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Sample records for advanced cognitive abilities

  1. Issues and advances in research methods on video games and cognitive abilities.

    PubMed

    Sobczyk, Bart; Dobrowolski, Paweł; Skorko, Maciek; Michalak, Jakub; Brzezicka, Aneta

    2015-01-01

    The impact of video game playing on cognitive abilities has been the focus of numerous studies over the last 10 years. Some cross-sectional comparisons indicate the cognitive advantages of video game players (VGPs) over non-players (NVGPs) and the benefits of video game trainings, while others fail to replicate these findings. Though there is an ongoing discussion over methodological practices and their impact on observable effects, some elementary issues, such as the representativeness of recruited VGP groups and lack of genre differentiation have not yet been widely addressed. In this article we present objective and declarative gameplay time data gathered from large samples in order to illustrate how playtime is distributed over VGP populations. The implications of this data are then discussed in the context of previous studies in the field. We also argue in favor of differentiating video games based on their genre when recruiting study samples, as this form of classification reflects the core mechanics that they utilize and therefore provides a measure of insight into what cognitive functions are likely to be engaged most. Additionally, we present the Covert Video Game Experience Questionnaire as an example of how this sort of classification can be applied during the recruitment process. PMID:26483717

  2. Issues and advances in research methods on video games and cognitive abilities

    PubMed Central

    Sobczyk, Bart; Dobrowolski, Paweł; Skorko, Maciek; Michalak, Jakub; Brzezicka, Aneta

    2015-01-01

    The impact of video game playing on cognitive abilities has been the focus of numerous studies over the last 10 years. Some cross-sectional comparisons indicate the cognitive advantages of video game players (VGPs) over non-players (NVGPs) and the benefits of video game trainings, while others fail to replicate these findings. Though there is an ongoing discussion over methodological practices and their impact on observable effects, some elementary issues, such as the representativeness of recruited VGP groups and lack of genre differentiation have not yet been widely addressed. In this article we present objective and declarative gameplay time data gathered from large samples in order to illustrate how playtime is distributed over VGP populations. The implications of this data are then discussed in the context of previous studies in the field. We also argue in favor of differentiating video games based on their genre when recruiting study samples, as this form of classification reflects the core mechanics that they utilize and therefore provides a measure of insight into what cognitive functions are likely to be engaged most. Additionally, we present the Covert Video Game Experience Questionnaire as an example of how this sort of classification can be applied during the recruitment process. PMID:26483717

  3. Issues and advances in research methods on video games and cognitive abilities.

    PubMed

    Sobczyk, Bart; Dobrowolski, Paweł; Skorko, Maciek; Michalak, Jakub; Brzezicka, Aneta

    2015-01-01

    The impact of video game playing on cognitive abilities has been the focus of numerous studies over the last 10 years. Some cross-sectional comparisons indicate the cognitive advantages of video game players (VGPs) over non-players (NVGPs) and the benefits of video game trainings, while others fail to replicate these findings. Though there is an ongoing discussion over methodological practices and their impact on observable effects, some elementary issues, such as the representativeness of recruited VGP groups and lack of genre differentiation have not yet been widely addressed. In this article we present objective and declarative gameplay time data gathered from large samples in order to illustrate how playtime is distributed over VGP populations. The implications of this data are then discussed in the context of previous studies in the field. We also argue in favor of differentiating video games based on their genre when recruiting study samples, as this form of classification reflects the core mechanics that they utilize and therefore provides a measure of insight into what cognitive functions are likely to be engaged most. Additionally, we present the Covert Video Game Experience Questionnaire as an example of how this sort of classification can be applied during the recruitment process.

  4. Everyday Cognition: Age and Intellectual Ability Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Allaire, Jason C.; Marsiske, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine the relationship between a new battery of everyday cognition measures, which assessed 4 cognitive abilities within 3 familiar real-world domains, and traditional psychometric tests of the same basic cognitive abilities. Several theoreticians have argued that everyday cognition measures are somewhat distinct from traditional cognitive assessment approaches, and the authors investigated this assertion correlationally in the present study. The sample consisted of 174 community-dwelling older adults from the Detroit metropolitan area, who had an average age of 73 years. Major results of the study showed that (a) each everyday cognitive test was strongly correlated with the basic cognitive abilities; (b) several basic abilities, as well as measures of domain-specific knowledge, predicted everyday cognitive performance; and (c) everyday and basic measures were similarly related to age. The results suggest that everyday cognition is not unrelated to traditional measures, nor is it less sensitive to age-related differences. PMID:10632150

  5. Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Diane F.

    This book examines the science and politics of cognitive sex differences, reflecting theories and research in the area over the past several years. Eight chapters discuss: (1) "Introduction and Overview" (e.g., theoretical approaches, values and science, and terminology); (2) "Searching for Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities" (e.g., the need…

  6. Brain iron deposits and lifespan cognitive ability.

    PubMed

    Del C Valdés Hernández, Maria; Ritchie, Stuart; Glatz, Andreas; Allerhand, Mike; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Gow, Alan J; Royle, Natalie A; Bastin, Mark E; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J; Wardlaw, Joanna M

    2015-10-01

    Several studies have reported associations between brain iron deposits and cognitive status, and cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases in older individuals, but the mechanisms underlying these associations remain unclear. We explored the associations between regional brain iron deposits and different factors of cognitive ability (fluid intelligence, speed and memory) in a large sample (n = 662) of individuals with a mean age of 73 years. Brain iron deposits in the corpus striatum were extracted automatically. Iron deposits in other parts of the brain (i.e., white matter, thalamus, brainstem and cortex), brain tissue volume and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) were assessed separately and semi-automatically. Overall, 72.8 % of the sample had iron deposits. The total volume of iron deposits had a small but significant negative association with all three cognitive ability factors in later life (mean r = -0.165), but no relation to intelligence in childhood (r = 0.043, p = 0.282). Regression models showed that these iron deposit associations were still present after control for a variety of vascular health factors, and were separable from the association of WMH with cognitive ability. Iron deposits were also associated with cognition across the lifespan, indicating that they are relevant for cognitive ability only at older ages. Iron deposits might be an indicator of small vessel disease that affects the neuronal networks underlying higher cognitive functioning.

  7. Cognitive Ability and Non-Ability Trait Determinants of Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Phillip L.

    2003-01-01

    Traditional approaches to understanding individual differences determinants of domain-specific expertise have focused on individual trait components, such as ability or topic interest. In contrast, trait complex approaches consider whether combinations of cognitive, affective, and conative traits are particularly facilitative or impeding of the…

  8. Cognitive ability and the demand for redistribution.

    PubMed

    Mollerstrom, Johanna; Seim, David

    2014-01-01

    Empirical research suggests that the cognitively able are politically more influential than the less able, by being more likely to vote and to assume leadership positions. This study asks whether this pattern matters for public policy by investigating what role a person's cognitive ability plays in determining his preferences for redistribution of income among citizens in society. To answer this question, we use a unique Swedish data set that matches responses to a tailor-made questionnaire to administrative tax records and to military enlistment records for men, with the latter containing a measure of cognitive ability. On a scale of 0 to 100 percent redistribution, a one-standard-deviation increase in cognitive ability reduces the willingness to redistribute by 5 percentage points, or by the same amount as a $35,000 increase in mean annual income. We find support for two channels mediating this economically strong and statistically significant relation. First, higher ability is associated with higher income. Second, ability is positively correlated with the view that economic success is the result of effort, rather than luck. Both these factors are, in turn, related to lower demand for redistribution.

  9. Haplogroups as Evolutionary Markers of Cognitive Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rindermann, Heiner; Woodley, Michael A.; Stratford, James

    2012-01-01

    Studies investigating evolutionary theories on the origins of national differences in intelligence have been criticized on the basis that both national cognitive ability measures and supposedly evolutionarily informative proxies (such as latitude and climate) are confounded with general developmental status. In this study 14 Y chromosomal…

  10. Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities. Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Diane F.

    2011-01-01

    The fourth edition of "Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities" critically examines the breadth of research on this complex and controversial topic, with the principal aim of helping the reader to understand where sex differences are found--and where they are not. Since the publication of the third edition, there have been many exciting and…

  11. Team effectiveness: beyond skills and cognitive ability.

    PubMed

    Neuman, G A; Wright, J

    1999-06-01

    On the basis of job analysis results, the validity of using measures of general cognitive ability, job-specific skills, and personality traits jointly at both the individual level and the group level to predict the performance of 79 four-person, human resource work teams was evaluated. Team member trait and job skill scores were aggregated with a conjunctive model of task performance. At the individual level of analysis, measures of personality (i.e., Agreeableness and Conscientiousness) predicted peer ratings of team member performance beyond measures of job-specific skills and general cognitive ability. Similarly, at the group level of analysis, both Agreeableness and Conscientiousness predicted supervisor ratings of work team performance, objective measures of work team accuracy, and work completed. At both the individual and group levels, the trait of Agreeableness predicted Interpersonal Skills. PMID:10380418

  12. Change in Cognitive Abilities in Older Latinos.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Robert S; Capuano, Ana W; Marquez, David X; Amofa, Priscilla; Barnes, Lisa L; Bennett, David A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare patterns of cognitive decline in older Latinos and non-Latinos. At annual intervals for a mean of 5.7 years, older Latino (n=104) and non-Latino (n=104) persons of equivalent age, education, and race completed a battery of 17 cognitive tests from which previously established composite measures of episodic memory, semantic memory, working memory, perceptual speed, and visuospatial ability were derived. In analyses adjusted for age, sex, and education, performance declined over time in each cognitive domain, but there were no ethnic group differences in initial level of function or annual rate of decline. There was evidence of retest learning following the baseline evaluation, but neither the magnitude nor duration of the effect was related to Latino ethnicity, and eliminating the first two evaluations, during which much of retest learning occurred, did not affect ethnic group comparisons. Compared to the non-Latino group, the Latino group had more diabetes (38.5% vs. 25.0; χ2[1]=4.4; p=.037), fewer histories of smoking (24.0% vs. 39.4%, χ2[1]=5.7; p=.017), and lower childhood household socioeconomic level (-0.410 vs. -0.045, t[185.0]=3.1; p=.002), but controlling for these factors did not affect results. Trajectories of cognitive aging in different abilities are similar in Latino and non-Latino individuals of equivalent age, education, and race. (JINS, 2016, 22, 58-65).

  13. The Role of Social-Cognitive Abilities in Preschoolers' Aggressive Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Rebecca Stetson; Cassidy, Kimberly Wright; Juliano, Mariel

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between preschool children's social-cognitive abilities (theory of mind and social information processing; SIP) and their observed physical and relational aggressive behaviour. Children with more advanced social-cognitive abilities engaged in fewer acts of physical aggression; however, much of the ability…

  14. Childhood cognitive ability accounts for associations between cognitive ability and brain cortical thickness in old age.

    PubMed

    Karama, S; Bastin, M E; Murray, C; Royle, N A; Penke, L; Muñoz Maniega, S; Gow, A J; Corley, J; Valdés Hernández, M del C; Lewis, J D; Rousseau, M-É; Lepage, C; Fonov, V; Collins, D L; Booth, T; Rioux, P; Sherif, T; Adalat, R; Starr, J M; Evans, A C; Wardlaw, J M; Deary, I J

    2014-05-01

    Associations between brain cortical tissue volume and cognitive function in old age are frequently interpreted as suggesting that preservation of cortical tissue is the foundation of successful cognitive aging. However, this association could also, in part, reflect a lifelong association between cognitive ability and cortical tissue. We analyzed data on 588 subjects from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 who had intelligence quotient (IQ) scores from the same cognitive test available at both 11 and 70 years of age as well as high-resolution brain magnetic resonance imaging data obtained at approximately 73 years of age. Cortical thickness was estimated at 81 924 sampling points across the cortex for each subject using an automated pipeline. Multiple regression was used to assess associations between cortical thickness and the IQ measures at 11 and 70 years. Childhood IQ accounted for more than two-third of the association between IQ at 70 years and cortical thickness measured at age 73 years. This warns against ascribing a causal interpretation to the association between cognitive ability and cortical tissue in old age based on assumptions about, and exclusive reference to, the aging process and any associated disease. Without early-life measures of cognitive ability, it would have been tempting to conclude that preservation of cortical thickness in old age is a foundation for successful cognitive aging when, instead, it is a lifelong association. This being said, results should not be construed as meaning that all studies on aging require direct measures of childhood IQ, but as suggesting that proxy measures of prior cognitive function can be useful to take into consideration.

  15. Cognitive Ability: Social Correlates and Consequences in Contemporary China*

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Guoying; Xie, Yu; Xu, Hongwei

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the measurement of cognitive ability in the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS), especially for verbal skill, mathematical skill, memory, and quantitative reasoning. The available CFPS cognitive measurements can be useful for studies on the importance of cognitive ability in many substantive domains of interest. Using the CFPS data, we show that measures of cognitive ability are clearly related to key demographic and social characteristics, such as age, gender, education, and hukou status. We also illustrate how cognitive ability influences school performance and deviant behaviors among children, income and political capital among adults, and daily functioning among the elderly. PMID:27570709

  16. Language Learning by Dint of Social Cognitive Advancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathew, Bincy; Raja, B. William Dharma

    2015-01-01

    Language is of vital importance to human beings. It is a means of communication and it has specific cognitive links. Advanced social cognition is necessary for children to acquire language, and sophisticated mind-reading abilities to assume word meanings and communicate pragmatically. Language can be defined as a bi-directional system that permits…

  17. Object-Spatial Visualization and Verbal Cognitive Styles, and Their Relation to Cognitive Abilities and Mathematical Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haciomeroglu, Erhan Selcuk

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the object-spatial visualization and verbal cognitive styles among high school students and related differences in spatial ability, verbal-logical reasoning ability, and mathematical performance of those students. Data were collected from 348 students enrolled in Advanced Placement calculus courses at six high…

  18. Motor Proficiency Predicts Cognitive Ability in Four-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Amanda Martinez; Caçola, Priscila

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown links between motor proficiency and cognition in school-age children, however, few have explored earlier ages. We aimed to determine the association between motor proficiency and cognitive ability in four-year-olds. Motor and cognitive skills were examined in 32 (15 males, 17 females) four-year-olds (±5.59 months) using the…

  19. Gender-Stereotyping of Cognitive Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matlin, Margaret W.; Matkoski, Kathleen M.

    In the area of cognitive skills, the actual differences between males and females are relatively small. Females score slightly higher on verbal tasks and males score slightly higher on mathematical tasks. According to the cognitive approach to stereotypes, people should perceive these differences to be quite large. To determine whether subjects…

  20. Cognitive Ability, Learning Approaches and Personality Correlates of General Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furnham, Adrian; Swami, Viren; Arteche, Adriane; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between general knowledge (GK) and cognitive ability (IQ and abstract reasoning), learning approaches, and personality ("big five" traits and typical intellectual engagement) was investigated in a sample of 101 British undergraduates. As predicted, GK was positively correlated with cognitive ability (more so with IQ than with…

  1. Effects of General and Broad Cognitive Abilities on Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taub, Gordon E.; Keith, Timothy Z.; Floyd, Randy G.; Mcgrew, Kevin S.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the direct and indirect effects of general intelligence and 7 broad cognitive abilities on mathematics achievement. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate the simultaneous effects of both general and broad cognitive abilities on students' mathematics achievement. A hierarchical model of intelligence derived…

  2. Does Test Anxiety Induce Measurement Bias in Cognitive Ability Tests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeve, Charlie L.; Bonaccio, Silvia

    2008-01-01

    Although test anxiety is typically negatively related to performance on cognitive ability tests, little research has systematically investigated whether differences in test anxiety result in measurement bias on cognitive ability tests. The current paper uses a structural equation modeling technique to explicitly test for measurement bias due to…

  3. Get Smarty Pants: Cognitive Ability, Personality, and Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eugene; Glomb, Theresa M.

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on the victim precipitation model, this study provides an empirical investigation of the relationship between cognitive ability and victimization at work. We propose that people high in cognitive ability are more prone to victimization. In this study, we also examine the direct and moderating effects of victims' personality traits,…

  4. The Influence of Exercise on Cognitive Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Pinilla, Fernando; Hillman, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Scientific evidence based on neuroimaging approaches over the last decade has demonstrated the efficacy of physical activity improving cognitive health across the human lifespan. Aerobic fitness spares age-related loss of brain tissue during aging, and enhances functional aspects of higher order regions involved in the control of cognition. More active or higher fit individuals are capable of allocating greater attentional resources toward the environment and are able to process information more quickly. These data are suggestive that aerobic fitness enhances cognitive strategies enabling to respond effectively to an imposed challenge with a better yield in task performance. In turn, animal studies have shown that exercise has a benevolent action on health and plasticity of the nervous system. New evidence indicates that exercise exerts its effects on cognition by affecting molecular events related to the management of energy metabolism and synaptic plasticity. An important instigator in the molecular machinery stimulated by exercise is brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which acts at the interface of metabolism and plasticity. Recent studies show that exercise collaborates with other aspects of lifestyle to influence the molecular substrates of cognition. In particular, select dietary factors share similar mechanisms with exercise, and in some cases they can complement the action of exercise. Therefore, exercise and dietary management appear as a noninvasive and effective strategy to counteract neurological and cognitive disorders. PMID:23720292

  5. Individual Differences in Learning and Cognitive Abilities. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Phillip L.

    This final report reviews a program of theoretical and empirical research focusing on the ability determinants of individual differences in skill acquisition. An integrative framework for information processing and cognitive ability determinants of skills is presented, along with principles for ability-skill relations. Three major patterns of…

  6. Is playing video games related to cognitive abilities?

    PubMed

    Unsworth, Nash; Redick, Thomas S; McMillan, Brittany D; Hambrick, David Z; Kane, Michael J; Engle, Randall W

    2015-06-01

    The relations between video-game experience and cognitive abilities were examined in the current study. In two experiments, subjects performed a number of working memory, fluid intelligence, and attention-control measures and filled out a questionnaire about their video-game experience. In Experiment 1, an extreme-groups analysis indicated that experienced video-game players outperformed nonplayers on several cognitive-ability measures. However, in Experiments 1 and 2, when analyses examined the full range of subjects at both the task level and the latent-construct level, nearly all of the relations between video-game experience and cognitive abilities were near zero. These results cast doubt on recent claims that playing video games leads to enhanced cognitive abilities. Statistical and methodological issues with prior studies of video-game experience are discussed along with recommendations for future studies.

  7. Online Collaboration for Programming: Assessing Students' Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Othman, Mahfudzah; Muhd Zain, Nurzaid

    2015-01-01

    This study is primarily focused on assessing the students' logical thinking and cognitive levels in an online collaborative environment. The aim is to investigate whether the online collaboration has significant impact to the students' cognitive abilities. The assessment of the logical thinking involved the use of the online Group Assessment…

  8. Socioemotional Competencies, Cognitive Ability, and Achievement in Gifted Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Tiffany

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relations between cognitive ability, socioemotional competency (SEC), and achievement in gifted children. Data were collected on children between the ages of 8 and 15 years (n = 124). Children were assessed via teacher reports of SEC, standardized cognitive assessment, and standardized achievement assessment. Composite…

  9. What Cognitive Abilities Are Involved in Trail-Making Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    The cognitive abilities involved in the Connections (Salthouse, et al., 2000) version of the trail making test were investigated by administering the test, along with a battery of cognitive tests and tests of complex span and updating conceptualizations of working memory, to a sample of over 3600 adults. The results indicate that this variant of…

  10. Growth of Cognitive Abilities: Dynamic Models and Scaling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckstein, Shulamith Graus

    2000-01-01

    Extends dynamic model of cognitive growth proposed by van Geert in three directions: (1) added a term to consider exposure to material to be learned; (2) developed method to apply model to cross-sectional studies; and (3) developed procedure to scale cognitive abilities tests with items of varying difficulty. Tests model with 2- to 15-year-olds'…

  11. Polygenic risk of ischemic stroke is associated with cognitive ability

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Rainer; Marioni, Riccardo; Campbell, Archie; Seshadri, Sudha; Worrall, Bradford B.; Sudlow, Cathie L.M.; Hayward, Caroline; Bastin, Mark E.; Starr, John M.; Porteous, David J.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Deary, Ian J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: We investigated the correlation between polygenic risk of ischemic stroke (and its subtypes) and cognitive ability in 3 relatively healthy Scottish cohorts: the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 (LBC1936), the Lothian Birth Cohort 1921 (LBC1921), and Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (GS). Methods: Polygenic risk scores for ischemic stroke were created in LBC1936 (n = 1005), LBC1921 (n = 517), and GS (n = 6,815) using genome-wide association study summary data from the METASTROKE collaboration. We investigated whether the polygenic risk scores correlate with cognitive ability in the 3 cohorts. Results: In the largest cohort, GS, polygenic risk of all ischemic stroke, small vessel disease stroke, and large vessel disease stroke, but not cardioembolic stroke, were correlated with both fluid and crystallized cognitive abilities. The highest correlation was between a polygenic risk score for all ischemic stroke and general cognitive ability (r = −0.070, p = 1.95 × 10−8). Few correlations were identified in LBC1936 and LBC1921, but a meta-analysis of all 3 cohorts supported the correlation between polygenic risk of ischemic stroke and cognitive ability. Conclusions: The findings from this study indicate that even in the absence of stroke, being at high polygenic risk of ischemic stroke is associated with lower cognitive ability. PMID:26695942

  12. Cognitive Correlates of Map-Reading Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sholl, M. Jeanne; Egeth, Howard E.

    1982-01-01

    When the mathematics and extended range vocabulary subtests on the Relief Format Assessment Test were factor analyzed, altitude estimation (predicted by mathematics aptitude) and terrain analysis (predicted by vocabulary skills) were found to underly map-reading performance. Solutions were found to be dependent on verbal-analytic ability more than…

  13. Estimating Premorbid Cognitive Abilities in Low-Educated Populations

    PubMed Central

    Apolinario, Daniel; Brucki, Sonia Maria Dozzi; Ferretti, Renata Eloah de Lucena; Farfel, José Marcelo; Magaldi, Regina Miksian; Busse, Alexandre Leopold; Jacob-Filho, Wilson

    2013-01-01

    Objective To develop an informant-based instrument that would provide a valid estimate of premorbid cognitive abilities in low-educated populations. Methods A questionnaire was drafted by focusing on the premorbid period with a 10-year time frame. The initial pool of items was submitted to classical test theory and a factorial analysis. The resulting instrument, named the Premorbid Cognitive Abilities Scale (PCAS), is composed of questions addressing educational attainment, major lifetime occupation, reading abilities, reading habits, writing abilities, calculation abilities, use of widely available technology, and the ability to search for specific information. The validation sample was composed of 132 older Brazilian adults from the following three demographically matched groups: normal cognitive aging (n = 72), mild cognitive impairment (n = 33), and mild dementia (n = 27). The scores of a reading test and a neuropsychological battery were adopted as construct criteria. Post-mortem inter-informant reliability was tested in a sub-study with two relatives from each deceased individual. Results All items presented good discriminative power, with corrected item-total correlation varying from 0.35 to 0.74. The summed score of the instrument presented high correlation coefficients with global cognitive function (r = 0.73) and reading skills (r = 0.82). Cronbach's alpha was 0.90, showing optimal internal consistency without redundancy. The scores did not decrease across the progressive levels of cognitive impairment, suggesting that the goal of evaluating the premorbid state was achieved. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.96, indicating excellent inter-informant reliability. Conclusion The instrument developed in this study has shown good properties and can be used as a valid estimate of premorbid cognitive abilities in low-educated populations. The applicability of the PCAS, both as an estimate of premorbid intelligence and cognitive

  14. Between Domain Cognitive Dispersion and Functional Abilities in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Fellows, Robert P.; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    Objective Within-person variability in cognitive performance is related to neurological integrity, but the association with functional abilities is less clear. The primary aim of this study was to examine the association between cognitive dispersion, or within-person variability, and everyday multitasking and the way in which these variables may influence performance on a naturalistic assessment of functional abilities. Method Participants were 156 community-dwelling adults, age 50 or older. Cognitive dispersion was calculated by measuring within-person variability in cognitive domains, established through principal components analysis. Path analysis was used to determine the independent contribution of cognitive dispersion to functional ability, mediated by multitasking. Results Results of the path analysis revealed that the number of subtasks interweaved (i.e., multitasked) mediated the association between cognitive dispersion and task sequencing and accuracy. Although increased multitasking was associated with worse task performance in the path model, secondary analyses revealed that for individuals with low cognitive dispersion, increased multitasking was associated with better task performance, whereas for those with higher levels of dispersion multitasking was negatively correlated with task performance. Conclusion These results suggest that cognitive dispersion between domains may be a useful indicator of multitasking and daily living skills among older adults. PMID:26300441

  15. The Developmental Change of Young Pupils' Metacognitive Ability in Mathematics in Relation to Their Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panaoura, Areti; Philippou, George

    2007-01-01

    Metacognition is a multidimensional construct with two main dimensions: knowledge about cognition and regulation of cognition. The present study aimed to model the development of young pupils' metacognitive abilities in mathematics in relation to processing efficiency, working memory and mathematical performance. We developed instruments measuring…

  16. Longitudinal Stability of Cognitive Ability in the Colorado Adoption Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Laura A.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Measures of general cognitive ability in one- and two-year-old adopted and nonadopted infants and their parents were subjected to path analysis to estimate the contribution of genetic and environmental factors to short-term stability of mental ability. (Author/RH)

  17. Rational thinking and cognitive sophistication: development, cognitive abilities, and thinking dispositions.

    PubMed

    Toplak, Maggie E; West, Richard F; Stanovich, Keith E

    2014-04-01

    We studied developmental trends in 5 important reasoning tasks that are critical components of the operational definition of rational thinking. The tasks measured denominator neglect, belief bias, base rate sensitivity, resistance to framing, and the tendency toward otherside thinking. In addition to age, we examined 2 other individual difference domains that index cognitive sophistication: cognitive ability (intelligence and executive functioning) and thinking dispositions (actively open-minded thinking, superstitious thinking, and need for cognition). All 5 reasoning domains were consistently related to cognitive sophistication regardless of how it was indexed (age, cognitive ability, thinking dispositions). The implications of these findings for taxonomies of developmental trends in rational thinking tasks are discussed.

  18. Cognitive styles and mental rotation ability in map learning.

    PubMed

    Pazzaglia, Francesca; Moè, Angelica

    2013-11-01

    In inspecting, learning and reproducing a map, a wide range of abilities is potentially involved. This study examined the role of mental rotation (MR) and verbal ability, together with that of cognitive styles in map learning. As regards cognitive styles, the traditional distinction between verbalizers and visualizers has been taken into account, together with a more recent distinction between two styles of visualization: spatial and object. One hundred and seven participants filled in two questionnaires on cognitive styles: the Verbalizer-Visualizer Questionnaire (Richardson in J Ment Imag 1:109-125, 1977) and the Object-Spatial Imagery Questionnaire (Blajenkova et al. in Appl Cogn Psych 20:239-263, 2006), performed MR and verbal tests, learned two maps, and were then tested for their recall. It was found that MR ability and cognitive styles played a role in predicting map learning, with some distinctions within cognitive styles: verbal style favoured learning of one of the two maps (the one rich in verbal labels), which in turn was disadvantaged by the adoption of spatial style. Conversely, spatial style predicted learning of the other map, rich in visual features. The discussion focuses on implications for cognitive psychology and everyday cognition.

  19. Why Is There Still No Study of Cultural Equivalence in Standardized Cognitive Ability Tests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Justin C.; Satiani, Anmol; Henze, Kevin T.; Mascher, Jackquelyn; Helms, Janet E.

    2008-01-01

    To investigate how the culturalist perspective on investigating racial group differences in standardized cognitive ability tests has advanced, a content analysis of 28 studies citing J. E. Helms (1992) identified 7 general themes. Overall, researchers cited J. E. Helms (1992) as support for their own hypotheses but did not directly test the…

  20. Early numerical abilities and cognitive skills in kindergarten children.

    PubMed

    Passolunghi, Maria Chiara; Lanfranchi, Silvia; Altoè, Gianmarco; Sollazzo, Nadia

    2015-07-01

    In this study, a unitary path analysis model was developed to investigate the relationship between cognitive variables (derived from published studies) and early numerical abilities in children attending the last year of kindergarten. We tested 100 children starting their last year of kindergarten on the following cognitive abilities: intelligence, phonological abilities, counting, verbal and visuospatial short-term memory and working memory, processing speed, and early numerical abilities. The same children were tested again on early numerical abilities at the end of the same year. The children's early numerical abilities at the beginning of the final year of kindergarten were found to be directly related to their verbal intelligence, phonological abilities, processing speed, and working memory and to be indirectly related to their nonverbal intelligence. Early numerical abilities at the end of the same year are directly related not only to early numerical abilities assessed at the beginning of the year but also to working memory and phonological abilities as well as have an indirect relationship with verbal and nonverbal intelligence. Overall, our results showed that both general and specific abilities are related to early mathematic learning in kindergarten-age children.

  1. Early numerical abilities and cognitive skills in kindergarten children.

    PubMed

    Passolunghi, Maria Chiara; Lanfranchi, Silvia; Altoè, Gianmarco; Sollazzo, Nadia

    2015-07-01

    In this study, a unitary path analysis model was developed to investigate the relationship between cognitive variables (derived from published studies) and early numerical abilities in children attending the last year of kindergarten. We tested 100 children starting their last year of kindergarten on the following cognitive abilities: intelligence, phonological abilities, counting, verbal and visuospatial short-term memory and working memory, processing speed, and early numerical abilities. The same children were tested again on early numerical abilities at the end of the same year. The children's early numerical abilities at the beginning of the final year of kindergarten were found to be directly related to their verbal intelligence, phonological abilities, processing speed, and working memory and to be indirectly related to their nonverbal intelligence. Early numerical abilities at the end of the same year are directly related not only to early numerical abilities assessed at the beginning of the year but also to working memory and phonological abilities as well as have an indirect relationship with verbal and nonverbal intelligence. Overall, our results showed that both general and specific abilities are related to early mathematic learning in kindergarten-age children. PMID:25818537

  2. On the relative independence of thinking biases and cognitive ability.

    PubMed

    Stanovich, Keith E; West, Richard F

    2008-04-01

    In 7 different studies, the authors observed that a large number of thinking biases are uncorrelated with cognitive ability. These thinking biases include some of the most classic and well-studied biases in the heuristics and biases literature, including the conjunction effect, framing effects, anchoring effects, outcome bias, base-rate neglect, "less is more" effects, affect biases, omission bias, myside bias, sunk-cost effect, and certainty effects that violate the axioms of expected utility theory. In a further experiment, the authors nonetheless showed that cognitive ability does correlate with the tendency to avoid some rational thinking biases, specifically the tendency to display denominator neglect, probability matching rather than maximizing, belief bias, and matching bias on the 4-card selection task. The authors present a framework for predicting when cognitive ability will and will not correlate with a rational thinking tendency.

  3. Working memory delay activity predicts individual differences in cognitive abilities.

    PubMed

    Unsworth, Nash; Fukuda, Keisuke; Awh, Edward; Vogel, Edward K

    2015-05-01

    A great deal of prior research has examined the relation between estimates of working memory and cognitive abilities. Yet, the neural mechanisms that account for these relations are still not very well understood. The current study explored whether individual differences in working memory delay activity would be a significant predictor of cognitive abilities. A large number of participants performed multiple measures of capacity, attention control, long-term memory, working memory span, and fluid intelligence, and latent variable analyses were used to examine the data. During two working memory change detection tasks, we acquired EEG data and examined the contralateral delay activity. The results demonstrated that the contralateral delay activity was significantly related to cognitive abilities, and importantly these relations were because of individual differences in both capacity and attention control. These results suggest that individual differences in working memory delay activity predict individual differences in a broad range of cognitive abilities, and this is because of both differences in the number of items that can be maintained and the ability to control access to working memory. PMID:25436671

  4. Working Memory Delay Activity Predicts Individual Differences in Cognitive Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Unsworth, Nash; Fukuda, Keisuke; Awh, Edward; Vogel, Edward K.

    2015-01-01

    A great deal of prior research has examined the relation between estimates of working memory and cognitive abilities. Yet, the neural mechanisms that account for these relations are still not very well understood. The current study explored whether individual differences in working memory delay activity would be a significant predictor of cognitive abilities. A large number of participants performed multiple measures of capacity, attention control, long-term memory, working memory span, and fluid intelligence, and latent variable analyses were used to examine the data. During two working memory change detection tasks, we acquired EEG data and examined the contra-lateral delay activity. The results demonstrated that the contralateral delay activity was significantly related to cognitive abilities, and importantly these relations were because of individual differences in both capacity and attention control. These results suggest that individual differences in working memory delay activity predict individual differences in a broad range of cognitive abilities, and this is because of both differences in the number of items that can be maintained and the ability to control access to working memory. PMID:25436671

  5. Cattell-Horn-Carroll Cognitive Abilities and Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    Structural equation modeling procedures are applied to the standardization sample of the Woodcock-Johnson III to simultaneously estimate the effects of a psychometric general factor (g), specific cognitive abilities, and reading skills on reading achievement. The results of this study indicate that g has a strong direct relationship with basic…

  6. The Relationships between Cognitive Ability and Dynamic Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, C.; Thomas, R.P.; Vanyukov, P.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between cognitive ability (as assessed by the Raven Progressive Matrices Test [RPM] and the Visual-Span Test [VSPAN]) and individuals' performance in three dynamic decision making (DDM) tasks (i.e., regular Water Purification Plant [WPP], Team WPP, and Firechief). Participants interacted repeatedly with…

  7. Returns to Schooling, Ability and Cognitive Skills in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslam, Monazza; Bari, Faisal; Kingdon, Geeta

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the economic outcomes of education for wage earners in Pakistan. This is done by analysing the relationship between schooling, cognitive skills and ability, on the one hand, and economic activity, occupation, sectoral choice and earnings, on the other. In Pakistan, an important question remains largely unaddressed: what…

  8. Cattell-Horn-Carroll Cognitive Ability Profiles of Poor Comprehenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Randy G.; Bergeron, Renee; Alfonso, Vincent C.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines cognitive ability profiles of children with specific age-based normative weaknesses in reading comprehension and compares those profiles to the profiles of (a) children with at least average achievement in reading comprehension, reading decoding skills, and mathematics and (b) children with low achievement across the 3…

  9. Generalist genes and cognitive abilities in Chinese twins.

    PubMed

    Chow, Bonnie Wing-Yin; Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Wong, Simpson Wai-Lap; Waye, Mary M Y; Bishop, Dorothy V M

    2013-03-01

    This study considered how far nonverbal cognitive, language and reading abilities are affected by common genetic influences in a sample of 312 typically developing Chinese twin pairs aged from 3 to 11 years. Children were individually given tasks of Chinese word reading, receptive vocabulary, phonological memory, tone awareness, syllable and rhyme awareness, rapid automatized naming, morphological awareness and orthographic skills, and Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices. Factor analyses on the verbal tasks adjusted for age indicated two factors: Language as the first factor and Reading as the second factor. Univariate genetic analyses indicated that genetic influences were substantial for nonverbal cognitive ability and moderate for language and reading. Multivariate genetic analyses showed that nonverbal cognitive ability, language and reading were influenced by shared genetic origins, although there were specific genetic influences on verbal skills that were distinct from those on nonverbal cognitive ability. This study extends the Generalist Genes Hypothesis to Chinese language and reading skills, suggesting that the general effects of genes could be universal across languages. PMID:23432835

  10. The Influence of Cognitive Abilities on Mathematical Problem Solving Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahar, Abdulkadir

    2013-01-01

    Problem solving has been a core theme in education for several decades. Educators and policy makers agree on the importance of the role of problem solving skills for school and real life success. A primary purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of cognitive abilities on mathematical problem solving performance of students. The…

  11. Generalist Genes and Cognitive Abilities in Chinese Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Bonnie Wing-Yin; Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Wong, Simpson Wai-Lap; Waye, Mary M. Y.; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

    2013-01-01

    This study considered how far nonverbal cognitive, language and reading abilities are affected by common genetic influences in a sample of 312 typically developing Chinese twin pairs aged from 3 to 11 years. Children were individually given tasks of Chinese word reading, receptive vocabulary, phonological memory, tone awareness, syllable and rhyme…

  12. Cognitive Abilities Relate to Self-Reported Hearing Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zekveld, Adriana A.; George, Erwin L. J.; Houtgast, Tammo; Kramer, Sophia E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this explorative study, the authors investigated the relationship between auditory and cognitive abilities and self-reported hearing disability. Method: Thirty-two adults with mild to moderate hearing loss completed the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap (AIADH; Kramer, Kapteyn, Festen, & Tobi, 1996) and…

  13. Childhood cognitive ability and body composition in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Kumpulainen, S M; Heinonen, K; Salonen, M K; Andersson, S; Wolke, D; Kajantie, E; Eriksson, J G; Raikkonen, K

    2016-01-01

    Background: Childhood cognitive ability has been identified as a novel risk factor for adulthood overweight and obesity as assessed by adult body mass index (BMI). BMI does not, however, distinguish fat-free and metabolically harmful fat tissue. Hence, we examined the associations between childhood cognitive abilities and body fat percentage (BF%) in young adulthood. Methods: Participants of the Arvo Ylppö Longitudinal Study (n=816) underwent tests of general reasoning, visuomotor integration, verbal competence and language comprehension (M=100; s.d.=15) at the age of 56 months. At the age of 25 years, they underwent a clinical examination, including measurements of BF% by the InBody 3.0 eight-polar tactile electrode system, weight and height from which BMI (kg m−2) was calculated and waist circumference (cm). Results: After adjustments for sex, age and BMI-for-age s.d. score at 56 months, lower general reasoning and visuomotor integration in childhood predicted higher BMI (kg m−2) increase per s.d. unit decrease in cognitive ability (−0.32, 95% confidence interval −0.60,−0.05; −0.45, −0.75,−0.14, respectively) and waist circumference (cm) increase per s.d. unit decrease in cognitive ability (−0.84, −1.56,−0.11; −1.07,−1.88,−0.26, respectively) in adulthood. In addition, lower visuomotor integration predicted higher BF% per s.d. unit decrease in cognitive ability (−0.62,−1.14,−0.09). Associations between general reasoning and BMI/waist were attenuated when adjusted for smoking, alcohol consumption, intake of fruits and vegetables and physical activity in adulthood, and all associations, except for visuomotor integration and BMI, were attenuated when adjusted for parental and/or own attained education and/or birth weight. Conclusions: Of the measured childhood cognitive abilities, only lower visuomotor integration was associated with BF% in adulthood. This challenges the view that cognitive ability, at least when measured in

  14. Cognitive Development: An Advanced Textbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H., Ed.; Lamb, Michael E., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This new text consists of parts of Bornstein and Lamb's Developmental Science, 6th edition along with new introductory material that as a whole provides a cutting edge and comprehensive overview of cognitive development. Each of the world-renowned contributors masterfully introduces the history and systems, methodologies, and measurement and…

  15. Sex Differences in Latent Cognitive Abilities Ages 6 to 59: Evidence from the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Timothy Z.; Reynolds, Matthew R.; Patel, Puja G.; Ridley, Kristen P.

    2008-01-01

    Sex differences in the latent general and broad cognitive abilities underlying the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities were investigated for children, youth, and adults ages 6 through 59. A developmental, multiple indicator-multiple cause, structural equation model was used to investigate sex differences in latent cognitive abilities as…

  16. Measuring up: Advances in How We Assess Reading Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabatini, John; Albro, Elizabeth; O'Reilly, Tenaha

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, the science of reading acquisition, processes, and individual differences in general and special populations has been continuously advancing through interdisciplinary research in cognitive, psycholinguistic, developmental, genetic, neuroscience, cross-language studies, and experimental comparison studies of effective…

  17. Childhood Cognitive Ability: Relationship to Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in India

    PubMed Central

    Veena, S R; Krishnaveni, G V; Srinivasan, K; Kurpad, A V; Muthayya, S; Hill, J C; Kiran, K N; Fall, C H D

    2012-01-01

    Aims/Hypothesis To test the hypothesis that maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with poorer cognitive ability in children born to mothers with GDM compared to children born to non-GDM mothers in India. Methods During 1997-98 maternal GDM status was assessed at 30±2 weeks of gestation. Between 2007-2008, at a mean age of 9.7 years, 515 children (32-offspring of GDM mothers (ODM’s); 483-offspring of non-GDM mothers (controls)) from the Mysore Parthenon birth cohort underwent cognitive function assessment using tests from the Kaufman Assessment Battery for children-second edition and additional tests measuring learning, long-term storage/retrieval, short-term memory, reasoning, attention and concentration, visuo-spatial and verbal abilities. Results Compared to controls, ODM’S scored higher in tests for learning, long-term retrieval/storage (p=0.008), reasoning (p=0.02), verbal ability (p=0.01) and attention and concentration (p=0.003). In multiple regression, adjusted for the child’s age, sex, gestation, neonatal weight and head circumference, maternal age, parity, BMI, parent’s socio-economic status, education and rural/urban residence, this difference remained significant only for learning, long-term retrieval/storage (β=0.4SD (95% CI: 0.01, 0.75); p=0.042) and verbal ability (β=0.5SD (95% CI: 0.09, 0.83); p=0.015) and not with other test scores. Conclusions/interpretation In this population of healthy Indian children, there was no evidence of lower cognitive ability in ODM’s. In fact some cognitive scores were higher in ODM’s. PMID:20614102

  18. CognitiveGenesis (CG): Assessing Academic Achievement and Cognitive Ability in Adventist Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thayer, Jerome; Kido, Elissa

    2012-01-01

    CognitiveGenesis collected achievement and ability test data from 2006-2009 for all students in Seventh-day Adventist schools in North America. Students were above average in achievement compared to national norms and achieved above that predicted by their ability scores. The more years students attended Adventist schools, the higher they…

  19. Longitudinal stability of cognitive ability in the Colorado Adoption Project.

    PubMed

    Baker, L A; DeFries, J C; Fulker, D W

    1983-04-01

    Measures of general cognitive ability in 1- and 2-year-old adopted and nonadopted infants and their parents were subjected to path analysis to estimate the contribution of genetic and environmental factors to short-term stability. Although significant genetic influences were found at both 1 and 2 years of age, no significant environmental influences shared by parents and children were observed at these ages. Short-term stability of mental ability between the 2 ages was relatively independent of both between-family genetic and environmental influences. However, genetic factors may contribute importantly to long-term stability.

  20. Relationship between Work Ability Index and Cognitive Failure among Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi, Milad; Zakerian, Abolfazl; Kolahdouzi, Malihe; Mehri, Ahmad; Akbarzadeh, Arash; Ebrahimi, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Frequent nursing errors are considered as factors that affect the quality of healthcare of patients. Capable nurses who are compatible with work conditions are more focused on their tasks, and this reduces their errors and cognitive failures. Therefore, this study was conducted with the aim of investigating the relationship between work ability index (WAI) and cognitive failures (CFs) as well as some factors that affect them in nurses working in the ICU, CCU, and emergency wards. Methods This descriptive-analytical and cross-sectional study was conducted with 750 nurses at educational hospitals affiliated with the Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2015. A questionnaire of work ability index and cognitive failures was used to collect data. The data were analyzed using SPSS 20 and the Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients, chi-squared, ANOVA, and the Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results Using the Pearson correlation test, the results of this study showed that there is a significant, inverse relationship between WAI, personal prognosis of work ability, and mental resources with CFs along with all its subscales in nurses (p < 0.05). In addition, there was an inverse and significant relationship between the total score of CFs and the estimated work impairment due to diseases (p < 0.05). There was a significant positive correlation of CFs with age and experience, while WAI was inversely related to age, work experience, and body mass index (BMI) (p < 0.05). WAI and CFs were related significantly to working units (p < 0.05). Conclusion Considering the results obtained in this study, WAI and the cognitive status of nurses were lower than the specified limit. It is suggested that the work ability of nurses be improved and that their CFs be reduced through various measures, including pre-employment examinations, proper management of work-shift conditions, and using engineering and administrative strategies to ensure the safety of hospitalized patients

  1. Structural brain MRI trait polygenic score prediction of cognitive abilities

    PubMed Central

    Luciano, Michelle; Marioni, Riccardo E; Hernández, Maria Valdés; Maniega, Susana Munoz; Hamilton, Iona F; Royle, Natalie A.; Scotland, Generation; Chauhan, Ganesh; Bis, Joshua C.; Debette, Stephanie; DeCarli, Charles; Fornage, Myriam; Schmidt, Reinhold; Ikram, M. Arfan; Launer, Lenore J.; Seshadri, Sudha; Bastin, Mark E.; Porteous, David J.; Wardlaw, Joanna; Deary, Ian J

    2016-01-01

    Structural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) traits share part of their genetic variance with cognitive traits. Here, we use genetic association results from large meta-analytic studies of genome-wide association for brain infarcts, white matter hyperintensities, intracranial, hippocampal and total brain volumes to estimate polygenic scores for these traits in three Scottish samples: Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (GS:SFHS), and the Lothian Birth Cohorts of 1936 (LBC1936) and 1921 (LBC1921). These five brain MRI trait polygenic scores were then used to 1) predict corresponding MRI traits in the LBC1936 (numbers ranged 573 to 630 across traits) and 2) predict cognitive traits in all three cohorts (in 8,115 to 8,250 persons). In the LBC1936, all MRI phenotypic traits were correlated with at least one cognitive measure; and polygenic prediction of MRI traits was observed for intracranial volume. Meta-analysis of the correlations between MRI polygenic scores and cognitive traits revealed a significant negative correlation (maximal r=0.08) between the hippocampal volume polygenic score and measures of global cognitive ability collected in childhood and in old age in the Lothian Birth Cohorts. The lack of association to a related general cognitive measure when including the GS:SFHS points to either type 1 error or the importance of using prediction samples that closely match the demographics of the genome-wide association samples from which prediction is based. Ideally, these analyses should be repeated in larger samples with data on both MRI and cognition, and using MRI GWA results from even larger meta-analysis studies. PMID:26427786

  2. Cognitive Correlates of Performance in Advanced Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Wei; Yuan, Hongbo; Chen, Chuansheng; Zhou, Xinlin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Much research has been devoted to understanding cognitive correlates of elementary mathematics performance, but little such research has been done for advanced mathematics (e.g., modern algebra, statistics, and mathematical logic).Aims: To promote mathematical knowledge among college students, it is necessary to understand what factors…

  3. Sex Differences in Latent Cognitive Abilities Ages 5 to 17: Evidence from the Differential Ability Scales--Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Timothy Z.; Reynolds, Matthew R.; Roberts, Lisa G.; Winter, Amanda L.; Austin, Cynthia A.

    2011-01-01

    Sex differences in the latent general and broad cognitive abilities underlying the Differential Ability Scales, Second Edition were investigated for children and youth ages 5 through 17. Multi-group mean and covariance structural equation modeling was used to investigate sex differences in latent cognitive abilities as well as changes in these…

  4. Did tool-use evolve with enhanced physical cognitive abilities?

    PubMed Central

    Teschke, I.; Wascher, C. A. F.; Scriba, M. F.; von Bayern, A. M. P.; Huml, V.; Siemers, B.; Tebbich, S.

    2013-01-01

    The use and manufacture of tools have been considered to be cognitively demanding and thus a possible driving factor in the evolution of intelligence. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that enhanced physical cognitive abilities evolved in conjunction with the use of tools, by comparing the performance of naturally tool-using and non-tool-using species in a suite of physical and general learning tasks. We predicted that the habitually tool-using species, New Caledonian crows and Galápagos woodpecker finches, should outperform their non-tool-using relatives, the small tree finches and the carrion crows in a physical problem but not in general learning tasks. We only found a divergence in the predicted direction for corvids. That only one of our comparisons supports the predictions under this hypothesis might be attributable to different complexities of tool-use in the two tool-using species. A critical evaluation is offered of the conceptual and methodological problems inherent in comparative studies on tool-related cognitive abilities. PMID:24101628

  5. Explanations for variation in cognitive ability: Behavioural ecology meets comparative cognition.

    PubMed

    Healy, S D; Bacon, I E; Haggis, O; Harris, A P; Kelley, L A

    2009-03-01

    Sara Shettleworth has played a defining role in the development of animal cognition and its integration into other parts of biology, especially behavioural ecology. Here we chart some of that progress in understanding the causes and importance of variation in cognitive ability and highlight how Tinbergen's levels of explanation provide a useful framework for this field. We also review how experimental design is crucial in investigating cognition and stress the need for naturalistic experiments and field studies. We focus particularly on the example of the relationship among food hoarding, spatial cognition and hippocampal structure, and review the conflicting evidence for sex differences in spatial cognition. We finish with speculation that a combination of Tinbergen and Shettleworth-style approaches would be the way to grapple with the as-yet unanswered questions of why birds mimic heterospecifics.

  6. Cognitive impairment but preservation of sexual dimorphism in cognitive abilities in chronic schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Halari, Rozmin; Mehrotra, Ravi; Sharma, Tonmoy; Ng, Virginia; Kumari, Veena

    2006-02-28

    Neurocognitive impairment in schizophrenia is well established, though sex differences on cognitive tasks have produced equivocal findings. The present study was designed to examine performance of schizophrenia patients on a sexually dimorphic cognitive battery. The cognitive battery comprising tests of spatial (mental rotation, computerized version of the Benton Judgment of Line Orientation) and verbal abilities (phonological and semantic fluency) was administered to men (n = 22) and women (n = 21) with schizophrenia and healthy controls (n = 21 men and 21 women). A series of multivariate analyses showed that the patient group performed worse than controls on all the cognitive tasks. Cognitive sexual dimorphism on all spatial tasks favoring men and verbal tasks favoring women remained. Within the patient sample, correlational data demonstrated that earlier age at onset of illness related to poorer spatial performance. It is concluded that normal sexual dimorphism is undisturbed on both spatial and verbal tasks by the schizophrenia disease process.

  7. Cognitive ability influences reproductive life history variation in the wild.

    PubMed

    Cole, Ella F; Morand-Ferron, Julie; Hinks, Amy E; Quinn, John L

    2012-10-01

    Cognition has been studied intensively for several decades, but the evolutionary processes that shape individual variation in cognitive traits remain elusive [1-3]. For instance, the strength of selection on a cognitive trait has never been estimated in a natural population, and the possibility that positive links with life history variation [1-5] are mitigated by costs [6] or confounded by ecological factors remains unexplored in the wild. We assessed novel problem-solving performance in 468 wild great tits Parus major temporarily taken into captivity and subsequently followed up their reproductive performance in the wild. Problem-solver females produced larger clutches than nonsolvers. This benefit did not arise because solvers timed their breeding better, occupied better habitats, or compromised offspring quality or their own survival. Instead, foraging range size and day length were relatively small and short, respectively, for solvers, suggesting that they were more efficient at exploiting their environment. In contrast to the positive effect on clutch size, problem solvers deserted their nests more often, leading to little or no overall selection on problem-solving performance. Our results are consistent with the idea that variation in cognitive ability is shaped by contrasting effects on different life history traits directly linked to fitness [1, 3]. PMID:22940473

  8. Convergence of complex cognitive abilities in cetaceans and primates.

    PubMed

    Marino, Lori

    2002-01-01

    What examples of convergence in higher-level complex cognitive characteristics exist in the animal kingdom? In this paper I will provide evidence that convergent intelligence has occurred in two distantly related mammalian taxa. One of these is the order Cetacea (dolphins, whales and porpoises) and the other is our own order Primates, and in particular the suborder anthropoid primates (monkeys, apes, and humans). Despite a deep evolutionary divergence, adaptation to physically dissimilar environments, and very different neuroanatomical organization, some primates and cetaceans show striking convergence in social behavior, artificial 'language' comprehension, and self-recognition ability. Taken together, these findings have important implications for understanding the generality and specificity of those processes that underlie cognition in different species and the nature of the evolution of intelligence.

  9. Cognitive abilities in left-handers: writing posture revisited.

    PubMed

    Teasdale, T W; Owen, D R

    2001-01-01

    Among 1848 young men appearing before the Danish draft board, 232 (13%) were left-handed. Of these, 118 (51%) used an inverted, or hook-like, writing posture, 49 (21%) used a non-inverted posture and the remaining 65 (28%) could not be categorized. There were no differences between left- and right-handers on a battery of four cognitive tests. However, inverted left-handers performed significantly or near-significantly better than the non-inverted left-handers on two of the four tests and significantly better on the total score for the test battery. These results support the contention that the inverted posture is adaptive for left-handers and suggest that it may be more likely to be adopted by those with better cognitive abilities. Our findings conflict with earlier reports from two decades ago, however, and the association may therefore be socially and culturally dependent.

  10. The Relationships between Cognitive Ability and Dental Status in a National Sample of USA Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabbah, Wael; Sheiham, Aubrey

    2010-01-01

    There are very few studies on the relationship between cognitive ability and dental status in middle aged and younger adults. We postulate that lower cognitive ability is directly related to poorer dental status and that this relationship operates through the relationship between cognitive ability and health-related behaviors. The objectives of…

  11. Gender, culture, and sex-typed cognitive abilities.

    PubMed

    Reilly, David

    2012-01-01

    Although gender differences in cognitive abilities are frequently reported, the magnitude of these differences and whether they hold practical significance in the educational outcomes of boys and girls is highly debated. Furthermore, when gender gaps in reading, mathematics and science literacy are reported they are often attributed to innate, biological differences rather than social and cultural factors. Cross-cultural evidence may contribute to this debate, and this study reports national gender differences in reading, mathematics and science literacy from 65 nations participating in the 2009 round of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). Consistently across all nations, girls outperform boys in reading literacy, d = -.44. Boys outperform girls in mathematics in the USA, d = .22 and across OECD nations, d = .13. For science literacy, while the USA showed the largest gender difference across all OECD nations, d = .14, gender differences across OECD nations were non-significant, and a small female advantage was found for non-OECD nations, d = -.09. Across all three domains, these differences were more pronounced at both tails of the distribution for low- and high-achievers. Considerable cross-cultural variability was also observed, and national gender differences were correlated with gender equity measures, economic prosperity, and Hofstede's cultural dimension of power distance. Educational and societal implications of such gender gaps are addressed, as well as the mechanisms by which gender differences in cognitive abilities are culturally mediated.

  12. Cognitive, perceptual, and motor abilities in skilled basketball performance.

    PubMed

    Kioumourtzoglou, E; Derri, V; Tzetzis, G; Theodorakis, Y

    1998-06-01

    The differences among athletes of differing skill should assist successful identification and selection of the best athletes in a specific sport. For the purpose of this study, a laboratory study was conducted with a group of 13 men on the elite male national team of basketball players, 22 to 23 years of age, and a control group of 15 men of equal age (physical education class) to assess differences in their scores on cognitive skills (memory-retention, memory-grouping analytic ability), perceptual skills (speed of perception, prediction, selective attention, response selection), and motor skills (dynamic balance, whole body coordination, wrist-finger dexterity, rhythmic ability). Analysis showed that elite male basketball players scored higher on hand coordination and lower on dynamic balance given their anthropometric measurements. Elite players were better on memory-retention, selective attention, and on prediction measures than the control group. The above skills are important in basketball performance. Researchers may examine whether other factors contribute more in the development of perceptual and cognitive skills.

  13. Gender, Culture, and Sex-Typed Cognitive Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Reilly, David

    2012-01-01

    Although gender differences in cognitive abilities are frequently reported, the magnitude of these differences and whether they hold practical significance in the educational outcomes of boys and girls is highly debated. Furthermore, when gender gaps in reading, mathematics and science literacy are reported they are often attributed to innate, biological differences rather than social and cultural factors. Cross-cultural evidence may contribute to this debate, and this study reports national gender differences in reading, mathematics and science literacy from 65 nations participating in the 2009 round of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). Consistently across all nations, girls outperform boys in reading literacy, d = −.44. Boys outperform girls in mathematics in the USA, d = .22 and across OECD nations, d = .13. For science literacy, while the USA showed the largest gender difference across all OECD nations, d = .14, gender differences across OECD nations were non-significant, and a small female advantage was found for non-OECD nations, d = −.09. Across all three domains, these differences were more pronounced at both tails of the distribution for low- and high-achievers. Considerable cross-cultural variability was also observed, and national gender differences were correlated with gender equity measures, economic prosperity, and Hofstede’s cultural dimension of power distance. Educational and societal implications of such gender gaps are addressed, as well as the mechanisms by which gender differences in cognitive abilities are culturally mediated. PMID:22808072

  14. Cognitive abilities of Emirati and German engineering university students.

    PubMed

    Rindermann, Heiner; Baumeister, Antonia E E; Gröper, Anne

    2014-03-01

    According to human capital theory, individual competences and personality attributes are relevant for individual productivity and income. Within human capital, intelligence is crucial. To study engineering and work successfully as an engineer, high cognitive abilities are necessary, especially for work in research and development. In a study of 30 German and 30 Emirati engineering students (mean age: 22 years), both groups were tested with mathematical and figural intelligence scales (CogAT). German engineering students achieved a mean IQ of 116, and Emirati students 104 (in converted UK norms). In both groups male students achieved better results than females (2 to 4 IQ point difference). The results are compared with those from PISA and TIMSS. The possible causes of these results, their consequences and strategies for improvement are discussed.

  15. Infant Hand Preference and the Development of Cognitive Abilities.

    PubMed

    Michel, George F; Campbell, Julie M; Marcinowski, Emily C; Nelson, Eliza L; Babik, Iryna

    2016-01-01

    Hand preference develops in the first two postnatal years with nearly half of infants exhibiting a consistent early preference for acquiring objects. Others exhibit a more variable developmental trajectory but by the end of their second postnatal year, most exhibit a consistent hand preference for role-differentiated bimanual manipulation. According to some forms of embodiment theory, these differences in hand use patterns should influence the way children interact with their environments, which, in turn, should affect the structure and function of brain development. Such early differences in brain development should result in different trajectories of psychological development. We present evidence that children with consistent early hand preferences exhibit advanced patterns of cognitive development as compared to children who develop a hand preference later. Differences in the developmental trajectory of hand preference are predictive of developmental differences in language, object management skills, and tool-use skills. As predicted by Casasanto's body-specificity hypothesis, infants with different hand preferences proceed along different developmental pathways of cognitive functioning. PMID:27047431

  16. Infant Hand Preference and the Development of Cognitive Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Michel, George F.; Campbell, Julie M.; Marcinowski, Emily C.; Nelson, Eliza L.; Babik, Iryna

    2016-01-01

    Hand preference develops in the first two postnatal years with nearly half of infants exhibiting a consistent early preference for acquiring objects. Others exhibit a more variable developmental trajectory but by the end of their second postnatal year, most exhibit a consistent hand preference for role-differentiated bimanual manipulation. According to some forms of embodiment theory, these differences in hand use patterns should influence the way children interact with their environments, which, in turn, should affect the structure and function of brain development. Such early differences in brain development should result in different trajectories of psychological development. We present evidence that children with consistent early hand preferences exhibit advanced patterns of cognitive development as compared to children who develop a hand preference later. Differences in the developmental trajectory of hand preference are predictive of developmental differences in language, object management skills, and tool-use skills. As predicted by Casasanto’s body-specificity hypothesis, infants with different hand preferences proceed along different developmental pathways of cognitive functioning. PMID:27047431

  17. Diagnostic Utility of WISC-IV General Abilities Index and Cognitive Proficiency Index Difference Scores among Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devena, Sarah E.; Watkins, Marley W.

    2012-01-01

    The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition General Abilities Index and Cognitive Proficiency Index have been advanced as possible diagnostic markers of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. This hypothesis was tested with a hospital sample with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (n = 78), a referred but nondiagnosed…

  18. You Are What You Eat? Meal Type, Socio-Economic Status and Cognitive Ability in Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Stumm, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    The current study tests if the type of children's daily main meal (slow versus fast food) mediates the association of socioeconomic status (SES) with cognitive ability and cognitive growth in childhood. A Scottish birth cohort (Growing Up in Scotland) was assessed at ages 3 (N = 4512) and 5 years (N = 3833) on cognitive ability (i.e. vocabulary…

  19. Environmental enrichment promotes neural plasticity and cognitive ability in fish.

    PubMed

    Salvanes, Anne Gro Vea; Moberg, Olav; Ebbesson, Lars O E; Nilsen, Tom Ole; Jensen, Knut Helge; Braithwaite, Victoria A

    2013-09-22

    Different kinds of experience during early life can play a significant role in the development of an animal's behavioural phenotype. In natural contexts, this influences behaviours from anti-predator responses to navigation abilities. By contrast, for animals reared in captive environments, the homogeneous nature of their experience tends to reduce behavioural flexibility. Studies with cage-reared rodents indicate that captivity often compromises neural development and neural plasticity. Such neural and behavioural deficits can be problematic if captive-bred animals are being reared with the intention of releasing them as part of a conservation strategy. Over the last decade, there has been growing interest in the use of environmental enrichment to promote behavioural flexibility in animals that are bred for release. Here, we describe the positive effects of environmental enrichment on neural plasticity and cognition in juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Exposing fish to enriched conditions upregulated the forebrain expression of NeuroD1 mRNA and improved learning ability assessed in a spatial task. The addition of enrichment to the captive environment thus promotes neural and behavioural changes that are likely to promote behavioural flexibility and improve post-release survival.

  20. Environmental enrichment promotes neural plasticity and cognitive ability in fish

    PubMed Central

    Salvanes, Anne Gro Vea; Moberg, Olav; Ebbesson, Lars O. E.; Nilsen, Tom Ole; Jensen, Knut Helge; Braithwaite, Victoria A.

    2013-01-01

    Different kinds of experience during early life can play a significant role in the development of an animal's behavioural phenotype. In natural contexts, this influences behaviours from anti-predator responses to navigation abilities. By contrast, for animals reared in captive environments, the homogeneous nature of their experience tends to reduce behavioural flexibility. Studies with cage-reared rodents indicate that captivity often compromises neural development and neural plasticity. Such neural and behavioural deficits can be problematic if captive-bred animals are being reared with the intention of releasing them as part of a conservation strategy. Over the last decade, there has been growing interest in the use of environmental enrichment to promote behavioural flexibility in animals that are bred for release. Here, we describe the positive effects of environmental enrichment on neural plasticity and cognition in juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Exposing fish to enriched conditions upregulated the forebrain expression of NeuroD1 mRNA and improved learning ability assessed in a spatial task. The addition of enrichment to the captive environment thus promotes neural and behavioural changes that are likely to promote behavioural flexibility and improve post-release survival. PMID:23902903

  1. Ego Identity, Cognitive Ability, and Academic Achievement: Variances, Relationships, and Gender Differences Among High School Sophomores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrabel, Thomas J.

    This study examined the contributions of cognitive quantitative ability, cognitive verbal ability, normed test achievement and grade point average to the ego identity of 202 high school sophomores. The instrumentation used in this study was as follows: (1) Rasmussen Ego Identity Scale: Revised Short Form; (2) The 3-R's Abilities and Achievement…

  2. The structure of individual differences in the cognitive abilities of children and chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Esther; Hernández-Lloreda, Maria Victoria; Call, Josep; Hare, Brian; Tomasello, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Most studies of animal cognition focus on group performance and neglect individual differences and the correlational structure of cognitive abilities. Moreover, no previous studies have compared the correlational structure of cognitive abilities in nonhuman animals and humans. We compared the structure of individual differences of 106 chimpanzees and 105 two-year-old human children using 15 cognitive tasks that posed problems about the physical or social world. We found a similar factor of spatial cognition for the two species. But whereas the chimpanzees had only a single factor in addition to spatial cognition, the children had two distinct additional factors: one for physical cognition and one for social cognition. These findings, in combination with previous research, support the proposal that humans share many cognitive skills with nonhuman apes, especially for dealing with the physical world, but in addition have evolved some specialized skills of social cognition.

  3. Cognitive Abilities of Patients with Lesch-Nyhan Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Lowell T.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Parents of 42 children (ages 2-32) with Lesch-Nyhan disease were questioned concerning the subjects' behavior patterns. Grouping of responses into nine categories of cognitive skills indicated that only one boy showed any significant cognitive impairment. Despite evidence of good cognitive and emotional skills, subjects were academically delayed,…

  4. Classical and Molecular Genetic Research on General Cognitive Ability.

    PubMed

    McGue, Matt; Gottesman, Irving I

    2015-01-01

    Arguably, no psychological variable has received more attention from behavioral geneticists than what has been called "general cognitive ability" (as well as "general intelligence" or "g"), and for good reason. GCA has a rich correlational network, implying that it may play an important role in multiple domains of functioning. GCA is highly correlated with various indicators of educational attainment, yet its predictive utility is not limited to academic achievement. It is also correlated with work performance, navigating the complexities of everyday life, the absence of various social pathologies (such as criminal convictions), and even health and mortality. Although the causal basis for these associations is not always known, it is nonetheless the case that research on GCA has the potential to provide insights into the origins of a wide range of important social outcomes. In this essay, our discussion of why GCA is considered a fundamentally important dimension of behavior on which humans differ is followed by a look at behavioral genetics research on CGA. We summarize behavioral genetics research that has sought to identify and quantify the total contributions of genetic and environmental factors to individual differences in GCA as well as molecular genetic research that has sought to identify genetic variants that underlie inherited effects.

  5. Classical and Molecular Genetic Research on General Cognitive Ability.

    PubMed

    McGue, Matt; Gottesman, Irving I

    2015-01-01

    Arguably, no psychological variable has received more attention from behavioral geneticists than what has been called "general cognitive ability" (as well as "general intelligence" or "g"), and for good reason. GCA has a rich correlational network, implying that it may play an important role in multiple domains of functioning. GCA is highly correlated with various indicators of educational attainment, yet its predictive utility is not limited to academic achievement. It is also correlated with work performance, navigating the complexities of everyday life, the absence of various social pathologies (such as criminal convictions), and even health and mortality. Although the causal basis for these associations is not always known, it is nonetheless the case that research on GCA has the potential to provide insights into the origins of a wide range of important social outcomes. In this essay, our discussion of why GCA is considered a fundamentally important dimension of behavior on which humans differ is followed by a look at behavioral genetics research on CGA. We summarize behavioral genetics research that has sought to identify and quantify the total contributions of genetic and environmental factors to individual differences in GCA as well as molecular genetic research that has sought to identify genetic variants that underlie inherited effects. PMID:26413945

  6. The ABCs of Math: A Genetic Analysis of Mathematics and Its Links With Reading Ability and General Cognitive Ability.

    PubMed

    Hart, Sara A; Petrill, Stephen A; Thompson, Lee A; Plomin, Robert

    2009-05-01

    The goal of this first major report from the Western Reserve Reading Project Math component is to explore the etiology of the relationship among tester-administered measures of mathematics ability, reading ability, and general cognitive ability. Data are available on 314 pairs of monozygotic and same-sex dizygotic twins analyzed across 5 waves of assessment. Univariate analyses provide a range of estimates of genetic (h(2) = .00 -.63) and shared (c(2) = .15-.52) environmental influences across math calculation, fluency, and problem solving measures. Multivariate analyses indicate genetic overlap between math problem solving with general cognitive ability and reading decoding, whereas math fluency shares significant genetic overlap with reading fluency and general cognitive ability. Further, math fluency has unique genetic influences. In general, math ability has shared environmental overlap with general cognitive ability and decoding. These results indicate that aspects of math that include problem solving have different genetic and environmental influences than math calculation. Moreover, math fluency, a timed measure of calculation, is the only measured math ability with unique genetic influences.

  7. The relationship between change in cognition and change in functional ability in schizophrenia during cognitive and psychosocial rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Rispaud, Samuel G; Rose, Jennifer; Kurtz, Matthew M

    2016-10-30

    While a wealth of studies have evaluated cross-sectional links between cognition and functioning in schizophrenia, few have investigated the relationship between change in cognition and change in functioning in the context of treatment trials targeted at cognition. Identifying cognitive skills that, when improved, predict improvement in functioning will guide the development of more targeted rehabilitation for this population. The present study identifies the relationship between change in specific cognitive skills and change in functional ability during one year of cognitive rehabilitation. Ninety-six individuals with schizophrenia were assessed with a battery of cognitive measures and a measure of performance-based functioning before and after cognitive training consisting of either drill-and-practice cognitive remediation or computer skills training. Results revealed that while working and episodic memory, problem-solving, and processing speed skills all improved during the trial, only improved working memory and processing speed skills predicted improvement in functional ability. Secondary analyses revealed these relationships were driven by individuals who showed a moderate level (SD≥0.5) of cognitive improvement during the trial. These findings suggest that while a variety of cognitive skills may improve during training targeted at cognition, only improvements in a subset of cognitive functions may translate into functional gains.

  8. Motivational reserve: lifetime motivational abilities contribute to cognitive and emotional health in old age.

    PubMed

    Forstmeier, Simon; Maercker, Andreas

    2008-12-01

    The authors recently developed the concept of motivational reserve, which implies a set of motivational abilities that provide individuals with resilience to neuropathological damage. This study investigated how lifetime motivational abilities are associated with current cognitive status, mild cognitive impairment, and psychological well-being in old age. A community sample of 147 participants without dementia between 60 and 94 years of age, stratified for age group, sex, and education, completed motivation and well-being questionnaires and cognitive tests. A new procedure was used to estimate their midlife motivational and cognitive abilities on the basis of their main occupation using the Occupational Information Network (O*NET) system. O*NET-estimated motivational abilities predicted cognitive status, psychological well-being, and odds of mild cognitive impairment, even when age, sex, education, and cognitive ability were controlled. Although O*NET-estimated cognitive abilities were not significant predictors, scores on a measure of crystallized intelligence were associated with current cognitive status and odds of mild cognitive impairment. Findings suggest that motivational reserve acts as a protective factor against the manifestation of cognitive impairment and emotional problems in later life.

  9. Towards Cognitive Coherence In Physics Learning: Image-ability Of Undergraduate Solid State Physics Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, S.; Ahluwalia, P. K.

    2010-07-01

    Based on the famous work of K. Lynch [7] on image-ability of a cityscape, recently a city of physics analogy has been proposed by A.E. Tabor et al.[8] to enhance the cognitive coherence of physics as a subject. The idea of both Lynch and A. abor. et al. is being extended in this paper to image-ability of an undergraduate Solid State Physics course to bring forth cognitive coherence of the subject in a global manner. In this paper an image-ability map of the course is presented both in a pictorial and tabular format with recognition of sections of the syllabus as districts and sub districts. Further in each district and sub district, key concepts as land marks, variables involved as nodes, key physical equations as paths and limits on variables as edges or boundaries are identified through peer discussion among a group of teachers who are teaching this course for the last couple of years. This exercise has helped not only in mental mapping of the subject but focusing on hitherto isolated and advanced topics provided in the syllabus as leading to a very different mental recreational spots in the cityscape of undergraduate Solid State Physics.

  10. Selected Cognitive Abilities in Elite Youth Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Baláková, Veronika; Boschek, Petr; Skalíková, Lucie

    2015-12-22

    The identification of talent in soccer is critical to various programs. Although many research findings have been presented, there have been only a few attempts to assess their validity. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between talent and achievement variables in the Vienna Test System. The participants were 91 Czech soccer players, representing four youth soccer teams, who were born in the year 2000. These boys were divided into two groups according to their coaches' assessments using a TALENT questionnaire. A two-factor model (component 1: "kinetic finesse"; component 2: "mental strength") was designed to interpret the responses of the coaches on the questionnaire. The Vienna Test System was used to determine the level of players' cognitive abilities. In total, the subjects performed seven tests in the following order: Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM), a reaction test (RT), a determination test (DT), a visual pursuit test (LVT), a Corsi Block-Tapping Test (CORSI), a time/movement anticipation test (ZBA), and a peripheral perception test (PP). To analyze the relationship between talent and achievement variables within the Vienna Test System, correlation analyses were performed. The results revealed that the talented group attained significantly better results on only 1 of the 16 variables, which was ZBA2: movement anticipation - deviation of movement median (r = .217, p = .019). A comparison of the two talent components showed that component 1 ("kinetic finesse") was a more significant factor than component 2 ("mental strength"). Although we observed statistically significant correlations, their actual significance remains questionable; thus, further research is required. PMID:26839627

  11. Selected Cognitive Abilities in Elite Youth Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Baláková, Veronika; Boschek, Petr; Skalíková, Lucie

    2015-01-01

    The identification of talent in soccer is critical to various programs. Although many research findings have been presented, there have been only a few attempts to assess their validity. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between talent and achievement variables in the Vienna Test System. The participants were 91 Czech soccer players, representing four youth soccer teams, who were born in the year 2000. These boys were divided into two groups according to their coaches’ assessments using a TALENT questionnaire. A two-factor model (component 1: “kinetic finesse”; component 2: “mental strength”) was designed to interpret the responses of the coaches on the questionnaire. The Vienna Test System was used to determine the level of players’ cognitive abilities. In total, the subjects performed seven tests in the following order: Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM), a reaction test (RT), a determination test (DT), a visual pursuit test (LVT), a Corsi Block-Tapping Test (CORSI), a time/movement anticipation test (ZBA), and a peripheral perception test (PP). To analyze the relationship between talent and achievement variables within the Vienna Test System, correlation analyses were performed. The results revealed that the talented group attained significantly better results on only 1 of the 16 variables, which was ZBA2: movement anticipation - deviation of movement median (r = .217, p = .019). A comparison of the two talent components showed that component 1 (“kinetic finesse”) was a more significant factor than component 2 (“mental strength”). Although we observed statistically significant correlations, their actual significance remains questionable; thus, further research is required. PMID:26839627

  12. Cognitive abilities of health and art college students a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    AlAbdulwahab, Sami S.; Kachanathu, Shaji John; AlKhamees, Abdullah K.

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The selection of a college major is a struggle that high school students undergo every year; however, there is a dearth of studies examining the role of cognitive ability tests as a tool for determining the aptitude of prospective students. Hence, the purpose of this study was to assess cognitive ability differences among students. [Subjects and Methods] A convenience sample of 60 college students (30 health science and 30 art students) with a mean age of 19 ± 1.6 years, voluntarily participated in this study. Cognitive ability was assessed using the self-administered Cognitive Assessment of Minnesota (CAM) scale under the supervision of a researcher. [Results] The findings indicated that there was a significant cognitive ability difference between health science and art students, especially in the cognitive components of knowledge, calculation, and thinking. However, the difference in the social cognitive component of both the health science and art students was not significant. [Conclusion] The results indicate that the health science students’ cognitive abilities were better than those of the art students. This finding implies that it is important for high school graduates to undertake a cognitive ability assessment prior to choosing a subject major. Hence, it is recommended that cognitive scales should be included as an aptitude assessment tool for the decision-makers and prospective students to determine an appropriate career, since it might reduce the percentage of university drop-out ratio. PMID:27313350

  13. Cognitive abilities of health and art college students a pilot study.

    PubMed

    AlAbdulwahab, Sami S; Kachanathu, Shaji John; AlKhamees, Abdullah K

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] The selection of a college major is a struggle that high school students undergo every year; however, there is a dearth of studies examining the role of cognitive ability tests as a tool for determining the aptitude of prospective students. Hence, the purpose of this study was to assess cognitive ability differences among students. [Subjects and Methods] A convenience sample of 60 college students (30 health science and 30 art students) with a mean age of 19 ± 1.6 years, voluntarily participated in this study. Cognitive ability was assessed using the self-administered Cognitive Assessment of Minnesota (CAM) scale under the supervision of a researcher. [Results] The findings indicated that there was a significant cognitive ability difference between health science and art students, especially in the cognitive components of knowledge, calculation, and thinking. However, the difference in the social cognitive component of both the health science and art students was not significant. [Conclusion] The results indicate that the health science students' cognitive abilities were better than those of the art students. This finding implies that it is important for high school graduates to undertake a cognitive ability assessment prior to choosing a subject major. Hence, it is recommended that cognitive scales should be included as an aptitude assessment tool for the decision-makers and prospective students to determine an appropriate career, since it might reduce the percentage of university drop-out ratio. PMID:27313350

  14. Is Education Associated with Improvements in General Cognitive Ability, or in Specific Skills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchie, Stuart J.; Bates, Timothy C.; Deary, Ian J.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that education influences cognitive development, but it is unclear what, precisely, is being improved. Here, we tested whether education is associated with cognitive test score improvements via domain-general effects on general cognitive ability ("g"), or via domain-specific effects on particular cognitive…

  15. The Cognitive Profile of Adult Dyslexics and Its Relation to Their Reading Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beidas, Hanin; Khateb, Asaid; Breznitz, Zvia

    2013-01-01

    The question of which cognitive impairments are primarily associated with dyslexia has been a source of continuous debate. This study examined the cognitive profile of Hebrew-speaking compensated adult dyslexics and investigated whether their cognitive abilities accounted for a unique variance in their reading performance. Sixty-nine young adults…

  16. The Analysis of Cognitive Abilities in the Preschool Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blank, Marion

    In order to gain a greater understanding of the intellectual strengths and weaknesses of the young child, a test was developed (for which data collection is ongoing) to investigate a broad range of cognitive skills in the three- to five-year age range. The test covers skills within four main spheres--cognitively Directed Perception, Concepts and…

  17. The Cycle of Schizoaffective Disorder, Cognitive Ability, Alcoholism, and Suicidality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Gerald; Haas, Gretchen L.; Pakrashi, Manish; Novero, Ada M.; Luther, James F.

    2006-01-01

    In this study we investigated the putative role of cognitive dysfunction, diagnosis (schizoaffective versus schizophrenia disorder), and alcoholism as risk factors for suicidal behavior among individuals with DSM-IV schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders. Subjects received cognitive tests and medical records were reviewed for evidence of a…

  18. The genetic and environmental etiologies of the relations between cognitive skills and components of reading ability.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Micaela E; Keenan, Janice M; Hulslander, Jacqueline; DeFries, John C; Miyake, Akira; Wadsworth, Sally J; Willcutt, Erik; Pennington, Bruce; Olson, Richard K

    2016-04-01

    Although previous research has shown cognitive skills to be important predictors of reading ability in children, the respective roles for genetic and environmental influences on these relations is an open question. The present study explored the genetic and environmental etiologies underlying the relations between selected executive functions and cognitive abilities (working memory, inhibition, processing speed, and naming speed) with 3 components of reading ability (word reading, reading comprehension, and listening comprehension). Twin pairs drawn from the Colorado Front Range (n = 676; 224 monozygotic pairs; 452 dizygotic pairs) between the ages of 8 and 16 (M = 11.11) were assessed on multiple measures of each cognitive and reading-related skill. Each cognitive and reading-related skill was modeled as a latent variable, and behavioral genetic analyses estimated the portions of phenotypic variance on each latent variable due to genetic, shared environmental, and nonshared environmental influences. The covariance between the cognitive skills and reading-related skills was driven primarily by genetic influences. The cognitive skills also shared large amounts of genetic variance, as did the reading-related skills. The common cognitive genetic variance was highly correlated with the common reading genetic variance, suggesting that genetic influences involved in general cognitive processing are also important for reading ability. Skill-specific genetic variance in working memory and processing speed also predicted components of reading ability. Taken together, the present study supports a genetic association between children's cognitive ability and reading ability.

  19. The genetic and environmental etiologies of the relations between cognitive skills and components of reading ability.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Micaela E; Keenan, Janice M; Hulslander, Jacqueline; DeFries, John C; Miyake, Akira; Wadsworth, Sally J; Willcutt, Erik; Pennington, Bruce; Olson, Richard K

    2016-04-01

    Although previous research has shown cognitive skills to be important predictors of reading ability in children, the respective roles for genetic and environmental influences on these relations is an open question. The present study explored the genetic and environmental etiologies underlying the relations between selected executive functions and cognitive abilities (working memory, inhibition, processing speed, and naming speed) with 3 components of reading ability (word reading, reading comprehension, and listening comprehension). Twin pairs drawn from the Colorado Front Range (n = 676; 224 monozygotic pairs; 452 dizygotic pairs) between the ages of 8 and 16 (M = 11.11) were assessed on multiple measures of each cognitive and reading-related skill. Each cognitive and reading-related skill was modeled as a latent variable, and behavioral genetic analyses estimated the portions of phenotypic variance on each latent variable due to genetic, shared environmental, and nonshared environmental influences. The covariance between the cognitive skills and reading-related skills was driven primarily by genetic influences. The cognitive skills also shared large amounts of genetic variance, as did the reading-related skills. The common cognitive genetic variance was highly correlated with the common reading genetic variance, suggesting that genetic influences involved in general cognitive processing are also important for reading ability. Skill-specific genetic variance in working memory and processing speed also predicted components of reading ability. Taken together, the present study supports a genetic association between children's cognitive ability and reading ability. PMID:26974208

  20. Vestibular involvement in cognition: Visuospatial ability, attention, executive function, and memory.

    PubMed

    Bigelow, Robin T; Agrawal, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of literature suggests the inner ear vestibular system has a substantial impact on cognitive function. The strongest evidence exists in connecting vestibular function to the cognitive domain of visuospatial ability, which includes spatial memory, navigation, mental rotation, and mental representation of three-dimensional space. Substantial evidence also exists suggesting the vestibular system has an impact on attention and cognitive processing ability. The cognitive domains of memory and executive function are also implicated in a number of studies. We will review the current literature, discuss possible causal links between vestibular dysfunction and cognitive performance, and suggest areas of future research. PMID:26410672

  1. Vestibular involvement in cognition: Visuospatial ability, attention, executive function, and memory.

    PubMed

    Bigelow, Robin T; Agrawal, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of literature suggests the inner ear vestibular system has a substantial impact on cognitive function. The strongest evidence exists in connecting vestibular function to the cognitive domain of visuospatial ability, which includes spatial memory, navigation, mental rotation, and mental representation of three-dimensional space. Substantial evidence also exists suggesting the vestibular system has an impact on attention and cognitive processing ability. The cognitive domains of memory and executive function are also implicated in a number of studies. We will review the current literature, discuss possible causal links between vestibular dysfunction and cognitive performance, and suggest areas of future research.

  2. Total MRI load of cerebral small vessel disease and cognitive ability in older people

    PubMed Central

    Staals, Julie; Booth, Tom; Morris, Zoe; Bastin, Mark E.; Gow, Alan J.; Corley, Janie; Redmond, Paul; Starr, John M.; Deary, Ian J.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) may cause cognitive dysfunction. We tested the association between the combined presence of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of SVD and cognitive ability in older age. Cognitive testing and brain MRI were performed in 680 older participants. MRI presence of lacunes, white matter hyperintensities, microbleeds, and perivascular spaces were summed in a score of 0–4 representing all SVD features combined. We also applied latent variable modeling to test whether the 4 MRI features form a unitary SVD construct. The SVD score showed significant associations with general cognitive ability. Latent variable modeling indicated that the 4 MRI markers formed a unitary construct, which showed consistent associations with cognitive ability compared with the SVD score. Total MRI load of SVD is associated with lower general cognitive ability in older age. The total SVD score performed consistently with the more complex latent variable model, suggesting validity and potential utility in future research for determining total SVD load. PMID:26189091

  3. The Long-Term Effects of Childhood Music Instruction on Intelligence and General Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa-Giomi, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews research on the effects of music instruction on general cognitive abilities. The review of more than 75 reports shows (1) the consistency in results pertaining to the short-term effects of music instruction on cognitive abilities and the lack of clear evidence on the long-term effects on intelligence; (2) the complex nature of…

  4. Levels of Stress as Reported by Parents and Its Relationship to Their Child's Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodbury, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if any relationship exists between "Parenting Stress Index" factors and child's cognitive abilities (Cattell-Horn-Carroll Theory of general intelligence). The participant population consisted of 16 mothers and 16 children. The cognitive abilities were measured by using one of the following measures: (1)…

  5. The Reciprocal Relation between Children's Attachment Representations and Their Cognitive Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stievenart, Marie; Roskam, Isabelle; Meunier, Jean Christophe; van de Moortele, Gaelle

    2011-01-01

    This study explores reciprocal relations between children's attachment representations and their cognitive ability. Previous literature has mainly focused on the prediction of cognitive abilities from attachment, rarely on the reverse prediction. This was explored in the current research. Attachment representations were assessed with the…

  6. The Contribution of General Cognitive Abilities and Approximate Number System to Early Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passolunghi, Maria Chiara; Cargnelutti, Elisa; Pastore, Massimiliano

    2014-01-01

    Background: Math learning is a complex process that entails a wide range of cognitive abilities to be fulfilled. There is sufficient evidence that both general and specific cognitive skills assume a fundamental role, despite the absence of shared consensus about the relative extent of their involvement. Moreover, regarding general abilities, there…

  7. A Study of the Relationship between Learning Styles and Cognitive Abilities in Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hames, E.; Baker, M.

    2015-01-01

    Learning preferences have been indirectly linked to student success in engineering programmes, without a significant body of research to connect learning preferences with cognitive abilities. A better understanding of the relationship between learning styles and cognitive abilities will allow educators to optimise the classroom experience for…

  8. Associations between Private Speech, Behavioral Self-Regulation, and Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aro, Tuija; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Laakso, Marja-Leena; Tolvanen, Asko; Ahonen, Timo

    2015-01-01

    We examined the associations between 5-year-old children's private speech, behavioural self-regulation, and cognitive abilities. Behavioural self-regulation was assessed using parental and preschool teacher questionnaires. Cognitive abilities (i.e., language, inhibition, planning and fluency, and memory) were assessed with neurocognitive tests,…

  9. Differentiation of Cognitive Abilities as a Function of Neuroticism Level: A Measurement Equivalence/Invariance Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonaccio, Silvia; Reeve, Charlie L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the differentiation of cognitive abilities as a function of neuroticism. Specifically, we examine Eysenck and White's [Eysenck, H. J., and White, P. O. (1964). Personality and the measurement of intelligence. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 24, 197-201.] hypothesis that cognitive abilities are less differentiated…

  10. Social Networking Sites and Cognitive Abilities: Do They Make You Smarter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Horton, John; Alloway, Ross G.; Dawson, Clare

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of social networking sites (SNS) on cognitive abilities and reported levels of social connectedness in adolescents. In order to provide a reliable measure of cognitive skills, standardized tests of verbal ability, working memory, and academic attainment were administered. Students also…

  11. SES and CHAOS as Environmental Mediators of Cognitive Ability: A Longitudinal Genetic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Sara A.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Deckard, Kirby Deater; Thompson, Lee A.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined shared environmental influences on the longitudinal stability of general cognitive ability, as mediated by socioeconomic status and chaos in the home, using 287 pairs of elementary school-age twins drawn from the Western Reserve Reading Project (WRRP). General cognitive ability was evaluated at two annual assessments using the…

  12. Cognitive ability of preschool, primary and secondary school children in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Rindermann, Heiner; Stiegmaier, Eva-Maria; Meisenberg, Gerhard

    2015-05-01

    Cognitive abilities of children in Costa Rica and Austria were compared using three age groups (N = 385/366). Cognitive ability tests (mental speed, culture reduced/fluid intelligence, literacy/crystallized intelligence) were applied that differed in the extent to which they refer to school-related knowledge. Preschool children (kindergarten, 5-6 years old, N(CR) = 80, N(Au) = 51) were assessed with the Coloured Progressive Matrices (CPM), primary school children (4th grade, 9-11 years old, N(CR) = 71, N(Au) = 71) with ZVT (a trail-making test), Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM) and items from PIRLS-Reading and TIMSS-Mathematics, and secondary school students (15-16 years old, N(CR) = 48, N(Au) = 48) with ZVT, Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM) and items from PISA-Reading and PISA-Mathematics. Additionally, parents and pupils were given questionnaires covering family characteristics and instruction. Average cognitive abilities were higher in Austria (Greenwich-IQ M(CR) = 87 and M(Au) = 99, d(IQ) = 12 points) and differences were smaller in preschool than in secondary school (d(IQ) = 7 vs 20 points). Differences in crystallized intelligence were larger than in fluid intelligence (mental speed: d(IQ) = 12, Raven: d(IQ) = 10, student achievement tests: d(IQ) = 17 IQ points). Differences were larger in comparisons at the level of g-factors. Austrian children were also taller (6.80 cm, d = 1.07 SD), but had lower body mass index (BMI(CR) = 19.35 vs BMI(Au) = 17.59, d = -0.89 SD). Different causal hypotheses explaining these differences are compared. PMID:24597991

  13. When does cognitive functioning peak? The asynchronous rise and fall of different cognitive abilities across the life span.

    PubMed

    Hartshorne, Joshua K; Germine, Laura T

    2015-04-01

    Understanding how and when cognitive change occurs over the life span is a prerequisite for understanding normal and abnormal development and aging. Most studies of cognitive change are constrained, however, in their ability to detect subtle, but theoretically informative life-span changes, as they rely on either comparing broad age groups or sparse sampling across the age range. Here, we present convergent evidence from 48,537 online participants and a comprehensive analysis of normative data from standardized IQ and memory tests. Our results reveal considerable heterogeneity in when cognitive abilities peak: Some abilities peak and begin to decline around high school graduation; some abilities plateau in early adulthood, beginning to decline in subjects' 30s; and still others do not peak until subjects reach their 40s or later. These findings motivate a nuanced theory of maturation and age-related decline, in which multiple, dissociable factors differentially affect different domains of cognition. PMID:25770099

  14. Is education associated with improvements in general cognitive ability, or in specific skills?

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Stuart J; Bates, Timothy C; Deary, Ian J

    2015-05-01

    Previous research has indicated that education influences cognitive development, but it is unclear what, precisely, is being improved. Here, we tested whether education is associated with cognitive test score improvements via domain-general effects on general cognitive ability (g), or via domain-specific effects on particular cognitive skills. We conducted structural equation modeling on data from a large (n = 1,091), longitudinal sample, with a measure of intelligence at age 11 years and 10 tests covering a diverse range of cognitive abilities taken at age 70. Results indicated that the association of education with improved cognitive test scores is not mediated by g, but consists of direct effects on specific cognitive skills. These results suggest a decoupling of educational gains from increases in general intellectual capacity.

  15. Developing an Informant Questionnaire for Cognitive Abilities in Down Syndrome: The Cognitive Scale for Down Syndrome (CS-DS)

    PubMed Central

    Rodger, Erin; Fodor-Wynne, Lucy; Hamburg, Sarah; Strydom, André

    2016-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability (ID). Abilities relating to executive function, memory and language are particularly affected in DS, although there is a large variability across individuals. People with DS also show an increased risk of developing dementia. While assessment batteries have been developed for adults with DS to assess cognitive abilities, these batteries may not be suitable for those with more severe IDs, dementia, or visual / hearing difficulties. Here we report the development of an informant rated questionnaire, the Cognitive Scale for Down Syndrome (CS-DS), which focuses on everyday abilities relating to executive function, memory and language, and is suitable for assessing these abilities in all adults with DS regardless of cognitive ability. Complete questionnaires were collected about 128 individuals with DS. After final question selection we found high internal consistency scores across the total questionnaire and within the executive function, memory and language domains. CS-DS scores showed a wide range, with minimal floor and ceiling effects. We found high interrater (n = 55) and test retest (n = 36) intraclass correlations. CS-DS scores were significantly lower in those aged 41+ with significant cognitive decline compared to those without decline. Across all adults without cognitive decline, CS-DS scores correlated significantly to measures of general abilities. Exploratory factor analysis suggested five factors within the scale, relating to memory, self-regulation / inhibition, self-direction / initiation, communication, and focussing attention. The CS-DS therefore shows good interrater and test retest reliability, and appears to be a valid and suitable informant rating tool for assessing everyday cognitive abilities in a wide range of individuals with DS. Such a questionnaire may be a useful outcome measure for intervention studies to assess improvements to cognition, in addition to

  16. Estimated maximal and current brain volume predict cognitive ability in old age.

    PubMed

    Royle, Natalie A; Booth, Tom; Valdés Hernández, Maria C; Penke, Lars; Murray, Catherine; Gow, Alan J; Maniega, Susana Muñoz; Starr, John; Bastin, Mark E; Deary, Ian J; Wardlaw, Joanna M

    2013-12-01

    Brain tissue deterioration is a significant contributor to lower cognitive ability in later life; however, few studies have appropriate data to establish how much influence prior brain volume and prior cognitive performance have on this association. We investigated the associations between structural brain imaging biomarkers, including an estimate of maximal brain volume, and detailed measures of cognitive ability at age 73 years in a large (N = 620), generally healthy, community-dwelling population. Cognitive ability data were available from age 11 years. We found positive associations (r) between general cognitive ability and estimated brain volume in youth (male, 0.28; females, 0.12), and in measured brain volume in later life (males, 0.27; females, 0.26). Our findings show that cognitive ability in youth is a strong predictor of estimated prior and measured current brain volume in old age but that these effects were the same for both white and gray matter. As 1 of the largest studies of associations between brain volume and cognitive ability with normal aging, this work contributes to the wider understanding of how some early-life factors influence cognitive aging.

  17. Prediction of cognitive competence in Kenyan children from Toddler nutrition, family characteristics and abilities.

    PubMed

    Sigman, M; McDonald, M A; Neumann, C; Bwibo, N

    1991-01-01

    This study explored the extent to which cognitive competence in 5-yr old Kenyan children was associated with earlier nutritional factors, family conditions and toddler characteristics. Food intake during the 18th-30th mths and physical stature at 30 mths were associated with cognitive skills at 5 yrs. Measures of family background, abilities of the child as a toddler and current schooling were also associated with cognitive abilities at 5 yrs. These variables influenced development independently, so that later cognitive competence was best predicted by a combination of earlier nutritional, family and toddler characteristics. PMID:1903401

  18. Cognitive Abilities Independent of IQ Correlate with Regional Brain Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Wendy; Jung, Rex E.; Colom, Roberto; Haier, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    There is increasing evidence relating psychometric measures of general intelligence and reasoning to regional brain structure and function assessed with a variety of neuroimaging techniques. Cognitive dimensions independent of general intelligence can also be identified psychometrically and studied for any neuroanatomical correlates. Here we…

  19. Cognitive Style Correlates of Mathematical Ability among College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Blerkom, Malcolm L.

    The field dependent-independent cognitive style has been noted by researchers to be related to mathematical achievement. Researchers have also noted a relationship between field dependence and measures of intelligence, and between sex and mathematical achievement. A multiple regression framework was used to examine the effects of field dependence,…

  20. Story Processing Ability in Cognitively Healthy Younger and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Heather Harris; Capilouto, Gilson J.; Srinivasan, Cidambi; Fergadiotis, Gerasimos

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships among measures of comprehension and production for stories depicted in wordless pictures books and measures of memory and attention for 2 age groups. Method: Sixty cognitively healthy adults participated. They consisted of two groups--young adults (20-29 years of age) and older…

  1. Cognitive Therapy Abilities in People with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sams, Kathryn; Collins, Suzanne; Reynolds, Shirley

    2006-01-01

    Background: There is a need to develop and adapt therapies for use with people with learning disabilities who have mental health problems. Aims: To examine the performance of people with learning disabilities on two cognitive therapy tasks (emotion recognition and discrimination among thoughts, feelings and behaviours). We hypothesized that…

  2. Cognitive Trait Modelling: The Case of Inductive Reasoning Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinshuk, Taiyu Lin; McNab, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Researchers have regarded inductive reasoning as one of the seven primary mental abilities that account for human intelligent behaviours. Researchers have also shown that inductive reasoning ability is one of the best predictors for academic performance. Modelling of inductive reasoning is therefore an important issue for providing adaptivity in…

  3. The Role of Cognitive Abilities in Laparoscopic Simulator Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groenier, M.; Schraagen, J. M. C.; Miedema, H. A. T.; Broeders, I. A. J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Learning minimally invasive surgery (MIS) differs substantially from learning open surgery and trainees differ in their ability to learn MIS. Previous studies mainly focused on the role of visuo-spatial ability (VSA) on the learning curve for MIS. In the current study, the relationship between spatial memory, perceptual speed, and general…

  4. What the Nose Knows: Olfaction and Cognitive Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danthiir, Vanessa; Roberts, Richard D.; Pallier, Gerry; Stankov, Lazar

    2001-01-01

    Studied the role of olfactory processes within the theory of fluid and crystallized intelligence by testing 107 Australian college students with a battery of psychometric and olfactory tests. Results indicate the likely existence of an olfactory memory ability that is structurally independent of established higher-order abilities and not related…

  5. Commentary: On the Importance of Early Life Cognitive Abilities in Shaping Later Life Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hofer, Scott M; Clouston, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Early life cognitive ability is likely to be dynamically related to life course factors including educational attainment, occupational outcomes, health behaviors, activities, health, and subsequent cognitive health. Disentangling the selective and causal processes contributing to cognitive functioning across the lifespan is challenging and requires long-term investments in longitudinal data. We discuss results from several analyses using data from the Individual Development and Adaptation longitudinal research program (Bergman, 2000; Magnusson, 1988) that provide fresh insights into the relation of early life cognition, particularly high levels of cognitive capabilities, to educational achievement, emotional adjustment, and career success. These papers and the longitudinal data provide a remarkable window into the development and impacts of cognition, and high cognitive functioning, on a variety of important life outcomes that we hope will continue to inform us about additional outcomes in middle life, transition to retirement, and cognition and health in later years and to robustly examine how the early years matter across the whole lifespan.

  6. Number-specific and general cognitive markers of preschoolers' math ability profiles.

    PubMed

    Gray, Sarah A; Reeve, Robert A

    2016-07-01

    Different number-specific and general cognitive markers have been claimed to underlie preschoolers' math ability. It is unclear, however, whether similar/different cognitive markers, or combinations of them, are associated with different patterns of emerging math abilities (i.e., different patterns of strength and weakness). To examine this question, 103 preschoolers (40-60 months of age) completed six math tasks (count sequence, object counting, give a number, naming numbers, ordinal relations, and arithmetic), three number-specific markers of math ability (dot enumeration, magnitude comparison, and spontaneous focusing on numerosity), and four general markers (working memory, response inhibition, attention, and vocabulary). A three-step latent profile modeling procedure identified five math ability profiles that differed in their patterns of math strengths and weaknesses; specifically, the profiles were characterized by (a) excellent math ability on all math tasks, (b) good arithmetic ability, (c) good math ability but relatively poor count sequence recitation ability, (d) average ability on all math tasks, and (e) poor ability on all math tasks. After controlling for age, only dot enumeration and spontaneous focusing on numerosity were associated with the math ability profiles, whereas vocabulary was also marginally significant, and these markers were differentially associated with different profiles; that is, different cognitive markers were associated with different patterns of strengths and weaknesses in math abilities. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for the development of math cognition.

  7. Multivariate Genetic Analysis of Specific Cognitive Abilities in the Colorado Adoption Project at Age 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardon, Lon R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A multivariate hierarchical model of specific cognitive abilities was fitted to data from 196 adopted and 213 nonadopted children from the Colorado Adoption Project and 120 of their siblings to assess genetic influence on specific mental abilities. Genetic effects occur in middle childhood that differentially influence mental ability scores.…

  8. Common and Domain-Specific Cognitive Characteristics of Gifted Students: An Integrated Model of Human Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Kwang-Han; Porath, Marion

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify common and domain-specific cognitive characteristics of gifted students based on an integrated model of human abilities. This study is based on the premise that abilities identified by tests can appear as observable characteristics in test or school situations. Abilities proposed by major models of…

  9. A Daily Process Analysis of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Perceived Cognitive Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Fitzsimmons, Patrick T.; Maher, Jaclyn P.; Doerksen, Shawna E.; Elavsky, Steriani; Rebar, Amanda L.; Conroy, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluated the role of both physical activity and sedentary behavior in daily perceptions of cognitive abilities and whether these relations exist within-person, between-person, or both. Design Non-experimental, intensive longitudinal research using ecological momentary assessments. Method College students wore accelerometers and provided end-of-day reports on physical activity, sedentary behavior, and perceived cognitive abilities for 14 days. Results Across self-reports and objective measures of behavior, daily deviations in physical activity were positively associated with perceived cognitive abilities. Daily deviations in self-reported, but not objectively-assessed, sedentary behavior also were negatively associated with perceived cognitive abilities. Contrary to previous research, overall levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviors were not associated with perceived cognitive abilities. Conclusions These findings indicate that physical activity has a within- rather than between-person association with perceived cognitive abilities although between-person associations effects may require longer monitoring periods to manifest. Further research is needed to establish the direction of causality and resolve whether the nature (rather than quantity) of sedentary activities influences cognition. PMID:25419176

  10. Reading ability and differential cognitive profiles of girls and boys.

    PubMed

    Kirchner-Nebot, T; Amador-Campos, J A

    1999-12-01

    To compare the differential cognitive and stylistic profiles of Spanish-speaking girls and boys and the relation between these profiles with subjects' reading scores 50 girls and 50 boys, 8 years old, were assessed on a reading test, the Children's Embedded Figures Test, and the Intellectual Test (Escala Diferencial del Rendimiento Intelectual). Analysis showed differential cognitive profiles for the two sexes. While girls used single, essentially verbal strategies for the reading activity, boys with high reading scores used verbal and perceptual strategies. In general, for girls verbal intelligence scores had correlated the highest with reading scores and lowest with independence on the Children's Embedded Figures Test. For boys the two tests contribute to the explained variance of reading scores. Curiously for scores in reading letters, reading strategies of the two groups seemed inverted.

  11. The Effects of Cognitive and Affective Variables on Academic Ability: A Multivariate Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seginer, Rachel

    1980-01-01

    The effects of affective and cognitive variables, and of socioeconomic status, on academic ability were studied using 171 Israeli seventh-grade boys. Some effects were noted for affective variables, reading comprehension, and socioeconomic status. (GDC)

  12. An Experimental Analysis of Dynamic Hypotheses About Cognitive Abilities and Achievement From Childhood to Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrer, Emilio; McArdle, John J.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the dynamics of cognitive abilities and academic achievement from childhood to early adulthood. Predictions about time-dependent "coupling" relations between cognition and achievement based on R. B. Cattell's (1971, 1987) investment hypothesis were evaluated using linear dynamic models applied to longitudinal data (N=672).…

  13. Walking ability to predict future cognitive decline in old adults: A scoping review.

    PubMed

    Kikkert, Lisette H J; Vuillerme, Nicolas; van Campen, Jos P; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Lamoth, Claudine J

    2016-05-01

    Early identification of individuals at risk for cognitive decline may facilitate the selection of those who benefit most from interventions. Current models predicting cognitive decline include neuropsychological and/or biological markers. Additional markers based on walking ability might improve accuracy and specificity of these models because motor and cognitive functions share neuroanatomical structures and psychological processes. We reviewed the relationship between walking ability at one point of (mid) life and cognitive decline at follow-up. A systematic literature search identified 20 longitudinal studies. The average follow-up time was 4.5 years. Gait speed quantified walking ability in most studies (n=18). Additional gait measures (n=4) were step frequency, variability and step-length. Despite methodological weaknesses, results revealed that gait slowing (0.68-1.1 m/sec) preceded cognitive decline and the presence of dementia syndromes (maximal odds and hazard ratios of 10.4 and 11.1, respectively). The results indicate that measures of walking ability could serve as additional markers to predict cognitive decline. However, gait speed alone might lack specificity. We recommend gait analysis, including dynamic gait parameters, in clinical evaluations of patients with suspected cognitive decline. Future studies should focus on examining the specificity and accuracy of various gait characteristics to predict future cognitive decline. PMID:26861693

  14. Genetic variations of FACL4 have no obvious influence on cognitive ability in young Chinese children.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kejin; Zheng, Zijian; An, Caiyan; Gao, Xiaocai; Zhang, Fuchang

    2010-06-30

    The influence of genetic variants of FACL4 on individual cognitive ability was examined in a random sample of 213 boys and 224 girls. Both conventional genetic methods and analysis of variance were applied in this study. We found no significant relationship between FACL4 and cognitive function. PMID:20452052

  15. Ability, Breadth, and Parsimony in Computational Models of Higher-Order Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassimatis, Nicholas L.; Bello, Paul; Langley, Pat

    2008-01-01

    Computational models will play an important role in our understanding of human higher-order cognition. How can a model's contribution to this goal be evaluated? This article argues that three important aspects of a model of higher-order cognition to evaluate are (a) its ability to reason, solve problems, converse, and learn as well as people do;…

  16. Brain white matter damage in aging and cognitive ability in youth and older age.

    PubMed

    Valdés Hernández, Maria Del C; Booth, Tom; Murray, Catherine; Gow, Alan J; Penke, Lars; Morris, Zoe; Maniega, Susana Muñoz; Royle, Natalie A; Aribisala, Benjamin S; Bastin, Mark E; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J; Wardlaw, Joanna M

    2013-12-01

    Cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMH) reflect accumulating white matter damage with aging and impair cognition. The role of childhood intelligence is rarely considered in associations between cognitive impairment and WMH. We studied community-dwelling older people all born in 1936, in whom IQ had been assessed at age 11 years. We assessed medical histories, current cognitive ability and quantified WMH on MR imaging. Among 634 participants, mean age 72.7 (SD 0.7), age 11 IQ was the strongest predictor of late life cognitive ability. After accounting for age 11 IQ, greater WMH load was significantly associated with lower late life general cognitive ability (β = -0.14, p < 0.01) and processing speed (β = -0.19, p < 0.001). WMH were also associated independently with lower age 11 IQ (β = -0.08, p < 0.05) and hypertension. In conclusion, having more WMH is significantly associated with lower cognitive ability, after accounting for prior ability, age 11IQ. Early-life IQ also influenced WMH in later life. Determining how lower IQ in youth leads to increasing brain damage with aging is important for future successful cognitive aging.

  17. The Relationship between Language Ability and Cognitive Function in Patients with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Jin; Shim, Joo-Cheol; Kong, Bo-Geum; Kang, Je-Wook; Moon, Jung-Joon; Jeon, Dong-Wook; Jung, Sung-Soo; Seo, Beom-Joo; Jung, Do-Un

    2015-01-01

    Objective Cognitive dysfunction is common in people with schizophrenia, and language disability is one of the most notable cognitive deficits. This study assessed the use and comprehension ability of the Korean language in patients with schizophrenia and the correlations between language ability and cognitive function. Methods Eighty-six patients with schizophrenia and a group of 29 healthy controls were recruited. We assessed both clinical symptoms and cognitive functions including Korean language ability. For clinical symptoms, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Clinical Global Impression-Schizophrenia Scale, and Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale were used. For the Korean language ability assessment, a portion of the Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) Korean Language Test was used. The Short-form of Korean-Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, the Korean version of the University of California San Diego (UCSD) Performance-based Skills Assessment (K-UPSA), and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) were used to assess cognitive functions. Results Schizophrenic patients had significantly lower scores in the language and cognitive function tests both in the total and subscale scores. Various clinical scores had negative correlations with reading comprehension ability of the KBS Korean Language Test. The WCST and a part of the K-UPSA had positive correlations with multiple domains of the language test. Conclusion A significant difference was found between schizophrenic patients and controls in language ability. Correlations between Korean language ability and several clinical symptoms and cognitive functions were demonstrated in patients with schizophrenia. Tests of cognitive function had positive correlations with different aspects of language ability. PMID:26598588

  18. Individual differences in social dominance orientation predict support for the use of cognitive ability tests.

    PubMed

    Kim, Anita; Berry, Christopher M

    2015-02-01

    This study investigates the personality processes involved in the debate surrounding the use of cognitive ability tests in college admissions. In Study 1, 108 undergraduates (Mage  = 18.88 years, 60 women, 80 Whites) completed measures of social dominance orientation (SDO), testing self-efficacy, and attitudes regarding the use of cognitive ability tests in college admissions; SAT/ACT scores were collected from the registrar. Sixty-seven undergraduates (Mage  = 19.06 years, 39 women, 49 Whites) completed the same measures in Study 2, along with measures of endorsement of commonly presented arguments about test use. In Study 3, 321 American adults (Mage  = 35.58 years, 180 women, 251 Whites) completed the same measures used in Study 2; half were provided with facts about race and validity issues surrounding cognitive ability tests. Individual differences in SDO significantly predicted support for the use of cognitive ability tests in all samples, after controlling for SAT/ACT scores and test self-efficacy and also among participants who read facts about cognitive ability tests. Moreover, arguments for and against test use mediated this effect. The present study sheds new light on an old debate by demonstrating that individual differences in beliefs about hierarchy play a key role in attitudes toward cognitive ability test use.

  19. The role of cognitive ability in socio-economic inequalities in oral health.

    PubMed

    Sabbah, W; Watt, R G; Sheiham, A; Tsakos, G

    2009-04-01

    Studies have postulated a role for cognitive ability in socio-economic inequalities in general health. This role has not been examined for oral health inequalities. We examined whether cognitive ability was associated with oral health, and whether it influenced the relationship between oral health and socio-economic position. Data were from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994), for participants aged 20-59 years. Oral health was indicated by extent of gingival bleeding, extent of loss of periodontal attachment, and tooth loss. Simple reaction time test, symbol digit substitution test, and serial digit learning test indicated cognitive ability. Education and poverty-income ratio were used as markers of socio-economic position. Participants with poorer cognitive ability had poorer oral health for all indicators. The association between oral health and socio-economic position attenuated after adjustment for cognitive ability. Cognitive ability explained part, but not all, of the socio-economic inequalities in oral health.

  20. Cognitive Ability and Everyday Functioning in Women with Turner Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downey, Jennifer; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Comparison of 23 Turner syndrome (TUS) women with 23 women with constitutional short stature (CSS) found significant group differences for Performance and Full Scale IQ, largely due to TUS women's deficits in spatial and mathematical ability. TUS individuals had significantly lower educational and occupational attainment than CSS controls but did…

  1. Cognitive capitalism: the effect of cognitive ability on wealth, as mediated through scientific achievement and economic freedom.

    PubMed

    Rindermann, Heiner; Thompson, James

    2011-06-01

    Traditional economic theories stress the relevance of political, institutional, geographic, and historical factors for economic growth. In contrast, human-capital theories suggest that peoples' competences, mediated by technological progress, are the deciding factor in a nation's wealth. Using three large-scale assessments, we calculated cognitive-competence sums for the mean and for upper- and lower-level groups for 90 countries and compared the influence of each group's intellectual ability on gross domestic product. In our cross-national analyses, we applied different statistical methods (path analyses, bootstrapping) and measures developed by different research groups to various country samples and historical periods. Our results underscore the decisive relevance of cognitive ability--particularly of an intellectual class with high cognitive ability and accomplishments in science, technology, engineering, and math--for national wealth. Furthermore, this group's cognitive ability predicts the quality of economic and political institutions, which further determines the economic affluence of the nation. Cognitive resources enable the evolution of capitalism and the rise of wealth.

  2. Structural equation models of relationships between exercise and cognitive abilities.

    PubMed

    Clarkson-Smith, L; Hartley, A A

    1990-09-01

    Data were obtained from 300 men and women aged 55 to 91. Separate structural equation models of relationships between physical exercise and 3 cognitive performance variables--reaction time, working memory, and reasoning--fit the data well. Other variables in the models were age, health, education, and morale. Age and exercise affected each performance variable directly; education had a direct effect on reasoning only. There were also indirect effects of age and health on performance variables, mediated through exercise. The main hypothesis of the study, that exercise contributes to performance, was supported. A large decrease in model fit resulted when the path from exercise to each performance variable was deleted. Hypotheses that age-related deficits are primarily accounted for by lack of exercise or by poor health were not supported.

  3. Cognitive abilities in reading-disabled children: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Baker, L A; Decker, S N; DeFries, J C

    1984-01-01

    Longitudinal psychometric test data collected at two different ages (9.4 +/- 1.3 and 14.8 +/- 1.2 years) were utilized to compare the developmental rates of 69 pairs of reading-disabled and matched control children. Results of a two-factor (GROUP X TIME), mixed-model, multivariate analysis of variance indicated that reading-disabled children manifested deficits on measures of academic achievement, symbolic processing speed and spatial reasoning abilities at both ages. Although both reading-disabled and control children were found to improve significantly between the two testing sessions, the lack of a significant GROUP X TIME interaction on measures of academic achievement and spatial reasoning abilities indicated that the rate of development was similar for the two groups. For measures of symbolic processing speed, however, differences between reading-disabled and control children were somewhat greater at the later age.

  4. Housing Mobility and Cognitive Development: Change in Verbal and Nonverbal Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Patrick J.; McGrath, Lauren M.; Henry, David B.; Schoeny, Michael; Chavira, Dina; Taylor, Jeremy J.; Day, Orin

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of housing instability on verbal and nonverbal cognitive development among at-risk children and adolescents involved in the child welfare system. Frequent residential changes threaten child mental health, especially among low-income families. Little is known regarding disruptions to cognitive growth, specifically the impact on verbal and nonverbal abilities. The study tests whether developmental timing of housing mobility affects cognitive development beyond individual and family risks. A nationally representative study of families (n = 2,442) susceptible to housing and family instability tracked children and adolescents aged four to 14 years (M = 8.95 years) over 36 months following investigation by the child welfare system. Youth completed standardized cognitive assessments while caregivers reported on behavior problems and family risk at three time points. Latent growth models examined change in cognitive abilities over time. Housing mobility in the 12 months prior to baseline predicts lower verbal cognitive abilities that improve marginally. Similar effects emerge for all age groups; however, frequent moves in infancy diminish the influence of subsequent housing mobility on verbal tasks. Housing instability threatened cognitive development beyond child maltreatment, family changes, poverty, and other risks. Findings inform emerging research on environmental influences on neurocognitive development, as well as identify targets for early intervention. Systematic assessment of family housing problems, including through the child welfare system, provides opportunities for coordinated responses to prevent instability and cognitive threats. PMID:26184055

  5. Housing mobility and cognitive development: Change in verbal and nonverbal abilities.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Patrick J; McGrath, Lauren M; Henry, David B; Schoeny, Michael; Chavira, Dina; Taylor, Jeremy J; Day, Orin

    2015-10-01

    This study investigates the influence of housing instability on verbal and nonverbal cognitive development among at-risk children and adolescents involved in the child welfare system. Frequent residential changes threaten child mental health, especially among low-income families. Little is known regarding disruptions to cognitive growth, specifically the impact on verbal and nonverbal abilities. The study tests whether developmental timing of housing mobility affects cognitive development beyond individual and family risks. A nationally representative study of families (n=2,442) susceptible to housing and family instability tracked children and adolescents aged 4-14 years (M=8.95 years) over 36 months following investigation by the child welfare system. Youth completed standardized cognitive assessments while caregivers reported on behavior problems and family risk at three time points. Latent growth models examined change in cognitive abilities over time. Housing mobility in the 12 months prior to baseline predicts lower verbal cognitive abilities that improve marginally. Similar effects emerge for all age groups; however, frequent moves in infancy diminish the influence of subsequent housing mobility on verbal tasks. Housing instability threatened cognitive development beyond child maltreatment, family changes, poverty, and other risks. Findings inform emerging research on environmental influences on neurocognitive development, as well as identify targets for early intervention. Systematic assessment of family housing problems, including through the child welfare system, provides opportunities for coordinated responses to prevent instability and cognitive threats. PMID:26184055

  6. Housing mobility and cognitive development: Change in verbal and nonverbal abilities.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Patrick J; McGrath, Lauren M; Henry, David B; Schoeny, Michael; Chavira, Dina; Taylor, Jeremy J; Day, Orin

    2015-10-01

    This study investigates the influence of housing instability on verbal and nonverbal cognitive development among at-risk children and adolescents involved in the child welfare system. Frequent residential changes threaten child mental health, especially among low-income families. Little is known regarding disruptions to cognitive growth, specifically the impact on verbal and nonverbal abilities. The study tests whether developmental timing of housing mobility affects cognitive development beyond individual and family risks. A nationally representative study of families (n=2,442) susceptible to housing and family instability tracked children and adolescents aged 4-14 years (M=8.95 years) over 36 months following investigation by the child welfare system. Youth completed standardized cognitive assessments while caregivers reported on behavior problems and family risk at three time points. Latent growth models examined change in cognitive abilities over time. Housing mobility in the 12 months prior to baseline predicts lower verbal cognitive abilities that improve marginally. Similar effects emerge for all age groups; however, frequent moves in infancy diminish the influence of subsequent housing mobility on verbal tasks. Housing instability threatened cognitive development beyond child maltreatment, family changes, poverty, and other risks. Findings inform emerging research on environmental influences on neurocognitive development, as well as identify targets for early intervention. Systematic assessment of family housing problems, including through the child welfare system, provides opportunities for coordinated responses to prevent instability and cognitive threats.

  7. An Instrument to Measure the Cognitive Ability Evaluation of the Taxonomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaff, John F.

    Described is the development of an instrument designed to measure the cognitive ability of evaluation in high school chemistry students. The instrument was composed of several situations found in chemistry courses, each designed to measure a student's evaluation ability based on his knowledge of kinetic-molecular theory as it applied to gases,…

  8. Relations between Prenatal Testosterone Levels and Cognitive Abilities at 4 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finegan, Jo-Anne K.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Compared children's cognitive abilities at four years and their prenatal amniotic fluid testosterone levels. For girls, prenatal testosterone levels were related in a curvilinear manner to language comprehension and classification abilities, and inversely related to counting and knowledge of number facts. For boys, no relationships were found. (BC)

  9. Cognitive Ability, Self-Assessed Intelligence and Personality: Common Genetic but Independent Environmental Aetiologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratko, Denis; Butkovic, Ana; Vukasovic, Tena; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas; von Stumm, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    Self-perceived abilities (SPA), which play an important role in academic achievement, have been recently reported to be fully attributable to genetic and non-shared environmental influences. To replicate and extend this finding, 732 Croatian twins (15-22 years old) were assessed on cognitive ability, self-assessed intelligence (SAI), and Five…

  10. Cognitive Ability and Continuous Measures of Relative Hand Skill: A Note

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    This note re-examines a finding by Crow et al. [Crow, T. J., Crow, L. R., Done, D. J., & Leask, S. (1998). Relative hand skill predicts academic ability: Global deficits at the point of hemispheric indecision. "Neuropsychologia", 36(12), 1275-1281] that equal skill of right and left hands is associated with deficits in cognitive ability. This is…

  11. Assessment of Cognitive Ability of Students with Severe and Low-Incidence Disabilities--Part 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crepeau-Hobson, Franci; Vujeva, Hana

    2012-01-01

    Students with severe and low-incidence disabilities comprise a heterogeneous population that often presents a challenge to the professionals charged with evaluating their skills and abilities. This is especially true in conducting a valid assessment of the cognitive ability of these children. Often, school psychologists are limited to the use of…

  12. Memory and Cognitive Strategies of High Ability Students in a Rural Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Fuziana; Yunus, Melor Md

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine language learning strategies employed by the high ability students in a rural secondary school. Memory and cognitive strategies employed by the high ability students were the main focus in this study. A survey design was used and data was collected using Oxford's questionnaires. Findings reveal that the high…

  13. Do Interests and Cognitive Abilities Help Explain College Major Choice Equally Well for Women and Men?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passler, Katja; Hell, Benedikt

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines whether vocational interests, measured by Holland's RIASEC model, and objectively assessed cognitive abilities, were useful in discriminating among various major categories for a sample of 1990 German university students. Interests and specific abilities, in combination, significantly discriminated among major categories…

  14. Situational Effects May Account for Gain Scores in Cognitive Ability Testing: A Longitudinal SEM Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matton, Nadine; Vautier, Stephane; Raufaste, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Mean gain scores for cognitive ability tests between two sessions in a selection setting are now a robust finding, yet not fully understood. Many authors do not attribute such gain scores to an increase in the target abilities. Our approach consists of testing a longitudinal SEM model suitable to this view. We propose to model the scores' changes…

  15. Two Fifth Grade Measures of Cognitive Abilities. A Structure of Concept Attainment Abilities Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Pamela Elizabeth

    Two fifth grade measures of the ability to deal with symbolic relationships were developed for use in future factor analytic research concerning the nature of intelligence. Circle Reasoning was adopted from an adult level test by modifying the number of symbols and the nature of the principles on which the items were based. Item analysis results…

  16. Self-reported Cognitive Concerns and Abilities: Two sides of one coin?

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Jin-Shei; Wagner, Lynne I.; Jacobsen, Paul B.; Cella, David

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Patient-reported cognitive function can be measured using negatively-worded items (Concerns) and positively-worded (Abilities) items. It is possible reporting Abilities is less subject to the influence of emotional states. This study evaluated the relationship between cognitive concerns and cognitive abilities. METHODS Cancer patients (N = 509; mean age=61 years; 50% males; 86% White) completed Concerns and Abilities items developed by the NIH Patient Reported Outcomes Information System (PROMIS). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to evaluate the extent to which items loaded on one single factor (unidimensionality). Multidimensionality was evaluated using bi-factor analysis (local factors: Concerns and Abilities). Slope parameters from multidimensional Item Response Theory (MIRT) and unidimensional IRT (UIRT) were compared to evaluate which factor solution fit best. RESULTS Acceptable fit indices were found in both one-factor CFA (CFI=0.96, RMSEA=0.062) and bi-factor analysis (CFI=0.98; RMSEA=0.043). Thus, Abilities and Concerns could be considered as a single dimension. Yet high loadings on the local factor in bi-factor analysis and slope discrepancies between UIRT and MIRT indicate that Abilities should be considered as a separate factor from Concerns. CONCLUSIONS Concerns and Abilities could be measured using one unidimensional item bank. Results also support measuring each construct separately. We recommend a conservative approach by measuring and reporting Concerns and Abilities separately. We therefore recommend two separate but co-calibrated item banks in the PROMIS network: Cognitive Function Item Bank - Concerns, and Cognitive Function Item Bank - Abilities. Both item banks showed good psychometric properties and are available for research and clinical purposes. PMID:24700645

  17. Cognitive Abilities, Monitoring Confidence, and Control Thresholds Explain Individual Differences in Heuristics and Biases

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Simon A.; Kleitman, Sabina; Howie, Pauline; Stankov, Lazar

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate whether individual differences in performance on heuristic and biases tasks can be explained by cognitive abilities, monitoring confidence, and control thresholds. Current theories explain individual differences in these tasks by the ability to detect errors and override automatic but biased judgments, and deliberative cognitive abilities that help to construct the correct response. Here we retain cognitive abilities but disentangle error detection, proposing that lower monitoring confidence and higher control thresholds promote error checking. Participants (N = 250) completed tasks assessing their fluid reasoning abilities, stable monitoring confidence levels, and the control threshold they impose on their decisions. They also completed seven typical heuristic and biases tasks such as the cognitive reflection test and Resistance to Framing. Using structural equation modeling, we found that individuals with higher reasoning abilities, lower monitoring confidence, and higher control threshold performed significantly and, at times, substantially better on the heuristic and biases tasks. Individuals with higher control thresholds also showed lower preferences for risky alternatives in a gambling task. Furthermore, residual correlations among the heuristic and biases tasks were reduced to null, indicating that cognitive abilities, monitoring confidence, and control thresholds accounted for their shared variance. Implications include the proposal that the capacity to detect errors does not differ between individuals. Rather, individuals might adopt varied strategies that promote error checking to different degrees, regardless of whether they have made a mistake or not. The results support growing evidence that decision-making involves cognitive abilities that construct actions and monitoring and control processes that manage their initiation. PMID:27790170

  18. Younger Adults Show Long-Term Effects of Cognitive Training on Broad Cognitive Abilities over 2 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmiedek, Florian; Lövdén, Martin; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2014-01-01

    In the COGITO study (Schmiedek, Lövdén, & Lindenberger, 2010), 101 younger adults practiced 12 tests of perceptual speed, working memory, and episodic memory for over 100 daily 1-hr sessions. The intervention resulted in positive transfer to broad cognitive abilities, including reasoning and episodic memory. Here, we examine whether these…

  19. Improving Cognition: A Multi-Cultural Approach. Final Report, MICA Project: Multi-Cultural Improvement of Cognitive Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Avila, Edward; And Others

    Described and summarized are the results of a program designed to improve the intellectual, academic, and linguistic functioning of children in a linguistically and culturally mixed setting. The program, Multicultural Improvement of Cognitive Abilities (MICA), was installed and supported by project staff in nine participating classrooms under two…

  20. Relationship Between the Cognitive Abilities of a Group of Tertiary Physics Students and the Cognitive Requirements of their Textbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prosser, Michael

    1983-01-01

    Examined relationship between cognitive requirements of two chapters of a physics textbook for biology/pre-med students and their ability to use prerequisite reasoning skills required for its understanding. An average of 42 percent of students tested did not consistently use reasoning skills required to understand text concepts. Discusses tests…

  1. Enhancing Cognitive Abilities with Comprehensive Training: A Large, Online, Randomized, Active-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Joseph L.; Nelson, Rolf A.; Thomason, Moriah E.; Sternberg, Daniel A.; Katovich, Kiefer; Farzin, Faraz; Scanlon, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background A variety of studies have demonstrated gains in cognitive ability following cognitive training interventions. However, other studies have not shown such gains, and questions remain regarding the efficacy of specific cognitive training interventions. Cognitive training research often involves programs made up of just one or a few exercises, targeting limited and specific cognitive endpoints. In addition, cognitive training studies typically involve small samples that may be insufficient for reliable measurement of change. Other studies have utilized training periods that were too short to generate reliable gains in cognitive performance. Methods The present study evaluated an online cognitive training program comprised of 49 exercises targeting a variety of cognitive capacities. The cognitive training program was compared to an active control condition in which participants completed crossword puzzles. All participants were recruited, trained, and tested online (N = 4,715 fully evaluable participants). Participants in both groups were instructed to complete one approximately 15-minute session at least 5 days per week for 10 weeks. Results Participants randomly assigned to the treatment group improved significantly more on the primary outcome measure, an aggregate measure of neuropsychological performance, than did the active control group (Cohen’s d effect size = 0.255; 95% confidence interval = [0.198, 0.312]). Treatment participants showed greater improvements than controls on speed of processing, short-term memory, working memory, problem solving, and fluid reasoning assessments. Participants in the treatment group also showed greater improvements on self-reported measures of cognitive functioning, particularly on those items related to concentration compared to the control group (Cohen’s d = 0.249; 95% confidence interval = [0.191, 0.306]). Conclusion Taken together, these results indicate that a varied training program composed of a number of

  2. Performance evaluation of cognitive radio in advanced metering infrastructure communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiew, Yik-Kuan; Mohd Aripin, Norazizah; Din, Norashidah Md

    2016-03-01

    Smart grid is an intelligent electricity grid system. A reliable two-way communication system is required to transmit both critical and non-critical smart grid data. However, it is difficult to locate a huge chunk of dedicated spectrum for smart grid communications. Hence, cognitive radio based communication is applied. Cognitive radio allows smart grid users to access licensed spectrums opportunistically with the constraint of not causing harmful interference to licensed users. In this paper, a cognitive radio based smart grid communication framework is proposed. Smart grid framework consists of Home Area Network (HAN) and Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI), while AMI is made up of Neighborhood Area Network (NAN) and Wide Area Network (WAN). In this paper, the authors only report the findings for AMI communication. AMI is smart grid domain that comprises smart meters, data aggregator unit, and billing center. Meter data are collected by smart meters and transmitted to data aggregator unit by using cognitive 802.11 technique; data aggregator unit then relays the data to billing center using cognitive WiMAX and TV white space. The performance of cognitive radio in AMI communication is investigated using Network Simulator 2. Simulation results show that cognitive radio improves the latency and throughput performances of AMI. Besides, cognitive radio also improves spectrum utilization efficiency of WiMAX band from 5.92% to 9.24% and duty cycle of TV band from 6.6% to 10.77%.

  3. The relationship of the Allen Cognitive Level Test to cognitive abilities and psychopathology.

    PubMed

    David, S K; Riley, W T

    1990-06-01

    The cognitive factors measured by the Allen Cognitive Level Test (ACL) (Allen, 1982) as well as the test's relationship to level of psychopathology were examined through a retrospective study of 71 patients from a general hospital psychiatry unit. Pearson correlations, computed for the ACL score with the Shipley Institute of Living Scale (Shipley, 1940), a general measure of intellectual functioning, were significant. A strong correlation was found between the ACL and the Symbol-Digit Modalities Test (Smith, 1982), a measure of motor speed and concentration often used as a neurological screening instrument. This suggests the potential usefulness of the ACL to screen for cognitive dysfunctions associated with organicity. Contrary to hypothesis, there was no significant correlation between the ACL and measures of psychopathology such as the Beck Depression Inventory (Beck, Ward, Mendelson, Mock, & Erbaugh, 1961) and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (Hathaway & McKinley, 1940). The relationship of the ACL to other recognized measures of cognitive functioning increases its usefulness as a valid measure of day-to-day limitations in the functioning of psychiatric patients. Effective communication of the implications of these cognitive levels to a multidisciplinary treatment team is enhanced by knowledge of the relationship of the ACL to measures of cognitive functioning and psychopathology used by other disciplines.

  4. DNA evidence for strong genome-wide pleiotropy of cognitive and learning abilities.

    PubMed

    Trzaskowski, Maciej; Davis, Oliver S P; DeFries, John C; Yang, Jian; Visscher, Peter M; Plomin, Robert

    2013-07-01

    Very different neurocognitive processes appear to be involved in cognitive abilities such as verbal and non-verbal ability as compared to learning abilities taught in schools such as reading and mathematics. However, twin studies that compare similarity for monozygotic and dizygotic twins suggest that the same genes are largely responsible for genetic influence on these diverse aspects of cognitive function. It is now possible to test this evidence for strong pleiotropy using DNA alone from samples of unrelated individuals. Here we used this new method with 1.7 million DNA markers for a sample of 2,500 unrelated children at age 12 to investigate for the first time the extent of pleiotropy between general cognitive ability (aka intelligence) and learning abilities (reading, mathematics and language skills). We also compared these DNA results to results from twin analyses using the same sample and measures. The DNA-based method revealed strong genome-wide pleiotropy: Genetic correlations were greater than 0.70 between general cognitive ability and language, reading, and mathematics, results that were highly similar to twin study estimates of genetic correlations. These results indicate that genes related to diverse neurocognitive processes have general rather than specific effects.

  5. The Cognitive Roots of Scientific and Mathematical Ability and Discussant Reaction: Alternative Representations: A Key to Academic Talent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, D. N.; Simmons, Rebecca

    This paper examines the cognitive structures and processes that mediate mathematical and scientific ability. Ability is divided into achieved abilities and precursor abilities. Identified concepts in the area of achieved ability include expertise, understanding, and problem-solving. Other abilities can be seen as precursors to such achieved…

  6. Selling points: What cognitive abilities are tapped by casual video games?

    PubMed

    Baniqued, Pauline L; Lee, Hyunkyu; Voss, Michelle W; Basak, Chandramallika; Cosman, Joshua D; Desouza, Shanna; Severson, Joan; Salthouse, Timothy A; Kramer, Arthur F

    2013-01-01

    The idea that video games or computer-based applications can improve cognitive function has led to a proliferation of programs claiming to "train the brain." However, there is often little scientific basis in the development of commercial training programs, and many research-based programs yield inconsistent or weak results. In this study, we sought to better understand the nature of cognitive abilities tapped by casual video games and thus reflect on their potential as a training tool. A moderately large sample of participants (n=209) played 20 web-based casual games and performed a battery of cognitive tasks. We used cognitive task analysis and multivariate statistical techniques to characterize the relationships between performance metrics. We validated the cognitive abilities measured in the task battery, examined a task analysis-based categorization of the casual games, and then characterized the relationship between game and task performance. We found that games categorized to tap working memory and reasoning were robustly related to performance on working memory and fluid intelligence tasks, with fluid intelligence best predicting scores on working memory and reasoning games. We discuss these results in the context of overlap in cognitive processes engaged by the cognitive tasks and casual games, and within the context of assessing near and far transfer. While this is not a training study, these findings provide a methodology to assess the validity of using certain games as training and assessment devices for specific cognitive abilities, and shed light on the mixed transfer results in the computer-based training literature. Moreover, the results can inform design of a more theoretically-driven and methodologically-sound cognitive training program.

  7. Cognitive ability is associated with different outcome trajectories in autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Ben-Itzchak, Esther; Watson, Linda R; Zachor, Ditza A

    2014-09-01

    Variability in clinical expression and in intervention outcome has been described in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The study examined progress after 1 and 2 years of intervention and compared the impact of baseline cognitive ability on outcome trajectories in 46 children (m = 25.5 months) with ASD. The entire group showed a gradual decrease in autism severity and increase in verbal cognitive scores. Only the low cognitive scores (DQ <70) group significantly improved in fine motor and receptive language scores. Significant gains in adaptive skills were found only for the high cognitive scores (DQ ≥70) group after 2 years of intervention. The entire group progressed with intervention, but only children with higher cognitive levels at baseline transferred their acquired socio-communication skills into daily functioning.

  8. Oral mixing ability and cognition in elderly persons with dementia: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Weijenberg, R A F; Lobbezoo, F; Visscher, C M; Scherder, E J A

    2015-07-01

    Masticatory performance has been positively associated with cognitive ability in both animals and healthy humans. We hypothesised that there would also be a positive correlation between masticatory performance and cognition in older persons suffering from dementia. Older persons suffering from dementia (n = 114) and receiving institutionalised care were studied in a cross-sectional design. The assessments included masticatory performance, which was measured objectively with a two-colour gum mixing ability test, and cognition, which was assessed with a multidomain neuropsychological test battery. Significant relationships were observed between masticatory performance and general cognition and between masticatory performance and verbal fluency. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that the correlation with general cognition was influenced by the scores for dependency in activities of daily living. The association between verbal fluency and masticatory performance was not significantly affected by secondary variables. An unexpected limitation of this study was the high dropout rate for the mixing ability test. The clinical implications of these findings are profound; care professionals should endeavour to maintain and stimulate mastication in older persons with dementia in an attempt to preserve cognition. PMID:25711519

  9. Higher cognitive ability buffers stress-related depressive symptoms in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Riglin, Lucy; Collishaw, Stephan; Shelton, Katherine H; McManus, I C; Ng-Knight, Terry; Sellers, Ruth; Thapar, Ajay K; Frederickson, Norah; Rice, Frances

    2016-02-01

    Stress has been shown to have a causal effect on risk for depression. We investigated the role of cognitive ability as a moderator of the effect of stressful life events on depressive symptoms and whether this varied by gender. Data were analyzed in two adolescent data sets: one representative community sample aged 11-12 years (n = 460) and one at increased familial risk of depression aged 9-17 years (n = 335). In both data sets, a three-way interaction was found whereby for girls, but not boys, higher cognitive ability buffered the association between stress and greater depressive symptoms. The interaction was replicated when the outcome was a diagnosis of major depressive disorder. This buffering effect in girls was not attributable to coping efficacy. However, a small proportion of the variance was accounted for by sensitivity to environmental stressors. Results suggest that this moderating effect of cognitive ability in girls is largely attributable to greater available resources for cognitive operations that offer protection against stress-induced reductions in cognitive processing and cognitive control which in turn reduces the likelihood of depressive symptomatology.

  10. Oral mixing ability and cognition in elderly persons with dementia: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Weijenberg, R A F; Lobbezoo, F; Visscher, C M; Scherder, E J A

    2015-07-01

    Masticatory performance has been positively associated with cognitive ability in both animals and healthy humans. We hypothesised that there would also be a positive correlation between masticatory performance and cognition in older persons suffering from dementia. Older persons suffering from dementia (n = 114) and receiving institutionalised care were studied in a cross-sectional design. The assessments included masticatory performance, which was measured objectively with a two-colour gum mixing ability test, and cognition, which was assessed with a multidomain neuropsychological test battery. Significant relationships were observed between masticatory performance and general cognition and between masticatory performance and verbal fluency. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that the correlation with general cognition was influenced by the scores for dependency in activities of daily living. The association between verbal fluency and masticatory performance was not significantly affected by secondary variables. An unexpected limitation of this study was the high dropout rate for the mixing ability test. The clinical implications of these findings are profound; care professionals should endeavour to maintain and stimulate mastication in older persons with dementia in an attempt to preserve cognition.

  11. Influence of hearing loss and cognitive abilities on language development in CHARGE Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vesseur, Annemarie; Langereis, Margreet; Free, Rolien; Snik, Ad; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny; Mylanus, Emmanuel

    2016-08-01

    Hearing loss and cognitive delay are frequently occurring features in CHARGE syndrome that may contribute to impaired language development. However, not much is known about language development in patients with CHARGE syndrome. In this retrospective study, hearing loss, cognitive abilities, and language development are described in 50 patients with CHARGE syndrome. After informed consent was given, data were collected from local medical files. Most patients (38.3%; 18/47 patients) had moderate hearing loss (41-70 dB) and 58.5% (24/41 patients) had an IQ below 70. The mean language quotients of the receptive and expressive language were more than one standard deviation below the norm. Both hearing loss and cognitive delay had an influence on language development. Language and cognitive data were not available for all patients, which may have resulted in a pre-selection of patients with a delay. In conclusion, while hearing thresholds, cognitive abilities and language development vary widely in CHARGE syndrome, they are mostly below average. Hearing loss and cognitive delay have a significant influence on language development in children with CHARGE syndrome. To improve our knowledge about and the quality of care we can provide to CHARGE patients, hearing and developmental tests should be performed regularly in order to differentiate between the contributions of hearing loss and cognitive delay to delays in language development, and to provide adequate hearing amplification in the case of hearing loss. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27145116

  12. Genome-wide autozygosity is associated with lower general cognitive ability.

    PubMed

    Howrigan, D P; Simonson, M A; Davies, G; Harris, S E; Tenesa, A; Starr, J M; Liewald, D C; Deary, I J; McRae, A; Wright, M J; Montgomery, G W; Hansell, N; Martin, N G; Payton, A; Horan, M; Ollier, W E; Abdellaoui, A; Boomsma, D I; DeRosse, P; Knowles, E E M; Glahn, D C; Djurovic, S; Melle, I; Andreassen, O A; Christoforou, A; Steen, V M; Hellard, S L; Sundet, K; Reinvang, I; Espeseth, T; Lundervold, A J; Giegling, I; Konte, B; Hartmann, A M; Rujescu, D; Roussos, P; Giakoumaki, S; Burdick, K E; Bitsios, P; Donohoe, G; Corley, R P; Visscher, P M; Pendleton, N; Malhotra, A K; Neale, B M; Lencz, T; Keller, M C

    2016-06-01

    Inbreeding depression refers to lower fitness among offspring of genetic relatives. This reduced fitness is caused by the inheritance of two identical chromosomal segments (autozygosity) across the genome, which may expose the effects of (partially) recessive deleterious mutations. Even among outbred populations, autozygosity can occur to varying degrees due to cryptic relatedness between parents. Using dense genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data, we examined the degree to which autozygosity associated with measured cognitive ability in an unselected sample of 4854 participants of European ancestry. We used runs of homozygosity-multiple homozygous SNPs in a row-to estimate autozygous tracts across the genome. We found that increased levels of autozygosity predicted lower general cognitive ability, and estimate a drop of 0.6 s.d. among the offspring of first cousins (P=0.003-0.02 depending on the model). This effect came predominantly from long and rare autozygous tracts, which theory predicts as more likely to be deleterious than short and common tracts. Association mapping of autozygous tracts did not reveal any specific regions that were predictive beyond chance after correcting for multiple testing genome wide. The observed effect size is consistent with studies of cognitive decline among offspring of known consanguineous relationships. These findings suggest a role for multiple recessive or partially recessive alleles in general cognitive ability, and that alleles decreasing general cognitive ability have been selected against over evolutionary time. PMID:26390830

  13. Australian indigenous children with low cognitive ability: Family and cultural participation.

    PubMed

    Gilroy, John; Emerson, Eric

    2016-09-01

    Family and cultural inclusion are essential for the healthy development of young Australian Indigenous peoples with low cognitive ability. To date, this issue has received limited research attention. A secondary analysis of data collected in Wave 4 of Footprints in Time, Australia's Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children, was conducted to help address this research gap. The study results indicated that in some areas, Indigenous children with low cognitive ability are at a higher risk of social exclusion than their peers. We discuss the policy implications of these findings with regards to addressing Indigenous disadvantage. PMID:27286466

  14. Factors that Predict Who Takes Advanced Courses in Cognitive Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pehlivanidis, Artemios

    2007-01-01

    Training in Cognitive Therapy (CT) includes theoretical and didactic components combined with clinical supervision. An introductory course in CT might satisfy training needs in psychotherapy and help in the selection of those trainees who wish to continue to an advanced training level. Predictors of success at such an introductory course have been…

  15. Instructional Design Theory: Advancements from Cognitive Science and Instructional Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennyson, Robert D.

    Scientific advancements in cognitive science and instructional technology extend the behaviorally-oriented learning paradigm of instructional design and management in three major areas: (1) analysis of information-to-be-learned; (2) means of evaluating learners; and (3) linkage of learning theory to instructional prescriptions. The two basic types…

  16. Morphological features of the neonatal brain support development of subsequent cognitive, language, and motor abilities.

    PubMed

    Spann, Marisa N; Bansal, Ravi; Rosen, Tove S; Peterson, Bradley S

    2014-09-01

    Knowledge of the role of brain maturation in the development of cognitive abilities derives primarily from studies of school-age children to adults. Little is known about the morphological features of the neonatal brain that support the subsequent development of abilities in early childhood, when maturation of the brain and these abilities are the most dynamic. The goal of our study was to determine whether brain morphology during the neonatal period supports early cognitive development through 2 years of age. We correlated morphological features of the cerebral surface assessed using deformation-based measures (surface distances) of high-resolution MRI scans for 33 healthy neonates, scanned between the first to sixth week of postmenstrual life, with subsequent measures of their motor, language, and cognitive abilities at ages 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. We found that morphological features of the cerebral surface of the frontal, mesial prefrontal, temporal, and occipital regions correlated with subsequent motor scores, posterior parietal regions correlated with subsequent language scores, and temporal and occipital regions correlated with subsequent cognitive scores. Measures of the anterior and middle portions of the cingulate gyrus correlated with scores across all three domains of ability. Most of the significant findings were inverse correlations located bilaterally in the brain. The inverse correlations may suggest either that a more protracted morphological maturation or smaller local volumes of neonatal brain tissue supports better performance on measures of subsequent motor, language, and cognitive abilities throughout the first 2 years of postnatal life. The correlations of morphological measures of the cingulate with measures of performance across all domains of ability suggest that the cingulate supports a broad range of skills in infancy and early childhood, similar to its functions in older children and adults.

  17. Morphological features of the neonatal brain support development of subsequent cognitive, language, and motor abilities

    PubMed Central

    Spann, Marisa N.; Bansal, Ravi; Rosen, Tove S.; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of the role of brain maturation in the development of cognitive abilities derives primarily from studies of school-age children to adults. Little is known about the morphological features of the neonatal brain that support the subsequent development of abilities in early childhood, when maturation of the brain and these abilities are the most dynamic. The goal of our study was to determine whether brain morphology during the neonatal period supports early cognitive development through two years of age. We correlated morphological features of the cerebral surface assessed using deformation-based measures (surface distances) of high-resolution MRI scans for 33 healthy neonates, scanned between the first to sixth week of postmenstrual life, with subsequent measures of their motor, language, and cognitive abilities at ages 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. We found that morphological features of the cerebral surface of the frontal, mesial prefrontal, temporal, and occipital regions correlated with subsequent motor scores, posterior parietal regions correlated with subsequent language scores, and temporal and occipital regions correlated with subsequent cognitive scores. Measures of the anterior and middle portions of the cingulate gyrus correlated with scores across all three domains of ability. Most of the significant findings were inverse correlations located bilaterally in the brain. The inverse correlations may suggest either that a more protracted morphological maturation or smaller local volumes of neonatal brain tissue supports better performance on measures of subsequent motor, language, and cognitive abilities throughout the first two years of postnatal life. The correlations of morphological measures of the cingulate with measures of performance across all domains of ability suggest that the cingulate supports a broad range of skills in infancy and early childhood, similar to its functions in older children and adults. PMID:24615961

  18. Polygenic risk for coronary artery disease is associated with cognitive ability in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Hagenaars, Saskia P; Harris, Sarah E; Clarke, Toni-Kim; Hall, Lynsey; Luciano, Michelle; Fernandez-Pujals, Ana Maria; Davies, Gail; Hayward, Caroline; Starr, John M; Porteous, David J; McIntosh, Andrew M; Deary, Ian J

    2016-01-01

    Background: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is associated with cognitive decrements and risk of later dementia, but it is not known if shared genetic factors underlie this association. We tested whether polygenic risk for CAD was associated with cognitive ability in community-dwelling cohorts of middle-aged and older adults. Methods: Individuals from Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (GS:SFHS, N = 9865) and from the Lothian Birth Cohorts of 1921 (LBC1921, N = 517) and 1936 (LBC1936, N = 1005) provided cognitive data and genome-wide genotype data. Polygenic risk profile scores for CAD were calculated for all of the cohorts using the largest available genome-wide association studies (GWAS) data set, the CARDIoGRAM consortium (22 233 cases and 64 762 controls). Polygenic risk profile scores for CAD were then tested for their association with cognitive abilities in the presence and absence of manifest cardiovascular disease. Results: A meta-analysis of all three cohorts showed a negative association between CAD polygenic risk and fluid cognitive ability (β = −0.022, P = 0.016), verbal intelligence (β = −0.024, P = 0.011) and memory (β = −0.021, P = 0.028). Conclusions: Increased polygenic risk for CAD is associated with lower cognitive ability in older adults. Common genetic variants may underlie some of the association between age-related cognitive decrements and the risk for CAD. PMID:26822939

  19. Investigation of Cognitive Abilities Related to Reading and Spelling in Korean: Readers with High, Average, and Low Skill Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hyun-Rin; Uno, Akira

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the characteristics of cognitive abilities as predictors of Korean reading and spelling ability, and the characteristics of the cognition of reading difficulty in Korean. In 103 Korean third-grade children, we tested ability to read and spell, nonverbal intelligence, vocabulary size, phonological cognitive…

  20. Fluid cognitive ability is a resource for successful emotion regulation in older and younger adults.

    PubMed

    Opitz, Philipp C; Lee, Ihno A; Gross, James J; Urry, Heather L

    2014-01-01

    The Selection, Optimization, and Compensation with Emotion Regulation (SOC-ER) framework suggests that (1) emotion regulation (ER) strategies require resources and that (2) higher levels of relevant resources may increase ER success. In the current experiment, we tested the specific hypothesis that individual differences in one internal class of resources, namely cognitive ability, would contribute to greater success using cognitive reappraisal (CR), a form of ER in which one reinterprets the meaning of emotion-eliciting situations. To test this hypothesis, 60 participants (30 younger and 30 older adults) completed standardized neuropsychological tests that assess fluid and crystallized cognitive ability, as well as a CR task in which participants reinterpreted the meaning of sad pictures in order to alter (increase or decrease) their emotions. In a control condition, they viewed the pictures without trying to change how they felt. Throughout the task, we indexed subjective emotional experience (self-reported ratings of emotional intensity), expressive behavior (corrugator muscle activity), and autonomic physiology (heart rate and electrodermal activity) as measures of emotional responding. Multilevel models were constructed to explain within-subjects variation in emotional responding as a function of ER contrasts comparing increase or decrease conditions with the view control condition and between-subjects variation as a function of cognitive ability and/or age group (older, younger). As predicted, higher fluid cognitive ability-indexed by perceptual reasoning, processing speed, and working memory-was associated with greater success using reappraisal to alter emotional responding. Reappraisal success did not vary as a function of crystallized cognitive ability or age group. Collectively, our results provide support for a key tenet of the SOC-ER framework that higher levels of relevant resources may confer greater success at emotion regulation. PMID:24987387

  1. Cognitive Epidemiology: With Emphasis on Untangling Cognitive Ability and Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubinski, David

    2009-01-01

    This commentary touches on practical, public policy, and social science domains informed by cognitive epidemiology while pulling together common themes running through this important special issue. As is made clear in the contributions assembled here, and others (Deary, Whalley, & Starr, 2009; Gottfredson, 2004; Lubinski & Humphreys, 1992, 1997),…

  2. Three Facets of Visual and Verbal Learners: Cognitive Ability, Cognitive Style, and Learning Preference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Richard E.; Massa, Laura J.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the hypothesis that some people are verbal learners and some people are visual learners. Presented a battery of 14 cognitive measures related to the visualizer-verbalizer dimension to 95 college students and then conducted correlational and factor analyses. Results have implications for how to conceptualize and measure individual…

  3. A study of the relationship between learning styles and cognitive abilities in engineering students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hames, E.; Baker, M.

    2015-03-01

    Learning preferences have been indirectly linked to student success in engineering programmes, without a significant body of research to connect learning preferences with cognitive abilities. A better understanding of the relationship between learning styles and cognitive abilities will allow educators to optimise the classroom experience for students. The goal of this study was to determine whether relationships exist between student learning styles, as determined by the Felder-Soloman Inventory of Learning Styles (FSILS), and their cognitive performance. Three tests were used to assess student's cognitive abilities: a matrix reasoning task, a Tower of London task, and a mental rotation task. Statistical t-tests and correlation coefficients were used to quantify the results. Results indicated that the global-sequential, active-referential, and visual-verbal FSILS learning styles scales are related to performance on cognitive tasks. Most of these relationships were found in response times, not accuracy. Differences in task performance between gender groups (male and female) were more notable than differences between learning styles groups.

  4. A Common Polymorphism in SCN2A Predicts General Cognitive Ability through Effects on PFC Physiology.

    PubMed

    Scult, Matthew A; Trampush, Joey W; Zheng, Fengyu; Conley, Emily Drabant; Lencz, Todd; Malhotra, Anil K; Dickinson, Dwight; Weinberger, Daniel R; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2015-09-01

    Here we provide novel convergent evidence across three independent cohorts of healthy adults (n = 531), demonstrating that a common polymorphism in the gene encoding the α2 subunit of neuronal voltage-gated type II sodium channels (SCN2A) predicts human general cognitive ability or "g." Using meta-analysis, we demonstrate that the minor T allele of a common polymorphism (rs10174400) in SCN2A is associated with significantly higher "g" independent of gender and age. We further demonstrate using resting-state fMRI data from our discovery cohort (n = 236) that this genetic advantage may be mediated by increased capacity for information processing between the dorsolateral PFC and dorsal ACC, which support higher cognitive functions. Collectively, these findings fill a gap in our understanding of the genetics of general cognitive ability and highlight a specific neural mechanism through which a common polymorphism shapes interindividual variation in "g." PMID:25961639

  5. The Effects of Schooling and Cognitive Ability on Smoking and Marijuana Use by Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, William

    1998-01-01

    Estimates effects of schooling, cognitive ability, and time preference on the probability that young adults smoke cigarettes or use marijuana, using data from the "High School and Beyond 1980 Study." Results show that all three variables affect the likelihood of smoking. Schooling and time preference have modest effects on using marijuana when…

  6. Children's Cognitions, Behavioral Intent, and Affect toward Girls and Boys of Lower or Higher Learning Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowicki, Elizabeth A.

    2006-01-01

    Research is clear about children's negative biases toward the opposite gender, toward peers of lower learning ability, and toward out-group members in general, especially among younger children. In adulthood, the magnitude and valence of attitudes may be dependent on cognitive, behavioral, or affective response classes, but little is known of how…

  7. Fantasy Play, Language and Cognitive Ability of Four-Year-Old Children in Guyana South America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taharally, L. C.

    A controlled study involving 60 randomly selected 4- to 5-year-old children from Guyana (South America) assessed whether providing the opportunity for fantasy play to children in nursery schools that do not provide such opportunity would have an effect on the children's level of symbolic, language, and cognitive ability. Subjects included 20…

  8. Cognitive Ability Is Associated with Different Outcome Trajectories in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Itzchak, Esther; Watson, Linda R.; Zachor, Ditza A.

    2014-01-01

    Variability in clinical expression and in intervention outcome has been described in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The study examined progress after 1 and 2 years of intervention and compared the impact of baseline cognitive ability on outcome trajectories in 46 children (m = 25.5 months) with ASD. The entire group showed a gradual decrease in…

  9. The Relation between Specialty Choice of Psychology Students and Their Interests, Personality, and Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wicherts, Jelte M.; Vorst, Harrie C. M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to investigate differences in interests, personality, and cognitive abilities between students majoring in the six specialties of psychology at the University of Amsterdam. Results show that students at Social Psychology and Work and Organizational Psychology were on average more extraverted than students of…

  10. Childhood Cognitive Ability, Education, and Personality Traits Predict Attainment in Adult Occupational Prestige over 17 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Helen; Furnham, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    This study explored a longitudinal data set of nearly 5000 adults examining the effects of childhood cognitive ability (measured at age 11), parental social class (measured at birth), and personality on current occupational prestige (all measured at age 50), taking account the effects of education and the previous occupational levels (both…

  11. Measurement Matters: Assessing Personal Qualities Other than Cognitive Ability for Educational Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Yeager, David Scott

    2015-01-01

    There has been perennial interest in personal qualities other than cognitive ability that determine success, including self-control, grit, growth mind-set, and many others. Attempts to measure such qualities for the purposes of educational policy and practice, however, are more recent. In this article, we identify serious challenges to doing so.…

  12. "Autistic" Traits in Non-Autistic Japanese Populations: Relationships with Personality Traits and Cognitive Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunihira, Yura; Senju, Atsushi; Dairoku, Hitoshi; Wakabayashi, Akio; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2006-01-01

    We explored the relationships between "autistic" traits as measured by the AQ (Autism-Spectrum Quotient; Baron-Cohen et al., J. Autism Develop. Disord. (2001b) 31 5) and various personality traits or cognitive ability, which usually coincide with autistic symptoms, for general populations. Results showed the AQ was associated with tendencies…

  13. Where Cognitive Development and Aging Meet: Face Learning Ability Peaks after Age 30

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germine, Laura T.; Duchaine, Bradley; Nakayama, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Research on age-related cognitive change traditionally focuses on either development or aging, where development ends with adulthood and aging begins around 55 years. This approach ignores age-related changes during the 35 years in-between, implying that this period is uninformative. Here we investigated face recognition as an ability that may…

  14. Family History, Self-Perceptions, Attitudes and Cognitive Abilities Are Associated with Early Adolescent Reading Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conlon, Elizabeth G.; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.; Creed, Peter A.; Tucker, Melinda

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated a model of reading skills among early adolescents (N=174). Measures of family history, achievement, cognitive processes and self-perceptions of abilities were obtained. Significant relationships were found between family history and children's single-word reading skills, spelling, reading comprehension, orthographic processing…

  15. Development of Planning Abilities in Normal Aging: Differential Effects of Specific Cognitive Demands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Köstering, Lena; Stahl, Christoph; Leonhart, Rainer; Weiller, Cornelius; Kaller, Christoph P.

    2014-01-01

    In line with the frontal hypothesis of aging, the ability to plan ahead undergoes substantial change during normal aging. Although impairments on the Tower of London planning task were reported earlier, associations between age-related declines and specific cognitive demands on planning have not been studied. Here we investigated the impact of…

  16. Multivariate Screening Model for Later Word Reading Achievement: Predictive Utility of Prereading Skills and Cognitive Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Heidi H.; Sullivan, Amanda L.; Watkins, Marley W.

    2013-01-01

    The present study used multiple regression to determine the predictive value of Kindergarten phonemic awareness, rapid serial naming, letter knowledge, and cognitive ability for predicting first-grade word reading and fluency. Participants were 131 first-grade students from a mid-Atlantic school system. A combination of predictor variables was…

  17. Support to Parents with Cognitive Limitations: Parental Abilities and Social Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milot, Élise; Turcotte, Daniel; Tétreault, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    In several countries, a growing number of adults with cognitive limitations decide to become parents. However, exercising this right requires the implementation of measures and services that foster their ability to assume parental responsibilities. This study presents results collected in an exploratory study documenting the type of support…

  18. Cognitive Abilities Explaining Age-Related Changes in Time Perception of Short and Long Durations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelanti, Pierre S.; Droit-Volet, Sylvie

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigated how the development of cognitive abilities explains the age-related changes in temporal judgment over short and long duration ranges from 0.5 to 30 s. Children (5- and 9-year-olds) as well as adults were given a temporal bisection task with four different duration ranges: a duration range shorter than 1 s, two…

  19. Reading and General Cognitive Ability: A Multivariate Analysis of 7-Year-Old Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlaar, Nicole; Hayiou-Thomas, Marianna E.; Plomin, Robert

    2005-01-01

    We examined the association between reading and general cognitive ability (g) in a population-based sample of 6,476 pairs of 7-year-old twins. Additive genetic influences largely accounted for individual differences in reading and the covariation between reading and g. Furthermore, both genetic and shared environmental influences on reading and g…

  20. Children's Cognitive Ability and Their Academic Achievement: The Mediation Effects of Parental Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillipson, Sivanes; Phillipson, Shane N.

    2012-01-01

    It is generally accepted that cognitive ability predicts academic achievement, and that parental involvement and expectations form part of the constellation of factors that predict their children's academic achievement, particularly for families within the Chinese-heritage Cultures. Although a number of interactions between these parental factors…

  1. Computer-Based Assessment of Cognitive Abilities: Current Status/Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eller, Ben F.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the evolution of current decision support systems (DSS) computer software and their potential for use in assessing cognitive ability. Current applications of computer software for structured and unstructured problem solving are examined together with the feasibility of computerized adaptive testing. Characteristics of computer-based…

  2. Gifted Students' Perceptions of Parenting Styles: Associations with Cognitive Ability, Sex, Race, and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Adelson, Jill L.; Callahan, Carolyn M.; Houlihan, Deanna Vogt; Keizer, Benjamin M.

    2013-01-01

    Children whose parents are warm and responsive yet also set limits and have reasonable expectations for their children tend to have better outcomes than their peers whose parents show less warmth and responsiveness, have low expectations, or both. Parenting behavior is related to family race and children's sex, age, and cognitive ability. However,…

  3. Cognitive Ability and Personality Variables as Predictors of School Grades and Test Scores in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofer, Manfred; Kuhnle, Claudia; Kilian, Britta; Fries, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The predictive power of cognitive ability and self-control strength for self-reported grades and an achievement test were studied. It was expected that the variables use of time structure, academic procrastination, and motivational interference during learning further aid in predicting students' achievement because they are operative in situations…

  4. Brief Report: Use of DQ for Estimating Cognitive Ability in Young Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delmolino, Lara M.

    2006-01-01

    The utility of Developmental Quotients (DQ) from the Psychoeducational Profile--Revised (PEP-R) to estimate cognitive ability in young children with autism was assessed. DQ scores were compared to scores from the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales--Fourth Edition (SB-FE) for 27 preschool students with autism. Overall and domain DQ's on the PEP-R…

  5. The Heritability of General Cognitive Ability: A Within-Family Adoption Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrill, Stephen A.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2004-01-01

    The current study employed a within-family adoption design to examine the genetic and environmental influences on general cognitive ability. A sample of 51 families with biological (mean age = 9.83 years, S.D. = 2.81) and adoptive children (mean age = 6.86, S.D. = 1.92) was selected from the larger "Northeast-Northwest Collaborative Adoption…

  6. Is Cognitive Ability a Liability? A Critique and Future Research Agenda on Skilled Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beier, Margaret E.; Oswald, Frederick L.

    2012-01-01

    Over a century of psychological research provides strong and consistent support for the idea that cognitive ability correlates positively with success in tasks that people face in employment, education, and everyday life. Recent experimental research, however, has converged on a different and provocative conclusion, namely that lower-ability…

  7. Cognitive Abilities that Predict Success in a Computer-Based Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ownby, Raymond L.; Czaja, Sara J.; Loewenstein, David; Rubert, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this study were (a) to identify cognitive abilities and other factors related to successful completion of training for computer-based tasks that simulated real jobs and (b) to create a brief assessment battery useful in assessing older adults for these kinds of jobs. Design and Methods: Participants from three age groups…

  8. Minority Performance on the Naglieri Nonverbal Ability Test, Second Edition, versus the Cognitive Abilities Test, Form 6: One Gifted Program's Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giessman, Jacob A.; Gambrell, James L.; Stebbins, Molly S.

    2013-01-01

    The Naglieri Nonverbal Ability Test, Second Edition (NNAT2), is used widely to screen students for possible inclusion in talent development programs. The NNAT2 claims to provide a more culturally neutral evaluation of general ability than tests such as Form 6 of the Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT6), which has Verbal and Quantitative batteries in…

  9. Royal Jelly Facilitates Restoration of the Cognitive Ability in Trimethyltin-Intoxicated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hattori, Noriko; Ohta, Shozo; Sakamoto, Takashi; Mishima, Satoshi; Furukawa, Shoei

    2011-01-01

    Trimethyltin (TMT) is a toxic organotin compound that induces acute neuronal death selectively in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) followed by cognition impairment; however the TMT-injured hippocampal DG itself is reported to regenerate the neuronal cell layer through rapid enhancement of neurogenesis. Neural stem/progenitor cells (NS/NPCs) are present in the adult hippocampal DG, and generate neurons that can function for the cognition ability. Therefore, we investigated whether royal jelly (RJ) stimulates the regenerating processes of the TMT-injured hippocampal DG, and found that orally administered RJ significantly increased the number of DG granule cells and simultaneously improved the cognitive impairment. Furthermore, we have already shown that RJ facilitates neurogenesis of cultured NS/NPCs. These present results, taken together with previous observations, suggest that the orally administered RJ may be a promising avenue for ameliorating neuronal function by regenerating hippocampal granule cells that function in the cognition process. PMID:19376837

  10. Uric formaldehyde levels are negatively correlated with cognitive abilities in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jing; Su, Tao; Zhou, Ting; He, Yingge; Lu, Jing; Li, Juan; He, Rongqiao

    2014-04-01

    Recent studies have shown that the abnormal accumulation of endogenous formaldehyde could be a critical factor in age-related cognitive decline. The aim of this study was to estimate the correlation between uric formaldehyde and general cognitive abilities in a community-based elderly population, and to measure the extent and direction in which the correlation varied with demographic characteristics. Using a double-blind design, formaldehyde in human urine was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (n = 604), and general cognitive abilities were measured using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Demographic characteristics, in terms of age, gender, residential region, and education were taken into consideration. We found that uric formaldehyde levels were inversely correlated with the MoCA score, and the concentration varied with demographic features: higher odds of a high formaldehyde level occurred among the less educated and those living in old urban or rural areas. In cytological experiments, the level of cellular formaldehyde released into the medium increased as SH-SY5Y and BV2 cells were incubated for three days. Formaldehyde in excess impaired the processes of N2a cells and neurites of primary cultured rat hippocampal cells. However, removal of formaldehyde markedly rescued and regenerated the processes of N2a cells. These results demonstrated a negative correlation between the endogenous formaldehyde and general cognitive abilities. High formaldehyde levels could be a risk factor for cognitive impairment in older adults, and could be developed as a non-invasive marker for detection and monitoring of age-related cognitive impairment.

  11. Ability of older people with dementia or cognitive impairment to manage medicine regimens: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Rohan A; Goeman, Dianne; Beanland, Christine; Koch, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Impaired cognition has a significant impact on a person's ability to manage their medicines. The aim of this paper is to provide a narrative review of contemporary literature on medicines management by people with dementia or cognitive impairment living in the community, methods for assessing their capacity to safely manage medicines, and strategies for supporting independent medicines management. Studies and reviews addressing medicines management by people with dementia or cognitive impairment published between 2003 and 2013 were identified via searches of Medline and other databases. The literature indicates that as cognitive impairment progresses, the ability to plan, organise, and execute medicine management tasks is impaired, leading to increased risk of unintentional non-adherence, medication errors, preventable medication-related hospital admissions and dependence on family carers or community nursing services to assist with medicines management. Impaired functional capacity may not be detected by health professionals in routine clinical encounters. Assessment of patients' (or carers') ability to safely manage medicines is not undertaken routinely, and when it is there is variability in the methods used. Self-report and informant report may be helpful, but can be unreliable or prone to bias. Measures of cognitive function are useful, but may lack sensitivity and specificity. Direct observation, using a structured, standardised performance-based tool, may help to determine whether a person is able to manage their medicines and identify barriers to adherence such as inability to open medicine packaging. A range of strategies have been used to support independent medicines management in people with cognitive impairment, but there is little high-quality research underpinning these strategies. Further studies are needed to develop and evaluate approaches to facilitate safe medicines management by older people with cognitive impairment and their carers.

  12. Cognitive Abilities on Transitive Inference Using a Novel Touchscreen Technology for Mice

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, J.L.; Gastrell, P.T.; Karras, M.N.; Solomon, M.; Crawley, J.N.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive abilities are impaired in neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia. Preclinical models with strong endophenotypes relevant to cognitive dysfunctions offer a valuable resource for therapeutic development. However, improved assays to test higher order cognition are needed. We employed touchscreen technology to design a complex transitive inference (TI) assay that requires cognitive flexibility and relational learning. C57BL/6J (B6) mice with good cognitive skills and BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR), a model of ASD with cognitive deficits, were evaluated in simple and complex touchscreen assays. Both B6 and BTBR acquired visual discrimination and reversal. BTBR displayed deficits on components of TI, when 4 stimuli pairs were interspersed, which required flexible integrated knowledge. BTBR displayed impairment on the A > E inference, analogous to the A > E deficit in ASD. B6 and BTBR mice both reached criterion on the B > D comparison, unlike the B > D impairment in schizophrenia. These results demonstrate that mice are capable of complex discriminations and higher order tasks using methods and equipment paralleling those used in humans. Our discovery that a mouse model of ASD displays a TI deficit similar to humans with ASD supports the use of the touchscreen technology for complex cognitive tasks in mouse models of neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:24293564

  13. Cognitive abilities on transitive inference using a novel touchscreen technology for mice.

    PubMed

    Silverman, J L; Gastrell, P T; Karras, M N; Solomon, M; Crawley, J N

    2015-05-01

    Cognitive abilities are impaired in neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia. Preclinical models with strong endophenotypes relevant to cognitive dysfunctions offer a valuable resource for therapeutic development. However, improved assays to test higher order cognition are needed. We employed touchscreen technology to design a complex transitive inference (TI) assay that requires cognitive flexibility and relational learning. C57BL/6J (B6) mice with good cognitive skills and BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR), a model of ASD with cognitive deficits, were evaluated in simple and complex touchscreen assays. Both B6 and BTBR acquired visual discrimination and reversal. BTBR displayed deficits on components of TI, when 4 stimuli pairs were interspersed, which required flexible integrated knowledge. BTBR displayed impairment on the A > E inference, analogous to the A > E deficit in ASD. B6 and BTBR mice both reached criterion on the B > D comparison, unlike the B > D impairment in schizophrenia. These results demonstrate that mice are capable of complex discriminations and higher order tasks using methods and equipment paralleling those used in humans. Our discovery that a mouse model of ASD displays a TI deficit similar to humans with ASD supports the use of the touchscreen technology for complex cognitive tasks in mouse models of neurodevelopmental disorders.

  14. Independent Evidence for an Association between General Cognitive Ability and a Genetic Locus for Educational Attainment

    PubMed Central

    Trampush, Joey W.; Lencz, Todd; Knowles, Emma; Davies, Gail; Guha, Saurav; Pe’er, Itsik; Liewald, David C.; Starr, John M.; Djurovic, Srdjan; Melle, Ingrid; Sundet, Kjetil; Christoforou, Andrea; Reinvang, Ivar; Mukherjee, Semanti; DeRosse, Pamela; Lundervold, Astri; Steen, Vidar M.; John, Majnu; Espeseth, Thomas; Räikkönen, Katri; Widen, Elisabeth; Palotie, Aarno; Eriksson, Johan G.; Giegling, Ina; Konte, Bettina; Ikeda, Masashi; Roussos, Panos; Giakoumaki, Stella; Burdick, Katherine E.; Payton, Antony; Ollier, William; Horan, Mike; Scult, Matthew; Dickinson, Dwight; Straub, Richard E.; Donohoe, Gary; Morris, Derek; Corvin, Aiden; Gill, Michael; Hariri, Ahmad; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Pendleton, Neil; Iwata, Nakao; Darvasi, Ariel; Bitsios, Panos; Rujescu, Dan; Lahti, Jari; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Keller, Matthew C.; Andreassen, Ole A.; Deary, Ian J.; Glahn, David C.; Malhotra, Anil K.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive deficits and reduced educational achievement are common in psychiatric illness; understanding the genetic basis of cognitive and educational deficits may be informative about the etiology of psychiatric disorders. A recent, large genomewide association study (GWAS) reported a genome-wide significant locus for years of education, which subsequently demonstrated association to general cognitive ability (“g”) in overlapping cohorts. The current study was designed to test whether GWAS hits for educational attainment are involved in general cognitive ability in an independent, large-scale collection of cohorts. Using cohorts in the Cognitive Genomics Consortium (COGENT; up to 20,495 healthy individuals), we examined the relationship between g and variants associated with educational attainment. We next conducted meta-analyses with 24,189 individuals with neurocognitive data from the educational attainment studies, and then with 53,188 largely independent individuals from a recent GWAS of cognition. A SNP (rs1906252) located at chromosome 6q16.1, previously associated with years of schooling, was significantly associated with g (P = 1.47×10−4) in COGENT. The first joint analysis of 43,381 non-overlapping individuals for this a priori-designated locus was strongly significant (P = 4.94×10−7), and the second joint analysis of 68,159 non-overlapping individuals was even more robust (P = 1.65×10−9). These results provide independent replication, in a large-scale dataset, of a genetic locus associated with cognitive function and education. As sample sizes grow, cognitive GWAS will identify increasing numbers of associated loci, as has been accomplished in other polygenic quantitative traits, which may be relevant to psychiatric illness. PMID:25951819

  15. Relationships among hearing loss, cognition and balance ability in community-dwelling older adults

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Da Hyun; Lee, Jong Dae; Lee, Hee Joong

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships among hearing loss, cognition, and balance ability in elderly individuals. [Subjects and Methods] In total, 46 elderly individuals over 65 years of age who were attending senior welfare centers participated in this study. Through a hearing test, the speech frequency pure tone average in the better ear was checked. We set a criterion of hearing loss if the better ear hearing level (BEHL) value was 25 dB or more. Cognition ability was evaluated using the Korean mini-mental state examination (K-MMSE). Dynamic balance ability was evaluated by the timed up and go (TUG) test, and static balance ability was tested using a one-leg stance test (OLST). [Results] The ages of the subjects were all related to BEHL, TUG, K-MMSE, and OLST. BEHL had a negative correlation with OLST, whereas it had no correlation with K-MMSE or TUG. The hearing loss group had a significantly shorter OLST time than the normal hearing group. [Conclusion] As elderly individuals get older, their hearing and cognition, as well as their balance abilities deteriorate. The results of this study indicate there is a significant correlation between hearing loss and static balance. PMID:26157259

  16. Disentangling the relationship between cognitive estimation abilities and executive functions: a study on patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    D'Aniello, Guido Edoardo; Scarpina, Federica; Albani, Giovanni; Castelnuovo, Gianluca; Mauro, Alessandro

    2015-08-01

    The cognitive estimation test (CET) measures cognitive estimation abilities: it assesses the ability to apply reasoning strategies to answer questions that usually cannot lead to a clear and exact reply. Since it requires the activation of an intricate ensemble of cognitive functions, there is an ongoing debate in the literature regarding whether the CET represents a measurement of global cognitive abilities or a pure measure of executive functions. In the present study, CET together with a neuropsychological assessment focused on executive functions was administered in thirty patients with Parkinson's disease without signs of dementia. The CET correlated with measures of verbal working memory and semantic knowledge, but not with other dimensions of executive domains, such as verbal phonemic fluency, ability to manage real-world interferences, or visuospatial reasoning. According to our results, cognitive estimation abilities appeared to trigger a defined cognitive path that includes executive functions, namely, working memory and semantic knowledge.

  17. Disentangling the relationship between cognitive estimation abilities and executive functions: a study on patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    D'Aniello, Guido Edoardo; Scarpina, Federica; Albani, Giovanni; Castelnuovo, Gianluca; Mauro, Alessandro

    2015-08-01

    The cognitive estimation test (CET) measures cognitive estimation abilities: it assesses the ability to apply reasoning strategies to answer questions that usually cannot lead to a clear and exact reply. Since it requires the activation of an intricate ensemble of cognitive functions, there is an ongoing debate in the literature regarding whether the CET represents a measurement of global cognitive abilities or a pure measure of executive functions. In the present study, CET together with a neuropsychological assessment focused on executive functions was administered in thirty patients with Parkinson's disease without signs of dementia. The CET correlated with measures of verbal working memory and semantic knowledge, but not with other dimensions of executive domains, such as verbal phonemic fluency, ability to manage real-world interferences, or visuospatial reasoning. According to our results, cognitive estimation abilities appeared to trigger a defined cognitive path that includes executive functions, namely, working memory and semantic knowledge. PMID:25791888

  18. An Empirical Investigation of the Relationships among Cognitive Abilities, Cognitive Style, and Learning Preferences in Students Enrolled in Specialized Degree Courses at a Canadian College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Jean; Sardar, Shaila

    2011-01-01

    Although specific cognitive abilities, cognitive style, and learning preferences are assumed to be inter-related, the empirical evidence supporting this assumption is mixed. Cognitive style refers to how individuals represent information, and learning preference refers to how individuals prefer the presentation of information (Mayer & Massa,…

  19. The Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities III's Cognitive Performance Model: Empirical Support for Intermediate Factors within CHC Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taub, Gordon E.; McGrew, Kevin S.

    2014-01-01

    The Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Ability Third Edition is developed using the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) measurement-theory test design as the instrument's theoretical blueprint. The instrument provides users with cognitive scores based on the Cognitive Performance Model (CPM); however, the CPM is not a part of CHC theory. Within the…

  20. Recruitment efforts to reduce adverse impact: targeted recruiting for personality, cognitive ability, and diversity.

    PubMed

    Newman, Daniel A; Lyon, Julie S

    2009-03-01

    Noting the presumed tradeoff between diversity and performance goals in contemporary selection practice, the authors elaborate on recruiting-based methods for avoiding adverse impact while maintaining aggregate individual productivity. To extend earlier work on the primacy of applicant pool characteristics for resolving adverse impact, they illustrate the advantages of simultaneous cognitive ability- and personality-based recruiting. Results of an algebraic recruiting model support general recruiting for cognitive ability, combined with recruiting for conscientiousness within the underrepresented group. For realistic recruiting effect sizes, this type of recruiting strategy greatly increases average performance of hires and percentage of hires from the underrepresented group. Further results from a policy-capturing study provide initial guidance on how features of organizational image can attract applicants with particular job-related personalities and abilities, in addition to attracting applicants on the basis of demographic background.

  1. Recruitment efforts to reduce adverse impact: targeted recruiting for personality, cognitive ability, and diversity.

    PubMed

    Newman, Daniel A; Lyon, Julie S

    2009-03-01

    Noting the presumed tradeoff between diversity and performance goals in contemporary selection practice, the authors elaborate on recruiting-based methods for avoiding adverse impact while maintaining aggregate individual productivity. To extend earlier work on the primacy of applicant pool characteristics for resolving adverse impact, they illustrate the advantages of simultaneous cognitive ability- and personality-based recruiting. Results of an algebraic recruiting model support general recruiting for cognitive ability, combined with recruiting for conscientiousness within the underrepresented group. For realistic recruiting effect sizes, this type of recruiting strategy greatly increases average performance of hires and percentage of hires from the underrepresented group. Further results from a policy-capturing study provide initial guidance on how features of organizational image can attract applicants with particular job-related personalities and abilities, in addition to attracting applicants on the basis of demographic background. PMID:19271792

  2. Advances in the treatment of cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Jennifer G; Weintraub, Daniel

    2015-09-15

    Cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD) is a frequent complication, with significant interindividual variability in clinical symptoms, severity, timing, and neural substrates. Recent studies have focused not only on understanding PD dementia, but also mild cognitive impairment in PD, which may represent a prodromal stage for dementia. In recent years, there have been important advances regarding clinical characterizations, definitions, associated biomarkers, and risk factors for both mild cognitive impairment in PD and PD dementia. However, there is a paucity of effective therapies for cognitive impairment in PD, whether for mild symptoms or for moderate to severe dementia. At present, only rivastigmine is U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved for PD dementia, an indication received nearly a decade ago. Given the frequency of PD cognitive impairment and its substantial impact on both patients and families, the lack of available and effective treatments represents a striking gap in the field, especially when compared to the large number of available therapies for PD motor symptoms and complications. Improved symptomatic therapies, as well as potential disease-modifying agents, for PD cognitive impairment are needed. Most therapeutic trials for PD dementia and mild cognitive impairment in PD have focused on drugs developed for and tested in Alzheimer's disease, such as cholinesterase inhibitors and the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, memantine, though recent and ongoing trials examine the effects of pharmacological agents affecting other neurotransmitters, as well as nonpharmacological therapies, including mental and physical exercise and neurostimulation. This review summarizes the design and outcomes of trials for PD cognitive impairment published since 2013 and highlights future therapeutic research opportunities and challenges.

  3. Assessments of cognitive abilities in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease with a touch screen test.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Chuljung; Lim, Chae-Seok; Kaang, Bong-Kiun

    2016-03-15

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) experience both motor output deficits and cognitive disabilities. Various PD rodent models have been developed to investigate the genetic and brain circuit-related causes of PD and have contributed to the basic and clinical research and to therapeutic strategies for this disease. Most studies using PD rodent models have focused on the motor output deficits, rather than cognitive disabilities due to the lack of appropriate testing tools that do not require significant motor abilities. In this study, we assessed the cognitive disabilities of PD model mice using a touch screen test that required only little motor ability. We found that the PD model mice, which had motor deficits caused by unilateral striatal dopaminergic degeneration, successfully underwent operant conditioning with a touch screen test. Additionally, we found that the PD model mice demonstrated impaired location discrimination, but intact attention and reversal learning in the cognitive tests. Therefore, the touch screen test is useful for assessing hidden cognitive disabilities in disease model animals with decreased motor function. PMID:26698399

  4. Investigating the Roles of Knowledge and Cognitive Abilities in Older Adult Information Seeking on the Web.

    PubMed

    Sharit, Joseph; Hernández, Mario A; Czaja, Sara J; Pirolli, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the influences of knowledge, particularly Internet, Web browser, and search engine knowledge, as well as cognitive abilities on older adult information seeking on the Internet. The emphasis on aspects of cognition was informed by a modeling framework of search engine information-seeking behavior. Participants from two older age groups were recruited: twenty people in a younger-old group (ages 60-70) and twenty people in an older-old group (ages 71-85). Ten younger adults (ages 18-39) served as a comparison group. All participants had at least some Internet search experience. The experimental task consisted of six realistic search problems, all involving information related to health and well-being and which varied in degree of complexity. The results indicated that though necessary, Internet-related knowledge was not sufficient in explaining information-seeking performance, and suggested that a combination of both knowledge and key cognitive abilities is important for successful information seeking. In addition, the cognitive abilities that were found to be critical for task performance depended on the search problem's complexity. Also, significant differences in task performance between the younger and the two older age groups were found on complex, but not on simple problems. Overall, the results from this study have implications for instructing older adults on Internet information seeking and for the design of Web sites.

  5. Association of Cognitive Abilities and Brain Lateralization among Primary School Children in Kuwait

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hashel, Jasem Y.; Ahmed, Samar Farouk; Al-Mutairi, Hanouf; Hassan, Shahd; Al-Awadhi, Nora; Al-Saraji, Mariam

    2016-01-01

    Background. Many studies have explored the cognitive variation between left- and right-handed individuals; however, the differences remain poorly understood. Aim of the Work. To assess the association between brain lateralization indicated by handedness and cognitive abilities. Material and Methods. A total of 217 students aged between 7 and 10 years of both genders were identified for the study. Males and females were equally distributed. All left-handed students were chosen. An equal group with right-handed students was randomly selected. Handedness was assessed using traditional writing hand approach as well as the WatHand Cabient Test and the Grooved Pegboard Test. Cognition was measured using Cambridge University's CANTAB eclipse cognitive battery. Pearson Correlation Coefficient Test “r” was calculated to measure the strength of association between quantitative data. Results. Right-handed children had superior visuospatial abilities (p = 0.011, r = 0.253), visual memory (p = 0.034, r = 0.205), and better scores in reaction time tests which incorporated elements of visual memory (p = 0.004, r = −0.271). Left-handed children proved to have better simple reaction times (p = 0.036, r = 0.201). Conclusion. Right-handed children had superior visuospatial abilities and left-handed children have better simple reaction times. PMID:27314004

  6. Investigating the Roles of Knowledge and Cognitive Abilities in Older Adult Information Seeking on the Web

    PubMed Central

    SHARIT, JOSEPH; HERNÁNDEZ, MARIO A.; CZAJA, SARA J.; PIROLLI, PETER

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the influences of knowledge, particularly Internet, Web browser, and search engine knowledge, as well as cognitive abilities on older adult information seeking on the Internet. The emphasis on aspects of cognition was informed by a modeling framework of search engine information-seeking behavior. Participants from two older age groups were recruited: twenty people in a younger-old group (ages 60–70) and twenty people in an older-old group (ages 71–85). Ten younger adults (ages 18–39) served as a comparison group. All participants had at least some Internet search experience. The experimental task consisted of six realistic search problems, all involving information related to health and well-being and which varied in degree of complexity. The results indicated that though necessary, Internet-related knowledge was not sufficient in explaining information-seeking performance, and suggested that a combination of both knowledge and key cognitive abilities is important for successful information seeking. In addition, the cognitive abilities that were found to be critical for task performance depended on the search problem’s complexity. Also, significant differences in task performance between the younger and the two older age groups were found on complex, but not on simple problems. Overall, the results from this study have implications for instructing older adults on Internet information seeking and for the design of Web sites. PMID:20011130

  7. Association of Cognitive Abilities and Brain Lateralization among Primary School Children in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Al-Hashel, Jasem Y; Ahmed, Samar Farouk; Al-Mutairi, Hanouf; Hassan, Shahd; Al-Awadhi, Nora; Al-Saraji, Mariam

    2016-01-01

    Background. Many studies have explored the cognitive variation between left- and right-handed individuals; however, the differences remain poorly understood. Aim of the Work. To assess the association between brain lateralization indicated by handedness and cognitive abilities. Material and Methods. A total of 217 students aged between 7 and 10 years of both genders were identified for the study. Males and females were equally distributed. All left-handed students were chosen. An equal group with right-handed students was randomly selected. Handedness was assessed using traditional writing hand approach as well as the WatHand Cabient Test and the Grooved Pegboard Test. Cognition was measured using Cambridge University's CANTAB eclipse cognitive battery. Pearson Correlation Coefficient Test "r" was calculated to measure the strength of association between quantitative data. Results. Right-handed children had superior visuospatial abilities (p = 0.011, r = 0.253), visual memory (p = 0.034, r = 0.205), and better scores in reaction time tests which incorporated elements of visual memory (p = 0.004, r = -0.271). Left-handed children proved to have better simple reaction times (p = 0.036, r = 0.201). Conclusion. Right-handed children had superior visuospatial abilities and left-handed children have better simple reaction times. PMID:27314004

  8. The impact of epistemological beliefs and cognitive ability on recall and critical evaluation of scientific information.

    PubMed

    Feinkohl, Insa; Flemming, Danny; Cress, Ulrike; Kimmerle, Joachim

    2016-05-01

    Scientific research findings are frequently picked up by the mainstream media, but it is largely unclear which factors have an impact on laypeople's processing of the presented scientific information. In this study, we investigated the influence of cognitive and metacognitive inter-individual differences on recall and on critical evaluation of new scientific information that was presented in a journalistic article. Sixty-three participants (80 % female; mean age 24.1 ± 3.3 years) read a newspaper article reporting research findings on a recently developed and yet unproven treatment for depression. We found that more sophisticated, domain-specific epistemological beliefs and a higher cognitive ability were independently associated with better recall of content from the article. Additionally, participants with more sophisticated epistemological beliefs displayed a more critical evaluation of the article. Cognitive ability was unrelated to critical evaluation and to epistemological beliefs. There were also no interaction effects of cognitive ability and epistemological beliefs on recall or on critical evaluation. Based on our preliminary findings and previous evidence of epistemological beliefs as a modifiable feature, we discuss this inter-individual characteristic as a potential target for the promotion of better understanding of scientific topics by the general public.

  9. Motivational reserve: motivation-related occupational abilities and risk of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Forstmeier, Simon; Maercker, Andreas; Maier, Wolfgang; van den Bussche, Hendrik; Riedel-Heller, Steffi; Kaduszkiewicz, Hanna; Pentzek, Michael; Weyerer, Siegfried; Bickel, Horst; Tebarth, Franziska; Luppa, Melanie; Wollny, Anja; Wiese, Birgitt; Wagner, Michael

    2012-06-01

    Midlife motivational abilities, that is, skills to initiate and persevere in the implementation of goals, have been related to mental and physical health, but their association with risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) has not yet been directly investigated. This relation was examined with data from the German Study on Ageing, Cognition, and Dementia in Primary Care Patients (AgeCoDe). A total of 3,327 nondemented participants (50.3% of a randomly selected sample) aged 75-89 years were recruited in primary care and followed up twice (after 1.5 and 3 years). Motivation-related occupational abilities were estimated on the basis of the main occupation (assessed at follow-up II) using the Occupational Information Network (O* NET) database, which provides detailed information on worker characteristics and abilities. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the relative risk of developing MCI and AD in relation to motivation-related occupational abilities, adjusting for various covariates. Over the 3 years of follow-up, 15.2% participants developed MCI and 3.0% developed AD. In a fully adjusted model, motivation-related occupational abilities were found to be associated with a reduced risk of MCI (HR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.64-0.92). Motivation-related occupational abilities were associated with reduced risk of AD in ApoE ε4 carriers (HR: 0.48; CI: 0.25-0.91), but not in noncarriers (HR: 0.99; CI: 0.65-1.53). These results suggest that midlife motivational abilities are associated with reduced risk of MCI in general and with reduced risk of AD in ApoE ε4 carriers. Revealing the mechanisms underlying this association may inform novel prevention strategies for decelerating cognitive decline in old age.

  10. 77 FR 3009 - Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Advanced Boiling Water Reactors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... COMMISSION Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Advanced Boiling Water Reactors..., ``Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Advanced Boiling Water Reactors.'' DATES... developed using this Catalog along with the Operator Licensing Examination Standards for Power...

  11. Comparison of Teachers' and School Psychologists' Accuracy in Assigning Basic Academic Tasks to Underlying CHC-Model Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petruccelli, Meredith Lohr; Fiorello, Catherine A.; Thurman, S. Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Teacher perceptions of their students' cognitive abilities affect the referrals they make and intervention strategies they implement. In this study, teachers and school psychologists were asked to sort basic academic tasks into categories on the basis of the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) broad cognitive abilities, such as fluid reasoning and…

  12. Shared Genetic Aetiology between Cognitive Ability and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: Generation Scotland's Scottish Family Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luciano, Michelle; Batty, G. David; McGilchrist, Mark; Linksted, Pamela; Fitzpatrick, Bridie; Jackson, Cathy; Pattie, Alison; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Morris, Andrew D.; Smith, Blair H.; Porteous, David; Deary, Ian J.

    2010-01-01

    People with higher general cognitive ability in early life have more favourable levels of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in adulthood and CVD itself. The mechanism of these associations is not known. Here we examine whether general cognitive ability and CVD risk factors share genetic and/or environmental aetiology. In this large,…

  13. The Cognitive Abilities and Skills of Children Who Suffer from Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Kuwait State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammed, Ali Mohammed Haidar

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to identify the level of cognitive skills and abilities of children who suffer from the Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and the differences in the level of cognitive skills and abilities according to the age group and the level of academic achievement. To achieve the objective of the study, a…

  14. Children's and Adolescents' Thoughts on Pollution: Cognitive Abilities Required to Understand Environmental Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodríguez, Manuel; Kohen, Raquel; Delval, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Pollution phenomena are complex systems in which different parts are integrated by means of causal and temporal relationships. To understand pollution, children must develop some cognitive abilities related to system thinking and temporal and causal inferential reasoning. These cognitive abilities constrain and guide how children understand…

  15. Theoretical Value Belief, Cognitive Ability, and Personality as Predictors of Student Performance in Object-Oriented Programming Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Dianne J.; Cegielski, Casey G.; Wade, James N.

    2006-01-01

    The research described in this article reports the results of a study designed to evaluate the relationship among object-oriented (OO) computer programming task performance and a student's (1) theoretical value belief, (2) cognitive ability, and (3) personality. The results of this study do not support the assertion that cognitive ability is a…

  16. Do Different Types of School Mathematics Development Depend on Different Constellations of Numerical versus General Cognitive Abilities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Geary, David C.; Compton, Donald L.; Fuchs, Douglas; Hamlett, Carol L.; Seethaler, Pamela M.; Bryant, Joan D.; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the interplay between basic numerical cognition and domain-general abilities (such as working memory) in explaining school mathematics learning. First graders (N = 280; mean age = 5.77 years) were assessed on 2 types of basic numerical cognition, 8 domain-general abilities, procedural calculations, and word…

  17. Relationships between visual-motor and cognitive abilities in intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Di Blasi, Francesco D; Elia, Flaviana; Buono, Serafino; Ramakers, Ger J A; Di Nuovo, Santo F

    2007-06-01

    The neurobiological hypothesis supports the relevance of studying visual-perceptual and visual-motor skills in relation to cognitive abilities in intellectual disabilities because the defective intellectual functioning in intellectual disabilities is not restricted to higher cognitive functions but also to more basic functions. The sample was 102 children 6 to 16 years old and with different severities of intellectual disabilities. Children were administered the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test, and the Developmental Test of Visual Perception, and data were also analysed according to the presence or absence of organic anomalies, which are etiologically relevant for mental disabilities. Children with intellectual disabilities had deficits in perceptual organisation which correlated with the severity of intellectual disabilities. Higher correlations between the spatial subtests of the Developmental Test of Visual Perception and the Performance subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children suggested that the spatial skills and cognitive performance may have a similar basis in information processing. Need to differentiate protocols for rehabilitation and intervention for recovery of perceptual abilities from general programs of cognitive stimulations is suggested. PMID:17688131

  18. Cognitive contributions to theory of mind ability in children with a traumatic head injury.

    PubMed

    Levy, Naomi Kahana; Milgram, Noach

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the current study is to examine the contribution of intellectual abilities, executive functions (EF), and facial emotion recognition to difficulties in Theory of Mind (ToM) abilities in children with a traumatic head injury. Israeli children with a traumatic head injury were compared with their non-injured counterparts. Each group included 18 children (12 males) ages 7-13. Measurements included reading the mind in the eyes, facial emotion recognition, reasoning the other's characteristics based on motive and outcome, Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices, similarities and digit span (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Revised 95 subscales), verbal fluency, and the Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Functions. Non-injured children performed significantly better on ToM, abstract reasoning, and EF measures compared with children with a traumatic head injury. However, differences in ToM abilities between the groups were no longer significant after controlling for abstract reasoning, working memory, verbal fluency, or facial emotion recognition. Impaired ToM recognition and reasoning abilities after a head injury may result from other cognitive impairments. In children with mild and moderate head injury, poorer performance on ToM tasks may reflect poorer abstract reasoning, a general tendency to concretize stimuli, working memory and verbal fluency deficits, and difficulties in facial emotion recognition, rather than deficits in the ability to understand the other's thoughts and emotions. ToM impairments may be secondary to a range of cognitive deficits in determining social outcomes in this population.

  19. Cognitive contributions to theory of mind ability in children with a traumatic head injury.

    PubMed

    Levy, Naomi Kahana; Milgram, Noach

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the current study is to examine the contribution of intellectual abilities, executive functions (EF), and facial emotion recognition to difficulties in Theory of Mind (ToM) abilities in children with a traumatic head injury. Israeli children with a traumatic head injury were compared with their non-injured counterparts. Each group included 18 children (12 males) ages 7-13. Measurements included reading the mind in the eyes, facial emotion recognition, reasoning the other's characteristics based on motive and outcome, Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices, similarities and digit span (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Revised 95 subscales), verbal fluency, and the Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Functions. Non-injured children performed significantly better on ToM, abstract reasoning, and EF measures compared with children with a traumatic head injury. However, differences in ToM abilities between the groups were no longer significant after controlling for abstract reasoning, working memory, verbal fluency, or facial emotion recognition. Impaired ToM recognition and reasoning abilities after a head injury may result from other cognitive impairments. In children with mild and moderate head injury, poorer performance on ToM tasks may reflect poorer abstract reasoning, a general tendency to concretize stimuli, working memory and verbal fluency deficits, and difficulties in facial emotion recognition, rather than deficits in the ability to understand the other's thoughts and emotions. ToM impairments may be secondary to a range of cognitive deficits in determining social outcomes in this population. PMID:25495376

  20. Does Cognitive Ability Predict Mortality in the Ninth Decade? The Lothian Birth Cohort 1921

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Catherine; Pattie, Alison; Starr, John M.; Deary, Ian J.

    2012-01-01

    To test whether cognitive ability predicts survival from age 79 to 89 years data were collected from 543 (230 male) participants who entered the study at a mean age of 79.1 years. Most had taken the Moray House Test of general intelligence (MHT) when aged 11 and 79 years from which, in addition to intelligence measures at these two time points,…

  1. Twin-singleton differences in cognitive abilities in a sample of Africans in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Hur, Yoon-Mi; Lynn, Richard

    2013-08-01

    Recent studies comparing cognitive abilities between contemporary twins and singletons in developed countries have suggested that twin deficits in cognitive abilities no longer exist. We examined cognitive abilities in a sample of twins and singletons born recently in Nigeria to determine whether recent findings can be replicated in developing countries. Our sample consisted of 413 pairs of twins and 280 singletons collected from over 45 public schools in Abuja and its neighboring states in Nigeria. The ages of twins and singletons ranged from 9 to 20 years with a mean (SD) of 14.6 years (2.2 years) for twins and 16.1 years (1.8 years) for singletons. Zygosity of the same-sex twins was determined by analysis of 16 deoxyribonucleic acid markers. We asked participants to complete a questionnaire booklet that included Standard Progressive Matrices-Plus Version (SPM+), Mill-Hill Vocabulary Scale (MHV), Family Assets Questionnaire, and demographic questions. The data were corrected for sex and age and then analyzed using maximum likelihood model-fitting analysis. Although twins and singletons were comparable in family social class indicators, singletons did better than twins across all the tests (d = 0.10 to 0.35). The average of d for SPM+ total [0.32; equivalent to 4.8 Intelligence Quotient (IQ) points] and d for MHV (0.24; equivalent to 3.6 IQ points) was 0.28 (equivalent to 4.2 IQ points), similar to the twin-singleton gap found in old cohorts in developed countries. We speculate that malnutrition, poor health, and educational systems in Nigeria may explain the persistence of twin deficits in cognitive abilities found in our sample. PMID:23835288

  2. Cognitive-perceptual abilities of a neurologically impaired infant: an alternative assessment strategy.

    PubMed

    Byrne, J M

    1984-06-01

    A 26-month-old boy with quadriplegia, untestable using traditional developmental tests, was assessed using a visual-discrimination paradigm (i.e. habituation-dishabituation). The results were interpreted as evidence that this infant could visually attend to, and discriminate between photographic slides varying in shape and/or colour. It is suggested that this paradigm may eventually be used as an alternative clinical testing protocol for assessing the perceptual-cognitive abilities of CNS-damage infants. PMID:6734956

  3. Learning strategies and general cognitive ability as predictors of gender- specific academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Ruffing, Stephanie; Wach, F-Sophie; Spinath, Frank M; Brünken, Roland; Karbach, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has revealed that learning behavior is associated with academic achievement at the college level, but the impact of specific learning strategies on academic success as well as gender differences therein are still not clear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate gender differences in the incremental contribution of learning strategies over general cognitive ability in the prediction of academic achievement. The relationship between these variables was examined by correlation analyses. A set of t-tests was used to test for gender differences in learning strategies, whereas structural equation modeling as well as multi-group analyses were applied to investigate the incremental contribution of learning strategies for male and female students' academic performance. The sample consisted of 461 students (mean age = 21.2 years, SD = 3.2). Correlation analyses revealed that general cognitive ability as well as the learning strategies effort, attention, and learning environment were positively correlated with academic achievement. Gender differences were found in the reported application of many learning strategies. Importantly, the prediction of achievement in structural equation modeling revealed that only effort explained incremental variance (10%) over general cognitive ability. Results of multi-group analyses showed no gender differences in this prediction model. This finding provides further knowledge regarding gender differences in learning research and the specific role of learning strategies for academic achievement. The incremental assessment of learning strategy use as well as gender-differences in their predictive value contributes to the understanding and improvement of successful academic development.

  4. Is bigger always better? The importance of cortical configuration with respect to cognitive ability.

    PubMed

    Vuoksimaa, Eero; Panizzon, Matthew S; Chen, Chi-Hua; Fiecas, Mark; Eyler, Lisa T; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Hagler, Donald J; Franz, Carol E; Jak, Amy J; Lyons, Michael J; Neale, Michael C; Rinker, Daniel A; Thompson, Wesley K; Tsuang, Ming T; Dale, Anders M; Kremen, William S

    2016-04-01

    General cognitive ability (GCA) has substantial explanatory power for behavioral and health outcomes, but its cortical substrate is still not fully established. GCA is highly polygenic and research to date strongly suggests that its cortical substrate is highly polyregional. We show in map-based and region-of-interest-based analyses of adult twins that a complex cortical configuration underlies GCA. Having relatively greater surface area in evolutionary and developmentally high-expanded prefrontal, lateral temporal, and inferior parietal regions is positively correlated with GCA, whereas relatively greater surface area in low-expanded occipital, medial temporal, and motor cortices is negatively correlated with GCA. Essentially the opposite pattern holds for relative cortical thickness. The phenotypic positive-to-negative gradients in our cortical-GCA association maps were largely driven by a similar pattern of genetic associations. The patterns are consistent with regional cortical stretching whereby relatively greater surface area is related to relatively thinner cortex in high-expanded regions. Thus, the typical "bigger is better" view does not adequately capture cortical-GCA associations. Rather, cognitive ability is influenced by complex configurations of cortical development patterns that are strongly influenced by genetic factors. Optimal cognitive ability appears to be driven both by the absolute size and the polyregional configuration of the entire cortex rather than by small, circumscribed regions. PMID:26827810

  5. Learning strategies and general cognitive ability as predictors of gender- specific academic achievement

    PubMed Central

    Ruffing, Stephanie; Wach, F. -Sophie; Spinath, Frank M.; Brünken, Roland; Karbach, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has revealed that learning behavior is associated with academic achievement at the college level, but the impact of specific learning strategies on academic success as well as gender differences therein are still not clear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate gender differences in the incremental contribution of learning strategies over general cognitive ability in the prediction of academic achievement. The relationship between these variables was examined by correlation analyses. A set of t-tests was used to test for gender differences in learning strategies, whereas structural equation modeling as well as multi-group analyses were applied to investigate the incremental contribution of learning strategies for male and female students’ academic performance. The sample consisted of 461 students (mean age = 21.2 years, SD = 3.2). Correlation analyses revealed that general cognitive ability as well as the learning strategies effort, attention, and learning environment were positively correlated with academic achievement. Gender differences were found in the reported application of many learning strategies. Importantly, the prediction of achievement in structural equation modeling revealed that only effort explained incremental variance (10%) over general cognitive ability. Results of multi-group analyses showed no gender differences in this prediction model. This finding provides further knowledge regarding gender differences in learning research and the specific role of learning strategies for academic achievement. The incremental assessment of learning strategy use as well as gender-differences in their predictive value contributes to the understanding and improvement of successful academic development. PMID:26347698

  6. The heritability of general cognitive ability increases linearly from childhood to young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Haworth, C M A; Wright, M J; Luciano, M; Martin, N G; de Geus, E J C; van Beijsterveldt, C E M; Bartels, M; Posthuma, D; Boomsma, D I; Davis, O S P; Kovas, Y; Corley, R P; Defries, J C; Hewitt, J K; Olson, R K; Rhea, S-A; Wadsworth, S J; Iacono, W G; McGue, M; Thompson, L A; Hart, S A; Petrill, S A; Lubinski, D; Plomin, R

    2010-11-01

    Although common sense suggests that environmental influences increasingly account for individual differences in behavior as experiences accumulate during the course of life, this hypothesis has not previously been tested, in part because of the large sample sizes needed for an adequately powered analysis. Here we show for general cognitive ability that, to the contrary, genetic influence increases with age. The heritability of general cognitive ability increases significantly and linearly from 41% in childhood (9 years) to 55% in adolescence (12 years) and to 66% in young adulthood (17 years) in a sample of 11 000 pairs of twins from four countries, a larger sample than all previous studies combined. In addition to its far-reaching implications for neuroscience and molecular genetics, this finding suggests new ways of thinking about the interface between nature and nurture during the school years. Why, despite life's 'slings and arrows of outrageous fortune', do genetically driven differences increasingly account for differences in general cognitive ability? We suggest that the answer lies with genotype-environment correlation: as children grow up, they increasingly select, modify and even create their own experiences in part based on their genetic propensities. PMID:19488046

  7. Learning strategies and general cognitive ability as predictors of gender- specific academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Ruffing, Stephanie; Wach, F-Sophie; Spinath, Frank M; Brünken, Roland; Karbach, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has revealed that learning behavior is associated with academic achievement at the college level, but the impact of specific learning strategies on academic success as well as gender differences therein are still not clear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate gender differences in the incremental contribution of learning strategies over general cognitive ability in the prediction of academic achievement. The relationship between these variables was examined by correlation analyses. A set of t-tests was used to test for gender differences in learning strategies, whereas structural equation modeling as well as multi-group analyses were applied to investigate the incremental contribution of learning strategies for male and female students' academic performance. The sample consisted of 461 students (mean age = 21.2 years, SD = 3.2). Correlation analyses revealed that general cognitive ability as well as the learning strategies effort, attention, and learning environment were positively correlated with academic achievement. Gender differences were found in the reported application of many learning strategies. Importantly, the prediction of achievement in structural equation modeling revealed that only effort explained incremental variance (10%) over general cognitive ability. Results of multi-group analyses showed no gender differences in this prediction model. This finding provides further knowledge regarding gender differences in learning research and the specific role of learning strategies for academic achievement. The incremental assessment of learning strategy use as well as gender-differences in their predictive value contributes to the understanding and improvement of successful academic development. PMID:26347698

  8. Pathological gambling in Estonia: relationships with personality, self-esteem, emotional States and cognitive ability.

    PubMed

    Kaare, Pille-Riin; Mõttus, René; Konstabel, Kenn

    2009-09-01

    Due to changes in gambling accessibility during the last decade gambling has become more widespread in Estonia and the prevalence of pathological gambling has sharply increased. The present study attempts to identify psychological characteristics of Estonian pathological gamblers. It has been shown that a wide range of social, economic, and individual factors (e.g. personality traits and emotional states) predict the likelihood of becoming a pathological gambler. In the present study, pathological gamblers' (N = 33) personality traits, self-esteem, self-reported emotional states and cognitive ability were compared to the respective characteristics in a non-gambling control group (N = 42) matched for age, gender and educational level. It was found that compared to controls, pathological gamblers had higher scores on Neuroticism (especially on its immoderation facet) and lower scores on Conscientiousness (especially on its dutifulness and cautiousness facets) and on self-esteem scale. They reported more negative emotional states during the previous month (especially depression and anxiety). Finally, pathological gamblers had lower general cognitive ability. In a logistic regression model, the likelihood of being a pathological gambler was best predicted by high immoderation score and low cognitive ability.

  9. First-grade cognitive abilities as long-term predictors of reading comprehension and disability status.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L; Fuchs, Lynn S; Bryant, V Joan; Hamlett, Carol L; Lambert, Warren

    2012-01-01

    In a sample of 195 first graders selected for poor reading performance, the authors explored four cognitive predictors of later reading comprehension and reading disability (RD) status. In fall of first grade, the authors measured the children's phonological processing, rapid automatized naming (RAN), oral language comprehension, and nonverbal reasoning. Throughout first grade, they also modeled the students' reading progress by means of weekly Word Identification Fluency (WIF) tests to derive December and May intercepts. The authors assessed their reading comprehension in the spring of Grades 1-5. With the four cognitive variables and the WIF December intercept as predictors, 50.3% of the variance in fifth-grade reading comprehension was explained: 52.1% of this 50.3% was unique to the cognitive variables, 13.1% to the WIF December intercept, and 34.8% was shared. All five predictors were statistically significant. The same four cognitive variables with the May (rather than December) WIF intercept produced a model that explained 62.1% of the variance. Of this amount, the cognitive variables and May WIF intercept accounted for 34.5% and 27.7%, respectively; they shared 37.8%. All predictors in this model were statistically significant except RAN. Logistic regression analyses indicated that the accuracy with which the cognitive variables predicted end-of-fifth-grade RD status was 73.9%. The May WIF intercept contributed reliably to this prediction; the December WIF intercept did not. Results are discussed in terms of a role for cognitive abilities in identifying, classifying, and instructing students with severe reading problems.

  10. Anatomical substrates and neurocognitive predictors of daily numerical abilities in mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Benavides-Varela, Silvia; Burgio, Francesca; Meneghello, Francesca; De Marco, Matteo; Arcara, Giorgio; Rigon, Jessica; Pilosio, Cristina; Butterworth, Brian; Venneri, Annalena; Semenza, Carlo

    2015-10-01

    Patients with mild cognitive impairment experience difficulties in mathematics that affect their functioning in the activities of everyday life. What are the associated anatomical brain changes and the cognitive correlates underlying such deficits? In the present study, 33 patients with Mild Cognitive Impairments (MCI) and 29 cognitively normal controls underwent volumetric MRI, and completed the standardized battery of Numerical Activities of Daily Living (NADL) along with a comprehensive clinical neuropsychological assessment. Group differences were examined on the numerical tasks and volumetric brain measures. The gray (GM) and white matter (WM) volume correlates were also evaluated. The results showed that relative to controls, the MCI group had impairments in number comprehension, transcoding, written operations, and in daily activities involving time estimation and money usage. In the volumetric measures, group differences emerged for the transcoding subtask in the left insula and left superior temporal gyrus. Among MCI patients, number comprehension and formal numerical performance were correlated with volumetric variability in the right middle occipital areas and right frontal gyrus. Money-usage scores showed significant correlations with left mesial frontal cortex, right superior frontal and right superior temporal cortex. Regression models revealed that neuropsychological measures of long-term memory, language, visuo-spatial abilities, and abstract reasoning were predictive of the patients' decline in daily activities. The present findings suggest that early neuropathology in distributed cortical regions of the brain including frontal, temporal and occipital areas leads to a breakdown of cognitive abilities in MCI that impacts on numerical daily functioning. The findings have implications for diagnosis, clinical and domestic care of patients with MCI.

  11. Anatomical substrates and neurocognitive predictors of daily numerical abilities in mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Benavides-Varela, Silvia; Burgio, Francesca; Meneghello, Francesca; De Marco, Matteo; Arcara, Giorgio; Rigon, Jessica; Pilosio, Cristina; Butterworth, Brian; Venneri, Annalena; Semenza, Carlo

    2015-10-01

    Patients with mild cognitive impairment experience difficulties in mathematics that affect their functioning in the activities of everyday life. What are the associated anatomical brain changes and the cognitive correlates underlying such deficits? In the present study, 33 patients with Mild Cognitive Impairments (MCI) and 29 cognitively normal controls underwent volumetric MRI, and completed the standardized battery of Numerical Activities of Daily Living (NADL) along with a comprehensive clinical neuropsychological assessment. Group differences were examined on the numerical tasks and volumetric brain measures. The gray (GM) and white matter (WM) volume correlates were also evaluated. The results showed that relative to controls, the MCI group had impairments in number comprehension, transcoding, written operations, and in daily activities involving time estimation and money usage. In the volumetric measures, group differences emerged for the transcoding subtask in the left insula and left superior temporal gyrus. Among MCI patients, number comprehension and formal numerical performance were correlated with volumetric variability in the right middle occipital areas and right frontal gyrus. Money-usage scores showed significant correlations with left mesial frontal cortex, right superior frontal and right superior temporal cortex. Regression models revealed that neuropsychological measures of long-term memory, language, visuo-spatial abilities, and abstract reasoning were predictive of the patients' decline in daily activities. The present findings suggest that early neuropathology in distributed cortical regions of the brain including frontal, temporal and occipital areas leads to a breakdown of cognitive abilities in MCI that impacts on numerical daily functioning. The findings have implications for diagnosis, clinical and domestic care of patients with MCI. PMID:26159324

  12. [Cognitive and linguistic abilities of a boy with PVL showing relatively higher VIQ compared to PIQ].

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Yukako; Natsume, Jun; Nakamura, Miho

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we investigated the cognitive processing and language abilities of a 13-year-old boy with moderate periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), spastic diplegia and exotropia who had discrepant scores in the verbal intelligence quotient (VIQ) and performance intelligence quotient (PIQ) in the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, third edition (VIQ; 82 > PIQ; under 40). In the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children and Das-Naglieri Cognitive Assessment System, his performance was poor at simultaneous processing compared to sequential processing. He could not copy three-dimensional figures, and he could place only two out of eight blocks correctly in the second level models of Benton three-dimensional block construction test, showing visuospatial impairment typical of patients with PVL. Despite the relatively high score in VIQ, there was a gap among the scores of the subtests in the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities. He tended to get low scores in tests that required visual abilities. In addition, there was also an impairment in reading fluency tested by the Diagnostic Criteria and Medical Guideline for Specific Developmental Disorders. He was much less fluent in reading syllables, words or sentences (6.0 SD or more compared to 12-year-old boys). The relatively higher score in VIQ superficially suggests adequate language ability. However, in the present study, precise investigation revealed some discrepancies even within the field of language. Thus, defining stronger and weaker points of a patient is important in order to determine optimal medical or educational approaches. PMID:26502654

  13. Polymorphic variation in CHAT gene modulates general cognitive ability: An association study with random student cohort.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xu; Shi, Yuanyu; Niu, Binbin; Shi, Zhangyan; Li, Junlin; Ma, Zhe; Wang, Jian; Gong, Pingyuan; Zheng, Anyun; Zhang, Fuchang; Gao, Xiaocai; Zhang, Kejin

    2016-03-23

    The choline O-acetyltransferase (CHAT) gene has been associated with various human disorders that involve cognitive impairment or deficiency. However, the influence of disease-associated variants of CHAT on normal individuals remains dubious. Here we demonstrated the impact of CHAT sequence variants (G-120A) on general human cognitive ability in a cohort of 750 Chinese undergraduate students. A multiple choice questionnaire was used to obtain basic demographic information, such as parents' occupations and education levels. We also administered and scored the Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices (RSPM). A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Kruskal-Wallis test (K-W) revealed a significant association between sequence polymorphisms of G-120A and individuals' Raven score (p=0.031 for ANOVA and p=0.026 for K-W tests). Moreover, further hierarchical analysis showed a similar trend in the association between G-120A variants and Raven scores only in the female subjects (p=0.008 for ANOVA and p=0.024 for K-W tests) but not in the male subjects. The results of a multiple linear regression confirmed that after we controlled gender, age, birthplace and other non-genetic factors, CHAT G-120A polymorphisms still significantly influenced individual Raven scores (B=-0.70, SE=0.28, t=-2.50, p=0.013). Our results demonstrated that sequence variants of CHAT were associated with human cognitive ability in not only patients with psychiatric disorders but also normal healthy individuals. However, some issues remained indeterminable, such as gender differences and the extent of the influence on individuals' general cognitive abilities; thus, the further research using an independent random sample was required.

  14. Polymorphic variation in CHAT gene modulates general cognitive ability: An association study with random student cohort.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xu; Shi, Yuanyu; Niu, Binbin; Shi, Zhangyan; Li, Junlin; Ma, Zhe; Wang, Jian; Gong, Pingyuan; Zheng, Anyun; Zhang, Fuchang; Gao, Xiaocai; Zhang, Kejin

    2016-03-23

    The choline O-acetyltransferase (CHAT) gene has been associated with various human disorders that involve cognitive impairment or deficiency. However, the influence of disease-associated variants of CHAT on normal individuals remains dubious. Here we demonstrated the impact of CHAT sequence variants (G-120A) on general human cognitive ability in a cohort of 750 Chinese undergraduate students. A multiple choice questionnaire was used to obtain basic demographic information, such as parents' occupations and education levels. We also administered and scored the Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices (RSPM). A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Kruskal-Wallis test (K-W) revealed a significant association between sequence polymorphisms of G-120A and individuals' Raven score (p=0.031 for ANOVA and p=0.026 for K-W tests). Moreover, further hierarchical analysis showed a similar trend in the association between G-120A variants and Raven scores only in the female subjects (p=0.008 for ANOVA and p=0.024 for K-W tests) but not in the male subjects. The results of a multiple linear regression confirmed that after we controlled gender, age, birthplace and other non-genetic factors, CHAT G-120A polymorphisms still significantly influenced individual Raven scores (B=-0.70, SE=0.28, t=-2.50, p=0.013). Our results demonstrated that sequence variants of CHAT were associated with human cognitive ability in not only patients with psychiatric disorders but also normal healthy individuals. However, some issues remained indeterminable, such as gender differences and the extent of the influence on individuals' general cognitive abilities; thus, the further research using an independent random sample was required. PMID:26854842

  15. Childhood trauma and general cognitive ability: Roles of minimization/denial and gender.

    PubMed

    Mert, Derya Guliz; Kelleci, Meral; Yildiz, Esengul; Mizrak, Ali; Kugu, Nesim

    2016-09-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of minimization and gender on the interaction between childhood trauma and general cognitive ability. The study included 345 students. The data were obtained via an information form, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), and Raven's standard progressive matrices (RSPM). The mean CTQ total score and the mean sexual abuse, physical, and emotional neglect subscale scores of the male students were significantly higher than those of the female students (p<0.05). The mean minimization score of the female students was greater than that of the male students (p<0.05). However, among the female students with minimization scores of 3, there was a moderate and significant negative correlation between the CTQ and RSPM scores (r=-0.533, p<0.05). This study found that general cognitive ability was influenced by childhood trauma among female students with higher minimization/neglect scores. The results of the current study suggest that ignoring the effects of minimization may be a misleading factor for determining the gender ratio of childhood trauma and evaluating its effect on long-term cognitive functions. PMID:27392231

  16. Future Cognitive Ability: US IQ Prediction until 2060 Based on NAEP

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The US National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) measures cognitive competences in reading and mathematics of US students (last 2012 survey N = 50,000). The long-term development based on results from 1971 to 2012 allows a prediction of future cognitive trends. For predicting US averages also demographic trends have to be considered. The largest groups’ (White) average of 1978/80 was set at M = 100 and SD = 15 and was used as a benchmark. Based on two past NAEP development periods for 17-year-old students, 1978/80 to 2012 (more optimistic) and 1992 to 2012 (more pessimistic), and demographic projections from the US Census Bureau, cognitive trends until 2060 for the entire age cohort and ethnic groups were estimated. Estimated population averages for 2060 are 103 (optimistic) or 102 (pessimistic). The average rise per decade is dec = 0.76 or 0.45 IQ points. White-Black and White-Hispanic gaps are declining by half, Asian-White gaps treble. The catch-up of minorities (their faster ability growth) contributes around 2 IQ to the general rise of 3 IQ; however, their larger demographic increase reduces the general rise at about the similar amount (-1.4 IQ). Because minorities with faster ability growth also rise in their population proportion the interactive term is positive (around 1 IQ). Consequences for economic and societal development are discussed. PMID:26460731

  17. Can Training Enhance Face Cognition Abilities in Middle-Aged Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Dolzycka, Dominika; Herzmann, Grit; Sommer, Werner; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Face cognition is a crucial skill for social interaction and shows large individual differences in healthy adults, suggesting a possibility for improvement in some. We developed and tested specific training procedures for the accuracy of face memory and the speed of face cognition. Two groups each of 20 healthy middle-aged trainees practiced for 29 daily sessions of 15 minutes duration with different computerized home-based training procedures. In addition, 20 matched and 59 non-matched controls were included. Face cognition speed training enhanced performance during the training and transferred to the latent factor level as measured in a pre-post comparison. Persistence of the training effect was evidenced at the manifest level after three months. However, the training procedure influenced the speed of processing object stimuli to the same extent as face stimuli and therefore seems to have affected a more general ability of processing complex visual stimuli and not only faces. No effects of training on the accuracy of face memory were found. This study demonstrates that face-specific abilities may be hard to improve but also shows the plasticity of the speed of processing complex visual stimuli – for the first time in middle-aged, normal adults. PMID:24632743

  18. Musical experience and the aging auditory system: implications for cognitive abilities and hearing speech in noise.

    PubMed

    Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; Strait, Dana L; Anderson, Samira; Hittner, Emily; Kraus, Nina

    2011-01-01

    Much of our daily communication occurs in the presence of background noise, compromising our ability to hear. While understanding speech in noise is a challenge for everyone, it becomes increasingly difficult as we age. Although aging is generally accompanied by hearing loss, this perceptual decline cannot fully account for the difficulties experienced by older adults for hearing in noise. Decreased cognitive skills concurrent with reduced perceptual acuity are thought to contribute to the difficulty older adults experience understanding speech in noise. Given that musical experience positively impacts speech perception in noise in young adults (ages 18-30), we asked whether musical experience benefits an older cohort of musicians (ages 45-65), potentially offsetting the age-related decline in speech-in-noise perceptual abilities and associated cognitive function (i.e., working memory). Consistent with performance in young adults, older musicians demonstrated enhanced speech-in-noise perception relative to nonmusicians along with greater auditory, but not visual, working memory capacity. By demonstrating that speech-in-noise perception and related cognitive function are enhanced in older musicians, our results imply that musical training may reduce the impact of age-related auditory decline. PMID:21589653

  19. Musical Experience and the Aging Auditory System: Implications for Cognitive Abilities and Hearing Speech in Noise

    PubMed Central

    Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; Strait, Dana L.; Anderson, Samira; Hittner, Emily; Kraus, Nina

    2011-01-01

    Much of our daily communication occurs in the presence of background noise, compromising our ability to hear. While understanding speech in noise is a challenge for everyone, it becomes increasingly difficult as we age. Although aging is generally accompanied by hearing loss, this perceptual decline cannot fully account for the difficulties experienced by older adults for hearing in noise. Decreased cognitive skills concurrent with reduced perceptual acuity are thought to contribute to the difficulty older adults experience understanding speech in noise. Given that musical experience positively impacts speech perception in noise in young adults (ages 18–30), we asked whether musical experience benefits an older cohort of musicians (ages 45–65), potentially offsetting the age-related decline in speech-in-noise perceptual abilities and associated cognitive function (i.e., working memory). Consistent with performance in young adults, older musicians demonstrated enhanced speech-in-noise perception relative to nonmusicians along with greater auditory, but not visual, working memory capacity. By demonstrating that speech-in-noise perception and related cognitive function are enhanced in older musicians, our results imply that musical training may reduce the impact of age-related auditory decline. PMID:21589653

  20. RacGAP α2-chimaerin function in development adjusts cognitive ability in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Ryohei; Ohi, Kazutaka; Kobayashi, Yuki; Masuda, Akira; Iwama, Mizuho; Yasuda, Yuka; Yamamori, Hidenaga; Tanaka, Mika; Hashimoto, Ryota; Itohara, Shigeyoshi; Iwasato, Takuji

    2014-09-11

    A major concern in neuroscience is how cognitive ability in adulthood is affected and regulated by developmental mechanisms. The molecular bases of cognitive development are not well understood. We provide evidence for the involvement of the α2 isoform of Rac-specific guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase)-activating protein (RacGAP) α-chimaerin (chimerin) in this process. We generated and analyzed mice with global and conditional knockouts of α-chimaerin and its isoforms (α1-chimaerin and α2-chimaerin) and found that α-chimaerin plays a wide variety of roles in brain function and that the roles of α1-chimaerin and α2-chimaerin are distinct. Deletion of α2-chimaerin, but not α1-chimaerin, beginning during early development results in an increase in contextual fear learning in adult mice, whereas learning is not altered when α2-chimaerin is deleted only in adulthood. Our findings suggest that α2-chimaerin acts during development to establish normal cognitive ability in adulthood.

  1. Cognitive ability is heritable and predicts the success of an alternative mating tactic

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Carl; Philips, André; Reichard, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The ability to attract mates, acquire resources for reproduction, and successfully outcompete rivals for fertilizations may make demands on cognitive traits—the mechanisms by which an animal acquires, processes, stores and acts upon information from its environment. Consequently, cognitive traits potentially undergo sexual selection in some mating systems. We investigated the role of cognitive traits on the reproductive performance of male rose bitterling (Rhodeus ocellatus), a freshwater fish with a complex mating system and alternative mating tactics. We quantified the learning accuracy of males and females in a spatial learning task and scored them for learning accuracy. Males were subsequently allowed to play the roles of a guarder and a sneaker in competitive mating trials, with reproductive success measured using paternity analysis. We detected a significant interaction between male mating role and learning accuracy on reproductive success, with the best-performing males in maze trials showing greater reproductive success in a sneaker role than as a guarder. Using a cross-classified breeding design, learning accuracy was demonstrated to be heritable, with significant additive maternal and paternal effects. Our results imply that male cognitive traits may undergo intra-sexual selection. PMID:26041347

  2. Molecular Genetic Evidence for Genetic Overlap between General Cognitive Ability and Risk for Schizophrenia: A Report from the Cognitive Genomics Consortium (COGENT)

    PubMed Central

    Lencz, Todd; Knowles, Emma; Davies, Gail; Guha, Saurav; Liewald, David C; Starr, John M; Djurovic, Srdjan; Melle, Ingrid; Sundet, Kjetil; Christoforou, Andrea; Reinvang, Ivar; Mukherjee, Semanti; Lundervold, Astri; Steen, Vidar M.; John, Majnu; Espeseth, Thomas; Räikkönen, Katri; Widen, Elisabeth; Palotie, Aarno; Eriksson, Johan G; Giegling, Ina; Konte, Bettina; Ikeda, Masashi; Roussos, Panos; Giakoumaki, Stella; Burdick, Katherine E.; Payton, Antony; Ollier, William; Horan, Mike; Donohoe, Gary; Morris, Derek; Corvin, Aiden; Gill, Michael; Pendleton, Neil; Iwata, Nakao; Darvasi, Ariel; Bitsios, Panos; Rujescu, Dan; Lahti, Jari; Hellard, Stephanie Le; Keller, Matthew C.; Andreassen, Ole A.; Deary, Ian J; Glahn, David C.; Malhotra, Anil K.

    2014-01-01

    It has long been recognized that generalized deficits in cognitive ability represent a core component of schizophrenia, evident prior to full illness onset and independent of medication. The possibility of genetic overlap between risk for schizophrenia and cognitive phenotypes has been suggested by the presence of cognitive deficits in first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia; however, until recently, molecular genetic approaches to test this overlap have been lacking. Within the last few years, large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of schizophrenia have demonstrated that a substantial proportion of the heritability of the disorder is explained by a polygenic component consisting of many common SNPs of extremely small effect. Similar results have been reported in GWAS of general cognitive ability. The primary aim of the present study is to provide the first molecular genetic test of the classic endophenotype hypothesis, which states that alleles associated with reduced cognitive ability should also serve to increase risk for schizophrenia. We tested the endophenotype hypothesis by applying polygenic SNP scores derived from a large-scale cognitive GWAS meta-analysis (~5000 individuals from 9 non-clinical cohorts comprising the COGENT consortium) to four schizophrenia case-control cohorts. As predicted, cases had significantly lower cognitive polygenic scores compared to controls. In parallel, polygenic risk scores for schizophrenia were associated with lower general cognitive ability. Additionally, using our large cognitive meta-analytic dataset, we identified nominally significant cognitive associations for several SNPs that have previously been robustly associated with schizophrenia susceptibility. Results provide molecular confirmation of the genetic overlap between schizophrenia and general cognitive ability, and may provide additional insight into pathophysiology of the disorder. PMID:24342994

  3. Adverse Life Events and Emotional and Behavioral Problems in Adolescence: The Role of Non-Verbal Cognitive Ability and Negative Cognitive Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flouri, Eirini; Panourgia, Constantina

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether negative cognitive errors (overgeneralizing, catastrophizing, selective abstraction, and personalizing) mediate the moderator effect of non-verbal cognitive ability on the association between adverse life events (life stress) and emotional and behavioral problems in adolescence. The sample consisted of 430…

  4. The Effect of Education on Old Age Cognitive Abilities: Evidence from a Regression Discontinuity Design*

    PubMed Central

    Banks, James; Mazzonna, Fabrizio

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we exploit the 1947 change to the minimum school-leaving age in England from 14 to 15, to evaluate the causal effect of a year of education on cognitive abilities at older ages. We use a regression discontinuity design analysis and find a large and significant effect of the reform on males’ memory and executive functioning at older ages, using simple cognitive tests from the English Longitudinal Survey on Ageing (ELSA) as our outcome measures. This result is particularly remarkable since the reform had a powerful and immediate effect on about half the population of 14-year-olds. We investigate and discuss the potential channels by which this reform may have had its effects, as well as carrying out a full set of sensitivity analyses and robustness checks. PMID:22611283

  5. Dissociation of musical tonality and pitch memory from nonmusical cognitive abilities.

    PubMed

    Steinke, W R; Cuddy, L L; Holden, R R

    1997-12-01

    The main purposes of this study were to replicate, validate, and extend measures of sensitivity to musical pitch and to determine whether performance on tests of tonal structure and pitch memory was related to, or dissociated from, performance on tests of nonmusical cognitive skills--standardized tests of cognitive abstraction, vocabulary, and memory for digits and nonrepresentational figures. Factor analyses of data from 100 neurologically intact participants revealed a dissociation between music and nonmusic variables, both for the full data set and a set for which the possible contribution of levels of music training was statistically removed. A neurologically impaired participant, C.N., scored within the range of matched controls on nonmusic tests but much lower than controls on music tests. The study provides further evidence of a functional specificity for musical pitch abilities.

  6. Regional Variations in Brain Gyrification Are Associated with General Cognitive Ability in Humans.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Michael D; Kippenhan, J Shane; Dickinson, Dwight; Carrasco, Jessica; Mattay, Venkata S; Weinberger, Daniel R; Berman, Karen F

    2016-05-23

    Searching for a neurobiological understanding of human intellectual capabilities has long occupied those very capabilities. Brain gyrification, or folding of the cortex, is as highly evolved and variable a characteristic in humans as is intelligence. Indeed, gyrification scales with brain size, and relationships between brain size and intelligence have been demonstrated in humans [1-3]. However, gyrification shows a large degree of variability that is independent from brain size [4-6], suggesting that the former may independently contribute to cognitive abilities and thus supporting a direct investigation of this parameter in the context of intelligence. Moreover, uncovering the regional pattern of such an association could offer insights into evolutionary and neural mechanisms. We tested for this brain-behavior relationship in two separate, independently collected, large cohorts-440 healthy adults and 662 healthy children-using high-resolution structural neuroimaging and comprehensive neuropsychometric batteries. In both samples, general cognitive ability was significantly associated (pFDR < 0.01) with increasing gyrification in a network of neocortical regions, including large portions of the prefrontal cortex, inferior parietal lobule, and temporoparietal junction, as well as the insula, cingulate cortex, and fusiform gyrus, a regional distribution that was nearly identical in both samples (Dice similarity coefficient = 0.80). This neuroanatomical pattern is consistent with an existing, well-known proposal, the Parieto-Frontal Integration Theory of intelligence [7], and is also consistent with research in comparative evolutionary biology showing rapid neocortical expansion of these regions in humans relative to other species. These data provide a framework for understanding the neurobiology of human cognitive abilities and suggest a potential neurocellular association. PMID:27133866

  7. Contributions of a Child’s Built, Natural, and Social Environments to Their General Cognitive Ability: A Systematic Scoping Review

    EPA Science Inventory

    The etiology of a child’s cognitive ability is complex, with research suggesting that it is not attributed to a single determinant or even a defined period of exposure. Rather, cognitive development is the product of cumulative interactions with the environment, both negati...

  8. Racial/Ethnic Socialization and Parental Involvement in Education as Predictors of Cognitive Ability and Achievement in African American Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerjee, Meeta; Harrell, Zaje A. T.; Johnson, Deborah J.

    2011-01-01

    Racial/ethnic socialization has not been studied in the context of other parenting behaviors such as parental involvement in education and its relationship to children's cognitive outcomes. The present study tested the impact of racial/ethnic socialization and parental involvement in education on cognitive ability and achievement in a sample of…

  9. Recognition of Faces and Greebles in 3-Month-Old Infants: Influence of Temperament and Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangler, Sibylle M.; Freitag, Claudia; Schwarzer, Gudrun; Vierhaus, Marc; Teubert, Manuel; Lamm, Bettina; Kolling, Thorsten; Graf, Frauke; Goertz, Claudia; Fassbender, Ina; Lohaus, Arnold; Knopf, Monika; Keller, Heidi

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether temperament and cognitive abilities are related to recognition performance of Caucasian and African faces and of a nonfacial stimulus class, Greebles. Seventy Caucasian infants were tested at 3 months with a habituation/dishabituation paradigm and their temperament and cognitive abilities…

  10. A Behavioural Genomic Analysis of DNA Markers Associated with General Cognitive Ability in 7-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlaar, Nicole; Butcher, Lee M.; Meaburn, Emma; Sham, Pak; Craig, Ian W.; Plomin, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Background: Five DNA markers (single-nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs) have recently been found to be associated with general cognitive ability "g") in a sample of 7414 7-year-old twins. These children have also been studied at 2, 3, 4, and 7 years of age on measures of cognitive and language development and behaviour problems; family environment…

  11. Concurrent Validity of the Cognitive Abilities Scale and Binet IV for Nonvocal 2- and 3-Year-Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanahan, Richard; Bradley-Johnson, Sharon

    1992-01-01

    Examined concurrent validity of Nonvocal Cognitive Quotient (NVCQ) of Cognitive Abilities Scale (CAS) and Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale: Fourth Edition (Binet IV) for two and three year olds. Found adequate concurrent validity for CAS NVCQ and Binet IV Verbal Comprehension at both age levels as well as for Nonverbal Reasoning/Visualization…

  12. Retinal Vascular Fractal Dimension, Childhood IQ, and Cognitive Ability in Old Age: The Lothian Birth Cohort Study 1936

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Adele M.; MacGillivray, Thomas J.; Henderson, Ross D.; Ilzina, Lasma; Dhillon, Baljean; Starr, John M.; Deary, Ian J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Cerebral microvascular disease is associated with dementia. Differences in the topography of the retinal vascular network may be a marker for cerebrovascular disease. The association between cerebral microvascular state and non-pathological cognitive ageing is less clear, particularly because studies are rarely able to adjust for pre-morbid cognitive ability level. We measured retinal vascular fractal dimension (Df) as a potential marker of cerebral microvascular disease. We examined the extent to which it contributes to differences in non-pathological cognitive ability in old age, after adjusting for childhood mental ability. Methods Participants from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 Study (LBC1936) had cognitive ability assessments and retinal photographs taken of both eyes aged around 73 years (n = 648). IQ scores were available from childhood. Retinal vascular Df was calculated with monofractal and multifractal analysis, performed on custom-written software. Multiple regression models were applied to determine associations between retinal vascular Df and general cognitive ability (g), processing speed, and memory. Results Only three out of 24 comparisons (two eyes × four Df parameters × three cognitive measures) were found to be significant. This is little more than would be expected by chance. No single association was verified by an equivalent association in the contralateral eye. Conclusions The results show little evidence that fractal measures of retinal vascular differences are associated with non-pathological cognitive ageing. PMID:25816017

  13. Relationships between Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) Cognitive Abilities and Math Achievement within a Sample of College Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Briley

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between cognitive abilities and math achievement within a sample of college students with learning disabilities (LD). The cognitive abilities were seven areas identified by Stratum II of the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory of cognitive abilities, in addition to the eighth area of Working Memory. Math…

  14. Development and application of cognitive-pragmatic language ability assessment protocol for traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi Sook; Kim, HyangHee

    2016-01-01

    The study aim was to introduce a newly-developed multifaceted cognitive-pragmatic language assessment protocol. This study was also designed to assess the reliability and validity of the assessment protocol in the discrimination between mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and normal control. Individuals in this study were 25 to 64 years old. Ten mTBIs and twenty-two control group were recruited for the preliminary study. Their mean ages were 45.20 and 41.23, respectively. For the main study, we recruited 39 mTBIs and 100 healthy individuals whose mean ages were 44.67 and 40.84, respectively. The newly-developed protocol was completed through a systematic review based on an item analysis. We administered the CAPTBI based on nine domains, 22 subcategories, and 57 items. All nine domains of the CAPTBI were found to be significant variables by which mTBI individuals can be distinguished from normal individuals (p < .001). We also presented the cut-off points by education level to maximize the validity of differentiating the two groups. This study is the first attempt to evaluate mTBI by means of the cognitive-linguistic protocol with multiple domains. The CAPTBI is an appropriate tool for differentiating the cognitive-pragmatic language abilities between mTBI and control group.

  15. Does mindfulness training improve cognitive abilities? A systematic review of neuropsychological findings.

    PubMed

    Chiesa, Alberto; Calati, Raffaella; Serretti, Alessandro

    2011-04-01

    Mindfulness meditation practices (MMPs) are a subgroup of meditation practices which are receiving growing attention. The present paper reviews current evidence about the effects of MMPs on objective measures of cognitive functions. Five databases were searched. Twenty three studies providing measures of attention, memory, executive functions and further miscellaneous measures of cognition were included. Fifteen were controlled or randomized controlled studies and 8 were case-control studies. Overall, reviewed studies suggested that early phases of mindfulness training, which are more concerned with the development of focused attention, could be associated with significant improvements in selective and executive attention whereas the following phases, which are characterized by an open monitoring of internal and external stimuli, could be mainly associated with improved unfocused sustained attention abilities. Additionally, MMPs could enhance working memory capacity and some executive functions. However, many of the included studies show methodological limitations and negative results have been reported as well, plausibly reflecting differences in study design, study duration and patients' populations. Accordingly, even though findings here reviewed provided preliminary evidence suggesting that MMPs could enhance cognitive functions, available evidence should be considered with caution and further high quality studies investigating more standardized mindfulness meditation programs are needed.

  16. Development of planning abilities in normal aging: differential effects of specific cognitive demands.

    PubMed

    Köstering, Lena; Stahl, Christoph; Leonhart, Rainer; Weiller, Cornelius; Kaller, Christoph P

    2014-01-01

    In line with the frontal hypothesis of aging, the ability to plan ahead undergoes substantial change during normal aging. Although impairments on the Tower of London planning task were reported earlier, associations between age-related declines and specific cognitive demands on planning have not been studied. Here we investigated the impact of search depth and goal ambiguity on planning, which impose demands on the depth and breadth of look-ahead processes, respectively. Besides an overall age-related decline in planning accuracy of 106 healthy older adults, differential search depth effects were found: Whereas planning accuracy of subjects in the early 60s was not affected by variations in search depth, between the ages of 65 and 76 years, accuracy was significantly decreased for high versus low levels of search depth. For subjects older than 76, different search depth levels did not further impact on accuracy, which was lowest overall. This nonlinear pattern may reflect differential impairments in fluid abilities and working memory capacity across various stages of older age. As no age-related effects of goal ambiguity were found, normal aging seems to be specifically sensitive to planning demands on the depth but not the breadth of anticipatory search processes. Hence, cognitive functions subserved by the prefrontal cortex experience differential development over the course of normal aging.

  17. Evaluation of 2 cognitive abilities tests in a dual-task environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidulich, M. A.; Tsang, P. S.

    1986-01-01

    Most real world operators are required to perform multiple tasks simultaneously. In some cases, such as flying a high performance aircraft or trouble shooting a failing nuclear power plant, the operator's ability to time share or process in parallel" can be driven to extremes. This has created interest in selection tests of cognitive abilities. Two tests that have been suggested are the Dichotic Listening Task and the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire. Correlations between these test results and time sharing performance were obtained and the validity of these tests were examined. The primary task was a tracking task with dynamically varying bandwidth. This was performed either alone or concurrently with either another tracking task or a spatial transformation task. The results were: (1) An unexpected negative correlation was detected between the two tests; (2) The lack of correlation between either test and task performance made the predictive utility of the tests scores appear questionable; (3) Pilots made more errors on the Dichotic Listening Task than college students.

  18. Improvement of gross motor and cognitive abilities by an exercise training program: three case reports

    PubMed Central

    Alesi, Marianna; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Roccella, Michele; Testa, Davide; Palma, Antonio; Pepi, Annamaria

    2014-01-01

    Background This work examined the efficacy of an integrated exercise training program (coach and family) in three children with Down syndrome to improve their motor and cognitive abilities, in particular reaction time and working memory. Methods The integrated exercise training program was used in three children with Down syndrome, comprising two boys (M1, with a chronological age of 10.3 years and a mental age of 4.7 years; M2, with a chronological age of 14.6 years and a mental age of less than 4 years) and one girl (F1, chronological age 14.0 years and a mental age of less than 4 years). Results Improvements in gross motor ability scores were seen after the training period. Greater improvements in task reaction time were noted for both evaluation parameters, ie, time and omissions. Conclusion There is a close interrelationship between motor and cognitive domains in individuals with atypical development. There is a need to plan intervention programs based on the simultaneous involvement of child and parents and aimed at promoting an active lifestyle in individuals with Down syndrome. PMID:24672238

  19. The imposition of, but not the propensity for, social subordination impairs exploratory behaviors and general cognitive abilities.

    PubMed

    Colas-Zelin, Danielle; Light, Kenneth R; Kolata, Stefan; Wass, Christopher; Denman-Brice, Alexander; Rios, Christopher; Szalk, Kris; Matzel, Louis D

    2012-06-15

    Imposed social subordination, such as that which accompanies physical defeat or alienation, has been associated with impaired cognitive function in both human and non-human animals. Here we examined whether domain-specific and/or domain-general learning abilities (c.f. general intelligence) are differentially influenced by the imposition of social subordination. Furthermore, we assessed whether the impact of subordination on cognitive abilities was the result of imposed subordination per se, or if it reflected deficits intrinsically expressed in subjects that are predisposed to subordination. Subordinate and dominant behaviors were assessed in two groups of CD-1 male mice. In one group (Imposed Stratification), social stratification was imposed (through persistent physical defeat in a colonized setting) prior to the determination of cognitive abilities, while in the second group (Innate Stratification), an assessment of social stratification was made after cognitive abilities had been quantified. Domain-specific learning abilities were measured as performance on individual learning tasks (odor discrimination, fear conditioning, spatial maze learning, passive avoidance, and egocentric navigation) while domain-general learning abilities were determined by subjects' aggregate performance across the battery of learning tasks. We observed that the imposition of subordination prior to cognitive testing decreased exploratory tendencies, moderately impaired performance on individual learning tasks, and severely impaired general cognitive performance. However, similar impairments were not observed in subjects with a predisposition toward a subordinate phenotype (but which had not experienced physical defeat at the time of cognitive testing). Mere colonization, regardless of outcome (i.e., stratification), was associated with an increase in stress-induced serum corticosterone (CORT) levels, and thus CORT elevations were not themselves adequate to explain the effects of

  20. Impaired Financial Abilities in Parkinson’s Disease Patients With Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Roy C.; Triebel, Kristen; Kennedy, Richard E.; Nicholas, Anthony P.; Watts, Ray L.; Stover, Natividad; Brandon, Mariko; Marson, Daniel C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Financial capacity (FC) is an instrumental activity of daily living (IADL) critical to independent functioning and sensitive to cognitive impairment in dementia. Little is known about FC in cognitively impaired patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). The present study investigated FC in PD patients with prodromal and clinical dementia. Methods Participants were 20 older controls and 35 PD patients who met consensus criteria for either mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI, n=18) or PD dementia (PDD, n=17). FC was assessed using a standardized performance based measure consisting of 9 domain and two global scores (Financial Capacity Instrument; FCI)(1). FCI domain and global performance scores were compared across groups. Capacity impairment ratings (no impairment, mild/moderate impairment, severe impairment) were calculated for each PD patient’s domain and global scores. Results Relative to controls, PD-MCI patients were impaired on both FCI global scores and domains of basic monetary skills, financial concepts, and investment decision-making. Relative to both controls and PD-MCI patients, PDD patients were impaired on virtually all FCI variables. With respect to impairment ratings, greater than 50% of PD-MCI patients and greater than 90% of PDD patients were classified as either mild/moderate or severely impaired on the two FCI global scores. Conclusions Impairment of financial capacity is already present in PD-MCI and is advanced in PDD. Complex cognitively-mediated IADLs such as financial capacity appear to be impaired early in the course of PD dementia. PMID:23899743

  1. Using IQ discrepancy scores to examine the neural correlates of specific cognitive abilities.

    PubMed

    Margolis, Amy; Bansal, Ravi; Hao, Xuejun; Algermissen, Molly; Erickson, Cole; Klahr, Kristin W; Naglieri, Jack A; Peterson, Bradley S

    2013-08-28

    The underlying neural determinants of general intelligence have been studied intensively, and seem to derive from the anatomical and functional characteristics of a frontoparietal network. Little is known, however, about the underlying neural correlates of domain-specific cognitive abilities, the other factors hypothesized to explain individual performance on intelligence tests. Previous preliminary studies have suggested that spatially distinct neural structures do not support domain-specific cognitive abilities. To test whether differences between abilities that affect performance on verbal and performance tasks derive instead from the morphological features of a single anatomical network, we assessed in two independent samples of healthy human participants (N=83 and N=58; age range, 5-57 years) the correlation of cortical thickness with the magnitude of the verbal intelligence quotient (VIQ)-performance intelligence quotient (PIQ) discrepancy. We operationalized the VIQ-PIQ discrepancy by regressing VIQ onto PIQ (VIQ-regressed-on-PIQ score), and by regressing PIQ onto VIQ (PIQ-regressed-on-VIQ score). In both samples, a progressively thinner cortical mantle in anterior and posterior regions bilaterally was associated with progressively greater (more positive) VIQ-regressed-on-PIQ scores. A progressively thicker cortical mantle in anterior and posterior regions bilaterally was associated with progressively greater (more positive) PIQ-regressed-on-VIQ scores. Variation in cortical thickness in these regions accounted for a large portion of the overall variance in magnitude of the VIQ-PIQ discrepancy. The degree of hemispheric asymmetry in cortical thickness accounted for a much smaller but statistically significant portion of variance in VIQ-PIQ discrepancy. PMID:23986248

  2. Investigation of cognitive abilities related to reading and spelling in Korean: readers with high, average, and low skill levels.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun-Rin; Uno, Akira

    2012-11-01

    In this study, we investigated the characteristics of cognitive abilities as predictors of Korean reading and spelling ability, and the characteristics of the cognition of reading difficulty in Korean. In 103 Korean third-grade children, we tested ability to read and spell, nonverbal intelligence, vocabulary size, phonological cognitive processing, visual cognitive processing, and naming speed. Our results indicated that receptive vocabulary, phoneme awareness, and naming speed served as factors for predicting reading test score; receptive vocabulary served as a factor for predicting spelling test score. We found that low reading-level groups had significantly slower performance on the naming speed task and lower scores on the receptive vocabulary test, as compared with the other groups (average and high reading-level groups). The present results have implications concerning useful tasks for screening for Korean poor readers.

  3. Does parental education have a moderating effect on the genetic and environmental influences of general cognitive ability in early adulthood?

    PubMed

    Grant, Michael D; Kremen, William S; Jacobson, Kristen C; Franz, Carol; Xian, Hong; Eisen, Seth A; Toomey, Rosemary; Murray, Ruth E; Lyons, Michael J

    2010-07-01

    Hereditary influences account for a substantial proportion of the variance in many cognitive abilities. However, there is increasing recognition that the relative importance of genetic and environmental influences may vary across different socioeconomic levels. The overall goal of the present study was to examine whether parental education has a moderating effect on genetic and environmental influences of general cognitive ability in early adulthood (age 19.6 +/- 1.5). Participants were 5,955 male twins from the Vietnam Era Twin (VET) Registry. Significant effects of parental education on mean level of general cognitive ability scores were found, but a model without moderating effects of parental education on genetic or environmental influences on cognitive scores proved to be the best fitting model. Some, but not all, previous studies have found significant moderating effects; however, no consistent pattern emerged that could account for between-study differences regarding moderating effects on genetic and environmental influences.

  4. Differences in General Cognitive Abilities and Domain-Specific Skills of Higher-and Lower-Achieving Students in Stoichiometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulacar, Ozcan; Eilks, Ingo; Bowman, Charles R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a comparison of a group of higher-and lower-achieving undergraduate chemistry students, 17 in total, as separated on their ability in stoichiometry. This exploratory study of 17 students investigated parallels and differences in the students' general and domain-specific cognitive abilities. Performance, strategies, and…

  5. Interrelations between Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy, Birth Weight and Sociodemographic Factors in the Prediction of Early Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huijbregts, S. C. J.; Seguin, J. R.; Zelazo, P. D.; Parent, S.; Japel, C.; Tremblay, R. E.

    2006-01-01

    Maternal prenatal smoking, birth weight and sociodemographic factors were investigated in relation to cognitive abilities of 1544 children (aged 3.5 years) participating in the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Children's Development. The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) was used to assess verbal ability, the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale…

  6. Assessing the Cognitive Abilities of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students: Predictive Validity of Verbal, Quantitative, and Nonverbal Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakin, Joni M.

    2012-01-01

    Verbal and quantitative reasoning tests provide valuable information about cognitive abilities that are important to academic success. Information about these abilities may be particularly valuable to teachers of students who are English-language learners (ELL), because leveraging reasoning skills to support comprehension is a critical aptitude…

  7. Cognitive abilities and motivational processes in high school students' science achievement and engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Shun

    The dissertation presents two analytic approaches, a variable-centered and person-centered approach, to investigating holistic patterns of the cognitive, motivational, and affective correlates of science achievement and engagement in a sample of 491 10th and 11th grade high-school students. Building on Snow's (1989) idea of two pathways to achievement outcomes, Study 1 adopted a variable-centered approach to examining how cognitive and motivational factors associated with the performance and commitment pathways, respectively, contributed to the prediction of achievement outcomes in science. Results of hierarchical regression analyses showed that (a) students' cognitive abilities were the strongest predictors of their performance in science as measured by standardized test scores; (b) motivational processes enhanced the predictive validity for science test scores and grades beyond the variance accounted for by ability and demography; (c) motivational processes were the strongest predictors of students' commitment to science in the form of situational engagement and anticipated choices of science-related college majors and careers; and (d) competence beliefs served as a point of contact between the performance and commitment pathways. These results are consistent with Snow's (1989) conjecture that both performance and commitment pathway-related factors are necessary for understanding the full range of person-level inputs to achievement outcomes. Study 2 adopted a person-centered approach to examining holistic organizations of psychological factors within individuals and their relations to science achievement and engagement. Four types of students characterized by unique configurations of cognitive, motivational, and affective attributes were identified in both the male and female subsamples using inverse factor analysis. Type membership was found to distinguish students in various indicators of science achievement and engagement. Two of the four types were also found

  8. The role of nonverbal cognitive ability in the association of adverse life events with dysfunctional attitudes and hopelessness in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Flouri, Eirini; Panourgia, Constantina

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether nonverbal cognitive ability buffers the effect of life stress (number of adverse life events in the last year) on diatheses for depression. It was expected that, as problem-solving aptitude, nonverbal cognitive ability would moderate the effect of life stress on those diatheses (such as dysfunctional attitudes) that are depressogenic because they represent deficits in information-processing or problem-solving skills, but not on diatheses (such as hopelessness) that are depressogenic because they represent deficits in motivation or effort to apply problem-solving skills. The sample included 558 10- to 19-year-olds from a state secondary school in London. Nonverbal cognitive ability was negatively associated with both dysfunctional attitudes and hopelessness. As expected, nonverbal cognitive ability moderated the association between life adversity and dysfunctional attitudes. However, hopelessness was not related to life stress, and therefore, there was no life stress effect for nonverbal cognitive ability to moderate. This study adds to knowledge about the association between problem-solving ability and depressogenic diatheses. By identifying life stress as a risk factor for dysfunctional attitudes but not hopelessness, it highlights the importance of considering outcome specificity in models predicting adolescent outcomes from adverse life events. Importantly for practice, it suggests that an emphasis on recent life adversity will likely underestimate the true level of hopelessness among adolescents.

  9. A study on the relationships between age, work experience, cognition, and work ability in older employees working in heavy industry.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jaeyeop; Park, Juhyung; Cho, Milim; Park, Yunhee; Kim, DeokJu; Yang, Dongju; Yang, Yeongae

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation of age, work experience, cognition, and work ability in older employees working in heavy industry. [Subjects and Methods] The study was conducted using 100 subjects who were over 55 years old and worked in heavy industry. To obtain data, we first had the subjects complete the MoCA-K test and Work Ability Index (WAI). The data were then analyzed by frequency and correlation using statistical software (SPSS 21.0). [Results] Through this study, we discovered a significant positive correlation between WAI and MoCA-K, age, and work experience. [Conclusion] This study revealed that work ability in older employees increases not with the number of years worked but with the enhancement of cognitive ability. Special management that focuses on cognition is therefore required for senior employees working in the field of heavy industry.

  10. Training cognitive control in older adults with the space fortress game: the role of training instructions and basic motor ability.

    PubMed

    Blumen, Helena M; Gopher, Daniel; Steinerman, Joshua R; Stern, Yaakov

    2010-01-01

    This study examined if and how cognitively healthy older adults can learn to play a complex computer-based action game called the Space Fortress (SF) as a function of training instructions [Standard vs. Emphasis Change (EC); e.g., Gopher et al., 1989] and basic motor ability. A total of 35 cognitively healthy older adults completed a 3-month SF training program with three SF sessions weekly. Twelve 3-min games were played during each session. Basic motor ability was assessed with an aiming task, which required rapidly rotating a spaceship to shoot targets. Older adults showed improved performance on the SF task over time, but did not perform at the same level as younger adults. Unlike studies of younger adults, overall SF performance in older adults was greater following standard instructions than following EC instructions. However, this advantage was primarily due to collecting more bonus points and not - the primary goal of the game - shooting and destroying the fortress, which in contrast benefited from EC instructions. Basic motor ability was low and influenced many different aspects of SF game learning, often interacted with learning rate, and influenced overall SF performance. These findings show that older adults can be trained to deal with the complexity of the SF task but that overall SF performance, and the ability to capitalize on EC instructions, differs when a basic ability such as motor control is low. Hence, the development of this training program as a cognitive intervention that can potentially compensate for age-related cognitive decline should consider that basic motor ability can interact with the efficiency of training instructions that promote the use of cognitive control (e.g., EC instructions) - and the confluence between such basic abilities and higher-level cognitive control abilities should be further examined.

  11. Are there pre-existing neural, cognitive, or motoric markers for musical ability?

    PubMed

    Norton, Andrea; Winner, Ellen; Cronin, Karl; Overy, Katie; Lee, Dennis J; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2005-11-01

    Adult musician's brains show structural enlargements, but it is not known whether these are inborn or a consequence of long-term training. In addition, music training in childhood has been shown to have positive effects on visual-spatial and verbal outcomes. However, it is not known whether pre-existing advantages in these skills are found in children who choose to study a musical instrument nor is it known whether there are pre-existing associations between music and any of these outcome measures that could help explain the training effects. To answer these questions, we compared 5- to 7-year-olds beginning piano or string lessons (n=39) with 5- to 7-year-olds not beginning instrumental training (n=31). All children received a series of tests (visual-spatial, non-verbal reasoning, verbal, motor, and musical) and underwent magnetic resonance imaging. We found no pre-existing neural, cognitive, motor, or musical differences between groups and no correlations (after correction for multiple analyses) between music perceptual skills and any brain or visual-spatial measures. However, correlations were found between music perceptual skills and both non-verbal reasoning and phonemic awareness. Such pre-existing correlations suggest similarities in auditory and visual pattern recognition as well a sharing of the neural substrates for language and music processing, most likely due to innate abilities or implicit learning during early development. This baseline study lays the groundwork for an ongoing longitudinal study addressing the effects of intensive musical training on brain and cognitive development, and making it possible to look retroactively at the brain and cognitive development of those children who emerge showing exceptional musical talent. PMID:16054741

  12. Discoursive Humanity as a Transcendental Basis for Cognitive (Dis)Ability Ethics and Policies.

    PubMed

    Häyry, Matti

    2016-04-01

    This article explicates two approaches to the basis of moral worth and status: Eva Kittay's relational view and Jeff McMahan's psychological personhood view. It is argued that these theories alone do not provide adequate support for the conclusions Kittay and McMahan want to draw concerning individuals whose entitlement to fundamental protections can be challenged-infants with severe cognitive disabilities and infants without the support of their families and social environments. The real justification can in each case be found in deeply held convictions regarding entities that must and entities that must not be included in the core community of moral equals. Philosophical discussions about these convictions would be more useful for the advancement of our moral thinking than vain attempts to show that the absolute truth lies on either side of the ongoing debate.

  13. Discoursive Humanity as a Transcendental Basis for Cognitive (Dis)Ability Ethics and Policies.

    PubMed

    Häyry, Matti

    2016-04-01

    This article explicates two approaches to the basis of moral worth and status: Eva Kittay's relational view and Jeff McMahan's psychological personhood view. It is argued that these theories alone do not provide adequate support for the conclusions Kittay and McMahan want to draw concerning individuals whose entitlement to fundamental protections can be challenged-infants with severe cognitive disabilities and infants without the support of their families and social environments. The real justification can in each case be found in deeply held convictions regarding entities that must and entities that must not be included in the core community of moral equals. Philosophical discussions about these convictions would be more useful for the advancement of our moral thinking than vain attempts to show that the absolute truth lies on either side of the ongoing debate. PMID:26957451

  14. Measurement Matters: Assessing Personal Qualities Other Than Cognitive Ability for Educational Purposes

    PubMed Central

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Yeager, David Scott

    2016-01-01

    There has been perennial interest in personal qualities other than cognitive ability that determine success, including self-control, grit, growth mindset, and many others. Attempts to measure such qualities for the purposes of educational policy and practice, however, are more recent. In this article, we identify serious challenges to doing so. We first address confusion over terminology, including the descriptor “non-cognitive.” We conclude that debate over the optimal name for this broad category of personal qualities obscures substantial agreement about the specific attributes worth measuring. Next, we discuss advantages and limitations of different measures. In particular, we compare self-report questionnaires, teacher-report questionnaires, and performance tasks, using self-control as an illustrative case study to make the general point that each approach is imperfect in its own way. Finally, we discuss how each measure’s imperfections can affect its suitability for program evaluation, accountability, individual diagnosis, and practice improvement. For example, we do not believe any available measure is suitable for between-school accountability judgments. In addition to urging caution among policymakers and practitioners, we highlight medium-term innovations that may make measures of these personal qualities more suitable for educational purposes. PMID:27134288

  15. German National Proficiency Scales in Biology: Internal Structure, Relations to General Cognitive Abilities and Verbal Skills

    PubMed Central

    KÖLLER, OLAF

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT National and international large‐scale assessments (LSA) have a major impact on educational systems, which raises fundamental questions about the validity of the measures regarding their internal structure and their relations to relevant covariates. Given its importance, research on the validity of instruments specifically developed for LSA is still sparse, especially in science and its subdomains biology, chemistry, and physics. However, policy decisions for the improvement of educational quality based on LSA can only be helpful if valid information on students’ achievement levels is provided. In the present study, the nature of the measurement instruments based on the German Educational Standards in Biology is examined. On the basis of data from 3,165 students in Grade 10, we present dimensional analyses and report the relationship between different subdimensions of biology literacy and cognitive covariates such as general cognitive abilities and verbal skills. A theory‐driven two‐dimensional model fitted the data best. Content knowledge and scientific inquiry, two subdimensions of biology literacy, are highly correlated and show differential correlational patterns to the covariates. We argue that the underlying structure of biology should be incorporated into curricula, teacher training and future assessments.

  16. Using Virtual Reality to Investigate Comparative Spatial Cognitive Abilities in Chimpanzees and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Dolins, Francine L.; Klimowicz, Christopher; Kelley, John; Menzel, Charles R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the efficacy of investigating spatial cognitive abilities across two primate species using virtual reality. In this study, we presented four captive adult chimpanzees and sixteen humans (twelve children and four adults) with simulated environments of increasing complexity and size to compare species’ attention to visuo-spatial features during navigation. The specific task required participants to attend to landmarks in navigating along routes in order to localize the goal site. Both species were found to discriminate effectively between positive and negative landmarks. Assessing path efficiency revealed that both species and all age groups used relatively efficient, distance reducing routes during navigation. Compared to the chimpanzees and adult humans however, younger children’s performance decreased as maze complexity and size increased. Surprisingly, in the most complex maze category the humans’ performance was less accurate compared to one female chimpanzee. These results suggest that the method of using virtual reality to test captive primates, and in particular, chimpanzees, affords significant cross-species investigations of spatial cognitive and developmental comparisons. PMID:24390812

  17. The genetic basis for cognitive ability, memory, and depression symptomatology in middle-aged and elderly chinese twins.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chunsheng; Sun, Jianping; Ji, Fuling; Tian, Xiaocao; Duan, Haiping; Zhai, Yaoming; Wang, Shaojie; Pang, Zengchang; Zhang, Dongfeng; Zhao, Zhongtang; Li, Shuxia; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Christensen, Kaare; Tan, Qihua

    2015-02-01

    The genetic influences on aging-related phenotypes, including cognition and depression, have been well confirmed in the Western populations. We performed the first twin-based analysis on cognitive performance, memory and depression status in middle-aged and elderly Chinese twins, representing the world's largest and most rapidly aging population. The sample consisted of 384 twin pairs with a median age of 50 years. Cognitive function was measured using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scale; memory was assessed using the revised Wechsler Adult Intelligence scale; depression symptomatology was evaluated by the self-reported 30-item Geriatric Depression (GDS-30)scale. Both univariate and multivariate twin models were fitted to the three phenotypes with full and nested models and compared to select the best fitting models. Univariate analysis showed moderate-to-high genetic influences with heritability 0.44 for cognition and 0.56 for memory. Multivariate analysis by the reduced Cholesky model estimated significant genetic (rG = 0.69) and unique environmental (rE = 0.25) correlation between cognitive ability and memory. The model also estimated weak but significant inverse genetic correlation for depression with cognition (-0.31) and memory (-0.28). No significant unique environmental correlation was found for depression with other two phenotypes. In conclusion, there can be a common genetic architecture for cognitive ability and memory that weakly correlates with depression symptomatology, but in the opposite direction.

  18. The genetic basis for cognitive ability, memory, and depression symptomatology in middle-aged and elderly chinese twins.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chunsheng; Sun, Jianping; Ji, Fuling; Tian, Xiaocao; Duan, Haiping; Zhai, Yaoming; Wang, Shaojie; Pang, Zengchang; Zhang, Dongfeng; Zhao, Zhongtang; Li, Shuxia; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Christensen, Kaare; Tan, Qihua

    2015-02-01

    The genetic influences on aging-related phenotypes, including cognition and depression, have been well confirmed in the Western populations. We performed the first twin-based analysis on cognitive performance, memory and depression status in middle-aged and elderly Chinese twins, representing the world's largest and most rapidly aging population. The sample consisted of 384 twin pairs with a median age of 50 years. Cognitive function was measured using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scale; memory was assessed using the revised Wechsler Adult Intelligence scale; depression symptomatology was evaluated by the self-reported 30-item Geriatric Depression (GDS-30)scale. Both univariate and multivariate twin models were fitted to the three phenotypes with full and nested models and compared to select the best fitting models. Univariate analysis showed moderate-to-high genetic influences with heritability 0.44 for cognition and 0.56 for memory. Multivariate analysis by the reduced Cholesky model estimated significant genetic (rG = 0.69) and unique environmental (rE = 0.25) correlation between cognitive ability and memory. The model also estimated weak but significant inverse genetic correlation for depression with cognition (-0.31) and memory (-0.28). No significant unique environmental correlation was found for depression with other two phenotypes. In conclusion, there can be a common genetic architecture for cognitive ability and memory that weakly correlates with depression symptomatology, but in the opposite direction. PMID:25586092

  19. Further Explorations of Perceptual Speed Abilities in the Context of Assessment Methods, Cognitive Abilities, and Individual Differences during Skill Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Phillip L.; Beier, Margaret E.

    2007-01-01

    Measures of perceptual speed ability have been shown to be an important part of assessment batteries for predicting performance on tasks and jobs that require a high level of speed and accuracy. However, traditional measures of perceptual speed ability sometimes have limited cost-effectiveness because of the requirements for administration and…

  20. The Nature of Preschool Phonological Processing Abilities and Their Relations to Vocabulary, General Cognitive Abilities, and Print Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonigan, Christopher J.; Anthony, Jason L.; Phillips, Beth M.; Purpura, David J.; Wilson, Shauna B.; McQueen, Jessica D.

    2009-01-01

    The development of reading-related phonological processing abilities represents an important developmental milestone in the process of learning to read. In this cross-sectional study, confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the structure of phonological processing abilities in 129 younger preschoolers (M = 40.88 months, SD = 4.65) and 304…

  1. Bright minds and dark attitudes: lower cognitive ability predicts greater prejudice through right-wing ideology and low intergroup contact.

    PubMed

    Hodson, Gordon; Busseri, Michael A

    2012-02-01

    Despite their important implications for interpersonal behaviors and relations, cognitive abilities have been largely ignored as explanations of prejudice. We proposed and tested mediation models in which lower cognitive ability predicts greater prejudice, an effect mediated through the endorsement of right-wing ideologies (social conservatism, right-wing authoritarianism) and low levels of contact with out-groups. In an analysis of two large-scale, nationally representative United Kingdom data sets (N = 15,874), we found that lower general intelligence (g) in childhood predicts greater racism in adulthood, and this effect was largely mediated via conservative ideology. A secondary analysis of a U.S. data set confirmed a predictive effect of poor abstract-reasoning skills on antihomosexual prejudice, a relation partially mediated by both authoritarianism and low levels of intergroup contact. All analyses controlled for education and socioeconomic status. Our results suggest that cognitive abilities play a critical, albeit underappreciated, role in prejudice. Consequently, we recommend a heightened focus on cognitive ability in research on prejudice and a better integration of cognitive ability into prejudice models.

  2. Performance Costs when Emotion Tunes Inappropriate Cognitive Abilities: Implications for Mental Resources and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storbeck, Justin

    2012-01-01

    Emotion tunes cognition, such that approach-motivated positive states promote verbal cognition, whereas withdrawal-motivated negative states promote spatial cognition (Gray, 2001). The current research examined whether self-control resources become depleted and influence subsequent behavior when emotion tunes an inappropriate cognitive tendency.…

  3. Study Protocol on Intentional Distortion in Personality Assessment: Relationship with Test Format, Culture, and Cognitive Ability.

    PubMed

    Van Geert, Eline; Orhon, Altan; Cioca, Iulia A; Mamede, Rui; Golušin, Slobodan; Hubená, Barbora; Morillo, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Self-report personality questionnaires, traditionally offered in a graded-scale format, are widely used in high-stakes contexts such as job selection. However, job applicants may intentionally distort their answers when filling in these questionnaires, undermining the validity of the test results. Forced-choice questionnaires are allegedly more resistant to intentional distortion compared to graded-scale questionnaires, but they generate ipsative data. Ipsativity violates the assumptions of classical test theory, distorting the reliability and construct validity of the scales, and producing interdependencies among the scores. This limitation is overcome in the current study by using the recently developed Thurstonian item response theory model. As online testing in job selection contexts is increasing, the focus will be on the impact of intentional distortion on personality questionnaire data collected online. The present study intends to examine the effect of three different variables on intentional distortion: (a) test format (graded-scale versus forced-choice); (b) culture, as data will be collected in three countries differing in their attitudes toward intentional distortion (the United Kingdom, Serbia, and Turkey); and (c) cognitive ability, as a possible predictor of the ability to choose the more desirable responses. Furthermore, we aim to integrate the findings using a comprehensive model of intentional distortion. In the Anticipated Results section, three main aspects are considered: (a) the limitations of the manipulation, theoretical approach, and analyses employed; (b) practical implications for job selection and for personality assessment in a broader sense; and

  4. Study Protocol on Intentional Distortion in Personality Assessment: Relationship with Test Format, Culture, and Cognitive Ability

    PubMed Central

    Van Geert, Eline; Orhon, Altan; Cioca, Iulia A.; Mamede, Rui; Golušin, Slobodan; Hubená, Barbora; Morillo, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Self-report personality questionnaires, traditionally offered in a graded-scale format, are widely used in high-stakes contexts such as job selection. However, job applicants may intentionally distort their answers when filling in these questionnaires, undermining the validity of the test results. Forced-choice questionnaires are allegedly more resistant to intentional distortion compared to graded-scale questionnaires, but they generate ipsative data. Ipsativity violates the assumptions of classical test theory, distorting the reliability and construct validity of the scales, and producing interdependencies among the scores. This limitation is overcome in the current study by using the recently developed Thurstonian item response theory model. As online testing in job selection contexts is increasing, the focus will be on the impact of intentional distortion on personality questionnaire data collected online. The present study intends to examine the effect of three different variables on intentional distortion: (a) test format (graded-scale versus forced-choice); (b) culture, as data will be collected in three countries differing in their attitudes toward intentional distortion (the United Kingdom, Serbia, and Turkey); and (c) cognitive ability, as a possible predictor of the ability to choose the more desirable responses. Furthermore, we aim to integrate the findings using a comprehensive model of intentional distortion. In the Anticipated Results section, three main aspects are considered: (a) the limitations of the manipulation, theoretical approach, and analyses employed; (b) practical implications for job selection and for personality assessment in a broader sense; and (c) suggestions for further research. PMID:27445902

  5. Study Protocol on Intentional Distortion in Personality Assessment: Relationship with Test Format, Culture, and Cognitive Ability.

    PubMed

    Van Geert, Eline; Orhon, Altan; Cioca, Iulia A; Mamede, Rui; Golušin, Slobodan; Hubená, Barbora; Morillo, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Self-report personality questionnaires, traditionally offered in a graded-scale format, are widely used in high-stakes contexts such as job selection. However, job applicants may intentionally distort their answers when filling in these questionnaires, undermining the validity of the test results. Forced-choice questionnaires are allegedly more resistant to intentional distortion compared to graded-scale questionnaires, but they generate ipsative data. Ipsativity violates the assumptions of classical test theory, distorting the reliability and construct validity of the scales, and producing interdependencies among the scores. This limitation is overcome in the current study by using the recently developed Thurstonian item response theory model. As online testing in job selection contexts is increasing, the focus will be on the impact of intentional distortion on personality questionnaire data collected online. The present study intends to examine the effect of three different variables on intentional distortion: (a) test format (graded-scale versus forced-choice); (b) culture, as data will be collected in three countries differing in their attitudes toward intentional distortion (the United Kingdom, Serbia, and Turkey); and (c) cognitive ability, as a possible predictor of the ability to choose the more desirable responses. Furthermore, we aim to integrate the findings using a comprehensive model of intentional distortion. In the Anticipated Results section, three main aspects are considered: (a) the limitations of the manipulation, theoretical approach, and analyses employed; (b) practical implications for job selection and for personality assessment in a broader sense; and PMID:27445902

  6. Relationships between personality structure, structure of word meaning, and cognitive ability: a study of cultural mechanisms of personality.

    PubMed

    Toomela, Aaro

    2003-10-01

    Native-born Estonian men (N=912), 17-68 years old, participated in a study on relationships between personality characteristics, dominant structure of word meaning ("everyday concepts" thinking or "scientific concepts" thinking), and level of cognitive ability. Individuals who primarily used everyday concepts thinking or who possessed relatively low levels of cognitive ability did not reveal a coherent Big Five personality structure, whereas individuals who primarily used scientific concepts thinking or possessed high levels of cognitive ability did. Thus, personality may be shaped by a cultural factor--word meaning structure. Earlier studies, which seem to support the idea that Big Five personality structure is a biologically determined human universal, suffer from serious sampling problems and insufficient data analyses. PMID:14561125

  7. A Phenomenological Exploration of Teacher Training Regarding Academically Advanced/High-Ability Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sueker, Carrie Olstad

    2011-01-01

    The needs of academically advanced/high-ability students may not be met in today's schools. When educational needs are not met, students may not reach full potential, may lose intrinsic motivation for learning, and may develop poor work and study habits. The rural school district involved in this study lacks a formal gifted and talented program.…

  8. Influence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on the cognitive abilities of Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Sayapina, Nina V.; Sergievich, Alexander A.; Kuznetsov, Vladimir L.; Chaika, Vladimir V.; Lisitskaya, Irina G.; Khoroshikh, Pavel P.; Batalova, Tatyana A.; Tsarouhas, Kostas; Spandidos, Demetrios; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M.; Fenga, Concettina; Golokhvast, Kirill S.

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the neurobehavioral effects of carbon nanomaterials, particularly those of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), have concentrated on cognitive effects, but data are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of MWCNTs on a number of higher nervous system functions of Wistar rats. For a period of 10 days, two experimental groups were fed with MWCNTs of different diameters (MWCNT-1 group, 8–10 nm; MWCNT-2 group, 18–20 nm) once a day at a dosage of 500 mg/kg. In the open-field test, reductions of integral indications of researching activity were observed for the two MWCNT-treated groups, with a parallel significant (P<0.01) increase in stress levels for these groups compared with the untreated control group. In the elevated plus-maze test, integral indices of researching activity in the MWCNT-1 and MWCNT-2 groups reduced by day 10 by 51 and 62%, respectively, while rat stress levels remained relatively unchanged. In the universal problem solving box test, reductions in motivation and energy indices of researching activity were observed in the two experimental groups. Searching activity in the MWCNT-1 group by day 3 was reduced by 50% (P<0.01) and in the MWCNT-2 group the relevant reduction reached 11.2%. By day 10, the reduction compared with controls, was 64% (P<0.01) and 58% (P<0.01) for the MWCNT-1 and MWCNT-2 groups, respectively. In conclusion, a series of specific tests demonstrated that MWCNT-treated rats experienced a significant reduction of some of their cognitive abilities, a disturbing and worrying finding, taking into consideration the continuing and accelerating use of carbon nanotubes in medicine and science. PMID:27588053

  9. Contributions of a Child's Built, Natural, and Social Environments to Their General Cognitive Ability: A Systematic Scoping Review.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Jazmin Del Carmen; Quackenboss, James J; Tulve, Nicolle S

    2016-01-01

    The etiology of a child's cognitive ability is complex, with research suggesting that it is not attributed to a single determinant or even a defined period of exposure. Rather, cognitive development is the product of cumulative interactions with the environment, both negative and positive, over the life course. The aim of this systematic scoping review was to collate evidence associated with children's cognitive health, including inherent factors as well as chemical and non-chemical stressors from the built, natural, and social environments. Three databases were used to identify recent epidemiological studies (2003-2013) that examined exposure factors associated with general cognitive ability in children. Over 100 factors were evaluated from 258 eligible studies. We found that recent literature mainly assessed the hypothesized negative effects of either inherent factors or chemical exposures present in the physical environment. Prenatal growth, sleep health, lead and water pollutants showed consistent negative effects. Of the few studies that examined social stressors, results consistently showed cognitive development to be influenced by both positive and negative social interactions at home, in school or the community. Among behavioral factors related to diet and lifestyle choices of the mother, breastfeeding was the most studied, showing consistent positive associations with cognitive ability. There were mostly inconsistent results for both chemical and non-chemical stressors. The majority of studies utilized traditional exposure assessments, evaluating chemical and non-chemical stressors separately. Collective evidence from a limited number of studies revealed that cumulative exposure assessment that incorporates multiple chemical and non-chemical stressors over the life course may unravel the variability in effect on cognitive development and help explain the inconsistencies across studies. Future research examining the interactions of multiple stressors within

  10. Contributions of a Child’s Built, Natural, and Social Environments to Their General Cognitive Ability: A Systematic Scoping Review

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Jazmin Del Carmen; Quackenboss, James J.; Tulve, Nicolle S.

    2016-01-01

    The etiology of a child’s cognitive ability is complex, with research suggesting that it is not attributed to a single determinant or even a defined period of exposure. Rather, cognitive development is the product of cumulative interactions with the environment, both negative and positive, over the life course. The aim of this systematic scoping review was to collate evidence associated with children’s cognitive health, including inherent factors as well as chemical and non-chemical stressors from the built, natural, and social environments. Three databases were used to identify recent epidemiological studies (2003–2013) that examined exposure factors associated with general cognitive ability in children. Over 100 factors were evaluated from 258 eligible studies. We found that recent literature mainly assessed the hypothesized negative effects of either inherent factors or chemical exposures present in the physical environment. Prenatal growth, sleep health, lead and water pollutants showed consistent negative effects. Of the few studies that examined social stressors, results consistently showed cognitive development to be influenced by both positive and negative social interactions at home, in school or the community. Among behavioral factors related to diet and lifestyle choices of the mother, breastfeeding was the most studied, showing consistent positive associations with cognitive ability. There were mostly inconsistent results for both chemical and non-chemical stressors. The majority of studies utilized traditional exposure assessments, evaluating chemical and non-chemical stressors separately. Collective evidence from a limited number of studies revealed that cumulative exposure assessment that incorporates multiple chemical and non-chemical stressors over the life course may unravel the variability in effect on cognitive development and help explain the inconsistencies across studies. Future research examining the interactions of multiple stressors

  11. Cognitive Effects of Bilingualism: Digging Deeper for the Contributions of Language Dominance, Linguistic Knowledge, Socio-Economic Status and Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller Gathercole, Virginia C.; Thomas, Enlli Mon; Jones, Leah; Guasch, Nestor Vinas; Young, Nia; Hughes, Emma K.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the extent to which a bilingual advantage can be observed for executive function tasks in children of varying levels of language dominance, and examines the contributions of general cognitive knowledge, linguistic abilities, language use and socio-economic level to performance. Welsh-English bilingual and English monolingual…

  12. Global, Broad, or Specific Cognitive Differences? Using a MIMIC Model to Examine Differences in CHC Abilities in Children with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niileksela, Christopher R.; Reynolds, Matthew R.

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to better understand the relations between learning disabilities and different levels of latent cognitive abilities, including general intelligence (g), broad cognitive abilities, and specific abilities based on the Cattell-Horn-Carroll theory of intelligence (CHC theory). Data from the "Differential Ability…

  13. On the nature and nurture of intelligence and specific cognitive abilities: the more heritable, the more culture dependent.

    PubMed

    Kan, Kees-Jan; Wicherts, Jelte M; Dolan, Conor V; van der Maas, Han L J

    2013-12-01

    To further knowledge concerning the nature and nurture of intelligence, we scrutinized how heritability coefficients vary across specific cognitive abilities both theoretically and empirically. Data from 23 twin studies (combined N = 7,852) showed that (a) in adult samples, culture-loaded subtests tend to demonstrate greater heritability coefficients than do culture-reduced subtests; and (b) in samples of both adults and children, a subtest's proportion of variance shared with general intelligence is a function of its cultural load. These findings require an explanation because they do not follow from mainstream theories of intelligence. The findings are consistent with our hypothesis that heritability coefficients differ across cognitive abilities as a result of differences in the contribution of genotype-environment covariance. The counterintuitive finding that the most heritable abilities are the most culture-dependent abilities sheds a new light on the long-standing nature-nurture debate of intelligence.

  14. Perspective taking abilities in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Marková, Hana; Laczó, Jan; Andel, Ross; Hort, Jakub; Vlček, Kamil

    2015-03-15

    Perspective taking is the ability to imagine what a scene looks like from a different viewpoint, which has been reported to be impaired in Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study compared overhead and first-person view perspective taking abilities in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD. A newly developed Arena Perspective Taking Task (APTT), using an environment of a circular arena, was used to compare 23 AD patients and 38 amnestic MCI patients with 18 healthy controls. The results were contrasted with a published perspective taking test (Standardized Road-Map Test of Direction Sense, RMTDS). The AD group was impaired in both overhead and first-person view APTT versions, but the impairment in the overhead view version applied specifically to women. Patients with aMCI were impaired in the first-person view but not in the overhead view version. Substantial sexual differences were found in the overhead but not in the first-person view APTT version. The RMTDS resembled both APTT versions: patients with aMCI were impaired in this test and also women in both patient groups were less accurate than men. Using the receiver operating characteristic analysis, the highest predictive power for MCI and AD patients diagnosis versus controls was observed for their success rate in the first-person view version. The results suggest distinction between overhead and first-person view perspective taking in the impairment of aMCI patients and the sex differences. The first-person view perspective taking is a potentially important candidate psychological marker for AD. PMID:25541035

  15. Shared and Unique Genetic and Environmental Influences on Aging-Related Changes in Multiple Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Reynolds, Chandra A.; Finkel, Deborah; Pedersen, Nancy L.

    2014-01-01

    Aging-related declines occur in many different domains of cognitive function during middle and late adulthood. However, whether a global dimension underlies individual differences in changes in different domains of cognition and whether global genetic influences on cognitive changes exist is less clear. We addressed these issues by applying…

  16. Process control and risky decision-making: moderation by general mental ability and need for cognition.

    PubMed

    Burkolter, Dina; Kluge, Annette

    2012-01-01

    Human factors and ergonomics research could benefit from focusing more strongly on individual differences--especially trait variables. The present study suggests the analysis of moderator effects as a promising way to enhance understanding of trait variables and process control performance. Process control performance was studied by analysing moderator effects of general mental ability (GMA) and need for cognition (NC) on risky decision-making (RDM) and performance. Fifty engineering students were trained on a process control task using a computer-based simulation for three hours and tested twice thereafter. Risky decision-making was measured using a computerised gambling task while GMA and NC were assessed with questionnaires. Risky decision-making in interaction with each GMA and NC explained variance in performance over and above variance explained by the single effects. In conclusion, the analysis of moderator effects between individual difference variables and process control performance seems promising. Practitioner Summary: Individual difference variables affect learning and performance, but have often not been studied to any great extent in human factors research. This article suggests a promising approach to studying individual differences--moderator analyses--and illustrates how such differences can lead to a better understanding of what determines process control performance. PMID:22897454

  17. Cognitive abilities as precursors of the early acquisition of mathematical skills during first through second grades.

    PubMed

    Passolunghi, M Chiara; Mammarella, Irene C; Altoe, Gianmarco

    2008-01-01

    The present longitudinal study was designed to investigate precursors of mathematics achievement in children. A total of 72 children were tested at both the beginning and end of first and second grades on measures of the following cognitive abilities: phonology, counting skills, short-term memory, working memory, and verbal and performance IQ. Path analysis models revealed differences in the variables predicting mathematics skills of first and second graders. Specifically, in first graders both short-term and working memory measures mediated the role of verbal IQ in predicting mathematics skills. Also, there was a direct relationship between performance IQ and mathematics at first grade. In contrast, in the longitudinal model, working memory measured both in first and second grades predicted mathematics achievement, whereas the relationship between performance IQ and mathematics disappeared. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that mathematics learning is predicted not by phonology or counting skills and that working memory is a plausible mediator in predicting mathematics achievement in primary school age children. PMID:18473198

  18. Cognitive ability changes and dynamics of cortical thickness development in healthy children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Burgaleta, Miguel; Johnson, Wendy; Waber, Deborah P; Colom, Roberto; Karama, Sherif

    2014-01-01

    Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores tend to remain stable across the lifespan. Nevertheless, in some healthy individuals, significant decreases or increases in IQ have been observed over time. It is unclear whether such changes reflect true functional change or merely measurement error. Here, we applied surface-based corticometry to investigate vertex-wise cortical surface area and thickness correlates of changes in Full Scale IQ (FSIQ), Performance IQ (PIQ) and Verbal IQ (VIQ) in a representative sample of children and adolescents (n=188, mean age=11.59years) assessed two years apart as part of the NIH Study of Normal Brain Development. No significant associations between changes in IQ measures and changes in cortical surface area were observed, whereas changes in FSIQ, PIQ, and VIQ were related to rates of cortical thinning, mainly in left frontal areas. Participants who showed reliable gains in FSIQ showed no significant changes in cortical thickness on average, whereas those who exhibited no significant FSIQ change showed moderate declines in cortical thickness. Importantly, individuals who showed large decreases in FSIQ displayed the steepest and most significant reductions in cortical thickness. Results support the view that there can be meaningful cognitive ability changes that impact IQ within relatively short developmental periods and show that such changes are associated with the dynamics of cortical thickness development. PMID:24071525

  19. The relationship between cognitive reserve and functional ability is mediated by executive functioning in older adults.

    PubMed

    Puente, Antonio Nicolas; Lindbergh, Cutter A; Miller, L Stephen

    2015-01-01

    It has been noted in the literature that cognitive reserve (CR) predicts future functional ability (FA), but the association between CR and current FA is rather limited. This investigation aimed to explicate this relationship, and hypothesized it would be mediated by executive functioning (EF). To best understand the relationship between CR and FA, we recruited and tested independent community-dwelling older adults (OAs). Bivariate correlations and hierarchical regressions were completed to determine the association between CR and FA. Both individual CR measures and a composite CR score were used. Mediation analyses were completed to examine our hypothesis that EF would mediate the CR and FA relationship. All measures of CR were positively related to and predictive of FA. Although the highest zero-order correlation across the independent CR proxies was between income and FA (r = .417), education accounted for the greatest amount of variance in FA, 8.3% after controlling for age and Mini-Mental State Examination performance. Furthermore, the CR composite had a higher correlation (r = .447) and accounted for more variance than any of the independent proxies. Complete mediation was found between a CR composite and FA via an internally consistent D-KEFS composite score (Cronbach's α = .795). This suggests that as CR increases so does EF, which in turn improves FA. Thus, future investigations could determine the effect on FA in OAs by improving EF. PMID:25664575

  20. Elasmobranch cognitive ability: using electroreceptive foraging behaviour to demonstrate learning, habituation and memory in a benthic shark.

    PubMed

    Kimber, Joel A; Sims, David W; Bellamy, Patricia H; Gill, Andrew B

    2014-01-01

    Top predators inhabiting a dynamic environment, such as coastal waters, should theoretically possess sufficient cognitive ability to allow successful foraging despite unpredictable sensory stimuli. The cognition-related hunting abilities of marine mammals have been widely demonstrated. Having been historically underestimated, teleost cognitive abilities have also now been significantly demonstrated. Conversely, the abilities of elasmobranchs have received little attention, despite many species possessing relatively large brains comparable to some mammals. The need to determine what, if any, cognitive ability these globally distributed, apex predators are endowed with has been highlighted recently by questions arising from environmental assessments, specifically whether they are able to learn to distinguish between anthropogenic electric fields and prey bioelectric fields. We therefore used electroreceptive foraging behaviour in a model species, Scyliorhinus canicula (small-spotted catshark), to determine cognitive ability by analysing whether elasmobranchs are able to learn to improve foraging efficiency and remember learned behavioural adaptations. Positive reinforcement, operant conditioning was used to study catshark foraging behaviour towards artificial, prey-type electric fields (Efields). Catsharks rewarded with food for responding to Efields throughout experimental weeks were compared with catsharks that were not rewarded for responding in order to assess behavioural adaptation via learning ability. Experiments were repeated after a 3-week interval with previously rewarded catsharks this time receiving no reward and vice versa to assess memory ability. Positive reinforcement markedly and rapidly altered catshark foraging behaviour. Rewarded catsharks exhibited significantly more interest in the electrical stimulus than unrewarded catsharks. Furthermore, they improved their foraging efficiency over time by learning to locate and bite the electrodes to gain

  1. Elasmobranch cognitive ability: using electroreceptive foraging behaviour to demonstrate learning, habituation and memory in a benthic shark.

    PubMed

    Kimber, Joel A; Sims, David W; Bellamy, Patricia H; Gill, Andrew B

    2014-01-01

    Top predators inhabiting a dynamic environment, such as coastal waters, should theoretically possess sufficient cognitive ability to allow successful foraging despite unpredictable sensory stimuli. The cognition-related hunting abilities of marine mammals have been widely demonstrated. Having been historically underestimated, teleost cognitive abilities have also now been significantly demonstrated. Conversely, the abilities of elasmobranchs have received little attention, despite many species possessing relatively large brains comparable to some mammals. The need to determine what, if any, cognitive ability these globally distributed, apex predators are endowed with has been highlighted recently by questions arising from environmental assessments, specifically whether they are able to learn to distinguish between anthropogenic electric fields and prey bioelectric fields. We therefore used electroreceptive foraging behaviour in a model species, Scyliorhinus canicula (small-spotted catshark), to determine cognitive ability by analysing whether elasmobranchs are able to learn to improve foraging efficiency and remember learned behavioural adaptations. Positive reinforcement, operant conditioning was used to study catshark foraging behaviour towards artificial, prey-type electric fields (Efields). Catsharks rewarded with food for responding to Efields throughout experimental weeks were compared with catsharks that were not rewarded for responding in order to assess behavioural adaptation via learning ability. Experiments were repeated after a 3-week interval with previously rewarded catsharks this time receiving no reward and vice versa to assess memory ability. Positive reinforcement markedly and rapidly altered catshark foraging behaviour. Rewarded catsharks exhibited significantly more interest in the electrical stimulus than unrewarded catsharks. Furthermore, they improved their foraging efficiency over time by learning to locate and bite the electrodes to gain

  2. Accuracy and Inaccuracy in Teachers' Perceptions of Young Children's Cognitive Abilities: The Role of Child Background and Classroom Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ready, Douglas D.; Wright, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Teachers' subjective understandings of their students' cognitive abilities have important implications for classroom interactions, children's access to resources and opportunities, and educational equity more broadly. Using nationally representative data and three-level hierarchical linear models, this study explored the links between teacher…

  3. The Relative Contributions of the Cattell-Horn-Carroll Cognitive Abilities in Explaining Writing Achievement during Childhood and Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Randy G.; McGrew, Kevin S.; Evans, Jeffrey J.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relative contributions of measures of Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) cognitive abilities in explaining writing achievement. Drawing from samples that covered the age range of 7 to 18 years, simultaneous multiple regression was used to regress scores from the Woodcock-Johnson III (WJ III; Woodcock, McGrew, & Mather, 2001) that…

  4. Relationships among Selected Measures of Cognitive Styles, Abilities, and Aptitudes. Interim Report, January 1979 through June 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federico, Pat-Anthony; Landis, David B.

    This study, the fourth in a series conducted at the Navy's Basic Electricity and Electronics School for a computer managed instruction project, reports the relationships among selected measurements of student cognitive styles, abilities, and aptitudes. Measures of these characteristics for a sample of 166 graduates of BE/E were analyzed to…

  5. An Investigation into the Use of Cognitive Ability Tests in the Identification of Gifted Students in Design and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twissell, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    This study examines whether MidYIS and YELLIS cognitive ability tests (CATs) are appropriate methods for the identification of giftedness in Design and Technology. A key rationale for the study was whether CATs and able to identify those students with the aptitudes considered of importance to identifying giftedness in Design and Technology and…

  6. Faster on Easy Items, More Accurate on Difficult Ones: Cognitive Ability and Performance on a Task of Varying Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodonova, Yulia A.; Dodonov, Yury S.

    2013-01-01

    Using more complex items than those commonly employed within the information-processing approach, but still easier than those used in intelligence tests, this study analyzed how the association between processing speed and accuracy level changes as the difficulty of the items increases. The study involved measuring cognitive ability using Raven's…

  7. Do Children with Williams Syndrome Really Have Good Vocabulary Knowledge? Methods for Comparing Cognitive and Linguistic Abilities in Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Jon; Jarrold, Christopher; Farran, Emily K.; Laws, Glynis; Riby, Deborah M.

    2007-01-01

    The comparison of cognitive and linguistic skills in individuals with developmental disorders is fraught with methodological and psychometric difficulties. In this paper, we illustrate some of these issues by comparing the receptive vocabulary knowledge and non-verbal reasoning abilities of 41 children with Williams syndrome, a genetic disorder in…

  8. The Role of Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) Cognitive Abilities in Predicting Writing Achievement during the School-Age Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cormier, Damien C.; Bulut, Okan; McGrew, Kevin S.; Frison, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Writing is a complex academic task--it involves numerous mental processes. Given the necessity for developing writing skills from elementary to secondary school, this study aimed to investigate the role of broad cognitive abilities derived from the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory of intelligence in predicting skills associated with writing…

  9. Racial/Ethnic Differences in the Criterion-Related Validity of Cognitive Ability Tests: A Qualitative and Quantitative Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Christopher M.; Clark, Malissa A.; McClure, Tara K.

    2011-01-01

    The correlation between cognitive ability test scores and performance was separately meta-analyzed for Asian, Black, Hispanic, and White racial/ethnic subgroups. Compared to the average White observed correlation ([image omitted] = 0.33, N = 903,779), average correlations were lower for Black samples ([image omitted] = 0.24, N = 112,194) and…

  10. Do Participants Differ in Their Cognitive Abilities, Task Motivation, or Personality Characteristics as a Function of Time of Participation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robison, Matthew K.; Unsworth, Nash

    2016-01-01

    Four experiments tested the conventional wisdom in experimental psychology that participants who complete laboratory tasks systematically differ in their cognitive abilities, motivational levels, and personality characteristics as a function of the time at which they participate during an academic term. Across 4 experiments with over 2,900…

  11. What a Difference a Tag Cloud Makes: Effects of Tasks and Cognitive Abilities on Search Results Interface Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwizdka, Jacek

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: The goal of this study is to expand our understanding of the relationships between selected tasks, cognitive abilities and search result interfaces. The underlying objective is to understand how to select search results presentation for tasks and user contexts Method: Twenty three participants conducted four search tasks of two types…

  12. Exploring Ways to Provide Diagnostic Feedback with an ESL Placement Test: Cognitive Diagnostic Assessment of L2 Reading Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Ah-Young

    2015-01-01

    Previous research in cognitive diagnostic assessment (CDA) of L2 reading ability has been frequently conducted using large-scale English proficiency exams (e.g., TOEFL, MELAB). Using CDA, it is possible to analyze individual learners' strengths and weaknesses in multiple attributes (i.e., knowledge, skill, strategy) measured at the item level.…

  13. Historical Increase in the Number of Factors Measured by Commercial Tests of Cognitive Ability: Are We Overfactoring?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Thomas W.; Youngstrom, Eric A.

    2007-01-01

    A historical increase in the number of factors purportedly measured by commercial tests of cognitive ability may result from four distinct pressures including: increasingly complex models of intelligence, test publishers' desires to provide clinically useful assessment instruments with greater interpretive value, test publishers' desires to…

  14. Neuroanatomical Correlates of Age-Sensitive and Age-Invariant Cognitive Abilities: An "In Vivo" MRI Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raz, Naftali; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The relationship between brain asymmetry and age-related differences in cognitive abilities was examined for 29 adults aged 18 to 78 years using magnetic resonance imagery (MRI). Brain and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex size correlated positively with fluid intelligence but did not add to the fluid intelligence variance explained by age alone.…

  15. Dopamine D1 Sensitivity in the Prefrontal Cortex Predicts General Cognitive Abilities and is Modulated by Working Memory Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wass, Christopher; Pizzo, Alessandro; Sauce, Bruno; Kawasumi, Yushi; Sturzoiu, Tudor; Ree, Fred; Otto, Tim; Matzel, Louis D.

    2013-01-01

    A common source of variance (i.e., "general intelligence") underlies an individual's performance across diverse tests of cognitive ability, and evidence indicates that the processing efficacy of working memory may serve as one such source of common variance. One component of working memory, selective attention, has been reported to…

  16. Common polygenic risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with cognitive ability in the general population.

    PubMed

    Clarke, T-K; Lupton, M K; Fernandez-Pujals, A M; Starr, J; Davies, G; Cox, S; Pattie, A; Liewald, D C; Hall, L S; MacIntyre, D J; Smith, B H; Hocking, L J; Padmanabhan, S; Thomson, P A; Hayward, C; Hansell, N K; Montgomery, G W; Medland, S E; Martin, N G; Wright, M J; Porteous, D J; Deary, I J; McIntosh, A M

    2016-03-01

    Cognitive impairment is common among individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It has been suggested that some aspects of intelligence are preserved or even superior in people with ASD compared with controls, but consistent evidence is lacking. Few studies have examined the genetic overlap between cognitive ability and ASD/ADHD. The aim of this study was to examine the polygenic overlap between ASD/ADHD and cognitive ability in individuals from the general population. Polygenic risk for ADHD and ASD was calculated from genome-wide association studies of ASD and ADHD conducted by the Psychiatric Genetics Consortium. Risk scores were created in three independent cohorts: Generation Scotland Scottish Family Health Study (GS:SFHS) (n=9863), the Lothian Birth Cohorts 1936 and 1921 (n=1522), and the Brisbane Adolescent Twin Sample (BATS) (n=921). We report that polygenic risk for ASD is positively correlated with general cognitive ability (beta=0.07, P=6 × 10(-7), r(2)=0.003), logical memory and verbal intelligence in GS:SFHS. This was replicated in BATS as a positive association with full-scale intelligent quotient (IQ) (beta=0.07, P=0.03, r(2)=0.005). We did not find consistent evidence that polygenic risk for ADHD was associated with cognitive function; however, a negative correlation with IQ at age 11 years (beta=-0.08, Z=-3.3, P=0.001) was observed in the Lothian Birth Cohorts. These findings are in individuals from the general population, suggesting that the relationship between genetic risk for ASD and intelligence is partly independent of clinical state. These data suggest that common genetic variation relevant for ASD influences general cognitive ability.

  17. Behavioral and Cognitive-Behavioral Approaches to Chronic Pain: Recent Advances and Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, Francis J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Reviews and highlights recent research advances and future research directions concerned with behavioral and cognitive-behavioral approaches to chronic pain. Reviews assessment research on studies of social context of pain, relationship of chronic pain to depression, cognitive variables affecting pain, and comprehensive assessment measures.…

  18. A Review of the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test: An Advancement in Cognitive Assessment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, Dawn P.; Alfonso, Vincent C.; Flanagan, Rosemary

    1994-01-01

    Reviews Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test (KAIT), a new assessment of cognitive function for technical qualities such as reliability, validity, and standardization characters. Concludes that KAIT represents advancements in cognitive assessment but cannot be regarded as superior to existing intelligence measures until data is available…

  19. Augmentation of Cognition and Perception Through Advanced Synthetic Vision Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Kramer, Lynda J.; Bailey, Randall E.; Arthur, Jarvis J.; Williams, Steve P.; McNabb, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    Synthetic Vision System technology augments reality and creates a virtual visual meteorological condition that extends a pilot's cognitive and perceptual capabilities during flight operations when outside visibility is restricted. The paper describes the NASA Synthetic Vision System for commercial aviation with an emphasis on how the technology achieves Augmented Cognition objectives.

  20. The Influence of Frontal Lobe Tumors and Surgical Treatment on Advanced Cognitive Functions.

    PubMed

    Fang, Shengyu; Wang, Yinyan; Jiang, Tao

    2016-07-01

    Brain cognitive functions affect patient quality of life. The frontal lobe plays a crucial role in advanced cognitive functions, including executive function, meta-cognition, decision-making, memory, emotion, and language. Therefore, frontal tumors can lead to serious cognitive impairments. Currently, neurosurgical treatment is the primary method to treat brain tumors; however, the effects of the surgical treatments are difficult to predict or control. The treatment may both resolve the effects of the tumor to improve cognitive function or cause permanent disabilities resulting from damage to healthy functional brain tissue. Previous studies have focused on the influence of frontal lesions and surgical treatments on patient cognitive function. Here, we review cognitive impairment caused by frontal lobe brain tumors. PMID:27072331

  1. The effects of a Korean computer-based cognitive rehabilitation program on cognitive function and visual perception ability of patients with acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Hyuck; Park, Ji-Hyuk

    2015-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of a Korean computer-based cognitive rehabilitation program (CBCR) on the cognitive function and visual perception ability of patients with acute stroke. [Subjects] The subjects were 30 patients with acute stroke. [Methods] The subjects were randomly assigned to either the experimental group (EG) or the control group (CG). The EG subjects received CBCR with the CoTras program. The CG subjects received conventional cognitive rehabilitation. All subjects participated in a standard rehabilitation program according to a daily inpatient treatment schedule. In addition to standard rehabilitation, the subjects received 20 sessions (5 days a week for 4 weeks) of CBCR or conventional cognitive rehabilitation for 30 min. To compare the two groups, the Lowenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment (LOTCA) and Motor-free Visual Perception Test-3 (MVPT-3) were performed. [Results] Both groups showed significant improvement in LOTCA and MVPT-3. Furthermore, there were significant differences in LOTCA and MVPT-3 between the two groups. [Conclusion] CBCR with CoTras may contribute toward the recovery of cognitive function and visual perception in patients with acute stroke.

  2. Cognitive Strategy Use and Measured Numeric Ability in Immediate- and Long-Term Recall of Everyday Numeric Information

    PubMed Central

    Bermingham, Douglas; Hill, Robert D.; Woltz, Dan; Gardner, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    The goals of this study were to assess the primary effects of the use of cognitive strategy and a combined measure of numeric ability on recall of every-day numeric information (i.e. prices). Additionally, numeric ability was assessed as a moderator in the relationship between strategy use and memory for prices. One hundred participants memorized twelve prices that varied from 1 to 6 digits; they recalled these immediately and after 7 days. The use of strategies, assessed through self-report, was associated with better overall recall, but not forgetting. Numeric ability was not associated with either better overall recall or forgetting. A small moderating interaction was found, in which higher levels of numeric ability enhanced the beneficial effects of strategy use on overall recall. Exploratory analyses found two further small moderating interactions: simple strategy use enhanced overall recall at higher levels of numeric ability, compared to complex strategy use; and complex strategy use was associated with lower levels of forgetting, but only at higher levels of numeric ability, compared to the simple strategy use. These results provide support for an objective measure of numeric ability, as well as adding to the literature on memory and the benefits of cognitive strategy use. PMID:23483964

  3. Understanding the cognitive and genetic underpinnings of procrastination: Evidence for shared genetic influences with goal management and executive function abilities.

    PubMed

    Gustavson, Daniel E; Miyake, Akira; Hewitt, John K; Friedman, Naomi P

    2015-12-01

    Previous research has suggested that individual differences in procrastination are tied to everyday goal-management abilities, but little research has been conducted on specific cognitive abilities that may underlie tendencies for procrastination, such as executive functions (EFs). In this study, we used behavioral genetics methodology to investigate 2 hypotheses about the relationships between procrastination and EF ability: (a) that procrastination is negatively correlated with general EF ability, and (b) that this relationship is due to the genetic components of procrastination that are most related to other everyday goal-management abilities. The results confirmed both of these hypotheses. Procrastination was related to worse general EF ability at both the phenotypic and genetic levels, and this relationship was due to the component of procrastination shared with self-report measures of everyday goal-management failures. These results were observed even after controlling for potential self-report biases stemming from the urge to respond in a socially desirable manner. Together, these findings provide strong evidence for growing theories of procrastination emphasizing the importance of goal-related cognitive abilities and further highlight important genetic influences that underlie procrastination. PMID:26389573

  4. Understanding the cognitive and genetic underpinnings of procrastination: Evidence for shared genetic influences with goal management and executive function abilities.

    PubMed

    Gustavson, Daniel E; Miyake, Akira; Hewitt, John K; Friedman, Naomi P

    2015-12-01

    Previous research has suggested that individual differences in procrastination are tied to everyday goal-management abilities, but little research has been conducted on specific cognitive abilities that may underlie tendencies for procrastination, such as executive functions (EFs). In this study, we used behavioral genetics methodology to investigate 2 hypotheses about the relationships between procrastination and EF ability: (a) that procrastination is negatively correlated with general EF ability, and (b) that this relationship is due to the genetic components of procrastination that are most related to other everyday goal-management abilities. The results confirmed both of these hypotheses. Procrastination was related to worse general EF ability at both the phenotypic and genetic levels, and this relationship was due to the component of procrastination shared with self-report measures of everyday goal-management failures. These results were observed even after controlling for potential self-report biases stemming from the urge to respond in a socially desirable manner. Together, these findings provide strong evidence for growing theories of procrastination emphasizing the importance of goal-related cognitive abilities and further highlight important genetic influences that underlie procrastination.

  5. Racial/ethnic socialization and parental involvement in education as predictors of cognitive ability and achievement in African American children.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Meeta; Harrell, Zaje A T; Johnson, Deborah J

    2011-05-01

    Racial/ethnic socialization has not been studied in the context of other parenting behaviors such as parental involvement in education and its relationship to children's cognitive outcomes. The present study tested the impact of racial/ethnic socialization and parental involvement in education on cognitive ability and achievement in a sample of African American youth. Two dimensions of racial/ethnic socialization, cultural exposure (i.e., exposure to diverse cultures) and cultural socialization (i.e., in-group pride), were examined in a sample of 92 African American mother-child dyads, of which 50% were female. Maternal reports of involvement during their child's 5th grade year were examined as a moderator in the relationship between racial/ethnic socialization and cognitive ability and achievement. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that mothers' reports of cultural exposure messages measured in 4th grade predicted children's scores on 5th grade assessments of passage comprehension. There was also a significant interaction indicating that greater cultural exposure and more parental involvement in education predicted better reading passage comprehension scores over time. The implications for assessing dimensions relevant to cognitive ability and achievement in African American children are discussed.

  6. Results of a "GWAS plus:" general cognitive ability is substantially heritable and massively polygenic.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Robert M; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G; Miller, Michael B; Basu, Saonli

    2014-01-01

    We carried out a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for general cognitive ability (GCA) plus three other analyses of GWAS data that aggregate the effects of multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in various ways. Our multigenerational sample comprised 7,100 Caucasian participants, drawn from two longitudinal family studies, who had been assessed with an age-appropriate IQ test and had provided DNA samples passing quality screens. We conducted the GWAS across ∼ 2.5 million SNPs (both typed and imputed), using a generalized least-squares method appropriate for the different family structures present in our sample, and subsequently conducted gene-based association tests. We also conducted polygenic prediction analyses under five-fold cross-validation, using two different schemes of weighting SNPs. Using parametric bootstrapping, we assessed the performance of this prediction procedure under the null. Finally, we estimated the proportion of variance attributable to all genotyped SNPs as random effects with software GCTA. The study is limited chiefly by its power to detect realistic single-SNP or single-gene effects, none of which reached genome-wide significance, though some genomic inflation was evident from the GWAS. Unit SNP weights performed about as well as least-squares regression weights under cross-validation, but the performance of both increased as more SNPs were included in calculating the polygenic score. Estimates from GCTA were 35% of phenotypic variance at the recommended biological-relatedness ceiling. Taken together, our results concur with other recent studies: they support a substantial heritability of GCA, arising from a very large number of causal SNPs, each of very small effect. We place our study in the context of the literature-both contemporary and historical-and provide accessible explication of our statistical methods. PMID:25383866

  7. Differential effects of the APOE e4 allele on different domains of cognitive ability across the life-course.

    PubMed

    Marioni, Riccardo E; Campbell, Archie; Scotland, Generation; Hayward, Caroline; Porteous, David J; Deary, Ian J

    2016-06-01

    The association between APOE genotype and cognitive function suggests a positive role for the e2 allele and a negative role for the e4 allele. Both alleles have relatively low frequencies in the general population; hence, meta-analyses have been based on many small, heterogeneous studies. Here, we report the APOE-cognition associations in the largest single analysis to date. APOE status and cognitive ability were measured in 18 337 participants from the Generation Scotland study between 2006 and 2011. The age range was 18-94 years with a mean of 47 (SD 15). Four cognitive domains were assessed: verbal declarative memory (paragraph recall), processing speed (digit symbol substitution), verbal fluency (phonemic verbal fluency), and vocabulary (Mill Hill synonyms). Linear regression was used to assess the associations between APOE genetic status and cognition. Possession of the e4 allele was associated with lower scores on the measures of memory and processing speed in subjects aged >60. Across all age ranges, the e4 allele was linked to better verbal fluency scores. In younger subjects (≤60 years) the e4 allele was linked to higher vocabulary scores. There were no associations between the e2 allele and cognitive ability. As seen in previous meta-analyses, the APOE e4 allele is linked to poorer cognitive performance in the domains of memory and processing speed. By contrast, positive associations were seen between the e4 allele and measures of verbal fluency and vocabulary. All associations were relatively small and, in many cases, nominally significant despite the very large sample size. PMID:26395552

  8. Changes in frontal EEG coherence across infancy predict cognitive abilities at age 3: The mediating role of attentional control.

    PubMed

    Whedon, Margaret; Perry, Nicole B; Calkins, Susan D; Bell, Martha Ann

    2016-09-01

    Theoretical perspectives of cognitive development have maintained that functional integration of the prefrontal cortex across infancy underlies the emergence of attentional control and higher cognitive abilities in early childhood. To investigate these proposed relations, we tested whether functional integration of prefrontal regions across the second half of the first year predicted observed cognitive performance in early childhood 1 year prior indirectly through observed attentional control (N = 300). Results indicated that greater change in left-but not right-frontal EEG coherence between 5 and 10 months was positively associated with attentional control, cognitive flexibility, receptive language, and behavioral inhibitory control. Specifically, a larger increase in coherence between left frontal regions was positively associated with accuracy on a visual search task at Age 2, and visual search accuracy was positively associated with receptive vocabulary, performance on a set-shifting task (DCCS), and delay of gratification at Age 3. Finally, the indirect effects from the change in left frontal EEG coherence to 3-year cognitive flexibility, receptive language, and behavioral inhibitory control were significant, suggesting that internally controlled attention is a mechanism through which early neural maturation influences children's cognitive development. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27441486

  9. Effects of General and Specific Cognitive Abilities on Reading Achievement in a Referred Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juarez, Betsy M.

    2012-01-01

    Psychoeducational assessment, and specifically cognitive testing, is important to the role of school psychologists; however, the utility of such testing has been called into question, and its future is unclear. Researchers are divided into two camps. One side grew disenchanted with cognitive testing after the failure of the discrepancy method to…

  10. Cognitive Flexibility among Individuals with Down Syndrome: Assessing the Influence of Verbal and Nonverbal Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Colin; Landry, Oriane; Russo, Natalie; Flores, Heidi; Jacques, Sophie; Burack, Jacob A.

    2013-01-01

    The influences of verbal mental age (VMA) and performance mental age (PMA) on cognitive flexibility were examined among a group of participants with Down syndrome (DS), in order to disentangle the relative contributions of each. The impaired cognitive flexibility typically observed among individuals with DS in combination with uneven VMA and PMA…

  11. Relations among prospective memory, cognitive abilities, and brain structure in adolescents who vary in prenatal drug exposure.

    PubMed

    Robey, Alison; Buckingham-Howes, Stacy; Salmeron, Betty Jo; Black, Maureen M; Riggins, Tracy

    2014-11-01

    This investigation examined how prospective memory (PM) relates to cognitive abilities (i.e., executive function, attention, working memory, and retrospective memory) and brain structure in adolescents who vary in prenatal drug exposure (PDE). The sample consisted of 105 (55 female and 50 male) urban, primarily African American adolescents (mean age=15.5 years) from low socioeconomic status (SES) families. Approximately 56% (n=59) were prenatally exposed to drugs (heroin and/or cocaine) and 44% (n=46) were not prenatally exposed, but the adolescents were similar in age, gender, race, and SES. Executive functioning, attentional control, working memory, retrospective memory, and overall cognitive ability were assessed by validated performance measures. Executive functioning was also measured by caregiver report. A subset of 52 adolescents completed MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scans, which provided measures of subcortical gray matter volumes and thickness of prefrontal, parietal, and temporal cortices. Results revealed no differences in PM performance by PDE status, even after adjusting for age and IQ. Executive function, retrospective memory, cortical thickness in frontal and parietal regions, and volume of subcortical regions (i.e., putamen and hippocampus) were related to PM performance in the sample overall, even after adjusting for age, IQ, and total gray matter volume. Findings suggest that variations in PM ability during adolescence are robustly related to individual differences in cognitive abilities, in particular executive function and retrospective memory, and brain structure, but do not vary by PDE status.

  12. Neuroticism and self-evaluation measures are related to the ability to form cognitive maps critical for spatial orientation.

    PubMed

    Burles, Ford; Guadagni, Veronica; Hoey, Felecia; Arnold, Aiden E G F; Levy, Richard M; O'Neill, Thomas; Iaria, Giuseppe

    2014-09-01

    Trait neuroticism is suggested to be related to measures of volume and function of the hippocampus, a brain structure located in the medial temporal lobe that is critical for human navigation and orientation. In this study, we assessed whether measures of trait neuroticism and self-concept are correlated with the human ability to orient by means of cognitive maps (i.e. mental representations of an environment that include landmarks and their spatial relationships). After controlling for gender differences, which are well-known in spatial orientation abilities, we found that measures of neuroticism (i.e. negative affect, emotional stability) and self-concept (i.e. self-esteem) were correlated with individual differences in the rate at which cognitive maps were formed; the same measures were generally unrelated to the ability to make use of cognitive maps, as well as the ability to orient using visual path integration. The relationships (and lack thereof) between personality traits and the spatial orientation skills, as reported in the present study, are consistent with specific neural correlates underlying these factors, and may have important implications for treatment of disorders related to them.

  13. Black males' self-perceptions of academic ability and gifted potential in advanced science classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rascoe, Barbara Jean

    The purpose of this study was to examine gifted Black males' self-perceptions of academic ability and gifted potential in science. Major concerns were to determine how these self-perceptions of academic ability and gifted potential influenced gifted Black males' capacity to compete in advanced science classes and to determine how science teachers may have influenced participants' self-perceptions of academic ability and gifted potential. This study required an approach that would allow an interpretive aspect for the experiences of gifted Black males in advanced science classes. An intrinsic qualitative case study design with a critical theory framework was used. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews, which were audiotaped and transcribed. Each participant was interviewed twice and each interview averaged 45 minutes. The purposeful sample consisted of nine gifted high school Black males between the ages of fourteen and eighteen. The constant comparative method was used to analyze the data. The categories of gifted Black males' self-perceptions of academic ability and gifted potential included gifted high achievers, gifted 'could do better' high achievers, gifted 'could do better' situational nonachievers, and gifted 'could do better' underachievers. Gifted Black male participants' perceptions regarding their science teachers' influence on their self-perceptions of academic ability and gifted potential included validation, reinforcement, and enhancement. These participants' perceptions regarding how science teachers' influenced their academic performance in science included science teachers' content knowledge, science teachers' skills to make science challenging and engaging, and a safe learning environment. The conclusions of this study described competing power dynamics of science teachers and gifted Black males' interactions in the science learning environment. The discussion also included a summary of relationships among the emergent themes

  14. Joint Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities, Third Edition, and the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, Fifth Edition, with a Preschool Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Mei; Paulson, Sharon E.; Finch, W. Holmes; Mcintosh, David E.; Rothlisberg, Barbara A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the underlying constructs measured by the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities, Third Edition (WJ-III COG) and the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, Fifth Edition (SB5), based on the Cattell-Horn-Carrol (CHC) theory of cognitive abilities. This study reports the results of the first joint confirmatory factor analysis…

  15. Achievement in children with birth weights less than 750 grams with normal cognitive abilities: evidence for specific learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Taylor, H G; Hack, M; Klein, N; Schatschneider, C

    1995-12-01

    Examined achievement, behavior, and neuropsychological outcomes at early school age in a regional population of children < 750-g birth weight who were neurologically intact and who scored in the broad average range on a test of cognitive ability. Comparison groups included children of birth weight 750-1,499 g and children born at full-term. The children < 750 g performed more poorly than the higher birth weight groups on tests of math, even after adjusting for group differences in cognitive ability. Corresponding group differences were found in language, perceptual motor, and attentional skills, but not in behavior outcomes. Findings document specific weaknesses in achievement and neuropsychological skills in children < 750 g birth weight and support the need for early identification and special education interventions.

  16. College Chemistry and Piaget: An Analysis of Gender Difference, Cognitive Abilities, and Achievement Measures Seventeen Years Apart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibley, Ivan A., Jr.; Milakofsky, Louis M.; Bender, David S.; Patterson, Henry O.

    2003-05-01

    This study revisits an analysis of gender difference in the cognitive abilities of college chemistry students using scores from "Inventory of Piaget's Developmental Tasks" (IPDT), the Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT), and final grades from an introductory college chemistry course. Comparison of 1998 scores with those from 1981 showed an overall decline on most of the measures and a changing pattern among males and females. Gender differences were found in the IPDT subtests measuring imagery, classification, and proportional reasoning, but not conservation, a pattern that differs from the findings reported 17 years earlier. The generational and gender differences revealed in this study suggest that instructors should be cognizant of, and should periodically assess, the diversity of students' cognitive abilities.

  17. The Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI): a practical test for cross-cultural epidemiological studies of dementia.

    PubMed

    Teng, E L; Hasegawa, K; Homma, A; Imai, Y; Larson, E; Graves, A; Sugimoto, K; Yamaguchi, T; Sasaki, H; Chiu, D

    1994-01-01

    The Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI) has a score range of 0 to 100 and provides quantitative assessment on attention, concentration, orientation, short-term memory, long-term memory, language abilities, visual construction, list-generating fluency, abstraction, and judgment. Scores of the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Modified Mini-Mental State Test, and the Hasegawa Dementia Screening Scale can also be estimated from subsets of the CASI items. Pilot testing conducted in Japan and in the United States has demonstrated its cross-cultural applicability and its usefulness in screening for dementia, in monitoring disease progression, and in providing profiles of cognitive impairment. Typical administration time is 15 to 20 minutes. Record form, manual, videotape of test administration, and quizzes to qualify potential users on the administration and scoring of the CASI are available upon request.

  18. The Modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status is More Predictive of Memory Abilities Than the Mini-Mental State Examination.

    PubMed

    Duff, Kevin; Tometich, Danielle; Dennett, Kathryn

    2015-09-01

    Although not as popular as the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (mTICS) has some distinct advantages when screening cognitive functioning in older adults. The current study compared these 2 cognitive screening measures in their ability to predict performance on a memory composite (ie, delayed recall of verbal and visual information) in a cohort of 121 community-dwelling older adults, both at baseline and after 1 year. Both the MMSE and the mTICS significantly correlated with the memory composite at baseline (r's of .41 and .62, respectively) and at 1 year (r's of .36 and .50, respectively). At baseline, stepwise linear regression indicated that the mTICS and gender best predicted the memory composite score (R (2) = .45, P < .001), and the MMSE and other demographic variables did not significantly improve the prediction. At 1 year, the results were very similar. Despite its lesser popularity, the mTICS may be a more attractive option when screening for cognitive abilities in this age range. PMID:25722349

  19. Does Degree of Gyrification Underlie the Phenotypic and Genetic Associations between Cortical Surface Area and Cognitive Ability?

    PubMed Central

    Docherty, Anna R.; Hagler, Donald J.; Panizzon, Matthew S.; Neale, Michael C.; Eyler, Lisa T.; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Franz, Carol E.; Jak, Amy; Lyons, Michael J.; Rinker, Daniel A.; Thompson, Wesley K.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Dale, Anders M.; Kremen, William S.

    2015-01-01

    The phenotypic and genetic relationship between global cortical size and general cognitive ability (GCA) appears to be driven by surface area (SA) and not cortical thickness (CT). Gyrification (cortical folding) is an important property of the cortex that helps to increase SA within a finite space, and may also improve connectivity by reducing distance between regions. Hence, gyrification may be what underlies the SA-GCA relationship. In previous phenotypic studies, a 3-dimensional gyrification index (3DGI) has been positively associated with cognitive ability and negatively associated with mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer’s disease, and psychiatric disorders affecting cognition. However, the differential genetic associations of 3DGI and SA with GCA are still unclear. We examined the heritability of 3DGI, and the phenotypic, genetic, and environmental associations of 3DGI with SA and GCA in a large sample of adult male twins (N = 512). Nearly 85% of the variance in 3DGI was due to genes, and 3DGI had a strong phenotypic and genetic association with SA. Both 3DGI and total SA had positive phenotypic correlations with GCA. However, the SA-GCA correlation remained significant after controlling for 3DGI, but not the other way around. There was also significant genetic covariance between SA and GCA, but not between 3DGI and GCA. Thus, despite the phenotypic and genetic associations between 3DGI and SA, our results do not support the hypothesis that gyrification underlies the association between SA and GCA. PMID:25433211

  20. The Genetic Association Between Neocortical Volume and General Cognitive Ability Is Driven by Global Surface Area Rather Than Thickness

    PubMed Central

    Vuoksimaa, Eero; Panizzon, Matthew S.; Chen, Chi-Hua; Fiecas, Mark; Eyler, Lisa T.; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Hagler, Donald J.; Fischl, Bruce; Franz, Carol E.; Jak, Amy; Lyons, Michael J.; Neale, Michael C.; Rinker, Daniel A.; Thompson, Wesley K.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Dale, Anders M.; Kremen, William S.

    2015-01-01

    Total gray matter volume is associated with general cognitive ability (GCA), an association mediated by genetic factors. It is expectable that total neocortical volume should be similarly associated with GCA. Neocortical volume is the product of thickness and surface area, but global thickness and surface area are unrelated phenotypically and genetically in humans. The nature of the genetic association between GCA and either of these 2 cortical dimensions has not been examined. Humans possess greater cognitive capacity than other species, and surface area increases appear to be the primary driver of the increased size of the human cortex. Thus, we expected neocortical surface area to be more strongly associated with cognition than thickness. Using multivariate genetic analysis in 515 middle-aged twins, we demonstrated that both the phenotypic and genetic associations between neocortical volume and GCA are driven primarily by surface area rather than thickness. Results were generally similar for each of 4 specific cognitive abilities that comprised the GCA measure. Our results suggest that emphasis on neocortical surface area, rather than thickness, could be more fruitful for elucidating neocortical–GCA associations and identifying specific genes underlying those associations. PMID:24554725

  1. Maternal Stress during Pregnancy Predicts Cognitive Ability and Fearfulness in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Kristin; Sarkar, Pampa; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Modi, Neena; Glover, Vivette

    2007-01-01

    The effects of prenatal stress on cognition and behavioral fearfulness in infants are studied. The findings suggest that mechanisms by which mental development and fearfulness are affected by prenatal stress are different and do not present a consistent relation.

  2. Effects of Moderate Aerobic Exercise on Cognitive Abilities and Redox State Biomarkers in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Al-Eisa, Einas S.

    2016-01-01

    We used a moderate aerobic exercise program for 24 weeks to measure the positive impact of physical activity on oxidative stress and inflammatory markers and its association with cognitive performance in healthy older adults. A total of 100 healthy subjects (65–95 Yrs) were randomly classified into two groups: control group (n = 50) and exercise group (n = 50). Cognitive functioning, physical activity score, MDA, 8-OHdG, TAC, and hs-CRP were assessed using LOTCA battery, prevalidated PA questionnaire, and immunoassay techniques. LOTCA 7-set scores of cognitive performance showed a significant correlation with physical activity status and the regulation of both oxidative stress free radicals and inflammatory markers in all older subjects following 24 weeks of moderate exercise. Physically active persons showed a higher cognitive performance along with reduction in the levels of MDA, 8-OHdG, and hs-CRP and increase in TAC activity compared with sedentary participants. Cognitive performance correlated positively with the increase in TAC activity and physical fitness scores and negatively with MDA, 8-OHdG, and hs-CRP, respectively. There was a significant improvement in motor praxis, vasomotor organization, thinking operations, and attention and concentration among older adults. In conclusion, moderate aerobic training for 24 weeks has a positive significant effect in improving cognitive functions via modulating redox and inflammatory status of older adults. PMID:27195073

  3. Addressing criticisms of existing predictive bias research: cognitive ability test scores still overpredict African Americans' job performance.

    PubMed

    Berry, Christopher M; Zhao, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Predictive bias studies have generally suggested that cognitive ability test scores overpredict job performance of African Americans, meaning these tests are not predictively biased against African Americans. However, at least 2 issues call into question existing over-/underprediction evidence: (a) a bias identified by Aguinis, Culpepper, and Pierce (2010) in the intercept test typically used to assess over-/underprediction and (b) a focus on the level of observed validity instead of operational validity. The present study developed and utilized a method of assessing over-/underprediction that draws on the math of subgroup regression intercept differences, does not rely on the biased intercept test, allows for analysis at the level of operational validity, and can use meta-analytic estimates as input values. Therefore, existing meta-analytic estimates of key parameters, corrected for relevant statistical artifacts, were used to determine whether African American job performance remains overpredicted at the level of operational validity. African American job performance was typically overpredicted by cognitive ability tests across levels of job complexity and across conditions wherein African American and White regression slopes did and did not differ. Because the present study does not rely on the biased intercept test and because appropriate statistical artifact corrections were carried out, the present study's results are not affected by the 2 issues mentioned above. The present study represents strong evidence that cognitive ability tests generally overpredict job performance of African Americans.

  4. Disentangling the impact of low cognitive ability and inattention on social behavior and peer relationships. Conduct Problems Prevention Re search Group.

    PubMed

    Bellanti, C J; Bierman, K L

    2000-03-01

    Examined the shared and unique contributions of low cognitive ability and inattention to the development of social behavior problems and peer relationships of children at the time of school entry. Kindergarten and first-grade assessments of cognitive ability, inattention and prosocial and aggressive behavior were collected for a multisite, normative sample. Sociometric assessments of peer relationships were collected at the end of first grade. Cognitive ability and inattention both contributed to the prediction of social behavior and peer relationships. Low cognitive ability was particularly predictive of prosocial skill deficits, and social behavior mediated the relation between cognitive ability and social preference. Inattention predicted both prosocial skill deficits and elevated aggressive-disruptive behavior problems. Behavior problems partially mediated the relation between inattention and social preference. Identified subgroups of children with elevated levels of inattention or low cognitive ability showed different patterns of peer problems, with low acceptance characteristic of the low cognitive ability (only) group and high dislike ratings characteristic of the inattentive and inattentive/low-ability group. Implications are discussed for the design of early intervention and prevention programs.

  5. Processing complex pseudo-words in mild cognitive impairment: The interaction of preserved morphological rule knowledge with compromised cognitive ability.

    PubMed

    Manouilidou, Christina; Dolenc, Barbara; Marvin, Tatjana; Pirtošek, Zvezdan

    2016-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) affects the cognitive performance of elderly adults. However, the level of severity is not high enough to be diagnosed with dementia. Previous research reports subtle language impairments in individuals with MCI specifically in domains related to lexical meaning. The present study used both off-line (grammaticality judgment) and on-line (lexical decision) tasks to examine aspects of lexical processing and how they are affected by MCI. 21 healthy older adults and 23 individuals with MCI saw complex pseudo-words that violated various principles of word formation in Slovenian and decided if each letter string was an actual word of their language. The pseudo-words ranged in their degree of violability. A task effect was found, with MCI performance to be similar to that of healthy controls in the off-line task but different in the on-line task. Overall, the MCI group responded slower than the elderly controls. No significant differences were observed in the off-line task, while the on-line task revealed a main effect of Violation type, a main effect of Group and a significant Violation × Group interaction reflecting a difficulty for the MCI group to process pseudo-words in real time. That is, while individuals with MCI seem to preserve morphological rule knowledge, they experience additional difficulties while processing complex pseudo-words. This was attributed to an executive dysfunction associated with MCI that delays the recognition of ungrammatical formations.

  6. Differential Impairment of Cognitive and Affective Mentalizing Abilities in Neurodegenerative Dementias: Evidence from Behavioral Variant of Frontotemporal Dementia, Alzheimer's Disease, and Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Dodich, Alessandra; Cerami, Chiara; Crespi, Chiara; Canessa, Nicola; Lettieri, Giada; Iannaccone, Sandro; Marcone, Alessandra; Cappa, Stefano F; Cacioppo, John T

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive and affective theory of mind (ToM) can be impaired in the course of neurodegenerative dementias. Experimental tests based on different task conditions and/or complexity may fail to capture disease-specific patterns of impairments. In this study, we assessed with a single task both the affective and the cognitive facets of ToM ability in a sample of 47 patients (i.e., 12 AD, 20 bvFTD, and 15 aMCI fulfilling IWG criteria for AD in predementia phase) and 65 healthy controls. Subjects were administered the Story-based Empathy task (SET), a non-verbal task measuring the ability to infer others' intentions (IA) and emotions (EA) compared to a control condition (causal inferences, CI). Global and single sub-condition scores were evaluated with a vectorial method, analyzing the relationship between social abilities and basic cognitive functioning by means of two indices representing the basic ability to perform the task and the balance between basic functions and ToM skills.Dementia (AD and bvFTD) patients showed impaired performances on all SET sub-conditions, whereas aMCI subjects' performance was not different from healthy controls. Vectorial analysis revealed a specific change in the balance between EA and CI conditions only in the bvFTD group, supporting a disproportionate deficit in mental states attribution based on affective cues. The overall deficit in the task in AD appears to be more general and related to the severity of dementia. This latter finding is further supported by the normal performance of the prodromal AD group. PMID:26836153

  7. Differences in cognitive ability and hippocampal volume between Alzheimer's disease, amnestic mild cognitive impairment, and healthy control groups, and their correlation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mi-Hyun; Kim, Hyung-Sik; Gim, Seon-Young; Kim, Woo-Ram; Mun, Kyung-Ryul; Tack, Gye-Rae; Lee, Bongsoo; Choi, Young Chil; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Hong, Seung Hwa; Lim, Dae-Woon; Chung, Soon-Cheol

    2016-05-01

    The study investigated differences in cognitive ability and hippocampal volume between groups of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), and healthy control (HC) subjects, and explored the relationship between cognitive ability and hippocampal volume. Among the sub-tests of Korean version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD-K), the Boston naming test score decreased in the order HC, aMCI, and AD. The hippocampal volumes of subjects with AD and aMCI were relatively smaller than those of HC individuals. There were strongly positive correlations between hippocampal volume and the scores for the Boston naming test. Discriminant analysis identified the Boston naming test as having the highest level of discrimination among the variables used to differentiate the three groups (89.9%). In conclusion, the Boston naming test accurately differentiated the three groups and was correlated with hippocampal volume. These results will be helpful for choosing an accurate and economically feasible test method that efficiently differentiates the three groups.

  8. [Cognitive function related to temporal lobe epilepsy: advances in research on new cognitive function].

    PubMed

    Yamano, Mitsuhiko; Akamatsu, Naoki; Tsuji, Sadatoshi

    2013-05-01

    The importance of neuropsychological examinations in epilepsy care and, especially, in epilepsy surgery is centered on the following roles: they offer a means to confirm the epileptic focus by multi-modal preoperative assessments and they help to assess postoperative functional changes based on preoperative cognitive functions. Furthermore, assessments of the cognitive functions of patients with epilepsy using various tests aid in providing comprehensive medical care. Thus far, research on cognitive functions related to temporal lobe epilepsy has focused on memory, language, and general intelligence. However, the concept of social cognitive function has been recently proposed in the field of neuropsychology. This cognitive function, proposed by Brothers in 1990, is a collective term for functions needed in social life; these include functions required to interpret the expressions, feelings, and intentions of others and to form and maintain smooth human relationships while making decisions necessary for self-survival. These functions mainly involve facial expression recognition and decision-making. Findings of research on neural mechanisms underlying social cognitive functions have emphasized the roles of the cerebral limbic system, such as the amygdalo-hippocampal complexes, and the emotional system in the ventromedial prefrontal area. Studies on social cognitive functions in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy are being pursued currently. Early-onset right mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis is the key substrate determining a severe deficit in recognizing emotional facial expressions and decision-making. In the future, neuropsychological examinations of social cognition, in addition to those of global intelligence, memory, and verbal function, will contribute to the provision of comprehensive medical care to patients with epilepsy. PMID:23667120

  9. [Cognitive function related to temporal lobe epilepsy: advances in research on new cognitive function].

    PubMed

    Yamano, Mitsuhiko; Akamatsu, Naoki; Tsuji, Sadatoshi

    2013-05-01

    The importance of neuropsychological examinations in epilepsy care and, especially, in epilepsy surgery is centered on the following roles: they offer a means to confirm the epileptic focus by multi-modal preoperative assessments and they help to assess postoperative functional changes based on preoperative cognitive functions. Furthermore, assessments of the cognitive functions of patients with epilepsy using various tests aid in providing comprehensive medical care. Thus far, research on cognitive functions related to temporal lobe epilepsy has focused on memory, language, and general intelligence. However, the concept of social cognitive function has been recently proposed in the field of neuropsychology. This cognitive function, proposed by Brothers in 1990, is a collective term for functions needed in social life; these include functions required to interpret the expressions, feelings, and intentions of others and to form and maintain smooth human relationships while making decisions necessary for self-survival. These functions mainly involve facial expression recognition and decision-making. Findings of research on neural mechanisms underlying social cognitive functions have emphasized the roles of the cerebral limbic system, such as the amygdalo-hippocampal complexes, and the emotional system in the ventromedial prefrontal area. Studies on social cognitive functions in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy are being pursued currently. Early-onset right mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis is the key substrate determining a severe deficit in recognizing emotional facial expressions and decision-making. In the future, neuropsychological examinations of social cognition, in addition to those of global intelligence, memory, and verbal function, will contribute to the provision of comprehensive medical care to patients with epilepsy.

  10. Quantitative multi-modal MRI of the Hippocampus and cognitive ability in community-dwelling older subjects

    PubMed Central

    Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Royle, Natalie A.; Maniega, Susana Muñoz; Valdés Hernández, Maria C.; Murray, Catherine; Penke, Lars; Gow, Alan; Starr, John M.; Bastin, Mark E.; Deary, Ian J.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.

    2014-01-01

    Hippocampal structural integrity is commonly quantified using volumetric measurements derived from brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Previously reported associations with cognitive decline have not been consistent. We investigate hippocampal integrity using quantitative MRI techniques and its association with cognitive abilities in older age. Participants from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 underwent brain MRI at mean age 73 years. Longitudinal relaxation time (T1), magnetization transfer ratio (MTR), fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were measured in the hippocampus. General factors of fluid-type intelligence (g), cognitive processing speed (speed) and memory were obtained at age 73 years, as well as childhood IQ test results at age 11 years. Amongst 565 older adults, multivariate linear regression showed that, after correcting for ICV, gender and age 11 IQ, larger left hippocampal volume was significantly associated with better memory ability (β = .11, p = .003), but not with speed or g. Using quantitative MRI and after correcting for multiple testing, higher T1 and MD were significantly associated with lower scores of g (β range = −.11 to −.14, p < .001), speed (β range = −.15 to −.20, p < .001) and memory (β range = −.10 to −.12, p < .001). Higher MTR and FA in the hippocampus were also significantly associated with higher scores of g (β range = .17 to .18, p < .0001) and speed (β range = .10 to .15, p < .0001), but not memory. Quantitative multi-modal MRI assessments were more sensitive at detecting cognition-hippocampal integrity associations than volumetric measurements, resulting in stronger associations between MRI biomarkers and age-related cognition changes. PMID:24561387

  11. Variation in the X-Linked EFHC2 Gene Is Associated with Social Cognitive Abilities in Males

    PubMed Central

    Startin, Carla M.; Fiorentini, Chiara; de Haan, Michelle; Skuse, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Females outperform males on many social cognitive tasks. X-linked genes may contribute to this sex difference. Males possess one X chromosome, while females possess two X chromosomes. Functional variations in X-linked genes are therefore likely to impact more on males than females. Previous studies of X-monosomic women with Turner syndrome suggest a genetic association with facial fear recognition abilities at Xp11.3, specifically at a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs7055196) within the EFHC2 gene. Based on a strong hypothesis, we investigated an association between variation at SNP rs7055196 and facial fear recognition and theory of mind abilities in males. As predicted, males possessing the G allele had significantly poorer facial fear detection accuracy and theory of mind abilities than males possessing the A allele (with SNP variant accounting for up to 4.6% of variance). Variation in the X-linked EFHC2 gene at SNP rs7055196 is therefore associated with social cognitive abilities in males. PMID:26107779

  12. Variation in the X-linked EFHC2 gene is associated with social cognitive abilities in males.

    PubMed

    Startin, Carla M; Fiorentini, Chiara; de Haan, Michelle; Skuse, David H

    2015-01-01

    Females outperform males on many social cognitive tasks. X-linked genes may contribute to this sex difference. Males possess one X chromosome, while females possess two X chromosomes. Functional variations in X-linked genes are therefore likely to impact more on males than females. Previous studies of X-monosomic women with Turner syndrome suggest a genetic association with facial fear recognition abilities at Xp11.3, specifically at a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs7055196) within the EFHC2 gene. Based on a strong hypothesis, we investigated an association between variation at SNP rs7055196 and facial fear recognition and theory of mind abilities in males. As predicted, males possessing the G allele had significantly poorer facial fear detection accuracy and theory of mind abilities than males possessing the A allele (with SNP variant accounting for up to 4.6% of variance). Variation in the X-linked EFHC2 gene at SNP rs7055196 is therefore associated with social cognitive abilities in males. PMID:26107779

  13. Adult cognitive ability and socioeconomic status as mediators of the effects of childhood disadvantage on salivary cortisol in aging adults

    PubMed Central

    Franz, Carol E.; Spoon, Kelly; Thompson, Wesley; Hauger, Richard L.; Hellhammer, Dirk H.; Jacobson, Kristen C.; Lupien, Sonia; Lyons, Michael J.; McCaffery, Jeanne; McKenzie, Ruth; Mendoza, Sally P.; Panizzon, Matthew S.; Ramundo, Ana; Shahroudi, Afrand; Kremen, William S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary In this longitudinal study we investigate the influence of childhood disadvantage on midlife hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation. Two mechanisms by which early life stress may affect later pathophysiology are through its influence on cognitive functioning or later socioeconomic (SES) disadvantage. We predicted that individual differences in young adult cognitive ability and midlife SES would mediate the influence of childhood disadvantage on midlife cortisol. On each of three nonconsecutive days, participants provided five salivary cortisol samples corresponding to their diurnal rhythm (N = 727 men; mean age 55, SD = 2.6). We calculated three measures of cortisol regulation (area-under-the curve cortisol reflecting total daytime cortisol output; cortisol-awakening-response; and wake-to-bed slope), averaging scores for each measure across multiple days. Childhood disadvantage combined four dichotomous indicators used previously by Rutter (1985): father low SES; mother education less than 12th grade; major family disruption/separation before age 18; and large family size (more than 5 siblings). The two mediators were a measure of general cognitive ability assessed at age 20 and highest achieved midlife SES. Men from more disadvantaged childhoods were significantly more likely to have dysregulated cortisol at midlife, with higher daytime cortisol levels decades after their childhood experience. Effects of childhood disadvantage were both direct and indirect. Cognitive ability and adult SES, however, only partially mediated the associations between early life stress and midlife cortisol. Specific indirect effects accounted for 33.8% of the total effect of childhood disadvantage [β = 0.12 (0.05; 0.18)] on total daytime cortisol. Associations remained significant after accounting for ethnicity, smoking status, and self-reported depressive symptoms. PMID:23684478

  14. Toward an alternative representation for disentangling age-associated differences in general and specific cognitive abilities.

    PubMed

    Schmiedek, Florian; Li, Shu-Chen

    2004-03-01

    Much of cognitive aging research concerns whether age-associated differences in various cognitive performances can be accounted for by general explanatory constructs or whether several specific processes are involved. Structural equation models have been proposed to disentangle general and specific age-associated differences in cognitive performance. This article demonstrates that existing methods that employ stepwise procedures run the risk of biasing results toward general resource accounts. An alternative model representation (i.e., the nested factor model) is proposed that affords simultaneous estimation of general and specific effects and is applied to data from the Berlin Aging Study. Using the nested factor model allowed the authors to detect that specific group factors explained 25% of the age-associated variance in addition to the general factor.

  15. Early Neurodevelopmental Findings Predict School Age Cognitive Abilities in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Chieffo, Daniela; Brogna, Claudia; Berardinelli, Angela; D’Angelo, Grazia; Mallardi, Maria; D’Amico, Adele; Alfieri, Paolo; Mercuri, Eugenio; Pane, Marika

    2015-01-01

    Objective Neurodevelopmental and cognitive difficulties are known to occur frequently in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy but so far none of the published studies have reported both early neurodevelopmental assessments and cognitive tests in the same cohort. The aim of the present longitudinal study was to establish the correlation between early neurodevelopmental assessments performed in preschool boys and the cognitive scales performed at school age or later. Methods We performed cognitive tests at school age (mean age 5.7 year ±1.7 SD) (69 months+19 SD) in a cohort of Duchenne boys, previously assessed using the Griffiths scales before the age of 4 years (mean age when the Griffiths scales were performed 30 months ±8.9 SD). Results The range of total Developmental quotients on the Griffiths ranged between 56 and 116 (mean 89 ± 15.6 SD). The total Intelligence Quotients on the Wechsler scales ranged between 35 and 119 (mean 87 ± 17.2 SD). There was a significant correlation between the findings on the two scales. P = <0.0001. When we subdivided the cohort according to site of mutations, there was a difference between boys with mutations upstream exon 44 and those with mutations in exon 44–45 affecting Dp140 on both Developmental and Intelligence Quotient (p 0.01 and p 0,003 respectively). Conclusions Our results confirm that Duchenne boys tend to slightly underperform on both neurodevelopmental and cognitive assessments. Early neurodevelopmental findings correlated with the cognitive results obtained at school age with a clear concordance between subscales exploring similar domains on the two scales. PMID:26275215

  16. Factor analysis of perceptual and cognitive abilities tested by different methods.

    PubMed

    Kinney, J A; Luria, S M

    1980-02-01

    A battery of visual, perceptual, and cognitive tests, believed to be important for operation of visual sonar displays, was administered to 100 sonar technicians. The measures varied from standard paper-and-pencil tests to computer-administered perceptual tasks. The results of 33 different measures on these men were compiled and subjected to a factor analysis. The factors extracted represent cohesive and reasonable groups which cut, to some extent, across testing techniques. However, all of the paper-and-pencil, perceptual-cognitive tests had high loadings on the same common factor, a result with general implications for occupational testing.

  17. Recent advances in the assessment of intelligence and cognition.

    PubMed

    Sparrow, S S; Davis, S M

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we review current issues in cognitive assessment. After addressing important definitional and theoretical issues, we discuss some recently developed cognitive assessment instruments as well as some recently revised instruments. Tests that are scheduled for revision will also be mentioned. As most readers are generally familiar with the widely used and nationally standardized IQ tests, we will summarize these tests according to their general usage. The testing of intelligence has been a major focus and contribution since the early days of Psychology, when the birthplace of the intelligence testing movement began in France with the work of Alfred Binet toward the end of the 19th century. Many of the most widely known and used IQ tests have been developed in the U.S.A. and are used internationally. In addition, other IQ tests have been developed in many other countries outside the U.S.A. The use of IQ tests and selected assessment considerations will be reviewed. Finally, we make some predictions about the future role of cognitive assessment in the coming century.

  18. Cognitive Abilities Underlying Reading Accuracy, Fluency and Spelling Acquisition in Korean Hangul Learners from Grades 1 to 4: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun-Rin; Uno, Akira

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine the cognitive abilities that predict reading and spelling performance in Korean children in Grades 1 to 4, depending on expertise and reading experience. As a result, visual cognition, phonological awareness, naming speed and receptive vocabulary significantly predicted reading accuracy in children in Grades 1 and 2, whereas visual cognition, phonological awareness and rapid naming speed did not predict reading accuracy in children in higher grades. For reading, fluency, phonological awareness, rapid naming speed and receptive vocabulary were crucial abilities in children in Grades 1 to 3, whereas phonological awareness was not a significant predictor in children in Grade 4. In spelling, reading ability and receptive vocabulary were the most important abilities for accurate Hangul spelling. The results suggested that the degree of cognitive abilities required for reading and spelling changed depending on expertise and reading experience.

  19. A Time Lag Analysis of Temporal Relations between Motivation, Academic Achievement, and Two Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Monica R.; Pasnak, Robert; Romero, Sandy L.

    2009-01-01

    Research Findings: The present study employed a time lag design to assess temporal relationships between motivation, academic achievement, and cognitive development. Eighty-one children from 2 preschool programs were measured twice, with an 11-week time lag, on 2 measures of motivation (marble drop task, bean bag toss task), 2 measures of…

  20. Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Cognitive Ability and Skills of Pediatrics Residents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storer, James S.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The cognitive and skills performances of sleep-deprived pediatrics residents were measured by using questions like those on the pediatrics board certification examination and using tasks that required coordination and dexterity. Implications of findings are discussed in the context of the controversy over the structure and process of medical…

  1. First-Grade Cognitive Abilities as Long-Term Predictors of Reading Comprehension and Disability Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Bryant, V. Joan; Hamlett, Carol L.; Lambert, Warren

    2012-01-01

    In a sample of 195 first graders selected for poor reading performance, the authors explored four cognitive predictors of later reading comprehension and reading disability (RD) status. In fall of first grade, the authors measured the children's phonological processing, rapid automatized naming (RAN), oral language comprehension, and nonverbal…

  2. Methods and Measures: Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Multidimensional Scaling for Construct Validation of Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2009-01-01

    Although factor analysis is the most commonly-used method for examining the structure of cognitive variable interrelations, multidimensional scaling (MDS) can provide visual representations highlighting the continuous nature of interrelations among variables. Using data (N = 8,813; ages 17-97 years) aggregated across 38 separate studies, MDS was…

  3. Continuity and Change in General Cognitive Ability from 1 to 7 years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardon, Lon R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Yearly cognitive tests were administered to adoptive and nonadoptive siblings between one and seven years of age and identical and nonidentical twins between one and three years. Results indicated that genetic influences are a source of continuity and change in mental development, whereas shared and nonshared environmental effects contribute to…

  4. High Abilities at Fluid Analogizing: A Cognitive Neuroscience Construct of Giftedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geake, John G.

    2008-01-01

    Gifted intelligence is underpinned by those aspects of neural function that enable an enhanced facility to engage in fluid analogizing: a cognitive-level construct that describes intermodule information articulation within the brain. Evidence for this claim comes from a program of neuroimaging investigations of the neural underpinnings and IQ…

  5. Cognitive Abilities of Alzheimer's Patients: Perceptions of Black and White Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Robert; Nichols, Linda O.; Graney, Marshall J.; Martindale-Adams, Jennifer; Lummus, Allan

    2006-01-01

    This study compared Black (n = 97) and White (n = 143) family caregivers regarding the relationship between subjective and objective cognitive assessments of Alzheimer's patients from the Memphis site of the NIA/NINR Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregivers Health (REACH) randomized clinical trial. Black and White caregivers' subjective…

  6. Analysis of Cognitive Abilities of Adolescents Learning Disabled Specifically in Arithmetic Computation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieper, Edward L.; Deshler, Donald D.

    The study involving 60 learning disabled (LD) and 30 normal achieving seventh through ninth graders was designed to identify adolescents homogeneously defined as exhibiting a "specific learning disability in arithmetic" and to determine if the cognitive processes (visual-spatial, visual-reasoning, and visual-memory) are related to the academic…

  7. Test Review: Beal, A. L. (2011). "Insight Test of Cognitive Abilities." Markham, Ontario, Canadian Test Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colp, S. Mitchell; Nordstokke, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Published by the Canadian Test Centre (CTC), "Insight" represents a group-administered test of cognitive functioning that has been built entirely upon the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theoretical framework. "Insight" is intended to be administered by educators and screen entire classrooms for students who present learning…

  8. Cognitive Abilities and Motivational Processes in Science Achievement and Engagement: A Person-Centered Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Shun; Roeser, Robert W.

    2008-01-01

    This study adopted a person-centered approach to examine organized patterns of psychological factors and their relations to achievement and engagement in a sample of high school students. Four types of students characterized by unique configurations of cognitive, motivational, and affective characteristics were identified in both the male and…

  9. Cognitive Abilities and Motivational Processes in High School Students' Situational Engagement and Achievement in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Shun; Roeser, Robert W.

    2002-01-01

    Building on R. Snow's two pathways to achievement outcomes (1989), examined how cognitive and motivational factors associated with the performance and commitment pathways respectively contributed to prediction of outcomes in science for 491 high school students. Results are consistent with Snow's conjecture that factors related to both pathways…

  10. Chronic α-Tocopherol Increases Central Monoamines Synthesis and Improves Cognitive and Motor Abilities in Old Rats.

    PubMed

    Ramis, Margarita R; Sarubbo, Fiorella; Terrasa, Juan L; Moranta, David; Aparicio, Sara; Miralles, Antonio; Esteban, Susana

    2016-04-01

    Limiting enzymes in the synthesis of brain monoamines seems to be susceptible to oxidative damage, one of the most important factors in aging. It has been suggested that the use of anti-oxidants can reduce the rate of free radical production related with aging and the associated damage. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the effects of the chronic treatments with the anti-oxidant α-tocopherol (vitamin E) on central monoamines (high-performance liquid chromatography [HPLC] analysis) mediating cognitive functions, as well as on the evaluation of memory and motor abilities in old rats measured by radial maze, Barnes maze, novel object recognition test, and rotarod test. Results show that α-tocopherol significantly increased in a dose- and/or time-dependent manner the synthesis rate and the levels of monoaminergic neurotransmitters (serotonin, dopamine, and noradrenaline) in the hippocampus and striatum, brain regions involved in memory processing and motor coordination. These positive neurochemical effects, largely due to an increased activity of the limiting enzymes in monoamines synthesis, tryptophan hydroxylase and tyrosine hydroxylase, were accompanied by an improvement in cognitive and motor abilities in old rats. Altogether these findings suggest that α-tocopherol exhibits neuroprotective actions in old rats; thus, diets with α-tocopherol might represent a promising strategy to mitigate or delay the cognitive and motor decline associate with aging and related-diseases.

  11. Chronic α-Tocopherol Increases Central Monoamines Synthesis and Improves Cognitive and Motor Abilities in Old Rats.

    PubMed

    Ramis, Margarita R; Sarubbo, Fiorella; Terrasa, Juan L; Moranta, David; Aparicio, Sara; Miralles, Antonio; Esteban, Susana

    2016-04-01

    Limiting enzymes in the synthesis of brain monoamines seems to be susceptible to oxidative damage, one of the most important factors in aging. It has been suggested that the use of anti-oxidants can reduce the rate of free radical production related with aging and the associated damage. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the effects of the chronic treatments with the anti-oxidant α-tocopherol (vitamin E) on central monoamines (high-performance liquid chromatography [HPLC] analysis) mediating cognitive functions, as well as on the evaluation of memory and motor abilities in old rats measured by radial maze, Barnes maze, novel object recognition test, and rotarod test. Results show that α-tocopherol significantly increased in a dose- and/or time-dependent manner the synthesis rate and the levels of monoaminergic neurotransmitters (serotonin, dopamine, and noradrenaline) in the hippocampus and striatum, brain regions involved in memory processing and motor coordination. These positive neurochemical effects, largely due to an increased activity of the limiting enzymes in monoamines synthesis, tryptophan hydroxylase and tyrosine hydroxylase, were accompanied by an improvement in cognitive and motor abilities in old rats. Altogether these findings suggest that α-tocopherol exhibits neuroprotective actions in old rats; thus, diets with α-tocopherol might represent a promising strategy to mitigate or delay the cognitive and motor decline associate with aging and related-diseases. PMID:26414867

  12. Effects of prenatal stress and emotional reactivity of the mother on emotional and cognitive abilities in lambs.

    PubMed

    Coulon, Marjorie; Nowak, Raymond; Andanson, Stephane; Petit, Bérengère; Lévy, Frédéric; Boissy, Alain

    2015-07-01

    Consequences of prenatal stress on emotional reactivity and cognitive abilities in offspring are under-documented in precocial mammals. Here, we investigated to what extent emotional reactivity, judgment bias and spatial learning abilities of lambs are affected by chronic stress during late pregnancy and by their dams' emotional reactivity. The 20 highest-responsive (HR) and 20 lowest-responsive (LR) ewes from a population of 120 Romane ewes were selected according to their pre-mating reactivity to social isolation in a new environment. Over the final third of pregnancy, 10 HR ewes and 10 LR ewes were exposed daily to various unpredictable aversive events such as restraint, mixing groups and transport while the other 20 selected ewes were not. In a human and an object test, prenatally-stressed lambs were more fearful than control lambs, but the prenatal stress effect was moderated by the reactivity of the mothers: prenatally-stressed lambs from ewes with high emotional reactivity were more affected. Prenatally-stressed lambs did not perform as well as control lambs in a maze test and showed pessimistic-like judgment in a cognitive bias test. Prenatally-stressed lambs were thus characterized by a negative affective state with increased fear reactions and impaired cognitive evaluation. The development of negative moods could have long-lasting consequences on the coping strategies of the lambs in response to their rearing conditions.

  13. Inspection Time in the Structure of Cognitive Abilities: Where Does IT Fit?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Nicholas R.; Nettelbeck, Ted

    2003-01-01

    Results of a battery of psychometric and chronometric tests administered to 90 adults show that inspection time (IT) and decision time measured different processes, and that Wechsler performance IQ does not measure fluid ability. Findings suggest that IT does not measure fluid ability, but whether information processing speed is common to all…

  14. The Role of Cognitive Ability and Preferred Mode of Processing in Students' Calculus Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haciomeroglu, Erhan Selcuk

    2015-01-01

    The present study sought to design calculus tasks to determine students' preference for visual or analytic processing as well as examine the role of preferred mode of processing in calculus performance and its relationship to spatial ability and verbal-logical reasoning ability. Data were collected from 150 high school students who were enrolled…

  15. The Ability to Tap to a Beat Relates to Cognitive, Linguistic, and Perceptual Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, Adam T.; Kraus, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Reading-impaired children have difficulty tapping to a beat. Here we tested whether this relationship between reading ability and synchronized tapping holds in typically-developing adolescents. We also hypothesized that tapping relates to two other abilities. First, since auditory-motor synchronization requires monitoring of the relationship…

  16. General Cognitive Ability Predicts Job Performance. Interim Technical Paper for Period November 1990 - November 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ree, Malcolm James; And Others

    A study investigated the roles of general ability and specific abilities as predictors of several job performance criteria for Air Force enlistees in eight jobs. Subjects were 1,545 Air Force enlistees entering from 1984 through 1988 who had tested with the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB) parallel forms 11, 12, or 13. Subjects…

  17. Iron states and cognitive abilities in young adults: neuropsychological and neurophysiological assessment.

    PubMed

    Khedr, Eman; Hamed, Sherifa A; Elbeih, Esam; El-Shereef, Hala; Ahmad, Yousreyia; Ahmed, Safaa

    2008-12-01

    Many investigators found that iron deficiency anemia (IDA) had a great influence on cognitive functions in infants and children. However, studies of such topic in adults are few and controversial. We prospectively assessed the possible influence of IDA and iron supplementation (for 3 months) on cognitive function and intelligence of 28 young adults with IDA. We used group of hematological, cognitive, neurophysiological tests for assessment including: mini-mental state examination (MMSE), Wechsler memory scale-revised (WMS-R), Wechsler adult intelligence scale-revised (WAIS-R), event-related potentials (ERPs), and electroencephalography (EEG). Compared to controls, patients demonstrated lower scores of different cognitive tests (MMSE, WMS-R, and WAIS-R), which showed significant improvement after treatment. Prolongation of ERPs latencies (N200 and P300) and reduction in their amplitudes (P200 and P300) were identified with significant increase in amplitude occurred after treatment. EEG abnormalities were observed in 55% of patients which showed improvement in 35% after treatment. Positive correlation was identified before and after treatment between hemoglobin levels and MMSE (P=0.01, 0.05), total verbal (P=0.04) and performance (P=0.05, 0.04) IQ scores. Negative correlation was identified between before and after treatment between P300 latency and total IQ of WAIS-R (P=0.03, 0.008) and hemoglobin level (P=0.4, 0.01). Positive correlation was found before and after treatment between P300 amplitude and total IQ (P=0.028, 0.01) and serum iron (P=0.01, 0.001). In conclusion, IDA is a significant factor in cognitive performance in adult population, which can be partially reversed by treatment. PMID:18574611

  18. Oxytocin, but not vasopressin, impairs social cognitive ability among individuals with higher levels of social anxiety: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Tabak, Benjamin A; Meyer, Meghan L; Dutcher, Janine M; Castle, Elizabeth; Irwin, Michael R; Lieberman, Matthew D; Eisenberger, Naomi I

    2016-08-01

    Individuals with social anxiety are characterized by a high degree of social sensitivity, which can coincide with impairments in social cognitive functioning (e.g. theory of mind). Oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) have been shown to improve social cognition, and OT has been theorized as a potential therapeutic agent for individuals with social anxiety disorder. However, no study has investigated whether these neuropeptides improve social cognitive ability among socially anxious individuals. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, between-subjects design we investigated whether social anxiety moderated the effects of OT or AVP (vs placebo) on social working memory (i.e. working memory that involves manipulating social information) and non-social working memory. OT vs placebo impaired social working memory accuracy in participants with higher levels of social anxiety. No differences were found for non-social working memory or for AVP vs placebo. Results suggest that OT administration in individuals with higher levels of social anxiety may impair social cognitive functioning. Randomized-controlled trial registration: NCT01680718.

  19. Oxytocin, but not vasopressin, impairs social cognitive ability among individuals with higher levels of social anxiety: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Tabak, Benjamin A; Meyer, Meghan L; Dutcher, Janine M; Castle, Elizabeth; Irwin, Michael R; Lieberman, Matthew D; Eisenberger, Naomi I

    2016-08-01

    Individuals with social anxiety are characterized by a high degree of social sensitivity, which can coincide with impairments in social cognitive functioning (e.g. theory of mind). Oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) have been shown to improve social cognition, and OT has been theorized as a potential therapeutic agent for individuals with social anxiety disorder. However, no study has investigated whether these neuropeptides improve social cognitive ability among socially anxious individuals. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, between-subjects design we investigated whether social anxiety moderated the effects of OT or AVP (vs placebo) on social working memory (i.e. working memory that involves manipulating social information) and non-social working memory. OT vs placebo impaired social working memory accuracy in participants with higher levels of social anxiety. No differences were found for non-social working memory or for AVP vs placebo. Results suggest that OT administration in individuals with higher levels of social anxiety may impair social cognitive functioning. Randomized-controlled trial registration: NCT01680718. PMID:27053769

  20. How Smart Do You Think You Are? A Meta-Analysis on the Validity of Self-Estimates of Cognitive Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freund, Philipp Alexander; Kasten, Nadine

    2012-01-01

    Individuals' perceptions of their own level of cognitive ability are expressed through self-estimates. They play an important role in a person's self-concept because they facilitate an understanding of how one's own abilities relate to those of others. People evaluate their own and other persons' abilities all the time, but self-estimates are also…

  1. Explaining the increasing heritability of cognitive ability across development: a meta-analysis of longitudinal twin and adoption studies.

    PubMed

    Briley, Daniel A; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M

    2013-09-01

    Genes account for increasing proportions of variation in cognitive ability across development, but the mechanisms underlying these increases remain unclear. We conducted a meta-analysis of longitudinal behavioral genetic studies spanning infancy to adolescence. We identified relevant data from 16 articles with 11 unique samples containing a total of 11,500 twin and sibling pairs who were all reared together and measured at least twice between the ages of 6 months and 18 years. Longitudinal behavioral genetic models were used to estimate the extent to which early genetic influences on cognition were amplified over time and the extent to which innovative genetic influences arose with time. Results indicated that in early childhood, innovative genetic influences predominate but that innovation quickly diminishes, and amplified influences account for increasing heritability following age 8 years.

  2. Maternal child-rearing attitudes, IQ, and socioeconomic status as related to cognitive abilities of five-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Andersson, H W; Sommerfelt, K; Sonnander, K; Ahlsten, G

    1996-08-01

    The effects of maternal child-rearing attitudes, as measured by the Child Rearing Practices Report, on 5-yr.-old children's Verbal IQ and Performance IQ were investigated in a Scandinavian sample of 108 boys and 126 girls. The maternal child-rearing attitude of Restrictiveness, as defined by scores on the Report, showed negative relations to the cognitive measures. However, the significant negative relation between Restrictiveness and Verbal IQ, obtained for both sexes, disappeared when the effects of maternal IQ and socioeconomic status were controlled. The maternal child-rearing attitude of Nurturance, as defined by scores on the Report, was significantly related to Verbal IQ and Performance IQ for boys only. Significant relationships between scores on Nurturance and cognitive abilities of boys remained when the effects of maternal IQ and socioeconomic status were controlled. PMID:8873781

  3. Rate of acquisition, adult age, and basic cognitive abilities predict forgetting: new views on a classic problem.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Stuart W S; Stigsdotter-Neely, Anna; Derwinger, Anna; Bäckman, Lars

    2006-08-01

    Rate of forgetting is putatively invariant across individuals, sharing few associations with individual-differences variables known to influence encoding and retrieval. This classic topic in learning and memory was revisited using a novel statistical application, multilevel modeling, to examine whether (a) slopes of forgetting varied across individuals and (b) observed individual differences in forgetting shared systematic relations with adult age, learning speed, and cognitive ability. Participants (N = 136) received mnemonic training prior to memorizing 4-digit numbers to perfection, and retention was tested immediately after training and after 30 min, 24 hr, 7 weeks, and 8 months. Slower rate of learning to criterion, older age, and poorer cognitive performance predicted accelerated forgetting with associations most pronounced within 24 hr from baseline. Observed correlates of differential forgetting slopes are similar to those previously found to affect encoding, suggesting continuity rather than asymmetry of prediction for these memory processes.

  4. Only Behavioral But Not Self-Report Measures of Speech Perception Correlate with Cognitive Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Heinrich, Antje; Henshaw, Helen; Ferguson, Melanie A.

    2016-01-01

    Good speech perception and communication skills in everyday life are crucial for participation and well-being, and are therefore an overarching aim of auditory rehabilitation. Both behavioral and self-report measures can be used to assess these skills. However, correlations between behavioral and self-report speech perception measures are often low. One possible explanation is that there is a mismatch between the specific situations used in the assessment of these skills in each method, and a more careful matching across situations might improve consistency of results. The role that cognition plays in specific speech situations may also be important for understanding communication, as speech perception tests vary in their cognitive demands. In this study, the role of executive function, working memory (WM) and attention in behavioral and self-report measures of speech perception was investigated. Thirty existing hearing aid users with mild-to-moderate hearing loss aged between 50 and 74 years completed a behavioral test battery with speech perception tests ranging from phoneme discrimination in modulated noise (easy) to words in multi-talker babble (medium) and keyword perception in a carrier sentence against a distractor voice (difficult). In addition, a self-report measure of aided communication, residual disability from the Glasgow Hearing Aid Benefit Profile, was obtained. Correlations between speech perception tests and self-report measures were higher when specific speech situations across both were matched. Cognition correlated with behavioral speech perception test results but not with self-report. Only the most difficult speech perception test, keyword perception in a carrier sentence with a competing distractor voice, engaged executive functions in addition to WM. In conclusion, any relationship between behavioral and self-report speech perception is not mediated by a shared correlation with cognition. PMID:27242564

  5. The effects of cognitive style, method of instruction, and visual ability on learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Mark D.

    The relationships between cognitive style, method of instruction, and visual skill on learning chemical kinetics were investigated. Participants enrolled in a general chemistry course were classified on each of three factors: cognitive style (field dependent, field neutral, or field independent), method of instruction (computer lesson, teaching assistant, or neither), and visual skill (high visual skill, moderate visual skill, or low visual skill). Participants who were classified as field independent scored significantly higher than those classified as field dependent on the kinetics portions of the hour and final exams. Also, participants who worked with the computer lesson scored significantly higher than those who did not work with either the computer lesson or the teaching assistant on the kinetics portions of the hour and final exams. In addition, participants who were classified with high visual skill scored significantly higher than those classified with low visual skill on the kinetics portions of the hour and final exams. No significant interaction effects were found for cognitive style and method of instruction. However, a trend was discovered in that participants who were classified as field dependent or field independent and worked with the computer based lesson seemed to score higher than those classified as field dependent or field independent and worked with the teaching assistant. Also, those classified as field neutral and worked with the teaching assistant seemed to score higher than those who were classified as field neutral and worked with the computer lesson. Finally, no significant difference was found for cognitive style and the percentage of time spent in the simulated environment component of the computer lesson. However, a trend was found in that participants classified as field independent seemed to spend a greater percentage of time in the simulated environment than participants classified as field dependent.

  6. A Test for the Assessment of Pragmatic Abilities and Cognitive Substrates (APACS): Normative Data and Psychometric Properties.

    PubMed

    Arcara, Giorgio; Bambini, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    The Assessment of Pragmatic Abilities and Cognitive Substrates (APACS) test is a new tool to evaluate pragmatic abilities in clinical populations with acquired communicative deficits, ranging from schizophrenia to neurodegenerative diseases. APACS focuses on two main domains, namely discourse and non-literal language, combining traditional tasks with refined linguistic materials in Italian, in a unified framework inspired by language pragmatics. The test includes six tasks (Interview, Description, Narratives, Figurative Language 1, Humor, Figurative Language 2) and three composite scores (Pragmatic Productions, Pragmatic Comprehension, APACS Total). Psychometric properties and normative data were computed on a sample of 119 healthy participants representative of the general population. The analysis revealed acceptable internal consistency and good test-retest reliability for almost every APACS task, suggesting that items are coherent and performance is consistent over time. Factor analysis supports the validity of the test, revealing two factors possibly related to different facets and substrates of the pragmatic competence. Finally, excellent match between APACS items and scores and the pragmatic constructs measured in the test was evidenced by experts' evaluation of content validity. The performance on APACS showed a general effect of demographic variables, with a negative effect of age and a positive effect of education. The norms were calculated by means of state-of-the-art regression methods. Overall, APACS is a valuable tool for the assessment of pragmatic deficits in verbal communication. The short duration and easiness of administration make the test especially suitable to use in clinical settings. In presenting APACS, we also aim at promoting the inclusion of pragmatics in the assessment practice, as a relevant dimension in defining the patient's cognitive profile, given its vital role for communication and social interaction in daily life. The combined

  7. Differential validity for cognitive ability tests in employment and educational settings: not much more than range restriction?

    PubMed

    Roth, Philip L; Le, Huy; Oh, In-Sue; Van Iddekinge, Chad H; Buster, Maury A; Robbins, Steve B; Campion, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    The concept of differential validity suggests that cognitive ability tests are associated with varying levels of validity across ethnic groups, such that validity is lower in certain ethnic subgroups than in others. A recent meta-analysis has revived the viability of this concept. Unfortunately, data were not available in this meta-analysis to correct for range restriction within ethnic groups. We reviewed the differential validity literature and conducted 4 studies. In Study 1, we empirically demonstrated that using a cognitive ability test with a common cutoff decreases variance in test scores of Black subgroup samples more than in White samples. In Study 2, we developed a simulation that examined the effects of range restriction on estimates of differential validity. Results demonstrated that different levels of range restriction for subgroups can explain the apparent observed differential validity results in employment and educational settings (but not military settings) when no differential validity exists in the population. In Study 3, we conducted a simulation in which we examined how one corrects for range restriction affects the accuracy of these corrections. Results suggest that the correction approach using a common range restriction ratio for various subgroups may create or perpetuate the illusion of differential validity and that corrections are most accurate when done within each subgroup. Finally, in Study 4, we conducted a simulation in which we assumed differential validity in the population. We found that range restriction artificially increased the size of observed differential validity estimates when the validity of cognitive ability tests was assumed to be higher among Whites. Overall, we suggest that the concept of differential validity may be largely artifactual and current data are not definitive enough to suggest such effects exist. PMID:24079670

  8. Differential validity for cognitive ability tests in employment and educational settings: not much more than range restriction?

    PubMed

    Roth, Philip L; Le, Huy; Oh, In-Sue; Van Iddekinge, Chad H; Buster, Maury A; Robbins, Steve B; Campion, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    The concept of differential validity suggests that cognitive ability tests are associated with varying levels of validity across ethnic groups, such that validity is lower in certain ethnic subgroups than in others. A recent meta-analysis has revived the viability of this concept. Unfortunately, data were not available in this meta-analysis to correct for range restriction within ethnic groups. We reviewed the differential validity literature and conducted 4 studies. In Study 1, we empirically demonstrated that using a cognitive ability test with a common cutoff decreases variance in test scores of Black subgroup samples more than in White samples. In Study 2, we developed a simulation that examined the effects of range restriction on estimates of differential validity. Results demonstrated that different levels of range restriction for subgroups can explain the apparent observed differential validity results in employment and educational settings (but not military settings) when no differential validity exists in the population. In Study 3, we conducted a simulation in which we examined how one corrects for range restriction affects the accuracy of these corrections. Results suggest that the correction approach using a common range restriction ratio for various subgroups may create or perpetuate the illusion of differential validity and that corrections are most accurate when done within each subgroup. Finally, in Study 4, we conducted a simulation in which we assumed differential validity in the population. We found that range restriction artificially increased the size of observed differential validity estimates when the validity of cognitive ability tests was assumed to be higher among Whites. Overall, we suggest that the concept of differential validity may be largely artifactual and current data are not definitive enough to suggest such effects exist.

  9. A Test for the Assessment of Pragmatic Abilities and Cognitive Substrates (APACS): Normative Data and Psychometric Properties

    PubMed Central

    Arcara, Giorgio; Bambini, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    The Assessment of Pragmatic Abilities and Cognitive Substrates (APACS) test is a new tool to evaluate pragmatic abilities in clinical populations with acquired communicative deficits, ranging from schizophrenia to neurodegenerative diseases. APACS focuses on two main domains, namely discourse and non-literal language, combining traditional tasks with refined linguistic materials in Italian, in a unified framework inspired by language pragmatics. The test includes six tasks (Interview, Description, Narratives, Figurative Language 1, Humor, Figurative Language 2) and three composite scores (Pragmatic Productions, Pragmatic Comprehension, APACS Total). Psychometric properties and normative data were computed on a sample of 119 healthy participants representative of the general population. The analysis revealed acceptable internal consistency and good test-retest reliability for almost every APACS task, suggesting that items are coherent and performance is consistent over time. Factor analysis supports the validity of the test, revealing two factors possibly related to different facets and substrates of the pragmatic competence. Finally, excellent match between APACS items and scores and the pragmatic constructs measured in the test was evidenced by experts' evaluation of content validity. The performance on APACS showed a general effect of demographic variables, with a negative effect of age and a positive effect of education. The norms were calculated by means of state-of-the-art regression methods. Overall, APACS is a valuable tool for the assessment of pragmatic deficits in verbal communication. The short duration and easiness of administration make the test especially suitable to use in clinical settings. In presenting APACS, we also aim at promoting the inclusion of pragmatics in the assessment practice, as a relevant dimension in defining the patient's cognitive profile, given its vital role for communication and social interaction in daily life. The combined

  10. A Test for the Assessment of Pragmatic Abilities and Cognitive Substrates (APACS): Normative Data and Psychometric Properties.

    PubMed

    Arcara, Giorgio; Bambini, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    The Assessment of Pragmatic Abilities and Cognitive Substrates (APACS) test is a new tool to evaluate pragmatic abilities in clinical populations with acquired communicative deficits, ranging from schizophrenia to neurodegenerative diseases. APACS focuses on two main domains, namely discourse and non-literal language, combining traditional tasks with refined linguistic materials in Italian, in a unified framework inspired by language pragmatics. The test includes six tasks (Interview, Description, Narratives, Figurative Language 1, Humor, Figurative Language 2) and three composite scores (Pragmatic Productions, Pragmatic Comprehension, APACS Total). Psychometric properties and normative data were computed on a sample of 119 healthy participants representative of the general population. The analysis revealed acceptable internal consistency and good test-retest reliability for almost every APACS task, suggesting that items are coherent and performance is consistent over time. Factor analysis supports the validity of the test, revealing two factors possibly related to different facets and substrates of the pragmatic competence. Finally, excellent match between APACS items and scores and the pragmatic constructs measured in the test was evidenced by experts' evaluation of content validity. The performance on APACS showed a general effect of demographic variables, with a negative effect of age and a positive effect of education. The norms were calculated by means of state-of-the-art regression methods. Overall, APACS is a valuable tool for the assessment of pragmatic deficits in verbal communication. The short duration and easiness of administration make the test especially suitable to use in clinical settings. In presenting APACS, we also aim at promoting the inclusion of pragmatics in the assessment practice, as a relevant dimension in defining the patient's cognitive profile, given its vital role for communication and social interaction in daily life. The combined

  11. Personality and intelligence: persistence, not self-directedness, cooperativeness or self-transcendence, is related to twins’ cognitive abilities

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, Fariba; Rozsa, Sandor; Nilsson, Thomas; Archer, Trevor; Anckarsäter, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Background. A person-centered approach focusing on the interaction of an individual’s temperament-character-life events is essential in the path of individuals’ well-being. In this context, three character traits, Self-directedness (e.g., self-acceptance, self-control, goal-directed behavior), Cooperativeness (e.g., social affiliation, social tolerance, empathy and helpfulness) and Self-transcendence (e.g., spiritual acceptance, transpersonal identification), measured using Cloninger’s model of personality are suggested to help the individual to regulate and resolve the conflicts derived from her/his temperament combinations as a reaction to life events. However, if character is related to the individual’s cognitive ability, then this association might limit any intervention that focuses on character development. We used data from the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS) to investigate the relationship between personality and cognitive ability. Method. The sample consisted of 370 15-year-old twins (159 girls/211 boys), 192 of whom screen-positive with various types of mental health problems. We used the Temperament and Character Inventory to measure personality and the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children (WISC-IV) to measure intelligence. The relationship was investigated using correlation analyses using random-selected twins from each dyad and separately for monozygotic and dizygotic twins. Additional analyses investigated the genetic and environmental effects on personality and cognitive ability in this specific sample. Results. There were no significant correlations between the WISC-IV indices and any of the character traits (i.e., Self-directedness, Cooperativeness, and Self-transcendence). Persistence was significantly related, if weak, to four WISC-IV indices: Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, Working Memory, and the Full WISC-IV Scale. Post-hoc cross-twin/cross-trait analyses showed that the Persistence-cognitive ability

  12. Personality and intelligence: persistence, not self-directedness, cooperativeness or self-transcendence, is related to twins' cognitive abilities.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, Fariba; Rozsa, Sandor; Nilsson, Thomas; Archer, Trevor; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Garcia, Danilo

    2015-01-01

    Background. A person-centered approach focusing on the interaction of an individual's temperament-character-life events is essential in the path of individuals' well-being. In this context, three character traits, Self-directedness (e.g., self-acceptance, self-control, goal-directed behavior), Cooperativeness (e.g., social affiliation, social tolerance, empathy and helpfulness) and Self-transcendence (e.g., spiritual acceptance, transpersonal identification), measured using Cloninger's model of personality are suggested to help the individual to regulate and resolve the conflicts derived from her/his temperament combinations as a reaction to life events. However, if character is related to the individual's cognitive ability, then this association might limit any intervention that focuses on character development. We used data from the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS) to investigate the relationship between personality and cognitive ability. Method. The sample consisted of 370 15-year-old twins (159 girls/211 boys), 192 of whom screen-positive with various types of mental health problems. We used the Temperament and Character Inventory to measure personality and the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children (WISC-IV) to measure intelligence. The relationship was investigated using correlation analyses using random-selected twins from each dyad and separately for monozygotic and dizygotic twins. Additional analyses investigated the genetic and environmental effects on personality and cognitive ability in this specific sample. Results. There were no significant correlations between the WISC-IV indices and any of the character traits (i.e., Self-directedness, Cooperativeness, and Self-transcendence). Persistence was significantly related, if weak, to four WISC-IV indices: Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, Working Memory, and the Full WISC-IV Scale. Post-hoc cross-twin/cross-trait analyses showed that the Persistence-cognitive ability

  13. Cognitive Levels of Questions Used by Iranian EFL Teachers in Advanced Reading Comprehension Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khorsand, Narjess

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the cognitive levels of questions used by Iranian EFL teachers in advanced reading comprehension tests. Twenty teachers participated in this study and generated 215 questions which were then categorized according to Bloom's taxonomy. This taxonomy consists of six major categories which starts from the simplest behavior to the…

  14. Age-Related Declines in General Cognitive Abilities of Balb/C Mice and General Activity Are Associated with Disparities in Working Memory, Body Weight, and General Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matzel, Louis D.; Grossman, Henya; Light, Kenneth; Townsend, David; Kolata, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    A defining characteristic of age-related cognitive decline is a deficit in general cognitive performance. Here we use a testing and analysis regimen that allows us to characterize the general learning abilities of young (3-5 mo old) and aged (19-21 mo old) male and female Balb/C mice. Animals' performance was assessed on a battery of seven diverse…

  15. Placing Inspection Time, Reaction Time, and Perceptual Speed in the Broader Context of Cognitive Ability: The VPR Model in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Wendy; Deary, Ian J.

    2011-01-01

    The idea that information processing speed is related to cognitive ability has a long history. Much evidence has been amassed in its support, with respect to both individual differences in general intelligence and developmental trajectories. Two so-called elementary cognitive tasks, reaction time and inspection time, have been used to compile this…

  16. WWC Review of the Report "The Effects of Cognitive Strategy Instruction on Math Problem Solving of Middle School Students of Varying Ability." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    A recent study, "The Effects of Cognitive Strategy Instruction on Math Problem Solving of Middle School Students of Varying Ability," examined the effectiveness of "Solve It!," a program intended to improve the problem-solving skills of seventh-grade math students. During the program, students are taught cognitive strategies of…

  17. Prediction of Cognitive Abilities at the Age of 5 Years Using Developmental Follow-Up Assessments at the Age of 2 and 3 Years in Very Preterm Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potharst, Eva S.; Houtzager, Bregje A.; van Sonderen, Loekie; Tamminga, Pieter; Kok, Joke H.; Last, Bob F.; van Wassenaer, Aleid G.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: This study investigated prediction of separate cognitive abilities at the age of 5 years by cognitive development at the ages of both 2 and 3 years, and the agreement between these measurements, in very preterm children. Methods: Preterm children (n=102; 44 males; 58 females) with a gestational age less than 30 weeks and/or birthweight less…

  18. Do children with Williams syndrome really have good vocabulary knowledge? Methods for comparing cognitive and linguistic abilities in developmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Brock, Jon; Jarrold, Christopher; Farran, Emily K; Laws, Glynis; Riby, Deborah M

    2007-09-01

    The comparison of cognitive and linguistic skills in individuals with developmental disorders is fraught with methodological and psychometric difficulties. In this paper, we illustrate some of these issues by comparing the receptive vocabulary knowledge and non-verbal reasoning abilities of 41 children with Williams syndrome, a genetic disorder in which language abilities are often claimed to be relatively strong. Data from this group were compared with data from typically developing children, children with Down syndrome, and children with non-specific learning difficulties using a number of approaches including comparison of age-equivalent scores, matching, analysis of covariance, and regression-based standardization. Across these analyses children with Williams syndrome consistently demonstrated relatively good receptive vocabulary knowledge, although this effect appeared strongest in the oldest children.

  19. Predictive value of attitude, cognitive ability, and personality to science achievement in the middle school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Dale R.

    This article examines the factors of attitude toward science, spatial ability, mathematical ability, and the scientific personality, as measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, in a sample of middle school students. Males and females with science grades of A and B were found to have several characteristics of the scientific personality, good grades in mathematics, but negative attitudes toward science. Males and females with science grades of C and D had a more positive attitude toward science, but poor mathematical and spatial abilities and few characteristics of the scientific personality. There were no sex differences except on the Thinking/Feeling (TF) scale of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. As expected females portrayed themselves as preferring the (F) scale, the use of personal values when making decisions and males portrayed themselves as preferring the (T) scale, the use of logical analysis when making decisions.

  20. The ability to tap to a beat relates to cognitive, linguistic, and perceptual skills.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Adam T; Kraus, Nina

    2013-03-01

    Reading-impaired children have difficulty tapping to a beat. Here we tested whether this relationship between reading ability and synchronized tapping holds in typically-developing adolescents. We also hypothesized that tapping relates to two other abilities. First, since auditory-motor synchronization requires monitoring of the relationship between motor output and auditory input, we predicted that subjects better able to tap to the beat would perform better on attention tests. Second, since auditory-motor synchronization requires fine temporal precision within the auditory system for the extraction of a sound's onset time, we predicted that subjects better able to tap to the beat would be less affected by backward masking, a measure of temporal precision within the auditory system. As predicted, tapping performance related to reading, attention, and backward masking. These results motivate future research investigating whether beat synchronization training can improve not only reading ability, but potentially executive function and auditory processing as well.

  1. The influence of cognitive ability and instructional set on causal conditional inference.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jonathan St B T; Handley, Simon J; Neilens, Helen; Over, David

    2010-05-01

    We report a large study in which participants are invited to draw inferences from causal conditional sentences with varying degrees of believability. General intelligence was measured, and participants were split into groups of high and low ability. Under strict deductive-reasoning instructions, it was observed that higher ability participants were significantly less influenced by prior belief than were those of lower ability. This effect disappeared, however, when pragmatic reasoning instructions were employed in a separate group. These findings are in accord with dual-process theories of reasoning. We also took detailed measures of beliefs in the conditional sentences used for the reasoning tasks. Statistical modelling showed that it is not belief in the conditional statement per se that is the causal factor, but rather correlates of it. Two different models of belief-based reasoning were found to fit the data according to the kind of instructions and the type of inference under consideration.

  2. Functional gene group analysis indicates no role for heterotrimeric G proteins in cognitive ability.

    PubMed

    Hill, W David; de Leeuw, Christiaan; Davies, Gail; Liewald, David Cherry McLachlan; Payton, Anthony; Craig, Leone C A; Whalley, Lawrence J; Horan, Mike; Ollier, William; Starr, John M; Pendleton, Neil; Posthuma, Danielle; Bates, Timothy C; Deary, Ian J

    2014-01-01

    Previous functional gene group analyses implicated common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in heterotrimeric G protein coding genes as being associated with differences in human intelligence. Here, we sought to replicate this finding using five independent cohorts of older adults including current IQ and childhood IQ, and using both gene- and SNP-based analytic strategies. No significant associations were found between variation in heterotrimeric G protein genes and intelligence in any cohort at either of the two time points. These results indicate that, whereas G protein systems are important in cognition, common genetic variation in these genes is unlikely to be a substantial influence on human intelligence differences. PMID:24626473

  3. The similarities and differences in impulsivity and cognitive ability among ketamine, methadone, and non-drug users.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Hong; Su, Dequan; Jiang, Xing; Zhu, Liang; Ye, Haosheng

    2016-09-30

    The study aimed to identify similarities and differences among ketamine, methadone users, and non-drug-using controls, on impulsivity, antisocial personality, and related cognitive abilities. A case-control observational design was used to compare the impulsivity and cognitive function of ketamine users (n = 51), methadone users (n=59), and controls (n=60). Antisocial personality traits and emotion states were also measured. One-way ANOVAs and planned post hoc pair-wise tests were used to analyze the data. Compared to non-drug-using controls, ketamine and methadone users had elevated scores on BIS and Pd scale of the MMPI, poorer performance on 2-back task, Stop-signal task, and Stroop test. Ketamine users performed the worst in the 2-back accuracy and Stop miss rate compared to methadone users and controls. There were no significant differences between the groups on the Iowa Gambling Task. Ketamine users did not show deficits in decision-making but exhibited strong impulsivity, antisocial personality, and poor response inhibition and working memory at levels similar to methadone users. These deficits may reflect vulnerability to addiction. This suggests that future treatment programs for ketamine users could address drug users' impulsive cognition and psychopathic deviance.

  4. Nxf7 deficiency impairs social exploration and spatio-cognitive abilities as well as hippocampal synaptic plasticity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Callaerts-Vegh, Zsuzsanna; Ahmed, Tariq; Vermaercke, Ben; Marynen, Peter; Balschun, Detlef; Froyen, Guy; D’Hooge, Rudi

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear RNA export factors (NXF) are conserved in all metazoans and are deemed essential for shuttling RNA across the nuclear envelope and other post-transcriptional processes (such as mRNA metabolism, storage and stability). Disruption of human NXF5 has been implicated in intellectual and psychosocial disabilities. In the present report, we use recently described Nxf7 knockout (KO) mice as an experimental model to analyze in detail the behavioral consequences of clinical NXF5 deficiency. We examined male Nxf7 KO mice using an extended cognitive and behavioral test battery, and recorded extracellular field potentials in the hippocampal CA1 region. We observed various cognitive and behavioral changes including alterations in social exploration, impaired spatial learning and spatio-cognitive abilities. We also defined a new experimental paradigm to discriminate search strategies in Morris water maze and showed significant differences between Nxf7 KO and control animals. Furthermore, while we observed no difference in a nose poke suppression in an conditioned emotional response (CER) protocol, Nxf7 KO mice were impaired in discriminating between differentially reinforced cues in an auditory fear conditioning protocol. This distinct neurocognitive phenotype was accompanied by impaired hippocampal Long-term potentiation (LTP), while long-term depression (LTD) was not affected by Nxf7 deficiency. Our data demonstrate that disruption of murine Nxf7 leads to behavioral phenotypes that may relate to the intellectual and social deficits in patients with NXF5 deficiency. PMID:26217206

  5. Nxf7 deficiency impairs social exploration and spatio-cognitive abilities as well as hippocampal synaptic plasticity in mice.

    PubMed

    Callaerts-Vegh, Zsuzsanna; Ahmed, Tariq; Vermaercke, Ben; Marynen, Peter; Balschun, Detlef; Froyen, Guy; D'Hooge, Rudi

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear RNA export factors (NXF) are conserved in all metazoans and are deemed essential for shuttling RNA across the nuclear envelope and other post-transcriptional processes (such as mRNA metabolism, storage and stability). Disruption of human NXF5 has been implicated in intellectual and psychosocial disabilities. In the present report, we use recently described Nxf7 knockout (KO) mice as an experimental model to analyze in detail the behavioral consequences of clinical NXF5 deficiency. We examined male Nxf7 KO mice using an extended cognitive and behavioral test battery, and recorded extracellular field potentials in the hippocampal CA1 region. We observed various cognitive and behavioral changes including alterations in social exploration, impaired spatial learning and spatio-cognitive abilities. We also defined a new experimental paradigm to discriminate search strategies in Morris water maze and showed significant differences between Nxf7 KO and control animals. Furthermore, while we observed no difference in a nose poke suppression in an conditioned emotional response (CER) protocol, Nxf7 KO mice were impaired in discriminating between differentially reinforced cues in an auditory fear conditioning protocol. This distinct neurocognitive phenotype was accompanied by impaired hippocampal Long-term potentiation (LTP), while long-term depression (LTD) was not affected by Nxf7 deficiency. Our data demonstrate that disruption of murine Nxf7 leads to behavioral phenotypes that may relate to the intellectual and social deficits in patients with NXF5 deficiency.

  6. The similarities and differences in impulsivity and cognitive ability among ketamine, methadone, and non-drug users.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Hong; Su, Dequan; Jiang, Xing; Zhu, Liang; Ye, Haosheng

    2016-09-30

    The study aimed to identify similarities and differences among ketamine, methadone users, and non-drug-using controls, on impulsivity, antisocial personality, and related cognitive abilities. A case-control observational design was used to compare the impulsivity and cognitive function of ketamine users (n = 51), methadone users (n=59), and controls (n=60). Antisocial personality traits and emotion states were also measured. One-way ANOVAs and planned post hoc pair-wise tests were used to analyze the data. Compared to non-drug-using controls, ketamine and methadone users had elevated scores on BIS and Pd scale of the MMPI, poorer performance on 2-back task, Stop-signal task, and Stroop test. Ketamine users performed the worst in the 2-back accuracy and Stop miss rate compared to methadone users and controls. There were no significant differences between the groups on the Iowa Gambling Task. Ketamine users did not show deficits in decision-making but exhibited strong impulsivity, antisocial personality, and poor response inhibition and working memory at levels similar to methadone users. These deficits may reflect vulnerability to addiction. This suggests that future treatment programs for ketamine users could address drug users' impulsive cognition and psychopathic deviance. PMID:27376671

  7. The roles of COMT val158met status and aviation expertise in flight simulator performance and cognitive ability.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Q; Taylor, J L; Noda, A; Adamson, M; Murphy, G M; Zeitzer, J M; Yesavage, J A

    2011-09-01

    The polymorphic variation in the val158met position of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is associated with differences in executive performance, processing speed, and attention. The purpose of this study is: (1) replicate previous COMT val158met findings on cognitive performance; (2) determine whether COMT val158met effects extend to a real-world task, aircraft navigation performance in a flight simulator; and (3) determine if aviation expertise moderates any effect of COMT val158met status on flight simulator performance. One hundred seventy two pilots aged 41-69 years, who varied in level of aviation training and experience, completed flight simulator, cognitive, and genetic assessments. Results indicate that although no COMT effect was found for an overall measure of flight performance, a positive effect of the met allele was detected for two aspects of cognitive ability: executive functioning and working memory performance. Pilots with the met/met genotype benefited more from increased levels of expertise than other participants on a traffic avoidance measure, which is a component of flight simulator performance. These preliminary results indicate that COMT val158met polymorphic variation can affect a real-world task.

  8. Autonomic arousal explains social cognitive abilities in high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Mathersul, Danielle; McDonald, Skye; Rushby, Jacqueline A

    2013-09-01

    Empirical research into behavioural profiles and autonomic responsivity in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) is highly variable and inconsistent. Two preliminary studies of children with ASDs suggest that there may be subgroups of ASDs depending on their resting arousal levels, and that these subgroups show different profiles of autonomic responsivity. The aim of the present study was to determine whether (i) adults with high-functioning ASDs may be separated into subgroups according to variation in resting arousal; and (ii) these ASD arousal subgroups differ in their behavioural profiles for basic emotion recognition, judgements of trustworthiness, and cognitive and affective empathy. Thirty high-functioning adults with ASDs and 34 non-clinical controls participated. Resting arousal was determined as the average skin conductance (SCL) across a 2 min resting period. There was a subgroup of ASD adults with significantly lower resting SCL. These individuals demonstrated poorer emotion recognition, tended to judge faces more negatively, and had atypical relationships between SCL and affective empathy. In contrast, low cognitive empathy was a feature of all ASD adults. These findings have important implications for clinical interventions and future studies investigating autonomic functioning in ASDs.

  9. The virtual brain: 30 years of video-game play and cognitive abilities.

    PubMed

    Latham, Andrew J; Patston, Lucy L M; Tippett, Lynette J

    2013-09-13

    Forty years have passed since video-games were first made widely available to the public and subsequently playing games has become a favorite past-time for many. Players continuously engage with dynamic visual displays with success contingent on the time-pressured deployment, and flexible allocation, of attention as well as precise bimanual movements. Evidence to date suggests that both brief and extensive exposure to video-game play can result in a broad range of enhancements to various cognitive faculties that generalize beyond the original context. Despite promise, video-game research is host to a number of methodological issues that require addressing before progress can be made in this area. Here an effort is made to consolidate the past 30 years of literature examining the effects of video-game play on cognitive faculties and, more recently, neural systems. Future work is required to identify the mechanism that allows the act of video-game play to generate such a broad range of generalized enhancements.

  10. The virtual brain: 30 years of video-game play and cognitive abilities

    PubMed Central

    Latham, Andrew J.; Patston, Lucy L. M.; Tippett, Lynette J.

    2013-01-01

    Forty years have passed since video-games were first made widely available to the public and subsequently playing games has become a favorite past-time for many. Players continuously engage with dynamic visual displays with success contingent on the time-pressured deployment, and flexible allocation, of attention as well as precise bimanual movements. Evidence to date suggests that both brief and extensive exposure to video-game play can result in a broad range of enhancements to various cognitive faculties that generalize beyond the original context. Despite promise, video-game research is host to a number of methodological issues that require addressing before progress can be made in this area. Here an effort is made to consolidate the past 30 years of literature examining the effects of video-game play on cognitive faculties and, more recently, neural systems. Future work is required to identify the mechanism that allows the act of video-game play to generate such a broad range of generalized enhancements. PMID:24062712

  11. Emotional Experiences during Test Taking: Does Cognitive Ability Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Thomas; Preckel, Franzis; Pekrun, Reinhard; Hall, Nathan C.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined test-related experiences of enjoyment, anger, anxiety, and boredom in a sample of 2059 German school students (50% female) from grade 6, and how they relate to students' abstract reasoning ability (ARA). Emotions were assessed immediately before, during, and after a mathematics achievement test. Analysis of variance showed that…

  12. Effects of Segmented Animated Graphics among Students of Different Spatial Ability Levels: A Cognitive Load Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Soon Fook

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of segmented animated graphics utilized to facilitate learning of electrolysis of aqueous solution. A total of 171 Secondary Four chemistry students with two different spatial ability levels were randomly assigned to one of the experimental conditions: (a) text with multiple static graphics (MSG), (b) text with…

  13. Lipreading in School-Age Children: The Roles of Age, Hearing Status, and Cognitive Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tye-Murray, Nancy; Hale, Sandra; Spehar, Brent; Myerson, Joel; Sommers, Mitchell S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The study addressed three research questions: Does lipreading improve between the ages of 7 and 14 years? Does hearing loss affect the development of lipreading? How do individual differences in lipreading relate to other abilities? Method: Forty children with normal hearing (NH) and 24 with hearing loss (HL) were tested using 4…

  14. An Investigation of Mathematically Promising Students' Cognitive Abilities and Their Contributions to Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budak, Ibrahim; Kaygin, Bulent

    2015-01-01

    In this study, through the observation of mathematically promising students in regular classrooms, relevant learning environments and the learning needs of promising students, teacher approaches and teaching methods, and the differences between the promising students and their normal ability peers in the same classroom were investigated.…

  15. Developmental Patterns of Static Balance Ability and Their Relation to Cognitive School Readiness. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohen-Raz, Reuven

    To assess static balance ability in children 239 subjects (ages 5 to 9) were tested using a technique of electronic ataxiametry. Body weight displacement was measured for various postures. The scores correlated significantly with teacher's evaluation of school preparedness, basic math skills, and reading achievement in samples of normal children.…

  16. Cognitive abilities underlying second-language vocabulary acquisition in an early second-language immersion education context: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Nicolay, Anne-Catherine; Poncelet, Martine

    2013-08-01

    First-language (L1) and second-language (L2) lexical development has been found to be strongly associated with phonological processing abilities such as phonological short-term memory (STM), phonological awareness, and speech perception. Lexical development also seems to be linked to attentional and executive skills such as auditory attention, flexibility, and response inhibition. The aim of this four-wave longitudinal study was to determine to what extent L2 vocabulary acquired through the particular school context of early L2 immersion education is linked to the same cognitive abilities. A total of 61 French-speaking 5-year-old kindergartners who had just been enrolled in English immersion classes were administered a battery of tasks assessing these three phonological processing abilities and three attentional/executive skills. Their English vocabulary knowledge was measured 1, 2, and 3 school years later. Multiple regression analyses showed that, among the assessed phonological processing abilities, phonological STM and speech perception, but not phonological awareness, appeared to underlie L2 vocabulary acquisition in this context of an early L2 immersion school program, at least during the first steps of acquisition. Similarly, among the assessed attentional/executive skills, auditory attention and flexibility, but not response inhibition, appeared to be involved during the first steps of L2 vocabulary acquisition in such an immersion school context.

  17. Improving Cognitive Abilities and e-Inclusion in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinengo, Chiara; Curatelli, Francesco

    Besides overcoming the motor barriers for accessing to computers and Internet, ICT tools can provide a very useful, and often necessary, support for the cognitive development of motor-impaired children with cerebral palsy. In fact, software tools for computation and communication allow teachers to put into effect, in a more complete and efficient way, the learning methods and the educational plans studied for the child. In the present article, after a brief analysis of the general objectives to be pursued for favouring the learning for children with cerebral palsy, we take account of some specific difficulties in the logical-linguistic and logical-mathematical fields, and we show how they can be overcome using general ICT tools and specifically implemented software programs.

  18. The Gambler’s Fallacy Is Associated with Weak Affective Decision Making but Strong Cognitive Ability

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Gui; He, Qinghua; Lei, Xuemei; Chen, Chunhui; Liu, Yuyun; Chen, Chuansheng; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Dong, Qi; Bechara, Antoine

    2012-01-01

    Humans demonstrate an inherent bias towards making maladaptive decisions, as shown by a phenomenon known as the gambler’s fallacy (GF). The GF has been traditionally considered as a heuristic bias supported by the fast and automatic intuition system, which can be overcome by the reasoning system. The present study examined an intriguing hypothesis, based on emerging evidence from neuroscience research, that the GF might be attributed to a weak affective but strong cognitive decision making mechanism. With data from a large sample of college students, we found that individuals’ use of the GF strategy was positively correlated with their general intelligence and executive function, such as working memory and conflict resolution, but negatively correlated with their affective decision making capacities, as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task. Our result provides a novel insight into the mechanisms underlying the GF, which highlights the significant role of affective mechanisms in adaptive decision-making. PMID:23071701

  19. Does human cognition allow Human Factors (HF) certification of advanced aircrew systems?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macleod, Iain S.; Taylor, Robert M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper has examined the requirements of HF specification and certification within advanced or complex aircrew systems. It suggests reasons for current inadequacies in the use of HF in the design process, giving some examples in support, and suggesting an avenue towards the improvement of the HF certification process. The importance of human cognition to the operation and performance of advanced aircrew systems has been stressed. Many of the shortfalls of advanced aircrew systems must be attributed to over automated designs that show little consideration on either the mental limits or the cognitive capabilities of the human system component. Traditional approaches to system design and HF certification are set within an over physicalistic foundation. Also, traditionally it was assumed that physicalistic system functions could be attributed to either the human or the machine on a one to one basis. Moreover, any problems associated with the parallel needs, or promoting human understanding alongside system operation and direction, were generally equated in reality by the natural flexibility and adaptability of human skills. The consideration of the human component of a complex system is seen as being primarily based on manifestations of human behavior to the almost total exclusion of any appreciation of unobservable human mental and cognitive processes. The argument of this paper is that the considered functionality of any complex human-machine system must contain functions that are purely human and purely cognitive. Human-machine system reliability ultimately depends on human reliability and dependability and, therefore, on the form and frequency of cognitive processes that have to be conducted to support system performance. The greater the demand placed by an advanced aircraft system on the human component's basic knowledge processes or cognition, rather than on skill, the more insiduous the effects the human may have on that system. This paper discusses one

  20. Associations between cognitive abilities and life satisfaction in the oldest-old. Results from the longitudinal population study Good Aging in Skåne

    PubMed Central

    Enkvist, Åsa; Ekström, Henrik; Elmståhl, Sölve

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Studies on the associations between cognitive abilities and life satisfaction (LS) in the oldest-old are few. The aim of this study was to explore whether abilities in six different cognitive domains could predict LS in the oldest-old 3 years later. Methods The study population consisted of 681 individuals aged 78–98 years, drawn from the longitudinal population study “Good Aging in Skåne,” which is part of a national survey (The Swedish National Study on Aging and Care). Scores on 13 cognitive tests were related to scores on Neugartens’ LS index A (LSI-A) 3 years later. The cognitive tests were added into six different cognitive domains. A multiple regression analysis was constructed for each cognitive domain separately, with scores on the LSI-A as the dependent variable. The model was adjusted stepwise for sex, age, education, functional capacity, and depressive mood. Results Significant correlations were found between digit cancellation, word recall, verbal fluency (VF) A, VF animals, VF occupations, and mental rotations at baseline, as well as LSI-A at follow-up. The domains of spatial abilities (B = 0.453, P = 0.014) and processing speed (B = 0.118, P = 0.020) remained significantly associated with LSI-A 3 years later after adjustment. Conclusion The cognitive domains of spatial abilities and processing speed predicted LS 3 years later in the oldest-old. Clinical implications are discussed. PMID:23874091

  1. Predicting Children's Reading and Mathematics Achievement from Early Quantitative Knowledge and Domain-General Cognitive Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Felicia W.; vanMarle, Kristy; Geary, David C.

    2016-01-01

    One hundred children (44 boys) participated in a 3-year longitudinal study of the development of basic quantitative competencies and the relation between these competencies and later mathematics and reading achievement. The children's preliteracy knowledge, intelligence, executive functions, and parental educational background were also assessed. The quantitative tasks assessed a broad range of symbolic and nonsymbolic knowledge and were administered four times across 2 years of preschool. Mathematics achievement was assessed at the end of each of 2 years of preschool, and mathematics and word reading achievement were assessed at the end of kindergarten. Our goals were to determine how domain-general abilities contribute to growth in children's quantitative knowledge and to determine how domain-general and domain-specific abilities contribute to children's preschool mathematics achievement and kindergarten mathematics and reading achievement. We first identified four core quantitative competencies (e.g., knowledge of the cardinal value of number words) that predict later mathematics achievement. The domain-general abilities were then used to predict growth in these competencies across 2 years of preschool, and the combination of domain-general abilities, preliteracy skills, and core quantitative competencies were used to predict mathematics achievement across preschool and mathematics and word reading achievement at the end of kindergarten. Both intelligence and executive functions predicted growth in the four quantitative competencies, especially across the first year of preschool. A combination of domain-general and domain-specific competencies predicted preschoolers' mathematics achievement, with a trend for domain-specific skills to be more strongly related to achievement at the beginning of preschool than at the end of preschool. Preschool preliteracy skills, sensitivity to the relative quantities of collections of objects, and cardinal knowledge predicted

  2. Predicting Children's Reading and Mathematics Achievement from Early Quantitative Knowledge and Domain-General Cognitive Abilities.

    PubMed

    Chu, Felicia W; vanMarle, Kristy; Geary, David C

    2016-01-01

    One hundred children (44 boys) participated in a 3-year longitudinal study of the development of basic quantitative competencies and the relation between these competencies and later mathematics and reading achievement. The children's preliteracy knowledge, intelligence, executive functions, and parental educational background were also assessed. The quantitative tasks assessed a broad range of symbolic and nonsymbolic knowledge and were administered four times across 2 years of preschool. Mathematics achievement was assessed at the end of each of 2 years of preschool, and mathematics and word reading achievement were assessed at the end of kindergarten. Our goals were to determine how domain-general abilities contribute to growth in children's quantitative knowledge and to determine how domain-general and domain-specific abilities contribute to children's preschool mathematics achievement and kindergarten mathematics and reading achievement. We first identified four core quantitative competencies (e.g., knowledge of the cardinal value of number words) that predict later mathematics achievement. The domain-general abilities were then used to predict growth in these competencies across 2 years of preschool, and the combination of domain-general abilities, preliteracy skills, and core quantitative competencies were used to predict mathematics achievement across preschool and mathematics and word reading achievement at the end of kindergarten. Both intelligence and executive functions predicted growth in the four quantitative competencies, especially across the first year of preschool. A combination of domain-general and domain-specific competencies predicted preschoolers' mathematics achievement, with a trend for domain-specific skills to be more strongly related to achievement at the beginning of preschool than at the end of preschool. Preschool preliteracy skills, sensitivity to the relative quantities of collections of objects, and cardinal knowledge predicted

  3. Predicting Children's Reading and Mathematics Achievement from Early Quantitative Knowledge and Domain-General Cognitive Abilities.

    PubMed

    Chu, Felicia W; vanMarle, Kristy; Geary, David C

    2016-01-01

    One hundred children (44 boys) participated in a 3-year longitudinal study of the development of basic quantitative competencies and the relation between these competencies and later mathematics and reading achievement. The children's preliteracy knowledge, intelligence, executive functions, and parental educational background were also assessed. The quantitative tasks assessed a broad range of symbolic and nonsymbolic knowledge and were administered four times across 2 years of preschool. Mathematics achievement was assessed at the end of each of 2 years of preschool, and mathematics and word reading achievement were assessed at the end of kindergarten. Our goals were to determine how domain-general abilities contribute to growth in children's quantitative knowledge and to determine how domain-general and domain-specific abilities contribute to children's preschool mathematics achievement and kindergarten mathematics and reading achievement. We first identified four core quantitative competencies (e.g., knowledge of the cardinal value of number words) that predict later mathematics achievement. The domain-general abilities were then used to predict growth in these competencies across 2 years of preschool, and the combination of domain-general abilities, preliteracy skills, and core quantitative competencies were used to predict mathematics achievement across preschool and mathematics and word reading achievement at the end of kindergarten. Both intelligence and executive functions predicted growth in the four quantitative competencies, especially across the first year of preschool. A combination of domain-general and domain-specific competencies predicted preschoolers' mathematics achievement, with a trend for domain-specific skills to be more strongly related to achievement at the beginning of preschool than at the end of preschool. Preschool preliteracy skills, sensitivity to the relative quantities of collections of objects, and cardinal knowledge predicted

  4. A Twin Study of the Genetics of High Cognitive Ability Selected from 11,000 Twin Pairs in Six Studies from Four Countries

    PubMed Central

    Haworth, Claire M.A.; Wright, Margaret J.; Martin, Nicolas W.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Boomsma, Dorret I; Bartels, Meike; Posthuma, Danielle; Davis, Oliver S.P.; Brant, Angela M.; Corley, Robin P.; Hewitt, John K.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matthew; Thompson, Lee A.; Hart, Sara A.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Lubinski, David; Plomin, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Although much genetic research has addressed normal variation in intelligence, little is known about the etiology of high cognitive abilities. Using data from 11,000 twin pairs (age range = 6 – 71 years) from the Genetics of High Cognitive Abilities (GHCA) Consortium, we investigated the genetic and environmental etiologies of high general cognitive ability (g). Age-appropriate psychometric cognitive tests were administered to the twins and used to create g scores standardized within each study. Liability-threshold model fitting was used to estimate genetic and environmental parameters for the top 15% of the distribution of g. Genetic influence for high g was substantial (0.50, with a 95% confidence interval of 0.41 – 0.60). Shared environmental influences were moderate (0.28, 0.19 – 0.37). We conclude that genetic variation contributes substantially to high g in Australia, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the United States. PMID:19381794

  5. Test Review: Schrank, F. A., McGrew, K. S., & Mather, N. (2014). Woodcock-Johnson IV Tests of Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Matthew R.; Niileksela, Christopher R.

    2015-01-01

    "The Woodcock-Johnson IV Tests of Cognitive Abilities" (WJ IV COG) is an individually administered measure of psychometric intellectual abilities designed for ages 2 to 90+. The measure was published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt-Riverside in 2014. Frederick Shrank, Kevin McGrew, and Nancy Mather are the authors. Richard Woodcock, the…

  6. Relationship between Reading/Writing Skills and Cognitive Abilities among Japanese Primary-School Children: Normal Readers versus Poor Readers (Dyslexics)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uno, Akira; Wydell, Taeko N.; Haruhara, Noriko; Kaneko, Masato; Shinya, Naoko

    2009-01-01

    Four hundred and ninety-five Japanese primary-school children aged from 8 (Grade-2) to 12 (Grade-6) were tested for their abilities to read/write in Hiragana, Katakana, and Kanji, for their size of vocabulary and for other cognitive abilities including arithmetic, visuo-spatial and phonological processing. Percentages of the children whose…

  7. Correlations among measures of cognitive ability, creativity, and academic achievement for gifted minority children.

    PubMed

    Esquivel, G B; Lopez, E

    1988-10-01

    This study explored the correlations among nonverbal reasoning ability, creativity, and academic achievement in gifted minority children, 89 girls and 71 boys in Grades 1 through 8 in a program for gifted. A random half of students from all grade levels were tested at the beginning of the year and the remaining half after 7 mo. with Raven Progressive Matrices, Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking, and the California Achievement Test. Pearson correlations reflected limited relations among these variables except for a significant positive value between creativity and reading achievement. Suggestions for further study and implications for identification procedures and program development were provided.

  8. Mental State Inferences Abilities Contribution to Verbal Irony Comprehension in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Gaudreau, G.; Monetta, L.; Macoir, J.; Poulin, S.; Laforce, R. Jr.; Hudon, C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The present study examined mentalizing capacities as well as the relative implication of mentalizing in the comprehension of ironic and sincere assertions among 30 older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 30 healthy control (HC) subjects. Method. Subjects were administered a task evaluating mentalizing by means of short stories. A verbal irony comprehension task, in which participants had to identify ironic or sincere statements within short stories, was also administered; the design of the task allowed uniform implication of mentalizing across the conditions. Results. Findings indicated that participants with MCI have second-order mentalizing difficulties compared to HC subjects. Moreover, MCI participants were impaired compared to the HC group in identifying ironic or sincere stories, both requiring mental inference capacities. Conclusion. This study suggests that, in individuals with MCI, difficulties in the comprehension of ironic and sincere assertions are closely related to second-order mentalizing deficits. These findings support previous data suggesting a strong relationship between irony comprehension and mentalizing. PMID:26199459

  9. Cognitive Abilities in Malawi Cichlids (Pseudotropheus sp.): Matching-to-Sample and Image/Mirror-Image Discriminations

    PubMed Central

    Gierszewski, Stefanie; Bleckmann, Horst; Schluessel, Vera

    2013-01-01

    The ability to recognize and distinguish between visual stimuli is fundamental for everyday survival of many species. While diverse aspects of cognition, including complex visual discrimination tasks were previously successfully assessed in fish, it remains unknown if fish can learn a matching-to-sample concept using geometrical shapes and discriminate between images and their mirror-image counterparts. For this purpose a total of nine Malawi cichlids (Pseudotropheus sp.) were trained in two matching-to-sample (MTS) and three two-choice discrimination tasks using geometrical, two-dimensional visual stimuli. Two out of the three discrimination experiments focused on the ability to discriminate between images and their mirror-images, the last was a general discrimination test. All fish showed quick associative learning but were unable to perform successfully in a simultaneous MTS procedure within a period of 40 sessions. Three out of eight fish learned to distinguish between an image and its mirror-image when reflected vertically; however none of the fish mastered the task when the stimulus was reflected horizontally. These results suggest a better discrimination ability of vertical compared to horizontal mirror-images, an observation that is widespread in literature on mirror-image discrimination in animals. All fish performed well in the general visual discrimination task, thereby supporting previous results obtained for this species. PMID:23437376

  10. Change in Trauma Narratives and Perceived Recall Ability over a Course of Cognitive Processing Therapy for PTSD

    PubMed Central

    Mott, Juliette M.; Galovski, Tara E.; Walsh, Ryan M.; Elwood, Lisa S.

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate changes in written trauma narratives completed during a course of Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT). Participants were 22 female survivors of interpersonal assault who represented a subset of participants from two larger CPT treatment trials. Participants completed two written trauma narratives over the course of treatment. We predicted that narratives would increase in length and peritraumatic detail, and that participants would perceive an increase in their recall ability for important aspects of the trauma. Although narrative length and amount of peritraumatic detail did not change significantly from first to final narrative, participants evidenced changes in the content of the peritraumatic details. Patients commonly omitted assaultive acts from one of their narratives. There was a greater degree of fluctuation within the reporting of sexual assaults, as compared to physical assaults, with 55% of participants reporting a forced sexual act in one narrative, but not the other. Participants did not report significant changes in perceived recall ability for the traumatic event after completing the narratives, but did report improvements in perceived recall from pre to posttreatment. Overall, findings indicate that clients included different details (but not more details) in their final narrative, and that perceived increases in recall ability may not be a typical experience for clients as they complete written narratives in the context of trauma treatment. PMID:26005396

  11. Cognitive style and the acquisition and transfer of the ability to control variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strawitz, Barbara M.

    This study examined the effects of an instructional procedure designed to teach both field-dependent and field-independent sixth graders to control variables and to transfer this ability to novel tasks. Students were randomly assigned to either a treatment group taught with a special instructional procedure adapted from Case or a group where students freely explored science equipment without receiving feedback. Three posttest tasks administered approximately four weeks after the last training session served as retention and transfer measures. Results indicated that students receiving the special instructional treatment correctly tested significantly more variables on the posttest tasks than did students in the other group. Within-group analyses revealed that the special treatment was effective for field-dependent as well as field-independent students, while the other treatment was effective for only field-independent students.

  12. Clinical advances in geriatric psychiatry: a focus on prevention of mood and cognitive disorders

    PubMed Central

    Eyre, Harris; Baune, Bernhard; Lavretsky, Helen

    2015-01-01

    The world’s population is ageing in the 21st century at a rate unprecedented in human history, and this will place substantial pressure on health systems across the world along with concurrent rises in chronic diseases. In particular, rates of cognitive disorders and late-life affective disorders are expected to rise. In correlation with ageing, there are robust predictions suggesting rates of age-related cognitive decline and dementia, and geriatric depression, will rise with serious consequences. Clearly innovative prevention and treatment strategies are needed. Here we reviewed the latest promising clinical advances which hold promise for assisting the prevention and treatment of depression and cognitive decline and dementia. PMID:26300035

  13. Set-Shifting Ability Is Associated with Gray Matter Volume in Older People with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Makizako, Hyuma; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Doi, Takehiko; Suzuki, Takao

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims An understanding of the association between gray matter volume and executive functioning could provide strategies to reduce dementia risk in older people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods In a cross-sectional analysis, we assessed executive functioning in 83 older people with MCI using three standard neuropsychological tests: set shifting (difference between Trail Making Test Parts B and A), working memory (difference between Digit Span forward and backward from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV), and selective attention/response inhibition (difference between the second and third conditions of the color- and picture-word Stroop test). Gray matter volume was computed from brain MRIs and SIENAX from FSL software. Results Gray matter volume was significantly associated with set-shifting performance after accounting for age, gender, body mass index, education, and global cognition (standardized β = −0.376, p = 0.001), but not with working memory or selective attention/response inhibition. Conclusion The executive function of set-shifting ability was correlated with gray matter volume in older people with MCI. PMID:26628898

  14. Idiom, Syntax, and Advanced Theory of Mind Abilities in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whyte, Elisabeth M.; Nelson, Keith E.; Scherf, K. Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: When researchers investigate figurative language abilities (including idioms) in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), syntax abilities may be more important than once considered. In addition, there are limitations to the overreliance on false-belief tasks to measure theory of mind (TOM) abilities. In the current study, the…

  15. The reliability and validity of the Danish Draft Board Cognitive Ability Test: Børge Prien's Prøve.

    PubMed

    Teasdale, Thomas W; Hartmann, Peter V W; Pedersen, Christoffer H; Bertelsen, Mette

    2011-04-01

    The Danish Draft Board has used the same test for assessing general cognitive ability, the Børge Prien's Prøve (BPP), for over 50 years during which time all men on reaching the age of 18 become liable for conscription. Data from the test has, over the decades, been used in numerous and wide-ranging research studies. Nonetheless, owing to the special circumstances of its administration, some psychometric properties, which are generally assessed for psychological tests, have not previously been investigated for the BPP. First, since the test is only used at the assessment phase, retesting with the BPP occurs only rarely and under exceptional circumstances. Therefore, its Test-Retest reliability has hitherto not been documented. Second, questions have often been raised as to whether the validity of the BPP is undermined by either a lack of motivation and under-performing among some of the men taking the test, being, as they are, compelled to do so, and/or by gradual obsolescence of the test over the decades of its use. We here present findings from three new studies to show that (a) the BPP has a satisfactory Test-Retest reliability, r=0.77, (b) BPP test scores are not positively associated with expressed attitude to being called upon to serve conscription and (c) the correlation between the BPP and a measure of educational level has remained stable (at about 0.5) through the last two decades. Taken together these three findings further support the continuing value of the BPP in research relating to cognitive ability. PMID:21198650

  16. Age-related differences in gap detection: Effects of task difficulty and cognitive ability

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Kelly C.; Eckert, Mark A.; Ahlstrom, Jayne B.; Dubno, Judy R.

    2009-01-01

    Differences in gap detection for younger and older adults have been shown to vary with the complexity of the task or stimuli, but the factors that contribute to these differences remain unknown. To address this question, we examined the extent to which age-related differences in processing speed and workload predicted age-related differences in gap detection. Gap detection thresholds were measured for 10 younger and 11 older adults in two conditions that varied in task complexity but used identical stimuli: (1) gap location fixed at the beginning, middle, or end of a noise burst and (2) gap location varied randomly from trial to trial from the beginning, middle, or end of the noise. We hypothesized that gap location uncertainty would place increased demands on cognitive and attentional resources and result in significantly higher gap detection thresholds for older but not younger adults. Overall, gap detection thresholds were lower for the middle location as compared to beginning and end locations and were lower for the fixed than the random condition. In general, larger age-related differences in gap detection were observed for more challenging conditions. That is, gap detection thresholds for older adults were significantly larger for the random condition than for the fixed condition when the gap was at the beginning and end locations but not the middle. In contrast, gap detection thresholds for younger adults were not significantly different for the random and fixed condition at any location. Subjective ratings of workload indicated that older adults found the gap-detection task more mentally demanding than younger adults. Consistent with these findings, results of the Purdue Pegboard and Connections tests revealed age-related slowing of processing speed. Moreover, age group differences in workload and processing speed predicted gap detection in younger and older adults when gap location varied from trial to trial; these associations were not observed when gap

  17. Human's Cognitive Ability to Assess Facial Cues from Photographs: A Study of Sexual Selection in the Bolivian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Undurraga, Eduardo A.; Eisenberg, Dan T. A.; Magvanjav, Oyunbileg; Wang, Ruoxue; Leonard, William R.; McDade, Thomas W.; Reyes-García, Victoria; Nyberg, Colleen; Tanner, Susan; Huanca, Tomás; Godoy, Ricardo A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Evolutionary theory suggests that natural selection favors the evolution of cognitive abilities which allow humans to use facial cues to assess traits of others. The use of facial and somatic cues by humans has been studied mainly in western industrialized countries, leaving unanswered whether results are valid across cultures. Methodology/Principal Findings Our objectives were to test (i) if previous finding about raters' ability to get accurate information about an individual by looking at his facial photograph held in low-income non western rural societies and (ii) whether women and men differ in this ability. To answer the questions we did a study during July-August 2007 among the Tsimane', a native Amazonian society of foragers-farmers in Bolivia. We asked 40 females and 40 males 16–25 years of age to rate four traits in 93 facial photographs of other Tsimane' males. The four traits were based on sexual selection theory, and included health, dominance, knowledge, and sociability. The rating scale for each trait ranged from one (least) to four (most). The average rating for each trait was calculated for each individual in the photograph and regressed against objective measures of the trait from the person in the photograph. We found that (i) female Tsimane' raters were able to assess facial cues related to health, dominance, and knowledge and (ii) male Tsimane' raters were able to assess facial cues related to dominance, knowledge, and sociability. Conclusions/Significance Our results support the existence of a human ability to identify objective traits from facial cues, as suggested by evolutionary theory. PMID:20543956

  18. Survey of Expert Opinion on Intelligence: Causes of International Differences in Cognitive Ability Tests

    PubMed Central

    Rindermann, Heiner; Becker, David; Coyle, Thomas R.

    2016-01-01

    Following Snyderman and Rothman (1987, 1988), we surveyed expert opinions on the current state of intelligence research. This report examines expert opinions on causes of international differences in student assessment and psychometric IQ test results. Experts were surveyed about the importance of culture, genes, education (quantity and quality), wealth, health, geography, climate, politics, modernization, sampling error, test knowledge, discrimination, test bias, and migration. The importance of these factors was evaluated for diverse countries, regions, and groups including Finland, East Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, Southern Europe, the Arabian-Muslim world, Latin America, Israel, Jews in the West, Roma (gypsies), and Muslim immigrants. Education was rated by N = 71 experts as the most important cause of international ability differences. Genes were rated as the second most relevant factor but also had the highest variability in ratings. Culture, health, wealth, modernization, and politics were the next most important factors, whereas other factors such as geography, climate, test bias, and sampling error were less important. The paper concludes with a discussion of limitations of the survey (e.g., response rates and validity of expert opinions). PMID:27047425

  19. Differentiating Instruction for Advanced Learners in the Mixed-Ability Middle School Classroom. ERIC Digest E536.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Carol Ann

    This brief paper summarizes guidelines for adapting instruction for advanced learners in inclusive, mixed-ability middle school classrooms. A rationale for differentiating instruction is followed by consideration of what differentiation is and is not. Characteristics of a differentiated class are enumerated, including: instruction is concept…

  20. The association of physical activity, cognitive processes and automobile driving ability in older adults: A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Miller, Sally M; Taylor-Piliae, Ruth E; Insel, Kathleen C

    2016-01-01

    As the number of older adults in the United States grows, the number of automobile drivers over the age of 65 will also increase. Several cognitive processes necessary for automobile driving are vulnerable to age-related decline. These include declines in executive function, working memory, attention, and speed of information processing. The benefits of physical activity on physical, psychological and particular cognitive processes are well-documented; however few studies have explored the relationship between physical activity and driving ability in older adults or examined if cognitive processes mediate (or moderate) the effect of physical activity on driving ability. The purpose of this paper is to review the existing literature regarding physical activity, cognition and automobile driving. Recommendations for further research and utility of the findings to nursing and the health care team are provided. PMID:27260109

  1. The association of physical activity, cognitive processes and automobile driving ability in older adults: A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Miller, Sally M; Taylor-Piliae, Ruth E; Insel, Kathleen C

    2016-01-01

    As the number of older adults in the United States grows, the number of automobile drivers over the age of 65 will also increase. Several cognitive processes necessary for automobile driving are vulnerable to age-related decline. These include declines in executive function, working memory, attention, and speed of information processing. The benefits of physical activity on physical, psychological and particular cognitive processes are well-documented; however few studies have explored the relationship between physical activity and driving ability in older adults or examined if cognitive processes mediate (or moderate) the effect of physical activity on driving ability. The purpose of this paper is to review the existing literature regarding physical activity, cognition and automobile driving. Recommendations for further research and utility of the findings to nursing and the health care team are provided.

  2. A role for HLA-DRB1*1101 and DRB1*0801 in cognitive ability and its decline with age.

    PubMed

    Payton, Antony; Dawes, Piers; Platt, Hazel; Morton, Cynthia C; Moore, David R; Massey, Jonathan; Horan, Michael; Ollier, William; Munro, Kevin J; Pendleton, Neil

    2016-03-01

    Cognitive abilities (memory, processing speed, vocabulary, and fluid intelligence) are correlated with educational attainment and occupational status, as well as physical and mental health. The variation in cognitive abilities observed within a population has a substantial genetic contribution (heritability ∼50%) and yet the identification of genetic polymorphisms from both genome-wide association and candidate studies have to date only uncovered a limited number of genetic variants that exert small genetic effects. Here we impute human leukocyte antigens (HLA) using existing genome-wide association data from 1,559 non-pathological elderly volunteers who have been followed for changes in cognitive functioning between a 12- and 18-year period. Specifically, we investigate DRB1*05 (*11/*12) and DRB1*01, which have previously been associated with cognitive ability. We also analyze DRB1*0801, which shares close sequence homology with DRB1*1101. Together with DRB1*1101, DRB1*0801 has been associated with several diseases including multiple sclerosis and primary biliary cirrhosis, which themselves are associated with cognitive impairment. We observed that both DRB1*0801 and DRB1*1101 were significantly associated with vocabulary ability (cross-sectional and longitudinal scores) and that the effects were in opposite directions with DRB1*0801 associated with lower score and faster decline. This opposing affect is similar to that reported by other groups in systemic lupus erythematosus, type 1 diabetes, and primary biliary cirrhosis. DRB1*0801 was also significantly associated with reduced memory ability. We observed no associations between cognitive abilities and DRB1*01 or DRB1*12. PMID:26473500

  3. Beyond age and gender: Relationships between cortical and subcortical brain volume and cognitive-motor abilities in school-age children

    PubMed Central

    Pangelinan, Melissa M.; Zhang, Guangyu; VanMeter, John W.; Clark, Jane E.; Hatfield, Bradley D.; Haufler, Amy J.

    2010-01-01

    There is growing evidence that cognitive and motor functions are interrelated and may rely on the development of the same cortical and subcortical neural structures. However, no study to date has examined the relationships between brain volume, cognitive ability, and motor ability in typically developing children. The NIH MRI Study of Normal Brain Development consists of a large, longitudinal database of structural MRI and performance measures from a battery of neuropsychological assessments from typically developing children. This dataset provides a unique opportunity to examine relationships between the brain and cognitive-motor abilities. A secondary analysis was conducted on data from 172 children between the ages of 6 to 13 years with up to 2 measurement occasions (initial testing and 2-year follow-up). Linear mixed effects modeling was employed to account for age and gender effects on the development of specific cortical and subcortical volumes as well as behavioral performance measures of interest. Above and beyond the effects of age and gender, significant relationships were found between general cognitive ability (IQ) and the volume of subcortical brain structures (cerebellum and caudate) as well as spatial working memory and the putamen. In addition, IQ was found to be related to global and frontal gray matter volume as well as parietal gray and white matter. At the behavioral level, general cognitive ability was also found to be related to visuomotor ability (pegboard) and executive function (spatial working memory). These results support the notion that cognition and motor skills may be fundamentally interrelated at both the levels of behavior and brain structure. PMID:21078402

  4. Impaired cognitive ability and anxiety-like behavior following acute seizures in the Theiler's virus model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Umpierre, Anthony D; Remigio, Gregory J; Dahle, E Jill; Bradford, Kate; Alex, Anitha B; Smith, Misty D; West, Peter J; White, H Steve; Wilcox, Karen S

    2014-04-01

    Viral infection of the CNS can result in encephalitis and acute seizures, increasing the risk for later-life epilepsy. We have previously characterized a novel animal model of temporal lobe epilepsy that recapitulates key sequela in the development of epilepsy following viral infection. C57BL/6J mice inoculated with the Daniel's strain of Theiler's Murine Encephalomyelitis Virus (TMEV; 3×10(5) PFU, i.c.) display acute limbic seizures that secondarily generalize. A majority of acutely seized animals develop spontaneous seizures weeks to months later. As part of our investigation, we sought to assess behavioral comorbidity following TMEV inoculation. Anxiety, depression, cognitive impairment, and certain psychoses are diagnosed in persons with epilepsy at rates far more frequent than in the general population. We used a battery of behavioral tests to assess anxiety, depression, cognitive impairment, and general health in acutely seized animals inoculated with TMEV and compared behavioral outcomes against age-matched controls receiving a sham injection. We determined that TMEV-seized animals are less likely to move through the exposed center of an open field and are less likely to enter into the lighted half of a light/dark box; both behaviors may be indicative of anxiety-like behavior. TMEV-seized animals also display early and persistent reductions in novel object exploration during novel object place tasks and do not improve in their ability to find a hidden escape platform in Morris water maze testing, indicative of impairment in episodic and spatial memory, respectively. Cresyl violet staining at 35 and 250 days after injection reveals bilateral reductions in hippocampal area, with extensive sclerosis of CA1 evident bilaterally along the rostral-caudal axis. Early and persistent behavioral changes in the TMEV model provide surrogate markers for assessing disease progression as well as endpoints in screening for the efficacy of novel compounds to manage both

  5. [Advances in the experimental analysis of behavior: issues of choice behavior, comparative cognition, and human language].

    PubMed

    Sakagami, T; Yamamoto, J; Jitsumori, M

    1994-12-01

    As the opportunity to contact with related areas has increased, the study of of the experimental analysis of behavior has experienced revolutionary changes. Some of the most active and important areas-studies of choice, comparative cognition, and human language--are reviewed to acquaint readers. Studies of CHOICE have linked to the molar theories of behavioral economics and behavioral ecology, which promoted research of choice by animals under uncertainty conditions. Further approach has been made to integrate the molar and molecular analyses on the basis of the ideas of behavior dynamics. COMPARATIVE COGNITION is a part of a larger field including cognitive science, behavioral neuroscience, and biological science. Recent developments, aided with a comparative perspective, made significant contributions to our understanding of the phylogeny and ontogeny of cognition. Advances in analysis of human behavior provided tools to study behavioral aspects of semantics, syntax, and pragmatics of HUMAN LANGUAGE. Using the paradigm of stimulus equivalence, the emergence of stimulus relations, stimulus-stimulus networks, hierarchical structure of verbal behavior, and other language-related behaviors have been investigated.

  6. Practice and New Development for Promotion of Engineering Design Ability in Advanced Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Seiji; Narisawa, Tetsuya; Iwabuchi, Yoshitaka; Ikeda, Yuichi

    Several years passed after advanced course had been set up National College of Technology. Kushiro National College of Technology advanced course entered fifth year in 2008. As for education of advanced course, the introduction of a progressive curriculum that acquires adaptability corresponding to the reformation in the age is needed to basic curriculum. This paper shows effectiveness of the proposed new design project based on finding problems to be solved through a reproducing the manuscript of Leonard de Vinci using 3D-CAD application, brainstorming and brainwriting method.

  7. Do early life cognitive ability and self-regulation skills explain socio-economic inequalities in academic achievement? An effect decomposition analysis in UK and Australian cohorts.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Anna; Sawyer, Alyssa C P; Chittleborough, Catherine R; Mittinty, Murthy N; Law, Catherine; Lynch, John W

    2016-09-01

    Socio-economic inequalities in academic achievement emerge early in life and are observed across the globe. Cognitive ability and "non-cognitive" attributes (such as self-regulation) are the focus of many early years' interventions. Despite this, little research has compared the contributions of early cognitive and self-regulation abilities as separate pathways to inequalities in academic achievement. We examined this in two nationally representative cohorts in the UK (Millennium Cohort Study, n = 11,168; 61% original cohort) and Australia (LSAC, n = 3028; 59% original cohort). An effect decomposition method was used to examine the pathways from socio-economic disadvantage (in infancy) to two academic outcomes: 'low' maths and literacy scores (based on bottom quintile) at age 7-9 years. Risk ratios (RRs, and bootstrap 95% confidence intervals) were estimated with binary regression for each pathway of interest: the 'direct effect' of socio-economic disadvantage on academic achievement (not acting through self-regulation and cognitive ability in early childhood), and the 'indirect effects' of socio-economic disadvantage acting via self-regulation and cognitive ability (separately). Analyses were adjusted for baseline and intermediate confounding. Children from less advantaged families were up to twice as likely to be in the lowest quintile of maths and literacy scores. Around two-thirds of this elevated risk was 'direct' and the majority of the remainder was mediated by early cognitive ability and not self-regulation. For example in LSAC: the RR for the direct pathway from socio-economic disadvantage to poor maths scores was 1.46 (95% CI: 1.17-1.79). The indirect effect of socio-economic disadvantage through cognitive ability (RR = 1.13 [1.06-1.22]) was larger than the indirect effect through self-regulation (1.05 [1.01-1.11]). Similar patterns were observed for both outcomes and in both cohorts. Policies to alleviate social inequality (e.g. child poverty

  8. The Science of Vascular Contributions to Cognitive Impairment and Dementia (VCID): A Framework for Advancing Research Priorities in the Cerebrovascular Biology of Cognitive Decline.

    PubMed

    Corriveau, Roderick A; Bosetti, Francesca; Emr, Marian; Gladman, Jordan T; Koenig, James I; Moy, Claudia S; Pahigiannis, Katherine; Waddy, Salina P; Koroshetz, Walter

    2016-03-01

    The World Health Organization reports that 47.5 million people are affected by dementia worldwide. With aging populations and 7.7 million new cases each year, the burden of illness due to dementia approaches crisis proportions. Despite significant advances in our understanding of the biology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the leading dementia diagnosis, the actual causes of dementia in affected individuals are unknown except for rare fully penetrant genetic forms. Evidence from epidemiology and pathology studies indicates that damage to the vascular system is associated with an increased risk of many types of dementia. Both Alzheimer's pathology and cerebrovascular disease increase with age. How AD affects small blood vessel function and how vascular dysfunction contributes to the molecular pathology of Alzheimer's are areas of intense research. The science of vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) integrates diverse aspects of biology and incorporates the roles of multiple cell types that support the function of neural tissue. Because of the proven ability to prevent and treat cardiovascular disease and hypertension with population benefits for heart and stroke outcomes, it is proposed that understanding and targeting the biological mechanisms of VCID can have a similarly positive impact on public health. PMID:27095366

  9. The Science of Vascular Contributions to Cognitive Impairment and Dementia (VCID): A Framework for Advancing Research Priorities in the Cerebrovascular Biology of Cognitive Decline.

    PubMed

    Corriveau, Roderick A; Bosetti, Francesca; Emr, Marian; Gladman, Jordan T; Koenig, James I; Moy, Claudia S; Pahigiannis, Katherine; Waddy, Salina P; Koroshetz, Walter

    2016-03-01

    The World Health Organization reports that 47.5 million people are affected by dementia worldwide. With aging populations and 7.7 million new cases each year, the burden of illness due to dementia approaches crisis proportions. Despite significant advances in our understanding of the biology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the leading dementia diagnosis, the actual causes of dementia in affected individuals are unknown except for rare fully penetrant genetic forms. Evidence from epidemiology and pathology studies indicates that damage to the vascular system is associated with an increased risk of many types of dementia. Both Alzheimer's pathology and cerebrovascular disease increase with age. How AD affects small blood vessel function and how vascular dysfunction contributes to the molecular pathology of Alzheimer's are areas of intense research. The science of vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) integrates diverse aspects of biology and incorporates the roles of multiple cell types that support the function of neural tissue. Because of the proven ability to prevent and treat cardiovascular disease and hypertension with population benefits for heart and stroke outcomes, it is proposed that understanding and targeting the biological mechanisms of VCID can have a similarly positive impact on public health.

  10. Computational methods to extract meaning from text and advance theories of human cognition.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Danielle S

    2011-01-01

    Over the past two decades, researchers have made great advances in the area of computational methods for extracting meaning from text. This research has to a large extent been spurred by the development of latent semantic analysis (LSA), a method for extracting and representing the meaning of words using statistical computations applied to large corpora of text. Since the advent of LSA, researchers have developed and tested alternative statistical methods designed to detect and analyze meaning in text corpora. This research exemplifies how statistical models of semantics play an important role in our understanding of cognition and contribute to the field of cognitive science. Importantly, these models afford large-scale representations of human knowledge and allow researchers to explore various questions regarding knowledge, discourse processing, text comprehension, and language. This topic includes the latest progress by the leading researchers in the endeavor to go beyond LSA.

  11. Computational methods to extract meaning from text and advance theories of human cognition.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Danielle S

    2011-01-01

    Over the past two decades, researchers have made great advances in the area of computational methods for extracting meaning from text. This research has to a large extent been spurred by the development of latent semantic analysis (LSA), a method for extracting and representing the meaning of words using statistical computations applied to large corpora of text. Since the advent of LSA, researchers have developed and tested alternative statistical methods designed to detect and analyze meaning in text corpora. This research exemplifies how statistical models of semantics play an important role in our understanding of cognition and contribute to the field of cognitive science. Importantly, these models afford large-scale representations of human knowledge and allow researchers to explore various questions regarding knowledge, discourse processing, text comprehension, and language. This topic includes the latest progress by the leading researchers in the endeavor to go beyond LSA. PMID:25164173

  12. The rehabilitation engineering research center for the advancement of cognitive technologies.

    PubMed

    Heyn, Patricia Cristine; Cassidy, Joy Lucille; Bodine, Cathy

    2015-02-01

    Barring few exceptions, allied health professionals, engineers, manufacturers of assistive technologies (ATs), and consumer product manufacturers have developed few technologies for individuals with cognitive impairments (CIs). In 2004, the National Institute on Disability Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR) recognized the need to support research in this emergent field. They funded the first Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center for the Advancement of Cognitive Technologies (RERC-ACT). The RERC-ACT has since designed and evaluated existing and emerging technologies through rigorous research, improving upon existing AT devices, and creating new technologies for individuals with CIs. The RERC-ACT has contributed to the development and testing of AT products that assist persons with CIs to actively engage in tasks of daily living at home, school, work, and in the community. This article highlights the RERC-ACT's engineering development and research projects and discusses how current research may impact the quality of life for an aging population.

  13. Early life cognitive abilities and body weight: cross-sectional study of the association of inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and sustained attention with BMI percentiles in primary school children.

    PubMed

    Wirt, Tamara; Schreiber, Anja; Kesztyüs, Dorothea; Steinacker, Jürgen M

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association of different cognitive abilities with children's body weight adjusted for further weight influencing sociodemographic, family, and lifestyle factors. Cross-sectional data of 498 primary school children (7.0 ± 0.6 years; 49.8% boys) participating in a health promotion programme in southwest Germany were used. Children performed a computer-based test battery (KiTAP) including an inhibitory control task (Go-Nogo paradigm), a cognitive flexibility task, and a sustained attention task. Height and weight were measured in a standardized manner and converted to BMI percentiles based on national standards. Sociodemographic features (migration background and parental education), family characteristics (parental body weight), and children's lifestyle (TV consumption, physical activity, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and breakfast habits) were assessed via parental questionnaire. A hierarchical regression analysis revealed inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility to be significant cognitive predictors for children's body weight. There was no association concerning sustained attention. The findings suggest that especially cognitive abilities known as executive functions (inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility) are associated with children's body weight. Future longitudinal and intervention studies are necessary to investigate the directionality of the association and the potential of integrating cognitive training in obesity prevention strategies. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov DRKS00000494. PMID:25874122

  14. Testing the hypothesis on cognitive evolution of modern humans' learning ability: current status of past-climatic approaches.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoneda, Minoru; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Kawahata, Hodaka; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Oguchi, Takashi

    2014-05-01

    The impact of climate change on human evolution is important and debating topic for many years. Since 2010, we have involved in a general joint project entitled "Replacement of Neanderthal by Modern Humans: Testing Evolutional Models of Learning", which based on a theoretical prediction that the cognitive ability related to individual and social learning divide fates of ancient humans in very unstable Late Pleistocene climate. This model predicts that the human populations which experienced a series of environmental changes would have higher rate of individual learners, while detailed reconstructions of global climate change have reported fluent and drastic change based on ice cores and stalagmites. However, we want to understand the difference between anatomically modern human which survived and the other archaic extinct humans including European Neanderthals and Asian Denisovans. For this purpose the global synchronized change is not useful for understanding but the regional difference in the amplitude and impact of climate change is the information required. Hence, we invited a geophysicist busing Global Circulation Model to reconstruct the climatic distribution and temporal change in a continental scale. At the same time, some geochemists and geographers construct a database of local climate changes recorded in different proxies. At last, archaeologists and anthropologists tried to interpret the emergence and disappearance of human species in Europe and Asia on the reconstructed past climate maps using some tools, such as Eco-cultural niche model. Our project will show the regional difference in climate change and related archaeological events and its impact on the evolution of learning ability of modern humans.

  15. The change of spatial cognition ability in depression rat model and the possible association with down-regulated protein expression of TRPC6.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ye; Liu, Chunhua; Qin, Xuan; Zhu, Minghui; Yang, Zhuo

    2015-11-01

    An increasing number of researches have focused on the cognitive changes in depression patients. Here, we observed impaired cognitive ability in a rat depression model along with down-regulated expression of canonical transient receptor potential 6 (TRPC6) protein. The cognitive defect could be rescued by treatment with hyperforin, which can invoke TRPC6 activation. This study was designed as following: rats were randomly divided into control, stressed and stressed+hyperforin groups. Chronic unpredictable stress combined with isolation rearing was applied on rats for three weeks, except for control group. Morris water maze was applied to evaluate spatial cognitive ability while long-term potentiation (LTP) was recorded to test the synaptic plasticity. Results showed that both spatial cognition and synaptic plasticity were impaired in stress group while improved after hyperforin treatment in stressed+hyperforin group, meanwhile, Western blot assay showed that TRPC6 expression was decreased in stressed group. The histological data also presented the decline of dendritic length, dendritic spine density and the number of excitatory synapses in stress group while they were increased in stressed+hyperforin group. These results suggest that there is a well potential of TRPC6 to become a new target for selecting promising new candidates as antidepressants with therapeutically effect on impaired cognition.

  16. The change of spatial cognition ability in depression rat model and the possible association with down-regulated protein expression of TRPC6.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ye; Liu, Chunhua; Qin, Xuan; Zhu, Minghui; Yang, Zhuo

    2015-11-01

    An increasing number of researches have focused on the cognitive changes in depression patients. Here, we observed impaired cognitive ability in a rat depression model along with down-regulated expression of canonical transient receptor potential 6 (TRPC6) protein. The cognitive defect could be rescued by treatment with hyperforin, which can invoke TRPC6 activation. This study was designed as following: rats were randomly divided into control, stressed and stressed+hyperforin groups. Chronic unpredictable stress combined with isolation rearing was applied on rats for three weeks, except for control group. Morris water maze was applied to evaluate spatial cognitive ability while long-term potentiation (LTP) was recorded to test the synaptic plasticity. Results showed that both spatial cognition and synaptic plasticity were impaired in stress group while improved after hyperforin treatment in stressed+hyperforin group, meanwhile, Western blot assay showed that TRPC6 expression was decreased in stressed group. The histological data also presented the decline of dendritic length, dendritic spine density and the number of excitatory synapses in stress group while they were increased in stressed+hyperforin group. These results suggest that there is a well potential of TRPC6 to become a new target for selecting promising new candidates as antidepressants with therapeutically effect on impaired cognition. PMID:26248296

  17. Cognitive procedural learning in amnesia.

    PubMed

    Schmidtke, K; Handschu, R; Vollmer, H

    1996-12-01

    This group study examined the role of residual declarative memory and task-specific cognitive abilities for cognitive procedural learning in amnesia. 20 amnesic patients and 40 control subjects were studied, using four new cognitive tasks, as well as the Tower of Hanoi and a Mirror Reading task. On the cognitive tasks, but not on Mirror Reading, the learning of amnesic patients was significantly impaired relative to controls. Between- and within-group differences in learning were found to be statistically related to cognitive abilities that are involved in the processing of the procedural tasks. In amnesic patients, significant effects of residual declarative memory on learning scores were not observed, but there was indirect evidence for a role of memory in two tasks. The analysis of the correlative relationship between absolute procedural task performances and cognitive abilities indicated a prolonged dependence on nonspecific intellectual abilities in amnesic patients, suggesting a retarded transition to more advanced stages of skill acquisition.

  18. Cognitive ability, parental socioeconomic position and internalising and externalising problems in adolescence: Findings from two European cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Araya, Ricardo; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether cognitive ability (CA) may be a moderator of the relationship of parental socioeconomic position (SEP) with internalising and externalising problems in adolescents. We used data from two longitudinal cohort studies; the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) and the Tracking Adolescents’ Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS). Indicators of SEP were mother’s education and household income. CA was estimated with IQ scores, derived from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Internalising and externalising problems were measured with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in ALSPAC and with the Child Behavior Checklist in TRAILS. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the relative index of inequality (RII) for each outcome; the RII provides the odds ratio comparing the most to least deprived for each measure of SEP. In fully adjusted models an association of mother’s education with externalising problems was observed [ALSPAC RII 1.42 (95%CI: 1.01–1.99); TRAILS RII 2.21 (95%CI: 1.37–3.54)], and of household income with internalising and externalising problems [pooled ALSPAC & TRAILS internalising RII 1.30 (95%CI: 0.99–1.71); pooled ALSPAC & TRAILS externalising RII 1.38 (95%CI: 1.03–1.84)]. No consistent associations were observed between mother’s education and internalising problems. Results of stratified analyses and interaction-terms showed no evidence that CA moderated the association of SEP with internalising or externalising problems. PMID:20535529

  19. Pharmacological cognitive enhancement-how neuroscientific research could advance ethical debate.

    PubMed

    Maslen, Hannah; Faulmüller, Nadira; Savulescu, Julian

    2014-01-01

    THERE ARE NUMEROUS WAYS PEOPLE CAN IMPROVE THEIR COGNITIVE CAPACITIES: good nutrition and regular exercise can produce long-term improvements across many cognitive domains, whilst commonplace stimulants such as coffee temporarily boost levels of alertness and concentration. Effects like these have been well-documented in the medical literature and they raise few (if any) ethical issues. More recently, however, clinical research has shown that the off-label use of some pharmaceuticals can, under certain conditions, have modest cognition-improving effects. Substances such as methylphenidate and modafinil can improve capacities such as working memory and concentration in some healthy individuals. Unlike their more mundane predecessors, these methods of "cognitive enhancement" are thought to raise a multitude of ethical issues. This paper presents the six principal ethical issues raised in relation to pharmacological cognitive enhancers (PCEs)-issues such as whether: (1) the medical safety-profile of PCEs justifies restricting or permitting their elective or required use; (2) the enhanced mind can be an "authentic" mind; (3) individuals might be coerced into using PCEs; (4), there is a meaningful distinction to be made between the treatment vs. enhancement effect of the same PCE; (5) unequal access to PCEs would have implications for distributive justice; and (6) PCE use constitutes cheating in competitive contexts. In reviewing the six principal issues, the paper discusses how neuroscientific research might help advance the ethical debate. In particular, the paper presents new arguments about the contribution neuroscience could make to debates about justice, fairness, and cheating, ultimately concluding that neuroscientific research into "personalized enhancement" will be essential if policy is to be truly informed and ethical. We propose an "ethical agenda" for neuroscientific research into PCEs.

  20. Pharmacological cognitive enhancement—how neuroscientific research could advance ethical debate

    PubMed Central

    Maslen, Hannah; Faulmüller, Nadira; Savulescu, Julian

    2014-01-01

    There are numerous ways people can improve their cognitive capacities: good nutrition and regular exercise can produce long-term improvements across many cognitive domains, whilst commonplace stimulants such as coffee temporarily boost levels of alertness and concentration. Effects like these have been well-documented in the medical literature and they raise few (if any) ethical issues. More recently, however, clinical research has shown that the off-label use of some pharmaceuticals can, under certain conditions, have modest cognition-improving effects. Substances such as methylphenidate and modafinil can improve capacities such as working memory and concentration in some healthy individuals. Unlike their more mundane predecessors, these methods of “cognitive enhancement” are thought to raise a multitude of ethical issues. This paper presents the six principal ethical issues raised in relation to pharmacological cognitive enhancers (PCEs)—issues such as whether: (1) the medical safety-profile of PCEs justifies restricting or permitting their elective or required use; (2) the enhanced mind can be an “authentic” mind; (3) individuals might be coerced into using PCEs; (4), there is a meaningful distinction to be made between the treatment vs. enhancement effect of the same PCE; (5) unequal access to PCEs would have implications for distributive justice; and (6) PCE use constitutes cheating in competitive contexts. In reviewing the six principal issues, the paper discusses how neuroscientific research might help advance the ethical debate. In particular, the paper presents new arguments about the contribution neuroscience could make to debates about justice, fairness, and cheating, ultimately concluding that neuroscientific research into “personalized enhancement” will be essential if policy is to be truly informed and ethical. We propose an “ethical agenda” for neuroscientific research into PCEs. PMID:24999320

  1. African-Americans' Test-taking Attitudes and Their Effect on Cognitive Ability Test Performance: Implications for Public Personnel Management Selection Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Patrick F.; Doverspike, Dennis

    2001-01-01

    Review of three research studies shows that some African Americans have negative perceptions of cognitive ability tests, including concerns that they may substantiate stereotypes. These attitudes may influence motivation, anxiety, and test performance. Training in test-taking skills and use of alternative testing formats are possible solutions.…

  2. The Relationship between Students' Performance on the Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT) and the Fourth and Fifth Grade Reading and Math Achievement Tests in Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warnimont, Chad S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the relationship between students' performance on the Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT) and the fourth and fifth grade Reading and Math Achievement Tests in Ohio. The sample utilized students from a suburban school district in Northwest Ohio. Third grade CogAT scores (2006-2007 school year), 4th…

  3. New Measures of Masked Text Recognition in Relation to Speech-in-Noise Perception and Their Associations with Age and Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besser, Jana; Zekveld, Adriana A.; Kramer, Sophia E.; Ronnberg, Jerker; Festen, Joost M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this research, the authors aimed to increase the analogy between Text Reception Threshold (TRT; Zekveld, George, Kramer, Goverts, & Houtgast, 2007) and Speech Reception Threshold (SRT; Plomp & Mimpen, 1979) and to examine the TRT's value in estimating cognitive abilities that are important for speech comprehension in noise. Method: The…

  4. The Rutter Scale for Completion by Teachers: Factor Structure and Relationships with Cognitive Abilities and Family Adversity for a Sample of New Zealand Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Rob; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Factor analysis revealed three main factors: aggressiveness, hyperactivity and anxiety-fearfulness. Measures based upon these factors had a reasonably high level of reliability and were moderately stable over a 2-year interval. Hyperactivity was negatively associated with cognition ability. Both hyperactivity and aggressiveness were related to…

  5. English Language Proficiency and Test Performance: An Evaluation of Bilingual Students with the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sotelo-Dynega, Marlene; Ortiz, Samuel O.; Flanagan, Dawn P.; Chaplin, William F.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we report the findings of an exploratory empirical study that investigated the relationship between English Language Proficiency (ELP) on performance on the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities-Third Edition (WJ III) when administered in English to bilingual students of varying levels of ELP. Sixty-one second-grade…

  6. Children's Cognitive Ability from 4 to 9 Years Old as a Function of Prenatal Cocaine Exposure, Environmental Risk, and Maternal Verbal Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, David S.; Bendersky, Margaret; Lewis, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure, environmental risk, and maternal verbal intelligence on children's cognitive ability. Gender and age were examined as moderators of potential cocaine exposure effects. The Stanford-Binet IV intelligence test was administered to 231 children (91 cocaine exposed, 140 unexposed) at ages 4,…

  7. A Behavioral Look at the Training of Alex: A Review of Pepperberg's "The Alex Studies: Cognitive and Communicative Abilities of Grey Parrots"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesse, Bruce E.; Potter, Bill

    2004-01-01

    "The Alex Studies: Cognitive and Communicative Abilities of Grey Parrots" by Irene Pepperberg is reviewed from a behavior analytic orientation. The results of the majority of her experiments are discussed in terms drawn from the general literature of behavior analysis and Skinner's analysis of verbal behavior. We conclude that she has provided…

  8. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Cattell-Horn-Carroll Theory and Cross-Age Invariance of the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taub, Gordon E.; McGrew, Kevin S.

    2004-01-01

    Establishing an instrument's factorial invariance provides the empirical foundation to compare an individual's score across time or to examine the pattern of correlations between variables in differentiated age groups. In the recently published Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Ability (WJ COG) and Achievement (WJ ACH) Third Edition (III) the…

  9. Examining the integrity of measurement of cognitive abilities in the prediction of achievement: Comparisons and contrasts across variables from higher-order and bifactor models.

    PubMed

    Benson, Nicholas F; Kranzler, John H; Floyd, Randy G

    2016-10-01

    Prior research examining cognitive ability and academic achievement relations have been based on different theoretical models, have employed both latent variables as well as observed variables, and have used a variety of analytic methods. Not surprisingly, results have been inconsistent across studies. The aims of this study were to (a) examine how relations between psychometric g, Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) broad abilities, and academic achievement differ across higher-order and bifactor models; (b) examine how well various types of observed scores corresponded with latent variables; and (c) compare two types of observed scores (i.e., refined and non-refined factor scores) as predictors of academic achievement. Results suggest that cognitive-achievement relations vary across theoretical models and that both types of factor scores tend to correspond well with the models on which they are based. However, orthogonal refined factor scores (derived from a bifactor model) have the advantage of controlling for multicollinearity arising from the measurement of psychometric g across all measures of cognitive abilities. Results indicate that the refined factor scores provide more precise representations of their targeted constructs than non-refined factor scores and maintain close correspondence with the cognitive-achievement relations observed for latent variables. Thus, we argue that orthogonal refined factor scores provide more accurate representations of the relations between CHC broad abilities and achievement outcomes than non-refined scores do. Further, the use of refined factor scores addresses calls for the application of scores based on latent variable models. PMID:27586067

  10. Examining the integrity of measurement of cognitive abilities in the prediction of achievement: Comparisons and contrasts across variables from higher-order and bifactor models.

    PubMed

    Benson, Nicholas F; Kranzler, John H; Floyd, Randy G

    2016-10-01

    Prior research examining cognitive ability and academic achievement relations have been based on different theoretical models, have employed both latent variables as well as observed variables, and have used a variety of analytic methods. Not surprisingly, results have been inconsistent across studies. The aims of this study were to (a) examine how relations between psychometric g, Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) broad abilities, and academic achievement differ across higher-order and bifactor models; (b) examine how well various types of observed scores corresponded with latent variables; and (c) compare two types of observed scores (i.e., refined and non-refined factor scores) as predictors of academic achievement. Results suggest that cognitive-achievement relations vary across theoretical models and that both types of factor scores tend to correspond well with the models on which they are based. However, orthogonal refined factor scores (derived from a bifactor model) have the advantage of controlling for multicollinearity arising from the measurement of psychometric g across all measures of cognitive abilities. Results indicate that the refined factor scores provide more precise representations of their targeted constructs than non-refined factor scores and maintain close correspondence with the cognitive-achievement relations observed for latent variables. Thus, we argue that orthogonal refined factor scores provide more accurate representations of the relations between CHC broad abilities and achievement outcomes than non-refined scores do. Further, the use of refined factor scores addresses calls for the application of scores based on latent variable models.

  11. Cognitive Profiles in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Investigation of Base Rate Discrepancies Using the Differential Ability Scales-Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowell, Kerri P.; Schanding, G. Thomas, Jr.; Kanne, Stephen M.; Goin-Kochel, Robin P.

    2015-01-01

    Extant data suggest that the cognitive profiles of individuals with ASD may be characterized by variability, particularly in terms of verbal intellectual functioning (VIQ) and non-verbal intellectual functioning (NVIQ) discrepancies. The "Differential Ability Scales, Second Edition" (DAS-II) has limited data available on its use with…

  12. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions to improve cognitive dysfunction and functional ability in clinical depression--a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Baune, Bernhard T; Renger, Lisa

    2014-09-30

    Cognitive dysfunction is of clinical significance and exerts longstanding implication on patients׳ function. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments of cognitive dysfunction are emerging. This review evaluates pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments of cognitive impairment primarily in the domains of memory, attention, processing speed and executive function in clinical depression. A total of 35 studies were retrieved from Pubmed, PsycInfo and Scopus after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results show that various classes of antidepressants exert improving effects on cognitive function across several cognitive domains. Specifically, studies suggest that SSRIs, the SSRE tianeptine, the SNRI duloxetine, vortioxetine and other antidepressants such as bupropion and moclobemide may exert certain improving effects on cognitive function in depression, such as in learning and memory and executive function. Class-specific cognitive domains or specific dose-response relationships were not identified yet. The few non-pharmacological studies conducted employing cognitive orientated treatments and cognitive remediation therapy show promising results for the improvement of cognitive impairment in depression. However, several methodological constraints of studies limit generalizability of the results and caution the interpretation. Future direction should consider the development of a neuropsychological consensus cognitive battery to support the discovery, clinical assessment, comparison of studies and registration of new agents in clinical depression. PMID:24863864

  13. Comparison of cognitive flexibility and planning ability in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder, patients with obsessive compulsive personality disorder, and healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    PAAST, Negin; KHOSRAVI, Zohreh; MEMARI, Amir Hossein; SHAYESTEHFAR, Monir; ARBABI, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background Cognitive functioning in individuals with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and with Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD) has not been adequately studied. Aim Examine the cognitive flexibility and planning ability of individuals with OCD and OCPD. Methods Twenty patients with OCD and 25 patients with OCPD who had not taken medication in the previous two weeks were identified in an outpatient psychology clinic in Tehran, and 25 healthy control subjects were identified from the university staff and local community residents. All participants were administered the 28-item version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), and the Tower of London (TOL) test. Two measures of the WCTS (number of perseverative errors and number of categories completed) were used to assess cognitive flexibility and three measures of the TOL (total number of moves in 12 trials, total response time, and planning time) were used to assess planning ability. Results The level of current psychological distress in the two patient groups was significantly greater than that in the control group. After adjusting for demographic variables and the level of psychological distress, both OCD patients and OCPD patients made more perseverative errors on the WCST than control subjects, and the OCD patients (but not the OCPD patients) completed significantly fewer categories than the control subjects. Both the OCD patients and OCPD patients required significantly more moves than control subjects to complete the 12 TOL tasks and OCD patients took significantly longer than both OCPD patients and control subjects to complete the tasks. Conclusions Individuals with OCD and OCPD have impaired cognitive flexibility and planning ability compared to healthy controls, and there are some differences in these measures of cognitive functioning between OCD and OCPD. Long term follow-up studies of OCD and OCPD that assess changes in cognitive measures as

  14. Advancing understanding of executive function impairments and psychopathology: bridging the gap between clinical and cognitive approaches

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Hannah R.; Miyake, Akira; Hankin, Benjamin L.

    2015-01-01

    Executive function (EF) is essential for successfully navigating nearly all of our daily activities. Of critical importance for clinical psychological science, EF impairments are associated with most forms of psychopathology. However, despite the proliferation of research on EF in clinical populations, with notable exceptions clinical and cognitive approaches to EF have remained largely independent, leading to failures to apply theoretical and methodological advances in one field to the other field and hindering progress. First, we review the current state of knowledge of EF impairments associated with psychopathology and limitations to the previous research in light of recent advances in understanding and measuring EF. Next, we offer concrete suggestions for improving EF assessment. Last, we suggest future directions, including integrating modern models of EF with state of the art, hierarchical models of dimensional psychopathology as well as translational implications of EF-informed research on clinical science. PMID:25859234

  15. Defective neuromotor and cognitive ability in iodine-deficient schoolchildren of an endemic goiter region in Sicily.

    PubMed

    Vermiglio, F; Sidoti, M; Finocchiaro, M D; Battiato, S; Lo Presti, V P; Benvenga, S; Trimarchi, F

    1990-02-01

    Visual perceptual integrative motor ability was investigated in 719 6- to 12-yr-old, presumably normal, primary schoolchildren living in 2 iodine-deficient endemic goiter areas in Sicily, identified on the basis of the presence (area A) or absence (area B) of endemic cretinism, by administrating the Bender Gestalt test. All of these clinically euthyroid schoolchildren were also examined neurologically by an investigator unaware of the result of the Bender test. Ninety-nine (13.76%) schoolchildren were found to be defective by the Bender test; this prevalence was significantly higher than that (3.0%) found in an iodine-sufficient goiter-free control area (area C) lying at sea level (chi 2 = 36.25; P less than 0.000001). No difference in the prevalence of Bender abnormalities was apparent if the children were divided according to the area of provenience (area A, 14.4%; area B, 13.1%). A high percentage of children falling in the lower range of normality was found in both area A (15.5%) and area B (19.0%); this was significantly higher than that in area C (3.8%; chi 2 = 77.55; P less than 0.000001). Neuromuscular and neurosensorial abnormalities, including increased tendon reflexes, clonus of the foot, Babinski sign, minor disturbances in balance, and gait, and minor defects in hearing and speech, were apparent in 19.3% (area A) and 18.5% (area B) of the children. These disorders were significantly more frequent in defective children identified by the Bender test (33.3%) than in normal children (15.3%; (chi 2 = 17.29; P less than 0.00005). The general intellectual aptitude in Bender deficient subjects was evaluated by the Terman Merrill test and was found to be impaired in 95%, thus confirming the existence of an endemic cognitive deficiency (ECD), distinct from the endemic mental deficiency previously found in other endemic goiter, iodine-deficient areas. ECD seems to be epidemiologically independent of the existence of endemic cretinism. Further clinical auxological

  16. Differential effect of cognitive training on executive functions and reading abilities in children with ADHD and in children with ADHD comorbid with reading difficulties.

    PubMed

    Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi

    2015-06-01

    The comorbidity of ADHD and reading difficulties (ADHD + RD) is believed to be a disability distinct from ADHD alone, with unique challenges faced by individuals suffering from one disability versus the other. We aimed to examine the differential effect of 8 weeks of cognitive training on reading abilities and on executive functions, through use of the Wisconsin task, in children with ADHD and in children with ADHD + RD. Greater impairments in reading and executive functions, especially in speed of processing, were found in the comorbid group at baseline. The comorbid group showed greater improvements in most measures after training as well. We propose that the cognitive training used in the present study affected not only the immediate abilities of executive functioning but also the secondary ability of reading, especially in the comorbid group, by improving in particular, speed of processing. We suggest that a differential approach should be taken when treating children with ADHD + RD versus treating ADHD children.

  17. Ginseng improves cognitive deficit via the RAGE/NF-κB pathway in advanced glycation end product-induced rats

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Xiaobin; Gu, Junfei; Zhao, Bingjie; Wang, Shuyuan; Yuan, Jiarui; Wang, Chunfei; Chen, Juan; Liu, Jiping; Feng, Liang; Jia, Xiaobin

    2014-01-01

    Background Ginseng, the root of Panax ginseng (PG), is used widely as a herbal medicine to prevent and treat various diseases. Panax ginseng has pharmacological effects on neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present study evaluated the neuroprotective effects of PG and its possible neuroprotective mechanisms in advanced glycation end product (AGE)-induced AD in a rat model. Methods Advanced glycation end products were injected bilaterally into the CA3 region of the rats' brains. The Morris water maze test and step-down type passive avoidance test were performed to evaluate their memory and cognitive abilities. The oxidation indexes in the hippocampus were detected. Immunohistochemistry was conducted to visualize the receptors for advanced glycation end products (RAGEs) and nuclear factor-kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cell (NF-κB). Results Behavioral results showed that PG (1 g/kg, 0.5 g/kg, and 0.25 g/kg) significantly shortened the escape latency, remarkably increased the number of crossing times, significantly decreased the number of errors, and prolonged the latency in rats with AGE-induced AD. Panax ginseng also significantly reduced the malondialdehyde level, increased the glutathione content, and increased superoxide dismutase activity in the hippocampus. Panax ginseng significantly decreased the expression of RAGE and NF-κB. The blockade of anti-RAGE antibody could significantly reduce AGE-induced impairments and regulate these expressions. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that PG significantly inhibits AGE-induced memory impairment and attenuates Alzheimer-like pathophysiological changes. These neuroprotective effects of PG may be associated with the RAGE/NF-κB pathway. Our results provided the experimental basis for applying PG in preventing and treating AD. PMID:26045684

  18. A Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Symptom Management in Patients With Advanced Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, Paula; Given, Barbara A.; Given, Charles W.; Champion, Victoria L.; Doorenbos, Ardith Z.; Azzouz, Faouzi; Kozachik, Sharon; Wagler-Ziner, Kim; Monahan, Patrick O.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of a cognitive behavioral intervention in decreasing symptom severity in patients with advanced cancer undergoing chemotherapy. Design: Prospective, randomized clinical trial based on cognitive behavioral theory. Setting: Six urban cancer centers in the midwestern United States. Sample: 124 patients 21 years of age or older were recruited and randomized to receive conventional care or conventional care and an intervention. Participants were newly diagnosed with stage III, stage IV, or recurrent cancer (solid tumor or non-Hodgkin lymphoma), undergoing chemotherapy, cognitively intact, and able to read and speak English. Methods: Data were gathered via telephone interviews at baseline and 10 and 20 weeks after randomization. Nurses with experience in oncology delivered a five-contact, eight-week intervention aimed at teaching patients problem-solving techniques to affect symptom severity. Main Research Variables: Gender, site of cancer, age, symptom severity and depressive symptoms at baseline, group (i.e., experimental versus control), and total symptom severity. Findings: Patients in the experimental group and those with lower symptom severity at baseline had significantly lower symptom severity at 10 and 20 weeks; the experimental difference at 20 weeks occurred primarily in those 60 years of age and younger. Depressive symptoms at baseline predicted symptom severity at 20 weeks; however, age, gender, and site of cancer did not affect symptom severity at either time point. Conclusions: Implications for Nursing: Problem-solving strategies should be included in educational programs for patients with advanced cancer, particularly those 60 years of age and younger. PMID:16270114

  19. Results of a “GWAS Plus:” General Cognitive Ability Is Substantially Heritable and Massively Polygenic

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, Robert M.; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.; Miller, Michael B.; Basu, Saonli

    2014-01-01

    We carried out a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for general cognitive ability (GCA) plus three other analyses of GWAS data that aggregate the effects of multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in various ways. Our multigenerational sample comprised 7,100 Caucasian participants, drawn from two longitudinal family studies, who had been assessed with an age-appropriate IQ test and had provided DNA samples passing quality screens. We conducted the GWAS across ∼2.5 million SNPs (both typed and imputed), using a generalized least-squares method appropriate for the different family structures present in our sample, and subsequently conducted gene-based association tests. We also conducted polygenic prediction analyses under five-fold cross-validation, using two different schemes of weighting SNPs. Using parametric bootstrapping, we assessed the performance of this prediction procedure under the null. Finally, we estimated the proportion of variance attributable to all genotyped SNPs as random effects with software GCTA. The study is limited chiefly by its power to detect realistic single-SNP or single-gene effects, none of which reached genome-wide significance, though some genomic inflation was evident from the GWAS. Unit SNP weights performed about as well as least-squares regression weights under cross-validation, but the performance of both increased as more SNPs were included in calculating the polygenic score. Estimates from GCTA were 35% of phenotypic variance at the recommended biological-relatedness ceiling. Taken together, our results concur with other recent studies: they support a substantial heritability of GCA, arising from a very large number of causal SNPs, each of very small effect. We place our study in the context of the literature–both contemporary and historical–and provide accessible explication of our statistical methods. PMID:25383866

  20. Quantifying interspecific variation in dispersal ability of noctuid moths using an advanced tethered flight technique.

    PubMed

    Jones, Hayley B C; Lim, Ka S; Bell, James R; Hill, Jane K; Chapman, Jason W

    2016-01-01

    Dispersal plays a crucial role in many aspects of species' life histories, yet is often difficult to measure directly. This is particularly true for many insects, especially nocturnal species (e.g. moths) that cannot be easily observed under natural field conditions. Consequently, over the past five decades, laboratory tethered flight techniques have been developed as a means of measuring insect flight duration and speed. However, these previous designs have tended to focus on single species (typically migrant pests), and here we describe an improved apparatus that allows the study of flight ability in a wide range of insect body sizes and types. Obtaining dispersal information from a range of species is crucial for understanding insect population dynamics and range shifts. Our new laboratory tethered flight apparatus automatically records flight duration, speed, and distance of individual insects. The rotational tethered flight mill has very low friction and the arm to which flying insects are attached is extremely lightweight while remaining rigid and strong, permitting both small and large insects to be studied. The apparatus is compact and thus allows many individuals to be studied simultaneously under controlled laboratory conditions. We demonstrate the performance of the apparatus by using the mills to assess the flight capability of 24 species of British noctuid moths, ranging in size from 12-27 mm forewing length (~40-660 mg body mass). We validate the new technique by comparing our tethered flight data with existing information on dispersal ability of noctuids from the published literature and expert opinion. Values for tethered flight variables were in agreement with existing knowledge of dispersal ability in these species, supporting the use of this method to quantify dispersal in insects. Importantly, this new technology opens up the potential to investigate genetic and environmental factors affecting insect dispersal among a wide range of species