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Sample records for advanced cockpit displays

  1. The Effects of Advanced 'Glass Cockpit' Displayed Flight Instrumentation on In-flight Pilot Decision Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steigerwald, John

    The Cognitive Continuum Theory (CCT) was first proposed 25 years ago to explain the relationship between intuition and analytical decision making processes. In order for aircraft pilots to make these analytical and intuitive decisions, they obtain information from various instruments within the cockpit of the aircraft. Advanced instrumentation is used to provide a broad array of information about the aircraft condition and flight situation to aid the flight crew in making effective decisions. The problem addressed is that advanced instrumentation has not improved the pilot decision making in modern aircraft. Because making a decision is dependent upon the information available, this experimental quantitative study sought to determine how well pilots organize and interpret information obtained from various cockpit instrumentation displays when under time pressure. The population for this study was the students, flight instructors, and aviation faculty at the Middle Georgia State College School of Aviation campus in Eastman, Georgia. The sample was comprised of two groups of 90 individuals (45 in each group) in various stages of pilot licensure from student pilot to airline transport pilot (ATP). The ages ranged from 18 to 55 years old. There was a statistically significant relationship at the p < .05 level in the ability of the participants to organize and interpret information between the advanced glass cockpit instrumentation and the traditional cockpit instrumentation. It is recommended that the industry explore technological solutions toward creating cockpit instrumentation that could match the type of information display to the type of decision making scenario in order to aid pilots in making decisions that will result in better organization of information. Understanding the relationship between the intuitive and analytical decisions that pilots make and the information source they use to make those decisions will aid engineers in the design of instrumentation

  2. Flight evaluation of advanced flight control systems and cockpit displays for powered-lift STOL Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, J. A.; Smith, D. W.; Watson, D. M.; Warner, D. N., Jr.; Innis, R. C.; Hardy, G. H.

    1976-01-01

    A flight research program was conducted to assess the improvements, in longitudinal path control during a STOL approach and landing, that can be achieved with manual and automatic control system concepts and cockpit displays with various degrees of complexity. NASA-Ames powered-lift Augmentor Wing Research Aircraft was used in the research program. Satisfactory flying qualities were demonstrated for selected stabilization and command augmentation systems and flight director combinations. The ability of the pilot to perform precise landings at low touchdown sink rates with a gentle flare maneuver was also achieved. The path-control improvement is considered to be applicable to other powered-lift aircraft configurations.

  3. Cockpit display requirements and specifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopper, Darrel G.

    1993-12-01

    Flight instrument design has begun to include a new electronic technology for the display head: active matrix liquid crystal display (AMLCD). This is a significant design transition and applies across the board to complete cockpit modernization programs, individual instrument replacement projects, and new systems. AMLCD-based instruments are expected to have a substantially higher mean time between failure compared to both electromechanical and CRT- based instruments. Thus, the new technology will pay for itself. Furthermore, AMLCDs are truly sunlight-readable whereas CRT displays are not; it is mission critical that a pilot be able to see an instrument with the sun shining directly in the eye or onto the display. AMLCDs can also provide larger display areas enabling formats which increase situational awareness. As this is a new technology for the military, an industrial base for militarized AMLCDs must be created based on present research capabilities. The requirements for AMLCDs in DOD programs have been analyzed. Projects to build infrastructure and capacity are described. Applications include not only cockpits, but also digital map/GPS integrated displays for tank commanders and field laptop computers. We have the opportunity with this new technology to establish a common critical item product function specification for sunlight-readable, color and grayscale capable, flat panel displays for military applications. the Wright Laboratory is leading the development of such functional specification for U.S. military aircraft.

  4. Hazard alerting and situational awareness in advanced air transport cockpits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansman, R. John; Wanke, Craig; Kuchar, James; Mykityshyn, Mark; Hahn, Edward; Midkiff, Alan

    1993-01-01

    Advances in avionics and display technology have significantly changed the cockpit environment in current 'glass cockpit' aircraft. Recent developments in display technology, on-board processing, data storage, and datalinked communications are likely to further alter the environment in second and third generation 'glass cockpit' aircraft. The interaction of advanced cockpit technology with human cognitive performance has been a major area of activity within the MIT Aeronautical Systems Laboratory. This paper presents an overview of the MIT Advanced Cockpit Simulation Facility. Several recent research projects are briefly reviewed and the most important results are summarized.

  5. Panoramic cockpit displays for tactical military cockpits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Mark; Huffman, David

    2010-04-01

    The F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) incorporates the latest technology for aerial warfighting. To support this aircraft's mission and to provide the pilot with the increased situational awareness needed in today's battlespace, a panoramic AMLCD was developed and is being deployed for the first time. This 20" by 8" display is the largest fielded to date in a tactical fighter. Key system innovations had to be employed to allow this technology to function in this demanding environment. Certain older generation aircraft are now considering incorporating a panoramic display to provide their crews with this level of increased capability. Key design issues that had to be overcome dealt with sunlight readability, vibration resistance, touchscreen operation, and reliability concerns to avoid single-point failures. A completely dual redundant system design had to be employed to ensure that the pilot would always have access to critical mission and flight data.

  6. Polyplanar optic display for cockpit application

    SciTech Connect

    Veligdan, J.; Biscardi, C.; Brewster, C.; DeSanto, L.; Freibott, W.

    1998-04-01

    The Polyplanar Optical Display (POD) is a high contrast display screen being developed for cockpit applications. This display screen is 2 inches thick and has a matte black face which allows for high contrast images. The prototype being developed is a form, fit and functional replacement display for the B-52 aircraft which uses a monochrome ten-inch display. The new display uses a long lifetime, (10,000 hour), 200 mW green solid-state laser (532 nm) as its optical source. In order to produce real-time video, the laser light is being modulated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP{trademark}) chip manufactured by Texas Instruments, Inc. A variable astigmatic focusing system is used to produce a stigmatic image on the viewing face of the POD. In addition to the optical design and speckle reduction, the authors discuss the electronic interfacing to the DLP{trademark} chip, the opto-mechanical design and viewing angle characteristics.

  7. Cockpit display of hazardous wind shear information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wanke, Craig; Hansman, R. John, Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Information on cockpit display of wind shear information is given in viewgraph form. Based on the current status of windshear sensors and candidate data dissemination systems, the near-term capabilities for windshear avoidance will most likely include: (1) Ground-based detection: TDWR (Terminal Doppler Weather Radar), LLWAS (Low-Level Windshear Alert System), Automated PIREPS; (2) Ground-Air datalinks: Air traffic control voice channels, Mode-S digital datalink, ACARS alphanumeric datalink. The possible datapaths for integration of these systems are illustrated in a diagram. In the future, airborne windshear detection systems such as lidars, passive IR detectors, or airborne Doppler radars may also become available. Possible future datalinks include satellite downlink and specialized en route weather channels.

  8. A Cockpit Display Designed to Enable Limited Flight Deck Separation Responsibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Walter W.; Battiste, Vernol; Bochow, Sheila Holland

    2003-01-01

    Cockpit displays need to be substantially improved to serve the goals of situational awareness, conflict detection, and path replanning, in Free Flight. This paper describes the design of such an advanced cockpit display, along with an initial simulation based usability evaluation. Flight crews were particularly enthusiastic about color coding for relative altitude, dynamically pulsing predictors, and the use of 3-D flight plans for alerting and situational awareness.

  9. Can a glass cockpit display help (or hinder) performance of novices in simulated flight training?

    PubMed

    Wright, Stephen; O'Hare, David

    2015-03-01

    The analog dials in traditional GA aircraft cockpits are being replaced by integrated electronic displays, commonly referred to as glass cockpits. Pilots may be trained on glass cockpit aircraft or encounter them after training on traditional displays. The effects of glass cockpit displays on initial performance and potential transfer effects between cockpit display configurations have yet to be adequately investigated. Flight-naïve participants were trained on either a simulated traditional display cockpit or a simulated glass display cockpit. Flight performance was measured in a test flight using either the same or different cockpit display. Loss of control events and accuracy in controlling altitude, airspeed and heading, workload, and situational awareness were assessed. Preferences for cockpit display configurations and opinions on ease of use were also measured. The results revealed consistently poorer performance on the test flight for participants using the glass cockpit compared to the traditional cockpit. In contrast the post-flight questionnaire data revealed a strong subjective preference for the glass cockpit over the traditional cockpit displays. There was only a weak effect of prior training. The specific glass cockpit display used in this study was subjectively appealing but yielded poorer flight performance in participants with no previous flight experience than a traditional display. Performance data can contradict opinion data. The design of glass cockpit displays may present some difficulties for pilots in the very early stages of training.

  10. Can a glass cockpit display help (or hinder) performance of novices in simulated flight training?

    PubMed

    Wright, Stephen; O'Hare, David

    2015-03-01

    The analog dials in traditional GA aircraft cockpits are being replaced by integrated electronic displays, commonly referred to as glass cockpits. Pilots may be trained on glass cockpit aircraft or encounter them after training on traditional displays. The effects of glass cockpit displays on initial performance and potential transfer effects between cockpit display configurations have yet to be adequately investigated. Flight-naïve participants were trained on either a simulated traditional display cockpit or a simulated glass display cockpit. Flight performance was measured in a test flight using either the same or different cockpit display. Loss of control events and accuracy in controlling altitude, airspeed and heading, workload, and situational awareness were assessed. Preferences for cockpit display configurations and opinions on ease of use were also measured. The results revealed consistently poorer performance on the test flight for participants using the glass cockpit compared to the traditional cockpit. In contrast the post-flight questionnaire data revealed a strong subjective preference for the glass cockpit over the traditional cockpit displays. There was only a weak effect of prior training. The specific glass cockpit display used in this study was subjectively appealing but yielded poorer flight performance in participants with no previous flight experience than a traditional display. Performance data can contradict opinion data. The design of glass cockpit displays may present some difficulties for pilots in the very early stages of training. PMID:25480000

  11. Design and evaluation of a cockpit display for hovering flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, Ronald A.; Gorder, Peter James

    1988-01-01

    A simulator evaluation of a cockpit display format for hovering flight is described. The display format is based on the position-velocity-acceleration representation (PVA) similar to that used in the Pilot Night Vision System in the Army AH-64 helicopter. By only varying the nature of the display law driving the primary indicator in the PVA format, i.e., the acceleration symbol, three candidate displays are created and evaluated. These range from a Status display in which the primary indicator provides true acceleration information to a Command display, in which the primary indicator provides flight director information. Simulation results indicate that two of the three displays offer performance and handling qualities which make them excellent candidates for future helicopter cockpit display systems.

  12. Display requirements for synthetic vision in the military cockpit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, Guy A.; Snow, Michael P.; Hopper, Darrel G.

    2001-09-01

    The term synthetic vision is used to describe combinations of sensor-based imagery (e.g., forward-looking infrared, millimeter-wave radar, light amplification or night vision systems) and imagery based on databases (e.g., digital terrain elevation data, obstacle and obstruction data, approach path data). While sensor-based imagery (often referred to as enhanced vision) has been available in military cockpits for several years, imagery based on databases (often referred to as artificial vision) has not. This paper discusses the display requirements needed for combinations of enhanced and artificial vision in military cockpits. We briefly survey current efforts to achieve synthetic vision displays in both military and civilian cockpits and the costs and benefits of these efforts. The relative advantages and disadvantages of enhanced and artificial vision are discussed within the context of current and future display capabilities, focusing on the human factors of these displays. A sampling of synthetic vision formats envisioned for use in military and civilian cockpits is presented to illustrate what might be required of head-down, head-up, and helmet-mounted displays in terms of resolution, luminance, and color. Further discussion is given to how these display requirements might be altered by aircraft mission, type, and the need to compensate for varying visibility and laser threat conditions.

  13. Technical Workshop: Advanced Helicopter Cockpit Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemingway, J. C. (Editor); Callas, G. P. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Information processing demands on both civilian and military aircrews have increased enormously as rotorcraft have come to be used for adverse weather, day/night, and remote area missions. Applied psychology, engineering, or operational research for future helicopter cockpit design criteria were identified. Three areas were addressed: (1) operational requirements, (2) advanced avionics, and (3) man-system integration.

  14. Cockpit display of hazardous weather information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansman, R. John, Jr.; Wanke, Craig

    1991-01-01

    Information transfer and display issues associated with the dissemination of hazardous weather warnings are studied in the context of wind shear alerts. Operational and developmental wind shear detection systems are briefly reviewed. The July 11, 1988 microburst events observed as part of the Denver Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) operational evaluation are analyzed in terms of information transfer and the effectiveness of the microburst alerts. Information transfer, message content and display issues associated with microburst alerts generated from ground based sources (Doppler Radar, Low Level Wind Shear Alert System, and Pilot Reports) are evaluated by means fo pilot opinion surveys and part task simulator studies.

  15. Cockpit display of hazardous weather information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansman, R. John, Jr.; Wanke, Craig

    1990-01-01

    Information transfer and display issues associated with the dissemination of hazardous weather warnings are studied in the context of windshear alerts. Operational and developmental windshear detection systems are briefly reviewed. The July 11, 1988 microburst events observed as part of the Denver Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) operational evaluation are analyzed in terms of information transfer and the effectiveness of the microburst alerts. Information transfer, message content and display issues associated with microburst alerts generated from ground based sources are evaluated by means of pilot opinion surveys and part task simulator studies.

  16. Cockpit Displays to Support Hazard Awareness in Free Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickens, Christopher D.; Carbonari, Ron; Merwin, Dave; Morphew, Ephimia; OBrien, Janelle V.

    1997-01-01

    Three experiments are described which each examine different aspects of the formatting and integration of cockpit displays of traffic information to support pilots in traffic avoidance planning. The first two experiments compared two-dimensional (coplanar) with three-dimensional (perspective) versions of a cockpit display of traffic information. In Experiment 1, 30 certified flight instructors flew a series of traffic conflict detection and avoidance maneuvers around an intruder aircraft, sometimes in the presence of a second intruder. The results revealed an advantage for the coplanar display, particularly when there was vertical intruder behavior. In Experiment 2, 17 instructors flew with the coplanar and perspective formats when weather information was either overlaid or displayed separately. Again performance was best with the coplanar display, particularly when the weather data were overlaid. The results of both experiments are also discussed in ten-ns of the traffic maneuver stereotypes exhibited by the pilots. Experiment 3 examined the benefits of the two different predictor elements used in the coplanar displays of Experiments 1 and 2. The study was carried out in a multitask context. These elements were both found to improve safety (reduce actual and predicted conflicts) and to reduce workload, although the different elements affected workload in different ways. Neither predictor element imposed a cost to concurrent task performance.

  17. Reconfigurable smart multifunction displays in an all-glass cockpit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smeyne, Alan L.

    1999-08-01

    Litton Guidance & Control Systems (G&CS) is the developer and supplier of Smart Multi-Function Display (SMFD) Systems. These programs include the UH-60Q, the SH-2G, the SH-60R, the CH-60, the EH-101, and others. The SMFD meets the all-glass cockpit requirements for the SH-2G(A), the SH-60R, and the CH-60 helicopters. The basic architectures for all-glass cockpit display systems are the centralized (dumb display or video monitor) and the distributed (smart display). Litton's SMFD has the flexibility to support either of these architectures as well as others. Litton's advantage comes from deploying a display system that provides Open System Architecture (OSA) for both hardware and software. With the OSA design philosophy, Litton's SMFD is easily customized by using a set of basic hardware modules which can be configured to provide the different functionality required by each aircraft type. The OSA design philosophy also accommodates future expansion and technological developments. This paper, showing the easy adaptation of the SH-2G display to meet the SH-60R and CH-60 requirements, demonstrates the advantages of Litton's OSA design philosophy. OSA is the key to providing the mix-and- match/plug-and-play of the existing modules, which also permits future growth. It is the versatility of the OSA framework that meets the bipolar requirements of the two system architecture types.

  18. Real-time synthetic vision cockpit display for general aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Andrew J.; Smith, W. Garth; Rybacki, Richard M.

    1999-07-01

    Low cost, high performance graphics solutions based on PC hardware platforms are now capable of rendering synthetic vision of a pilot's out-the-window view during all phases of flight. When coupled to a GPS navigation payload the virtual image can be fully correlated to the physical world. In particular, differential GPS services such as the Wide Area Augmentation System WAAS will provide all aviation users with highly accurate 3D navigation. As well, short baseline GPS attitude systems are becoming a viable and inexpensive solution. A glass cockpit display rendering geographically specific imagery draped terrain in real-time can be coupled with high accuracy (7m 95% positioning, sub degree pointing), high integrity (99.99999% position error bound) differential GPS navigation/attitude solutions to provide both situational awareness and 3D guidance to (auto) pilots throughout en route, terminal area, and precision approach phases of flight. This paper describes the technical issues addressed when coupling GPS and glass cockpit displays including the navigation/display interface, real-time 60 Hz rendering of terrain with multiple levels of detail under demand paging, and construction of verified terrain databases draped with geographically specific satellite imagery. Further, on-board recordings of the navigation solution and the cockpit display provide a replay facility for post-flight simulation based on live landings as well as synchronized multiple display channels with different views from the same flight. PC-based solutions which integrate GPS navigation and attitude determination with 3D visualization provide the aviation community, and general aviation in particular, with low cost high performance guidance and situational awareness in all phases of flight.

  19. Distributed representation as a principle for the analysis of cockpit information displays.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J

    1997-01-01

    This article examines the representational properties of cockpit information displays from the perspective of distributed representations (Zhang & Norman, 1994). The basic idea is that the information needed for many tasks in a cockpit is distributed across the external information displays in the cockpit and the internal minds of the pilots. It is proposed that the relative distribution of internal and external information is the major factor of a display's representational efficiency. Several functionally equivalent but representationally different navigation displays are selected to illustrate how the principle of distributed representations is applied to the analysis of the representational efficiencies of cockpit information displays.

  20. Pilot scanning patterns while viewing cockpit displays of traffic information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, S. R.; Stark, L.

    1981-01-01

    Scanning eye movements of airline pilots were recorded while they judged air traffic situations displayed on cockpit displays of traffic information (CDTI). The observed 1st order transition patterns between points of interest on the display showed reliable deviation from those patterns predicted by the assumption of statistical independence. However, both patterns of transitions correlated quite well with each other. Accordingly, the assumption of independence provided a surprisingly good model of the results. Nevertheless, the deviation between the observed patterns of transition and that based on the assumption of independence was for all subjects in the direction of increased determinism. Thus, the results provide objective evidence consistent with the existence of "scanpaths" in the data.

  1. The role of voice technology in advanced helicopter cockpits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, H. P.

    1982-01-01

    The status of voice output and voice recognition technology in relation to helicopter cockpit applications is described. The maturing of this technology provides many opportunities for new approaches to crew workload reduction. The helicopter operating environment, potential application areas, and the impact on advanced cockpit design are discussed.

  2. Avoidance maneuevers selected while viewing cockpit traffic displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. D.; Ellis, S. R.; Lee, E.

    1982-01-01

    Ten airline pilots rates the collision danger of air traffic presented on cockpit displays of traffic information while they monitored simulated departures from Denver. They selected avoidance maneuvers when necessary for separation. Most evasive maneuvers were turns rather than vertical maneuvers. Evasive maneuvers chosen for encounters with low or moderate collision danger were generally toward the intruding aircraft. This tendency lessened as the perceived threat level increased. In the highest threst situations pilots turned toward the intruder only at chance levels. Intruders coming from positions in front of the pilot's own ship were more frequently avoided by turns toward than when intruders approached laterally or from behind. Some of the implications of the pilots' turning-toward tendencies are discussed with respect to automatic collision avoidance systems and coordination of avoidance maneuvers of conflicting aircraft.

  3. Predictive Features of a Cockpit Traffic Display: A Workload Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickens, Christopher D.; Morphew, Ephimia

    1997-01-01

    Eighteen pilots flew a series of traffic avoidance maneuvers in an experiment designed to assess the support offered and workload imposed by different levels of traffic display information in a free flight simulation. Three display prototypes were compared which differed in traffic information provided. A BASELINE (BL) display provided current and (2nd order) predicted information regarding ownship and current information of an intruder aircraft, represented on lateral and vertical displays in a coplanar suite. An INTRUDER PREDICTOR (IP) display, augmented the baseline display by providing lateral and vertical prediction of the intruder aircraft. A THREAT VECTOR (TV) display added to the IP display a vector that indicates the direction from ownship to the intruder at the predicted point of closest contact (POCC). The length of the vector corresponds to the radius of the protected zone, and the distance of the intersection of the vector with ownship predictor, corresponds to the time available till POCC or loss of separation. Pilots time shared the traffic avoidance task with a secondary task requiring them to monitor the top of the display for faint targets. This task simulated the visual demands of out-of-cockpit scanning, and hence was used to estimate the head-down time required by the different display formats. The results revealed that both display augmentations improved performance (safety) as assessed by predicted and actual loss of separation (i.e., penetration of the protected zone). Both enhancements also reduced workload, as assessed by the NASA TLX scale. The intruder predictor display produced these benefits with no substantial impact on the qualitative nature of the avoidance maneuvers that were selected. The threat vector produced the safety benefits by inducing a greater degree of (effective) lateral maneuvering, thus partially offsetting the benefits of reduced workload. The three displays did not differ in terms of their effect on performance of

  4. Human factors of advanced technology (glass cockpit) transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiener, Earl L.

    1989-01-01

    A three-year study of airline crews at two U.S. airlines who were flying an advanced technology aircraft, the Boeing 757 is discussed. The opinions and experiences of these pilots as they view the advanced, automated features of this aircraft, and contrast them with previous models they have flown are discussed. Training for advanced automation; (2) cockpit errors and error reduction; (3) management of cockpit workload; and (4) general attitudes toward cockpit automation are emphasized. The limitations of the air traffic control (ATC) system on the ability to utilize the advanced features of the new aircraft are discussed. In general the pilots are enthusiastic about flying an advanced technology aircraft, but they express mixed feelings about the impact of automation on workload, crew errors, and ability to manage the flight.

  5. Benefits, limitations, and guidelines for application of stereo 3-D display technology to the cockpit environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Steven P.; Parrish, Russell V.; Busquets, Anthony M.

    1992-01-01

    A survey of research results from a program initiated by NASA Langley Research Center is presented. The program addresses stereo 3-D pictorial displays from a comprehensive standpoint. Human factors issues, display technology aspects, and flight display applications are also considered. Emphasis is placed on the benefits, limitations, and guidelines for application of stereo 3-D display technology to the cockpit environment.

  6. Cockpit weather radar display demonstrator and ground-to-air sferics telemetry system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickum, J. D.; Mccall, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    The results of two methods of obtaining timely and accurate severe weather presentations in the cockpit are detailed. The first method described is a course up display of uplinked weather radar data. This involves the construction of a demonstrator that will show the feasibility of producing a course up display in the cockpit of the NASA simulator at Langley. A set of software algorithms was designed that could easily be implemented, along with data tapes generated to provide the cockpit simulation. The second method described involves the uplinking of sferic data from a ground based 3M-Ryan Stormscope. The technique involves transfer of the data on the CRT of the Stormscope to a remote CRT. This sferic uplink and display could also be included in an implementation on the NASA cockpit simulator, allowing evaluation of pilot responses based on real Stormscope data.

  7. Threat perception while viewing single intruder conflicts on a cockpit display of traffic information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, S. R.; Palmer, E.

    1982-01-01

    Subjective estimates of the threat posed by a single intruder aircraft were determined by showing pilots photographs of a cockpit display of traffic information. The time the intruder was away from the point of minimum separation was found to be the major determinant of the perception of threat. When asked to choose a maneuver to reduce the conflict, pilots selected maneuvers with a bias toward those that would have kept the intruders in sight had they been visible out the cockpit window.

  8. Brain-wave measures of workload in advanced cockpits: The transition of technology from laboratory to cockpit simulator, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horst, Richard L.; Mahaffey, David L.; Munson, Robert C.

    1989-01-01

    The present Phase 2 small business innovation research study was designed to address issues related to scalp-recorded event-related potential (ERP) indices of mental workload and to transition this technology from the laboratory to cockpit simulator environments for use as a systems engineering tool. The project involved five main tasks: (1) Two laboratory studies confirmed the generality of the ERP indices of workload obtained in the Phase 1 study and revealed two additional ERP components related to workload. (2) A task analysis' of flight scenarios and pilot tasks in the Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator (ACFS) defined cockpit events (i.e., displays, messages, alarms) that would be expected to elicit ERPs related to workload. (3) Software was developed to support ERP data analysis. An existing ARD-proprietary package of ERP data analysis routines was upgraded, new graphics routines were developed to enhance interactive data analysis, and routines were developed to compare alternative single-trial analysis techniques using simulated ERP data. (4) Working in conjunction with NASA Langley research scientists and simulator engineers, preparations were made for an ACFS validation study of ERP measures of workload. (5) A design specification was developed for a general purpose, computerized, workload assessment system that can function in simulators such as the ACFS.

  9. Hazard evaluation and operational cockpit display of ground-measured windshear data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wanke, Craig; Hansman, R. John, Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Information transfer issues associated with the dissemination of wind shear alerts from the ground are studied. The two issues specifically addressed are the effectiveness of different cockpit presentations of ground-measured information and the assessment of the wind shear hazard from ground-based measurements. A pilot survey has produced an information base for study of crew-centered wind shear alert design. A part-task Boeing 767 'glass cockpit' simulation has provided useful data about modes of cockpit information presentation for both wind shear alert and ATC clearance delivery. Graphical map displays are observed to be exceptionally efficient for presentation of position-critical alerts, while some problems with text displays are identified. Problems associated with hazard assessment of ground-measured wind shear information are also identified.

  10. Rationale and description of a coordinated cockpit display for aircraft flight management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baty, D. L.

    1976-01-01

    The design for aircraft cockpit display systems is discussed in detail. The system consists of a set of three beam penetration color cathode ray tubes (CRT). One of three orthogonal projects of the aircraft's state appears on each CRT which displays different views of the same information. The color feature is included to obtain visual separation of information elements. The colors of red, green and yellow are used to differentiate control, performance and navigation information. Displays are coordinated in information and color.

  11. Jet transport flight operations using cockpit display of traffic information during instrument meteorological conditions: Simulation evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David H.; Wells, Douglas C.

    1986-01-01

    A simulation study was undertaken to evaluate flight operations using cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI) in a conventional jet transport aircraft. Eight two-person airline flight crews participated as test subjects flying simulated terminal area approach and departure operations under instrument meteorological conditions (IMC). A fixed-base cockpit simulator configured with a full complement of conventional electromechanical instrumentation to permit full workload operations was utilized. Traffic information was displayed on a color cathode-ray tube (CRT) mounted above the throttle quadrant in the typical weather radar location. A transparent touchpanel overlay was utilized for pilot interface with the display. Air traffic control (ATC) simulation included an experienced controller and full partyline radio environment for evaluation of pilot-controlled self-separation and traffic situation monitoring tasks. Results of the study revealed the CDTI to be well received by the test subjects as a useful system which could be incorporated into an existing jet transport cockpit. Crew coordination and consistent operating procedures were identified as important considerations in operational implementation of traffic displays. Cockpit workload was increased with active CDTI tasks. However, all test subjects rated the increase to be acceptable.

  12. Potential interactions of collision avoidance advisories and cockpit displays of traffic information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, E.; Ellis, S. R.

    1983-01-01

    Future aircraft cockpits may be equipped with both collision avoidance systems and cockpit traffic situation displays. This paper summarizes a series of experiments investigating a pilot's ability to make a variety of traffic related decisions with a traffic display. Some of the key findings were: Pilots were not able to accurately judge the future position of an aircraft unless the display contained predictor symbols. Pilots' subjective judgements of threat were inversely proportional to time to closest approach but generally were not sensitive to small changes of other parameters of the encounter. When pilots were asked to make avoidance maneuvers based solely on the traffic display, they began their maneuvers well before a CAS advisory would have been triggered. Provided sufficient time was available, pilots preferred horizontal avoidance maneuvers.

  13. Sensitivity and Bias in Searches of Cockpit Display of Traffic Information Utilizing Highlighting/Lowlighting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Walter W.; Jordan, Kevin; Liao, Min-Ju; Granada, Stacy

    2003-01-01

    A previous investigation showed that when bright and dim traffic symbols were mixed together on a cockpit display of traffic information, dim targets required longer search times than bright targets. The current experiment utilized Signal Detection methodology to determine the cause of this effect. Two factors were manipulated, Intensity and Mixture. The Intensity manipulation varied whether targets were bright or dim. The Mixture manipulation varied whether the brightness of all aircraft symbols was the same, or if half were bright and half dim. Participants were given 1.25 s to search a display of eight aircraft and determine whether a target was present or absent (50% of the time a target was present) and then rated their confidence in the accuracy of their decision. A Mixture by Intensity repeated-measures ANOVA on the signal detectability measure, A (a non- parametric variant of d ), revealed that targets presented at the dim intensity in the mixed condition yielded significantly lower sensitivity than either of the pure (homogenous) conditions or the bright targets in the mixed condition. There was not a significant difference in False Alarm rates between any conditions, indicating no change in decision criterion. Findings are discussed in terms of possible masking effects evoked by bright aircraft over the dim aircraft. Funding for this work was provided by the Advanced Air Transportation Technologies Project of NASA s Airspace Operation Systems Program.

  14. Recommendations for a Cockpit Display that Integrates Weather Information with Traffic Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comerford, Doreen A.

    2004-01-01

    This effort was supported by the System-Wide Accident Prevention element of NASA s Aviation Safety Program. This document may serve as a first step toward the goal of integrating traffic, weather, and terrain information; it provides recommendations for a cockpit display that integrates weather information with traffic information. While some of the recommendations are general enough to be used for any type of operations, these recommendations are targeted for Federal Aviation Regulations Part 121 Operations. The document is organized in the following manner. First, weather information is discussed as an independent subject matter, and recommendations are presented for presenting weather in the cockpit. Second, traffic is discussed independently, but this discussion essentially reviews work on the display of traffic in the cockpit. Third, recommendations for the cockpit integration of weather and traffic information are discussed. Fourth, several research groups are recognized for their efforts in developing systems that are relevant to the current discussion. Finally, closing remarks provide suggestions for future efforts.

  15. Format and basic geometry of a perspective display of air traffic for the cockpit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgreevy, Michael Wallace; Ellis, Stephen R.

    1991-01-01

    The design and implementation of a perspective display of air traffic for the cockpit is discussed. Parameters of the perspective are variable and interactive so that the appearance of the projected image can be widely varied. This approach makes allowances for exploration of perspective parameters and their interactions. The display was initially used to study the cases of horizontal maneuver biases found in experiments involving a plan view air traffic display format. Experiments to determine the effect of perspective geometry on spatial judgements have evolved from the display program. Several scaling techniques and other adjustments to the perspective are used to tailor the geometry for effective presentation of 3-D traffic situations.

  16. Advanced helicopter cockpit and control configurations for helicopter combat missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haworth, Loran A.; Atencio, Adolph, Jr.; Bivens, Courtland; Shively, Robert; Delgado, Daniel

    1987-01-01

    Two piloted simulations were conducted by the U.S. Army Aeroflightdynamics Directorate to evaluate workload and helicopter-handling qualities requirements for single pilot operation in a combat Nap-of-the-Earth environment. The single-pilot advanced cockpit engineering simulation (SPACES) investigations were performed on the NASA Ames Vertical Motion Simulator, using the Advanced Digital Optical Control System control laws and an advanced concepts glass cockpit. The first simulation (SPACES I) compared single pilot to dual crewmember operation for the same flight tasks to determine differences between dual and single ratings, and to discover which control laws enabled adequate single-pilot helicopter operation. The SPACES II simulation concentrated on single-pilot operations and use of control laws thought to be viable candidates for single pilot operations workload. Measures detected significant differences between single-pilot task segments. Control system configurations were task dependent, demonstrating a need for inflight reconfigurable control system to match the optimal control system with the required task.

  17. Cockpit Interfaces, Displays, and Alerting Messages for the Interval Management Alternative Clearances (IMAC) Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Palmer, Michael T.; Swieringa, Kurt A.

    2015-01-01

    This document describes the IM cockpit interfaces, displays, and alerting capabilities that were developed for and used in the IMAC experiment, which was conducted at NASA Langley in the summer of 2015. Specifically, this document includes: (1) screen layouts for each page of the interface; (2) step-by-step instructions for data entry, data verification and input error correction; (3) algorithm state messages and error condition alerting messages; (4) aircraft speed guidance and deviation indications; and (5) graphical display of the spatial relationships between the Ownship aircraft and the Target aircraft. The controller displays for IM will be described in a separate document.

  18. Cockpit data link displays - An evaluation of textual formats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgann, Alison; Lozito, Sandra; Corker, Kevin

    1992-01-01

    Data link technologies are being investigated for air/ground information transfer for commercial aircraft operation. This study was designed to measure which of four alpha-numeric display formats for display of data link information would lead to the quickest and most accurate memory retrieval in a part-task simulation environment. Pilots viewed a clearance for 10-15 seconds and were subsequently queried about the content of that clearance. Speed and accuracy of responses were measured across three retention tasks. The three retention tasks included free recall of a particular clearance. recognition of a previous clearance, and the comparison of element values between a previously displayed and current clearance. Each format was tested with and without a distraction task. Subjective ratings of each format were also collected. The analyses revealed no significant differences for reaction time or accuracy among the four formats. Explanations for these results as well as alternative methodologies are discussed.

  19. GPS 3-D cockpit displays: Sensors, algorithms, and flight testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrows, Andrew Kevin

    Tunnel-in-the-Sky 3-D flight displays have been investigated for several decades as a means of enhancing aircraft safety and utility. However, high costs have prevented commercial development and seriously hindered research into their operational benefits. The rapid development of Differential Global Positioning Systems (DGPS), inexpensive computing power, and ruggedized displays is now changing this situation. A low-cost prototype system was built and flight tested to investigate implementation and operational issues. The display provided an "out the window" 3-D perspective view of the world, letting the pilot see the horizon, runway, and desired flight path even in instrument flight conditions. The flight path was depicted as a tunnel through which the pilot flew the airplane, while predictor symbology provided guidance to minimize path-following errors. Positioning data was supplied, by various DGPS sources including the Stanford Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) testbed. A combination of GPS and low-cost inertial sensors provided vehicle heading, pitch, and roll information. Architectural and sensor fusion tradeoffs made during system implementation are discussed. Computational algorithms used to provide guidance on curved paths over the earth geoid are outlined along with display system design issues. It was found that current technology enables low-cost Tunnel-in-the-Sky display systems with a target cost of $20,000 for large-scale commercialization. Extensive testing on Piper Dakota and Beechcraft Queen Air aircraft demonstrated enhanced accuracy and operational flexibility on a variety of complex flight trajectories. These included curved and segmented approaches, traffic patterns flown on instruments, and skywriting by instrument reference. Overlays to existing instrument approaches at airports in California and Alaska were flown and compared with current instrument procedures. These overlays demonstrated improved utility and situational awareness for

  20. CODAC (Cockpit Oriented Display of Aircraft Configurations) version 1.4 user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bingel, Bradford D.; Wilson, Erma L.; Hollis, Michelle S.

    1988-01-01

    The Cockpit Oriented Display of Aircraft Configurations (CODAC) package is an interactive FORTRAN 77 graphics program which produces high quality publication grade hidden line images of three dimensional wireframe objects. The term, Cockpit Oriented, is used because CODAC rotates objects relative to the changing aircraft axis system (rather than about a fixed global axis system) and uses the more familiar directions of yaw, roll, and pitch. In addition, CODAC accepts geometry data in a variety of formats (LaWGS, Craidon, Hess, and FVS data check), and automatically selects the appropriate panel driver. Finally, CODAC makes full use of the Precision Visuals' DI-3000 metafile option, allowing users to save, edit, and print images for group presentations or research publications.

  1. Formal tests for LLM approaches using refined cockpit display technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Randall C.; Wilt, Dennis W.; Henion, James; Alter, Keith; Snow, Paul; Deaton, John E.

    2005-05-01

    Results are presented from formal flight and simulation experiments to test a new primary flight display (PFD)/refined multifunction display (MFD) system, with a computer generated dynamic pathway, as a viable means for a pilot to accurately and efficiently control and navigate an aircraft. For flight control, the PFD uses a computer generated highway-in-the-sky (HITS) pathway and a synthetic vision terrain image of the view outside the aircraft, with an overlay of all the essential flight technical data. For navigation, the MFD provides a moving map with a dynamic pathway to aid the pilot. The total PFD/MFD system provides a predictive method for flying an aircraft, as opposed to the reactive method associated with conventional needle and dial instruments. Fifteen low-to-average-experience subject pilots were selected to compare the PFD instrumentation system to a conventional instrumentation system. A non-precision global positioning system (GPS) area navigation (RNAV) approach to runway 20 at Wakefield Municipal Airport, VA, (AKQ) was used. The hypothesis was that the intuitive nature of the PFD instrumentation system will provide greater situational awareness, improved accuracy, and less pilot workload during flight in instrument meteorological conditions (IMC) compared to using conventional round dial instrumentation.

  2. Evaluation of two cockpit display concepts for civil tiltrotor instrument operations on steep approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, William A.; Bray, Richard S.; Simmons, Rickey C.; Tucker, George E.

    1993-01-01

    A piloted simulation experiment was conducted using the NASA Ames Research Center Vertical Motion Simulator to evaluate two cockpit display formats designed for manual control on steep instrument approaches for a civil transport tiltrotor aircraft. The first display included a four-cue (pitch, roll, power lever position, and nacelle angle movement prompt) flight director. The second display format provided instantaneous flight path angle information together with other symbols for terminal area guidance. Pilots evaluated these display formats for an instrument approach task which required a level flight conversion from airplane-mode flight to helicopter-mode flight while decelerating to the nominal approach airspeed. Pilots tracked glide slopes of 6, 9, 15 and 25 degrees, terminating in a hover for a vertical landing on a 150 feet square vertipad. Approaches were conducted with low visibility and ceilings and with crosswinds and turbulence, with all aircraft systems functioning normally and were carried through to a landing. Desired approach and tracking performance was achieved with generally satisfactory handling qualities using either display format on glide slopes up through 15 degrees. Evaluations with both display formats for a 25 degree glide slope revealed serious problems with glide slope tracking at low airspeeds in crosswinds and the loss of the intended landing spot from the cockpit field of view.

  3. Advanced automated glass cockpit certification: Being wary of human factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amalberti, Rene; Wilbaux, Florence

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents some facets of the French experience with human factors in the process of certification of advanced automated cockpits. Three types of difficulties are described: first, the difficulties concerning the hotly debated concept of human error and its non-linear relationship to risk of accident; a typology of errors to be taken into account in the certification process is put forward to respond to this issue. Next, the difficulties connected to the basically gradual and evolving nature of pilot expertise on a given type of aircraft, which contrasts with the immediate and definitive style of certifying systems. The last difficulties to be considered are those related to the goals of certification itself on these new aircraft and the status of findings from human factor analyses (in particular, what should be done with disappointing results, how much can the changes induced by human factors investigation economically affect aircraft design, how many errors do we need to accumulate before we revise the system, what should be remedied when human factor problems are discovered at the certification stage: the machine? pilot training? the rules? or everything?). The growth of advanced-automated glass cockpits has forced the international aeronautical community to pay more attention to human factors during the design phase, the certification phase and pilot training. The recent creation of a human factor desk at the DGAC-SFACT (Official French services) is a direct consequence of this. The paper is divided into three parts. Part one debates human error and its relationship with system design and accident risk. Part two describes difficulties connected to the basically gradual and evolving nature of pilot expertise on a given type of aircraft, which contrasts with the immediate and definitive style of certifying systems. Part three focuses on concrete outcomes of human factors for certification purposes.

  4. Advanced crew station concepts, displays, and input/output technology for civil aircraft of the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatfield, J. J.; Robertson, J. B.; Batson, V. M.

    1979-01-01

    Current efforts on a new Cockpit Avionics Research program are described. The major thrusts of the program presented include: a comparative analysis of advanced display media and development of promising selected media, development of flight display generation techniques, and identification and development of promising I/O technology. In addition, the advanced integrated display concepts described include a 'tunnel in the sky' display and a traffic situation display with associated keyboard. Finally, the Cockpit Avionics Research program is summarized, future research plans are presented, and the need for an expanded program is discussed.

  5. Perceived vs. measured effects of advanced cockpit systems on pilot workload and error: are pilots' beliefs misaligned with reality?

    PubMed

    Casner, Stephen M

    2009-05-01

    Four types of advanced cockpit systems were tested in an in-flight experiment for their effect on pilot workload and error. Twelve experienced pilots flew conventional cockpit and advanced cockpit versions of the same make and model airplane. In both airplanes, the experimenter dictated selected combinations of cockpit systems for each pilot to use while soliciting subjective workload measures and recording any errors that pilots made. The results indicate that the use of a GPS navigation computer helped reduce workload and errors during some phases of flight but raised them in others. Autopilots helped reduce some aspects of workload in the advanced cockpit airplane but did not appear to reduce workload in the conventional cockpit. Electronic flight and navigation instruments appeared to have no effect on workload or error. Despite this modest showing for advanced cockpit systems, pilots stated an overwhelming preference for using them during all phases of flight.

  6. A 3-Dimensional Cockpit Display with Traffic and Terrain Information for the Small Aircraft Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    UijtdeHaag, Maarten; Thomas, Robert; Rankin, James R.

    2004-01-01

    The report discusses the architecture and the flight test results of a 3-Dimensional Cockpit Display of Traffic and terrain Information (3D-CDTI). The presented 3D-CDTI is a perspective display format that combines existing Synthetic Vision System (SVS) research and Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) technology to improve the pilot's situational awareness. The goal of the 3D-CDTI is to contribute to the development of new display concepts for NASA's Small Aircraft Transportation System research program. Papers were presented at the PLANS 2002 meeting and the ION-GPS 2002 meeting. The contents of this report are derived from the results discussed in those papers.

  7. Separation Monitoring with Four Types of Predictors on a Cockpit Display of Traffic Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jago, S.; Palmer, E.

    1982-01-01

    A clear and concise display format for use in later full mission simulator evaluation of the cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI) concept was studied. This experiment required airline pilots to monitor a CDTI and make perceptual judgments concerning the future position of a single intruder aircraft in relationship to their own aircraft (ownship). The main experimental variable was the type of predictor used to display future position of each aircraft. Predictors were referenced to the ground or to ownship and they either included turn rate information or did not. Other variables were the aircraft's separation distance when the judgment was required and the type of encounter (straight or turning). Results indicate that under these experimental conditions fewer errors were made when the predictor included turn rate information. There was little difference in overall error rate for the curved ground referenced and the ownship referenced predictors.

  8. The Development of Cockpit Display and Alerting Concepts for Interval Management (IM) in a Near-Term Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Shay, Richard F.; Swieringa, Kurt A.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center (LaRC) Interval Management (IM) research team has conducted a wide spectrum of work in the recent past, ranging from development and testing of the concept, procedures, and algorithm. This document focuses on the research and evaluation of the IM pilot interfaces, cockpit displays, indications, and alerting concepts for conducting IM spacing operations. The research team incorporated knowledge of human factors research, industry standards for cockpit design, and cockpit design philosophies to develop innovative displays for conducting these spacing operations. The research team also conducted a series of human-in-the-loop (HITL) experiments with commercial pilots and air traffic controllers, in as realistic a high-density arrival operation environment as could be simulated, to evaluate the spacing guidance display features and interface requirements needed to conduct spacing operations.

  9. Development and Demonstration of a Prototype Free Flight Cockpit Display of Traffic Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Walter W.; Battiste, Vernol; Delzell, Susanne; Holland, Sheila; Belcher, Sean; Jordan, Kevin

    2003-01-01

    Two versions of a prototype Free Flight cockpit situational display (Basic and Enhanced) were examined in a simulation at the NASA Ames Research Center. Both displays presented a display of traffic out to a range of 120 NM, and an alert when the automation detected a substantial danger of losing separation with another aircraft. The task for the crews was to detect and resolve threats to separation posed by intruder aircraft. An Enhanced version of the display was also examined. It incorporated two additional conflict alerting levels and tools to aid in trajectory prediction and path planning. Ten crews from a major airline participated in the study. Performance analyses and pilot debriefings showed that the Enhanced display was preferred, and that minimal separation between the intruder and the ownship was larger with the Enhanced display. In addition, the additional information on the Enhanced display did not lead crews to engage in more maneuvering. Instead an opposite trend was indicated. Finally, crews using the Enhanced display responded more proactively, tending to resolve alerts earlier.

  10. Effects of redundancy in the comparison of speech and pictorial displays in the cockpit environment.

    PubMed

    Byblow, W D

    1990-06-01

    Synthesised speech and pictorial displays were compared in a spatially compatible simulated cockpit environment. Messages of high or low levels of redundancy were presented to subjects in both modality conditions. Subjects responded to warnings presented in a warning-only condition and in a dual-task condition, in which a simulated flight task was performed with visual and manual input/output modalities. Because the amount of information presented in most real-world applications and experimental paradigms is quantifiably large with respect to present guidelines for the use of synthesised speech warnings, the low-redundancy condition was hypothesised to allow for better performance. Results showed that subjects respond quicker to messages of low redundancy in both modalities. It is suggested that speech messages with low-redundancy levels were effective in minimising message length and ensuring that messages did not overload the short-term memory required to process and maintain speech in memory. Manipulation of phrase structure was used to optimise message redundancy and enhance the conceptual compatibility of the message without increasing message length or imposing a perceptual cost or memory overload. The results also suggest that system response times were quicker when synthesised speech warnings were used. This result is consistent with predictions from multiple resource theory which states that the resources required for the perception of verbal warnings are different from those for the flight task. It is also suggested that the perception of a pictorial display requires the same resources used for the perception of the primary flight task. An alternative explanation is that pictorial displays impose a visual scanning cost which is responsible for decreased performance. Based on the findings reported here, it is suggested that speech displays be incorporated in a spatially compatible cockpit environment because they allow equal or better performance when

  11. Effect of display update interval, update type, and background on perception of aircraft separation on a cockpit display on traffic information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jago, S.; Baty, D.; Oconnor, S.; Palmer, E.

    1981-01-01

    The concept of a cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI) includes the integration of air traffic, navigation, and other pertinent information in a single electronic display in the cockpit. Concise display symbology was developed for use in later full-mission simulator evaluations of the CDTI concept. Experimental variables used included the update interval motion of the aircraft, the update type, (that is, whether the two aircraft were updated at the same update interval or not), the background (grid pattern or no background), and encounter type (straight or curved). Only the type of encounter affected performance.

  12. Conflict resolution maneuvers during near miss encounters with cockpit traffic displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, E.

    1983-01-01

    The benefits and liabilities associated with pilots' use of a cockpit traffic display to assess the threat posed by air traffic and to make small maneuvers to avoid situations which would result in collision avoidance advisories are experimentally studied. The crew's task was to fly a simulated wide-body aircraft along a straight course at constant altitude while intruder aircraft appeared on a variety of converging trajectories. The main experimental variables were the amount and quality of the information displayed on the intruder aircraft's estimated future position. Pilots were to maintain a horizontal separation of at least 1.5 nautical miles or a vertical separation of 500 ft, so that collision avoidance advisories would not be triggered. The results show that pilots could usually maneuver to provide the specified separation but often made course deviations greater than 1.5 nm or 500 ft.

  13. Horizontal Conflict Resolution Maneuvers with a Cockpit Display of Traffic Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, E.; Jago, S.; Dubord, M.

    1981-01-01

    Pilot resolution of potential conflicts in the horizontal plane when the only information available on the other aircraft was presented on a Cockpit Display of Traffic Information (CDTI) is investigated. The pilot's task was to assess the situation and if necessary maneuver so as to avoid the other aircraft. No instructions were given on evasive strategy or on what was considered to be an acceptable minimum separation. The results indicate that pilots had a strong bias of turning toward the intruder aircraft in order to pass behind it. In more than 50% of the encounters with a 90 degree crossing angle in which the intruder aircraft was programmed to pass behind the aircraft, the pilots maneuvered so as to pass behind the intruder. This bias was not as strong with the display which showed a prediction of the intruder's relative velocity. The average miss distance for all encounters was about 4500 feet.

  14. Effects of Symbol Brightness Cueing on Attention During a Visual Search of a Cockpit Display of Traffic Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Walter W.; Liao, Min-Ju; Granada, Stacie

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated visual search performance for target aircraft symbols on a Cockpit Display of Traffic Information (CDTI). Of primary interest was the influence of target brightness (intensity) and highlighting validity (search directions) on the ability to detect a target aircraft among distractor aircraft. Target aircraft were distinguished by an airspace course that conflicted with Ownship (that is, the participant's aircraft). The display could present all (homogeneous) bright aircraft, all (homogeneous) dim aircraft, or mixed bright and dim aircraft, with the target aircraft being either bright or dim. In the mixed intensity condition, participants may or may not have been instructed whether the target was bright or dim. Results indicated that highlighting validity facilitated better detection times. However, instead of bright targets being detected faster, dim targets were found to be detected more slowly in the mixed intensity display than in the homogeneous display. This relative slowness may be due to a delay in confirming the dim aircraft to be a target when it it was among brighter distractor aircraft. This hypothesis will be tested in future research. Funding for this work was provided by the Advanced Air Transportation Technologies Project of NASA's Airspace Operation Systems Program.

  15. Accuracy of System Step Response Roll Magnitude Estimation from Central and Peripheral Visual Displays and Simulator Cockpit Motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hosman, R. J. A. W.; Vandervaart, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    An experiment to investigate visual roll attitude and roll rate perception is described. The experiment was also designed to assess the improvements of perception due to cockpit motion. After the onset of the motion, subjects were to make accurate and quick estimates of the final magnitude of the roll angle step response by pressing the appropriate button of a keyboard device. The differing time-histories of roll angle, roll rate and roll acceleration caused by a step response stimulate the different perception processes related the central visual field, peripheral visual field and vestibular organs in different, yet exactly known ways. Experiments with either of the visual displays or cockpit motion and some combinations of these were run to asses the roles of the different perception processes. Results show that the differences in response time are much more pronounced than the differences in perception accuracy.

  16. E-2D Advanced Hawkeye: primary flight display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paolillo, Paul W.; Saxena, Ragini; Garruba, Jonathan; Tripathi, Sanjay; Blanchard, Randy

    2006-05-01

    This paper is a response to the challenge of providing a large area avionics display for the E-2D AHE aircraft. The resulting display design provides a pilot with high-resolution visual information content covering an image area of almost three square feet (Active Area of Samsung display = 33.792cm x 27.0336 cm = 13.304" x 10.643" = 141.596 square inches = 0.983 sq. ft x 3 = 2.95 sq. ft). The avionics display application, design and performance being described is the Primary Flight Display for the E-2D Advanced Hawkeye aircraft. This cockpit display has a screen diagonal size of 17 inches. Three displays, with minimum bezel width, just fit within the available instrument panel area. The significant design constraints of supporting an upgrade installation have been addressed. These constraints include a display image size that is larger than the mounting opening in the instrument panel. This, therefore, requires that the Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) window, LCD panel and backlight all fit within the limited available bezel depth. High brightness and a wide dimming range are supported with a dual mode Cold Cathode Fluorescent Tube (CCFT) and LED backlight. Packaging constraints dictated the use of multiple U shaped fluorescent lamps in a direct view backlight design for a maximum display brightness of 300 foot-Lamberts. The low intensity backlight levels are provided by remote LEDs coupled through a fiber optic mesh. This architecture generates luminous uniformity within a minimum backlight depth. Cross-cockpit viewing is supported with ultra-wide field-of-view performance including contrast and the color stability of an advanced LCD cell design supports. Display system design tradeoffs directed a priority to high optical efficiency for minimum power and weight.

  17. Cockpit automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiener, Earl L.

    1988-01-01

    The aims and methods of aircraft cockpit automation are reviewed from a human-factors perspective. Consideration is given to the mixed pilot reception of increased automation, government concern with the safety and reliability of highly automated aircraft, the formal definition of automation, and the ground-proximity warning system and accidents involving controlled flight into terrain. The factors motivating automation include technology availability; safety; economy, reliability, and maintenance; workload reduction and two-pilot certification; more accurate maneuvering and navigation; display flexibility; economy of cockpit space; and military requirements.

  18. Advanced poly-LED displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childs, Mark; Nisato, Giovanni; Fish, D.; Giraldo, Andrea; Jenkins, A. J.; Johnson, Mark T.

    2003-05-01

    Philips have been actively developing polymer OLED (poly-LED) displays as a future display technology. Their emissive nature leads to a very attractive visual appearance, with wide viewing angle, high brightness and fast response speed. Whilst the first generation of poly-LED displays are likely to be passive-matrix driven, power reduction and resolution increase will lead to the use of active-matrix poly-LED displays. Philips Research have designed, fabricated and characterized five different designs of active-matrix polymer-LED display. Each of the five displays makes use of a distinct pixel programming- or pixel drive-technique, including current programming, threshold voltage measurement and photodiode feedback. It will be shown that hte simplest voltage-programmed current-source pixel suffers from potentially unacceptable brightness non-uniformity, and that advanced pixel circuits can provide a solution to this. Optical-feedback pixel circuits will be discussed, showing that they can be used to improve uniformity and compensate for image burn-in due to polymer-LED material degradation, improving display lifetime. Philips research has also been active in developing technologies required to implement poly-LED displays on flexible substrates, including materials, processing and testing methods. The fabrication of flexible passive-matrix poly-LED displays will be presented, as well as the ongoing work to assess the suitability of processing flexible next-generation poly-LED displays.

  19. Pilot performance and eye movement activity with varying levels of display integration in a synthetic vision cockpit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, Julie Michele

    The primary goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of display integration in a simulated commercial aircraft cockpit equipped with a synthetic vision display. Combinations of display integration level (low/high), display view (synthetic vision view/traditional display), and workload (low/high) were presented to each participant. Sixteen commercial pilots flew multiple approaches under IMC conditions in a moderate fidelity fixed-base part-task simulator. Pilot performance data, visual activity, mental workload, and self-report situation awareness were measured. Congruent with the Proximity Compatibility Principle, the more integrated display facilitated superior performance on integrative tasks (lateral and vertical path maintenance), whereas a less integrated display elicited better focus task performance (airspeed maintenance). The synthetic vision displays facilitated superior path maintenance performance under low workload, but these performance gains were not as evident during high workload. The majority of the eye movement findings identified differences in visual acquisition of the airspeed indicator, the glideslope indicator, the localizer, and the altimeter as a function of display integration level or display view. There were more fixations on the airspeed indicator with the more integrated display layout and during high workload trials. There were also more fixations on the glideslope indicator with the more integrated display layout. However, there were more fixations on the localizer with the less integrated display layout. There were more fixations on the altimeter with the more integrated display and with the traditional view. Only a few eye movement differences were produced by the synthetic vision displays; pilots looked at the glideslope indicator and the altimeter less with the synthetic vision view. This supports the notion that utilizing a synthetic vision display should not adversely impact visual acquisition of data. Self

  20. The Effect of Symbology Location and Format on Attentional Deployment within a Cockpit Display of Traffic Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Walter W.; Liao, Min-Ju; Tse, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    The present experiment employed target detection tasks to investigate attentional deployment during visual search for target aircraft symbols on a cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI). Targets were defined by either a geometric property (aircraft on a collision course with Ownship) or a textual property (aircraft with associated altitude tags indicating an even altitude level). Effects of target location and target brightness (highlighting) were examined. Target location was systematically related to target detection time, and this interacted with the target's defining property (collision geometry or associated text). Highlighting (which was not linked to whether an aircraft symbol was the target) did not influence target detection time.

  1. A systematic approach to advanced cockpit warning systems for air transport operations: Line pilot preferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D. H.; Simpson, C. A.

    1976-01-01

    Line pilots (fifty captains, first officers, and flight engineers) from 8 different airlines were administered a structured questionnaire relating to future warning system design and solutions to current warning system problems. This was followed by a semantic differential to obtain a factor analysis of 18 different cockpit warning signals on scales such as informative/distracting, annoying/soothing. Half the pilots received a demonstration of the experimental text and voice synthesizer warning systems before answering the questionnaire and the semantic differential. A control group answered the questionnaire and the semantic differential first, thus providing a check for the stability of pilot preferences with and without actual exposure to experimental systems. Generally, the preference data obtained revealed much consistency and strong agreement among line pilots concerning advance cockpit warning system design.

  2. Evaluation of Perspective and Coplanar Cockpit Displays of Traffic Information to Support Hazard Awareness in Free Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merwin, David H.; Wickens, Christopher D.

    1996-01-01

    We examined the cockpit display representation of traffic, to support the pilot in tactical planning and conflict avoidance. Such displays may support the "free flight" concept, but can also support greater situation awareness in a non-free flight environment. Two perspective views and a coplanar display were contrasted in scenarios in which pilots needed to navigate around conflicting traffic, either in the absence (low workload) or presence (high workload) of a second intruder aircraft. All three formats were configured with predictive aiding vectors that explicitly represented the predicted point of closest pass, and predicted penetration of an alert zone around ownship. Ten pilots were assigned to each of the display conditions, and each flew a series of 60 conflict maneuvers that varied in their workload and the complexity of the conflict geometry. Results indicated a tendency to choose vertical over lateral maneuvers, a tendency which was amplified with the coplanar display. Vertical maneuvers by the intruder produced an added source of workload. Importantly, the coplanar display supported performance in all measures that was equal to or greater than either of the perspective displays (i.e., fewer predicted and actual conflicts, less extreme maneuvers). Previous studies that have indicated perspective superiority have only contrasted these with UNIplanar displays rather than the coplanar display used here.

  3. Design, simulation and evaluation of advanced display concepts for the F-16 control configured vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, R. W.; Hollister, W. M.

    1982-01-01

    Advanced display concepts to augment the tracking ability of the F-16 Control Configured Vehicle (CCV) were designed, simulated, and evaluated. A fixed-base simulator was modified to represent the F-16 CCV. An isometric sidearm control stick and two-axis CCV thumb button were installed in the cockpit. The forward cockpit CRT was programmed to present an external scene (numbered runway, horizon) and the designed Heads Up Display. The cockpit interior was modified to represent a fighter and the F-16 CCV dynamics and direct lift and side force modes were programmed. Compensatory displays were designed from man-machine considerations. Pilots evaluated the Heads up Display and compensatory displays during simulated descents in the presence of several levels of filtered, zero-mean winds gusts. During a descent from 2500 feet to the runway, the pilots tracked a point on the runway utilizing the basic F-16, F-16 CCV, and F-16 CCV with advanced displays. Substantial tracking improvements resulted utilizing the CCV modes, and the displays were found to even further enhance the tracking ability of the F-16 CCV.

  4. Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS): Cockpit Display of Traffic Information (CDTI) investigation. Phase 1: Feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burgess, Malcolm; Davis, Dean; Hollister, Walter; Sorensen, John A.

    1991-01-01

    The possibility of the Threat Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) traffic sensor and display being used for meaningful Cockpit Display of Traffic Information (CDTI) applications has resulted in the Federal Aviation Administration initiating a project to establish the technical and operational requirements to realize this potential. Phase 1 of the project is presented here. Phase 1 was organized to define specific CDTI applications for the terminal area, to determine what has already been learned about CDTI technology relevant to these applications, and to define the engineering required to supply the remaining TCAS-CDTI technology for capacity benefit realization. The CDTI applications examined have been limited to those appropriate to the final approach and departure phases of flight.

  5. The effect of viewing time, time to encounter, and practice on perception of aircraft separation on a cockpit display of traffic information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oconnor, S.; Palmer, E. A.; Baty, D.; Jago, S.

    1980-01-01

    The concept of a cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI) includes the integration of air traffic, navigation, and other pertinent information in a single electronic display in the cockpit. Two studies were conducted to develop a clear and concise display format for use in later full-mission simulator evaluations of the CDTI concept. Subjects were required to monitor a CDTI for specified periods of time and to make perceptual judgments concerning the future position of a single intruder aircraft in relationship to their own aircraft. Experimental variables included: type of predictor information displayed on the two aircraft symbols; time to encounter point; length of time subjects viewed the display; amount of practice; and type of encounter (straight or turning). Results show that length of viewing time had little or no effect on performance; time to encounter influenced performance with the straight predictor but did not with the curved predictor; and that learning occurred under all conditions.

  6. Cockpit Displays for Enhancing Terminal-Area Situational Awareness and Runway Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyer, Paul V.; Otero, Sharon; Jones, Denise R. (Technical Monitor)

    2007-01-01

    HUD and PFD displays have been developed to enhance situational awareness and improve runway safety. These displays were designed to seamlessly transition through all phases of flight providing guidance and information to the pilot. This report describes the background of the Langley Research Center (LaRC) HUD and PFD work, the steps required to integrate the displays with those of other LaRC programs, the display characteristics of the several operational modes and the transitional logic governing the transition between displays.

  7. Collaborative research on V/STOL control system/cockpit display tradeoffs under the NASA/MOD joint aeronautical program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, J. A.; Nicholas, O. P.

    1992-01-01

    Summarized here are activities that have taken place from 1979 to the present in a collaborative program between NASA Ames Research Center and the Royal Aerospace Establishment (now Defence Research Agency), Bedford on flight control system and cockpit display tradeoffs for low-speed and hover operations of future V/STOL aircraft. This program was created as Task 8A of the Joint Aeronautical Program between NASA in the United States and the Ministry of Defence (Procurement Executive) in the United Kingdom. The program was initiated based on a recognition by both parties of the strengths of the efforts of their counterparts and a desire to participate jointly in future simulation and flight experiments. In the ensuing years, teams of NASA and RAE engineers and pilots have participated in each other's simulation experiments to evaluate control and display concepts and define design requirements for research aircraft. Both organizations possess Harrier airframes that have undergone extensive modification to provide in-flight research capabilities in the subject areas. Both NASA and RAE have profited by exchanges of control/display concepts, design criteria, fabrication techniques, software development and validation, installation details, and ground and flight clearance techniques for their respective aircraft. This collaboration has permitted the two organizations to achieve jointly substantially more during the period than if they had worked independently. The two organizations are now entering the phase of flight research for the collaborative program as currently defined.

  8. A cockpit-display concept for executing a multiple glide-slope approach for wake-vortex avoidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, T. S.

    1984-01-01

    A piloted simulation study was undertaken to determine the feasibility of utilizing a forward-looking display to provide information that would enable aircraft to rredue their in-trail separation interval, and hence increase airport capacity, through the application of multiple glide-path approach techniques. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether information could be satisfactorily provided on a head-up display (HUD) format to permit the pilot to conduct a multiple glide-slope approach while maintaining a prespecified in-trail separation interval. The tests were conducted in a motion-base cockpit simulator configured as a current-generation transport aircraft and included dynamic effects of the vortices generated by the lead aircraft. The information provided on the HUD included typical aircraft guidance information and the current and past positions of the lead aircraft. Additionally, the displayed information provided self-separation cues that allowed the pilot to maintain separation on the lead aircraft. Performance data and pilot subjective ratings and comments were obtained during the tests. The results of this study indicate that multiple glide-slope approaches, procedurally designed for vortex avoidance, are possible while maintaining pilot work load and performance within operationally acceptable limits. In general, it would seem that multiple glide-slope approaches are possible even under reduced in-trail separation conditions if the pilot is provided with adequate situational information.

  9. Hazard evaluation and operational cockpit display of ground-measured windshear data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wanke, Craig; Hansman, R. John, Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Low-altitude windshear is the leading weather-related cause of fatal aviation accidents in the U.S. Since 1964, there have been 26 accidents attributed to windshear resulting in over 500 fatalities. Low-altitude windshear can take several forms, including macroscopic forms such as cold-warm gustfronts down to the small, intense downdrafts known as microbursts. Microbursts are particularly dangerous and difficult to detect due to their small size, short duration, and occurrence under both heavy precipitation and virtually dry conditions. For these reasons, the real-time detection of windshear hazards is a very active field of research. Also, the advent of digital ground-to-air datalinks and electronic flight instrumentation opens up many options for implementation of windshear alerts in the terminal area environment. Study is required to determine the best content, format, timing, and cockpit presentation of windshear alerts in the modern ATC environment to best inform the flight crew without significantly increasing crew workload.

  10. Experimental Studies of the Effect of Intent Information on Cockpit Traffic Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barhydt, Richard; Hansman, R. John

    1997-01-01

    Intent information provides knowledge of another aircraft's current and future trajectory states. Prototype traffic displays were designed for four different levels of intent: Position, Rate, Commanded State, and FMS (Flight Management System)-Path. The current TCAS (traffic collision avoidance systems) Display, which shows altitude rate in addition to current position and altitude, was used as a baseline and represents the lowest level of intent. The Rate, Commanded State, and FMS-Path Displays show increasing levels of intent information using TCAS-like symbology in addition to incorporating a conflict probe and profile view display. An initial experiment was run on the MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) Part Task Flight Simulator in which eight airline pilots flew five traffic scenarios with each of the four displays. Results show that pilots had fewer separation violations and maneuvered earlier with the three intent displays. Separation violations were reduced when pilots maneuvered earlier. A second experiment was run to compare performance between displaying intent information directly and incorporating it into a conflict probe. A different set of eight airline pilots flew four traffic scenarios with the TCAS and Commanded State Displays with and without the conflict probe. Conflict probes with two minute and long range look-ahead times were tested. Displaying conflict bands or showing intent information directly both led to fewer separation violations and earlier avoidance maneuvers than the base TCAS Display. Performance was similar between the two minute and long range look-ahead conflict probes. Pilots preferred all intent displays over the TCAS Display.

  11. Human factors in cockpit automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiener, E. L.

    1984-01-01

    The rapid advance in microprocessor technology has made it possible to automate many functions that were previously performed manually. Several research areas have been identified which are basic to the question of the implementation of automation in the cockpit. One of the identified areas deserving further research is warning and alerting systems. Modern transport aircraft have had one after another warning and alerting systems added, and computer-based cockpit systems make it possible to add even more. Three major areas of concern are: input methods (including voice, keyboard, touch panel, etc.), output methods and displays (from traditional instruments to CRTs, to exotic displays including the human voice), and training for automation. Training for operating highly automatic systems requires considerably more attention than it has been given in the past. Training methods have not kept pace with the advent of flight-deck automation.

  12. Lessons learned from the introduction of cockpit automation in advanced technology aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, W.R.; Byers, J.C.; Haney, L.N.; Ostrom, L.T.; Reece, W.J.

    1995-10-01

    The commercial aviation industry has many years of experience in the application of computer based human support systems, for example the flight management systems installed in today`s advanced technology (``glass cockpit``) aircraft. This experience can be very helpful in the design and implementation of similar systems for nuclear power plants. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) sponsored a study at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to investigate pilot errors that occur during interaction with automated systems in advanced technology aircraft. In particular, we investigated the causes and potential corrective measures for pilot errors that resulted in altitude deviation incidents (i.e. failure to capture or maintain the altitude assigned by air traffic control). To do this, we analyzed altitude deviation events that have been reported in the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS), NASA`s data base of incidents self-reported by pilots and air traffic controllers. We developed models of the pilot tasks that are performed to capture and maintain altitude. Incidents from the ASRS data base were mapped onto the models, to highlight and categorize the potential causes of the errors. This paper reviews some of the problems that have resulted from the introduction of glass cockpit aircraft, the methodology used to analyze pilot errors, the lessons learned from the study of altitude deviation events, and the application of the results to the introduction of computer-based human support systems in nuclear power plants. In addition, a framework for using reliability engineering tools to incorporate lessons learned from operational experience into the design, construction, and operation of complex systems is briefly described.

  13. Multi-Dimensionality of Synthetic Vision Cockpit Displays: Prevention of Controlled-Flight-Into-Terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Kramer, Lynda J.; Arthur, Jarvis J.; Bailey, Randall E.

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) project is developing technologies with practical applications that will help to eliminate low visibility conditions as a causal factor to civil aircraft accidents while replicating the operational benefits of clear day flight operations, regardless of the actual outside visibility condition. The paper describes experimental evaluation of a multi-mode 3-D exocentric synthetic vision navigation display concept for commercial aircraft. Experimental results showed the situation awareness benefits of 2-D and 3-D exocentric synthetic vision displays over traditional 2-D co-planar navigation and vertical situation displays. Conclusions and future research directions are discussed.

  14. Flight evaluation of stabilization and command augmentation system concepts and cockpit displays during approach and landing of powered-lift STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, J. A.; Innis, R. C.; Hardy, G. H.

    1980-01-01

    A flight research program was conducted to assess the effectiveness of manual control concepts and various cockpit displays in improving altitude (pitch, roll, and yaw) and longitudinal path control during short takeoff aircraft approaches and landings. Satisfactory flying qualities were demonstrared to minimum decision heights of 30 m (100 ft) for selected stabilization and command augmentation systems and flight director combinations. Precise landings at low touchdown sink rates were achieved with a gentle flare maneuver.

  15. Disorienting effects of aircraft catapult launchings: III. Cockpit displays and piloting performance.

    PubMed

    Cohen, M M

    1977-09-01

    Accelerations closely approximating those encountered in catapult launchings of carrier-based aircraft were generated on the Naval Air Development Center's human centrifuge Dynamic Flight Simulator. Flight instruments, controls, and flight dynamics of an A-7 aircraft were provided to four experienced Naval Aviators, who exercised closed-loop control of a simulated climbout immediately after they were exposed to the accelerations. Four experimental conditions were employed for each aviator: 1) no operational flight instruments, 2) conventional flight instruments, 3) a single carrier takeoff director display operating concurrently. Measures of flight parameters, including indicated airspeed, angle of attack, rate of climb, altitude, pitch attitude, and pitch trim adjustment were monitored throughout the simulation. Subjective reactions and piloting performance were examined under each of the four conditions. Results indicate that the carrier takeoff director display significantly reduced pilot workload and enhanced performance during the climbout.

  16. Advanced Technologies for Future Spacecraft Cockpits and Space-based Control Centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia-Galan, Carlos; Uckun, Serdar; Gregory, William; Williams, Kerry

    2006-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is embarking on a new era of Space Exploration, aimed at sending crewed spacecraft beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO), in medium and long duration missions to the Lunar surface, Mars and beyond. The challenges of such missions are significant and will require new technologies and paradigms in vehicle design and mission operations. Current roles and responsibilities of spacecraft systems, crew and the flight control team, for example, may not be sustainable when real-time support is not assured due to distance-induced communication lags, radio blackouts, equipment failures, or other unexpected factors. Therefore, technologies and applications that enable greater Systems and Mission Management capabilities on-board the space-based system will be necessary to reduce the dependency on real-time critical Earth-based support. The focus of this paper is in such technologies that will be required to bring advance Systems and Mission Management capabilities to space-based environments where the crew will be required to manage both the systems performance and mission execution without dependence on the ground. We refer to this concept as autonomy. Environments that require high levels of autonomy include the cockpits of future spacecraft such as the Mars Exploration Vehicle, and space-based control centers such as a Lunar Base Command and Control Center. Furthermore, this paper will evaluate the requirements, available technology, and roadmap to enable full operational implementation of onboard System Health Management, Mission Planning/re-planning, Autonomous Task/Command Execution, and Human Computer Interface applications. The technology topics covered by the paper include enabling technology to perform Intelligent Caution and Warning, where the systems provides directly actionable data for human understanding and response to failures, task automation applications that automate nominal and Off-nominal task execution based

  17. State-of-the-art cockpit design for the HH-65A helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castleberry, D. E.; Mcelreath, M. Y.

    1982-01-01

    In the design of a HH-65A helicopter cockpit, advanced integrated electronics systems technology was employed to achieve several important goals for this multimission aircraft. They were: (1) integrated systems operation with consistent and simplified cockpit procedures; (2) mission-task-related cockpit displays and controls, and (3) reduced pilot instrument scan effort with excellent outside visibility. The integrated avionics system was implemented to depend heavily upon distributed but complementary processing, multiplex digital bus technology, and multifunction CRT controls and displays. This avionics system was completely flight tested and will soon enter operational service with the Coast Guard.

  18. The Effect of NEXRAD Image Looping and National Convective Weather Forecast Product on Pilot Decision Making in the Use of a Cockpit Weather Information Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burgess, Malcolm A.; Thomas, Rickey P.

    2004-01-01

    This experiment investigated improvements to cockpit weather displays to better support the hazardous weather avoidance decision-making of general aviation pilots. Forty-eight general aviation pilots were divided into three equal groups and presented with a simulated flight scenario involving embedded convective activity. The control group had access to conventional sources of pre-flight and in-flight weather products. The two treatment groups were provided with a weather display that presented NEXRAD mosaic images, graphic depiction of METARs, and text METARs. One treatment group used a NEXRAD image looping feature and the second group used the National Convective Weather Forecast (NCWF) product overlaid on the NEXRAD display. Both of the treatment displays provided a significant increase in situation awareness but, they provided incomplete information required to deal with hazardous convective weather conditions, and would require substantial pilot training to permit their safe and effective use.

  19. Advanced rotorcraft helmet display sighting system optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raynal, Francois; Chen, Muh-Fa

    2002-08-01

    Kaiser Electronics' Advanced Rotorcraft Helmet Display Sighting System is a Biocular Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) for Rotary Wing Aviators. Advanced Rotorcraft HMDs requires low head supported weight, low center of mass offsets, low peripheral obstructions of the visual field, large exit pupils, large eye relief, wide field of view (FOV), high resolution, low luning, sun light readability with high contrast and low prismatic deviations. Compliance with these safety, user acceptance and optical performance requirements is challenging. The optical design presented in this paper provides an excellent balance of these different and conflicting requirements. The Advanced Rotorcraft HMD optical design is a pupil forming off axis catadioptric system that incorporates a transmissive SXGA Active Matrix liquid Crystal Display (AMLCD), an LED array backlight and a diopter adjustment mechanism.

  20. Simulating Visual Attention Allocation of Pilots in an Advanced Cockpit Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frische, F.; Osterloh, J.-P.; Luedtke, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the results of experiments conducted with human line pilots and a cognitive pilot model during interaction with a new 40 Flight Management System (FMS). The aim of these experiments was to gather human pilot behavior data in order to calibrate the behavior of the model. Human behavior is mainly triggered by visual perception. Thus, the main aspect was to setup a profile of human pilots' visual attention allocation in a cockpit environment containing the new FMS. We first performed statistical analyses of eye tracker data and then compared our results to common results of familiar analyses in standard cockpit environments. The comparison has shown a significant influence of the new system on the visual performance of human pilots. Further on, analyses of the pilot models' visual performance have been performed. A comparison to human pilots' visual performance revealed important improvement potentials.

  1. Advancements of vertically aligned liquid crystal displays.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pankaj; Jaggi, Chinky; Sharma, Vandna; Raina, Kuldeep Kumar

    2016-02-01

    This review describes the recent advancements in the field of the vertical aligned (VA) liquid crystal displays. The process and formation of different vertical alignment modes such as conventional VA, patterned VA, multi-domain VA, and polymer stabilised VA etc are widely discussed. Vertical alignment of liquid crystal due to nano particle dispersion in LC host, bifunctional PR-SAM formed by silane coupling reaction to oxide surfaces, azo dye etc., are also highlighted and discussed. Overall, the article highlights the advances in the research of vertical aligned liquid crystal in terms of their scientific and technological aspects.

  2. Cockpit weather information needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scanlon, Charles H.

    1992-01-01

    The primary objective is to develop an advanced pilot weather interface for the flight deck and to measure its utilization and effectiveness in pilot reroute decision processes, weather situation awareness, and weather monitoring. Identical graphical weather displays for the dispatcher, air traffic control (ATC), and pilot crew should also enhance the dialogue capabilities for reroute decisions. By utilizing a broadcast data link for surface observations, forecasts, radar summaries, lightning strikes, and weather alerts, onboard weather computing facilities construct graphical displays, historical weather displays, color textual displays, and other tools to assist the pilot crew. Since the weather data is continually being received and stored by the airborne system, the pilot crew has instantaneous access to the latest information. This information is color coded to distinguish degrees of category for surface observations, ceiling and visibilities, and ground radar summaries. Automatic weather monitoring and pilot crew alerting is accomplished by the airborne computing facilities. When a new weather information is received, the displays are instantaneously changed to reflect the new information. Also, when a new surface or special observation for the intended destination is received, the pilot crew is informed so that information can be studied at the pilot's discretion. The pilot crew is also immediately alerted when a severe weather notice, AIRMET or SIGMET, is received. The cockpit weather display shares a multicolor eight inch cathode ray tube and overlaid touch panel with a pilot crew data link interface. Touch sensitive buttons and areas are used for pilot selection of graphical and data link displays. Time critical ATC messages are presented in a small window that overlays other displays so that immediate pilot alerting and action can be taken. Predeparture and reroute clearances are displayed on the graphical weather system so pilot review of weather along

  3. Design, development and testing of an ambient lighting simulator for external illumination of a transport simulator cockpit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batson, Vernon M.; Gupton, Lawrence E.

    1990-01-01

    Researchers at the NASA-Langley Research Center several years ago began to examine concepts for a facility which could simulate the full range of lighting conditions encountered in flight. The purpose of this facility was to evaluate advanced technology display devices in a cockpit environment. The Aircraft Cockpit Ambient Lighting Simulation System (ACALSS) has been developed to meet that need. The ACALSS surrounds a wide-body part-task simulator cockpit, the Advanced Display Evaluation Cockpit, and interfaces with a VAX 11/780 computer, which is used to host both a math model of a modern transport aircraft and a solar motion model (which animates a servoed sun simulator). Several concepts were evaluated and an efficient design using an ellipsoid reflector and Fresnel luminaires was selected for implementation.

  4. Cockpit Readiness For Night Vision Goggles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholl, Marija S.; Scholl, James W.

    1987-09-01

    The introduction of night vision goggles into the cockpit environment may produce incompatibility with existing cockpit optoelectronic instrumentation. The methodology used to identify the origin of the spurious signal is demonstrated with the example of an electronic display. The amount of radiation emitted by a gray body in the wavelength region of goggle sensitivity is calculated. A simple procedure for preflight testing of cockpit instrumentation using a commercially available infrared camera is recommended. Other recommendations include the specification of cockpit instrumentation for compatibility with night vision devices.

  5. An assessment of advanced displays and controls technology applicable to future space transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatfield, Jack J.; Villarreal, Diana

    1990-01-01

    The topic of advanced display and control technology is addressed along with the major objectives of this technology, the current state of the art, major accomplishments, research programs and facilities, future trends, technology issues, space transportation systems applications and projected technology readiness for those applications. The holes that may exist between the technology needs of the transportation systems versus the research that is currently under way are addressed, and cultural changes that might facilitate the incorporation of these advanced technologies into future space transportation systems are recommended. Some of the objectives are to reduce life cycle costs, improve reliability and fault tolerance, use of standards for the incorporation of advancing technology, and reduction of weight, volume and power. Pilot workload can be reduced and the pilot's situational awareness can be improved, which would result in improved flight safety and operating efficiency. This could be accomplished through the use of integrated, electronic pictorial displays, consolidated controls, artificial intelligence, and human centered automation tools. The Orbiter Glass Cockpit Display is an example examined.

  6. Beyond the cockpit: The visual world as a flight instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. W.; Kaiser, M. K.; Foyle, D. C.

    1992-01-01

    The use of cockpit instruments to guide flight control is not always an option (e.g., low level rotorcraft flight). Under such circumstances the pilot must use out-the-window information for control and navigation. Thus it is important to determine the basis of visually guided flight for several reasons: (1) to guide the design and construction of the visual displays used in training simulators; (2) to allow modeling of visibility restrictions brought about by weather, cockpit constraints, or distortions introduced by sensor systems; and (3) to aid in the development of displays that augment the cockpit window scene and are compatible with the pilot's visual extraction of information from the visual scene. The authors are actively pursuing these questions. We have on-going studies using both low-cost, lower fidelity flight simulators, and state-of-the-art helicopter simulation research facilities. Research results will be presented on: (1) the important visual scene information used in altitude and speed control; (2) the utility of monocular, stereo, and hyperstereo cues for the control of flight; (3) perceptual effects due to the differences between normal unaided daylight vision, and that made available by various night vision devices (e.g., light intensifying goggles and infra-red sensor displays); and (4) the utility of advanced contact displays in which instrument information is made part of the visual scene, as on a 'scene linked' head-up display (e.g., displaying altimeter information on a virtual billboard located on the ground).

  7. Three input concepts for flight crew interaction with information presented on a large-screen electronic cockpit display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.

    1990-01-01

    A piloted simulation study was conducted comparing three different input methods for interfacing to a large-screen, multiwindow, whole-flight-deck display for management of transport aircraft systems. The thumball concept utilized a miniature trackball embedded in a conventional side-arm controller. The touch screen concept provided data entry through a capacitive touch screen. The voice concept utilized a speech recognition system with input through a head-worn microphone. No single input concept emerged as the most desirable method of interacting with the display. Subjective results, however, indicate that the voice concept was the most preferred method of data entry and had the most potential for future applications. The objective results indicate that, overall, the touch screen concept was the most effective input method. There was also significant differences between the time required to perform specific tasks and the input concept employed, with each concept providing better performance relative to a specific task. These results suggest that a system combining all three input concepts might provide the most effective method of interaction.

  8. Anthropometric evaluation of cockpit designs.

    PubMed

    Şenol, Mehmet Burak

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research is to evaluate all the critical reaches in a cockpit and determine the visual sufficiency of a cockpit to accommodate 90% of potential pilots. While mismatches of measurements with cockpit dimensions are revealed, proposals are made to improve cockpit ergonomics. Regression models were generated to predict and assure adequate exterior vision. Mean, lower and upper control limits of all measurements were found acceptable except eye level. There are very strong positive relationships between stature and eye level (R(2) = 0.972, p < 0.01), and eye level and visual angle (R(2) = 0.994, p < 0.01). Display panel height should be at least 1.645 × SD smaller than the eye level mean or seating adjustment limits in height may be changed. In general, cockpit design is acceptable in terms of fit/reach accommodation for pilots, except eye level and visual variables that could be solved by better seat adjustments.

  9. Anthropometric evaluation of cockpit designs.

    PubMed

    Şenol, Mehmet Burak

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research is to evaluate all the critical reaches in a cockpit and determine the visual sufficiency of a cockpit to accommodate 90% of potential pilots. While mismatches of measurements with cockpit dimensions are revealed, proposals are made to improve cockpit ergonomics. Regression models were generated to predict and assure adequate exterior vision. Mean, lower and upper control limits of all measurements were found acceptable except eye level. There are very strong positive relationships between stature and eye level (R(2) = 0.972, p < 0.01), and eye level and visual angle (R(2) = 0.994, p < 0.01). Display panel height should be at least 1.645 × SD smaller than the eye level mean or seating adjustment limits in height may be changed. In general, cockpit design is acceptable in terms of fit/reach accommodation for pilots, except eye level and visual variables that could be solved by better seat adjustments. PMID:26654833

  10. F-18 HARV cockpit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The F-18 HARV retains the basic F-18 cockpit controls with some exceptions. The pilot's center control stick is relatively typical of a modern fighter aircraft. The F-18 HARV has no weapons delivery capability. Independent throttling of the left or right engine is possible through split throttle levers located on the left console. The pilot's friction control is provided for adjustment of throttle lever force. The three-position (extend, hold, and retract) speed brake thumb switch is located on the inboard side of the right-engine throttle lever. The primary cockpit displays include a left- and right-side cathode-ray tube display, referred to as the DDIs, and the heads-up display (HUD). The DDIs and HUD are generally used to display primary flight condition information such as airspeed, altitude, altitude rate, attitude, heading, RFCS status, etc. Other flight conditions displayed include angle of attack (AOA), Mach number, and load factor. The HUD also provides primary flight condition information to the pilot without having to refer to the DDIs. Select flight controls information also can be presented on the HUD. The twenty pushbuttons located on the periphery of each DDI are used to select a variety of displays for pilot interrogation of F-18 HARV systems. These displays are pilot selectable and menu driven. Various aerodynamic research experiments were conducted on the F-18 HARV. Switches for control of these experiments were located on the research systems control panel located at the lower center of the instrument panel. These switches operated in conjunction with the gun trigger switch. The configuration of this panel and the function of the gun trigger switch varied with the particular experiment flown.

  11. Cockpit readiness for night vision goggles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholl, Marija S.; Scholl, James W.

    1987-01-01

    The introduction of night vision goggles into the cockpit environment may produce incompatibility with existing cockpit optoelectronic instrumentation. The methodology used to identify the origin of the spurious signal is demonstrated with the example of an electronic display. The amount of radiation emitted by a gray body in the wavelength region of goggle sensitivity is calculated. A simple procedure for preflight testing of cockpit instrumentation using a commercially available infrared camera is recommended. Other recommendations include the specification of cocklpit instrumentation for compatibility with night vision devices.

  12. Advanced manufacturing technologies on color plasma displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betsui, Keiichi

    2000-06-01

    The mass production of the color plasma display started from 1996. However, since the price of the panel is still expensive, PDPs are not in widespread use at home. It is necessary to develop the new and low-cost manufacturing technologies to reduce the price of the panel. This paper describes some of the features of new fabrication technologies of PDPs.

  13. Advanced Three-Dimensional Display System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geng, Jason

    2005-01-01

    A desktop-scale, computer-controlled display system, initially developed for NASA and now known as the VolumeViewer(TradeMark), generates three-dimensional (3D) images of 3D objects in a display volume. This system differs fundamentally from stereoscopic and holographic display systems: The images generated by this system are truly 3D in that they can be viewed from almost any angle, without the aid of special eyeglasses. It is possible to walk around the system while gazing at its display volume to see a displayed object from a changing perspective, and multiple observers standing at different positions around the display can view the object simultaneously from their individual perspectives, as though the displayed object were a real 3D object. At the time of writing this article, only partial information on the design and principle of operation of the system was available. It is known that the system includes a high-speed, silicon-backplane, ferroelectric-liquid-crystal spatial light modulator (SLM), multiple high-power lasers for projecting images in multiple colors, a rotating helix that serves as a moving screen for displaying voxels [volume cells or volume elements, in analogy to pixels (picture cells or picture elements) in two-dimensional (2D) images], and a host computer. The rotating helix and its motor drive are the only moving parts. Under control by the host computer, a stream of 2D image patterns is generated on the SLM and projected through optics onto the surface of the rotating helix. The system utilizes a parallel pixel/voxel-addressing scheme: All the pixels of the 2D pattern on the SLM are addressed simultaneously by laser beams. This parallel addressing scheme overcomes the difficulty of achieving both high resolution and a high frame rate in a raster scanning or serial addressing scheme. It has been reported that the structure of the system is simple and easy to build, that the optical design and alignment are not difficult, and that the

  14. Advanced alarm systems: Display and processing issues

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hara, J.M.; Wachtel, J.; Perensky, J.

    1995-05-01

    This paper describes a research program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to address the human factors engineering (HFE) deficiencies associated with nuclear power plant alarm systems. The overall objective of the study is to develop HFE review guidance for alarm systems. In support of this objective, human performance issues needing additional research were identified. Among the important issues were alarm processing strategies and alarm display techniques. This paper will discuss these issues and briefly describe our current research plan to address them.

  15. Recent advances and product enhancements in reflective cholesteric displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Asad; Schneider, Tod; Miller, Nick; Marhefka, Duane; Ernst, Todd; Nicholson, Forrest; Doane, Joseph W.

    2005-04-01

    Bistable reflective cholesteric displays are a liquid crystal display technology developed to fill a market need for very low power displays on a low-cost, high resolution passive matrix. Their unique look, high reflectivity, bistability, and simple structure make them an ideal flat panel display choice for handheld or other portable devices where small lightweight batteries with long lifetimes are important. We discuss recent advances in cholesteric display technology at Kent Displays such as progress towards single layer black and white displays, standard products, lower cost display modules, and various interface options for cholesteric display applications. It will be shown that inclusion of radio frequency (rf) control options and serial peripheral interface (spi) can greatly enhance the cholesteric display module market penetration by enabling quick integration into end devices. Finally, some discussion will be on the progress of the development of flexible reflective cholesteric displays. These flexible displays can dramatically change industrial design methods by enabling curved surfaces with displays integrated in them. Additional discussion in the paper will include applications of various display modes including signs, hand held instrumentation, and the electronic book and reader.

  16. Evaluation of advanced displays for engine monitoring and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, L. G.

    1993-01-01

    The relative effectiveness of two advanced display concepts for monitoring engine performance for commercial transport aircraft was studied. The concepts were the Engine Monitoring and Control System (EMACS) display developed by NASA Langley and a display by exception design. Both of these concepts were based on the philosophy of providing information that is directly related to the pilot's task. Both concepts used a normalized thrust display. In addition, EMACS used column deviation indicators; i.e., the difference between the actual parameter value and the value predicted by an engine model, for engine health monitoring; while the Display by Exception displayed the engine parameters if the automated system detected a difference between the actual and the predicted values. The results showed that the advanced display concepts had shorter detection and response times. There were no differences in any of the results between manual and auto throttles. There were no effects upon perceived workload or performance on the primary flight task. The majority of pilots preferred the advanced displays and thought they were operationally acceptable. Certification of these concepts depends on the validation of the engine model. Recommendations are made to improve both the EMACS and the display by exception display formats.

  17. Advanced Technology Display House. Volume 2: Energy system design concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maund, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    The preliminary design concept for the energy systems in the Advanced Technology Display House is analyzed. Residential energy demand, energy conservation, and energy concepts are included. Photovoltaic arrays and REDOX (reduction oxidation) sizes are discussed.

  18. Advanced Technology Display House. Volume 1: Project Summary and Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maund, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Display House (ATDH) project is described. Tasks are defined in the areas of energy demand, water demand, sewage treatment, electric power, plumbing, lighting, heating, and air conditioning. Energy, water, and sewage systems are defined.

  19. The instrument explosion--a study of aircraft cockpit instruments.

    PubMed

    Lovesey, E J

    1977-03-01

    Aircraft cockpit instruments have been increasing in number since the Wright Brothers made their first powered flight. As aeroplane development progresses, new systems are continually being added to improve performance or capability and cockpits have now reached the stage where there is often little space left in which to install the monitoring instruments for these additional systems. Fortunately, the advent of electronic cockpit displays offers a solution to this problem. One electronic display can be used to present the information previously requiring several conventional electro-mechanical instruments, with a consequent saving in cockpit panel space. However, cockpit displays must be matched to the pilot's information requirements and processing abilities. If this is not done the advantages of electronic displays will not be realised and the pilot will be in an even worse position than he was before.

  20. Generic experimental cockpit for evaluating pilot assistance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toebben, Helmut H.; Doehler, Hans-Ullrich; Hecker, Peter

    2002-07-01

    The workload of aircraft crews, especially during taxiing, take-off, approach and landing under adverse weather conditions has heavily increased due to the continuous growth of air traffic. New pilot assistance systems can improve the situational awareness of the aircrew and consequently increase the safety and reduce the workload. For demonstration and human factor evaluation of such new systems the DLR has built a Generic Experimental Cockpit Simulator equipped with a modern glass-cockpit collimated display. The Primary Flight Display (PFD), the human machine interface for an Advanced Flight Management System (AFMS), a Taxi Guidance System called Taxi and Ramp Management and Control (TARMAC) and an Enhanced Vision System (EVS) based on real time simulation of MMWR and FLIR sensors are integrated into the cockpit on high resolution TFT touch screens. The situational awareness is further enhanced by the integration of a raster/stroke capable Head-Up Display (HUD). It prevents the pilot's eye from permanent accommodation between the Head-Down Displays and the outside view. This contribution describes the technical implementation of the PFD, the Taxi Guidance System and the EVS onto the HUD. The HUD is driven by a normal PC, which provides the Arinc data for the stroke generator and the video signal for the raster image. The PFD uses the built-in stroke generator and is working under all operations. During taxi operations the cleared taxi route and the positions of other aircraft are displayed via raster. The images of the real time simulation of the MMWR and FLIR Sensors are presented via raster on demand. During approach and landing a runway symbol or a 3D wire frame database is shown which exactly matches the outside view and obstacles on the runway are highlighted. The runway position is automatically calculated from the MMWR Sensor as reported in previous contributions.

  1. Relational Cockpit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturm, Janienke; Terken, Jacques

    Recently, the observation that socially inappropriate behavior during meetings may result in suboptimal group performance inspired researchers to develop systems that monitor and give feedback on social dynamics [3, 6, 12, 13]. These systems capture observable properties of the meeting participants, such as speaking time, posture, and gestures, analyze the interaction of people, and give feedback by offering visualizations of the social data. In [3], for instance, a wide range of vocal features, aspects of body language, and physiological signals is measured to calculate a behavior-based index of group interest, which is then shown to the participants on either a private or a public display. In [6], feedback is provided about the speaking time of different participants, visualized through a histogram presented on a public display. Evaluations showed that real-time feedback on speaking activity can result in more equal participation of all meeting members.

  2. Graphics processing simulation and trade-off study for cockpit applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groat, Jeff; Hancock, William R.; Johnson, Michael J.; Shackleton, John; Spaanenburg, Henk; Steeves, Todd; Bishop, Richard G.; Peterson, Gregory D.; Read, Britton C., III

    1996-05-01

    Under the sponsorship of Wright Laboratory (contract F33615-92-C-3802), Honeywell has been involved in the definition of next-generation display processors. This paper describes the top-level design approach, simulation and tradeoff studies, as well as the resulting architectural concepts for the cockpit display generator (CDG) processing system. The CDG architecture provides the graphical and video processing power needed to drive future high- resolution display devices and to generate advanced display formats for improved pilot situation awareness. The foremost objective of the CDG design is to achieve super-graphics workstation performance in a form factor suitable for avionics applications. The CDG design provides multichannel, high-performance 2-D and 3-D graphics and real-time video manipulation. Requirements for the CDG have been defined by the needs of Panoramic Cockpit Control and Display System (PCCADS) 2000 cockpits. Most notable are requirements for low-volume, low-power, real-time performance and tolerance for harsh environmental conditions. These goals have been realized by combining customized graphics pipelines with standard processing elements. The CDG design has been implemented as a software 'prototype' using VHDL performance and functional models. This novel design approach allows architectural tradeoffs to be made within the context of a standard design language, VHDL. Simulations have been developed to specify and evaluate particular system performance and functional and design aspects.

  3. Evaluating the Effects of Dimensionality in Advanced Avionic Display Concepts for Synthetic Vision Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Amy L.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Wickens, Christopher D.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Arthur, Jarvis J.; Bailey, Randall E.

    2007-01-01

    Synthetic vision systems provide an in-cockpit view of terrain and other hazards via a computer-generated display representation. Two experiments examined several display concepts for synthetic vision and evaluated how such displays modulate pilot performance. Experiment 1 (24 general aviation pilots) compared three navigational display (ND) concepts: 2D coplanar, 3D, and split-screen. Experiment 2 (12 commercial airline pilots) evaluated baseline 'blue sky/brown ground' or synthetic vision-enabled primary flight displays (PFDs) and three ND concepts: 2D coplanar with and without synthetic vision and a dynamic multi-mode rotatable exocentric format. In general, the results pointed to an overall advantage for a split-screen format, whether it be stand-alone (Experiment 1) or available via rotatable viewpoints (Experiment 2). Furthermore, Experiment 2 revealed benefits associated with utilizing synthetic vision in both the PFD and ND representations and the value of combined ego- and exocentric presentations.

  4. Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) control display unit software description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slominski, Christopher J.; Parks, Mark A.; Debure, Kelly R.; Heaphy, William J.

    1992-01-01

    The software created for the Control Display Units (CDUs), used for the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) project, on the Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV) is described. Module descriptions are presented in a standardized format which contains module purpose, calling sequence, a detailed description, and global references. The global reference section includes subroutines, functions, and common variables referenced by a particular module. The CDUs, one for the pilot and one for the copilot, are used for flight management purposes. Operations performed with the CDU affects the aircraft's guidance, navigation, and display software.

  5. Display-based communications for advanced transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Alfred T.

    1989-01-01

    The next generation of civil transport aircraft will depend increasingly upon ground-air-ground and satellite data link for information critical to safe and efficient air transportation. Previous studies which examined the concept of display-based communications in addition to, or in lieu of, conventional voice transmissions are reviewed. A full-mission flight simulation comparing voice and display-based communication modes in an advanced transport aircraft is also described. The results indicate that a display-based mode of information transfer does not result in significantly increased aircrew workload, but does result in substantially increased message acknowledgment times when compared to conventional voice transmissions. User acceptance of the display-based communication system was generally high, replicating the findings of previous studies. However, most pilots tested expressed concern over the potential loss of information available from frequency monitoring which might result from the introduction of discrete address communications. Concern was expressed by some pilots for the reduced time available to search for conflicting traffic when using the communications display system. The implications of the findings for the design of display-based communications are discussed.

  6. Using Visualization in Cockpit Decision Support Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Aragon, Cecilia R.

    2005-07-01

    In order to safely operate their aircraft, pilots must makerapid decisions based on integrating and processing large amounts ofheterogeneous information. Visual displays are often the most efficientmethod of presenting safety-critical data to pilots in real time.However, care must be taken to ensure the pilot is provided with theappropriate amount of information to make effective decisions and notbecome cognitively overloaded. The results of two usability studies of aprototype airflow hazard visualization cockpit decision support systemare summarized. The studies demonstrate that such a system significantlyimproves the performance of helicopter pilots landing under turbulentconditions. Based on these results, design principles and implicationsfor cockpit decision support systems using visualization arepresented.

  7. X-1 cockpit instrument panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1949-01-01

    A Bell Aircraft Corporation X-1 series aircraft cockpit instruments display. The gages reflecting the airplane's parameters such as indicated pressure altitude, indicated airspeed, rocket chamber pressure, fuel and liquid oxygen supply, angle of attack, angle of sideslip, and Mach number are shown. Other information pertinent for the pilot to complete a successful flight is also displayed. There were five versions of the Bell X-1 rocket-powered research aircraft that flew at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, Edwards, California. The bullet-shaped X-1 aircraft were built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y. for the U.S. Army Air Forces (after 1947, U.S. Air Force) and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1 Program was originally designated the XS-1 for EXperimental Sonic. The X-1's mission was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' Three different X-1s were built and designated: X-1-1, X-1-2 (later modified to become the X-1E), and X-1-3. The basic X-1 aircraft were flown by a large number of different pilots from 1946 to 1951. The X-1 Program not only proved that humans could go beyond the speed of sound, it reinforced the understanding that technological barriers could be overcome. The X-1s pioneered many structural and aerodynamic advances including extremely thin, yet extremely strong wing sections; supersonic fuselage configurations; control system requirements; powerplant compatibility; and cockpit environments. The X-1 aircraft were the first transonic-capable aircraft to use an all-moving stabilizer. The flights of the X-1s opened up a new era in aviation. The first X-1 was air-launched unpowered from a Boeing B-29 Superfortress on Jan. 25, 1946. Powered flights began in December 1946. On Oct. 14, 1947, the X-1-1, piloted by Air Force Captain Charles 'Chuck' Yeager, became the first aircraft to exceed the

  8. Human performance in the modern cockpit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dismukes, R. K.; Cohen, M. M.

    1992-01-01

    This panel was organized by the Aerospace Human Factors Committee to illustrate behavioral research on the perceptual, cognitive, and group processes that determine crew effectiveness in modern cockpits. Crew reactions to the introduction of highly automated systems in the cockpit will be reported on. Automation can improve operational capabilities and efficiency and can reduce some types of human error, but may also introduce entirely new opportunities for error. The problem solving and decision making strategies used by crews led by captains with various personality profiles will be discussed. Also presented will be computational approaches to modeling the cognitive demands of cockpit operations and the cognitive capabilities and limitations of crew members. Factors contributing to aircrew deviations from standard operating procedures and misuse of checklist, often leading to violations, incidents, or accidents will be examined. The mechanisms of visual perception pilots use in aircraft control and the implications of these mechanisms for effective design of visual displays will be discussed.

  9. Cockpit management attitudes.

    PubMed

    Helmreich, R L

    1984-10-01

    Distinctions are drawn between personality traits and attitudes. The stability of the personality and the malleability of attitudes are stressed. These concepts are related to pilot performance, especially in the areas of crew coordination and cockpit resource management. Airline pilots were administered a Cockpit Management Attitudes questionnaire; empirical data from that survey are reported and implications of the data for training in crew coordination are discussed.

  10. Cockpit resource management training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yocum, M.; Foushee, C.

    1984-01-01

    Cockpit resource management which is a multifaceted concept is outlined. The system involves the effective coordination of many resources: aircraft systems, company, air traffic control, equipment, navigational aids, documents, and manuals. The main concept, however, is group interaction. Problems which arise from lack of coordination, decision making, and lack of communication are pointed out. Implementation by the regional airline industry of cockpit resource management, designed to deal with human interactions problems in the most cost effective manner, is discussed.

  11. Cockpit management attitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    Distinctions are drawn between personality traits and attitudes. The stability of the personality and the malleability of attitudes are stressed. These concepts are related to pilot performance, especially in the areas of crew coordination and cockpit resource management. Airline pilots were administered a Cockpit Management Attitudes questionnaire; empirical data from that survey are reported and implications of the data for training in crew coordination are discussed.

  12. Applications of advanced display technology for dismounted combatants (Invited Paper)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huffman, David C.

    2005-05-01

    Current military activity has made great use of small Special Tactics / Special Forces teams operating on the ground in forward areas of battle, directing Battlefield Air Operations (BAO), which include close air support, air traffic control management, and target identification and designation. A recent National Priority has been identified to improve the BAO Kit used by these Special Tactics Groups to reduce errors that may lead to unintended ground casualties. The primary objectives of the upgraded BAO Kit are to 1) improve the range and accuracy of target information; 2) eliminate opportunities for error in weapon delivery; 3) link target coordinate information directly into the weapons computer; and 4) reduce the weight carried by the warfighter by 50%. For these warfighters, L-3 Communications Display Systems and its technology partner, Universal Display Corporation, are utilizing advanced OLED display technology to create a powerful flexible display-based communication device. This will reduce the weight carried by the fighter by combining functions of the present computer, GPS equipment, and radio gear carried into the forward areas of battle. This will give the soldier a larger, higher resolution, increased battery life, and much lighter capability for the viewing of tactical information such as battlefield maps, GIS imaging data, command/control plots, and GPS-assisted navigational maps. Further integration of the device with voice and video messaging options will be explored. Both hand-held roll-up devices and wrist-worn devices are envisioned for the final product.

  13. Human factors of the high technology cockpit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiener, Earl L.

    1990-01-01

    The rapid advance of cockpit automation in the last decade has outstripped the ability of the human factors profession to understand the changes in human functions required. High technology cockpits require less physical (observable) workload, but are highly demanding of cognitive functions such as planning, alternative selection, and monitoring. Furthermore, automation creates opportunity for new and more serious forms of human error, and many pilots are concerned about the possibility of complacency affecting their performance. On the positive side, the equipment works as advertized with high reliability, offering highly efficient, computer-based flight. These findings from the cockpit studies probably apply equally to other industries, such as nuclear power production, other modes of transportation, medicine, and manufacturing, all of which traditionally have looked to aviation for technological leadership. The challenge to the human factors profession is to aid designers, operators, and training departments in exploiting the positive side of automation, while seeking solutions to the negative side. Viewgraphs are given.

  14. Status of development of LCOS projection displays for F-22A, F/A-18E/F, and JSF cockpits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalmanash, Michael H.

    2001-09-01

    Projection display technology has been found to be an attractive alternative to direct view flat panel displays in many avionics applications. The projection approach permits compact high performance systems to be tailored to specific platform needs while using a complement of commercial off the shelf (COTS) components, including liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS) microdisplay imagers. A common projection engine used on multiple platforms enables improved performance, lower cost and shorter development cycles. This paper provides a status update for projection displays under development for the F-22A, the F/A-18E/F and the Lockheed Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) aircraft.

  15. Time-based self-spacing techniques using cockpit display of traffic information during approach to landing in a terminal area vectoring environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    A simulation study was undertaken to evaluate two time-based self-spacing techniques for in-trail following during terminal area approach. An electronic traffic display was provided in the weather radarscope location. The displayed self-spacing cues allowed the simulated aircraft to follow and to maintain spacing on another aircraft which was being vectored by air traffic control (ATC) for landing in a high-density terminal area. Separation performance data indicate the information provided on the traffic display was adequate for the test subjects to accurately follow the approach path of another aircraft without the assistance of ATC. The time-based technique with a constant-delay spacing criterion produced the most satisfactory spacing performance. Pilot comments indicate the workload associated with the self-separation task was very high and that additional spacing command information and/or aircraft autopilot functions would be desirable for operational implementational of the self-spacing task.

  16. The Effect of Ownship Information and NexRad Resolution on Pilot Decision Making in the Use of a Cockpit Weather Information Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novacek, Paul F.; Burgess, Malcolm A.; Heck, Michael L.; Stokes, Alan F.; Stough, H. Paul, III (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A two-phase experiment was conducted to explore the effects of data-link weather displays upon pilot decision performance. The experiment was conducted with 49 instrument rated pilots who were divided into four groups and placed in a simulator with a realistic flight scenario involving weather containing convective activity. The inflight weather display depicted NEXRAD images, with graphical and textual METARs over a moving map display. The experiment explored the effect of weather information, ownship position symbology and NEXRAD cell size resolution. The phase-two experiment compared two groups using the data-linked weather display with ownship position symbology. These groups were compared to the phase-one group that did not have ownship position symbology. The phase-two pilots were presented with either large NEXRAD cell size (8 km) or small cell size (4 km). Observations noted that the introduction of ownship symbology did not appear to significantly impact the decision making process, however, the introduction of ownship did reduce workload. Additionally, NEXRAD cell size resolution did appear to influence the tactical decision making process.

  17. Competency in the Cockpit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, H. M.

    1992-01-01

    Examines how modern technology is redefining competences, particularly those required by aircrews in state-of-the-art cockpits and how rule-based descriptions may not always be as practical as cognitive schemas and frames or case-based reasoning. Concludes that a wider systems perspective must include a balance between intuitive and analytic…

  18. An Investigation of General Aviation Problems and Issues: An Integration of Pilot-Cockpit Interface Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bortolussi, Michael R.

    1997-01-01

    The General Aviation (GA) industry has suffered a ten-year decline in the number of airplanes sold. This decline is due mainly to the increase cost associated with purchasing, insuring, maintaining, operating, and pilot training a GA airplane. In response to this decline the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) developed a program (Advanced General Aviation Transport Experiments - AGATE) to address these issues. The purpose of AGATE focused within this report is to reduce the costs to acquire and maintain instrument-flight-proficiency. The AGATE program defined four elements necessary to accomplish these goals: (1) new and intuitive cockpit displays and controls, (2) situation technologies for weather, traffic, and navigation, (3) expert systems for system monitoring, and (4) reduced cost training methods. One recognized need for the GA pilot and airplane is to provide cockpit displays and systems already available to transport category airplane. These displays such as Electronic Flight and Instrument System (EFIS), graphic weather and traffic displays, and flight management systems. The goal of this grant was to develop the AGATE GA Display Evaluation Workstation as a tool to test these existing and emerging technologies in the GA environment.

  19. Using Visualization in Cockpit Decision Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aragon, Cecilia R.

    2005-01-01

    In order to safely operate their aircraft, pilots must make rapid decisions based on integrating and processing large amounts of heterogeneous information. Visual displays are often the most efficient method of presenting safety-critical data to pilots in real time. However, care must be taken to ensure the pilot is provided with the appropriate amount of information to make effective decisions and not become cognitively overloaded. The results of two usability studies of a prototype airflow hazard visualization cockpit decision support system are summarized. The studies demonstrate that such a system significantly improves the performance of helicopter pilots landing under turbulent conditions. Based on these results, design principles and implications for cockpit decision support systems using visualization are presented.

  20. Advanced methods for displays and remote control of robots.

    PubMed

    Eliav, Ami; Lavie, Talia; Parmet, Yisrael; Stern, Helman; Edan, Yael

    2011-11-01

    An in-depth evaluation of the usability and situation awareness performance of different displays and destination controls of robots are presented. In two experiments we evaluate the way information is presented to the operator and assess different means for controlling the robot. Our study compares three types of displays: a "blocks" display, a HUD (head-up display), and a radar display, and two types of controls: touch screen and hand gestures. The HUD demonstrated better performance when compared to the blocks display and was perceived to have greater usability compared to the radar display. The HUD was also found to be more useful when the operation of the robot was more difficult, i.e., when using the hand-gesture method. The experiments also pointed to the importance of using a wide viewing angle to minimize distortion and for easier coping with the difficulties of locating objects in the field of view margins. The touch screen was found to be superior in terms of both objective performance and its perceived usability. No differences were found between the displays and the controllers in terms of situation awareness. This research sheds light on the preferred display type and controlling method for operating robots from a distance, making it easier to cope with the challenges of operating such systems.

  1. XB-70A #1 cockpit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Photo of the XB-70 #1 cockpit, which shows the complexity of this mid-1960s research aircraft. On the left and right sides of the picture are the pilot's and co-pilot's control yokes. Forward of these, on the cockpit floor, are the rudder pedals with the NAA (North American Aviation) trademark. Between them is the center console. Visible are the six throttles for the XB-70's jet engines. Above this is the center instrument panel. The bottom panel has the wing tip fold, landing gear, and flap controls, as well as the hydraulic pressure gages. In the center are three rows of engine gages. The top row are tachometers, the second are exhaust temperature gages, and the bottom row are exhaust nozzle position indicators. Above these are the engine fire and engine brake switches. The instrument panels for the pilot (left) and co-pilot (right) differ somewhat. Both crewmen have an airspeed/Mach indicator, and altitude/vertical velocity indicator, an artificial horizon, and a heading indicator/compass directly in front of them. The pilot's flight instruments, from top to bottom, are total heat gage and crew warning lights; stand-by flight instruments (side-slip, artificial horizon, and altitude); the engine vibration indicators; cabin altitude, ammonia, and water quantity gages, the electronic compartment air temperature gage, and the liquid oxygen quantity gage. At the bottom are the switches for the flight displays and environmental controls. On the co-pilot's panel, the top three rows are for the engine inlet controls. Below this is the fuel tank sequence indicator, which shows the amount of fuel in each tank. The bottom row consists of the fuel pump switches, which were used to shift fuel to maintain the proper center of gravity. Just to the right are the indicators for the total fuel (top) and the individual tanks (bottom). Visible on the right edge of the photo are the refueling valves, while above these are switches for the flight data recording instruments. The XB-70

  2. Who or what saved the day? A comparison of traditional and glass cockpits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degani, Asaf; Chappell, Sheryl L.; Hayes, Michael S.

    1991-01-01

    This study examined incidents reported to NASAs Aviation Safety Reporting System from a different perspective: rather than focusing on the factors contributing to or causing incidents, this study concentrated on who and what (subsystems and information) enabled the recovery from an anomaly. Incident reports describing altitude deviations were classified as to cockpit type (glass or traditional), flight phase, agent restoring safety, and cockpit subsystems providing specific information that helped restore safety. The data revealed and quantified the agents, information, and factors that 'saved the day'. The flight crews used many sources of information to detect the altitude deviations: altimeter, outside scene, altitude alert, kinesthesia, attitude and communications monitoring. In the glass cockpits the crews also used the map display and autothrottles to detect deviations from assigned altitudes. There was an interaction between the person detecting the anomaly (controller/flight crew) and the type of cockpit. Glass cockpit flight crews detect proportionally more deviations than their counterparts in traditional cockpits, while controllers tend to detect more deviations involving traditional cockpits. There was no effect of cockpit position (captain/first officer). A model that details the flow of altitude information between air traffic control, flight crews, and cockpit subsystems, was developed and validated. This model identifies strengths and weaknesses in the flow of altitude information within the current ground/air system.

  3. Advances in infrastructure support for flat panel display manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardsley, James N.; Ciesinski, Michael F.; Pinnel, M. Robert

    1997-07-01

    The success of the US display industry, both in providing high-performance displays for the US Department of Defense at reasonable cost and in capturing a significant share of the global civilian market, depends on maintaining technological leadership and on building efficient manufacturing capabilities. The US Display Consortium (USDC) was set up in 1993 by the US Government and private industry to guide the development of the infrastructure needed to support the manufacturing of flat panel displays. This mainly involves the supply of equipment and materials, but also includes the formation of partnerships and the training of a skilled labor force. Examples are given of successful development projects, some involving USDC participation, others through independent efforts of its member companies. These examples show that US-based companies can achieve leadership positions in this young and rapidly growing global market.

  4. 14 CFR 29.777 - Cockpit controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cockpit controls. 29.777 Section 29.777... Cockpit controls. Cockpit controls must be— (a) Located to provide convenient operation and to prevent... there is full and unrestricted movement of each control without interference from the cockpit...

  5. 14 CFR 27.777 - Cockpit controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cockpit controls. 27.777 Section 27.777... Cockpit controls. Cockpit controls must be— (a) Located to provide convenient operation and to prevent... there is full and unrestricted movement of each control without interference from the cockpit...

  6. 14 CFR 29.777 - Cockpit controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cockpit controls. 29.777 Section 29.777... Cockpit controls. Cockpit controls must be— (a) Located to provide convenient operation and to prevent... there is full and unrestricted movement of each control without interference from the cockpit...

  7. 14 CFR 27.777 - Cockpit controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cockpit controls. 27.777 Section 27.777... Cockpit controls. Cockpit controls must be— (a) Located to provide convenient operation and to prevent... there is full and unrestricted movement of each control without interference from the cockpit...

  8. Space Shuttle Cockpit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Want to sit in the cockpit of the Space Shuttle and watch astronauts work in outer space? At StenniSphere, you can do that and much more. StenniSphere, the visitor center at John C. Stennis space Center in Hancock County, Miss., presents 14,000-square-feet of interactive exhibits that depict America's race for space as well as a glimpse of the future. Stennisphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily.

  9. Space Shuttle Cockpit exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Want to sit in the cockpit of the Space Shuttle and watch astronauts work in outer space? At StenniSphere, you can do that and much more. StenniSphere, the visitor center at John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., presents 14,000-square-feet of interactive exhibits that depict America's race for space as well as a glimpse of the future. StenniSphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily.

  10. Potential benefits and hazards of increased reliance on cockpit automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiener, Earl L.

    1990-01-01

    A review is presented of the introduction of advanced technology into the modern aircraft cockpit, bringing a new era of cockpit automation, and the opportunity for safe, fuel-efficient, computer-directed flight. It is shown that this advanced technology has also brought a number of problems, not due to equipment failure, but due to problems at the human-automation interface. Consideration is given to the interface, the ATC system, and to company, regulatory, and economic environments, as well as to how they contribute to these new problems.

  11. General Aviation Cockpit Weather Information System Simulation Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAdaragh, Ray; Novacek, Paul

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on two experiments on the effectiveness of a cockpit weather information system on a simulated general aviation flight. The presentation covers the simulation hardware configuration, the display device screen layout, a mission scenario, conclusions, and recommendations. The second experiment, with its own scenario and conclusions, is a follow-on experiment.

  12. Advanced Interactive Display Formats for Terminal Area Traffic Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunwald, Arthur J.; Shaviv, G. E.

    1999-01-01

    This research project deals with an on-line dynamic method for automated viewing parameter management in perspective displays. Perspective images are optimized such that a human observer will perceive relevant spatial geometrical features with minimal errors. In order to compute the errors at which observers reconstruct spatial features from perspective images, a visual spatial-perception model was formulated. The model was employed as the basis of an optimization scheme aimed at seeking the optimal projection parameter setting. These ideas are implemented in the context of an air traffic control (ATC) application. A concept, referred to as an active display system, was developed. This system uses heuristic rules to identify relevant geometrical features of the three-dimensional air traffic situation. Agile, on-line optimization was achieved by a specially developed and custom-tailored genetic algorithm (GA), which was to deal with the multi-modal characteristics of the objective function and exploit its time-evolving nature.

  13. Evaluating cockpit resource management training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.; Wilhelm, John A.

    1987-01-01

    The determinants of effective or ineffective cockpit resurce management and the difficulties these multiple factors pose for validation of the effectiveness of cockpit resource management (CRM) training are discussed. A model of an evaluation design that may be applied to this type of training is presented. Concept validation is discussed as well as criteria for judging crew proficiency. Attention is given to accidents and proficiency checks, incidents and repeated maneuvers, attitude measuremet, and self-report evauation of training.

  14. Advances in lenticular lens arrays for visual display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, R. Barry; Jacobsen, Gary A.

    2005-08-01

    Lenticular lens arrays are widely used in the printed display industry and in specialized applications of electronic displays. In general, lenticular arrays can create from interlaced printed images such visual effects as 3-D, animation, flips, morph, zoom, or various combinations. The use of these typically cylindrical lens arrays for this purpose began in the late 1920's. The lenses comprise a front surface having a spherical crosssection and a flat rear surface upon where the material to be displayed is proximately located. The principal limitation to the resultant image quality for current technology lenticular lenses is spherical aberration. This limitation causes the lenticular lens arrays to be generally thick (0.5 mm) and not easily wrapped around such items as cans or bottles. The objectives of this research effort were to develop a realistic analytical model, to significantly improve the image quality, to develop the tooling necessary to fabricate lenticular lens array extrusion cylinders, and to develop enhanced fabrication technology for the extrusion cylinder. It was determined that the most viable cross-sectional shape for the lenticular lenses is elliptical. This shape dramatically improves the image quality. The relationship between the lens radius, conic constant, material refractive index, and thickness will be discussed. A significant challenge was to fabricate a diamond-cutting tool having the proper elliptical shape. Both true elliptical and pseudo-elliptical diamond tools were designed and fabricated. The plastic sheets extruded can be quite thin (< 0.25 mm) and, consequently, can be wrapped around cans and the like. Fabrication of the lenticular engraved extrusion cylinder required remarkable development considering the large physical size and weight of the cylinder, and the tight mechanical tolerances associated with the lenticular lens molds cut into the cylinder's surface. The development of the cutting tool and the lenticular engraved

  15. A SWIR radiance model for cockpit instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, John; Robinson, Tim

    2013-06-01

    Night Vision Imaging Systems technology is advancing at a rapid pace. These advances can be broadly divided in two distinct categories; performance and data management. There is an encouraging trend towards higher sensitivity, better resolution, and lower power consuming devices. These improvements, coupled with the shift from analog to digital data output, promise to provide a powerful night vision device. Given a digital system, the data can be managed to enhance the pilot's view (image processing), overlay data from multiple sensors (image fusion), and send data to remote locations for analysis (image sharing). The US Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) has an active program to introduce a helmet mounted digital imaging system that extends the detection range from the near infrared (NIR) band to the short-wave infrared (SWIR) band. Aside from the digital output, part of the motivation to develop a SWIR imaging system includes the desire to exploit the SWIR ambient night glow spectrum, see through some levels of fog and haze, and use a robust sensor technology suitable for 24 hours per day imaging. Integrating this advanced SWIR imaging system into a cockpit presents some human factor issues. Light emitted from illuminated instruments may hinder the performance of the imaging system, reducing the pilot's ability to detect lowvisible objects at night. The transmission of light through cockpit transparencies and through the atmosphere may also impact performance. In this paper we propose a model that establishes cockpit lighting SWIR radiance limits, much like MIL-STD-3009 specifies NVIS radiance limits for NVGs. This model is the culmination of a two year program sponsored by AFRL.

  16. Advanced interactive display formats for terminal area traffic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunwald, Arthur J.

    1995-01-01

    The basic design considerations for perspective Air Traffic Control displays are described. A software framework has been developed for manual viewing parameter setting (MVPS) in preparation for continued, ongoing developments on automated viewing parameter setting (AVPS) schemes. The MVPS system is based on indirect manipulation of the viewing parameters. Requests for changes in viewing parameter setting are entered manually by the operator by moving viewing parameter manipulation pointers on the screen. The motion of these pointers, which are an integral part of the 3-D scene, is limited to the boundaries of screen. This arrangement has been chosen, in order to preserve the correspondence between the new and the old viewing parameter setting, a feature which contributes to preventing spatial disorientation of the operator. For all viewing operations, e.g. rotation, translation and ranging, the actual change is executed automatically by the system, through gradual transitions with an exponentially damped, sinusoidal velocity profile, in this work referred to as 'slewing' motions. The slewing functions, which eliminate discontinuities in the viewing parameter changes, are designed primarily for enhancing the operator's impression that he, or she, is dealing with an actually existing physical system, rather than an abstract computer generated scene. Current, ongoing efforts deal with the development of automated viewing parameter setting schemes. These schemes employ an optimization strategy, aimed at identifying the best possible vantage point, from which the Air Traffic Control scene can be viewed, for a given traffic situation.

  17. Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) color displays software description microprocessor system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slominski, Christopher J.; Plyler, Valerie E.; Dickson, Richard W.

    1992-01-01

    This document describes the software created for the Sperry Microprocessor Color Display System used for the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) project on the Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV). The software delivery known as the 'baseline display system', is the one described in this document. Throughout this publication, module descriptions are presented in a standardized format which contains module purpose, calling sequence, detailed description, and global references. The global reference section includes procedures and common variables referenced by a particular module. The system described supports the Research Flight Deck (RFD) of the TSRV. The RFD contains eight cathode ray tubes (CRTs) which depict a Primary Flight Display, Navigation Display, System Warning Display, Takeoff Performance Monitoring System Display, and Engine Display.

  18. Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) color displays software description: MicroVAX system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slominski, Christopher J.; Plyler, Valerie E.; Dickson, Richard W.

    1992-01-01

    This document describes the software created for the Display MicroVAX computer used for the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) project on the Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV). The software delivery of February 27, 1991, known as the 'baseline display system', is the one described in this document. Throughout this publication, module descriptions are presented in a standardized format which contains module purpose, calling sequence, detailed description, and global references. The global references section includes subroutines, functions, and common variables referenced by a particular module. The system described supports the Research Flight Deck (RFD) of the TSRV. The RFD contains eight Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs) which depict a Primary Flight Display, Navigation Display, System Warning Display, Takeoff Performance Monitoring System Display, and Engine Display.

  19. Advanced Interactive Display formats for Terminal Area Traffic Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunwald, Arthur J.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the basic design considerations for perspective Air Traffic Control displays. A software framework has been developed for manual viewing parameter setting (MVPS) in preparation for continued, ongoing developments on automated viewing parameter setting (AVPS) schemes. Two distinct modes of MVPS operations are considered, both of which utilize manipulation pointers imbedded in the three-dimensional scene: (1) direct manipulation of the viewing parameters; in this mode the manipulation pointers act like the control-input device, through which the viewing parameter changes are made. Part of the parameters are rate controlled, and part of them position controlled. This mode is intended for making fast, iterative small changes in the parameters. (2) indirect manipulation of the viewing parameters. This mode is intended primarily for introducing large, predetermined changes in the parameters. Requests for changes in viewing parameter setting are entered manually by the operator by moving viewing parameter manipulation pointers on the screen. The motion of these pointers, which are an integral part of the 3-D scene, is limited to the boundaries of screen. This arrangement has been chosen, in order to preserve the correspondence between the spatial lay-outs of the new and the old viewing parameter setting, a feature which contributes to preventing spatial disorientation of the operator. For all viewing operations, e.g. rotation, translation and ranging, the actual change is executed automatically by the system, through gradual transitions with an exponentially damped, sinusoidal velocity profile, in this work referred to as 'slewing' motions. The slewing functions, which eliminate discontinuities in the viewing parameter changes, are designed primarily for enhancing the operator's impression that he, or she, is dealing with an actually existing physical system, rather than an abstract computer-generated scene, The proposed, continued research efforts

  20. Advanced interactive display formats for terminal area traffic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunwald, Arthur J.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the basic design considerations for perspective air traffic control displays. A software framework has been developed for manual viewing parameter setting (MVPS) in preparation for continued, ongoing developments on automated viewing parameter setting (AVPS) schemes. Two distinct modes of MVPS operations are considered, both of which utilize manipulation pointers imbedded in the three-dimensional scene: (1) direct manipulation of the viewing parameters -- in this mode the manipulation pointers act like the control-input device, through which the viewing parameter changes are made. Part of the parameters are rate controlled, and part of them position controlled. This mode is intended for making fast, iterative small changes in the parameters. (2) Indirect manipulation of the viewing parameters -- this mode is intended primarily for introducing large, predetermined changes in the parameters. Requests for changes in viewing parameter setting are entered manually by the operator by moving viewing parameter manipulation pointers on the screen. The motion of these pointers, which are an integral part of the 3-D scene, is limited to the boundaries of the screen. This arrangement has been chosen in order to preserve the correspondence between the spatial lay-outs of the new and the old viewing parameter setting, a feature which contributes to preventing spatial disorientation of the operator. For all viewing operations, e.g. rotation, translation and ranging, the actual change is executed automatically by the system, through gradual transitions with an exponentially damped, sinusoidal velocity profile, in this work referred to as 'slewing' motions. The slewing functions, which eliminate discontinuities in the viewing parameter changes, are designed primarily for enhancing the operator's impression that he, or she, is dealing with an actually existing physical system, rather than an abstract computer-generated scene. The proposed, continued research

  1. Cockpit emergency safety system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Leo

    2000-06-01

    A comprehensive safety concept is proposed for aircraft's experiencing an incident to the development of fire and smoke in the cockpit. Fire or excessive heat development caused by malfunctioning electrical appliance may produce toxic smoke, may reduce the clear vision to the instrument panel and may cause health-critical respiration conditions. Immediate reaction of the crew, safe respiration conditions and a clear undisturbed view to critical flight information data can be assumed to be the prerequisites for a safe emergency landing. The personal safety equipment of the aircraft has to be effective in supporting the crew to divert the aircraft to an alternate airport in the shortest possible amount of time. Many other elements in the cause-and-effect context of the emergence of fire, such as fire prevention, fire detection, the fire extinguishing concept, systematic redundancy, the wiring concept, the design of the power supplying system and concise emergency checklist procedures are briefly reviewed, because only a comprehensive and complete approach will avoid fatal accidents of complex aircraft in the future.

  2. Comparison of Pilots' Situational Awareness While Monitoring Autoland Approaches Using Conventional and Advanced Flight Display Formats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Busquets, Anthony M.

    2000-01-01

    A simulation experiment was performed to assess situation awareness (SA) and workload of pilots while monitoring simulated autoland operations in Instrument Meteorological Conditions with three advanced display concepts: two enhanced electronic flight information system (EFIS)-type display concepts and one totally synthetic, integrated pictorial display concept. Each concept incorporated sensor-derived wireframe runway and iconic depictions of sensor-detected traffic in different locations on the display media. Various scenarios, involving conflicting traffic situation assessments, main display failures, and navigation/autopilot system errors, were used to assess the pilots' SA and workload during autoland approaches with the display concepts. From the results, for each scenario, the integrated pictorial display concept provided the pilots with statistically equivalent or substantially improved SA over the other display concepts. In addition to increased SA, subjective rankings indicated that the pictorial concept offered reductions in overall pilot workload (in both mean ranking and spread) over the two enhanced EFIS-type display concepts. Out of the display concepts flown, the pilots ranked the pictorial concept as the display that was easiest to use to maintain situational awareness, to monitor an autoland approach, to interpret information from the runway and obstacle detecting sensor systems, and to make the decision to go around.

  3. Visually Coupled Systems (VCS): The Virtual Panoramic Display (VPD) System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kocian, Dean F.

    1992-01-01

    The development and impact is described of new visually coupled system (VCS) equipment designed to support engineering and human factors research in the military aircraft cockpit environment. VCS represents an advanced man-machine interface (MMI). Its potential to improve aircrew situational awareness seems enormous, but its superiority over the conventional cockpit MMI has not been established in a conclusive and rigorous fashion. What has been missing is a 'systems' approach to technology advancement that is comprehensive enough to produce conclusive results concerning the operational viability of the VCS concept and verify any risk factors that might be involved with its general use in the cockpit. The advanced VCS configuration described here, was ruggedized for use in military aircraft environments and was dubbed the Virtual Panoramic Display (VPD). It was designed to answer the VCS portion of the systems problem, and is implemented as a modular system whose performance can be tailored to specific application requirements. The overall system concept and the design of the two most important electronic subsystems that support the helmet mounted parts, a new militarized version of the magnetic helmet mounted sight and correspondingly similar helmet display electronics, are discussed in detail. Significant emphasis is given to illustrating how particular design features in the hardware improve overall system performance and support research activities.

  4. Cockpit weather graphics using mobile satellite communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seth, Shashi

    Many new companies are pushing state-of-the-art technology to bring a revolution in the cockpits of General Aviation (GA) aircraft. The vision, according to Dr. Bruce Holmes - the Assistant Director for Aeronautics at National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Langley Research Center, is to provide such an advanced flight control system that the motor and cognitive skills you use to drive a car would be very similar to the ones you would use to fly an airplane. We at ViGYAN, Inc., are currently developing a system called the Pilot Weather Advisor (PWxA), which would be a part of such an advanced technology flight management system. The PWxA provides graphical depictions of weather information in the cockpit of aircraft in near real-time, through the use of broadcast satellite communications. The purpose of this system is to improve the safety and utility of GA aircraft operations. Considerable effort is being extended for research in the design of graphical weather systems, notably the works of Scanlon and Dash. The concept of providing pilots with graphical depictions of weather conditions, overlaid on geographical and navigational maps, is extremely powerful.

  5. Cockpit weather graphics using mobile satellite communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seth, Shashi

    1993-01-01

    Many new companies are pushing state-of-the-art technology to bring a revolution in the cockpits of General Aviation (GA) aircraft. The vision, according to Dr. Bruce Holmes - the Assistant Director for Aeronautics at National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Langley Research Center, is to provide such an advanced flight control system that the motor and cognitive skills you use to drive a car would be very similar to the ones you would use to fly an airplane. We at ViGYAN, Inc., are currently developing a system called the Pilot Weather Advisor (PWxA), which would be a part of such an advanced technology flight management system. The PWxA provides graphical depictions of weather information in the cockpit of aircraft in near real-time, through the use of broadcast satellite communications. The purpose of this system is to improve the safety and utility of GA aircraft operations. Considerable effort is being extended for research in the design of graphical weather systems, notably the works of Scanlon and Dash. The concept of providing pilots with graphical depictions of weather conditions, overlaid on geographical and navigational maps, is extremely powerful.

  6. Advancement and applications of peptide phage display technology in biomedical science.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chien-Hsun; Liu, I-Ju; Lu, Ruei-Min; Wu, Han-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Combinatorial phage library is a powerful research tool for high-throughput screening of protein interactions. Of all available molecular display techniques, phage display has proven to be the most popular approach. Screening phage-displayed random peptide libraries is an effective means of identifying peptides that can bind target molecules and regulate their function. Phage-displayed peptide libraries can be used for (i) B-cell and T-cell epitope mapping, (ii) selection of bioactive peptides bound to receptors or proteins, disease-specific antigen mimics, peptides bound to non-protein targets, cell-specific peptides, or organ-specific peptides, and (iii) development of peptide-mediated drug delivery systems and other applications. Targeting peptides identified using phage display technology may be useful for basic research and translational medicine. In this review article, we summarize the latest technological advancements in the application of phage-displayed peptide libraries to applied biomedical sciences.

  7. Optimum culture in the cockpit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamamori, Hisaaki

    1987-01-01

    Even with the same program and objectives, if the culture is different, there will be different approaches to the goal of flight safety. However, the cockpit environment is culture-free so it is not as important to think of a person's cultural background as it is to think of the approach to the goal of ultimate safety. Crew members can look at their individual safety goals and compare them to their own performance to see if their behavior matches their own safety goals. The cockpit environment must be culture-free in order to obtain the ultimate safety goal. One must first realize how their culture affects their behavior before they can begin to change their attitude and actions in the cockpit.

  8. Human-centered automation and AI - Ideas, insights, and issues from the Intelligent Cockpit Aids research effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Kathy H.; Schutte, Paul C.

    1989-01-01

    A development status evaluation is presented for the NASA-Langley Intelligent Cockpit Aids research program, which encompasses AI, human/machine interfaces, and conventional automation. Attention is being given to decision-aiding concepts for human-centered automation, with emphasis on inflight subsystem fault management, inflight mission replanning, and communications management. The cockpit envisioned is for advanced commercial transport aircraft.

  9. Three-Dimensional Stereographic Pictorial Visual Interfaces And Display Systems In Flight Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridges, Alan L.; Reising, John M.

    1987-06-01

    By combining stereoscopic aspects of vision with other optical clues, the pilot of a flight simulator is able to perceive true three-dimensional representations of pictorial display formats or simulated visual scenes. Three-dimensional (3-D) stereographic pictorial formats and their corresponding display systems are being developed and evaluated in order to determine the payoffs of the 3-D computer-generated display formats in the cockpit. The objectives of this research in true three-dimensional cockpit imagery are 1) to determine whether a pilot can better interpret complex pictorial display formats or visual scenes when the third dimension is added and 2) to determine how motion and depth cues can be used to tightly couple the human responses of the pilot to the aircraft control systems. This paper reviews current research, development, and evaluation of easily modifiable 3-D stereo-graphic pictorial display systems being used at the Advanced Cockpit Display Laboratory (ACDL), Lockheed-Georgia Company and at the Flight Dynamics Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB. This research includes the analysis and development of true 3-D pictorial formats representing the entire 3-D flight profile; e.g., displays for terrain following/terrain avoidance/threat avoidance and air-to-air and air-to-surface weapon delivery. Electro-optical shuttering systems; e.g., active and passive liquid crystal shutters (LCSs), stereographic display systems, and high-performance pseudo 3-D computer graphics workstations (Silicon Graphics IRIS), are being used to generate stereo pairs. Sidestick and throttle controllers are used to fly through the visual database. These near real-time simulations will be performed in realistic fighter and transport cockpit shells, which may evolve into 1995 designs.

  10. Open control/display system for a telerobotics work station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keslowitz, Saul

    1987-01-01

    A working Advanced Space Cockpit was developed that integrated advanced control and display devices into a state-of-the-art multimicroprocessor hardware configuration, using window graphics and running under an object-oriented, multitasking real-time operating system environment. This Open Control/Display System supports the idea that the operator should be able to interactively monitor, select, control, and display information about many payloads aboard the Space Station using sets of I/O devices with a single, software-reconfigurable workstation. This is done while maintaining system consistency, yet the system is completely open to accept new additions and advances in hardware and software. The Advanced Space Cockpit, linked to Grumman's Hybrid Computing Facility and Large Amplitude Space Simulator (LASS), was used to test the Open Control/Display System via full-scale simulation of the following tasks: telerobotic truss assembly, RCS and thermal bus servicing, CMG changeout, RMS constrained motion and space constructible radiator assembly, HPA coordinated control, and OMV docking and tumbling satellite retrieval. The proposed man-machine interface standard discussed has evolved through many iterations of the tasks, and is based on feedback from NASA and Air Force personnel who performed those tasks in the LASS.

  11. Cockpit weather information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tu, Jeffrey Chen-Yu (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Weather information, periodically collected from throughout a global region, is periodically assimilated and compiled at a central source and sent via a high speed data link to a satellite communication service, such as COMSAT. That communication service converts the compiled weather information to GSDB format, and transmits the GSDB encoded information to an orbiting broadcast satellite, INMARSAT, transmitting the information at a data rate of no less than 10.5 kilobits per second. The INMARSAT satellite receives that data over its P-channel and rebroadcasts the GDSB encoded weather information, in the microwave L-band, throughout the global region at a rate of no less than 10.5 KB/S. The transmission is received aboard an aircraft by means of an onboard SATCOM receiver and the output is furnished to a weather information processor. A touch sensitive liquid crystal panel display allows the pilot to select the weather function by touching a predefined icon overlain on the display's surface and in response a color graphic display of the weather is displayed for the pilot.

  12. Advances in Proteomics Data Analysis and Display Using an Accurate Mass and Time Tag Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmer, Jennifer S.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Qian, Weijun; Smith, Richard D.

    2006-01-20

    Proteomics, and the larger field of systems biology, have recently demonstrated utility in both the understanding of cellular processes on the molecular level and the identification of potential biomarkers of various disease states. The large amount of data generated by utilizing high mass accuracy mass spectrometry for high-throughput proteomics analyses presents a challenge in data processing, analysis and display. This review focuses on recent advances in nanoLC-FTICR-MS-based proteomics analysis and the accompanying data processing tools that have been developed in order to interpret and display the large volumes of data produced.

  13. Advances and trends of head-up and head-down display systems in automobiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betancur, J. Alejandro; Osorio-Gomez, Gilberto; Agudelo, J. David

    2014-06-01

    Currently, in the automotive industry the interaction between drivers and Augmented Reality (AR) systems is a subject of analysis, especially the identification of advantages and risks that this kind of interaction represents. Consequently, this paper attempts to put in evidence the potential applications of Head-Up (Display (HUD) and Head-Down Display (HDD) systems in automotive vehicles, showing applications and trends under study. In general, automotive advances related to AR devices suggest the partial integration of the HUD and HDD in automobiles; however, the right way to do it is still a moot point.

  14. Advances in Proteomics Data Analysis and Display Using an Accurate Mass and Time Tag Approach

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer, Jennifer S.D.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Qian, Wei-Jun; Smith, Richard D.

    2007-01-01

    Proteomics has recently demonstrated utility in understanding cellular processes on the molecular level as a component of systems biology approaches and for identifying potential biomarkers of various disease states. The large amount of data generated by utilizing high efficiency (e.g., chromatographic) separations coupled to high mass accuracy mass spectrometry for high-throughput proteomics analyses presents challenges related to data processing, analysis, and display. This review focuses on recent advances in nanoLC-FTICR-MS-based proteomics approaches and the accompanying data processing tools that have been developed to display and interpret the large volumes of data being produced. PMID:16429408

  15. F-8 Iron Bird Cockpit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The F-8 DFBW (Digital-Fly-By-Wire) simulator used an 'Iron-Bird' for its cockpit. It was used from 1971 to 1986. The F-8 DFBW simulator was used in the development, testing, and validation of an all digital flight-control system installed in the F-8 aircraft that replaced the normal mechanical/hydraulic controls. Many military and commercial aircraft have digital flight control systems based on the technologies developed at NASA Dryden.

  16. Cockpit integration from a pilot's point of view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    Extensive experience in both operational and engineering test flight was used to suggest straightforward changes to helicopter cockpit and control system design that would improve pilot performance in marginal and instrument flight conditions. Needed control system improvements considered include: (1) separation of yaw from cyclic force trim; (2) pedal force proportional to displacement rate; and (3) integration of engine controls in collective stick. Display improvements needed include: (1) natural cuing of yaw rate in attitude indicator; (2) collective position indication and radar altimeter placed within primary scan; and (3) omnidirectional display of full range airspeed data.

  17. Advances in systems for interactive processing and display of meteorological data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasler, A. F.

    1983-01-01

    Advances in systems for interactive processing and display of meteorological data are reviewed, with particular attention given to developments in hardware and software, meteorological data base, analysis and display, and systems availability. These developments include inexpensive minicomputers which give the user almost instantaneous results for many types of jobs; image terminals with the capability to enhance, quantify, animate, and compare image and graphical data; accessibility of a large meteorological data base and the capability of merging different types of data; and sophisticated analysis and multidimensional display techniques. Critical problems still to be solved include getting quick access to historical and real time data bases from any system and making it easy to transport software from one system to another.

  18. Military display performance parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Meyer, Frederick

    2012-06-01

    The military display market is analyzed in terms of four of its segments: avionics, vetronics, dismounted soldier, and command and control. Requirements are summarized for a number of technology-driving parameters, to include luminance, night vision imaging system compatibility, gray levels, resolution, dimming range, viewing angle, video capability, altitude, temperature, shock and vibration, etc., for direct-view and virtual-view displays in cockpits and crew stations. Technical specifications are discussed for selected programs.

  19. "Virtual Cockpit Window" for a Windowless Aerospacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abernathy, Michael F.

    2003-01-01

    A software system processes navigational and sensory information in real time to generate a three-dimensional-appearing image of the external environment for viewing by crewmembers of a windowless aerospacecraft. The design of the particular aerospacecraft (the X-38) is such that the addition of a real transparent cockpit window to the airframe would have resulted in unacceptably large increases in weight and cost. When exerting manual control, an aircrew needs to see terrain, obstructions, and other features around the aircraft in order to land safely. The X-38 is capable of automated landing, but even when this capability is utilized, the crew still needs to view the external environment: From the very beginning of the United States space program, crews have expressed profound dislike for windowless vehicles. The wellbeing of an aircrew is considerably promoted by a three-dimensional view of terrain and obstructions. The present software system was developed to satisfy the need for such a view. In conjunction with a computer and display equipment that weigh less than would a real transparent window, this software system thus provides a virtual cockpit window. The key problem in the development of this software system was to create a realistic three-dimensional perspective view that is updated in real time. The problem was solved by building upon a pre-existing commercial program LandForm C3 that combines the speed of flight-simulator software with the power of geographic-information-system software to generate real-time, three-dimensional-appearing displays of terrain and other features of flight environments. In the development of the present software, the pre-existing program was modified to enable it to utilize real-time information on the position and attitude of the aerospacecraft to generate a view of the external world as it would appear to a person looking out through a window in the aerospacecraft. The development included innovations in realistic

  20. Photographic cockpit model for prescribing multifocals.

    PubMed

    Powell, J H

    1992-01-01

    Recent interest in the relevancy of near vision tests for presbyopic aircrew members has led to the development of a photographic cockpit model. This model is used to prescribe more accurately for flying personnel. Prescriptions can be evaluated by use of trial lenses. This allows the aircrew members to experience the effect of viewing instruments in the cockpit of a C-130 aircraft.

  1. Man-machine interface requirements - advanced technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remington, R. W.; Wiener, E. L.

    1984-01-01

    Research issues and areas are identified where increased understanding of the human operator and the interaction between the operator and the avionics could lead to improvements in the performance of current and proposed helicopters. Both current and advanced helicopter systems and avionics are considered. Areas critical to man-machine interface requirements include: (1) artificial intelligence; (2) visual displays; (3) voice technology; (4) cockpit integration; and (5) pilot work loads and performance.

  2. 14 CFR 121.315 - Cockpit check procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cockpit check procedure. 121.315 Section... Cockpit check procedure. (a) Each certificate holder shall provide an approved cockpit check procedure for... for items to be checked. (c) The approved procedures must be readily usable in the cockpit of...

  3. A function-based approach to cockpit procedure aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phatak, Anil V.; Jain, Parveen; Palmer, Everett

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop and test a cockpit procedural aid that can compose and present procedures that are appropriate for the given flight situation. The procedure would indicate the status of the aircraft engineering systems, and the environmental conditions. Prescribed procedures already exist for normal as well as for a number of non-normal and emergency situations, and can be presented to the crew using an interactive cockpit display. However, no procedures are prescribed or recommended for a host of plausible flight situations involving multiple malfunctions compounded by adverse environmental conditions. Under these circumstances, the cockpit procedural aid must review the prescribed procedures for the individual malfunction (when available), evaluate the alternatives or options, and present one or more composite procedures (prioritized or unprioritized) in response to the given situation. A top-down function-based conceptual approach towards composing and presenting cockpit procedures is being investigated. This approach is based upon the thought process that an operating crew must go through while attempting to meet the flight objectives given the current flight situation. In order to accomplish the flight objectives, certain critical functions must be maintained during each phase of the flight, using the appropriate procedures or success paths. The viability of these procedures depends upon the availability of required resources. If resources available are not sufficient to meet the requirements, alternative procedures (success paths) using the available resources must be constructed to maintain the critical functions and the corresponding objectives. If no success path exists that can satisfy the critical functions/objectives, then the next level of critical functions/objectives must be selected and the process repeated. Information is given in viewgraph form.

  4. Anthropometric accommodation in USAF cockpits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zehner, Gregory F.

    1994-01-01

    Over the past three years, a new set of methodologies has been developed to specify and evaluate anthropometric accommodation in USAF crewstation designs. These techniques are used to improve the ability of the pilot to reach controls, to safely escape the aircraft, to achieve adequate mobility and comfort, and to assure full access to the visual field both inside and outside the aircraft. This paper summarized commonly encountered aircraft accommodation problems, explains the failure of the traditional 'percentile man' design concept to resolve these difficulties, and suggests an alternative approach for improving cockpit design to better accommodate today's more heterogeneous flying population.

  5. A survey of new technology for cockpit application to 1990's transport aircraft simulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, A. P., Jr.; Noneaker, D. O.; Walthour, L.

    1980-01-01

    Two problems were investigated: inter-equipment data transfer, both on board the aircraft and between air and ground; and crew equipment communication via the cockpit displays and controls. Inter-equipment data transfer is discussed in terms of data bus and data link requirements. Crew equipment communication is discussed regarding the availability of CRT display systems for use in research simulators to represent flat panel displays of the future, and of software controllable touch panels.

  6. Displaying Composite and Archived Soundings in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Joe H., III; Volkmer, Matthew R.; Blottman, Peter F.; Sharp, David W.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation describes work done by the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to add composite soundings to the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS). This allows National Weather Service (NWS) forecasters to compare the current atmospheric state with climatology. In a previous task, the AMU created composite soundings for four rawinsonde observation stations in Florida, for each of eight flow regimes. The composite soundings were delivered to the NWS Melbourne (MLB) office for display using the NSHARP software program. NWS MLB requested that the AMU make the composite soundings available for display in AWIPS. The AMU first created a procedure to customize AWIPS so composite soundings could be displayed. A unique four-character identifier was created for each of the 32 composite soundings. The AMIU wrote a Tool Command Language/Tool Kit (TclITk) software program to convert the composite soundings from NSHARP to Network Common Data Form (NetCDF) format. The NetCDF files were then displayable by AWIPS.

  7. Advanced Pathway Guidance Evaluations on a Synthetic Vision Head-Up Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Bailey, Randall E.

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) project is developing technologies with practical applications to potentially eliminate low visibility conditions as a causal factor to civil aircraft accidents while replicating the operational benefits of clear day flight operations, regardless of the actual outside visibility condition. A major thrust of the SVS project involves the development/demonstration of affordable, certifiable display configurations that provide intuitive out-the-window terrain and obstacle information with advanced guidance for commercial and business aircraft. This experiment evaluated the influence of different pathway and guidance display concepts upon pilot situation awareness (SA), mental workload, and flight path tracking performance for Synthetic Vision display concepts using a Head-Up Display (HUD). Two pathway formats (dynamic and minimal tunnel presentations) were evaluated against a baseline condition (no tunnel) during simulated instrument meteorological conditions approaches to Reno-Tahoe International airport. Two guidance cues (tadpole, follow-me aircraft) were also evaluated to assess their influence. Results indicated that the presence of a tunnel on an SVS HUD had no effect on flight path performance but that it did have significant effects on pilot SA and mental workload. The dynamic tunnel concept with the follow-me aircraft guidance symbol produced the lowest workload and provided the highest SA among the tunnel concepts evaluated.

  8. Cockpit data management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groce, J. L.; Boucek, G. P.

    1988-01-01

    This study is a continuation of an FAA effort to alleviate the growing problems of assimilating and managing the flow of data and flight related information in the air transport flight deck. The nature and extent of known pilot interface problems arising from new NAS data management programs were determined by a comparative timeline analysis of crew tasking requirements. A baseline of crew tasking requirements was established for conventional and advanced flight decks operating in the current NAS environment and then compared to the requirements for operation in a future NAS environment emphasizing Mode-S data link and TCAS. Results showed that a CDU-based pilot interface for Mode-S data link substantially increased crew visual activity as compared to the baseline. It was concluded that alternative means of crew interface should be available during high visual workload phases of flight. Results for TCAS implementation showed substantial visual and motor tasking increases, and that there was little available time between crew tasks during a TCAS encounter. It was concluded that additional research should be undertaken to address issues of ATC coordination and the relative benefit of high workload TCAS features.

  9. Case Study of the Space Shuttle Cockpit Avionics Upgrade Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Roscoe C.; Thompson, Hiram C.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the Space Shuttle Cockpit Avionics Upgrade project was to reduce crew workload and improve situational awareness. The upgrade was to augment the Shuttle avionics system with new hardware and software. An early version of this system was used to gather human factor statistics in the Space Shuttle Motion Simulator of the Johnson Space Center for one month by multiple teams of astronauts. The results were compiled by NASA Ames Research Center and it was was determined that the system provided a better than expected increase in situational awareness and reduction in crew workload. Even with all of the benefits nf the system, NASA cancelled the project towards the end of the development cycle. A major success of this project was the validation of the hardware architecture and software design. This was significant because the project incorporated new technology and approaches for the development of human rated space software. This paper serves as a case study to document knowledge gained and techniques that can be applied for future space avionics development efforts. The major technological advances were the use of reflective memory concepts for data acquisition and the incorporation of Commercial off the Shelf (COTS) products in a human rated space avionics system. The infused COTS products included a real time operating system, a resident linker and loader, a display generation tool set, and a network data manager. Some of the successful design concepts were the engineering of identical outputs in multiple avionics boxes using an event driven approach and inter-computer communication, a reconfigurable data acquisition engine, the use of a dynamic bus bandwidth allocation algorithm. Other significant experiences captured were the use of prototyping to reduce risk, and the correct balance between Object Oriented and Functional based programming.

  10. Common Avionics Display Processor (CADP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farley, Paul E.

    1995-06-01

    The 1970s saw the start of a trend towards integrated digital avionics. In the 1980s, the Air Force's Pave Pillar initiative defined centralized digital processing as the cost- effective approach to tactical avionics. The avionics systems of the two advanced aircraft presently under development, a fixed-wing tactical fighter and an armed scout/reconnaissance helicopter, were based on this architecture. Both platforms relied upon custom, single-purpose hardware and software to generate images for their advanced multifunctional flat panel cockpit displays. The technology to generate real-time synthetic images with common data and signal processors was not available during the development of the platforms. Harris IR&D investigations have focused on an approach that Harris GASD has named the Common Avionics Display Processor (CADP). This programmable device can generate sophisticated images or perform sensor image manipulation and processing. The Common Avionics Display Processor is a general purpose image synthesizer. It consists of software and hardware components configured at run time by a downloaded program. The CADP offers two advantages over custom, special purpose devices. First, it solves a class of problems, not a single one. It can generate many types of images, from alphanumeric to sensor simulation. Only one module type is required for any of these functions. Second, as program schedules become shorter, traditional hardware design time becomes the delivery limiting task. Because both the software and hardware components are programmable at run time, the CADP can adapt to changing requirements without redesign.

  11. Advanced rotorcraft helmet-mounted display sighting system (HMDSS) optical distortion correction methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebson, Robert T.; Lee, Louie

    2002-08-01

    Helmet Mounted Displays (HMDs) typically utilize off axis optical systems that result in distorted images. In order to minimize the weight on the pilot's head, a pixilated display, such as an Active Matrix liquid Crystal Display (AMLCD), is utilized as the imaging source. Pixelated displays based on AMLCDs cannot correct distortions or perform spatial transformations as easily as an analog CRT-based systems using electron beam deflection. An advanced rotorcraft HMDSS is a digital system where correcting the distortion within the digital domain is desired to eliminate the inaccuracies of converting to analog, correcting the distortion and converting back to digital. Other system requirements necessitate that the input video be rescaled to provide the proper image to the optical system in order to have the FLIR imagery overlay the real world as the pilot looks through the canopy. To optimize image resolution with minimum sensor size, the FLIR system scans in column mode. As this is not compatible with conventional AMLCD scanning, the FLIR video data must be converted to a row scan. This function, which normally results in additional frame delay, will also be described, together with methods for reducing the latency. The physical constrains of the helmet and the desire to use identical AMLCD devices meant that the devices are rotated between sides of the helmet. This rotation requires that the video image be scanned horizontally and vertically flipped creating another complexity in the design. Requirements for a helmet mounted image intensified television camera to be displayed as an image by itself or overlaid with symbology provided from external video creates additional complexity for distortion correction within the optical chain and will be discussed in this paper. All of these modes require that the video be manipulated in varying degrees of complexity. The enabling technology described in this paper is a complex integrated circuit that allows the user to

  12. Cockpit Ocular Recording System (CORS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothenheber, Edward; Stokes, James; Lagrossa, Charles; Arnold, William; Dick, A. O.

    1990-01-01

    The overall goal was the development of a Cockpit Ocular Recording System (CORS). Four tasks were used: (1) the development of the system; (2) the experimentation and improvement of the system; (3) demonstrations of the working system; and (4) system documentation. Overall, the prototype represents a workable and flexibly designed CORS system. For the most part, the hardware use for the prototype system is off-the-shelf. All of the following software was developed specifically: (1) setup software that the user specifies the cockpit configuration and identifies possible areas in which the pilot will look; (2) sensing software which integrates the 60 Hz data from the oculometer and heat orientation sensing unit; (3) processing software which applies a spatiotemporal filter to the lookpoint data to determine fixation/dwell positions; (4) data recording output routines; and (5) playback software which allows the user to retrieve and analyze the data. Several experiments were performed to verify the system accuracy and quantify system deficiencies. These tests resulted in recommendations for any future system that might be constructed.

  13. Stereoscopic displays and applications; Proceedings of the Meeting, Santa Clara, CA, Feb. 12-14, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merritt, John O. (Editor); Fisher, Scott S. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The present conference discusses topics in the fields of stereoscopic displays' user interfaces, three-dimensional (TD) visualization, novel TD displays, and applications of stereoscopic displays. Attention is given to TD cockpit displays, novel computational control techniques for stereo TD displays, characterization of higher-dimensional presentation techniques, volume visualization on a stereoscopic display, and stereoscopic displays for terrain-data base visualization. Also discussed are the experimental design of cyberspaces, a volumetric environment for interactive design of three-dimensional objects, videotape recording of TD TV images, remote manipulator tasks rendered possible by stereo TV, TD endoscopy based on alternating-frame technology, and advancements in computer-generated barrier-strip autostereography.

  14. [Spatial orientation of pilot using a cockpit exterior surveillance system].

    PubMed

    Chuntul, A V; Lapa, V V; Davydov, V V

    2013-01-01

    Spatial orientation of pilots using a cockpit exterior surveillance system was tested in real nighttime helicopter flights. Major factors complicating adequate spatial orientation and provoking visual illusions in pilots are lack of information for spatial depth (relation) perception in two-dimensional TV images altering their position along the horizontal and vertical lines of trajectory and simultaneous piloting and target search-identification operations. Reliability of pilot's spatial orientation could be improved by displaying on the exterior imaging screen also relevant flight navigation parameters.

  15. Multi-modal cockpit interface for improved airport surface operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthur, Jarvis J. (Inventor); Bailey, Randall E. (Inventor); Prinzel, III, Lawrence J. (Inventor); Kramer, Lynda J. (Inventor); Williams, Steven P. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A system for multi-modal cockpit interface during surface operation of an aircraft comprises a head tracking device, a processing element, and a full-color head worn display. The processing element is configured to receive head position information from the head tracking device, to receive current location information of the aircraft, and to render a virtual airport scene corresponding to the head position information and the current aircraft location. The full-color head worn display is configured to receive the virtual airport scene from the processing element and to display the virtual airport scene. The current location information may be received from one of a global positioning system or an inertial navigation system.

  16. Dual redundant display in bubble canopy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdi, Ken; Niemczyk, James

    2010-04-01

    Today's cockpit integrator, whether for state of the art military fast jet, or piston powered general aviation, is striving to utilize all available panel space for AMLCD based displays to enhance situational awareness and increase safety. The benefits of a glass cockpit have been well studied and documented. The technology used to create these glass cockpits, however, is driven by commercial AMLCD demand which far outstrips the combined worldwide avionics requirements. In order to satisfy the wide variety of human factors and environmental requirements, large area displays have been developed to maximize the usable display area while also providing necessary redundancy in case of failure. The AMLCD has been optimized for extremely wide viewing angles driven by the flat panel TV market. In some cockpit applications, wide viewing cones are desired. In bubble canopy cockpits, however, narrow viewing cones are desired to reduce canopy reflections. American Panel Corporation has developed AMLCD displays that maximize viewing area, provide redundancy, while also providing a very narrow viewing cone even though commercial AMLCD technology is employed suitable for high performance AMLCD Displays. This paper investigates both the large area display architecture with several available options to solve redundancy as well as beam steering techniques to also limit canopy reflections.

  17. A Product Development Decision Model for Cockpit Weather Information Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sireli, Yesim; Kauffmann, Paul; Gupta, Surabhi; Kachroo, Pushkin

    2003-01-01

    There is a significant market demand for advanced cockpit weather information products. However, it is unclear how to identify the most promising technological options that provide the desired mix of consumer requirements by employing feasible technical systems at a price that achieves market success. This study develops a unique product development decision model that employs Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and Kano's model of consumer choice. This model is specifically designed for exploration and resolution of this and similar information technology related product development problems.

  18. A Product Development Decision Model for Cockpit Weather Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sireli, Yesim; Kauffmann, Paul; Gupta, Surabhi; Kachroo, Pushkin; Johnson, Edward J., Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    There is a significant market demand for advanced cockpit weather information products. However, it is unclear how to identify the most promising technological options that provide the desired mix of consumer requirements by employing feasible technical systems at a price that achieves market success. This study develops a unique product development decision model that employs Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and Kano's model of consumer choice. This model is specifically designed for exploration and resolution of this and similar information technology related product development problems.

  19. Advanced display object selection methods for enhancing user-computer productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osga, Glenn A.

    1993-01-01

    The User-Interface Technology Branch at NCCOSC RDT&E Division has been conducting a series of studies to address the suitability of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) graphic user-interface (GUI) methods for efficiency and performance in critical naval combat systems. This paper presents an advanced selection algorithm and method developed to increase user performance when making selections on tactical displays. The method has also been applied with considerable success to a variety of cursor and pointing tasks. Typical GUI's allow user selection by: (1) moving a cursor with a pointing device such as a mouse, trackball, joystick, touchscreen; and (2) placing the cursor on the object. Examples of GUI objects are the buttons, icons, folders, scroll bars, etc. used in many personal computer and workstation applications. This paper presents an improved method of selection and the theoretical basis for the significant performance gains achieved with various input devices tested. The method is applicable to all GUI styles and display sizes, and is particularly useful for selections on small screens such as notebook computers. Considering the amount of work-hours spent pointing and clicking across all styles of available graphic user-interfaces, the cost/benefit in applying this method to graphic user-interfaces is substantial, with the potential for increasing productivity across thousands of users and applications.

  20. Advanced Image Intensifier: a 60°field-of-view night vision system with integral electroluminescent display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crenshaw, David A.; Branigan, Robert G.

    1996-06-01

    The Advanced Image Intensifier Advanced Technology Demonstrator is an Army program to develop and demonstrate the next generation of night vision goggle using revolutionary new technologies to improve system performance and expand the capability of currently fielded image intensifier devices. The Advanced Image Intensifier is a helmet mounted imaging and display system that exploits recent advances in diffractive optics, miniature flat panel displays, image intensifier tube technology and manufacturing processes. The system will demonstrate significantly enhanced operational performance by increasing low-light resolution by greater than 25 percent; increasing field of view from 40 degrees to 60 degrees; improving high light performance; and integrating a display for viewing thermal imagery, computer graphics, and symbology. The results of these improvements will increase the night fighting capability, operational effectiveness, mobilty, versatility, and survivability of the dismounted soldier and aviator.

  1. Advances in display technology III; Proceedings of the Meeting, Los Angeles, CA, January 18, 19, 1983

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlam, E.

    1983-01-01

    Human factors in visible displays are discussed, taking into account an introduction to color vision, a laser optometric assessment of visual display viewability, the quantification of color contrast, human performance evaluations of digital image quality, visual problems of office video display terminals, and contemporary problems in airborne displays. Other topics considered are related to electroluminescent technology, liquid crystal and related technologies, plasma technology, and display terminal and systems. Attention is given to the application of electroluminescent technology to personal computers, electroluminescent driving techniques, thin film electroluminescent devices with memory, the fabrication of very large electroluminescent displays, the operating properties of thermally addressed dye switching liquid crystal display, light field dichroic liquid crystal displays for very large area displays, and hardening military plasma displays for a nuclear environment.

  2. Applications of AMLCDs in U.S. military cockpits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaels, Robert A.; Desjardins, Daniel D.; Daniels, Reginald; Hopper, Darrel G.

    1996-05-01

    Active matrix liquid crystal displays have become the flat panel technology of choice for new cockpits as well as for retrofits of existing ones. Systems such as F-22, F-18, F-16, and C-141 have already begun extensive development efforts over the last few years. More recently, JPATS, AH-64, P-3, KC-135, T-45, and T-38 have announced plans to use AMLCDs also. Because of the advantages that AMLCDs have to offer, the list of platforms that will implement them will continue to grow over the next several years. The Displays Branch in Wright Laboratory is continually analyzing current as well as potential programs. An update on this analysis program is presented.

  3. Bridging the gap: adapting advanced display technologies for use in hybrid control rooms

    SciTech Connect

    Jokstad, Håkon; Boring, Ronald

    2015-02-01

    recently assisted INL in establishing the technical infrastructure for implementation of HSI prototypes from HAMMLAB into the HSSL to demonstrate relevant control room replacement systems in support of the LWRS program. In March, 2014, IFE delivered the first HSI prototype utilizing this infrastructure — a large screen overview display for INL's simulator. The co-operation now continues by developing Procedure Support Displays targeted for operators in hybrid control room settings. These prototypes are being validated with U.S. reactor operators in the HSSL and optimized to enhance their performance. This research serves as a crucial stepping stone toward incorporation of advanced display technologies into conventional main control rooms.

  4. 14 CFR 121.359 - Cockpit voice recorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... (k) All airplanes required by this part to have a cockpit voice recorder and a flight data recorder... termination of the flight. (b) (c) The cockpit voice recorder required by paragraph (a) of this section must... the cockpit voice recorder, and the flight recorder required by § 121.343, are installed adjacent...

  5. 14 CFR 121.359 - Cockpit voice recorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... (k) All airplanes required by this part to have a cockpit voice recorder and a flight data recorder... termination of the flight. (b) (c) The cockpit voice recorder required by paragraph (a) of this section must... the cockpit voice recorder, and the flight recorder required by § 121.343, are installed adjacent...

  6. 14 CFR 135.151 - Cockpit voice recorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... flight data recorder installed in accordance with § 135.152, must have a cockpit voice recorder that also... rotorcraft required by this part to have a cockpit voice recorder and a flight data recorder, that install... data recorder under § 135.152, unless it is equipped with an approved cockpit voice recorder that......

  7. 14 CFR 121.359 - Cockpit voice recorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... (k) All airplanes required by this part to have a cockpit voice recorder and a flight data recorder... termination of the flight. (b) (c) The cockpit voice recorder required by paragraph (a) of this section must... the cockpit voice recorder, and the flight recorder required by § 121.343, are installed adjacent...

  8. 14 CFR 121.359 - Cockpit voice recorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... (k) All airplanes required by this part to have a cockpit voice recorder and a flight data recorder... termination of the flight. (b) (c) The cockpit voice recorder required by paragraph (a) of this section must... the cockpit voice recorder, and the flight recorder required by § 121.343, are installed adjacent...

  9. 14 CFR 25.781 - Cockpit control knob shape.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cockpit control knob shape. 25.781 Section 25.781 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... § 25.781 Cockpit control knob shape. Cockpit control knobs must conform to the general shapes (but...

  10. 14 CFR 129.24 - Cockpit voice recorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cockpit voice recorders. 129.24 Section 129... § 129.24 Cockpit voice recorders. No person may operate an aircraft under this part that is registered in the United States unless it is equipped with an approved cockpit voice recorder that meets...

  11. 14 CFR 25.781 - Cockpit control knob shape.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cockpit control knob shape. 25.781 Section 25.781 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... § 25.781 Cockpit control knob shape. Cockpit control knobs must conform to the general shapes (but...

  12. Heads up display for the Flight Simulator for Advanced Aircraft (FSAA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brocker, D. H.; Ganzler, B. C.

    1975-01-01

    A heads-up flight director display designed for a V/STOL lift-fan transport simulation study is described. The pilot's visual flight scene had the heads-up display optically superimposed over the usual out-the-window, video flight scene. The flight director display required the development and integration of a flexible, programmable display generator, graphics assembler, display driver, computer interface system, and special collimating optics for the pilot's flight scene. The optical overlay was realistic because both scenes appeared at optical infinity, and the flexibility of this display device establishes its value as a research tool for use in future flight simulation programs.

  13. Displaying Composite and Archived Soundings in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Joe H., III; Volkmer, Matthew R.; Blottman, Peter F.; Sharp, David W.

    2008-01-01

    In a previous task, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) developed spatial and temporal climatologies of lightning occurrence based on eight atmospheric flow regimes. The AMU created climatological, or composite, soundings of wind speed and direction, temperature, and dew point temperature at four rawinsonde observation stations at Jacksonville, Tampa, Miami, and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, for each of the eight flow regimes. The composite soundings were delivered to the National Weather Service (NWS) Melbourne (MLB) office for display using the National version of the Skew-T Hodograph analysis and Research Program (NSHARP) software program. The NWS MLB requested the AMU make the composite soundings available for display in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS), so they could be overlaid on current observed soundings. This will allow the forecasters to compare the current state of the atmosphere with climatology. This presentation describes how the AMU converted the composite soundings from NSHARP Archive format to Network Common Data Form (NetCDF) format, so that the soundings could be displayed in AWl PS. The NetCDF is a set of data formats, programming interfaces, and software libraries used to read and write scientific data files. In AWIPS, each meteorological data type, such as soundings or surface observations, has a unique NetCDF format. Each format is described by a NetCDF template file. Although NetCDF files are in binary format, they can be converted to a text format called network Common data form Description Language (CDL). A software utility called ncgen is used to create a NetCDF file from a CDL file, while the ncdump utility is used to create a CDL file from a NetCDF file. An AWIPS receives soundings in Binary Universal Form for the Representation of Meteorological data (BUFR) format (http://dss.ucar.edu/docs/formats/bufr/), and then decodes them into NetCDF format. Only two sounding files are generated in AWIPS per day. One

  14. 3D Navigation and Integrated Hazard Display in Advanced Avionics: Workload, Performance, and Situation Awareness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickens, Christopher D.; Alexander, Amy L.

    2004-01-01

    We examined the ability for pilots to estimate traffic location in an Integrated Hazard Display, and how such estimations should be measured. Twelve pilots viewed static images of traffic scenarios and then estimated the outside world locations of queried traffic represented in one of three display types (2D coplanar, 3D exocentric, and split-screen) and in one of four conditions (display present/blank crossed with outside world present/blank). Overall, the 2D coplanar display best supported both vertical (compared to 3D) and lateral (compared to split-screen) traffic position estimation performance. Costs of the 3D display were associated with perceptual ambiguity. Costs of the split screen display were inferred to result from inappropriate attention allocation. Furthermore, although pilots were faster in estimating traffic locations when relying on memory, accuracy was greatest when the display was available.

  15. Recent advances in electroluminescent displays applicable to future crew-station interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, M. R.; Schlam, E.; Robertson, J. B.; Hatfield, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    The operative principles and progress to date on producing thin-film electroluminescent displays (TFEL) are discussed. TFEL displays consist of conductive, insulating and phosphor film layers deposited on a glass substrate. Applying a 200 V potential between the rows and columns in a multiplexed mode causes light to be emitted. Varying the voltage varies the grey level. The panels provide adequate contrast in full sunlight, and have demanded only 4-6 W for 15 sq in. displays. Alphanumeric, graphics, and video images have been generated with a 51 line by 80 character display. The upper limit on the panel size has not yet been defined. Efforts are under way to produce multicolor displays using red and blue phosphors. Trial units are being studied for avionics displays for, e.g., navigation, multipurpose displays, and attitude/direction indicators.

  16. System status display evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, Leland G.

    1988-01-01

    The System Status Display is an electronic display system which provides the crew with an enhanced capability for monitoring and managing the aircraft systems. A flight simulation in a fixed base cockpit simulator was used to evaluate alternative design concepts for this display system. The alternative concepts included pictorial versus alphanumeric text formats, multifunction versus dedicated controls, and integration of the procedures with the system status information versus paper checklists. Twelve pilots manually flew approach patterns with the different concepts. System malfunctions occurred which required the pilots to respond to the alert by reconfiguring the system. The pictorial display, the multifunction control interfaces collocated with the system display, and the procedures integrated with the status information all had shorter event processing times and lower subjective workloads.

  17. Peripheral processors for high-speed simulation. [helicopter cockpit simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karplus, W. J.

    1977-01-01

    This paper describes some of the results of a study directed to the specification and procurement of a new cockpit simulator for an advanced class of helicopters. A part of the study was the definition of a challenging benchmark problem, and detailed analyses of it were made to assess the suitability of a variety of simulation techniques. The analyses showed that a particularly cost-effective approach to the attainment of adequate speed for this extremely demanding application is to employ a large minicomputer acting as host and controller for a special-purpose digital peripheral processor. Various realizations of such peripheral processors, all employing state-of-the-art electronic circuitry and a high degree of parallelism and pipelining, are available or under development. The types of peripheral processors array processors, simulation-oriented processors, and arrays of processing elements - are analyzed and compared. They are particularly promising approaches which should be suitable for high-speed simulations of all kinds, the cockpit simulator being a case in point.

  18. Development of advanced direct perception displays for nuclear power plants to enhance monitoring, control and fault management. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, B.; Shaheen, S.; Moray, N.; Sanderson, P.; Reising, D.V.

    1993-05-21

    With recent theoretical and empirical research in basic and applied psychology, human factors, and engineering, it is now sufficient to define an integrated approach to the deign of advanced displays for present and future nuclear power plants. Traditionally, the conventional displays have shown operators the individual variables on gauges, meters, strip charts, etc. This design approach requires the operators to mentally integrate the separately displayed variables and determine the implications for the plant state. This traditional approach has been known as the single-sensor-single-indicator display design and it places an intolerable amount of mental workload on operators during transients and abnormal conditions. This report discusses a new alternative approach which is the use of direct perception interfaces. Direct perception a interfaces display the underlying physical and system constraints of the situation in a directly perceptual way, such that the viewer need not reason about what is seen to identify system states, but can identify the state of the system perceptually. It is expected that displays which show the dynamics of fundamental physical laws should better support operator decisions and diagnoses of plant states. The purpose of this research project is to develop a suite of direct perception displays for PWR nuclear power plant operations.

  19. 14 CFR 25.777 - Cockpit controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the cockpit structure or the clothing of the minimum flight crew (established under § 25.1523) when any member of this flight crew, from 5′2″ to 6′3″ in height, is seated with the seat belt and shoulder... control must be located forward of the throttles and must be operable by each pilot when seated with...

  20. 14 CFR 25.777 - Cockpit controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the cockpit structure or the clothing of the minimum flight crew (established under § 25.1523) when any member of this flight crew, from 5′2″ to 6′3″ in height, is seated with the seat belt and shoulder... control must be located forward of the throttles and must be operable by each pilot when seated with...

  1. 14 CFR 25.777 - Cockpit controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the cockpit structure or the clothing of the minimum flight crew (established under § 25.1523) when any member of this flight crew, from 5′2″ to 6′3″ in height, is seated with the seat belt and shoulder... control must be located forward of the throttles and must be operable by each pilot when seated with...

  2. 14 CFR 25.777 - Cockpit controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the cockpit structure or the clothing of the minimum flight crew (established under § 25.1523) when any member of this flight crew, from 5′2″ to 6′3″ in height, is seated with the seat belt and shoulder... control must be located forward of the throttles and must be operable by each pilot when seated with...

  3. 14 CFR 25.777 - Cockpit controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the cockpit structure or the clothing of the minimum flight crew (established under § 25.1523) when any member of this flight crew, from 5′2″ to 6′3″ in height, is seated with the seat belt and shoulder... control must be located forward of the throttles and must be operable by each pilot when seated with...

  4. Selecting cockpit functions for speech I/O technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    A general methodology for the initial selection of functions for speech generation and speech recognition technology is discussed. The SCR (Stimulus/Central-Processing/Response) compatibility model of Wickens et al. (1983) is examined, and its application is demonstrated for a particular cockpit display problem. Some limits of the applicability of that model are illustrated in the context of predicting overall pilot-aircraft system performance. A program of system performance measurement is recommended for the evaluation of candidate systems. It is suggested that no one measure of system performance can necessarily be depended upon to the exclusion of others. Systems response time, system accuracy, and pilot ratings are all important measures. Finally, these measures must be collected in the context of the total flight task environment.

  5. Issues in simultaneous HMD display of multireference frames for helicopter applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachelder, Edward N.; Hansman, R. John, Jr.

    1996-05-01

    A preliminary study was conducted to investigate the use of reference markers found in the head-fixed frame as an aid to reference frame awareness during aircraft flight while using a helmet mounted display. Three reference-cueing displays were compared: (1) Sparse Reference display: all cockpit and airframe markers removed except for the instrument panel, (2) Cockpit Reference display: entire cockpit environment visible, and (3) Geo/Cockpit Reference display: cockpit environment visible with the addition of a surrounding wire-frame globe. The visual scenery was displayed to subjects using a helmet-mounted virtual reality device that had a 40 X 50 degree field of view liquid crystal display. The study involved six pilots. The task was to locate targets from aural alert information. The aural alerts were based in either the Aircraft reference frame (i.e. target clock position relative to the aircraft nose), or the World reference frame (i.e. target bearing). These tasks were conducted while the subject rode through abrupt maneuvering flight at low level in a fixed-based Cobra helicopter simulator. Performance measures of the pilot's ability to discriminate the intended target from secondary targets in the visual field were collected, as well as subjective ratings for each reference display. The Geo/Cockpit Reference display produced the highest target detection scores for both Aircraft and World-reference alerts. The highest overall detection scores were produced when World-referenced alerts were issued while using the Geo/Cockpit display. The Cockpit display scores were higher than the Sparse display's for both alert types. Subjective scores showed pilot preference for the Geo/Cockpit Reference display over the two displays for both Aircraft and World-reference alerts. A secondary exploratory experiment using the same tasking as the initial experiment was also conducted which observed the effect of peripheral cues. Target detection scores for both alert types

  6. "Head up and eyes out" advances in head mounted displays capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Alex

    2013-06-01

    There are a host of helmet and head mounted displays, flooding the market place with displays which provide what is essentially a mobile computer display. What sets aviators HMDs apart is that they provide the user with accurate conformal information embedded in the pilots real world view (see through display) where the information presented is intuitive and easy to use because it overlays the real world (mix of sensor imagery, symbolic information and synthetic imagery) and enables them to stay head up, eyes out, - improving their effectiveness, reducing workload and improving safety. Such systems are an enabling technology in the provision of enhanced Situation Awareness (SA) and reducing user workload in high intensity situations. Safety Is Key; so the addition of these HMD functions cannot detract from the aircrew protection functions of conventional aircrew helmets which also include life support and audio communications. These capabilities are finding much wider application in new types of compact man mounted audio/visual products enabled by the emergence of new families of micro displays, novel optical concepts and ultra-compact low power processing solutions. This papers attempts to capture the key drivers and needs for future head mounted systems for aviation applications.

  7. Situational awareness in the commercial aircraft cockpit - A cognitive perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Marilyn J.; Pew, Richard W.

    1990-01-01

    A cognitive theory is presented that has relevance for the definition and assessment of situational awareness in the cockpit. The theory asserts that maintenance of situation awareness is a constructive process that demands mental resources in competition with ongoing task performance. Implications of this perspective for assessing and improving situational awareness are discussed. It is concluded that the goal of inserting advanced technology into any system is that it results in an increase in the effectiveness, timeliness, and safety with which the system's activities can be accomplished. The inherent difficulties of the multitask situation are very often compounded by the introduction of automation. To maximize situational awareness, the dynamics and capabilities of such technologies must be designed with thorough respect for the dynamics and capabilities of human information-processing.

  8. Cockpit resource management training at People Express

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruce, Keith D.; Jensen, Doug

    1987-01-01

    In January 1986 in a continuing effort to maintain and improve flight safety and solve some Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) problems, People Express implemented a new CRM training program. It is a continuously running program, scheduled over the next three years and includes state-of-the-art full-mission simulation (LOFT), semi-annual seminar workshops and a comprehensive academic program authored by Robert W. Mudge of Cockpit Management Resources Inc. That program is outlined and to maximize its contribution to the workshop's goals, is organized into four topic areas: (1) Program content: the essential elements of resource management training; (2) Training methods: the strengths and weaknesses of current approaches; (3) Implementation: the implementation of CRM training; and (4) Effectiveness: the effectiveness of training. It is confined as much as possible to concise descriptions of the program's basic components. Brief discussions of rationale are included, however no attempt is made to discuss or review popular CRM tenets or the supporting research.

  9. DARPA high resolution display technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slusarczuk, Marko

    1990-11-01

    Much of the information of interest to pilots in flight is display-limited, and is undergoing substantial expansion due to improved sensor output and signal processing; attention is accordingly given to digitally-based instrument display imaging in the present evaluation of high-resolution cockpit display technologies. Also noted are the advantages of digitally transmitted sensor data in cases where the airborne reconnaissance user may be able to analyze telemetered airborne data in real time and respond with requests to the pilot for more detailed information of specific battlefield sites.

  10. Human factors in cockpit automation: A field study of flight crew transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiener, E. L.

    1985-01-01

    The factors which affected two groups of airline pilots in the transition from traditional airline cockpits to a highly automated version were studied. All pilots were highly experienced in traditional models of the McDonnell-Douglas DC-9 prior to their transition to the more automated DC-9-80. Specific features of the new aircraft, particularly the digital flight guidance system (DFGS) and other automatic features such as the autothrottle system (ATS), autobrake, and digital display were studied. Particular attention was paid to the first 200 hours of line flying experience in the new aircraft, and the difficulties that some pilots found in adapting to the new systems during this initial operating period. Efforts to prevent skill loss from automation, training methods, traditional human factors issues, and general views of the pilots toward cockpit automation are discussed.

  11. Benefits assessment of active control technology and related cockpit technology for rotorcraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hampton, B. J.

    1982-01-01

    Two main-rotor active control concepts, one incorporating multicyclic actuators located just below the swashplate, and the other providing for the actuators and power supplies to be located in the rotating frame are considered. Each design concept is integrated with cockpit controllers and displays appropriate to the actuation concept in each case. The benefits of applying the defined ACT/RCT concepts to rotorcraft are quantified by comparison to the baseline model 412 helicopter. These benefits include, in the case of one active control concept; (1) up to 91% reduction in 4/rev hub shears; (2) a flight safety failure rate of 1.96 x 10 to the 8th power failures per flight-hour; (3) rotating controls/rotor hub drag reduction of 40%; (4) a 9% reduction in control system weight; and (5) vibratory deicing. The related cockpit concept reduces pilot workload for critical mission segments as much as 178% visual and 25% manual.

  12. M2-F1 cockpit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    This photo shows the cockpit configuration of the M2-F1 wingless lifting body. With a top speed of about 120 knots, the M2-F1 had a simple instrument panel. Besides the panel itself, the ribs of the wooden shell (left) and the control stick (center) are also visible. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially conceived as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop near Long Beach for modification. With a special gearbox and racing slicks, the Pontiac could tow the 1,000-pound M2-F1 110 miles per hour in 30 seconds. It proved adequate for the roughly 400 car tows that got the M2-F1 airborne to prove it could fly safely and to train pilots before they were towed behind a C-47

  13. Teaching Cockpit Automation in the Classroom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casner, Stephen M.

    2003-01-01

    This study explores the idea of teaching fundamental cockpit automation concepts and skills to aspiring professional pilots in a classroom setting, without the use of sophisticated aircraft or equipment simulators. Pilot participants from a local professional pilot academy completed eighteen hours of classroom instruction that placed a strong emphasis on understanding the underlying principles of cockpit automation systems and their use in a multi-crew cockpit. The instructional materials consisted solely of a single textbook. Pilots received no hands-on instruction or practice during their training. At the conclusion of the classroom instruction, pilots completed a written examination testing their mastery of what had been taught during the classroom meetings. Following the written exam, each pilot was given a check flight in a full-mission Level D simulator of a Boeing 747-400 aircraft. Pilots were given the opportunity to fly one practice leg, and were then tested on all concepts and skills covered in the class during a second leg. The results of the written exam and simulator checks strongly suggest that instruction delivered in a traditional classroom setting can lead to high levels of preparation without the need for expensive airplane or equipment simulators.

  14. Solid-state turn coordinator display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meredith, B. D.; Crouch, R. K.; Kelly, W. L., IV

    1975-01-01

    A solid state turn coordinator display which employs light emitting diodes (LED's) as the display medium was developed to demonstrate the feasibility of such displays for aircraft applications. The input to the display is supplied by a fluidic inertial rate sensor used in an aircraft wing leveler system. The display is composed of the LED radial display face and the electronics necessary to address and drive the individual lines of LED's. Three levels of brightness are provided to compensate for the different amounts of ambient light present in the cockpit.

  15. Recent advances in yeast cell-surface display technologies for waste biorefineries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhuo; Ho, Shih-Hsin; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Chang, Jo-Shu; Ren, Nan-Qi; Kondo, Akihiko

    2016-09-01

    Waste biorefinery aims to maximize the output of value-added products from various artificial/agricultural wastes by using integrated bioprocesses. To make waste biorefinery economically feasible, it is thus necessary to develop a low-cost, environment-friendly technique to perform simultaneous biodegradation and bioconversion of waste materials. Cell-surface display engineering is a novel, cost-effective technique that can auto-immobilize proteins on the cell exterior of microorganisms, and has been applied for use with waste biofinery. Through tethering different enzymes (e.g., cellulase, lipase, and protease) or metal-binding peptides on cell surfaces, various yeast strains can effectively produce biofuels and biochemicals from sugar/protein-rich waste materials, catalyze waste oils into biodiesels, or retrieve heavy metals from wastewater. This review critically summarizes recent applications of yeast cell-surface display on various types of waste biorefineries, highlighting its potential and future challenges with regard to commercializing this technology. PMID:27039354

  16. Recent advances in yeast cell-surface display technologies for waste biorefineries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhuo; Ho, Shih-Hsin; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Chang, Jo-Shu; Ren, Nan-Qi; Kondo, Akihiko

    2016-09-01

    Waste biorefinery aims to maximize the output of value-added products from various artificial/agricultural wastes by using integrated bioprocesses. To make waste biorefinery economically feasible, it is thus necessary to develop a low-cost, environment-friendly technique to perform simultaneous biodegradation and bioconversion of waste materials. Cell-surface display engineering is a novel, cost-effective technique that can auto-immobilize proteins on the cell exterior of microorganisms, and has been applied for use with waste biofinery. Through tethering different enzymes (e.g., cellulase, lipase, and protease) or metal-binding peptides on cell surfaces, various yeast strains can effectively produce biofuels and biochemicals from sugar/protein-rich waste materials, catalyze waste oils into biodiesels, or retrieve heavy metals from wastewater. This review critically summarizes recent applications of yeast cell-surface display on various types of waste biorefineries, highlighting its potential and future challenges with regard to commercializing this technology.

  17. Advanced helmet vision system (AHVS) integrated night vision helmet mounted display (HMD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashcraft, Todd W.; Atac, Robert

    2012-06-01

    Gentex Corporation, under contract to Naval Air Systems Command (AIR 4.0T), designed the Advanced Helmet Vision System to provide aircrew with 24-hour, visor-projected binocular night vision and HMD capability. AHVS integrates numerous key technologies, including high brightness Light Emitting Diode (LED)-based digital light engines, advanced lightweight optical materials and manufacturing processes, and innovations in graphics processing software. This paper reviews the current status of miniaturization and integration with the latest two-part Gentex modular helmet, highlights the lessons learned from previous AHVS phases, and discusses plans for qualification and flight testing.

  18. Referential coding of steering-wheel button presses in a simulated driving cockpit.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Aiping; Proctor, Robert W

    2015-12-01

    The present study investigated whether left and right pushbuttons on a steering wheel are coded relative to an "infotainment display" in a simulated driving cockpit. Participants performed a go/no-go Simon task in which they responded on trials for which a tone, presented from a left or right speaker, was 1 of 2 pitches (low or high) with a single button press (left in 1 trial block; right in another). Without the infotainment display in Experiment 1, both left and right responses showed Simon effects of similar size. In both Experiments 2 and 3, the infotainment display was located to the right or left, and the Simon effect was smaller for the response that was on the side of the infotainment display than for the response that was on the opposite side. The results indicate that in a driving cockpit environment, the pushbutton responses are coded as left and right with respect not only to the wheel-based frame but also to a salient object like the infotainment display. The general point for application is that the driver's spatial representation of responses, and consequently performance, can be influenced by multiple frames of reference.

  19. Referential coding of steering-wheel button presses in a simulated driving cockpit.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Aiping; Proctor, Robert W

    2015-12-01

    The present study investigated whether left and right pushbuttons on a steering wheel are coded relative to an "infotainment display" in a simulated driving cockpit. Participants performed a go/no-go Simon task in which they responded on trials for which a tone, presented from a left or right speaker, was 1 of 2 pitches (low or high) with a single button press (left in 1 trial block; right in another). Without the infotainment display in Experiment 1, both left and right responses showed Simon effects of similar size. In both Experiments 2 and 3, the infotainment display was located to the right or left, and the Simon effect was smaller for the response that was on the side of the infotainment display than for the response that was on the opposite side. The results indicate that in a driving cockpit environment, the pushbutton responses are coded as left and right with respect not only to the wheel-based frame but also to a salient object like the infotainment display. The general point for application is that the driver's spatial representation of responses, and consequently performance, can be influenced by multiple frames of reference. PMID:26460675

  20. 14 CFR 125.227 - Cockpit voice recorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... turbine engine-powered airplanes required by this part to have a cockpit voice recorder and a flight data... separated during crash impact, unless the cockpit voice recorder and the flight recorder, required by § 125... 49 CFR part 830 of its regulations, which results in the termination of the flight, the...

  1. 14 CFR 125.227 - Cockpit voice recorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) All airplanes required by this part to have a cockpit voice recorder and a flight data recorder, that... separated during crash impact, unless the cockpit voice recorder and the flight recorder, required by § 125... 49 CFR part 830 of its regulations, which results in the termination of the flight, the...

  2. 14 CFR 125.227 - Cockpit voice recorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) All airplanes required by this part to have a cockpit voice recorder and a flight data recorder, that... separated during crash impact, unless the cockpit voice recorder and the flight recorder, required by § 125... 49 CFR part 830 of its regulations, which results in the termination of the flight, the...

  3. 14 CFR 121.359 - Cockpit voice recorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and a flight data recorder, that install datalink communication equipment on or after April 7, 2010... termination of the flight. (b) (c) The cockpit voice recorder required by paragraph (a) of this section must... the cockpit voice recorder, and the flight recorder required by § 121.343, are installed adjacent...

  4. 14 CFR 125.227 - Cockpit voice recorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) All airplanes required by this part to have a cockpit voice recorder and a flight data recorder, that... separated during crash impact, unless the cockpit voice recorder and the flight recorder, required by § 125... 49 CFR part 830 of its regulations, which results in the termination of the flight, the...

  5. 14 CFR 125.227 - Cockpit voice recorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) All airplanes required by this part to have a cockpit voice recorder and a flight data recorder, that... separated during crash impact, unless the cockpit voice recorder and the flight recorder, required by § 125... 49 CFR part 830 of its regulations, which results in the termination of the flight, the...

  6. 14 CFR 23.781 - Cockpit control knob shape.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cockpit control knob shape. 23.781 Section 23.781 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 23.781 Cockpit control knob shape. (a) Flap and landing gear...

  7. Cockpit resources management and the theory of the situation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolman, L.

    1984-01-01

    The cockpit resource management (CRM) and hypothetical cockpit situations are discussed. Four different conditions which influence pilot action are outlined: (1) wrong assumptions about a situation; (2) stress and workload; (3) frustration and delays to cause risk taking; and (4) ambigious incomplete or contradicting information. Human factors and behavior, and pilot communication and management in the simulator are outlined.

  8. 14 CFR 23.781 - Cockpit control knob shape.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cockpit control knob shape. 23.781 Section... Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 23.781 Cockpit control knob shape. (a) Flap and landing gear control knobs must conform to the general shapes (but not necessarily the exact sizes or specific...

  9. The ergonomics of flight management systems: fixing holes in the cockpit certification net.

    PubMed

    Singer, G; Dekker, S

    2001-06-01

    Recent air traffic control regulations mandate the installation of computer-based flight management systems in airliners across Europe. Integrating and certifying add-on cockpit systems is a long and costly process, which in its current form cannot meaningfully address ergonomics aspects. Two levels of problems occur: add-on systems carry many "classic" HCI failures, which could easily be addressed with modified certification requirements. Further, adding new technology changes practice, creates new skill and knowledge demands and produces new forms of error, which are more difficult to assess in advance. However, one innovative certification approach for add-on cockpit systems, based on the use of a representative population of user pilots, was found to be promising. This method minimizes the subjective bias of individual pilots in addition to defining pass/fail criteria in an operational environment.

  10. Advances in three-dimensional integral imaging: sensing, display, and applications [Invited].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xiao; Javidi, Bahram; Martinez-Corral, Manuel; Stern, Adrian

    2013-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) sensing and imaging technologies have been extensively researched for many applications in the fields of entertainment, medicine, robotics, manufacturing, industrial inspection, security, surveillance, and defense due to their diverse and significant benefits. Integral imaging is a passive multiperspective imaging technique, which records multiple two-dimensional images of a scene from different perspectives. Unlike holography, it can capture a scene such as outdoor events with incoherent or ambient light. Integral imaging can display a true 3D color image with full parallax and continuous viewing angles by incoherent light; thus it does not suffer from speckle degradation. Because of its unique properties, integral imaging has been revived over the past decade or so as a promising approach for massive 3D commercialization. A series of key articles on this topic have appeared in the OSA journals, including Applied Optics. Thus, it is fitting that this Commemorative Review presents an overview of literature on physical principles and applications of integral imaging. Several data capture configurations, reconstruction, and display methods are overviewed. In addition, applications including 3D underwater imaging, 3D imaging in photon-starved environments, 3D tracking of occluded objects, 3D optical microscopy, and 3D polarimetric imaging are reviewed. PMID:23385893

  11. Video System for Viewing From a Remote or Windowless Cockpit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerjee, Amamath

    2009-01-01

    A system of electronic hardware and software synthesizes, in nearly real time, an image of a portion of a scene surveyed by as many as eight video cameras aimed, in different directions, at portions of the scene. This is a prototype of systems that would enable a pilot to view the scene outside a remote or windowless cockpit. The outputs of the cameras are digitized. Direct memory addressing is used to store the data of a few captured images in sequence, and the sequence is repeated in cycles. Cylindrical warping is used in merging adjacent images at their borders to construct a mosaic image of the scene. The mosaic-image data are written to a memory block from which they can be rendered on a head-mounted display (HMD) device. A subsystem in the HMD device tracks the direction of gaze of the wearer, providing data that are used to select, for display, the portion of the mosaic image corresponding to the direction of gaze. The basic functionality of the system has been demonstrated by mounting the cameras on the roof of a van and steering the van by use of the images presented on the HMD device.

  12. Thermal stress analysis of laminated LCDs for aircraft cockpits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Qibin; Hua, Yikui; Lv, Guoqiang; Lu, Xiaosong

    2012-10-01

    Different from common liquid crystal displays (LCDs), LCDs in aircraft cockpits have to satisfy some special requirements, including high luminance, high contrast ration, anti-reflection (AR), and electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). Indium-tin oxide (ITO) glasses are usually attached on the top surface of LC cells by optical adhesive for AR and EMC, forming laminated structure. The characteristics of optical adhesive and lamination processing have direct effects on display. This paper creates a finite-element-analysis model of the laminated LC cell with ITO glass. The simulation results show that the stress concentration happens in the case that there are defects (bubbles, cracks, nonuniform thickness) in the optical adhesive when the operation temperature raises to 70º C. Based on the analysis of the stress on the top surface of the LC cell in Y direction, it is found that the location of the stress concentration is just under where the defects exit. The comparison on the stress of 3 possible defects shows that the concentrated stress caused by the cracks are far more large than the stress by the bubbles and nonuniform thickness of optical adhesives, which should try best to avoid.

  13. Three-Dimensional Imaging and Image Displays: Surgical Application of Advanced Technologies.

    PubMed

    Satava

    1996-09-01

    One of the cornerstones of modern technology that was ushered in by laparoscopic surgery is the use of the video image. The importance of this "virtual representation" of the patient goes well beyond the application to laparoscopic surgery, and lies at the very heart of the revolution of surgery into the Information Age. Real objects, organs and patients can be represented as 2 and 3-dimensional computer generated images and viewed upon displays beyond the simple video monitor which permit a level of clinical practice not possible on the actual patients. These fundamental concepts that form the foundation of the revolution in surgery are placed in a framework for the future of surgery, and illustrate how their implementation can dramatically improve patient care.

  14. Application of advanced computing techniques to the analysis and display of space science measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klumpar, D. M.; Lapolla, M. V.; Horblit, B.

    1995-01-01

    A prototype system has been developed to aid the experimental space scientist in the display and analysis of spaceborne data acquired from direct measurement sensors in orbit. We explored the implementation of a rule-based environment for semi-automatic generation of visualizations that assist the domain scientist in exploring one's data. The goal has been to enable rapid generation of visualizations which enhance the scientist's ability to thoroughly mine his data. Transferring the task of visualization generation from the human programmer to the computer produced a rapid prototyping environment for visualizations. The visualization and analysis environment has been tested against a set of data obtained from the Hot Plasma Composition Experiment on the AMPTE/CCE satellite creating new visualizations which provided new insight into the data.

  15. Cockpit Adaptive Automation and Pilot Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parasuraman, Raja

    2001-01-01

    The introduction of high-level automated systems in the aircraft cockpit has provided several benefits, e.g., new capabilities, enhanced operational efficiency, and reduced crew workload. At the same time, conventional 'static' automation has sometimes degraded human operator monitoring performance, increased workload, and reduced situation awareness. Adaptive automation represents an alternative to static automation. In this approach, task allocation between human operators and computer systems is flexible and context-dependent rather than static. Adaptive automation, or adaptive task allocation, is thought to provide for regulation of operator workload and performance, while preserving the benefits of static automation. In previous research we have reported beneficial effects of adaptive automation on the performance of both pilots and non-pilots of flight-related tasks. For adaptive systems to be viable, however, such benefits need to be examined jointly in the context of a single set of tasks. The studies carried out under this project evaluated a systematic method for combining different forms of adaptive automation. A model for effective combination of different forms of adaptive automation, based on matching adaptation to operator workload was proposed and tested. The model was evaluated in studies using IFR-rated pilots flying a general-aviation simulator. Performance, subjective, and physiological (heart rate variability, eye scan-paths) measures of workload were recorded. The studies compared workload-based adaptation to to non-adaptive control conditions and found evidence for systematic benefits of adaptive automation. The research provides an empirical basis for evaluating the effectiveness of adaptive automation in the cockpit. The results contribute to the development of design principles and guidelines for the implementation of adaptive automation in the cockpit, particularly in general aviation, and in other human-machine systems. Project goals

  16. Cockpit design and evaluation using interactive graphics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, S. M.

    1975-01-01

    A general overview of the characteristics of an interactive graphics system which was developed to assist cockpit engineers design and evaluate work stations was presented. The manikin used in this COMputerized BIomechanical MAN-model (COMBIMAN) was described, as are provisions for generating work stations and assessing interactions between man and environment. The applications of the present system are explained, and critiques of COMBIMAN are presented. The limitations of the existing programs and the requirements of the designers necessitate future revisions and additions to the biomechanical and erogonomic properties of COMBIMAN. Some of these enhancements are discussed.

  17. Cognitive network organization and cockpit automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roske-Hofstrand, R. J.; Paap, K. R.

    1985-01-01

    Attention is given to a technique for the derivation of pilot cognitive networks from empirical data, which has been successfully used to guide the redesign of the Control Display Unit that serves as the primary interface of the complex flight management system being developed by NASA's Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator program. The 'pathfinder' algorithm of Schvaneveldt et al. (1985) is used to obtain the conceptual organization of four pilots by generating a family of link-weighted networks from a set of psychological distance data derived through similarity ratings. The degree of conceptual agreement between pilots is assessed, and the means of translating a cognitive network into a menu structure are noted.

  18. Flight evaluation of advanced controls and displays for transition and landing on the NASA V/STOL systems research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, James A.; Stortz, Michael W.; Borchers, Paul F.; Moralez, Ernesto, III

    1996-01-01

    Flight experiments were conducted on Ames Research Center's V/STOL Systems Research Aircraft (VSRA) to assess the influence of advanced control modes and head-up displays (HUD's) on flying qualities for precision approach and landing operations. Evaluations were made for decelerating approaches to hover followed by a vertical landing and for slow landings for four control/display mode combinations: the basic YAV-8B stability augmentation system; attitude command for pitch, roll, and yaw; flightpath/acceleration command with translational rate command in the hover; and height-rate damping with translational-rate command. Head-up displays used in conjunction with these control modes provided flightpath tracking/pursuit guidance and deceleration commands for the decelerating approach and a mixed horizontal and vertical presentation for precision hover and landing. Flying qualities were established and control usage and bandwidth were documented for candidate control modes and displays for the approach and vertical landing. Minimally satisfactory bandwidths were determined for the translational-rate command system. Test pilot and engineer teams from the Naval Air Warfare Center, the Boeing Military Airplane Group, Lockheed Martin, McDonnell Douglas Aerospace, Northrop Grumman, Rolls-Royce, and the British Defense Research Agency participated in the program along with NASA research pilots from the Ames and Lewis Research Centers. The results, in conjunction with related ground-based simulation data, indicate that the flightpath/longitudinal acceleration command response type in conjunction with pursuit tracking and deceleration guidance on the HUD would be essential for operation to instrument minimums significantly lower than the minimums for the AV-8B. It would also be a superior mode for performing slow landings where precise control to an austere landing area such as a narrow road is demanded. The translational-rate command system would reduce pilot workload for

  19. Cockpit checklists - Concepts, design, and use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degani, Asaf; Wiener, Earl L.

    1993-01-01

    Although the aircraft checklist has long been regarded as a foundation of pilot standardization and cockpit safety, it has escaped the scrutiny of the human factors profession. The improper use, or nonuse, of the normal checklist by flight crews is often cited as a major contributing factor to aircraft accidents. This paper reports the results of a field study of flight deck checklists and examines this seemingly mundane yet critical device from several perspectives: its functions, format, design, length, and usage, and the limitations of the humans who must interact with it. Certain sociotechnical factors, such as the airline 'culture', cockpit resource management, and production pressures that influence the design and use of this device, are also discussed. Finally, a list of design guidelines for normal checklists is provided. Although the focus of this paper is on the air transport industry, most of the principles discussed apply equally well to other high-risk industries, such as maritime transportation, power production, weapons systems, space flight, and medical care.

  20. Procedures in complex systems: the airline cockpit.

    PubMed

    Degani, A; Wiener, E L

    1997-05-01

    In complex human-machine systems, successful operations depend on an elaborate set of procedures which are specified by the operational management of the organization. These procedures indicate to the human operator (in this case the pilot) the manner in which operational management intends to have various tasks done. The intent is to provide guidance to the pilots and to ensure a safe, logical, efficient, and predictable (standardized) means of carrying out the objectives of the job. However, procedures can become a hodge-podge. Inconsistent or illogical procedures may lead to noncompliance by operators. Based on a field study with three major airlines, the authors propose a model for procedure development called the "Four P's": philosophy, policies, procedures, and practices. Using this model as a framework, the authors discuss the intricate issue of designing flight-deck procedures, and propose a conceptual approach for designing any set of procedures. The various factors, both external and internal to the cockpit, that must be considered for procedure design are presented. In particular, the paper addresses the development of procedures for automated cockpits--a decade-long, and highly controversial issue in commercial aviation. Although this paper is based on airline operations, we assume that the principles discussed here are also applicable to other high-risk supervisory control systems, such as space flight, manufacturing process control, nuclear power production, and military operations. PMID:11541101

  1. Evaluation of required HMD resolution and field of view for a virtual cockpit simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiefele, Jens; Albert, Oliver; Doerr, Kai Uwe; Kelz, Martin; Schmidt-Winkel, Norman

    1999-07-01

    2For some of today's simulations very expensive, heavy, and large equipment is needed. In order to reduce prototyping and training costs, immersive 'Virtual Cockpit Simulation' (VCS) becomes very attractive. Head Mounted Displays (HMD), datagloves, and cheap 'Seating Bucks' are used to generate an immersive stereoscopic virtual environment (VE) for designers, engineers, and trainees. The entire cockpit, displays, and a visual are modeled as 3D computer generated geometry with textured surfaces. HMD resolution, field of view (FOV), tracker lag, and missing force feedback are critical human machine interface (HMI) components in VCS. For VCS applications task performance and transfer of training into reality have to be evaluated. In this paper two test series evaluating the VCS HMI dependencies based on HMD resolution and FOV are described. FOV limitations are especially important for a two seater virtual cockpit. Cross viewing, observing overhead, glareshield, and pedestal are critical for flying. Test persons had to deal with different FOV settings varying from 30 degrees to 100 degrees. Their task was to find and count light arbitrary points located at different panels in a limited time. To evaluate cross viewing test persons also had to detect light points besides them while reading text in front of them. Based on the test results a recommendation for a necessary FOV was given. The most demanding component for HMD resolution are virtual flight guidance displays rendered in a virtual scene at correct size and location. They consist of small moving low contrast symbols. Under a hi-resolution (1280 X 1024) HMD test persons were asked to read-out letters, numbers, and symbols of different sizes, movement speeds, and contrasts. Some test persons also had to fulfill an additional task to reduce their attention. From the test results a minimal necessary symbol, letter, and numbersize was determined for hi-resolution (hires) HMDs.

  2. [Geometrical dummy used for ergonomic evaluation on early stage cockpit conceptual design].

    PubMed

    Wang, L J; Yuan, X G

    2001-12-01

    Objective. Basing on the need of cockpit ergonomic design, to set up a geometrical dummy. Method. Surface partition of the dummy, source of the curved face data, express of the curved face, degree of freedom of the human joint, coordinate system of the parts, position of the human segment centroid and weight of the human segment were cleared up first, then geometrical dummy was displayed with three-dimensional software. Result. The geometrical dummy could simulate some basic body movements and postures for ergonomic analysis. Conclusion. The geometrical dummy was suitable for present study and engineering design.

  3. Cockpit-cabin communication: I. A tale of two cultures.

    PubMed

    Chute, R D; Wiener, E L

    1995-01-01

    Several dramatic accidents have emphasized certain deficiencies in cockpit-cabin coordination and communication. There are historical, organizational, environmental, psychosocial, and regulatory factors that have led to misunderstandings, problematic attitudes, and suboptimal interactions between the cockpit and cabin crews. Our research indicates the basic problem is that these two crews represent two distinct and separate cultures and that this separation serves to inhibit satisfactory teamwork. A survey was conducted at two airlines to measure attitudes of cockpit and cabin crews concerning the effectiveness of their communications. This article includes recommendations for the improvement of communications across the two cultures.

  4. The Development of an Electronic Aircraft Taxi Navigation Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andre, Anthony D.; Sridhar, Banavar (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an electronic aircraft taxi navigation display as part of NASA's Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) Program. The impetus for the development of this specific display, and the TAP program as a whole, is the current bottleneck in surface operations experienced during low-visibility operations. Simply stated, while modern aircraft are equipped to fly and land in low-visibility conditions, they lack the related technology required to allow them to efficiently and safely navigation from the runway to the gate. Pilots under such conditions consequently taxi slower, sometimes get lost and have to stop, and occasionally collide with other aircraft. Based on a review of available display and navigation sensor technologies, and a one-year information requirements study conducted aboard several commercial aircraft flights, it was determined that an electronic aircraft taxi navigation display was the most viable option for improving the efficiency of low-visibility taxi operations. Based on flight deck observations and pilot interviews, previous map display research, other taxi map display efforts, and part-task taxi map research, an advanced taxi navigation display has been developed and is currently being tested. The taxi navigation display is presented as a head-down cockpit display and includes a track-up perspective airport surface view, taxiway, gate and runway labels, ownship position, traffic icons and collision annunciation, graphical route guidance, heading indicator, rotating compass, RVR wedge, stop bars, zoom control, and datalink message window. The development and support for each of the features will be discussed in detail. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  5. Advanced fighter technology integration (AFTI)/F-16 Automated Maneuvering Attack System final flight test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowden, Donald J.; Bessette, Denis E.

    1987-01-01

    The AFTI F-16 Automated Maneuvering Attack System has undergone developmental and demonstration flight testing over a total of 347.3 flying hours in 237 sorties. The emphasis of this phase of the flight test program was on the development of automated guidance and control systems for air-to-air and air-to-ground weapons delivery, using a digital flight control system, dual avionics multiplex buses, an advanced FLIR sensor with laser ranger, integrated flight/fire-control software, advanced cockpit display and controls, and modified core Multinational Stage Improvement Program avionics.

  6. [Effect of fighter cockpit noise on pilot hearing].

    PubMed

    Wu, Y; Ding, C

    1998-02-01

    In order to describe quantitatively the pilots' hearing injury by noise in fighter cockpit, the noise level was measured in the cockpit. The temporary threshold shift (TTS) was studied in 20 healthy young man and permanent threshold shift was examined in 166 fighter pilots. The results showed that noise level in cockpit was 110 dBA and TTS after 2 min noise exposure decreased significantly and reached 13 dB at a certain frequency. Its recovery course is faster in low frequency part and language frequency part than that in high frequency part. It was also found that 56% of the 166 pilots suffered from high frequency hearing loss and the percentage increased with flight time. The feature of hearing loss is that it occurs in high frequency at first, then in language frequency, forming a "V" shaped depression at 6 000 Hz. It indicates that cockpit noise may cause permanent threshold shift of hearing.

  7. Cockpit-cabin communication: II. Shall we tell the pilots?

    PubMed

    Chute, R D; Wiener, E L

    1996-01-01

    In a previous article (Chute & Wiener, 1995), we explored the coordination between the "two cultures" in an airliner's crew: cockpit and cabin. In this article, we discuss a particular problem: the dilemma facing the cabin crew when they feel that they have safety-critical information and must decide whether to take it to the cockpit. We explore the reasons for the reluctance of the flight attendant to come forward with the information, such as self-doubt about the accuracy or importance of the information, fear of dismissal or rebuke by the pilots, and misunderstanding of the sterile cockpit rule. Insight into crew attitudes was based on our examination of accident and incident reports and data from questionnaires submitted by pilots and flight attendants at two airlines. The results show confusion and disagreement about what is permissible to take to the cockpit when it is sterile, as well as imbalances in authority and operational knowledge. Possible remedies are proposed.

  8. Prediction of anthropometric accommodation in aircraft cockpits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehner, Gregory Franklin

    Designing aircraft cockpits to accommodate the wide range of body sizes existing in the U.S. population has always been a difficult problem for Crewstation Engineers. The approach taken in the design of military aircraft has been to restrict the range of body sizes allowed into flight training, and then to develop standards and specifications to ensure that the majority of the pilots are accommodated. Accommodation in this instance is defined as the ability to: (1) Adequately see, reach, and actuate controls; (2) Have external visual fields so that the pilot can see to land, clear for other aircraft, and perform a wide variety of missions (ground support/attack or air to air combat); and (3) Finally, if problems arise, the pilot has to be able to escape safely. Each of these areas is directly affected by the body size of the pilot. Unfortunately, accommodation problems persist and may get worse. Currently the USAF is considering relaxing body size entrance requirements so that smaller and larger people could become pilots. This will make existing accommodation problems much worse. This dissertation describes a methodology for correcting this problem and demonstrates the method by predicting pilot fit and performance in the USAF T-38A aircraft based on anthropometric data. The methods described can be applied to a variety of design applications where fitting the human operator into a system is a major concern. A systematic approach is described which includes: defining the user population, setting functional requirements that operators must be able to perform, testing the ability of the user population to perform the functional requirements, and developing predictive equations for selecting future users of the system. Also described is a process for the development of new anthropometric design criteria and cockpit design methods that assure body size accommodation is improved in the future.

  9. Cockpit resource management: exploring the attitude-performance linkage.

    PubMed

    Helmreich, R L; Foushee, H C; Benson, R; Russini, W

    1986-12-01

    Measured attitudes regarding cockpit management were contrasted for pilots whose line flying performance was independently evaluated by Check Airmen as above or below average. A highly significant discriminant function was obtained indicating that these attitudes are significant predictors of behavior. The performance of 95.7% of the pilots was correctly classified by the analysis. Implications of the results for cockpit resource management training and pilot selection are discussed.

  10. Cognitive engineering in aerospace application: Pilot interaction with cockpit automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarter, Nadine R.; Woods, David D.

    1993-01-01

    Because of recent incidents involving glass-cockpit aircraft, there is growing concern with cockpit automation and its potential effects on pilot performance. However, little is known about the nature and causes of problems that arise in pilot-automation interaction. The results of two studies that provide converging, complementary data on pilots' difficulties with understanding and operating one of the core systems of cockpit automation, the Flight Management System (FMS) is reported. A survey asking pilots to describe specific incidents with the FMS and observations of pilots undergoing transition training to a glass cockpit aircraft served as vehicles to gather a corpus on the nature and variety of FMS-related problems. The results of both studies indicate that pilots become proficient in standard FMS operations through ground training and subsequent line experience. But even with considerable line experience, they still have difficulties tracking FMS status and behavior in certain flight contexts, and they show gaps in their understanding of the functional structure of the system. The results suggest that design-related factors such as opaque interfaces contribute to these difficulties which can affect pilots' situation awareness. The results of this research are relevant for both the design of cockpit automation and the development of training curricula specifically tailored to the needs of glass cockpits.

  11. Heat stress in an aircraft cockpit during ground standby.

    PubMed

    Harrison, M H; Higenbottam, C

    1977-06-01

    Measurements have been made of cockpit temperatures in a Buccaneer aircraft exposed to high air temperatures and radiation loads. With the canopy open 8 cm, and with the wind direction unfavourable for convective cooling, air temperatures inside the cockpit exceeded those outside by approximately 20 degrees C. This reduced to 10 degrees C with a favourable wind direction. An assessment of the likely heating effect of cockpit avionic equipment indicated that the addition of 1 kW and 2 kW of heat would raise cockpit temperatures by 20 degrees C and 30 degrees C respectively. Prediction of the combined effect of solar and avionic heat suggests that, in hot weather conditions, cockpit temperatures will be considerably in excess of the upper limit for effective physiological temperature regulation. Therefore, if aircrews are to be required to remain on ground standby within their aircraft under such conditions, maximum use must be made of convective cooling of the cockpit by the prevailing wind, and of sun shades to eliminate the greenhouse effect completely.

  12. Helmet-mounted display technology on the VISTA NF-16D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Underhill, Gregory P.; Bailey, Randall E.; Markman, Steve

    1997-06-01

    Wright Laboratory's Variable-Stability In-Flight Simulator Test Aircraft (VISTA) NF-16D is the newest in-flight simulator in the USAF inventory. A unique research aircraft, it will perform a multitude of missions: to develop and evaluate flight characteristics of new aircraft that have not yet flown, and perform research in the areas of flying qualities, flight control design, pilot-vehicle interface, weapons and avionics integration, and to train new test pilots. The VISTA upgrade will enhance the simulation fidelity and research capabilities by adding a programmable helmet-mounted display (HMD) and head-up display (HUD) in the front cockpit. The programmable HMD consists of a GEC- Marconi Avionics Viper II Helmet-Mounted Optics Module integrated with a modified Helmet Integrated Systems Limited HGU-86/P helmet, the Honeywell Advanced Metal Tolerant tracker, and a GEC-Mounted Tolerant tracker, and a GEC- Marconi Avionics Programmable Display Generator. This system will provide a real-time programmable HUD and monocular stroke capable HMD in the front cockpit. The HMD system is designed for growth to stroke-on-video, binocular capability. This paper examines some of issues associated with current HMD development, and explains the value of rapid prototyping or 'quick-look' flight testing on the VISTA NF-16D. A brief overview of the VISTA NF-16D and the hardware and software modifications made to incorporate the programmable display system is give, as well as a review of several key decisions that were made in the programmable display system implementation. The system's capabilities and what they mean to potential users and designers are presented, particularly for pilot-vehicle interface research.

  13. Cardiovascular mortality of cockpit crew in Germany: cohort study.

    PubMed

    Zeeb, H; Langner, I; Blettner, M

    2003-06-01

    Pilots and other cockpit crew in civil aviation are regularly screened for medical problems that could influence their work performance. Fitness particularly in terms of cardiovascular health is of major importance for this group. While previous studies had shown a low cardiovascular mortality risk of pilots, there is conflicting evidence concerning the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in this group. We investigated the cardiovascular mortality of German cockpit crew in a retrospective cohort study. A cohort that included all cockpit crew employed for two German airlines (n=6061) from 1960-1997 was compiled. We calculated the Standardised Mortality Ratio (SMR) and 95% confidence intervals as the ratio of observed and expected numbers of cardiovascular deaths with the German general population as comparison. The influence of age, age at hire and employment duration were analysed in stratified and regression analyses. Overall mortality from cardiovascular causes among cockpit crew was reduced. For mortality from all cardiovascular causes we found an SMR of 0.5(95% CI 0.3-0.6), for acute myocardial infarction the SMR was 0.4 (95% CI 0.3-0.7). Cockpit crew taking up employment at age 30 or later had a more than twofold cardiovascular mortality risk compared with those beginning employment earlier, but there was no risk gradient with duration of employment. Overall, cockpit crew has a relatively low cardiovascular mortality to which a low smoking prevalence and an early detection of cardiovascular health problems are likely to contribute. Cockpit crew employed before age 30 has the lowest cardiovascular mortality risk.

  14. Display system optics II; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Mar. 30, 31, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Assenheim, H.M.

    1989-01-01

    Papers on display system optics are presented covering topics such as human factors and night vision systems flight, a peripheral vision display, cockpit vertical situation displays, a prototype near-IR projection system, the effect of a helmet-mounted display on the operator, radial parallax binocular three-dimensional imaging, telepresence systems, and the cockpit man-machine interface. Additional topics include eye-centered interferometric laser projection, laser filters, thin film technologies in active matrix addressing systems of LCDs, supertwisted nematic LCD geometry with improved response times and characteristics, a full color active-matrix LCD in the cockpit environment, polysilicon active-matrix LCDs for cockpit applications, and a dynamic color model for a liquid crystal shutter display. Other topics include a flat fluorescent lamp for LCD back-lighting, holographic combiner design to obtain uniform symbol brightness at a head-up display video camera, vision restriction devices, passive binarization methods for image display and computer-generated holograms, a prismatic combiner for head-up displays, holographic optical elements, multifunction displays optimized for viewability, and technologies for brighter color CRT displays.

  15. Cockpit task management: A preliminary, normative theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funk, Ken

    1991-01-01

    Cockpit task management (CTM) involves the initiation, monitoring, prioritizing, and allocation of resources to concurrent tasks as well as termination of multiple concurrent tasks. As aircrews have more tasks to attend to due to reduced crew sizes and the increased complexity of aircraft and the air transportation system, CTM will become a more critical factor in aviation safety. It is clear that many aviation accidents and incidents can be satisfactorily explained in terms of CTM errors, and it is likely that more accidents induced by poor CTM practice will occur in the future unless the issue is properly addressed. The first step in understanding and facilitating CTM behavior was the development of a preliminary, normative theory of CTM which identifies several important CTM functions. From this theory, some requirements for pilot-vehicle interfaces were developed which are believed to facilitate CTM. A prototype PVI was developed which improves CTM performance and currently, a research program is under way that is aimed at developing a better understanding of CTM and facilitating CTM performance through better equipment and procedures.

  16. Learning About Cockpit Automation: From Piston Trainer to Jet Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casner, Stephen M.

    2003-01-01

    Two experiments explored the idea of providing cockpit automation training to airline-bound student pilots using cockpit automation equipment commonly found in small training airplanes. In a first experiment, pilots mastered a set of tasks and maneuvers using a GPS navigation computer, autopilot, and flight director system installed in a small training airplane Students were then tested on their ability to complete a similar set of tasks using the cockpit automation system found in a popular jet transport aircraft. Pilot were able to successfully complete 77% of all tasks in the jet transport on their first attempt. An analysis of a control group suggests that the pilot's success was attributable to the application of automation principles they had learned in the small airplane. A second experiment looked at two different ways of delivering small-aeroplane cockpit automation training: a self-study method, and a dual instruction method. The results showed a slight advantage for the self-study method. Overall, the results of the two studies cast a strong vote for the incorporation of cockpit automation training in curricula designed for pilot who will later transition to the jet fleet.

  17. Mortality experience of cockpit crewmembers from Japan Airlines.

    PubMed

    Kaji, M; Tango, T; Asukata, I; Tajima, N; Yamamoto, K; Yamamoto, Y; Hokari, M

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term mortality and causes of death among cockpit crewmembers. A total of 2,327 cockpit crewmembers registered at Japan Airlines between August 1, 1952, and December 31, 1988, were traced to assess mortality. Medical records were also reviewed. The mortality rates for the cockpit crewmembers were compared to those for the general Japanese population using standardized mortality ratios (SMR's). As of December 31, 1988, 59 (2.5%) of 2,327 individuals were deceased, and the leading causes of death were accidents, malignant neoplasms, and cardiovascular diseases. The overall mortality rate for the cockpit crew was significantly lower than the national standard (SMR = 0.66, p < 0.001; 95% C.I. 0.50-0.85). However, marked differences were found in cause-specific mortality, where mortality due to accidents was significantly increased (SMR = 2.43, p < 0.001; 95% C.I. 1.63-3.50), while deaths from cancer were similar, and those for cerebral vascular accidents (CVA) and coronary artery disease (CAD) were lower than comparable rates for the general population. We conclude that cockpit crewmembers had a better total mortality experience compared to the general Japanese population, except for deaths due to accidents.

  18. 46 CFR 116.1120 - Drainage of cockpit vessels, well deck vessels, and open boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drainage of cockpit vessels, well deck vessels, and open boats. 116.1120 Section 116.1120 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL... Drainage of cockpit vessels, well deck vessels, and open boats. Drainage of cockpit vessels, well...

  19. 14 CFR 25.779 - Motion and effect of cockpit controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Motion and effect of cockpit controls. 25.779 Section 25.779 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Accommodations § 25.779 Motion and effect of cockpit controls. Cockpit controls must be designed so that...

  20. 14 CFR 23.779 - Motion and effect of cockpit controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Motion and effect of cockpit controls. 23... Construction Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 23.779 Motion and effect of cockpit controls. Cockpit...) Aerodynamic controls: Motion and effect (1) Primary controls: Aileron Right (clockwise) for right wing...

  1. 14 CFR 23.779 - Motion and effect of cockpit controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Motion and effect of cockpit controls. 23... Construction Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 23.779 Motion and effect of cockpit controls. Cockpit...) Aerodynamic controls: Motion and effect (1) Primary controls: Aileron Right (clockwise) for right wing...

  2. 14 CFR 23.779 - Motion and effect of cockpit controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Motion and effect of cockpit controls. 23... Construction Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 23.779 Motion and effect of cockpit controls. Cockpit...) Aerodynamic controls: Motion and effect (1) Primary controls: Aileron Right (clockwise) for right wing...

  3. 14 CFR 23.779 - Motion and effect of cockpit controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Motion and effect of cockpit controls. 23... Construction Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 23.779 Motion and effect of cockpit controls. Cockpit...) Aerodynamic controls: Motion and effect (1) Primary controls: Aileron Right (clockwise) for right wing...

  4. System description and analysis. Part 1: Feasibility study for helicopter/VTOL wide-angle simulation image generation display system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A preliminary design for a helicopter/VSTOL wide angle simulator image generation display system is studied. The visual system is to become part of a simulator capability to support Army aviation systems research and development within the near term. As required for the Army to simulate a wide range of aircraft characteristics, versatility and ease of changing cockpit configurations were primary considerations of the study. Due to the Army's interest in low altitude flight and descents into and landing in constrained areas, particular emphasis is given to wide field of view, resolution, brightness, contrast, and color. The visual display study includes a preliminary design, demonstrated feasibility of advanced concepts, and a plan for subsequent detail design and development. Analysis and tradeoff considerations for various visual system elements are outlined and discussed.

  5. Design developments for advanced general aviation aircraft. [using Fly By Light Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roskam, Jan; Gomer, Charles

    1991-01-01

    Design study results are presented for two advanced general-aviation aircraft incorporating fly-by-light/fly-by-wire controls and digital avionics and cockpit displays. The design exercise proceeded from a database of information derived from a market survey for the 4-10 passenger aircraft range. Pusher and tractor propeller configurations were treated, and attention was given to the maximization of passenger comfort. 'Outside-in' tooling methods were assumed for the primary structures of both configurations, in order to achieve surface tolerances which maximize the rearward extent of laminar flow.

  6. View of QF-106 aircraft cockpit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    View of the cockpit and instrument panel of the QF-106 airplane used in the Eclipse project. In 1997 and 1998, the Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, supported and hosted a Kelly Space & Technology, Inc. project called Eclipse, which sought to demonstrate the feasibility of a reusable tow-launch vehicle concept. The project goal was to successfully tow, inflight, a modified QF-106 delta-wing aircraft with an Air Force C-141A transport aircraft. This would demonstrate the possibility of towing and launching an actual launch vehicle from behind a tow plane. Dryden was the responsible test organization and had flight safety responsibility for the Eclipse project. Dryden provided engineering, instrumentation, simulation, modification, maintenance, range support, and research pilots for the test program. The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards, California, supplied the C-141A transport aircraft and crew and configured the aircraft as needed for the tests. The AFFTC also provided the concept and detail design and analysis as well as hardware for the tow system and QF-106 modifications. Dryden performed the modifications to convert the QF-106 drone into the piloted EXD-01 (Eclipse eXperimental Demonstrator-01) experimental aircraft. Kelly Space & Technology hoped to use the results gleaned from the tow test in developing a series of low-cost, reusable launch vehicles. These tests demonstrated the validity of towing a delta-wing aircraft having high wing loading, validated the tow simulation model, and demonstrated various operational procedures, such as ground processing of in-flight maneuvers and emergency abort scenarios.

  7. A model-based analysis of a display for helicopter landing approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, R. A.; Wheat, L. W.

    1976-01-01

    A control theoretic model of the human pilot was used to analyze a baseline electronic cockpit display in a helicopter landing approach task and to generate display quickening laws designed to improve pilot-vehicle performance. A simple fixed base simulation provided comparative tracking data which allowed refinement of the pilot model.

  8. Helmet-mounted display (day/night)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Givens, Gerald S.; Yona, Zvi

    1996-06-01

    A dangerous situation is created when the pilot looks inside the cockpit for instrument information when flying combat and low altitude missions. While looking at instruments, a pilot cannot be performing situation analysis; yet not looking at instruments runs such risks as flying into the ground, particularly in low visibility conditions or in relatively featureless terrain where visual cues for altitude and attitude are inadequate or deceptive. The AN/AVS-7 HMD solves this problem for night flight for both helicopters and fixed wing aircraft which must operate in a 'nap of the earth' flight regime. The display unit mounts on the AN/AVS-6 night vision goggles and provides symbology overlaid on the pilot's outside view; cockpit instrument information is thus provided through the goggles. The pilot is immediately aware of changes in either his surroundings or the instrument readings. This minimizes the risk of critical information being missed in one area while the pilot is looking in the other. The 'day' HMD version of the AN/AVS-7 display now carries these advantages into daytime flights. This display unit operates in conditions from full sunlight to dusk, provides the same symbology as the night display, and connects to the night display interface with no aircraft modification. The day HMD mounts to the helmet using the attachment points previously reserved for the night vision goggles. This display improves the safety of daytime operations by keeping the eyes 'out of the cockpit' in difficult situations such as those presented during landings, cargo lifting and flight utilizing terrain masking. It offers the possibility of a less stressful way of familiarizing the pilot with the symbology and of the dynamic relationships it has to the aircraft and background motions. This familiarization is now accomplished during night flights using night vision goggles. The 'day' HMD is also a useful maintenance aid, easing the ground crew's checkout of the aircraft systems

  9. Global positioning system supported pilot's display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Marshall M., Jr.; Erdogan, Temel; Schwalb, Andrew P.; Curley, Charles H.

    1991-01-01

    The hardware, software, and operation of the Microwave Scanning Beam Landing System (MSBLS) Flight Inspection System Pilot's Display is discussed. The Pilot's Display is used in conjunction with flight inspection tests that certify the Microwave Scanning Beam Landing System used at Space Shuttle landing facilities throughout the world. The Pilot's Display was developed for the pilot of test aircraft to set up and fly a given test flight path determined by the flight inspection test engineers. This display also aids the aircraft pilot when hazy or cloud cover conditions exist that limit the pilot's visibility of the Shuttle runway during the flight inspection. The aircraft position is calculated using the Global Positioning System and displayed in the cockpit on a graphical display.

  10. Introducing large color displays in the Gripen fighter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundgren, Mats; Brandtberg, Hans

    1998-09-01

    Cockpit design is about communication between the aircraft system and the pilot. The information available on-board is very large and increases with on-going development of the systems. New functions for integration and fusion will, together with decision support and automation, set requirements on the displays to transfer information to the pilot. Information overload, mental workload and flight safety are always important areas to put efforts in. The present version of the Swedish JAS 39 Gripen aircraft has three monochrome multi-function displays. The displays are fairly large for a small aircraft, 5' X 6', giving a good situation awareness for the pilot. A new version of the Gripen cockpit featuring large color displays is now under development and will be introduced to the Swedish air force and ready for export market in the end of 2001. Display size, resolution, graphics capability and color have great impact on the pilots ability to acquire and understand the presented information. These factors are very important when designing an improved cockpit. By utilizing the most modern flat panel AMLCD techniques we have succeeded in integrating three 6.2' X 8.3' full-color multi-function displays in the Gripen aircraft.

  11. Longitudinal Study of the Market Penetration of Cockpit Weather Information Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stough, Harry Paul, III; Sireli, Yesim; Ozan, Erol; Kauffmann, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the longitudinal research of the market penetration of cockpit weather information systems (CWIS) is to contribute to the body of knowledge on modeling advanced technology feasibility in aviation by tracking and analyzing the market adoption of CWIS over a three year period. This research takes advantage of a previous study, conducted by Dr. Paul Kauffmann in 2000, which demonstrated an integrated and cost effective approach to evaluate advanced technology feasibility, examining the feasibility of CWIS in five market segments: transport, commuter, general aviation, business, and rotorcraft. The longitudinal research consists of two consecutive studies and produced two reports. The first report was submitted in August 2003 and included general market analysis about the CWIS products in the market at the time, identified their characteristics and examined developing market dynamics.

  12. The development and implementation of cockpit resource management in UAL recurrent training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shroyer, David H.

    1987-01-01

    Line Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) for United Airlines started in 1976. At that time it was basically no more than a line-simulated training function conducted in a full-mission simulator with no attention or stress on its human factor content. Very soon after the implementation of the LOFT program concerns were voiced about certain crew behavioral situations they were observing in the flight crew's execution of cockpit duties. These duties involved emergency procedures as well as irregular and normal procedures and situations. It was evident that new information was surfacing concerning crew interaction, or its lack thereof, in the cockpit and its effect on satisfactory performance. These observations naturally raised the question of how this information translated into the safety of aircraft operations. A training system had to be repetitive, the crew interactive, and the training had to be conducted under the crew concept. The foundation had to have two other factors: (1) it was necessary to have adequate human factor content, and (2) an advanced state-of-the-art simulator and appropriate electronic devices were required. These concepts are further discussed.

  13. 14 CFR 121.315 - Cockpit check procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cockpit check procedure. 121.315 Section 121.315 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND...

  14. 14 CFR 135.151 - Cockpit voice recorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., 2010, and that are required to have a flight data recorder installed in accordance with § 135.152, must... operating rules, and that is required to have a flight data recorder under § 135.152, unless it is equipped... flight data recorder under § 135.152, unless it is equipped with an approved cockpit voice recorder...

  15. 14 CFR 135.151 - Cockpit voice recorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., 2010, and that are required to have a flight data recorder installed in accordance with § 135.152, must... operating rules, and that is required to have a flight data recorder under § 135.152, unless it is equipped... flight data recorder under § 135.152, unless it is equipped with an approved cockpit voice recorder...

  16. 14 CFR 135.151 - Cockpit voice recorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., 2010, and that are required to have a flight data recorder installed in accordance with § 135.152, must... operating rules, and that is required to have a flight data recorder under § 135.152, unless it is equipped... flight data recorder under § 135.152, unless it is equipped with an approved cockpit voice recorder...

  17. 14 CFR 135.151 - Cockpit voice recorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., 2010, and that are required to have a flight data recorder installed in accordance with § 135.152, must... operating rules, and that is required to have a flight data recorder under § 135.152, unless it is equipped... flight data recorder under § 135.152, unless it is equipped with an approved cockpit voice recorder...

  18. Management training for cockpit crews at Piedmont flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sifford, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    A brief history of Piedmont Airlines' flight operations is presented. A captain-management seminar conducted regularly by Piedmont is discussed. Piedmont's approach to cockpit resource management (CRM) is reviewed, and the relationship of CRM training to other aspects of flight training is addressed. Future leadership research plans and CRM training is considered along with critical training issues.

  19. 6. Detail of forward fuselage showing open cockpit hatch and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Detail of forward fuselage showing open cockpit hatch and ladder. View to southeast. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  20. 8. Interior of cockpit showing pilot consoles and flight engineer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Interior of cockpit showing pilot consoles and flight engineer seat with instrument panel. View to east. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  1. 7. Interior of cockpit showing pilot and copilot seats with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Interior of cockpit showing pilot and co-pilot seats with console and overhead instrument panels. View to northeast. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  2. Astronaut Gregory in T-38 rear cockpit at Ellington Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Seated in the ejection seat of T-38 rear cockpit, Astronaut Frederick D. Gregory, wearing navy blue flight suit coveralls, breathing apparatus, and helmet, prepares for departure from Ellington Field with STS-29 crew. T-38 canopy has not yet closed over Gregory.

  3. Physiological effects of solar heat load in a fighter cockpit.

    PubMed

    Nunneley, S A; Myhre, L G

    1976-09-01

    The use of bubble canopies to improve vision in fighter aircraft exposes the cockpit to a high radiant heat load. Incoming sunlight increases the heat stress on crewmembers, both by raising air temperature and by directly heating exposed skin and clothing. An F-15 aircraft at Edwards AFB was modified to permit cockpit ventilation by external ground carts. Eight volunteers from the Test Pilot School were studied during 1-h periods in the closed cockpit, in sun and in shade. Mean cockpit air temperatures were 35.2 degrees C in shade and 51.9 degrees C in sun with PH2O less than 10 torr. The corresponding WBGT's were 22.6 and 36.4 degrees C. Sunlight added significantly to overall heat stress, as indicated by a rising heart rate and evaporative weight loss of 284 g/m2 - h (shade value was 109 g/m2 - hr). Mean skin temperatures were 34.3 degrees C in shade and 35.8 degrees C in sun. Particularly high skin temperatures were observed on the chest, the forehead and the top of the head under the helmet. The legs remained cool due to the flow of conditioned air, and this may explain why rectal temperature showed no meaningful change. Heat stress, which alone poses no physiological hazard, may cause crew performance decrements as well as diminishing acceleration tolerance. Possible means of eliminating or ameliorating these effects are discussed.

  4. An Agent-Based Cockpit Task Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funk, Ken

    1997-01-01

    An agent-based program to facilitate Cockpit Task Management (CTM) in commercial transport aircraft is developed and evaluated. The agent-based program called the AgendaManager (AMgr) is described and evaluated in a part-task simulator study using airline pilots.

  5. 46 CFR 178.420 - Drainage of cockpit vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Drainage of cockpit vessels. 178.420 Section 178.420 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Drainage of Weather Decks § 178.420 Drainage of...

  6. 46 CFR 178.420 - Drainage of cockpit vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drainage of cockpit vessels. 178.420 Section 178.420 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Drainage of Weather Decks § 178.420 Drainage of...

  7. 46 CFR 178.420 - Drainage of cockpit vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Drainage of cockpit vessels. 178.420 Section 178.420 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Drainage of Weather Decks § 178.420 Drainage of...

  8. 46 CFR 178.420 - Drainage of cockpit vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Drainage of cockpit vessels. 178.420 Section 178.420 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Drainage of Weather Decks § 178.420 Drainage of...

  9. 46 CFR 178.420 - Drainage of cockpit vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Drainage of cockpit vessels. 178.420 Section 178.420 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Drainage of Weather Decks § 178.420 Drainage of...

  10. Development of advanced direct perception displays for nuclear power plants to enhance monitoring, control and fault management

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, B.G.; Shaheen, S.; Moray, N.

    1997-08-01

    Traditional Single-Sensor-Single Indicator (SSSI) displays are poorly matched to the cognitive abilities of operators, especially for large and complex systems. It is difficult for operators to monitor very large arrays of displays and controls, and to integrate the information displayed therein. In addition, standard operating procedures (SOPs) are bulky (running to many hundreds of pages) and difficult to use, and operators may become lost. For these reasons, and also because it is becoming increasingly difficult to find replacements for aging hardware components, there is a trend towards computerized graphical interfaces for nuclear power plants (NPPs). There is, however, little rational theory for display design in this domain. This report describes some recent theoretical developments and shows how to develop displays which will greatly reduce the cognitive load on the operator and allow the use of perceptual rather than cognitive mechanisms while using SON and to support state diagnosis and fault management. The report outlines the conceptual framework within which such a new approach could be developed, and provides an example of how the operating procedures for the start-up sequence of a NPP could be realized. A detailed description of a set of displays for a graphical interface for the SON of the feedwater system is provided as an example of how the proposed approach could be realized, and a general account of how it would fit into the overall start-up sequence is given. Examples of {open_quotes}direct perception{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}ecological{close_quotes} configural state space displays to support the use of the proposed direct manipulation SOP interface are provided, and also a critical discussion which identifies some difficulties which may be anticipated should the general approach herein advocated be adopted.

  11. Investigation of an advanced fault tolerant integrated avionics system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, W. R.; Cottrell, D.; Flanders, J.; Javornik, A.; Rusovick, M.

    1986-01-01

    Presented is an advanced, fault-tolerant multiprocessor avionics architecture as could be employed in an advanced rotorcraft such as LHX. The processor structure is designed to interface with existing digital avionics systems and concepts including the Army Digital Avionics System (ADAS) cockpit/display system, navaid and communications suites, integrated sensing suite, and the Advanced Digital Optical Control System (ADOCS). The report defines mission, maintenance and safety-of-flight reliability goals as might be expected for an operational LHX aircraft. Based on use of a modular, compact (16-bit) microprocessor card family, results of a preliminary study examining simplex, dual and standby-sparing architectures is presented. Given the stated constraints, it is shown that the dual architecture is best suited to meet reliability goals with minimum hardware and software overhead. The report presents hardware and software design considerations for realizing the architecture including redundancy management requirements and techniques as well as verification and validation needs and methods.

  12. Experimental evaluation of a wind shear alert and energy management display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraiss, K.-F.; Baty, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    A method is proposed for onboard measurement and display of specific windshear and energy management data derived from an air data computer. An open-loop simulation study is described which was carried out to verify the feasibility of this display concept, and whose results were used as a basis to develop the respective cockpit instrumentation. The task was to fly a three-degree landing approach under various shear conditions with and without specific information on the shear. Improved performance due to augmented cockpit information was observed. Critical shears with increasing tailwinds could be handled more consistently and with less deviation from the glide path.

  13. Experimental evaluation of candidate graphical microburst alert displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wanke, Craig R.; Hansman, R. John

    1992-01-01

    A piloted flight simulator experiment was conducted to evaluate issues related to the display of microburst alerts on electronic cockpit instrumentation. Issues addressed include display clarity, usefulness of multilevel microburst intensity information, and whether information from multiple sensors should be presented separately or 'fused' into combined alerts. Nine active airline pilots of 'glass cockpit' aircraft participated in the study. Microburst alerts presented on a moving map display were found to be visually clear and useful to pilots. Also, multilevel intensity information coded by colors or patterns was found to be important for decision making purposes. Pilot opinion was mixed on whether to 'fuse' data from multiple sensors, and some resulting design tradeoffs were identified. The positional information included in the graphical alert presentation was found useful by the pilots for planning lateral missed approach maneuvers, but may result in deviations which could interfere with normal airport operations. A number of flight crew training issues were also identified.

  14. A Lightweight Innovative Helmet Airborne Display And Sight (HADAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naor, Daniel; Arnon, Oded; Avnur, Arie

    1987-09-01

    The Helmet Airborne Display and Sight (HADAS) system under development, has succeeded in surmounting many of the problems experienced by current, as well as past helmet mounted display and sight designs for operation in fighter aircraft. The goal has been achieved by combination of holographic optical elements and fiber optics for the display function, as well as real-time image processing of the helmet location for the sight function. The integrated system can provide "all aspect head-up display" performance in the cockpit.

  15. B-52B Cockpit Instrument Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This photo shows a close-up view of the instrument panel in the cockpit of NASA's B-52 research aircraft. Over the course of more than 40 years, the B-52 launched numerous experimental aircraft, ranging from the X-15 to the HiMAT, and was also used as a flying testbed for a variety of other research projects. NASA B-52, Tail Number 008, is an air launch carrier aircraft, 'mothership,' as well as a research aircraft platform that has been used on a variety of research projects. The aircraft, a 'B' model built in 1952 and first flown on June 11, 1955, is the oldest B-52 in flying status and has been used on some of the most significant research projects in aerospace history. Some of the significant projects supported by B-52 008 include the X-15, the lifting bodies, HiMAT (highly maneuverable aircraft technology), Pegasus, validation of parachute systems developed for the space shuttle program (solid-rocket-booster recovery system and the orbiter drag chute system), and the X-38. The B-52 served as the launch vehicle on 106 X-15 flights and flew a total of 159 captive-carry and launch missions in support of that program from June 1959 to October 1968. Information gained from the highly successful X-15 program contributed to the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo human spaceflight programs as well as space shuttle development. Between 1966 and 1975, the B-52 served as the launch aircraft for 127 of the 144 wingless lifting body flights. In the 1970s and 1980s, the B-52 was the launch aircraft for several aircraft at what is now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to study spin-stall, high-angle-of attack, and maneuvering characteristics. These included the 3/8-scale F-15/spin research vehicle (SRV), the HiMAT (Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology) research vehicle, and the DAST (drones for aerodynamic and structural testing). The aircraft supported the development of parachute recovery systems used to recover the space shuttle solid rocket booster

  16. Integrated multimodal human-computer interface and augmented reality for interactive display applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassiliou, Marius S.; Sundareswaran, Venkataraman; Chen, S.; Behringer, Reinhold; Tam, Clement K.; Chan, M.; Bangayan, Phil T.; McGee, Joshua H.

    2000-08-01

    We describe new systems for improved integrated multimodal human-computer interaction and augmented reality for a diverse array of applications, including future advanced cockpits, tactical operations centers, and others. We have developed an integrated display system featuring: speech recognition of multiple concurrent users equipped with both standard air- coupled microphones and novel throat-coupled sensors (developed at Army Research Labs for increased noise immunity); lip reading for improving speech recognition accuracy in noisy environments, three-dimensional spatialized audio for improved display of warnings, alerts, and other information; wireless, coordinated handheld-PC control of a large display; real-time display of data and inferences from wireless integrated networked sensors with on-board signal processing and discrimination; gesture control with disambiguated point-and-speak capability; head- and eye- tracking coupled with speech recognition for 'look-and-speak' interaction; and integrated tetherless augmented reality on a wearable computer. The various interaction modalities (speech recognition, 3D audio, eyetracking, etc.) are implemented a 'modality servers' in an Internet-based client-server architecture. Each modality server encapsulates and exposes commercial and research software packages, presenting a socket network interface that is abstracted to a high-level interface, minimizing both vendor dependencies and required changes on the client side as the server's technology improves.

  17. Design and implementation of an advanced three-dimensional volumetric display based on up-conversion phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jianying; Parasuraman, Usha; Liu, Jianqiang; Sun, Ted

    2005-05-01

    We present a two-step two-frequency up-conversion (TSTF-UC) fluorescent material based crossed-beam display (CBD) apparatus. 3D voxels are addressed by two IR laser beams, which are driven by fast acousto-optic light deflectors (AOLD). The compact scanning system can cover a display volume of 100mmx100mmx100mm. Initial demonstration was carried out with a piece of 0.5-mol % Er3+-doped ZBLAN glass (23mmx23mmx17mm). It was found that the 3D image brightness dropped dramatically when refresh rate was increased. Also "ghost" voxels appeared with increasing refresh rate. A simplified rate-equation analysis was performed to address the issues.

  18. Flight experience with advanced controls and displays during piloted curved decelerating approaches in a powered-lift STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hindson, W. S.; Hardy, G. H.

    1978-01-01

    The control, display, and procedural features are described for a flight experiment conducted to assess the feasibility of piloted STOL approaches along predefined, steep, curved, and decelerating approach profiles. It was found to be particularly important to assist the pilot through use of the flight director computing capability with the lower frequency control-related tasks, such as those associated with monitoring and adjusting configuration trim as influenced by atmospheric effects, and preventing the system from exceeding powerplant and SAS authority limitations. Many of the technical and pilot related issues identified in the course of this flight investigation are representative of similarly demanding operational tasks that are thought to be possible only through the use of sophisticated control and display systems.

  19. The Measurement of the Field of View from Airplane Cockpits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gough, Melvin N

    1936-01-01

    A method has been devised for the angular measurement and graphic portrayal of the view obtained from the pilot's cockpit of an airplane. The assumption upon which the method is based and a description of the instrument, designated a "visiometer", used in the measurement are given. Account is taken of the fact that the pilot has two eyes and two separate sources of vision. The view is represented on charts using an equal-area polar projection, a description and proof of which are given. The use of this chart, aside from its simplicity, may make possible the establishment of simple criterions of the field of view. Charts of five representative airplanes with various cockpit arrangements are included.

  20. Attack helicopter (AH-1T) cockpit systems integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, V. A.

    1984-01-01

    This discussion summarizes the effort conducted by the BHTI Human Factors and Cockpit Arrangement group for a study and design of the integration of a cockpit control system for the AH 1T (TOW). The resulting design is a culmination of studies that were conducted using the existing configuration as a baseline and complementing it with new equipment and subsystems that fulfill the attack helicopter requirements for the foreseeable future. Of primary concern was the requirement to add a missile control system, with secondary considerations for improved NOE and night operations. In addition, growth capabilities for improved target acquisition, weapons delivery, and precise navigation was considered. Along with the addition of new equipment, the aircraft was assumed to have a central multiplex data bus system for information transfer throughout the aircraft and its subsystems.

  1. Status and cockpit dynamics: a review and empirical study.

    PubMed

    Milanovich, D M; Driskell, J E; Stout, R J; Salas, E

    1998-09-01

    One of the most troublesome dynamics evident in the airplane cockpit is related to patterns of authority relations between the captain and the first officer: Too often, captains fail to listen and first officers fail to speak. The authors propose that many instances of superordinate and subordinate behavior in the cockpit--the captain's tendency to reject input from other team members and the first officer's hesitancy to question the captain--represent cases of status generalization. First, the authors describe the theory of status generalization and show support for the operation of the theory by presenring examples of flightcrew behavior that the theory predicts. Second, an initial empirical test was conducted to instantiate the claim that captain-first officer differences can be seen as status differences. Finally, the significance and implications of this perspective are discussed.

  2. Chemical warfare protection for the cockpit of future aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickl, William C.

    1988-01-01

    Currently systems are being developed which will filter chemical and biological contaminants from crew station air. In order to maximize the benefits of these systems, a method of keeping the cockpit contaminant free during pilot ingress and egress is needed. One solution is to use a rectangular plastic curtain to seal the four edges of the canopy frame to the canopy sill. The curtain is stored in a tray which is recessed into the canopy sill and unfolds in accordion fashion as the canopy is raised. A two way zipper developed by Calspan could be used as an airlock between the pilot's oversuit and the cockpit. This system eliminates the pilot's need for heavy and restrictive CB gear because he would never be exposed to the chemical warfare environment.

  3. Evaluating the effectiveness of cockpit resource management training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    The concept of providing flight crews with intensive training in crew coordination and interpersonal skills (cockpit resource management training - CRM) is outlined with emphasis on full mission simulator training (line-oriented flight training - LOFT). Findings from several airlines that have instituted CRM and LOFT are summarized. Four types of criteria used for evaluating CRM programs: observer ratings of crew behavior, measures of attitudes regarding cockpit management, self-reports by participants on the value of the training, and case studies of CRM-related incidents and accidents are covered. Attention is focused on ratings of the performance of crews during line flights and during simulator sessions conducted as a part of LOFT. A boomerang effect - the emergence of a subgroup that has changed the attitudes in the opposite direction from that desired is emphasized.

  4. Designing Struts for the Low-Fidelity Orion Cockpit Mockup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucienne, Runa A.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the project was to design and construct nine struts to be installed in the low-fidelity Orion cockpit mockup (Rev F; located at NASA s Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX) as simplified representations of the existing flight designed struts designed by engineers at Lockheed Martin (the primary contractor of the Orion). The project design included: researching the existing flight designs, brainstorming design upgrades, developing three unrelated three-dimensional (3D) strut designs using Pro/Engineer Wildfire 3.0, choosing the best fit design, locating materials and their sources, implementing the chosen design, and making design modifications. The project resulted in making simple modifications to the existing struts used in the last Orion cockpit mockup. The project is relevant to NASA, because upgrades to the low-fidelity Orion cockpit mockup progresses NASA s goals of developing and testing a new spacecraft, conducting the spacecraft's first crewed mission by 2015, returning to the moon by 2020, and exploring Mars and other planets in the future.

  5. Design and testing of an unlimited field-of-regard synthetic vision head-worn display for commercial aircraft surface operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthur, J. J., III; Prinzel, Lawrence, III; Shelton, Kevin; Kramer, Lynda J.; Williams, Steven P.; Bailey, Randall E.; Norman, Robert M.

    2007-04-01

    Experiments and flight tests have shown that a Head-Up Display (HUD) and a head-down, electronic moving map (EMM) can be enhanced with Synthetic Vision for airport surface operations. While great success in ground operations was demonstrated with a HUD, the research noted that two major HUD limitations during ground operations were their monochrome form and limited, fixed field of regard. A potential solution to these limitations found with HUDs may be emerging Head Worn Displays (HWDs). HWDs are small, lightweight full color display devices that may be worn without significant encumbrance to the user. By coupling the HWD with a head tracker, unlimited field-of-regard may be realized for commercial aviation applications. In the proposed paper, the results of two ground simulation experiments conducted at NASA Langley are summarized. The experiments evaluated the efficacy of head-worn display applications of Synthetic Vision and Enhanced Vision technology to enhance transport aircraft surface operations. The two studies tested a combined six display concepts: (1) paper charts with existing cockpit displays, (2) baseline consisting of existing cockpit displays including a Class III electronic flight bag display of the airport surface; (3) an advanced baseline that also included displayed traffic and routing information, (4) a modified version of a HUD and EMM display demonstrated in previous research; (5) an unlimited field-of-regard, full color, head-tracked HWD with a conformal 3-D synthetic vision surface view; and (6) a fully integrated HWD concept. The fully integrated HWD concept is a head-tracked, color, unlimited field-of-regard concept that provides a 3-D conformal synthetic view of the airport surface integrated with advanced taxi route clearance, taxi precision guidance, and data-link capability. The results of the experiments showed that the fully integrated HWD provided greater path performance compared to using paper charts alone. Further, when

  6. Design and Testing of an Unlimited Field-of-regard Synthetic Vision Head-worn Display for Commercial Aircraft Surface Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Shelton, Kevin J.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Williams, Steven P.; Bailey, Randall E.; Norman, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    Experiments and flight tests have shown that a Head-Up Display (HUD) and a head-down, electronic moving map (EMM) can be enhanced with Synthetic Vision for airport surface operations. While great success in ground operations was demonstrated with a HUD, the research noted that two major HUD limitations during ground operations were their monochrome form and limited, fixed field of regard. A potential solution to these limitations found with HUDs may be emerging Head Worn Displays (HWDs). HWDs are small, lightweight full color display devices that may be worn without significant encumbrance to the user. By coupling the HWD with a head tracker, unlimited field-of-regard may be realized for commercial aviation applications. In the proposed paper, the results of two ground simulation experiments conducted at NASA Langley are summarized. The experiments evaluated the efficacy of head-worn display applications of Synthetic Vision and Enhanced Vision technology to enhance transport aircraft surface operations. The two studies tested a combined six display concepts: (1) paper charts with existing cockpit displays, (2) baseline consisting of existing cockpit displays including a Class III electronic flight bag display of the airport surface; (3) an advanced baseline that also included displayed traffic and routing information, (4) a modified version of a HUD and EMM display demonstrated in previous research; (5) an unlimited field-of-regard, full color, head-tracked HWD with a conformal 3-D synthetic vision surface view; and (6) a fully integrated HWD concept. The fully integrated HWD concept is a head-tracked, color, unlimited field-of-regard concept that provides a 3-D conformal synthetic view of the airport surface integrated with advanced taxi route clearance, taxi precision guidance, and data-link capability. The results of the experiments showed that the fully integrated HWD provided greater path performance compared to using paper charts alone. Further, when

  7. Display innovations through glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Lori L.

    2016-03-01

    Prevailing trends in thin, lightweight, high-resolution, and added functionality, such as touch sensing, continue to drive innovation in the display market. While display volumes grow, so do consumers’ need for portability, enhanced optical performance, and mechanical reliability. Technical advancements in glass design and process have enabled display innovations in these areas while supporting industry growth. Opportunities for further innovation remain open for glass manufacturers to drive new applications, enhanced functionality, and increased demand.

  8. X-1 on display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1949-01-01

    A Bell Aircraft Corporation X-1 series aircraft on display at an Open House at NACA Muroc Flight Test Unit or High-Speed Flight Research Station hangar on South Base of Edwards Air Force Base, California. (The precise date of the photo is uncertain, but it is probably before 1948.) The instrumentation that was carried aboard the aircraft to gather data is on display. The aircraft data was recorded on oscillograph film that was read, calibrated, and converted into meaningful parameters for the engineers to evaluate from each research flight. In the background of the photo are several early U.S. jets. These include several Lockheed P-80 Shooting Stars, which were used as chase planes on X-1 flights; two Bell P-59 Airacomets, the first U.S. jet pursuit aircraft (fighter in later parlance); and a prototype Republic XP-84 Thunderjet. There were five versions of the Bell X-1 rocket-powered research aircraft that flew at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, Edwards, California. The bullet-shaped X-1 aircraft were built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y. for the U.S. Army Air Forces (after 1947, U.S. Air Force) and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1 Program was originally designated the XS-1 for eXperimental Sonic. The X-1's mission was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' Three different X-1s were built and designated: X-1-1, X-1-2 (later modified to become the X-1E), and X-1-3. The basic X-1 aircraft were flown by a large number of different pilots from 1946 to 1951. The X-1 Program not only proved that humans could go beyond the speed of sound, it reinforced the understanding that technological barriers could be overcome. The X-1s pioneered many structural and aerodynamic advances including extremely thin, yet extremely strong wing sections; supersonic fuselage configurations; control system requirements; powerplant

  9. Development of Improved Graphical Displays for an Advanced Outage Control Center, Employing Human Factors Principles for Outage Schedule Management

    SciTech Connect

    St Germain, Shawn Walter; Farris, Ronald Keith; Thomas, Kenneth David

    2015-09-01

    The long-term viability of existing nuclear power plants in the United States (U.S.) is dependent upon a number of factors, including maintaining high capacity factors, maintaining nuclear safety, and reducing operating costs, particularly those associated with refueling outages. Refueling outages typically take 20-30 days, and for existing light water NPPs in the U.S., the reactor cannot be in operation during the outage. Furthermore, given that many NPPs generate between $1-1.5 million/day in revenue when in operation, there is considerable interest in shortening the length of refueling outages. Yet refueling outages are highly complex operations, involving multiple concurrent and dependent activities that are somewhat challenging to coordinate; therefore, finding ways to improve refueling outage performance, while maintaining nuclear safety has proven to be difficult. The Advanced Outage Control Center (AOCC) project is a research and development (R&D) demonstration activity under the LWRS Program. LWRS is an R&D program that works closely with industry R&D programs to establish technical foundations for the licensing and managing of long-term, safe, and economical operation of current fleet of NPPs. As such, the LWRS Advanced Outage Control Center project has the goal of improving the management of commercial NPP refueling outages. To accomplish this goal, INL is developing an advanced outage control center (OCC) that is specifically designed to maximize the usefulness of communication and collaboration technologies for outage coordination and problem resolution activities. The overall focus is on developing an AOCC with the following capabilities that enables plant and OCC staff to; Collaborate in real-time to address emergent issues; Effectively communicate outage status to all workers involved in the outage; Effectively communicate discovered conditions in the field to the OCC; Provide real-time work status; Provide automatic pending support notifications

  10. Differences Training for the Glass Cockpit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiener, Earl L.; Shafto, Michael G. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This study followed two groups of pilots from a major US air carrier as they went through a transition to advanced technology aircraft. Specifically, these were pilots were no previous automation experience undergoing Differences training from the 737-100/200 aircraft to the 737-300/500 aircraft. Each were given a different curriculum and data were collected on the efficacy of each training model and the pilots' attitudes toward automation. Results of the analyses performed and guidelines for training are included.

  11. Investigation and Development of Control Laws for the NASA Langley Research Center Cockpit Motion Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coon, Craig R.; Cardullo, Frank M.; Zaychik, Kirill B.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to develop highly advanced simulators is a critical need that has the ability to significantly impact the aerospace industry. The aerospace industry is advancing at an ever increasing pace and flight simulators must match this development with ever increasing urgency. In order to address both current problems and potential advancements with flight simulator techniques, several aspects of current control law technology of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center's Cockpit Motion Facility (CMF) motion base simulator were examined. Preliminary investigation of linear models based upon hardware data were examined to ensure that the most accurate models are used. This research identified both system improvements in the bandwidth and more reliable linear models. Advancements in the compensator design were developed and verified through multiple techniques. The position error rate feedback, the acceleration feedback and the force feedback were all analyzed in the heave direction using the nonlinear model of the hardware. Improvements were made using the position error rate feedback technique. The acceleration feedback compensator also provided noteworthy improvement, while attempts at implementing a force feedback compensator proved unsuccessful.

  12. Device-Task Fidelity and Transfer of Training: Aircraft Cockpit Procedures Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prophet, Wallace W.; Boyd, H. Alton

    An evaluation was made of the training effectiveness of two cockpit procedures training devices, differing greatly in physical fidelity and cost, for use on the ground for a twin-engine, turboprop, fixed-wing aircraft. One group of students received training in cockpit procedures in a relatively expensive, sophisticated, computerized trainer,…

  13. 14 CFR 91.609 - Flight data recorders and cockpit voice recorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight data recorders and cockpit voice... are manufactured on or after April 7, 2010, must meet the flight data recorder requirements of § 23... airplanes required by this section to have a cockpit voice recorder and a flight data recorder, that...

  14. 14 CFR 91.609 - Flight data recorders and cockpit voice recorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight data recorders and cockpit voice... are manufactured on or after April 7, 2010, must meet the flight data recorder requirements of § 23... airplanes required by this section to have a cockpit voice recorder and a flight data recorder, that...

  15. 14 CFR 91.609 - Flight data recorders and cockpit voice recorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight data recorders and cockpit voice... are manufactured on or after April 7, 2010, must meet the flight data recorder requirements of § 23... airplanes required by this section to have a cockpit voice recorder and a flight data recorder, that...

  16. 14 CFR 91.609 - Flight data recorders and cockpit voice recorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight data recorders and cockpit voice... are manufactured on or after April 7, 2010, must meet the flight data recorder requirements of § 23... airplanes required by this section to have a cockpit voice recorder and a flight data recorder, that...

  17. 14 CFR 91.609 - Flight data recorders and cockpit voice recorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight data recorders and cockpit voice... are manufactured on or after April 7, 2010, must meet the flight data recorder requirements of § 23... airplanes required by this section to have a cockpit voice recorder and a flight data recorder, that...

  18. 46 CFR 116.1120 - Drainage of cockpit vessels, well deck vessels, and open boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... boats. 116.1120 Section 116.1120 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL... Drainage of cockpit vessels, well deck vessels, and open boats. Drainage of cockpit vessels, well deck vessels, and open boats must meet the applicable requirements of §§ 178.420, 178.430, 178.440, 178.450...

  19. 46 CFR 116.1120 - Drainage of cockpit vessels, well deck vessels, and open boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... boats. 116.1120 Section 116.1120 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL... Drainage of cockpit vessels, well deck vessels, and open boats. Drainage of cockpit vessels, well deck vessels, and open boats must meet the applicable requirements of §§ 178.420, 178.430, 178.440, 178.450...

  20. 46 CFR 116.1120 - Drainage of cockpit vessels, well deck vessels, and open boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... boats. 116.1120 Section 116.1120 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL... Drainage of cockpit vessels, well deck vessels, and open boats. Drainage of cockpit vessels, well deck vessels, and open boats must meet the applicable requirements of §§ 178.420, 178.430, 178.440, 178.450...

  1. 46 CFR 116.1120 - Drainage of cockpit vessels, well deck vessels, and open boats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... boats. 116.1120 Section 116.1120 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL... Drainage of cockpit vessels, well deck vessels, and open boats. Drainage of cockpit vessels, well deck vessels, and open boats must meet the applicable requirements of §§ 178.420, 178.430, 178.440, 178.450...

  2. Heat stress in front and rear cockpits of F-4 aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Nunneley, S.A.; Stribley, R.F.; Allan, J.R.

    1981-05-01

    The thermal stresses encountered in the front and rear cockpits of F-4 aircraft flying low-level missions in warm, moderately humid weather and physiological responses to these stresses are investigated. Measurements of ground and cockpit environmental temperatures and subject skin and core temperatures were acquired for the preflight taxi, low-level flight, ordnance delivery and postflight taxi phases of 36 flights of F-4E aircraft performed to simulate low-level ground attack missions. Cockpit dry-bulb temperatures are found to exceed those on the ground during ground operations, and to decrease in flight in the front, but not the rear, cockpit. A linear relationship between cockpit dry bulb and temperatures is also found in each of the mission phases, along with increases in skin and core temperatures with cockpit temperatures and sweat rates depending both on cockpit temperatures and the amount of clothing worn. Adverse physiological effects related to nausea and acceleration tolerances are also noted. It is concluded that the cockpit cooling system of the F-4 allows the development of operationally significant heat stress, which may be corrected by better design and testing of the cooling system.

  3. [Clarity of flight information in the cockpit of the new aircraft generation].

    PubMed

    Stern, C; Schwartz, R; Groenhoff, S; Draeger, J; Hüttig, G; Bernhard, H

    1994-08-01

    Fundamental changes of cockpit design in recent years, especially the transition from analogue to digital flight information systems and the use of colour-coded displays, lead to new demands on the visual system of the pilot. Twenty experienced pilots each participated in four 15-min sessions with a simulator program in the new Airbus 340 Simulator of the Technical University of Berlin. The pilots were confronted with various flight situations and events. The simulation program was carried out with visual acuity of 1.0 or better, with acuity reduced to 0.5 and with red and green filters. The time between the display of information and the pilot's reaction was determined. The probands were classified into two groups according to their age (< or = 45 years, > or = 45 years). In both age groups a significant difference was found only with green filters. There was no difference with reduced visual acuity or with red filters, and no differences were seen between the two age groups.

  4. Displays enabling mobile multimedia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimmel, Jyrki

    2007-02-01

    With the rapid advances in telecommunications networks, mobile multimedia delivery to handsets is now a reality. While a truly immersive multimedia experience is still far ahead in the mobile world, significant advances have been made in the constituent audio-visual technologies to make this become possible. One of the critical components in multimedia delivery is the mobile handset display. While such alternatives as headset-style near-to-eye displays, autostereoscopic displays, mini-projectors, and roll-out flexible displays can deliver either a larger virtual screen size than the pocketable dimensions of the mobile device can offer, or an added degree of immersion by adding the illusion of the third dimension in the viewing experience, there are still challenges in the full deployment of such displays in real-life mobile communication terminals. Meanwhile, direct-view display technologies have developed steadily, and can provide a development platform for an even better viewing experience for multimedia in the near future. The paper presents an overview of the mobile display technology space with an emphasis on the advances and potential in developing direct-view displays further to meet the goal of enabling multimedia in the mobile domain.

  5. Using Visualization in Cockpit Decision Support Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Aragon, Cecilia R.

    2005-07-01

    Beamline 7.2 of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is a beam diagnostics system that uses the synchrotron radiation emitted by a dipole magnet. It consists of two branches; in the first one the x-ray portion of the radiation is used in a pinhole camera system for measuring the transverse profile of the beam. The second branch is equipped with an x-ray beam position monitor (BPM) and with a multipurpose port where the visible and the far-infrared part of the radiation can be used for various applications such as bunch length measurements and IR coherent synchrotron radiation experiments. The pinhole system has been operating successfully since the end of 2003. The installation of the second branch has been completed recently and the results of its commissioning are presented in this paper together with examples of beam measurements performed at BL 7.2.

  6. Culture in the cockpit: do Hofstede's dimensions replicate?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merritt, A.; Helmreich, R. L. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Survey data collected from 9,400 male commercial airline pilots in 19 countries were used in a replication study of Hofstede's indexes of national culture. The analysis that removed the constraint of item equivalence proved superior, both conceptually and empirically, to the analysis using Hofstede's items and formulae as prescribed, and rendered significant replication correlations for all indexes (Individualism-Collectivism .96, Power Distance .87, Masculinity-Femininity .75, and Uncertainty Avoidance .68). The successful replication confirms that national culture exerts an influence on cockpit behavior over and above the professional culture of pilots, and that "one size fits all" training is inappropriate.

  7. Assessment of cockpit interface concepts for data link retrofit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccauley, Hugh W.; Miles, William L.; Dwyer, John P.; Erickson, Jeffery B.

    1992-01-01

    The problem is examined of retrofitting older generation aircraft with data link capability. The approach taken analyzes requirements for the cockpit interface, based on review of prior research and opinions obtained from subject matter experts. With this background, essential functions and constraints for a retrofit installation are defined. After an assessment of the technology available to meet the functions and constraints, candidate design concepts are developed. The most promising design concept is described in detail. Finally, needs for further research and development are identified.

  8. Evaluation of Flying Qualities and Guidance Displays for an Advanced Tilt-Wing STOL Transport Aircraft in Final Approach and Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, Chad R.; Franklin, James A.; Hardy, Gordon H.

    2002-01-01

    A piloted simulation was performed on the Vertical Motion Simulator at NASA Ames Research Center to evaluate flying qualities of a tilt-wing Short Take-Off and Landing (STOL) transport aircraft during final approach and landing. The experiment was conducted to assess the design s handling qualities, and to evaluate the use of flightpath-centered guidance for the precision approach and landing tasks required to perform STOL operations in instrument meteorological conditions, turbulence, and wind. Pilots rated the handling qualities to be satisfactory for all operations evaluated except those encountering extreme crosswinds and severe windshear; even in these difficult meteorological conditions, adequate handling qualities were maintained. The advanced flight control laws and guidance displays provided consistent performance and precision landings.

  9. Handling qualities effects of display latency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, David W.

    1993-01-01

    Display latency is the time delay between aircraft response and the corresponding response of the cockpit displays. Currently, there is no explicit specification for allowable display lags to ensure acceptable aircraft handling qualities in instrument flight conditions. This paper examines the handling qualities effects of display latency between 70 and 400 milliseconds for precision instrument flight tasks of the V-22 Tiltrotor aircraft. Display delay effects on the pilot control loop are analytically predicted through a second order pilot crossover model of the V-22 lateral axis, and handling qualities trends are evaluated through a series of fixed-base piloted simulation tests. The results show that the effects of display latency for flight path tracking tasks are driven by the stability characteristics of the attitude control loop. The data indicate that the loss of control damping due to latency can be simply predicted from knowledge of the aircraft's stability margins, control system lags, and required control bandwidths. Based on the relationship between attitude control damping and handling qualities ratings, latency design guidelines are presented. In addition, this paper presents a design philosophy, supported by simulation data, for using flight director display augmentation to suppress the effects of display latency for delays up to 300 milliseconds.

  10. Critical phase distractions in anaesthesia and the sterile cockpit concept.

    PubMed

    Broom, M A; Capek, A L; Carachi, P; Akeroyd, M A; Hilditch, G

    2011-03-01

    In aviation, the sterile cockpit rule prohibits non-essential activities during critical phases of flight, takeoff and landing, phases analogous to induction of, and emergence from, anaesthesia. We studied distraction during 30 anaesthetic inductions, maintenances and emergences. Mean (SD) noise during emergence (58.3 (6.2) dB) was higher than during induction (46.4 (4.3) dB) and maintenance (52 (4.5) dB; p<0.001). Sudden loud noises, greater than 70 dB, occurred more frequently at emergence (occurring 34 times) than at induction (occurring nine times) or maintenance (occurring 13 times). The median (IQR [range]) of staff entrances or exits were 0 (0-2 [0-7]), 6 (3-10 [1-18]) and 10 (5-12 [1-20]) for induction, maintenance and emergence, respectively (p<0.001). Conversations unrelated to the procedure occurred in 28/30 (93%) emergences. These data demonstrate increased distraction during emergence compared with other phases of anaesthesia. Recognising and minimising distraction should improve patient safety. Applying aviation's sterile cockpit rule may be a useful addition to our clinical practice.

  11. Adaptive coordination and heedfulness make better cockpit crews.

    PubMed

    Grote, G; Kolbe, M; Zala-Mezö, E; Bienefeld-Seall, N; Künzle, B

    2010-02-01

    Team coordination during a simulated clean approach performed by 42 civil aviation cockpit crews was analysed. Several hypotheses regarding the adaptive use of implicit and explicit coordination, leadership and heedful interrelating were tested. The results indicate the adaptiveness of coordination to different levels of standardisation and task load and the general importance of explicit coordination for good performance. Leadership seems to be required mainly for work phases with little standardisation. In exploratory lag sequential analyses, heedful behaviour in the seven best and six worst performing crews was examined. The coordination sequences in high performance crews were found to be more succinct and well balanced, indicating that a shared sense of heedfulness is crucial for effectiveness. Theoretical implications for the conceptualisation of adaptive coordination and heedfulness and practical implications for improving crew training are discussed. Statement of Relevance: Analyses of team coordination during a simulated clean approach performed by civil aviation cockpit crews demonstrated the occurrence and effectiveness of adaptive coordination in response to different levels of task load and standardisation. Results also indicated the importance of heedful interrelating, both as a form of coordination and as a way of regulating the adaptiveness of coordination efforts. These findings have important implications for improving crew training, leadership practices and possibly also standard operating procedures.

  12. The Introduction of New Cockpit Technology: A Human Factors Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    A joint Airline/NASA field study of B-767 training and operations was conducted during the period this aircraft was being introduced into line service. The objectives of the study were: (1) to identify any adverse reactions to the new technology; (2) to provide a clearing house of information for the airlines and pilots during the introductory period; (3) to provide feedback on airline training programs for the new aircraft; and (4) to provide field data to NASA and other researchers to help them develop principles of human interaction with automated systems. It is concluded that: (1) a large majority of pilots enjoy flying the B-767 more than the older aircraft; (2) pilots accept new cockpit technology and find it useful; (3) pilots are aware of the potential loss of flying skills because of automation, and take steps to prevent this from happening; (4) autopilot/autothrottle interactions and FMS operations were sometimes confusing or surprising to pilots, and they desired more training in this area; and (5) highly automated cockpits can result in a loss of effective monitoring performance.

  13. Low-cost color LCD helmet display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinenwever, Roger; Best, Leonard G.; Ericksen, Bryce J.

    1992-10-01

    The goal of this helmet-mounted display (HMD) project was development and demonstration of a low-cost color display incorporating see-through optics. A full field-of-regard visual presentation was to be provided through the use of a head-tracker system and the HMD was to be suitable for use with low-cost cockpit trainers. The color imaging devices selected for the project are commercially available liquid crystal display (LCD) panels. The LCDs are 3.0 inch (diagonal) thin film transistor (TFT) types using a delta format for the red, green, blue (RGB) matrix. Fiber optic light panels mounted behind the LCDs provide a cool light source of greater than 3400 foot-lamberts (ft-L). Approximately 3 percent of the applied light source is emitted by the LCD image source. The video displayed is in a 3:4 format representing a 30 degree(s) vertical by 40 degree(s) horizontal biocular instantaneous field-of-view (IFOV) visual image from a graphic image generation system and is controlled in a full field of regard based on positional information from a head-tracker system. The optical elements of the HMD are designed as an exit pupil forming, see-through system and require the eye to be in a 15 mm volume for viewing the scene. The beam splitting function of the optics allows the user to see through the optics for reading cockpit instrumentation, while viewing outside the cockpit reveals the out-the-window (OTW) scene. The optic design allows for the IFOV to be displayed through a set of field lens, relay lens, folding mirror, beam splitter and spherical mirror system. The beam splitters and spherical mirrors for both optical paths are coated for approximately 50 percent transmission and reflectance. This approach, combined with the losses through the rest of the optical path, provides a theoretical maximum of 10.9 percent of the LCD image source intensity arriving at the eye. Initial tests of image intensity at the eye for a full white scene have measured at approximately 11 ft-L.

  14. Cooling of organic light-emitting diode display panels with heat pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sure, Anita; Vankayala, Gowtham Kumar; Baranwal, Vaibhav; Paramanandam, Karthikeyan; Sarma, Kalluri R.; Asokan, S.

    2016-05-01

    Organic light-emitting diode half life is a function of temperature and it decreases with increase in operating temperature. Hence thermal management is important for the efficient operation of OLED based displays. High luminance applications like aerospace cockpits require high power densities which lead to increase in their operating temperatures. Passive cooling is the preferred choice in aerospace applications. In this work passive cooling option with heat pipes is studied and implemented to reduce the display temperature rise.

  15. Definition of display/control requirements for assault transport night/adverse weather capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milelli, R. J.; Mowery, G. W.; Pontelandolfo, C.

    1982-01-01

    A Helicopter Night Vision System was developed to improve low-altitude night and/or adverse weather assult transport capabilities. Man-in-the-loop simulation experiments were performed to define the minimum display and control requirements for the assult transport mission and investigate forward looking infrared sensor requirements, along with alternative displays such as panel mounted displays (PMD) helmet mounted displays (HMD), and integrated control display units. Also explored were navigation requirements, pilot/copilot interaction, and overall cockpit arrangement. Pilot use of an HMD and copilot use of a PMD appear as both the preferred and most effective night navigation combination.

  16. Head Worn Display System for Equivalent Visual Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cupero, Frank; Valimont, Brian; Wise, John; Best. Carl; DeMers, Bob

    2009-01-01

    Head-Worn Displays or so-called, near-to-eye displays have potentially significant advantages in terms of cost, overcoming cockpit space constraints, and for the display of spatially-integrated information. However, many technical issues need to be overcome before these technologies can be successfully introduced into commercial aircraft cockpits. The results of three activities are reported. First, the near-to-eye display design, technological, and human factors issues are described and a literature review is presented. Second, the results of a fixed-base piloted simulation, investigating the impact of near to eye displays on both operational and visual performance is reported. Straight-in approaches were flown in simulated visual and instrument conditions while using either a biocular or a monocular display placed on either the dominant or non-dominant eye. The pilot's flight performance, visual acuity, and ability to detect unsafe conditions on the runway were tested. The data generally supports a monocular design with minimal impact due to eye dominance. Finally, a method for head tracker system latency measurement is developed and used to compare two different devices.

  17. M2-F1 simulator cockpit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    This early simulator of the M2-F1 lifting body was used for pilot training, to test landing techniques before the first ground tow attempts, and to test new control configurations after the first tow attempts and wind-tunnel tests. The M2-F1 simulator was limited in some ways by its analog simulator. It had only limited visual display for the pilot, as well. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially conceived as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop near Long Beach for modification. With a special gearbox and racing slicks, the Pontiac could tow the 1,000-pound M2-F1 110 miles per hour in 30 seconds. It proved adequate for the roughly 400 car tows that got the M2-F1 airborne

  18. Military market for flat panel displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Hopper, Darrel G.

    1997-07-01

    This paper addresses the number, function and size of primary military displays and establishes a basis to determine the opportunities for technology insertion in the immediate future and into the next millennium. The military displays market is specified by such parameters as active area and footprint size, and other characteristics such as luminance, gray scale, resolution, color capability and night vision imaging system capability. A select grouping of funded, future acquisitions, planned and predicted cockpit kits, and form-fit-function upgrades are taken into account. It is the intent of this paper to provide an overview of the DoD niche market, allowing both government and industry a timely reference to insure meeting DoD requirements for flat-panel displays on schedule and in a cost-effective manner. The aggregate DoD market for direct view displays is presently estimated to be in excess of 157,000. Helmet/head mounted displays will add substantially to this total. The vanishing vendor syndrome for older display technologies is becoming a growing, pervasive problem throughout DoD, which consequently just leverage the more modern display technologies being developed for civil-commercial markets.

  19. A variable-collimation display system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchko, Robert; Robinson, Sam; Schmidt, Jack; Graniela, Benito

    2014-03-01

    Two important human depth cues are accommodation and vergence. Normally, the eyes accommodate and converge or diverge in tandem; changes in viewing distance cause the eyes to simultaneously adjust both focus and orientation. However, ambiguity between accommodation and vergence cues is a well-known limitation in many stereoscopic display technologies. This limitation also arises in state-of-the-art full-flight simulator displays. In current full-flight simulators, the out-the-window (OTW) display (i.e., the front cockpit window display) employs a fixed collimated display technology which allows the pilot and copilot to perceive the OTW training scene without angular errors or distortions; however, accommodation and vergence cues are limited to fixed ranges (e.g., ~ 20 m). While this approach works well for long-range, the ambiguity of depth cues at shorter range hinders the pilot's ability to gauge distances in critical maneuvers such as vertical take-off and landing (VTOL). This is the first in a series of papers on a novel, variable-collimation display (VCD) technology that is being developed under NAVY SBIR Topic N121-041 funding. The proposed VCD will integrate with rotary-wing and vertical take-off and landing simulators and provide accurate accommodation and vergence cues for distances ranging from approximately 3 m outside the chin window to ~ 20 m. A display that offers dynamic accommodation and vergence could improve pilot safety and training, and impact other applications presently limited by lack of these depth cues.

  20. Advanced helmet mounted display (AHMD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sisodia, Ashok; Bayer, Michael; Townley-Smith, Paul; Nash, Brian; Little, Jay; Cassarly, William; Gupta, Anurag

    2007-04-01

    Due to significantly increased U.S. military involvement in deterrent, observer, security, peacekeeping and combat roles around the world, the military expects significant future growth in the demand for deployable virtual reality trainers with networked simulation capability of the battle space visualization process. The use of HMD technology in simulated virtual environments has been initiated by the demand for more effective training tools. The AHMD overlays computer-generated data (symbology, synthetic imagery, enhanced imagery) augmented with actual and simulated visible environment. The AHMD can be used to support deployable reconfigurable training solutions as well as traditional simulation requirements, UAV augmented reality, air traffic control and Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (C4ISR) applications. This paper will describe the design improvements implemented for production of the AHMD System.

  1. Low-cost monochrome CRT helmet display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinenwever, Roger; Best, Leonard G.; Ericksen, Bryce J.

    1992-10-01

    The goal of the cathode ray tube (CRT) helmet-mounted display (HMD) project was development and demonstration of a low-cost monochrome display incorporating see-through optics. The HMD was also to be integrable with a variety of image generation systems and suitable for use with low-cost cockpit trainers and night vision goggles (NVG) training applications. A final goal for the HMD was to provide a full field of regard (FOR) using a head-tracker system. The resultant HMD design included two 1 inch CRTs used with a simple optical design of beam splitters and spherical mirrors. The design provides for approximately 50% transmission and reflectance capabilities for observing the 30 degree(s) vertical X 40 degree(s) horizontal biocular instantaneous field-of-view visual image from a graphic image generator system. This design provides for a theoretical maximum of 10.8% of the CRT image source intensity arriving at the eye. Initial tests of image intensity at the eye for an average out-the-window scene have yielded 12 to 13 Foot Lamberts with the capability of providing approximately 130 Foot Lamberts. Invoking a software 'own ship' mask to 'blackout' the visual image, the user can monitor 'in-cockpit' instrumentation utilizing the see- through characteristics of the optics. The CRTs are operated at a TV line rate with a modulation transfer function (MTF) of approximately 65%. The small beam spot size and the high MTF provide for an enhanced image display. The display electronics are designed to provide a monochrome video picture based on an RS170 video input.

  2. Human factor implications of the Eurocopter AS332L-1 Super Puma cockpit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padfield, R. Randall

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify and describe some of the human factor problems which can occur in the cockpit of a modern civilian helicopter. After examining specific hardware and software problems in the cockpit design of the Eurocopter (Aerospatiale) AS332L-1 Super Puma, the author proposes several principles that can be used to avoid similar human factors problems in the design of future cockpits. These principles relate to the use and function of warning lights, the design of autopilots in two-pilot aircraft, and the labeling of switches and warning lights, specifically with respect to abbreviations and translations from languages other than English. In the final section of the paper, the author describes current trends in society which he suggests should be taken into consideration when designing future aircraft cockpits.

  3. Human factors issues associated with the use of speech technology in the cockpit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kersteen, Z. A.; Damos, D.

    1983-01-01

    The human factors issues associated with the use of voice technology in the cockpit are summarized. The formulation of the LHX avionics suite is described and the allocation of tasks to voice in the cockpit is discussed. State-of-the-art speech recognition technology is reviewed. Finally, a questionnaire designed to tap pilot opinions concerning the allocation of tasks to voice input and output in the cockpit is presented. This questionnaire was designed to be administered to operational AH-1G Cobra gunship pilots. Half of the questionnaire deals specifically with the AH-1G cockpit and the types of tasks pilots would like to have performed by voice in this existing rotorcraft. The remaining portion of the questionnaire deals with an undefined rotorcraft of the future and is aimed at determining what types of tasks these pilots would like to have performed by voice technology if anything was possible, i.e. if there were no technological constraints.

  4. Voice interactive electronic warning systems (VIEWS) - An applied approach to voice technology in the helicopter cockpit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voorhees, J. W.; Bucher, N. M.

    1983-01-01

    The cockpit has been one of the most rapidly changing areas of new aircraft design over the past thirty years. In connection with these developments, a pilot can now be considered a decision maker/system manager as well as a vehicle controller. There is, however, a trend towards an information overload in the cockpit, and information processing problems begin to occur for the rotorcraft pilot. One approach to overcome the arising difficulties is based on the utilization of voice technology to improve the information transfer rate in the cockpit with respect to both input and output. Attention is given to the background of speech technology, the application of speech technology within the cockpit, voice interactive electronic warning system (VIEWS) simulation, and methodology. Information subsystems are considered along with a dynamic simulation study, and data collection.

  5. Cockpit thermal stress and aircrew thermal strain during routine Jaguar operations.

    PubMed

    Gibson, T M; Cochrane, L A; Harrison, M H; Rigden, P W

    1979-08-01

    Thermal data have been obtained from Jaguar aircraft flying routine, warm-weather operations in Sardinia. These data have been analysed in terms of the ambient and cockpit wet bulb globe temperatures (WBGT) and the mean body temperature (Tb) of the pilot. In contrast to similar data previously obtained from Harrier and Buccaneer aircraft, no interrelationships could be demonstrated between ambient WBGT at ground level and either cockpit WBGT or pilot Tb. Relationships which could be described by equations of negative slope were obtained between Tb and sortie time and between cockpit WBGT and sortie time. A model has been derived for predicting aircrew thermal strain in the Jaguar from cockpit temperature and sortie time.

  6. Relationships between ambient, cockpit, and pilot temperatures during routine air operations.

    PubMed

    Harrison, M H; Higenbottam, C; Rigby, R A

    1978-01-01

    Thermal data obtained from aircraft flying routine sorties from RAF Germany in summer have been reduced to a form suitable for statistical analysis by describing thermal stress in terms of a modified wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) index, and thermal strain in terms of mean body temperature (Tb). Ambient temperature could be related to cockpit temperature, and cockpit temperature to pilot Tb, by linear equations of positive slope. Relationships between Tb and sortie time could be represented by exponential equations. The relationships between cockpit temperature and sortie time could also, in fixed-wing aircraft, be described by exponential equations, although in helicopters the relationships were better described by linear equations of negative slope. Models capable of predicting cockpit thermal stress and aircrew thermal strain given ambient temperature and sortie time have been constructed. These provide a description of the temperature relationships within aircraft during flight.

  7. Astronaut Kenneth D. Cameron in T-38A cockpit at Ellington Field near JSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Astronaut Kenneth D. Cameron seated in the forward cockpit of a T-38A conducts preflight checkout procedures at Ellington Field near JSC. Cameron is preparing for a flight to Fairchild Air Force Base (AFB) in Spokane, Washington.

  8. Binocular Camera for cockpit visibility of general aviation aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barile, A. J.

    1981-04-01

    A history of cockpit visibility studies and requirements with regard to aircraft safety, human factors, collision avoidance, and accident investigations is presented. The Federal Aviation Administration's development of the Binocular Camera is reviewed, and the technical details of a new and improved camera are discussed. The Binocular Camera uses two 65 mm wide angle F6.8 lenses and covers an 88 1/2 deg field of vision. The camera produces images, representative of what the human eyes see before the brain integrates them into one, thus making it possible to analyze the effect of obstruction to vision. The improvements, applications, and uses of the camera in the research, development, and operations of general aviation aircraft are discussed.

  9. Optimizing the pathology workstation "cockpit": Challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Krupinski, Elizabeth A

    2010-10-01

    The 21(st) century has brought numerous changes to the clinical reading (i.e., image or virtual pathology slide interpretation) environment of pathologists and it will continue to change even more dramatically as information and communication technologies (ICTs) become more widespread in the integrated healthcare enterprise. The extent to which these changes impact the practicing pathologist differ as a function of the technology under consideration, but digital "virtual slides" and the viewing of images on computer monitors instead of glass slides through a microscope clearly represents a significant change in the way that pathologists extract information from these images and render diagnostic decisions. One of the major challenges facing pathologists in this new era is how to best optimize the pathology workstation, the reading environment and the new and varied types of information available in order to ensure efficient and accurate processing of this information. Although workstations can be stand-alone units with images imported via external storage devices, this scenario is becoming less common as pathology departments connect to information highways within their hospitals and to external sites. Picture Archiving and Communications systems are no longer confined to radiology departments but are serving the entire integrated healthcare enterprise, including pathology. In radiology, the workstation is often referred to as the "cockpit" with a "digital dashboard" and the reading room as the "control room." Although pathology has yet to "go digital" to the extent that radiology has, lessons derived from radiology reading "cockpits" can be quite valuable in setting up the digital pathology reading room. In this article, we describe the concept of the digital dashboard and provide some recent examples of informatics-based applications that have been shown to improve the workflow and quality in digital reading environments.

  10. Heat stress in the A-10 cockpit: flights over desert.

    PubMed

    Nunneley, S A; Flick, C F

    1981-09-01

    Heat stress is a significant problem during low-level flight in hot climates, especially in aircraft that impose high task loads and repetitive maneuvering forces. The A-10 close-support aircraft presents such a combined-stress environment. This report summarizes data from 15 low-level flights over desert. Ground dry-bulb temperature (Tdb,g) was 26-42 degrees C. Cockpit temperature (Tdb,c) was commonly over 40 degrees C on the ground and tended to drop progressively from taxi-out through flight to the range and return; for any given phase it was a linear function of Tdb,g. Small (50-mm) black globe temperature (Tbg,s) exceeded Tdb,c by 2-5 degrees C on the ground and by 4-8 degrees C in flight. The pilot's mean skin temperature was a linear function of Tdb,c in each phase. Auditory canal temperature (Tac) rose from a control value of 37.0 to a mean of 37.4 degrees C in flight, with one pilot reaching 37.8 degrees C. Sweat rate was a linear function of Tdb,g, with weight loss up to 2.3%. These data are compared to earlier studies of the F-4 and F-111 aircraft. Although the performance of the A-10's cooling system resembles that in other aircraft and is somewhat better than the F-4 on the ground, the effects of cockpit heat are exacerbated by its close-support role. Pilots noted lowered G-tolerance and increased general fatigue on the hotter flights. The foot- and leg-area temperatures exceeded those at the head; planned changes in air distribution should partly alleviate that situation.

  11. Military applications of a cockpit integrated electronic flight bag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Robert P.; Seinfeld, Robert D.

    2004-09-01

    Converting the pilot's flight bag information from paper to electronic media is being performed routinely by commercial airlines for use with an on-board PC. This concept is now being further advanced with a new class of electronic flight bags (EFB) recently put into commercial operation which interface directly with major on-board avionics systems and has its own dedicated panel mounted display. This display combines flight bag information with real time aircraft performance and maintenance data. This concept of an integrated EFB which is now being used by the commercial airlines as a level 1 certified system, needs to be explored for military applications. This paper describes a system which contains all the attributes of an Electronic Flight Bag with the addition of interfaces which are linked to military aircraft missions such as those for tankers, cargo haulers, search and rescue and maritime aircraft as well as GATM requirements. The adaptation of the integrated EFB to meet these military requirements is then discussed.

  12. Situation Awareness and Levels of Automation: Empirical Assessment of Levels of Automation in the Commercial Cockpit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaber, David B.; Schutte, Paul C. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This report has been prepared to closeout a NASA grant to Mississippi State University (MSU) for research into situation awareness (SA) and automation in the advanced commercial aircraft cockpit. The grant was divided into two obligations including $60,000 for the period from May 11, 2000 to December 25, 2000. The information presented in this report summarizes work completed through this obligation. It also details work to be completed with the balance of the current obligation and unobligated funds amounting to $50,043, which are to be granted to North Carolina State University for completion of the research project from July 31, 2000 to May 10, 2001. This research was to involve investigation of a broad spectrum of degrees of automation of complex systems on human-machine performance and SA. The work was to empirically assess the effect of theoretical levels of automation (LOAs) described in a taxonomy developed by Endsley & Kaber (1999) on naive and experienced subject performance and SA in simulated flight tasks. The study was to be conducted in the context of a realistic simulation of aircraft flight control. The objective of this work was to identify LOAs that effectively integrate humans and machines under normal operating conditions and failure modes. In general, the work was to provide insight into the design of automation in the commercial aircraft cockpit. Both laboratory and field investigations were to be conducted. At this point in time, a high-fidelity flight simulator of the McDonald Douglas (MD) 11 aircraft has been completed. The simulator integrates a reconfigurable flight simulator developed by the Georgia Institute of Technology and stand-alone simulations of MD-11 autoflight systems developed at MSU. Use of the simulator has been integrated into a study plan for the laboratory research and it is expected that the simulator will also be used in the field study with actual commercial pilots. In addition to the flight simulator, an electronic

  13. The use of optical waveguides in head up display (HUD) applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homan, Malcolm

    2013-06-01

    The application of optical waveguides to Head Up Displays (HUD) is an enabling technology which solves the critical issues of volume reduction (including cockpit intrusion) and mass reduction in an affordable product which retains the high performance optical capabilities associated with today's generation of digital display based HUDs. Improved operability and pilot comfort is achieved regardless of the installation by virtue of the intrinsic properties of optical waveguides and this has enabled BAE Systems Electronic Systems to develop two distinct product streams for glareshield and overhead HUD installations respectively. This paper addresses the design drivers behind the development of the next generation of Head Up Displays and their compatibility with evolving cockpit architectures and structures. The implementation of large scale optical waveguide combiners capable of matching and exceeding the display performances normally only associated with current digital display sourced HUDs has enabled BAE Systems Electronic Systems to solve the volume and installation challenges of the latest military and civil cockpits with it's LiteHUD® technology. Glareshield mounted waveguide based HUDs are compatible with the trend towards the addition of Large Area Displays (LAD) in place of the traditional multiple Head Down Displays (HDD) within military fast jet cockpits. They use an "indirect view" variant of the display which allows the amalgamation of high resolution digital display devices with the inherently small volume and low mass of the waveguide optics. This is then viewed using the more traditional technology of a conventional HUD combiner. This successful combination of technologies has resulted in the LPHUD product which is specifically designed by BAE Systems Electronic Systems to provide an ultra-low profile HUD which can be installed behind a LAD; still providing the level of performance that is at least equivalent to that of a conventional large volume

  14. Some inadequacies of the current human factors certification process of advanced aircraft technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paries, Jean

    1994-01-01

    Automation related accidents or serious incidents are not limited to advanced technology aircraft. There is a full history of such accidents with conventional technology aircraft. However, this type of occurrence is far from sparing the newest 'glass cockpit' generation, and it even seems to be a growing contributor to its accident rate. Nevertheless, all these aircraft have been properly certificated according to the relevant airworthiness regulations. Therefore, there is a growing concern that with the technological advancement of air transport aircraft cockpits, the current airworthiness regulations addressing cockpit design and human factors may have reached some level of inadequacy. This paper reviews some aspects of the current airworthiness regulations and certification process related to human factors of cockpit design and focuses on questioning their ability to guarantee the intended safety objectives.

  15. Integrative Advances for OCT-Guided Ophthalmic Surgery and Intraoperative OCT: Microscope Integration, Surgical Instrumentation, and Heads-Up Display Surgeon Feedback

    PubMed Central

    Ehlers, Justis P.; Srivastava, Sunil K.; Feiler, Daniel; Noonan, Amanda I.; Rollins, Andrew M.; Tao, Yuankai K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To demonstrate key integrative advances in microscope-integrated intraoperative optical coherence tomography (iOCT) technology that will facilitate adoption and utilization during ophthalmic surgery. Methods We developed a second-generation prototype microscope-integrated iOCT system that interfaces directly with a standard ophthalmic surgical microscope. Novel features for improved design and functionality included improved profile and ergonomics, as well as a tunable lens system for optimized image quality and heads-up display (HUD) system for surgeon feedback. Novel material testing was performed for potential suitability for OCT-compatible instrumentation based on light scattering and transmission characteristics. Prototype surgical instruments were developed based on material testing and tested using the microscope-integrated iOCT system. Several surgical maneuvers were performed and imaged, and surgical motion visualization was evaluated with a unique scanning and image processing protocol. Results High-resolution images were successfully obtained with the microscope-integrated iOCT system with HUD feedback. Six semi-transparent materials were characterized to determine their attenuation coefficients and scatter density with an 830 nm OCT light source. Based on these optical properties, polycarbonate was selected as a material substrate for prototype instrument construction. A surgical pick, retinal forceps, and corneal needle were constructed with semi-transparent materials. Excellent visualization of both the underlying tissues and surgical instrument were achieved on OCT cross-section. Using model eyes, various surgical maneuvers were visualized, including membrane peeling, vessel manipulation, cannulation of the subretinal space, subretinal intraocular foreign body removal, and corneal penetration. Conclusions Significant iterative improvements in integrative technology related to iOCT and ophthalmic surgery are demonstrated. PMID:25141340

  16. Operator modeling in commerical aviation: Cognitive models, intelligent displays, and pilot's assistants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Govindaraj, T.; Mitchell, C. M.

    1994-01-01

    One of the goals of the National Aviation Safety/Automation program is to address the issue of human-centered automation in the cockpit. Human-centered automation is automation that, in the cockpit, enhances or assists the crew rather than replacing them. The Georgia Tech research program focused on this general theme, with emphasis on designing a computer-based pilot's assistant, intelligent (i.e, context-sensitive) displays, and an intelligent tutoring system for understanding and operating the autoflight system. In particular, the aids and displays were designed to enhance the crew's situational awareness of the current state of the automated flight systems and to assist the crew's situational awareness of the current state of the automated flight systems and to assist the crew in coordinating the autoflight system resources. The activities of this grant included: (1) an OFMspert to understand pilot navigation activities in a 727 class aircraft; (2) an extension of OFMspert to understand mode control in a glass cockpit, Georgia Tech Crew Activity Tracking System (GT-CATS); (3) the design of a training system to teach pilots about the vertical navigation portion of the flight management system -VNAV Tutor; and (4) a proof-of-concept display, using existing display technology, to facilitate mode awareness, particularly in situations in which controlled flight into terrain (CFIT) is a potential.

  17. Rapid hologram updates for real-time volumetric information displays.

    PubMed

    Munjuluri, Bala; Huebschman, Michael L; Garner, Harold R

    2005-08-20

    We have demonstrated that holograms incorporating changes in three-dimensional (3D) scenes can be recalculated in real time to present dynamic updates on information displays. This approach displays 3D information in a compatible format for fast and reliable interpretation of changes in the 3D scenes. The rapid-update algorithm has been demonstrated by real-time computation and transcription of the holograms to our digital micromirror device hologram projection system for visual validation of the reconstruction. The reported algorithm enables full parallax 1024 x 768 pixel holograms of 3D scenes to be updated at a rate of 0.8 s with a 1.8 GHz personal computer. Volumetric information displays that can enhance reliable data assimilation and decrease reaction times for applications such as air-traffic control, cockpit heads-up displays, mission crew stations, and undersea navigation can benefit from this research.

  18. Simulator Evaluation of a New Cockpit Descent Procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crane, Barry; Palmer, Everett; Smith, Nancy; Rosekind, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate flight crew performance of the "Precision Descent," a new cockpit procedure designed to support the Descent Advisor (DA), one of the components in a new air traffic control advisory system called the "Center-TRACON Automation System" (CTAS). The DA predicts when aircraft will reach a specific waypoint on the arrival route, and presents controllers with clearance advisories designed to improve the sequencing of arriving aircraft. The effectiveness of the DA depends on the aircraft's descent trajectory: where it begins descent, what speed it maintains, how fast and at what altitude it crosses the bottom-of-descent waypoint. The Precision Descent allows controllers to assign these descent parameters to the flight crew. A Field Evaluation of the DA was conducted in Denver in 1995. Three separate clearances using standard ATC phraseology were used to support the cockpit descent procedure during this evaluation. The number and length of these clearances caused problems for both controllers and flight crews, causing readback errors, repeat requests and procedure misunderstandings. These observations led to a focus group meeting in which controller and pilot participants in the 1995 FE assisted in the redesign of the procedure. The Precision Descent eliminates one clearance used in the earlier study, and greatly reduces the length of the remaining clearances. This was accomplished by using non-standard clearance phraseology that relies on a published procedure chart for correct interpretation. Eight type-rated flight crews flew eight Precision Descents in a Boeing 747-400 simulator. No training was provided: crews received either a procedure chart or a procedure chart with a flight manual bulletin describing procedure techniques. Video and digital data were recorded for each descent. Preliminary results indicate that moving information from the verbal clearance to the chart was successful: the shorter clearances and the procedure

  19. Analytical display design for flight tasks conducted under instrument meteorological conditions. [human factors engineering of pilot performance for display device design in instrument landing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    Paramount to proper utilization of electronic displays is a method for determining pilot-centered display requirements. Display design should be viewed fundamentally as a guidance and control problem which has interactions with the designer's knowledge of human psychomotor activity. From this standpoint, reliable analytical models of human pilots as information processors and controllers can provide valuable insight into the display design process. A relatively straightforward, nearly algorithmic procedure for deriving model-based, pilot-centered display requirements was developed and is presented. The optimal or control theoretic pilot model serves as the backbone of the design methodology, which is specifically directed toward the synthesis of head-down, electronic, cockpit display formats. Some novel applications of the optimal pilot model are discussed. An analytical design example is offered which defines a format for the electronic display to be used in a UH-1H helicopter in a landing approach task involving longitudinal and lateral degrees of freedom.

  20. Color and Luminance Analysis of the Space Shuttle Multifunction Display Units(MDUs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCandless, Jeffrey W.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this evaluation is to measure and analyze the colors that can be shown on the Multifunction Display Units (MDUs) of the Space Shuttle cockpit. The evaluation was conducted in the JSC Avionics Engineering Laboratory (JAEL) in building 16A at NASA Johnson Space Center. The JAEL contains a suite of 11 MDUs, each of which can be configured to show colors based on input values of the MDU red, green and blue (RGB) channels. Each of the channels has a range of 0 to 15. For example, bright green is produced by setting RGB to 0,15,0, and orange is produced by setting RGB to 15,4,0. The Cockpit Avionics Upgrade (CAU) program has specified the RGB settings for 14 different colors in the Display Design document (Rev A, 29 June 2001). The analysis in this report may help the CAU program determine better RGB settings for the colors.

  1. Raster graphics display library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimsrud, Anders; Stephenson, Michael B.

    1987-01-01

    The Raster Graphics Display Library (RGDL) is a high level subroutine package that give the advanced raster graphics display capabilities needed. The RGDL uses FORTRAN source code routines to build subroutines modular enough to use as stand-alone routines in a black box type of environment. Six examples are presented which will teach the use of RGDL in the fastest, most complete way possible. Routines within the display library that are used to produce raster graphics are presented in alphabetical order, each on a separate page. Each user-callable routine is described by function and calling parameters. All common blocks that are used in the display library are listed and the use of each variable within each common block is discussed. A reference on the include files that are necessary to compile the display library is contained. Each include file and its purpose are listed. The link map for MOVIE.BYU version 6, a general purpose computer graphics display system that uses RGDL software, is also contained.

  2. Computers in the cockpit - But what about the pilots?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiener, E. L.

    1983-01-01

    The advent of the microprocessor has made it possible to design and implement small special purpose digital computers for the flightdeck of an aircraft. However, by the end of the 1970s, many in aviation and government were concerned about certain safety implications of developments related to automation which had occurred. As a result of these concerns, NASA was directed to examine the human factors of automation. A field investigation concerning the arising questions was conducted, taking into account the introduction of the Dash 80 airliner in 1980. Attention is given to the design philosophy of the aircraft, the study methodology, and preliminary results of the study, which are based on analysis of the first wave of questionnaire data and interviews. Almost all pilots, and check captains as well, expressed the view that the first 50 to 100 hours in the -80 were difficult. The reasons for these difficulties were related to cockpit automation and, in addition, to the fact that the new aircraft was more powerful than the older models to which they were accustomed.

  3. Computer based human-centered display system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Still, David L. (Inventor); Temme, Leonard A. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A human centered informational display is disclosed that can be used with vehicles (e.g. aircraft) and in other operational environments where rapid human centered comprehension of an operational environment is required. The informational display integrates all cockpit information into a single display in such a way that the pilot can clearly understand with a glance, his or her spatial orientation, flight performance, engine status and power management issues, radio aids, and the location of other air traffic, runways, weather, and terrain features. With OZ the information is presented as an integrated whole, the pilot instantaneously recognizes flight path deviations, and is instinctively drawn to the corrective maneuvers. Our laboratory studies indicate that OZ transfers to the pilot all of the integrated display information in less than 200 milliseconds. The reacquisition of scan can be accomplished just as quickly. Thus, the time constants for forming a mental model are near instantaneous. The pilot's ability to keep up with rapidly changing and threatening environments is tremendously enhanced. OZ is most easily compatible with aircraft that has flight path information coded electronically. With the correct sensors (which are currently available) OZ can be installed in essentially all current aircraft.

  4. System requirements for head down and helmet mounted displays in the military avionics environment

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, M.F.; Kalmanash, M.; Sethna, V.

    1996-12-31

    The introduction of flat panel display technologies into the military avionics cockpit is a challenging proposition, due to the very difficult system level requirements which must be met. These relate to environmental extremes (temperature and vibrational), sever ambient lighting conditions (10,000 fL to nighttime viewing), night vision system compatibility, and wide viewing angle. At the same time, the display system must be packaged in minimal space and use minimal power. The authors will present details on the display system requirements for both head down and helmet mounted systems, as well as information on how these challenges may be overcome.

  5. Liquid crystal displays with high brightness of visualization versus active displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olifierczuk, Marek; Zieliński, Jerzy

    2007-05-01

    Nowadays Liquid Crystal Displays (LCD) takes the very important place among different visualization devices. It's are used in many standard applications such as computer or video screens. In May 2006, 100" LCD TV monitor had been shown by LG. But beside of this main direction of display development, very interesting - because of insignificant electro-magnetic disturbances - is the possibility of it's applications in motorization and aviation. An example of it can be a glass cockpit of U2 , Boeing 777 or many different car dashboards. On this field beside LCD we have now many another display technologies, but interesting for us are 3 of them: FEDs (Field Emission Displays), OLEDs (Organic Light Emitting Diode), PLEDs (Polymer Light Emitting Diode). The leading position of LCD is a result of LCD unique advantages of flat form, weight, power consumption, and reliability, higher (than CRT) luminance, luminance uniformity, sunlight readability, wide dimming range, fault tolerance and a large active display area with a small border. The basis of starting our investigation was the comparison of passive LCD and the other technology, which can be theoretically used on motorization and aviation field. The following parameters are compared: contrast ratio, luminance level, temperature stability, life-time, operating temperature range, color performance, and depth, viewing cone, technology maturity, availability and cost. In our work an analysis of Liquid Crystal Displays used in specific applications is done. The possibilities of the applications such a display under high lighting level are presented. The presented results of this analysis are obtained from computer program worked by authors, which makes it possible to calculate the optical parameters of transmissive and reflective LCD working in quasi-real conditions. The base assumption of this program are shown. This program calculate the transmission and reflection coefficient of a display taking into account the

  6. Crew/Automation Interaction in Space Transportation Systems: Lessons Learned from the Glass Cockpit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudisill, Marianne

    2000-01-01

    The progressive integration of automation technologies in commercial transport aircraft flight decks - the 'glass cockpit' - has had a major, and generally positive, impact on flight crew operations. Flight deck automation has provided significant benefits, such as economic efficiency, increased precision and safety, and enhanced functionality within the crew interface. These enhancements, however, may have been accrued at a price, such as complexity added to crew/automation interaction that has been implicated in a number of aircraft incidents and accidents. This report briefly describes 'glass cockpit' evolution. Some relevant aircraft accidents and incidents are described, followed by a more detailed description of human/automation issues and problems (e.g., crew error, monitoring, modes, command authority, crew coordination, workload, and training). This paper concludes with example principles and guidelines for considering 'glass cockpit' human/automation integration within space transportation systems.

  7. The effect of trans-cockpit authority gradient on Navy/Marine helicopter mishaps.

    PubMed

    Alkov, R A; Borowsky, M S; Williamson, D W; Yacavone, D W

    1992-08-01

    Navy and Marine Corps helicopter mishaps which had a pilot causal factor assigned were examined to determine if the relative military rank of the pilot and copilot was associated with the rate of occurrence per 100,000 flight hours. All class A and B helicopter flight mishaps for the 11 calendar year period 1980-1990 were examined. Although no statistically significant differences were noted, pairing pilots who were of equal rank yielded the lowest rate, seemingly refuting Elwyn Edward's notion that a flat "trans-cockpit authority gradient" may lead to greater problems in the cockpit than his hypothetical "optimum gradient." Moreover, when copilots flew with pilots who differed by two or more ranks, the largest pilot error rate was revealed. This last finding seems to support Edward's hypothesis that a steep "trans-cockpit authority gradient" may be detrimental to aviation safety.

  8. Cognitive mismatches in the cockpit: will they ever be a thing of the past?

    PubMed

    Baxter, Gordon; Besnard, Denis; Riley, Dominic

    2007-07-01

    Changes in aviation over the last 30 years have dramatically affected the way that flight crews fly aircraft. The implementation and evolution of the glass cockpit, however, has happened in an almost ad hoc fashion, meaning that it does not always properly support the flight crew in carrying out their tasks. In such situations, the crew's mental model of what is happening does not always match the real state of affairs. In other words, there is a cognitive mismatch. An initial taxonomy of cognitive mismatches is defined, and the problem illustrated using an example from an aviation accident. Consideration is then given to how cognitive mismatches can be managed. A call is made for the development of an integrated cockpit architecture that takes better account of human capabilities and allows for new developments to be added to the cockpit in a more seamless manner.

  9. Peripheral vision horizon display testing in RF-4C aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, L. B., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    A test program to assess the capability of the peripheral vision horizon display (PVHD) to provide peripheral attitude cues to the pilot is described. The system was installed in the rear cockpit of a RF-4C aircraft, selected because its poor instrument crosscheck conditions. The PVHD test plan was designed to assess three primary areas: (1) ability of the system to reduce spatial disorientation; (2) ability of the system to aid the pilot in recovering from unusual attitudes; and (3) improvement in pilot performance during instrument landing system (ILS) approaches. Results of preliminary test flights are summarized. The major problem areas concern the distinction of the display itself and the capability of the display to provide pitch motion cues.

  10. Liquid crystal Fresnel lens display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Qian; Abhishek Kumar, Srivastava; Alwin Tam, Ming-Wai; Zheng, Zhi-Gang; Shen, Dong; Vladimir, Chigrinov G.; Kwok, Hoi-Sing

    2016-09-01

    A novel see-through display with a liquid crystal lens array was proposed. A liquid crystal Fresnel lens display (LCFLD) with a holographic screen was demonstrated. The proposed display system has high efficiency, simple fabrication, and low manufacturing cost due to the absence of a polarizer and color filter. Project supported by Partner State Key Laboratory on Advanced Displays and Optoelectronics Technologies HKUST, China, the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61435008 and 61575063), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. WM1514036).

  11. Liquid crystal Fresnel lens display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Qian; Abhishek Kumar, Srivastava; Alwin Tam, Ming-Wai; Zheng, Zhi-Gang; Shen, Dong; Vladimir, Chigrinov G.; Kwok, Hoi-Sing

    2016-09-01

    A novel see-through display with a liquid crystal lens array was proposed. A liquid crystal Fresnel lens display (LCFLD) with a holographic screen was demonstrated. The proposed display system has high efficiency, simple fabrication, and low manufacturing cost due to the absence of a polarizer and color filter. Project supported by Partner State Key Laboratory on Advanced Displays and Optoelectronics Technologies HKUST, China, the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61435008 and 61575063), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. WM1514036).

  12. Effect of color on pilot performance and transfer functions using a full-spectrum, calligraphic, color display system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, W. D.

    1976-01-01

    The use of blue and red color in out-of-window cockpit displays, in full-spectrum calligraphic computer-generated display systems, is studied with attention given to pilot stereographic depth perception and response to visual cues. Displays for vertical approach, with dynamic and frozen-range landing approach and perspective arrays, are analyzed. Pilot transfer function and the transfer function associated with the contrasted approach and perspective arrays are discussed. Out-of-window blue lights are perceived by pilots as indicating greater distance depth, red lights as indicating proximity. The computer-generated chromatic display was adapted to flight simulators for the tests.

  13. Determination of washout performance of various monochrome displays under simulated flight ambient and solar lighting conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batson, Vernon M.; Robertson, James B.; Parrish, Russell V.

    1990-01-01

    The aircraft cockpit ambient lighting simulation system (ACALSS) has been developed to study display readability and associated pilot/vehicle performance effects in a part-task simulator cockpit. In the study reported here, the ACALSS was used to determine the illumination levels at which subjects lose the ability to maintain aircraft states when using three display technologies as display media for primary flight displays: a standard monochrome EL (electroluminescent) flat-panel, a laboratory-class monochrome CRT, and an enhanced-brightness EL flat-panel. The multivariate statistical technique of modified profile analysis was used to test for performance differences between display devices as functions of illumination levels. The standard monochrome EL flat-panel display began to washout after the 2500 foot-candle level of illumination. The monochrome CRT began to washout after the 5500 foot-candle level of illumination. No performance decrements by increased illumination up to the 12,000 foot-candle level were found for the enhanced-brightness EL flat-panel display. What was not anticipated was that half the subjects would subjectively prefer the CRT over the enhanced-brightness EL, even though their performance errors would have indicated the opposite.

  14. Looking for Action: Talk and Gaze Home Position in the Airline Cockpit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevile, Maurice

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the embodied nature of discourse for a professional work setting. It examines language in interaction in the airline cockpit, and specifically how shifts in pilots' eye gaze direction can indicate the action of talk, that is, what talk is doing and its relative contribution to work-in-progress. Looking towards the other…

  15. STS-29 Discovery, OV-103, MS Buchli seated in T-38 rear cockpit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Mission Specialist (MS) James F. Buchli, wearing navy blue flight suit coveralls and helmet, smiles behind his oxygen mask. Seated in T-38A NASA 961 rear cockpit ejection seat with canopy deployed, Buchli prepares for departure from Ellington Field to Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for Mission STS-29 aboard Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103.

  16. STS-29 Discovery, OV-103, MS Bagian seated in T-38 rear cockpit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Mission Specialist (MS) James P. Bagian, wearing navy blue flight suit coveralls and helmet, smiles behind his oxygen mask. Seated in T-38 rear cockpit ejection seat with canopy deployed, Bagian prepares for departure from Ellington Field to Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for Mission STS-29 aboard Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103.

  17. Trans-femoral amputee pilots: criteria for return to the fighter cockpit.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Alon; Goldstein, Liav; Heim, Michael; Barenboim, Erez; Dudkiewicz, Israel

    2005-04-01

    Proximal lower limb amputations (trans-femoral) usually leave amputees with significant functional disturbances. This article contains information regarding three pilots with trans-femoral amputations that returned swiftly to continue their aeronautical careers despite their disabilities. Adaptations are needed in the limb prostheses to enable the amputees to access the minimally spaced cockpit.

  18. 46 CFR 171.145 - Drainage of a vessel with a cockpit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Drainage of a vessel with a cockpit. 171.145 Section 171.145 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Drainage of Weather Decks § 171.145 Drainage of...

  19. 46 CFR 171.145 - Drainage of a vessel with a cockpit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Drainage of a vessel with a cockpit. 171.145 Section 171.145 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Drainage of Weather Decks § 171.145 Drainage of...

  20. 46 CFR 171.145 - Drainage of a vessel with a cockpit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Drainage of a vessel with a cockpit. 171.145 Section 171.145 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Drainage of Weather Decks § 171.145 Drainage of...

  1. 46 CFR 171.145 - Drainage of a vessel with a cockpit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Drainage of a vessel with a cockpit. 171.145 Section 171.145 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Drainage of Weather Decks § 171.145 Drainage of...

  2. 46 CFR 171.145 - Drainage of a vessel with a cockpit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drainage of a vessel with a cockpit. 171.145 Section 171.145 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Drainage of Weather Decks § 171.145 Drainage of...

  3. Human Factors Engineering in Designing the Passengers' Cockpit of the Malaysian Commercial Suborbital Spaceplane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridzuan Zakaria, Norul; Mettauer, Adrian; Abu, Jalaluddin; Hassan, Mohd Roshdi; Ismail, Anwar Taufeek; Othman, Jamaluddin; Shaari, Che Zhuhaida; Nasron, Nasri

    2010-09-01

    The design of the passengers’ cabin or cockpit of commercial suborbital spaceplane is a new and exciting frontier in human factors engineering, which emphasizes on comfort and safety. There is a program to develop small piloted 3 seats commercial suborbital spaceplane by a group of Malaysians with their foreign partners, and being relatively small and due to its design philosophy, the spaceplane does not require a cabin, but only a cockpit for its 2 passengers. In designing the cockpit, human factors engineering and safety principles are given priority. The cockpit is designed with the intention to provide comfort and satisfaction to the passengers without compromising the safety, in such a way that there are passenger-view wide angled video camera to observe the passengers at all time in flight, “rear-view”, “under-the-floor-view” and “fuselage-view” video cameras for the passengers, personalized gauges and LCDs on the dashboard to provide vital and useful information during the flight to the passengers, and biomedical engineered products which not only entertain the passengers, but also provide important information on the passengers to the ground crews who are responsible in the comfort and safety of the passengers. The passenger-view video-camera, which record the passengers with Earth visible through the glass canopy as the background, not only provides live visual of the passengers for safety reason, but also provide the most preferred memorable video collection for the passengers, while other video cameras provide the opportunity to view at various angles from unique positions to both the passengers and the ground observers. The gauges and LCDs on the dashboard provide access to the passengers to information such as the gravity, orientation, rate of climb and flight profile of the spaceplane, graphical presentation of the spaceplane in flight, and live video from the onboard video cameras. There is also a control stick for each passenger to

  4. Flight Envelope Information-Augmented Display for Enhanced Pilot Situation Awareness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackerman, Kasey A.; Seefeldt, Benjamin D.; Xargay, Enric; Talleur, Donald A.; Carbonari, Ronald S.; Kirlik, Alex; Hovakimyan, Naira; Trujillo, Anna C.; Belcastro, Christine M.; Gregory, Irene M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an interface system display which is conceived to improve pilot situation awareness with respect to a flight envelope protection system developed for a mid-sized transport aircraft. The new display is designed to complement existing cockpit displays, and to augment them with information that relates to both aircraft state and the control automation itself. In particular, the proposed display provides cues about the state of automation directly in terms of pilot control actions, in addition to flight parameters. The paper also describes a forthcoming evaluation test plan that is intended to validate the developed interface by assessing the relevance of the displayed information, as well as the adequacy of the display layout.

  5. A flexible flight display research system using a ground-based interactive graphics terminal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatfield, J. J.; Elkins, H. C.; Batson, V. M.; Poole, W. L.

    1975-01-01

    Requirements and research areas for the air transportation system of the 1980 to 1990's were reviewed briefly to establish the need for a flexible flight display generation research tool. Specific display capabilities required by aeronautical researchers are listed and a conceptual system for providing these capabilities is described. The conceptual system uses a ground-based interactive graphics terminal driven by real-time radar and telemetry data to generate dynamic, experimental flight displays. These displays are scan converted to television format, processed, and transmitted to the cockpits of evaluation aircraft. The attendant advantages of a Flight Display Research System (FDRS) designed to employ this concept are presented. The detailed implementation of an FDRS is described. The basic characteristics of the interactive graphics terminal and supporting display electronic subsystems are presented and the resulting system capability is summarized. Finally, the system status and utilization are reviewed.

  6. Evolution Of Map Display Optical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boot, Alan

    1983-06-01

    It is now over 20 years since Ferranti plc introduced optically projected map displays into operational aircraft navigation systems. Then, as now, it was the function of the display to present an image of a topographical map to a pilot or navigator with his present position clearly identified. Then, as now, the map image was projected from a reduced image stored on colour micro film. Then, as now, the fundamental design problems are the same.In the exposed environment of an aircraft cockpit where brightness levels may vary from those associated with direct sunlight on the one hand, to starlight on the other, how does one design an optical system with sufficient luminance, contrast and resolution where in the daytime sunlight may fall on the display or in the pilot's eyes, and at night time the display luminance must not detract from the pilot's ability to pick up external clues? This paper traces the development of Ferranti plc optically projected map displays from the early V Bomber and the ill-fated TSR2 displays to the Harrier and Concorde displays. It then goes on to the development of combined map and electronic displays (COMED), showing how an earlier design, as fitted to Tornado, has been developed into the current COMED design which is fitted to the F-18 and Jaguar aircraft. In each of the above display systems particular features of optical design interest are identified and their impact on the design as a whole are discussed. The use of prisms both for optical rotation and translation, techniques for the maximisation of luminance, the problems associated with contrast enhancement, particularly with polarising filters in the presence of optically active materials, the use of aerial image combining systems and the impact of the pilot interface on the system parameter are all included.Perhaps the most interesting result in considering the evolution of map displays has not been so much the designer's solutions in overcoming the various design problems but

  7. Virtual acoustic displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenzel, Elizabeth M.

    1991-01-01

    A 3D auditory display can potentially enhance information transfer by combining directional and iconic information in a quite naturalistic representation of dynamic objects in the interface. Another aspect of auditory spatial clues is that, in conjunction with other modalities, it can act as a potentiator of information in the display. For example, visual and auditory cues together can reinforce the information content of the display and provide a greater sense of presence or realism in a manner not readily achievable by either modality alone. This phenomenon will be particularly useful in telepresence applications, such as advanced teleconferencing environments, shared electronic workspaces, and monitoring telerobotic activities in remote or hazardous situations. Thus, the combination of direct spatial cues with good principles of iconic design could provide an extremely powerful and information-rich display which is also quite easy to use. An alternative approach, recently developed at ARC, generates externalized, 3D sound cues over headphones in realtime using digital signal processing. Here, the synthesis technique involves the digital generation of stimuli using Head-Related Transfer Functions (HRTF's) measured in the two ear-canals of individual subjects. Other similar approaches include an analog system developed by Loomis, et. al., (1990) and digital systems which make use of transforms derived from normative mannikins and simulations of room acoustics. Such an interface also requires the careful psychophysical evaluation of listener's ability to accurately localize the virtual or synthetic sound sources. From an applied standpoint, measurement of each potential listener's HRTF's may not be possible in practice. For experienced listeners, localization performance was only slightly degraded compared to a subject's inherent ability. Alternatively, even inexperienced listeners may be able to adapt to a particular set of HRTF's as long as they provide adequate

  8. Autostereoscopic display with high brightness and power efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichenlaub, Jesse B.

    1994-04-01

    Dimension Technologies Inc. has experimentally demonstrated an optical system that produces autostereoscopic images and also allows very high brightness and power efficiency to be achieved using off the shelf color LCDs. This capability is important in applications such as cockpit displays or mobile, portable, or laptop systems where brightness must be maximized but power conserved as much as possible. The effects are achieved through the creation of light line illumination, by means of which autostereoscopic images are produced, and by simultaneously concentrating the light emitted by the display toward the area the viewer's head is. By turning different illumination sources on and off, it is possible to aim both the concentration area and the 3D viewing area at the observer's head as the observer moves. A variation on the system allows two or more persons to be tracked independently. Cross talk (ghosting) can be reduced to the point that imperceptibility can be achieved.

  9. Flat-panel video resolution LED display system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wareberg, P. G.; Kennedy, D. I.

    The system consists of a 128 x 128 element X-Y addressable LED array fabricated from green-emitting gallium phosphide. The LED array is interfaced with a 128 x 128 matrix TV camera. Associated electronics provides for seven levels of grey scale above zero with a grey scale ratio of square root of 2. Picture elements are on 0.008 inch centers resulting in a resolution of 125 lines-per-inch and a display area of approximately 1 sq. in. The LED array concept lends itself to modular construction, permitting assembly of a flat panel screen of any desired size from 1 x 1 inch building blocks without loss of resolution. A wide range of prospective aerospace applications exist extending from helmet-mounted systems involving small dedicated arrays to multimode cockpit displays constructed as modular screens. High-resolution LED arrays are already used as CRT replacements in military film-marking reconnaissance applications.

  10. Augmenting digital displays with computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jing

    rate for traditional displays is not enough for some computational displays that show complex image patterns. The study focuses on displays with hidden channels, and their application to 3D+2D TV. By taking advantage of the fast growing power of computation and sensors, these four novel display setups - in combination with display algorithms - advance the frontier of computational display research.

  11. Synthetic Vision Systems in GA Cockpit-Evaluation of Basic Maneuvers Performed by Low Time GA Pilots During Transition from VMC to IMC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takallu, M. A.; Wong, D. T.; Uenking, M. D.

    2002-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to study the effectiveness of modern flight displays in general aviation cockpits for mitigating Low Visibility Loss of Control and the Controlled Flight Into Terrain accidents. A total of 18 General Aviation (GA) pilots with private pilot, single engine land rating, with no additional instrument training beyond private pilot license requirements, were recruited to evaluate three different display concepts in a fixed-based flight simulator at the NASA Langley Research Center's General Aviation Work Station. Evaluation pilots were asked to continue flight from Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC) into Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) while performing a series of 4 basic precision maneuvers. During the experiment, relevant pilot/vehicle performance variables, pilot control inputs and physiological data were recorded. Human factors questionnaires and interviews were administered after each scenario. Qualitative and quantitative data have been analyzed and the results are presented here. Pilot performance deviations from the established target values (errors) were computed and compared with the FAA Practical Test Standards. Results of the quantitative data indicate that evaluation pilots committed substantially fewer errors when using the Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) displays than when they were using conventional instruments. Results of the qualitative data indicate that evaluation pilots perceived themselves to have a much higher level of situation awareness while using the SVS display concept.

  12. A model-based analysis of a display for helicopter landing approach. [control theoretical model of human pilot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, R. A.; Wheat, L. W.

    1975-01-01

    A control theoretic model of the human pilot was used to analyze a baseline electronic cockpit display in a helicopter landing approach task. The head down display was created on a stroke written cathode ray tube and the vehicle was a UH-1H helicopter. The landing approach task consisted of maintaining prescribed groundspeed and glideslope in the presence of random vertical and horizontal turbulence. The pilot model was also used to generate and evaluate display quickening laws designed to improve pilot vehicle performance. A simple fixed base simulation provided comparative tracking data.

  13. Intent and error recognition as part of a knowledge-based cockpit assistant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strohal, Michael; Onken, Reiner

    1998-03-01

    With the Crew Assistant Military Aircraft (CAMA) a knowledge- based cockpit assistant system for future military transport aircraft is developed and tested to enhance situation awareness. Human-centered automation was the central principal for the development of CAMA, an approach to achieve advanced man-machine interaction, mainly by enhancing situation awareness. The CAMA-module Pilot Intent and Error Recognition (PIER) evaluates the pilot's activities and mission events in order to interpret and understand the pilot's actions in the context of the flight situation. Expected crew actions based on the flight plan are compared with the actual behavior shown by the crew. If discrepancies are detected the PIER module tries to figure out, whether the deviation was caused erroneously or by a sensible intent. By monitoring pilot actions as well as the mission context, the system is able to compare the pilot's action with a set of behavioral hypotheses. In case of an intentional deviation from the flight plan, the module checks, whether the behavior matches to the given set of behavior patterns of the pilot. Intent recognition can increase man-machine synergy by anticipating a need for assistance pertinent to the pilot's intent without having a pilot request. The interpretation of all possible situations with respect to intent recognition in terms of a reasoning process is based on a set of decision rules. To cope with the need of inferencing under uncertainty a fuzzy-logic approach is used. A weakness of the fuzzy-logic approach lies in the possibly ill-defined boundaries of the fuzzy sets. Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) as introduced and elaborated on by T. Kohonen are applied to improve the fuzzy set data and rule base complying with observed pilot behavior. Hierarchical cluster analysis is used to locate clusters of similar patterns in the maps. As introduced by Pedrycz, every feature is evaluated using fuzzy sets for each designated cluster. This approach allows to

  14. Enhanced spatial-state feedback for night-vision goggle displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachelder, Edward N.; Hansman, R. John, Jr.

    1997-06-01

    A preliminary study was conducted to investigate the use of visual flow cues as an aid to ground and vertical drift awareness during helicopter flight and targeting while using night vision goggles (NVGs). Three displays wee compared: (1) NVG display: simulated NVG image of cockpit and external environment. (2) Overlay display: NVG image with an overlay display but with symbology flow cue field and a surrounding wire-frame globe; (3) Cut-out display: same as the overlay display but with symbology removed from the central region. Three levels of contrast were also compared using each display type. The visual scenery was displayed to subjects using a helmet-mounted virtual reality device that had a 40 by 50 degree field-of-view liquid crystal display. The study involved six pilots. Three tasks were given: (1) Search task: designate enemy targets with a helmet-mounted sight; (2) Hover task: null out all transnational and yaw rates while in a hover; (3) Search/Hover task: perform both Search and Hover tasks simultaneously. These tasks were conducted in a fixed-based helicopter simulator which used the dynamics of a small-scale model helicopter. The following performance measures were collected: (1) Pilot ability to detect and recognize targets; (2) Pilots ability to null transnational and yaw rates; (3) Time scanning the instrument panel. Subjects also rated displays for efficacy in completing the three tasks. Target detection scores conducted during the Search and Search/Hover tasks were highest using the NVG display, followed by the cut-out display. Root-mean-square (RMS) drift rate error was comparable for all display types in the Hover and Hover/Search tasks, however RMS control input activity in all the translational axes was significantly higher in both rate-cueing displays than with the NVG display. From the control input and drift rate time histories it appears that the motion cues were more compelling in the overlay and cut- out displays than those perceived

  15. Frequency encoded auditory display of the critical tracking task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, J.

    1984-01-01

    The use of auditory displays for selected cockpit instruments was examined. In auditory, visual, and combined auditory-visual compensatory displays of a vertical axis, critical tracking task were studied. The visual display encoded vertical error as the position of a dot on a 17.78 cm, center marked CRT. The auditory display encoded vertical error as log frequency with a six octave range; the center point at 1 kHz was marked by a 20-dB amplitude notch, one-third octave wide. Asymptotic performance on the critical tracking task was significantly better when using combined displays rather than the visual only mode. At asymptote, the combined display was slightly, but significantly, better than the visual only mode. The maximum controllable bandwidth using the auditory mode was only 60% of the maximum controllable bandwidth using the visual mode. Redundant cueing increased the rate of improvement of tracking performance, and the asymptotic performance level. This enhancement increases with the amount of redundant cueing used. This effect appears most prominent when the bandwidth of the forcing function is substantially less than the upper limit of controllability frequency.

  16. Checklists and Monitoring in the Cockpit: Why Crucial Defenses Sometimes Fail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dismukes, R. Key; Berman, Ben

    2010-01-01

    Checklists and monitoring are two essential defenses against equipment failures and pilot errors. Problems with checklist use and pilots failures to monitor adequately have a long history in aviation accidents. This study was conducted to explore why checklists and monitoring sometimes fail to catch errors and equipment malfunctions as intended. Flight crew procedures were observed from the cockpit jumpseat during normal airline operations in order to: 1) collect data on monitoring and checklist use in cockpit operations in typical flight conditions; 2) provide a plausible cognitive account of why deviations from formal checklist and monitoring procedures sometimes occur; 3) lay a foundation for identifying ways to reduce vulnerability to inadvertent checklist and monitoring errors; 4) compare checklist and monitoring execution in normal flights with performance issues uncovered in accident investigations; and 5) suggest ways to improve the effectiveness of checklists and monitoring. Cognitive explanations for deviations from prescribed procedures are provided, along with suggestions for countermeasures for vulnerability to error.

  17. Effect of cockpit temperature gradients on the validity of single-point measurements.

    PubMed

    Allan, J R; Belyavin, A J; Higenbottam, C; Nunneley, S A; Stribley, R F

    1979-07-01

    Dry bulb temperature was measured at six sites throughout seven sorties in F4E aircraft in a study of vertical and lateral cockpit temperature gradients designed to determine the validity of single-point measurements. The results show that both vertical and lateral gradients exist in F4E aircraft and that single-point measurements of Tdb close to the right shoulder show a bias of up to 4 degrees C in relation to mean cockpit dry bulb temperature derived from measurements at five sites. This bias may be removed by using the predictive relationships developed in this study. The relationship between black globe and dry bulb temperatures is also given for F4E aircraft flown in warm, sunny conditions.

  18. Group-level issues in the design and training of cockpit crews

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hackman, J. Richard

    1987-01-01

    Cockpit crews always operate in an organizational context, and the transactions between the crew and representatives of that context (e.g., organizational managers, air traffic controllers) are consequential for any crew's performance. For a complete understanding of crew performance a look beyond the traditional focus on individual pilots is provided to see how team- and organization-level factors can enhance (or impede) the ability of even well-trained individuals to work together effectively. This way of thinking about cockpit crews (that is, viewing them as teams that operate in organizations) offers some potentially useful avenues for thinking about next steps in the development of CRM training programs. Those possibilities are explored, emphasizing how they can enrich (not replace) individually-focussed CRM training.

  19. Response time effects of alerting tone and semantic context for synthesized voice cockpit warnings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, C. A.; Williams, D. H.

    1980-01-01

    Some handbooks and human factors design guides have recommended that a voice warning should be preceded by a tone to attract attention to the warning. As far as can be determined from a search of the literature, no experimental evidence supporting this exists. A fixed-base simulator flown by airline pilots was used to test the hypothesis that the total 'system-time' to respond to a synthesized voice cockpit warning would be longer when the message was preceded by a tone because the voice itself was expected to perform both the alerting and the information transfer functions. The simulation included realistic ATC radio voice communications, synthesized engine noise, cockpit conversation, and realistic flight routes. The effect of a tone before a voice warning was to lengthen response time; that is, responses were slower with an alerting tone. Lengthening the voice warning with another work, however, did not increase response time.

  20. Role of structural noise in aircraft pressure cockpit from vibration action of new-generation engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baklanov, V. S.

    2016-07-01

    The evolution of new-generation aircraft engines is transitioning from a bypass ratio of 4-6 to an increased ratio of 8-12. This is leading to substantial broadening of the vibration spectrum of engines with a shift to the low-frequency range due to decreased rotation speed of the fan rotor, in turn requiring new solutions to decrease structural noise from engine vibrations to ensure comfort in the cockpits and cabins of aircraft.

  1. Implications of Automotive and Trucking On-Board Information Systems for General Aviation Cockpit Weather Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sireli, Yesim; Kauffmann, Paul; Gupta, Surabhi; Kachroo, Pushkin

    2002-01-01

    In this study, current characteristics and future developments of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) in the automobile and trucking industry are investigated to identify the possible implications of such systems for General Aviation (GA) cockpit weather systems. First, ITS are explained based on tracing their historical development in various countries. Then, current systems and the enabling communication technologies are discussed. Finally, a market analysis for GA is included.

  2. A survey of the status of and philosophies relating to cockpit warning systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, G. E.

    1977-01-01

    A survey was taken to study current cockpit caution and warning (c/w) systems, and to examine industry philosophies regarding c/w system design including current efforts to improve them. Guidelines currently in use were outlined and those which appear to have general acceptance, those which are considered ineffective or erroneous, and those with which there is broad disagreement as to validity, were delineated. Major airplane manufacturerd were surveyed and a manufacturer dealing specifically with aircraft instrumentation was consulted.

  3. Mortality from cancer and other causes among male airline cockpit crew in Europe.

    PubMed

    Blettner, Maria; Zeeb, Hajo; Auvinen, Anssi; Ballard, Terri J; Caldora, Massimiliano; Eliasch, Harald; Gundestrup, Maryanne; Haldorsen, Tor; Hammar, Niklas; Hammer, Gaël P; Irvine, David; Langner, Ingo; Paridou, Alexandra; Pukkala, Eero; Rafnsson, Vilhjálmur; Storm, Hans; Tulinius, Hrafn; Tveten, Ulf; Tzonou, Anastasia

    2003-10-10

    Airline pilots and flight engineers are exposed to ionizing radiation of cosmic origin and other occupational and life-style factors that may influence their health status and mortality. In a cohort study in 9 European countries we studied the mortality of this occupational group. Cockpit crew cohorts were identified and followed-up in Denmark, Finland, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Norway and Sweden, including a total of 28,000 persons. Observed and expected deaths for the period 1960-97 were compared based on national mortality rates. The influence of period and duration of employment was analyzed in stratified and Poisson regression analyses. The study comprised 547,564 person-years at risk, and 2,244 deaths were recorded in male cockpit crew (standardized mortality ratio [SMR] = 0.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.61-0.67). Overall cancer mortality was decreased (SMR = 0.68; 95% CI = 0.63-0.74). We found an increased mortality from malignant melanoma (SMR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.15-2.67) and a reduced mortality from lung cancer (SMR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.44-0.62). No consistent association between employment period or duration and cancer mortality was observed. A low cardiovascular mortality and an increased mortality caused by aviation accidents were noted. Our study shows that cockpit crew have a low overall mortality. The results are consistent with previous reports of an increased risk of malignant melanoma in airline pilots. Occupational risk factors apart from aircraft accidents seem to be of limited influence with regard to the mortality of cockpit crew in Europe.

  4. Mortality from cancer and other causes among male airline cockpit crew in Europe.

    PubMed

    Blettner, Maria; Zeeb, Hajo; Auvinen, Anssi; Ballard, Terri J; Caldora, Massimiliano; Eliasch, Harald; Gundestrup, Maryanne; Haldorsen, Tor; Hammar, Niklas; Hammer, Gaël P; Irvine, David; Langner, Ingo; Paridou, Alexandra; Pukkala, Eero; Rafnsson, Vilhjálmur; Storm, Hans; Tulinius, Hrafn; Tveten, Ulf; Tzonou, Anastasia

    2003-10-10

    Airline pilots and flight engineers are exposed to ionizing radiation of cosmic origin and other occupational and life-style factors that may influence their health status and mortality. In a cohort study in 9 European countries we studied the mortality of this occupational group. Cockpit crew cohorts were identified and followed-up in Denmark, Finland, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Norway and Sweden, including a total of 28,000 persons. Observed and expected deaths for the period 1960-97 were compared based on national mortality rates. The influence of period and duration of employment was analyzed in stratified and Poisson regression analyses. The study comprised 547,564 person-years at risk, and 2,244 deaths were recorded in male cockpit crew (standardized mortality ratio [SMR] = 0.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.61-0.67). Overall cancer mortality was decreased (SMR = 0.68; 95% CI = 0.63-0.74). We found an increased mortality from malignant melanoma (SMR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.15-2.67) and a reduced mortality from lung cancer (SMR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.44-0.62). No consistent association between employment period or duration and cancer mortality was observed. A low cardiovascular mortality and an increased mortality caused by aviation accidents were noted. Our study shows that cockpit crew have a low overall mortality. The results are consistent with previous reports of an increased risk of malignant melanoma in airline pilots. Occupational risk factors apart from aircraft accidents seem to be of limited influence with regard to the mortality of cockpit crew in Europe. PMID:12918075

  5. Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) for FAR Parts 91 and 135 operators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, Douglas

    1987-01-01

    The why, what, and how of CRM at Flight Safety International (FSI)--that is, the philosophy behind the program, the content of the program, and some insight regarding how it delivers that to the pilot is presented. A few of the concepts that are part of the program are discussed. This includes a view of statistics called the Safety Window, the concept of situational awareness, and an approach to training that we called the Cockpit Management Concept (CMC).

  6. When training boomerangs - Negative outcomes associated with Cockpit Resource Management programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.; Wilhelm, John A.

    1989-01-01

    Participants' self-reports and measures of attitudes regarding flightdeck management indicate that Cockpit Resource Management training is positively received and causes highly significant changes in attitudes regarding crew coordination and personal capabilities. However, a subset of participants react negatively to the training and show boomerangs (negative change) in attitudes. Explorations into the causes of this effect pinpoint personality factors and group dynamics as critical determinants of reactions to training and the magnitude and direction of attitude change.

  7. Whither CRM? Future directions in Crew Resource Management training in the cockpit and elsewhere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1993-01-01

    The past decade has shown worldwide adoption of human factors training in civil aviation, now known as Crew Resource Management (CRM). The shift in name from cockpit to crew reflects a growing trend to extend the training to other components of the aviation system including flight attendants, dispatchers, maintenance personnel, and Air Traffic Controllers. The paper reports findings and new directions in research into human factors.

  8. Pilot Neil Armstrong in the X-15 #1 cockpit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    NASA pilot Neil Armstrong is seen here in the cockpit of the X-15 ship #1 (56-6670) after a research flight. A U.S. Navy pilot in the Korean War who flew 78 combat missions in F9F-2 jet fighters and who was awarded the Air Medal and two Gold Stars, Armstrong graduated from Purdue University in 1955 with a bachelor degree in aeronautical engineering. That same year, he joined the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics' Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory in Cleveland, Ohio (today, the NASA Glenn Research Center). In July 1955, Armstrong transferred to the High-Speed Flight Station (HSFS, as Dryden Flight Research Center was then called) as an aeronautical research engineer. Soon thereafter, he became a research pilot. For the first few years at the HSFS, Armstrong worked on a number of projects. He was a pilot on the Navy P2B-1S used to launch the D-558-2 and also flew the F-100A, F-100C, F-101, F-104A, and X-5. His introduction to rocket flight came on August 15, 1957, with his first flight (of four, total) on the X-1B. He then became one of the first three NASA pilots to fly the X-15, the others being Joe Walker and Jack McKay. (Scott Crossfield, a former NACA pilot, flew the X-15 first but did so as a North American Aviation pilot.) The X-15 was a rocket-powered aircraft. The original three aircraft were about 50 ft long with a wingspan of 22 ft. The modified #2 aircraft (X-15A-2 was longer.) They were a missile-shaped vehicles with unusual wedge-shaped vertical tails, thin stubby wings, and unique side fairings that extended along the side of the fuselage. The X-15 weighed about 14,000 lb empty and approximately 34,000 lb at launch. The XLR-99 rocket engine, manufactured by Thiokol Chemical Corp., was pilot controlled and was rated at 57,000 lb of thrust, although there are indications that it actually achieved up to 60,000 lb. North American Aviation built three X-15 aircraft for the program. The X-15 research aircraft was developed to provide in

  9. Glass-Cockpit Pilot Subjective Ratings of Predictive Information, Collocation, and Mission Status Graphics: An Analysis and Summary of the Future Focus of Flight Deck Research Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartolone, Anthony; Trujillo, Anna

    2002-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has been researching ways to improve flight crew decision aiding for systems management. Our current investigation is how to display a wide variety of aircraft parameters in ways that will improve the flight crew's situation awareness. To accomplish this, new means are being explored that will monitor the overall health of a flight and report the current status of the aircraft and forecast impending problems to the pilots. The initial step in this research was to conduct a survey addressing how current glass-cockpit commercial pilots would value a prediction of the status of critical aircraft systems. We also addressed how this new type of data ought to be conveyed and utilized. Therefore, two other items associated with predictive information were also included in the survey. The first addressed the need for system status, alerts and procedures, and system controls to be more logically grouped together, or collocated, on the flight deck. The second idea called for the survey respondents opinions on the functionality of mission status graphics; a display methodology that groups a variety of parameters onto a single display that can instantaneously convey a complete overview of both an aircraft's system and mission health.

  10. Localization in virtual acoustic displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenzel, Elizabeth M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of a particular spatial display medium, the virtual acoustic display. Although the technology can stand alone, it is envisioned ultimately to be a component of a larger multisensory environment and will no doubt find its greatest utility in that context. A general philosophy of the project has been that the development of advanced computer interfaces should be driven first by an understanding of human perceptual requirements, and secondarily by technological capabilities or constraints. In expanding on this view, the paper addresses why virtual acoustic displays are useful, characterizes the abilities of such displays, reviews some recent approaches to their implementation and application, describes the research project at NASA Ames in some detail, and finally outlines some critical research issues for the future.

  11. Localization in virtual acoustic displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenzel, Elizabeth M.

    This paper discusses the development of a particular spatial display medium, the virtual acoustic display. Although the technology can stand alone, it is envisioned ultimately to be a component of a larger multisensory environment and will no doubt find its greatest utility in that context. A general philosophy of the project has been that the development of advanced computer interfaces should be driven first by an understanding of human perceptual requirements, and secondarily by technological capabilities or constraints. In expanding on this view, the paper addresses why virtual acoustic displays are useful, characterizes the abilities of such displays, reviews some recent approaches to their implementation and application, describes the research project at NASA Ames in some detail, and finally outlines some critical research issues for the future.

  12. Display formats manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runnels, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    The standards and procedures for the generation of operational display formats to be used in the Mission Control Center (MCC) display control system are presented. The required effort, forms, and fundamentals for the design, specifications, and production of display formats are identified. The principles of display design and system constraints controlling the creation of optimum operational displays for mission control are explained. The basic two types of MCC display systems for presenting information are described.

  13. Hover training display: rationale and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Still, David L.; Temme, Leonard A.

    2008-04-01

    Hover is an essential component of rotary wing aviation but learning to hover is extremely difficult. From the viewpoint inside the cockpit, the beginning student neither sees nor understands what needs to be done to control the aircraft. This is because the out-the-window real world visual cues suffer from two primary shortcomings. First, the real world visual cues are ambiguous. For example, the relative motion of the ground moving under the nose may indicate forward flight, pitching upward, vertical ascent, or any combination of these. Second, human ability to judge aircraft pitch by itself is insufficient to stabilize the aircraft; such other clues as relative motion or parallax are needed to augment pitch judgments to set aircraft attitude adequately. We report a training display (TD) designed to assist training rotary wing hover. The TD is specifically constructed to communicate aircraft performance and attitude to the student pilot and to disambiguate the external world's features and motions cues into symbology that allows each cue independently to support sufficient levels of parameter resolution. Our preliminary observations, based on pilot data collected during the design, parameterization, and calibration of the TD indicate that it meets its goals in a fashion that enables beginning flight students to understand and interpret the motion cues of the real world out-the-window view.

  14. Human factors issues in the design of helmet-mounted displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudfield, Helen J.; Hardiman, Thomas D.; Selcon, Stephen J.

    1995-05-01

    The Head-Up Display (HUD) and Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) potentially offer the pilot several critical abilities: maintenance of head-out posture; enhanced situational awareness; real world target location and engagement; and provision of enhanced vision displays (e.g. FLIR). Experience with the HUD in current fast-jet cockpits has led to user acceptance and to the display of a wide range of information. Conversely, there is currently minimal experience of flight with HMDs and hence little is known of this technology on mission performance. Although the HMD has the benefit of cueing pilots as they move their head, it is unclear what the appropriate selection of stabilization cues should be, e.g. attitude information. This review considers a number of technological and psychological factors of which designers of HMDs should be aware.

  15. Effects of display position of a visual in-vehicle task on simulated driving.

    PubMed

    Wittmann, Marc; Kiss, Miklós; Gugg, Peter; Steffen, Alexander; Fink, Martina; Pöppel, Ernst; Kamiya, Hiroyuki

    2006-03-01

    To determine the relative safety of onboard display positions while driving, participants performed a lane-keeping task in a driving simulator. Concurrently, they reacted to a light by pushing the brake pedal. A secondary task was projected onto a display at one of the seven different locations in the cockpit. Behavioral data, eye movements, and subjective rating scales showed that the manipulation of display information during driving disturbed drivers' performance exponentially as a function of distance between the line of sight to the outside primary task and the onboard display position. Vertical eccentricity had a greater detrimental effect than horizontal distance. Under a certain condition with a high secondary task load, reaction time of pushing the brake to the outside stimulus nearly doubled with a diagonal eccentricity of 35 degrees as compared to lower eccentricities. Subjective workload measures complement the behavioral data of clear detrimental effects with eccentricities of at least 35 degrees .

  16. Synthetic vision meets ARINC 661: feasibility study of the integration of terrain visualization in ARINC 661 avionic displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipinski, Erik; Ebrecht, L.

    2014-06-01

    ARINC 661-Cockpit Display System Interfaces to User Systems represents an evolving standard for the next generation of avionic systems. The standard defines a client-server architecture including user applications which control layers in certain windows of a cockpit display system (CDS). When creating avionic displays for a CDS, one can use a predefined set of simple to complex widgets. These are very useful when designing and implementing avionic displays. However, a proper widget and concept enabling synthetic vision, e.g. for terrain visualization, is not provided by the standard. Due to the fact that synthetic vision systems become more and more popular there is the need enabling synthetic vision with ARINC 661. This contribution deals with the question how synthetic vision (SV) might be realized, e.g. in an ARINC 661 compliant primary flight display (PFD) or navigation display (ND). Hence, different approaches for the implementation of SV will be discussed. One approach has been implemented to perform the feasibility study. A first study was done using the open source software project j661 managed by Dassault Aviation. Secondly, another implementation of a SV PFD was done using the SCADE ARINC 661 tools provided by ESTEREL Technologies. XPlane was used as terrain rendering application. The paper will give some rough figures of the programmed SV PFD as well as it will present the results of the feasibility study.

  17. Cockpit Technology for Prevention of General Aviation Runway Incursions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Jones, Denise R.

    2007-01-01

    General aviation accounted for 74 percent of runway incursions but only 57 percent of the operations during the four-year period from fiscal year (FY) 2001 through FY2004. Elements of the NASA Runway Incursion Prevention System were adapted and tested for general aviation aircraft. Sixteen General Aviation pilots, of varying levels of certification and amount of experience, participated in a piloted simulation study to evaluate the system for prevention of general aviation runway incursions compared to existing moving map displays. Pilots flew numerous complex, high workload approaches under varying weather and visibility conditions. A rare-event runway incursion scenario was presented, unbeknownst to the pilots, which represented a typical runway incursion situation. The results validated the efficacy and safety need for a runway incursion prevention system for general aviation aircraft.

  18. Electrochromic display device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, M. M.

    1984-07-01

    This invention relates to electrochromic devices. In one aspect it relates to electrically controllable display devices. In another aspect it relates to electrically tunable optical or light filters. In yet another aspect it relates to a chemical sensor device which employs a color changing film. There are many uses for electrically controllable display devices. A number of such devices have been in commercial use for some time. These display devices include liquid crystal displays, light emitting diode displays, plasma displays, and the like. Light emitting diode displays and plasma display panels both suffer from the fact that they are active. Light emissive devices which require substantial power for their operation, In addition, it is difficult to fabricate light emitting diode displays in a manner which renders them easily distinguishable under bright ambient illumination. Liquid crystal displays suffer from the disadvantage that they are operative only over a limited temperature range and have substantially no memory within the liquid crystal material.

  19. System status display information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, L. G.; Erickson, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    The system Status Display is an electronic display system which provides the flight crew with enhanced capabilities for monitoring and managing aircraft systems. Guidelines for the design of the electronic system displays were established. The technical approach involved the application of a system engineering approach to the design of candidate displays and the evaluation of a Hernative concepts by part-task simulation. The system engineering and selection of candidate displays are covered.

  20. Introduction to the National Information Display Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Curtis R.

    1992-01-01

    The goals of the National Information Display Laboratory (NIDL) are described in viewgraph form. The NIDL is a Center of Excellence in softcopy technology with the overall goal to develop new ways to satisfy government information needs through aggressive user support and the development of advanced technology. Government/industry/academia participation, standards development, and various display technologies are addressed.

  1. Helmet-mounted display requirements: just another head-up display (HUD) or a different animal altogether?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Richard L.; Haworth, Loran A.

    1994-06-01

    The helmet-mounted display (HMD) presents flight, navigation, and weapon information in the pilot's line of sight. The HMD was developed to allow the pilot to retain aircraft and weapon information while looking off boresight. The present study reviewed the state-of-the-art in HMDs and identified a number of issues applying to HMDs. Several are identical to head-up display (HUD) issues: symbol standardization, excessive clutter, and the need for integration with other cockpit displays and controls. Other issues are unique to the head-mounted display: symbol stabilization, inadequate definitions, undefined symbol drive laws, helmet considerations, and field-of-view (FOV) vs. resolution tradeoff requirements. Symbol stabilization is critical. In the Apache helicopter, the lack of compensation for pilot head motion creates excessive workload during hovering and nap-of-the-earth (NOE) flight. This high workload translates into excessive training requirements. At the same time, misleading symbology makes interpretation of the height of obstructions impossible. The underlying cause is the absence of design criteria for HMDs. The existing military standard does not reflect the current state of technology. In addition, there are inadequate test and evaluation guidelines. The situation parallels the situation for HUDs several years ago.

  2. Research Pilot C. Gordon Fullerton in Cockpit of TU-144LL SST Flying Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA Research pilot C. Gordon Fullerton sits in cockpit of TU-144LL SST Flying Laboratory. Fullerton was one of two NASA pilots who flew the aircraft as part of a joint high speed research program. NASA teamed with American and Russian aerospace industries for an extended period in a joint international research program featuring the Russian-built Tu-144LL supersonic aircraft. The object of the program was to develop technologies for a proposed future second-generation supersonic airliner to be developed in the 21st Century. The aircraft's initial flight phase began in June 1996 and concluded in February 1998 after 19 research flights. A shorter follow-on program involving seven flights began in September 1998 and concluded in April 1999. All flights were conducted in Russia from Tupolev's facility at the Zhukovsky Air Development Center near Moscow. The centerpiece of the research program was the Tu 144LL, a first-generation Russian supersonic jetliner that was modified by its developer/builder, Tupolev ANTK (aviatsionnyy nauchno-tekhnicheskiy kompleks-roughly, aviation technical complex), into a flying laboratory for supersonic research. Using the Tu-144LL to conduct flight research experiments, researchers compared full-scale supersonic aircraft flight data with results from models in wind tunnels, computer-aided techniques, and other flight tests. The experiments provided unique aerodynamic, structures, acoustics, and operating environment data on supersonic passenger aircraft. Data collected from the research program was being used to develop the technology base for a proposed future American-built supersonic jetliner. Although actual development of such an advanced supersonic transport (SST) is currently on hold, commercial aviation experts estimate that a market for up to 500 such aircraft could develop by the third decade of the 21st Century. The Tu-144LL used in the NASA-sponsored research program was a 'D' model with different engines than were used in

  3. Seamless tiled display system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubin, Matthew B. (Inventor); Larson, Brent D. (Inventor); Kolosowsky, Aleksandra (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A modular and scalable seamless tiled display apparatus includes multiple display devices, a screen, and multiple lens assemblies. Each display device is subdivided into multiple sections, and each section is configured to display a sectional image. One of the lens assemblies is optically coupled to each of the sections of each of the display devices to project the sectional image displayed on that section onto the screen. The multiple lens assemblies are configured to merge the projected sectional images to form a single tiled image. The projected sectional images may be merged on the screen by magnifying and shifting the images in an appropriate manner. The magnification and shifting of these images eliminates any visual effect on the tiled display that may result from dead-band regions defined between each pair of adjacent sections on each display device, and due to gaps between multiple display devices.

  4. Reactions of Air Transport Flight Crews to Displays of Weather During Simulated Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bliss, James P.; Fallon, Corey; Bustamante, Ernesto; Bailey, William R., III; Anderson, Brittany

    2005-01-01

    Display of information in the cockpit has long been a challenge for aircraft designers. Given the limited space in which to present information, designers have had to be extremely selective about the types and amount of flight related information to present to pilots. The general goal of cockpit display design and implementation is to ensure that displays present information that is timely, useful, and helpful. This suggests that displays should facilitate the management of perceived workload, and should allow maximal situation awareness. The formatting of current and projected weather displays represents a unique challenge. As technologies have been developed to increase the variety and capabilities of weather information available to flight crews, factors such as conflicting weather representations and increased decision importance have increased the likelihood for errors. However, if formatted optimally, it is possible that next generation weather displays could allow for clearer indications of weather trends such as developing or decaying weather patterns. Important issues to address include the integration of weather information sources, flight crew trust of displayed weather information, and the teamed reactivity of flight crews to displays of weather. Past studies of weather display reactivity and formatting have not adequately addressed these issues; in part because experimental stimuli have not approximated the complexity of modern weather displays, and in part because they have not used realistic experimental tasks or participants. The goal of the research reported here was to investigate the influence of onboard and NEXRAD agreement, range to the simulated potential weather event, and the pilot flying on flight crew deviation decisions, perceived workload, and perceived situation awareness. Fifteen pilot-copilot teams were required to fly a simulated route while reacting to weather events presented in two graphical formats on a separate visual display

  5. Dynamic deformation of elastic organ model and the VR cockpit for virtual surgery and tele-surgery.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shigeyuki; Suzuki, Naoki; Hattori, Asaki; Uchiyama, Akihiko

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a deformable organ model suited for a real-time surgical simulation system. This proposed organ model allows us to perform surgical maneuvers such as pressing, pinching, various incisions, resection and to show the deformation of the inner structures such as blood vessels on our system. At the same time, we have been developing a VR cockpit suited for virtual surgery and tele-surgery. Using our cockpit, our system allows us to provide the users with an environment closely resembling the open surgery situation.

  6. How effective is cockpit resource management training? Exploring issues in evaluating the impact of programs to enhance crew coordination.

    PubMed

    Helmreich, R L; Chidester, T R; Foushee, H C; Gregorich, S; Wilhelm, J A

    1990-05-01

    The question "Is cockpit resource management effective?" has been asked frequently in the years since 1979 when a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Industry workshop addressed the concepts of crew coordination and effective utilization of all available resources in flight operations (Cooper, White, & Lauber, 1980). If one looks at the proliferation of cockpit resource management (CRM) training programs in domestic and foreign, civil and military aviation, and the enormous investment in time and money that they entail, it would appear that the question has been answered in the affirmative. It is our position, however, that the question remains open and that empirical evidence is just beginning to accumulate.

  7. How effective is cockpit resource management training? Exploring issues in evaluating the impact of programs to enhance crew coordination.

    PubMed

    Helmreich, R L; Chidester, T R; Foushee, H C; Gregorich, S; Wilhelm, J A

    1990-05-01

    The question "Is cockpit resource management effective?" has been asked frequently in the years since 1979 when a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Industry workshop addressed the concepts of crew coordination and effective utilization of all available resources in flight operations (Cooper, White, & Lauber, 1980). If one looks at the proliferation of cockpit resource management (CRM) training programs in domestic and foreign, civil and military aviation, and the enormous investment in time and money that they entail, it would appear that the question has been answered in the affirmative. It is our position, however, that the question remains open and that empirical evidence is just beginning to accumulate. PMID:11538318

  8. Application of speech recognition and synthesis in the general aviation cockpit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    North, R. A.; Mountford, S. J.; Bergeron, H.

    1984-01-01

    Interactive speech recognition/synthesis technology is assessed as a method for the aleviation of single-pilot IFR flight workloads. Attention was given during this series of evaluations to the conditions typical of general aviation twin-engine aircrft cockpits, covering several commonly encountered IFR flight condition scenarios. The most beneficial speech command tasks are noted to be in the data retrieval domain, which would allow the pilot access to uplinked data, checklists, and performance charts. Data entry tasks also appear to benefit from this technology.

  9. Field study of communication and workload in police helicopters - Implications for AI cockpit design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linde, Charlotte; Shively, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on the work performed by civilian helicopter crews, using audio and video recordings and a variety of workload measures (heart rate and subjective ratings) obtained in a field study of public service helicopter missions. The number and frequency of communications provided a significant source of workload. This is relevant to the design of automated cockpit systems, since many designs presuppose the use of voice I/O systems. Fluency of communications (including pauses, hesitation markers, repetitions, and false starts) furnished an early indication of the effects of fatigue. Three workload measures were correlated to identify high workload segments of flight, and to suggest alternate task allocations between crew members.

  10. Three-dimensional display technologies

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Jason

    2014-01-01

    The physical world around us is three-dimensional (3D), yet traditional display devices can show only two-dimensional (2D) flat images that lack depth (i.e., the third dimension) information. This fundamental restriction greatly limits our ability to perceive and to understand the complexity of real-world objects. Nearly 50% of the capability of the human brain is devoted to processing visual information [Human Anatomy & Physiology (Pearson, 2012)]. Flat images and 2D displays do not harness the brain’s power effectively. With rapid advances in the electronics, optics, laser, and photonics fields, true 3D display technologies are making their way into the marketplace. 3D movies, 3D TV, 3D mobile devices, and 3D games have increasingly demanded true 3D display with no eyeglasses (autostereoscopic). Therefore, it would be very beneficial to readers of this journal to have a systematic review of state-of-the-art 3D display technologies. PMID:25530827

  11. Operational utility evaluation of helmet-mounted trackers and displays (HMT/Ds)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Randall W.; Franck, Douglas L.

    1998-08-01

    Current Air Force aircraft, such as the F-15 and F-16, and future aircraft, have a need to leverage improving technologies such as helmet-mounted trackers and displays (HMT/Ds) to maintain superior air combat capability in future conflicts. HMT/Ds can allow the pilot to point weapons and to quickly slew sensors at short visual range targets in either an air-to-air or air-to-ground environment. Flight and weapons parameters commonly displayed on ahead-up display can be provided on HMT/Ds, allowing the pilot to remain 'head out' of the cockpit for longer time periods while maintaining better situational awareness. If the hMT/D systems are designed and then tested early, the result can then be used to transfer technology, and reduce risk, for follow-on programs such as the Joint Helmet-Mounted Cueing System.

  12. A method for generating enhanced vision displays using OpenGL video texture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernier, Kenneth L.

    2010-04-01

    Degraded visual conditions can marvel the curious and destroy the unprepared. While navigation instruments are trustworthy companions, true visual reference remains king of the hills. Poor visibility may be overcome via imaging sensors such as low light level charge-coupled-device, infrared, and millimeter wave radar. Enhanced Vision systems combine this imagery into a comprehensive situation awareness display, presented to the pilot as reference imagery on a cockpit display, or as world-conformal imagery on head-up or head-mounted displays. This paper demonstrates that Enhanced Vision imaging can be achieved at video rates using typical CPU / GPU architecture, standard video capture hardware, dynamic non-linear ray tracing algorithms, efficient image transfer methods, and simple OpenGL rendering techniques.

  13. The Effects of Transient Emotional State and Workload on Size Scaling in Perspective Displays

    SciTech Connect

    Tuan Q. Tran; Kimberly R. Raddatz

    2006-10-01

    Previous research has been devoted to the study of perceptual (e.g., number of depth cues) and cognitive (e.g., instructional set) factors that influence veridical size perception in perspective displays. However, considering that perspective displays have utility in high workload environments that often induce high arousal (e.g., aircraft cockpits), the present study sought to examine the effect of observers’ emotional state on the ability to perceive and judge veridical size. Within a dual-task paradigm, observers’ ability to make accurate size judgments was examined under conditions of induced emotional state (positive, negative, neutral) and high and low workload. Results showed that participants in both positive and negative induced emotional states were slower to make accurate size judgments than those not under induced emotional arousal. Results suggest that emotional state is an important factor that influences visual performance on perspective displays and is worthy of further study.

  14. EMU helmet mounted display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marmolejo, Jose (Inventor); Smith, Stephen (Inventor); Plough, Alan (Inventor); Clarke, Robert (Inventor); Mclean, William (Inventor); Fournier, Joseph (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A helmet mounted display device is disclosed for projecting a display on a flat combiner surface located above the line of sight where the display is produced by two independent optical channels with independent LCD image generators. The display has a fully overlapped field of view on the combiner surface and the focus can be adjusted from a near field of four feet to infinity.

  15. Refreshable Braille Displays Using EAP Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2010-01-01

    Refreshable Braille can help visually impaired persons benefit from the growing advances in computer technology. The development of such displays in a full screen form is a great challenge due to the need to pack many actuators in small area without interferences. In recent years, various displays using actuators such as piezoelectric stacks have become available in commercial form but most of them are limited to one line Braille code. Researchers in the field of electroactive polymers (EAP) investigated methods of using these materials to form full screen displays. This manuscript reviews the state of the art of producing refreshable Braille displays using EAP-based actuators..

  16. Refreshable Braille displays using EAP actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2010-04-01

    Refreshable Braille can help visually impaired persons benefit from the growing advances in computer technology. The development of such displays in a full screen form is a great challenge due to the need to pack many actuators in small area without interferences. In recent years, various displays using actuators such as piezoelectric stacks have become available in commercial form but most of them are limited to one line Braille code. Researchers in the field of electroactive polymers (EAP) investigated methods of using these materials to form full screen displays. This manuscript reviews the state of the art of producing refreshable Braille displays using EAP-based actuators.

  17. XVD Image Display Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deen, Robert G.; Andres, Paul M.; Mortensen, Helen B.; Parizher, Vadim; McAuley, Myche; Bartholomew, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The XVD [X-Windows VICAR (video image communication and retrieval) Display] computer program offers an interactive display of VICAR and PDS (planetary data systems) images. It is designed to efficiently display multiple-GB images and runs on Solaris, Linux, or Mac OS X systems using X-Windows.

  18. Screens and Displays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edstrom, Malin

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the characteristics of different computer screen technologies including the possible harmful effects on health of cathode ray tube (CRT) terminals. CRT's are compared to other technologies including liquid crystal displays, plasma displays, electroluminiscence displays, and light emitting diodes. A chart comparing the different…

  19. Digital video display system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zygielbaum, A. I.; Martin, W. L.; Engle, A.

    1973-01-01

    System displays image data in real time on 120,000-element raster scan with 2, 4, or 8 shades of grey. Designed for displaying planetary range Doppler data, system can be used for X-Y plotting, displaying alphanumerics, and providing image animation.

  20. An Evaluation of Detect and Avoid Displays for UAS: The Effect of Information Level and Display Location on Pilot Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rorie, Conrad; Fern, Lisa; Pack, Jessica; Shively, Jay; Draper, Mark H.

    2015-01-01

    The pilot-in-the-loop Detect-and-Avoid (DAA) task requires the pilot to carry out three major functions: 1) detect a potential threat, 2) determine an appropriate resolution maneuver, and 3) execute that resolution maneuver via the GCS control and navigation interface(s). The purpose of the present study was to examine two main questions with respect to DAA display considerations that could impact pilots ability to maintain well clear from other aircraft. First, what is the effect of a minimum (or basic) information display compared to an advanced information display on pilot performance? Second, what is the effect of display location on UAS pilot performance? Two levels of information level (basic, advanced) were compared across two levels of display location (standalone, integrated), for a total of four displays. The results indicate that the advanced displays had faster overall response times compared to the basic displays, however, there were no significant differences between the standalone and integrated displays.

  1. [Evaluation of operation ergonomics at high-temperature in the cockpit].

    PubMed

    Tian, Yinsheng; Li, Jing; Ding, Li; Wang, Qiong; Ren, Zhaosheng; Shi, Liyong; Xue, Lihao

    2011-08-01

    10 male subjects participated in the environmental simulation study to evaluate the operation ergonomics at high-temperature in the cockpit. Grip strength, perception, dexterity, reaction and intelligence were measured respectively during the tests at 40 degrees C and 45 degrees C, simulating the high-temperatures in a simulation cockpit chamber. Then the data obtained were compared to the combined index of heat stress (CIHS). The average values of each item of the subjects' performance at the two different temperatures are compared. The results indicated that CIHS exceeded the heat stress safety line after 45 min at 40 degrees C, grip strength decreased by 12%, and perception increased by 2.89 times. In contrast, at 45 degrees C, CIHS exceeded the safety line after 20 min, grip strength decreased by 3.2%, and perception increased by 4.36 times. However, Finger dexterity was less affected. Reaction ability was first accelerated, and then slowed down. The error rate in the intelligence test increased to a greater extent. At the high temperatures, the minimum perception was the most affected, followed by grip strength, reaction and finger dexterity were less affected, while the intelligence did not decline, but rise.

  2. Mortality Among a Cohort of U.S. Commercial Airline Cockpit Crew

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Lee C.; Pinkerton, Lynne E.; Yiin, James H.; Anderson, Jeri L.; Deddens, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Background We evaluated mortality among 5,964 former U.S. commercial cockpit crew (pilots and flight engineers). The outcomes of a priori interest were non-chronic lymphocytic leukemia, central nervous system (CNS) cancer (including brain), and malignant melanoma. Methods Vital status was ascertained through 2008. Life table and Cox regression analyses were conducted. Cumulative exposure to cosmic radiation was estimated from work history data. Results Compared to the U.S. general population, mortality from all causes, all cancer, and cardiovascular diseases was decreased, but mortality from aircraft accidents was highly elevated. Mortality was elevated for malignant melanoma but not for non-chronic lymphocytic leukemia. CNS cancer mortality increased with an increase in cumulative radiation dose. Conclusions Cockpit crew had a low all-cause, all-cancer, and cardiovascular disease mortality but elevated aircraft accident mortality. Further studies are needed to clarify the risk of CNS and other radiation-associated cancers in relation to cosmic radiation and other workplace exposures. PMID:24700478

  3. Cockpit Resource Management (CRM): A tool for improved flight safety (United Airlines CRM training)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, J. E.; Taggart, William R.

    1987-01-01

    The approach and methodology used in developing cockpit management skills is effective because of the following features: (1) A comparative method of learning is used enabling crewmembers to study different forms of teamwork. (2) The learning comes about as a result of crewmembers learning from one another instead of from an expert instructor. (3) Key elements of cockpit teamwork and effective management are studied so that crewmembers can determine how these elements can improve safety and problem solving. (4) Critique among the crewmembers themselves rather than from outsiders is used as a common focusing point for crews to provide feedback to one another on how each can be a more effective crewmember. (5) The training is continuous in the sense that it becomes part of recurrent, upgrade, and other forms of crewmember training and development. And (6) the training results in sound and genuine insights that come about through solid education as opposed to tutoring, coaching, or telling crewmembers how to behave more effectively.

  4. Effects of cockpit lateral stick characteristics on handling qualities and pilot dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, David G.; Aponso, Bimal L.; Klyde, David H.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents the results of analysis of cockpit lateral control feel-system studies. Variations in feel-system natural frequency, damping, and command sensing reference (force and position) were investigated, in combination with variations in the aircraft response characteristics. The primary data for the report were obtained from a flight investigation conducted with a variable-stability airplane, with additional information taken from other flight experiments and ground-based simulations for both airplanes and helicopters . The study consisted of analysis of handling qualities ratings and extraction of open-loop, pilot-vehicle describing functions from sum-of-sines tracking data, including, for a limited subset of these data, the development of pilot models. The study confirms the findings of other investigators that the effects on pilot opinion of cockpit feel-system dynamics are not equivalent to a comparable level of added time delay, and until a more comprehensive set of criteria are developed, it is recommended that feel-system dynamics be considered a delay-inducing element in the aircraft response. The best correlation with time-delay requirements was found when the feel-system dynamics were included in the delay measurements, regardless of the command reference. This is a radical departure from past approaches.

  5. The Traffic-Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) in the glass cockpit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Sheryl L.

    1988-01-01

    This volume contains the contributions of the participants in the NASA Ames Research Center workshop on the traffic-alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS) implementation for aircraft with cathode ray tube (CRT) or flat panel displays. To take advantage of the display capability of the advanced-technology aircraft, NASA sponsored this workshop with the intent of bringing together industry personnel, pilots, and researchers so that pertinent issues in the area could be identified. During the 2-day workshop participants addressed a number of issues including: What is the optimum format for TCAS advisories. Where and how should maneuver advisories be presented to the crew. Should the maneuver advisories be presented on the primary flight display. Is it appropriate to have the autopilot perform the avoidance maneuver. Where and how should traffic information be presented to the crew. Should traffic information be combined with weather and navigation information. How much traffic should be shown and what ranges should be used. Contained in the document are the concepts and suggestions produced by the workshop participants.

  6. Status review of field emission displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghrayeb, Joseph; Daniels, Reginald

    2001-09-01

    Cathode ray tube (CRT) technology dominates the direct view display market. Mature CRT technology for many designs is still the preferred choice. CRT manufacturers have greatly improved the size and weight of the CRT displays. High performance CRTs continue to be in great demand, however, supply have to contend with the vanishing CRT vendor syndrome. Therefore, the vanishing CRT vendor syndrome fuels the search for an alternate display technology source. Within the past 10 years, field emission display (FED) technology had gained momentum and, at one time, was considered the most viable electronic display technology candidate [to replace the CRT]. The FED community had advocated and promised many advantages over active matrix liquid crystal displays (AMLCD), electro luminescent (EL) or Plasma displays. Some observers, including potential FED manufacturers and the Department of Defense, (especially the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA)), consider the FED entry as having leapfrog potential. Despite major investments by US manufacturers as well as Asian manufacturers, reliability and manufacturing difficulties greatly slowed down the advancement of the technology. The FED manufacturing difficulties have caused many would-be FED manufacturing participants to abandon FED research. This paper will examine the trends, which are leading this nascent technology to its downfall. FED technology was once considered to have the potential to leapfrog over AMLCD's dominance in the display industry. At present the FED has suffered severe setbacks and there are very few [FED] manufacturers still pursuing research in the area. These companies have yet to deliver a display beyond the prototype stage.

  7. Cytoplasmic bacteriophage display system

    DOEpatents

    Studier, F. William; Rosenberg, Alan H.

    1998-06-16

    Disclosed are display vectors comprising DNA encoding a portion of a structural protein from a cytoplasmic bacteriophage, joined covalently to a protein or peptide of interest. Exemplified are display vectors wherein the structural protein is the T7 bacteriophage capsid protein. More specifically, in the exemplified display vectors the C-terminal amino acid residue of the portion of the capsid protein is joined to the N-terminal residue of the protein or peptide of interest. The portion of the T7 capsid protein exemplified comprises an N-terminal portion corresponding to form 10B of the T7 capsid protein. The display vectors are useful for high copy number display or lower copy number display (with larger fusion). Compositions of the type described herein are useful in connection with methods for producing a virus displaying a protein or peptide of interest.

  8. Cytoplasmic bacteriophage display system

    DOEpatents

    Studier, F.W.; Rosenberg, A.H.

    1998-06-16

    Disclosed are display vectors comprising DNA encoding a portion of a structural protein from a cytoplasmic bacteriophage, joined covalently to a protein or peptide of interest. Exemplified are display vectors wherein the structural protein is the T7 bacteriophage capsid protein. More specifically, in the exemplified display vectors the C-terminal amino acid residue of the portion of the capsid protein is joined to the N-terminal residue of the protein or peptide of interest. The portion of the T7 capsid protein exemplified comprises an N-terminal portion corresponding to form 10B of the T7 capsid protein. The display vectors are useful for high copy number display or lower copy number display (with larger fusion). Compositions of the type described herein are useful in connection with methods for producing a virus displaying a protein or peptide of interest. 1 fig.

  9. Head-Mounted and Head-Up Display Glossary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Richard L.; Allen, J. Edwin W. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    One of the problems in head-up and helmet-mounted display (HMD) literature has been a lack of standardization of words and abbreviations. Several different words have been used for the same concept; for example, flight path angle, flight path marker, velocity vector, and total velocity vector all refer to the same thing. In other cases, the same term has been used with two different meanings, such as binocular field-of-view which means the field-of-view visible to both left and right eyes according to some or the field-of-view visible to either the left or right eye or both according to others. Many of the terms used in HMD studies have not been well-defined. We need to have a common language to ensure that system descriptions are communicated. As an example, the term 'stabilized' has been widely used with two meanings. 'Roll-stabilized' has been used to mean a symbol which rotates to indicate the roll or bank of the aircraft. 'World-stabilized' and 'head-stabilized' have both been used to indicate symbols which move to remain fixed with respect to external objects. HMDs present unique symbology problems not found in HUDs. Foremost among these is the issue of maintaining spatial orientation of the symbols. All previous flight displays, round dial instruments, HDDs, and HUDs have been fixed in the cockpit. With the HMD, the flight display can move through a large angle. The coordinates use in transforming from the real-world to the aircraft to the HMD have not been consistently defined. This glossary contains terms relating to optics and vision, displays, and flight information, weapons and aircraft systems. Some definitions, such as Navigation Display, have been added to clarify the definitions for Primary Flight Display and Primary Flight Reference. A list of HUD/HMD related abbreviations is also included.

  10. Comparison of speech intelligibility in cockpit noise using SPH-4 flight helmet with and without active noise reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Jeffrey W.; Simpson, Carol A.

    1990-01-01

    Active Noise Reduction (ANR) is a new technology which can reduce the level of aircraft cockpit noise that reaches the pilot's ear while simultaneously improving the signal to noise ratio for voice communications and other information bearing sound signals in the cockpit. A miniature, ear-cup mounted ANR system was tested to determine whether speech intelligibility is better for helicopter pilots using ANR compared to a control condition of ANR turned off. Two signal to noise ratios (S/N), representative of actual cockpit conditions, were used for the ratio of the speech to cockpit noise sound pressure levels. Speech intelligibility was significantly better with ANR compared to no ANR for both S/N conditions. Variability of speech intelligibility among pilots was also significantly less with ANR. When the stock helmet was used with ANR turned off, the average PB Word speech intelligibility score was below the Normally Acceptable level. In comparison, it was above that level with ANR on in both S/N levels.

  11. Comparative intelligibility of speech materials processed by standard Air Force voice communication systems in the presence of simulated cockpit noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, T. J.; Nixon, C. W.; McKinley, R. L.

    1981-06-01

    Among the systems evaluated was the ARC-164 radio which will serve as the reference system against which the performance of jam-resistant, secure systems developed in the immediate future will be compared. Relative differences found between male and female talkers under various levels of simulated cockpit noise are reported.

  12. Virtual acoustics displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenzel, Elizabeth M.; Fisher, Scott S.; Stone, Philip K.; Foster, Scott H.

    1991-01-01

    The real time acoustic display capabilities are described which were developed for the Virtual Environment Workstation (VIEW) Project at NASA-Ames. The acoustic display is capable of generating localized acoustic cues in real time over headphones. An auditory symbology, a related collection of representational auditory 'objects' or 'icons', can be designed using ACE (Auditory Cue Editor), which links both discrete and continuously varying acoustic parameters with information or events in the display. During a given display scenario, the symbology can be dynamically coordinated in real time with 3-D visual objects, speech, and gestural displays. The types of displays feasible with the system range from simple warnings and alarms to the acoustic representation of multidimensional data or events.

  13. Polyplanar optic display

    SciTech Connect

    Veligdan, J.; Biscardi, C.; Brewster, C.; DeSanto, L.; Beiser, L.

    1997-07-01

    The Polyplanar Optical Display (POD) is a unique display screen which can be used with any projection source. This display screen is 2 inches thick and has a matte black face which allows for high contrast images. The prototype being developed is a form, fit and functional replacement display for the B-52 aircraft which uses a monochrome ten-inch display. The new display uses a 100 milliwatt green solid state laser (532 nm) as its optical source. In order to produce real-time video, the laser light is being modulated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP{trademark}) chip manufactured by Texas Instruments, Inc. A variable astigmatic focusing system is used to produce a stigmatic image on the viewing face of the POD. In addition to the optical design, the authors discuss the electronic interfacing to the DLP{trademark} chip, the opto-mechanical design and viewing angle characteristics.

  14. High-speed civil transport - Advanced flight deck challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swink, Jay R.; Goins, Richard T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a nine month study of the HSCT flight deck challenges and assessment of its benefits. Operational requirements are discussed and the most significant findings for specified advanced concepts are highlighted. These concepts are a no nose-droop configuration, a far forward cockpit location and advanced crew monitoring and control of complex systems. Results indicate that the no nose-droop configuration is critically dependent on the design and development of a safe, reliable and certifiable synthetic vision system (SVS). This configuration would cause significant weight, performance and cost penalties. A far forward cockpit configuration with a tandem seating arrangement allows either an increase in additional payload or potential downsizing of the vehicle leading to increased performance efficiency and reductions in emissions. The technologies enabling such capabilities, which provide for Category III all-weather opreations on every flight represent a benefit multiplier in a 20005 ATM network in terms of enhanced economic viability and environmental acceptability.

  15. Qualitative evaluation of a conformal velocity vector display for use at high angles-of-attack in fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.; Burley, James R., II

    1990-01-01

    A piloted simulation study was conducted to evaluate the utility of a display device designed to illustrate graphically and conformally the approximate location of a fighter aircraft's velocity vector. The display device consisted of two vertical rows of light emitting diodes (LED's) located toward the center of the cockpit instrument panel to each side of the control stick. The light strings provided a logical extension of the head up display (HUD) velocity vector symbol at flight path angles which exceeded the HUD field-of-view. Four test subjects flew a modified F/A-18 model with this display in an air-to-air engagement task against an equally capable opponent. Their responses to a questionnaire indicated that the conformal velocity vector information could not be used during the scenarios investigated due to the inability to visually track a target and view the lights simultaneously.

  16. Display technologies in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doane, William J.; Cladis, Patricia E.; Curtin, Christopher; Larimer, James; Slusarczuk, Marko; Talbot, Jan B.; Yaniv, Ziv

    1994-12-01

    This report is a review of advanced display research, development, and manufacturing activity in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine. Topics covered include: liquid crystal display materials and related technologies; liquid crystal and other non-emissive displays; vacuum fluorescent, electroluminescent, field emission, and other emissive displays; and phosphors and other emissive materials. Also included is a review of infrastructure and business issues related to the display industry in the former Soviet Union. The panel found promising technologies in projection systems (e.g., the 'quantoscope' - utilizing an e-beam pumped laser), Supertwisted Nematic (STN) Liquid Cristal Displays (LCD) manufacturing at several locations in Russia and Belarus, developing capabilities and plans for future Active Matrix Liquid Cristal Display (AMLCD) production in all three countries, and a strong vacuum-fluorescent production capability in Saratov, Russia. Most significantly, the panel found many advanced concepts under development at basic research laboratories throughout the three countries visited; these research efforts are now in jeopardy due to insufficient funding, an uncertain business climate and deteriorating infrastructure. Nevertheless, there are many promising opportunities for foreign investment in display technology and manufacturing in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus.

  17. Displaying Data As Movies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Judith G.

    1992-01-01

    NMSB Movie computer program displays large sets of data (more than million individual values). Presentation dynamic, rapidly displaying sequential image "frames" in main "movie" window. Any sequence of two-dimensional sets of data scaled between 0 and 255 (1-byte resolution) displayed as movie. Time- or slice-wise progression of data illustrated. Originally written to present data from three-dimensional ultrasonic scans of damaged aerospace composite materials, illustrates data acquired by thermal-analysis systems measuring rates of heating and cooling of various materials. Developed on Macintosh IIx computer with 8-bit color display adapter and 8 megabytes of memory using Symantec Corporation's Think C, version 4.0.

  18. Interactive holographic display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Jung-Young; Lee, Beam-Ryeol; Kim, Jin-Woong; Chernyshov, Oleksii O.; Park, Min-Chul

    2014-06-01

    A holographic display which is capable of displaying floating holographic images is introduced. The display is for user interaction with the image on the display. It consists of two parts; multiplexed holographic image generation and a spherical mirror. The time multiplexed image from 2 X 10 DMD frames appeared on PDLC screen is imaged by the spherical mirror and becomes a floating image. This image is combined spatially with two layered TV images appearing behind. Since the floating holographic image has a real spatial position and depth, it allows a user to interact with the image.

  19. JAVA Stereo Display Toolkit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmonds, Karina

    2008-01-01

    This toolkit provides a common interface for displaying graphical user interface (GUI) components in stereo using either specialized stereo display hardware (e.g., liquid crystal shutter or polarized glasses) or anaglyph display (red/blue glasses) on standard workstation displays. An application using this toolkit will work without modification in either environment, allowing stereo software to reach a wider audience without sacrificing high-quality display on dedicated hardware. The toolkit is written in Java for use with the Swing GUI Toolkit and has cross-platform compatibility. It hooks into the graphics system, allowing any standard Swing component to be displayed in stereo. It uses the OpenGL graphics library to control the stereo hardware and to perform the rendering. It also supports anaglyph and special stereo hardware using the same API (application-program interface), and has the ability to simulate color stereo in anaglyph mode by combining the red band of the left image with the green/blue bands of the right image. This is a low-level toolkit that accomplishes simply the display of components (including the JadeDisplay image display component). It does not include higher-level functions such as disparity adjustment, 3D cursor, or overlays all of which can be built using this toolkit.

  20. Improved full-color F-16A/B and F-16C/D multifunction display using a ruggedized COTS active matrix color liquid crystal display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orkis, Randall E.

    1995-06-01

    The Improved F-16 Display Unit (DU) is the first use of a ruggedized COTS LCD in a high performance fighter application and is the first color LCD to fly in an F-16 aircraft. The Display Unit (DU) is one of two LRUs that make up the Improved Radar Electro-Optical (REO) Display Set. The second LRU is called the Electronics Unit (EU). The Improved REO Display Set flew for the first time in August of 1994 and will continue flight testing through 1995. In addition to the improved R&M features of the design, the new system provides the capability for increased performance and growth through an open systems modular architecture. This will be demonstrated during testing this year in which the improved REO Display Set will be a key component in the Air Force Reserves Integrated Electronic Combat Feasibility Assessment Project for the F-16C aircraft, by providing a consolidated color situation awareness display. The current EC LRUs are not integrated, and each EC element has its own controls and displays which are dispersed throughout the cockpit. This puts a significant burden on the pilot and limits his ability to react to various threats. The Improved REO Display Set distributed processing capabilities and color displays allow the EC horizontal situation awareness formats to be generated and consolidated on one of the REO system color LCDs through bezel switch selection of available displays. This paper presents the latest performance characteristics of the Improved Display Unit, testing results, and the design trade-offs that lead to the use of a ruggedized COTS LCD rather than a custom military LCD. Following flight testing and pilot evaluation, a decision will be made to proceed with production refinement of the ruggedized design or to transition to a custom LCD designed specifically for military use.

  1. Pilot Designed Aircraft Displays in General Aviation: An Exploratory Study and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conaway, Cody R.

    From 2001-2011, the General Aviation (GA) fatal accident rate remained unchanged (Duquette & Dorr, 2014) with an overall stagnant accident rate between 2004 and 2013. The leading cause, loss of control in flight (NTSB, 2015b & 2015c) due to pilot inability to recognize approach to stall/spin conditions (NTSB, 2015b & 2016b). In 2013, there were 1,224 GA accidents in the U.S., accounting for 94% of all U.S. aviation accidents and 90% of all U.S. aviation fatalities that year (NTSB, 2015c). Aviation entails multiple challenges for pilots related to task management, procedural errors, perceptual distortions, and cognitive discrepancies. While machine errors in airplanes have continued to decrease over the years, human error still has not (NTSB, 2013). A preliminary analysis of a PC-based, Garmin G1000 flight deck was conducted with 3 professional pilots. Analyses revealed increased task load, opportunities for distraction, confusing perceptual ques, and hindered cognitive performance. Complex usage problems were deeply ingrained in the functionality of the system, forcing pilots to use fallible work arounds, add unnecessary steps, and memorize knob turns or button pushes. Modern computing now has the potential to free GA cockpit designs from knobs, soft keys, or limited display options. Dynamic digital displays might include changes in instrumentation or menu structuring depending on the phase of flight. Airspeed indicators could increase in size to become more salient during landing, simultaneously highlighting pitch angle on Attitude Indicators and automatically decluttering unnecessary information for landing. Likewise, Angle-of-Attack indicators demonstrate a great safety and performance advantage for pilots (Duquette & Dorr, 2014; NTSB, 2015b & 2016b), an instrument typically found in military platforms and now the Icon A5, light-sport aircraft (Icon, 2016). How does the design of pilots' environment---the cockpit---further influence their efficiency and

  2. Performance specification methodology: introduction and application to displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopper, Darrel G.

    1998-09-01

    Acquisition reform is based on the notion that DoD must rely on the commercial marketplace insofar as possible rather than solely looking inward to a military marketplace to meet its needs. This reform forces a fundamental change in the way DoD conducts business, including a heavy reliance on private sector models of change. The key to more reliance on the commercial marketplace is the performance specifications (PS). This paper introduces some PS concepts and a PS classification principal to help bring some structure to the analysis of risk (cost, schedule, capability) in weapons system development and the management of opportunities for affordable ownership (maintain/increase capability via technology insertion, reduce cost) in this new paradigm. The DoD shift toward commercial components is nowhere better exemplified than in displays. Displays are the quintessential dual-use technology and are used herein to exemplify these PS concepts and principal. The advent of flat panel displays as a successful technology is setting off an epochal shift in cockpits and other military applications. Displays are installed in every DoD weapon system, and are, thus, representative of a range of technologies where issues and concerns throughout industry and government have been raised regarding the increased DoD reliance on the commercial marketplace. Performance specifications require metrics: the overall metrics of 'information-thrust' with units of Mb/s and 'specific info- thrust' with units of Mb/s/kg are introduced to analyze value of a display to the warfighter and affordability to the taxpayer.

  3. Terrain Portrayal for Head-Down Displays Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Monica F.; Takallu, M. A.

    2002-01-01

    The General Aviation Element of the Aviation Safety Program's Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) Project is developing technology to eliminate low visibility induced General Aviation (GA) accidents. SVS displays present computer generated 3-dimensional imagery of the surrounding terrain on the Primary Flight Display (PFD) to greatly enhance pilot's situation awareness (SA), reducing or eliminating Controlled Flight into Terrain, as well as Low-Visibility Loss of Control accidents. SVS-conducted research is facilitating development of display concepts that provide the pilot with an unobstructed view of the outside terrain, regardless of weather conditions and time of day. A critical component of SVS displays is the appropriate presentation of terrain to the pilot. An experimental study has been conducted at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) to explore and quantify the relationship between the realism of the terrain presentation and resulting enhancements of pilot SA and pilot performance. Composed of complementary simulation and flight test efforts, Terrain Portrayal for Head-Down Displays (TP-HDD) experiments will help researchers evaluate critical terrain portrayal concepts. The experimental effort is to provide data to enable design trades that optimize SVS applications, as well as develop requirements and recommendations to facilitate the certification process. This paper focuses on the experimental set-up and preliminary qualitative results of the TP-HDD simulation experiment. In this experiment a fixed based flight simulator was equipped with various types of Head Down flight displays, ranging from conventional round dials (typical of most GA aircraft) to glass cockpit style PFD's. The variations of the PFD included an assortment of texturing and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) resolution combinations. A test matrix of 10 terrain display configurations (in addition to the baseline displays) were evaluated by 27 pilots of various backgrounds and experience levels

  4. Polyplanar optical display electronics

    SciTech Connect

    DeSanto, L.; Biscardi, C.

    1997-07-01

    The Polyplanar Optical Display (POD) is a unique display screen which can be used with any projection source. The prototype ten inch display is two inches thick and has a matte black face which allows for high contrast images. The prototype being developed is a form, fit and functional replacement display for the B-52 aircraft which uses a monochrome ten-inch display. In order to achieve a long lifetime, the new display uses a 100 milliwatt green solid-state laser (10,000 hr. life) at 532 nm as its light source. To produce real-time video, the laser light is being modulated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP{trademark}) chip manufactured by Texas Instruments. In order to use the solid-state laser as the light source and also fit within the constraints of the B-52 display, the Digital Micromirror Device (DMD{trademark}) circuit board is removed from the Texas Instruments DLP light engine assembly. Due to the compact architecture of the projection system within the display chassis, the DMD{trademark} chip is operated remotely from the Texas Instruments circuit board. The authors discuss the operation of the DMD{trademark} divorced from the light engine and the interfacing of the DMD{trademark} board with various video formats (CVBS, Y/C or S-video and RGB) including the format specific to the B-52 aircraft. A brief discussion of the electronics required to drive the laser is also presented.

  5. Display and Presentation Boards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midgley, Thomas Keith

    The use of display and presentation boards as tools to help teachers/trainers convey messages more clearly is briefly discussed, and 24 different types of display and presentation boards are described and illustrated; i.e., chalk, paste-up, hook-n-loop, electric, flannel, scroll, communication planning, acetate pocket, slot, pin-tack, preview,…

  6. Split image optical display

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.

    2007-05-29

    A video image is displayed from an optical panel by splitting the image into a plurality of image components, and then projecting the image components through corresponding portions of the panel to collectively form the image. Depth of the display is correspondingly reduced.

  7. Split image optical display

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.

    2005-05-31

    A video image is displayed from an optical panel by splitting the image into a plurality of image components, and then projecting the image components through corresponding portions of the panel to collectively form the image. Depth of the display is correspondingly reduced.

  8. Effective Monitor Display Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrell, William

    1999-01-01

    Describes some of the factors that affect computer monitor display design and provides suggestions and insights into how screen displays can be designed more effectively. Topics include color, font choices, organizational structure of text, space outline, and general principles. (Author/LRW)

  9. Displaying Images Of Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Michael D.; Evans, Frank; Nakamura, Daniel I.

    1991-01-01

    Interactive Image Display Program (IMDISP) is interactive image-displaying utility program for IBM personal computer (PC, XT, and AT models) and compatibles. Magnifications, contrasts, and/or subsampling selected for whole or partial images. IMDISP developed for use with CD-ROM (Compact Disk Read-Only Memory) storage system. Written in C language (94 percent) and Assembler (6 percent).

  10. Accuracy and speed of response to different voice types in a cockpit voice warning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freedman, J.; Rumbaugh, W. A.

    1983-09-01

    Voice warning systems (VWS) in aircraft cockpits provide a valuable means of warning identification. Improvements in technology have made the VWS a viable addition to aircraft warning systems. This thesis was an experiment to determine the best voice type (male, female, or neutral machine) for use in a VWS for military aircraft. Different levels of engine background noise, signal to noise ratio of the warning message, and precursor delivery formats were used. The experiment had ten subjects performing a primary tracking task; at random intervals a voice warning was interjected, requiring that the subjects respond by pushing the correct button. The results of this experiment contradict some previous beliefs and findings. The male voice was associated with more accurate responses for voice warning systems in the military aircraft environment. For speed of response the results were more complicated; the male voice was generally more closely associated with faster response times for accurate responses.

  11. Inflight activites of Young and Crippen in the cockpit and middeck STS-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Inflight activites of Young and Crippen in the cockpit and middeck areas during the STS-1 mission. Commander John W. Young mans the commander's station in the Columbia. A loose leaf notebook with flight activites data floats in the weightless environment (30419); Pilot Robert L. Crippen takes advantage of zero gravity to do some aerobics in the mid-deck area (30420); Young shaves his face in the mid-deck area. Food tray is mounted to the locker door at center (30421); Young cleans off his razor after shaving (30422); Crippen floats in zero gravity inside the orbiter. Clouds over the earth can be seen through the spacecraft's top viewing windows. Back side of the commander and pilot's seats can be seen at lower portion of the frame (30423).

  12. Some human factors issues in the development and evaluation of cockpit alerting and warning systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randle, R. J., Jr.; Larsen, W. E.; Williams, D. H.

    1980-01-01

    A set of general guidelines for evaluating a newly developed cockpit alerting and warning system in terms of human factors issues are provided. Although the discussion centers around a general methodology, it is made specifically to the issues involved in alerting systems. An overall statement of the current operational problem is presented. Human factors problems with reference to existing alerting and warning systems are described. The methodology for proceeding through system development to system test is discussed. The differences between traditional human factors laboratory evaluations and those required for evaluation of complex man-machine systems under development are emphasized. Performance evaluation in the alerting and warning subsystem using a hypothetical sample system is explained.

  13. Preliminary results from the evaluation of Cockpit Resource Management training - Performance ratings of flightcrews

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.; Wilhelm, John A.; Gregorich, Steven E.; Chidester, Thomas R.

    1990-01-01

    The first data from the NASA/University of Texas Crew Performance project on the behavior of flightcrews with and without formal training in Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) is reported. Expert observers made detailed ratings of 15 components of crew behavior in both line operations and in full mission simulations. The results indicate that such training in crew coordination concepts increases the percentage of crews rated as above average in performance and decreases the percentage rated as below average. The data also show high and unexpected degrees of variations in rated performance among crews flying different aircraft within the same organization. It was also found that the specific behaviors that triggered observer ratings of above or below average performance differed markedly between organizations. Characteristics of experts' ratings and future research needs are also discussed.

  14. Performance Comparison Between a Head-Worn Display System and a Head-Up Display for Low Visibility Commercial Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Barnes, James R.; Williams, Steven P.; Jones, Denise R.; Harrison, Stephanie J.; Bailey, Randall E.

    2014-01-01

    Research, development, test, and evaluation of flight deck interface technologies is being conducted by NASA to proactively identify, develop, and mature tools, methods, and technologies for improving overall aircraft safety of new and legacy vehicles operating in Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). Under the Vehicle Systems Safety Technologies (VSST) project in the Aviation Safety Program, one specific area of research is the use of small Head-Worn Displays (HWDs) as an equivalent display to a Head-Up Display (HUD). Title 14 of the US Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 91.175 describes a possible operational credit which can be obtained with airplane equipage of a HUD or an "equivalent" display combined with Enhanced Vision (EV). If successful, a HWD may provide the same safety and operational benefits as current HUD-equipped aircraft but for significantly more aircraft in which HUD installation is neither practical nor possible. A simulation experiment was conducted to evaluate if the HWD, coupled with a head-tracker, can provide an equivalent display to a HUD. Comparative testing was performed in the Research Flight Deck (RFD) Cockpit Motion Facility (CMF) full mission, motion-based simulator at NASA Langley. Twelve airline crews conducted approach and landing, taxi, and departure operations during low visibility operations (1000' Runway Visual Range (RVR), 300' RVR) at Memphis International Airport (Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) identifier: KMEM). The results showed that there were no statistical differences in the crews performance in terms of touchdown and takeoff. Further, there were no statistical differences between the HUD and HWD in pilots' responses to questionnaires.

  15. Performance comparison between a head-worn display system and a head-up display for low visibility commercial operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthur, Jarvis J.; Prinzel, Lawerence J.; Barnes, James R.; Williams, Steven P.; Jones, Denise R.; Harrison, Stephanie J.; Bailey, Randall E.

    2014-06-01

    Research, development, test, and evaluation of flight deck interface technologies is being conducted by NASA to proactively identify, develop, and mature tools, methods, and technologies for improving overall aircraft safety of new and legacy vehicles operating in Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). Under the Vehicle Systems Safety Technologies (VSST) project in the Aviation Safety Program, one specific area of research is the use of small Head-Worn Displays (HWDs) as an equivalent display to a Head-Up Display (HUD). Title 14 of the US Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 91.175 describes a possible operational credit which can be obtained with airplane equipage of a HUD or an "equivalent" display combined with Enhanced Vision (EV). If successful, a HWD may provide the same safety and operational benefits as current BUD-equipped aircraft but for significantly more aircraft in which HUD installation is neither practical nor possible. A simulation experiment was conducted to evaluate if the HWD, coupled with a head-tracker, can provide an equivalent display to a HUD. Comparative testing was performed in the Research Flight Deck (RFD) Cockpit Motion Facility (CMF) full mission, motion-based simulator at NASA Langley. Twelve airline crews conducted approach and landing, taxi, and departure operations during low visibility operations (1000' Runway Visual Range (RVR), 300' RVR) at Memphis International Airport (Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) identifier: KMEM). The results showed that there were no statistical differences in the crews performance in terms of touchdown and takeoff. Further, there were no statistical differences between the HUD and HWD in pilots' responses to questionnaires.

  16. Simulator evaluation of displays for a revised takeoff performance monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, David B.; Srivatsan, Raghavachari; Person, Lee H., Jr

    1992-01-01

    Cockpit displays for a Takeoff Performance Monitoring System (TOPMS) to provide pilots with graphic and alphanumeric information pertinent to their decision to continue or abort a takeoff are evaluated. Revised head-down and newly developed head-up displays were implemented on electronic screens in the real-time Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV) Simulator for the Boeing 737 airplane at the Langley Research Center and evaluated by 17 NASA, U.S. Air Force, airline, and industry pilots. Both types of displays were in color, but they were not dependent upon it. The TOPMS head-down display is composed of a runway graphic overlaid with symbolic status and advisory information related to both the expected takeoff point and the predicted stop point (in the event an abort becomes necessary). In addition, an overall Situation Advisory Flag indicates a preferred course of action based on analysis of the various elements of airplane performance and system status. A simpler head-up display conveys most of this same information and relates it to the visual scene. The evaluation pilots found the displays to be credible, easy to monitor, and appropriate for the task. In particular, the pilots said the head-up display was monitored with very little effort and did not obstruct or distract them from monitoring the simulated out-the-window runway scene. This report augments NASA TP-2908, 1989.

  17. Defense display market assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Hopper, Darrel G.

    1998-09-01

    This paper addresses the number, function and size of principal military displays and establishes a basis to determine the opportunities for technology insertion in the immediate future and into the next millennium. Principal military displays are defined as those occupying appreciable crewstation real-estate and/or those without which the platform could not carry out its intended mission. DoD 'office' applications are excluded from this study. The military displays market is specified by such parameters as active area and footprint size, and other characteristics such as luminance, gray scale, resolution, angle, color, video capability, and night vision imaging system (NVIS) compatibility. Funded, future acquisitions, planned and predicted crewstation modification kits, and form-fit upgrades are taken into account. This paper provides an overview of the DoD niche market, allowing both government and industry a necessary reference by which to meet DoD requirements for military displays in a timely and cost-effective manner. The aggregate DoD market for direct-view and large-area military displays is presently estimated to be in excess of 242,000. Miniature displays are those which must be magnified to be viewed, involve a significantly different manufacturing paradigm and are used in helmet mounted displays and thermal weapon sight applications. Some 114,000 miniature displays are presently included within Service weapon system acquisition plans. For vendor production planning purposes it is noted that foreign military sales could substantially increase these quantities. The vanishing vendor syndrome (VVS) for older display technologies continues to be a growing, pervasive problem throughout DoD, which consequently must leverage the more modern display technologies being developed for civil- commercial markets.

  18. X-1E on Display Stand at Dryden

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Bell Aircraft Corporation X-1E is shown in this artistic night photo taken in February 1996. This aircraft is displayed on a pedestal in front of the main building (4800) at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. There were four versions of the Bell X-1 rocket-powered research aircraft that flew at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, Edwards, California. The bullet-shaped X-1 aircraft were built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y. for the U.S. Army Air Forces (after 1947, U.S. Air Force) and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1 Program was originally designated the XS-1 for EXperimental Supersonic. The X-1's mission was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' Three different X-1s were built and designated: X-1-1, X-1-2 (later modified to become the X-1E), and X-1-3. The basic X-1 aircraft were flown by a large number of different pilots from 1946 to 1951. The X-1 Program not only proved that humans could go beyond the speed of sound, it reinforced the understanding that technological barriers could be overcome. The X-1s pioneered many structural and aerodynamic advances including extremely thin, yet extremely strong wing sections; supersonic fuselage configurations; control system requirements; powerplant compatibility; and cockpit environments. The X-1 aircraft were the first transonic-capable aircraft to use an all-moving stabilizer. The flights of the X-1s opened up a new era in aviation. The first X-1 was air-launched unpowered from a Boeing B-29 Superfortress on January 25, 1946. Powered flights began in December 1946. On October 14, 1947, the X-1-1, piloted by Air Force Captain Charles 'Chuck' Yeager, became the first aircraft to exceed the speed of sound, reaching about 700 miles per hour (Mach 1.06) and an altitude of 43,000 feet. The number 2 X-1 was modified and redesignated the X-1E

  19. Synthetic Vision Displays for Planetary and Lunar Lander Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Williams, Steven P.; Shelton, Kevin J.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Bailey, Randall E.; Norman, Robert M.

    2008-01-01

    Aviation research has demonstrated that Synthetic Vision (SV) technology can substantially enhance situation awareness, reduce pilot workload, improve aviation safety, and promote flight path control precision. SV, and related flight deck technologies are currently being extended for application in planetary exploration vehicles. SV, in particular, holds significant potential for many planetary missions since the SV presentation provides a computer-generated view for the flight crew of the terrain and other significant environmental characteristics independent of the outside visibility conditions, window locations, or vehicle attributes. SV allows unconstrained control of the computer-generated scene lighting, terrain coloring, and virtual camera angles which may provide invaluable visual cues to pilots/astronauts, not available from other vision technologies. In addition, important vehicle state information may be conformally displayed on the view such as forward and down velocities, altitude, and fuel remaining to enhance trajectory control and vehicle system status. The paper accompanies a conference demonstration that introduced a prototype NASA Synthetic Vision system for lunar lander spacecraft. The paper will describe technical challenges and potential solutions to SV applications for the lunar landing mission, including the requirements for high-resolution lunar terrain maps, accurate positioning and orientation, and lunar cockpit display concepts to support projected mission challenges.

  20. Extraction and Analysis of Display Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Land, Chris; Moye, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    The Display Audit Suite is an integrated package of software tools that partly automates the detection of Portable Computer System (PCS) Display errors. [PCS is a lap top computer used onboard the International Space Station (ISS).] The need for automation stems from the large quantity of PCS displays (6,000+, with 1,000,000+ lines of command and telemetry data). The Display Audit Suite includes data-extraction tools, automatic error detection tools, and database tools for generating analysis spread sheets. These spread sheets allow engineers to more easily identify many different kinds of possible errors. The Suite supports over 40 independent analyses, 16 NASA Tech Briefs, November 2008 and complements formal testing by being comprehensive (all displays can be checked) and by revealing errors that are difficult to detect via test. In addition, the Suite can be run early in the development cycle to find and correct errors in advance of testing.

  1. Fast, Real-Time, Animated Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahlbaum, William M.; Ownbey, Katrina

    1990-01-01

    Displays for Advanced Concepts Simulator (ACS) generated on Adage Raster Display System 3000 (RDS 3000). Improved programming techniques developed, and revisions to language implementation made. Both types of changes took better advantage of high-speed characteristics of RDS 3000 hardware. Increases in speed resulted from: utilization of parallel-processing capabilities of AGG4, and use of AGG4 to take advantage of certain high-speed characteristics of display memory not previously used. Result was fourfold increase in animation-update rate to 16 frames per second.

  2. Gardens on Display.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinheimer, Margaret

    1998-01-01

    Discusses display gardens and their development by students. Presents guidelines for construction and size consideration and describes details of an outdoor garden, volcanic garden, and shoe box dioramas. (DDR)

  3. Electronic control/display interface technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, R. V.; Busquets, A. M.; Murray, R. F.; Hatfield, J. J.

    1985-01-01

    An effort to produce a representative workstation for the Space Station Data Management Test Bed that provides man/machine interface design options for consolidating, automating, and integrating the space station work station, and hardware/software technology demonstrations of space station applications is discussed. The workstation will emphasize the technologies of advanced graphics engines, advanced display/control medias, image management techniques, multifunction controls, and video disk utilizations.

  4. The impact of cockpit automation on crew coordination and communication. Volume 1: Overview, LOFT evaluations, error severity, and questionnaire data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiener, Earl L.; Chidester, Thomas R.; Kanki, Barbara G.; Palmer, Everett A.; Curry, Renwick E.; Gregorich, Steven E.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose was to examine, jointly, cockpit automation and social processes. Automation was varied by the choice of two radically different versions of the DC-9 series aircraft, the traditional DC-9-30, and the glass cockpit derivative, the MD-88. Airline pilot volunteers flew a mission in the simulator for these aircraft. Results show that the performance differences between the crews of the two aircraft were generally small, but where there were differences, they favored the DC-9. There were no criteria on which the MD-88 crews performed better than the DC-9 crews. Furthermore, DC-9 crews rated their own workload as lower than did the MD-88 pilots. There were no significant differences between the two aircraft types with respect to the severity of errors committed during the Line-Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) flight. The attitude questionnaires provided some interesting insights, but failed to distinguish between DC-9 and MD-88 crews.

  5. Current Performance Characteristics of NASA Langley Research Center's Cockpit Motion Base and Standardized Test Procedure for Future Performance Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowen, Brandon; Stringer, Mary T.; Hutchinson, Brian K.; Davidson, Paul C.; Gupton, Lawrence E.

    2014-01-01

    This report documents the updated performance characteristics of NASA Langley Research Center's (LaRC) Cockpit Motion Base (CMB) after recent revisions that were made to its inner-loop, feedback control law. The modifications to the control law will be briefly described. The performance of the Cockpit Motion Facility (CMF) will be presented. A short graphical comparison to the previous control law can be found in the appendix of this report. The revised controller will be shown to yield reduced parasitic accelerations with respect to the previous controller. Metrics based on the AGARD Advisory Report No. 144 are used to assess the overall system performance due to its recent control algorithm modification. This report also documents the standardized simulator test procedure which can be used in the future to evaluate potential updates to the control law.

  6. Video interfacing to flat panel displays for dynamic graphics portrayal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiavone, J. J.

    This paper describes the basic process required to convert standard raster video signals to dot addressable matrix displays. The concepts developed were applied to a Litton Systems Advanced Development Model (ADM-1) multimode matrix light emitting diode (LED) display. The ADM-1 display head (320 x 256 pixel format) requires a unique digital interface that is not compatible with other forms of matrix displays. Although this paper describes the details of interfacing to this particular display, the concepts developed apply to all matrix display systems.

  7. High-resolution LCD projector for extra-wide-field-of-view head-up display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Robert D.; Modro, David H.; Quast, Gerhardt A.; Wood, Robert B.

    2003-09-01

    LCD projection-based cockpit displays are beginning to make entry into military and commercial aircraft. Customers for commercial Head-Up Displays (HUDs)(including airframe manufacturers) are now interested in the adaptation of the technology into existing and future HUD optical systems. LCD projection can improve mean-time-between-failure rates because the LCDs are very robust and the light sources can be replaced with scheduled maintenance by the customer without the need for re-calibration. LCD projectors promise to lower the cost of the HUD because the cost of these displays continues to drop while the cost of CRTs remain stable. LCD projectors provide the potential for multi-colors, higher brightness raster, and all-digital communication between the flight computer and display unit. Another potential benefit of LCD projection is the ability to increase field of view and viewing eyebox without exceeding existing power budgets or reducing display lifetime and reliability compared to the capabilities provided by CRTs today. This paper describes the performance requirements and improved performance of a third-generation LCD projection image source for use in a wide field of view head-up display (HUD) optical system. This paper will focus on new HUD requirements and the application of various technologies such as LCOS microdisplays, arc lamps, and rear-projection screens. Measured performance results are compared to the design requirements.

  8. [Model of the perception of perturbed angular motion of the cockpit as part of pilot's information model].

    PubMed

    Azarskov, V N; Blokhin, L N; Burdin, V V; Voronin, L I

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the method, algorithm and results of structural identification as a model of pilot's perception of perturbed angular motion of the cockpit and its transmission to the joystick as well as spectral density of the remnant corresponding to the transmission process. Assessments of scalar quasilinear and (more effective) multichannel models of pilot's functions are given. The assessments have been obtained for a single operator. They illustrate the potentials of this procedure.

  9. An architecture and model for cognitive engineering simulation analysis - Application to advanced aviation automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corker, Kevin M.; Smith, Barry R.

    1993-01-01

    The process of designing crew stations for large-scale, complex automated systems is made difficult because of the flexibility of roles that the crew can assume, and by the rapid rate at which system designs become fixed. Modern cockpit automation frequently involves multiple layers of control and display technology in which human operators must exercise equipment in augmented, supervisory, and fully automated control modes. In this context, we maintain that effective human-centered design is dependent on adequate models of human/system performance in which representations of the equipment, the human operator(s), and the mission tasks are available to designers for manipulation and modification. The joint Army-NASA Aircrew/Aircraft Integration (A3I) Program, with its attendant Man-machine Integration Design and Analysis System (MIDAS), was initiated to meet this challenge. MIDAS provides designers with a test bed for analyzing human-system integration in an environment in which both cognitive human function and 'intelligent' machine function are described in similar terms. This distributed object-oriented simulation system, its architecture and assumptions, and our experiences from its application in advanced aviation crew stations are described.

  10. Dichroic Liquid Crystal Displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahadur, Birendra

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * DICHROIC DYES * Chemical Structure * Chemical and Photochemical Stability * THEORETICAL MODELLING * DEFECTS CAUSED BY PROLONGED LIGHT IRRADIATION * CHEMICAL STRUCTURE AND PHOTOSTABILITY * OTHER PARAMETERS AFFECTING PHOTOSTABILITY * CELL PREPARATION * DICHROIC PARAMETERS AND THEIR MEASUREMENTS * Order Parameter and Dichroic Ratio Of Dyes * Absorbance, Order Parameter and Dichroic Ratio Measurements * IMPACT OF DYE STRUCTURE AND LIQUID CRYSTAL HOST ON PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF A DICHROIC MIXTURE * Order Parameter and Dichroic Ratio * EFFECT OF LENGTH OF DICHROIC DYES ON THE ORDER PARAMETER * EFFECT OF THE BREADTH OF DYE ON THE ORDER PARAMETER * EFFECT OF THE HOST ON THE ORDER PARAMETER * TEMPERATURE VARIATION OF THE ORDER PARAMETER OF DYES IN A LIQUID CRYSTAL HOST * IMPACT OF DYE CONCENTRATION ON THE ORDER PARAMETER * Temperature Range * Viscosity * Dielectric Constant and Anisotropy * Refractive Indices and Birefringence * solubility43,153-156 * Absorption Wavelength and Auxochromic Groups * Molecular Engineering of Dichroic Dyes * OPTICAL, ELECTRO-OPTICAL AND LIFE PARAMETERS * Colour And CIE Colour space120,160-166 * CIE 1931 COLOUR SPACE * CIE 1976 CHROMATICITY DIAGRAM * CIE UNIFORM COLOUR SPACES & COLOUR DIFFERENCE FORMULAE120,160-166 * Electro-Optical Parameters120 * LUMINANCE * CONTRAST AND CONTRAST RATIO * SWITCHING SPEED * Life Parameters and Failure Modes * DICHROIC MIXTURE FORMULATION * Monochrome Mixture * Black Mixture * ACHROMATIC BLACK MIXTURE FOR HEILMEIER DISPLAYS * Effect of Illuminant on Display Colour * Colour of the Field-On State * Effect of Dye Linewidth * Optimum Centroid Wavelengths * Effect of Dye Concentration * Mixture Formulation Using More Than Three Dyes * ACHROMATIC MIXTURE FOR WHITE-TAYLOR TYPE DISPLAYS * HEILMEIER DISPLAYS * Theoretical Modelling * Threshold Characteristic * Effects of Dye Concentration on Electro-optical Parameters * Effect of Cholesteric Doping * Effect of Alignment

  11. Phage and Yeast Display.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Jared; Marasco, Wayne A

    2015-02-01

    Despite the availability of antimicrobial drugs, the continued development of microbial resistance--established through escape mutations and the emergence of resistant strains--limits their clinical utility. The discovery of novel, therapeutic, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) offers viable clinical alternatives in the treatment and prophylaxis of infectious diseases. Human mAb-based therapies are typically nontoxic in patients and demonstrate high specificity for the intended microbial target. This specificity prevents negative impacts on the patient microbiome and avoids driving the resistance of nontarget species. The in vitro selection of human antibody fragment libraries displayed on phage or yeast surfaces represents a group of well-established technologies capable of generating human mAbs. The advantage of these forms of microbial display is the large repertoire of human antibody fragments present during a single selection campaign. Furthermore, the in vitro selection environments of microbial surface display allow for the rapid isolation of antibodies--and their encoding genes--against infectious pathogens and their toxins that are impractical within in vivo systems, such as murine hybridomas. This article focuses on the technologies of phage display and yeast display, as these strategies relate to the discovery of human mAbs for the treatment and vaccine development of infectious diseases. PMID:26104550

  12. Interactive Whole-Class Display Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garofalo, Joe; Bull, Glen; Bell, Randy; van Hover, Stephanie

    2003-01-01

    In several recent studies and surveys, both beginning and experienced teachers ranked access to a projector as one of the actions most likely to facilitate more effective use of technology in their classrooms. Advances in display technologies now make this increasingly feasible. For example, digital light processing (DLP) technology is one of…

  13. Crewstation display interface standardization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, Gregory J.

    1999-08-01

    Military sensors and crewstation displays are all moving to digital-based technologies, an epochal shift from the previous world of analog interfaces throughout the video chain. It is no longer possible to specify a sensor and display to the same interface specification such as the venerable RS-170 and RS- 343 standards without paying an unacceptable resolution penalty. Consequently a new standard is required to allow sensor and display manufacturers to easily design system interfaces without relying on cumbersome, costly and unique interface control documents. This paper presents one possible hardware and protocol standard based on FibreChannel technology, and solicits inputs into the standards setting process which is now in progress.

  14. EKG and ultrasonoscope display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Robert D. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A system is disclosed which permits simultaneous display of an EKG waveform in real time in conjunction with a two-dimensional cross-sectional image of the heart, so that the EKG waveform can be directly compared with dimensional changes in the heart. The apparatus of the invention includes an ultrasonoscope for producing a C-scan cross-sectional image of the heart. An EKG monitor circuit along with EKG logic circuitry is combined with the ultrasonoscope circuitry to produce on the same oscilloscope screen a continuous vertical trace showing the EKG waveform simultaneously with the heart image. The logic circuitry controls the oscilloscope display such that the display of both heart and EKG waveforms occurs on a real time basis.

  15. Displays, deja vu.

    PubMed

    Huntoon, R B

    1985-02-01

    Developments in electronic displays and computers have enabled avionics designers to present the pilot with ever-increasing amounts of information in greater detail and with more accuracy. However, technicological developments have not always brought about enhancement of the pilot's role as aircraft systems manager. In fact, there is evidence that the new technology may add to the pilot's workload to the extent that his performance decreases. Recent articles and reports of research indicate that application of human factor principles and procedures to: (1) develop appropriate display formats, (2) consider the total avionics suite as an integrated system, and (3) simplify or summarize related data will significantly improve total aircraft performance. Indeed, development of the "chip" and new display techniques create an imperative demand for human factor considerations early in system design, ensuring that user evaluation, information integration, and simplification are intrinsic qualities of the system.

  16. Cockpit Interruptions and Distractions: Effective Management Requires a Careful Balancing Act

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dismukes, R. K.; Young, Grant E.; Sumwalt, Robert L., III; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Managing several tasks concurrently is an everyday part of cockpit operations. For the most part, crews handle concurrent task demands efficiently, yet crew preoccupation with one task to the detriment of performing other tasks is one of the more common forms of error in the cockpit. Most pilots are familiar with the December 1972 L1011 crash that occurred when the crew became preoccupied with a landing gear light malfunction and failed to notice that someone had inadvertently bumped off the autopilot. More recently a DC-9 landed gear-up in Houston when the crew, preoccupied with an stabilized approach, failed to recognize that the gear was not down because they had not switched the hydraulic pumps to high. We have recently started a research project to study why crews are vulnerable to these sorts of errors. As part of that project we reviewed NTSB reports of accidents attributed to crew error; we concluded that nearly half of these accidents involved lapses of attention associated with interruptions, distractions, or preoccupation with one task to the exclusion of another task. We have also analyzed 107 ASRS reports involving competing tasks; we present here some of our conclusions from those ASRS reports. These 107 reports involved 21 different types of routine tasks crews neglected at a critical moment while attending to another task. Sixty-nine percent of the neglected tasks involved either failure to monitor the current status or position of the aircraft or failure to monitor the actions of the pilot flying or taxiing. Thirty-four different types of competing activities distracted or preoccupied the pilots. Ninety percent of these competing activities fell into one of four broad categories: communication (e.g., discussion among crew or radio communication), heads-down work (e.g., programming the FMS or reviewing approach plates), responding to abnormals, or searching for VMC traffic. We will discuss examples of each of these four categories and suggest things

  17. Thin display optical projector

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.

    1999-01-01

    An optical system (20) projects light into a planar optical display (10). The display includes laminated optical waveguides (12) defining an inlet face (14) at one end and an outlet screen (16) at an opposite end. A first mirror (26) collimates light from a light source (18) along a first axis, and distributes the light along a second axis. A second mirror (28) collimates the light from the first mirror along the second axis to illuminate the inlet face and produce an image on the screen.

  18. Integrated display scanner

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.

    2004-12-21

    A display scanner includes an optical panel having a plurality of stacked optical waveguides. The waveguides define an inlet face at one end and a screen at an opposite end, with each waveguide having a core laminated between cladding. A projector projects a scan beam of light into the panel inlet face for transmission from the screen as a scan line to scan a barcode. A light sensor at the inlet face detects a return beam reflected from the barcode into the screen. A decoder decodes the return beam detected by the sensor for reading the barcode. In an exemplary embodiment, the optical panel also displays a visual image thereon.

  19. Drivers license display system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokoski, Francine J.

    1997-01-01

    Carjackings are only one of a growing class of law enforcement problems associated with increasingly violent crimes and accidents involving automobiles plays weapons, drugs and alcohol. Police traffic stops have become increasingly dangerous, with an officer having no information about a vehicle's potentially armed driver until approaching him. There are 15 million alcoholics in the US and 90 percent of them have drivers licenses. Many of them continue driving even after their licenses have ben revoked or suspended. There are thousands of unlicensed truck drivers in the country, and also thousands who routinely exceed safe operating periods without rest; often using drugs in an attempt to stay alert. MIKOS has developed the Drivers License Display Systems to reduce these and other related risks. Although every state requires the continuous display of vehicle registration information on every vehicle using public roads, no state yet requires the display of driver license information. The technology exists to provide that feature as an add-on to current vehicles for nominal cost. An initial voluntary market is expected to include: municipal, rental, and high value vehicles which are most likely to be mis-appropriated. It is anticipated that state regulations will eventually require such systems in the future, beginning with commercial vehicles, and then extending to high risk drivers and eventually all vehicles. The MIKOS system offers a dual-display approach which can be deployed now, and which will utilize all existing state licenses without requiring standardization.

  20. Refreshing Refreshable Braille Displays.

    PubMed

    Russomanno, Alexander; O'Modhrain, Sile; Gillespie, R Brent; Rodger, Matthew W M

    2015-01-01

    The increased access to books afforded to blind people via e-publishing has given them long-sought independence for both recreational and educational reading. In most cases, blind readers access materials using speech output. For some content such as highly technical texts, music, and graphics, speech is not an appropriate access modality as it does not promote deep understanding. Therefore blind braille readers often prefer electronic braille displays. But, these are prohibitively expensive. The search is on, therefore, for a low-cost refreshable display that would go beyond current technologies and deliver graphical content as well as text. And many solutions have been proposed, some of which reduce costs by restricting the number of characters that can be displayed, even down to a single braille cell. In this paper, we demonstrate that restricting tactile cues during braille reading leads to poorer performance in a letter recognition task. In particular, we show that lack of sliding contact between the fingertip and the braille reading surface results in more errors and that the number of errors increases as a function of presentation speed. These findings suggest that single cell displays which do not incorporate sliding contact are likely to be less effective for braille reading. PMID:25879973