiency than the phosphoric acid version (48%), it also has a higher ($0.078/kWh versus $0.072/kWh) ten-year levelized cost of electricity. The phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant is probably feasible to build in the near term: questions about the TRW process need to be answered experimentally, such as weather it can operate on caking coals, and how effective the catalyzed carbon-dioxide acceptor will be at pilot scale, both in removing carbon dioxide and in removing sulfur from the gasifier.

  3. Advanced direct coal liquefaction concepts. Final report, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, D.J.; Parker, R.J.; Simpson, P.L.

    1994-07-01

    Integration of innovative steps into new advanced processes have the potential to reduce costs for producing liquid fuels. In this program, objective is to develop a new approach to liquefaction that generates an all distillate product slate at a reduced cost of about US$25/barrel of crude oil equivalent. A Counterflow Reactor was developed in cooperation with GfK mbH, Germany. Advantages are low hydrogen recycle rates and low feed preheating requirements. Coal/heavy oil slurry is injected into the top of the reactor while the recycle gas and make up hydrogen is introduced into the bottom; hydrogenation products are withdrawn from the top. PU study resulted in distillable oil yields up to 74 wt % on feed (dry ash free) from coprocessing feed slurries containing 40 wt % Vesta subbituminous coal and 60 wt % Cold Lake heavy vacuum tower bottoms. Technologies developed separately by CED and ARC were combined. A 1-kg/hr integrated continuous flow bench scale unit was constructed at the ARC site in Devon, Alberta, based on modifications to a unit at Nisku, Alberta (the modified unit was used in the preliminary economic evaluation).

  4. Characterization of coals, other kerogens, and their extracts by thermal mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Winans, R.E.; Melnikov, P.E.; McBeth, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this study is to elucidate the nature of the medium size molecules derived from coals by a succession of stronger extraction conditions. The Argonne Premium Coals have been extracted with pyridine, binary solvents and with KOH/ethylene glycol at 250{degrees}C. Thermal desorption and pyrolysis mass spectrometry were the major approaches chosen to provide detailed information on structure and heteroatom composition. Soft ionization techniques including desorption chemical ionization (DCI) and fast atom bombardment (FAB) were combined with high resolution and tandem MS techniques. This paper will focus on the comparison of the nature of the unextracted coals, the pyridine extract and the extracted coal residue. With this approach the desorption-pyrolysis yields of the extracts and residues combined were greater than the yields from the starting material. Although molecule weight distributions had a monitor dependence on rank, the nature of molecules with the same nominal mass varied greatly with rank.

  5. Characterization of coals, other kerogens, and their extracts by thermal mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Winans, R.E.; Melnikov, P.E.; McBeth, R.L.

    1992-04-01

    The objective of this study is to elucidate the nature of the medium size molecules derived from coals by a succession of stronger extraction conditions. The Argonne Premium Coals have been extracted with pyridine, binary solvents and with KOH/ethylene glycol at 250{degrees}C. Thermal desorption and pyrolysis mass spectrometry were the major approaches chosen to provide detailed information on structure and heteroatom composition. Soft ionization techniques including desorption chemical ionization (DCI) and fast atom bombardment (FAB) were combined with high resolution and tandem MS techniques. This paper will focus on the comparison of the nature of the unextracted coals, the pyridine extract and the extracted coal residue. With this approach the desorption-pyrolysis yields of the extracts and residues combined were greater than the yields from the starting material. Although molecule weight distributions had a monitor dependence on rank, the nature of molecules with the same nominal mass varied greatly with rank.

  6. Preparation and evaluation of coal extracts as precursors for carbon and graphite products

    SciTech Connect

    Zondlo, J.W.; Stiller, A.W.; Stansberry, P.G.

    1996-08-01

    A coal extraction process coupled with coal hydrotreatment has been shown capable of producing suitable precursors for a variety of commercially important carbon and graphite products. The N-methylpyrolidone (NMP) extracts of hydrotreated coals have been analytically and chemically characterized and shown to have properties acceptable for use as binder and impregnation pitch. Mesophase formation studies have demonstrated their capability for producing both needle and anode grade coke as well as precursors for mesophase pitch fibers. A graphite artifact has been produced using a coal extract as a binder and coke derived from the extract as a filler. Further evaluation of the extract materials is being carried out by industrial members of the Carbon Products Consortium.

  7. Sequential solvent extraction for forms of antimony in five selected coals

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, C.C.; Liu, G.J.; Kang, Y.; Chou, C.L.; Wang, R.W.

    2008-03-15

    Abundance of antimony in bulk samples has been determined in five selected coals, three coals from Huaibei Coalfield, Anhui, China, and two from the Illinois Basin in the United States. The Sb abundance in these samples is in the range of 0.11-0.43 {mu} g/g. The forms of Sb in coals were studied by sequential solvent extraction. The six forms of Sb are water soluble, ion changeable, organic matter bound, carbonate bound, silicate bound, and sulfide bound. Results of sequential extraction show that silicate-bound Sb is the most abundant form in these coals. Silicate-plus sulfide-bound Sb accounts for more than half of the total Sb in all coals. Bituminous coals are higher in organic matter bound Sb than anthracite and natural coke, indicating that the Sb in the organic matter may be incorporated into silicate and sulfide minerals during metamorphism.

  8. Sequential solvent extraction for forms of antimony in five selected coals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Qi, C.; Liu, Gaisheng; Kong, Y.; Chou, C.-L.; Wang, R.

    2008-01-01

    Abundance of antimony in bulk samples has been determined in five selected coals, three coals from Huaibei Coalfield, Anhui, China, and two from the Illinois Basin in the United States. The Sb abundance in these samples is in the range of 0.11-0.43 ??g/g. The forms of Sb in coals were studied by sequential solvent extraction. The six forms of Sb are water soluble, ion changeable, organic matter bound, carbonate bound, silicate bound, and sulfide bound. Results of sequential extraction show that silicate-bound Sb is the most abundant form in these coals. Silicate- plus sulfide-bound Sb accounts for more than half of the total Sb in all coals. Bituminous coals are higher in organic matterbound Sb than anthracite and natural coke, indicating that the Sb in the organic matter may be incorporated into silicate and sulfide minerals during metamorphism. ?? 2008 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.

  9. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1997-08-28

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope included laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction and operation of 2 t/hr process development unit (PDU). This report represents the findings of the PDU Advanced Column Flotation Testing and Evaluation phase of the program and includes a discussion of the design and construction of the PDU. Three compliance steam coals, Taggart, Indiana VII and Hiawatha, were processed in the PDU to determine performance and design parameters for commercial production of premium fuel by advanced flotation. Consistent, reliable performance of the PDU was demonstrated by 72-hr production runs on each of the test coals. Its capacity generally was limited by the dewatering capacity of the clean coal filters during the production runs rather than by the flotation capacity of the Microcel column. The residual concentrations of As, Pb, and Cl were reduced by at least 25% on a heating value basis from their concentrations in the test coals. The reduction in the concentrations of Be, Cd, Cr, Co, Mn, Hg, Ni and Se varied from coal to coal but the concentrations of most were greatly reduced from the concentrations in the ROM parent coals. The ash fusion temperatures of the Taggart and Indiana VII coals, and to a much lesser extent the Hiawatha coal, were decreased by the cleaning.

  10. Task 4.4 - development of supercritical fluid extraction methods for the quantitation of sulfur forms in coal

    SciTech Connect

    Timpe, R.C.

    1995-04-01

    Development of advanced fuel forms depends on having reliable quantitative methods for their analysis. Determination of the true chemical forms of sulfur in coal is necessary to develop more effective methods to reduce sulfur content. Past work at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) indicates that sulfur chemistry has broad implications in combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, liquefaction, and coal-cleaning processes. Current analytical methods are inadequate for accurately measuring sulfur forms in coal. This task was concerned with developing methods to quantitate and identify major sulfur forms in coal based on direct measurement (as opposed to present techniques based on indirect measurement and difference values). The focus was on the forms that were least understood and for which the analytical methods have been the poorest, i.e., organic and elemental sulfur. Improved measurement techniques for sulfatic and pyritic sulfur also need to be developed. A secondary goal was to understand the interconversion of sulfur forms in coal during thermal processing. EERC has developed the first reliable analytical method for extracting and quantitating elemental sulfur from coal (1). This method has demonstrated that elemental sulfur can account for very little or as much as one-third of the so-called organic sulfur fraction. This method has disproved the generally accepted idea that elemental sulfur is associated with the organic fraction. A paper reporting the results obtained on this subject entitled {open_quote}Determination of Elemental Sulfur in Coal by Supercritical Fluid Extraction and Gas Chromatography with Atomic Emission Detection{close_quote} was published in Fuel (A).

  11. Magnetic relaxation--coal swelling, extraction, pore size. Technical progress report, October 1, 1991--December 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Doetschman, D.C.

    1991-12-31

    The grant activities during this period fall into four categories: (1) Completion of preparatory work, (2) Procedure refinement and actual preparation of whole coal, coal residue, coal extract and swelled coal samples for NMR studies, (3) Related studies of coal photolysis that employ materials from preliminary extractions and that examine the u.v.-visible and mass spectra of the extracts and (4) Continued investigations of the pulsed EPR characteristics of the whole coal samples that were prepared in the first quarter of the grant.

  12. Increase in extraction yields of coals by water treatment: Beulah-Zap lignite

    SciTech Connect

    Masashi Iino; Toshimasa Takanohashi; Takahiro Shishido; Ikuo Saito; Haruo Kumagai

    2007-01-15

    In a previous paper, we have reported that water pretreatments of Argonne premium coals, Pocahontas No. 3 (PO), Upper Freeport (UF), and Illinois No. 6 (IL) at 600 K increased greatly the room-temperature extraction yields with a 1:1 carbon disulfide/N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (CS{sub 2}/NMP) mixed solvent. In this paper, the water treatment of Beulah-Zap (BZ) lignite has been carried out and the results obtained were compared with those for the three bituminous coals above. The extraction yields of BZ with CS{sub 2}/NMP increased from 5.5% for the raw coal to 21.7% by the water treatment at 600 K. Similar to the other three coals, the water treatments at 500 K gave little increase in the yields. The larger decrease in oxygen content and hydrogen-bonded OH and the increase in the methanol swelling ratio by the water treatment suggest that the yield enhancements for BZ are attributed to the removal of oxygen functional groups and the breaking of hydrogen bonds to a greater extent than that for IL. From the characterizations of the treated coals and the extraction temperature dependency of their extraction yields, it is suggested that, for high-coal-rank coals, PO and UF, the breaking of noncovalent bonds such as {pi}-{pi} interactions between aromatic layers and hydrogen bonds is responsible for the extraction yield enhancements. 14 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Mercury analysis of various types of coal using acid extraction and pyrolysis methods

    SciTech Connect

    Jae Young Park; Jong Hyun Won; Tai Gyu Lee

    2006-12-15

    The mercury contents of various types of coal currently consumed in Korea were analyzed using acid extraction and pyrolysis methods. The results of analysis by acid extraction and pyrolysis methods were compared and discussed. Generally, high mercury concentrations of 105.6 to 434.5 ng/g (by acid extraction) and 125.7 to 475.4 ng/g (by pyrolysis) were obtained for tested anthracite coals in this study. For bituminous coals, the mercury contents were 11.5-48 ng/g (by acid extraction) and 12.5-52.4 ng/g (by pyrolysis). For coal samples, much simpler and far less time-consuming pyrolysis method tends to give higher values for the Hg concentration than the acid extraction method (by less than 10%) because of the interference from a UV absorption by SOx generated during thermal destruction of coal matrix. Also, further analysis shows that coals with higher densities have higher mercury contents and that the sulfur and mercury contents of coals are positively correlated with each other. 10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Performance and risks of advanced pulverized-coal plants

    SciTech Connect

    Nalbandian, H.

    2009-07-01

    This article is based on an in-depth report of the same title published by the IEA Clean Coal Centre, CCC/135 (see Coal Abstracts entry Sep 2008 00535). It discusses the commercial, developmental and future status of pulverized fuel power plants including subcritical supercritical and ultra supercritical systems of pulverized coal combustion, the most widely used technology in coal-fired power generation. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  15. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1994--March 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from January 1, 1994, through March 31, 1994. This project demonstrates an advanced, thermal, coal drying process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal{reg_sign} process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal processing, the coal is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership`s ACCP Demonstration Facility entered Phase III, Demonstration Operation, in April 1992 and operated in an extended startup mode through August 10, 1993, when the facility became commercial. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership instituted an aggressive program to overcome startup obstacles and now focuses on supplying product coal to customers. Significant accomplishments in the history of the SynCoal{reg_sign} process development are shown in Appendix A.

  16. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project. Technical progress report, January 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from January 1, 1993, through December 31, 1993. This project demonstrates an advanced, thermal, coal drying process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low- rank coals to a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal{reg_sign} process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal processing, the coal is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership`s ACCP Demonstration Facility entered Phase III, Demonstration Operation, in April 1992 and operated in an extended startup mode through August 10, 1993, when the facility became commercial. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership instituted an aggressive program to overcome startup obstacles and now focuses on supplying product coal to customers. Significant accomplishments in the history of the SynCoal{reg_sign} process development are shown in Appendix A.

  17. 30 CFR 903.707 - Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incident to... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.707 Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction. Part 707 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal...

  18. 30 CFR 941.707 - Exemption for coal extraction incident to Government-financed highway or other construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incident to... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA § 941.707 Exemption for coal extraction incident to Government-financed highway or other construction. Part 707 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal...

  19. 30 CFR 939.707 - Exemption for coal extraction incident to Government-financed highway or other construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incident to... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.707 Exemption for coal extraction incident to Government-financed highway or other construction. Part 707 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal...

  20. 30 CFR 922.707 - Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incident to... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.707 Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction. Part 707 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal...

  1. 30 CFR 921.707 - Exemption for coal extraction incident to Government-financed highway or other construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incident to... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS § 921.707 Exemption for coal extraction incident to Government-financed highway or other construction. Part 707 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal...

  2. 30 CFR 905.707 - Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incident to... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA § 905.707 Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction. Part 707 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal...

  3. 30 CFR 941.707 - Exemption for coal extraction incident to Government-financed highway or other construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incident to... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA § 941.707 Exemption for coal extraction incident to Government-financed highway or other construction. Part 707 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal...

  4. 30 CFR 947.707 - Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incident to... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON § 947.707 Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction. Part 707 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal...

  5. 30 CFR 947.707 - Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incident to... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON § 947.707 Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction. Part 707 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal...

  6. 30 CFR 942.707 - Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incident to... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.707 Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction. Part 707 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal...

  7. 30 CFR 933.707 - Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incident to... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA § 933.707 Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction. Part 707 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal...

  8. 30 CFR 921.707 - Exemption for coal extraction incident to Government-financed highway or other construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incident to... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS § 921.707 Exemption for coal extraction incident to Government-financed highway or other construction. Part 707 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal...

  9. 30 CFR 910.707 - Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incident to... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.707 Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction. Part 707 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal...

  10. 30 CFR 922.707 - Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incident to... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.707 Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction. Part 707 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal...

  11. 30 CFR 903.707 - Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incident to... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.707 Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction. Part 707 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal...

  12. 30 CFR 942.707 - Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incident to... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.707 Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction. Part 707 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal...

  13. 30 CFR 910.707 - Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incident to... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.707 Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction. Part 707 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal...

  14. 30 CFR 905.707 - Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incident to... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA § 905.707 Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction. Part 707 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal...

  15. 30 CFR 939.707 - Exemption for coal extraction incident to Government-financed highway or other construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incident to... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.707 Exemption for coal extraction incident to Government-financed highway or other construction. Part 707 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal...

  16. 30 CFR 939.707 - Exemption for coal extraction incident to Government-financed highway or other construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incident to... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.707 Exemption for coal extraction incident to Government-financed highway or other construction. Part 707 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal...

  17. 30 CFR 910.707 - Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incident to... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.707 Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction. Part 707 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal...

  18. 30 CFR 942.707 - Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incident to... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.707 Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction. Part 707 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal...

  19. 30 CFR 921.707 - Exemption for coal extraction incident to Government-financed highway or other construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incident to... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS § 921.707 Exemption for coal extraction incident to Government-financed highway or other construction. Part 707 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal...

  20. 30 CFR 903.707 - Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incident to... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.707 Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction. Part 707 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal...

  1. 30 CFR 933.707 - Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incident to... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA § 933.707 Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction. Part 707 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal...

  2. 30 CFR 922.707 - Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incident to... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.707 Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction. Part 707 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal...

  3. 30 CFR 947.707 - Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incident to... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON § 947.707 Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction. Part 707 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal...

  4. 30 CFR 903.707 - Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incident to... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.707 Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction. Part 707 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal...

  5. 30 CFR 905.707 - Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incident to... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA § 905.707 Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction. Part 707 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal...

  6. 30 CFR 933.707 - Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incident to... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA § 933.707 Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction. Part 707 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal...

  7. 30 CFR 941.707 - Exemption for coal extraction incident to Government-financed highway or other construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incident to... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA § 941.707 Exemption for coal extraction incident to Government-financed highway or other construction. Part 707 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal...

  8. 30 CFR 939.707 - Exemption for coal extraction incident to Government-financed highway or other construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incident to... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.707 Exemption for coal extraction incident to Government-financed highway or other construction. Part 707 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal...

  9. 30 CFR 941.707 - Exemption for coal extraction incident to Government-financed highway or other construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incident to... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA § 941.707 Exemption for coal extraction incident to Government-financed highway or other construction. Part 707 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal...

  10. 30 CFR 905.707 - Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incident to... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA § 905.707 Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction. Part 707 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal...

  11. 30 CFR 921.707 - Exemption for coal extraction incident to Government-financed highway or other construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incident to... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS § 921.707 Exemption for coal extraction incident to Government-financed highway or other construction. Part 707 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal...

  12. 30 CFR 922.707 - Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incident to... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.707 Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction. Part 707 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal...

  13. 30 CFR 922.707 - Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incident to... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.707 Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction. Part 707 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal...

  14. 30 CFR 947.707 - Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incident to... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON § 947.707 Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction. Part 707 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal...

  15. 30 CFR 947.707 - Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incident to... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON § 947.707 Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction. Part 707 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal...

  16. 30 CFR 939.707 - Exemption for coal extraction incident to Government-financed highway or other construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incident to... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.707 Exemption for coal extraction incident to Government-financed highway or other construction. Part 707 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal...

  17. 30 CFR 910.707 - Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incident to... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.707 Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction. Part 707 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal...

  18. 30 CFR 921.707 - Exemption for coal extraction incident to Government-financed highway or other construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incident to... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS § 921.707 Exemption for coal extraction incident to Government-financed highway or other construction. Part 707 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal...

  19. 30 CFR 905.707 - Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incident to... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA § 905.707 Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction. Part 707 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal...

  20. 30 CFR 903.707 - Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incident to... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.707 Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction. Part 707 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal...

  1. 30 CFR 933.707 - Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incident to... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA § 933.707 Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction. Part 707 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal...

  2. 30 CFR 910.707 - Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incident to... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.707 Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction. Part 707 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal...

  3. 30 CFR 942.707 - Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incident to... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.707 Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction. Part 707 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal...

  4. 30 CFR 942.707 - Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incident to... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.707 Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction. Part 707 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal...

  5. Extraction, separation, and analysis of high sulfur coal

    SciTech Connect

    Olesik, S.V.; Pekay, L.A.; Larkins, W. Jr.

    1992-05-31

    The work described in this report studies the removal of sulfur by oxidative interaction of various cupric salts with coal and also considers the possibility of removing organic sulfur by the selective interaction of supercritical ethanol with the organic coal matrix. Either one of these methods could potentially be used to pretreat coals before burning. The primary purpose of these studies is to ascertain the nature of the chemical reactions occurring, the chemical composition of the resultant products, and information on possible reaction mechanisms. This information should allow prediction of reasonable reaction conditions for the removal of organosulfur compound from coal.

  6. Extraction, separation, and analysis of high sulfur coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Olesik, S.V.; Pekay, L.A.; Larkins, W. Jr.

    1992-05-31

    The work described in this report studies the removal of sulfur by oxidative interaction of various cupric salts with coal and also considers the possibility of removing organic sulfur by the selective interaction of supercritical ethanol with the organic coal matrix. Either one of these methods could potentially be used to pretreat coals before burning. The primary purpose of these studies is to ascertain the nature of the chemical reactions occurring, the chemical composition of the resultant products, and information on possible reaction mechanisms. This information should allow prediction of reasonable reaction conditions for the removal of organosulfur compound from coal.

  7. Development of Continuous Solvent Extraction Processes for Coal Derived Carbon Products

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel

    2006-12-31

    This DOE NETL-sponsored effort seeks to develop continuous processes for producing carbon products from solvent-extracted coal. A key process step is removal of solids from liquefied coal. Three different processes were compared: gravity separation, centrifugation using a decanter-type Sharples Pennwalt centrifuge, and a Spinner-II centrifuge. The data suggest that extracts can be cleaned to as low as 0.5% ash level and probably lower using a combination of these techniques.

  8. Engineering design and analysis of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Gallier, P.W.

    1993-01-20

    This project is sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) for the Engineering Design and Analysis of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies: The major goal is to provide the simulation tools for modeling both conventional and advanced coal cleaning technologies. This DOE project is part of a major research initiative by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) aimed at advancing three advanced coal cleaning technologies-heavy-liquid cycloning, selective agglomeration, and advanced froth flotation through the proof-of-concept (POC) level. The commercially available ASPEN PLUS process simulation package will be extended to handle coal cleaning applications. Algorithms for predicting the process performance, equipment size, and flowsheet economics of commercial coal cleaning devices and related ancillary equipment will be incorporated into the coal cleaning simulator. This report is submitted to document the progress of Aspen Technology, Inc. (AspenTech), its contractor, ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc.,(ICF KE) and CQ Inc., a subcontractor to ICF KE, for the period of October through December 1992. ICF KE is providing coal preparation consulting and processing engineering services in this work and they are responsible for recommending the design of models to represent conventional coal cleaning equipment and costing of these models. CQ Inc. is a subcontractor to ICF KE on Tasks 1-5.

  9. Water Extraction from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce C. Folkedahl; Greg F. Weber; Michael E. Collings

    2006-06-30

    The overall objective of this program was to develop a liquid disiccant-based flue gas dehydration process technology to reduce water consumption in coal-fired power plants. The specific objective of the program was to generate sufficient subscale test data and conceptual commercial power plant evaluations to assess process feasibility and merits for commercialization. Currently, coal-fired power plants require access to water sources outside the power plant for several aspects of their operation in addition to steam cycle condensation and process cooling needs. At the present time, there is no practiced method of extracting the usually abundant water found in the power plant stack gas. This project demonstrated the feasibility and merits of a liquid desiccant-based process that can efficiently and economically remove water vapor from the flue gas of fossil fuel-fired power plants to be recycled for in-plant use or exported for clean water conservation. After an extensive literature review, a survey of the available physical and chemical property information on desiccants in conjunction with a weighting scheme developed for this application, three desiccants were selected and tested in a bench-scale system at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC). System performance at the bench scale aided in determining which desiccant was best suited for further evaluation. The results of the bench-scale tests along with further review of the available property data for each of the desiccants resulted in the selection of calcium chloride as the desiccant for testing at the pilot-scale level. Two weeks of testing utilizing natural gas in Test Series I and coal in Test Series II for production of flue gas was conducted with the liquid desiccant dehumidification system (LDDS) designed and built for this study. In general, it was found that the LDDS operated well and could be placed in an automode in which the process would operate with no operator intervention or

  10. Pulsed-wave perturbation in a borehole during the pneumohydraulic method of coal extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Zorin, A.N.; Didenko, A.T.; Kolesnikov, V.G.; Pirich, Y.T.

    1985-05-01

    One recent trend in coal extraction includes methods based on the artificial creation of a blowout-hazard situation, and the use of the phenomenon of blowout for the extraction of coal through boreholes in the form of coal pulp or friable material. The blowout-hazard situation and blowout are produced by the injection into the borehole of liquid and gas under high pressure, with subsequent sharp pressure drop, leading to the generation of demolition waves and the removal of the coal through the borehole. To apply these methods it is necessary to carry out an assessment of the conditions and parameters of the pulsed action on the seam through the borehole, leading to demolition of the coal. The authors study here the conditions of propagation of the pulse generated by the pressure drop, along the gas-liquid column, in the borehole.

  11. Factors that influence the extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xue, J.; Liu, Gaisheng; Niu, Z.; Chou, C.-L.; Qi, C.; Zheng, Lingyun; Zhang, H.

    2007-01-01

    Coal samples and carbonaceous mudstone were collected from the Huaibei coalfield, China, and experiments investigating the factors influencing the extraction of the sixteen US EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were carried out. Different extraction times, solvents, and methods were used. Major interest was focused on finding optimum conditions for extracting the PAHs from coal. We conclude that (1) coal composition, including the H/C and O/C ratios, is an important factor for the distribution of PAHs in coals; (2) the total amount of EPA priority PAHs increases with increasing extraction time, 30 min being suitable for ultrasonic-assisted extraction and 24 h for Soxhlet extraction; (3) CS2 is effective in extracting low molecular weight PAHs, while CH2Cl2 is better for extracting high molecular weight PAHs (both are excellent extraction solvents vs hexane); (4) both Soxhlet and ultrasonic extraction showed a similar PAH concentration profile, but the ultrasonic method is less efficient. ?? 2007 American Chemical Society.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-07-13

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. The Hydrotreatment Facility is being prepared for trials with coal liquids. Raw coal tar distillate trials have been carried out by heating coal tar in the holding tank in the Hydrotreatment Facility. The liquids are centrifuged to warm the system up in preparation for the coal liquids. The coal tar distillate is then recycled to keep the centrifuge hot. In this way, the product has been distilled such that a softening point of approximately 110 C is reached. Then an ash test is conducted.

  13. POC-scale testing of an advanced fine coal dewatering equipment/technique

    SciTech Connect

    Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K.; Rawls, P.

    1995-11-01

    Froth flotation technique is an effective and efficient process for recovering of ultra-fine (minus 74 {mu}m) clean coal. Economical dewatering of an ultra-fine clean coal product to a 20 percent level moisture will be an important step in successful implementation of the advanced cleaning processes. This project is a step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal could be effectively dewatered to 20 percent or lower moisture using either conventional or advanced dewatering techniques. As the contract title suggests, the main focus of the program is on proof-of-concept testing of a dewatering technique for a fine clean coal product. The coal industry is reluctant to use the advanced fine coal recovery technology due to the non-availability of an economical dewatering process. in fact, in a recent survey conducted by U.S. DOE and Battelle, dewatering of fine clean coal was identified as the number one priority for the coal industry. This project will attempt to demonstrate an efficient and economic fine clean coal slurry dewatering process.

  14. Sorption of norfloxacin onto humic acid extracted from weathered coal.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qin; Zhao, Ling; Dong, Yuan-Hua; Huang, Guan-Yi

    2012-07-15

    Norfloxacin (NOR), is an ionizable and polar antimicrobial compound, and it may enter the environment in substantial amounts via the application of manure or sewage as a fertilizer. Sorption of NOR onto humic acid (HA) may affect its environmental fate. In this study, HA extracted from weathered coal was used to investigate the sorption of NOR at different solution chemistry conditions (pH, ionic strength) and temperatures. The sorption of NOR onto HA showed a two-stage sorption process with an equilibration time of 48 h. The sorption kinetic curve fitted well with a pseudo second-order kinetic model. Thermodynamic characteristics demonstrated that the sorption of NOR onto HA was a spontaneous and exothermic process predominated by physical sorption. All sorption isotherms fitted well with the Freundlich and Langmuir models and they were highly nonlinear with values of n between 0.4 and 0.5, suggesting the high heterogeneity of HA. Increasing Ca2+ concentration resulted in a considerable reduction in the K(d) values of NOR, hinting that Ca2+ had probably competed with NOR(+,0) for the cation exchange sites on the surfaces of HA. The sorption reached a maximum at pH 6.0 over the pH range of 2.0-8.0, implying that the primary sorption mechanism was cation exchange interaction between NOR(+,0) species and the negatively charged functional groups of HA. Spectroscopic evidence demonstrated that the piperazinyl moiety of NOR was responsible for sorption onto HA, while the carbonyl group and the aromatic structure of HA participated in adsorbing NOR. PMID:22459013

  15. Numerical Investigation of the Dynamic Mechanical State of a Coal Pillar During Longwall Mining Panel Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongwei; Jiang, Yaodong; Zhao, Yixin; Zhu, Jie; Liu, Shuai

    2013-09-01

    This study presents a numerical investigation on the dynamic mechanical state of a coal pillar and the assessment of the coal bump risk during extraction using the longwall mining method. The present research indicates that there is an intact core, even when the peak pillar strength has been exceeded under uniaxial compression. This central portion of the coal pillar plays a significant role in its loading capacity. In this study, the intact core of the coal pillar is defined as an elastic core. Based on the geological conditions of a typical longwall panel from the Tangshan coal mine in the City of Tangshan, China, a numerical fast Lagrangian analysis of continua in three dimensions (FLAC3D) model was created to understand the relationship between the volume of the elastic core in a coal pillar and the vertical stress, which is considered to be an important precursor to the development of a coal bump. The numerical results suggest that, the wider the coal pillar, the greater the volume of the elastic core. Therefore, a coal pillar with large width may form a large elastic core as the panel is mined, and the vertical stress is expected to be greater in magnitude. Because of the high stresses and the associated stored elastic energy, the risk of coal bumps in a coal pillar with large width is greater than for a coal pillar with small width. The results of the model also predict that the peak abutment stress occurs near the intersection between the mining face and the roadways at a distance of 7.5 m from the mining face. It is revealed that the bump-prone zones around the longwall panel are within 7-10 m ahead of the mining face and near the edge of the roadway during panel extraction.

  16. Low-rank coal research: Volume 2, Advanced research and technology development: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, M.D.; Swanson, M.L.; Benson, S.A.; Radonovich, L.; Steadman, E.N.; Sweeny, P.G.; McCollor, D.P.; Kleesattel, D.; Grow, D.; Falcone, S.K.

    1987-04-01

    Volume II contains articles on advanced combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation; coal/char reactivity; liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, and fine particulate emissions. These articles have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  17. ADVANCED HETEROGENEOUS REBURN FUEL FROM COAL AND HOG MANURE

    SciTech Connect

    Melanie D. Jensen; Ronald C. Timpe; Jason D. Laumb

    2003-09-01

    This study was performed to investigate whether the nitrogen content inherent in hog manure and alkali used as a catalyst during processing could be combined with coal to produce a reburn fuel that would result in advanced reburning NO{sub x} control without the addition of either alkali or ammonia/urea. Fresh hog manure was processed in a cold-charge, 1-gal, batch autoclave system at 275 C under a reducing atmosphere in the presence of an alkali catalyst. Instead of the expected organic liquid, the resulting product was a waxy solid material. The waxy nature of the material made size reduction and feeding difficult as the material agglomerated and tended to melt, plugging the feeder. The material was eventually broken up and sized manually and a water-cooled feeder was designed and fabricated. Two reburn tests were performed in a pilot-scale combustor. The first test evaluated a reburn fuel mixture comprising lignite and air-dried, raw hog manure. The second test evaluated a reburn fuel mixture made of lignite and the processed hog manure. Neither reburn fuel reduced NO{sub x} levels in the combustor flue gas. Increased slagging and ash deposition were observed during both reburn tests. The material-handling and ash-fouling issues encountered during this study indicate that the use of waste-based reburn fuels could pose practical difficulties in implementation on a larger scale.

  18. Advanced turbine design for coal-fueled engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bornstein, N. S.

    1992-07-01

    The objective of this task is to perform a technical assessment of turbine blading for advanced second generation PFBC conditions, identify specific problems/issues, and recommend an approach for solving any problems identified. A literature search was conducted, problems associated with hot corrosion defined and limited experiments performed. Sulfidation corrosion occurs in industrial, marine and aircraft gas turbine engines and is due to the presence of condensed alkali (sodium) sulfates. The principle source of the alkali in industrial, marine and aircraft gas turbine engines is sea salt crystals. The principle source of the sulfur is not the liquid fuels, but the same ocean born crystals. Moreover deposition of the corrosive salt occurs primarily by a non-equilibrium process. Sodium will be present in the cleaned combusted gases that enter the PFBC turbine. Although equilibrium condensation is not favored, deposition via impaction is probable. Marine gas turbines operate in sodium chloride rich environments without experiencing the accelerated attack noted in coal fired boilers where condensed chlorides contact metallic surfaces. The sulfates of calcium and magnesium are the products of the reactions used to control sulfur. Based upon industrial gas turbine experience and laboratory tests, calcium and magnesium sulfates are, at temperatures up to 1500 F (815 C), relatively innocuous salts. In this study it is found that at 1650 F (900 C) and above, calcium sulfate becomes an aggressive corrodent.

  19. Advanced physical fine coal cleaning spherical agglomeration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    The project included process development, engineering, construction, and operation of a 1/3 tph proof-of-concept (POC) spherical agglomeration test module. The POC tests demonstrated that physical cleaning of ultrafine coal by agglomeration using heptane can achieve: (1) Pyritic sulfur reductions beyond that possible with conventional coal cleaning methods; (2) coal ash contents below those which can be obtained by conventional coal cleaning methods at comparable energy recoveries; (3) energy recoveries of 80 percent or greater measured against the raw coal energy content; (4) complete recovery of the heptane bridging liquid from the agglomerates; and (5) production of agglomerates with 3/8-inch size and less than 30 percent moisture. Test results met or exceeded all of the program objectives. Nominal 3/8-inch size agglomerates with less than 20 percent moisture were produced. The clean coal ash content varied between 1.5 to 5.5 percent by weight (dry basis) depending on feed coal type. Ash reductions of the run-of-mine (ROM) coal were 77 to 83 percent. ROM pyritic sulfur reductions varied from 86 to 90 percent for the three test coals, equating to total sulfur reductions of 47 to 72 percent.

  20. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, C.W. ); Gutterman, C. ); Chander, S. )

    1992-08-26

    Research in this project centers upon developing a new approach to the direct liquefaction of coal to produce an all-distillate product slate at a sizable cost reduction over current technology. The approach integrates all aspects of the coal liquefaction process including coal selection, pretreatment, coal swelling with catalyst impregnation, coal liquefaction experimentation, product recovery with characterization, alternate bottoms processing, and a technical assessment including an economic evaluation. The project is being carried out under contract to the United States Department of Energy. On May 28, 1992, the Department of Energy authorized starting the experimental aspects of this projects; therefore, experimentation at Amoco started late in this quarterly report period. Research contracts with Auburn University, Pennsylvania State University, and Foster Wheeler Development Corporation were signed during June, 1992, so their work was just getting underway. Their work will be summarized in future quarterly reports. A set of coal samples were sent to Hazen Research for beneficiation. The samples were received and have been analyzed. The literature search covering coal swelling has been up-dated, and preliminary coal swelling experiments were carried out. Further swelling experimentation is underway. An up-date of the literature on the liquefaction of coal using dispersed catalysts is nearing completion; it will be included in the next quarterly report.

  1. PRODUCTION OF FOAMS, FIBERS AND PITCHES USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Chong Chen; Elliot B. Kennel; Liviu Magean; Pete G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2004-06-20

    This Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored project developed processes for converting coal feedstocks to carbon products, including coal-derived pitch, coke foams and fibers based on solvent extraction processes. A key technology is the use of hydrogenation accomplished at elevated temperatures and pressures to obtain a synthetic coal pitch. Hydrogenation, or partial direct liquefaction of coal, is used to modify the properties of raw coal such that a molten synthetic pitch can be obtained. The amount of hydrogen required to produce a synthetic pitch is about an order of magnitude less than the amount required to produce synthetic crude oil. Hence the conditions for synthetic pitch production consume very little hydrogen and can be accomplished at substantially lower pressure. In the molten state, hot filtration or centrifugation can be used to separate dissolved coal chemicals from mineral matter and insolubles (inertinite), resulting in the production of a purified hydrocarbon pitch. Alternatively, if hydrogenation is not used, aromatic hydrocarbon liquids appropriate for use as precursors to carbon products can obtained by dissolving coal in a solvent. As in the case for partial direct liquefaction pitches, undissolved coal is removed via hot filtration or centrifugation. Excess solvent is boiled off and recovered. The resultant solid material, referred to as Solvent Extracted Carbon Ore or SECO, has been used successfully to produce artificial graphite and carbon foam.

  2. Direct comparison of XAFS spectroscopy and sequential extraction for arsenic speciation in coal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huggins, Frank E.; Huffman, G.P.; Kolker, A.; Mroczkowski, S.; Palmer, C.A.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2000-01-01

    The speciation of arsenic in an Ohio bituminous coal and a North Dakota lignite has been examined by the complementary methods of arsenic XAFS spectroscopy and sequential extraction by aqueous solutions of ammonium acetate, HCl, HF, and HNO3. In order to facilitate a more direct comparison of the two methods, the arsenic XAFS spectra were obtained from aliquots of the coal prepared after each stage of the leaching procedure. For the aliquots, approximately linear correlations (r2 > 0.98 for the Ohio coal, > 0.90 for the ND lignite) were observed between the height of the edge-step in the XAFS analysis and the concentration of arsenic measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Results from the leaching sequence indicate that there are two major arsenic forms present in both coals; one is removed by leaching with HCl and the other by HNO3. Whereas the XAFS spectral signatures of the arsenic leached by HCl are compatible with arsenate for both coals, the arsenic leached by HNO3 is identified as arsenic associated with pyrite for the Ohio coal and as an As3+ species for the North Dakota lignite. Minor arsenate forms persist in both coals after the final leaching with nitric acid. The arsenate forms extracted in HCl are believed to be oxidation products derived from the other major arsenic forms upon exposure of the pulverized coals to air.

  3. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes. Annual report, October 1990--September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G.; Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S.

    1991-12-31

    The overall objective of this program is the development of predictive capability for the design, scale up, simulation, control and feedstock evaluation in advanced coal conversion devices. This program will merge significant advances made in measuring and quantitatively describing the mechanisms in coal conversion behavior. Comprehensive computer codes for mechanistic modeling of entrained-bed gasification. Additional capabilities in predicting pollutant formation will be implemented and the technology will be expanded to fixed-bed reactors.

  4. Role of porosity in supercritical fluid extraction of coal: Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Bale, H.D.

    1987-04-15

    Our studies of supercritical extraction from coal entail two experimental approaches. Changes in the porosity of the coal brought on by the extraction process will be studied by small angle x-ray scattering at the UND Physics Department and the analysis of extract composition will be carried out at the UND Energy Research Center. At this time we are still in the equipment testing and development stage. This brief report points out some of the ''discoveries'' and difficulties that our tests have revealed and also discusses the necessary changes that we have made in order to deal with the problem areas.

  5. Geotechnical/geochemical characterization of advanced coal process waste streams: Task 2

    SciTech Connect

    Moretti, C.J.; Olson, E.S.

    1992-09-01

    Successful disposal practices for solid wastes produced from advanced coal combustion and coal conversion processes must provide for efficient management of relatively large volumes of wastes in a cost-effective and environmentally safe manner. At present, most coal-utilization solid wastes are disposed of using various types of land-based systems, and it is probable that this disposal mode will continue to be widely used in the future for advanced process wastes. Proper design and operation of land-based disposal systems for coal combustion wastes normally require appropriate waste transfer, storage, and conditioning subsystems at the plant to prepare the waste for transport to an ultimate disposal site. Further, the overall waste management plan should include a by-product marketing program to minimize the amount of waste that will require disposal. In order to properly design and operate waste management systems for advanced coal-utilization processes, a fundamental understanding of the physical properties, chemical and mineral compositions, and leaching behaviors of the wastes is required. In order to gain information about the wastes produced by advanced coal-utilization processes, 55 waste samples from 16 different coal gasification, fluidized-bed coal combustion (FBC), and advanced flue gas scrubbing processes were collected. Thirty-four of these wastes were analyzed for their bulk chemical and mineral compositions and tested for a detailed set of disposal-related physical properties. The results of these waste characterizations are presented in this report. In addition to the waste characterization data, this report contains a discussion of potentially useful waste management practices for advanced coal utilization processes.

  6. Phytotoxicity assessment of a methanolic coal dust extract in Lemna minor.

    PubMed

    Coronado-Posada, Nadia; Cabarcas-Montalvo, Maria; Olivero-Verbel, Jesus

    2013-09-01

    Coal mining generates negative effects on environment, human health, hydrodynamics of mining areas and biodiversity. However, the impacts of this activity are less known in plants. Lemna minor is one of the most commonly used plants in aquatic toxicity tests due to its ubiquitous distribution in ponds and lakes, culture conditions and the free-floating habitat that exposes it to hydrophobic as well as dissolved compounds. The goal of this research was to evaluate the effects of a methanolic coal dust extract on L. minor. Macrophytes were exposed to six different concentrations of coal extract (from 7.81 to 250 mg/L) for 5 days, following the OECD test guideline 221. The coal extract had a half inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 99.66 (184.95-54.59) mg/L for the number of fronds. Several signs of toxicity such as chlorosis, reduction in the size of the fronds, abscission of fronds and roots, and the presence of necrotic tissues were observed at concentrations lower than the IC50. Preliminary Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry analysis of the coal dust extract revealed the presence of several compounds, including, among others, alkanes, carboxylic acids and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), these lasts, may be responsible for some of the observed effects. These results demonstrated that coal dust has phytotoxic effects and should not be considered as an inert material. PMID:23726540

  7. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Speight, J.G.

    1992-12-31

    Accomplishments for the past quarter are presented for the following five tasks: oil shale; tar sand; coal; advanced exploratory process technology; and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research covers oil shale process studies. Tar sand research is on process development of Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) Process. Coal research covers: coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts;advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO{sub 2} HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process; NMR analysis of samples from the ocean drilling program; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; and solid state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens.

  8. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. ); Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. )

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this study are to establish the mechanisms and rates of basic steps in coal conversion processes, to integrate and incorporate this information into comprehensive computer models for coal conversion processes, to evaluate these models and to apply them to gasification, mild gasification and combustion in heat engines.

  9. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. ); Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. )

    1991-09-25

    The objectives of this study are to establish the mechanisms and rates of basic steps in coal conversion processes, to integrate and incorporate this information into comprehensive computer models for coal conversion processes, to evaluate these models and to apply them to gasification, mild gasification and combustion in heat engines. (VC)

  10. POC-Scale Testing of an Advanced Fine Coal Dewatering Equipment/Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Karekh, B K; Tao, D; Groppo, J G

    1998-08-28

    Froth flotation technique is an effective and efficient process for recovering of ultra-fine (minus 74 mm) clean coal. Economical dewatering of an ultra-fine clean coal product to a 20% level moisture will be an important step in successful implementation of the advanced cleaning processes. This project is a step in the Department of Energy's program to show that ultra-clean coal could be effectively dewatered to 20% or lower moisture using either conventional or advanced dewatering techniques. The cost-sharing contract effort is for 45 months beginning September 30, 1994. This report discusses technical progress made during the quarter from January 1 - March 31, 1998.

  11. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies - froth flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Ferris, D.D.; Bencho, J.R.

    1995-11-01

    In 1988, ICF Kaiser Engineers was awarded DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-88PC88881 to research, develop, engineer and design a commercially acceptable advanced froth flotation coal cleaning technology. The DOE initiative is in support of the continued utilization of our most abundant energy resource. Besides the goal of commercialability, coal cleaning performance and product quality goals were established by the DOE for this and similar projects. primary among these were the goals of 85 percent energy recovery and 85 percent pyrite rejection. Three nationally important coal resources were used for this project: the Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, the Upper Freeport coal, and the Illinois No. 6 coal. Following is a summary of the key findings of this project.

  12. Systems Analysis Of Advanced Coal-Based Power Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrall, Joseph F.; Jennings, Charles N.; Pappano, Alfred W.

    1988-01-01

    Report presents appraisal of integrated coal-gasification/fuel-cell power plants. Based on study comparing fuel-cell technologies with each other and with coal-based alternatives and recommends most promising ones for research and development. Evaluates capital cost, cost of electricity, fuel consumption, and conformance with environmental standards. Analyzes sensitivity of cost of electricity to changes in fuel cost, to economic assumptions, and to level of technology. Recommends further evaluation of integrated coal-gasification/fuel-cell integrated coal-gasification/combined-cycle, and pulverized-coal-fired plants. Concludes with appendixes detailing plant-performance models, subsystem-performance parameters, performance goals, cost bases, plant-cost data sheets, and plant sensitivity to fuel-cell performance.

  13. An evaluation of disposal and utilization options for advanced coal utilization wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Moretti, C.J.

    1996-05-01

    If the US is to continue to effectively use its substantial coal reserves, new clean coal technologies must be developed to improve power production efficiency and reduce emissions from power plants. In order to gain information about wastes produced by advanced coal utilization processes, a research project is being conducted to characterize the geotechnical and geochemical properties of advanced coal process wastes. The University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) analyzed 34 of these wastes for their bulk chemical and mineral compositions and for the disposal-related physical properties listed in a table. This paper discusses potentially useful waste management practices for eight bulk waste samples obtained from four different clean coal processes: gas reburning with sorbent injection (GRSI); pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC); SO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, RO{sub x}, BOX (SNRB); and coal reburning (CR). All four processes have been demonstrated at either full-scale or pilot-scale facilities in the US. Since the properties of advanced process wastes are different from conventional coal combustion wastes, an analysis was performed to identify any potential problems that could occur when standard, off-the-shelf waste management technologies are used for handling and disposal of advanced process wastes. When potential problems were identified, possible alternative technologies were evaluated.

  14. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes, Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G.

    1993-06-01

    A two dimensional, steady-state model for describing a variety of reactive and nonreactive flows, including pulverized coal combustion and gasification, is presented. The model, referred to as 93-PCGC-2 is applicable to cylindrical, axi-symmetric systems. Turbulence is accounted for in both the fluid mechanics equations and the combustion scheme. Radiation from gases, walls, and particles is taken into account using a discrete ordinates method. The particle phase is modeled in a lagrangian framework, such that mean paths of particle groups are followed. A new coal-general devolatilization submodel (FG-DVC) with coal swelling and char reactivity submodels has been added.

  15. Wilsonville Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility, Wilsonville, Alabama. Technical progress report, Run 243 with Illinois 6 coal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-02-01

    This report presents the operating results for Run 243 at the Advanced Coal Liquefaction R and D Facility in Wilsonville, Alabama. This run was made in an Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction (ITSL) mode using Illinois 6 coal from the Burning Star mine. The primary objective was to demonstrate the effect of a dissolver on the ITSL product slate, especially on the net C/sub 1/-C/sub 5/ gas production and hydrogen consumption. Run 243 began on 3 February 1983 and continued through 28 June 1983. During this period, 349.8 tons of coal was fed in 2947 hours of operation. Thirteen special product workup material balances were defined, and the results are presented herein. 29 figures, 19 tables.

  16. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system

    SciTech Connect

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

    1990-07-01

    The objective of the Solar/METC program is to prove the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of coal-fired gas turbine for cogeneration applications through tests of a Centaur Type H engine system operated on coal fuel throughout the engine design operating range. This quarter, work was centered on design, fabrication, and testing of the combustor, cleanup, fuel specifications, and hot end simulation rig. 2 refs., 59 figs., 29 tabs.

  17. Technology for advanced liquefaction processes: Coal/waste coprocessing studies

    SciTech Connect

    Cugini, A.V.; Rothenberger, K.S.; Ciocco, M.V.

    1995-12-31

    The efforts in this project are directed toward three areas: (1) novel catalyst (supported and unsupported) research and development, (2) study and optimization of major operating parameters (specifically pressure), and (3) coal/waste coprocessing. The novel catalyst research and development activity has involved testing supported catalysts, dispersed catalysts, and use of catalyst testing units to investigate the effects of operating parameters (the second area) with both supported and unsupported catalysts. Several supported catalysts were tested in a simulated first stage coal liquefaction application at 404{degrees}C during this performance period. A Ni-Mo hydrous titanate catalyst on an Amocat support prepared by Sandia National laboratories was tested. Other baseline experiments using AO-60 and Amocat, both Ni-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported catalysts, were also made. These experiments were short duration (approximately 12 days) and monitored the initial activity of the catalysts. The results of these tests indicate that the Sandia catalyst performed as well as the commercially prepared catalysts. Future tests are planned with other Sandia preparations. The dispersed catalysts tested include sulfated iron oxide, Bayferrox iron oxide (iron oxide from Miles, Inc.), and Bailey iron oxide (micronized iron oxide from Bailey, Inc.). The effects of space velocity, temperature, and solvent-to-coal ratio on coal liquefaction activity with the dispersed catalysts were investigated. A comparison of the coal liquefaction activity of these catalysts relative to iron catalysts tested earlier, including FeOOH-impregnated coal, was made. These studies are discussed.

  18. Extraction of Vanadium from Stone Coal by Microwave Assisted Sulfation Roasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mingyu; Xian, Pengfei; Wang, Xuewen; Li, Bowen

    2015-02-01

    The extraction of vanadium from stone coal was investigated by microwave-assisted sulfation roasting followed by water leaching. The results showed that this process is an effective method for the extraction of vanadium from stone coal. Microwave-assisted sulfation roasting promotes the reaction of sulfuric acid with vanadium oxides and decreases roasting time. Under optimized conditions (roasting temperature 200°C, heating rate of 10°C/min, 25% sulfuric acid addition, water leaching at 75°C for 1 h, and liquid/solid ratio of 1.5 ml/g), the leaching rate of vanadium reached 92.6%.

  19. Pneumoconiosis and advanced occupational lung disease among surface coal miners--16 states, 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    2012-06-15

    Coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) is a chronic occupational lung disease caused by long-term inhalation of dust, which triggers inflammation of the alveoli, eventually resulting in irreversible lung damage. CWP ranges in severity from simple to advanced; the most severe form is progressive massive fibrosis (PMF). Advanced CWP is debilitating and often fatal. To prevent CWP, the Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969 established the current federal exposure limit for respirable dust in underground and surface coal mines. The Act also established a surveillance system for assessing prevalence of pneumoconiosis among underground coal miners, but this surveillance does not extend to surface coal miners. With enforcement of the exposure limit, the prevalence of CWP among underground coal miners declined from 11.2% during 1970-1974 to 2.0% during 1995-1999, before increasing unexpectedly in the last decade, particularly in Central Appalachia. Exposure to respirable dust is thought to be less in surface than underground coal miners. Although they comprise 48% of the coal mining workforce, surface coal miners have not been studied since 2002. To assess the prevalence, severity, and geographic distribution of pneumoconiosis among current surface coal miners, CDC obtained chest radiographs of 2,328 miners during 2010-2011 through the Coal Workers' Health Surveillance Program of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Forty-six (2.0%) of 2,257 miners with >1 year of surface mining experience had CWP, including 37 who had never worked underground. Twelve (0.5%) had PMF, including nine who had never worked underground. A high proportion of the radiographs suggested silicosis, a disease caused by inhalation of crystalline silica. Surface coal mine operators should monitor worker exposures closely to ensure that both respirable dust and silica are below recommended levels to prevent CWP. Clinicians should be aware of the risk for advanced

  20. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    Accomplishments for the quarter are presented for the following areas of research: oil shale, tar sand, coal, advanced exploratory process technology, and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research includes; oil shale process studies, environmental base studies for oil shale, and miscellaneous basic concept studies. Tar sand research covers process development. Coal research includes; underground coal gasification, coal combustion, integrated coal processing concepts, and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes; advanced process concepts, advanced mitigation concepts, and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; operation and evaluation of the CO{sub 2} HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesa Verde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced recovery techniques; and menu driven access to the WDEQ Hydrologic Data Management Systems.

  1. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, January--March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    Accomplishments for the past quarter are briefly described for the following areas of research: oil shale; tar sand; coal; advanced exploratory process technology; and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale and tar sand researches cover processing studies. Coal research includes: coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology covers: advanced process concepts; advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW{sup TM} field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; operation and evaluation of the CO{sub 2} HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid-state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin tight gas sands; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process; oil field waste cleanup using tank bottom recovery process; remote chemical sensor development; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; solid-state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens; and development of an effective method for the clean-up of natural gas.

  2. Evaluation of a sequential extraction process used for determining mercury binding mechanisms to coal combustion byproducts

    SciTech Connect

    James D. Noel; Pratim Biswas; Daniel E. Giammar

    2007-07-15

    This study evaluated the selectivity and effectiveness of a sequential extraction process used to determine mercury binding mechanisms to various materials that are present in coal combustion byproducts. A six-step sequential extraction process was applied to laboratory-synthesized materials with known mercury concentrations and binding mechanisms. These materials were calcite, hematite, goethite, and titanium dioxide. Fly ash from a full-scale coal-fired power plant was also investigated. The concentrations of mercury were measured using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) mass spectrometry, whereas the major elements were measured by ICP atomic emission spectrometry. The materials were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy. The sequential extraction procedure provided information about the solid phases with which mercury was associated in the solid sample. The procedure effectively extracted mercury from the target phases. The procedure was generally selective in extracting mercury. However, some steps in the procedure extracted mercury from nontarget phases, and others resulted in mercury redistribution. Iron from hematite and goethite was only leached in the reducible and residual extraction steps. Some mercury associated with goethite was extracted in the ion exchangeable step, whereas mercury associated with hematite was extracted almost entirely in the residual step. Calcium in calcite and mercury associated with calcite were primarily removed in the acidsoluble extraction step. Titanium in titanium dioxide and mercury adsorbed onto titanium dioxide were extracted almost entirely in the residual step. 42 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Development of an advanced high efficiency coal combustor for boiler retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    LaFlesh, R.C.; Rini, M.J.; McGowan, J.G.

    1989-10-01

    The overall objective of this program is to develop a high efficiency advanced coal combustor (HEACC) for coal-based fuels capable of being retrofitted to industrial boilers originally designed for firing natural gas, distillate, and/or residual oil. The HEACC system is to be capable of firing microfine coal water fuel (MCWF), MCWF with alkali sorbent (for SO{sub 2} reduction), and dry microfine coal. Design priorities for the system are that it be simple to operate and will offer significant reductions in NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulate emissions as compared with current coal fired combustor technology. The specific objective of this report is to document the work carried out under Task 1.0 of this contract, Cold Flow Burner Development''. As are detailed in the report, key elements of this work included primary air swirler development, burner register geometry design, cold flow burner model testing, and development of burner scale up criteria.

  4. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems reference system definition update

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The objective of the the Direct Coal-Fueled 80 MW Combustion Turbine Program is to establish the technology required for private sector use of an advanced coal-fueled combustion turbine power system. Under this program the technology for a direct coal-fueled 80 MW combustion turbine is to be developed. This unit would be an element in a 207 MW direct coal-fueled combustion turbine combined cycle which includes two combustion turbines, two heat recovery steam generators and a steam turbine. Key to meeting the program objectives is the development of a successful high pressure slagging combustor that burns coal, while removing sulfur, particulates, and corrosive alkali matter from the combustion products. Westinghouse and Textron (formerly AVCO Research Laboratory/Textron) have designed and fabricated a subscale slagging combustor. This slagging combustor, under test since September 1988, has been yielding important experimental data, while having undergone several design iterations.

  5. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project. Technical progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    This detailed report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Project demonstrates an advanced thermal coal upgrading process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to high-quality, low-sulfur fuel. During this reporting period, the primary focus for the project was to expand market awareness and acceptability for the products and the technology. The use of covered hopper cars has been successful and marketing efforts have focused on this technique. Operational improvements are currently aimed at developing fines marketing systems, increasing throughput capacity, decreasing operation costs, and developing standardized continuous operator training. Testburns at industrial user sites were also conducted. A detailed process description; technical progress report including facility operations/plant production, facility testing, product testing, and testburn product; and process stability report are included. 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies: Froth flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    a study conducted by Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of sulfur emissions from about 1300 United States coal-fired utility boilers indicated that half of the emissions were the result of burning coals having greater than 1.2 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million BTU. This was mainly attributed to the high pyritic sulfur content of the boiler fuel. A significant reduction in SO{sub 2} emissions could be accomplished by removing the pyrite from the coals by advanced physical fine coal cleaning. An engineering development project was prepared to build upon the basic research effort conducted under a solicitation for research into Fine Coal Surface Control. The engineering development project is intended to use general plant design knowledge and conceptualize a plant to utilize advanced froth flotation technology to process coal and produce a product having maximum practical pyritic sulfur reduction consistent with maximum practical BTU recovery. This document is the eighth quarterly report prepared in accordance with the project reporting requirements covering the period from July 1,1990 to September 30, 1990. The overall project scope of the engineering development project is to conceptually develop a commercial flowsheet to maximize pyritic sulfur reduction at practical energy recovery values. The data from the basic research on coal surfaces, bench scale testing and proof-of-concept scale testing will be utilized to design a final conceptual flowsheet. The economics of the flowsheet will be determined to enable industry to assess the feasibility of incorporating the advanced fine coal cleaning technology into the production of clean coal for generating electricity. 22 figs., 11 tabs.

  7. Chemical and toxicological effects of medicinal Baccharis trimera extract from coal burning area.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Ana Paula S; da Silva, Juliana; Fisher, Camila; da Silva, Fernanda R; Reyes, Juliana M; Picada, Jaqueline N; Ferraz, Alice G; Corrêa, Dione S; Premoli, Suziane M; Dias, Johnny F; de Souza, Claudia T; Ferraz, Alexandre de B F

    2016-03-01

    The entire process of power generation, extraction, processing and use of coal strongly impact water resources, soil, air quality and biota leads to changes in the fauna and flora. Pollutants generated by coal burning have been contaminating plants that grow in area impacted by airborne pollution with high metal contents. Baccharis trimera is popularly consumed as tea, and is widely developed in Candiota (Brazil), one of the most important coal burning regions of the Brazil. This study aims to investigate the phytochemical profile, in vivo genotoxic and mutagenic potential of extracts of B. trimera collected from an exposed region to pollutants generated by coal burning (Candiota City) and other unexposed region (Bagé City), using the Comet assay and micronucleus test in mice and the Salmonella/microsome short-term assay. The HPLC analyses indicated higher levels of flavonoids and phenolic acids for B. trimera aqueous extract from Bagé and absence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons for both extracts. The presence of toxic elements such as cobalt, nickel and manganese was statistically superior in the extract from Candiota. For the Comet assay and micronucleus test, the mice were treated with Candiota and Bagé B. trimera aqueous extracts (500-2000 mg/kg). Significant genotoxicity was observed at higher doses treated with B. trimera aqueous extract from Candiota in liver and peripheral blood cells. Micronuclei were not observed but the results of the Salmonella/microsome short-term assay showed a significant increase in TA98 revertants for B. trimera aqueous extract from Candiota. The extract of B. trimera from Candiota bioacumulated higher levels of trace elements which were associated with the genotoxic effects detected in liver and peripheral blood cells. PMID:26741544

  8. Applications study of advanced power generation systems utilizing coal-derived fuels, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robson, F. L.

    1981-01-01

    Technology readiness and development trends are discussed for three advanced power generation systems: combined cycle gas turbine, fuel cells, and magnetohydrodynamics. Power plants using these technologies are described and their performance either utilizing a medium-Btu coal derived fuel supplied by pipeline from a large central coal gasification facility or integrated with a gasification facility for supplying medium-Btu fuel gas is assessed.

  9. Technical analysis of advanced wastewater-treatment systems for coal-gasification plants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-31

    This analysis of advanced wastewater treatment systems for coal gasification plants highlights the three coal gasification demonstration plants proposed by the US Department of Energy: The Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant, the Illinois Coal Gasification Group Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant, and the CONOCO Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant. Technical risks exist for coal gasification wastewater treatment systems, in general, and for the three DOE demonstration plants (as designed), in particular, because of key data gaps. The quantities and compositions of coal gasification wastewaters are not well known; the treatability of coal gasification wastewaters by various technologies has not been adequately studied; the dynamic interactions of sequential wastewater treatment processes and upstream wastewater sources has not been tested at demonstration scale. This report identifies key data gaps and recommends that demonstration-size and commercial-size plants be used for coal gasification wastewater treatment data base development. While certain advanced treatment technologies can benefit from additional bench-scale studies, bench-scale and pilot plant scale operations are not representative of commercial-size facility operation. It is recommended that coal gasification demonstration plants, and other commercial-size facilities that generate similar wastewaters, be used to test advanced wastewater treatment technologies during operation by using sidestreams or collected wastewater samples in addition to the plant's own primary treatment system. Advanced wastewater treatment processes are needed to degrade refractory organics and to concentrate and remove dissolved solids to allow for wastewater reuse. Further study of reverse osmosis, evaporation, electrodialysis, ozonation, activated carbon, and ultrafiltration should take place at bench-scale.

  10. Environmentally sound thermal energy extraction from coal and wastes using high temperature air combustion technology

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, Kunio

    1999-07-01

    High temperature air combustion is one of promising ways of burning relatively low BTU gas obtained from gasification of low grade coal or wastes. In this report, the author proposes a new power generation system coupled with high temperature air gasification of coal/wastes and high temperature air combustion of the syngas from coal/wastes. This system is realized by employing Multi-staged Enthalpy Extraction Technology (MEET). The basic idea of the MEET system is that coal or wastes are gasified with high temperature air of about 1,000 C, then the generated syngas is cooled in a heat recovery boiler to be cleaned-up in a gas cleanup system (desulfurization, desalinization and dust removal). Part of thermal energy contained in this cleaned-up syngas is used for high temperature air preheating, and the complete combustion of the fuel gas is done using also high temperature air for driving gas turbines or steam generation in a boiler.

  11. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes, Volume III

    SciTech Connect

    Ghani, M.U.; Hobbs, M.L.; Hamblen, D.G.

    1993-08-01

    A generalized one-dimensional, heterogeneous, steady-state, fixed-bed model for coal gasification and combustion is presented. The model, FBED-1, is a design and analysis tool that can be used to simulate a variety of gasification, devolatilization, and combustion processes. The model considers separate gas and solid temperatures, axially variable solid and gas flow rates, variable bed void fraction, coal drying, devolatilization based on chemical functional group composition, depolymerization, vaporization and crosslinking, oxidation, and gasification of char, and partial equilibrium in the gas phase.

  12. Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning for Premium Fuel Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, Frank J; Schields, Gene L; Jha, Mehesh C; Moro, Nick

    1997-09-26

    The ash in six common bituminous coals, Taggart, Winifrede, Elkhorn No. 3, Indiana VII, Sunnyside and Hiawatha, could be liberated by fine grinding to allow preparation of clean coal meeting premium fuel specifications (< 1- 2 lb/ MBtu ash and <0.6 lb/ MBtu sulfur) by laboratory and bench- scale column flotation or selective agglomeration. Over 2,100 tons of coal were cleaned in the PDU at feed rates between 2,500 and 6,000 lb/ h by Microcel™ column flotation and by selective agglomeration using recycled heptane as the bridging liquid. Parametric testing of each process and 72- hr productions runs were completed on each of the three test coals. The following results were achieved after optimization of the operating parameters: The primary objective was to develop the design base for commercial fine coal cleaning facilities for producing ultra- clean coals which can be converted into coal-water slurry premium fuel. The coal cleaning technologies to be developed were advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration, and the goal was to produce fuel meeting the following specifications.

  13. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, G.P.; Sendlein, L.V.A.

    1990-01-01

    Cooperative research in coal liquefaction is presented. Topics include: Sulfate-promoted metal oxides as direct coal liquefaction catalysts; low temperature depolymerization and liquefaction of premium US coal samples; construction of continuous flow-through gas reactor for liquefaction investigations; examination of ferric sulfide as a liquefaction catalyst; generic structural characterization and liquefaction research; spectroscopic studies of coal macerals depolymerization catalyzed by iron chloride; characterization of catalysts used in coal hydrogenation systems; coal structure/liquefaction yield correlation by means of advanced NMR techniques; mass spectrometry of coal derived liquids: determination of molecular weight distributions; catalyst cracking, hydrogenation and liquefaction of coals under milder conditions; ENDOR investigations of coal liquefaction under mild conditions; direct determination of hydroaromatic structures in coal and coal conversion products by catalytic dehydrogenation; surface characterization of APCSB coals by XPS; computation chemistry of model compounds and molecular fragments of relevance to coal liquefaction; chemical characterization and hydrogenation reactions of single coal particles; the role of hydrogen during liquefaction using donor and non-donor solvents; solvent sorption and FTIR studies on the effect of catalytic depolymerization reactions in coal; bioprocessing of coal; chemical routes to breaking bonds: new approaches to low-temperature liquefaction; an investigation into the reactivity of isotetralin and tetralin using molecular orbital calculations; coal liquefaction modification for enhanced reactivity; catalytic hydropyrolysis and energized extraction of coals; gallium catalyst in mild coal liquefaction -- potential of temperature microscope in coal liquefaction; evaluation of nitride catalysts for hydrotreatment and coal liquefaction; and improved catalysts for coal liquefaction and coprocessing.

  14. Advances in Ammonia Removal from Hot Coal Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Jothimurugesan, K.; Gangwal, S.K.

    1996-12-31

    Nitrogen occurs in coal in the form of tightly bound organic ring compounds, typically at levels of 1 to 2 wt%. During coal gasification, this fuel bound nitrogen is released principally as ammonia (NH{sub 3}). When hot coal gas is used to generate electricity in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants, NH{sub 3} is converted to nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) which are difficult to remove and are highly undesirable as atmospheric pollutants. Similarly, while the efficiency of integrated gasification molten carbonate fuel cell (IGFC) power plants is not affected by NH{sub 3}, NO{sub x} is generated during combustion of the anode exhaust gas. Thus NH{sub 3} must be removed from hot coal gas before it can be burned in a turbine or fuel cell. The objective of this study is to develop a successful combination of an NH{sub 3} decomposition catalyst with a zinc-based mixed-metal oxide sorbent so that the sorbent-catalyst activity remains stable for NH{sub 3} decomposition in addition to H{sub 2}S removal under cycle sulfidation-regeneration conditions in the temperature range of 500 to 750{degrees}C.

  15. Carbonaceous adsorbents from caking coals for the extraction of noble metals

    SciTech Connect

    Kostomarova, M.A.; Surinova, S.I.

    1983-01-01

    The authors examine the sorption and mechanical properties of spherical adsorbents obtained from Kuzbass caking coal using an IGI method. An investigation has also been made of the sorption kinetics of gold and silver. It was found that spherical adsorbent pellets of this kind are capable of extracting noble metals from ore pulps. (1 ref.)

  16. Characterization of mutagenic coal fly ash and extracts.

    PubMed

    Griest, W H; Caton, J E; Rao, T K; Harmon, S H; Yeatts, L B; Henderson, G M

    1982-11-01

    Post-electrostatic precipitator (ESP) fly ash samples were collected from a coal-fired electric power generation plant under three modes of plant operation: normal operation, a low NOx-emission mode of combustion, and operation with the ESP shorted-out. Results of chemical and physical characterization of the ashes were compared with bacterial mutagenicity bioassay to determine parameters or compounds correlating with bioactivity. The general physical properties, ultimate composition, and trace elemental and radiochemical species determined did not correlate with the mutagenicity. Only the presence of aromatic hydrocarbons and chemically derivatizable polar organic compounds appeared to be associated with mutagenicity of the fly ash. PMID:6757160

  17. Engineering design and analysis of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Gallier, P.W.

    1990-10-20

    The major goal is to provide the simulation tools for modeling both conventional and advanced coal cleaning technologies. This project is part of a major research initiative by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) aimed at advancing three advanced coal cleaning technologies-heavy-liquid cycloning, selective agglomeration, and advanced froth flotation through the proof-of-concept (POC) level. The ASPEN PLUS process simulation package will be extended to handle coal cleaning applications. Algorithms for predicting the process performance, equipment size, and flowsheet economics of commercial coal cleaning devices and related ancillary equipment will be incorporated into the coal cleaning simulator. The work plan for the froth quarter called for completion of the washability interpolation routine, gravity separation models, and dewatering models. As these items were completed, work in the areas of size reduction, classification and froth flotation were scheduled to begin. As each model was completed, testing and validation procedures were scheduled to begin. Costing models were also planned to be implemented and tested as each of the gravity separation models were completed. 1 tab.

  18. Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility, Wilsonville, Alabama. Run 262 with Black Thunder subbituminous coal: Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    This report presents the results of Run 262 performed at the Advanced Coal Liquefaction R&D Facility in Wilsonville, Alabama. The run started on July 10, 1991 and continued until September 30, 1991, operating in the Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction mode processing Black Thunder Mine subbituminous coal (Wyodak-Anderson seam from Wyoming Powder River Basin). A dispersed molybdenum catalyst was evaluated for its performance. The effect of the dispersed catalyst on eliminating solids buildup was also evaluated. Half volume reactors were used with supported Criterion 324 1/16`` catalyst in the second stage at a catalyst replacement rate of 3 lb/ton of MF coal. The hybrid dispersed plus supported catalyst system was tested for the effect of space velocity, second stage temperature, and molybdenum concentration. The supported catalyst was removed from the second stage for one test period to see the performance of slurry reactors. Iron oxide was used as slurry catalyst at a rate of 2 wt % MF coal throughout the run (dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) was used as the sulfiding agent). The close-coupled reactor unit was on-stream for 1271.2 hours for an on-stream factor of 89.8% and the ROSE-SR unit was on-feed for 1101.6 hours for an on-stream factor of 90.3% for the entire run.

  19. Advanced concepts in coal liquefaction: Optimization of reactor configuration in coal liquefaction. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pradhan, V.R.; Comolli, A.G.; Lee, L.K.

    1994-11-01

    The overall objective of this Project was to find the ways to effectively reduce the cost of coal liquids to about dollar 25 per barrel of crude oil equivalent. The work described herein is primarily concerned with the testing at the laboratory scale of three reactor configuration concepts, namely (1) a fixed-bed plug-flow reactor as a ``finishing reactor`` in coal liquefaction, (2) three-stage well-mixed reactors in series, and (3) interstage stream concentration/product separation. The three reactor configurations listed above were tested during this project using a 20 cc tubing microreactor, a fixed-bed plug flow reactor, and a two-stage modified Robinson-Mahoney reactor system. The reactor schemes were first evaluated based on theoretical modelling studies, then experimentally evaluated at the microautoclave level and laboratory scale continuous operations. The fixed-bed ``finishing reactor`` concept was evaluated in both the upflow and the downflow modes of operation using a partially converted coal-solvent slurry as feed. For most of the testing of concepts at the microautoclave level, simulated coal, recycle oil, and slurry feedstocks were either specially prepared (to represent a specific state of coal/resid conversion) and/or obtained from HRI`s other ongoing bench-scale and PDU scale coal liquefaction experiments. The three-stage continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) and interstage product stream separation/concentration concepts were tested using a simulated three-stage CSTR system by employing a laboratory-scale ebullated-bed system and a modified version of the HRI`s existing Robinson-Mahoney fixed catalyst basket reactor system. This testing was conducted as a fourteen day long continuous run, divided into four Conditions to allow for a comparison of the new three-stage CSTR and interstage product concentration concepts with a two-stage CSTR baseline configuration.

  20. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, July--September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    Progress made in five research programs is described. The subtasks in oil shale study include oil shale process studies and unconventional applications and markets for western oil shale.The tar sand study is on recycle oil pyrolysis and extraction (ROPE) process. Four tasks are described in coal research: underground coal gasification; coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and sold waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts; advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research covers: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO{sub 2} HUFF-N-PUFF process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; NMR analysis of sample from the ocean drilling program; and menu driven access to the WDEQ hydrologic data management system.

  1. Chemical kinetics and transport processes in supercritical fluid extraction of coal. Final report, August 10, 1990--December 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, B.J.; Smith, J.M.; Wang, M.; Zhang, C.J.

    1993-02-01

    The overall objective of this project was to study the supercritical fluid extraction of hydrocarbons from coal. Beyond the practical concern of deriving products from coal, the research has provided insights into the structure, properties, and reactivities of coal. Information on engineering fundamentals of coal thermolysis and extraction, including physical and chemical processes, is presented in this final report. To accomplish the goals of the project we developed continuous-flow experiments for fixed-bed samples of coal that allow two types of analysis of the extract: continuous spectrophotometric absorbance measurements of the lumped concentration of extract, and chromatographic determinations of molecular-weight distributions as a function of time. Thermolysis of coal yields a complex mixture of many extract products whose molecular-weight distribution (MWD) varies with time for continuous-flow, semibatch experiments. The flow reactor with a differential, fixed bed of coal particles contacted by supercritical t-butanol was employed to provide dynamic MWD data by means of HPLC gel permeation chromatography of the extract. The experimental results, time-dependent MWDs of extract molecules, were interpreted by a novel mathematical model based on continuous-mixture kinetics for thermal cleavage of chemical bonds in the coal network. The parameters for the MWDs of extractable groups in the coal and the rate constants for one- and two-fragment reaction are determined from the experimental data. The significant effect of temperature on the kinetics of the extraction was explained in terms of one- and two-fragment reactions in the coal.

  2. Coal extraction by aprotic dipolar solvents. Final report. [Tetramethylurea, hexa-methylphosphoramide

    SciTech Connect

    Sears, J T

    1985-12-01

    The overall goals of this project were to examine the rate and amount of extraction of coals at low temperature by a class of solvents with a generic structure to include tetramethylurea (TMU) and hexa-methylphosphoramide (HMPA) and to examine the nature of the extracted coal chemicals. The class of solvents with similar action, however, can be classified as aprotic, base solvents or, somewhat more broadly, specific solvents. The action of solvents by this last classification was then examined to postulate a mechanism of attack. Experimental work was conducted to explain the specific solvent attack including (1) pure solvent extraction, (2) extraction in mixtures with otherwise inert solvents and inhibitors, and (3) extraction with simultaneous catalytic enhancement attempts including water-gas shift conversion. Thus nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas-chromatograph mass spectrometer (GC-MS) analysis of extract molecules and extraction with high-pressure CO in TMU (plus 2% H2O) was performed. Effects of solvent additives such as cumene and quinone of large amounts of inert solvents such as tetralin, liminone, or carbon disulfide on extraction were also determined. Results are discussed. 82 refs., 36 figs., 37 tabs.

  3. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system

    SciTech Connect

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; When, C.S.

    1992-06-01

    This report covers the activity during the period from 2 June 1991 to 1 June 1992. The major areas of work include: the combustor sub-scale and full size testing, cleanup, coal fuel specification and processing, the Hot End Simulation rig and design of the engine parts required for use with the coal-fueled combustor island. To date Solar has demonstrated: Stable and efficient combustion burning coal-water mixtures using the Two Stage Slagging Combustor; Molten slag removal of over 97% using the slagging primary and the particulate removal impact separator; and on-site preparation of CWM is feasible. During the past year the following tasks were completed: The feasibility of on-site CWM preparation was demonstrated on the subscale TSSC. A water-cooled impactor was evaluated on the subscale TSSC; three tests were completed on the full size TSSC, the last one incorporating the PRIS; a total of 27 hours of operation on CWM at design temperature were accumulated using candle filters supplied by Refraction through Industrial Pump Filter; a target fuel specification was established and a fuel cost model developed which can identify sensitivities of specification parameters; analyses of the effects of slag on refractory materials were conducted; and modifications continued on the Hot End Simulation Rig to allow extended test times.

  4. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system. Annual report, June 1990--June 1991

    SciTech Connect

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

    1991-07-01

    Advances in coal-fueled gas turbine technology over the past few years, together with recent DOE-METC sponsored studies, have served to provide new optimism that the problems demonstrated in the past can be economically resolved and that the coal-fueled gas turbine can ultimately be the preferred system in appropriate market application sectors. The objective of the Solar/METC program is to prove the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of a coal-fired gas turbine for cogeneration applications through tests of a Centaur Type H engine system operated on coal fuel throughout the engine design operating range. The five-year program consists of three phases, namely: (1) system description; (2) component development; (3) prototype system verification. A successful conclusion to the program will initiate a continuation of the commercialization plan through extended field demonstration runs.

  5. Selective enrichment of phenols from coal liquefaction oil by solid phase extraction method

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, M.; Feng, J.

    2009-07-01

    This study focuses on the solid phase extraction method for the enrichment and separation of phenol from coal liquefaction oil. The phenols' separation efficiency was compared on different solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridges, and the effect of solvents with different polarity and solubility parameter on amino-bonded silica was compared for selection of optimal elution solution. The result showed that amino-bonded silica has the highest selectivity and best extraction capability due to two factors, weak anion exchange adsorption and polar attraction adsorption.

  6. POC-scale testing of an advanced fine coal dewatering equipment/technique

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    Froth flotation technique is an effective and efficient process for recovering of ultra-fine (minus 74 pm) clean coal. Economical dewatering of an ultra-fine clean-coal product to a 20% level moisture will be an important step in successful implementation of the advanced cleaning processes. This project is a step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal could be effectively dewatered to 20% or lower moisture using either conventional or advanced dewatering techniques. The cost-sharing contract effort is for 36 months beginning September 30, 1994. This report discusses technical progress made during the quarter from July 1 - September 30, 1997.

  7. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-26

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (ABB CE) to perform work on the Engineering Development of Advanced Coal-Fired Low-Emission Boiler Systems'' Project and has authorized ABB CE to complete Phase I on a cost-reimbursable basis. The overall objective of the Project is the expedited commercialization of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. The specified primary objectives are: NO[sub x] emissions not greater than one-third NSPS; SO[sub x] emissions not greater than one-third NSPS; and particulate emissions not greater than one-half NSPS. The specific secondary objectives are: Improved ash disposability and reduced waste generation; reduced air toxics emissions; increased generating efficiency. The final deliverables are a design data base that will allow future coal-fired power plants to meet the stated objectives and a preliminary design of a commercial generation unit.

  8. The fate of alkali species in advanced coal conversion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, G.N.; Wood, B.J.

    1991-11-01

    The fate of species during coal combustion and gasification was determined experimentally in a fluidized bed reactor. A molecular-beam sampling mags spectrometer was used to identify and measure the concentration of vapor phase sodium species in the high temperature environment. Concurrent collection and analysis of the ash established the distribution of sodium species between gas-entrained and residual ash fractions. Two coals, Beulah Zap lignite and Illinois No. 6 bituminous, were used under combustion and gasification conditions at atmospheric pressure. Steady-state bed temperatures were in the range 800--950[degree]C. An extensive calibration procedure ensured that the mass spectrometer was capable of detecting sodium-containing vapor species at concentrations as low as 50 ppb. In the temperature range 800[degree] to 950[degree]C, the concentrations of vapor phase sodium species (Na, Na[sub 2]O, NaCl, and Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4]) are less than 0.05 ppm under combustion conditions with excess air. However, under gasification conditions with Beulah Zap lignite, sodium vapor species are present at about 14 ppm at a temperature of 820[degree]. Of this amount, NaCl vapor constitutes about 5 ppm and the rest is very likely NAOH. Sodium in the form of NaCl in coal enhances the vaporization of sodium species during combustion. Vapor phase concentration of both NaCl and Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4] increased when NaCl was added to the Beulah Zap lignite. Ash particles account for nearly 100% of the sodium in the coal during combustion in the investigated temperature range. The fine fly-ash particles (<10 [mu]m) are enriched in sodium, mainly in the form of sodium sulfate. The amount of sodium species in this ash fraction may be as high as 30 wt % of the total sodium. Sodium in the coarse ash particle phase retained in the bed is mainly in amorphous forms.

  9. Advanced NMR approaches in the characterization of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Maciel, G.E.

    1992-01-01

    A considerable effort in this project during the past few months has been focussed on the development of [sup 1]H and [sup 13]C NMR imaging techniques to yield spatially-resolved chemical shift (structure) information on coal. In order to yield the chemical shift information, a solid-state NMR imaging technique must include magic-angle spinning, so rotating gradient capabilities are indicated. A [sup 13]C MAS imaging probe and a [sup 1]H MAS imaging probe and the circuitry necessary for rotating gradients have been designed and constructed. The [sup 1]H system has already produced promising preliminary results, which are briefly described in this report.

  10. Advances in passive-remote and extractive Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Demirgian, J.C.; Hammer, C.; Hwang, E.; Mao, Zhuoxiong

    1993-10-01

    The Clean Air Act of 1990 requires the monitoring of air toxics including those from incinerator emissions. Continuous emission monitors (CEM) would demonstrate the safety of incinerators and address public concern about emissions of hazardous organic compounds. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy can provide the technology for continuous emission monitoring of stacks. Stack effluent can be extracted and analyzed in less than one minute with conventional FTIR spectrometers. Passive-remote FTIR spectrometers can detect certain emission gases over 1 km away from a stack. The authors discuss advances in both extractive and passive-remote FTIR technology. Extractive systems are being tested with EPA protocols, which will soon replace periodic testing methods. Standard operating procedures for extractive systems are being developed and tested. Passive-remote FTIR spectrometers have the advantage of not requiring an extracted sample; however, they have less sensitivity. We have evaluated the ability of commercially available systems to detect fugitive plumes and to monitor carbon monoxide at a coal-fired power plant.

  11. Advances in passive-remote and extractive Fourier transform infrared systems

    SciTech Connect

    Demirgian, J.C.; Hammer, C.; Hwang, E.; Zhuoxiong Mao

    1993-07-01

    The Clean Air Act of 1990 requires the monitoring of air toxics including those from incinerator emissions. Continuous emission monitors (CEM) would demonstrate the safety of incinerators and address public concern about emissions of hazardous organic compounds. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy can provide the technology for continuous emission monitoring of stacks. Stack effluent can be extracted and analyzed in under one minute with conventional FTIR spectrometers. Passive-remote FTIR spectrometers can detect certain emission gases over 1 km away from a stack. The authors will discuss advances in both extractive and passive-remote FTIR technology. Extractive systems are being tested with EPA protocols, which will soon replace periodic testing methods. Standard operating procedures for extractive systems are being developed and tested. Passive-remote FTIR spectrometers have the advantage of not requiring an extracted sample; however, they have less sensitivity. The authors have evaluated the ability of commercially available systems to detect fugitive plumes and to monitor carbon monoxide at a coal-fired power plant.

  12. Assessment of Metal Media Filters for Advanced Coal-Based Power Generation Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Alvin, M.A.

    2002-09-19

    Advanced coal and biomass-based gas turbine power generation technologies (IGCC, PFBC, PCFBC, and Hipps) are currently under development and demonstration. Efforts at Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (SWPC) have been focused on the development and demonstration of hot gas filter systems as an enabling technology for power generation. This paper reviews SWPC's material and component assessment efforts, identifying the performance, stability, and life of porous metal, advanced alloy, and intermetallic filters under simulated, pressurized fluidized-bed combustion conditions.

  13. Evaluation of air toxic emissions from advanced and conventional coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, P.; Epstein, M.; Gould, L.; Botros, P.

    1995-12-31

    This paper evaluates the air toxics measurements at three advanced power systems and a base case conventional fossil fuel power plant. The four plants tested include a pressurized fluidized bed combustor, integrated gasification combined cycle, circulating fluidized bed combustor, and a conventional coal-fired plant.

  14. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1997-12-31

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2 t/hr process development unit (PDU). Accomplishments during the quarter are described on the following tasks and subtasks: Development of near-term applications (engineering development and dewatering studies); Engineering development of selective agglomeration (bench-scale testing and process scale-up); PDU and advanced column flotation module (coal selection and procurement and advanced flotation topical report); Selective agglomeration module (module operation and clean coal production with Hiawatha, Taggart, and Indiana 7 coals); Disposition of the PDU; and Project final report. Plans for next quarter are discussed and agglomeration results of the three tested coals are presented.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Dady B. Dadyburjor; Mark E. Heavner; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; J. Joshua Maybury; Alfred H. Stiller; Joseph M. Stoffa; John W. Zondlo

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. The largest applications are those which support metals smelting, such as anodes for aluminum smelting and electrodes for arc furnaces. Other carbon products include materials used in creating fuels for the Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, and porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, hydrotreatment of solvent was completed in preparation for pitch fabrication for graphite electrodes. Coal digestion has lagged but is expected to be complete by next quarter. Studies are reported on coal dissolution, pitch production, foam synthesis using physical blowing agents, and alternate coking techniques.

  16. Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal--Task 4.4: Development of supercritical fluid extraction methods for the quantitation of sulfur forms in coal

    SciTech Connect

    Timpe, R.C.

    1995-04-01

    Current analytical methods are inadequate for accurately measuring sulfur forms in coal. This task was concerned with developing methods to quantitate and identify major sulfur forms in coal based on direct measurement (as opposed to present techniques based on indirect measurement and difference values). The focus was on the forms that were least understood and for which the analytical methods have been the poorest, i.e., organic and elemental sulfur. Improved measurement techniques for sulfatic and pyritic sulfur also need to be developed. A secondary goal was to understand the interconversion of sulfur forms in coal during thermal processing. This task had as its focus the development of selective extraction methods that will allow the direct measurement of sulfur content in each form. Therefore, selective extraction methods were needed for the major sulfur forms in coal, including elemental, pyritic, sulfatic, and organic sulfur. This study was a continuation of that of previous analytical method development for sulfur forms in coal which resulted in the successful isolation and quantitation of elemental and sulfatic sulfur. Super- and subcritical extractions with methanol or water with and without additives were investigated in an attempt to develop methods for pyritic and organic sulfur forms analysis in coal. Based on these studies, a sequential extraction scheme that is capable of selectively determining elemental, sulfatic, pyritic and two forms of organic sulfur is presented here.

  17. Coal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brant, Russell A.; Glass, Gary B.

    1983-01-01

    Principle work of 23 state geological surveys is summarized. Work includes mapping/estimating coal resources, centralizing data in National Coal Resources Data System through cooperative programs, exploration drilling, and others. Comments on U.S. Geological Survey activities, coal-related conferences/meetings, and industry research activities are…

  18. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, G.P.; Sendlein, L.V.A.

    1991-01-01

    This report is a coordinated effort of the Consortium for Fossil Fuel Liquefaction Science. The topics concerning coal liquefaction discussed are: sulfate promoted metal oxides as direct coal liquefaction catalysts; low temperature depolymerization and liquefaction of premium R.S. coal samples; construction of continuous flow-through gas reactor for liquefaction investigations; generic structural characterization and liquefaction research; macerals, model compounds and iron catalyst dispersion; coal structure/liquefaction yield correlation by means of advanced NMR techniques; GC/MS of model compound mixtures; catalytic cracking, hydrogenation and liquefaction of coals under milder conditions; ENDOR investigations of coal liquefaction under mild conditions; catalytic dehydrogenation of model compounds in relation to direct coal liquefaction; surface characterization of catalyst added coal samples; computational chemistry of model compounds and molecular fragments of relevance to coal liquefaction; chemical characterization and hydrogenation reactions of single coal particles; thermolytic cleavage of selected coal-related linkages at mild temperatures; solvent sorption and FTIR studies on the effect of catalytic depolymerization reactions in coal; bioprocessing of coal; chemical routes to breaking bonds; novel liquefaction concepts cyclic olefins: novel new donors for coal liquefaction; better hydrogen transfer in coal liquefaction; catalytic hydropyrolysis and energized extraction of coals; gallium catalyst in mild coal liquefaction; potential of temperature microscope in coal liquefaction; evaluation of nitride catalysts for hydrotreatment and coal liquefaction; coprocessing and coal liquefaction with novel catalysts.

  19. AN ADVANCED CONTROL SYSTEM FOR FINE COAL FLOTATION

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-25

    A model-based flotation control scheme is being implemented to achieve optimal performance in the handling and treatment of fine coal. The control scheme monitors flotation performance through on-line analysis of tailings ash content. Then, based on an on-line estimate of incremental ash, the pulp level is adjusted using a model-based control algorithm to compensate for feed variations and other process disturbances. Recent developments in sensor technology are being applied for on-line determination of slurry ash content. During the tenth quarter of this project, Task 6 (Equipment Procurement and Installation) was completed through the efforts of J.A. Herbst and Associates, Virginia Tech, Pittston Coal Company, and FGR Automation. As a result of this work, a model-based control system is now in place which can predict incremental ash based on tailings ash content and general plant data, and adjust pulp level accordingly to maintain a target incremental ash. Testing of this control system is expected to be carried out during the next quarter, and the results of this testing will be reported in the Eleventh Quarterly report. In addition, calibration of the video-based ash analyzer was continued and an extensive set of calibration data were obtained showing that the plant is running remarkably well under manual control. This may be a result of increased attention being paid to froth flotation as a result of this project.

  20. AN ADVANCED CONTROL SYSTEM FOR FINE COAL FLOTATION

    SciTech Connect

    G.H. Luttrell; G.T. Adel

    1999-01-11

    A model-based flotation control scheme is being implemented to achieve optimal performance in the handling and treatment of fine coal. The control scheme monitors flotation performance through on-line analysis of tailings ash content. Then, based on an on-line estimate of incremental ash, the pulp level is adjusted using a model-based control algorithm to compensate for feed variations and other process disturbances. Recent developments in sensor technology are being applied for on-line determination of slurry ash content. During the eleventh quarter of this project, Task 7 (Operation and Testing) was nearly completed through the efforts of J.A. Herbst and Associates, Virginia Tech, and Pittston Coal Company. As a result of this work, a model-based control system has now been installed which can predict incremental ash based on tailings ash content and general plant data, and adjust pulp level accordingly to maintain a target incremental ash. The system has gone through a shake-down period, training has been carried out for plant operators, and the bulk of the control logic testing has been completed with the results of these tests awaiting analysis under Task 8 (System Evaluation). The flotation model has been shown to predict incremental ash quite successfully, implying that this approach may provide the basis for a useful ''soft sensor'' for on-line incremental ash analysis.

  1. Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility, Wilsonville, Alabama. Run 261 with Illinois No. 6 Burning Star Mine coal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    This report presents the results of Run 261 performed at the Advanced Coal Liquefaction R & D Facility in Wilsonville, Alabama. The run started on January 12, 1991 and continued until May 31, 1991, operating in the Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction mode processing Illinois No. 6 seam bituminous coal (from Burning star No. 2 mine). In the first part of Run 261, a new bimodal catalyst, EXP-AO-60, was tested for its performance and attrition characteristics in the catalytic/catalytic mode of the CC-ITSL process. The main objective of this part of the run was to obtain good process performance in the low/high temperature mode of operation along with well-defined distillation product end boiling points. In the second part of Run 261, Criterion (Shell) 324 catalyst was tested. The objective of this test was to evaluate the operational stability and catalyst and process performance while processing the high ash Illinois No. 6 coal. Increasing viscosity and preasphaltenes made it difficult to operate at conditions similar to EXP-AO-60 catalyst operation, especially at lower catalyst replacement rates.

  2. Microbial extraction of sulfur from model coal organosulfur compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Purdy, R.F.; Ward, B.; Lepo, J.E.

    1991-12-31

    Several hundred bacterial cultures isolated from a variety of natural sites were screened for their ability to desulfurize the model coal organosulfur compounds, dibenzothiophene (DBT) and DBT-sulfone. A sulfur-stress assay, in which DBT-sulfone was the only bioavailable source of sulfur, was used to screen and select for organisms that selectively desulfurized the organic-sulfur substrate. Only two new isolates, UMX9 and UMX3, and strain IGTS-8, a Rhodococcus rhodochrous provided by the Institute for Gas Technology (Chicago, USA.) as a reference culture, would grow on DBT or DBT-sulfone as a sole source of sulfur. Under sulfur-stress conditions, a desulfurized product identified as 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2-phenylphenol) was detected only for UMX9 and IGTS-8. Biodesulfurization activity for all three organisms occurred only for growing cultures, and was depressed by free sulfate, although more so for UMX3 and IGTS-8 than for UMX9. None of the three cultures exhibited good growth on DBT, DBT-sulfone, or 2-phenylphenol as sole sources of carbon. Taxonomic studies revealed UMX3 to be similar to IGTS-8, whereas UMX9 only exhibited Rhodococcus-like features. Comparative tests for carbohydrate utilization revealed that only UMX9 would grow on glucose, and that only IGTS-8 would grow on L-arabinose. Assays of biodesulfurization activity as a function of temperature or pH revealed further differences between UMX9 and UMX3/IGTS-8. Under optimized assay conditions for each organism, UMX9 exhibited up to 30% greater biodesulfurization activity than did IGTS-8 and UMX3, which were similar in activity.

  3. The Wilsonville Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility, Wilsonville, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-05-01

    The investigation of various Two-Stage Liquefaction (TSL) process configurations was conducted at the Wilsonville Advanced Coal Liquefaction R D Facility between July 1982 and September 1986. The facility combines three process units. There are the liquefaction unit, either thermal (TLU) or catalytic, for the dissolution of coal, the Critical Solvent Deashing unit (CSD) for the separation of ash and undissolved coal, and a catalytic hydrogenation unit (HTR) for product upgrading and recycle process solvent replenishment. The various TSL process configurations were created by changing the process sequence of these three units and by recycling hydrotreated solvents between the units. This report presents a description of the TSL configurations investigated and an analysis of the operating and performance data from the period of study. Illinois No. 6 Burning Star Mine coal Wyodak Clovis Point Mine coal were processed. Cobalt-molybdenum and disposable iron-oxide catalysts were used to improve coal liquefaction reactions and nickel-molybdenum catalysts were used in the hydrotreater. 28 refs., 31 figs., 13 tabs.

  4. 30 CFR 912.707 - Exemption for coal extraction incident to Government-financed highway or other construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.707 Exemption for coal extraction incident to Government... Government-Financed Highway or Other Construction, shall apply to surface coal mining and...

  5. 30 CFR 912.707 - Exemption for coal extraction incident to Government-financed highway or other construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.707 Exemption for coal extraction incident to Government... Government-Financed Highway or Other Construction, shall apply to surface coal mining and...

  6. 30 CFR 912.707 - Exemption for coal extraction incident to Government-financed highway or other construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.707 Exemption for coal extraction incident to Government... Government-Financed Highway or Other Construction, shall apply to surface coal mining and...

  7. 30 CFR 912.707 - Exemption for coal extraction incident to Government-financed highway or other construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.707 Exemption for coal extraction incident to Government... Government-Financed Highway or Other Construction, shall apply to surface coal mining and...

  8. Extraction of potential pollutants from Ohio coal by synergistic use of supercritical fluids. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.

    1990-08-03

    A synergistic supercritical extraction process was developed and its feasibility demonstrated using a semi-batch extraction process unit. The process was found to be effective in selectively cleaning organic sulfur from Ohio coals. Optimal case involved a mixture of CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and CH{sub 3}OH, and the removal of organic sulfur ranged from 35 to 55%. Combined with pyrite and mineral matter removal by gravity, the resulting coals would have 20--30% increased heating values and SO{sub 2} emissions would be down to 1.2--1.5 pounds per million Btu, thus meeting compliance requirements. Estimated cleaning cost including pyrite removal is $25 to 45 per ton. The most important cost factor is the operation at high pressures.

  9. An analysis of cost effective incentives for initial commercial deployment of advanced clean coal technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, D.F.

    1997-12-31

    This analysis evaluates the incentives necessary to introduce commercial scale Advanced Clean Coal Technologies, specifically Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) powerplants. The incentives required to support the initial introduction of these systems are based on competitive busbar electricity costs with natural gas fired combined cycle powerplants, in baseload service. A federal government price guarantee program for up to 10 Advanced Clean Coal Technology powerplants, 5 each ICGCC and PFBC systems is recommended in order to establish the commercial viability of these systems by 2010. By utilizing a decreasing incentives approach as the technologies mature (plants 1--5 of each type), and considering the additional federal government benefits of these plants versus natural gas fired combined cycle powerplants, federal government net financial exposure is minimized. Annual net incentive outlays of approximately 150 million annually over a 20 year period could be necessary. Based on increased demand for Advanced Clean Coal Technologies beyond 2010, the federal government would be revenue neutral within 10 years of the incentives program completion.

  10. Design manual for management of solid by-products from advanced coal technologies

    SciTech Connect

    1994-10-01

    Developing coal conversion technologies face major obstacles in byproduct management. This project has developed several management strategies based on field trials of small-scale landfills in an earlier phase of the project, as well as on published/unpublished sources detailing regulatory issues, current industry practice, and reuse opportunities. Field testing, which forms the basis for several of the disposal alternatives presented in this design manual, was limited to byproducts from Ca-based dry SO{sub 2} control technologies, circulating fluidized bed combustion ash, and bubbling bed fluidized bed combustion ash. Data on byproducts from other advanced coal technologies and on reuse opportunities are drawn from other sources (citations following Chapter 3). Field results from the 5 test cases examined under this project, together with results from other ongoing research, provide a basis for predictive modeling of long-term performance of some advanced coal byproducts on exposure to ambient environment. This manual is intended to provide a reference database and development plan for designing, permitting, and operating facilities where advanced coal technology byproducts are managed.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Madhavi Nallani-Chakravartula; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2006-03-27

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the development of continuous processes for hydrogenation as well as continuous production of carbon foam and coke.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-06-08

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the development of continuous processes for hydrogenation as well as continuous production of carbon foam and coke.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-08-11

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the facility modifications for continuous hydrotreating, as well as developing improved protocols for producing synthetic pitches.

  14. Concept selection for advanced low-emission coal fired boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Gorrell, R.L.; Rodgers, L.W.; Farthing, G.A.

    1993-12-31

    The Babcock & Wilcox Company (B&W), under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE) with subcontract to Physical Sciences, Inc. (PSIT), the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and United Engineers and Constructors (UE&C) has begun development of an advanced low-emission boiler system (LEBS). The initial phase of this multi-phase program required a thorough review and assessment of potential advanced technologies and techniques for control of combustion and flue gas emissions. Results of this assessment are presented in this paper.

  15. Facile reaction/extraction of coal in supercritical fluids. Final report, August 1, 1982-September 30, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Squires, T.G.; Venier, C.G; Aida, T.; Smith, B.F.; Slomka, B.; Chen, Y.Y.

    1986-09-01

    A research program was undertaken to provide a fundamental chemical basis for more efficient coal liquefaction processes. The investigations examined three means of accomplishing this objective: supercritical fluid solvents to facilitate movement of reagents and products in the coal structure; a flow mode reactor to rapidly remove solubilized coal fragments, thereby minimizing retrogressive reactions; selective low temperature ionic bond cleavages to selectively disrupt the macromolecular coal structure. The extractibility of Illinois No. 6 coal and coal tar with supercritical CO/sub 2/ was first determined. While coal was not extractible with this solvent, up to 15% of the coal tar was soluble. These experiments validated our flow mode approach and pointed up the need to define the thermal chemical contribution to solvent extraction of coal. To accomplish this, a rapid heating, temperature and pressure programmable flow mode reactor was developed. Using this reactor, we established that the rapid removal of solubilized products improved thermal solubilization yields of solubilized products improved thermal solubilization yields by up to 50% and that water is an effective solvent for coal extraction. Real time monitoring of the optical density of the reactor effluent revealed the value of dynamic information about conversion processes. Additional experiments in this area are urgently needed. A chemical basis for the room temperature unlinking of coal was established. Investigations of the acid catalyzed cleavage of ether linkages via arylation established intramolecular (crosslinking) rearrangements as a major reaction pathway and underscored the need for choosing conversion conditions that are selective rather than severe. 52 refs., 7 figs., 11 tabs.

  16. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    Progress made in five areas of research is described briefly. The subtask in oil shale research is on oil shale process studies. For tar sand the subtask reported is on process development. Coal research includes the following subtasks: Coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes the following: Advanced process concepts; advanced mitigation concepts; oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: Organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW{sup TM} field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; operation and evaluation of the CO{sup 2} HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid-state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; characterization of petroleum residua; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process;NMR analysis of samples from the ocean drilling program; oil field waste cleanup using tank bottom recovery process; remote chemical sensor development; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; solid-state NMR analysis of Mowry formation shale from different sedimentary basins; solid-state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens; and development of effective method for the clean-up of natural gas.

  17. Digital Doppler extraction demonstration with the advanced receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinedi, S.; Bevan, R.; Delcastillo, H.; Kinman, P.; Chong, D.; Labelle, R.

    1990-01-01

    A digital Doppler extraction demonstration with the Advanced Receiver 2 (ARX 2) tracking Pioneer 10 and Voyager 2 is described. The measured results are compared with those of the Block 4 receiver that was operating in parallel with the ARX 2. It is shown that the ARX 2 outperforms the Block 4 receiver in terms of Allan variance of the Doppler residuals, the amount of which depends on the scenario of interest.

  18. Evaluation of a sequential extraction process used for determining mercury binding mechanisms to coal combustion byproducts.

    PubMed

    Noel, James D; Biswas, Pratim; Giammar, Daniel E

    2007-07-01

    Leaching of mercury from coal combustion byproducts is a concern because of the toxicity of mercury. Leachability of mercury can be assessed by using sequential extraction procedures. Sequential extraction procedures are commonly used to determine the speciation and mobility of trace metals in solid samples and are designed to differentiate among metals bound by different mechanisms and to different solid phases. This study evaluated the selectivity and effectiveness of a sequential extraction process used to determine mercury binding mechanisms to various materials. A six-step sequential extraction process was applied to laboratory-synthesized materials with known mercury concentrations and binding mechanisms. These materials were calcite, hematite, goethite, and titanium dioxide. Fly ash from a full-scale power plant was also investigated. The concentrations of mercury were measured using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) mass spectrometry, whereas the major elements were measured by ICP atomic emission spectrometry. The materials were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy. The sequential extraction procedure provided information about the solid phases with which mercury was associated in the solid sample. The procedure effectively extracted mercury from the target phases. The procedure was generally selective in extracting mercury. However, some steps in the procedure extracted mercury from nontarget phases, and others resulted in mercury redistribution. Iron from hematite and goethite was only leached in the reducible and residual extraction steps. Some mercury associated with goethite was extracted in the ion exchangeable step, whereas mercury associated with hematite was extracted almost entirely in the residual step. Calcium in calcite and mercury associated with calcite were primarily removed in the acid-soluble extraction step. Titanium in titanium dioxide and mercury adsorbed onto

  19. TRW Advanced Slagging Coal Combustor Utility Demonstration. Fourth Quarterly progress report, August 1989--October 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-31

    The TRW Advanced Slagging Coal Combustor Demonstration Project consists of retrofitting Orange and Rockland (O&R) Utility Corporation`s Lovett Plant Unit No. 3 with four (4) slagging combustors which will allow the gas/ou desip unit to fire 2.5 sulfur coal. The slogging combustor process will provide NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions that meet NSPS and New York State Envirommental Standards. TRW-CBU scope of work includes the engineering, design and supply of the slogging combustors, coal and limestone feed systems and a control system for these components. During this report period, the design activities for all systems progressed to permit the release of specifications and requests for proposals. Award of contracts for long-delivery items and major equipment are being placed to meet the revised program schedule.

  20. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems, Volume 1: Annual technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-07-01

    This is the first annual technical progress report for The Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Systems Program. Two semi-annual technical progress reports were previously issued. This program was initially by the Department of Energy as an R D effort to establish the technology base for the commercial application of direct coal-fired gas turbines. The combustion system under consideration incorporates a modular three-stage slagging combustor concept. Fuel-rich conditions inhibit NO/sub x/ formation from fuel nitrogen in the first stage; coal ash and sulfur is subsequently removed from the combustion gases by an impact separator in the second stage. Final oxidation of the fuel-rich gases and dilution to achieve the desired turbine inlet conditions are accomplished in the third stage. 27 figs., 15 tabs.

  1. Advanced turbine design for coal-fueled engines

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, J.H.; Johnson, B.V.

    1993-04-01

    The investigators conclude that: (1) Turbine erosion resistance was shown to be improved by a factor of 5 by varying the turbine design. Increasing the number of stages and increasing the mean radius reduces the peak predicted erosion rates for 2-D flows on the blade airfoil from values which are 6 times those of the vane to values of erosion which are comparable to those of the vane airfoils. (2) Turbine erosion was a strong function of airfoil shape depending on particle diameter. Different airfoil shapes for the same turbine operating condition resulted in a factor of 7 change in airfoil erosion for the smallest particles studied (5 micron). (3) Predicted erosion for the various turbines analyzed was a strong function of particle diameter and weaker function of particle density. (4) Three dimensional secondary flows were shown to cause increases in peak and average erosion on the vane and blade airfoils. Additionally, the interblade secondary flows and stationary outer case caused unique erosion patterns which were not obtainable with 2-D analyses. (5) Analysis of the results indicate that hot gas cleanup systems are necessary to achieve acceptable turbine life in direct-fired, coal-fueled systems. In addition, serious consequences arise when hot gas filter systems fail for even short time periods. For a complete failure of the filter system, a 0.030 in. thick corrosion-resistant protective coating on a turbine blade would be eroded at some locations within eight minutes.

  2. Advanced integrated solvent extraction and ion exchange systems

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, P.

    1996-10-01

    Advanced integrated solvent extraction (SX) and ion exchange (IX) systems are a series of novel SX and IX processes that extract and recover uranium and transuranics (TRUs) (neptunium, plutonium, americium) and fission products {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 137}Cs from acidic high-level liquid waste and that sorb and recover {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 137}Cs from alkaline supernatant high-level waste. Each system is based on the use of new selective liquid extractants or chromatographic materials. The purpose of the integrated SX and IX processes is to minimize the quantity of waste that must be vitrified and buried in a deep geologic repository by producing raffinates (from SX) and effluent streams (from IX) that will meet the specifications of Class A low-level waste.

  3. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems: Subscale combustion testing. Topical report, Task 3.1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This is the final report on the Subscale Combustor Testing performed at Textron Defense Systems` (TDS) Haverhill Combustion Laboratories for the Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine System Program of the Westinghouse Electric Corp. This program was initiated by the Department of Energy in 1986 as an R&D effort to establish the technology base for the commercial application of direct coal-fired gas turbines. The combustion system under consideration incorporates a modular staged, rich-lean-quench, Toroidal Vortex Slogging Combustor (TVC) concept. Fuel-rich conditions in the first stage inhibit NO{sub x} formation from fuel-bound nitrogen; molten coal ash and sulfated sorbent are removed, tapped and quenched from the combustion gases by inertial separation in the second stage. Final oxidation of the fuel-rich gases, and dilution to achieve the desired turbine inlet conditions are accomplished in the third stage, which is maintained sufficiently lean so that here, too, NO{sub x} formation is inhibited. The primary objective of this work was to verify the feasibility of a direct coal-fueled combustion system for combustion turbine applications. This has been accomplished by the design, fabrication, testing and operation of a subscale development-type coal-fired combustor. Because this was a complete departure from present-day turbine combustors and fuels, it was considered necessary to make a thorough evaluation of this design, and its operation in subscale, before applying it in commercial combustion turbine power systems.

  4. Carbon formation and metal dusting in advanced coal gasification processes

    SciTech Connect

    DeVan, J.H.; Tortorelli, P.F.; Judkins, R.R.; Wright, I.G.

    1997-02-01

    The product gases generated by coal gasification systems contain high concentrations of CO and, characteristically, have relatively high carbon activities. Accordingly, carbon deposition and metal dusting can potentially degrade the operation of such gasifier systems. Therefore, the product gas compositions of eight representative gasifier systems were examined with respect to the carbon activity of the gases at temperatures ranging from 480 to 1,090 C. Phase stability calculations indicated that Fe{sub 3}C is stable only under very limited thermodynamic conditions and with certain kinetic assumptions and that FeO and Fe{sub 0.877}S tend to form instead of the carbide. As formation of Fe{sub 3}C is a necessary step in the metal dusting of steels, there are numerous gasifier environments where this type of carbon-related degradation will not occur, particularly under conditions associated with higher oxygen and sulfur activities. These calculations also indicated that the removal of H{sub 2}S by a hot-gas cleanup system may have less effect on the formation of Fe{sub 3}C in air-blown gasifier environments, where the iron oxide phase can exist and is unaffected by the removal of sulfur, than in oxygen-blown systems, where iron sulfide provides the only potential barrier to Fe{sub 3}C formation. Use of carbon- and/or low-alloy steels dictates that the process gas composition be such that Fe{sub 3}C cannot form if the potential for metal dusting is to be eliminated. Alternatively, process modifications could include the reintroduction of hydrogen sulfide, cooling the gas to perhaps as low as 400 C and/or steam injection. If higher-alloy steels are used, a hydrogen sulfide-free gas may be processed without concern about carbon deposition and metal dusting.

  5. An Advanced Control System For Fine Coal Flotation

    SciTech Connect

    G. H. Luttrell; G. T. Adel

    1998-08-25

    A model-based flotation control scheme is being implemented to achieve optimal performance in the handling and treatment of fine coal. The control scheme monitors flotation performance through on-line analysis of ash content. Then, based on the economic and metallurgical performance of the circuit, variables such as collector dosage, frother dosage, and pulp level are adjusted using model-based control algorithms to compensate for feed variations and other process disturbances. Recent developments in sensor technology are being applied for on-line determination of slurry ash content. During the ninth quarter of this project, Task 3 (Model Building and Computer Simulation) and Task 4 (Sensor Testing) were nearly completed, and Task 6 (Equipment Procurement and Installation) was initiated. Previously, data collected from the plant sampling campaign (Task 2) were used to construct a population balance model to describe the steady-state and dynamic behavior of the flotation circuit. The details of this model were presented in the Eighth Quarterly Technical Progress Report. During the past quarter, a flotation circuit simulator was designed and used to evaluate control strategies. As a result of this work, a model-based control strategy has been conceived which will allow manipulated variables to be adjusted in response to disturbances to achieve a target incremental ash value in the last cell of the bank. This will, in effect, maximize yield at an acceptable product quality. During this same period, a video-based ash analyzer was installed on the flotation tailings stream at the Moss No. 3 preparation plant. A preliminary calibration curve was established, and data are continuing to be collected in order to improve the calibration of the analyzer.

  6. An Advanced Control System for Fine Coal Floatation

    SciTech Connect

    G. H. Luttrell; G. T. Adel

    1998-06-01

    A model-based flotation control scheme is being implemented to achieve optimal performance in the handling and treatment of fine coal. The control scheme monitors flotation performance through on-line analysis of ash content. Then, based on the economic and metallurgical performance of the circuit, variables such as collector dosage, frother dosage, and pulp level are adjusted using model-based control algorithms to compensate for feed variations and other process disturbances. Recent developments in sensor technology are being applied for on-line determination of slurry ash content. During the eighth quarter of this project, the analysis of data collected during Task 2 (Sampling and Data Analysis) was completed, and significant progress was made on Task 3 (Model Building and Computer Simulation). Previously, a plant sampling campaign had been conducted at Pittston�s Moss No. 3 preparation plant to provide data for the development of a mathematical process model and a model-based control system. During this campaign, a one-half factorial design experiment, blocked into low and high feed rates, was conducted to investigate the effects of collector, frother, and pulp level on model parameters. In addition, samples were collected during the transient period following each change in the manipulated variables to provide data for confirmation of the dynamic process simulator. A residence time distribution (RTD) test was also conducted to estimate the mean residence time. This is a critical piece of information since no feed flowrate measurement is available, and the mean residence time can be used to estimate the feed flowrate. Feed samples were taken at timed intervals and floated in a laboratory flotation cell to investigate the magnitude of feed property disturbances and their duration.

  7. Recovery of fine coal from waste streams using advanced column flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Groppo, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    The advanced flotation techniques, namely column flotation, have shown potential in obtaining a low ash, low pyritic sulfur fine size clean coal. The overall objective of this program is to evaluate applicability of an advanced flotation technique, 'Ken-Flote' column to recover clean coal with minimum mineral matter content at greater than 90 percent combustible recovery from two Illinois preparation plant waste streams. Column flotations tests were conducted on the flotation feed obtained from the Kerr-McGee Galatia and Ziegler No. 26 plants using three different bubble-generating devices: sparger, gas saver and foam jet. Each of these devices was tested with three different frothers and various column-operating variable to provide maximum combustible recovery, minimum product ash and maximum pyrite rejection. For the Galatia slurry, the column provided a clean coal containing 5 percent ash, 0.48 percent pyritic sulfur at combustible recovery averaging 90 percent. In other words, about 90 percent ash and about 75 percent pyritic sulfur rejection were attained for the Galatia slurry. Pilot plant studies on this slurry basically obtained results similar to the laboratory studies. For the Ziegler No. 26, slurry column flotation provided a clean coal containing about 5 percent ash, 0.44 percent pyritic sulfur at more than 90 percent combustible recovery. The ash and pyrite sulfur rejection was about 85 percent and 65 percent, respectively.

  8. Aspects of the environmental geology of coal extraction in South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Thamm, A.G.

    1996-12-31

    Existing areas of regulatory intervention in South Africa, related to coal extraction, are discard and stockpile burning (low level air pollution), acid rock drainage (water pollution) and landscape and mine rehabilitation. These impacts are managed in terms of the Minerals Act (No. 50 of 1991) and its subsequent amendments. Exploration and mining companies (at any scale or size) are required to prepare Environmental Management Programme Reports (EMPR) in terms of existing legislation. The submission and approval of an EMPR results in site-specific legal obligations for which the mining company must make pecuniary provision. Individual coal producers have led the mining industry in the establishment of trusts to fund such rehabilitation. River catchment areas in the Mpumalanga Province and in northern KwaZulu Natal have suffered serious water quality deterioration as a result of polluted water emanating from abandoned coal mines. The relatively small household coal sector has health impacts out of proportion with its size, with the attendant increases in health risk clearly documented. Economic geologists have been concerned with the proving of non-renewable resources and management and production of reserves once mining commences. Mining investment decisions are increasingly influenced by the necessity to rehabilitate mined out areas and manage environmental impact. Understanding potential cost, at the end of the mining project cycle is as significant as understanding the genesis or value of a deposit. Site specific examples of typical South African problems will be presented.

  9. The demonstration of an advanced cyclone coal combustor, with internal sulfur, nitrogen, and ash control for the conversion of a 23 MMBTU/hour oil fired boiler to pulverized coal

    SciTech Connect

    Zauderer, B.; Fleming, E.S.

    1991-08-30

    This work contains to the final report of the demonstration of an advanced cyclone coal combustor. Titles include: Chronological Description of the Clean Coal Project Tests,'' Statistical Analysis of Operating Data for the Coal Tech Combustor,'' Photographic History of the Project,'' Results of Slag Analysis by PA DER Module 1 Procedure,'' Properties of the Coals Limestone Used in the Test Effort,'' Results of the Solid Waste Sampling Performed on the Coal Tech Combustor by an Independent Contractor During the February 1990 Tests.'' (VC)

  10. Advanced coal-fired slagging combustor for the low-emission boiler system

    SciTech Connect

    Diehl, R.C.; Eppich, H.M.; Stankevics, J.O.A.; Reich, J.E.; Beittel, R.; Ake, T.R.

    1994-12-31

    The Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center has recently initiated a major engineering development program called {open_quotes}Combustion 2000{close_quotes} which is geared toward advanced coal-fired electric utility plants. The Riley Stoker Corp. is leading one of three teams developing a Low-Emission coal-fired Boiler System (LEBS), which will be commercial by the end of this decade. The Riley team includes Textron Defense Systems, Reaction Engineering, International, Sargent & Lundy Engineers, Research Cottrell, and Tecogen. In LEBS advanced pollution control goals will lower SOx and NOx emissions to 1/3 current New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and particulate emissions to 1/2 current NSPS. Riley`s LEBS has selected the 4500 psi 1100{degrees}F double reheat cycle, which will include a high efficiency, once through supercritical Benson boiler.

  11. Magnetic relaxation: Coal swelling, extraction, pore size. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1993--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Doetschman, D.C.; Mehlenbacher, R.C.; Ito, O.

    1993-11-01

    An electron spin and proton magnetic relaxation study is presented on the effects of the solvent extraction of coal on the macromolecular network of the coal and on the mobile molecular species that are initially within the coal. The eight Argonne Premium coals were extracted at room temperature with a 1:1 (v/v) N-methylpyrrolidinone (NMP)-CS{sub 2} solvent mixture under an inert atmosphere. As much solvent as possible was removed from extract and residue by treatment under vacuum oven conditions ({approximately}10{sup {minus}2} torr at 145--150{degrees}C) until constant weight was achieved. The extraction, without further washing with other solvents, results in substantial uptake of NMP, apparently by H-bonding or acid-base interactions. The NMP uptake tends to be higher in coal matter with higher heteroatom (N,O,S) content and the NMP more tightly bound. The molecular material in the medium rank bituminous coals is more aromatic and heteroatom-poor than the macromolecular material and is mobilized by the extracting solvent. Likewise the more aromatic and heteroatom-poor molecular, free radicals are also extracted. However, mobilization of the molecular free radicals by solvent and the exposure of free radicals by the macromolecular matrix to solvent or species dissolved in the solvent, results in preferential reactions of the more aromatic and heteroatom-poor free radicals. Greater losses of extract free radicals, being the more aromatic, occur than residue free radicals. As a consequence, the surviving extract radicals exhibit a greater heteroatom content than the original whole coals, as determined from EPR g value changes.

  12. Forecast of long term coal supply and mining conditions: Model documentation and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A coal industry model was developed to support the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in its investigation of advanced underground coal extraction systems. The model documentation includes the programming for the coal mining cost models and an accompanying users' manual, and a guide to reading model output. The methodology used in assembling the transportation, demand, and coal reserve components of the model are also described. Results presented for 1986 and 2000, include projections of coal production patterns and marginal prices, differentiated by coal sulfur content.

  13. The use of solvent extractions and solubility theory to discern hydrocarbon associations in coal, with application to the coal-supercritical CO2 system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolak, Jonathan J.; Burruss, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Samples of three high volatile bituminous coals were subjected to parallel sets of extractions involving solvents dichloromethane (DCM), carbon disulfide (CS2), and supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) (40 °C, 100 bar) to study processes affecting coal–solvent interactions. Recoveries of perdeuterated surrogate compounds, n-hexadecane-d34 and four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), added as a spike prior to extraction, provided further insight into these processes. Soxhlet-DCM and Soxhlet-CS2 extractions yielded similar amounts of extractable organic matter (EOM) and distributions of individual hydrocarbons. Supercritical CO2 extractions (40 °C, 100 bar) yielded approximately an order of magnitude less EOM. Hydrocarbon distributions in supercritical CO2 extracts generally mimicked distributions from the other solvent extracts, albeit at lower concentrations. This disparity increased with increasing molecular weight of target hydrocarbons. Five- and six-ring ring PAHs generally were not detected and no asphaltenes were recovered in supercritical CO2 extractions conducted at 40 °C and 100 bar. Supercritical CO2 extraction at elevated temperature (115 °C) enhanced recovery of four-ring and five-ring PAHs, dibenzothiophene (DBT), and perdeuterated PAH surrogate compounds. These results are only partially explained through comparison with previous measurements of hydrocarbon solubility in supercritical CO2. Similarly, an evaluation of extraction results in conjunction with solubility theory (Hildebrand and Hansen solubility parameters) does not fully account for the hydrocarbon distributions observed among the solvent extracts. Coal composition (maceral content) did not appear to affect surrogate recovery during CS2 and DCM extractions but might affect supercritical CO2 extractions, which revealed substantive uptake (partitioning) of PAH surrogates into the coal samples. This uptake was greatest in the sample (IN-1) with the highest vitrinite content. These

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-04-13

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. Table 1 provides an overview of the major markets for carbon products. Current sources of materials for these processes generally rely on petroleum distillation products or coal tar distillates obtained as a byproduct of metcoke production facilities. In the former case, the American materials industry, just as the energy industry, is dependent upon foreign sources of petroleum. In the latter case, metcoke production is decreasing every year due to the combined difficulties associated with poor economics and a significant environmental burden. Thus, a significant need exists for an environmentally clean process which can used domestically obtained raw materials and which can still be very competitive economically.

  15. Genotoxic evaluation of Mikania laevigata extract on DNA damage caused by acute coal dust exposure.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Tiago P; Heuser, Vanina D; Tavares, Priscila; Leffa, Daniela D; da Silva, Gabriela A; Citadini-Zanette, Vanilde; Romão, Pedro R T; Pinho, Ricardo A; Streck, Emilio L; Andrade, Vanessa M

    2009-06-01

    In the present article, we report data on the possible antigenotoxic activity of Mikania laevigata extract (MLE) after acute intratracheal instillation of coal dust using the comet assay in peripheral blood, bone marrow, and liver cells and the micronucleus test in peripheral blood of Wistar rats. The animals were pretreated for 2 weeks with saline solution (groups 1 and 2) or MLE (100 mg/kg) (groups 3 and 4). On day 15, the animals were anesthetized with ketamine (80 mg/kg) and xylazine (20 mg/kg), and gross mineral coal dust (3 mg/0.3 mL saline) (groups 2 and 4) or saline solution (0.3 mL) (groups 1 and 3) was administered directly in the lung by intratracheal administration. Fifteen days after coal dust or saline instillation, the animals were sacrificed, and the femur, liver, and peripheral blood were removed. The results showed a general increase in the DNA damage values at 8 hours for all treatment groups, probably related to surgical procedures that had stressed the animals. Also, liver cells from rats treated with coal dust, pretreated or not with MLE, showed statistically higher comet assay values compared to the control group at 14 days after exposure. These results could be expected because the liver metabolizes a variety of organic compounds to more polar by-products. On the other hand, the micronucleus assay results did not show significant differences among groups. Therefore, our data do not support the antimutagenic activity of M. laevigata as a modulator of DNA damage after acute coal dust instillation. PMID:19627217

  16. Genotoxic Evaluation of Mikania laevigata Extract on DNA Damage Caused by Acute Coal Dust Exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Freitas, T.P.; Heuser, V.D.; Tavares, P.; Leffa, D.D.; da Silva, G.A.; Citadini-Zanette, V.; Romao, P.R.T.; Pinho, R.A.; Streck, E.L.; Andrade,V.M.

    2009-06-15

    We report data on the possible antigenotoxic activity of Mikania laevigata extract (MLE) after acute intratracheal instillation of coal dust using the comet assay in peripheral blood, bone marrow, and liver cells and the micronucleus test in peripheral blood of Wistar rats. The animals were pretreated for 2 weeks with saline solution (groups 1 and 2) or MLE (100 mg/kg) (groups 3 and 4). On day 15, the animals were anesthetized with ketamine (80 mg/kg) and xylazine (20 mg/kg), and gross mineral coal dust (3 mg/0.3 mL saline) (groups 2 and 4) or saline solution (0.3 mL) (groups 1 and 3) was administered directly in the lung by intratracheal administration. Fifteen days after coal dust or saline instillation, the animals were sacrificed, and the femur, liver, and peripheral blood were removed. The results showed a general increase in the DNA damage values at 8 hours for all treatment groups, probably related to surgical procedures that had stressed the animals. Also, liver cells from rats treated with coal dust, pretreated or not with MLE, showed statistically higher comet assay values compared to the control group at 14 days after exposure. These results could be expected because the liver metabolizes a variety of organic compounds to more polar by-products. On the other hand, the micronucleus assay results did not show significant differences among groups. Therefore, our data do not support the antimutagenic activity of M. laevigata as a modulator of DNA damage after acute coal dust instillation.

  17. Sequential solvent extraction for the modes of occurrence of selenium in coals of different ranks from the Huaibei Coalfield, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Liu, Guijian; Chou, Chen-Lin; Wang, Lei; Kang, Yu

    2007-01-01

    Forms of selenium in bituminous coal, anthracite, and cokeite (natural coke) from Huaibei Coalfield, Anhui, China, have been determined by sequential solvent extraction. The selenium content in bulk samples is 4.0, 2.4, and 2.0 microg/g in bituminous coal, anthracite, and cokeite, respectively. The six forms of selenium determined by six-step solvent extraction are water-leachable, ion-exchangeable, organic matter-associated, carbonate-associated, silicate-associated, and sulfide-associated. The predominant forms of selenium in bituminous coal are organic matter-associated (39.0%), sulfide-associated (21.1%), and silicate bound (31.8%); these three forms account for 92% of the total. The organic matter bound-selenium decrease dramatically from bituminous coal (39.0%) to anthracite (11.6%) and to cokeite (0%), indicating that organic matter bound selenium is converted to other forms during metamorphism of the coal, most likely sulfide-form. The sulfide-associated form increased remarkably from bituminous coal (21.1%) to anthracite (50.4%) and cokeite (54.5%), indicating the formation of selenium sulfide, possibly in pyrite during the transformation of bituminous coal to anthracite and cokeite. The silicate-associated selenium in bituminous coal (31.8%) is much higher than that in anthracite (16.4%) and cokeite (15.8%), indicating that silicate-associated selenium is partly converted to sulfide during metamorphism. PMID:18093341

  18. Sequential solvent extraction for the modes of occurrence of selenium in coals of different ranks from the Huaibei Coalfield, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Liu, Guijian; Chou, Chen-Lin; Wang, Lei; Kang, Yu

    2007-01-01

    Forms of selenium in bituminous coal, anthracite, and cokeite (natural coke) from Huaibei Coalfield, Anhui, China, have been determined by sequential solvent extraction. The selenium content in bulk samples is 4.0, 2.4, and 2.0 μg/g in bituminous coal, anthracite, and cokeite, respectively. The six forms of selenium determined by six-step solvent extraction are water-leachable, ion-exchangeable, organic matter-associated, carbonate-associated, silicate-associated, and sulfide-associated. The predominant forms of selenium in bituminous coal are organic matter-associated (39.0%), sulfide-associated (21.1%), and silicate bound (31.8%); these three forms account for 92% of the total. The organic matter bound-selenium decrease dramatically from bituminous coal (39.0%) to anthracite (11.6%) and to cokeite (0%), indicating that organic matter bound selenium is converted to other forms during metamorphism of the coal, most likely sulfide-form. The sulfide-associated form increased remarkably from bituminous coal (21.1%) to anthracite (50.4%) and cokeite (54.5%), indicating the formation of selenium sulfide, possibly in pyrite during the transformation of bituminous coal to anthracite and cokeite. The silicate-associated selenium in bituminous coal (31.8%) is much higher than that in anthracite (16.4%) and cokeite (15.8%), indicating that silicate-associated selenium is partly converted to sulfide during metamorphism. PMID:18093341

  19. Sequential solvent extraction for the modes of occurrence of selenium in coals of different ranks from the Huaibei Coalfield, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, Y.; Liu, Gaisheng; Chou, C.-L.; Wang, L.; Kang, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Forms of selenium in bituminous coal, anthracite, and cokeite (natural coke) from Huaibei Coalfield, Anhui, China, have been determined by sequential solvent extraction. The selenium content in bulk samples is 4.0, 2.4, and 2.0 ??g/g in bituminous coal, anthracite, and cokeite, respectively. The six forms of selenium determined by six-step solvent extraction are water-leachable, ion-exchangeable, organic matter-associated, carbonate-associated, silicate-associated, and sulfide-associated. The predominant forms of selenium in bituminous coal are organic matter-associated (39.0%), sulfide-associated (21.1%), and silicate bound (31.8%); these three forms account for 92% of the total. The organic matter bound-selenium decrease dramatically from bituminous coal (39.0%) to anthracite (11.6%) and to cokeite (0%), indicating that organic matter bound selenium is converted to other forms during metamorphism of the coal, most likely sulfide-form. The sulfide-associated form increased remarkably from bituminous coal (21.1%) to anthracite (50.4%) and cokeite (54.5%), indicating the formation of selenium sulfide, possibly in pyrite during the transformation of bituminous coal to anthracite and cokeite. The silicate-associated selenium in bituminous coal (31.8%) is much higher than that in anthracite (16.4%) and cokeite (15.8%), indicating that silicate-associated selenium is partly converted to sulfide during metamorphism. ?? 2007 Zhang et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  20. Development of advanced capitalism: a case study of retired coal miners in southern West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Legeay, S.P.

    1980-01-01

    This dissertation develops a critical analysis of changes in American society during the last fifty years. It is focused in particular on the southern West Virginia coal fields, and examines the changes in class structure (specifically, coal miners), the labor process, the union, class consciousness, community and leisure. The study is grounded within a theoretical perspective that is dialectical. It is concerned with the interaction between specific social categories (such as the union) and the greater whole of capitalist development. It is centrally concerned with continuing a research orientation to which the Frankfurt School gave a powerful contribution: the development of advanced capitalism in the modern epoch. The study utilizes life-history interviews with retired coal miners, almost all of whom had experience with the exploitive company towns of an earlier time. Thus, techniques for the study of oral history are instrumental in developing an analysis of social developments, inasmuch as they provide data appropriate for an analysis of the transformation from early to late capitalism. Finally, this dissertation examines a problem central to dialectical theory, that of the relation between theory and praxis, by approaching the life histories as exemplifications of collective (i.e., social) experience. It integrates the biographical experience of individual miners with the theoretical dimensions of political economy in early and late capitalism. The current crisis in the coal fields is examined, with a view to possible transformation.

  1. Engineering development of advance physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    SciTech Connect

    Jha, M.C.; Smit, F.J.; Shields, G.L.

    1995-11-01

    The objective of this project is to develop the engineering design base for prototype fine coal cleaning plants based on Advanced Column Flotation and Selective Agglomeration processes for premium fuel and near-term applications. Removal of toxic trace elements is also being investigated. The scope of the project includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing of each process on six coals followed by design, construction, and operation of a 2 tons/hour process development unit (PDU). Three coals will be cleaned in tonnage quantity and provided to DOE and its contractors for combustion evaluation. Amax R&D (now a subsidiary of Cyprus Amax Mineral Company) is the prime contractor. Entech Global is managing the project and performing most of the research and development work as an on-site subcontractor. Other participants in the project are Cyprus Amax Coal Company, Arcanum, Bechtel, TIC, University of Kentucky and Virginia Tech. Drs. Keller of Syracuse and Dooher of Adelphi University are consultants.

  2. Distribution of toxic elements in the products of the extraction of bitumens from coal and peat

    SciTech Connect

    S.I. Zherebtsov; M.Yu. Klimovich; A.I. Moiseev

    2008-06-15

    The effect of bitumen extraction conditions on the behavior of a number of toxic trace elements (V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sb, and Pb) in solid fossil fuel samples was studied. It was found that the capacity of fossil fuels to concentrate trace elements can be monitored and the type of compound can be determined based on the dimensionless quantities of carbophilicity and concentration factors of the trace elements in coal and peat. The types of compounds in fossil fuels were found and graphically represented for the test trace elements.

  3. (Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center): Quarterly technical progress report for the period ending June 30, 1987. [Advanced Coal Research and Technology Development Programs

    SciTech Connect

    1988-02-01

    Research programs on coal and coal liquefaction are presented. Topics discussed are: coal science, combustion, kinetics, surface science; advanced technology projects in liquefaction; two stage liquefaction and direct liquefaction; catalysts of liquefaction; Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and thermodynamics; alternative fuels utilization; coal preparation; biodegradation; advanced combustion technology; flue gas cleanup; environmental coordination, and technology transfer. Individual projects are processed separately for the data base. (CBS)

  4. Catalytic hydrogenation of high volatile bituminous coal and various coal extracts: Final report for 1986/1987 SOMED Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kispert, L.D.

    1987-09-01

    Model compounds, naphthalene, quinolines, and isoquinoline (possible extracts of coal) were selectively hydrogenated to 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro products by a Ziegler type catalyst (I) made of cobalt stearate and triethyl aluminum (1:2 molar ratio) in hexane solvent and temperatures as low as 22/degree/C and hydrogen pressure of 700-800 psi. It was established that a hydrogen pressure greater than 300 psi is crucial for hydrogenation to occur. For instance, at a pressure of 300 psi, only 5% reduction of naphthalene was observed with the rest of the starting material remaining intact. The important feature of this Ziegler catalyst is that it works best at low temperatures, moderate pressures and short reaction times, most unusual for a Ziegler catalyst. The catalyst, however, failed to bring about any reduction with such compounts as 8-nitro-2-methylquinoling, 4-chloro-2-methylquinoline, phenol, and dibenzothiophene. These failures are not surprising as nitro compounds are known to interact with and deactivate similar catalysts and homogeneous transition metal catalysts usually fail in the present of sulfur containing compounds. 23 refs., 2 tabs.

  5. Coal Block Mining system. Final technical report, April 1975-July 1979. [Large block extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Maser, K.; Douglas, S.; Lewtas, T.

    1980-04-01

    This report covers a Technical and Economic Feasibility Analysis of a Coal Block Mining system. This system would extract coal in large blocks rather than in small fragments as is characteristic of current mining methods. A review of background technology is carried out, leading to the development of three Block Mining concepts. One of these, the Block Corer, is selected for further evaluation. A preliminary design of the proposed Block Miner is presented. A productivity analysis is carried out, leading to the specification of a five entry section, with two block miners, two shuttle cars, and two compact bolters bolting concurrently with mining. This analysis shows that the Block Mining section is capable of outproducing an equivalent continuous miner section due to increased haulage capabilities. An economic analysis is carried out, showing cost/ton of clean coal for Block Mining to be up to 40 percent less than that for continuous mining under certain conditions. Based on these findings, it is suggested that further development of the Block Mining System be considered. A development plan is presented.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Philip L. Biedler; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-04-13

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. A process has been developed which results in high quality binder pitch suitable for use in graphite electrodes or carbon anodes. A detailed description of the protocol is given by Clendenin. Briefly, aromatic heavy oils are hydro-treated under mild conditions in order to increase their ability to dissolve coal. An example of an aromatic heavy oil is Koppers Carbon Black Base (CBB) oil. CBB oil has been found to be an effective solvent and acceptably low cost (i.e., significantly below the market price for binder pitch, or about $280 per ton at the time of this writing). It is also possible to use solvents derived from hydrotreated coal and avoid reliance on coke oven recovery products completely if so desired.

  7. Brazing as a Means of Sealing Ceramic Membranes for use in Advanced Coal Gasification Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Weil, K. Scott; Hardy, John S.; Rice, Joseph P.; Kim, Jin Yong Y.

    2006-01-02

    Coal is potentially a very inexpensive source of clean hydrogen fuel for use in fuel cells, turbines, and various process applications. To realize its potential however, efficient, low-cost gas separation systems are needed to provide high purity oxygen to enhance the coal gasification reaction and to extract hydrogen from the resulting gas product stream. Several types of inorganic membranes are being developed for hydrogen or oxygen separation, including porous alumina, transition metal oxide perovskites, and zirconia. One of the key challenges in developing solid-state membrane based gas separation systems is in hermetically joining the membrane to the metallic body of the separation device. In an effort to begin addressing this issue, a new brazing concept has been developed, referred to as reactive air brazing. This paper discusses the details of this joining technique and illustrates its use in bonding a wide variety of materials, including alumina, lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite, and yttria stabilized zirconia.

  8. Brazing as a Means of Sealing Ceramic Membranes for Use in Advanced Coal Gasification Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Weil, K. Scott; Hardy, John S.; Rice, Joseph P.; Kim, Jin Yong

    2006-01-31

    Coal is a potentially a very inexpensive source of clean hydrogen fuel for use in fuel cells, turbines, and various process applications. To realize its potential however, efficient, low-cost gas separation systems are needed to provide high purity oxygen to enhance the coal gasification reaction and to extract hydrogen from the resulting gas product stream. Several types of inorganic membranes are being developed for hydrogen or oxygen separation, including porous alumina, transition metal oxide perovskites, and zirconia. One of the key challenges in developing solid-state membrane based gas separation systems is in hermetically joining the membrane to the metallic body of the separation device. In an effort to begin addressing this issue, a new brazing concept has been developed, referred to as reactive air brazing. This paper discusses the details of this joining technique and illustrates its use in bonding a wide variety of materials, including alumina, lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite, and yttria stabilized zirconia.

  9. Advanced solids NMR studies of coal structure and chemistry. Progress report, September 1, 1995--February 28, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Zilm, K.W.

    1996-09-01

    This report covers the progress made on the title project for the project period. The study of coal chemical structure is a vital component of research efforts to develop better chemical utilization of coals, and for furthering our basic understanding of coal geochemistry. In this grant we are addressing several structural questions pertaining to coals with advances in state of the art solids NMR methods. Our goals are twofold. First, we are interested in developing new methods that will enable us to measure important structural parameters in whole coals not directly accessible by other techniques. In parallel with these efforts we will apply these NMR methods in a study of the chemical differences between gas-sourcing and oil-sourcing coals. The NMR methods work will specifically focus on determination of the number and types of methylene groups, determination of the number and types of methine groups, identification of carbons adjacent to nitrogen and sites with exchangeable protons, and methods to more finely characterize the distribution of hydrogen in coals. We will also develop NMR methods for probing coal macropore structure using hyperpolarized {sup 129}Xe as a probe, and study the molecular dynamics of what appear to be mobile, CH{sub 2} rich, long chain hydrocarbons. The motivation for investigating these specific structural features of coals arises from their relevance to the chemical reactivity of some types of coals. The coals to be studied and contrasted include oil-prone coals from Australia and Indonesia, those comprising the Argonne Premium Coal Sample bank, and other relevant samples.

  10. Advanced physical coal cleaning to comply with potential air toxic regulations. Quarterly report, 1 March 1995--31 May 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Honaker, R.Q.; Paul, B.C.; Mohanty, M.K.; Wang, D.

    1995-12-31

    Studies have indicated that the potentially hazardous trace elements found in coal have a strong affinity for coal pyrite. Thus, by maximizing the rejection of pyrite, one can minimize the trace element content of a given coal while also reducing sulfur emissions. The pyrite in most Illinois Basin coals, however, is finely disseminated within the coal matrix. Therefore, to remove the pyrite using physical coal cleaning techniques, the pyrite must be liberated by grinding the coal to ultrafine particle sizes. Fortunately, the coals being fed to pulverized coal boilers (PCB) are already ground to a very fine size, i.e., 70% passing 200 mesh. Therefore, this research project will investigate the use of advanced fine coal cleaning technologies for cleaning PCB feed as a compliance strategy. Work in this quarter has focused on the processing of a run-of-mine coal sample collected from Amax Coal Company`s Delta Coal mine using column flotation and an enhanced gravity separator as separate units and in circuitry arrangements. The {minus}60 mesh run-of-mine sample having an ash content of about 22% was cleaned to 6% while achieving a very high energy recovery of about 87% and a sulfur rejection value of 53% in a single stage column flotation operation. Enhanced gravity treatment is believed to be providing excellent total sulfur rejection values, although with inferior ash rejection for the {minus}400 mesh size fraction. The circuitry arrangement with the Falcon concentrator as the primary cleaner followed by the Packed-Column resulted in an excellent ash rejection performance, which out performed the release analysis. Trace element analyses of the samples collected from these tests will be conducted during the next report period.

  11. Performance of a high efficiency advanced coal combustor. Task 2, Pilot scale combustion tests: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Toqan, M.A.; Paloposki, T.; Yu, T.; Teare, J.D.; Beer, J.M.

    1989-12-01

    Under contract from DOE-PETC, Combustion Engineering, Inc. undertook the lead-role in a multi-task R&D program aimed at development of a new burner system for coal-based fuels; the goal was that this burner system should be capable of being retrofitted in oil- or gas-fired industrial boilers, or usable in new units. In the first phase of this program a high efficiency advanced coal combustor was designed jointly by CE and MIT. Its burner is of the multiannular design with a fixed shrouded swirler in the center immediately surrounding the atomizer gun to provide the ``primary act,`` and three further annuli for the supply of the ``secondary air.`` The degree of rotation (swirl) in the secondary air is variable. The split of the combustion air into primary and secondary air flows serves the purpose of flame stabilization and combustion staging, the latter to reduce NO{sub x} formation.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Quentin C. Berg; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Jason C. Hissam; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Abha Saddawi; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2006-03-07

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. The largest applications are those which support metals smelting, such as anodes for aluminum smelting and electrodes for arc furnaces. Other carbon products include materials used in creating fuels for the Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the development of carbon electrodes for Direct Carbon Fuel Cells (DCFC), and on carbon foam composites used in ballistic armor, as well as the hydrotreatment of solvents used in the basic solvent extraction process. A major goal is the production of 1500 pounds of binder pitch, corresponding to about 3000 pounds of hydrotreated solvent.

  13. Evaluating risks to wildlife from coal fly ash incorporating recent advances in metals and metalloids risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Carolyn B; Schlekat, Tamar H; Walls, Suzanne J; Iannuzzi, Jacqueline; Souza, Marcy J

    2015-01-01

    Current scientific advances in metal and metalloid risk assessment were applied to evaluate risk to aquatic and riparian wildlife species potentially impacted by residual coal fly ash after cleanup of an unprecedented large ash release into an aquatic environment-the first assessment of its kind. Risk was evaluated using multiple lines of evidence (LOE), including 1) tissue-based risk assessment of inorganic concentrations in piscivorous and insectivorous bird eggs and raccoon organs, 2) deterministic and probabilistic diet-based risk estimates for 10 receptors species, 3) raccoon health metrics, and 4) tree swallow nest productivity measures. Innovative approaches included use of tissue-based toxicity reference values (TRVs), adjustment of bioavailability in the dietary uptake models (using sequential metal extractions in sediment), partitioning chemical species into uptake compartments (e.g., prey gut, nongut, sediment), incorporating uncertainty in both modeled dose and dietary TRVs, matching TRVs to chemical forms of constituents, and pairing these LOEs with reproductive success or health status of sensitive receptor species. The weight of evidence revealed that risk to wildlife from residual ash was low and that risk, though low, was most pronounced for insectivorous birds from exposure to Se and As. This information contributes to the debate surrounding coal combustion residue regulations prompted by this ash release. Because of the responsible party's proactive approach of applying state-of-the-art methods to assess risk using several LOEs that produced consistent results, and because of their inclusion of the regulating agencies in decisions at every step of the process, the risk assessment results were accepted, and an effective approach toward cleanup protective of the environment was quickly implemented. This study highlights the value of using multiple LOEs and the latest scientific advances to assist in timely decision making to obtain an effective

  14. Advanced NMR approaches in the characterization of coal. Final technical report, September 1, 1990--August 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Maciel, G.E.

    1993-09-30

    This project addressed two main goals and one much smaller one. The main goals were (1) to improve the significance, reliability and information content in high-resolution NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) characterization of coal samples and (2) to develop chemically informative NMR imaging techniques for coal. The minor goal was to explore advanced features of dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) as a technique for coal characterization; this included the development of two DNP probes and the examination of DNP characteristics of various carbonaceous samples, including coals. {sup 13}C NMR advances for coal depended on large-sample MAS devices, employing either cross-polarization (CP) or direct polarization (DP) approaches. CP and DP spin dynamics and their relationships to quantitation and spin counting were elucidated. {sup 1}H NMR studies, based on CRAMPS, dipolar dephasing and saturation with perdeuteropyridine, led to a {sup 1}H NMR-based elucidation of chemical functionality in coal. {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR imaging techniques, based on magic-angle spinning and rotating magnetic field gradients, were developed for introducing chemical shift information (hence, chemical detail) into the spatial imaging of coal. The TREV multiple-pulse sequence was found to be useful in the {sup 1}H CRAMPS imaging of samples like coal.

  15. Coal Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Coal slurries are "clean" pulverized coal mixed with oil or water. Significant fuel savings can be realized when using coal slurries. Advanced Fuels Technology (AFT) utilized a COSMIC program, (Calculation of Complex Chemical Equilibrium Compositions), which provides specific capabilities for determining combustion products. The company has developed a cleaning process that removes much of the mineral sulphur and ash from the coals.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; R. Michael Bergen; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Alfred H. Stiller; W. Morgan Summers; John W. Zondlo

    2006-05-12

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. The largest applications are those which support metals smelting, such as anodes for aluminum smelting and electrodes for arc furnaces. Other carbon products include materials used in creating fuels for the Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, coking and composite fabrication continued using coal-derived samples. These samples were tested in direct carbon fuel cells. Methodology was refined for determining the aromatic character of hydro treated liquid, based on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR). Tests at GrafTech International showed that binder pitches produced using the WVU solvent extraction protocol can result in acceptable graphite electrodes for use in arc furnaces. These tests were made at the pilot scale.

  17. Studies of coal structure and extraction by magnetic relaxation techniques. [Quarterly technical progress report, March--May 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Doetschman, D.C.; Mehlenbacher, R.C.; Ito, O.

    1993-07-01

    NMP-CS{sub 2} extraction of the Argonne Premium coals results in substantial uptake of NMP, apparently H-bonding most extensively to coals for which extraction is most efficient. The solvent mobilization and exposure of free radicals in the molecular and macromolecular parts of the coals leads to preferential loss of apparently more reactive heteroatom-bearing free radicals. The resulting extract and residue free radicals are more predominantly odd-alternate hydrocarbon fire radicals. SLR of these radicals is determined by the angular amplitudes of free radical motion at the resonance frequency that modulates the electron-nuclear dipolar interaction at the CH groups. The strength of the interaction depends on the degree of ring condensation because of its effect on diluting the electron spin density at the CH group.

  18. Solvent extraction of elemental sulfur from coal and a determination of its source using stable sulfur isotopes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hackley, Keith C.; Buchanan, D.H.; Coombs, K.; Chaven, C.; Kruse, C.W.

    1990-01-01

    Hot tetrachloroethene (perchloroethylene, PCE) extracts significant amounts of elemental sulfur (So) from weathered coals but not from pristine coals. The objective of this study was to determine whether So extracted by PCE is an oxidation product of pyrite or whether it originates in some way from unstable, organically-bound sulfur. The isotopic composition of the PCE-extracted So was compared to the isotopic compositions of the pyritic and the organic sulfur in a coal. The So was shown to have an isotopic signature similar to the pyritic sulfur. Additionally, the isotopic differences observed between the pyritic, So and sulfatic sulfur were consistent with bacterial mediated oxidation of sulfide sulfur (pyrite) as the source of both the sulfatic and elemental sulfur. ?? 1990.

  19. Proceedings of the coal-fired power systems 94: Advances in IGCC and PFBC review meeting. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, H.M.; Staubly, R.K.; Venkataraman, V.K.

    1994-06-01

    The Coal-Fired Power Systems 94 -- Advances in IGCC and PFBC Review Meeting was held June 21--23, 1994, at the Morgantown Energy Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. This Meeting was sponsored and hosted by METC, the Office of Fossil Energy, and the US Department of Energy (DOE). METC annually sponsors this conference for energy executives, engineers, scientists, and other interested parties to review the results of research and development projects; to discuss the status of advanced coal-fired power systems and future plans with the industrial contractors; and to discuss cooperative industrial-government research opportunities with METC`s in-house engineers and scientists. Presentations included industrial contractor and METC in-house technology developments related to the production of power via coal-fired Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) systems, the summary status of clean coal technologies, and developments and advancements in advanced technology subsystems, such as hot gas cleanup. A keynote speaker and other representatives from the electric power industry also gave their assessment of advanced power systems. This meeting contained 11 formal sessions and one poster session, and included 52 presentations and 24 poster presentations. Volume I contains papers presented at the following sessions: opening commentaries; changes in the market and technology drivers; advanced IGCC systems; advanced PFBC systems; advanced filter systems; desulfurization system; turbine systems; and poster session. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  20. A convenient method for the quantitative determination of elemental sulfur in coal by HPLC analysis of perchloroethylene extracts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchanan, D.H.; Coombs, K.J.; Murphy, P.M.; Chaven, C.

    1993-01-01

    A convenient method for the quantitative determination of elemental sulfur in coal is described. Elemental sulfur is extracted from the coal with hot perchloroethylene (PCE) (tetrachloroethene, C2Cl4) and quantitatively determined by HPLC analysis on a C18 reverse-phase column using UV detection. Calibration solutions were prepared from sublimed sulfur. Results of quantitative HPLC analyses agreed with those of a chemical/spectroscopic analysis. The HPLC method was found to be linear over the concentration range of 6 ?? 10-4 to 2 ?? 10-2 g/L. The lower detection limit was 4 ?? 10-4 g/L, which for a coal sample of 20 g is equivalent to 0.0006% by weight of coal. Since elemental sulfur is known to react slowly with hydrocarbons at the temperature of boiling PCE, standard solutions of sulfur in PCE were heated with coals from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample program. Pseudo-first-order uptake of sulfur by the coals was observed over several weeks of heating. For the Illinois No. 6 premium coal, the rate constant for sulfur uptake was 9.7 ?? 10-7 s-1, too small for retrograde reactions between solubilized sulfur and coal to cause a significant loss in elemental sulfur isolated during the analytical extraction. No elemental sulfur was produced when the following pure compounds were heated to reflux in PCE for up to 1 week: benzyl sulfide, octyl sulfide, thiane, thiophene, benzothiophene, dibenzothiophene, sulfuric acid, or ferrous sulfate. A sluury of mineral pyrite in PCE contained elemental sulfur which increased in concentration with heating time. ?? 1993 American Chemical Society.

  1. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-05-10

    This fourteenth quarterly report describes work done during the fourteenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, preparing presentations, and making and responding to two outside contacts.

  2. Treatment of metal-laden hazardous wastes with advanced Clean Coal Technology by-products

    SciTech Connect

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini; Wiles Elder

    1999-04-05

    This eleventh quarterly report describes work done during the eleventh three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ``Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, preparing and giving presentations, and making and responding to two outside contacts.

  3. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-05-11

    This fifteenth quarterly report describes work done during the fifteenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, preparing and giving presentations, and making and responding to several outside contacts.

  4. Treatment of metal-laden hazardous wastes with advanced Clean Coal Technology by-products

    SciTech Connect

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-04-12

    This twelfth quarterly report describes work done during the twelfth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ``Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, preparing and giving presentations, and making and responding to a number of outside contacts.

  5. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-06-01

    This sixteenth quarterly report describes work done during the sixteenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, giving a presentation, and making and responding to several outside contacts.

  6. Monolithic solid oxide fuel cell technology advancement for coal- based power generation. Quarterly report, December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-15

    The program is conducted by a team consisting of AiResearch Los Angeles Division of Allied-Signal Aerospace Company and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The objective of the program is to advance materials and fabrication methodologies to develop a monolithic solid oxide fuel cell (MSOFC) system capable of meeting performance, life, and cost goals for coal-based power generation. The program focuses on materials research and development, fabrication process development, cell/stack performance testing and characterization, cost and system analysis, and quality development.

  7. Monolithic solid oxide fuel cell technology advancement for coal- based power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-15

    The program is conducted by a team consisting of AiResearch Los Angeles Division of Allied-Signal Aerospace Company and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The objective of the program is to advance materials and fabrication methodologies to develop a monolithic solid oxide fuel cell (MSOFC) system capable of meeting performance, life, and cost goals for coal-based power generation. The program focuses on materials research and development, fabrication process development, cell/stack performance testing and characterization, cost and system analysis, and quality development.

  8. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-01-01

    This seventeenth quarterly report describes work done during the seventeenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, giving a presentation, submitting a manuscript and making and responding to one outside contact.

  9. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-04-28

    This thirteenth quarterly report describes work done during the thirteenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, preparing and giving presentations, and making and responding to a number of outside contacts.

  10. Development of an advanced high efficiency coal combustor for boiler retrofit. Task 1, Cold flow burner development: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    LaFlesh, R.C.; Rini, M.J.; McGowan, J.G.

    1989-10-01

    The overall objective of this program is to develop a high efficiency advanced coal combustor (HEACC) for coal-based fuels capable of being retrofitted to industrial boilers originally designed for firing natural gas, distillate, and/or residual oil. The HEACC system is to be capable of firing microfine coal water fuel (MCWF), MCWF with alkali sorbent (for SO{sub 2} reduction), and dry microfine coal. Design priorities for the system are that it be simple to operate and will offer significant reductions in NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulate emissions as compared with current coal fired combustor technology. The specific objective of this report is to document the work carried out under Task 1.0 of this contract, ``Cold Flow Burner Development``. As are detailed in the report, key elements of this work included primary air swirler development, burner register geometry design, cold flow burner model testing, and development of burner scale up criteria.

  11. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low emission boiler systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    Riley Stoker Corporation is leading an R&D program for the expedited development of a new generation of pulverized coal-fired boiler systems. The overall objective is to develop relatively near term technologies to produce Low-Emission coal-fired Boiler Systems (LEBS) ready for full scale commercial generating plants by the end of the decade. The specific goal is to develop a LEBS incorporating an advanced slagging system for improved ash management in addition to meeting the emission and performance goals. This Concept Selection Report documents an evaluation of subsystems and LEBS concepts. Priority was given to the evaluation of the boiler system, steam cycle, and advanced slagging combustor. Some findings are as follows: An ultra supercritical steam cycle is required to meet project efficiency goals. The cost of electricity (COE) for this cycle, at today`s fuel prices, and without externality costs, is slightly higher than a conventional subcritical cycle. The supercritical cycle includes a substantial contingency. Reduction of contingency, escalation of fuel cost, or inclusion of externalities all lead to a lower COE for the supercritical cycle compared to the subcritical cycle. The advanced cycle is selected for inclusion in the LEBS. The advanced slagging combustor (TVC), should it meet the projected performance goals, yields a lower COE than either a dry firing system or a more conventional slagger fitted with post combustion NO{sub x} controls. Verification and development of the advanced slagger performance is the primary focus of this project. A commercial slagging configuration know as U-firing is selected for parallel development and as a platform for adaptation to the TVC.

  12. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems. Annual report, July 1991--June 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    Westinghouse`s Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine System Program (DE-AC2l-86MC23167) was originally split into two major phases - a Basic Program and an Option. The Basic Program also contained two phases. The development of a 6 atm, 7 lb/s, 12 MMBtu/hr slagging combustor with an extended period of testing of the subscale combustor, was the first part of the Basic Program. In the second phase of the Basic Program, the combustor was to be operated over a 3-month period with a stationary cascade to study the effect of deposition, erosion and corrosion on combustion turbine components. The testing of the concept, in subscale, has demonstrated its ability to handle high- and low-sulfur bituminous coals, and low-sulfur subbituminous coal. Feeding the fuel in the form of PC has proven to be superior to CWM type feed. The program objectives relative to combustion efficiency, combustor exit temperature, NO{sub x} emissions, carbon burnout, and slag rejection have been met. Objectives for alkali, particulate, and SO{sub x} levels leaving the combustor were not met by the conclusion of testing at Textron. It is planned to continue this testing, to achieve all desired emission levels, as part of the W/NSP program to commercialize the slagging combustor technology.

  13. Recent advances in large-eddy simulation of spray and coal combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, L. X.

    2013-07-01

    Large-eddy simulation (LES) is under its rapid development and is recognized as a possible second generation of CFD methods used in engineering. Spray and coal combustion is widely used in power, transportation, chemical and metallurgical, iron and steel making, aeronautical and astronautical engineering, hence LES of spray and coal two-phase combustion is particularly important for engineering application. LES of two-phase combustion attracts more and more attention; since it can give the detailed instantaneous flow and flame structures and more exact statistical results than those given by the Reynolds averaged modeling (RANS modeling). One of the key problems in LES is to develop sub-grid scale (SGS) models, including SGS stress models and combustion models. Different investigators proposed or adopted various SGS models. In this paper the present author attempts to review the advances in studies on LES of spray and coal combustion, including the studies done by the present author and his colleagues. Different SGS models adopted by different investigators are described, some of their main results are summarized, and finally some research needs are discussed.

  14. Pyrite surface characterization and control for advanced fine coal desulfurization technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.H.; Leonard, J.W.; Parekh, B.K.; Jiang, C.L.

    1992-01-01

    This is the 9th quarterly technical progress report for the project entitled Pyrite surface characterization and control for advanced fine coal desulfurization technologies'', DE-FG22-90PC90295. The work presented in this report was performed from September 1, 1992 to November 31, 1992. The objective of the project is to conduct extensive fundamental studies on the surface chemistry of pyrite oxidation and flotation and to understand how the alteration of the coal-pyrite surface affects the efficiency of pyrite rejection in coal flotation. During this reporting period, the surface oxidation of pyrite in various electrolytes was investigated. It has been demonstrated, for the first time, that borate, a pH buffer and electrolyte used by many previous investigators in studying sulfide mineral oxidation, actively participates in the surface oxidation of pyrite. In borate solutions, the surface oxidation of pyrite is tronly enhanced. The anodic oxidation potential of pyrite is lowered by more than 0.4 volts. The initial reaction of the borate enhanced pyrite oxidation can be described by:FeS[sub 2] + B(OH)[sub 4][sup =] ------> [S[sub 2]Fe-B(OH)[sub 4

  15. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies: Froth flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This document a quarterly report prepared in accordance with the project reporting requirements covering the period from July 1, 1992 to September 30, 1992. This report provides a summary of the technical work undertaken during this period, highlighting the major results. A brief description of the work done prior to this quarter is provided in this report under the task headings. The overall project scope of the engineering development project is to conceptually develop a commercial flowsheet to maximize pyritic sulfur reduction at practical energy recovery values. This is being accomplished by utilizing the basic research data on the surface properties of coal, mineral matter and pyrite obtained from the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Fine Coal Flotation Project, to develop this conceptual flowsheet. The conceptual flowsheet must be examined to identify critical areas that need additional design data. This data will then be developed using batch and semi-continuous bench scale testing. In addition to actual bench scale testing, other unit operations from other industries processing fine material will be reviewed for potential application and incorporated into the design if appropriate. The conceptual flowsheet will be revised based on the results of the bench scale testing and areas will be identified that need further larger scale design data verification, to prove out the design.

  16. Catalytic hydrogenation of high volatility bituminous coal and various coal extracts: final report for 1986-1987. SOMED (School of Mines and Energy Development) project. Faculty research report

    SciTech Connect

    Kispert, L.D.

    1987-09-01

    Model compounds, naphthalene, quinolines, and isoquinoline (possible extracts of coal) were selectively hydrogenated to 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro products by a Ziegler-type catalyst (I) made of cobalt stearate and triethyl aluminum (1:2 molar ratio) in hexane solvent and temperatures as low as 22/sup 0/C and hydrogen pressure of 700-800 psi. It was established that a hydrogen pressure greater than 300 psi is crucial for hydrogenation to occur. The important feature of the Ziegler catalyst is that it works best at low temperatures, moderate pressures, and short reaction times, most unusual for a Ziegler catalyst. A sample of solvent-refined coal (SRC) (less than .9% sulfur) was previously liquefied at 90 degree C and hydrogen pressure of 800 psi in a period of 24 h. In this, a sample of Illinois No. 6 high-volatility bitiminous coal (a high-sulfur coal, 5.8% S) was treated with catalyst (I) under the same conditions as applied for SRC. Analysis indicated a 10% conversion for the high-sulfur coal.

  17. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes, Volume I, Part 1. Final report, September 1986--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G.

    1995-09-01

    The objective of this program was the development of a predictive capability for the design, scale up, simulation, control and feedstock evaluation in advanced coal conversion devices. The foundation to describe coal specific conversion behavior was AFR`s Functional Group and Devolatilization, Vaporization and Crosslinking (DVC) models, which had been previously developed. The combined FG-DVC model was integrated with BYU`s comprehensive two-dimensional reactor model for combustion and coal gasification, PCGC-2, and a one-dimensional model for fixed-bed gasifiers, FBED-1. Progress utilizing these models is described.

  18. Recovery of fine coal from waste streams using advanced column flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K. . Center for Applied Energy Research)

    1991-01-01

    The overall objective of this program is to evaluate the application of an advanced physical separation technique, namely Ken-Flote'' column flotation to recover clean coal with minimum sulfur and ash content at greater than 90 percent combustible recovery from two Illinois coal preparation plant fine waste streams. The project will optimize various operating parameters with particular emphasis on fine bubble generating devices and reagent packages to enhance the rejection of liberated ash and pyritic sulfur. During this contract period, column flotation testing was completed on the flotation feed slurry obtained from the Kerr-McGee Galatia Preparation Plant. The column flotation tests were conducted using three different bubble generating devices: Static, gas saver and foam jet spargers. Each of these devices was tested with three different frothers and various column operating variables to provide maximum combustible recovery, minimum product ash and maximum pyrite rejection. In general, the column flotation provided a clean coal containing about 4--6 percent ash at combustible recovery ranging from 88 to 92 percent while pyrite rejection was 70 to 75 percent. Flotation tests were also conducted on a slurry sample obtained from The Ziegler {number sign}26 Preparation Plant in Sesse, Illinois. Base-line flotation testing was completed using batch flotation to identify optimum reagent addition. Column flotation of the Ziegler slurry provided a clean coal containing 4--6 percent ash with a combustible recovery of 90--95 percent and pyrite rejection of 60--67 percent. Efforts are in progress in installing a 6-inc. I.D. pilot column at the Ziegler {number sign}26. 9 figs.

  19. The Coal-Seq III Consortium. Advancing the Science of CO2 Sequestration in Coal Seam and Gas Shale Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Koperna, George

    2014-03-14

    The Coal-Seq consortium is a government-industry collaborative that was initially launched in 2000 as a U.S. Department of Energy sponsored investigation into CO2 sequestration in deep, unmineable coal seams. The consortium’s objective aimed to advancing industry’s understanding of complex coalbed methane and gas shale reservoir behavior in the presence of multi-component gases via laboratory experiments, theoretical model development and field validation studies. Research from this collaborative effort was utilized to produce modules to enhance reservoir simulation and modeling capabilities to assess the technical and economic potential for CO2 storage and enhanced coalbed methane recovery in coal basins. Coal-Seq Phase 3 expands upon the learnings garnered from Phase 1 & 2, which has led to further investigation into refined model development related to multicomponent equations-of-state, sorption and diffusion behavior, geomechanical and permeability studies, technical and economic feasibility studies for major international coal basins the extension of the work to gas shale reservoirs, and continued global technology exchange. The first research objective assesses changes in coal and shale properties with exposure to CO2 under field replicated conditions. Results indicate that no significant weakening occurs when coal and shale were exposed to CO2, therefore, there was no need to account for mechanical weakening of coal due to the injection of CO2 for modeling. The second major research objective evaluates cleat, Cp, and matrix, Cm, swelling/shrinkage compressibility under field replicated conditions. The experimental studies found that both Cp and Cm vary due to changes in reservoir pressure during injection and depletion under field replicated conditions. Using laboratory data from this study, a compressibility model was developed to predict the pore-volume compressibility, Cp, and the matrix compressibility, Cm, of coal and shale, which was applied to

  20. Scoping Studies to Evaluate the Benefits of an Advanced Dry Feed System on the Use of Low-Rank Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Rader, Jeff; Aguilar, Kelly; Aldred, Derek; Chadwick, Ronald; Conchieri, John; Dara, Satyadileep; Henson, Victor; Leininger, Tom; Liber, Pawel; Liber, Pawel; Lopez-Nakazono, Benito; Pan, Edward; Ramirez, Jennifer; Stevenson, John; Venkatraman, Vignesh

    2012-03-30

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate the ability of advanced low rank coal gasification technology to cause a significant reduction in the COE for IGCC power plants with 90% carbon capture and sequestration compared with the COE for similarly configured IGCC plants using conventional low rank coal gasification technology. GE’s advanced low rank coal gasification technology uses the Posimetric Feed System, a new dry coal feed system based on GE’s proprietary Posimetric Feeder. In order to demonstrate the performance and economic benefits of the Posimetric Feeder in lowering the cost of low rank coal-fired IGCC power with carbon capture, two case studies were completed. In the Base Case, the gasifier was fed a dilute slurry of Montana Rosebud PRB coal using GE’s conventional slurry feed system. In the Advanced Technology Case, the slurry feed system was replaced with the Posimetric Feed system. The process configurations of both cases were kept the same, to the extent possible, in order to highlight the benefit of substituting the Posimetric Feed System for the slurry feed system.

  1. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 1, October--December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1993-01-18

    This project is a step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean fuel can be produced from selected coals and that the fuel will be a cost-effective replacement for oil and natural gas now fueling boilers in this country. The replacement of premium fossil fuels with coal can only be realized if retrofit costs are kept to a minimum and retrofit boiler emissions meet national goals for clean air. These concerns establish the specifications for maximum ash and sulfur levels and combustion properties of the ultra-clean coal. The primary objective is to develop the design base for prototype commercial advanced fine coal cleaning facilities capable of producing ultra-clean coals suitable for conversion to coal-water slurry fuel. The fine coal cleaning technologies are advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration. A secondary objective is to develop the design base for near-term commercial integration of advanced fine coal cleaning technologies in new or existing coal preparation plants for economically and efficiently processing minus 28-mesh coal fines. A third objective is to determine the distribution of toxic trace elements between clean coal and refuse when applying the advance column flotation and selective agglomeration technologies. The project team consists of Amax Research & Development Center (Amax R&D), Amax Coal industries, Bechtel Corporation, Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) at the University of Kentucky, and Arcanum Corporation.

  2. Identification of the heteroatom containing compounds in the benzene/methanol extracts of the Argonne Premium Coal Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Neill, P.H.; Xia, Yun ju; Winans, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    The Argonne Premium Coal Samples (APCS) provide a unique opportunity to study a set of pristine samples specifically selected to represent the vast diversity of chemical structures exhibited by US coals. The purpose of this paper is to utilize high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) to characterize the heteroatom containing species that can be extracted from the APCS. Of special interest is the change in structure and relative concentrations that these compounds undergo with rank. The resulting information is important in providing basic chemical structural information concerning these coals which are being used by a significant portion of the coal community, and understanding the transformations that the heteroatom containing species undergo during the coalification process. 15 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. The Mulled Coal process: An advanced fine coal preparation technology used to improve the handling characteristics of fine wet coal products

    SciTech Connect

    Jamison, P.R.

    1996-12-31

    The Mulled Coal process is a simple low cost method of improving the handling characteristics of the fine wet coal. The process involves the addition of a specifically formulated reagent to fine wet coal by mixing the two together in a pug mill. The converted material (Mulled Coal) retains some of its original surface moisture, but it handles, stores and transports like dry coal. It does not cause any of the sticking, fouling, bridging and freezing problems normally associated with fine wet coal, and, unlike thermally dried fine coal, it will not rewet and it is not dusty. In the process, large (baseball size) loosely bound sticky masses of fine wet coal particles are broken down into granules which are fairly uniform in the 28 Mesh x 0 size range. Due to the unique combination of the mixing action of the pug mill, the surface chemistry of the fine coal particles and the properties of the reagent; the individual granules are tightly bound, and they become completely enveloped by a very thin film of reagent. The reagent envelope will allow moisture out in the vapor stage, but it will not allow moisture back into the agglomerated granule. The envelope also prevents individual granules from adhering to or freezing to one another. The end result is a fine coal product which is free flowing, which is not dusty, and which will not rewet.

  4. Effects of the mineral phase and valence of vanadium on vanadium extraction from stone coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yang-jia; Zhang, Yi-min; Bao, Shen-xu; Liu, Tao

    2012-10-01

    The influence of roasting on the leaching rate and valence of vanadium was evaluated during vanadium extraction from stone coal. Vanadium in stone coal is hard to be leached and the leaching rate is less than 10% when the raw ore is leached by 4 mol/L H2SO4 at 90°C for 2 h. After the sample is roasted at 900°C for 2 h, the leaching rate of vanadium reaches the maximum, and more than 70% of vanadium can be leached. The crystal of vanadium-bearing mica minerals decomposes and the content of V(V) increases with the rise of roasting temperature from 600 to 900°C, therefore the leaching rate of vanadium increases significantly with the decomposition of the mica minerals. Some new phases, anorthite for example, form when the roasting temperature reaches 1000°C. A part of vanadium may be enwrapped in the sintered materials and newly formed phases, which may impede the oxidation of low valent vanadium and make the leaching rate of vanadium drop dramatically. The leaching rate of vanadium is not only determined by the valence state of vanadium but also controlled by the decomposition of vanadium-bearing minerals and the existence state of vanadium to a large extent.

  5. 30 CFR 912.707 - Exemption for coal extraction incident to Government-financed highway or other construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incident to Government-financed highway or other construction. 912.707 Section 912.707 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO...

  6. 30 CFR 933.707 - Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction. 933.707 Section 933.707 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  7. 30 CFR 941.707 - Exemption for coal extraction incident to Government-financed highway or other construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incident to Government-financed highway or other construction. 941.707 Section 941.707 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  8. Advanced physical coal cleaning to comply with potential air toxic regulations. Quarterly report, 1 December 1994--28 February 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Honaker, R.Q.; Paul, B.C.; Wang, D.

    1995-12-31

    Studies have indicated that the potentially hazardous trace elements found in coal have a strong affinity for coal pyrite. Thus, by maximizing the rejection of pyrite, one can minimize the trace element content of a given coal while also reducing sulfur emissions. The pyrite in most Illinois Basin coals, however, is finely disseminated within the coal matrix. Therefore, to remove the pyrite using physical coal cleaning techniques, the pyrite must be liberated by grinding the coal to ultrafine particle sizes. Fortunately, the coals being fed to pulverized coal boilers (PCB) are already ground to a very fine size, i.e., 70% passing 200 mesh. Therefore, this research project will investigate the use of advanced fine coal cleaning technologies for cleaning PCB feed as a compliance strategy. Work in this quarter has focused on the processing of a PCB feed sample collected from Central Illinois Power`s Newton Power Station using column flotation and an enhanced gravity separator as separate units and in a circuitry arrangement. The PCB feed sample having a low ash content of about 12% was further cleaned to 6% while achieving a very high energy recovery of about 90% in a single stage column flotation operation. Enhanced gravity treatment is believed to be providing excellent total sulfur rejection values, although with inferior ash rejection for the {minus}400 mesh size fraction. The circuitry arrangement with the Falcon concentrator as the primary cleaner followed by the Microcel column resulted in an excellent ash rejection performance, which out performed the release analysis. Trace element analyses of the samples collected from these tests will be conducted during the next report period.

  9. Engineering design and analysis of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies. Quarterly technical progress report No. 9, October--December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-20

    This project is sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) for the ``Engineering Design and Analysis of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies. The major goal is to provide the simulation tools for modeling both conventional and advanced coal cleaning technologies. This DOE project is part of a major research initiative by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) aimed at advancing three advanced coal cleaning technologies-heavy-liquid cylconing, selective agglomeration, and advanced froth flotation through the proof-of-concept (POC) level.

  10. Evaluation of the genotoxicity of process stream extracts from a coal gasification system.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, R W; Benson, J M; Li, A P; Henderson, R F; Brooks, A L

    1984-01-01

    Extracts of three complex organic environmental mixtures, two from an experimental coal gasifier (a raw gas and a clean gas sample) and one from a coke oven main, were examined for genotoxicity. Three short-term genotoxicity assay systems were used: Ames Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay, Chinese hamster ovary cell/hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (CHO/HGPRT) gene locus mutation assay, and the Chinese hamster lung primary culture/sister chromatid exchange (CHL/SCE) assay. Aroclor-1254-induced rat liver homogenate fraction (S-9) was required to observe genotoxicity in both gene locus mutation assays (CHO/HGPRT and Ames). The relative survival of CHO cells exposed to extracts was highest in cells exposed to clean gas samples, with the raw gas sample being the most cytotoxic either with or without the addition of S-9. All three complex mixtures induced sister chromatid exchanges in primary lung cell cultures without the addition of S-9. The relative genotoxicity ranking of the samples varied between the mammalian and prokaryotic assay systems. Coke oven main extract produced fewer revertants in bacteria than the raw gas sample. However, the coke oven main extract was more genotoxic in the two eukaryotic systems (CHL/SCE and CHO/HGPRT) than was the raw gas sample. The results of all three assays indicate that the cleanup process used in the experimental gasifier was effective in decreasing the genotoxic materials in the process stream. These data also reemphasize the necessity of evaluating genotoxicity of complex mixtures in a variety of short-term systems. PMID:6389110

  11. Evaluation of the genotoxicity of process stream extracts from a coal gasification system

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, R.W.; Benson, J.M.; Li, A.P.; Henderson, R.F.; Brooks, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    Extracts of three complex organic environmental mixtures, two from an experimental coal gasifier (a raw gas and a clean gas sample) and one from a coke oven main, were examined for genotoxicity. Three short-term genotoxicity assay systems were used: Ames Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay, Chinese hamster ovary cell/hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (CHO/HGPRT) gene locus mutation assay, and the Chinese hamster lung primary culture/sister chromatid exchange (CHL/SCE) assay. Aroclor-1254-induced rat liver homogenate fraction (S-9) was required to observe genotoxicity in both gene locus mutation assays. The relative survival of CHO cells exposed to extracts was highest in cells exposed to clean gas samples, with the raw gas sample being the most cytotoxic either with or without the addition of S-9. All three complex mixtures induced sister chromatid exchanges in primary lung cell cultures without the addition of S-9. The relative genotoxicity ranking of the samples varied between the mammalian and prokaryotic assay systems. Coke oven main extract produced fewer revertants in bacteria than the raw gas sample. However, the coke oven main extract was more genotoxic in the two eukaryotic systems (CHL/SCE and CHO/HGPRT) than was the raw gas sample. The results of all three assays indicate that the cleanup process used in the experimental gasifier was effective in decreasing the genotoxic materials in the process stream. These data also reemphasize the necessity of evaluating genotoxicity of complex mixtures in a variety of short-term systems. 24 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  12. Proceedings of the coal-fired power systems 94: Advances in IGCC and PFBC review meeting. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, H.M.; Staubly, R.K.; Venkataraman, V.K.

    1994-06-01

    The Coal-Fired Power Systems 94 -- Advances in IGCC and PFBC Review Meeting was held June 21--23, 1994, at the Morgantown Energy Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. This Meeting was sponsored and hosted by METC, the Office of Fossil Energy, and the US Department of Energy (DOE). METC annually sponsors this conference for energy executives, engineers, scientists, and other interested parties to review the results of research and development projects; to discuss the status of advanced coal-fired power systems and future plans with the industrial contractors; and to discuss cooperative industrial-government research opportunities with METC`s in-house engineers and scientists. Presentations included industrial contractor and METC in-house technology developments related to the production of power via coal-fired Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) systems, the summary status of clean coal technologies, and developments and advancements in advanced technology subsystems, such as hot gas cleanup. A keynote speaker and other representatives from the electric power industry also gave their assessment of advanced power systems. This meeting contained 11 formal sessions and one poster session, and included 52 presentations and 24 poster presentations. Volume II contains papers presented at the following sessions: filter technology issues; hazardous air pollutants; sorbents and solid wastes; and membranes. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  13. Evaluation of the genotoxicity of process stream extracts from a coal gasification system

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, R.W.; Benson, J.M.; Li, A.P.; Henderson, R.F.; Brooks, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    Extracts of three complex organic environmental mixtures, two from an experimental coal gasifier (a raw gas and a clean gas sample) and one from a coke oven main, were examined for genotoxicity. Three short-term genotoxicity assay systems were used: Ames Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay, Chinese hamster ovary cell/hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (CHO/HGPRT) gene locus mutation assay, and the Chinese hamster lung primary culture/sister chromatid exchange (CHL/SCE) assay. Aroclor-1254-induced rat liver homogenate fraction (S-9) was required to observe genotoxicity in both gene locus mutation assays (CHO/HGPRT and Ames). The relative survival of CHO cells exposed to extracts was highest in cells exposed to clean gas samples, with the raw gas sample being the most cytotoxic either with or without the addition of S-9. All three complex mixtures induced sister chromatid exchanges in primary lung cell cultures without the addition of S-9. The relative genotoxicity ranking of the samples varied between the mammalian and prokaryotic assay systems. The results of all three assays indicate that the cleanup process used in the experimental gasifier was effective in decreasing the genotoxic materials in the process stream. These data also reemphasize the necessity of evaluating genotoxicity of complex mixtures in a variety of short-term systems.

  14. Development of Continuous Solvent Extraction Processes For Coal Derived Carbon Products

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Dady B. Dadyburjor; Gregory W. Hackett; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Alfred H. Stiller; Robert C. Svensson; John W. Zondlo

    2006-09-30

    In this reporting period, tonnage quantities of coal extract were produced but solid separation was not accomplished in a timely manner. It became clear that the originally selected filtration process would not be effective enough for a serious commercial process. Accordingly, centrifugation was investigated as a superior means for removing solids from the extract. Results show acceptable performance. Petrographic analysis of filtered solids was carried out by R and D Carbon Petrography under the auspices of Koppers and consultant Ken Krupinski. The general conclusion is that the material appears to be amenable to centrifugation. Filtered solids shows a substantial pitch component as well as some mesophase, resulting in increased viscosity. This is likely a contributing reason for the difficulty in filtering the material. Cost estimates were made for the hydotreatment and digestion reactors that would be needed for a 20,000 ton per year demonstration plants, with the aid of ChemTech Inc. The estimates show that the costs of scaling up the existing tank reactors are acceptable. However, a strong recommendation was made to consider pipe reactors, which are thought to be more cost effective and potentially higher performance in large scale systems. The alternate feedstocks for coke and carbon products were used to fabricate carbon electrodes as described in the last quarterly report. Gregory Hackett successfully defended his MS Thesis on the use of these electrodes in Direct Carbon Fuel Cell (DCFC), which is excerpted in Section 2.4 of this quarterly report.

  15. A systematic investigation into the extraction of aluminum from coal spoil through kaolinite

    SciTech Connect

    X.C. Qiao; P. Si; J.G. Yu

    2008-11-15

    This research has applied kaolin and active carbon (AC) to the investigation of the recovery of aluminium from coal spoil (CS). The kaolin, AC-containing kaolin mixture, and CS have been calcined at 500, 600, 700, 800, and 900{degree}C for 15, 30, 60, and 120 min. The transformation of kaolinite and aluminium extraction that occurred in each calcined sample have been characterized using XRD, TG, IR, and hydrochloric acid leaching methods. The dehydroxylation of kaolinite and the decomposition of metakaolin were influenced by thermal treatment temperature and time. The metakaolin had kept a portion of OH- in its structure until it was calcined at a temperature of 800{degree}C. Under 60 min treatment, new SiO{sub 2} phase was able to be formed at 500{degree}C, kaolinite was totally converted to metakaolin at 600{degree}C, and the SiO{sub 2} rejoined the reaction at 800{degree}C. The decompositions of CS were similar to those of kaolin mixture containing 20 wt % AC (MKC). The combustion of combustible matter accelerated the decomposition of kaolinite in the CS and MKC. Higher AC content led to lower aluminum extraction. The treatment at 600{degree}C was optimal for both CS and MKC. 28 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Advanced air separation for coal gasification-combined-cycle power plants: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kiersz, D.F.; Parysek, K.D.; Schulte, T.R.; Pavri, R.E.

    1987-08-01

    Union Carbide Corporation (UCC) and General Electric Company (GE) conducted a study to determine the benefits associated with extending the integration of integrated coal gasification-combined cycle (IGCC) systems to include the air separation plant which supplies oxygen to the gasifiers. This is achieved by extracting air from the gas turbine air compressors to feed the oxygen plant and returning waste nitrogen to the gas turbine. The ''Radiant Plus Convective Design'' (59/sup 0/F ambient temperature case) defined in EPRI report AP-3486 was selected as a base case into which the oxygen plant-gas turbine integration was incorporated and against which it was compared. General Electric Company's participation in evaluating gas turbine and power block performance ensured consistency between EPRI report AP-3486 and this study. Extending the IGCC integration to include an integrated oxygen plant-gas turbine results in a rare combination of benefits - higher efficiency and lower capital costs. Oxygen plant capital costs are over 20% less and the power requirement is reduced significantly. For the IGCC system, the net power output is higher for the same coal feed rate; this results in an overall improvement in heat rate of about 2% coupled with a reduction in capital costs of 2 to 3%. 6 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Applications study of advanced power generation systems utilizing coal-derived fuels. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robson, F. L.

    1981-01-01

    The technology status of phosphoric acid and molten carbon fuel cells, combined gas and steam turbine cycles, and magnetohydrodynamic energy conversion systems was assessed and the power performance of these systems when operating with medium-Btu fuel gas whether delivered by pipeline to the power plant or in an integrated mode in which the coal gasification process and power system are closely coupled as an overall power plant was evaluated. Commercially available combined-cycle gas turbine systems can reach projected required performance levels for advanced systems using currently available technology. The phosphoric acid fuel cell appears to be the next most likely candidate for commercialization. On pipeline delivery, the systems efficiency ranges from 40.9% for the phosphoric acid fuel cell to 63% for the molten carbonate fuel cell system. The efficiencies of the integrated power plants vary from approximately 39-40% for the combined cycle to 46-47% for the molden carbonate fuel cell systems. Conventional coal-fired steam stations with flue-gas desulfurization have only 33-35% efficiency.

  18. Applications study of advanced power generation systems utilizing coal-derived fuels. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robson, F. L.

    1981-03-01

    The technology status of phosphoric acid and molten carbon fuel cells, combined gas and steam turbine cycles, and magnetohydrodynamic energy conversion systems was assessed and the power performance of these systems when operating with medium-Btu fuel gas whether delivered by pipeline to the power plant or in an integrated mode in which the coal gasification process and power system are closely coupled as an overall power plant was evaluated. Commercially available combined-cycle gas turbine systems can reach projected required performance levels for advanced systems using currently available technology. The phosphoric acid fuel cell appears to be the next most likely candidate for commercialization. On pipeline delivery, the systems efficiency ranges from 40.9% for the phosphoric acid fuel cell to 63% for the molten carbonate fuel cell system. The efficiencies of the integrated power plants vary from approximately 39-40% for the combined cycle to 46-47% for the molden carbonate fuel cell systems. Conventional coal-fired steam stations with flue-gas desulfurization have only 33-35% efficiency.

  19. Development of advanced NO[sub x] control concepts for coal-fired utility boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, A.; Pont, J.N.; England, G.; Seeker, W.R.

    1993-03-04

    The complete CombiNO[sub x], process has now been demonstrated at a level that is believed to be representative of a full-scale boiler in terms of mixing capabilities. A summary of the results is displayedin Figure 5-1. While firing Illinois Coal on the Reburn Tower, Advanced Reburning was capable of reducing NO[sub x], by 83 percent. The injection of methanol oxidized 50--58 percent of the existing NO to N0[sub 2]. Assuming that 85 percent of the newly formed N0[sub 2] can be scrubbed in a liquor modified wet-limestone scrubber, the CombiNO[sub x], process has been shown capable of reducing NO[sub 2], by 90--91 percent in a large pilot-scale coal-fired furnace. There is still uncertainty regarding the fate of the N0[sub 2] formed with methanol injection. Tests should be conducted to determine whether the reconversion is thermodynamic or catalytic, and what steps can be taken (such as quench rate) to prevent it from happening.

  20. Update of progress for Phase II of B&W`s advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler system

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, D.K.; Madden, D.A.; Rodgers, L.W.

    1995-11-01

    Over the past five years, advances in emission control techniques at reduced costs and auxiliary power requirements coupled with significant improvements in steam turbine and cycle design have significantly altered the governing criteria by which advanced technologies have been compared. With these advances, it is clear that pulverized coal technology will continue to be competitive in both cost and performance with other advanced technologies such as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) or first generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) technologies for at least the next decade. In the early 1990`s it appeared that if IGCC and PFBC could achieve costs comparable to conventional pulverized coal plants, their significantly reduced NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} emissions would make them more attractive. A comparison of current emission control capabilities shows that all three technologies can already achieve similarly low emissions levels.

  1. Catalytic hydrogenation of bituminous coal and various coal extracts: Final report for the 1987--1988 SOMED project year

    SciTech Connect

    Kispert, L.D.

    1988-01-01

    Naphthalene (II), quinoline (III), isoquinoline (IV), 6-methylquinoline (V) and 2-methylquinoline (VI) can be hydrogenated selectively to form 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (VII) (100% yield at 22/degree/C), 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline (VIII) (73% yield at 22/degree/C), 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (IX) (70% yield at 90/degree/C), 6-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline (X) (100% at 90/degree/C), and 2-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline (XI) (76% at 90/degree/C) by use of the Ziegler-type catalyst Co(stearate)/sub 2/-AlEt/sub 3/ (I) in a hexane solvent at a hydrogen pressure of 700 psi. Catalyst (I) does not hydrogenate dibenzothiophene, nitroquinolines or 4-chloro-2-methylquinoline. By extrapolating these results, a maximum yield of hydrogenation product from low sulfur coal using catalyst (I) was achieved by either maintaining the temperatures as low as 100/degree/C for a long period of time or by conducting the process at high temperature (/approximately/150/degree/C) for a short period of time. Hydrogenation of low sulfur coal resulted in a hydrogenated liquid product equal to 20% of the initial coal weight at 100/degree/C and 800 psi hydrogen pressure. Microanalysis of the product showed the hydrogen content had doubled. On the other hand, attempts to hydrogenate high sulfur content coal (Illinois No. 6), gave unsatisfactory results. 27 refs., 3 tabs.

  2. Microwave assisted aqua regia extraction of thallium from sediment and coal fly ash samples and interference free determination by continuum source ETAAS after cloud point extraction.

    PubMed

    Meeravali, Noorbasha N; Madhavi, K; Kumar, Sunil Jai

    2013-01-30

    A simple cloud point extraction method is described for the separation and pre-concentration of thallium from the microwave assisted aqua regia extracts of sediment and coal fly ash samples. The method is based on the formation of extractable species of thallium and its interaction with hydrophobic solubilizing sites of Triton X-114 micelles in the presence of aqua regia and electrolyte NaCl. These interactions of micelles are used for extraction of thallium from a bulk aqueous phase into a small micelles-rich phase. The potential chloride interferences are eliminated effectively, which enabled interference free determination of thallium from aqua regia extracts using continuum source ETAAS. The parameters affecting the extraction process are optimized. Under the optimized conditions, pre-concentration factor and limit of detection are 40 and 0.2 ng g(-1), respectively. The recoveries are in the range of 95-102%. A characteristic mass, 13 pg was obtained. The accuracy of the method is verified by analyzing certified reference materials such as NIST 1633b coal fly ash, NIST 1944 marine sediment and GBW 07312 stream sediments. The results obtained are in good agreement with the certified values and method is also applied to real samples. PMID:23597907

  3. Engineereing development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 5, October--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1994-02-18

    This project is a major step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal-water slurry fuel (CWF) can be produced from selected coals and that this premium fuel will be a cost-effective replacement for oil and natural gas now fueling some of the industrial and utility boilers in the United States. The replacement of oil and gas with CWF can only be realized if retrofit costs are kept to a minimum and retrofit boiler emissions meet national goals for clean air. These concerns establish the specifications for maximum ash and sulfur levels and combustion properties of the CWF. The project has three major objectives: The primary objective is to develop the design base for prototype commercial advanced fine coal cleaning facilities capable of producing ultra-clean coals suitable for conversion to coal-water slurry fuel for premium fuel applications. The fine coal cleaning technologies are advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration. A secondary objective is to develop the design base for near-term application of these advanced fine coal cleaning technologies in new or existing coal preparation plants for efficiently processing minus 28-mesh coal fines and converting this to marketable products in current market economics. A third objective is to determine the removal of toxic trace elements from coal by advance column flotation and selective agglomeration technologies.

  4. Modeling Creep-Fatigue-Environment Interactions in Steam Turbine Rotor Materials for Advanced Ultra-supercritical Coal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Chen

    2014-04-01

    The goal of this project is to model creep-fatigue-environment interactions in steam turbine rotor materials for advanced ultra-supercritical (A-USC) coal power Alloy 282 plants, to develop and demonstrate computational algorithms for alloy property predictions, and to determine and model key mechanisms that contribute to the damages caused by creep-fatigue-environment interactions.

  5. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emissions boiler systems. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    This progress report is on the project by Babcock and Wilcox Company to develop an advanced coal-fired low-emissions boiler system. The topics of the report include project management, the NO{sub x} subsystem, the SO{sub 2}/particulate/air toxics/solid by-product subsystem, boiler subsystem, balance of plant subsystem, and controls and sensors subsystems.

  6. The worldwide applicability of B and W`s advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler system

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, D.K.; Madden, D.A.; Sivy, J.L.

    1996-12-31

    Babcock and Wilcox, under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE), has been developing an advanced generating plant design in DOE`s Combustion 2000 program entitled, Engineering Development of Advanced Coal-Fired Low Emission Boiler System. The objective of the LEBS program is to develop an advanced pulverized coal (PC) fired power generation system for commercial application by the year 2000. Since concerns over acid rain, air toxics, global climate changes, ozone depletion and solid waste disposal are expected to further tighten regulations for new coal-fired plants, the system must achieve very low emissions and high cycle efficiency at a life cycle cost equivalent to a conventional PC plant meeting New Source Performance Standards (NSPS). B and W has coupled advanced environmental control technologies capable of achieving emissions or NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulate far below current NSPS with an advanced boiler equipped with improved combustion and heat transfer subsystems to meet this objective. The B and W LEBS plant uses conventional state-of-the-art equipment along with developing new technologies to meet the program goals. This combustion of new and proven technologies allows B and W to meet the current demands in the marketplace. This paper describes B and W`s advanced generating plant design and its relevance to both the foreign and domestic markets.

  7. Macromolecular structural changes in bituminous coals during extraction and solubilization. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 September 1981-1 December 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Peppas, N.A.

    1981-01-01

    Data are presented of the effect of coal pretreatment (extraction, flotation etc.) and porous structure on the apparent and effective swelling of several coals by four swelling agents. Analysis of the pore structure was achieved by mercury porosimetry and pyconometry. The effect of retained solvent in the pores is more prominent in the determination of the equilibrium coal volume fraction and the actual molecular weight between crosslinks, M/sub c/.

  8. Extraction of trace elements in coal for determination by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry using N,N-dimethylformamide and ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mujuru, Munyaradzi; Moyo, Stanley; McCrindle, Robert I.; Mokgalaka-Matlala, Ntebogeng

    2012-10-01

    Coal usage continues to increase due to global energy demands. Increasing environmental monitoring and concern means that better methods of trace element determination are always required. This study investigated the use of N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), Triton X-100, HNO3 and ultrasound to extract trace elements (Cr, Mn, Pb, Sr and V) from coal prior to analysis using ICP-OES and ICP-MS. It was found that the proportion extracted was lowest for V (17%) and highest for Pb (100%). Partial dissolution of the coal particles used in the slurries was demonstrated using scanning electron microscopy studies. Trace element determination of two reference material coal samples demonstrated that this method of extraction is effective. Trace elements in three bituminous coals from different seams being mined in South Africa were determined.

  9. In-plant testing of a novel coal cleaning circuit using advanced technologies, Quarterly report, March 1 - May 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Honaker, R.Q.; Reed, S.; Mohanty, M.K.

    1996-12-31

    Research conducted at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale over the past two years has identified highly efficient methods for treating fine coal (i.e., -28 mesh). In this study, a circuit comprised of the three advanced fine coal cleaning technologies is being tested in an operating preparation plant to evaluate circuit performance and to compare the performance with the current technologies used to treat -16 mesh fine coal. The circuit integrated a Floatex hydrosizer, a Falcon concentrator and a Jameson froth flotation cell. The Floatex hydrosizer is being used as a primary cleaner for the nominally -16 mesh Illinois No. 5 fine coal circuit feed. The overflow of the Floatex is screened at 48 mesh using a Sizetec vibratory screen to produce a clean coal product from the screen overflow. The screen overflow is further treated by the Falcon and Jameson Cell. During this reporting period, tests were initiated on the fine coal circuit installed at the Kerr-McGee Galatia preparation plant. The circuit was found to reduce both the ash content and the pyritic sulfur content. Additional in-plant circuitry tests are ongoing.

  10. Determination of three phthalate esters in environmental samples by coal cinder extraction and cyclodextrin modified micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hongli; Jiang, Feng; Chen, Lin; Zheng, Jing; Wu, Yiwei; Liu, Meilin

    2014-07-01

    A new micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) method using beta-cyclodextrin (ß-CD) as the electrophoresis additive has been developed for the simultaneous determination of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in environmental samples. To improve the sensitivity of cyclodextrin-modified MEKC (CD-MEKC), a flow injection procedure using a microcolumn packed with coal cinder as the solid-phase extractant was also investigated for the preconcentration and separation of DMP, DEP and DEHP in environmental samples. Parameters affecting CD-MEKC separation and coal cinder flow injection solid-phase extraction were systematically researched. In the presence of the running buffer [5 mmol/L of borax, 5% (v/v) methanol and 25 mmol/L of sodium dodecyl sulfate at pH 9.5], the addition of 14 mmol/L ß-CD greatly improved the separation efficiency. The analytes were quantitatively adsorbed by coal cinders and readily desorbed quantitatively with 0.2 mL of 10% (v/v) methanol-10 mmol/L disodium hydrogen phosphate. Under the optimum conditions, the enrichment factor of coal cinder was 60, and the determination limits of DMP, DEP and DEHP were 3.07, 2.07 and 4.06 ng/mL, respectively. The presented procedure was successfully applied to determine DMP, DEP and DEHP in landfill leachate and water samples with satisfactory results. PMID:23794720

  11. A study of coal extraction with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation techniques. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Doetschman, D.C.; Mehlenbacher, R.C.; Ito, O.

    1993-09-01

    An electron spin and proton magnetic relaxation study is presented on the effects of the solvent extraction of coal on the macromoleculer network of the coal and on the mobile molecular species that are initially within the coal. The eight Argonne Premium coals were extracted at room temperature with a 1:1 (v/v) N-methylpyrrolidinone (NMP)-CS2 solvent mixture under an inert atmosphere. As much solvent as possible was removed from extract and residue by treatment in a vacuum. The mobilization of molecular free radicals by the solvent and the exposure of free radicals in the macromoleculer matrix to solvent or to species dissolved in the solvent, results in a preferential survival of residue radicals of types that depend on the particular coal and results in the apparently fairly uniform loss of all types of radicals in bituminous coal extracts. The surviving extract and residue free radicals are more predominantly of the odd- alternate hydrocarbon free radical type. The spin-lattice relaxation (SLR) of these coal free radicals has previously been inferred (Doetschman and Dwyer, Energy Fuels, 1992, 6, 783) to be from the modulation of the intramolecular electron-nuclear dipole-interactions of the CH groups in a magnetic field by rocldng motions of the radical in the coal matrix. Such a modulation would depend not only on the rocking amplitude and frequency but also upon the electron spin density at the CH groups in the radical. The observed SLR rates decrease with coal rank in agreement with the smaller spin densities and the lower rocidng amplitudes that are expected for the larger polycondensed ring systems in coals of higher rank. The SLR rates are found to be generally faster in the extracts (than residues) where the molecular species would be expected to have a smaller polycondensed ring system than in the macromoleculer matrix of the residue.

  12. Pyrite surface characterization and control for advanced fine coal desulfurization technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xiang-Huai; Leonard, J.W.; Parekh, B.K.; Jiang, Chengliang; Raichur, A.M.

    1992-07-14

    The objective of this project is to conduct extensive studies on the surface reactivity and surface hydrophobicity of coal-pyrites using various surface characterization techniques and to correlate the alteration of the coal-pyrite surface with the efficiency of pyrite rejection in coal flotation. The flotation characteristics of coal-pyrites under various conditions was studied and compared with ore-pyrite and coal to determine the causes of pyrite rejection difficulties in coal flotation. Both the native and induced floatabilities of pyrites were investigated. It was found that both coal- and ore-pyrites, ff prepared by dry-grinding, show little or no floatability in the absence of any chemical reagents. After ultrasonic pretreatment, ore-pyrite floats effectively in the acidic to neutral pH range. Kentucky No. 9 coal-pyrite (KYPY) shows significant flotation in the pH range 7--10. With ethyl xanthate as collector, ore-pyrite floats well up to pH = 10; while coal-pyrite reveals no flotation above pH = 6. For the first time, the effect of coal collector on the floatability of coal-pyrite has been studied. It was shown that in the presence of fuel oil--a widely used collector for promoting coal flotation, coal-pyrite, particularly for the fine sizes, shows good flotation below pH = 11, whereas ore-pyrite has no or little floatability. These studies demonstrate that one of the main causes of the coal-pyrite flotation in coal separation is the oil-induced floatability due to adsorption/attachment of oil droplets on the coal-pyrite surfaces, the native'' or self-induced'' floatability of pyrite is no as profound as the oil-induced flotation.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Philip L. Biedler; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-06-23

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. There are a number of parameters which are important for the production of acceptable cokes, including purity, structure, density, electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity etc. From the standpoint of a manufacturer of graphite electrodes such as GrafTech, one of the most important parameters is coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). Because GrafTech material is usually fully graphitized (i.e., heat treated at 3100 C), very high purity is automatically achieved. The degree of graphitization controls properties such as CTE, electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity, and density. Thus it is usually possible to correlate these properties using a single parameter. CTE has proven to be a useful index for the quality of coke. Pure graphite actually has a slightly negative coefficient of thermal expansion, whereas more disordered carbon has a positive coefficient.

  14. APPLICATION OF ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY FOR NOX CONTROL: ALTERNATE FUELS AND FLUIDIZED-BED COAL COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the effect of alternate fuels and fluidized coal combustion in controlling the emission of nitrogen oxides (NOx). The current trend in energy use in the U.S. is toward greater use of coal and coal derived fuels, and on ensuring that these fuels are produced an...

  15. Engineering design and analysis of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies. Quarterly technical progress report No. 13, October--December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Gallier, P.W.

    1993-01-20

    This project is sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) for the ``Engineering Design and Analysis of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies: The major goal is to provide the simulation tools for modeling both conventional and advanced coal cleaning technologies. This DOE project is part of a major research initiative by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) aimed at advancing three advanced coal cleaning technologies-heavy-liquid cycloning, selective agglomeration, and advanced froth flotation through the proof-of-concept (POC) level. The commercially available ASPEN PLUS process simulation package will be extended to handle coal cleaning applications. Algorithms for predicting the process performance, equipment size, and flowsheet economics of commercial coal cleaning devices and related ancillary equipment will be incorporated into the coal cleaning simulator. This report is submitted to document the progress of Aspen Technology, Inc. (AspenTech), its contractor, ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc.,(ICF KE) and CQ Inc., a subcontractor to ICF KE, for the period of October through December 1992. ICF KE is providing coal preparation consulting and processing engineering services in this work and they are responsible for recommending the design of models to represent conventional coal cleaning equipment and costing of these models. CQ Inc. is a subcontractor to ICF KE on Tasks 1-5.

  16. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies - froth flotation. Quarterly technical progress report No. 23, April 1, 1994--June 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    A study conducted by Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of sulfur emissions from about 1,300 United States coal-fired utility boilers indicated that half of the emissions were the result of burning coals having greater than 1.2 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million BTU. This was mainly attributed to the high pyritic sulfur content of the boiler fuel. A significant reduction in SO{sub 2} emissions could be accomplished by removing the pyrite from the coals by advanced physical fine coal cleaning. An engineering development project was prepared to build upon the basic research effort conducted under a solicitation for research into Fine Coal Surface Control. The engineering development project is intended to use general plant design knowledge and conceptualize a plant to utilize advanced froth flotation technology to process coal and produce a product having maximum practical pyritic sulfur reduction consistent with maximum practical BTU recovery.

  17. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies - froth flotation. Quarterly technical progress report No. 24, July 1, 1994--September 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    A study conducted by Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of sulfur emissions from about 1,300 United States coal-fired utility boilers indicated that half of the emissions were the result of burning coals having greater than 1.2 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million BTU. This was mainly attributed to the high pyritic sulfur content of the boiler fuel. A significant reduction in SO{sub 2} emissions could be accomplished by removing the pyrite from the coals by advanced physical fine coal cleaning. An engineering development project was prepared to build upon the basic research effort conducted under a solicitation for research into Fine Coal Surface Control. The engineering development project is intended to use general plant design knowledge and conceptualize a plant to utilize advanced froth flotation technology to process coal and produce a product having maximum practical pyritic sulfur reduction consistent with maximum practical BTU recovery.

  18. Comparative mutagenicity of a coal combustion fly ash extract in Salmonella typhimurium and Chinese hamster ovary cells

    SciTech Connect

    Li, A.P.; Clark, C.R.; Hanson, R.L.; Henderson, T.R.; Hobbs, C.H.

    1983-01-01

    The dichloromethane extract of a coal combustion fly ash sample obtained from an experimental fluidized bed coal combustor was tested for mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium and cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The extract was directly mutagenic in S typhimurium strain TA98 and the nitroreductase deficient strains TA98NR and TA98/1,8DNP/sub 6/. The mutagenicity observed in TA98NR and TA98/1,8DNP/sub 6/ was lower than that in TA98. Addition of exogenous Aroclor 1254-induced rat liver supernatant (liver S9) decreased the bacterial mutagenicity of the extract. A different mutagenic response was observed in CHO cells. In the absence of liver S9, although the extract was cytotoxic to CHO cells, no significant mutagenicity was observed. Addition of exogenous liver S9 decreased the cytotoxicity and increased the mutagenicity at both Na/sup +/-K/sup +/-ATPase and hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) gene loci in CHO cells. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and tandem quadruple mass spectrometry, a number of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitrated PAHs (nitro-PAHs) were tentatively identified and quantitated. A possible explanation of the difference in bacterial and mammalian mutagenicity of the extract is that the bacterial mutagenicity was induced by the nitro-PAHs that are potent bacterial mutagens and mammalian mutagenicity was induced by both PAHs and nitro-PAHs that are promutagens.

  19. Comparative mutagenicity of a coal combustion fly ash extract in Salmonella typhimurium and chinese hamster ovary cells

    SciTech Connect

    Li, A.P.; Clark, C.R.; Hanson, R.L.; Henderson, T.R.; Hobbs, C.H.

    1983-01-01

    The dichloromethane extract of a coal combustion fly ash sample obtained from an experimental fluidized bed coal combustor was tested for mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium and cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The extract was directly mutagenic in S typhimurium strain TA98 and the nitroreducatase deficient strains TA98NR and TA98/1,8DNP/sub 6/. The mutagenicity observed in TA98NR and TA98/1,8DNP/sub 6/ was lower than that in TA98. Addition of exogenous Aroclor 1254-induced rat liver supernatant (liver S9) decreased the bacterial mutagenicity of the extract. A different mutagenic response was observed in CHO cells. In the absence of liver S9, although the extract was cytotoxic to CHO cells, no significant mutagenicity was observed. Addition of exogenous liver S9 decreased the cytotoxicity and increased the mutagenicity at both Na/sup +/ -K/sup +/ -ATPase and hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) gene loci in CHO cells. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and tandem quadruple mass spectrometry, a number of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitrated PAHs (nitro-PAHs) were tentatively identified and quantitated. A possible explanation of the difference in bacterial and mammalian mutagenicity of the extract is that the bacterial mutagenicity was induced by the nitro-PAHs that are potent bacterial mutagens and mammalian mutagenicity was induced by both PAHs and nitro-PAHs that are promutagens.

  20. Research investigations in oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, and advanced fuels research: Volume 1 -- Base program. Final report, October 1986--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, V.E.

    1994-05-01

    Numerous studies have been conducted in five principal areas: oil shale, tar sand, underground coal gasification, advanced process technology, and advanced fuels research. In subsequent years, underground coal gasification was broadened to be coal research, under which several research activities were conducted that related to coal processing. The most significant change occurred in 1989 when the agreement was redefined as a Base Program and a Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP). Investigations were conducted under the Base Program to determine the physical and chemical properties of materials suitable for conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels, to test and evaluate processes and innovative concepts for such conversions, to monitor and determine environmental impacts related to development of commercial-sized operations, and to evaluate methods for mitigation of potential environmental impacts. This report is divided into two volumes: Volume 1 consists of 28 summaries that describe the principal research efforts conducted under the Base Program in five topic areas. Volume 2 describes tasks performed within the JSRP. Research conducted under this agreement has resulted in technology transfer of a variety of energy-related research information. A listing of related publications and presentations is given at the end of each research topic summary. More specific and detailed information is provided in the topical reports referenced in the related publications listings.

  1. Pyrite surface characterization and control for advanced fine coal desulfurization technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.H.; Leonard, J.W.; Parekh, B.K.; Raichur, A.M.; Jiang, C.L.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the project is to conduct extensive fundamental studies on the surface reactivity and surface hydrophobicity of coal-pyrites using various surface characterization techniques and to understand how the alteration of the coal-pyrite surface affects the efficiency of pyrite rejection in coal flotation. During this reporting period, the influence of the impurity content, particularly coal/carbon content, on the electrochemical oxidation of pyrite surfaces was investigated. The studies demonstrate that the coal/carbon content in coal-pyrite has a determining effect on the surface reactivity of pyrite. The oxidation behavior of high carbon-content coal-pyrite is completely different from that of purer coal-pyrite and ore-pyrite. The effects of flotation gases on the flotation behavior of coal and the surface hydrophobicity of various coal-pyrite were investigated. It was found from the lab-scale column flotation studies that among the various gases studied (air, oxygen, argon, nitrogen and carbon dioxide), carbon dioxide produced the best results with a combustible recovery of 90% and ash-content of less than 9 percent. Finally, the surface energetic studies revealed that the surfaces of pyrites and coals produced by wet grinding is more heterogenous than that prepared by dry grinding.

  2. Recent advances in the use of synchrotron radiation for the analysis of coal combustion products

    SciTech Connect

    Manowitz, B.

    1995-11-01

    Two major coal combustion problems are the formation and build-up of slag deposits on heat transfer surfaces and the production and control of toxic species in coal combustion emissions. The use of synchrotron radiation for the analysis of coal combustion products can play a role in the better understanding of both these phenomena. An understanding of the chemical composition of such slags under boiler operating conditions and as a function of the mineral composition of various coals is one ultimate goal of this program. The principal constituents in the ash of many coals are the oxides of Si, Al, Fe, Ca, K, S, and Na. The analytical method required must be able to determine the functional forms of all these elements both in coal and in coal ash at elevated temperatures. One unique way of conducting these analyses is by x-ray spectroscopy.

  3. POC-SCALE TESTING OF AN ADVANCED FINE COAL DEWATERING EQUIPMENT/TECHNIQUE

    SciTech Connect

    B.K. PAREKH; D. TAO; J.G. GROPPO

    1998-02-03

    The main objective of the proposed program is to evaluate a novel surface modification technique, which utilizes the synergistic effect of metal ions-surfactant combination, for dewatering of ultra-fine clean coal on a proof-of-concept scale of 1 to 2 tph. The novel surface modification technique developed at the UKCAER will be evaluated using vacuum, centrifuge, and hyperbaric filtration equipment. Dewatering tests will be conducted using the fine clean-coal froth produced by the column flotation units at the Powell Mountain Coal Company, Mayflower Preparation Plant in St. Charles, Virginia. The POC-scale studies will be conducted on two different types of clean coal, namely, high-sulfur and low-sulfur clean coal. The Mayflower Plant processes coals from five different seams, thus the dewatering studies results could be generalized for most of the bituminous coals.

  4. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low emission boiler systems. Fourth quarterly technical progress report, July 1993--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    The LEBS plant design will be based on a high-sulfur Illinois No. 6 coal. This coal meets program selection requirements of extensive reserves and production, sulfur content, and representativeness. Two alternate test coals have been selected to examine fuel effects, and to broaden the range of application of the technology being developed. The alternate coals are a medium sulfur, Pittsburgh No. 8 bituminous, and a Wyoming subbituminous coal. The efficiency goals for the LEBS are challenging, particularly with the demands environmental controls are likely to place on auxiliary power. Table 1 shows estimates of overall plant efficiencies for three steam cycles: (1) a 2400 psi subcritical single reheat cycle typical of current plants; (2) a 3500 psi supercritical single reheat cycle; and (3) an advanced 4500 psi double reheat cycle. The plant heat rates are based on maximum boiler efficiency and minimum auxiliary power requirements consistent with conventional plant design for the design and alternate coals. The aggressive efficiency goals clearly require advanced steam conditions, as well as careful management of any added auxiliary power requirements for environmental controls. The EPRI SOAPP (State-of-the-Art Power Plant) project has selected the 4500 psi cycle as maximizing plant efficiency while minimizing generating costs for a commercial plant to be constructed by the year 2000. This program will incorporate the SOAPP base case cycle. The LESS design will incorporate a high-efficiency, once-through boiler design known as the Benson. Significant improvements in availability and operating flexibility have made this boiler design the system of choice for European power generation over the last fifteen years.

  5. Advanced direct coal liquefaction. Quarterly technical progress report No. 2, December 1983-February 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Paranjape, A.S.

    1984-04-30

    Five Bench-Scale coal liquefaction runs were completed with Wyoming subbituminous coal in a two-stage process scheme. In this process scheme, LDAR, the lighter fraction of ash-free resid, was fed to the catalytic stage prior to its recycle to the thermal stage, whereas DAR, the heavy fraction of the deashed resid, was directly recycled to the thermal stage without any intermediate processing step. The results indicate that increasing coal space rate in the dissolver resulted in lower coal conversion and reduced distillate yield in this process configuration. The coal conversions decreased from 92 wt% to 89 wt% (MAF coal) and the distillate yield was reduced from 50 wt% to less than 40 wt% (MAF coal), as the coal space velocity increased. Attempts to duplicate the yields of Run 32, at comparable process conditions in Runs 37 and 38, were unsuccessful. Several process parameters were investigated but failed to show why the yields of Run 32 could not be duplicated. Valuable process related information was gained as a result of process parameter studies completed during these runs. At comparable process conditions, coal conversions were lower by about 3 to 4 relative percent and were only in the 87 wt% (MAF coal) range. Similarly, the distillate yield was about 40 wt% (MAF coal) which is about 10 wt% lower than observed in Run 32. Although no exact cause for these results could be determined, it appeared that the H/C atomic ratio of the solvent and possibly the flow pattern (plug-flow versus back-mixed) could have affected the coal conversion and quantity of distillate product produced. A significant decrease in coal conversion of 4 to 5 wt% was observed when the disposable catalyst (iron oxide) was removed from the reaction mixture and therefore substantiates the need for a disposable catalyst in the liquefaction of Wyoming subbituminous coal.

  6. Advanced Extraction Methods for Actinide/Lanthanide Separations

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, M.J.

    2005-12-01

    The separation of An(III) ions from chemically similar Ln(III) ions is perhaps one of the most difficult problems encountered during the processing of nuclear waste. In the 3+ oxidation states, the metal ions have an identical charge and roughly the same ionic radius. They differ strictly in the relative energies of their f- and d-orbitals, and to separate these metal ions, ligands will need to be developed that take advantage of this small but important distinction. The extraction of uranium and plutonium from nitric acid solution can be performed quantitatively by the extraction with the TBP (tributyl phosphate). Commercially, this process has found wide use in the PUREX (plutonium uranium extraction) reprocessing method. The TRUEX (transuranium extraction) process is further used to coextract the trivalent lanthanides and actinides ions from HLLW generated during PUREX extraction. This method uses CMPO [(N, N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethyl) octylphenylphosphineoxide] intermixed with TBP as a synergistic agent. However, the final separation of trivalent actinides from trivalent lanthanides still remains a challenging task. In TRUEX nitric acid solution, the Am(III) ion is coordinated by three CMPO molecules and three nitrate anions. Taking inspiration from this data and previous work with calix[4]arene systems, researchers on this project have developed a C3-symmetric tris-CMPO ligand system using a triphenoxymethane platform as a base. The triphenoxymethane ligand systems have many advantages for the preparation of complex ligand systems. The compounds are very easy to prepare. The steric and solubility properties can be tuned through an extreme range by the inclusion of different alkoxy and alkyl groups such as methyoxy, ethoxy, t-butoxy, methyl, octyl, t-pentyl, or even t-pentyl at the ortho- and para-positions of the aryl rings. The triphenoxymethane ligand system shows promise as an improved extractant for both tetravalent and trivalent actinide recoveries form

  7. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies: Froth flotation. Quarterly technical progress report No. 26, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    A study conducted by Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of sulfur emissions from about 1,300 United States coal-fired utility boilers indicated that half of the emissions were the result of burning coals having greater than 1.2 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million BTU. This was mainly attributed to the high pyritic sulfur content of the boiler fuel. A significant reduction in SO{sub 2} emissions could be accomplished by removing the pyrite from the coals by advanced physical fine coal cleaning. An engineering development project was prepared to build upon the basic research effort conducted under a solicitation for research into Fine Coal Surface Control. The engineering development project is intended to use general plant design knowledge and conceptualize a plant to utilize advanced froth flotation technology to process coal and produce a product having maximum practical pyritic sulfur reduction consistent with maximum practical BTU recovery. The overall project scope of the engineering development project is to conceptually develop a commercial flowsheet to maximize pyritic sulfur reduction at practical energy recovery values. This is being accomplished by utilizing the basic research data on the surface properties of coal, mineral matter and pyrite obtained from the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Fine Coal Flotation Project, to develop this conceptual flowsheet. This progress report provides a summary of the technical work undertaken during this period, highlighting the major results. A brief description of the work done prior to this quarter is provided in this report under the task headings.

  8. Recovery of fine coal from waste streams using advanced column flotation. Annual report, September 1, 1990--August 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Groppo, J.G.

    1991-12-31

    The advanced flotation techniques, namely column flotation, have shown potential in obtaining a low ash, low pyritic sulfur fine size clean coal. The overall objective of this program is to evaluate applicability of an advanced flotation technique, `Ken-Flote` column to recover clean coal with minimum mineral matter content at greater than 90 percent combustible recovery from two Illinois preparation plant waste streams. Column flotations tests were conducted on the flotation feed obtained from the Kerr-McGee Galatia and Ziegler No. 26 plants using three different bubble-generating devices: sparger, gas saver and foam jet. Each of these devices was tested with three different frothers and various column-operating variable to provide maximum combustible recovery, minimum product ash and maximum pyrite rejection. For the Galatia slurry, the column provided a clean coal containing 5 percent ash, 0.48 percent pyritic sulfur at combustible recovery averaging 90 percent. In other words, about 90 percent ash and about 75 percent pyritic sulfur rejection were attained for the Galatia slurry. Pilot plant studies on this slurry basically obtained results similar to the laboratory studies. For the Ziegler No. 26, slurry column flotation provided a clean coal containing about 5 percent ash, 0.44 percent pyritic sulfur at more than 90 percent combustible recovery. The ash and pyrite sulfur rejection was about 85 percent and 65 percent, respectively.

  9. Solvent dewatering coal

    SciTech Connect

    Hardesty, D.E.; Buchholz, H.F.

    1984-07-17

    Drying of wet coal is facilitated by the addition of a nonaqueous solvent, such as acetone, to the coal followed by application of heat to remove both solvent and water from the coal. The coal may be further upgraded by briquetting or pelletizing fine coal particles with waxes and resins extracted from the coal, or the waxes and resins may be left on the coal to reduce the tendency of the coal to reabsorb water. In addition, minerals such as sodium and potassium salts may be removed from the coal to reduce slagging and fouling behavior of the coal.

  10. The development of a combustion system for B&W`s advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler system

    SciTech Connect

    Sivy, J.L.; Kaufman, K.C.; McDonald, D.K.

    1997-07-01

    Babcock & Wilcox has been leading a team in the development of an advanced coal-fired low emission boiler system (LEBS). The project objective is to design a new pulverized coal (PC) powered generating system equipped with improved combustion and heat transfer subsystems and advanced environmental control technologies capable of achieving emissions of NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulates far below current New Source Performance Standards (NSPS). The objectives of the program are to achieve continuous NO{sub x} emissions below 0.2 lb NO{sub x}/MBtu with a specified design coal, through combustion techniques only, with a further target of 0.1 lb NO{sub x}/MBtu using supplementary advanced flue gas cleanup technologies if necessary. The SO{sub 2} limit for the project has been set at 0.1 lb SO{sub 2}/MBtu, with a particulate emission limit of 0.01 lb particulate/MBtu. The net plant efficiency is specified to be at least 42% (HHV), while overall the cost of electricity must not increase relative to a conventional plant meeting cur-rent NSPS. The B&W LEBS plant uses conventional state-of-the-art equipment along with developing new technologies to meet the program goals. To meet this goal, B&W has coupled advanced environmental control technologies capable of achieving emission of NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulate far below current NSPS with an advanced boiler equipped with improved combustion and heat transfer subsystems. Phase I of the LEBS program began with a thorough review and assessment of potential advanced technologies and techniques. Through engineering analysis, pilot-scale testing, and numerical modeling in Phases I and II, a near full-scale 100 MBtu/hr advanced NO{sub x} emissions control system was designed, fabricated, and tested. Further experimental testing and numerical modeling has continued to refine the LEBS concept.

  11. Extracting the core indicators of pulverized coal for blast furnace injection based on principal component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hong-wei; Su, Bu-xin; Zhang, Jian-liang; Zhu, Meng-yi; Chang, Jian

    2013-03-01

    An updated approach to refining the core indicators of pulverized coal used for blast furnace injection based on principal component analysis is proposed in view of the disadvantages of the existing performance indicator system of pulverized coal used in blast furnaces. This presented method takes into account all the performance indicators of pulverized coal injection, including calorific value, igniting point, combustibility, reactivity, flowability, grindability, etc. Four core indicators of pulverized coal injection are selected and studied by using principal component analysis, namely, comprehensive combustibility, comprehensive reactivity, comprehensive flowability, and comprehensive grindability. The newly established core index system is not only beneficial to narrowing down current evaluation indices but also effective to avoid previous overlapping problems among indicators by mutually independent index design. Furthermore, a comprehensive property indicator is introduced on the basis of the four core indicators, and the injection properties of pulverized coal can be overall evaluated.

  12. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques. Quarterly progress report, July--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, C.W.; Gutterman, C.; Chander, S.

    1993-12-31

    The overall objective of this project is to develop a new approach for the direct liquefaction of coal to produce an all-distillate product slate at a sizable cost reduction over current technology. The approach integrates coal selection, pretreatment, coal swelling with catalyst impregnation, liquefaction, product recovery with characterization, alternate bottoms processing, and carrying out a technical assessment including an economic evaluation. The primary coal of this program, Black Thunder subbituminous coal, can be effectively beneficiated to about 3.5 wt % ash using aqueous sulfurous acid pretreatment. This treated coal can be further beneficiated to about 2 wt % ash using commercially available procedures. All three coals used in this study (Black Thunder, Burning Star bituminous, and Martin Lake lignite) are effectively swelled by a number of solvents. The most effective solvents are those having hetero-functionality. laboratory- and bench-scale liquefaction experimentation is underway using swelled and catalyst impregnated coal samples. Higher coal conversions were observed for the SO{sub 2}-treated subbituminous coal than the raw coal, regardless of catalyst type. Conversions of swelled coal were highest when Molyvan L, molybdenum naphthenate, and nickel octoate, respectively, were added to the liquefaction solvent. The study of bottoms processing consists of combining the ASCOT process which consists of coupling solvent deasphalting with delayed coking to maximize the production of coal-derived liquids while rejecting solids within the coke drum. The asphalt production phase has been completed; representative product has been evaluated. The solvent system for the deasphalting process has been established. Two ASCOT tests produced overall liquid yields (63.3 wt % and 61.5 wt %) that exceeded the combined liquid yields from the vacuum tower and ROSE process.

  13. Insights into the coal extractive solvent N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone + carbon disulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Santiago Aparicio; Mara J. Davila; Rafael Alcalde

    2009-03-15

    A wide set of experimental and computational tools were used to characterize the N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) + carbon disulfide mixed solvent in the full composition range. The interest in this solvent rose from its very efficient use for coal extraction through a mechanism still not fully understood. Thermophysical properties at ambient pressure together with pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) behavior were measured with the objective of providing the required data for the industrial use of the mixed fluid and to get insight into the fluid structure at the molecular level. NMR, FTIR, and solvatochromic studies were performed together with microwave dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (DRS) measurements, thus providing more information on the fluid's structure and allowing one to relate the molecular level behavior with the measured macroscopic properties. Moreover, density functional theory (DFT) and classical molecular dynamics simulations (MD) were used to obtain a detailed picture of the intermolecular interactions within the fluid, at short and long ranges, and of other relevant features leading to the structure of the studied system. The whole study leads to a fluid's picture in which carbon disulfide hinders the development of NMP/NMP intermolecular dipolar interactions, thus increasing the monomer population. We should remark that some properties reported in this work are in remarkable disagreement with previously reported studies, the most important one being the positive excess molar volume in the whole pressure-temperature range studied, which contrasts with the negative values reported in the literature. Previously reported properties are hardly justified with a coherent molecular level picture, whereas the whole collection of properties reported in this work leads to a more reasonable fluid's structure. 56 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Hydrogeologic investigation of the Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility, Wilsonville, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, F.G.; Kearl, P.M.; Mumby, M.E.; Rogers, S.

    1996-09-01

    This document describes the geology and hydrogeology at the former Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development (ACLR&D) facility in Wilsonville, Alabama. The work was conducted by personnel from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Grand Junction office (ORNL/GJ) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC). Characterization information was requested by PETC to provide baseline environmental information for use in evaluating needs and in subsequent decision-making for further actions associated with the closeout of facility operations. The hydrogeologic conceptual model presented in this report provides significant insight regarding the potential for contaminant migration from the ACLR&D facility and may be useful during other characterization work in the region. The ACLR&D facility is no longer operational and has been dismantled. The site was characterized in three phases: the first two phases were an environmental assessment study and a sod sampling study (APCO 1991) and the third phase the hydraulic assessment. Currently, a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remedial investigation (RI) to address the presence of contaminants on the site is underway and will be documented in an RI report. This technical memorandum addresses the hydrogeologic model only.

  15. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    James T. Cobb, Jr.

    2003-09-12

    Metal-laden wastes can be stabilized and solidified using advanced clean coal technology by-products (CCTBs)--fluid bed combustor ash and spray drier solids. These utility-generated treatment chemicals are available for purchase through brokers, and commercial applications of this process are being practiced by treaters of metal-laden hazardous waste. A complex of regulations governs this industry, and sensitivities to this complex has discouraged public documentation of treatment of metal-laden hazardous wastes with CCTBs. This report provides a comprehensive public documentation of laboratory studies that show the efficacy of the stabilization and solidification of metal-laden hazardous wastes--such as lead-contaminated soils and sandblast residues--through treatment with CCTBs. It then describes the extensive efforts that were made to obtain the permits allowing a commercial hazardous waste treater to utilize CCTBs as treatment chemicals and to install the equipment required to do so. It concludes with the effect of this lengthy process on the ability of the treatment company to realize the practical, physical outcome of this effort, leading to premature termination of the project.

  16. Multiplexed Optical Fiber Sensors for Coal Fired Advanced Fossil Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Anbo; Pickrell, Gary

    2012-03-31

    This report summarizes technical progress on the program Multiplexed Optical Fiber Sensors for Coal Fired Advanced Fossil Energy Systems funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed jointly by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at Virginia Tech. This three-year project started on October 1, 2008. In the project, a fiber optical sensing system based on intrinsic Fabry-Perot Interferometer (IFPI) was developed for strain and temperature measurements for Ultra Supercritical boiler condition assessment. Investigations were focused on sensor design, fabrication, attachment techniques and novel materials for high temperature and strain measurements. At the start of the project, the technical requirements for the sensing technology were determined together with our industrial partner Alstom Power. As is demonstrated in Chapter 4, all the technical requirements are successfully met. The success of the technology extended beyond laboratory test; its capability was further validated through the field test at DOE NETL, in which the sensors yielded distributed temperature mapping of a testing coupon installed in the turbine test rig. The measurement results agreed well with prior results generated with thermocouples. In this project, significant improvements were made to the IFPI sensor technology by splicing condition optimization, transmission loss reduction, sensor signal demodulation and sensor system design.

  17. Development of an Advanced Deshaling Technology to Improve the Energy Efficiency of Coal Handling, Processing, and Utilization Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Rick Honaker; Gerald Luttrell

    2007-09-30

    The concept of using a dry, density-based separator to achieve efficient, near-face rock removal, commonly referred to as deshaling, was evaluated in several applications across the U.S.. Varying amounts of high-density rock exist in most run-of-mine feed. In the central Appalachian coalfields, a rock content exceeding 50% in the feed to a preparation plant is commonplace due to high amounts of out-of-seam dilution made necessary by extracting coal from thin seams. In the western U.S, an increase in out-of-seam dilution and environmental regulations associated with combustion emissions have resulted in a need to clean low rank coals and dry cleaning may be the only option. A 5 ton/hr mobile deshaling unit incorporating a density-based, air-table technology commercially known as the FGX Separator has been evaluated at mine sites located within the states of Utah, Wyoming, Texas, West Virginia, Virginia, Pennsylvania and Kentucky. The FGX technology utilizes table riffling principles with air as the medium. Air enters through the table and creates a fluidized bed of particles comprised of mostly fine, high density particles. The high density particle bed lifts the low-density coal particles to the top of the bed. The low-density coal moves toward the front of the table due to mass action and the downward slope of the table. The high-density particles settle through the fluidized particle bed and, upon making contact with the table, moves toward the back of the table with the assistance of table vibration. As a result, the low-density coal particles exit the front of the table closest to the feed whereas the high-density, high-ash content particles leave on the side and front of the table located at the farthest from the feed entry. At each test site, the run-of-mine feed was either directly fed to the FGX unit or pre-screened to remove the majority of the -6mm material. The surface moisture of the feed must be maintained below 9%. Pre-screening is required when the

  18. Component development in support of B and W`s advanced coal-fired low-emissions boiler system

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, D.K.; Madden, D.A.; Rodgers, L.W.; Sivy, J.L.

    1995-12-31

    Shortly after the year 2000 it is expected that new generating plants will be needed in North America to meet the growing demand for electricity and to replace the aging plants that are nearing the end of their useful service life. If coal is to remain the fuel of choice for this new and replacement power generation, the plants of the future will need to be extremely clean, highly efficient and economical. Continuing concerns over acid rain, air toxics, global climate changes, ozone depletion and solid waste disposal are expected to further tighten regulations for new coal-fired plants. To address the design issues facing new and replacement coal-fired power plants, Babcock and Wilcox (B and W), under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE), with subcontracts to Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) and Raytheon Engineers and Constructors (RE and C), has been developing an advanced generating plant design in DOE`s Combustion 2000 program entitled, ``Engineering Development of Advanced Coal-Fired Low-Emission Boiler System`` (LEBS). The project objective is to design a new boiler equipped with improved combustion and heat transfer subsystems and advanced environmental control technologies capable of achieving emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and particulates far below current New Source Performance Standards (NSPS). In Phase 1, completed in 1994, a thorough review and assessment of potential advanced technologies and techniques for the control of emissions, and a review of boiler design options were performed. In phases 2 and 3 currently underway, research and development continues to resolve design uncertainties at the pilot and subsystem scale. A preliminary design for a Proof-Of-Concept (POC) Demonstration Facility has also been completed. Results of these activities will be presented in this paper.

  19. Development of clean coal and clean soil technologies using advanced agglomeration techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Ignasiak, B.; Ignasiak, T.; Szymocha, K.

    1990-01-01

    Three major topics are discussed in this report: (1) Upgrading of Low Rank Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Test data, procedures, equipment, etc., are described for co-upgrading of subbituminous coals and heavy oil; (2) Upgrading of Bituminous Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Experimental procedures and data, bench and pilot scale equipments, etc., for beneficiating bituminous coals are described; (3) Soil Clean-up and Hydrocarbon Waste Treatment Process. Batch and pilot plant tests are described for soil contaminated by tar refuse from manufactured gas plant sites. (VC)

  20. Development of an advanced process for drying fine coal in an inclined fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect

    Boysen, J.E.; Cha, C.Y.; Barbour, F.A.; Turner, T.F.; Kang, T.W.; Berggren, M.H.; Hogsett, R.F.; Jha, M.C.

    1990-02-01

    The objective of this research project was to demonstrate a technically feasible and economically viable process for drying and stabilizing high-moisture subbituminous coal. Controlled thermal drying of coal fines was achieved using the inclined fluidized-bed drying and stabilization process developed by the Western Research Institute. The project scope of work required completion of five tasks: (1) project planning, (2) characterization of two feed coals, (3) bench-scale inclined fluidized-bed drying studies, (4) product characterization and testing, and (5) technical and economic evaluation of the process. High moisture subbituminous coals from AMAX Eagle Butte mine located in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and from Usibelli Coal Mine, Inc. in Healy, Alaska were tested in a 10-lb/hr bench-scale inclined fluidized-bed. Experimental results show that the dried coal contains less than 1.5% moisture and has a heating value over 11,500 Btu/lb. The coal fines entrainment can be kept below 15 wt % of the feed. The equilibrium moisture of dried coal was less than 50% of feed coal equilibrium moisture. 7 refs., 60 figs., 47 tabs.