Legg, Julie E.; Casper, Kristin A.
Objectives To implement the Partner for Promotion (PFP) program which was designed to enhance the skills and confidence of students and community pharmacy preceptors to deliver and expand advanced patient care services in community pharmacies and also to assess the program's impact. Design A 10-month longitudinal community advanced pharmacy practice experience was implemented that included faculty mentoring of students and preceptors via formal orientation; face-to-face training sessions; online monthly meetings; feedback on service development materials; and a web site offering resources and a discussion board. Pre- and post-APPE surveys of students and preceptors were used to evaluate perceptions of knowledge and skills. Assessment The skills survey results for the first 2 years of the PFP program suggest positive changes occurring from pre- to post-APPE survey in most areas for both students and preceptors. Four of the 7 pharmacies in 2005-2006 and 8 of the 14 pharmacies in 2006-2007 were able to develop an advanced patient care service and begin seeing patients prior to the conclusion of the APPE. As a result of the PFP program from 2005-2007, 14 new experiential sites entered into affiliation agreements with The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy. Conclusion The PFP program offers an innovative method for community pharmacy faculty members to work with students and preceptors in community pharmacies in developing patient care services. PMID:19325954
Thomas, Renee Ahrens
The recent growth in the number of pharmacy schools across the nation has resulted in the need for high-quality community advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) sites. A vital part of a student's education, these APPEs should be structured and formalized to provide an environment conducive to student learning. This paper discusses how to use a calendar, structured-learning activities, and scheduled evaluations to develop students' knowledge, skills, and abilities in a community pharmacy setting. PMID:17136164
Vanderbush, Ross E.; Hastings, Jan K.; West, Donna
Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of Web-based multimedia vignettes on complex drug administration techniques to augment the training of pharmacy students in advanced community pharmacy practice experiences. Design During the orientation for a community APPE, students were randomly assigned to either a study group or control group After they began their APPE, students in the study group were given an Internet address to access multimedia vignettes which they were required to watch to augment their training and standardize their counseling of patients in the use of inhalers and ear and eye drops. Assessment A 12-item questionnaire was administered to students in both groups at the orientation and again on the last day of the APPE to evaluate their knowledge of counseling patients in the use of inhalers and ear and eye drops. The control group did not experience any improvement in their counseling knowledge of the research topics during their month-long experience. Students in the intervention group scored higher on their postintervention test than students in the control group (p < 0.001). Conclusions Student learning outcomes from experiential training can be improved through the use of Web-based multimedia instructional vignettes. PMID:20498732
Gregory, Paul A. M.; Austin, Zubin
Background: Intraprofessional conflict among pharmacists, regulated technicians and assistants may undermine attempts to advance patient care in community pharmacy. There is no available research examining this issue in light of the evolution of the profession and roles within the profession. Methods: A combination of interviews and focus groups involving pharmacists, technicians and assistants was undertaken. Each participant completed the Conflict Management Scale as a way of identifying conflict management style. Data were analyzed and coded using a constant-comparative, iterative method. Results: A total of 41 pharmacy team members participated in this research (14 pharmacists, 14 technicians and 13 assistants). Four key themes were identified that related to conflict within community pharmacy: role misunderstanding, threats to self-identity, differences in conflict management style and workplace demotivation. Interpretation: As exploratory research, this study highlighted the need for greater role clarity and additional conflict management skills training as supports for the pharmacy team. The impact of conflict in the workplace was described by participants as significant, adverse and multifactorial. Conclusions: To support practice change, there has been major evolution of roles and responsibilities of pharmacists, technicians and assistants. Conflict among pharmacy team members has the potential to adversely affect the quality of care provided to patients and is an issue for managers, owners, regulators and educators. PMID:28286591
Teshima, Mugen; Nakashima, Mikiro; Hatakeyama, Susumi
The Nagasaki University School of Pharmaceutical Sciences has conducted a project concerning "development of an advanced education program for community medicine" for its students in collaboration with the University's School of Nursing Sciences, the University of Nagasaki School of Nursing Sciences, and the Nagasaki International University School of Pharmaceutical Sciences. The project was named "formation of a strategic base for the integrated education of pharmacy and nursing science specially focused on home-healthcare and welfare", that has been adopted at "Strategic University Cooperative Support Program for Improving Graduate" by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan from the 2009 academic year to the 2011 academic year. Our project is a novel education program about team medical care in collaboration with pharmacist and nurse. In order to perform this program smoothly, we established "Nagasaki pharmacy and nursing science union consortium (Nagasaki University, The University of Nagasaki, Nagasaki International University, Nagasaki Pharmaceutical Association, Nagasaki Society of Hospital Pharmacists, Nagasaki Nursing Association, Nagasaki Medical Association, Nagasaki Prefectural Government)". In this symposium, we introduce contents about university education program and life learning program of the project.
Stolpe, Samuel F; Adams, Alex J; Bradley-Baker, Lynette R; Burns, Anne L; Owen, James A
Clinical pharmacy services necessitate appropriately trained pharmacists. Postgraduate year one (PGY1) community pharmacy residency programs (CPRPs) provide advanced training for pharmacists to provide multiple patient care services in the community setting. These programs provide an avenue to translate innovative ideas and services into clinical practice. In this paper, we describe the history and current status of PGY1 community pharmacy residency programs, including an analysis of the typical settings and services offered. Specific information on the trends of community programs compared with other PGY1 pharmacy residencies is also discussed. The information presented in this paper is intended to encourage discussion regarding the need for increasing the capacity of PGY1 community pharmacy residency programs.
Pollock, L L; Levine, M
As pharmacists increase their involvement in patients' drug therapy, the lack of opportunity for advanced clinical and administrative training becomes more critical, particularly for community pharmacists. To assist in the postgraduate development of community pharmacists, the faculty of pharmaceutical sciences at the University of British Columbia began a residency program in community pharmacy practice in June 1981. Modeled on the successful hospital pharmacy residencies, the program goals are to provide advanced clinical training in ambulatory patient care, and detailed and practical management training, and to develop pharmacists with skill in clinical teaching who will participate in the undergraduate programs of the faculty. The 12-month residency includes guided self-study and a series of practica in areas of therapeutics, management, drug information, clinical and teaching skill, professional service, and continuing education. These practica are served mainly in clinical practice settings such as community pharmacies, clinics, physicians' offices, and teaching hospitals. The residency has demonstrated its value and viability. Growing interest in such programs, and the success of this program in particular, should encourage the development of similar programs in Canada.
Szumilas, Magdalena; Rowe, Denise; Landry, Kathryn; Martin-Misener, Ruth; Kutcher, Stan; Gardner, David
Background: Little information is available describing the pharmacy student’s experience working in community practice with people with lived experience of mental illness. Students’ perspectives as observers, learners, technical staff and future pharmacists are important. Objective: To gain a better understanding of the pharmacy student experience in community pharmacy–based service provision to people with lived experience of mental illness. Methods: We conducted a qualitative study using interpretive description and application of the Theoretical Domains Framework. Focus groups were held with third- and fourth-year undergraduate pharmacy students from one Canadian university. Results: Two student focus groups were held in the fall of 2012 with 11 students (7 third year and 4 fourth year), 6 women and 5 men, mean age 24.5 (range, 21 to 30) years, averaging 3.2 years (range, 2 weeks to 7 years) of cumulative, mostly part-time, community pharmacy experience. Three broad themes emerged from the pharmacy student experience: (1) business tension; (2) roles, responsibilities and relationships; and (3) stigma. Students discussed their own roles, responsibilities and relationships in a pluralistic identity experience (i.e., pharmacy student, technician, future pharmacist). Application of the Theoretical Domains Framework demonstrated numerous influences on behaviour. Conclusions: From the students’ description of community pharmacy–based care of people with lived experience of mental illness, significant issues exist with current practices and behaviours. Advancing the role of pharmacists and pharmacy students to meet the needs of people with mental illness will require strategies to address multifactorial influences on behaviour. PMID:24494016
By law, medical faculties are mandated to have a designated partner hospital for the purposes of student practical training. In contrast, pharmacy faculties do not have such a legal requirement for student training in a community pharmacy setting. Nevertheless, there are several public and private universities that do have community pharmacies. However, there is no national university that has established both an educational hospital and a community pharmacy. When Kanazawa University (KU) established a graduate school with a clinical pharmacy course, the faculty of KU deemed it necessary to set up an independent community pharmacy for the purpose of practical training. Thus, in 2003, the Acanthus Pharmacy was set up as the first educational community pharmacy in Japan, managed by a nonprofit organization, with the permission of the Ishikawa Pharmaceutical Association and local community pharmacists. Since that time, Acanthus has managed a clinical pharmacy practice for students from both the undergraduate and graduate schools of KU. From 2006, the undergraduate pharmacy program was changed to a 6-year program, and the Acanthus Pharmacy has continued its roles in educating undergraduate pharmaceutical students, medical students, and as a site of early exposure for KU freshmen. From our experience, it is important to have a real clinical environment available to university pharmacy faculty and students, especially in training for community pharmacy practices.
Bacci, Jennifer L; Akinwale, Tolu P; Adams, Alex J; McGivney, Melissa Somma
Objective. To identify community pharmacy shared faculty members across the United States and to describe their roles and responsibilities in terms of teaching, service, and scholarship. Methods. This study was a mixed-methods analysis using surveys and key informant interviews. Results. Twenty-two faculty members completed the survey; nine were interviewed. Their major roles and responsibilities included teaching in community-based and experiential learning courses, precepting students and/or residents, being actively involved in professional organizations, providing patient care while leading innovation, and disseminating findings through scholarship. Conclusion. Community pharmacy shared faculty members contribute to their academic institutions and community pharmacy organizations by educating learners, providing direct patient care, and advancing community practice through innovation and service to the profession. Findings of this study can be used as a guide for academic institutions and community pharmacy organizations interested in partnering to develop a community pharmacy shared faculty position.
Akinwale, Tolu P.; Adams, Alex J.; McGivney, Melissa Somma
Objective. To identify community pharmacy shared faculty members across the United States and to describe their roles and responsibilities in terms of teaching, service, and scholarship. Methods. This study was a mixed-methods analysis using surveys and key informant interviews. Results. Twenty-two faculty members completed the survey; nine were interviewed. Their major roles and responsibilities included teaching in community-based and experiential learning courses, precepting students and/or residents, being actively involved in professional organizations, providing patient care while leading innovation, and disseminating findings through scholarship. Conclusion. Community pharmacy shared faculty members contribute to their academic institutions and community pharmacy organizations by educating learners, providing direct patient care, and advancing community practice through innovation and service to the profession. Findings of this study can be used as a guide for academic institutions and community pharmacy organizations interested in partnering to develop a community pharmacy shared faculty position. PMID:27756923
Norris, Pauline; Horsburgh, Simon; Sides, Gerald; Ram, Sanya; Fraser, John
Geographic access to community pharmacies is an important aspect of access to appropriate medicines. This study aimed to explore changes in the number and location of pharmacies in New Zealand and determine whether some populations have poor geographical access to pharmacies. Pharmacy numbers in New Zealand have been declining since the mid-1980s, and, adjusted for population growth, there are now only half the number there was in 1965. While the urbanisation of pharmacies has been matched by loss of population in rural areas, the loss of pharmacies from smaller rural towns leaves many people with poor access to pharmacy services.
Ho, Certina; Hung, Patricia; Lee, Gary; Kadija, Medina
Incident reporting offers insight into a variety of intricate processes in healthcare. However, it has been found that medication incidents are under reported in the community pharmacy setting. The Community Pharmacy Incident Reporting (CPhIR) program was created by the Institute for Safe Medication Practices Canada specifically for incident reporting in the community pharmacy setting in Canada. The initial development of key elements for CPhIR included several focus-group teleconferences with pharmacists from Ontario and Nova Scotia. Throughout the development and release of the CPhIR pilot, feedback from pharmacists and pharmacy technicians was constantly incorporated into the reporting program. After several rounds of iterative feedback, testing and consultation with community pharmacy practitioners, a final version of the CPhIR program, together with self-directed training materials, is now ready to launch. The CPhIR program provides users with a one-stop platform to report and record medication incidents, export data for customized analysis and view comparisons of individual and aggregate data. These unique functions allow for a detailed analysis of underlying contributing factors in medication incidents. A communication piece for pharmacies to share their experiences is in the process of development. To ensure the success of the CPhIR program, a patient safety culture must be established. By gaining a deeper understanding of possible causes of medication incidents, community pharmacies can implement system-based strategies for quality improvement and to prevent potential errors from occurring again in the future. This article highlights key features of the CPhIR program that will assist community pharmacies to improve their drug distribution system and, ultimately, enhance patient safety.
Weissman, Fred G.; And Others
A clerkship at the University of Southern California School of Pharmacy was developed to provide students with (1) experience in the identification, development,, implementation, and evaluation of patient care services in community pharmacies and (2) the skills required to successfully operate a community pharmacy on a day-to-day basis.…
Chui, Michelle A; Stone, Jamie A
Background A handoff is the process of conveying necessary information in order to transfer primary responsibility for providing safe and effective drug therapy to a patient from one community pharmacist to another, typically during a shift change. The handoff information conveyed in pharmacies has been shown to be unstructured and variable, leading to pharmacist stress and frustration, prescription delays, and medication errors. Objective The purpose of this study was to describe and categorize the information hazards present in handoffs in community pharmacies. Methods A qualitative research approach was used to elicit the subjective experiences of community pharmacists. Community pharmacists who float or work in busy community pharmacies were recruited and participated in a face to face semi-structured interview. Using a systematic content data analysis, the study identified five categories of information hazards that can lead to information chaos, a framework grounded in human factors and ergonomics. Results Information hazards including erroneous information and information overload, underload, scatter, and conflict, are experienced routinely by community pharmacists during handoff communication and can result in information chaos. The consequences of information chaos include increased mental workload, which can precipitate problematic prescriptions “falling between the cracks”. This can ultimately impact patient care and pharmacist quality of working life. Conclusions The results suggest that handoffs in community pharmacies result in information hazards. These information hazards can distract pharmacists from their primary work of assessing prescriptions and educating their patients. Further research on how handoffs are conducted can produce information on how hazards in the system can be eliminated. PMID:23665076
Arnet, Isabelle; Seidling, Hanna M; Hersberger, Kurt E
Community pharmacists represent an important pillar for the identification and the reporting of adverse drug effects (ADE}. Thanks to their broad view on the pharmacotherapy, over-the-counter medication included, they contribute greatly to the improvement of drug safety. In principle, the community pharmacy will face three groups of ADE which require specific attention. This article deals with these specific ADE groups and presents some illustrative examples from daily practice. Furthermore, we suggest some solutions to identify potential relevant interactions - including herbal-drug interactions - and give tips for daily practice, along with some often overseen cutaneous ADE.
Holdford, D; Kennedy, D T; Bernadella, P; Small, R E
Disease management (DM) is a comprehensive approach to preventing and treating disease that: (1) targets patients with specific diseases; (2) provides integrated services across organizational and professional boundaries; (3) utilizes services based on the best scientific evidence available; and (4) focuses on outcomes. DM differs from pharmaceutical care in that pharmaceutical care targets not only patients with specific diseases but also those with risk factors for drug-related problems, a history of nonadherence, and frequent changes in medication regimens. Steps to starting a DM program include: (1) identifying a target population based on the population's strategic importance to the goals and aims of the organization; (2) assessing the organization's available resources, both internal and external; (3) defining key indicators with which to assess the program for the purposes of internal quality control and of obtaining compensation from third-party payers; (4) implementing the program using the best scientific methods available; and (5) assessing the impact of the program. The development of a smoking cessation program at a nationwide retail pharmacy chain is used as an example of a DM program initiated in community pharmacy practice. Pharmacists are well positioned to take a major role in DM, because they are accessible to the community and because DM frequently involves drug therapy. DM is also widely used in managed care. It is important that community pharmacists be closely involved in the DM approach as it evolves.
May, Dianne W.; Kanmaz, Tina J.; Reidt, Shannon L.; Serres, Michelle L.; Edwards, Heather D.
Outcomes from The Center for Advancement of Pharmacy Education (CAPE) are intended to represent the terminal knowledge, skills, and attitudes pharmacy students should possess and have guided delivery of pharmacy education for more than two decades. Advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) are the endpoint of pharmacy curricula where demonstration and assessment of terminal learning occurs. This review examines published literature in relation to the most recent CAPE outcomes to determine the extent to which they have been addressed during APPEs since 1996. Details related to the APPE focus, intervention(s)/learning setting(s), and assessments are summarized according to the 15 CAPE outcomes. Further, the assessments are categorized according to the level of learning achieved using an available method. Common CAPE outcomes are highlighted, as well as those for which published reports are lacking for APPEs. The range and quality of assessments are discussed and emphasize the need for continuous improvement of scholarly design and assessment. PMID:27756935
Sobota, Kristen Finley; Barnes, Jeremiah; Fitzpatrick, Alyse; Sobota, Micah J
The Ohio Northern University American Society of Consultant Pharmacists chapter provides students the opportunity to apply classroom knowledge with learning through community service. One such program took place at the Lima Towers Apartment Community from September 18, 2014, to October 2, 2014, in Lima, Ohio. Three evening educational sessions focused on a different health topic: 1) mental health, 2) medication adherence/brown bag, and 3) healthy lifestyle choices/nutrition/smoking cessation. All three programs were structured identically, starting with dinner, followed by educational intervention, survey, blood pressure checks, and medication reviews. Two pharmacists and 16 pharmacy students implemented the program. Participants completed a total of 76 satisfaction surveys for the three programs, which were included in the data analysis. The average age of the participants was 65 years; 82% (n = 63) were female. Data demonstrated that 94% (n = 72) "learned something new," while 96% (n = 74) would "recommend the program to a friend/family member." The collected data showed the vast majority of participants from the surrounding community found value in the presentations performed by students, especially with regard to the new information they received and its perceived benefits. In light of such successes, we encourage other student chapters to implement similar community outreach events. ASCP student members can make a strong, positive impact in the community while learning in a nontraditional environment.
Odukoya, Olufunmilola K.; Chui, Michelle A.
Objectives To understand how community pharmacists use electronic prescribing (e-prescribing) technology; and to describe the workflow challenges pharmacy personnel encounter as a result of using e-prescribing technology. Design Cross-sectional qualitative study. Setting Seven community pharmacies in Wisconsin from December 2010 to March 2011 Participants 16 pharmacists and 14 pharmacy technicians (in three chain and four independent pharmacies). Interventions Think-aloud protocol and pharmacy group interviews. Main outcome measures Pharmacy staff description of their use of e-prescribing technology and challenges encountered in their daily workflow related to this technology. Results Two contributing factors were perceived to influence e-prescribing workflow: issues stemming from prescribing or transmitting software, and issues from within the pharmacy. Pharmacies experienced both delays in receiving, and inaccurate e-prescriptions from physician offices. Receiving an overwhelming number of e-prescriptions with inaccurate or unclear information resulted in significant time delays for patients as pharmacists contacted physicians to clarify wrong information. In addition, pharmacy personnel reported that lack of formal training and the disconnect between the way pharmacists verify accuracy and conduct drug utilization review and the presentation of e-prescription information on the computer screen significantly influenced the speed of processing an e-prescription. Conclusion E-prescriptions processing can hinder pharmacy workflow. As the number of e-prescriptions transmitted to pharmacies increases due to legislative mandates; it is essential that the technology that supports e-prescriptions (both on the prescriber and pharmacy operating systems) be redesigned to facilitate pharmacy workflow processes and to prevent unintended consequences, such as increased medication errors, user frustration, and stress. PMID:23229979
Nattinger, Matthew; Ullrich, Fred; Mueller, Keith J
Prior RUPRI Center policy briefs have described the role of rural pharmacies in providing many essential clinical services (in addition to prescription and nonprescription medications), such as blood pressure monitoring, immunizations, and diabetes counseling, and the adverse effects of Medicare Part D negotiated networks on the financial viability of rural pharmacies.1 Because rural pharmacies play such a broad role in health care delivery, pharmacy closures can sharply reduce access to essential health care services in rural and underserved communities. These closures are of particular concern in rural areas served by a sole, independently owned pharmacy (i.e., a pharmacy unaffiliated with a chain or franchise). This policy brief characterizes the population of rural areas served by a sole, independently owned pharmacy. Dependent on a sole pharmacy, these areas are at highest risk to lose access to many essential clinical services. Key Findings. (1) In 2014 over 2.7 million people lived in 663 rural communities served by a sole, independently owned pharmacy. (2) More than one-quarter of these residents (27.9 percent) were living below 150 percent of the federal poverty level. (3) Based on estimates from 2012, a substantial portion of the residents of these areas were dependent on public insurance (i.e., Medicare and/or Medicaid, 20.5 percent) or were uninsured (15.0 percent). (4) If the sole, independent retail pharmacy in these communities were to close, the next closest retail pharmacy would be over 10 miles away for a majority of rural communities (69.7 percent).
Background Community pharmacies in Nepal serve as the first point of contact for the public with the health care system and provide many services, including administering injections. However, there is a general lack of documented information on pharmacy practice and injection use in these pharmacies. This study aims to provide information about pharmacy practice in terms of service and drug information sources, and injection use, including the disposal of used injection equipment. Methods A mixed method, cross-sectional study was conducted in 54 community pharmacies in Pokhara city. Data was collected using a pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire, and also by the direct observation of pharmacy premises. Interviews with pharmacy supervisors (proprietors) were also conducted to obtain additional information about certain points. Results Interviews were carried out with 54 pharmacy supervisors/proprietors (47 males and 7 females) with a mean age and experience of 35.54 and 11.73 years, respectively. Approximately a half of the studied premises were operated by legally recognized pharmaceutical personnel, while the remainder was run by people who did not have the legal authority to operate pharmacies independently. About a quarter of pharmacies were providing services such as the administration of injections, wound dressing, and laboratory and consultation services in addition to medicine dispensing and counseling services. The ‘Current Index of Medical Specialties’ was the most commonly used source for drug information. Almost two-thirds of patients visiting the pharmacies were dispensed medicines without a prescription. Tetanus Toxoid, Depot-Medroxy Progesterone Acetate, and Diclofenac were the most commonly-used/administered injections. Most of the generated waste (including sharps) was disposed of in a municipal dump without adhering to the proper procedures for the disposal of hazardous waste. Conclusions Community pharmacies in Pokhara offer a wide range
Bradley, Fay; Schafheutle, Ellen I; Willis, Sarah C; Noyce, Peter R
Pharmacists now offer increasing levels and ranges of clinical, diagnostic and public health services, which may require a pharmacist to be absent from the pharmacy premises. Currently, in the UK, many pharmacy activities legally require the direct supervision and physical presence of the pharmacist. This study aimed to explore the potential for changes to supervision, allowing pharmacist absence, and greater utilisation of pharmacy support staff. Four nominal group discussions were conducted in May 2012 with community pharmacists (CPs), community pharmacy support staff, hospital pharmacists and hospital pharmacy support staff, involving 21 participants. Participants were asked to generate pharmacy activities, which they felt could/could not be safely performed by support staff in the absence of a pharmacist, followed by a discussion of these items and voting using an agreement scale. A written record of the items generated and voting scores was made and the group discussion elements were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. The selling of general sales list medicines, assembly of prescriptions and provision of public health services received a high level of agreement between groups, as activities that could be performed. There was greater disagreement about the safety of support staff selling pharmacy medicines and handing out checked and bagged prescription items to patients. Group discussion revealed some of the main challenges to supervision changes, including CPs' perceptions about their presence being critical to patient safety, reluctance to relinquish control, concerns about knowing and trusting the competencies of support staff, and reluctance by support staff to take greater professional responsibility. The findings of this study aim to inform a future consultation on changes to pharmacy supervision in the UK. The empowerment of pharmacy technicians as a professional group may be key to any future change; this may require
Chisholm-Burns, Marie A; Gatwood, Justin; Spivey, Christina A; Dickey, Susan E
Objective. To compare the net cumulative income of community pharmacists, hospital pharmacists, and full-time pharmacy faculty members (residency-trained or with a PhD after obtaining a PharmD) in pharmacy practice, medicinal chemistry, pharmaceutics, pharmacology, and social and administrative sciences. Methods. Markov modeling was conducted to calculate net projected cumulative earnings of career paths by estimating the costs of education, including the costs of obtaining degrees and student loans. Results. The economic model spanned 49 years, from ages 18 to 67 years. Earning a PharmD and pursuing an academic career resulted in projected net cumulative lifetime earnings ranging from approximately $4.7 million to $6.3 million. A pharmacy practice faculty position following public pharmacy school and one year of residency resulted in higher net cumulative income than community pharmacy. Faculty members with postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) training also had higher net income than other faculty and hospital pharmacy career paths, given similar years of prepharmacy education and type of pharmacy school attended. Faculty members with either a PharmD or PhD in the pharmacology discipline may net as much as $5.9 million and outpace all other PhD graduates by at least $75 000 in lifetime earnings. Projected career earnings of postgraduate year 2 (PGY2) trained faculty and PharmD/PhD faculty members were lower than those of community pharmacists. Findings were more variable when comparing pharmacy faculty members and hospital pharmacists. Conclusion. With the exception of PGY1 trained academic pharmacists, faculty projected net cumulative incomes generally lagged behind community pharmacists, likely because of delayed entry into the job market as a result of advanced training/education. However, nonsalary benefits such as greater flexibility and autonomy may enhance the desirability of academic pharmacy as a career path.
Gatwood, Justin; Spivey, Christina A.; Dickey, Susan E.
Objective. To compare the net cumulative income of community pharmacists, hospital pharmacists, and full-time pharmacy faculty members (residency-trained or with a PhD after obtaining a PharmD) in pharmacy practice, medicinal chemistry, pharmaceutics, pharmacology, and social and administrative sciences. Methods. Markov modeling was conducted to calculate net projected cumulative earnings of career paths by estimating the costs of education, including the costs of obtaining degrees and student loans. Results. The economic model spanned 49 years, from ages 18 to 67 years. Earning a PharmD and pursuing an academic career resulted in projected net cumulative lifetime earnings ranging from approximately $4.7 million to $6.3 million. A pharmacy practice faculty position following public pharmacy school and one year of residency resulted in higher net cumulative income than community pharmacy. Faculty members with postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) training also had higher net income than other faculty and hospital pharmacy career paths, given similar years of prepharmacy education and type of pharmacy school attended. Faculty members with either a PharmD or PhD in the pharmacology discipline may net as much as $5.9 million and outpace all other PhD graduates by at least $75 000 in lifetime earnings. Projected career earnings of postgraduate year 2 (PGY2) trained faculty and PharmD/PhD faculty members were lower than those of community pharmacists. Findings were more variable when comparing pharmacy faculty members and hospital pharmacists. Conclusion. With the exception of PGY1 trained academic pharmacists, faculty projected net cumulative incomes generally lagged behind community pharmacists, likely because of delayed entry into the job market as a result of advanced training/education. However, nonsalary benefits such as greater flexibility and autonomy may enhance the desirability of academic pharmacy as a career path. PMID:27756925
Brown, Charles H.
A preliminary study that seeks to determine, quantitatively and qualitatively, the effectiveness of externship preceptors in training Purdue University students to practice pharmacy in community and hospital environments is described. Variables that can effect externships are appended. (JMD)
Sakurai, Hidehiko; Nakajima, Fumio; Tada, Yuichirou; Yoshikawa, Emi; Iwahashi, Yoshiki; Fujita, Kenji; Hayase, Yukitoshi
Various functions expected by patient expects are needed with progress in the system for separation of dispensing and prescribing functions. In this investigation, the relationship between patient satisfaction and pharmacy function were analyzed quantitatively. A questionnaire survey was conducted in 178 community pharmacies. Questions on pharmacy functions and services totaled 87 items concerning information service, amenities, safety, personnel training, etc. The questionnaires for patients had five-grade scales and composed 11 items (observed variables). Based on the results, "the percentage of satisfied patients" was determined. Multivariate analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between patient satisfaction and pharmacy functions or services provided, to confirm patient's evaluation of the pharmacy, and how factors affected comprehensive satisfaction. In correlation analysis, "the number of pharmacists" and "comprehensive satisfaction" had a negative correlation. Other interesting results were obtained. As a results of factor analysis, three latent factors were obtained: the "human factor," "patients' convenience," and "environmental factor," Multiple regression analysis showed that the "human factor" affected "comprehensive satisfaction" the most. Various pharmacy functions and services influence patient satisfaction, and improvement in their quality increases patient satisfaction. This will result in the practice of patient-centered medicine.
Palmeira-de-Oliveira, Rita; Macedo, Marina; Machado, Rita M; Pacheco, Ana Filipa; Palmeira-de-Oliveira, Ana; Martinez-de-Oliveira, José; Duarte, Paulo
A study of compounding practices among Portuguese community pharmacies from 2008 to 2011 and pharmacists' perspectives concerning compounding was conducted. The retrospective study was based on an online questionnaire developed to gather information on pharmacies characteristics frequency, and type of compounded preparations. Additionally, difficulties, motivations, and pharmacist's perspectives regarding compounding were assessed. Up to 1,450 Portuguese pharmacies were contacted, and 250 completed questionnaires obtained. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS Version 21. Frequency and cross-tab analysis was used to describe data. Chi-square test was used to assess statistical significant differences between compounding and non-compounding pharmacies' characteristics. Among all pharmacies, 75.2% reported compounding practices, although the majority prepared less than 50 preparations per year, corresponding to less than 10 different formulations. Those pharmacies' with a higher lifetime activity, number of customers, and team members were associated to compounding practices. Dermatological preparations were the most frequently prepared formulations, followed by oral solutions, and otorhinolaryngological preparations. Dermatologists and pediatricians were the most frequent prescribers of compounded medicines. Regarding future perspectives, 51.4% of pharmacists believed that compounding will decrease. However, 79.1% indicated that they will continue to compound, and 70.7% considered that compounded prescriptions should be encouraged. Patient satisfaction (66.1%) and improvement of the pharmacy image (63.8%) were considered the main advantages of compounding services. Compounded medicines are still prepared in the community pharmacy setting to fulfill special patients' therapeutic needs, especially following dermatologists' and pediatricians' prescriptions. Offering compounding services is perceived by pharmacists as an important factor for high
Gadkari, Abhijit S.; Mott, David A.; Kreling, David H.; Bonnarens, Joseph K.
Context: Higher prevalence of chronic diseases and reduced access to other health professionals in rural areas suggest that rural Medicare enrollees will benefit from pharmacist-provided drug therapy services (DTS). Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe non-metropolitan community pharmacy sites in Wisconsin, the provision of DTS at…
Papastergiou, John; Folkins, Chris; Li, Wilson; Young, Leslie
Objective: To investigate the impact and feasibility of community pharmacist-directed influenza screening and to evaluate the proportion of influenza-positive cases that resulted in the initiation of antiviral therapy by pharmacists. Methods: Patients aged 5 and older with symptoms suggestive of influenza were recruited at 2 Shoppers Drug Mart locations in Toronto, Ontario, from December 12, 2014, to February 4, 2015. Nasal swabs were collected by pharmacists and screened using the BD Veritor system for Rapid Detection of Flu A+B. Positive tests for influenza were reported to patients’ physicians and recommendations for antiviral therapy were made when indicated. Supportive care recommendations and telephone follow-up within 48 hours of assessment were provided to all patients. Results: A total of 59 patients participated in the influenza screening program. Sixty-one percent of patients were at high risk for influenza-related complications, while 15% had more than one risk factor. Thirty-four percent of patients screened positive for influenza, of which 100% were influenza A. Of the patients who screened positive, a prescription for oseltamivir was obtained in 40% of cases. The majority of prescriptions were provided directly to the pharmacy (63%), while the balance was provided after the patients underwent medical examination at the request of their physicians (37%). The pharmacy team offered supportive care to all patients for symptom management. Over-the-counter pharmacotherapy was provided to 85% of patients. Conclusion: These results highlight the readiness of community pharmacists to participate in the management of patients with influenza and their ability to implement screening into pharmacy workflow. Community pharmacy–based influenza screening may facilitate prompt access to pharmacologic treatment for patients with influenza, as well as decrease burden on the health care system by redirecting influenza-negative patients from physicians’ offices and
Gilliam, Eric; Thompson, Megan; Griend, Joseph Vande
Objective. To develop a community pharmacy-based medication therapy management (MTM) advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) that provides students with skills and knowledge to deliver entry-level pharmacy MTM services. Design. The University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences (SSPPS) partnered with three community pharmacy chains to establish this three-week, required MTM APPE. Students completed the American Pharmacists Association MTM Certificate Course prior to entering the APPE. Students were expected to spend 90% or more of their time at this experience working on MTM interventions, using store MTM platforms. Assessment. All 151 students successfully completed this MTM APPE, and each received a passing evaluation from their preceptor. Preceptor evaluations of students averaged above four (entry-level practice) on a five-point Likert scale. The majority of students reported engagement in MTM services for more than 80% of the time on site. Students’ self-reporting of their ability to perform MTM interventions improved after participation in the APPE. Conclusion. The SSPPS successfully implemented a required MTM APPE, preparing students for entry-level delivery of MTM services. PMID:28381896
Crawford, Natalie D; Amesty, Silvia; Rivera, Alexis V; Harripersaud, Katherine; Turner, Alezandria; Fuller, Crystal M
Structural interventions may help reduce racial/ethnic disparities in HIV. In 2009 to 2011, we randomized pharmacies participating in a nonprescription syringe access program in minority communities to intervention (pharmacy enrolled and delivered HIV risk reduction information to injection drug users [IDUs]), primary control (pharmacy only enrolled IDUs), and secondary control (pharmacy did not engage IDUs). Intervention pharmacy staff reported more support for syringe sales than did control staff. An expanded pharmacy role in HIV risk reduction may be helpful.
Koster, Ellen S; Blom, Lyda; Philbert, Daphne; Rump, Willem; Bouvy, Marcel L
Practice-based networks can serve as effective mechanisms for the development of the profession of pharmacists, on the one hand by supporting student internships and on the other hand by collection of research data and implementation of research outcomes among public health practice settings. This paper presents the characteristics and benefits of the Utrecht Pharmacy Practice network for Education and Research, a practice based research network affiliated with the Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Utrecht University. Yearly, this network is used to realize approximately 600 student internships (in hospital and community pharmacies) and 20 research projects. To date, most research has been performed in community pharmacy and research questions frequently concerned prescribing behavior or adherence and subjects related to uptake of regulations in the pharmacy setting. Researchers gain access to different types of data from daily practice, pharmacists receive feedback on the functioning of their own pharmacy and students get in depth insight into pharmacy practice.
Hamoudi, N M; Shirwaikar, A A; Ali, H S; Al Ayoubi, E I
In recent years, the focus of pharmacists as traditional drug dispensers has shifted to more active and participative role in risk assessment, risk management, and other medication related consultation activities. Pharmacy profession is evolving steadily in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Pharmacists in UAE are so much occupied in their administrative and managerial duties that dispensing is mostly attended to by pharmacy technicians. Pharmacist-led patient counseling is limited to the dosage and frequency of medications and rarely adverse reactions and drug interactions with other medications. Therefore we decided to perform quantitative questionnaires study to explore the role of pharmacist in patient counseling in UAE, the evaluation of pharmacist's opinion on patient counseling and the potential determinants of personal consultation. Results show the frequency and nature of inquiries received by pharmacist. Five to twenty inquires per month are received from patient, most of them related to drug prescription and dose recommendation. Thirty nine percent of pharmacists received inquiries from doctors, most of them related to the dose and mode of action. Ninty two percent of the pharmacists agreed that patient counseling is their professional responsibility. About 82% of pharmacists agreed that counseling will increase their sales and enhance the reputation of their pharmacies. Seventy percent of pharmacists mentioned that they need to undergo training for effective counseling while 46% of pharmacists felt that more staff in the pharmacies would have a positive influence on patient compliance to medication therapies and patient safety. The potential determinants of personal consultation show that 52% of participants trusted pharmacist and 55% considered the pharmacist as a friend. Forty eight percent of participants visited the pharmacy for medical recommendation while 30% for drug compounding, 72% agreed that pharmacist conducts full instruction while 31% agreed
Morton, Cory M.; Peterson, N. Andrew; Schneider, John E.; Smith, Brian J.; Armstead, Theresa L.
This study applied multilevel modeling procedures with data from 678 community pharmacies and 382 residential census tracts in a Midwestern U.S. state to determine if two sets of variables: retail type (e.g., remotely owned, independently owned) and population demographics of the tracts in which outlets were located were associated with retail…
Odukoya, Olufunmilola K.; Stone, Jamie A.; Chui, Michelle A.
Background The use of e-prescribing is increasing annually, with over 788 million e-prescriptions received in US pharmacies in 2012. Approximately 9% of e-prescriptions have medication errors. Objective To describe the process used by community pharmacy staff to detect, explain, and correct e-prescription errors. Methods The error recovery conceptual framework was employed for data collection and analysis. 13 pharmacists and 14 technicians from five community pharmacies in Wisconsin participated in the study. A combination of data collection methods were utilized, including direct observations, interviews, and focus groups. The transcription and content analysis of recordings were guided by the three-step error recovery model. Results Most of the e-prescription errors were detected during the entering of information into the pharmacy system. These errors were detected by both pharmacists and technicians using a variety of strategies which included: (1) performing double checks of e-prescription information; (2) printing the e-prescription to paper and confirming the information on the computer screen with information from the paper printout; and (3) using colored pens to highlight important information. Strategies used for explaining errors included: (1) careful review of patient’ medication history; (2) pharmacist consultation with patients; (3) consultation with another pharmacy team member; and (4) use of online resources. In order to correct e-prescription errors, participants made educated guesses of the prescriber’s intent or contacted the prescriber via telephone or fax. When e-prescription errors were encountered in the community pharmacies, the primary goal of participants was to get the order right for patients by verifying the prescriber’s intent. Conclusion Pharmacists and technicians play an important role in preventing e-prescription errors through the detection of errors and the verification of prescribers’ intent. Future studies are needed
Basak, Subal Chandra; Sathyanarayana, Dondeti
Today, community pharmacists play an important role in any country as they take responsibility for patient’s medicine related needs for access to healthcare. However, in India only the supply of medicines remains the core activity of the community pharmacist. Most community pharmacists in the country still hardly offer patient‐oriented service. The role of the pharmacists in the community, and with it their medicine management, may change in the wake of the rapid growth of domestic medicine output and national healthcare expenditure. This article seeks to discuss the genesis of Indian community pharmacy, the majority of which are privately owned, and sketches its education, training and future prospects. PMID:23093872
Trevenen, Michelle; Murray, Kevin; Kendall, Peter A; Schneider, Carl R; Clifford, Rhonda
Objectives Pharmacy assistants are often the first point of contact for patients presenting in community pharmacies. The current role of pharmacy assistants in the supply of asthma-reliever medications (short-acting β-agonists) was identified as a barrier to appropriate guideline-based care. The aim of this research was to devise and evaluate a team-based intervention to formalise the role of pharmacy assistants and to improve asthma guideline-based care in community pharmacy. Design A controlled pre-post intervention study was conducted in 336 metropolitan pharmacies located in Perth, Western Australia. Pharmacies were stratified into 2 groups (187 intervention and 149 control) based on known confounders for asthma control. The intervention was designed using a common-sense approach and resources developed included a checklist, videos and web page. Delivery was via workshops (25 pharmacies) or academic detailing (162 pharmacies). Pharmacy practice was assessed preintervention and postintervention via covert simulated patient methodology. Primary outcome measures included patient medical referral, device use demonstration and counselling, internal referral and/or direct involvement of a pharmacist in consultations. Results There was a significant increase in patient medical referral in intervention pharmacies from 32% to 47% (p=0.0007) from preintervention to postintervention, while control pharmacies showed a non-significant decrease from 50% to 44% (p=0.22). Device counselling was not routinely carried out at any stage or in any cohort of this research and no significant changes in internal referral were observed. Conclusions Increases in medical referral indicate that asthma guideline compliance can be improved in community pharmacy if implementation employs a team-based approach and involves pharmacy assistants. However, results were variable and the intervention did not improve practice related to device counselling or internal referral/pharmacist involvement
Koerner, S D; Becker, F
The pharmacy profession has long used technology to more effectively bring health care to the patient. Navy pharmacy has embraced technology advances in its daily operations, from computers to dispensing robots. Evolving from the traditional role of compounding and dispensing specialists, pharmacists are establishing themselves as vital team members in direct patient care: on the ward, in ambulatory clinics, in specialty clinics, and in other specialty patient care programs (e.g., smoking cessation). An important part of the evolution is the timely access to the most up-to-date information available. Micromedex, Inc. (Denver, Colorado), has developed a number of computer CD-ROM-based full-text pharmacy, toxicology, emergency medicine, and patient education products. Micromedex is a recognized leader with regard to total pharmaceutical information availability. This article discusses the implementation of Micromedex products within the established Composite Healthcare Computer System and the subsequent use by and effect on the international Navy pharmacy community.
Bradley-Baker, Lynette R.; Truong, Hoai-An
The impact of pharmacy practice has been enhanced through additional graduate training opportunities, such as pharmacy residencies and dual-degree programs. This article compares and contrasts key aspects of pharmacy residencies and dual-degree programs, as well as examines the efforts of US colleges and schools of pharmacy in promoting these advanced training opportunities on their Web sites. Pharmacy residencies and dual-degree programs are complementary opportunities that allow student pharmacists to gain advanced knowledge and specialized skills beyond the traditional Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) degree. The combination of these credentials can be highly advantageous in a variety of practice settings. As pharmacists collaborate with healthcare providers and professionals from other disciplines, more support is needed to expand the availability and use of these cross-profession, advanced training opportunities to enhance the future of the pharmacy profession. PMID:23129844
Kotey, Bernice; Saini, Bandana; While, Lesley
The study investigated employee learning strategies in community pharmacies in Australia and the factors that explain differences among pharmacies in the strategies employed. A qualitative methodology was applied, involving semi-structured interviews with owners, managers, or senior employees of 12 pharmacies. The findings revealed learning…
Ling, Tristan; Bereznicki, Luke; Westbury, Juanita; Chalmers, Leanne; Peterson, Gregory; Ollington, Robert
Objective. To provide a computer-based learning method for pharmacy practice that is as effective as paper-based scenarios, but more engaging and less labor-intensive. Design. We developed a flexible and customizable computer simulation of community pharmacy. Using it, the students would be able to work through scenarios which encapsulate the entirety of a patient presentation. We compared the traditional paper-based teaching method to our computer-based approach using equivalent scenarios. The paper-based group had 2 tutors while the computer group had none. Both groups were given a prescenario and postscenario clinical knowledge quiz and survey. Assessment. Students in the computer-based group had generally greater improvements in their clinical knowledge score, and third-year students using the computer-based method also showed more improvements in history taking and counseling competencies. Third-year students also found the simulation fun and engaging. Conclusion. Our simulation of community pharmacy provided an educational experience as effective as the paper-based alternative, despite the lack of a human tutor. PMID:26056406
Bossier Parish Community Coll., Bossier City, LA.
Two Louisiana community colleges--Bossier Parish Community College (BPCC) and Delgado Community College (DCC)--proposed, developed, and implemented a collaborative Pharmacy Technician program for delivery through the use of two-way interactive video. The new program was inspired by new certification requirements instituted by the state of…
Gammie, Shivaun M; Rodgers, Ruth M; Loo, Ruey Leng; Corlett, Sarah A; Krska, Janet
Background Public awareness of pharmacy services designed to support the use of medicines is low, yet little is known about how the public view promotion of these services, or their preferences for the attributes of pharmacies from which they would like to receive them. Objective To compare the public’s preferred attributes of pharmacies and methods for promoting medicine-related services with community pharmacists’ perceptions of their customers’ views. Methods Parallel surveys were conducted in South East England, using a street survey for the general public and a postal survey for community pharmacists. Results Response rates were as follows: public 47.2% (1,000/2,012) and pharmacists 40.8% (341/836). Pharmacists’ perceptions of customer preferences for using the same pharmacy, independent ownership, and personal knowledge of the pharmacist were higher than actual public preferences. More pharmacists than public respondents also believed that approachability and previous good service would be important. The public’s desires for long opening hours and for a pharmacy with a good relationship with their doctor’s surgery were higher than pharmacists believed. The majority of the public prefer not to interrupt a pharmacist who is busy in the dispensary, which was not perceived by pharmacists as a factor. Pharmacists’ perceptions aligned more with the preferences of regular medicine users and frequent pharmacy users. Both groups viewed direct recommendation as the most effective approach for promoting pharmacy services, particularly by doctors and pharmacy staff. Pharmacists’ expectations of the effectiveness of posters and mass media methods were much higher than those of the public. Conclusion Pharmacists and pharmacy owners must ensure good relationships with local medical practices to enable them to maximize opportunities for using the promotional methods judged most effective in encouraging the use of medicine-related services. Staff must be
Patterson, Brandon J.; Sen, Sanchita; Bingham, Angela L.; Bowen, Jane F.; Ereshefsky, Benjamin; Siemianowski, Laura A.
Objective. To identify the temporal effect and factors associated with student pharmacist self-initiation of interventions during acute patient care advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPE). Methods. During the APPE, student pharmacists at an academic medical center recorded their therapeutic interventions and who initiated the intervention throughout clinical rotations. At the end of the APPE student pharmacists completed a demographic survey. Results. Sixty-two student pharmacists were included. Factors associated with lower rates of self-initiated interventions were infectious diseases and pediatrics APPEs and an intention to pursue a postgraduate residency. Timing of the APPE, previous specialty elective course completion, and previous hospital experience did not result in any significant difference in self-initiated recommendations. Conclusion. Preceptors should not base practice experience expectations for self-initiated interventions on previous student experience or future intentions. Additionally, factors leading to lower rates of self-initiated interventions on infectious diseases or pediatrics APPEs should be explored. PMID:27756924
Bio, Laura L; Patterson, Brandon J; Sen, Sanchita; Bingham, Angela L; Bowen, Jane F; Ereshefsky, Benjamin; Siemianowski, Laura A
Objective. To identify the temporal effect and factors associated with student pharmacist self-initiation of interventions during acute patient care advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPE). Methods. During the APPE, student pharmacists at an academic medical center recorded their therapeutic interventions and who initiated the intervention throughout clinical rotations. At the end of the APPE student pharmacists completed a demographic survey. Results. Sixty-two student pharmacists were included. Factors associated with lower rates of self-initiated interventions were infectious diseases and pediatrics APPEs and an intention to pursue a postgraduate residency. Timing of the APPE, previous specialty elective course completion, and previous hospital experience did not result in any significant difference in self-initiated recommendations. Conclusion. Preceptors should not base practice experience expectations for self-initiated interventions on previous student experience or future intentions. Additionally, factors leading to lower rates of self-initiated interventions on infectious diseases or pediatrics APPEs should be explored.
Nielsen, Suzanne; Van Hout, Marie Claire
There is growing evidence that expanded supply of take-home naloxone to prevent opioid overdose deaths is needed. Potential routes for expansion of naloxone provision include through community pharmacies. The aim of this scoping review is to establish what is known about community pharmacy supply of naloxone, in light of unique challenges and opportunities present in pharmacy settings. A scoping review methodology was employed using the six stage iterative process advocated by Arksey and O'Malley (2005) and Levac et al. (2010). Searches used key words and terms such as 'naloxone'; 'overdose prevention/drug overdose/opiate overdose'; 'community/retail pharmacy'; 'pharmacist/pharmacy/community pharmacy/pharmaceutical services'; 'professional practice/role'; 'community care'; attitude of health personnel'; 'training/supply/cost'. Appropriate search terms were selected for each database. After initial exploratory searches, comprehensive searches were conducted with Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Medline, Medline in Process, Embase, PsycINFO and CINAHL. Eligibility criteria centered on whether studies broadly described supply of naloxone in community pharmacy or had content relating to community pharmacy supply. The search identified 95 articles, of which 16 were related to pharmacy supply of naloxone. Five themes were presented after initial review of the data and consultation with the project Expert Group, and are; 'Pharmacists Perceptions of Naloxone: Facilitators and Barriers', 'Patient Populations: Identification and Recruitment', 'Supply Systems and Cost', 'Legal Issues', and 'Training of Pharmacists and Community Pharmacy Naloxone Recipients'. Findings from this scoping review suggest that community pharmacy based supply of take-home naloxone warrants the community pharmacy based route for distribution of take home naloxone provision warrants further consideration and development. Existing strengths include a range of established supply models, and
Rapport, F L; Doel, M A; Jerzembek, G S
This paper presents a novel, qualitative, bio-photographic study with intertextual analysis highlighting the relationship between community pharmacy workspace and practice. Sixteen pharmacists working across pharmacy types such as independent shops, large and small pharmacy chains and multiple pharmacies such as those in supermarkets participated in data capture and feedback consultation. Findings disclosed workspaces unfit for purpose and a workforce ill at ease with their new professional identity, involving increasingly complex tasks in health provision and retail. There was conflict between delegating to others and taking personal responsibility, and there were pressures from a demanding public within the context of a target-driven, litigious society. The study highlights that innovative, mixed methods in this context reveal nuanced, rich data.
Thompson, Lee; Bidwell, Susan
Community pharmacies have a complex relationship with the field of health care. This is especially so in countries where pharmaceuticals are dispensed from privately owned retail premises. Using qualitative data and social theoretical concepts, we argue that the time, space and emotional entanglements that take place in and through these sites are far from simple and can be more or less productive in terms of meeting customer needs and fostering professional identity for pharmacists. Unpicking this complexity has the potential to highlight lacunae that result from differential expectations.
Fakih, Souhiela; Batra, Peter; Gatny, Heather H; Kusunoki, Yasamin; Barber, Jennifer S.; Farris, Karen B.
Background Unintended pregnancy is a major public health problem in the United States.. Correct contraceptive use can reduce the rate of unintended pregnancy. Community pharmacies are well positioned to provide contraceptives and advise about contraception. Objectives (1) determine young women’s perceptions and experiences with contraception supply in community pharmacies and (2) identify whether very pharmacy characteristics predicted positive experiences. Design This study was comprised of two cross-sectional surveys including an online women’s pharmacy perceptions and experiences (PPE) survey and a faxed/observed survey of community pharmacies. Setting One County in Michigan, USA Participants Young women and community pharmacies Main outcome measure The two surveys were merged to explore pharmacy characteristics that may impact women’s perceptions and experiences with community pharmacies. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to explore relationships between pharmacy characteristics and positive outcomes. Results The response rate for the PPE survey was 54% (n= 334/637). Data from all community pharmacies in the county was retrieved via fax (n= 41/94, 43.6%) or observation (n= 53/94, 56.4%). Women were included in this analysis if they indicated a regular (most commonly used) pharmacy in the county of interest (n=210). Over 50% of women (n= 125/210) visited a pharmacy more than once per month. Sixty percent of women were currently using something to prevent pregnancy (n=124/210, 60.8%). Thirty-five percent of women had a positive experience (n=73/210, 34.8%). In the multiple logistic regression, women who visited a chain pharmacy had almost 65% lower odds of an overall positive experience with their regular pharmacy, compared to women who visited a grocery or mass merchandise pharmacy (OR: 0.35, 95% CI: 0.16, 0.75). Conclusion Young women visit community pharmacies and use contraceptives frequently. Interventions need to be developed and
Thomas, Selby Greer; And Others
A two-year community pharmacy clinical experience using self-directed learning modules is described and evaluated. The modules were designed to stimulate interest in community pharmacy, motivate learning by demonstrating applicability of didactic work to contemporary practice, develop communication and psychosocial skills, and promote…
Magarian, Edward O.; And Others
An interdisciplinary project provided ambulatory care clinical training for pharmacy and nursing students in community-based pharmacies, promoting early detection and medical follow-up of common health problems within the community. Students learned new clinical skills in patient health assessment, new diagnostic technologies, patient education…
Scahill, Shane; Fowler, Jane L; Hattingh, H Laetitia; Kelly, Fiona; Wheeler, Amanda J
Objective: Mental health–related problems pose a serious issue for primary care, and community pharmacy could make a significant contribution, but there is a dearth of information. Methods: This article reports synthesis of the literature on mental health interventions across a range of pharmacy models, and pharmacy services in contexts beyond mental health. To best inform the design of a community pharmacy medication support intervention for mental health consumers, the literature was reported as a conceptual schema and subsequent recommendations for development, implementation and evaluation of the service. A broad conceptualisation was taken in this review. In addition to mental health and community pharmacy literature, policy/initiatives, organisational culture and change management principles, and evaluative processes were reviewed. Key words were selected and literature reviews undertaken using EMBASE, PubMed, CINAHL and Web of Science. Results: Recommendations were made around: medication support intervention design, consumer recruitment, implementation in community pharmacy and evaluation. Surprisingly, there is a scarce literature relating to mental health interventions in community pharmacy. Even so, findings from other pharmacy models and broader medicines management for chronic illness can inform development of a medication support service for mental health consumers. Key learnings include the need to expand medicines management beyond adherence with respect to both intervention design and evaluation. Conclusion: The conceptual framework is grounded in the need for programmes to be embedded within pharmacies that are part of the health system as a whole. PMID:26770802
Hornsby, Lori B.; Phillippe, Haley M.; Kelley, Kristi; McDonough, Sharon
Objectives. To determine strengths of and quality improvements needed in advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPE) through a systematic course review process. Design. Following the “developing a curriculum” (DACUM) format, course materials and assessments were reviewed by the curricular subcommittee responsible for experiential education and by key stakeholders. Course sequence overview and data were presented and discussed. A course review worksheet was completed, outlining strengths and areas for improvement. Assessment. Student feedback was positive. Strengths and areas for improvement were identified. The committee found reviewing the sequence of 8 APPE courses to be challenging. Conclusions. Course reviews are a necessary process in curricular quality improvement but can be difficult to accomplish. We found overall feedback about APPEs was positive and student performance was high. Areas identified as needing improvement will be the focus of continuous quality improvement of the APPE sequence. PMID:21931454
Patterson, Brandon J; Bakken, Brianne K; Doucette, William R; Urmie, Julie M; McDonough, Randal P
The evolving health care system necessitates pharmacy organizations' adjustments by delivering new services and establishing inter-organizational relationships. One approach supporting pharmacy organizations in making changes may be informal learning by technicians, pharmacists, and pharmacy owners. Informal learning is characterized by a four-step cycle including intent to learn, action, feedback, and reflection. This framework helps explain individual and organizational factors that influence learning processes within an organization as well as the individual and organizational outcomes of those learning processes. A case study of an Iowa independent community pharmacy with years of experience in offering patient care services was made. Nine semi-structured interviews with pharmacy personnel revealed initial evidence in support of the informal learning model in practice. Future research could investigate more fully the informal learning model in delivery of patient care services in community pharmacies.
Corelli, Robin L; Aschebrook-Kilfoy, Briseis; Kim, Gilwan; Ambrose, Peter J; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek
The availability of tobacco and alcohol products in community pharmacies contradicts the pharmacists' Code of Ethics and presents challenges for a profession that is overwhelmingly not in favor of the sale of these products in its practice settings. The primary aim of this study was to estimate the proportion of pharmacies that sell tobacco products and/or alcoholic beverages and to characterize promotion of these products. The proportion of pharmacies that sell non-prescription nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) products as aids to smoking cessation also was estimated. Among 250 randomly-selected community pharmacies in Los Angeles, 32.8% sold cigarettes, and 26.0% sold alcohol products. Cigarettes were more likely to be available in traditional chain pharmacies and grocery stores than in independently-owned pharmacies (100% versus 10.8%; P < 0.001), and traditional chain drug stores and grocery stores were more likely to sell alcoholic beverages than were independently-owned pharmacies (87.5% vs. 5.4%; P < 0.001). Thirty-four (41.5%) of the 82 pharmacies that sold cigarettes and 47 (72.3%) of the 65 pharmacies that sold alcohol also displayed promotional materials for these products. NRT products were merchandised by 58% of pharmacies. Results of this study suggest that when given a choice, pharmacists choose not to sell tobacco or alcohol products.
McClellan, Nicole H.; Byrd, Debbie C.
Objective. To use the capacity ratio to determine solvency in 10 advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) offered by a college of pharmacy. Methods. Availability in each APPE was determined based on preceptor responses, and student need was tabulated from 3 preference forms. Capacity ratios were calculated by dividing preceptor availability by the sum of student requests plus 20% of student requests; ratios ≥ 1 indicated solvency. For the 3 required APPEs, minimum capacity ratios were calculated by dividing availability by the sum of student number plus 20% of the student number. When possible, the capacity ratio for the APPE was calculated by geographic zone. Results. The 3 required APPEs had statewide minimum capacity ratios that were consistent with solvency: advanced community (2.8), advanced institutional (1.6), and ambulatory care (2.5). Only 3 of 7 elective APPEs demonstrated solvency. The elective APPEs for which requests exceeded availability were association management (0.8), emergency medicine (0.8), cardiology (0.6), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) ambulatory care clinic (0.4). Analysis by zone revealed additional insolvent practice experiences in some locations. Conclusions. The capacity ratio allowed for assessment of 10 APPEs and identification of practice experience areas that need expansion. While the capacity ratio is a proposed standardized assessment, it does have some limitations, such as an inability to account for practice experience quality, scheduling conflicts, and geographic zone issues. PMID:23519687
Gubbins, Paul O; Klepser, Michael E; Dering-Anderson, Allison M; Bauer, Karri A; Darin, Kristin M; Klepser, Stephanie; Matthias, Kathryn R; Scarsi, Kimberly
OBJECTIVES To identify opportunities to perform point-of-care (POC) testing and/or screening for infectious diseases in community pharmacies, provide an overview of such tests and how they are used in current practice, discuss how the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (CLIA) affect pharmacists performing POC testing, and identify and discuss barriers and provide recommendations for those wanting to establish POC testing for infectious diseases services in community pharmacies. DATA SOURCES PubMed and Google Scholar were searched from November 2012 through May 2013 and encompassed the years 2000 and beyond for the narrative review section of this article using the search terms rapid diagnostic tests, POC testing and infectious diseases, pharmacy services, CLIA waiver, and collaborative drug therapy management. All state boards of pharmacy in the United States were contacted and their regulatory and legislative websites accessed in 2012 and January 2013 to review relevant pharmacy practice laws. DATA SYNTHESIS POC testing for infectious diseases represents a significant opportunity to expand services in community pharmacies. Pharmacist education and training are addressing knowledge deficits in good laboratory practices and test performance and interpretation. Federal regulations do not define the qualifications for those who perform CLIA-waived tests, yet few pharmacists perform such services. Fewer than 20% of states address POC testing in their statutes and regulations governing pharmacy. CONCLUSION POC testing for infectious diseases could benefit patients and society and represents an opportunity to expand pharmacy services in community pharmacies. Existing barriers to the implementation of such services in community pharmacies, including deficits in pharmacist training and education along with state regulatory and legislative variance and vagueness in statutes governing pharmacy, are not insurmountable.
Holder, Maurice S.; Lewis, Henry, III; Kirksey, Otis W.; Harris, Cynthia
The Florida A & M University College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Services' commitment to community outreach is evidenced in these program emphases: acceptance and retention portfolios for students and pharmacies; effective recruiting of local students into college programs; attention to critical health care deficiencies; applied research;…
Eastern Iowa Community Coll. District, Davenport. Office of Academic Affairs and Planning.
In preparation for the possible establishment of a Pharmacy Technician program, the Eastern Iowa Community College District convened a Developing a Curriculum (DACUM) workshop in December 1989, involving a panel of eight pharmacy technicians (PT's). Panelists helped to develop a DACUM chart, graphically describing the occupation in terms of…
Eastern Iowa Community Coll. District, Davenport. Office of Academic Affairs and Planning.
In January 1990, there were no Pharmacy Technician (PT) programs in Iowa. To determine the need for a PT program in the Eastern Iowa Community College District, a survey was conducted of 958 pharmacy-related businesses in Iowa and the Quad Cities of Illinois believed to be employing PT's. The survey gathered information on personnel employed;…
Spinks, Jean; Jackson, John; Kirkpatrick, Carl M; Wheeler, Amanda J
Pharmacy workforce planning has been relatively static for many decades. However, like all industries, health care is exposed to potentially disruptive technological changes. Automated dispensing systems have been available to pharmacy for over a decade and have been applied to a range of repetitive technical processes which are at risk of error, including record keeping, item selection, labeling and dose packing. To date, most applications of this technology have been at the local level, such as hospital pharmacies or single-site community pharmacies. However, widespread implementation of a more centralized automated dispensing model, such as the 'hub and spoke' model currently being debated in the United Kingdom, could cause a 'technology shock,' delivering industry-wide efficiencies, improving medication accessibility and lowering costs to consumers and funding agencies. Some of pharmacists' historical roles may be made redundant, and new roles may be created, decoupling pharmacists to a certain extent from the dispensing and supply process. It may also create an additional opportunity for pharmacists to be acknowledged and renumerated for professional services that extend beyond the dispensary. Such a change would have significant implications for the organization and funding of community pharmacy services as well as pharmacy workforce planning. This paper discusses the prospect of centralized automated dispensing systems and how this may impact on the pharmacy workforce. It concludes that more work needs to be done in the realm of pharmacy workforce planning to ensure that the introduction of any new technology delivers optimal outcomes to consumers, insurers and the pharmacy workforce.
Riley, David A.
Describes results of a survey of all West Virginia pharmacists concerning their views on continuing education and advanced pharmacy degrees. Conclusions indicate a small percentage of pharmacists are interested in a higher degree via continuing education. (Author/CT)
White, Lesley; Clark, Christopher
This study investigates the views of a range of stakeholders regarding the effectiveness of service quality as a differentiating position for community pharmacy. Using qualitative methodology, 20 in-depth interviews were conducted with various stakeholders of the retail pharmacy market, including community pharmacists. It was found that current service levels were perceived to be variable, with a strong level of concern evident that the rhetoric of professionalism in community pharmacy is not always matched by the reality. There was disagreement regarding whether potential market entrants such as supermarkets would be capable of delivering a high quality of service and indeed whether that would even be their objective.
Teichert, Martina; Schoenmakers, Tim; Kylstra, Nico; Mosk, Berend; Bouvy, Marcel L; van de Vaart, Frans; De Smet, Peter A G M; Wensing, Michel
Background The quality of pharmaceutical care in community pharmacies in the Netherlands has been assessed annually since 2008. The initial set has been further developed with pharmacists and patient organizations, the healthcare inspectorate, the government and health insurance companies. The set over 2012 was the first set of quality indicators for community pharmacies which was validated and supported by all major stakeholders. The aims of this study were to describe the validated set of quality indicators for community pharmacies and to report their scores over 2012. In subanalyses the score development over 5 years was described for those indicators, that have been surveyed before and remained unchanged. Methods Community pharmacists in the Netherlands were invited in 2013 to provide information for the set of 2012. Quality indicators were mapped by categories relevant for pharmaceutical care and defined for structures, processes and dispensing outcomes. Scores for categorically-measured quality indicators were presented as the percentage of pharmacies reporting the presence of a quality aspect. For numerical quality indicators, the mean of all reported scores was expressed. In subanalyses for those indicators that had been questioned previously, scores were collected from earlier measurements for pharmacies providing their scores in 2012. Multilevel analysis was used to assess the consistency of scores within one pharmacy over time by the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Results For the set in 2012, 1739 Dutch community pharmacies (88 % of the total) provided information for 66 quality indicators in 10 categories. Indicator scores on the presence of quality structures showed relatively high quality levels. Scores for processes and dispensing outcomes were lower. Subanalyses showed that overall indicators scores improved within pharmacies, but this development differed between pharmacies. Conclusions A set of validated quality indicators provided
Bacci, Jennifer L; Klepser, Donald; Tilley, Heather; Smith, Jaclyn K; Klepser, Michael E
Building collaborative working relationships (CWRs) with physicians or other prescribers is an important step for community pharmacists in establishing a collaborative practice agreement (CPA). This case study describes the individual, context, and exchange factors that drive pharmacist-physician CWR development for community pharmacy-based point-of-care (POC) testing. Two physicians who had entered in a CPA with community pharmacists to provide POC testing were surveyed and interviewed. High scores on the pharmacist-physician collaborative index indicated a high level of collaboration between the physicians and the pharmacist who initiated the relationship. Trust was established through the physicians' personal relationships with the pharmacist or due to the community pharmacy organization's strong reputation. The physicians' individual perceptions of community pharmacy-based POC testing affected their CWRs and willingness to establish a CPA. These findings suggest that exchange characteristics remain significant factors in CWR development. Individual factors may also contribute to physicians' willingness to advance their CWR to include a CPA for POC testing.
Wright, David; Kirkdale, Charlotte L.; Desborough, James A.; Thornley, Tracey
Introduction The UK government advocates person-centred healthcare which is ideal for supporting patients to make appropriate lifestyle choices and to address non-adherence. The Community Pharmacy Future group, a collaboration between community pharmacy companies and independents in the UK, introduced a person-centred service for patients with multiple long-term conditions in 50 pharmacies in Northern England. Objective Describe the initial findings from the set up and delivery of a novel community pharmacy-based person-centred service. Method Patients over fifty years of age prescribed more than one medicine including at least one for cardiovascular disease or diabetes were enrolled. Medication review and person-centred consultation resulted in agreed health goals and steps towards achieving them. Data were collated and analysed to determine appropriateness of patient recruitment process and quality of outcome data collection. A focus group of seven pharmacists was used to ascertain initial views on the service. Results Within 3 months of service initiation, 683 patients had baseline clinical data recorded, of which 86.9% were overweight or obese, 53.7% had hypertension and 80.8% had high cardiovascular risk. 544 (77.2%) patients set at least one goal during the first consultation with 120 (22.1%) setting multiple goals. A majority of patients identified their goals as improvement in condition, activity or quality of life. Pharmacists could see the potential patient benefit and the extended role opportunities the service provided. Allowing patients to set their own goals occasionally identified gaps to be addressed in pharmacist knowledge. Conclusion Pharmacists successfully recruited a large number of patients who were appropriate for such a service. Patients were willing to identify goals with the pharmacist, the majority of which, if met, may result in improvements in quality of life. While challenges in delivery were acknowledged, allowing patients to identify
Scahill, Shane; Harrison, Jeff; Carswell, Peter; Shaw, John
The aim of our paper is to expose the challenges primary health care reform is exerting on community pharmacy and other groups. Our paper is underpinned by the notion that a broad understanding of the issues facing pharmacy will help facilitate engagement by pharmacy and stakeholders in primary care. New models of remuneration are required to deliver policy expectations. Equally important is redefining the place of community pharmacy, outlining the roles that are mooted and contributions that can be made by community pharmacy. Consistent with international policy shifts, New Zealand primary health care policy outlines broad directives which community pharmacy must respond to. Policymakers are calling for greater integration and collaboration, a shift from product to patient-centred care; a greater population health focus and the provision of enhanced cognitive services. To successfully implement policy, community pharmacists must change the way they think and act. Community pharmacy must improve relationships with other primary care providers, District Health Boards (DHBs) and Primary Health Organisations (PHOs). There is a requirement for DHBs to realign funding models which increase integration and remove the requirement to sell products in pharmacy in order to deliver services. There needs to be a willingness for pharmacy to adopt a user pays policy. General practitioners (GPs) and practice nurses (PNs) need to be aware of the training and skills that pharmacists have, and to understand what pharmacists can offer that benefits their patients and ultimately general practice. There is also a need for GPs and PNs to realise the fiscal and professional challenges community pharmacy is facing in its attempt to improve pharmacy services and in working more collaboratively within primary care. Meanwhile, community pharmacists need to embrace new approaches to practice and drive a clearly defined agenda of renewal in order to meet the needs of health funders, patients
Background Reports of regulatory and evidentiary gaps have raised concerns about the marketing and use of natural health products (NHPs). The majority of NHPs offered for sale are purchased at a community pharmacy and pharmacists are “front-line” health professionals involved in the marketing and provision of NHPs. To date, the involvement of pharmacists in pharmacy care involving NHPs and the degree to which concerns over the safety, efficacy, marketing and regulation of NHPs are addressed in pharmacy care in Canada have not been studied. Methods Using Qualtrics, a web-based data collection and analysis software, and a study instrument made up of fifteen (15) open-ended, closed and rating scale questions, we surveyed the attitudes and practices of 403 community pharmacists in the Canadian province of Alberta regarding NHPs offered for sale in community pharmacies. Results The majority of pharmacists surveyed (276; 68%) recommend NHPs to clients sometimes to very often. Vitamin D, calcium, multivitamins, prenatal vitamins, probiotics and fish oil and omega-3 fatty acids were the most frequently recommended NHPs. The most common indications for which NHPs are recommended include bone and musculoskeletal disorders, maintenance of general health, gastrointestinal disorders and pregnancy. Review articles published in the Pharmacist’s Letter and Canadian Pharmacists Journal were the primary basis for recommending NHPs. The majority of pharmacists surveyed (339; 84%) recommend the use of NHPs concurrently with conventional drugs, while a significant number and proportion (125; 31%) recommend alternative use. Pharmacists in the study overwhelmingly reported providing counselling on NHPs to clients based on information obtained mainly from the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database. Conclusions The study findings indicate a high prevalence of pharmacy care relating to NHPs among study participants. Although pharmacists’ practices around NHPs are consistent with
Dosea, Aline S; Brito, Giselle C; Santos, Lincoln M C; Marques, Tatiane C; Balisa-Rocha, Blície; Pimentel, Deborah; Bueno, Denise; Lyra, Divaldo P
When pharmacists incorporate clinical practice into their routine, barriers and facilitators influence the implementation of patient care services. Three focus groups were conducted with 11 pharmacists who were working for the Farmácia Popular do Brasil program on the establishment, implementation, and consolidation of clinical pharmacy services. The perception of the pharmacists in Brazil about the program was that it facilitated access to health care and medication. The distance between neighboring cities made it difficult for patients to return for services. Lack of staff training created a lack of communication skills and knowledge. The pharmacists wanted to have increased technical support, skill development opportunities, and monitoring of researchers who assessed progress of the service. Pharmacists overcame many of their insecurities and felt more proactive and committed to quality service. Positive experiences in service implementations have shown that it is possible to develop a model of clinical services in community pharmacies.
Reviews the research pertaining to pharmacy health promotion and examples of good practice in the UK. Concludes with a discussion about the contribution pharmacists can make and about some issues that will need to be overcome first. (Author/MKA)
Evans, Andrew M; Wood, Fiona C; Carter, Ben
Background Influenza is a significant cause of morbidity and excess mortality, yet vaccine coverage in the UK remains below target. Community pharmacies are increasingly being promoted as an alternative to vaccination by GPs. Aim To explore and verify the factors that influence the relative performance of pharmacies providing NHS influenza vaccinations. Design and setting A mixed methods study utilising qualitative, semi-structured interviews and quantitative analysis of predictors of vaccination numbers in community pharmacies in Wales. Method Interviews were conducted with 16 pharmacists who participated in the Welsh national pharmacy influenza service in 2013–2014. A purposive sampling strategy was used. Qualitative findings were analysed using framework analysis. Potential predictors of vaccination numbers were identified from interviews and a literature review, and included in a multivariable regression model. Results The contribution of community pharmacies towards vaccination in Wales is small. Findings suggest that community pharmacies reach younger at-risk individuals, in whom vaccine uptake is low, in greater proportion than influenza vaccination programmes as a whole. Extended opening hours and urban locations were positively associated with the number of vaccinations given, although pharmacists reported that workload, vaccine costs, unforeseen delays, lack of public awareness, and GPs’ views of the service limited their contribution. Pharmacists, aware of the potential for conflict with GPs, moderated their behaviour to mitigate such risk. Conclusion Before community pharmacies take greater responsibility for delivering healthcare services, obstacles including increasing pharmacist capacity, vaccine procurement, health service delays, managing GP–pharmacy relationships, and improving public awareness must be overcome. PMID:26965025
Objective: Patients’ opinion about prevalence of pharmaceutical services available in a community pharmacy among patients living in a rural area of the United Kingdom. The secondary objective was to identify appropriate action(s) to enhance patients’ awareness of pharmaceutical services in rural areas. Methods: A self-administered, anonymous questionnaire was distributed to patients visiting a community pharmacy in Eye, Suffolk, United Kingdom between July and August, 2015. The main inclusion criterion was living in a rural area. Comparisons were performed using chi-square tests and logistic regression. Results: The study included 103 respondents: 70 women (69.0%) and 33 men (32.0%), aged 16–85 years. Most respondents declared the primary tasks of a community pharmacy were dispensing medicines (86.4% of respondents) and repeat dispensing (72.8% of respondents). Additionally, 23.3% of respondents treated minor ailments at the pharmacy, including bacterial/viral infections, minor injuries, stomach problems, and allergies. The Medicines Use Review service was the only advanced service used in this pharmacy (12.6% of respondents), primarily by men. Younger patients were more familiar with the term of pharmaceutical care (p<0.05; OR=0.33). Conclusions: Only a few pharmaceutical services are utilized by people living in rural areas in the UK, namely prescription dispensing, repeat dispensing, and sale of medications that support self-care for minor ailments. We found an overall poor awareness of the expanded variety of pharmaceutical services encouraged by the community pharmacy contract introduced in the UK in 2005. Therefore, politicians, pharmacists, and pharmacy experts should actively promote these advanced pharmaceutical services in rural areas. PMID:27785163
Shawahna, Ramzi; Haddad, Aseel; Khawaja, Baraa; Raie, Rand; Zaneen, Sireen; Edais, Tasneem
Background Medication dispensing errors (MDEs) are frequent in community pharmacy practice. A definition of MDEs and scenarios representing MDE situations in Palestinian community pharmacy practice were not previously approached using formal consensus techniques. Objective This study was conducted to achieve consensus on a definition of MDEs and a wide range of scenarios that should or should not be considered as MDEs in Palestinian community pharmacy practice by a panel of community pharmacists. Setting Community pharmacy practice in Palestine. Method This was a descriptive study using the Delphi technique. A panel of fifty community pharmacists was recruited from different geographical locations of the West Bank of Palestine. A three round Delphi technique was followed to achieve consensus on a proposed definition of MDEs and 83 different scenarios representing potential MDEs using a nine-point scale. Main outcome measure Agreement or disagreement of a panel of community pharmacists on a proposed definition of MDEs and a series of scenarios representing potential MDEs. Results In the first Delphi round, views of key contact community pharmacists on MDEs were explored and situations representing potential MDEs were collected. In the second Delphi round, consensus was achieved to accept the proposed definition and to include 49 (59 %) of the 83 proposed scenarios as MDEs. In the third Delphi round, consensus was achieved to include further 13 (15.7 %) scenarios as MDEs, exclude 9 (10.8 %) scenarios and the rest of 12 (14.5 %) scenarios were considered equivocal based on the opinions of the panelists. Conclusion Consensus on a definition of MDEs and scenarios representing MDE situations in Palestinian community pharmacy practice was achieved using a formal consensus technique. The use of consensual definitions and scenarios representing MDE situations in community pharmacy practice might minimize methodological variations and their significant effects on the
Banks, Jonathan; Shaw, Alison; Weiss, Marjorie C
The present paper examines the developing role of the medicines counter assistant (MCA) based in community pharmacies in the UK. In recent years, community pharmacies have been promoted as sources of primary care advice, and this has been accompanied by an increase in the number of pharmacy-only medicines made available for purchase without prescription. At the forefront of these changes is the MCA, who responds to requests for medicines and also advises customers seeking guidance on treating minor illness. This paper uses qualitative data drawn from non-participant observation of interactions between MCAs and customers in six community pharmacies in the south-west region of the UK. The data show communication in the pharmacy to be a complex process, characterised by multiple discourses including medical, retail and pharmaceutical information. At times, the different discourses worked in equilibrium, but there were also regular occurrences of clashes between the different discourses, where interaction became problematic. The authors argue that the current focus on pharmacy protocols to structure communication is, in some cases, too rigid for meaningful interaction and does not acknowledge the complexity of the encounter. A specific way forward for developing the interaction is discussed.
Taha, Nur Akmar; Tee, Ooi Guat
Objectives: Tobacco cessation is the primary goal of tobacco control measures. Community pharmacists are possible providers of tobacco cessation counselling due to their close contact with the public and the availability of non-prescription nicotine replacement therapies in pharmacies. However, community pharmacists often do not provide tobacco…
Weber, Natalie C; Klepser, Michael E; Akers, Julie M; Klepser, Donald G; Adams, Alex J
Review of point-of-care (POC) testing in community pharmacies, availability and specifications of CLIA-waived infectious disease POC tests, and provide recommendations for future community pharmacy POC models in an effort to improve patient outcomes while reducing antibiotic resistance. PubMed and Medscape were searched for the following keywords: infectious disease, community pharmacy, rapid diagnostic tests, rapid assay, and POC tests. All studies utilizing POC tests in community pharmacies for infectious disease were included. Studies, articles, recommendations, and posters were reviewed and information categorized into general implementation of POC testing in community pharmacies, CLIA-waived tests available, Influenza, Group A Streptococcus pharyngitis, Helicobacter pylori, HIV and Hepatitis C. POC testing provides a unique opportunity for community pharmacists to implement collaborative disease management programmes for infectious diseases and reduce over-prescribing of antibiotics and improve patient outcomes through early detection, treatment and/or referral to a specialist.
Fierke, Kerry K.; Lepp, Gardner A.
The article shares the outcomes of a practice called Intention/Reflection (I/R) when applied to a group of ten students in a five-week course involving an international advanced pharmacy practice experience. Developed by the authors and founded on a combination of theoretical principles, this practice is unique because of the blend of formative…
Karig, Arnold W.; And Others
A survey of South Carolina pharmacists investigated the desired entry level pharmacy degree, years of study required, perceived adequacy of the respondents' current education, current pursuit of credit courses and continuing education programs, and interest in obtaining advanced degrees. Results suggest an off-campus program would be…
Background Safety culture assessment is increasingly recognized as an important component in healthcare quality improvement, also in pharmacies. One of the most commonly used and rigorously validated tools to measure safety culture is the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire; SAQ. This study presents the validation of the SAQ for use in Swedish pharmacies. The psychometric properties of the translated questionnaire are presented Methods The original English language version of the SAQ was translated and adapted to the Swedish context and distributed by e-mail. The survey was carried out on a national basis, covering all 870 Swedish community pharmacies. In total, 7,244 questionnaires were distributed. Scale psychometrics were analysed using Cronbach alphas and intercorrelations among the scales. Multiple group confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted. Results SAQ data from 828 community pharmacies in Sweden, including 4,090 (60.22%) pharmacy personnel out of 6,683 eligible respondents, were received. There were 252 (28.97%) pharmacies that met the inclusion criteria of having at least 5 respondents and a minimum response rate of 60% within that pharmacy. The coefficient alpha value for each of the SAQ scales ranged from .72 to .89. The internal consistency results, in conjunction with the confirmatory factor analysis results, demonstrate that the Swedish translation of the SAQ has acceptable to good psychometric properties. Perceptions of the pharmacy (Teamwork Climate, Job Satisfaction, Perceptions of Management, Safety Climate, and Working Conditions) were moderately to highly correlated with one another whereas attitudes about stress (Stress Recognition) had only low correlations with other factors. Perceptions of management showed the most variability across pharmacies (SD = 26.66), whereas Stress Recognition showed the least (SD = 18.58). There was substantial variability ranging from 0% to 100% in the percent of positive scores for each of the factors
Barris Blundell, Damià; Rodríguez Zarzuelo, Carmen; Sabio Sánchez, Belén; Gutiérrez álvarez, José Luis; Navarro Visa, Elena; Muñoz Valdés, Oscar; Garrido Jiménez, Belén; Gómez, Rocío Sánchez
Objectives To identify postmenopausal women with risk of osteoporosis through quantitative ultrasound imaging (QUI) and to value the medical intervention after the determination of the bone mineral density (BMD). Methods Cross-sectional descriptive study developed in a community pharmacy. During the month of June of 2005 the community pharmacy enrolled postmenopausal women into the study. Women in treatment with calcium, vitamin D, hormone replacement therapy, estrogen receptor modulators, calcitonin or biphosphonates were considered criteria for exclusion. To all the women that consent to participate, the pharmacist measured BMD with the device Sahara Hologic Ultrasound Bone Densitometer at right calcaneus. Following the World Health Organization, women were classified as osteoporotic if their T-Score was less than -2.5 and as osteopenic if their T-Score ranged between -2.5 and -1.0. Results Of the 100 women screened, 11 (11%) presented risk of osteoporosis and 61 (61%) of osteopenia. The 18.5% postmenopausal women with body mass index lesser than 30 presented risk of osteoporosis and the 63.0% osteopenia. Conclusions The QUI constitutes a useful tool in community pharmacy for the screening of osteoporosis and it supposes a greater integration of the community pharmacy within the health care. PMID:25247006
Chui, Michelle A.; Stone, Jamie A.
Objectives To describe and explore handoffs in community pharmacy. Design Descriptive, exploratory, non-experimental study Setting Wisconsin, August – October, 2008 Participants Community pharmacists Intervention Brief, face-to-face, Semi-structured interviews Main outcome Measure Information on characteristics of handoffs, including the reasons for handoffs, what kind of information is shared during handoffs, and how information is shared. Results The overarching reasons handoffs are done in community pharmacy are because some of the necessary information is confusing, contradictory, or absent, and/or the drug product is not in stock. Handoff information typically consists of a description of the problem, the current status of the problem, what information are still needed, and future steps to resolve the problem. Handoffs can occur synchronously during a shift change or asynchronously when one pharmacist signs out at the end of the day, and another pharmacist opens the pharmacy the next morning. While synchronous handoffs are generally verbal in nature, asynchronous handoff information is primarily conveyed via paper or electronic notes on the dispensing computer system. Conclusion Our results suggest that handoffs do take place in community pharmacies and that the process is unstructured and variable. Future studies should fully characterize this process and explore possible strategies for improvement. PMID:23229978
Pronk, M. C. M.; Blom, A. Th. G.; Van Burg, A.; Jonkers, R.
Identifies barriers and facilitators to the implementation of patient education in community pharmacies and classifies these barriers and facilitators into the diffusion stages of Rogers'"Innovations in Organizations" model. Discusses the implementation of patient education activities that require individual and organizational change in…
The sale of over-the-counter (OTC) medicines from community pharmacies offers important opportunities for members of the public to access medicines and self-treat conditions. They are increasingly recognised, however, as having the potential for abuse and harm despite their perceived relative safety. This study reports on a qualitative study that explored the experiences and views of community pharmacy staff in relation to current practices and concerns, management and support relating to OTC medicine abuse. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with a purposive sample of ten pharmacists and seven medicines counter assistants in the United Kingdom. Analysis of interviews indicated that a range of medicines was implicated, including opiates, sedative antihistamines, laxatives and decongestants. A surveillance role was apparent for assistants, who placed emphasis on regulations, procedure and monitoring frequency of purchases to manage abuse, with referral on to pharmacists. Frequency of purchase was central to assistants' definition of those suspected of OTC medicine abuse, which pharmacists also utilised as well as a distinction between intentional abuse and unintentional medicine misuse. A lack of information about customers, easy access to, and poor communication between community pharmacies were emergent barriers to pharmacists providing more support. Many appeared uncertain of referral options or how pharmacists could effectively stop the problem of abuse. The commercial environment was a particular concern, in relation to customer expectations, medicine advertising and easy access to different community pharmacies. A key tension emerged between providing medicine supplies that permitted consumer freedom, with the needs of healthcare professionals to understand more about those consumers qua patients. Policy implications include the need for improved knowledge for community pharmacy staff about signposting to relevant services, increased awareness of who
Hersberger, Kurt E; Messerli, Markus
The role of the community pharmacist in primary care has been undergoing change in Switzerland in parallel to international developments: it has become more clinically and patient oriented. Special services of community pharmacists to older patients taking long-term or multiple medications, discharged from hospitals or experiencing cognitive impairment or disability have been developed. These services require more clinical knowledge and skills from community pharmacists and are based on, for example, 'simple or intermediate medication reviews' focused primarily to improve medication adherence and rational drug use by a patient. Reflecting the new role of community pharmacies, this article describes the current services provided by community pharmacies in Switzerland, e.g., 'polymedication check', 'weekly pill organizer', and 'services for chronic patients', as well as new Swiss educational and reimbursement systems supporting development of these services. In the international context, involvement of community pharmacists in patient-oriented care is growing. This review summarizes positive and negative experiences from implementation of community pharmacy services in Switzerland and provides examples for the development of such services in other countries.
de Oliveira, Lara Tânia de Assumpção Domingues Gonçalves; da Silva, Camila Pontes; Guedes, Maria das Vitorias; Sousa, Ana Célia de Oliveira; Sarno, Flávio
ABSTRACT Objectives: To describe indicators and processes developed and implemented for pharmaceutical assistance at the Einstein Program at Paraisópolis Community pharmacy. Methods: This was a descriptive study of retrospective data from January 2012 to December 2015. Data were obtained from spreadsheets developed for monitoring the productivity and care quality provided at the pharmacy. The evaluated variables were pharmaceutical assistance to prescription, pharmaceutical intervention, orientation (standard and pharmaceutical) and pharmaceutical orientation rate. Results: The pharmacy assisted, on average, 2,308 prescriptions monthly, dispensing 4,871 items, including medications, materials and food supplements. Since March 2015, virtually, the pharmacist analyzed all prescriptions, prior to dispensing. In the analyzed period, there was an increase in monthly pharmaceutical interventions from 7 to 32 on average, and, although there was a decrease in the number of standard orientation, the pharmaceutical orientation had an increase, causing a rise of pharmaceutical orientation rate from 4 to 11%. Conclusion: The processes developed and implemented at the program pharmacy sought to follow the good pharmacy practice, and help patients to make the best use of their medications. PMID:27759833
Clark, Colleen A.; Rodis, Jennifer L.; Pruchnicki, Maria C.; Pedersen, Craig A.
Objectives To determine the percentage of residents accepting faculty positions following completion of a community pharmacy residency program (CPRP) and identify influences to pursue/not pursue an academic career. Methods CPRP directors and preceptors across the United States were contacted and 53 community pharmacy residents were identified. The residents were invited to participate in surveys at the beginning and end of the 2005-2006 residency year. Results Forty-five residents (85%) completed the preliminary survey instrument and 40 (75%) completed the follow-up survey instrument. Of these, 36 completed both survey instruments. Initially, 28 (62%) respondents indicated a faculty position as one of their potential job preferences. After completing their residency program, 3 (8%) residents accepted faculty positions; and 3 (8%) others were awaiting offers at follow-up. Reasons for accepting a faculty position were positive teaching experiences and the influence of a mentor or preceptor. Reasons for not pursuing a faculty position included lack of interest, geographic location, disliked teaching experiences, lack of preparedness, and non-competitive salary. Conclusion Many community pharmacy residents consider faculty positions early in their residency but few pursue faculty positions. CPRPs and colleges of pharmacy should work together to enhance residents' experiences to foster interest in academia. PMID:18322566
Radford, Andrea; Slifkin, Rebecca; King, Jennifer; Lampman, Michelle; Richardson, Indira; Rutledge, Steve
Purpose: To document sole community pharmacists' involvement with other local health care organizations, these pharmacies' current financial status, and to determine whether financial position was associated with the provision of pharmacy services to other local health care providers. Methods: We conducted semistructured interviews with…
Johnson, Thomas J.; Hedge, Dennis D.
Objective To determine the impact of an introductory pharmacy practice experience (IPPE) on students' clinical skills during their initial advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE). Design A 4-week First Steps course that focused on students developing pharmacy practice skills, clinical communications skills, and effective use of reference materials was introduced in 2006 at the end of the third-year curriculum, prior to students beginning their APPEs. Assessment During the third week of the first APPE, faculty members rated students' demonstration of 9 clinical skills on a 5-point Likert scale (1 being always and 5 being never). The evaluation was performed in 2005 prior to implementation of the course (control group) and again in 2006 after implementation of the course. Students who completed the First Steps course scored better on all 9 skills and had a better average clinical skills value (2.3) compared to the control group (2.6, p < 0.01). Conclusion Completion of an IPPE course that focused on critical pharmacy practice aspects, clinical communication skills, and use of reference materials resulted in increased frequency of desired clinical behaviors on a subsequent APPE. PMID:20221362
Thornley, T.; Marshall, G.; Howard, P.; Wilson, A. P. R.
Objectives The UK 5 year antimicrobial resistance strategy recognizes the role of point-of-care diagnostics to identify where antimicrobials are required, as well as to assess the appropriateness of the diagnosis and treatment. A sore throat test-and-treat service was introduced in 35 community pharmacies across two localities in England during 2014–15. Methods Trained pharmacy staff assessed patients presenting with a sore throat using the Centor scoring system and patients meeting three or all four of the criteria were offered a throat swab test for Streptococcus pyogenes, Lancefield group A streptococci. Patients with a positive throat swab test were offered antibiotic treatment. Results Following screening by pharmacy staff, 149/367 (40.6%) patients were eligible for throat swab testing. Of these, only 36/149 (24.2%) were positive for group A streptococci. Antibiotics were supplied to 9.8% (n = 36/367) of all patients accessing the service. Just under half of patients that were not showing signs of a bacterial infection (60/123, 48.8%) would have gone to their general practitioner if the service had not been available. Conclusions This study has shown that it is feasible to deliver a community-pharmacy-based screening and treatment service using point-of-care testing. This type of service has the potential to support the antimicrobial resistance agenda by reducing unnecessary antibiotic use and inappropriate antibiotic consumption. PMID:27439523
Law, Miranda G.; Komura, Stephanie; Murchison, Ann P.; Pizzi, Laura T.
Background Diabetic retinopathy is a retinal vascular disorder that affects more than 4.1 million people in the United States. New methods of detecting and ensuring adequate follow-up of this life-altering disease are vital to improving patient outcomes. Wills Eye Hospital and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are conducting a collaborative study to initiate a novel diabetic retinopathy screening in the community setting. Objective To evaluate the feasibility of a more widespread, large-scale implementation of this novel model of care for diabetic retinopathy screening in the community setting. Methods A simple, self-administered survey was distributed to pharmacists, pharmacy technicians, student pharmacists, and Wills Eye Hospital interns. The survey consisted of open-ended questions and responders were given 1 week to respond. A total of 22 surveys were distributed and 16 were completed. The responses were culled and analyzed to assess the feasibility of implementing this novel screening model in the pharmacy. Results The response rate to this pilot survey was 72%. The majority of the responding pharmacy staff members indicated that diabetic retinopathy screening in community pharmacies would greatly benefit patients and could improve patient care. However, they also noted barriers to implementing the screening, such as concerns about the cost of carrying out the screenings, the cost of the equipment needed to be purchased, and the lack of time and shortage of pharmacy staff. Conclusion The potential exists for pharmacists to positively influence diabetes care by implementing retinopathy care through the early detection of the disease and reinforcement of the need for follow-up; however, real-world barriers must be addressed before widespread adoption of such a novel model of care becomes feasible. PMID:24991381
Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark; Gustavsson, Maria; Lindblad, Åsa Kettis; Johansson, Markus; Ring, Lena
Objective. To identify what pharmacy students learn during the 6-month advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) in Sweden. Methods. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 pharmacy APPE students and 17 pharmacist preceptors and analyzed in a qualitative directed content analysis using a defined workplace learning typology for categories. Results. The Swedish APPE provides students with task performance skills for work at pharmacies and social and professional knowledge, such as teamwork, how to learn while in a work setting, self-evaluation, understanding of the pharmacist role, and decision making and problem solving skills. Many of these skills and knowledge are not accounted for in the curricula in Sweden. Using a workplace learning typology to identify learning outcomes, as in this study, could be useful for curricula development. Conclusions. Exploring the learning that takes place during the APPE in a pharmacy revealed a broad range of skills and knowledge that students acquire. PMID:22345716
Rivey, Michael P.; And Others
The University of Montana School of Pharmacy has included a miniexternship experience in a required introductory course. Goals of a survey of 67 first year students and 17 preceptors included students' demographic profile and prior exposure to pharmacy practice, assessment of the influence of the externship on career goals, etc. (MLW)
Urwin, Heidi; Wright, David; Twigg, Michael; McGough, Norma
Setting Fifteen community pharmacies in the UK. Objective Proof of concept study to test the use of community pharmacies for active case finding of patients with coeliac disease. Methods Customers accessing over-the counter and prescription medicines indicated in the treatment of possible symptoms of coeliac disease over a 6 month period were offered a free point of care test. All patients were given advice regarding the test results and those who tested positive were advised to make an appointment with their general practitioner. Patients and pharmacists involved in service provision were asked to complete a satisfaction survey. Pharmacists were additionally invited to undertake interviews to better understand their views on the service. Main outcome measures Feasibility of service, acceptability to stakeholders and proportion testing positive for coeliac disease. Results Of the 551 individuals tested, 52 (9.4 %) tested positive. 277 (50.3 %) were tested for accessing irritable bowel syndrome treatment, 142 (25.8 %) due to presenting for diarrhoea. The proportion of patients testing positive with different symptoms or for different treatments were similar. Of 43 customers who returned the satisfaction survey, all would recommend the service to others, believing the community pharmacy to be a suitable location. Community pharmacists believed that it enabled them to improve relationships with their customers and that medical practices were receptive to the service. Conclusion This proof of concept study has shown that community pharmacies using a point of care test can effectively recognise and refer patients for confirmatory coeliac disease testing with high levels of customer and service provider satisfaction.
Usir, Ezlina; Lua, Pei Lin; Majeed, Abu Bakar Abdul
This study aimed to determine the availability and usage of printed and electronic references and Patient Medication Record in community pharmacy. It was conducted for over 3 months from 15 January to 30 April 2007. Ninety-three pharmacies participated. Structured questionnaires were mailed to community pharmacies. Six weeks later a reminder was sent to all non responders, who were given another six weeks to return the completed questionnaire. Outcomes were analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-square test of independence. Almost all the pharmacies (96.8%) have at least Monthly Index of Medical Specialties (MIMS) while 78.5% have at least MIMS ANNUAL in their stores. Only about a third (31.2%) of the pharmacies were equipped with online facilities of which the majority referred to medical websites (88.9%) with only a minority (11.1%) referring to electronic journals. More than half (59.1%) of the pharmacists kept Patient Medication Record profiles with 49.1% storing it in paper, 41.8% electronically and 9.1% in both printed and electronic versions. In general, prevalence and usage of electronic references in community pharmacies were rather low. Efforts should be increased to encourage wider usage of electronic references and Patient Medication Records in community pharmacies to facilitate pharmaceutical care.
Oshikoya, Kazeem Adeola; Oreagba, Ibrahim A.; Ogunleye, Olayinka O.; Oluwa, Rashidat; Senbanjo, Idowu O.; Olayemi, Sunday O.
Background The use of herbal medicines is on the increase globally and they are usually supplied in pharmacies as non-prescription medicines. Pharmacists are, therefore, responsible for educating and informing the consumers about rational use of herbal medicines. Objective To evaluate the knowledge of pharmacists in Lagos, Nigeria with regards to the herbal medicines they supplied by their pharmacies. Methods Pharmacists in charge of randomly selected 140 community pharmacies from 20 Local Government Areas in Lagos were required to fill out a self-administered questionnaire. We gathered information on their knowledge of the indications, adverse effects, potential drug-herb interactions and contraindications of the herbal medicines they supply in their pharmacies. Results Of the 140 questionnaires distributed, 103 (72.9%) participants completed the questionnaire appropriately. The majority (74; 71.8%) of the participants were males and 36-50 years (56; 54.4%). The pharmacies supplied mostly Yoyo cleanser bitters® (101; 98.5%), ginseng (97; 98.5%), Jobelyn® (91; 88.3%), Ciklavit® (68; 66.6%), gingko (66; 64.1%), herbal tea (66; 64.1%), and Aloe vera (57; 55.3%). The pharmacists self-rated their knowledge of herbal medicines mostly as fair (39%) and good (42%), but they exhibited poor knowledge with regards to the indications, contraindications and safety profiles. Seventy participants consulted reference materials such as leaflet insert in the herbal medicines (56%) and internet (20%) before supplying herbal medicines. The information most frequently sought was herb-drug interactions (85%), contraindications (75%) and adverse effects (70%). Conclusions Community pharmacists need to be informed about the indications and safety profiles of herbal medicines. PMID:24367462
Chui, Michelle A.; Mott, David A.; Maxwell, Leigh
Background Although lack of time, trained personnel, and reimbursement have been identified as barriers to pharmacists providing cognitive pharmaceutical services (CPS) in community pharmacies, the underlying contributing factors of these barriers have not been explored. One approach to better understand barriers and facilitators to providing CPS is to use a work system approach to examine different components of a work system and how the components may impact care processes. Objectives The goals of this study were to identify and describe pharmacy work system characteristics that pharmacists identified and changed to provide CPS in a demonstration program. Methods A qualitative approach was used for data collection. A purposive sample of 8 pharmacists at 6 community pharmacies participating in a demonstration program was selected to be interviewed. Each semistructured interview was audio recorded and transcribed, and the text was analyzed in a descriptive and interpretive manner by 3 analysts. Themes were identified in the text and aligned with 1 of 5 components of the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety (SEIPS) work system model (organization, tasks, tools/technology, people, and environment). Results A total of 21 themes were identified from the interviews, and 7 themes were identified across all 6 interviews. The organization component of the SEIPS model contained the most (n = 10) themes. Numerous factors within a pharmacy work system appear important to enable pharmacists to provide CPS. Leadership and foresight by the organization to implement processes (communication, coordination, planning, etc.) to facilitate providing CPS was a key finding across the interviews. Expanding technician responsibilities was reported to be essential for successfully implementing CPS. Conclusions To be successful in providing CPS, pharmacists must be cognizant of the different components of the pharmacy work system and how these components influence providing CPS
Akinbosoye, Osayi E.; Grana, James; Hill, Jerrold; Wade, Rolin L
Abstract The aim was to evaluate the impact of a multifaceted set of medication management interventions offered by a community pharmacy on adherence, health care utilization, and costs within a commercial population. Patients initiating therapy within 16 drug classes from February 7, 2013, to October 6, 2013, were offered various adherence interventions by Walgreens pharmacy. Patients were linked deterministically to IMS medical and prescription databases for 6-month pre- and post-index data analysis. Walgreens patients (intervention) were matched to patients using other pharmacies (control) on drug class, index date, baseline demographics, clinical factors, utilization, and costs. Outcomes were evaluated at the intent-to-treat level using post-index differences and generalized estimating equations (GEE) regression model. Paired t tests (continuous variables) and McNemar's test (dichotomous variables) were used to determine the significance of estimated model coefficients at α = 0.05. The groups (n = 72,410 each) had similar age (47.1 vs. 45.7 years), sex (41.2% vs. 40.2% male), and disease burden (0.52 vs. 0.40 mean Charlson comorbidity index). In the 6-month post-index period, the intervention group had 3.0% greater medication adherence, 1.8% fewer hospital admissions, 2.7% fewer emergency room (ER) visits, and 0.53 fewer mean outpatient visits compared to the control group (all P < 0.0001). The intervention group incurred significantly lower GEE-adjusted pharmacy costs (−$92), outpatient costs (−$120), ER costs (−$38), and total health care costs (−$226.07) (all P < 0.0001), and higher inpatient costs ($86, P < 0.004) per patient. A multifaceted set of medication management interventions offered by a community pharmacy were associated with patients in a commercial population having significantly higher medication adherence and lower health care utilization and costs. PMID:27035728
Background Electronic prescribing (e-prescribing) can potentially help prevent medication errors. As the use of e-prescribing increases across Canada, understanding the benefits and gaps of early e-prescribing can help inform deployment of future e-prescribing systems. Objective The purpose of this exploratory study was to determine the prevalence of, reasons for, and average time taken for pharmacist clarification calls to prescribers for electronic medical record (EMR)-generated and handwritten prescriptions. Methods Four community pharmacies in St John’s, Newfoundland, Canada prospectively collected information on clarification calls to prescribers for new prescriptions over a period of 17 to 19 weeks. Four semistructured interviews were conducted following the data collection period to gain further insight. Results An estimated 1.33% of handwritten prescriptions required clarification compared with 0.66% of EMR-generated prescriptions. Overall, 1.11% of prescriptions required clarification with the prescriber. While illegibility was eliminated with EMR-generated prescriptions, clarification was still required for missing information (24%) and appropriateness (51%). Key themes, including errors unique to EMR-generated prescriptions, emerged from the qualitative interviews. Conclusions Advanced e-prescribing functionality will enable secure transmission of prescriptions from prescribers to a patient’s pharmacy of choice through a provincial electronic Drug Information System (DIS)/Pharmacy Network, which will lessen the need for clarification calls, especially in the domains of missing information and appropriateness of the prescription. This exploratory study provides valuable insight into the benefits and gaps of early e-prescribing. Advanced e-prescribing systems will provide an opportunity for further realization of quality and safety benefits related to medication prescribing. PMID:25595165
Leong, Christine; Sareen, Jitender; Enns, Murray W; Bolton, James; Alessi-Severini, Silvia
Community pharmacists frequently encounter patients suspected to be at risk of medication misuse, divergence and overdose; yet, little research exists in describing how pharmacists effectively identify and intervene during these encounters. This study aimed to understand the barriers and facilitators in community pharmacy practice using a focus group design to help inform policymakers in the development of effective and feasible strategies for limiting the means of medication misuse. Findings revealed three themes: (1) patient-level barriers (deciphering signs of misuse); (2) pharmacist-level barriers (type of practice experience); and (3) system-level barriers (prescriber, third-party payer). Insight into pharmacy practice provided a foundation for future study to explore strategies for improving care for at-risk patients.
Phillips, J H
Each stage of a product's life cycle requires marketing strategy modifications in response to changing demand levels. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in ambulatory care center (ACC) operational characteristics indicative of product, market, and distribution channel adjustments that could have a competitive impact upon community pharmacy practice. A questionnaire was mailed to a national sample of 325 ACC managers. Evidence of new product feature additions includes increased emphasis on continued care and increased prevalence of prescription drug dispensing. Expansion into new market segments and distribution channels was demonstrated by increased participation in HMO and employer relationships. The observed adjustments in ACC marketing strategies present obvious challenges as well as less obvious opportunities for community pharmacy practice.
Mohorn, Phillip L.; Haney, Jason S.; Phillips, Cynthia M.; Lu, Z. Kevin; Clark, Kimberly; Corboy, Alex; Ragucci, Kelly R.
Objective. To assess the impact of an advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) simulation on pharmacy student confidence and knowledge. Design. Third-year pharmacy students participated in a simulation experience that consisted of team roles training, high-fidelity ACLS simulations, and debriefing. Students completed a pre/postsimulation confidence and knowledge assessment. Assessment. Overall, student knowledge assessment scores and student confidence scores improved significantly. Student confidence and knowledge changes from baseline were not significantly correlated. Conversely, a significant, weak positive correlation between presimulation studying and both presimulation confidence and presimulation knowledge was discovered. Conclusions. Overall, student confidence and knowledge assessment scores in ACLS significantly improved from baseline; however, student confidence and knowledge were not significantly correlated. PMID:27899836
Maxwell, Whitney D; Mohorn, Phillip L; Haney, Jason S; Phillips, Cynthia M; Lu, Z Kevin; Clark, Kimberly; Corboy, Alex; Ragucci, Kelly R
Objective. To assess the impact of an advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) simulation on pharmacy student confidence and knowledge. Design. Third-year pharmacy students participated in a simulation experience that consisted of team roles training, high-fidelity ACLS simulations, and debriefing. Students completed a pre/postsimulation confidence and knowledge assessment. Assessment. Overall, student knowledge assessment scores and student confidence scores improved significantly. Student confidence and knowledge changes from baseline were not significantly correlated. Conversely, a significant, weak positive correlation between presimulation studying and both presimulation confidence and presimulation knowledge was discovered. Conclusions. Overall, student confidence and knowledge assessment scores in ACLS significantly improved from baseline; however, student confidence and knowledge were not significantly correlated.
Spangler, Mikayla; Klug, Laura; Tilleman, Jennifer; Coover, Kelli
Objective. To investigate whether instruction and feedback on reflective responses are beneficial in developing pharmacy students to become more reflective practitioners. Methods. Students on an advanced pharmacy practice experience answered weekly reflection questions and were randomly assigned to either an intervention (received instruction and feedback on reflection) or control group. The final week’s responses were de-identified and two blinded faculty members independently categorized them as reflective or nonreflective. The primary outcome measure was comparing the number of “reflective” responses in each group. Results. The responses were classified as reflective in 83.3% of students in the intervention group (n=18) compared to 37.5% of the control group (n=16). The odds that the response was categorized as reflective were 8.3 times higher in the intervention group. Conclusion. Providing instruction and feedback to students improved the likelihood that their work was reflective. PMID:27402984
Andrés Iglesias, José Carlos; Andrés Rodríguez, N. Floro; Fornos Pérez, José Antonio
Only one study evaluated the scientific activity in community pharmacies in Spain, and it was restricted to articles published in just two journals. Objective To assess the scientific activity in community pharmacies in Spain through a bibliometric analysis of the original papers published during the years 1995-2005. Methods IPA, MEDLINE, CSIC database and the journals Seguimiento Farmacoterapéutico y Pharmaceutical Care España were used as data sources. Production indicators, consumption indicators and the impact factor (IF) as a repercussion index were analyzed. Results 122 articles were included in the review. The articles were published in 12 journals, 78.7% of them in Pharmaceutical Care España and Seguimiento Farmacoterapéutico. The mean number of authors per article was 4.2 (SD=2.1). The transitivity index was 71.3%. The total number of references cited in the articles was 2110. The mean number of references per article was 17.3 SD=9.3. The value of the insularity index was 57.6%. Self citation was 6.8% and the Price index was 66.5%. No impact factor was available for 6 journals. Conclusions Publication of articles on community pharmacy-based research in Spain has undergone an important increase in the last 5 years. The existence of authors who publish very few studies, the high insularity index and the lack of randomized, controlled trials may be considered as negative indicators in community pharmacy-based research in Spain. PMID:25214914
Australian Association of Adult Education.
The seventeen papers following the Introductory Address by P. H. Sheats are: Literacy in Territory of Papua and New Guinea by A. Tavai; The Role of the Teacher in Community Advancement by W. Hatton; Financial Education and Community Advancement in Papua and New Guinea by E. V. Fleming; Army Education in Papua and New Guinea by R. T. Jones;…
Chow, Sheldon; Li, Shuai; Letassy, Nancy; Cox, Cheryl; Cave, Andrew
Purpose: Type 2 diabetes is a major condition impacting morbidity, mortality, and health care costs in Canada. Pharmacists are very accessible and are in an ideal position to promote public health education. The primary goal of this study was to incorporate public health promotion and education into a community pharmacy experiential education rotation for fourth year pharmacy students to screen for the risk of pre-diabetes/diabetes in adults. A secondary goal was to determine the frequency of common risk factors for pre-diabetes/diabetes in adults in the community setting. Method: Fourth year pharmacy students were invited to recruit all adults 25 years or older attending community pharmacies to complete a pre-diabetes/diabetes risk assessment questionnaire. If the participants were at risk, the participants were provided education about risk reduction for developing pre-diabetes/diabetes. Results: A total of 340 participants completed a risk assessment questionnaire. Over 90% of people approached agreed to complete a risk assessment questionnaire. The common risk factors were overweight (154/45%), hypertension (102/30%), taking medications for hypertension (102/30%), and having symptoms of diabetes (111/33%). The ethnic minorities have 2.56 (confidence interval = 1.48–44.1) times greater odds of having a family history of diabetes compared to non-minority subjects. Conclusion: Pharmacy students are able to screen community-based patients for pre-diabetes/diabetes risks. The most common risk factors presented were overweight, hypertension, and taking medications for hypertension. PMID:26770784
Feehan, Michael; Munger, Mark A.; Cooper, Daniel K.; Hess, Kyle T.; Durante, Richard; Jones, Gregory J.; Montuoro, Jaime; Morrison, Margaux A.; Clegg, Daniel; Crandall, Alan S.; DeAngelis, Margaret M.
This study determined the degree of adherence to medications for glaucoma among patients refilling prescriptions in community pharmacies. Methods: Data abstracted from the dispensing records for 3615 adult patients (18 years or older, predominantly over 45) receiving glaucoma medications from two retail pharmacy chains (64 stores in total) were analyzed. From a 24-month historic data capture period, the 12-month levels of adherence were determined using standard metrics, the proportion of days covered (PDC) and the medication possession ratio (MPR). The overall 12-month mean PDC was only 57%, and the mean MPR was 71%. Using a criterion by which 80% coverage was considered satisfactory adherence, only 30% had satisfactory overall 12-month PDC coverage, and only 37% had satisfactory overall 12-month MPR coverage. Refill adherence increased with age and was highest in the 65-and-older age group (p < 0.001). Differential adherence was found across medication classes, with the highest satisfactory coverage seen for those taking alpha2-adrenergic agonists (PDC = 36.0%; MPR = 47.6%) down to those taking direct cholinergic agonists (PDC = 25.0%; MPR = 31.2%) and combination products (PDC = 22.7%; MPR = 31.0%). Adherence to glaucoma medications in the community setting, as measured by pharmacy refill data, is very poor and represents a critical target for intervention. Community pharmacists are well positioned to monitor and reinforce adherence in this population. PMID:27618115
Background Community pharmacists can deliver health care advice at an opportunistic level, related to prescription or non-prescription medicines and as part of focused services designed to reduce specific risks to health. Obesity, smoking and excessive alcohol intake are three of the most significant modifiable risk factors for morbidity and mortality in the UK, and interventions led by community pharmacists, aimed at these three risk factors, have been identified by the government as public health priorities. In 2008, the Department of Health for England stated that ‘a sound evidence base that demonstrates how pharmacy delivers effective, high quality and value for money services is needed’; this systematic review aims to respond to this requirement. Methods/design We will search the databases MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Social Sciences Citation Index, ASSIA, IBSS, Sociological Abstracts, Scopus and NHS Economic Evaluation Database for studies that have evaluated interventions based on community pharmacies that aim to target weight management, smoking cessation and alcohol misuse. We will include all randomised controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomised controlled trials (NRCTs), controlled before-after studies (CBAs) and interrupted time series (ITS) and repeated measures studies. Data from included studies will be extracted by two independent reviewers and will include study details methods, results, intervention implementation/costs and methodological quality. Meta-analysis will be conducted if appropriate; if not, the synthesis will be restricted to a narrative overview of individual studies looking at the same question. Discussion The review aims to summarise the evidence base on the effectiveness of community pharmacy interventions on health and health behaviours in relation to weight management, smoking cessation and alcohol misuse. It will also explore if, and how, socio-economic status, gender, ethnicity and age moderate the effect of the
Thananithisak, Chuanchom; Nimpitakpong, Piyarat; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn
Community pharmacists' involvement in tobacco control and their perceived role and barriers were assessed. In part I, a self-administered questionnaire was mailed to 164 community pharmacists who applied for community pharmacy accreditation from the Thai Pharmacy Council in 2003. In part II, an in-depth interview was conducted among 13 community pharmacists who participated in the 1-day smoking cessation services training. Main outcome measures were tobacco control-related activities, perceived tobacco control role, and perceived barriers. The questionnaire response rate was 51% (83/164 pharmacists), with half of the respondents (42/83, 51%) reporting active tobacco control activities. Of these pharmacists, seven (7/42, 17%) reported participating in public or policy advocacy by campaigning against smoking in the community. Thirty-four (34/42, 81%) and thirty-six (36/42, 86%) reported engaging in activities in their own pharmacies by providing educational materials and smoking cessation services, respectively. Even though the perceived roles in tobacco control of these pharmacists were high, they also reported several barriers, especially in five categories: lack of client demand, lack of educational materials, lack of smoking cessation products, lack of knowledge and skill, and lack of follow-up visits. On the other hand, lack of time and lack of reimbursement were not indicated as important barriers. Data from in-depth interviews confirmed these findings. This study revealed that Thai community pharmacists were engaged in various levels of tobacco control-related activities. Most of them perceived the significance of tobacco control activities. However, several barriers were also reported and need to be addressed further.
Objective. To examine the extent to which reflective essays written by graduating pharmacy students revealed professional identity formation and self-authorship development. Design. Following a six-week advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) grounded in Baxter-Magolda’s Learning Partnerships Model of self-authorship development, students completed a culminating reflective essay on their rotation experiences and professional identity formation. Assessment. Thematic and categorical analysis of 41 de-identified essays revealed nine themes and evidence of all Baxter-Magolda’s domains and phases of self-authorship. Analysis also suggested relationships between self-authorship and pharmacist professional identity formation. Conclusion. Results suggest that purposeful structuring of learning experiences can facilitate professional identity formation. Further, Baxter-Magolda’s framework for self-authorship and use of the Learning Partnership Model seem to align well with pharmacist professional identify formation. Results of this study could be used by pharmacy faculty members when considering how to fill gaps in professional identity formation in future course and curriculum development. PMID:28179721
Hussain, Azhar; Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham M.
Pharmacies are managed by a variety of dispensers in terms of qualification, knowledge and experience in Pakistan. Objective The study aimed to document the state of knowledge, experience and qualification of dispensers working at community pharmacies in Pakistan. Methods A comparative cross sectional study was conducted at a randomly selected sample of 371 pharmacies in the three cities of Pakistan. A structured questionnaire for data collection was developed and finalized by focused group discussions and pilot testing. The data was coded, entered and analyzed by using SPSS Version 16. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests (p≤0.05) were performed to find out differences. Results Out of total sample of 371 pharmacies, 31.8 % (118) were in Islamabad, 32.4 % (120) in Peshawar and 35.8 % (133) were in Lahore. Fifty percent of the respondents had correct knowledge of range of room temperature at which medicines should be stored. Only 11.1% (41) of the respondents knew about OTC (over the counter drugs) which can be sold without prescription while 5.9 % (22) of the respondents were aware of POM (prescription only medicines) which can be only sold on a valid prescription. While 87.6% (325), 88.1% (327), 58.7% (318) and 95.7 % (355) of the respondents did not know the meaning of the dispensing abbreviations such as ‘h.s’, ‘q.d’, ‘sos’ and ‘p.r.n’. The respondents did not know correctly the status of Deltacortil® (Prednisolone), Septran® (Sulfamethoxazole) and Fansidar® (Pyrimethamine and Sulfadoxine) either as OTC or POM in 26.7% (99), 64.2% (238), and 44.5 % (165) of the cases, respectively. There was a significant difference (p≤0.05) in knowledge of dispensers regarding storage temperature, prescription terminologies and status of medicines having different level of qualification and experience. Conclusions The overall knowledge and training of dispensers working at community pharmacies is inadequate in Pakistan. However, pharmacists had
Friedel, Janice N.; Kabat, Ellen J.
A needs assessment received 526 responses from 958 Iowa pharmacy-related businesses, and 183 businesses participated in a DACUM process to validate competencies for pharmacy technicians. Results were used to design a competency-based pharmacy technician curriculum. (SK)
Lenell, Amy; Friesen, Carol A; Hormuth, Laura
Well Babies at Walgreens is a unique community-based corporate partnership program that offers breastfeeding support by a lactation professional in a private room at the pharmacy. Walgreens is a community pharmacy chain with more than 8000 locations in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the US Virgin Islands. The primary goal of Well Babies is to support breastfeeding women using a model that is expandable to other Walgreens pharmacy sites. The Well Babies program offers drop-in services, with a professional consultation by a lactation consultant and baby weight check, if desired. Well Babies creators are developing a business plan for Walgreens and a toolkit that would help other stores implement the program. An additional goal is to improve continuity of care for breastfeeding by engaging pharmacists as vital members of the health care team. Offering breastfeeding support at a pharmacy improves access and encourages support persons to attend while simultaneously allowing the family to complete other errands. This initiative included education for pharmacists to improve the recommendations they make for breastfeeding mothers and to improve awareness among pharmacists of the benefits associated with breastfeeding and the need to preserve the breastfeeding relationship. The first drop-in location opened in April 2012. Grant funding from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, awarded to the Indiana State Department of Health, made it possible to open a second drop-in location in June 2013. Future plans include developing an employee lactation program and expanding Well Babies at Walgreens at other store locations.
Hohmeier, Kenneth C; Randolph, Donna D; Smith, Cindy Taliaferro; Hagemann, Tracy M
Background: Community pharmacy has become a major access point for several types of vaccinations. Despite the success of vaccination programs like influenza, pneumococcal, and herpes zoster, the rates of human papillomavirus vaccination continue to lag. Objectives: The primary objective is to describe and report on the impact of a multimodal series of pharmacist-led educational interventions on human papillomavirus vaccination rates in a community pharmacy setting. The primary outcome of this study was change in pharmacist-delivered human papillomavirus vaccination throughout a corresponding 8-week period in 2014 and 2015. Methods: A single-center, quasi-experimental interrupted time series mixed-methods pilot study was used to investigate a pharmacist-led, multimodal educational intervention approach to improve human papillomavirus vaccination rates in the community. Results: During the 2014 control period, there were no human papillomavirus vaccines dispensed or administered according to the internal prescription dispensing software. In 2015, a total of 10 patients indicated that they were vaccinated, with 9 patients receiving their first dose and 1 patient receiving his or her second dose at the pharmacy. Pharmacist recommendation was the most reported education method for increasing patient awareness of the human papillomavirus vaccine (n = 10). Conclusion: This study demonstrates pharmacist designed, educational interventions may impact human papillomavirus vaccination rates in the community. Further community-based research with larger sample sizes is warranted to verify these results. Due to the unique barriers to human papillomavirus vaccination, a multimodal and inter-professional approach such as the one presented here is warranted. PMID:28348735
Arya, Vibhuti; Medina, Eric; Scaccia, Allison; Mathew, Cathleen; Starr, David
Hurricane Sandy was one of the most severe natural disasters to hit the Mid-Atlantic States in recent history. Community pharmacies were among the businesses affected, with flooding and power outages significantly reducing services offered by many pharmacies. The objectives of our study were to assess the impact of Hurricane Sandy on community pharmacies, both independently owned and chain, in the severely affected areas of New York City (NYC), including Coney Island, Staten Island, and the Rockaways, using qualitative methods, and propose strategies to mitigate the impact of future storms and disasters. Of the total 52 solicited pharmacies, 35 (67 percent) responded and were included in our analysis. Only 10 (29 percent) of the pharmacies surveyed reported having a generator during Hurricane Sandy; 37 percent reported being equipped with a generator at the time of the survey approximately 1 year later. Our findings suggest that issues other than power outages contributed more toward a pharmacy remaining operational after the storm. Of those surveyed, 26 (74 percent) suffered from structural damage (most commonly in Coney Island). Most pharmacies (71 percent) were able to reopen within 1 month. Despite staffing challenges, most pharmacies (88 percent) had enough pharmacists/staff to resume normal operations. Overall, 91 percent were aware of law changes for emergency medication access, and 81 percent found the information easy to obtain. This survey helped inform our work toward improved community resiliency. Our findings have helped us recognize community pharmacists as important stakeholders and refocus our energy toward developing sustained partnerships with them in NYC as part of our ongoing preparedness strategy.
Nazar, Hamde; Nazar, Zachariah; Simpson, Jill; Yeung, Andre; Whittlesea, Cate
Objectives Service and stakeholder evaluation of an NHS-funded service providing out-ofhours (OOH) emergency repeat medications to patients self-presenting at community pharmacies. Setting Community pharmacies across the North East of England accredited to provide this service. Participants Patients self-presenting to community pharmacies during OOH periods with emergency repeat medication supply requests. Intervention Community pharmacists assessed each request for clinical appropriateness and when suitable provide an emergency repeat medication supply, with additional pharmaceutical advice and services if required. Primary outcomes Number of emergency repeat medication supplies, time of request, reason for access, medication(s), pharmaceutical advice and services provided. Secondary outcomes were community pharmacist and patient satisfaction. Results A total of 2485 patients were managed across 227 community pharmacies (15 December 2014 to 7 April 2015). Most patients presented on Saturdays, with increased activity over national holidays. Older age was associated with increased service use. Of the 3226 medications provided, 439 were classified as high risk. Patients found this service easy to access and were willing to access the community pharmacy in the future for medication-related issues. In the absence of this service, 50% of patients would have missed their medication(s) until they saw their doctor and a further 46% would have accessed an alternative service. The cost of National Health Service (NHS) service(s) for patients who would have accessed an alternative OOH service was estimated as 37 times that of the community pharmacy service provided. Community pharmacists were happy to provide this service despite increased consultation times and workload. Conclusions Community pharmacists were able to manage patients’ OOH requests for emergency repeat medication and patients were happy with the service provided. Since the service cost was favourable when
Seubert, Liza; Schneider, Carl R; Clifford, Rhonda
Objectives The aim was to evaluate a common-sense, behavioural change intervention to implement clinical guidelines for asthma management in the community pharmacy setting. Design The components of the common-sense intervention were described in terms of categories and dimensions using the Intervention Taxonomy (ITAX) and Behaviour Change Techniques (BCTs) using the Behaviour Change Wheel (BCW), Capability, Opportunity and Motivation-Behaviour (COM-B) System and Behaviour Change Techniques Taxonomy (BCTTv1). The retrospective application of these existing tools facilitated evaluation of the mechanism, fidelity, logistics and rationale of the common-sense intervention. Intervention The initial intervention study was conducted in 336 community pharmacies in the metropolitan area of Perth, Western Australia. Small-group workshops were conducted in 25 pharmacies; 162 received academic detailing and 149 acted as controls. The intervention was designed to improve pharmacy compliance with guidelines for a non-prescription supply of asthma reliever medications. Results Retrospective application of ITAX identified mechanisms for the short-acting β agonists intervention including improving knowledge, behavioural skills, problem-solving skills, motivation and self-efficacy. All the logistical elements were considered in the intervention design but the duration and intensity of the intervention was minimal. The intervention was delivered as intended (as a workshop) to 13.4% of participants indicating compromised fidelity and significant adaptation. Retrospective application of the BCW, COM-B system and BCTTv1 identified 9 different behaviour change techniques as the rationale for promoting guideline-based practice change. Conclusions There was a sound rationale and clear mechanism for all the components of the intervention but issues related to logistics, adaptability and fidelity might have affected outcomes. Small group workshops could be a useful implementation strategy in
Fang, Yu; Yang, Shimin; Feng, Bianling; Ni, Yufei; Zhang, Kanghuai
The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of community pharmacists towards the concept of pharmaceutical care, implementing frequencies of pharmaceutical care, and barriers to implementation of pharmaceutical care in China. A 38-item self-completion pre-tested questionnaire was administered to a quota sample of 130 pharmacists in community pharmacies in Xi'an, Shaanxi Province, northwest China in April 2008. Main outcome measures included understanding of pharmaceutical care; perceived frequency of pharmaceutical care activities; attitude towards pharmaceutical care; barriers to implementation of pharmaceutical care. A response rate of 77.7% (101/130) was achieved. The data were analysed descriptively. Factor analysis was used to explore potential barriers to the provision of pharmaceutical care. Respondents' understanding of the definition of pharmaceutical care was not entirely satisfactory: it was widely but incorrectly seen as a medication counselling service and many pharmacists appeared to misunderstand their role in the process. Respondents spent most of their work time performing prescription checks and providing patients with directions for drug administration, dosage, and precautions, but they tended to ignore health promotion within and outside of pharmacy settings. Factor analysis suggested four factors influencing the implementation of pharmaceutical care in the surveyed community pharmacies: lack of external conditions for developing or providing pharmaceutical care, lack of time and skills, absence of information and economic incentive, and lack of full support from other health professionals, with a cumulative variance of 64.7%. Cronbach's alpha for the four factors was 0.71, 0.72, 0.69 and 0.74, respectively. Although the respondent pharmacists had a certain degree of understanding of the definition, aim, function and use of pharmaceutical care, and carried out some activities currently, a range of barriers need to be overcome before
Gordon, Adam J.; Field, Craig; Bacci, Jennifer; Dhital, Ranjita; Ylioja, Thomas; Stitzer, Maxine; Kelly, Thomas; Tarter, Ralph
Background Prescription opioid misuse is a major public health concern in the US. Few resources exist to support community pharmacists engaging patients who misuse or are at risk for misuse. Objectives This report describes the results of the execution of the ADAPT-ITT model (a model for modifying evidence-based behavioral interventions to new populations and service settings) to guide the development of a behavioral health framework for opioid medication misuse in the community pharmacy setting. Methods Pharmacy, addiction, intervention, and treatment experts were convened to attend a one-day meeting to review the empirical knowledgebase and discuss adapting the screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) protocol for addressing opioid medication misuse in community pharmacy. Qualitative data gathered from the meeting were analyzed by 2 independent coders in a 2-cycle process using objective coding schemes. Percentage of agreement and Cohen’s Kappa were calculated to assess coder agreement. Results First-cycle coding identified 4 distinct themes, with coder percentage of agreement ranging from 93.5–99.6% and with Kappa values between 0.81–0.93. Second-cycle coding identified 10 sub-themes, with coder percentage of agreement ranging from 83–99.8% and with Kappa values between 0.58–0.93. Identified themes and sub-themes encompassed patient identification, intervention, prevention, and referral to treatment. Conclusions Focus of screening efforts in the emerging model should capitalize on pharmacists’ knowledge of medication management. Screening likewise should be multidimensional in order to facilitate patient-centered interventions that activate additional disciplines able to interface with patients at risk or involved in medication misuse. PMID:26048710
Takamura, Norito; Ogata, Kenji; Setoguchi, Nao; Utsumi, Miho; Kourogi, Yasuyuki; Osaki, Takashi; Ozaki, Mineo; Sato, Keizo; Arimori, Kazuhiko
Objective. To implement an advanced objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) in the curriculum and to evaluate Japanese pharmacy students’ skills in physical assessment such as measuring pulse and blood pressure, and assessing heart, lung, and intestinal sounds. Design. An advanced OSCE was implemented in a hospital pharmacy seminar as a compulsory subject. We programmed patient simulators with 21 different patient cases in which normal and abnormal physiological conditions were produced. The virtual patients were then used to evaluate the physical assessment skills of fifth-year pharmacy students. Assessment. Significant differences were observed between the average of all the detailed evaluations and the mean results for the following skills: pulse measurement, blood pressure measurement, deflating the cuff at a rate of 2-3 mmHg/sec, listening to heart sounds, and listening to lung sounds. Conclusion. Administering an advanced OSCE using virtual patients was an effective way of assessing pharmacy students’ skills in a realistic setting. Several areas in which pharmacy students require further training were identified. PMID:25657371
Lott, I. T.; McGregor, M.; Engelman, L.; Touchette, P.; Tournay, A.; Sandman, C.; Fernandez, G.; Plon, L.; Walsh, D.
Little is known about longitudinal prescribing practices for psychoactive medications for individuals with intellectual disabilities and developmental disabilities (IDDD) who are living in community settings. Computerized pharmacy records were accessed for 2344 community-based individuals with IDDD for whom a total of 3421 prescriptions were…
Cavaco, Afonso; Roter, Debra
Communication is a key issue in the delivery of healthcare services. In the pharmacy context, pharmacist-patient communication may vary from brief counselling episodes to extensive pharmaceutical care consultations. Many community pharmacies have developed practices to facilitate the effective delivery of pharmacy care, in particular to chronic patients, although the nature and extent of the services differ widely from country to country. Diabetes-focused pharmaceutical care is an example highlighting both the opportunities and challenges associated with an expansion of pharmacy services from product dispensing to pharmaceutical consultations. An area of particular challenge of such an expansion of pharmaceutical services is the development of expertise in the delivery of patient-centred pharmaceutical consultations. Although well known to medicine and nursing, patient-centredness has not been routinely incorporated into the training of pharmacists, evaluation of pharmacy practice or conduct of pharmacy-related research. There are few studies of the communication process based on analysis of an objective record such as an audio or video recording and the common perspective is largely a one-way information flow from pharmacist to patient. This has hampered the field's ability to link pharmacy communication to outcomes, including patient adherence and satisfaction with services. An extensive body of communication research on physician-patient interaction, employing the Roter Interaction Analysis System (RIAS), exists and the system presents a potentially useful tool in the pharmacy context. The purpose of this essay is to explore the utility of the RIAS for analysis of pharmacist-patient interaction and its implication for improving patient care and optimizing pharmacy-specific outcomes.
Kirkdale, C L; Nebout, G; Megerlin, F; Thornley, T
Seasonal influenza is a major cause of excess winter deaths and increased hospital admissions. There is a high level of economic burden associated with the infection. Although vaccination targets have been set to tackle this international issue, many countries struggle to reach these coverage targets for their at-risk populations using traditional delivery methods. Traditional providers include family doctors and nurses; however, pharmacist-led influenza vaccination has become a more commonly utilised aid to support vaccination targets. Community pharmacies are convenient and widely accessible and evaluations consistently demonstrate that patients are satisfied with pharmacist-led vaccinations. Allowing community pharmacists to administer influenza vaccination as an alternative option for delivery helps to increase the coverage rate of vaccination. In addition, commissioning community pharmacists to provide this service has been shown to contribute to achieving targets for those at-risk. Pharmacist-led influenza vaccination services can create value for payors and reduce pressure on health systems. This review aims to demonstrate the success of pharmacy-led influenza vaccinations, and the impact it has had in driving up immunisation rates within other countries. Experiences of countries such as England, Portugal and the United States provide evidence to demonstrate the benefit to both the patient and the health system.
Drisaldi, Aulbrey G.; Alotaibi, Fawaz M.; Bonas, Tabatha N.; Shibley, Edward M.; Slattum, Patricia W.
Objective. To assess changes in pharmacy students’ knowledge, skills, and self-efficacy after completing an advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) in geriatrics. Design. During the 2013-2014 academic year, 30 Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU) School of Pharmacy students were required to complete a 5-week Geriatrics APPE at Plaza Professional Pharmacy in Richmond, Virginia. All students completed a 25-point knowledge-based pre- and post-assessment to measure students’ self-efficacy. The average time required to accurately fill one unit dose prescription card before and after completing the APPE was also evaluated. Assessment. Students’ average score on the knowledge component improved significantly from 54% to 88% after completing the APPE. The average time required to fill one prescription decreased significantly from 4.0 minutes to 2.5 minutes. Students reported an increase in self-efficacy in the following areas: communication, immunizations, geriatrics-specific pharmacotherapy knowledge, and the ability to fill and check monthly unit dose prescription cards. Conclusion. Requiring fourth-year pharmacy students to complete a geriatrics APPE as a capstone experience to the integrated geriatrics content covered in the first through third years of the doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum provides an important opportunity to improve students’ knowledge, skills, and self-efficacy in providing care to older adults. PMID:28090105
Lluch, Maria; Kanavos, Panos
In this paper, we focus on regulatory restrictions on Community Pharmacies and whether these have an impact on efficiency, access and equity and thus in the delivery of services community pharmacists provide to patients. Primary data collection through semi-structured interviews and secondary data collection through literature review have been used with a particular focus on Spain (a country where Community Pharmacy is strictly regulated) and the UK (a country where Community Pharmacy is considered liberalised by EU standards). The findings indicate that improved pharmacy operational efficiency is the result of appropriate incentive structures, ownership liberalisation and OTC price freedom as is the case in the UK. Equity and access seem to be better achieved by establishing geographic, demographic or needs-based criteria to open new pharmacies (as is the case in Spain). In sum, there are useful lessons for both countries: the UK could look into the policies applied in Spain that increase access and equity whilst Spain could adopt some of the policies from the UK to increase efficiency in the system.
Waszyk-Nowaczyk, Magdalena; Nowaczyk, Piotr; Simon, Marek
Implementation of pharmaceutical care (PC) in Poland is of great importance to patients, who, on the one hand, often follow complex pharmacological treatment regimens recommended by several physicians of different specialties, and, on the other, take up the decision on self-treatment due to availability of OTC medications. The aim of the present study was to assess the opinion of both patients and physicians about implementation of PC service in Polish community pharmacies. A cross sectional study was carried out from September 2009 to September 2010 by a pharmacist (author of the study) on the basis of an anonymous questionnaire, where demand of physicians (n = 104) and patients (n = 202) for implementation of PC in a community pharmacy was assessed. The study was planned to determine the relationship between implementation of PC, cost and time of this service and patients' and physicians' socio-economic information. Responding patients (85.64%) and physicians (76.92%) unanimously confirmed the need for implementation of PC. Most people convinced of the service implementation were 88.89% of physicians under the age of 35 and all the respondents were over 65 years of age (p = 0.027), just as 93.33% with service lesser than 5 years and 73.68% of respondents working a maximum of 20 years (p = 0.023). Mainly according to 90.00% of physicians with specialty in internal medicine and 92.59% of physicians of the group "Others" (p = 0.012), PC should be implemented in pharmacies. Women more frequently than men reckoned that appointments with a pharmacist should last up to 15 min (p = 0.012). According to 77.78% of the youngest physicians and 83.33% of the oldest ones, appointments should last from 5 to 15 min (p = 0.049), and a similar opinion was shared by 80.77% of physicians without specialty and 77.78% of physicians of the group "Others" (p = 0.0009). According to patients, the mean cost of the visit should be USD 7. Physicians most often assessed
Norose, Takahiko; Manabe, Tomohiro; Furuta, Seiichi; Watanabe, Kazuhiro
Hokkaido Pharmaceutical University (HPU), according to its educational mission, seeks to "develop medical professionals who contribute to community medicine", and it has produced more than 6300 graduates since 1974. With recent medical advancements and a progressively aging society, the role of the pharmacist in community medicine has diversified and is increasing in importance. Therefore, in April 2012, the Hokkaido Pharmaceutical University Affiliated Pharmacy was established as a for-profit business of the Educational Foundation of the Hokkaido University of Science, the parent body of HPU. The pharmacy is located near the Sapporo station; it is operated by six pharmacists and four clerks, and supported by three faculty members who are engaged in providing HPU student education such as on-site clinical training, in addition to their pharmacy duties such as home care pharmaceutics. For the first two years it was open, the pharmacy focused on the establishment of pharmacy administration and fiscal consolidation. In April 2015, the Pharmacy Management Committee set the pharmacy's future vision, as well as its mid-term strategy, which consists of the four main components of pharmacy practices, education, research, and social contribution, in order for the pharmacy to serve as a model of community pharmacy.
Schellhase, Ellen M; Miller, Monica L; Ogallo, William; Pastakia, Sonak D
OBJECTIVE. To develop a prerequisite elective course to prepare students for an advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) in Kenya. DESIGN. The course addressed Kenyan culture, travel preparation, patient care, and disease-state management. Instructional formats used were small-group discussions and lectures, including some Web-based presentations by Kenyan pharmacists on disease states commonly treated in Kenya. Cultural activities include instruction in conversational and medical Kiswahili and reading of a novel related to global health programs. ASSESSMENT. Student performance was assessed using written care plans, quizzes, reflection papers, a formulary management exercise, and pre- and post-course assessments. Student feedback on course evaluations indicated that the course was well received and students felt prepared for the APPE. CONCLUSION. This course offered a unique opportunity for students to learn about pharmacy practice in global health and to apply previously acquired skills in a resource-constrained international setting. It prepares students to actively participate in clinical care activities during an international APPE.
Ratka, Anna; Gleason, Shaun E.; Ombengi, David N.; Tofade, Toyin; Wigle, Patricia R.; Zapantis, Antonia; Ryan, Melody; Connor, Sharon; Jonkman, Lauren J.; Ochs, Leslie; Jungnickel, Paul W.; Abrons, Jeanine P.; Alsharif, Naser Z.
The objective of this article is to describe the key areas of consideration for global/international advanced pharmacy practice experience (G/I APPE) preceptors, students and learning objectives. At the 2013 Annual Meeting of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP), the GPE SIG prepared and presented an initial report on the G/IAPPE initiatives. Round table discussions were conducted at the 2014 AACP Annual Meeting to document GPE SIG member input on key areas in the report. Literature search of PubMed, Google Scholar and EMBASE with keywords was conducted to expand this report. In this paper, considerations related to preceptors and students and learning outcomes are described. Preceptors for G/I APPEs may vary based on the learning outcomes of the experience. Student learning outcomes for G/I APPEs may vary based on the type of experiential site. Recommendations and future directions for development of G/IAPPEs are presented. Development of a successful G/I APPE requires significant planning and consideration of appropriate qualifications for preceptors and students. PMID:27170810
Dornblaser, Emily K; Ratka, Anna; Gleason, Shaun E; Ombengi, David N; Tofade, Toyin; Wigle, Patricia R; Zapantis, Antonia; Ryan, Melody; Connor, Sharon; Jonkman, Lauren J; Ochs, Leslie; Jungnickel, Paul W; Abrons, Jeanine P; Alsharif, Naser Z
The objective of this article is to describe the key areas of consideration for global/international advanced pharmacy practice experience (G/I APPE) preceptors, students and learning objectives. At the 2013 Annual Meeting of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP), the GPE SIG prepared and presented an initial report on the G/IAPPE initiatives. Round table discussions were conducted at the 2014 AACP Annual Meeting to document GPE SIG member input on key areas in the report. Literature search of PubMed, Google Scholar and EMBASE with keywords was conducted to expand this report. In this paper, considerations related to preceptors and students and learning outcomes are described. Preceptors for G/I APPEs may vary based on the learning outcomes of the experience. Student learning outcomes for G/I APPEs may vary based on the type of experiential site. Recommendations and future directions for development of G/IAPPEs are presented. Development of a successful G/I APPE requires significant planning and consideration of appropriate qualifications for preceptors and students.
Haines, Stuart T.; Plaza, Cecilia M.; Sturpe, Deborah A.; Williams, Greg; Rodriguez de Bittner, Magaly A.; Roffman, David S.
Objective To evaluate the impact of advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) on doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students' readiness for self-directed learning. Methods The Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale (SDLRS) was administered to students prior to and after completing their APPEs. SDLRS is a validated instrument that determines the relative degree to which students have the attitudes and motivation to engage in self-directed learning. Results Seventy-seven (64%) students completed the SDLRS prior to starting their APPEs and 80 (67%) students completed the instrument after completing their APPEs. Forty-six (38%) students completed both. Prior to starting their APPEs, 74% of students scored greater than 150 on the SDLRS, indicating a high level of readiness for self-directed learning. No significant difference was found between the mean scores of students who took the SDLRS both prior to (159 ± 20) and after completing their APPEs (159 ± 24; p > 0.05). Conclusion Students at our institution appear to be ready for self-directed learning but APPEs had a minimal impact on their readiness for self-directed learning. PMID:19657498
Bruppacher, Rudolf; Ruppanner, Hans; Hersberger, Kurt E
Background There are multiple ways in which community pharmacies can present themselves on the Internet, e.g., as a platform for drug information or as an advertising platform for their services. Objective To estimate the number of Swiss community pharmacies on the Internet over the period of 32 months (2000-2003), to describe their current e-commerce services, and to explore the experiences and plans these pharmacies have with regard to their Internet presence. Methods A longitudinal study was performed to determine the number of Swiss German pharmacies on the Internet by conducting Internet searches in 2000, 2001, and 2003. In April 2002, a cross-sectional Internet-based survey was administered to explore the pharmacies' experiences and plans regarding their Web sites. Results As of April 2003, 373 (44%) of 852 community pharmacies from the German speaking part of Switzerland were on the Internet. One hundred eighty four listed an e-mail address and were asked to complete a questionnaire. Of the 107 pharmacies answering the survey questions (58% response rate): 46% had been on the Internet for 1 to 2 years; 33% of the Web sites are part of a pharmacy group's Web portal; 31% of the pharmacies plan to expand their Internet appearance in the future; 74% provide e-commerce services, with 81% of those pharmacies filling five or less orders per month; and 12% plan on expanding their e-commerce services in the future. Conclusions The number of community pharmacies offering Internet services steadily increased over 32 months. Given the importance of the Internet as a tool for information, communication, and advertising for pharmacy products and services, it can be expected that the increase will continue. Pharmacy-group portals are important promoters of pharmacies on the Internet. For many community pharmacies, Internet portals that provide an Internet presence for the pharmacies and provide regularly-updated content (e.g., health news, tips, drug information) seem to
Boyle, Todd A.; Bishop, Andrea C.; Mahaffey, Thomas; MacKinnon, Neil J.; Ashcroft, Darren; Zwicker, Bev; Reid, Carolyn
Background Given the demanding nature of providing pharmacy services, coupled with the expanded scope of practice of the professions in jurisdictions around the world, greater commitment to continuous quality improvement through adoption of quality related event (QRE) reporting is necessary to ensure patient safety. Pharmacy regulatory authorities (PRAs) are in a unique position to enhance QRE reporting and learning through the standardization of expected practice Objective This study aims to better understand the perceived roles of PRAs in enhancing QRE reporting and learning in community pharmacies and identifying regulatory best practices to execute such roles. Methods A purposive case sampling approach was used to identify PRA staff members from two groups (deputy registrars and pharmacy inspectors) in 10 Canadian jurisdictions to participate in focus groups in the fall of 2011. Focus groups were used to explore perceptions of the role of PRAs in enhancing and promoting QRE reporting and learning, and perceived barriers to effective implementation in practice. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data. Results Two focus groups were conducted, one with seven deputy registrars/practice managers and one with nine pharmacy inspectors. Five themes were identified, including (1) defining QRE reporting and compliance, (2) navigating role conflict, (3) educating for enhanced QRE reporting and learning, (4) promoting the positive/removing the fear of QREs, and (5) tailoring QRE reporting and learning consistency. Conclusions Overall, participants perceived a strong role for PRAs in enhancing QRE reporting and learning and providing education for pharmacies to support their compliance with reporting standards. However, PRAs must navigate the conflict inherent in both educating and promoting a process for achieving a standard while simultaneously inspecting compliance to that standard. Ensuring pharmacies have autonomy in operationalizing standards may
Lelubre, Mélanie; Kamal, Susan; Genre, Noëllie; Celio, Jennifer; Gorgerat, Séverine; Hugentobler Hampai, Denise; Bourdin, Aline; Berger, Jerôme; Bugnon, Olivier; Schneider, Marie
The Community Pharmacy of the Department of Ambulatory Care and Community Medicine (Policlinique Médicale Universitaire, PMU), University of Lausanne, developed and implemented an interdisciplinary medication adherence program. The program aims to support and reinforce medication adherence through a multifactorial and interdisciplinary intervention. Motivational interviewing is combined with medication adherence electronic monitors (MEMS, Aardex MWV) and a report to patient, physician, nurse, and other pharmacists. This program has become a routine activity and was extended for use with all chronic diseases. From 2004 to 2014, there were 819 patient inclusions, and 268 patients were in follow-up in 2014. This paper aims to present the organization and program's context, statistical data, published research, and future perspectives. PMID:26839879
Lelubre, Mélanie; Kamal, Susan; Genre, Noëllie; Celio, Jennifer; Gorgerat, Séverine; Hugentobler Hampai, Denise; Bourdin, Aline; Berger, Jerôme; Bugnon, Olivier; Schneider, Marie
The Community Pharmacy of the Department of Ambulatory Care and Community Medicine (Policlinique Médicale Universitaire, PMU), University of Lausanne, developed and implemented an interdisciplinary medication adherence program. The program aims to support and reinforce medication adherence through a multifactorial and interdisciplinary intervention. Motivational interviewing is combined with medication adherence electronic monitors (MEMS, Aardex MWV) and a report to patient, physician, nurse, and other pharmacists. This program has become a routine activity and was extended for use with all chronic diseases. From 2004 to 2014, there were 819 patient inclusions, and 268 patients were in follow-up in 2014. This paper aims to present the organization and program's context, statistical data, published research, and future perspectives.
Walton, Alison M.; Nisly, Sarah A.
Objective. To implement and evaluate interactive web-based learning modules prior to advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) on inpatient general medicine. Design. Three clinical web-based learning modules were developed for use prior to APPEs in 4 health care systems. The aim of the interactive modules was to strengthen baseline clinical knowledge before the APPE to enable the application of learned material through the delivery of patient care. Assessment. For the primary endpoint, postassessment scores increased overall and for each individual module compared to preassessment scores. Postassessment scores were similar among the health care systems. The survey demonstrated positive student perceptions of this learning experience. Conclusion. Prior to inpatient general medicine APPEs, web-based learning enabled the standardization and assessment of baseline student knowledge across 4 health care systems. PMID:25995515
Pereira, Chrystian R.; Harris, Ila M.; Moon, Jean Y.; Westberg, Sarah M.; Kolar, Claire
Objective. To determine if the amount of exposure to patient encounters and clinical skills correlates to student clinical competency on ambulatory care advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs). Design. Students in ambulatory care APPEs tracked the number of patients encountered by medical condition and the number of patient care skills performed. At the end of the APPE, preceptors evaluated students’ competency for each medical condition and skill, referencing the Dreyfus model for skill acquisition. Assessment. Data was collected from September 2012 through August 2014. Forty-six responses from a student tracking tool were matched to preceptor ratings. Students rated as competent saw more patients and performed more skills overall. Preceptors noted minimal impact on workload. Conclusions. Increased exposure to patient encounters and skills performed had a positive association with higher Dreyfus stage, which may represent a starting point in the conversation for more thoughtful design of ambulatory care APPEs. PMID:26941440
Lapidus, Mariana; Kostka-Rokosz, Maria D; Dvorkin-Camiel, Lana
Pharmacy schools across the United States expose students to literature searching and evaluation mostly during required didactic drug information courses. The majority of Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) students do not utilize library-available electronic resources on a regular basis, and their didactic experience alone is not sufficient to make them successful in their advanced experiential drug information (DI) rotations. This pilot study demonstrates an improvement of students' perceptions regarding information searching and evaluating abilities as the result of their participation in a small group tutorial with a reference librarian, thus indicating effectiveness of the tutorial in refreshing and enhancing database knowledge skills.
Sohanpal, Ratna; Rivas, Carol; Steed, Liz; MacNeill, Virginia; Kuan, Valerie; Edwards, Elizabeth; Griffiths, Chris; Eldridge, Sandra; Taylor, Stephanie; Walton, Robert
Objectives To understand views of pharmacy advisers about smoker recruitment and retention in the National Health Service community pharmacy stop smoking programme. Design Thematic framework analysis of semistructured, in-depth interviews applying the Theoretical Domains Framework and COM-B behaviour change model. We aimed to identify aspects of adviser behaviour that might be modified to increase numbers joining and completing the programme. Participants 25 stop smoking advisers (13 pharmacists and 12 support staff). Setting 29 community pharmacies in 3 inner east London boroughs. Results Advisers had preconceived ideas about smokers likely to join or drop out and made judgements about smokers' readiness to quit. Actively recruiting smokers was accorded low priority due in part to perceived insufficient remuneration to the pharmacy and anticipated challenging interactions with smokers. Suggestions to improve smoker recruitment and retention included developing a more holistic and supportive approach using patient-centred communication. Training counter assistants were seen to be important as was flexibility to extend the programme duration to fit better with smokers’ needs. Conclusions Cessation advisers feel they lack the interpersonal skills necessary to engage well with smokers and help them to quit. Addressing advisers' behaviours about active engagement and follow-up of clients, together with regular skills training including staff not formally trained as cessation advisers, could potentially boost numbers recruited and retained in the stop smoking programme. Adjustments to the pharmacy remuneration structure to incentivise recruitment and to allow personalisation of the programme for individual smokers should also be considered. PMID:27388355
Alsharif, Naser Z; Dakkuri, Adnan; Abrons, Jeanine P; Williams, Dennis; Ombengi, David N; Zheng, HaiAn; Al-Dahir, Sara; Tofade, Toyin; Gim, Suzanna; O'Connell, Mary Beth; Ratka, Anna; Dornblaser, Emily
International outreach by schools and colleges of pharmacy is increasing. In this paper, we provide current practice guidelines to establish and maintain successful global/international advanced pharmacy practice experiences (G/I APPEs) with specific recommendations for home/host country and host site/institution. The paper is based on a literature review (2000-2014) in databases and Internet searches with specific keywords or terms. Educational documents such as syllabi and memoranda of understanding (MoUs) from pharmacy programs were also examined. In addition, a preliminary draft was developed and the findings and recommendations were reviewed in a 90-minute roundtable discussion at the 2014 American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy Annual Meeting. Recommendations for the host country include travel considerations (eg, passport, visa, air travel), safety, housing, transportation, travel alerts and warnings, health issues, and financial considerations. For the home country, considerations for establishment of G/I APPE site (eg, vetting process, MoU, site expectations) are described. The paper is a resource for development of new G/I APPEs and provides guidance for continuous quality improvement of partnerships focusing on G/I pharmacy education.
Dakkuri, Adnan; Abrons, Jeanine P.; Williams, Dennis; Ombengi, David N.; Zheng, HaiAn; Al-Dahir, Sara; Tofade, Toyin; Gim, Suzanna; O’Connell, Mary Beth; Ratka, Anna; Dornblaser, Emily
International outreach by schools and colleges of pharmacy is increasing. In this paper, we provide current practice guidelines to establish and maintain successful global/international advanced pharmacy practice experiences (G/I APPEs) with specific recommendations for home/host country and host site/institution. The paper is based on a literature review (2000-2014) in databases and Internet searches with specific keywords or terms. Educational documents such as syllabi and memoranda of understanding (MoUs) from pharmacy programs were also examined. In addition, a preliminary draft was developed and the findings and recommendations were reviewed in a 90-minute roundtable discussion at the 2014 American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy Annual Meeting. Recommendations for the host country include travel considerations (eg, passport, visa, air travel), safety, housing, transportation, travel alerts and warnings, health issues, and financial considerations. For the home country, considerations for establishment of G/I APPE site (eg, vetting process, MoU, site expectations) are described. The paper is a resource for development of new G/I APPEs and provides guidance for continuous quality improvement of partnerships focusing on G/I pharmacy education. PMID:27170809
previously. In order to improve the public health services provided in community pharmacy, training must aim to increase pharmacists' confidence in providing these services. Confident, well trained pharmacists should be able to offer public health service more proactively which is likely to have a positive impact on customer attitudes and health. PMID:21777456
Weidle, Paul J.; Lecher, Shirley; Botts, Linda W.; Jones, LaDawna; Spach, David H.; Alvarez, Jorge; Jones, Rhondette; Thomas, Vasavi
Objective To test the feasibility of offering rapid, point-of-care human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing at community pharmacies and retail clinics. Design Pilot program to determine how to implement confidential HIV testing services in community pharmacies and retail clinics. Setting 21 community pharmacies and retail clinics serving urban and rural patients in the United States, from August 2011 to July 2013. Participants 106 community pharmacy and retail clinic staff members. Intervention A model was developed to implement confidential HIV counseling and testing services using community pharmacy and retail clinic staff as certified testing providers, or through collaborations with organizations that provide HIV testing. Training materials were developed and sites selected that serve patients from urban and rural areas to pilot test the model. Each site established a relationship with its local health department for HIV testing policies, developed referral lists for confirmatory HIV testing/care, secured a CLIA Certificate of Waiver, and advertised the service. Staff were trained to perform a rapid point-of-care HIV test on oral fluid, and provide patients with confidential test results and information on HIV. Patients with a preliminary positive result were referred to a physician or health department for confirmatory testing and, if needed, HIV clinical care. Main outcome measures Number of HIV tests completed and amount of time required to conduct testing. Results The 21 participating sites administered 1,540 HIV tests, with 1,087 conducted onsite by staff during regular working hours and 453 conducted at 37 different HIV testing events (e.g., local health fairs). The median amount of time required for pretest counseling/consent, waiting for test results, and posttest counseling was 4, 23, and 3 minutes, respectively. A majority of the sites (17) said they planned to continue HIV testing after the project period ended and would seek assistance or support
Klepser, Donald G.; Xu, Liyan; Ullrich, Fred; Mueller, Keith J.
Purpose: Medicare Part D provided 3.4 million American seniors with prescription drug insurance. It may also have had an unintended effect on pharmacy viability. This study compares trends in the number of pharmacies and rate of pharmacy closures before and after the implementation of Medicare Part D. Methods: This retrospective observational…
Amin, Mohammad Nurul; Khan, Tahir Mehmood; Dewan, Syed Masudur Rahman; Islam, Mohammad Safiqul; Moghal, Mizanur Rahman
Objectives To assess community pharmacists'/pharmacy technicians' knowledge and perceptions about adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and barriers towards the reporting of such reactions in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Method A cross-sectional study was planned to approach potential respondents for the study. A self-administered questionnaire was delivered to community pharmacists/pharmacy technicians (N=292) practising in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Results The overall response to the survey was 69.5% (n=203). The majority of the sample was comprised of pharmacy technicians (152, 74.9%) who possessed a diploma in pharmacy, followed by pharmacists (37, 18.2%) and others (12, 5.9%). Overall, 72 (35.5%) of the respondents disclosed that they had experienced an ADR at their pharmacy, yet more than half (105, 51.7%) were not familiar with the existence of an ADR reporting body in Bangladesh. Exploring the barriers to the reporting of ADRs, it was revealed that the top four barriers to ADR reporting were ‘I do not know how to report (Relative Importance Index (RII)=0.998)’, ‘reporting forms are not available (0.996)’, ‘I am not motivated to report (0.997)’ and ‘Unavailability of professional environment to discuss about ADR (RII=0.939)’. In addition to these, a majority (141, 69.46%) were not confident about the classification of ADRs (RII=0.889) and were afraid of legal liabilities associated with reporting ADRs (RII=0.806). Moreover, a lack of knowledge about pharmacotherapy and the detection of ADRs was another major factor hindering their reporting (RII=0.731). Conclusions The Directorate of Drug Administration in Bangladesh needs to consider the results of this study to help it improve and simplify ADR reporting in Bangladeshi community pharmacy settings. PMID:27489151
Survey of the levels of satisfaction with pharmacy practice among third-year students in the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido--influence of experience in voluntary training at a community pharmacy and plans after graduation.
Kobayashi, Michiya; Oda, Masako; Saitoh, Hiroshi
Pharmacy practice, which is executed in the taught of pharmaceutical sciences in Japan, has been assessed and improved student questionnaires. The levels of student satisfaction with the practice are expected to be influenced by their plans after graduation and their experience of training in pharmacies. However, there are few reports analyzing the information in the questionnaires from these viewpoints. In this report, we surveyed the levels of satisfaction of 148 third-year students in the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences of the Health Sciences University of Hokkaido using questionnaires and analyzed the influence of the students' background on the levels of satisfaction with pharmacy practice. Almost half of the students had received voluntary training in hospital and/or community pharmacies. Concerning plans after graduation, 36.5%, 27.7%, and 21.6% wanted to become community pharmacists, hospital pharmacists, and graduate students, respectively. More than 70% of the students were well satisfied with all the programs of practice. The levels of satisfaction with the overall practice and prescription analysis were significantly higher among students who had experienced training in pharmacies than among those who had not. Students who planned to become hospital pharmacists were more satisfied with manners seminars, one-dose package practice, and practice in a simulated pharmacy than the students who planned to enter the other field. Such surveys are useful for finding points for improvement and the development of new curricula when the assessment of pharmacy practice takes student background into consideration.
Green, James A; Brown, Kasey; Burgess, Jason; Chong, Doris; Pewhairangi, Kevin
We sought to identify what services indigenous (Maori) and immigrant populations use pharmacies for, and how long pharmacy staff spend interacting with them, as longer interactions are associated with better quality care. We review literature on counseling in pharmacy, and interaction length as an indicator of counseling quality. 1,086 interactions were discretely observed in 36 pharmacies in 5 cities around New Zealand. Maori or Pacific people, along with men, were more likely to treat pharmacies as prescription 'depots', being less likely to buy over-the-counter or pharmacist only medicines (ORs: 0.25-0.72). However, the influence of demographic factors on interaction length was small (|B|s < 7.7 s). The weak effect of ethnicity on interaction length suggests that pharmacies are providing advice of relatively consistent quality to different population groups. Possible barriers to use of pharmacies for primary healthcare, including over-the-counter medicines in Maori and Pacific people are discussed.
McDonald, Ruth; Cheraghi-Sohi, Sudeh; Sanders, Caroline; Ashcroft, Darren
The health professions are engaged in an ongoing and dynamic process involving reflection and adaptation, with factors such as socio-economic and cultural developments and technological innovations compelling professions to respond to changed circumstances. This paper concerns English community pharmacy, where recent reforms provide financial incentives to deliver interventions, which have the potential for pharmacists to promote their knowledge and skills, as part of a professionalising strategy. The paper, drawing on interviews with 49 pharmacists, describes how responses to reforms are not necessarily in accordance with either national policy goals or enhancement of professional status. Debates about professional status and role extension have often focused on health professions' subordination to medicine. This paper highlights the importance and interplay of other factors which help explain the inability to capitalise fully on the potential contribution to professional status, which reforms to extend professional roles afford.
Vogel, Wendy H
Oncology care is becoming increasingly complex. The interprofessional team concept of care is necessary to meet projected oncology professional shortages, as well as to provide superior oncology care. The oncology advanced practitioner (AP) is a licensed health care professional who has completed advanced training in nursing or pharmacy or has completed training as a physician assistant. Oncology APs increase practice productivity and efficiency. Proven to be cost effective, APs may perform varied roles in an oncology practice. Integrating an AP into an oncology practice requires forethought given to the type of collaborative model desired, role expectations, scheduling, training, and mentoring.
Brice, Steven; Akhter, Nasima; Kasim, Adetayo; Gunning, Ann; Slight, Sarah P; Watson, Neil W
Objectives To evaluate an electronic patient referral system from one UK hospital Trust to community pharmacies across the North East of England. Setting Two hospital sites in Newcastle-upon-Tyne and 207 community pharmacies. Participants Inpatients who were considered to benefit from on-going support and continuity of care after leaving hospital. Intervention Electronic transmission of an information related to patient's medicines to their nominated community pharmacy. Community pharmacists to provide a follow-up consultation tailored to the individual patient needs. Primary and secondary outcomes Number of referrals made to and received by different types of pharmacies; reasons for referrals; accepted/completed and rejected referred rates; reasons for rejections by community pharmacists; time to action referrals; details of the follow-up consultations; readmission rates at 30, 60 and 90 days post referral and number of hospital bed days. Results 2029 inpatients were referred over a 13-month period (1 July 2014–31 July 2015). Only 31% (n=619) of these patients participated in a follow-up consultation; 47% (n=955) of referrals were rejected by community pharmacies with the most common reason being ‘patient was uncontactable’ (35%, n=138). Most referrals were accepted/completed within 7 days of receipt and most rejections were made >2 weeks after referral receipt. Most referred patients were over 60 years of age and referred for a Medicines Use Review (MUR) or enrolment for the New Medicines Service (NMS). Those patients who received a community pharmacist follow-up consultation had statistically significant lower rates of readmissions and shorter hospital stays than those patients without a follow-up consultation. Conclusions Hospital pharmacy staff were able to use an information technology (IT) platform to improve the coordination of care for patients transitioning back home from hospital. Community pharmacists were able to contact the majority of
Donald, Maoliosa; King-Shier, Kathryn; Tsuyuki, Ross T.; Al Hamarneh, Yazid N.; Jones, Charlotte A.; Manns, Braden; Tonelli, Marcello; Tink, Wendy; Scott-Douglas, Nairne; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R.
Background: The RxEACH trial was a randomized trial to evaluate the efficacy of community pharmacy-based case finding and intervention in patients at high risk for cardiovascular (CV) events. Community-dwelling patients with poorly controlled risk factors were identified and their CV risk reduced through patient education, prescribing and follow-up by their pharmacist. Perspectives of patients, family physicians and community pharmacists were obtained regarding pharmacists' identification and management of patients at high risk for CV events, to identify strategies to facilitate implementation of the pharmacist's expanded role in routine patient care. Methods: We used a qualitative methodology (individual semistructured interviews) with conventional qualitative content analysis to describe perceptions about community pharmacists' care of patients at high risk for CV events. Perceptions were categorized into macro (structure), meso (institution) and micro (practice) health system levels, based on a conceptual framework of care for optimizing scopes of practice. Results: We interviewed 48 participants (14 patients, 13 family physicians and 21 community pharmacists). Patients were supportive of the expanded scope of practice of pharmacists. All participant groups emphasized the importance of communication, ability to share patient information, trust and better understanding of the roles, responsibilities, accountabilities and liabilities of the pharmacist within their expanded role. Interpretation: Despite support from patients and changes to delivery of care in primary care settings, ongoing efforts are needed to understand how to best harmonize family physician and community pharmacist roles across the health system. This will require collaboration and input from professional associations, regulatory bodies, pharmacists, family physicians and patients.
Cooper, R J; Bissell, P; Wingfield, J
Empirical ethics research is increasingly valued in offering insights into how ethical problems and decision-making occur in healthcare. In this article, the findings of a qualitative study of the ethical problems and decision-making of UK community pharmacists are presented, and it is argued that the identified themes of pharmacists' relative isolation from others and their subordination to doctors are ethically significant. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 community pharmacists in England, UK. Analysis of interviews revealed that isolation involved separation of pharmacists from their peers, other healthcare professionals, patients and customers. Such isolation is argued to be inimical to ethical practice - impeding ethical discourse as understood by Habermas, resulting in a form of anomie that inhibits the transmission of professional values, leading to a lack of proximity between pharmacist and patient or customer that may impede ethical relationships and resulting, psychologically, in less ethical concern for those who are less close. Pharmacists' subordination to doctors not only precipitated some ethical problems but also allowed some pharmacists to shift ethical responsibility to a prescribing doctor, as in the case of emergency hormonal contraception. The emergence of atrocity stories further supports a culture of subordination that may cause ethical problems. The study has implications for community pharmacy practice in terms of supervision issues, developments such as prescribing responsibilities and how ethical values can be taught and communicated. The potential for isolation and subordination in other healthcare professions, and resultant ethical problems, may also need to be addressed and researched.
Maguire, Michelle; Bennett, Marialice S.
Objective. To determine the impact of an elective course on students’ perception of opportunities and of their preparedness for patient care in community and ambulatory pharmacy settings. Design. Each course meeting included a lecture and discussion to introduce concepts and active-learning activities to apply concepts to patient care or practice development in a community or ambulatory pharmacy setting. Assessment. A survey was administered to students before and after the course. Descriptive statistics were used to assess student responses to survey questions, and Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to analyze the improvement in student responses with an alpha level set at 0.05. Students felt more prepared to provide patient care, develop or improve a clinical service, and effectively communicate recommendations to other health care providers after course completion. Conclusion. This elective course equipped students with the skills necessary to increase their confidence in providing patient care services in community and ambulatory settings. PMID:27168617
The pharmacy profession in Great Britain has identified public health as a key area for future development; at the same time the government has been keen to make full use of pharmacists in pursuing its public health goals. To date, pharmacy has focused on microlevel activities such as health promotion, medicines management and prescribing advice, rather than on wider public health issues such as health inequalities. The role in health promotion has its origins in the traditional advisory role of the pharmacist, which largely died out following the establishment of the National Health Service in 1948, and was resurrected only following ministerial intervention in 1981. This article traces the origins of the pharmacist's role in public health, illustrating both shifting definitions of public health and changes in pharmacy practice. It describes how the profession was able to re‐establish its advisory role and to develop it into a wider contribution to public health, indicating that this process came about as a result of convergence between a professional imperative to develop its role, on the one hand, and state recognition of the need to draw a broader range of health professionals and lay people into public health activities, on the other. Convergence required the securing of government support, confirmed in policy documents; the recognition by pharmacy's professional body that embracing public health is a desirable activity; incentives for community pharmacists to carry out such activities; and support from the wider public health community. This article describes how each of these was achieved. PMID:17873218
Bhutada, Nilesh S.; Feng, Xiaodong
Objective. To implement a simulation-based introductory pharmacy practice experience (IPPE) and determine its effectiveness in assessing pharmacy students’ core domain abilities prior to beginning advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE). Design. A 60-hour IPPE that used simulation-based techniques to provide clinical experiences was implemented. Twenty-eight students were enrolled in this simulation IPPE, while 60 were enrolled in hospital and specialty IPPEs within the region. Assessment. The IPPE assessed 10 out of 11 of the pre-APPE core domain abilities, and on the practical examination, 67% of students passed compared to 52% of students in the control group. Students performed better on all 6 knowledge quizzes after completing the simulation IPPE. Based on scores on the Perception of Preparedness to Perform (PREP) survey, students felt more prepared regarding “technical” aspects after completing the simulation experience (p<0.001). Ninety-six percent of the respondents agreed with the statement “I am more aware of medication errors after this IPPE.” Conclusion. Simulation is an effective method for assessing the pre-APPE abilities of pharmacy students, preparing them for real clinical encounters, and for making them more aware of medication errors and other patient safety issues. PMID:23193340
Micheni, Murugi; Shangala, Jimmy; Hussein, Mohamed H.; Graham, Susan M.; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.; Sanders, Eduard J.
Background While HIV testing and counselling is a key entry point for treatment as prevention, over half of HIV-infected adults in Kenya are unaware they are infected. Offering HIV self-testing (HST) at community pharmacies may enhance detection of undiagnosed infections. We assessed the feasibility of pharmacy-based HST in Coastal Kenya. Methods Staff at five pharmacies, supported by on-site research assistants, recruited adult clients (≥18 years) seeking services indicative of HIV risk. Participants were offered oral HST kits (OraQuick®) at US$1 per test. Within one week of buying a test, participants were contacted for post-test data collection and counselling. The primary outcome was test uptake, defined as the proportion of invited clients who bought tests. Views of participating pharmacy staff were solicited in feedback sessions during and after the study. Results Between November 2015 and April 2016, 463 clients were invited to participate; 174 (38%) were enrolled; and 161 (35% [95% Confidence Interval (CI) 31–39%]) bought a test. Uptake was higher among clients seeking HIV testing compared to those seeking other services (84% vs. 11%, adjusted risk ratio 6.9 [95% CI 4.9–9.8]). Only 4% of non-testers (11/302) stated inability to pay as the reason they did not take up the test. All but one tester reported the process was easy (29%) or very easy (70%). Demand for HST kits persisted after the study and participating service providers expressed interest in continuing to offer the service. Conclusions Pharmacy HST is feasible in Kenya and may be in high demand. The uptake pattern observed suggests that a client-initiated approach is more feasible compared to pharmacy-initiated testing. Price is unlikely to be a barrier if set at about US$1 per test. Further implementation research is required to assess uptake, yield, and linkage to care on a larger scale. PMID:28125699
Ibrahim, Mohamed I.; Palaian, Subish; Al-Sulaiti, Fatima; El-Shami, Somia
Objective: To evaluate Qatari pharmacists’ prescribing, labeling, dispensing and counseling practices in response to acute community-acquired gastroenteritis. Methods: The simulated patient method was used in this study. Thirty pharmacies in Doha were randomly selected and further randomized into two groups: Face-to-Face (n=15) vs. Telephone-call (n=15) per simulated patient; 2 simulated patients were involved. Prescribing, labeling, dispensing and counseling practices were assessed. Data analysis was performed using Mann-Whitney and chi square tests at alpha=0.05. Results: Most pharmacists prescribed and dispensed medicines (96%), including antimicrobials (43.9%), antidiarrheals (36%), antiemetics (5.1%) and antipyretics (3%). Counseling practices were poor (62.1% in the face-to-face group vs 70% in the telephone-call group did not counsel simulated patients about the dispensed medicines; p-value=0.50). In more than one-third of the encounters, at least one labeling parameter was missing. The duration of each interaction in minutes was not significantly different between the groups [median (IQR); 3(4.25) in the face-to-face group versus 2(0.25) in the telephone-call group; p-value=0.77]. No significant differences in prescribing or dispensing behaviors were present between groups (p-value>0.05). Conclusion: Qatar community pharmacists’ labeling, dispensing, and counseling practices were below expectation, thus urging the need for continuous professional development. PMID:28042351
Fakih, Souhiela; Marriott, Jennifer L.; Hussainy, Safeera Y.
With the increase in the overweight and obese population, it is critical that pharmacy staff are able to provide weight management advice to women at different stages of their life. This study utilized case vignettes to identify pharmacists' and pharmacy assistants' current weight management recommendations to women of different ages, life stages…
Grézy-Chabardès, Claire; Fournier, Jean-Pascal; Dupouy, Julie; Poutrain, Jean-Christophe; Oustric, Stéphane
The objective of this study was to describe the level of knowledge about paracetamol (acetaminophen), ibuprofen, and aspirin of subjects who purchased nonprescription medications containing one of these drugs. We conducted this cross-sectional descriptive study in 42 community pharmacies located in southwestern France between July and November 2013. A six-item self-administered questionnaire was used. Participants were asked to identify the active ingredient contained in 14 brand-name analgesic-antipyretics, to state the maximum daily dose of paracetamol, ibuprofen, and aspirin, the recommended first-line analgesic, and precautions of use or contraindications for paracetamol, ibuprofen, and aspirin. Among 576 participants, the identification of paracetamol ranged from 58% (for Dafalgan or Efferalgan) to 90% (for Doliprane), the identification of ibuprofen from 34% (for Nureflex) to 63% (for Nurofen), and the identification of aspirin was 70% (for Aspegic). The maximum recommended daily dose of paracetamol, ibuprofen, and aspirin was known by 58.3%, 17.7%, and 19.3% of participants, respectively, whereas 6.8%, 17.2%, and 13.2% stated supratherapeutic daily doses. Paracetamol was correctly stated as the first-line analgesic-antipyretic by 76.2% of participants. Knowledge on major precautions of use or contraindications was poor (45.8% and 53.6% for ibuprofen and aspirin use during pregnancy, and 14.1% for concurrent use of anticoagulants and ibuprofen). Purchasers of nonprescription analgesic-antipyretics had poor knowledge on the medication they purchased.
Marques dos Reis, Tiago; Guidoni, Camilo Molino; Girotto, Edmarlon; Guerra, Marisabelle Lima; de Oliveira Baldoni, André; Leira Pereira, Leonardo Régis
Objective. To summarize the effects of media methods used in continuing education (CE) programs on providing clinical community pharmacy services and the methods used to evaluate the effectiveness of these programs. Methods. A systematic review was performed using Medline, SciELO, and Scopus databases. The timeline of the search was 1990 to 2013. Searches were conducted in English, Portuguese, and Spanish. Results. Nineteen articles of 3990 were included. Fourteen studies used only one media method, and the live method (n=11) was the most frequent (alone or in combination). Only two studies found that the CE program was ineffective or partially effective; these studies used only the live method. Most studies used nonrobust, nonvalidated, and nonstandardized methods to measure effectiveness. The majority of studies focused on the effect of the CE program on modifying the knowledge and skills of the pharmacists. One study assessed the CE program’s benefits to patients or clients. Conclusion. No evidence was obtained regarding which media methods are the most effective. Robust and validated methods, as well as assessment standardization, are required to clearly determine whether a particular media method is effective. PMID:27402991
Seel, Lindsey V; Hultgren, Kyle E; Snyder, Margie E
The objective of this cross-sectional survey was to determine community pharmacy employee research project priorities and assess interest levels, barriers, and facilitators to joining a new community pharmacy practice-based research network (PBRN) and use this information in subsequent PBRN development. One hundred forty pharmacists and 40 support staff responded. The majority (72%) of respondents were somewhat interested or needed more information to determine their level of interest in joining a PBRN; 15% were very interested. While all research topics were regarded as important, dispensing errors were rated as the most important. Time constraints were considered the greatest barrier to participation. Greater knowledge of medication safety, enrichment of patient care, and improved patient and provider relationships were considered important reasons for joining a PBRN. Responses indicated favorable interest levels and project support from potential network members, though education and awareness campaigns are needed to enhance community pharmacy employee understanding of and involvement in research and PBRNs, specifically the Medication Safety Research Network of Indiana (Rx-SafeNet), a new network administered by the Purdue University College of Pharmacy. While the generalizability of survey results is limited, they were useful in determining policies and procedures of the new network. Surveying all employees involved in the future PBRN during the network development process is a unique approach to developing these types of networks in the U.S. Understanding support staff perspectives is important considering the critical role they play in project implementation and operations. Emerging PBRNs from any discipline may benefit from considering adding this step to their development.
According to the "Japan Revitalization Strategy" established in June 2013, "the government will promote better contributions of local pharmacies and pharmacists in encouraging self-medication of citizens by making pharmacies the community-based hub for providing information, giving advice on the proper use of non-prescription drugs, etc. and offering consultation and information service concerning health". In addition, the "Demanded Function and Ideal Form of Pharmacy," published in January 2014, requested a change, from pharmacies that specialized in dispensing medicines to pharmacies that serve as whole healthcare stations, providing pharmaceutical care based on patients' medical history, including the intake of dietary supplements. The medication fee was revised in April 2014 to enhance family pharmacy services and the management of pharmaceutical care. At that time, blood testing at a registered pharmacy was officially allowed under strict regulation. Revision of the "Pharmacist Law" in June 2014 included a request to pharmacists to provide pharmaceutical advice in addition to information. For the mitigation of drug-induced tragedies, the "Pharmaceutical Affairs Law" was amended to the "Pharmaceutical and Medical Device Act (PMD Act)" in November 2014, and proper use of medicines was imposed on healthcare professionals and other stakeholders. Patients were also requested to learn and understand the safety and harmful effects of medicines, and were requested to use medicines appropriately. As mentioned above, the status of pharmacies and pharmacists has dramatically changed in the past 2 years, and such changes over time are required.
Maddox, Ray R.
This Idaho state curriculum guide provides lists of tasks, performance objectives, and enabling objectives for instruction designed to prepare entry-level pharmacy technicians or help already employed pharmacy technicians retain their jobs or advance in their field. Following a list of tasks and an introduction, the bulk of the document consists…
Background The introduction of a new method of transmitting prescriptions from general practices to community pharmacies in England (Electronic Prescription Service Release 2 (EPS2)) has generated debate on how it will change work practice. As EPS2 will be a key technical element in dispensing, we reviewed the literature to find that there were no studies on how social and technical elements come together to form work practice in community pharmacies. This means the debate has little point of reference. Our aim therefore was to study the ways social and technical elements of a community pharmacy are used to achieve dispensing through the development of a conceptual model on pharmacy work practice, and to consider how a core technical element such the EPS2 could change work practice. Method We used ethnographic methods inclusive of case-study observations and interviews to collect qualitative data from 15 community pharmacies that were in the process of adopting or were soon to adopt EPS2. We analysed the case studies thematically and used rigorous multi-dimensional and multi-disciplinary interpretive validation techniques to cross analyse findings. Results In practice, dispensing procedures were not designed to take into account variations in human and technical integration, and assumed that repetitive and collective use of socio-technical elements were at a constant. Variables such as availability of social and technical resources, and technical know-how of staff were not taken into account in formalised procedures. Yet community pharmacies were found to adapt their dispensing in relation to the balance of social and technical elements available, and how much of the social and technical elements they were willing to integrate into dispensing. While some integrated as few technical elements as possible, some depended entirely on technical artefacts. This pattern also applied to the social elements of dispensing. Through the conceptual model development process, we
Nazar, Hamde; Nazar, Zachariah; Simpson, Jill; Yeung, Andre; Whittlesea, Cate
Objectives To demonstrate the contribution of community pharmacy from NHS 111 referrals out of hours (OOH) for emergency supply repeat medication requests via presentation of service activity, community pharmacist feedback and lean thinking transformation. Design Descriptive service evaluation using routine service activity data over the pilot period; survey of community pharmacists, and service redesign through lean thinking transformation. Setting North East of England NHS 111 provider and accredited community pharmacies across the North East of England. Participants Patients calling the North East of England NHS 111 provider during OOH with emergency repeat medication supply requests. Interventions NHS 111 referral to community pharmacies for assessment and if appropriate, supply of emergency repeat medication. Main outcome measures Number of emergency repeat medication supply referrals, completion rates, reasons for rejections, time of request, reason for access, medication(s), pharmaceutical advice and services provided. Secondary outcomes were community pharmacist feedback and lean thinking transformation of the patient pathway. Results NHS 111 referred 1468 patients to 114 community pharmacies (15/12/2014–7/4/2015). Most patients presented on Saturdays, with increased activity over national holidays. Community pharmacists completed 951 (64.8%) referrals providing 2297 medications; 412 were high risk. The most common reason for rejecting referrals was no medication in stock. Community pharmacists were positive about the provision of this service. The lean thinking transformation reduced the number of non-added value steps, waits and bottlenecks in the patient pathway. Conclusions NHS 111 can redirect callers OOH from urgent and emergency care services to community pharmacy for management of emergency repeat medication supply. Existing IT and community pharmacy regulations allowed patients to receive a medication supply and pharmaceutical advice. Community
Driesenaar, Jeanine A; De Smet, Peter AGM; van Hulten, Rolf; Hu, Litje; van Dulmen, Sandra
Background Pharmaceutical care is one of the major tasks of pharmacists, which aims to improve patient outcomes. Counseling patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease about their use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) might enhance medication adherence and symptom control. Therefore, effective pharmacist–patient communication is very important. In this regard, both affective communication, for handling emotions, and instrumental communication, for exchanging biomedical and lifestyle information, are relevant. Until now, only few studies have explored pharmacist–patient communication, and further insight is needed in this regard. The aim of this study is to investigate how pharmacists and pharmacy technicians communicate about ICS with patients with asthma and/or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, what topics are discussed by them, and whether pharmacists and pharmacy technicians differ in their communication during counseling sessions. Methods Patients aged ≥18 years who had used ICS for at least 1 year and filled at least two ICS prescriptions in the preceding year were recruited through 12 pharmacies. Participants had one counseling session with a pharmacist or a pharmacy technician, which was video-recorded. The process and content of the provider–patient communication were analyzed using the Roter interaction analysis system, adapted to the pharmaceutical setting. Results A total of 169 sessions were recorded and analyzed. The communication appeared largely instrumental. Lifestyle, psychosocial issues, and ICS adherence were not discussed in detail. The pharmacists had longer conversations and more affective talk than the pharmacy technicians. Conclusion Pharmacists and pharmacy technicians may need to pay more attention to ICS adherence, lifestyle, and psychosocial topics. They differed in their communication; the pharmacists exhibited more affective behavior and discussed medical and therapeutic issues more extensively compared to
Greißing, Claudia; Kössler, Katharina; Freyer, Johanna; Hüter, Lucie; Buchal, Peter; Schiek, Susanne; Bertsche, Thilo
Background Pharmacist-led medication reviews have shown to prevent drug-related problems (DRPs). So far, data is rare about the implementation in routine care, the conditions for intensifying this service and the practical skills of community pharmacists to perform medication reviews. Objective To assess the current status of medication review implementation in German community pharmacies and the performance of identifying DRPs in a ficticious patient example. Setting German community pharmacies. Method An online survey was conducted from July to September 2015 including questions about medication reviews currently performed in routine care of community pharmacies and hidden DRPs in a ficticious patient example. Pharmacists were invited via newsletters from three local chambers of pharmacists. Main outcome measure (i) Frequency, conditions for implementation, and criteria of medication reviews currently being performed in routine care, (ii) requested further information to perform medication reviews, and (iii) proportion of pharmacists who identify DRPs in the patient example. Results A total of 143 community pharmacists completed the questionnaire. (i) One hundred and twenty-seven respondents (89 %) reported reviewing the medication regularly in routine care, whereas 56 (39 %) stated that they performed medication reviews between one and five times monthly. For 124 pharmacists (87 %), remuneration would be a necessary condition for performing medication reviews more frequently. When reviewing the medication, 112 (78 %) of the pharmacists considered the criterion 'drug-drug interactions' and 107 (75 %) reviewed the criterion 'correct dosage'. One of the least reviewed criteria was 'effectiveness of medication' [22 (16 %)]. (ii) According to the participants, laboratory values should be available in the community pharmacy, since 87/143 (61 %) would appreciate the GFR and the HbA1c level. Twenty-two of 54 respondents (41 %) would appreciate further
Karara, Adel H; Hines, Ryan; Demir, Zehra; Nnorom, Bethran; Horsey, Robert; Twigg, Geoffrey
Extemporaneous drug formulation is essential to provide optimal pharmaceutical care to veterinary patients. The need for this is exacerbated by the fact that commercially produced veterinary-specific products, without a human indication, require specialty veterinary manufacturing facilities and a new animal drug application process to gain marketing approval. This study examined the prescription patterns of extemporaneously compounded veterinary preparations in the compounding department at a large independent community pharmacy. Data was obtained from a total of 1348 prescriptions requiring extemporaneous compounding over the course of a two-year period (2014-2015). A database was constructed and each compounded prescription was allocated to a therapeutic category based on the American Hospital Formulary Service Drug Information. Data analysis showed that the most commonly prescribed preparations belonged to the central nervous system (39%), anti-infective agents (21%), and hormones (12%) therapeutic categories. Overall, suspensions were the most dispensed (47%), extemporaneously compounded dosage forms followed by solutions (28%), and capsules (10%). The majority (88%) of compounded preparations were administered by the oral route. The top three drugs that are compounded for veterinary medicine were (1) potassium bromide oral solution for canine epilepsy, (2) methimazole solution used to treat hyperthyroidism in cats, and (3) metronidazole suspension, an antibiotic for the treatment of diarrhea and other infections in dogs and cats. Remarkably, our findings are in good agreement with previously published survey data on the top drugs that are compounded for veterinary medicine. In the era of personalized medicine, veterinary extemporaneous compounding for specialized needs will continue to play an important role providing optimum therapy for veterinary patients.
Piecuch, Anna; Makarewicz-Wujec, Magdalena; Kozłowska-Wojciechowska, Małgorzata
Background An informed or shared decision-making model is desirable to support the choice of over-the-counter (OTC) medications in pharmacies: it respects patient empowerment in self-medication. Such a model is achievable provided that pharmacists are a credible, competent information source open to patient needs. Objective To study the dependencies among selected factors that may influence the provision of OTC medication information. The study was conducted from the perspective of a community pharmacist. Method The study consisted of an auditorium survey with a self-administered questionnaire. We attempted to determine the relationships among three selected constructs: patient centredness (four items), competence (four items), and provision of OTC medication information (six items) as latent variables. We analysed hypothetical relationships among the observable variables and latent variables using structural equation modelling. Main outcome measure Selected factors that may influence the provision of OTC medication information. Results In all, 1496 pharmacists took part in the study. The model demonstrated adequate fit (χ(2) = 198.39, df = 64). The patient-centredness construct was demonstrated to have a strong direct positive impact on the provision of OTC medication information construct (β = 0.77, P < 0.05). Provision of OTC medication information was also shown to have a strong direct effect on the competence variable (β = 0.90, P < 0.05). Conclusion If a pharmacist is patient centred, there is a greater possibility that they will provide information about OTC medicines; that may influence the pharmacist's feelings about their ability to cope with patient initiatives and enhance the pharmacist's selfperceived competence.
Masoud, A. N.; And Others
Offered as an independent, elective, one-credit course available to second-year pharmacy students, a life support course has been taught at the University of Nebraska Medical Center by instructors certified by the American Heart Association. Course structure and materials, student response, and course evaluation are discussed. (LBH)
Wang, Erica H Z; Bolt, Jennifer L; Décarie, Diane; Semchuk, William; Ensom, Mary H H
Background: Dabigatran, a direct thrombin inhibitor, is indicated for the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism and for stroke prophylaxis in atrial fibrillation. The manufacturer recommends that dabigatran etexilate be retained in the original packaging until administration. Currently, no information exists about the stability of dabigatran etexilate outside its original packaging. Objective: To evaluate the stability of dabigatran etexilate capsules over 120 days, with storage in the manufacturer’s original packaging, in unit-dose packaging, and in community pharmacy blister packaging. Methods: Commercially available dabigatran etexilate capsules (110 mg) were stored at room temperature (25°C) in the manufacturer’s original blister pack, in unit-dose packaging, or in community pharmacy blister packs. Samples were collected from each container daily for the first 3 days, weekly up to 28 days, every other week until day 98, and at day 120. Suspensions were prepared, pH was evaluated, and samples were stored at −85°C until analysis. Each sample was analyzed in duplicate by a validated, stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography – ultraviolet detection method. The capsules were considered stable if they maintained at least 90% of the initial concentration. Results: Dabigatran etexilate capsules maintained 100.4% of the original concentration with 120 days of storage in the manufacturer’s original blister pack, 98.7% with storage in unit-dose packaging, and 98.0% with storage in community pharmacy blister packs. There were no notable changes in appearance, ease of suspension of the capsule content, or pH over the 120-day period. Conclusion: Dabigatran etexilate 110-mg capsules were stable for 120 days with storage at room temperature in 3 types of packaging widely used in hospital and community settings. PMID:25762815
Banack, Hailey R.; Grover, Samuel; Kaouche, Mohammed; Marchand, Sylvie; Lowensteyn, Ilka
Background: Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Despite this fact and the development of effective antihypertensive drug therapy, hypertension is often poorly controlled. Community pharmacies are an ideal site for the management of hypertension and other modifiable cardiovascular risk factors. The purpose of the current study was to develop and assess a pharmacy-based cardiovascular risk screening program implemented by graduate students. Methods: Four graduate students trained as health coaches screened a convenience sample of adults who were interested in cardiovascular risk assessment in 21 Montreal area pharmacies. On the screening day, we assessed cardiovascular risk factors, including blood pressure, used the Cardiovascular Life Expectancy Model, which includes cardiovascular age, to inform patients of their personalized risk profile, delivered an individualized health coaching intervention and conducted a participant satisfaction survey. This was followed by an individualized health coaching intervention. The intervention program was implemented by trained graduate students and supported by pharmacists. Results: Among the 238 patients who participated (57% female, mean age 60.6 years), 67% had a body mass index (BMI) greater than 25 kg/m2, 52% had abdominal obesity, 58% reported insufficient physical activity and 14% were smokers. A total of 120 patients (51%) were taking antihypertensive medication, yet 63 (53%) had blood pressure readings above currently accepted targets. Higher BMI and physical inactivity were associated with increased rates of poorly controlled hypertension. Conclusion: The screening program identified individuals with modifiable cardiovascular risk factors and poorly controlled hypertension. The intervention program was well received by participants and the majority provided contact information for future cardiovascular screening clinics. These findings support the feasibility of screening
Miller, Lucinda G.; And Others
Two pharmacy computer training laboratories were developed in Nebraska to facilitate student acquisition of computer skills for patient education prior to their clerkships at Nebraska Drug Information Network rural sites. Students' previous computer experience and computer use in delivering education during clerkships were assessed. Patterns in…
Green, Traci C; Dauria, Emily F; Bratberg, Jeffrey; Davis, Corey S; Walley, Alexander Y
The leading cause of adult injury death in the U.S.A. is drug overdose, the majority of which involves prescription opioid medications. Outside of the U.S.A., deaths by drug overdose are also on the rise, and overdose is a leading cause of death for drug users. Reducing overdose risk while maintaining access to prescription opioids when medically indicated requires careful consideration of how opioids are prescribed and dispensed, how patients use them, how they interact with other medications, and how they are safely stored. Pharmacists, highly trained professionals expert at detecting and managing medication errors and drug-drug interactions, safe dispensing, and patient counseling, are an under-utilized asset in addressing overdose in the U.S. and globally. Pharmacies provide a high-yield setting where patient and caregiver customers can access naloxone-an opioid antagonist that reverses opioid overdose-and overdose prevention counseling. This case study briefly describes and provides two US state-specific examples of innovative policy models of pharmacy-based naloxone, implemented to reduce overdose events and improve opioid safety: Collaborative Pharmacy Practice Agreements and Pharmacy Standing Orders.
Wang, Jun; Hu, Xiamin; Liu, Juan; Li, Lei
The aim of this study was to evaluate the attitudes towards physician-pharmacist collaboration among pharmacy students in order to develop an interprofessional education (IPE) opportunity through integrating cooperative learning (CL) into a team-based student-supported community service event. The study also aimed to assess the change in students' attitudes towards interprofessional collaboration after participation in the event. A bilingual version of the Scale of Attitudes Toward Physician-Pharmacist Collaboration (SATP(2)C) in English and Chinese was completed by pharmacy students enrolled in Wuhan University of Science and Technology, China. Sixty-four students (32 pharmacy students and 32 medical students) in the third year of their degree volunteered to participate in the IPE opportunity for community-based diabetes and hypertension self-management education. We found the mean score of SATP(2)C among 235 Chinese pharmacy students was 51.44. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.90. Our key finding was a significant increase in positive attitudes towards interprofessional collaboration after participation in the IPE activity. These data suggest that there is an opportunity to deliver IPE in Chinese pharmacy education. It appears that the integration of CL into an interprofessional team-based community service offers a useful approach for IPE.
Belay, Yared Belete
Introduction Job satisfaction is a multidimensional, enduring, important, and much-researched concept in the field of organizational behavior and has been identified as recognition in one’s field of work, level of salary, opportunities for promotion, and achievement of personal goals. Job satisfaction directly affects the labor market behavior and economic efficiency by means of the impact on productivity and turnover of staff. The aim of this study was to assess the satisfaction level of pharmacy professionals in Mekelle city. Methods This institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted as a survey and only included voluntary participants. Those participants who did not volunteer to participate were excluded from the study. A structured questionnaire was used as a data collection tool; it was developed from different literature in the English language, and then the original tool was translated to the local language for the purpose of understanding. Results In Mekelle, ~100 pharmacy professionals work in private medicine retail outlets. From those, only 60 volunteered to participate in this study. Significant difference in job satisfaction and job stress were observed between those working full-time and part-time, with P-values of 0.031 and 0.021, respectively. Conclusion From the findings of the current study, it can be concluded that around two-thirds of pharmacy professionals in Mekelle city were satisfied with their professional practice. PMID:27703402
Bryant, Kendrea; Kennedy, Kathleen B.; Robinson, Donna S.
Objective. To evaluate the efficacy of faculty-led problem-based learning (PBL) vs online simulated-patient case in fourth-year (P4) pharmacy students. Design. Fourth-year pharmacy students were randomly assigned to participate in either online branched-case learning using a virtual simulation platform or a small-group discussion. Preexperience and postexperience student assessments and a survey instrument were completed. Evaluation. While there were no significant differences in the preexperience test scores between the groups, there was a significant increase in scores in both the virtual-patient group and the PBL group between the preexperience and postexperience tests. The PBL group had higher postexperience test scores (74.8±11.7) than did the virtual-patient group (66.5±13.6) (p=0.001). Conclusion. The PBL method demonstrated significantly greater improvement in postexperience test scores than did the virtual-patient method. Both were successful learning methods, suggesting that a diverse approach to simulated patient cases may reach more student learning styles. PMID:24850938
Kheir, Nadir; Zaidan, Manal; Younes, Husam; El Hajj, Maguy; Wilbur, Kerry
The Arab world has influenced the art and science of pharmacy for centuries. Pharmacy education and practice is continuing to evolve in the Arabic-speaking traditional Middle East countries, although relatively little information has been published in the English press. Our goal was to provide a high-level synopsis of conditions in this region. We selected 13 countries for review. Information was obtained by reviewing the available published literature and individual university and program web sites, as well as contacting program or country representatives. Seventy-eight active pharmacy schools in 12 countries were identified. At least 14,000 students (over 75% from Egypt) are admitted into baccalaureate degree programs every year. The 5-year baccalaureate degree remains the first professional degree to practice. While changes in pharmacy education have been relatively rapid over the past decade, the advancement of pharmacy practice, particularly in the private sector, appears to be slower. Hospital pharmacists often possess an advanced degree and tend to have a higher level of practice compared to that of community pharmacists. Despite the adversities that face academics and practitioners alike, there is a strong desire to advance the science and practice of pharmacy in the Middle East. PMID:19325953
Waring, Justin; Latif, Asam; Boyd, Matthew; Barber, Nick; Elliott, Rachel
Community pharmacists play a growing role in the delivery of primary healthcare. This has led many to consider the changing power of the pharmacy profession in relation to other professions and patient groups. This paper contributes to these debates through developing a Foucauldian analysis of the changing dynamics of power brought about by extended roles in medicines management and patient education. Examining the New Medicine Service, the study considers how both patient and pharmacist subjectivities are transformed as pharmacists seek to survey patient's medicine use, diagnose non-adherence to prescribed medicines, and provide education to promote behaviour change. These extended roles in medicines management and patient education expand the 'pharmacy gaze' to further aspects of patient health and lifestyle, and more significantly, established a form of 'pastoral power' as pharmacists become responsible for shaping patients' self-regulating subjectivities. In concert, pharmacists are themselves enrolled within a new governing regime where their identities are conditioned by corporate and policy rationalities for the modernisation of primary care.
Cates, Marshall E.; Hogue, Michael D.
Substance use and abuse among pharmacy students is a concern of pharmacy schools, boards of pharmacy, and training sites alike. Pharmacy students must complete approximately 30% of their academic coursework in experiential settings such as community pharmacies, hospitals, and other health systems as part of any accredited pharmacy school's…
Rodgers, Ruth M; Gammie, Shivaun M; Loo, Ruey Leng; Corlett, Sarah A; Krska, Janet
Background Services provided by community pharmacists designed to support people using medicines are increasing. In England, two national services exist: Medicine Use Reviews (MUR) and New Medicines Service (NMS). Very few studies have been conducted seeking views of the public, rather than service users, on willingness to use these services or expectations of these services, or determined whether views align with pharmacist perceptions. Objective To compare the perceptions of pharmacists and the general public on medicines-related services, particularly MUR and NMS services. Methods Two parallel surveys were conducted in one area of England: one involved the general public and was administered using a street survey, and the other was a postal survey of community pharmacists. Similar questionnaires were used, seeking views of services, awareness, reasons for using services, and perceived benefits. Results Response rates were 47.2% (1,000/2,012 approached) for the public and 40.8% (341/836) for pharmacists. Few people had experienced a discussion in a private consultation room or were aware of the two formal services, although their willingness to use them was high. Pharmacists estimated time spent on service provision as 10 minutes for MUR and 12 minutes for NMS, which aligned with acceptability to both pharmacists and the public. Pharmacists underestimated the willingness of the public to wait for an informal discussion or to make appointments for formal services. Both pharmacists and the public had high expectations that services would be beneficial in terms of increasing knowledge and understanding, but public expectations and experiences of services helping to sort out problems fell well below pharmacists’ perceptions. People who had experienced a pharmacy service had different perceptions of pharmacists. Conclusion Views differed regarding why people use services and key aspects of service delivery. For services to improve, the pharmacy profession needs a
Severin, Anne-Elise; Petitpain, Nadine; Scala-Bertola, Julien; Latarche, Clotilde; Yelehe-Okouma, Melissa; Di Patrizio, Paolo; Gillet, Pierre
Acetaminophen (paracetamol), the highest over-the-counter (OTC) selling drug in France, is also the first cause of acute hepatic failure. We aimed to assess the good use and the knowledge of acetaminophen in a setting of urban self-medicated patients. We conducted a prospective observational study in randomly selected community pharmacies of Metz (France) agglomeration. Patients coming to buy OTC acetaminophen for themselves or their family had to answer to an anonymous autoquestionnaire. Responses were individually and concomitantly analyzed through 3 scores: good use, knowledge and overdosage. Twenty-four community pharmacies participated and 302 patients were interviewed by mean of a dedicated questionnaire. Most of patients (84.4%) could be considered as "good users" and independent factors of good use were (i) a good knowledge of acetaminophen (OR=5.3; P<0.0001) and more surprisingly; (ii) the fact of having no children (parentality: OR=0.1; P=0.006). Responses corresponding to involuntary overdosage were mostly due to a too short interval between drug intakes (3hours). Only 30.8% of patients were aware of liver toxicity of acetaminophen and only 40.7% knew the risk of the association with alcohol. Both good use and knowledge were significantly higher in patients looking for information from their pharmacist, physician and package leaflet. Patients should definitely be better informed about acetaminophen to warrant a better safety of its consumption. Pharmacists and physicians have to remind patients the risk factors of unintentional overdose and liver toxicity. Package leaflets have also to be more informative.
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Monajjemzadeh, Farnaz; Shokri, Javad; Mohajel Nayebi, Ali Reza; Nemati, Mahboob; Azarmi, Yadollah; Charkhpour, Mohammad; Najafi, Moslem
Purpose: This study was aimed to design Objective Structured Field Examination (OSFE) and also standardize the course plan of community pharmacy clerkship at Pharmacy Faculty of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences (Iran). Methods: The study was composed of several stages including; evaluation of the old program, standardization and implementation of the new course plan, design and implementation of OSFE, and finally results evaluation. Results: Lack of a fair final assessment protocol and proper organized educating system in various fields of community pharmacy clerkship skills were assigned as the main weaknesses of the old program. Educational priorities were determined and student’s feedback was assessed to design the new curriculum consisting of sessions to fulfill a 60-hour training course. More than 70% of the students were satisfied and successfulness and efficiency of the new clerkship program was significantly greater than the old program (P<0.05). In addition, they believed that OSFE was a suitable testing method. Conclusion: The defined course plan was successfully improved different skills of the students and OSFE was concluded as a proper performance based assessment method. This is easily adoptable by pharmacy faculties to improve the educational outcomes of the clerkship course. PMID:24511477
Ma, Carolyn S; Nett, Blythe; Kishaba, Gregg; Gomez, Lara
A partnership was formed between the University of Hawai'i at Hilo Daniel K. Inouye College of Pharmacy (DKICP) and the Department of Health to carry out the Hawai'i Asthma Friendly Pharmacy Project (HAFPP), which utilizes pharmacy students as a workforce to administer Asthma Control Tests™ (ACT), and provide Asthma Action Plans (AAP) and inhaler technique education. Evaluation of data from a pilot project in 2008 with first and second year students prompted more intensive training in therapeutics, inhaler medication training, and communication techniques. Data collection began when two classes of students were first and second year students and continued until the students became fourth year students in their advanced experiential ambulatory care clinic and retail community pharmacy rotations. Patients seen included pediatric (32%) and adult (68%) aged individuals. Hawai'i County was the most common geographic site (50%) and most sites were retail pharmacies (72%). Administered ACT surveys (N=96) yielded a mean score of 19.64 (SD +/-3.89). In addition, 12% of patients had received previous ACT, and 47% had previous AAPs. Approximately 83% of patients received an additional intervention of AAP and inhaler education with 73% of these patients able to demonstrate back proper inhaler technique. Project challenges included timing of student training, revising curriculum and logistics of scheduling students to ensure consistent access to patients.
Nett, Blythe; Kishaba, Gregg; Gomez, Lara
A partnership was formed between the University of Hawai‘i at Hilo Daniel K. Inouye College of Pharmacy (DKICP) and the Department of Health to carry out the Hawai‘i Asthma Friendly Pharmacy Project (HAFPP), which utilizes pharmacy students as a workforce to administer Asthma Control Tests™ (ACT), and provide Asthma Action Plans (AAP) and inhaler technique education. Evaluation of data from a pilot project in 2008 with first and second year students prompted more intensive training in therapeutics, inhaler medication training, and communication techniques. Data collection began when two classes of students were first and second year students and continued until the students became fourth year students in their advanced experiential ambulatory care clinic and retail community pharmacy rotations. Patients seen included pediatric (32%) and adult (68%) aged individuals. Hawai‘i County was the most common geographic site (50%) and most sites were retail pharmacies (72%). Administered ACT surveys (N=96) yielded a mean score of 19.64 (SD +/−3.89). In addition, 12% of patients had received previous ACT, and 47% had previous AAPs. Approximately 83% of patients received an additional intervention of AAP and inhaler education with 73% of these patients able to demonstrate back proper inhaler technique. Project challenges included timing of student training, revising curriculum and logistics of scheduling students to ensure consistent access to patients. PMID:25755914
Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.
This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of pharmacy technologist, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 16 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general as well as those specific to the occupation of pharmacy technologist. The following skill areas…
Crawford, Natalie D.; Amesty, Silvia; Rivera, Alexis V.; Harripersaud, Katherine; Turner, Alezandria; Fuller, Crystal M.
Objectives: In an effort to reduce HIV transmission among injection drug users (IDUs), New York State deregulated pharmacy syringe sales in 2001 through the Expanded Syringe Access Program by removing the requirement of a prescription. With evidence suggesting pharmacists' ability to expand their public health role, a structural, pharmacy-based…
Blake, Martin I.
Visits to colleges of pharmacy and to community and hospital pharmacies revealed that: pharmacy graduates seek employment in the pharmaceutical industry; pharmacy dispensers are PharmD graduates; physicians are the major drug dispensers to patients; little distinction is made between prescription and over-the-counter drugs; and drug laws are…
Macquart de Terline, Diane; Hejblum, Gilles; Fernandez, Christine; Cohen, Ariel; Antignac, Marie
Background Oral anticoagulation therapy is increasingly used for the prevention and treatment of thromboembolic complications in various clinical situations. Nowadays, education programs for patients treated with anticoagulants constitute an integrated component of their management. However, such programs are usually based on the healthcare providers’ perceptions of what patients should know, rather than on patients’ preferences. Objective To investigate patients’ viewpoints on educational needs and preferred modalities of information delivery. Methods We conducted an observational study based on a self-administered questionnaire. To explore several profiles of patients, the study was designed for enrolling patients in two settings: during outpatient consultations in a cardiology department (Saint Antoine Hospital, Paris, France) and in community pharmacies throughout France. Results Of the 371 patients who completed the questionnaire, 187 (50.4%) were recruited during an outpatient consultation and 184 (49.6%) were recruited in community pharmacies. 84.1% of patients were receiving a vitamin K antagonist and 15.6% a direct oral anticoagulant. Patients ranked 16 of 21 (76.2%) questionnaire items on information about their treatment as important or essential; information on adverse effects of treatment was the highest ranked domain (mean score 2.38, 95% CI 2.30–2.46). Pharmacists (1.69, 1.58–1.80), nurses (1.05, 0.95–1.16), and patient associations (0.36, 0.29–0.44), along with group sessions (0.85, 0.75–0.95), the internet (0.77, 0.67–0.88), and delivery of material at the patient’s home (1.26, 1.14–1.38), were ranked poorly in terms of delivering educational material. Conclusion This study revealed substantial discrepancies between patient preferences and current educational programs. These findings should be useful for tailoring future educational programs that are better adapted to patients, with a potential associated enhancement of their
Weber, Robert J.
Issues facing pharmacy leaders in 2015 include practice model growth and the role of pharmacy students, clinical privileging of health-system pharmacists and provider status, medication error prevention, and specialty pharmacy services. The goal of this article is to provide practical approaches to 4 issues facing pharmacy leaders in 2015 to help them focus their department’s goals. This article will address (1) advances in the pharmacy practice model initiative and the role of pharmacy students, (2) the current thinking of pharmacists being granted clinical privileges in health systems, (3) updates on preventing harmful medication errors, and (4) the growth of specialty pharmacy services. The sample template of a strategic plan may be used by a pharmacy department in 2015 in an effort to continue developing patient-centered pharmacy services. PMID:25717212
Weber, Robert J
Issues facing pharmacy leaders in 2015 include practice model growth and the role of pharmacy students, clinical privileging of health-system pharmacists and provider status, medication error prevention, and specialty pharmacy services. The goal of this article is to provide practical approaches to 4 issues facing pharmacy leaders in 2015 to help them focus their department's goals. This article will address (1) advances in the pharmacy practice model initiative and the role of pharmacy students, (2) the current thinking of pharmacists being granted clinical privileges in health systems, (3) updates on preventing harmful medication errors, and (4) the growth of specialty pharmacy services. The sample template of a strategic plan may be used by a pharmacy department in 2015 in an effort to continue developing patient-centered pharmacy services.
Kobayashi, Daisuke; Sakamaki, Hiroyuki; Komatsu, Ryou; Iijima, Tomonori; Iijima, Yasunori; Ootsuga, Hiroyuki; Saito, Katsuya; Seki, Tetsuya; Nakamura, Hidetoshi; Yamaura, Tomoyuki; Yokobayashi, Kuniaki
This study aimed to determine how much time can be saved with the use of unit-of-use packaging for prescription drugs as compared with bulk packaging in community pharmacies as well as to determine the number of errors. In a simulation, mock prescriptions were dispensed either in unit-of-use packages or by transferring medication from a bulk container, and a time study was conducted to measure the time spent on dispensing and prescription auditing by pharmacists. Pharmacists' and patients' degree of satisfaction was also surveyed. The time saved with unit-of-use packaging was 66.25 s per prescription. The sole dispensing error that was found in the study occurred with bulk dispensing. Among both pharmacists and patients, many were of the opinion that dispensing with unit-of-use packaging was preferable to bulk dispensing. Unit-of-use packaging shortens the time that pharmacists spend on dispensing activities and increases the efficiency of their work. Unit-of-use packaging is also thought to reduce the number of counting errors.
Atkinson, Jeffrey; Rombaut, Bart
The PHARMINE consortium consists of 50 universities from European Union member states or other European countries that are members of the European Association of Faculties of Pharmacy (EAFP). EU partner associations representing community (PGEU), hospital (EAHP) and industrial pharmacy (EIPG), together with the European Pharmacy Students' Association (EPSA) are also part of the consortium. THE CONSORTIUM SURVEYED PHARMACIES AND PHARMACISTS IN DIFFERENT SETTINGS: community, hospital, industry and other sectors. The consortium also looked at how European Union higher education institutions and courses are organised. The PHARMINE survey of pharmacy and pharmacy education in Europe produced country profiles with extensive information for EU member states and several other European countries. These data are available at: http://www.pharmine.org/losse_paginas/Country_Profiles/. This 2011 PHARMINE report presents the project and data, and some preliminary analysis on the basic question of how pharmacy education is adapted to pharmacy practice in the EU.
Greer, Marianne L.; Kirk, Kenneth W.
A computerized, simulation-based instrument, consisting of four community practice clinical scenarios, collected information-searching data and the students' decisions. The appropriateness of the decisions, assessed by three clinical judges, and the focus of information search, based on the computer-collected process data, were the dependent…
McNamara, K. P.; O'Reilly, S. L.; George, J.; Peterson, G. M.; Jackson, S. L.; Duncan, G.; Howarth, H.; Dunbar, J. A.
Background: Delivery of cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention programs by community pharmacists appears effective and enhances health service access. However, their capacity to implement complex behavioural change processes during patient counselling remains largely unexplored. This study aims to determine intervention fidelity by pharmacists…
Cornelius, Joe; Mockler, Todd; Tuinstra, Mitch
ARPA-E’s Transportation Energy Resources from Renewable Agriculture (TERRA) program is bringing together top experts from different disciplines – agriculture, robotics and data analytics – to rethink the production of advanced biofuel crops. ARPA-E Program Director Dr. Joe Cornelius discusses the TERRA program and explains how ARPA-E’s model enables multidisciplinary collaboration among diverse communities. The video focuses on two TERRA projects—Donald Danforth Center and Purdue University—that are developing and integrating cutting-edge remote sensing platforms, complex data analytics tools and plant breeding technologies to tackle the challenge of sustainably increasing biofuel stocks.
... common source for obtaining prescriptions is the local pharmacy. Usually the pharmacy is located in a drug or grocery store. ... some insurance companies have chosen is mail-order pharmacy. Once a pharmacy has been chosen it is ...
Mäkinen, Mia Maria; Rautava, Päivi Tuire; Forsström, Jari Johannes
The aim of this article is to consider the suitability of online pharmacies into European internal market area. This required considering the models of present online pharmacies in respect to the existing legislation. Data on online pharmacy settings was collected by looking some online pharmacies, which were found by using Goggle search machine with term "online pharmacy" and by studying websites of some well-known online pharmacies. European legislation and policy were studied from European Union's official website. Online drug markets seem to be increasing in popularity for reasons related to their ready availability and cost benefits. Few online pharmacies are based in Europe, yet online markets are worldwide. Community legislation does not stipulate on the legality of online pharmacies on European internal markets. Instead Community legislation offers framework for electronic commerce that could also include online pharmacy practise. National legislation, however, may rule them out either directly or indirectly. Regardless of European internal markets online pharmacies' cross-border operations are particularly complicated. Preliminary ruling from the European Court of Justice concerning one European online pharmacy's cross-border practise is awaited 2003-2004 and will offer some aspects for future.
Arkaravichien, Wiwat; Wongpratat, Apichaya; Lertsinudom, Sunee
Background Quality indicators determine the quality of actual practice in reference to standard criteria. The Community Pharmacy Association (Thailand), with technical support from the International Pharmaceutical Federation, developed a tool for quality assessment and quality improvement at community pharmacies. This tool has passed validity and reliability tests, but has not yet had feasibility testing. Objective (1) To test whether this quality tool could be used in routine settings. (2) To compare quality scores between accredited independent and accredited chain pharmacies. Setting Accredited independent pharmacies and accredited chain pharmacies in the north eastern region of Thailand. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted in 34 accredited independent pharmacies and accredited chain pharmacies. Quality scores were assessed by observation and by interviewing the responsible pharmacists. Data were collected and analyzed by independent t-test and Mann-Whitney U test as appropriate. Results were plotted by histogram and spider chart. Main outcome measure Domain's assessable scores, possible maximum scores, mean and median of measured scores. Results Domain's assessable scores were close to domain's possible maximum scores. This meant that most indicators could be assessed in most pharmacies. The spider chart revealed that measured scores in the personnel, drug inventory and stocking, and patient satisfaction and health promotion domains of chain pharmacies were significantly higher than those of independent pharmacies (p < 0.05). There was no statistical difference between independent pharmacies and chain pharmacies in the premise and facility or dispensing and patient care domains. Conclusion Quality indicators developed by the Community Pharmacy Association (Thailand) could be used to assess quality of practice in pharmacies in routine settings. It is revealed that the quality scores of chain pharmacies were higher than those of independent pharmacies.
Community pharmacy-delivered interventions for public health priorities: a systematic review of interventions for alcohol reduction, smoking cessation and weight management, including meta-analysis for smoking cessation
Brown, Tamara J; Todd, Adam; O'Malley, Claire; Moore, Helen J; Husband, Andrew K; Bambra, Clare; Kasim, Adetayo; Sniehotta, Falko F; Steed, Liz; Smith, Sarah; Nield, Lucie; Summerbell, Carolyn D
Objectives To systematically review the effectiveness of community pharmacy-delivered interventions for alcohol reduction, smoking cessation and weight management. Design Systematic review and meta-analyses. 10 electronic databases were searched from inception to May 2014. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Study design: randomised and non-randomised controlled trials; controlled before/after studies, interrupted times series. Intervention: any relevant intervention set in a community pharmacy, delivered by the pharmacy team. No restrictions on duration, country, age, or language. Results 19 studies were included: 2 alcohol reduction, 12 smoking cessation and 5 weight management. Study quality rating: 6 ‘strong’, 4 ‘moderate’ and 9 ‘weak’. 8 studies were conducted in the UK, 4 in the USA, 2 in Australia, 1 each in 5 other countries. Evidence from 2 alcohol-reduction interventions was limited. Behavioural support and/or nicotine replacement therapy are effective and cost-effective for smoking cessation: pooled OR was 2.56 (95% CI 1.45 to 4.53) for active intervention vs usual care. Pharmacy-based interventions produced similar weight loss compared with active interventions in other primary care settings; however, weight loss was not sustained longer term in a range of primary care and commercial settings compared with control. Pharmacy-based weight management interventions have similar provider costs to those delivered in other primary care settings, which are greater than those delivered by commercial organisations. Very few studies explored if and how sociodemographic or socioeconomic variables moderated intervention effects. Insufficient information was available to examine relationships between effectiveness and behaviour change strategies, implementation factors, or organisation and delivery of interventions. Conclusions Community pharmacy-delivered interventions are effective for smoking cessation, and demonstrate that the pharmacy is a
Welty, Timothy E
Generic substitution of antiepileptic drugs is an issue that is gathering a lot of attention in the neurology community but is not receiving much attention within pharmacy. Several proposals have been drafted that restrict a pharmacist's decision-making in generic substitution. These proposals highlight concerns about the pharmacy community related to generic substitution. Careful consideration needs to be given to these issues by pharmacists and pharmacy professional organizations. Unless pharmacy as a profession takes strong positions in support of a pharmacist's ability to make decisions about pharmacotherapy and addresses many of the pharmacy-related problems of generic substitution, policies that negatively impact pharmacy will be established.
Cornelius, Joe; Mockler, Todd; Tuinstra, Mitch
ARPA-Eâs Transportation Energy Resources from Renewable Agriculture (TERRA) program is bringing together top experts from different disciplines â agriculture, robotics and data analytics â to rethink the production of advanced biofuel crops. ARPA-E Program Director Dr. Joe Cornelius discusses the TERRA program and explains how ARPA-Eâs model enables multidisciplinary collaboration among diverse communities. The video focuses on two TERRA projectsâDonald Danforth Center and Purdue Universityâthat are developing and integrating cutting-edge remote sensing platforms, complex data analytics tools and plant breeding technologies to tackle the challenge of sustainably increasing biofuel stocks.
Clarke, Cheryl; Sedlacek, Renee K; Watson, Susan B
Objective. To evaluate the impact of a simulation on pharmacy student attitudes toward poverty using the Attitude toward Poverty (ATP) Short Form scale. Methods. Second-year pharmacy students participated in the 3-hour Missouri Association for Community Action Poverty Simulation. Students completed a survey of the ATP Short Form scale prior to and following participation in the simulation. Results. Significant improvements in attitude were noted in 15 of 21 ATP Short Form items. Improvements in the stigma and structural domains were significant while improvement in the personal deficiency domain was not significant. Conclusions. This poverty simulation exercise positively altered pharmacy student attitudes toward poverty. When combined with didactic and experiential curriculum, this simulation may enhance student achievement of the 2013 Center for the Advancement of Pharmacy Education (CAPE) outcome subdomain of cultural sensitivity.
Sedlacek, Renee K.; Watson, Susan B.
Objective. To evaluate the impact of a simulation on pharmacy student attitudes toward poverty using the Attitude toward Poverty (ATP) Short Form scale. Methods. Second-year pharmacy students participated in the 3-hour Missouri Association for Community Action Poverty Simulation. Students completed a survey of the ATP Short Form scale prior to and following participation in the simulation. Results. Significant improvements in attitude were noted in 15 of 21 ATP Short Form items. Improvements in the stigma and structural domains were significant while improvement in the personal deficiency domain was not significant. Conclusions. This poverty simulation exercise positively altered pharmacy student attitudes toward poverty. When combined with didactic and experiential curriculum, this simulation may enhance student achievement of the 2013 Center for the Advancement of Pharmacy Education (CAPE) outcome subdomain of cultural sensitivity. PMID:27073274
New York State Education Dept., Albany.
New York State education laws, rules, and regulations concerning the practice of pharmacy are presented. Provisions relating to the manufacture, sale, distribution, purity, potency, and labeling of drugs are included. State statutory provisions cover: licensing; duration and registration of a license; practice and regulation of the profession;…
New York State Education Dept., Albany. Cultural Education Center.
New York State education law, rules, and regulations concerning the practice of pharmacy are presented. Provisions relating to the manufacture, sale, distribution, purity, potency, and labeling of drugs are included. State statutory provisions cover: licensing, duration and registration of a license, practice and regulation of the profession,…
... pharmacists and doctors when taking prescription orders. When speaking with customers, technicians must listen carefully to understand customersâ€™ needs and determine if they need to speak with a pharmacist. Math skills. Pharmacy technicians need to have an understanding of ...
Among private Universities of Pharmacy in Japan, Kyoritsu University of Pharmacy was the first to introduce courses in social pharmacy in 1991. Social pharmacy is a discipline driven by social needs. By studying the relationship between pharmacy and society, particularly through case studies, the impact of drugs and changes in societal expectation of them, as well as through historical background studies and surveys of current trends, this discipline acts to determine the roles of pharmacists and pharmacies expected by society. Social pharmacy requires a basic knowledge of pharmaceutical science, but an understanding from economic viewpoints of the current systems and structures in which healthcare functions is important as well. Once these are understood, the goal is to identify social problems, and to create and apply models for their resolution which connect pharmacy and society. So far, social pharmacy has played an important role in training programs for community-based pharmacists essential for a hyper-aged society, for community pharmacies' health management programs aimed at promoting the health of residents, and educational programs for elementary and middle school children.
Penm, Jonathan; Chaar, Betty; Moles, Rebekah J
Background: The Basel statements of the International Pharmaceutical Federation, which provide the first global, unified vision for the hospital pharmacy profession, have recently been revised. Originally released in 2008, the Basel statements have since been made available in 21 languages, and thus have the potential for great impact around the world. Objective: To conduct a scoping review to examine the extent and nature of research activity related to the Basel statements. Methods: Google Scholar, PubMed, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts were searched using the key term “Basel statements” for relevant research articles. From each included study, data were extracted on geographic location, study design, study outcomes, and use of the Basel statements. Results: The search strategy generated 113 results. Further refinement resulted in 14 English-language articles that met the inclusion criteria. Four of these articles focused on adapting the Basel statements to European practice, an initiative of the European Association of Hospital Pharmacists that led to development of the European statements of Hospital Pharmacy. Six studies focused on monitoring hospital pharmacy practice in Uganda, the Pacific island countries, and the Western Pacific Region. These studies provide valuable baseline data to measure and track the development of hospital pharmacy practices in their respective countries and regions. The remaining 4 studies used qualitative methods to explore the barriers to and facilitators of implementation of the Basel statements in South Africa, China, and Australia. Conclusion: The Basel statements have led to multiple initiatives around the world, involving more than 70 countries. The European and Western Pacific regions have been the most active. Current initiatives should be continued to ensure identification and resolution of issues related to sustaining their use over time. PMID:27168634
Lowres, Nicole; Neubeck, Lis; Salkeld, Glenn; Krass, Ines; McLachlan, Andrew J; Redfern, Julie; Bennett, Alexandra A; Briffa, Tom; Bauman, Adrian; Martinez, Carlos; Wallenhorst, Christopher; Lau, Jerrett K; Brieger, David B; Sy, Raymond W; Freedman, S Ben
Atrial fibrillation (AF) causes a third of all strokes, but often goes undetected before stroke. Identification of unknown AF in the community and subsequent anti-thrombotic treatment could reduce stroke burden. We investigated community screening for unknown AF using an iPhone electrocardiogram (iECG) in pharmacies, and determined the cost-effectiveness of this strategy.Pharmacists performedpulse palpation and iECG recordings, with cardiologist iECG over-reading. General practitioner review/12-lead ECG was facilitated for suspected new AF. An automated AF algorithm was retrospectively applied to collected iECGs. Cost-effectiveness analysis incorporated costs of iECG screening, and treatment/outcome data from a United Kingdom cohort of 5,555 patients with incidentally detected asymptomatic AF. A total of 1,000 pharmacy customers aged ≥65 years (mean 76 ± 7 years; 44% male) were screened. Newly identified AF was found in 1.5% (95% CI, 0.8-2.5%); mean age 79 ± 6 years; all had CHA2DS2-VASc score ≥2. AF prevalence was 6.7% (67/1,000). The automated iECG algorithm showed 98.5% (CI, 92-100%) sensitivity for AF detection and 91.4% (CI, 89-93%) specificity. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of extending iECG screening into the community, based on 55% warfarin prescription adherence, would be $AUD5,988 (€3,142; $USD4,066) per Quality Adjusted Life Year gained and $AUD30,481 (€15,993; $USD20,695) for preventing one stroke. Sensitivity analysis indicated cost-effectiveness improved with increased treatment adherence.Screening with iECG in pharmacies with an automated algorithm is both feasible and cost-effective. The high and largely preventable stroke/thromboembolism risk of those with newly identified AF highlights the likely benefits of community AF screening. Guideline recommendation of community iECG AF screening should be considered.
Khandoobhai, Anand; Weber, Robert J
In 2013, the Director's Forum published our assessment of issues facing pharmacy leaders to assist pharmacy directors in planning for the year ahead. The issues include health care reform and the Affordable Care Act, the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists Pharmacy Practice Model Initiative, the health care workforce, patients' perceptions of pharmacists, and the changing landscape of pharmacy education. Based on our environmental scan, the issues addressed in 2013 are pertinent to a department's plan for 2014. The goal of this article is to provide practical approaches to each of these issues to help pharmacy directors focus their department's goals for 2014 to support the development of patient-centered pharmacy services. This column will address (1) strategies to reduce medication costs and generate new pharmacy revenue streams, (2) innovative approaches to improving medication safety and quality, (3) steps to advance the clinical practice model, and (4) ways to create mutually beneficial student experiences.
Blake, Martin I.
The 4-year Korean pharmacy curriculum does not contain components regarded in the United States as preparatory for clinical pharmacy. Community pharmacists routinely compound and dispense drugs without prescription, and physicians generally dispense medications themselves without pharmacy prescription. There is little interaction between…
Noor, Zaswiza Mohamad; Smith, Alesha J.; Smith, Simon S.; Nissen, Lisa M.
Introduction: Community pharmacists are in a suitable position to give advice and provide appropriate services related to sleep disorders to individuals who are unable to easily access sleep clinics. An intervention with proper objective measure can be used by the pharmacist to assist in consultation. Objectives: The study objectives are to evaluate: (1) The effectiveness of a community pharmacy-based intervention in managing sleep disorders and (2) the role of actigraph as an objective measure to monitor and follow-up individuals with sleeping disorders. Methods and Instruments: The intervention care group (ICG) completed questionnaires to assess sleep scale scores (Epworth Sleepiness Scale [ESS] and Insomnia Severity Index [ISI]), wore a wrist actigraph, and completed a sleep diary. Sleep parameters (sleep efficiency in percentage [SE%], total sleep time, sleep onset latency, and number of nocturnal awakenings) from actigraphy sleep report were used for consultation and to validate sleep diary. The usual care group (UCG) completed similar questionnaires but received standard care. Results: Pre- and post-mean scores for sleep scales and sleep parameters were compared between and within groups. A significant difference was observed when comparing pre- and post-mean scores for ISI in the ICG, but not for ESS. For SE%, an increase was found in the number of subjects rated as “good sleepers” at post-assessment in the ICG. Conclusions: ISI scores offer insights into the development of a community pharmacy-based intervention for sleeping disorders, particularly in those with symptoms of insomnia. It also demonstrates that actigraph could provide objective sleep/wake data to assist community pharmacists during the consultation. PMID:27413344
Bers, Trudy H.
Arthur M. Cohen and his colleagues at the Center for the Study of Community Colleges have made significant and broad contributions to the scholarly literature and empirical research about community colleges. Although Cohen's interests are comprehensive and his writings touch on multiple issues associated with community colleges, his empirical work…
... definition of ``community development'' as proposed. The final rule also will transfer the advances and new... community development lending is not new in banking law and is a well-developed concept as evidenced by the... RIN 2590-AA24 Use of Community Development Loans by Community Financial Institutions To...
Supporting underserved patients with their medicines: a study protocol for a patient/professional coproduced education intervention for community pharmacy staff to improve the provision and delivery of Medicine Use Reviews (MURs)
Latif, Asam; Pollock, Kristian; Anderson, Claire; Waring, Justin; Solomon, Josie; Chen, Li-Chia; Anderson, Emma; Gulzar, Sulma; Abbasi, Nasa; Wharrad, Heather
Introduction Community pharmacy increasingly features in global strategies to modernise the delivery of primary healthcare. Medicine Use Reviews (MURs) form part of the English Government's medicines management strategy to improve adherence and reduce medicine waste. MURs provide space for patient–pharmacist dialogue to discuss the well-known problems patients experience with medicine taking. However, ‘underserved’ communities (eg, black and minority ethnic communities, people with mental illness), who may benefit the most, may not receive this support. This study aims to develop, implement and evaluate an e-learning education intervention which is coproduced between patients from underserved communities and pharmacy teams to improve MUR provision. Methods and analysis This mixed-methods evaluative study will involve a 2-stage design. Stage 1 involves coproduction of an e-learning resource through mixed patient–professional development (n=2) and review (n=2) workshops, alongside informative semistructured interviews with patients (n=10) and pharmacy staff (n=10). Stage 2 involves the implementation and evaluation of the intervention with community pharmacy staff within all community pharmacies within the Nottinghamshire geographical area (n=237). Online questionnaires will be completed at baseline and postintervention (3 months) to assess changes in engagement with underserved communities and changes in self-reported attitudes and behaviour. To triangulate findings, 10 pharmacies will record at baseline and postintervention, details of actual numbers of MURs performed and the proportion that are from underserved communities. Descriptive and inferential statistics will be used to analyse the data. The evaluation will also include a thematic analysis of one-to-one interviews with pharmacy teams to explore the impact on clinical practice (n=20). Interviews with patients belonging to underserved communities, and who received an MUR, will also be conducted (n
Hertig, John B.; Weber, Robert J.
Practice advancement demands innovation. Amidst professional change, pharmacy leaders have the opportunity to collaborate with colleagues to develop transformational ideas, implement these solutions, and share those successes with professionals around the state, country, and world. Scholarship, defined as contributing to the literature through publications, presentations, and other writings, is an ideal way to advance innovation within the profession. It is critical for pharmacy leaders to build scholarship into their professional workflow. Ensuring that successful projects are published or presented may translate into shared best practices. Many pharmacy leaders may find it difficult to participate in scholarship activities because of their busy schedules. This column serves to outline recommendations on how to effectively incorporate writing for publications, making presentations, and other scholarly work into the role of pharmacy leaders and managers. To reduce the barriers to scholarship, pharmacy leaders role can apply project management principles to their work and identify projects that otherwise would not be published and support their development. PMID:26823623
Chapman, Scott A.; Frail, Caitlin K.; Moon, Jean Y.; Undeberg, Megan R.; Orzoff, Jordan H.
The profession of pharmacy is facing a shifting health system context that holds both opportunity and risk. If the profession of pharmacy is to advance, pharmacists must be recognized as a consistent member of the health care team in all clinical settings, contributing at the fullest extent of licensure and education. One part of achieving this broad goal is to implement a new way of defining and assessing pharmacy practice skills, such as entrustable professional activities (EPA). Assessment of professional tasks and practice activities with EPAs has been successfully implemented in medical education for assessing trainee preparation for practice. This EPA model is being applied to pharmacy education to develop an assessment framework across the advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) curriculum. The APPE course directors, practice faculty members, and the Office of Experiential Education collaboratively defined a set of universal EPAs critical for pharmacists in any practice setting and would be assessed in all practice experience types. PMID:27293224
Topol, Eric J
Few would argue that the ability to match individual patients with the safest and most effective drugs and doses would be a major advance for clinical medicine. But while clinicians have been reluctant to routinely use pharmacogenomic analyses to guide their prescribing practices, pharmacy benefit managers and drugstores are proceeding with major pharmacogenetic initiatives.
Farnsworth, Norman R.
The visit to the PCR by a herbal pharmacology study group during June 1-26, 1976 is reported. Although the primary purpose was not to study pharmacy and pharmaceutical education, the group observed many activities related to pharmacy, visiting several hospital and community pharmacies as well as one college of pharmacy. (LBH)
Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise. Div. of Vocational Education.
This report contains the task list for the pharmacy technician program in the state of Idaho. The task list reflects the current trends and skills necessary for an employee to obtain a job in this industry in Idaho, retain a job once hired, and advance in the occupational field. Technical information provided includes program area, program title,…
Eisenberg, Diane U.; And Others
The American Association of Community and Junior Colleges' (AACJC's) two-year Advancing the Humanities Project (AHP) has assisted selected community colleges in promoting the humanities on their campuses. Parts I and II of this report on the AHP present statements by Dale Parnell and Judith Jeffrey Howard about the AACJC's humanities initiatives…
Geiser, Kristin E.; Rollins, S. Kwesi; Gerstein, Amy; Blank, Martin J.
In 2009, the Coalition for Community Schools at the Institute for Educational Leadership (CCS-IEL) embarked on an ambitious action research and development project, leveraging the community school system infrastructure present in three geographic regions (Tulsa, Oklahoma; Multnomah County, Oregon; Albuquerque, New Mexico) to advance research and…
Mansell, Kerry; Evans, Charity; Tran, David; Sevany, Shellina
Objectives: To determine if pharmacists providing advice on self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) to new meter users, based on the Canadian Diabetes Association (CDA) Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs), resulted in improvements in A1C. SMBG testing patterns and pharmacist interactions were also observed. Methods: A cluster randomized, pilot study was performed, with pharmacies randomized to an intervention or control group. The intervention group provided SMBG education according to the CDA CPGs at baseline, 2 weeks, 1 month and 3 months; the control group provided usual care. The primary endpoint was the mean change in A1C measured at 6 months. Secondary endpoints included a description of SMBG patterns and lifestyle changes and were determined via a self-administered questionnaire. Results: Thirty-six participants (26 intervention, 10 control) were recruited from 9 pharmacies across Saskatchewan, Canada. Mean A1C decreased by −1.69 and −0.70 in the intervention and control groups, respectively (p = 0.376). A total of 12 of 26 (46.2%) participants in the intervention group indicated they performed SMBG ≥7 times per week; 75% (9/12) of these were controlled by lifestyle or metformin alone. When applicable, most participants in the intervention group indicated they perform SMBG with exercise (62.5%), during illness (62.5%) and with hypoglycemic symptoms (81.3%) compared with 33.3%, 42.9% and 42.9% in the control group, respectively. Most participants in the intervention group (20/26; 76.9%) reported making lifestyle changes as a result of speaking with the pharmacist, with all indicating that they maintained these changes at 6 months. Conclusions: The results of this pilot study indicate that a larger study examining pharmacist interventions related to SMBG is feasible. Future studies are required to determine patient motivations and further evaluate the role of pharmacists in ensuring best practices to positively influence guideline-based blood glucose
Pfefferbaum, Rose L; Pfefferbaum, Betty; Van Horn, Richard L; Klomp, Richard W; Norris, Fran H; Reissman, Dori B
Community resilience has emerged as a construct to support and foster healthy individual, family, and community adaptation to mass casualty incidents. The Communities Advancing Resilience Toolkit (CART) is a publicly available theory-based and evidence-informed community intervention designed to enhance community resilience by bringing stakeholders together to address community issues in a process that includes assessment, feedback, planning, and action. Tools include a field-tested community resilience survey and other assessment and analytical instruments. The CART process encourages public engagement in problem solving and the development and use of local assets to address community needs. CART recognizes 4 interrelated domains that contribute to community resilience: connection and caring, resources, transformative potential, and disaster management. The primary value of CART is its contribution to community participation, communication, self-awareness, cooperation, and critical reflection and its ability to stimulate analysis, collaboration, skill building, resource sharing, and purposeful action.
An increasing number of community colleges (CCs) and community-based organizations (CBOs) are now working in partnership to develop education and training programs enabling low-income workers to gain the education and skills necessary to obtain higher-wage jobs and develop a foundation for lifelong learning and career advancement. The following…
Pharmacy in the event of catastrophe is a field which has so far been little worked on. A good grounding in the knowledge of catastrophe medicine is necessary. A list of the most important drugs, dressings and medical aids for use in the event of a catastrophe is given. Legal measures, appropriate literature and the need for constant information, advanced training and good organizational preparation of the pharmacist and pharmacies is referred to.
Beehler, Sarah; Deutsch, Charles; Green, Lawrence W.; Hawe, Penelope; McLeroy, Kenneth; Miller, Robin Lin; Rapkin, Bruce D.; Schensul, Jean J.; Schulz, Amy J.; Trimble, Joseph E.
Community interventions are complex social processes that need to move beyond single interventions and outcomes at individual levels of short-term change. A scientific paradigm is emerging that supports collaborative, multilevel, culturally situated community interventions aimed at creating sustainable community-level impact. This paradigm is rooted in a deep history of ecological and collaborative thinking across public health, psychology, anthropology, and other fields of social science. The new paradigm makes a number of primary assertions that affect conceptualization of health issues, intervention design, and intervention evaluation. To elaborate the paradigm and advance the science of community intervention, we offer suggestions for promoting a scientific agenda, developing collaborations among professionals and communities, and examining the culture of science. PMID:21680923
Lindley, Celeste M.; And Others
Student perceptions of the preparation for and fairness, value as a learning experience, and logistics of a newly implemented oral examination in a course preparing senior pharmacy students for community pharmacy practice are summarized. (MSE)
Dolovich, Lisa; Consiglio, Giulia; MacKeigan, Linda; Abrahamyan, Lusine; Pechlivanoglou, Petros; Rac, Valeria E.; Pojskic, Nedzad; Bojarski, Elizabeth A.; Su, Jiandong; Krahn, Murray; Cadarette, Suzanne M.
Background: MedsCheck Annual (MCA) is an Ontario government-funded medication review service for individuals taking 3 or more prescription medications for chronic conditions. Methods: This cohort study analyzed linked administrative claims data from April 1, 2007, to March 31, 2013. Trends in MCA claims and recipient characteristics were examined. Results: A total of 1,498,440 Ontarians (55% seniors, 55% female) received an MCA. One-third (36%) had 2 or more MCAs within 6 years. Service provision increased over time, with a sharper increase from 2010 onward. Almost half of Ontario pharmacies made at least 1 MCA claim in the first month of the program. Hypertension, respiratory disease, diabetes, psychiatric conditions and arthritis were common comorbidities. Recipients older than 65 years were most commonly dispensed an antihypertensive and/or antihyperlipidemic drug in the prior year and received an average of 11 unique prescription medications. Thirty-eight percent of recipients visited an emergency department or were hospitalized in the year prior to their first MCA. Discussion: Over the first 6 years of the program, approximately 1 in 9 Ontarians received an MCA. There was rapid and widespread uptake of the service. Common chronic conditions were well represented among MCA recipients. Older MCA recipients had less emergency department use compared with population-based estimates. Conclusions: Medication reviews increased over time; however, the number of persons receiving the service more than once was low. Service delivery was generally consistent with program eligibility; however, there are some findings possibly consistent with delivery to less complex patients. PMID:27708675
Casey, Michelle M; Klingner, Jill; Moscovice, Ira
Access to pharmacy services is an important rural health policy issue but limited research has been conducted on it. This article describes rural retail pharmacies in Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota, including their organizational characteristics, staffing, services provided, and planned future changes; examines the availability of pharmacy services and pharmacy closures in rural areas of these three states; and briefly discusses policy issues that affect the delivery of pharmacy services in rural areas. Study data came from a phone survey of 537 rural pharmacies, an analysis of pharmacy licensure data, and phone interviews with clinic, public health, and social services staff in rural communities with potential pharmacy access problems. Using a standard of 20 miles to the nearest pharmacy, most rural residents of these three states currently have adequate geographic access to pharmacy services. However, rural pharmacists and clinic, public health, and social services staff rate financial access to pharmacy services for the elderly and the uninsured as a major problem. Key policy issues that will affect future access to pharmacy services in rural areas include pharmacy staffing and relief coverage; alternative methods of providing pharmacy services; thefinancial viability of rural pharmacies; and the potential impact of a Medicare prescription benefit on rural consumers and rural pharmacies.
Haswell, Jamie L.; Byrd, Debbie C.; Foster, Stephan
Objective. To describe the use of capacity ratios following the assignment of introductory pharmacy practice experiences (IPPEs) to a rising third-year pharmacy (P3) class. Methods. Practice experience availability for IPPEs was collected by means of preceptor response to requests. Following assignment of IPPEs to the rising P3 class, capacity ratios from the IPPEs available across the entire state and within each of 4 geographic zones were calculated. Capacity ratios for both community pharmacy and institutional pharmacy also were calculated. Results. The capacity ratio for IPPEs across the entire state was 2.11, which documents solvency. When the capacity ratios were calculated individually for community pharmacy and institutional pharmacy, solvency was also achieved. Likewise, IPPE capacity ratios were solvent in all 4 geographic zones. Conclusions. Capacity ratios are helpful in evaluating IPPE availability as they can be used to determine practice experience need in either type of practice experience or geographic zone. PMID:23193336
Describes a business-school partnership involving gifted students in the design and cultivation of a medicinal garden. Students studied the uses of native plants for medicine, food, shelter, clothing, and landscaping, and developed portfolios and presentations through their work on the community garden site and an outdoor classroom. (PB)
Scahill, Shane; Harrison, Jeff; Carswell, Peter; Babar, Zaheer-Ud-Din
Throughout the developed world, community pharmacy is under considerable pressure to play a greater part in delivering effective primary health care. The requirement to adopt new roles continues to challenge community pharmacy and drive change. The factors that determine the ability of community pharmacy to effectively deliver services for health gain are complex and include; policy, professional, financial and structural elements. There is also evidence to suggest that organisational culture may influence the effectiveness of an organisation. In order to address this there is a need to understand the dimensions of organisational culture that lead to successful implementation of the change necessary for community pharmacy to become a more effective primary health care organisation. In this commentary, we introduce the concept of organisational culture, outline two frameworks for studying culture, and argue the benefits of pursuing an organisational culture research agenda for the evolution of pharmacy practice and research.
Anderson, R.J.; Young, W. Wayne
The current generation of pharmacy students must be prepared to make educated decisions on the selection of hardware and software for both business and professional use. Over the next decade, these graduates will be major decision-makers for computerizing over 38,000 community pharmacies and approximately 80% of all hospital pharmacies. A survey of all U.S. colleges of pharmacy was completed to assess the role of microcomputers in the curriculum. The development of a computer applications course at the University of Nebraska utilizing “hands-on” experience in a microcomputer laboratory equipped with IBM and Apple micros is described. The major objective was to attain a degree of computer literacy among undergraduate professional students, and the course structure and organization are applicable to other health care disciplines.
Al-Worafi, Yaser Mohammed
Pharmacy education in Yemen has faced many challenges since its introduction in the 1980s. Most Yemeni pharmacy schools, especially private ones, are experiencing difficulties in providing the right quality and quantity of clinical educational experiences. Most of these challenges are imbedded in a teaching style and curricula that have failed to respond to the needs of the community and country. The slow shift from traditional drug-dispensing to a patient-centered or focused approach in pharmacy practice requires a fundamental change in the roles and responsibilities of both policymakers and educators. The purpose of this paper is twofold: (1) to discuss the challenges facing the pharmacy education in Yemen; (2) to provided recommendations to overcome challenges.
Vo, Thi-Ha; Bedouch, Pierrick; Nguyen, Thi-Hoai; Nguyen, Thi-Lien-Huong; Hoang, Thi-Kim-Huyen; Calop, Jean; Allenet, Benoît
Pharmacy education programs in Vietnam are complex and offer various career pathways. All include theory and laboratory modules in general, foundation, and pharmaceutical knowledge; placements in health facilities; and a final examination. The various pharmacy degree programs allow specialization in 1 or more of 5 main fields: (1) drug management and supply, (2) drug development and production, (3) pharmacology and clinical pharmacy, (4) traditional medicine and pharmacognosy, and (5) drug quality control, which are offered as main specialization options during the reformed undergraduate and postgraduate programs. However, pharmacy education in Vietnam in general remains product oriented and clinical pharmacy training has not received adequate attention. Only students who have obtained the bachelor of pharmacy degree, which requires a minimum of 5 years of study, are considered as fully qualified pharmacists. In contrast, an elementary diploma in pharmacy awarded after 1 year of pharmacy study permits entry into more junior pharmacy positions. Since the 2000s, there has been a surge in the number and types of schools offering pharmacy qualifications at various levels.
... housing likely would qualify as eligible security for advances as mortgages or other real estate-related... affect the status of home equity loans as other real estate-related collateral eligible to secure... than real estate. In addition, any eligible community development loan would have to have a...
Our ability to advance scientific research in order to better understand complex Earth systems, address emerging geoscience problems, and meet societal challenges is increasingly dependent upon the concept of Open Science and Data. Although these terms are relatively new to the world of research, Open Science and Data in this context may be described as transparency in the scientific process. This includes the discoverability, public accessibility and reusability of scientific data, as well as accessibility and transparency of scientific communication (www.openscience.org). Scientists and the US government alike are realizing the critical need for easy discovery and access to multidisciplinary data to advance research in the geosciences. The NSF-supported EarthCube project was created to meet this need. EarthCube is developing a community-driven common cyberinfrastructure for the purpose of accessing, integrating, analyzing, sharing and visualizing all forms of data and related resources through advanced technological and computational capabilities. Engaging the geoscience community in EarthCube's development is crucial to its success, and EarthCube is providing several opportunities for geoscience involvement. This presentation will provide an overview of the activities EarthCube is employing to entrain the community in the development process, from governance development and strategic planning, to technical needs gathering. Particular focus will be given to the collection of science-driven use cases as a means of capturing scientific and technical requirements. Such activities inform the development of key technical and computational components that collectively will form a cyberinfrastructure to meet the research needs of the geoscience community.
Khan, M O Faruk; Deimling, Michael J; Philip, Ashok
The origins and advancements of pharmacy, medicinal chemistry, and drug discovery are interwoven in nature. Medicinal chemistry provides pharmacy students with a thorough understanding of drug mechanisms of action, structure-activity relationships (SAR), acid-base and physicochemical properties, and absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADMET) profiles. A comprehensive understanding of the chemical basis of drug action equips pharmacy students with the ability to answer rationally the "why" and "how" questions related to drug action and it sets the pharmacist apart as the chemical expert among health care professionals. By imparting an exclusive knowledge base, medicinal chemistry plays a vital role in providing critical thinking and evidence-based problem-solving skills to pharmacy students, enabling them to make optimal patient-specific therapeutic decisions. This review highlights the parallel nature of the history of pharmacy and medicinal chemistry, as well as the key elements of medicinal chemistry and drug discovery that make it an indispensable component of the pharmacy curriculum.
Tommasello, Anthony C
Pharmacists, the most accessible of health care professionals, are well positioned to help prevent and treat substance use disorders and should prepare themselves to perform these functions. New research improves our knowledge about the pharmacological and behavioral risks of drug abuse, supports the clinical impression that drug dependence is associated with long-lasting neurochemical changes, and demonstrates effective pharmacological treatments for certain kinds of drug dependencies. The profession is evolving. Pharmacists are engaging in new practice behaviors such as helping patients manage their disease states. Collaborative practice agreements and new federal policies set the stage for pharmacists to assist in the clinical management of opioid and other drug dependencies. Pharmacists need to be well informed about issues related to addiction and prepared not only to screen, assess, and refer individual cases and to collaborate with physicians caring for chemically dependent patients, but also to be agents of change in their communities in the fight against drug abuse. At the end of this article the pharmacist will be better able to: 1. Explain the disease concept of chemical dependence 2. Gather the information necessary to conduct a screen for chemical dependence 3. Inform patients about the treatment options for chemical dependence 4. Locate resources needed to answer questions about the effects of common drugs of abuse (alcohol, marijuana, narcotics, "ecstasy", and cocaine) 5. Develop a list of local resources for drug abuse treatment 6. Counsel parents who are concerned about drug use by their children 7. Counsel individuals who are concerned about drug use by a loved one. 8. Counsel individuals who are concerned about their own drug use PMID:15169544
Bell, Christopher; Daniel, Sarah
The Director's Forum column is designed to guide pharmacy leaders in establishing patient-centered services in hospitals and health systems. Environmental disasters and terrorist attacks demonstrate that it is imperative for both a hospital and community to have an emergency preparedness plan. The goal of this article is to provide health-system pharmacy leaders with a practical approach in developing an emergency operations plan (EOP) that can be activated in the event of a disaster. Pharmacy leaders should (1) review government and community disaster responses and understand the movement of drug supply for each response, (2) create a pharmacy disaster plan, (3) list the essential medications and determine their inventory levels, and (4) establish a staff training program to enhance understanding and implementation of the EOP. If successfully developed and executed, a hospital pharmacy department's EOP has a high rating of success in meeting patient-centered needs in the unforeseen event of a disaster.
Kennerly, Julie; Weber, Robert J.
The Director’s Forum series is designed to guide pharmacy leaders in establishing patient-centered services in hospitals and health systems. This article focuses on pharmacy academia’s (“Academy”) role in transforming an organization’s pharmacy practice model. Pharmacy students can assume an integrated and accountable role in the practice model by having defined responsibilities for patient care. This role will produce students who are best trained to meet the challenges of pharmacy practice and health care reform. To make the students successful in this role, the pharmacy director must have a specific plan for integrating pharmacy students into the model and establishing relationships with Academy leadership, most importantly with the dean of the school or college of pharmacy. If successfully executed, the relationship between the Academy and the pharmacy department will enhance the mission of developing patient-centered pharmacy services. PMID:24421485
Objective. To explore how different pharmacy educators view pharmacy knowledge within the United Kingdom MPharm program and to relate these findings to Pierre Bourdieu’s theoretical framework. Methods. Twelve qualitative interviews were conducted with 4 faculty members from 3 different types of schools of pharmacy in the United Kingdom: a newer school, an established teaching-based school, and an established research-intensive school. Selection was based on a representation of both science-based and practice-based disciplines, gender balance, and teaching experience. Results. The interview transcripts indicated how these members of the academic community describe knowledge. There was a polarization between science-based and practice-based educators in terms of Bourdieu’s description of field, species of capital, and habitus. Conclusion. A Bourdieusian perspective on the differences among faculty member responses supports our understanding of curriculum integration and offers some practical implications for the future development of pharmacy programs. PMID:26889065
Roberts, M. S.; Garland, J. L.; Mills, A. L.
Extension of human habitation into space requires that humans carry with them many of the microorganisms with which they coexist on Earth. The ubiquity of microorganisms in close association with all living things and biogeochemical processes on Earth predicates that they must also play a critical role in maintaining the viability of human life in space. Even though bacterial populations exist as locally adapted ecotypes, the abundance of individuals in microbial species is so large that dispersal is unlikely to be limited by geographical barriers on Earth (i.e., for most environments "everything is everywhere" given enough time). This will not be true for microbial communities in space where local species richness will be relatively low because of sterilization protocols prior to launch and physical barriers between Earth and spacecraft after launch. Although community diversity will be sufficient to sustain ecosystem function at the onset, richness and evenness may decline over time such that biological systems either lose functional potential (e.g., bioreactors may fail to reduce BOD or nitrogen load) or become susceptible to invasion by human-associated microorganisms (pathogens) over time. Research at the John F. Kennedy Space Center has evaluated fundamental properties of microbial diversity and community assembly in prototype bioregenerative systems for NASA Advanced Life Support. Successional trends related to increased niche specialization, including an apparent increase in the proportion of nonculturable types of organisms, have been consistently observed. In addition, the stability of the microbial communities, as defined by their resistance to invasion by human-associated microorganisms, has been correlated to their diversity. Overall, these results reflect the significant challenges ahead for the assembly of stable, functional communities using gnotobiotic approaches, and the need to better define the basic biological principles that define ecosystem
Cowen, D L
The development of pharmacy in Western civilization has been influenced by ideas of individual liberty; the impact of these ideas is traced. For a short time during the French Revolution, individuals without qualifications could practice pharmacy, but abuses prompted return of regulation; from 1803, pharmacy was closely regulated by the state. Liberal thinking in 19th-century Britain left control of pharmacy mainly within the profession; regulation was definitive rather than restrictive. With the influence of Jacksonian Democracy and freedom of trade in the United States, there were no effective pharmacy regulations until the late 19th century and few educational requirements for licensure until the 1920s. In Germany, the old system of concessions and privileges was upset after World War II when any qualified pharmacist was allowed to open a shop wherever desired in the American-occupied zone; the courts upheld this policy as the basis for establishment of pharmacies in West Germany. Liberty in dispensing drugs has been limited out of concern for the well-being of individuals and of society as a whole. In Great Britain and the U.S., restrictions on dispensing antedated laws establishing qualifications for pharmacists. The history of pharmacy demonstrates that there are moral and social barriers to realization of the ideals of liberty. History also suggests that if pharmacists assume responsibilities that use their specialized training, they can defend against inroads by nonpharmacists.
Black, Curtis D.; And Others
Discussed is the role of schools of pharmacy in (1) preparing future practitioners to assimilate and shape the impact of biotechnology; (2) establish graduate and research programs to enhance and apply products of biotechnology; and (3) identify manpower needs to fully realize potential advances caused by biotechnology. (DB)
Singleton, Judith A; Nissen, Lisa M
This paper highlights the hypercompetitive nature of the current pharmacy landscape in Australia and to suggest either a superior level of differentiation strategy or a focused differentiation strategy targeting a niche market as two viable, alternative business models to cost leadership for small, independent community pharmacies. A description of the Australian health care system is provided as well as background information on the current community pharmacy environment in Australia. The authors propose a differentiation or focused differentiation strategy based on cognitive professional services (CPS) which must be executed well and of a superior quality to competitors' services. Market research to determine the services valued by target customers and that they are willing to pay for is vital. To achieve the superior level of quality that will engender high patient satisfaction levels and loyalty, pharmacy owners and managers need to develop, maintain and clearly communicate service quality specifications to the staff delivering these services. Otherwise, there will be a proliferation of pharmacies offering the same professional services with no evident service differential. However, to sustain competitive advantage over the long-term, these smaller, independent community pharmacies will need to exploit a broad core competency base in order to be able to continuously introduce new sources of competitive advantage. With the right expertise, the authors argue that smaller, independent community pharmacies can successfully deliver CPS and sustain profitability in a hypercompetitive market.
Dossa, Anara Richi; Grégoire, Jean-Pierre; Lauzier, Sophie; Guénette, Line; Sirois, Caroline; Moisan, Jocelyne
Pharmacists record data on all drugs claimed and may build a personal relationship with their clients. We hypothesized that loyalty to a single pharmacy could be associated with a better quality of drug use.To assess the association between pharmacy loyalty and quality of drug use among individuals treated with oral antidiabetes drugs (OADs).This is a cohort study using Quebec Health Insurance Board data. Associations were assessed using multivariable logistic regression.New OAD users, aged ≥18 years.Individuals who filled all their prescription drugs in the same pharmacy during the first year of treatment were considered loyal. During year 2 of treatment we assessed 4 quality indicators of drug use: persistence with antidiabetes treatment, compliance with antidiabetes treatment among those considered persistent, use of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or of an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ACEi/ARB), and use of a lipid-lowering drug.Of 124,009 individuals, 59.75% were identified as loyal. Nonloyal individuals were less likely to persist with their antidiabetes treatment (adjusted odds ratio = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.86-0.91), to comply with their antidiabetes treatment (0.82; 0.79-0.84), to use an ACEi/ARB (0.85; 0.83-0.88) and to use a lipid-lowering drug (0.83; 0.80-0.85). Quality of drug use decreased as the number of different pharmacies increased (linear contrast tests <0.001).Results underscore the important role pharmacists could play in helping their clients with chronic diseases to better manage their drug treatments. Further research is needed to determine to what extent the positive effects associated with pharmacy loyalty are specifically due to pharmacists.
Kuramoto, Tamae; Kiribayashi, Yoshie; Mito, Kaori; Miyano, Sachiko; Kobayashi, Hiromi; Kushida, Kazuki
Creation of social structures for super-aged society is urgent task, because of the advent of a rapidly aging society. In the past, responsibility of pharmacies was only to dispense prescriptions for outpatient in local medical care. However, it is now essential that they participate in home medical care, and they are continuing to search for ways to support elderly people who live alone, people with dementia, and end-of-life care. Therefore we will report field investigations and case of at-home services by group pharmacies at community.
Martin, Caren McHenry
Entrepreneurship has always been central to the practice of pharmacy. Whether opening a new retail store, setting up a unique clinic practice, or researching a novel therapy, pharmacists are continually looking forward and following their visions of how pharmacy can be part of a new direction in health care. In 2011, the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists (ASCP) Foundation--itself the product of entrepreneurship--awarded grants to three entrepreneurs who are seeking to establish a fee-for-service component of their senior care pharmacy practices in the community. The grant recipients, while differing in their approaches, share the common goal of providing safe, effective, and cost-justified medication therapy and education to ambulatory older adults.
Hamada, Yukari; Nakao, Rieko; Ohnishi, Mayumi
Objective This study aimed to investigate the preparedness of pharmacies to provide DOTS in Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan, and to analyze the feasibility of this system with a view toward providing a basis for future administrative studies to consider its adoption.Methods A self-administered mail questionnaire survey was conducted, involving the owners (mostly pharmacists) of 533 pharmacies belonging to designated medical institutions for tuberculosis treatment in Nagasaki Prefecture, seeking information on the following: 1) respondent attributes, 2) pharmacy-related information, 3) experience of participating in tuberculosis-related academic meetings, 4) recognition of DOTS and desire to cooperate with the pharmacy DOTS system and participate in related workshops, and 5) challenges and requirements of the provision of DOTS at pharmacies. Responses were analyzed using the chi-square test, focusing on factors related to the respondents' desire to cooperate with the pharmacy DOTS system and participate in related workshops. The significance level was set at P<0.05.Results On analyzing 212 valid responses (valid response rate: 39.8%), "participating in academic meetings or related workshops", "supporting patients with tuberculosis", "recognizing DOTS", "recognizing the pharmacy DOTS system", "calculating additional medical fees for standard dispensing", and "establishing community liaison systems" were significantly correlated with "wishing to cooperate with the pharmacy DOTS system". Furthermore, age under 50, in addition to "participating in academic meetings or related workshops", "supporting patients with tuberculosis", "recognizing DOTS", "recognizing the pharmacy DOTS system", "calculating additional medical fees for standard dispensing", and "establishing community liaison systems" were significantly correlated with "wishing to participate in related workshops". More than 60% and 50% of the respondents mentioned "tuberculosis-related knowledge and
In recent years a great deal of attention has been paid to motivation and job satisfaction among hospital pharmacy practitioners. Institutional pharmacy managers should become more aware of ways in which they can motivate members of their staff. Specifically, Frederick Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory is discussed in reference to its origination, major tenets, and practical applications in institutional pharmacy practice settings. Principally, Herzberg's theory explains needs of workers in terms of extrinsic factors called "hygienes" and intrinsic factors called "motivators." The theory suggests that job satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not opposites but two separate dimensions. According to this theory, an employee will be motivated if the task allows for the following: 1)actual achievement, 2) recognition for achievement, 3) increased responsibility, 4) opportunity for growth (professionally), and 5) chance for advancement. It is concluded that some of these suggested applications can be useful to managers who are faced with low morale among the members of their staff.
Johnson, M W
The needs of women residents in hospital pharmacy programs are discussed with respect to the responsibilities of preceptors to help residents prepare for a successful career. Women were a small minority within the profession of pharmacy until recently. More than half of the current hospital pharmacy residents are women, while over 95% of the preceptors of residency training programs are men. Hospital pharmacy preceptors can help meet the unique needs of women residents, so that women pharmacists can achieve the career successes of which they are capable. Preceptors can help women residents make career decisions and develop career goals and strategies. Preceptors should ensure that women residents develop the broad base of knowledge and skills necessary for advancement. Women residents should be encouraged to get involved in pharmacy organizations, and the importance of networking should be stressed. It is important that women residents develop a business style so that they are perceived as confident and competent. Preceptors must recognize that most women will have conflicts in their roles of career woman, wife, and mother. Preceptors can also help women residents by making managerial changes (e.g., offering part-time positions and flexible scheduling) that will facilitate integration of the professional and personal responsibilities of women.
Jacobi, Judith; Ray, Shaunta'; Danelich, Ilya; Dodds Ashley, Elizabeth; Eckel, Stephen; Guharoy, Roy; Militello, Michael; O'Donnell, Paul; Sam, Teena; Crist, Stephanie M; Smidt, Danielle
This paper describes the goals of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists' Pharmacy Practice Model Initiative (PPMI) and its recommendations for health-system pharmacy practice transformation to meet future patient care needs and elevate the role of pharmacists as patient care providers. PPMI envisions a future in which pharmacists have greater responsibility for medication-related outcomes and technicians assume greater responsibility for product-related activities. Although the PPMI recommendations have elevated the level of practice in many settings, they also potentially affect existing clinical pharmacists, in general, and clinical pharmacy specialists, in particular. Moreover, although more consistent patient care can be achieved with an expanded team of pharmacist providers, the role of clinical pharmacy specialists must not be diminished, especially in the care of complex patients and populations. Specialist practitioners with advanced training and credentials must be available to model and train pharmacists in generalist positions, residents, and students. Indeed, specialist practitioners are often the innovators and practice leaders. Negotiation between hospitals and pharmacy schools is needed to ensure a continuing role for academic clinical pharmacists and their contributions as educators and researchers. Lessons can be applied from disciplines such as nursing and medicine, which have developed new models of care involving effective collaboration between generalists and specialists. Several different pharmacy practice models have been described to meet the PPMI goals, based on available personnel and local goals. Studies measuring the impact of these new practice models are needed.
Crellin, John K
In summary, twentieth-century British and American cards published by the organisations of pharmacy albeit a limited window into public relations--suggest that relatively little attention was given to offering the public an understanding of the science basis of pharmacy or the nature of pharmacy research. On the other hand, clear hints of this came from industry despite being diluted, some might say tainted, with overt commercialism. Thus it is suggested that the public came to associate industry with pharmacy research, a suggestion that needs to be examined in the light of other approaches to PR. It is, of course, not surprising that PR from pharmacy's professional bodies has focused largely on community practice. However, it is reasonable to ask, What is the cost in terms of professional image when opportunities to promote an understanding of the science of pharmacy are given little attention? Indeed, it seems to me that it was soon forgotten that an emphasis placed on the science base of pharmacy was very much behind the successful efforts in establishing the Pharmaceutical Society and a professional image for pharmacy. I suggest, too, that the pattern of limited science PR contributes, unconsciously, to current concerns over the place of scientists in the new professional society. As is well known, interminable debate exists over what the public sees as 'professional'. Even so, I think few would disagree that an image of science can be more than helpful. Maybe, in the current upheaval for British pharmacy, there is a case for the publication of free cards analogous to those recently produced by the School of Pharmacy, although only so long as they indicate, by way of context, both the science and humanity demanded for pharmacy practice.
Speedie, Marilyn K.
Biotechnology is defined, and its impact on pharmacy practice, the professional curriculum (clinical pharmacy, pharmacy administration, pharmacology, medicinal chemistry, pharmaceutics, basic sciences, and continuing education), research in pharmacy schools, and graduate education are discussed. Resulting faculty, library, and research resource…
Ma, Carolyn; Tokumaru, Sheri; Goo, Roy; Ciarleglio, Anita
Residency training is designed to provide recent pharmacy school graduates who have the profession's terminal Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) degree with accelerated growth beyond entry-level professional competence. Placement into residency programs is highly competitive through an application and match process. These programs provide additional training in patient-centered care with advancement of skills in clinical judgment, pharmacy operations, clinical research, project management, and leadership. Approximately 20% of a pharmacy graduating class will apply for a residency. With increasing numbers of pharmacy schools across the country, the availability of residency programs is falling behind applicants. The establishment of the Daniel K. Inouye College of Pharmacy (DKICP) has addressed the shortage of pharmacists within the state. In recent years, resident positions in Hawai'i have doubled to a total of ten first year residency (PGY1) and two second year (PGY2) specialty residencies. Given the limited availability of positions in Hawai'i, graduates continue to return to the continental US to seek positions, thus increasing the likelihood of them not returning to practice in Hawai'i. Establishing residency programs is essential to elevate the level of pharmacy practice toward innovation and adherence to best practices, academia/teaching and scholarly research. This descriptive paper will detail the general components and types of pharmacy practice residency, the unique components of the Hawai'i programs, the career placement of Hawai'i's programs graduates and future challenges.
Conway, Susan E; Smith, Winter J; Truong, Teresa H; Shadid, Jill
Interprofessional learning is a key component of today's health sciences education. Within a two-course series in dental pharmacology and therapeutics, a dental curriculum was revised to provide an interprofessional activity to expose dental students to a community pharmacy setting. The objectives of this activity were to augment students' learning about drug laws and prescription writing, as well as to foster interprofessional relationships and collaboration between pharmacists and dentists. Dental students were scheduled for one-hour observations at community pharmacies on campus. Learning objectives to guide this activity focused on demonstrating community pharmacy operating procedures, identifying ways to minimize prescribing and dosing errors, and understanding how pharmacists can assist dentists in prescribing. Following the observation, students were required to submit a written assignment, which accounted for 14 percent of their course grade. All 119 dental students (100 percent) enrolled in the course for the summers of 2012 and 2013 completed the activity. The average grade on the written assignment was 96.2 out of 100. At the end of the course, students were asked to participate in an online course evaluation survey, for which response rates were 37 percent and 43 percent for 2012 and 2013, respectively. The students rated the pharmacy observation activity favorably on this course evaluation. The pharmacy observation activity provided a successful interprofessional component to the didactic pharmacy course and was well received by the dental students as well as the community pharmacists.
... Consumer Updates RSS Feed The Special Risks of Pharmacy Compounding Get Consumer Updates by E-mail Consumer ... page: A Troubling Trend What You Can Do Pharmacy compounding is a practice in which a licensed ...
Porter, W C; Ice, R D; Hetzel, K R
The University of Michigan Regional Nuclear Pharmacy is described. The scope of operation of the nuclear pharmacy includes radiopharmaceutical formulation and dispensing, quality control, inventory control, research and development of new radiopharmaceuticals, and consultation. Also discussed are program objectives, pharmacy location, organizational structure, budget and staff, economic considerations, facilities and equipment, and legal considerations.
The Nobel Prize 2006 recipient turkish author Orhan Pamuk is among those who give place to pharmacy settings, pharmaceutical objects, and pharmacist characters through his fictional works, more specially in novels such as Cevdet Bey and His Sons (1982), The Silent House (1983), The White Castle (1985), The New Life (1994), Snow (2002), The Museum of Innocence (2006), Parts of Landscapes (2010) provide interesting descriptions of community pharmacies and pharmacists.
Choudhry, Khurshid; Evans, Nicola
Prison healthcare has undergone a significant transformation over recent times. The main aim of these changes was to ensure prisoners received the same level of care as patients in the community. Prisons are a unique environment to provide healthcare within. Both the environment and the patient group provide a challenge to healthcare delivery. One of the biggest challenges currently being faced by healthcare providers is the misuse and abuse of prescription medication. It seems that the changes that have been made in prison healthcare, to ensure that prisoners receive the same level of care as patients in the community over recent times, have led to an increase in this problem. Prison pharmacy is ideally placed to help reduce the misuse and abuse of prescription medication. This can be achieved by using the skills and knowledge of the pharmacy department to ensure appropriate prescribing of medication liable to misuse and abuse.
Individual- and neighborhood-level characteristics associated with support of in-pharmacy vaccination among ESAP-registered pharmacies: pharmacists' role in reducing racial/ethnic disparities in influenza vaccinations in New York City.
Crawford, Natalie D; Blaney, Shannon; Amesty, Silvia; Rivera, Alexis V; Turner, Alezandria K; Ompad, Danielle C; Fuller, Crystal M
New York State (NYS) passed legislation authorizing pharmacists to administer immunizations in 2008. Racial/socioeconomic disparities persist in vaccination rates and vaccine-preventable diseases such as influenza. Many NYS pharmacies participate in the Expanded Syringe Access Program (ESAP), which allows provision of non-prescription syringes to help prevent transmission of HIV, and are uniquely positioned to offer vaccination services to low-income communities. To understand individual and neighborhood characteristics of pharmacy staff support for in-pharmacy vaccination, we combined census tract data with baseline pharmacy data from the Pharmacies as Resources Making Links to Community Services (PHARM-Link) study among ESAP-registered pharmacies. The sample consists of 437 pharmacists, non-pharmacist owners, and technicians enrolled from 103 eligible New York City pharmacies. Using multilevel analysis, pharmacy staff who expressed support of in-pharmacy vaccination services were 69% more likely to support in-pharmacy HIV testing services (OR, 1.69; 95% CI 1.39-2.04). While pharmacy staff who worked in neighborhoods with a high percent of minority residents were less likely to express support of in-pharmacy vaccination, those in neighborhoods with a high percent of foreign-born residents were marginally more likely to express support of in-pharmacy vaccination. While educational campaigns around the importance of vaccination access may be needed among some pharmacy staff and minority community residents, we have provided evidence supporting scale-up of vaccination efforts in pharmacies located in foreign-born/immigrant communities which has potential to reduce disparities in vaccination rates and preventable influenza-related mortality.
Castiglia, Mary; And Others
Pharmacy education at the University of Zimbabwe is somewhat like that in the United States; communication skill development and the pharmacist's role as drug expert are emphasized. Compounding is a major focus of study because bulk compounding is more economical for a developing country. The university's curriculum emphasizes rural practice, and…
and determine which ones will be included in the overall lessons learned message to other units. A certain amount of self -censorship takes place...Communities of Practice will be examined. The self - organizing Community of Practice is found at one end of the spectrum and the sponsored Community of...Practice is located at the other. Successful Communities of Practice exist at both ends and many places in between. a) Self Organizing 32 Self
DeVoe, Jennifer E; Gold, Rachel; Cottrell, Erika; Bauer, Vance; Brickman, Andrew; Puro, Jon; Nelson, Christine; Mayer, Kenneth H; Sears, Abigail; Burdick, Tim; Merrell, Jonathan; Matthews, Paul; Fields, Scott
The ADVANCE (Accelerating Data Value Across a National Community Health Center Network) clinical data research network (CDRN) is led by the OCHIN Community Health Information Network in partnership with Health Choice Network and Fenway Health. The ADVANCE CDRN will ‘horizontally’ integrate outpatient electronic health record data for over one million federally qualified health center patients, and ‘vertically’ integrate hospital, health plan, and community data for these patients, often under-represented in research studies. Patient investigators, community investigators, and academic investigators with diverse expertise will work together to meet project goals related to data integration, patient engagement and recruitment, and the development of streamlined regulatory policies. By enhancing the data and research infrastructure of participating organizations, the ADVANCE CDRN will serve as a ‘community laboratory’ for including disadvantaged and vulnerable patients in patient-centered outcomes research that is aligned with the priorities of patients, clinics, and communities in our network. PMID:24821740
Naughton, Cynthia A; Schweiger, Teresa A; Angelo, Lauren B; Lea Bonner, C; Dhing, Conrad W; Farley, Joel F
Although the use of a professional dress code is standard practice across colleges and schools of pharmacy during introductory and advanced pharmacy practice experiences, requiring professional attire is not applied consistently during the didactic portion of students' education. There are arguments for and against the adoption of a professional dress code throughout the entire doctor of pharmacy program, including the classroom setting. Given uncertainty regarding the potential benefits and challenges that may arise from adopting a professional dress code in the didactic portion of a student pharmacist's education, it is perhaps not surprising that programs adopt disparate policies regarding its use. This exploration was conducted as part of a series of debates held in conjunction with the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy's (AACP) Academic Leadership Fellows Program (ALFP) and was presented at the 2015 AACP Interim Meeting on February 7, 2015.
Suarez-Balcazar, Yolanda; Mirza, Mansha Parven; Hansen, Anne Marie Witchger
Today, more than ever, occupational therapists are engaged in close partnerships with community organizations and community settings such as service agencies, refugee and immigrant enclaves, and faith-based organizations, to name a few, for the purpose of engaging in scholarship of practice. However, we know little about the views of community partners regarding the development and sustainability of university-community partnerships. The purpose of this article is twofold: First, we will describe a pilot study in which we gathered qualitative data from community partners engaged in scholarship of practice with faculty and students, regarding their views about benefits of partnerships, challenges, and characteristics of sustainable partnerships. Second, based on this pilot study and extensive experience of the authors, we propose a revised version of a partnerships model available in the literature. We illustrate the model through examples of the authors' collective experiences developing and sustaining successful university-community partnerships.
Lee, Mei Ching; Hinderer, Katherine A; Friedmann, Erika
Ethnic minority groups are less engaged than Caucasian American adults in advance care planning (ACP). Knowledge deficits, language, and culture are barriers to ACP. Limited research exists on ACP and advance directives in the Chinese American adult population. Using a pre-posttest, repeated measures design, the current study explored the effectiveness of a nurseled, culturally sensitive ACP seminar for Chinese American adults on (a) knowledge, completion, and discussion of advance directives; and (b) the relationship between demographic variables, advance directive completion, and ACP discussions. A convenience sample of 72 urban, community-dwelling Chinese American adults (mean age=61 years) was included. Knowledge, advance directive completion, and ACP discussions increased significantly after attending the nurse-led seminar (p<0.01). Increased age correlated with advance directive completion and ACP discussions; female gender correlated with ACP discussions. Nursing education in a community setting increased advance directive knowledge and ACP engagement in Chinese American adults.
White, S J; Generali, J A
Concepts from theories of motivation are used to suggest methods for improving the motivational environment of hospital pharmacy departments. Motivation--the state of being stimulated to take action to achieve a goal or to satisfy a need--comes from within individuals, but hospital pharmacy managers can facilitate motivation by structuring the work environment so that it satisfies employees' needs. Concepts from several theories of motivation are discussed, including McGregor's theory X and theory Y assumptions, Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory, Herzberg's motivation hygiene theory, and Massey's value system theory. Concepts from the Japanese style of management that can be used to facilitate motivation, such as quality circles, also are described. The autocratic, participative, and laissez faire styles of leadership are discussed in the context of the motivation theories, and suggested applications of theoretical concepts to practice are presented.
Background Complementary medicines (CMs) are popular amongst Australians and community pharmacy is a major supplier of these products. This study explores pharmacy customer use, attitudes and perceptions of complementary medicines, and their expectations of pharmacists as they relate to these products. Methods Pharmacy customers randomly selected from sixty large and small, metropolitan and rural pharmacies in three Australian states completed an anonymous, self administered questionnaire that had been pre-tested and validated. Results 1,121 customers participated (response rate 62%). 72% had used CMs within the previous 12 months, 61% used prescription medicines daily and 43% had used both concomitantly. Multivitamins, fish oils, vitamin C, glucosamine and probiotics were the five most popular CMs. 72% of people using CMs rated their products as 'very effective' or 'effective enough'. CMs were as frequently used by customers aged 60 years or older as younger customers (69% vs. 72%) although the pattern of use shifted with older age. Most customers (92%) thought pharmacists should provide safety information about CMs, 90% thought they should routinely check for interactions, 87% thought they should recommend effective CMs, 78% thought CMs should be recorded in customer's medication profile and 58% thought pharmacies stocking CMs should also employ a complementary medicine practitioner. Of those using CMs, 93% thought it important for pharmacists to be knowledgeable about CMs and 48% felt their pharmacist provides useful information about CMs. Conclusions CMs are widely used by pharmacy customers of all ages who want pharmacists to be more involved in providing advice about these products. PMID:20646290
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT Sustainable Communities Planning Grant Program Advance Notice and Request for Comment... available. Decisions made by local jurisdictions about the locations of housing, shopping, and...
Thrasher, Kim; O’Connor, Shanna K.
The 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act proposes strategies to address the workforce shortages of primary care practitioners in rural America. This review addresses the question, “What specialized education and training are colleges and schools of pharmacy providing for graduates who wish to enter pharmacy practice in rural health?” All colleges and schools accredited by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education or those in precandidate status as of December 2011 were included in an Internet-based review of Web sites. A wide scope of curricular offerings were found, ranging from no description of courses or experiences in a rural setting to formally developed programs in rural pharmacy. Although the number of pharmacy colleges and schools providing either elective or required courses in rural health is encouraging, more education and training with this focus are needed to help overcome the unmet need for quality pharmacy care for rural populations. PMID:23193344
King, Maxwell C., Ed.; Breuder, Robert I., Ed.
Twelve essays examine issues related to community college involvement in international education. Hugh Adams explores the role of community colleges in international education. S. V. Martorana and William Shannon present a framework for program planning. Sydney Grant examines strategies for internationalizing the curriculum. Seymour Fersh…
"Fundraising Strategies for Community Colleges" is a hands-on, step-by-step guide to building a million-dollar-a-year development office. Community colleges educate nearly half the undergraduates in America yet receive as little as two percent of all gifts to higher education. Private philanthropy is now essential to the mission of community…
Ullrich, Fred; Mueller, Keith J
Key Findings. (1) From March 2003 to December 2013, there was a loss of 924 (12.1%) independently owned rural pharmacies in the United States. The most drastic loss occurred between 2007 and 2009. From 2010-2013, the trend has been for more closures, although the decline is not as pronounced or clear as in earlier years. (2) Four hundred ninety rural communities that had one or more retail pharmacy (including independent, chain, or franchise pharmacy) in March 2003 had no retail pharmacy in December 2013.
Wilson, Woodrow J., Jr.
Discusses pharmacy as a career, including discussions of the following topics: the field of pharmacy, the services provided by pharmacists, the requirements to become a pharmacist, areas of pharmacy and the demand for them, advantages and disadvantages, and salary. (JM)
Ellis, Robert A.; Bliuc, Ana-Maria; Goodyear, Peter
This article reports on research into the student experience of enquiry in two tasks in a university pharmacy course. Students were required to investigate through a field trip how a community pharmacy operated to meet customer needs and the requirements of the Health System in which it operated. Students were also required to investigate…
Swanson, Larry N.; And Others
In an undergraduate Northeastern pharmacy curriculum, students alternate periods of didactic classroom study with the equivalent of five three-month, full-time periods (2600 hours) of practical experience, in addition to a full-time clerkship program. Students work in community and hospital pharmacies and complete the experience with related…
Chalmers, Robert K.
It is proposed that the college of pharmacy's division of Continuing Professional Education accept responsibility for program innovation to advance pharmacy practice. Two areas of need are discussed: development of a model practice system to provide pharmaceutical care, and postgraduate development and recognition of pharmacists' abilities to…
Garst, William C.; Ried, L. Douglas
Evaluated the Education Participation Scale (EPS) in determining motivational orientations of nontraditional doctor of pharmacy students (n=17) compared to continuing education pharmacists (n=83). Nontraditional pharmacy students were significantly different from the continuing education pharmacists on the "professional advancement" and…
McAlexander, James H.; Koenig, Harold F.; Schouten, John W.
Loyal alumni are a mainstay of financial support for many universities. This empirical study of university alumni situates the emerging theory of brand community within the world of university development and advancement. The study measures key relationships that one would expect to find in a healthy university brand community. Most importantly,…
This study examined the application and perceived effectiveness of the Council for the Advancement of Standards (CAS) in a community college Student Affairs Division. The two research questions were as follows: (1) How does a Community College apply CAS standards? (2) What is the perceived effectiveness of applying those standards? A case study…
Hinckley, Richard; And Others
By entering into partnerships with business and industry, community colleges are able to offset the high cost of remaining current with training techniques, job market skill requirements, and state-of-the-art hardware. The construction of advanced technology centers (ATCs) located on community college campuses is one key element supporting these…
Murray, Margaret A.; Vlasnik, Amber L.
This program description explores the purpose, structure, activities, and outcomes of the volunteer intern program at the Wright State University Women's Center. Designed to create meaningful, hands-on learning experiences for students and to advance the center's mission, the volunteer intern program builds community while advancing social and…
Garvey, Jason C.; Drezner, Noah D.
Using a constructivist case-study analysis, we explore philanthropy toward higher education among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) alumni, examining the role of advancement staff and alumni advocates in engaging LGBTQ alumni to promote individual and community uplift. Data come from focus groups with 37 advancement staff and…
Bloem, Martha M; Bloem, Christina M; Rosentsveyg, Juliana; Arquilla, Bonnie
Humanitarian health programs frequently focus on immediate relief and are supply side oriented or donor driven. More emphasis should be placed on long-term development projects that engage local community leaders to ensure sustainable change in health care systems. With the Emergency Medicine Educational Exchange (EMEDEX) International Rescue, Recover, Rebuild initiative in Northeast Haiti as a model, this paper discusses the opportunities and challenges in using community-based development to establish emergency medical systems in resource-limited settings.
MacLean, Linda Garrelts; Hess, Karl; Farmer, Kevin C.; Yurkon, Afton M.; Ha, Carolyn C.; Schwartzman, Emmanuelle; Law, Anandi V.; Milani, Paul A.; Trotta, Katie; Labella, Sara R.; Designor, Rebecca J.
Objective. To determine and describe the nature and extent of medication adherence education in US colleges and schools of pharmacy. Methods. A mixed-methods research study was conducted that included a national survey of pharmacy faculty members, a national survey of pharmacy students, and phone interviews of 3 faculty members and 6 preceptors. Results. The majority of faculty members and students agreed that background concepts in medication adherence are well covered in pharmacy curricula. Approximately 40% to 65% of the students sampled were not familiar with several adherence interventions. The 6 preceptors who were interviewed felt they were not well-informed on adherence interventions, unclear on what students knew about adherence, and challenged to provide adherence-related activities for students during practice experiences because of practice time constraints. Conclusions. Intermediate and advanced concepts in medication adherence, such as conducting interventions, are not adequately covered in pharmacy curriculums; therefore stakeholders in pharmacy education must develop national standards and tools to ensure consistent and adequate medication adherence education. PMID:22761520
... retail pharmacies and central fill pharmacies for prescriptions of Schedule II controlled substances... between retail pharmacies and central fill pharmacies for prescriptions of Schedule II controlled substances. Prescription information may be provided to an authorized central fill pharmacy by a...
The American Society of Health- System Pharmacists (ASHP) believes that specially trained pharmacy technicians can assume important supportive roles in pharmacy informatics. These roles include automation and technology systems management, management of projects, training and education, policy and governance, customer service, charge integrity, and reporting. Such roles require pharmacy technicians to gain expertise in information technology (IT) systems, including knowledge of interfaces, computer management techniques, problem resolution, and database maintenance. This knowledge could be acquired through specialized training or experience in a health science or allied scientific field (e.g., health informatics). With appropriate safeguards and supervision, pharmacy technician informaticists (PTIs) will manage IT processes in health-system pharmacy services, ensuring a safe and efficient medication-use process.
Sorensen, Todd D; Shapiro, Nancy L; Benedict, Neal; Edwards, Krystal L; Chan, Alexandre; Covey, Douglas; Daniels, Charles; Hagemann, Tracy; Hemstreet, Brian; Miller, William; Musselman, Megan E
With the increased focus and anticipated growth in specialty training and certification within the profession of pharmacy, it is important for the profession to step back and evaluate the manner in which its adopted education and certification systems interface. As a result of specialty practice development, significant growth is occurring in both postgraduate year two (PGY2) pharmacy residency programs and individuals seeking certification by the Board of Pharmacy Specialties. As the profession continues to evolve its specialty training and credentialing systems, it is important to consider the inherent relationship between these systems. This paper considers the current landscape of specialty training and certification, including issues related to the quality of PGY2 training, consistent application of standards across and within PGY2 programs, credentialing of preceptors and program directors, and alignment of training with specialty certification examination content domains. We outline recommendations across three areas: (1) creating consistency between specialty training and certification, (2) aligning qualifications of PGY2 residency program directors and preceptors with the designated specialty area, and (3) assessing program quality in the context of the expectations of specialists established by the profession. The goal of this paper is to stimulate professional dialogue on these issues. Establishing both formal and informal connections between specialty training and certification can serve as the foundation for a rational approach to professional development and the credentialing that will be recognized by stakeholders outside the pharmacy profession. Establishing these connections will also support and advance the profession's mission of meeting the medication needs of patients.
Quinn, Francis X.
An address to the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy focuses on the pharmacy school and faculty's role in providing an ethical foundation for practicing pharmacists. The issues of professional socialization, burnout, the influence of pharmaceutical advertising, and regulation of health care are noted. (MSE)
Gibson, Robert D.; And Others
Site visits were made by a team of consultants to Florida A&M University (FAMU) and the University of Florida (UF), the two institutions providing pharmacy education in Florida, to review programs and assess issues relating to entry-level degrees, manpower needs, and delivery systems. After a brief history of academic programs in pharmacy, the…
Ezeonwu, Mabel; Berkowitz, Bobbie; Vlasses, Frances R
This article describes a model of teaching community health nursing that evolved from a long-term partnership with a community with limited existing health programs. The partnership supported RN-BSN students' integration in the community and resulted in reciprocal gains for faculty, students and community members. Community clients accessed public health services as a result of the partnership. A blended learning approach that combines face-to-face interactions, service learning and online activities was utilized to enhance students' learning. Following classroom sessions, students actively participated in community-based educational process through comprehensive health needs assessments, planning and implementation of disease prevention and health promotion activities for community clients. Such active involvement in an underserved community deepened students' awareness of the fundamentals of community health practice. Students were challenged to view public health from a broader perspective while analyzing the impacts of social determinants of health on underserved populations. Through asynchronous online interactions, students synthesized classroom and community activities through critical thinking. This paper describes a model for teaching community health nursing that informs students' learning through blended learning, and meets the demands for community health nursing services delivery.
Rupp, Michael T
In a possible future of supply-demand imbalance in pharmacy education, a brand that positively differentiates a college or school of pharmacy from its competitors may be the key to its survival. The nominal group technique, a structured group problem-solving and decision-making process, was used during a faculty retreat to identify and agree on the core qualities that define the brand image of Midwestern University's College of Pharmacy in Glendale, AZ. Results from the retreat were provided to the faculty and students, who then proposed 168 mottos that embodied these qualities. Mottos were voted on by faculty members and pharmacy students. The highest ranked 24 choices were submitted to the faculty, who then selected the top 10 finalists. A final vote by students was used to select the winning motto. The methods described here may be useful to other colleges and schools of pharmacy that want to better define their own brand image and strengthen their organizational culture.
Toussaint, Kimberly A; Watson, Kristin; Marrs, Joel C; Sturpe, Deborah A; Anderson, Sarah L; Haines, Stuart T
Board certification is a means of demonstrating expertise above the minimum licensing standards. For many health care professionals, this credential is a necessity. As pharmacists become involved in more advanced patient care services, board certification becomes an essential component to ensuring quality care. The prevalence of United States pharmacy practice faculty members who are board certified, however, is unknown. In addition, to our knowledge, factors that serve to motivate or discourage faculty from obtaining board certification have not been previously described; thus, 900 pharmacy practice faculty members listed in the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) online directory were invited to complete an online survey regarding motivators and barriers for board certification. In addition, a list of board-certified pharmacists, obtained from the Board of Pharmacy Specialties, was used to check the board certification status of all pharmacy practice faculty members listed in the AACP directory. In 2011, the prevalence of board certification among the 2867 pharmacy practice faculty members was 37% (1063 pharmacists), with the highest prevalence found among assistant professors (39.4%). A total of 322 faculty members (36% response rate) completed the survey; of these, 308 self-identified as pharmacy practice faculty, and their responses were included in the analysis. Current board certification in pharmacy specialties was reported by 163 respondents (52.9%); 14 (4.5%) were previously certified. Among the 308 respondents, the most common perceived reason why pharmacy practice faculty become board certified was the desire to be recognized as an expert in the field (71.5%). Those who were currently board certified indicated personal growth as the most important reason (60.1%). Those previously certified indicated no perceived benefit as the most common reason for not recertifying (71.4%). Among those never certified, no perceived need (52.0%) or
Bartholomew, A; Sawyer, W T; Coats, L
The frequency with which United States Air Force pharmacists perform specific professional tasks and the pharmacists' views as to the importance of those tasks were studied. A questionnaire was prepared that asked recipients to rate each of 36 tasks selected as representing the spectrum of practice activities. There were four categories of tasks: managerial tasks, dispensing tasks, drug information tasks, and patient care tasks. Recipients rated the tasks with respect to frequency of performance and importance on separate 6-point scales. The questionnaire was mailed in May 1991 to the 225 pharmacists then serving in the Air Force worldwide. Of the 225 questionnaires, 150 usable questionnaires were returned (response rate, 67%). All the tasks in the survey were performed by at least one Air Force pharmacy officer, although the frequency of task performance varied. In particular, the frequency of many patient care tasks was low. All the tasks were perceived to have some importance, but drug information tasks were rated as being significantly more important than tasks in the other categories; patient care tasks were rated lowest in importance. The results varied with the respondents' demographic characteristics. Pharmacy officers with more years of service, more senior positions, higher rank, or an advanced degree in a field other than pharmacy tended to give responses that diverged from those of the population. A 1991 survey showed an awareness among Air Force pharmacists of the need to orient practice around patient care; however, they were not spending substantial time on patient care and tended to view it as less important than more traditional pharmacy tasks.
Pei, Nancai; Chen, Bufeng; Kress, W. J.
DNA barcoding is a commonly used bio-technology in multiple disciplines including biology, environmental science, forensics and inspection, etc. Forest dynamic plots provide a unique opportunity to carry out large-scale, comparative, and multidisciplinary research for plant DNA barcoding. The paper concisely reviewed four previous progresses in China; specifically, species discrimination, community phylogenetic reconstruction, phylogenetic community structure exploration, and biodiversity index evaluation. Further, we demonstrated three major challenges; specifically, building the impetus to generate DNA barcodes using multiple plant DNA markers for all woody species at forest community levels, analyzing massive DNA barcoding sequence data, and promoting theoretical innovation. Lastly, we raised five possible directions; specifically, proposing a “purpose-driven barcode” fit for multi-level applications, developing new integrative sequencing strategies, pushing DNA barcoding beyond terrestrial ecosystem, constructing national-level DNA barcode sequence libraries for special plant groups, and establishing intelligent identification systems or online server platforms. These efforts will be potentially valuable to explore large-scale biodiversity patterns, the origin and evolution of life, and will also facilitate preservation and utilization of biodiversity resources. PMID:28270824
Pei, Nancai; Chen, Bufeng; Kress, W J
DNA barcoding is a commonly used bio-technology in multiple disciplines including biology, environmental science, forensics and inspection, etc. Forest dynamic plots provide a unique opportunity to carry out large-scale, comparative, and multidisciplinary research for plant DNA barcoding. The paper concisely reviewed four previous progresses in China; specifically, species discrimination, community phylogenetic reconstruction, phylogenetic community structure exploration, and biodiversity index evaluation. Further, we demonstrated three major challenges; specifically, building the impetus to generate DNA barcodes using multiple plant DNA markers for all woody species at forest community levels, analyzing massive DNA barcoding sequence data, and promoting theoretical innovation. Lastly, we raised five possible directions; specifically, proposing a "purpose-driven barcode" fit for multi-level applications, developing new integrative sequencing strategies, pushing DNA barcoding beyond terrestrial ecosystem, constructing national-level DNA barcode sequence libraries for special plant groups, and establishing intelligent identification systems or online server platforms. These efforts will be potentially valuable to explore large-scale biodiversity patterns, the origin and evolution of life, and will also facilitate preservation and utilization of biodiversity resources.
... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Records of authorized central fill pharmacies and retail pharmacies. 1304.05 Section 1304.05 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... fill pharmacies and retail pharmacies. (a) Every retail pharmacy that utilizes the services of...
... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Records of authorized central fill pharmacies and retail pharmacies. 1304.05 Section 1304.05 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... fill pharmacies and retail pharmacies. (a) Every retail pharmacy that utilizes the services of...
Weber, Robert J; Stevenson, James; Ng, Christine; White, Sara
The Director's Forum guides pharmacy leaders in establishing patient-centered services in hospitals and health systems. August 2013 marked the 50th anniversary of the publication of the Mirror to Hospital Pharmacy, which was a comprehensive study of hospital pharmacy services in the United States. This iconic textbook was co-authored by Donald Francke, Clifton J. Latiolais, Gloria N. Francke, and Norman Ho. The Mirror profiled hospital pharmacy of the 1950s and established goals for the profession in 6 paradigms: (1) professional philosophy and ethics, (2) scientific and technical expansion of health-system pharmacy, (3) development of administrative and managerial acumen, (4) increased practice competence, (5) wage and salary compensation commensurate with professional responsibilities, and (6) health-system pharmacy as a vehicle for advancing the profession as a whole. This article critically reviews the profession's progress on the first 3 goals; an article in the January 2014 issue of Hospital Pharmacy will review the final 3 goals. An understanding of the profession's progress on these goals since the seminal work of the Mirror provides directors of pharmacy a platform from which to develop strategies to enhance patient-centered pharmacy services.
... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pharmacy responsibilities. 1311.200 Section 1311... ORDERS AND PRESCRIPTIONS Electronic Prescriptions § 1311.200 Pharmacy responsibilities. (a) Before initially using a pharmacy application to process controlled substance prescriptions, the pharmacy...
... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pharmacy responsibilities. 1311.200 Section 1311... ORDERS AND PRESCRIPTIONS Electronic Prescriptions § 1311.200 Pharmacy responsibilities. (a) Before initially using a pharmacy application to process controlled substance prescriptions, the pharmacy...
... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pharmacy responsibilities. 1311.200 Section 1311... ORDERS AND PRESCRIPTIONS Electronic Prescriptions § 1311.200 Pharmacy responsibilities. (a) Before initially using a pharmacy application to process controlled substance prescriptions, the pharmacy...
... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pharmacy responsibilities. 1311.200 Section 1311... ORDERS AND PRESCRIPTIONS Electronic Prescriptions § 1311.200 Pharmacy responsibilities. (a) Before initially using a pharmacy application to process controlled substance prescriptions, the pharmacy...
Bond, C A; Raehl, Cynthia L; Patry, Roland
Development of a national plan to implement a core set of clinical pharmacy services in United States hospitals by 2020 requires assertive leadership from pharmacy organizations and state boards of pharmacy, and a commitment from the profession. Factors that may affect the development are grouped into three areas: manpower, marketplace variables, and pharmacy leadership. Although the number of pharmacy school graduates (7000) was about the same in 1990 and 2000, a greater number of pharmacy schools and high student enrollment, coupled with the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education's acceptance of foreign-trained pharmacists, suggest that the number of pharmacists will increase substantially in the near future. We estimate that the net increase in pharmacists (new pharmacy graduates less pharmacists who retire or die) in the United States will be 139,929 from 2000-2020, for a total of 335,040 pharmacists (71% increase). The number of pharmacy technicians increased substantially (66%), from 150,000 in 1996 to 250,000 in 2002. The number of residents in programs accredited by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists increased 148%, from 435 in 1990 to 1080 in 2002. We conservatively project an increase of 33,000 pharmacists who complete residencies from 2000-2020. The pharmacy marketplace has changed dramatically over the last 12 years, with 10,754 independent community pharmacies closing (2.46 pharmacies/day) and 8459 chain outlets opening (1.93 chains/day). In recent years, mail-order pharmacies have expanded faster than other retail outlets and now process over 18% of U.S. prescriptions. Increased use of robotic systems (some can process 5000 prescriptions/hr) and technicians will diminish the demand for dispensing pharmacists. In addition, up to 10% of U.S. retail prescriptions may be filled outside the country's borders. These data indicate that there will be a sufficient supply of pharmacists and technicians in the future. Thus, it is feasible
Pharmacy is an ethical profession. The aim of this study was to investigate the history of pharmacy ethics in Iran. In the ancient Persia, medical and pharmaceutical ethics were related to religious rules, and everybody had to respect it. The ethical rules were similar to some current pharmacy ethics. During Islamic era, the pharmacy ethics were edited according to the Islamic rules. After introduction of European pharmacy into Iran, the pharmacy ethics did not change and was regarded as before. By presentation of bioethics and medical ethics in recent years, new activities are carried out for better manipulation of their rules in health professions including pharmacy. PMID:23908727
Ryan, Melody; Yang, Li; Nie, Xiao-Yan; Zhai, Suo-Di; Shi, Lu-Wen; Lubawy, William C.
Pharmacy education in China focuses on pharmaceutical sciences, with the bachelor of science (BS) of pharmacy as the entry-level degree. Pharmacy practice curricula in these programs are centered on compounding, dispensing, pharmacy administration, and laboratory experiences, which are the traditional responsibilities for pharmacists. Additional graduate-level training is available at the master of science (MS) and the doctor of philosophy (PhD) levels, most of which concentrate on drug discovery and drug development research. Presently, the emphasis in practice is beginning to shift to clinical pharmacy. With this change, additional degree offerings are being developed to meet the growing demand for clinical pharmacists. There is also interest in developing more clinical skills in practicing pharmacists through additional non-degree training. The Ministry of Education is considering a proposal for an entry-level professional degree of master and/or doctor in clinical pharmacy similar to the doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degree in the United States. PMID:19325949
Walton, Charles A.; Doluisio, James T.
Proposes reorganization of professional pharmacy education to develop a group of practitioners at the contemporary practice level (baccalaureate degree) and a group at a level qualified to direct the profession's beginning states of advanced clinical service development (doctoral degree). Professional roles and teaching goals are outlined for…
Many senior care pharmacy professionals have chosen to become their own boss and start businesses doing what they love--and what they do best. Some have approached this analytically, strategizing and planning in advance. Others have found paths to follow almost by accident. But they all share drive, determination, and a passion for their profession and their patients.
Okuda, Jun; Natsume, Yohko
The study of the ancient history of Indian medicine has recently been revived due to the publication of polyglot translations. However, little is known of ancient Indian pharmacy. Archaeological evidence suggests the Indus people lived a settled life approximately in 2500 B.C. Their cities were enjoying the cleanest and most hygienic daily life with elaborate civic sanitation systems. The whole conception shows a remarkable concern for health. Then, the early Aryans invaded India about 1500 B.C. and the Vedic age started. The Rgveda texts contain the hymns for Soma and those for herbs. The term Ayurveda (i.e., science of life) is found in some old versions of both Ramāyana and Mahābhārata and in the Atharvaveda. Suśruta had the credit of making a breakthrough in the field of surgery. The Ayurveda, a work on internal medicine, gives the following transmission of sages: Brahmā-->Daksa-->Prajāpati-->Aśivinau-->Indra-->Caraka. On the other hand, the Suśruta-samhitā, which deals mainly with surgical medicine, explains it as follows; Indra-->Dhanvantari-->Suśruta Both Caraka and Suśruta were medical doctors as well as pharmacists, so they studied more than 1000 herbs thoroughly. The Ayurveda had been used by his devotees for medical purposes. It eventually spread over Asia with the advanced evolution of Buddhism.
Waldbauer, J.; Zhang, L.; Rizzo, A. I.
Quantitative measurements of gene expression are key to developing a mechanistic, predictive understanding of how microbial metabolism drives many biogeochemical fluxes and responds to environmental change. High-throughput RNA-sequencing can afford a wealth of information about transcript-level expression patterns, but it is becoming clear that expression dynamics are often very different at the protein level where biochemistry actually occurs. These divergent dynamics between levels of biological organization necessitate quantitative proteomic measurements to address many biogeochemical questions. The protein-level expression changes that underlie shifts in the magnitude, or even the direction, of metabolic and biogeochemical fluxes can be quite subtle and test the limits of current quantitative proteomics techniques. Here we describe methodologies for high-precision, whole-proteome quantification that are applicable to both model organisms of biogeochemical interest that may not be genetically tractable, and to complex community samples from natural environments. Employing chemical derivatization of peptides with multiple isotopically-coded tags, this strategy is rapid and inexpensive, can be implemented on a wide range of mass spectrometric instrumentation, and is relatively insensitive to chromatographic variability. We demonstrate the utility of this quantitative proteomics approach in application to both isolates and natural communities of sulfur-metabolizing and photosynthetic microbes.
Weiss, Linda; Gany, Francesca; Rosenfeld, Peri; Carrasquillo, Olveen; Sharif, Iman; Behar, Elana; Ambizas, Emily; Patel, Priti; Schwartz, Lauren; Mangione, Robert
An essential component of quality care for limited English proficient (LEP) patients is language access. Linguistically accessible medication instructions are particularly important, given the serious consequences of error and patient responsibility for managing often complex medication regimens on their own. Approximately 21 million people in the U.S. were LEP at the time of the 2000 census, representing a 50% increase since 1990. Little information is available on their access to comprehensible medication instructions. In an effort to address this knowledge gap, we conducted a telephone survey of 200 randomly selected NYC pharmacies. The primary focus of the survey was translation need, capacity, and practice. The majority of pharmacists reported that they had LEP patients daily (88.0%) and had the capacity to translate prescription labels (79.5%). Among pharmacies serving LEP patients on a daily basis, just 38.6% translated labels daily; 22.7% never translated. In multivariate analysis, pharmacy type (OR = 4.08, 95%CI = 1.55-10.74, independent versus chain pharmacies) and proportion of Spanish-speaking LEP persons in the pharmacy's census tract (OR = 1.09, 95%CI = 1.05-1.13 for each 1% increase in Spanish LEP population) were associated with increased label translation. Although 88.5% of the pharmacies had bilingual staff, less than half were pharmacists or pharmacy interns and thus qualified to provide medication counseling. More than 80% of the pharmacies surveyed lacked systematic methods for identifying linguistic needs and for informing patients of translation capabilities. Consistent with efforts to improve language access in other health care settings, the critical gap in language appropriate pharmacy services must be addressed to meet the needs of the nation's large and ever-growing immigrant communities. Pharmacists may require supplemental training on the need and resources for meeting the verbal and written language requirements of their LEP patients
Douglas, Charles Allen
The scope of pharmacy practice and the training of future pharmacists have undergone a strategic shift over the last few decades. The pharmacy profession recognizes greater pharmacist involvement in patient care activities. Towards this strategic objective, pharmacy schools are training future pharmacists to meet these new clinical demands. Pharmacy students have clerkships called Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences (APPEs), and these clerkships account for 30% of the professional curriculum. APPEs provide the only opportunity for students to refine clinical skills under the guidance of an experienced pharmacist. Nationwide, schools of pharmacy need to evaluate whether students have successfully completed APPEs and are ready treat patients. Schools are left to their own devices to develop assessment programs that demonstrate to the public and regulatory agencies, students are clinically competent prior to graduation. There is no widely accepted method to evaluate whether these assessment programs actually discriminate between the competent and non-competent students. The central purpose of this study is to demonstrate a rigorous method to evaluate the validity and reliability of APPE assessment programs. The method introduced in this study is applicable to a wide variety of assessment programs. To illustrate this method, the study evaluated new performance criteria with a novel rating scale. The study had two main phases. In the first phase, a Delphi panel was created to bring together expert opinions. Pharmacy schools nominated exceptional preceptors to join a Delphi panel. Delphi is a method to achieve agreement of complex issues among experts. The principal researcher recruited preceptors representing a variety of practice settings and geographical regions. The Delphi panel evaluated and refined the new performance criteria. In the second phase, the study produced a novel set of video vignettes that portrayed student performances based on recommendations of
Wong, Lindsay; Burden, Andrea M.; Liu, Yan Yun; Tadrous, Mina; Pojskic, Nedzad; Dolovich, Lisa; Calzavara, Andrew
Background: Smoking is a significant public health concern. The Ontario Pharmacy Smoking Cessation Program was launched in September 2011 to leverage community pharmacists and expand access to smoking cessation services for public drug plan beneficiaries. Methods: We examined health care utilization data in Ontario to describe public drug plan beneficiaries receiving, and pharmacies providing, smoking cessation services between September 2011 and September 2013. Patient characteristics were summarized, stratified by drug plan group: seniors (age ≥65 years) or social assistance. Trends over time were examined by plotting the number of services, unique patients and unique pharmacies by month. We then examined use of follow-up services and prescription smoking cessation medications. Results: We identified 7767 residents receiving pharmacy smoking cessation services: 28% seniors (mean age = 69.9, SD = 4.8; 53% male) and 72% social assistance (mean age = 44.4 years, SD = 11.8; 48% male). Cumulative patient enrollment increased over time with an average of 311 (SD = 61) new patients per month, and one-third (n = 1253) of pharmacies participated by the end of September 2013. Regions with the highest number of patients were Erie St. Clair (n = 1328) and Hamilton Niagara Haldimand Brant (n = 1312). Sixteen percent of all patients received another pharmacy service (e.g., MedsCheck) on the same day as smoking cessation program enrollment. Among patients with follow-up data, 56% received follow-up smoking cessation services (60% seniors, 55% social assistance) and 74% received a prescription smoking cessation medication. One-year quit status was reported for 12%, with a 29% success rate. Conclusions: Program enrollment has increased steadily since its launch, yet only a third of pharmacies participated and 56% of patients received follow-up services. PMID:26759563
Awad, Nadia I.; Cocchio, Craig
Objectives: To assess the preparedness of hospital pharmacies in New Jersey to provide pharmaceutical services in mass casualty scenarios. Methods: An electronic cross-sectional survey was developed to assess the general knowledge of available resources and attitudes toward the preparedness of the pharmacy department. Results: Out of 60 invitations to participate, 18 surveys (30%) were completed. Respondents practiced at community hospitals (12, 66.6%) with no trauma center designation (11, 67.4%) that served more than 500 licensed beds (five, 29.4%). Six respondents (35.3%) indicated that 75,000 to 100,000 patients visited their emergency departments annually. Seventeen sites (94.4%) reported the existence of an institutional disaster preparedness protocol; 10 (55.5%) indicated that there is a specific plan for the pharmacy department. Most respondents (10, 55.5%) were unsure whether their hospitals had an adequate supply of analgesics, rapid sequence intubation agents, vasopressors, antiemetics, respiratory medications, ophthalmics, oral antimicrobials, and chemical-weapon-specific antidotes. Five (27.7%) agreed that the pharmacy disaster plan included processes to ensure care for patients already hospitalized, and four (22.2%) agreed that the quantity of medication was adequate to treat patients and hospital employees if necessary. Medication stock and quantities were determined based on national or international guidelines at three (16.6%) institutions surveyed. Conclusion: This survey demonstrates a lack of general consensus regarding hospital pharmacy preparedness for mass casualty scenarios despite individualized institutional protocols for disaster preparedness. Standardized recommendations from government and/or professional pharmacy organizations should be developed to guide the preparation of hospital pharmacy departments for mass casualty scenarios. PMID:25859121
Shay, Blake; Weber, Robert J.
Important and influential pharmacy organization leadership positions, such as president, board member, or committee chair, are volunteer positions and require a commitment of personal and professional time. These positions provide excellent opportunities for leadership development, personal promotion, and advancement of the profession. In deciding to assume a leadership position, interested individuals must consider the impact on their personal and professional commitments and relationships, career planning, employer support, current and future department projects, employee support, and personal readiness. This article reviews these factors and also provides an assessment tool that leaders can use to determine their readiness to assume leadership positions. By using an assessment tool, pharmacy leaders can better understand their ability to assume an important and influential leadership position while achieving job and personal goals. PMID:27621512
Shay, Blake; Weber, Robert J
Important and influential pharmacy organization leadership positions, such as president, board member, or committee chair, are volunteer positions and require a commitment of personal and professional time. These positions provide excellent opportunities for leadership development, personal promotion, and advancement of the profession. In deciding to assume a leadership position, interested individuals must consider the impact on their personal and professional commitments and relationships, career planning, employer support, current and future department projects, employee support, and personal readiness. This article reviews these factors and also provides an assessment tool that leaders can use to determine their readiness to assume leadership positions. By using an assessment tool, pharmacy leaders can better understand their ability to assume an important and influential leadership position while achieving job and personal goals.
Davis, Ethan; Zender, Charlie; Arctur, David; Jelenak, Aleksandar; Santek, Dave; O'Brien, Kevin; Dixon, Mike
The Climate and Forecast (CF) metadata conventions for netCDF (netCDF-CF) are used widely by weather forecasters, climate scientists, and remote-sensing researchers to include auxiliary information along with scientific data. This auxiliary information, or metadata, describes where and how the data were collected, the units of measurement used, and other similar details. Numerous open source and commercial software tools are able to explore and analyze data sets that include netCDF-CF metadata. This presentation will introduce work to extend the existing netCDF-CF metadata conventions in ways that will broaden the range of earth science domains whose data can be represented. It will include discussion of the enhancements to netCDF-CF that are envisioned and information on how to participate in the community-based standards development process.
Shakeel, Sadia; Iffat, Wajiha; Khan, Madeeha
A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to August 2015 to assess the knowledge of pharmacy students towards Naegleria fowleri infection. A questionnaire was distributed to senior pharmacy students in different private and public sector universities of Karachi. Descriptive statistics were used to demonstrate students' demographic information and their responses to the questionnaire. Pearson chi-square test was adopted to assess the relationship between independent variables and responses of students. The study revealed that pharmacy students were having adequate awareness of Naegleria fowleri infection and considered it as a serious health issue that necessitates instantaneous steps by the government to prevent the general public from the fatal neurological infection. The students recommended that appropriate methods should be projected in the community from time to time that increases public awareness about the associated risk factors. PMID:26981318
In a long essay titled "Plato's Pharmacy, Jacques Derrida attacked Western metaphysics. This article undertakes to defend Western philosophy from Derrida's arguments. It is shown that Derrida's arguments are very unsatisfactory. (Author/VWL)
Huntzinger, Paul E
The purpose of this mixed qualitative/quantitative study was to review the impact of a policy to accept facsimile (fax) prescriptions as standard operating procedure. Between February and April 2009 the pharmacy processed 4,792 new prescriptions of which 363 (7.6%) were received through fax. Of the fax prescriptions, 19 (5.2%) concerned clarification of information, which took approximately 30 minutes to resolve. The fax prescription process allowed the pharmacy to adjust the distribution of its workload, provided quicker service for new prescriptions, and allowed more time for medication consultation that resulted in a high level of customer satisfaction. It appeared the policy allowing fax prescriptions was a "win-win" situation for both the pharmacy and its customers. Military pharmacies should consider running trials of accepting fax prescriptions to see whether it improves their prescription filling process.
Cooper, Loren-Ashley; Vellurattil, Rosalyn Padiyara; Quiñones-Boex, Ana
Objective. To determine pharmacy students’ perceptions regarding cultural competence training, cross-cultural experiences during advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs), and perceived comfort levels with various cultural encounters. Methods. Fourth-year pharmacy (P4) students were asked to complete a questionnaire at the end of their fourth APPE. Results. Fifty-two of 124 respondents (31.9%) reported having 1 or more cultural competence events during their APPEs, the most common of which was caring for a patient with limited English proficiency. Conclusion. Students reported high levels of comfort with specific types of cultural encounters (disabilities, sexuality, financial barriers, mental health), but reported to be less comfortable in other situations. PMID:24672064
Schweiger, Teresa A.; Angelo, Lauren B.; Lea Bonner, C.; Dhing, Conrad W.; Farley, Joel F.
Although the use of a professional dress code is standard practice across colleges and schools of pharmacy during introductory and advanced pharmacy practice experiences, requiring professional attire is not applied consistently during the didactic portion of students’ education. There are arguments for and against the adoption of a professional dress code throughout the entire doctor of pharmacy program, including the classroom setting. Given uncertainty regarding the potential benefits and challenges that may arise from adopting a professional dress code in the didactic portion of a student pharmacist’s education, it is perhaps not surprising that programs adopt disparate policies regarding its use. This exploration was conducted as part of a series of debates held in conjunction with the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy’s (AACP) Academic Leadership Fellows Program (ALFP) and was presented at the 2015 AACP Interim Meeting on February 7, 2015. PMID:27402977
Veronin, Michael A; Clancy, Kristen M
Background The unavailability of Internet pharmacy websites may impact a consumer’s drug purchases and health care. Objective To address the issue of attrition, a defined set of Canadian Internet pharmacy websites was examined at three separate time intervals. Methods In February to March 2006, 117 distinct, fully functional “Canadian Internet pharmacy” websites were located using the advanced search options of Google and the uniform resource locator (URL) for each website was recorded. To determine website attrition, each of the 117 websites obtained and recorded from the previous study was revisited at two later periods of time within a 4-year period. Results After approximately 4 years and 5 months, only 59 (50.4%) sites were found in the original state. Thirty-four sites (29.1%) had moved to a new URL address and were not functioning as the original Internet pharmacy. For 24 sites (20.5%) the viewer was redirected to another Canadian Internet pharmacy site. Conclusion Of concern for patients if Internet pharmacy sites were suddenly inaccessible would be the disruption of continuity of care. PMID:23983491
Liu, X.; Murata, T.
A modularity-specialized label propagation algorithm (LPAm) for detecting network communities was recently proposed. This promising algorithm offers some desirable qualities. However, LPAm favors community divisions where all communities are similar in total degree and thus it is prone to get stuck in poor local maxima in the modularity space. To escape local maxima, we employ a multistep greedy agglomerative algorithm (MSG) that can merge multiple pairs of communities at a time. Combining LPAm and MSG, we propose an advanced modularity-specialized label propagation algorithm (LPAm+). Experiments show that LPAm+ successfully detects communities with higher modularity values than ever reported in two commonly used real-world networks. Moreover, LPAm+ offers a fair compromise between accuracy and speed.
Jarfaut, A; Nivoix, Y; Vigouroux, D; Kehrli, P; Gaudias, J; Kempf, J-F; Levêque, D; Gourieux, B
Clinical pharmacy has been developed and evaluated in various medical hospital activities. Reviews conducted in this area reported a higher value of this discipline. In surgical services, evenly adverse drug events may occur, so clinical pharmacy activities must also help to optimize the management of drug's patient. The objectives of this literature review is to determine the profile of clinical pharmacy activities developed in surgical services and identify indicators. The research was conducted on Pubmed(®) database with the following keywords (2000-2013), "surgery", "pharmacy", "pharmacist", "pharmaceutical care", "impact" and limited to French or English papers. Studies dealing on simultaneously medical and surgical areas were excluded. Twenty-one papers were selected. The most frequently developed clinical pharmacy activities were history and therapeutic drug monitoring (antibiotics or anticoagulants). Two types of indicators were identified: activity indicators with the number of pharmaceutical interventions, their description and clinical signification, the acceptance rate and workload. Impact indicators were mostly clinical and economic impacts. The development of clinical pharmacy related to surgical patients is documented and appears to have, as for medical patients, a clinical and economical value.
Carringer, Paul T.
The purpose of this study was to examine how community college presidents successfully work with and through the media to advance their institutions. Four successful cases were studied. These success stories came from the list of Paragon Award winners selected annually by the National Council of Marketing and Public Relations (NCMPR) and be cross…
Ashlock, Tim; Wright, Stephanie
The National Science Foundation (NSF) implemented the Advanced Technological Education (ATE) program to strengthen the nation's technical workforce. ATE focuses on improving educational programs in science, mathematics, and engineering within community colleges. This book is one of several activities sponsored by an NSF grant to the American…
This study examined the use and perceived effectiveness of standards published by the Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education in student affairs units at a community college in the Southwest. The available literature mainly addresses use of the CAS standards at four-year rather than two-year colleges. The study investigated…
This study explores the specific issue of supervision as an important administrative gate keeping function that facilitates or impedes women's career advancement, and promotes gender equity at the executive leadership level in community colleges. The very nature of supervision mirrors the historical purpose of higher education, employee learning…
Saunders, Kenneth Kalso
While community colleges have historically received their funding from federal and state sources, the availability of these funds have been declining significantly over the last ten years, driving them to seek alternative funding. Critical to this is the creation of "advancement initiatives," and therein development offices, which are…
institutions, this vehicle system design represents a collaborative effort between the science community and a subsea industry technological leader to...develop an exploration vehicle employing the latest advances in subsea technology. II. SURVEY OF COMMERCIAL VEHICLES DEDICATED TO SCIENCE...Engineering work class system designed for subsea intervention and inspection duties. Since that time there has been a hiatus on the further
Gan, Yongcheng; Zhu, Zhiting
This study represents an effort to construct a learning framework for knowledge building and collective wisdom advancement in a virtual learning community (VLC) from the perspectives of system wholeness, intelligence wholeness and dynamics, learning models, and knowledge management. It also tries to construct the zone of proximal development (ZPD)…
Coburn, Cynthia E.; Penuel, William R.; Geil, Kimberly E.
The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching is a nonprofit, operating foundation with a long tradition of developing and studying ways to improve teaching practice. For the past three years, the Carnegie Foundation has initiated three different Networked Improvement Communities (NICs). The first, Quantway, is addressing the high…
Henriksen, Brian; Roche, Victoria
Objectives. To build an integrated medicinal chemistry learning community of campus and distance pharmacy students though the use of innovative technology and interdisciplinary teaching.Design. Mechanisms were implemented to bring distance students into campus-based medicinal chemistry classrooms in real time, stimulate interaction between instructors and various student cohorts, and promote group work during class. Also, pharmacy clinician colleagues were recruited to contribute to the teaching of the 3 medicinal chemistry courses.Assessment. Student perceptions on the value of technology to build community and advance learning were gleaned from course evaluations, in class feedback, and conversations with class officers and student groups. Responses on a survey of second-year students confirmed the benefits of interdisciplinary content integration on engagement and awareness of the connection between drug chemistry and pharmacy practice. A survey of clinician colleagues who contributed to teaching the 3 medicinal chemistry courses found their views were similar to those of students.Conclusions. The purposeful use of technology united learners, fostered communication, and advanced content comprehension in 3 medicinal chemistry courses taught to campus and distance students. Teaching collaboration with pharmacy clinicians enhanced learner interest in course content and provided insight into the integrated nature of the profession of pharmacy.
Weber, Robert J; Stevenson, James G; White, Sara J
The Director's Forum guides pharmacy leaders in establishing patient-centered services in hospitals and health systems. 2013 marked the 50th anniversary of the publication of the Mirror to Hospital Pharmacy, which was a comprehensive study of hospital pharmacy services in the United States. This iconic textbook was co-authored by Donald Francke, Clifton J. Latiolais, Gloria N. Francke, and Norman Ho. The Mirror's results profiled hospital pharmacy of the 1950s; these results established goals for the profession in 6 paradigms: (1) professional philosophy and ethics; (2) scientific and technical expansion of health-system pharmacy; (3) development of administrative and managerial acumen; (4) increased practice competence; (5) wage and salary commensurate with professional responsibilities; and (6) health-system pharmacy as a vehicle for advancing the profession as a whole. This article critically reviews our progress on the last of 3 goals. An understanding of the profession's progress on these goals since the seminal work of the Mirror provides directors of pharmacy a platform from which to develop strategies to enhance patient-centered pharmacy services.
Manahan, Melissa N; Soyer, H Peter; Nissen, Lisa M
We investigated community pharmacists' management of skin conditions in order to identify a need for further educational support. Twenty community pharmacists in Queensland completed a questionnaire regarding their management of skin conditions and their opinions regarding the usefulness of a potential teledermatology service. The pharmacists' accuracy in managing skin conditions was tested by a dermatologist who reviewed the pharmacists' advice in 33 cases obtained by 14 pharmacists. Overall agreement between the pharmacists and the dermatologist was moderate, with a kappa statistic of 0.58 (P < 0.05) The uptake of a potential teledermatology service was investigated in one pharmacy over one month. Five patients were offered the teledermatology service. Of these, two patients consented and three refused. All pharmacists (n = 20) indicated a desire for further education and supported the idea of a teledermatology service.
Barnett, C W; Hopkins, W A; Jackson, R A
The degree of burnout experienced by graduates of the Mercer University Southern School of Pharmacy from 1973 to 1983 was studied. Questionnaires were mailed to 1000 alumni, representing 850 Bachelor of Science (B.S.) and 150 Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm.D.) graduates. Three components of burnout--emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal achievement--were measured using the Maslach Burnout Inventory to determine relationships between burnout and primary work setting, primary work activity, and type of degree (Pharm.D. or B.S.). The response rate was 41%. The respondents experienced a moderate degree of burnout. Those pharmacists working primarily in community chain store settings reported greater levels of burnout than those working in hospital or institutional pharmacies, independent community pharmacies, academia, and home health care. Respondents who performed primarily nondistributive duties (direct patient care, drug information, teaching or research, and management or administration) experienced lower levels of burnout than those involved primarily in drug distribution. Pharmacists holding the Pharm.D. degree were involved to a greater extent in nondistributive positions and experienced a lower degree of burnout than the pharmacists holding a B.S. degree only. Pharmacists in nondistributive roles appear to be less affected by burnout than pharmacists performing traditional distributive activities.
Azhar, Saira; Latif, Usman; Murtaza, Ghulam; Khan, Shujaat A; Hussain, Izhar
Healthcare providers play a major role in attending to all domains of health in a population. In terms of modem healthcare delivery, better health outcomes for population can be achieved by engaging multi-disciplinary expertise. In the last decade, pharmacy profession had transformed tremendously in terms of health and pharmaceutical service provision to both patients and general population. Within this practice transformation, pharmacists, especially those in developed countries, now occupy a respectable position within the healthcare system. In contrast, services and expertise offered by pharmacists in developing countries are still underutilized, and their role as healthcare professionals is not deemed to be important either by the community or by other healthcare providers, especially doctors and nurses. In order to explore the current perspectives regarding the role of pharmacists in the context of a developing country, a systematic research is needed. Mixed methodology research should be used for evidence generation. The philosophy of mixed method research came up decades ago. This approach is widely recommended for social and human sciences research. In recent existence, many researchers have begun to recommend mixed methods research as a separate methodology or design. Many factors have brought into the evolution of mixed methods research. A combination of both forms of data can provide the most complete analysis of the issues related to the pharmacy practice research. Numbers in quantitative and words in qualitative can be enclosed together to give the better understanding of research questions. Both forms of data are necessary for pharmacy practice research especially in case of developing countries where there is a need to generate the evidence for future health policy.
Holden, Kisha; Akintobi, Tabia; Hopkins, Jammie; Belton, Allyson; McGregor, Brian; Blanks, Starla; Wrenn, Glenda
Health is a human right. Equity in health implies that ideally everyone should have a fair opportunity to attain their full health potential and, more pragmatically, that no one should be disadvantaged from achieving this potential. Addressing the multi-faceted health needs of ethnically and culturally diverse individuals in the United States is a complex issue that requires inventive strategies to reduce risk factors and buttress protective factors to promote greater well-being among individuals, families, and communities. With growing diversity concerning various ethnicities and nationalities; and with significant changes in the constellation of multiple of risk factors that can influence health outcomes, it is imperative that we delineate strategic efforts that encourage better access to primary care, focused community-based programs, multi-disciplinary clinical and translational research methodologies, and health policy advocacy initiatives that may improve individuals’ longevity and quality of life. PMID:27713839
Van Winkle, Lon J.; Hojat, Mohammadreza
Objective. To validate the Jefferson Scale of Empathy-Health Profession Students version (JSE-HPS) in pharmacy students. Methods. The JSE-HPS (20 items), adapted from the original Jefferson Scale of Empathy for use among students in the healthcare professions, was completed by 187 first-year pharmacy students at Midwestern University Chicago College of Pharmacy. Results. Two factors, “perspective-taking” and “compassionate care,” emerged from factor analysis in this study, accounting for 31% and 8% of the variance, respectively. These factors are similar to the prominent ones reported in previous research involving physicians and medical students, supporting the construct validity of this instrument for pharmacy students. In the current study, mean JSE-HPS score was comparable to those reported for medical students, and consistent with previous findings with medical students and physicians. Women scored significantly higher than men. Conclusions. Findings support the construct validity and reliability of the JSE-HPS for measuring empathy in pharmacy students. PMID:21931447
Kelley, Katherine A.; Secnik, Kristina; Boye, Mark E.
Investigated the capacity of the Pharmacy College Admissions Test (PCAT) to predict success in pharmacy school. Found demographic differences in PCAT scores, and that the PCAT used in combination with pre-pharmacy grade point average is meaningful in assessing applicants to pharmacy school; applicants with PCAT composite percentile scores below 40…
... central fill pharmacy must keep a record of all central fill pharmacies, including name, address and DEA... be made available upon request for inspection by DEA. (b) Every central fill pharmacy must keep a record of all retail pharmacies, including name, address and DEA number, for which it is authorized...
... central fill pharmacy must keep a record of all central fill pharmacies, including name, address and DEA... be made available upon request for inspection by DEA. (b) Every central fill pharmacy must keep a record of all retail pharmacies, including name, address and DEA number, for which it is authorized...
... central fill pharmacy must keep a record of all central fill pharmacies, including name, address and DEA... be made available upon request for inspection by DEA. (b) Every central fill pharmacy must keep a record of all retail pharmacies, including name, address and DEA number, for which it is authorized...
Csaky, T. Z.
Two recent trends in the field of health education-the declining emphasis on basic sciences in medical instruction and the heavy emphasis on pharmacology, therapeutics, and clinical pharmacy in colleges of pharmacy-are compared. (Editor)
Vestergaard, Stense; Traulsen, Janine Marie; Kaae, Susanne
Objective. To determine pharmacy interns' perceptions of the roles of the pharmacist and pharmacy prior to and during the pharmacy internship and to compare their perceptions with those of their supervisors and the pharmacy customers. Methods. Questionnaires were completed and submitted by 395 interns prior to and during their internships. Interns interviewed their supervisors and two to four local customers. Results. Ninety-six supervisors and 285 customers were interviewed. Interns' perceptions were aligned with those of their supervisors in that both groups indicated that a pharmacist's most important role is that of a clinical leader. Furthermore, interns' perception of customers' expectations regarding the pharmacy were well aligned with customers' actual expectations with regard to service. Conclusion. The study illustrates that interns became more aligned in their perceptions due to the pharmacy internship. The study findings imply that the pharmacy internship influences interns' perception of the pharmacy and pharmacist's roles in society through complex individual and social learning processes. PMID:28289300
Jishnu, V; Gilhotra, RM; Mishra, DN
In this world of specialization and globalization the pharmacy education in India is suffering from serious backdrops and flaws. There is an urgent need to initiate an academic exercise aimed at attaining revamping of curriculum, keeping in pace with current and emerging trends in the field of pharmacy. Unfortunately all these years, enough emphasis was not laid on strengthening the components of Community Pharmacy, Hospital and Clinical pharmacy, while designing curriculum at diploma and degree levels of teaching. The curriculum followed by almost all universities in India are no were up to the world standards and students are still getting the 20-30 yrs older compounding practical exposure in labs during the graduation level. The article emphasises the concept of innovation ecosystems and quality management. Application of TQM to the educational system improves the present situation. The counseling system which serves to be the gateway of the students for entry into the profession should be brought under the scanner. Introducing specializations at the graduation level will result in professional expertise and excellence. Education is a customer focused industry and every student should be capable of evaluating themselves for continuously improving their quality and professionalism. Teacher focused mastery learning should give away to student focused smart learning. An educational institution should provide the student with a stress-free atmosphere for learning and developing his intellectual capabilities. Every college should have a counseling centre to address the problems of students in their academic and personal life. An emphasis on the concept of quality teacher is included. Revival of the pharmacy education in India is the need of the hour which in turn will pave the way for the up gradation of the pharmacy profession in the country. PMID:22224042
... retail pharmacies and central fill pharmacies for initial and refill prescriptions of Schedule III, IV... Provision of prescription information between retail pharmacies and central fill pharmacies for initial and... provided to an authorized central fill pharmacy by a retail pharmacy for dispensing purposes. The...
... retail pharmacies and central fill pharmacies for prescriptions of Schedule II controlled substances... between retail pharmacies and central fill pharmacies for prescriptions of Schedule II controlled... provided to an authorized central fill pharmacy by a retail pharmacy for dispensing purposes. The...
... retail pharmacies and central fill pharmacies for initial and refill prescriptions of Schedule III, IV... Provision of prescription information between retail pharmacies and central fill pharmacies for initial and... provided to an authorized central fill pharmacy by a retail pharmacy for dispensing purposes. The...
Patient care in health institutions has become more intensive, with greater use of drugs. Pharmacy departments have not been able to keep abreast of the demands placed on them by advances in clinical medicine. Medication errors occur too frequently and place the patient at risk. Use of the unit dose system would reduce these errors. Patient safety should be used as a measure of the effectiveness of pharmacy programs. Greater patient participation in the therapeutic process would improve the effectiveness of pharmacy services, as would therapeutic drug monitoring.
Bess, D. Todd; Taylor, Jade; Schwab, Carol A.; Wang, Junling; Carter, Jason A.
A thorough understanding of pharmacy law by students is important in the molding of future pharmacy practitioners but a standardized template for the best way to educate students in this area has not been created. A mock Board of Pharmacy meeting was designed and incorporated into the Pharmacy Law course to meet the ACPE accreditation standards at the University of Tennessee College of Pharmacy. Students acted as Board of Pharmacy members and utilized technology to decide outcomes of cases and requests addressed in a typical 2 day Tennessee Board of Pharmacy meeting. The actual responses to those cases, as well as similar cases and requests addressed over a 5 year period, were revealed to students after they made motions on mock scenarios. Student participation in this interactive learning experience resulted in good understanding of the rules and regulations of pharmacy practice and the consequences associated with violating regulations. Such mock Board of Pharmacy meeting is recommended for future pharmacy law education. PMID:27347433
Bess, D Todd; Taylor, Jade; Schwab, Carol A; Wang, Junling; Carter, Jason A
A thorough understanding of pharmacy law by students is important in the molding of future pharmacy practitioners but a standardized template for the best way to educate students in this area has not been created. A mock Board of Pharmacy meeting was designed and incorporated into the Pharmacy Law course to meet the ACPE accreditation standards at the University of Tennessee College of Pharmacy. Students acted as Board of Pharmacy members and utilized technology to decide outcomes of cases and requests addressed in a typical 2 day Tennessee Board of Pharmacy meeting. The actual responses to those cases, as well as similar cases and requests addressed over a 5 year period, were revealed to students after they made motions on mock scenarios. Student participation in this interactive learning experience resulted in good understanding of the rules and regulations of pharmacy practice and the consequences associated with violating regulations. Such mock Board of Pharmacy meeting is recommended for future pharmacy law education.
Soliman, Ahmed M.; Hussein, Mustafa; Abdulhalim, Abdulla M.
Objective. To investigate the status of pharmacoeconomics education in Egyptian schools of pharmacy and compile and construct recommendations on how Egypt and similar countries could improve their educational infrastructure in pharmacoeconomics. Methods. A modified version of a published survey instrument was sent to all schools of pharmacy in Egypt (n= 24). The data were assessed to identify associations between offering pharmacoeconomics education and school characteristics. Results. Usable responses were obtained from 20 schools (response rate: 83%). Only 7 schools offered pharmacoeconomics education, with a median of 20 teaching hours per semester. Among respondents, 4 schools had instructors with some training in pharmacoeconomics and only 1 school had a faculty member with PhD-level training. Only 4 schools offered graduate-level courses in pharmacoeconomics. Eight additional schools expressed interest in teaching pharmacoeconomics in the near future. Having 1 or more faculty members with training in pharmacoeconomics was significantly associated with offering pharmacoeconomics education (p = 0.03). Conclusions. Pharmacoeconomics education in Egypt is still in its infancy and there exists a unique opportunity for well-trained instructors and researchers to fill this gap. Providing structured pharmacoeconomics education to student pharmacists, researchers, and stakeholders can help countries establish an integrated scientific community that can start applying pharmacoeconomic evidence to healthcare decision-making. PMID:23610475
... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pharmacy services. 483.60 Section 483.60 Public... Care Facilities § 483.60 Pharmacy services. The facility must provide routine and emergency drugs and... the provision of pharmacy services in the facility; (2) Establishes a system of records of receipt...
... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pharmacy arrangements. 413.241 Section 413.241... Disease (ESRD) Services and Organ Procurement Costs § 413.241 Pharmacy arrangements. Effective January 1, 2011, an ESRD facility that enters into an arrangement with a pharmacy to furnish renal...
... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pharmacy responsibilities. 1311.200 Section 1311... ORDERS AND PRESCRIPTIONS (Eff. 6-1-10) Electronic Prescriptions § 1311.200 Pharmacy responsibilities. (a) Before initially using a pharmacy application to process controlled substance prescriptions, the...
... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pharmacy arrangements. 413.241 Section 413.241... Disease (ESRD) Services and Organ Procurement Costs § 413.241 Pharmacy arrangements. Effective January 1, 2011, an ESRD facility that enters into an arrangement with a pharmacy to furnish renal...
... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pharmacy services. 483.60 Section 483.60 Public... Care Facilities § 483.60 Pharmacy services. The facility must provide routine and emergency drugs and... the provision of pharmacy services in the facility; (2) Establishes a system of records of receipt...
Lin, Jia-Ling; Vahabzadeh, Massoud; Mezghanni, Mustapha; Na, Paul J; Leff, Michelle; Contoreggi, Carlo
Pharmacies have become essential components in support of clinical research. Their operations become highly complex when preponderance of prescriptions is composed of controlled substances. Application of informatics will result in more efficient operations. We present the Pharmacy Information Management System (PIMS) that includes a set of decision support systems to address the pharmacy challenges and is integrated into our electronic health record system.
The Implementation and Development of an Objective Structured Clinical Examination in the Community Pharmacy Course of a Select Gulf-Region Academic Institution (Ras Al Khaimah College of Pharmaceutical Sciences): A Pilot Study
Al-Azzawi, Amad Mohammed Jamil; Nagavi, B.G.; Hachim, Mahmood Y.; Mossa, Omar H.
Background: Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs) were used to assess translational pharmacotherapeutic skills of a Gulf-region representative academic institution. Aim: The aim of the current study was to assess the clinical skills of students enrolled within the third year Bachelor of Pharmacy (BPharm) programme within Ras Al…
information. Moreover, the Service may coordinate drug therapy seminars for physicians and nurses , pharmacy newsletters, drug reviews, and inservice ...between physicians, nurses and pharmacists may be en- hanced through decentralized unit dose programs, thus enabling the pharmacist closer contact with...physicians and nurses and greater clinical experience. i ii ~ .- ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Our appreciation is expressed to Mrs. Cookie Gonzales for her support in
Grussing, Paul G.; And Others
A seven-phase test development and validation process based on nuclear pharmacy practice standards is described, including: amplication of behaviors in the practice standards, development of examination specifications, item writing and review, a demonstration test, setting the cutting score, and final editing and assembly. (MSE)
Saleem, Zikria; Saeed, Hamid; Ahmad, Mobasher; Yousaf, Mahrukh; Hassan, Hafsa Binte; Javed, Ayesha; Anees, Nida; Maharjan, Sonu
Pharmacists are the custodians of drugs; hence their education, training, behaviors and experiences would affect the future use of drugs at community and hospital pharmacies. Therefore, we aimed at evaluating the self-prescribing antibiotic trends, knowledge and attitudes among pharmacy and non-pharmacy students. We found that pharmacy students had higher risks of experiencing URIs related symptoms such as cough (RR; 1.7, p = 0.002), allergy (RR; 2.07, p = 0.03) and running nose (RR; 3.17, p<0.005), compared to non-pharmacy students -resulting in higher probabilities of selecting cough syrups (OR; 2.3, p<0.005), anti-histamines (OR; 1.8, p = 0.036) and anti-inflammatory/anti-pyretic (OR; 2.4, p<0.005) drugs. Likewise, bachelor's degree pupils (OR; 2, p = 0.045), urban area residents (OR; 2.44; p = 0.002) and pharmacy students (OR; 2.9, p<0.005) exhibited higher propensities of antibiotic self-use-notable classes include, b-lactams (45.9%) followed by macrolides (26.5%) and augmentin (28.94%), respectively. Surprisingly, pharmacy and non-pharmacy students had higher odds of using antibiotics in common cold (OR; 3.2, p<0.005) and pain (OR; 2.37, p = 0.015), respectively. Unlike non-pharmacy students, pharmacy students were likely to select alternative therapy, such as Joshanda (OR; 2.22, p = 0.011) and were well acquainted with antibiotic hazards, with 77% reduction in risk of antibiotics re-use. In conclusion, university students exhibited antibiotic self-prescribing trends in conditions that does not warrant their use, thus are irrational users. The pharmacy education confers very little benefit to rational self-prescribing practices among students, while non-pharmacy students are more vulnerable to repeated antibiotic usage. Thus, the educational and training modules should be designed for university students to disseminate targeted information regarding the potential hazards of antibiotic self-use and importance of consultation with qualified and registered
Liebowitz, Marty; Haynes, Leslie; Milley, Jane
This report contains two volumes: "Building Systems for Advancement to Self-Sufficiency," and "An Analysis of Change in Two Community Colleges." Volume 1 addresses the following topics: (1) the need and opportunity for change; (2) from promising practices toward systems for advancement; (3) institutional change strategies; (4) levers for…
Woodward, Alan C; Henley, Patricia P; Wilson, Donald J
Bans on the sale of tobacco products in pharmacies allow pharmacies to provide health information and services without the conflict of interest posed by concurrent tobacco sales. As health care providers, pharmacies are trusted sources of information for patients. The existence of tobacco products in pharmacies is contrary to their mission as a health care entity. By May 2012, a full 27 Massachusetts municipalities had banned the sale of tobacco products in health care institutions, including pharmacies. These bans covered 30% of the state's population.
Vaudan, Cristina; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark
The role of the pharmacist as a “communicator” of information and advice between patients, other healthcare practitioners, and the community is recognized as a vital component of the responsibilities of a practicing pharmacist. Pharmacy education is changing to reflect this, although the difficulty is in designing a curriculum that is capable of equipping students with the necessary knowledge and skills, using activities that are effective in promoting communication competency. The objective of this review was to identify published, peer-reviewed articles concerning communication training in pharmacy education programs, and describe which communication skills the structured learning activities aimed to improve and how these learning activities were assessed. A systematic literature search was conducted and the articles found were analyzed and divided into categories based on specific communication skills taught and type of learning activity used. Oral interpersonal communication skills targeted at patients were the most common skill-type described, followed by clinical writing skills. Common teaching methods included simulated and standardized patient interactions and pharmacy practice experience courses. Most educational interventions were assessed by subjective measures. Many interventions were described as fragments, in isolation of other learning activities that took place in a course, which impedes complete analysis of study results. To succeed in communication training, integration between different learning activities and progression within pharmacy educations are important. PMID:23519011
Wallman, Andy; Vaudan, Cristina; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark
The role of the pharmacist as a "communicator" of information and advice between patients, other healthcare practitioners, and the community is recognized as a vital component of the responsibilities of a practicing pharmacist. Pharmacy education is changing to reflect this, although the difficulty is in designing a curriculum that is capable of equipping students with the necessary knowledge and skills, using activities that are effective in promoting communication competency. The objective of this review was to identify published, peer-reviewed articles concerning communication training in pharmacy education programs, and describe which communication skills the structured learning activities aimed to improve and how these learning activities were assessed. A systematic literature search was conducted and the articles found were analyzed and divided into categories based on specific communication skills taught and type of learning activity used. Oral interpersonal communication skills targeted at patients were the most common skill-type described, followed by clinical writing skills. Common teaching methods included simulated and standardized patient interactions and pharmacy practice experience courses. Most educational interventions were assessed by subjective measures. Many interventions were described as fragments, in isolation of other learning activities that took place in a course, which impedes complete analysis of study results. To succeed in communication training, integration between different learning activities and progression within pharmacy educations are important.
In Celje, the first pharmacist is mentioned as early as 1578, among the first cities in Styria. In the 16th century, provincial classes hired and paid for the so-called provincial pharmacists and also monitored their work. Until the 19th century, pharmacists were considered tradesmen, then the public character of the profession changed: a court decree from 1820 required university education in pharmacy or chemistry. Since pharmacy trade was licensed and the number of pharmacies regulated, there was only one pharmacy in Celje for many years (pharmacy Pri orlu). The next two pharmacies were opened only after lengthy efforts: in the first half of the 17th century the second one (pharmacy Pri Mariji Pomagaj) and only in 1922 the third one (pharmacy Pri kriZu). After World War II, all private pharmacies were nationalized; in 1968 a public institute The pharmacies of Celje was established. In February 2009, the Museum of Recent Histoy Celje opened a museum pharmacy, which gives visitors an opportunity to experience the middle-class lifestyle from the time before World War II.
Kruse, Poul R; Kruse, Edith; Norn, Svend; Permin, Henrik
The development of the pharmacy in the 19th and 20th centuries is illustrated by education and activity in the Dolphin Pharmacy in Copenhagen. The career within chemistry and pharmacy started with an apprenticeship of 4 year in the pharmacies. The Dolphin Pharmacy was responsible for part of the examination, i.e. the examination of the preparation of medicine. Passing the examination the chemist's assistant was free to prepare and to dispense medicine. Graduation as a pharmaceutical candidate was necessary to obtain license. Lectures in chemistry, physics, pharmacy, botany and pharmacognosy were obtained at the University of Copenhagen and the Polytechnic, but no curriculum was available. A rational education was obtained later on by the establishment of the School of Pharmacy in 1892. The proprietor pharmacists of the Dolphin Pharmacy were excellent scientists who contributed to the development of pharmacy. Pictures of the pharmacy from about the 1930s show the manufacture of medicines on the basis of a prescription and a pharmacopoeia. Ointments containing zinc white, sulphur and tar were used for various skin diseases and for the tiresome cough; cough mixtures containing codeine or extract of ipecacuanha root were used. In the 1930s the medicine for injection was sterilized and the tablet machine was the breakthrough for a rational production in the pharmacy. However, at the end of the 1900s it was no more possible to compete with the pharmaceutical industry and all the production of medicine was taken over by the industry.
O'Connor, Michael; Weber, Robert J
The Director's Forum provides directors of pharmacy practical ways to develop patient-centered pharmacy services. Pharmacy directors must understand the key issues facing their departments and incorporate strategies for these issues as part of their strategic planning process. Health care reform and the Affordable Care Act require that departments operate efficiently and closely monitor their drug expense. The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists' Pharmacy Practice Model Initiative will serve as a valuable resource during 2013 to enhance the pharmacy practice model. By using their health care workforce, particularly pharmacy technicians, in an innovative way, pharmacy directors will allow the pharmacists to increase their clinical activity. By promoting the role of the hospital pharmacist to patients, directors will help to improve patients' understanding of their medications and increase their satisfaction with their care. Finally by changing the activities of pharmacy students in practice models, the patient care role of the pharmacist can be expanded. Through a greater understanding of the issues facing them and their effect on the operations of the pharmacy, pharmacy directors will learn effective ways to develop patient-centered pharmacy services.
Jabbur-Lopes, Monique O.; Mesquita, Alessandra R.; Silva, Leila M. A.; De Almeida Neto, Abilio
A review of the literature relating to the use of virtual patients in teaching pharmaceutical care to pharmacy students was conducted. Only 7 articles met the inclusion criteria for the review and 4 of the studies were conducted in North America. Few articles identified by the review used virtual patient technology that was true-to-life and/or validated. PMID:22761533
de Valverde, C
In Guatemala, as is the case in many of the other Central American countries, the pharmacy is often the only health resource used outside the household. This paper analyzes knowledge, attitudes and practices of the personnel from seven pharmacies located in marginal-urban areas of Guatemala. It also studies their interaction with 3,277 users related to all diseases, specifically those related to diarrheal disease and its treatment. Findings revealed that the pharmacies' personnel handle diarrheal disease in an empirical way, using medicines to treat the cause of the diarrhea, instead of trying to prevent dehydration. There are limitations and deficiencies of knowledge and practices related to the use and abuse of non-indicative medicines, insofar as the pharmacies' personnel and users are concerned. Findings also revealed that the Oral Rehydration Salts (ORS) are not used, and prepared oral serum is used in very small amounts, because these do not fit in popular expectations of a medicine that reduces diarrheic evacuations.
Driever, Carl W.; McClaugherty, Larry
This publication, one of a series of self-contained instructional materials for students enrolled in training within the allied health field, includes competencies that are associated with the performance of skills by students beginning the study of pharmacy assistance. It is intended to be used for individualized instruction under the supervision…
Unabated increases in prescription drug demands, advancing technology, and rising drug inflation rates combined with a sagging economy, continue to intensify budget pressures for payors responsible for delivering pharmacy benefits to plan members. At the same time, high levels of complexity and resource requirements in drug benefit administration have led to a state in which plan sponsors remain heavily dependent on pharmacy benefit managers to assist in these efforts. With pharmacy representing such a critical component of healthcare delivery from clinical and economic perspectives, it is essential that sponsors exercise high levels of due diligence in pharmacy benefit manager review and appraisal to ensure proper balance of quality clinical care, sufficient access, and optimal cost-efficiency in the delivery of such benefits. This review is designed to provide a comprehensive understanding of current pharmacy benefit management business practices and help equip plan sponsors with the knowledge, strategies, and safeguards to drive a well-informed pharmacy benefit selection process and, inevitably, a better-aligned pharmacy benefit management–payor relationship. PMID:25126235
McElhaney, Ashley; Weber, Robert J.
Pharmacy students typically become more focused on career planning and assessment in the final year of their PharmD training. Weighing career options in the advanced pharmacy practice experience year can be both exciting and stressful. The goal of this article is to provide a primer on how pharmacy students can assess how a residency can fit into career planning. This article will describe the various career paths available to graduating students, highlight ways in which a residency can complement career choices, review the current state of the job market for pharmacists, discuss the current and future plans for residency programs, and present thoughts from some current and former residents on why they chose to complete a residency. Most career paths require some additional training, and a residency provides appropriate experience very quickly compared to on-the-job training. Alternative plans to residency training must also be considered, as there are not enough residency positions for candidates. Directors of pharmacy must consider several factors when giving career advice on pharmacy residency training to pharmacy students; they should provide the students with an honest assessment of their work skills and their abilities to successfully complete a residency. This assessment will help the students to set a plan for improvement and give them a better chance at being matched to a pharmacy residency. PMID:25673897
McElhaney, Ashley; Weber, Robert J
Pharmacy students typically become more focused on career planning and assessment in the final year of their PharmD training. Weighing career options in the advanced pharmacy practice experience year can be both exciting and stressful. The goal of this article is to provide a primer on how pharmacy students can assess how a residency can fit into career planning. This article will describe the various career paths available to graduating students, highlight ways in which a residency can complement career choices, review the current state of the job market for pharmacists, discuss the current and future plans for residency programs, and present thoughts from some current and former residents on why they chose to complete a residency. Most career paths require some additional training, and a residency provides appropriate experience very quickly compared to on-the-job training. Alternative plans to residency training must also be considered, as there are not enough residency positions for candidates. Directors of pharmacy must consider several factors when giving career advice on pharmacy residency training to pharmacy students; they should provide the students with an honest assessment of their work skills and their abilities to successfully complete a residency. This assessment will help the students to set a plan for improvement and give them a better chance at being matched to a pharmacy residency.
Metzger, Nicole; Paciullo, Christopher; Chesson, Melissa; Jann, Michael W; Glascock, Janice; Emamifar, Amir; Matthews, Hewitt W
Advanced experiential education represents the culmination of a pharmacy student's training, where students can apply the knowledge they have learned in the classroom to real patients. Unfortunately, opportunities for students to provide the direct patient care recommended by pharmacy organizations and accrediting bodies are lacking. Additionally, academic health systems that can provide these experiences for students are experiencing hardships that have stalled the expansion of postgraduate training programs and services. Formal cooperation between unaffiliated colleges of pharmacies and academic health systems has the potential to increase the number of experiential students completing rotations in an academic environment, expand postgraduate education training programs, enhance the development of resident educators, increase research and scholarly opportunities, and expand clinical pharmacy services. This article describes the formation of a unique joint initiative between a private academic health system without a college of pharmacy and a private college of pharmacy without a hospital. The successful cultivation of the relationship has resulted in professional growth at both institutions and can be implemented at other sites around the country to synergize the efforts of academic health systems and colleges of pharmacy.
Metzger, Nicole; Chesson, Melissa; Jann, Michael W.; Glascock, Janice; Emamifar, Amir; Matthews, Hewitt W.
Abstract Advanced experiential education represents the culmination of a pharmacy student’s training, where students can apply the knowledge they have learned in the classroom to real patients. Unfortunately, opportunities for students to provide the direct patient care recommended by pharmacy organizations and accrediting bodies are lacking. Additionally, academic health systems that can provide these experiences for students are experiencing hardships that have stalled the expansion of postgraduate training programs and services. Formal cooperation between unaffiliated colleges of pharmacies and academic health systems has the potential to increase the number of experiential students completing rotations in an academic environment, expand postgraduate education training programs, enhance the development of resident educators, increase research and scholarly opportunities, and expand clinical pharmacy services. This article describes the formation of a unique joint initiative between a private academic health system without a college of pharmacy and a private college of pharmacy without a hospital. The successful cultivation of the relationship has resulted in professional growth at both institutions and can be implemented at other sites around the country to synergize the efforts of academic health systems and colleges of pharmacy. PMID:25477582
Paluck, Elan C; Green, Lawrence W; Frankish, C James; Fielding, David W; Haverkamp, Beth
This study identified previously reported facilitators and barriers to pharmacist-client communication and then evaluated their impact on the observed communication behaviors of pharmacists. Pharmacists (n = 100) completed a seven-page questionnaire collecting information on 11 variables that had been organized according to the Policy, Regulatory and Organizational Constructs in Educational and Ecological Development (PROCEDE) model as predisposing, enabling, or reinforcing of pharmacist communication with their clients. Demographic variables also were included. "Communication quality" served as the study's dependent variable, whereas pharmacist responses served as the independent variables. Communication quality scores for each pharmacist were obtained from the analysis of 765 audiorecordings of verbal exchanges occurring between the study pharmacists and their consenting clients during 4-hour, on-site observation periods. Four of the variables examined in the study were found to share a unique relationship with communication quality (pharmacists' attitude, year of graduation, adherence expectations, and outcome expectations). Hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that the variables measured in the questionnaire accounted for 23% of the variance in communication quality scores. Plausible explanations for why the study was unable to capture more of the variance in its proposed relationships and future areas for research are provided.
Weiher, Evan; Freund, Deborah; Bunton, Tyler; Stefanski, Artur; Lee, Tali; Bentivenga, Stephen
Ecological approaches to community assembly have emphasized the interplay between neutral processes, niche-based environmental filtering and niche-based species sorting in an interactive milieu. Recently, progress has been made in terms of aligning our vocabulary with conceptual advances, assessing how trait-based community functional parameters differ from neutral expectation and assessing how traits vary along environmental gradients. Experiments have confirmed the influence of these processes on assembly and have addressed the role of dispersal in shaping local assemblages. Community phylogenetics has forged common ground between ecologists and biogeographers, but it is not a proxy for trait-based approaches. Community assembly theory is in need of a comparative synthesis that addresses how the relative importance of niche and neutral processes varies among taxa, along environmental gradients, and across scales. Towards that goal, we suggest a set of traits that probably confer increasing community neutrality and regionality and review the influences of stress, disturbance and scale on the importance of niche assembly. We advocate increasing the complexity of experiments in order to assess the relative importance of multiple processes. As an example, we provide evidence that dispersal, niche processes and trait interdependencies have about equal influence on trait-based assembly in an experimental grassland. PMID:21768155
Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Schneider, Carl R.; Smith, Lorraine
Objective. To determine the effectiveness of integrating reflective practice activities into a second-year undergraduate pharmacy curriculum and their impact on reflective thinking ability. Design. A cross-over design with repeated measures was employed. Newly developed reflective modules based on real hospital and community pharmacy cases were integrated into the second-year pharmacy practice curriculum. A novel strategy, the Reflective Ability Clinical Assessment (RACA), was introduced to enhance self- and peer reflection. Assessment. Student responses (n=214) to the adapted Kember et al1 Reflective Thinking Questionnaire (RTQ) were compared before and after reflective activities were undertaken. Significant improvement in three indicators of reflective thinking was shown after students engaged in reflective activities. Conclusion. Integration of reflective activities into a pharmacy curriculum increased the reflective thinking capacity of students. Enhancing reflective thinking ability may help students make better informed decisions and clinical judgments, thus improving future practice. PMID:27293232
Griffin, Brooke; Vest, Kathleen; Pohl, Shaunte; Mazan, Jennifer; Winkler, Susan
Part-time and job-share policies may allow pharmacy practice faculty members to achieve work/life balance while pursuing their professional goals. Precedent for alternative work schedules within the health professions community can be found throughout the literature; however, little is known about part-time roles in academic pharmacy. The design and implementation of 3 different alternative faculty appointments are described and department chair and faculty perspectives are shared. Teaching, service, and scholarship responsibilities, as well as outcomes before and after changes in appointment, are described. Advantages and disadvantages, including advice for other colleges of pharmacy, are presented. Alternate appointments may be a key factor in retaining highly qualified faculty members who continue to bring their expertise to teaching, precepting, and scholarship within a college or school of pharmacy.
Tsingos-Lucas, Cherie; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Schneider, Carl R; Smith, Lorraine
Objective. To determine the effectiveness of integrating reflective practice activities into a second-year undergraduate pharmacy curriculum and their impact on reflective thinking ability. Design. A cross-over design with repeated measures was employed. Newly developed reflective modules based on real hospital and community pharmacy cases were integrated into the second-year pharmacy practice curriculum. A novel strategy, the Reflective Ability Clinical Assessment (RACA), was introduced to enhance self- and peer reflection. Assessment. Student responses (n=214) to the adapted Kember et al(1) Reflective Thinking Questionnaire (RTQ) were compared before and after reflective activities were undertaken. Significant improvement in three indicators of reflective thinking was shown after students engaged in reflective activities. Conclusion. Integration of reflective activities into a pharmacy curriculum increased the reflective thinking capacity of students. Enhancing reflective thinking ability may help students make better informed decisions and clinical judgments, thus improving future practice.
Martin, Lindsay C; Donohoe, Krista L; Holdford, David A
Domain 3 of the Center for the Advancement of Pharmacy Education (CAPE) 2013 Educational Outcomes recommends that pharmacy school curricula prepare students to be better problem solvers, but are silent on the type of problems they should be prepared to solve. We identified five basic approaches to problem solving in the curriculum at a pharmacy school: clinical, ethical, managerial, economic, and legal. These approaches were compared to determine a generic process that could be applied to all pharmacy decisions. Although there were similarities in the approaches, generic problem solving processes may not work for all problems. Successful problem solving requires identification of the problems faced and application of the right approach to the situation. We also advocate that the CAPE Outcomes make explicit the importance of different approaches to problem solving. Future pharmacists will need multiple approaches to problem solving to adapt to the complexity of health care.
Martin, Lindsay C.; Holdford, David A.
Domain 3 of the Center for the Advancement of Pharmacy Education (CAPE) 2013 Educational Outcomes recommends that pharmacy school curricula prepare students to be better problem solvers, but are silent on the type of problems they should be prepared to solve. We identified five basic approaches to problem solving in the curriculum at a pharmacy school: clinical, ethical, managerial, economic, and legal. These approaches were compared to determine a generic process that could be applied to all pharmacy decisions. Although there were similarities in the approaches, generic problem solving processes may not work for all problems. Successful problem solving requires identification of the problems faced and application of the right approach to the situation. We also advocate that the CAPE Outcomes make explicit the importance of different approaches to problem solving. Future pharmacists will need multiple approaches to problem solving to adapt to the complexity of health care. PMID:27170823
... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reports by online pharmacies. 1304.55 Section 1304... REGISTRANTS Online Pharmacies § 1304.55 Reports by online pharmacies. (a) Each online pharmacy shall report to the Administrator the total quantity of each controlled substance that the pharmacy has dispensed...
... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reports by online pharmacies. 1304.55 Section 1304... REGISTRANTS Online Pharmacies § 1304.55 Reports by online pharmacies. (a) Each online pharmacy shall report to the Administrator the total quantity of each controlled substance that the pharmacy has dispensed...
OBJECTIVE: To assess the role of management practices for acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in improving the competency of community health volunteers in diagnosing and treating acute respiratory infections among children. METHODS: Data were collected by a group of research physicians who observed the performance of a sample of 120 health volunteers in 10 sub-districts in Bangladesh in which Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC) had run a community-based ARI control programme since mid-1992. Standardized tests were conducted until the 95% interphysician reliability on the observation of clinical examination was achieved. FINDINGS:The sensitivity, specificity, and overall agreement rates in diagnosing and treating ARIs were significantly higher among the health volunteers who had basic training and were supervised routinely than among those who had not. CONCLUSION: Diagnosis and treatment of ARIs at the household level in developing countries are possible if intensive basic training and the close supervision of service providers are ensured. PMID:12764514
Sowers, Wesley; Pollack, David; Everett, Anita; Thompson, Kenneth S; Ranz, Jules; Primm, Annelle
A crisis in the behavioral health care workforce has drawn considerable attention from consumers, families, advocates, clinical professionals, and system administrators at local, state, and federal levels in the past decade. Its effects have been felt in the recruitment, retention, and performance of psychiatrists in the public sector, where a focus on biological aspects of illness and efforts to cut costs have made it difficult for public psychiatrists to engage meaningfully in leadership, consultation, prevention, and psychosocial interventions. An array of training opportunities has recently been created to meet the needs of community psychiatrists at various stages of their careers, from psychiatrists just beginning their careers to those who have been working as medical directors for several years. This article describes the development of these initiatives and their impact on public psychiatry in four key areas--training of experienced psychiatrists, ensuring retention of psychiatrists in community programs, providing fellowship training, and creating professional identity and pride. Although these programs constitute only initial steps, opportunities for psychiatrists to obtain advanced training in community psychiatry are much greater now than they were ten years ago. These initiatives will enhance the professional identity of community psychiatrists and provide a solid foundation for future development of public service psychiatry in the behavioral health workforce.
Sabeur, Z. A.; Denis, H.; Nativi, S.
The phenomenal advances in information and communication technologies over the last decade have led to offering unprecedented connectivity with real potentials for "Smart living" between large segments of human populations around the world. In particular, Voluntary Groups(VGs) and individuals with interest in monitoring the state of their local environment can be connected through the internet and collaboratively generate important localised environmental observations. These could be considered as the Community Observatories(CO) of the Future Internet(FI). However, a set of FI enablers are needed to be deployed for these communities to become effective COs in the Future Internet. For example, these communities will require access to services for the intelligent processing of heterogeneous data and capture of advancend situation awarness about the environment. This important enablement will really unlock the communities true potential for participating in localised monitoring of the environment in addition to their contribution in the creation of business entreprise. Among the eight Usage Areas(UA) projects of the FP7 FI-PPP programme, the ENVIROFI Integrated Project focuses on the specifications of the Future Internet enablers of the Environment UA. The specifications are developed under multiple environmental domains in context of users needs for the development of mash-up applications in the Future Internet. It will enable users access to real-time, on-demand fused information with advanced situation awareness about the environment at localised scales. The mash-up applications shall get access to rich spatio-temporal information from structured fusion services which aggregate COs information with existing environmental monitoring stations data, established by research organisations and private entreprise. These applications are being developed in ENVIROFI for the atmospheric, marine and biodiversity domains, together with a potential to be extended to other
... Enforcement Administration S & S Pharmacy, Inc., d/b/a Platinum Pharmacy & Compounding; Decision and Order On... Cause and Immediate Suspension of Registration to S & S Pharmacy, Inc., d/b/a Platinum Pharmacy... revocation of Registrant's Certificate of Registration as a retail pharmacy, which before it...
ADAMS, KATHERINE T.
Consolidation of the specialty pharmacy business indicates a repositioning to buy new market channels, reduce costs, and compete in a burgeoning market. The challenge for SP is to prove its value to payers. Some companies are doing that on the basis of price or by offering care management services. Here’s a look at a business in transition as it redefines itself for the biologics era. PMID:23424307
Johnson, J A; Weitzel, K W
Pharmacogenomics is an important element of precision medicine. Advances in pharmacogenomics implementation have been made but significant barriers remain, including evidence, reimbursement, and clinician knowledge, among others. Widespread adoption of pharmacogenomics requires overcoming these barriers, a clinician champion group, which we propose will be pharmacists, and an easily accessible setting, which may be the community pharmacy. Whatever the path, it must be evidence-driven and pharmacogenomics must improve drug-related outcomes to become a standard of care.
Bosso, John A; Chisholm-Burns, Marie; Nappi, Jean; Gubbins, Paul O; Ross, Leigh Ann
Benchmarking in academic pharmacy, and recommendations for the potential uses of benchmarking in academic pharmacy departments are discussed in this paper. Benchmarking is the process by which practices, procedures, and performance metrics are compared to an established standard or best practice. Many businesses and industries use benchmarking to compare processes and outcomes, and ultimately plan for improvement. Institutions of higher learning have embraced benchmarking practices to facilitate measuring the quality of their educational and research programs. Benchmarking is used internally as well to justify the allocation of institutional resources or to mediate among competing demands for additional program staff or space. Surveying all chairs of academic pharmacy departments to explore benchmarking issues such as department size and composition, as well as faculty teaching, scholarly, and service productivity, could provide valuable information. To date, attempts to gather this data have had limited success. We believe this information is potentially important, urge that efforts to gather it should be continued, and offer suggestions to achieve full participation.
Silva, Fábio Teixeira da; Dias, Marluce Oliveira; Pinto, Angelo da Cunha; Santos, Nadja Paraense Dos
The pharmacist Theodoro Peckolt was one of the most important figures in the history of the chemistry of natural Brazilian products. Like other nineteenth-century pharmacists in Brazil, he developed formulations and sold them at his pharmacy in Rio de Janeiro, and these enjoyed great prestige in the eyes both of the public and the medical community. The article discusses the relation between the illness originally called "opilação" (ancylostomiasis, or hookworm) and nineteenth-century treatment. It focuses especially on Peckolt Pharmacy's "Doliarina and iron powder," a formulation extracted from the Ficus gomelleira rubber plant. One of the article's goals is to use modern methods to analyze Ficus gomelleira and identify the chemical composition of the drug.
McLaughlin, Jacqueline; Shepherd, Greene; Williams, Charlene; Zeeman, Jackie; Joyner, Pamela
Objective. To evaluate the structure and impact of student organizations on pharmacy school satellite campuses. Methods. Primary administrators from satellite campuses received a 20-question electronic survey. Quantitative data analysis was conducted on survey responses. Results. The most common student organizations on satellite campuses were the American Pharmacists Association (APhA) (93.1%), American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) (89.7%), Christian Pharmacists Fellowship International (CPFI) (60.0%), state organizations (51.7%), and local organizations (58.6%). Perceived benefits of satellite campus organizations included opportunities for professional development, student engagement, and service. Barriers to success included small enrollment, communication between campuses, finances, and travel. Conclusion. Student organizations were an important component of the educational experience on pharmacy satellite campuses and allowed students to develop professionally and engage with communities. Challenges included campus size, distance between campuses, and communication. PMID:27402981
Scott, Mollie Ashe; McLaughlin, Jacqueline; Shepherd, Greene; Williams, Charlene; Zeeman, Jackie; Joyner, Pamela
Objective. To evaluate the structure and impact of student organizations on pharmacy school satellite campuses. Methods. Primary administrators from satellite campuses received a 20-question electronic survey. Quantitative data analysis was conducted on survey responses. Results. The most common student organizations on satellite campuses were the American Pharmacists Association (APhA) (93.1%), American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) (89.7%), Christian Pharmacists Fellowship International (CPFI) (60.0%), state organizations (51.7%), and local organizations (58.6%). Perceived benefits of satellite campus organizations included opportunities for professional development, student engagement, and service. Barriers to success included small enrollment, communication between campuses, finances, and travel. Conclusion. Student organizations were an important component of the educational experience on pharmacy satellite campuses and allowed students to develop professionally and engage with communities. Challenges included campus size, distance between campuses, and communication.
The AMCP Abstracts program provides a forum through which authors can share their insights and outcomes of advanced managed care practice through publication in AMCP's Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy (JMCP). Poster presentations are Tuesday, March 28, from 5:45 pm to 7:30 pm. The posters will also be displayed on Wednesday, March 29, from 11:45 am to 2:45 pm. Podium presentations for the Platinum award-winning abstracts are Wednesday, March 29, from 4:30 pm to 5:45 pm. The reviewed abstracts are published in the JMCP Meeting Abstracts supplement. The AMCP Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy Annual Meeting 2017 in Denver, Colorado, is expected to attract more than 2,000 managed care pharmacists and other health care professionals who manage and evaluate drug therapies, develop and manage networks, and work with medical managers and information specialists to improve the care of all individuals enrolled in managed care programs.
Hankó, B; Takácsné, N K
The authors examine the utility and application of pharmaceutical chemistry is taught at the Faculty of Pharmacy, Semmelweis University, in the everyday pharmacy practice. Selected examples of the professional chemical knowledge necessary in different activities of pharmacists (as in drug quality control, storage of medicines, preparation of drugs in pharmacy and their issue (expenditure) to the patient etc.) are reviewed. Their experimental work on determination of expiry of an "ex tempore" prepared medicine demonstrates that it is possible to meet the principles of Good Pharmacy Practice (GPP). The paper is based on certain chapters of diploma work of H. B., tutor T. N. K.
Emmett, Dennis; Paul, David P; Chandra, Ashish; Barrett, Hilton
The physical layout of a retail pharmacy can play a significant role in the development of the customers' perceptions which can have a positive (or negative) impact on its sales potential. Compared to most general merchandise stores, pharmacies are more concerned about safety and security issues due to the nature of their products. This paper will discuss these aspects as well as the physical and professional environments of retail pharmacies that influence the perceptions of customers and how these vary whether chain, independent, or hospital pharmacies.
Jones, Christopher M; Lurie, Peter G; Compton, Wilson M
Distribution of naloxone, traditionally through community-based naloxone programs, is a component of a comprehensive strategy to address the epidemic of prescription opioid and heroin overdose deaths in the United States. Recently, there has been increased focus on naloxone prescription in the outpatient setting, particularly through retail pharmacies, yet data on this practice are sparse. We found an 1170% increase in naloxone dispensing from US retail pharmacies between the fourth quarter of 2013 and the second quarter of 2015. These findings suggest that prescribing naloxone in the outpatient setting complements traditional community-based naloxone programs.
Kelleher, C.; Wagener, T.; Gooseff, M. N.; Gregg, S.; McGlynn, B. L.; Sharma, P.; Meixner, T.; Marshall, L. A.; McGuire, K. J.; Weiler, M.
The field of hydrology encompasses a wide range of departments and disciplines, ranging from civil engineering to geography to geosciences. As a consequence, in-class hydrology education is often strongly biased towards the background of a single instructor, limiting the educational experience of the students and not allowing for a holistic approach to hydrology education. Recently established, the Modular Curriculum for Hydrologic Advancement (MOCHA) creates an online community of hydrologists from a range of backgrounds and disciplines to define the boundaries of an unbiased hydrology education and to jointly develop resources to overcome previous instructional limitations (http://www.mocha.psu.edu/). Our first objective is to create an evolving core curriculum for hydrology education freely available to, developed, evolved and reviewed by the worldwide hydrologic community. On a larger scale, we hope to raise the standard of hydrology education and to foster international collaboration and exchange. Our work began with an initial survey including over 100 hydrology educators to assess the state of current hydrology education. Based on the survey results, the MOCHA project was designed and implemented, and initial teaching material and pedagogical guidelines for good practice in teaching were prepared. This past fall and spring, we piloted the website and teaching material across several universities. The web-based MOCHA project has recently been opened to solicit contributions from the global hydrology community. Our presentation will focus on the overall vision behind MOCHA, lessons learned from our initial piloting, and current steps to achieve our vision.
Barker, Anna K; Brown, Kelli; Ahsan, Muneeb; Sengupta, Sharmila; Safdar, Nasia
Objectives There are only 0.70 licensed physicians per 1000 people in India. Thus, pharmacies are a primary source of healthcare and patients often seek their services directly, especially in village settings. However, there is wide variability in a pharmacy employee's training, which contributes to inappropriate antibiotic dispensing and misuse. These practices increase the risk of antibiotic resistance and poor patient outcomes. This study seeks to better understand the factors that drive inappropriate antibiotic dispensing among pharmacy employees in India's village communities. Design We conducted a mixed-methods study of the antibiotic dispensing practices, including semistructured interviews and a pilot cross-sectional Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice survey. All data were transcribed, translated from Hindi into English, and coded for themes. Setting Community pharmacies in villages in Haryana, India. Participants We recruited 24 community pharmacy employees (all male) by convenience sampling. Participants have a range of characteristics regarding village location, monthly income, baseline antibiotic knowledge, formal education and licensure. Results 75% of pharmacy employees in our study were unlicensed practitioners, and the majority had very limited understanding of antibiotic resistance. Furthermore, only half could correctly define the term antibiotics. All reported that at times they dispensed antibiotics without a prescription. This practice was more common when treating patients who had limited access to a licensed physician because of economic or logistic reasons. Many pharmacy workers also felt pressure to provide shortened medication courses to poorer clientele, and often dispensed only 1 or 2 days' worth of antibiotics. Such patients rarely returned to the pharmacy for the complete course. Conclusions This study highlights the need for short-term, intensive training programmes on antibiotic prescribing and resistance that can be disseminated to
Fox, Brent I.; Flynn, Allen J.; Fortier, Christopher R.; Clauson, Kevin A.
Pharmacy has an established history of technology use to support business processes. Pharmacy informatics education within doctor of pharmacy programs, however, is inconsistent, despite its inclusion as a requirement in the 2007 Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education Standards and Guidelines. This manuscript describes pharmacy informatics knowledge and skills that all graduating pharmacy students should possess, conceptualized within the framework of the medication use process. Additionally, we suggest core source materials and specific learning activities to support pharmacy informatics education. We conclude with a brief discussion of emerging changes in the practice model. These changes are facilitated by pharmacy informatics and will inevitably become commonplace in our graduates’ practice environment. PMID:21829267
Sicat, Brigitte L.; Haines, Seena L.; MacLaughlin, Eric J.; Van Amburgh, Jenny A.
Objective. To determine what processes and metrics are employed to measure and evaluate pharmacy practice faculty members at colleges and schools of pharmacy in the United States. Methods. A 23-item web-based questionnaire was distributed to pharmacy practice department chairs at schools of pharmacy fully accredited by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) (n=114). Results. Ninety-three pharmacy practice chairs or designees from 92 institutions responded. Seventy-six percent reported that more than 60% of the department’s faculty members were engaged in practice-related activities at least eight hours per week. Fewer than half (47%) had written policies and procedures for conducting practice evaluations. Institutions commonly collected data regarding committee service at practice sites, community service events, educational programs, and number of hours engaged in practice-related activities; however, only 24% used a tool to longitudinally collect practice-related data. Publicly funded institutions were more likely than private schools to have written procedures. Conclusion. Data collection tools and best practice recommendations for conducting faculty practice evaluations are needed. PMID:27293227
Bhatt, Parloop Amit; Patel, Zarana
Objective: Publications in Indian Journal of Pharmacology (IJP) are the face of contemporary pharmacology practices followed in health-care profession - a knowledge-based profession. It depicts trends in terms of quantity (proportions), quality, type (preclinical/clinical), thrust areas, etc., of pharmacology followed by biomedical community professions both nationally and internationally. This article aims to establish temporal trends in pharmacology research by pharmacy institutes in light of its publications to IJP from 2010 to 2015. Methodology: The website of IJP was searched for publications year and issue wise for contributing authors from pharmacy institutions and analyzed for types of publications, their source and the categories of research documented in these publications. Results: A total of 1034 articles were published, of which 189 (18%) articles were published by pharmacy institutes, of which 90% (n = 170) were contributed from pharmacy institutes within India whereas 10% (n = 19) from international pharmacy institutes. 75% of these were research publication, the majority of which (65%) were related to preclinical screening of phytochemical constituents from plants. Conclusion: With multi and interdisciplinary collaborations in pharmacy profession the trend needs to improve toward molecular and cellular pharmacology and clinical studies. PMID:28031614
Askin, Fergal; Hall, Maurice
Objective. To investigate what factors influenced students to study pharmacy and determine in which sector they hoped to gain employment, both in the short and longer term. Methods. First-year pharmacy students (n=124) were invited to complete a paper-based, self-administered questionnaire consisting of 4 sections. Descriptive statistics and nonparametric tests were conducted. Results. One hundred (96.8% response rate) students completed the questionnaire (22.5% male; 77.5% female). Key influential factors for choosing pharmacy included: enjoyment of science at school, a desire to improve people’s health and wellbeing, and to work in health care. Career aspirations were to work in a hospital or in community practice rather than in industry or academia. Conclusions. Students choose pharmacy as a career primarily for altruistic and clinical reasons. This research provides information for pharmacy schools about the career aspirations of students and data from future pharmacists is potentially helpful to pharmacy professional organizations and potential employers. PMID:28090099
Cruthirds, Danielle; Coward, Lori
Objective. To examine sterile technique and basic sterile compounding procedures among third-year pharmacy students. Design. Third year pharmacy students participating in an introductory pharmacy practice experience (IPPE) in 2012 (n=126) and 2013 (n=119) performed a modified low-risk compounded sterile product (CSP) media fill challenge test, then prepared a 5 mg/mL vancomycin solution that was subsequently analyzed for accuracy. Assessment. To identify deficiencies in sterile procedures, students were observed while performing a modified low-risk CSP media fill challenge test. In the first year of conducting the challenge test (2012), 3 deficiencies were identified: hand washing before compounding, cleaning items with alcohol prior to start, and cleaning work area upon completion. In 2013, significant improvements were observed in these 3 areas after students watched a demonstration video. Examination of CSPs revealed less than 1% contamination in both years. Analysis of compounded vancomycin solutions showed that 84% and 71% of students prepared solutions in 2012 and 2013, respectively, were within 10% of the targeted final concentration. Conclusion. Hands-on sterile compounding exercises are typically delivered early in the pharmacy professional curriculum with minimal reinforcement in subsequent years. Providing opportunities for advanced pharmacy students to refresh and practice sterile compounding procedures allows students to refine their skills before entering pharmacy practice. PMID:25861109
Zunic, Lejla; Masic, Izet
Pharmacy practice is an ever-changing science and profession. We are witnessing many advancement of pharmacy technology, drug-related information and applied clinical pharmacy literature, which influence our every day's life. Thus, new knowledge generated by research and clinical experience widen the knowledge; change the understanding of drugs and their application in therapeutics and every days life. Thus, policy makers, pharmacists, clinicians and researchers must evaluate and use the information existing in the literature to implement in their healthcare delivery. This paper is prepared for pharmacy researchers and pharmacy students and analyzes the major principles of ethical conduct in general science and also closely related topics on ghost authorship, conflict of interest, assigning co-authorship, redundant/repetitive and duplicate publication. Furthermore, the paper provides an insight into fabrication and falsification of data, as the most common form of scientific fraud. Scientific misconduct goes against everything that normal scientific method wants to reach for and pharmacy practitioners as one the first line available health care professionals all round the world should be enough aware of its importance and details when they want to evaluate the medical and pharmaceutical literature and deliver unbiased and ethically published knowledge of drugs both for the research or during consultations for patients care. PMID:25535618
Campbell, Austin R.; Elliott, Ellie; Hieber, Robin; Sommi, Roger W.
Objective To analyze the cost avoidance resulting from clinical interventions made by pharmacy students completing an advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) at a psychiatric hospital. Methods A retrospective database review of documented clinical interventions by pharmacy students was conducted to classify interventions by type and significance. Interventions were assigned a cost avoidance value determined by an evaluation of the literature. Results Three hundred-twenty interventions were documented by 15 pharmacy students during the 1-year study period. The majority of interventions were related to psychiatric medication classes and most (n = 197; 61.6%) were classified as being of moderate significance. The most common interventions included patient education (13.1%), order clarification (11.6%), therapeutic dosing adjustments (10.9%), and laboratory order monitoring (8.8%). The estimated cost avoidance from all interventions made by pharmacy students was approximately $23,000. Conclusions Pharmacy students completing APPEs at a psychiatric hospital contributed to a variety of significant clinical interventions and provided considerable cost avoidance value to the institution. PMID:21451760
Vyas, Deepti; Bray, Brenda S; Wilson, Megan N
OBJECTIVES. To characterize the use of high-fidelity mannequins and standardized patients in US pharmacy colleges and schools. METHODS. A survey instrument was sent to 105 doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) programs to collect data on the use of simulation and to identify barriers to using simulation-based teaching methods. RESULTS. Eighty-eight colleges and schools completed the survey instrument (response rate 84%). Of these, 14 did not use high-fidelity mannequins or standardized patients within the curriculum. Top barriers were logistical constraints and high resource cost. Twenty-three colleges and schools used simulation for introductory pharmacy practice experiences (IPPEs), 34 for interprofessional education, and 68 for evaluation of at least 1 core competency prior to advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs). CONCLUSIONS. Although the majority of US colleges and schools of pharmacy use simulation-based teaching methodologies to some extent in the pharmacy curricula, the role of simulation in IPPEs, interprofessional education, and assessment of competency-based skills could be expanded.
Norell, S E; Boethius, G; Persson, I
In studies where women are interviewed about oral contraceptive (OC) use only after the emergence of disease (e.g., breast cancer), the experience of disease may enhance recall and reporting of OC use, resulting in overestimation of relative risks. This community-based study compared two sources of information on ever-use of OCs--structured interviews and pharmacy prescription records--in 427 women 20-34 years of age who were long-term residents of Sweden's Jamtland County where registration of prescriptions has been virtually complete since 1970. A life-events calendar and photographs of OCs in use since 1970 were used in the interviews to facilitate recall. 153 women reported current OC use; the pharmacy register failed to document a current prescription for 37 (24%). Only 4 (1.5%) of the 274 women who denied current OC use had an active prescription on file. Of the 37 women identified as never-users by interview, 2 (5%) had records of OC prescriptions (for under 2 years of use). Of the 36 women identified as never-users by pharmacy records, only 1 reported ever-use. Compared to the pharmacy registry, 13% reported a shorter and 28% a longer duration of OC use. Of women who reported OC use within 5 years of interview, 5-10 years earlier, and more than 10 years ago, 2.6% (8/312), 4.6% (14/307), and 12.8% (26/203), respectively, had no prescriptions on file for that time period. Discrepancies between the two data sources in time since first OC use were usually less than 2 years; the tendency was for women to overestimate rather than understate the actual duration of OC use. These findings suggest that interview data on OC use introduce minimal--if any--bias. Agreement between interviews and records in terms of the specific brands of OCs taken was less satisfactory. 19% of users of high-dose OCs, for example, did not recall the type of pill dispensed by the pharmacy. Thus, use of pharmacy records is recommended over interview data in studies where the specific OC
Djukic, Ika; Moiseev, Pavel; Hagedorn, Frank
Climatic warming may affect microbial communities and their functions either directly through increased temperatures or indirectly by changes in vegetation. Treelines are temperature-limited vegetation boundaries from tundra to forests. In unmanaged regions of the Ural mountains, there is evidence that the forest-tundra ecotone has shifted upward in response to climate warming during the 20th century. Little is known about the effects of the treeline advances on the microbial structure and function and hence they feedbacks on the belowground carbon and nitrogen cycling In our study, we aimed to estimate how ongoing upward shifts of the treeline ecotone might affect soil biodiversity and its function and hence soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) dynamics in the Southern and Polar Ural mountains. Along altitudinal gradients reaching from the tundra to forests, we determined the soil microbial community composition (using Phospholipid Fatty Acids method) and quantified the activity of several extracellular enzymes involved in the C and nutrient cycling. In addition, we measured C pools in biomass and soils and quantified C and N mineralization. The results for the top soils, both in South Urals and in the Polar Ural, indicate a close link between climate change driven vegetation changes and soil microbial communities. The observed changes in microbial structure are induced through the resulting more favorable conditions than due to a shift in litter quality. The activities of chitinase were significantly higher under trees than under herbaceous plants, while activities of cellulase and protease declined with altitude from the tundra to the closed forest. In contrast to enzymatic activities, soil carbon stocks did not change significantly with altitude very likely as a result of a balancing out of increased C inputs from vegetation by an enhanced C output through mineralization with forest expansion. The accelerated organic matter turnover in the forest than in the tundra
Stoner, Paul S.; Bayuse, Tina
The Johnson Space Center Pharmacy began operating in March of 2003. The pharmacy serves in two main capacities: to directly provide medications and services in support of the medical clinics at the Johnson Space Center, physician travel kits for NASA flight surgeon staff, and remote operations, such as the clinics in Devon Island, Star City and Moscow; and indirectly provide medications and services for the International Space Station and Space Shuttle medical kits. Process changes that occurred and continued to evolve in the advent of the installation of the new JSC Pharmacy, and the process of stocking medications for each of these aforementioned areas will be discussed. Methods: The incorporation of pharmacy involvement to provide services for remote operations and supplying medical kits was evaluated. The first step was to review the current processes and work the JSC Pharmacy into the existing system. The second step was to provide medications to these areas. Considerations for the timeline of expiring medications for shipment are reviewed with each request. The third step was the development of a process to provide accountability for the medications. Results: The JSC Pharmacy utilizes a pharmacy management system to document all medications leaving the pharmacy. Challenges inherent to providing medications to remote areas were encountered. A process has been designed to incorporate usage into the electronic medical record upon return of the information from these remote areas. This is an evolving program and several areas have been identified for further improvement.
Mutchie, Kelly D.; And Others
A pharmacy practice program added to the core baccalaureate curriculum at the University of Utah College of Pharmacy which includes a practice in pediatrics is described. An audiovisual program in pediatric diseases and drug therapy was developed. This program allows the presentation of more material without reducing clerkship time. (Author/MLW)
Hepler, Charles D.
Research needs for pharmacy administration and clinical pharmacy include study of the relationship of pharmacists and society, management methods for providing health care services, pharmacist training and socialization, competence evaluation, formative and summative research on drug use control, and organizational decision making. (MSE)
Curtiss, Frederic R.; Shepherd, Marvin B.
A study of 1290 students in four New England colleges of pharmacy has demonstrated that the preferred practice (or nonpractice) setting of students is influenced by the college of pharmacy attended, year in school, grade point average, sex, and the nature and extent of internship and externship experience. (Author)
Kirchain, William R.
Creighton University (Nebraska) sends groups of pharmacy, medical, dental, nursing, and nonprofessional students to small Dominican Republic villages. They find pharmacy practice highly clinical in this situation. Participants consider the experience one of the most significant in their personal and professional lives. (Author/MSE)
The first component of this three-part package is a student manual designed to be used independently in secondary health occupations programs or on-the-job training programs for pharmacy aides. The manual contains six units that cover the following topics: introduction to pharmacy, communication skills, pharmaceuticals, prescription processing,…
As outlined in the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) Standards 2016, colleges and schools of pharmacy must provide an environment and culture that promotes self-directed lifelong learning. Continuing professional development (CPD) serves as a model that can foster and support self-directed, lifelong learning. The benefits of adopting a CPD model include assistance with attaining Center for the Advancement of Pharmaceutical Education (CAPE) 2013 Outcomes, such as self-awareness. This model can also support the individualization of experiential learning and student action on feedback from curricular-level assessments. The major skills involved in CPD, such as reflection and documentation, are frequently addressed in pharmacy curricula. However, these skills may be developed in isolation or exercised for purposes other than learning. The aim of this statement is to aid schools in creating “CPD ready” practitioners by defining the skill sets involved in CPD and making recommendations for advancing CPD in curricula. PMID:26692371
Using econometric evidence, this article confirms that distribution of medicines online is split into two market segments of very diverse quality, and identifies the factors that drive quality and quality assurance in this activity. Unlike fraudulent, 'rogue,' websites, which offer scant guarantees and usually sell just a few medicines without prescription, online pharmacies offering insurance coverage and linked to conventional pharmacies typically sell a whole range of drugs, require third-party medical prescriptions and provide abundant information to patients. It is shown that, where online pharmacies are allowed to act legally, market forces enhance quality, as private insurers require professional standards, and specialized third parties make a business of certifying them. Furthermore, older online pharmacies and those running conventional operations offer higher quality, probably because of reputational investments. Overall, this evidence supports licensing online pharmacies, especially considering that prohibiting them is ineffective against fraudulent sites.
Wagener, T.; Kelleher, C.; Weiler, M.; McGlynn, B.; Gooseff, M.; Marshall, L.; Meixner, T.; McGuire, K.; Gregg, S.; Sharma, P.; Zappe, S.
Protection from hydrological extremes and the sustainable supply of hydrological services in the presence of climate change and increasing population pressure are the defining societal challenges for hydrology in the 21st century. A review of the existing literature shows that these challenges and their educational consequences for hydrology were foreseeable and were predicted by some. Surveys of the current educational basis, however, also clearly demonstrate that hydrology education is not yet prepared to deal with this challenge. We present our own vision of the necessary future evolution of hydrology education, which we implemented in the Modular Curriculum for Hydrologic Advancement (MOCHA). The MOCHA project is directly aimed at developing a community-driven basis for hydrology education. In this paper we combine literature review, surveys, discussion and assessment to provide a holistic baseline for future hydrology education.
Bailey, Lydia C.
The objective of this Review is to characterize content related to global health in didactic and experiential curricula of doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) programs in the United States. The review was completed through a systematic website search of 133 US PharmD programs accredited or currently in the process of obtaining accreditation to identify global health dual degrees, minors/concentrations, required and elective courses, and experiential opportunities. Programs’ course catalogs were referenced as needed to find more specific course listings/descriptions. More than 50 programs offered an elective course related to global health; eight had a required course; eight offered a minor or certification for global health; three offered dual degrees in pharmacy and global health. Fourteen institutions had a center for global health studies on campus. More than 50 programs offered experiential education opportunities in global health including international advanced pharmacy practice experiences or medical mission trips. Inclusion of and focus on global health-related topics in US PharmD programs was widely varied. PMID:27293238
Chase, P A
The concepts of human resources management (HRM) are presented, and the application of HRM concepts to a hospital pharmacy department is described. Low salaries and poor working conditions had precipitated a mass exodus of pharmacists from a 650-bed, tertiary-care medical center. The newly hired director of pharmacy sought to rebuild the department by developing a three-stage HRM model consisting of needs forecasting, performance management, and advanced management systems. In the needs-forecasting stage, the strengths and weaknesses of departmental programs were determined through analysis of existing standards of practice, situational analysis, and financial analyses; the strengths and weaknesses of departmental employees were determined through the use of talent inventories, turnover analysis, analysis of time and leave records, reevaluation of the department's job classifications, performance and productivity evaluations, and productivity evaluations, and development of a philosophy of practice and mission statement. Needs and problems were addressed by examining each existing program and developing new policies and procedures, performance standards, quality assurance mechanisms, and productivity expectations. Personnel needs and problems were addressed by designing a system of differentiated career ladders, contracting with pharmacists for career moves, developing the skills of currently employed pharmacists, and implementing a succession planning model. The model has been in place for approximately three years and is beginning to yield the desired results. Application of HRM concepts to a hospital pharmacy department appears to have been successful in improving employee morale and in helping the department to meet goals of expanded and improved services.
Bailey, Lydia C; DiPietro Mager, Natalie A
The objective of this Review is to characterize content related to global health in didactic and experiential curricula of doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) programs in the United States. The review was completed through a systematic website search of 133 US PharmD programs accredited or currently in the process of obtaining accreditation to identify global health dual degrees, minors/concentrations, required and elective courses, and experiential opportunities. Programs' course catalogs were referenced as needed to find more specific course listings/descriptions. More than 50 programs offered an elective course related to global health; eight had a required course; eight offered a minor or certification for global health; three offered dual degrees in pharmacy and global health. Fourteen institutions had a center for global health studies on campus. More than 50 programs offered experiential education opportunities in global health including international advanced pharmacy practice experiences or medical mission trips. Inclusion of and focus on global health-related topics in US PharmD programs was widely varied.
Phillips, Jennifer; Demaris, Kendra
Objective. To determine how medical literature evaluation (MLE) is being taught across the United States and to summarize methods for teaching and assessing MLE. Methods. An 18-question survey was administered to faculty members whose primary responsibility was teaching MLE at schools and colleges of pharmacy. Results. Responses were received from 90 (71%) US schools of pharmacy. The most common method of integrating MLE into the curriculum was as a stand-alone course (49%). The most common placement was during the second professional year (43%) or integrated throughout the curriculum (25%). The majority (77%) of schools used a team-based approach. The use of active-learning strategies was common as was the use of multiple methods of evaluation. Responses varied regarding what role the course director played in incorporating MLE into advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs). Conclusion. There is a trend toward incorporating MLE education components throughout the pre-APPE curriculum and placement of literature review/evaluation exercises into therapeutics practice skills laboratories to help students see how this skill integrates into other patient care skills. Several pre-APPE educational standards for MLE education exist, including journal club activities, a team-based approach to teaching and evaluation, and use of active-learning techniques. PMID:26941431
Pezzuto, John M; Ma, Carolyn SJ; Ma, Carolyn
In partnership with the Hawai‘i Journal of Medicine & Public Health, the Daniel K. Inouye College of Pharmacy (DKICP) is pleased to provide Scripts on a regular basis. In the inaugural “Script,” a brief history of the profession in Hawai‘i was presented up to the founding of the DKICP, Hawai‘i's only academic pharmacy program. In this second part of the inaugural article, we describe some key accomplishments to date. The mission of the College is to educate pharmacy practitioners and leaders to serve as a catalyst for innovations and discoveries in pharmaceutical sciences and practice for promoting health and well-being, and to provide community service, including quality patient care. Examples are given to support the stated goals of the mission. With 341 graduates to date, and a 96% pass rate on the national licensing board exams, the college has played a significant role in improving healthcare in Hawai‘i and throughout the Pacific Region. Additionally, a PhD program with substantial research programs in both pharmacy practice and the pharmaceutical science has been launched. Considerable extramural funding has been garnered from organizations such as the National Institutes of Health and Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. The economic impact of the College is estimated to be over $50 million each year. With over 200 signed clinical affiliation agreements within the state as well as nationally and internationally, the DKICP has helped to ameliorate the shortage of pharmacists in the state, and has enhanced the profile and practice standard of the pharmacist's role on interprofessional health care teams. PMID:25821655
Dy-Boarman, Eliza A.; Clifford, Kalin M.; Summa, Maria A.; Willson, Megan N.; Boyle, Jaclyn A.; Peeters, Michael J.
Objective. To identify the methods used by US colleges and schools of pharmacy to prepare student pharmacists for academic careers. Method. An 18-item survey instrument was developed and distributed to US colleges and schools of pharmacy. Representatives were asked about faculty responsibilities, experiences in academia currently offered to student pharmacists, and representatives’ perception of their student pharmacists’ preparedness for careers in academia, including barriers in current programming. Results. Representatives from 96 colleges/schools responded. The vast majority (96%) provided academia-focused advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs), 40% provided didactic coursework in academia, 28% offered a longitudinal research track, and 42% offered academia-focused independent studies. Teaching methods and creating learning objectives were the most common pedagogical content, while assessment activities were diverse. Time was the most prevalent barrier to providing training for academic careers; however, degree of student pharmacist interest, faculty inexperience, and lack of leadership support were also commonly reported. Conclusions: Colleges and schools of pharmacy vary in the extent to which they prepare student pharmacists for careers in academia. Advanced pharmacy practice experiences were the most common method of training offered. Standardization of training for academia may better promote this career path to student pharmacists. PMID:28289296
Wagener, T.; Kelleher, C.; Weiler, M.; McGlynn, B.; Gooseff, M.; Marshall, L.; Meixner, T.; McGuire, K.; Gregg, S.; Sharma, P.; Zappe, S.
Protection from hydrological extremes and the sustainable supply of hydrological services in the presence of changing climate and lifestyles as well as rocketing population pressure in many parts of the world are the defining societal challenges for hydrology in the 21st century. A review of the existing literature shows that these challenges and their educational consequences for hydrology were foreseeable and were even predicted by some. However, surveys of the current educational basis for hydrology also clearly demonstrate that hydrology education is not yet ready to prepare students to deal with these challenges. We present our own vision of the necessary evolution of hydrology education, which we implemented in the Modular Curriculum for Hydrologic Advancement (MOCHA). The MOCHA project is directly aimed at developing a community-driven basis for hydrology education. In this paper we combine literature review, community survey, discussion and assessment to provide a holistic baseline for the future of hydrology education. The ultimate objective of our educational initiative is to enable educators to train a new generation of "renaissance hydrologists," who can master the holistic nature of our field and of the problems we encounter.
Kurosaki, Yuji; Tomioka, Yoshihisa; Santa, Tomofumi; Kitamura, Yoshihisa
This article summarizes detailed facts obtained from the questionnaire conducted in 2010 at about 14 National Universities on the topic of "Research programs and advanced educational programs for undergraduate students". The contents of the questionnaire included: (1) Research programs based on the coalition of university and hospital and/or community pharmacy, other Graduate Schools, such as School of Medicine etc., and the University Hospital, (2) Educational systems for the achievement of research programs and their research outcomes, (3) Research programs based on pharmacist practices, (4) Ongoing advanced educational programs for undergraduate students, taking advantage of the coalition with Graduate School, School of Medicine (and Dentistry), and University Hospital. Some of the advanced educational programs outlined in this questionnaire will be carried out by our group in the coming years and the educational benefits together with associated problems shall as well be clarified. This approach will be informative for the development of the leader-oriented pharmacist programs for the college of Pharmacy.
Pezzoli, Keith; Tukey, Robert; Sarabia, Hiram; Zaslavsky, Ilya; Miranda, Marie Lynn; Suk, William A.; Lin, Abel; Ellisman, Mark
Background Two devastating hurricanes ripped across the Gulf Coast of the United States during 2005. The effects of Hurricane Katrina were especially severe: The human and environmental health impacts on New Orleans, Louisiana, and other Gulf Coast communities will be felt for decades to come. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) estimates that Katrina’s destruction disrupted the lives of roughly 650,000 Americans. Over 1,300 people died. The projected economic costs for recovery and reconstruction are likely to exceed $125 billion. Objectives The NIEHS (National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences) Portal aims to provide decision makers with the data, information, and the tools they need to a) monitor human and environmental health impacts of disasters; b) assess and reduce human exposures to contaminants; and c) develop science-based remediation, rebuilding, and repopulation strategies. Methods The NIEHS Portal combines advances in geographic information systems (GIS), data mining/integration, and visualization technologies through new forms of grid-based (distributed, web-accessible) cyberinfrastructure. Results The scale and complexity of the problems presented by Hurricane Katrina made it evident that no stakeholder alone could tackle them and that there is a need for greater collaboration. The NIEHS Portal provides a collaboration-enabling, information-laden base necessary to respond to environmental health concerns in the Gulf Coast region while advancing integrative multidisciplinary research. Conclusions The NIEHS Portal is poised to serve as a national resource to track environmental hazards following natural and man-made disasters, focus medical and environmental response and recovery resources in areas of greatest need, and function as a test bed for technologies that will help advance environmental health sciences research into the modern scientific and computing era. PMID:17450225
Pan, Jen-Jung; Fisher-Hoch, Susan P; Chen, Chaoru; Feldstein, Ariel E; McCormick, Joseph B; Rahbar, Mohammad H; Beretta, Laura; Fallon, Michael B
AIM: To investigate the potential burden of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and advanced fibrosis in a hispanic community. METHODS: Four hundred and forty two participants with available ultrasonography data from the Cameron County Hispanic Cohort were included in this study. Each participant completed a comprehensive questionnaire regarding basic demographic information, medical history, medication use, and social and family history including alcohol use. Values of the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease fibrosis score (NFS), FIB4 index, BARD score, and Aspartate aminotransferase to Platelet Ratio Index (APRI) were computed using the blood samples collected within 6 mo of liver ultrasonography from each participant. Hepatic steatosis was determined by ultrasonography. As part of univariable analysis, for continuous variables, comparisons among groups were performed with student-t test, one way analysis of variance, and Mann-Whitney test. Pearson χ2 and the Fisher exact test are used to assess differences in categorical variables. For multivariable analyses, logistic regression analyses were performed to identify characteristics associated with hepatic steatosis. All reported P values are based two-sided tests, and a P value of less than 0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance. RESULTS: The mean age and body mass index (BMI) of the study participants were 49.1 years and 31.3 kg/m2, respectively. Among them, 65.6% were females, 52% had hepatic steatosis, 49.5% had metabolic syndrome, and 29% had elevated aminotransferases. Based on established cut-offs for diagnostic panels, between 17%-63% of the entire cohort was predicted to have NASH with indeterminate or advanced fibrosis. Participants with hepatic steatosis had significantly higher BMI (32.9 ± 5.6 kg/m2 vs 29.6 ± 6.1 kg/m2, P < 0.001) and higher prevalence rates of elevation of ALT (42.2% vs 14.6%, P < 0.001), elevation of aspartate aminotransferase (38.7% vs 18.9%, P < 0.001), and
... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Special requirements for online pharmacies. 1301... Special requirements for online pharmacies. (a) A pharmacy that has been issued a registration under § 1301.13 may request that the Administrator modify its registration to authorize the pharmacy...
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction. 162... STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Medicaid Pharmacy Subrogation § 162.1901 Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction. The Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction is...
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction. 162... STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Medicaid Pharmacy Subrogation § 162.1901 Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction. The Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction is...
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction. 162... STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Medicaid Pharmacy Subrogation § 162.1901 Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction. The Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction is...
... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Special requirements for online pharmacies. 1301... Special requirements for online pharmacies. (a) A pharmacy that has been issued a registration under § 1301.13 may request that the Administrator modify its registration to authorize the pharmacy...
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction. 162... STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Medicaid Pharmacy Subrogation § 162.1901 Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction. The Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction is...
... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Notification by online pharmacies. 1304.40 Section... REGISTRANTS Online Pharmacies § 1304.40 Notification by online pharmacies. (a) Thirty days prior to offering a... pharmacy shall: (1) Notify the Administrator of its intent to do so by submitting an application for...
... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notification by online pharmacies. 1304.40 Section... REGISTRANTS Online Pharmacies § 1304.40 Notification by online pharmacies. (a) Thirty days prior to offering a... pharmacy shall: (1) Notify the Administrator of its intent to do so by submitting an application for...
... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special requirements for online pharmacies. 1301... Special requirements for online pharmacies. (a) A pharmacy that has been issued a registration under § 1301.13 may request that the Administrator modify its registration to authorize the pharmacy...
... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pharmacy application requirements. 1311.205... ELECTRONIC ORDERS AND PRESCRIPTIONS Electronic Prescriptions § 1311.205 Pharmacy application requirements. (a) The pharmacy may only use a pharmacy application that meets the requirements in paragraph (b) of...
Flaherty, Anne Guerin
This study investigates the relationship between student engagement (as measured by the National Survey of Student Engagement benchmarks) and pharmacy student professionalism (as measured by the Pharmacy Professionalism Domain instrument) in first and third year pharmacy students at seven different schools of pharmacy. Engagement provides the…
... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pharmacy application requirements. 1311.205... ELECTRONIC ORDERS AND PRESCRIPTIONS (Eff. 6-1-10) Electronic Prescriptions § 1311.205 Pharmacy application requirements. (a) The pharmacy may only use a pharmacy application that meets the requirements in paragraph...
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction. 162... STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Medicaid Pharmacy Subrogation § 162.1901 Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction. The Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction is...
... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Special requirements for online pharmacies. 1301... Special requirements for online pharmacies. (a) A pharmacy that has been issued a registration under § 1301.13 may request that the Administrator modify its registration to authorize the pharmacy...
Goodall, R. G.; Painter, G. W.
Conceptual nacelle designs for wide-bodied and for advanced-technology transports were studied with the objective of achieving significant reductions in community noise with minimum penalties in airplane weight, cost, and in operating expense by the application of advanced composite materials to nacelle structure and sound suppression elements. Nacelle concepts using advanced liners, annular splitters, radial splitters, translating centerbody inlets, and mixed-flow nozzles were evaluated and a preferred concept selected. A preliminary design study of the selected concept, a mixed flow nacelle with extended inlet and no splitters, was conducted and the effects on noise, direct operating cost, and return on investment determined.
Trumbeckaite, Sonata; Dauksiene, Jurgita; Bernatoniene, Jurga; Janulis, Valdimaras
Traditional medicine therapies are historically used worldwide for disease prevention and treatment purposes. Apitherapy is part of the traditional medicine based on bee product use. Complementary medicine practices which incorporate use of some traditional herbal, mineral, or animal kind substances very often are discussed with pharmacy professionals because these products are often sold in pharmacies as dietary supplements. This study is aimed at determining the attitude, knowledge, and practices of apitherapy among undergraduated pharmacy students (Master of Pharmacy) who already have a pharmacy technician diploma and from 1 to 20 years of practice working in a community pharmacy as pharmacy assistants. A method of questionnaire was chosen. The questions about attitudes, experience, knowledge, and practices for disease prevention and treatment of different bee products, their safety, and informational sources were included. Respondents shared opinion that use of bee product is part of the traditional medicine. Most of them had experience on honey product use for treatment and disease prevention for themselves and their family members (62%) although the need of more evidence based information was expressed. The most known bee products were honey, propolis, and royal jelly. They are widely used for enhancing the immune system and prevention of respiratory tract infection. PMID:26697094
Kujundzić, N; Inić, S
The first study of pharmacy on Croatian territory was founded in the early 19th century (1806-1813). Vicencio Dandolo (1758-1819), a pharmacist from Venice who was Napoleon's governor of Dalmatia, established a lyceum in Zadar in 1806. It included education for pharmacists. The Lyceum (later the Central School) was closed in 1811. The founding of the modern University of Zagreb (1874) and its Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences (1876) created the conditions for the development of university education for pharmacists. The study of pharmacy was introduced at the University of Zagreb in 1882 through the efforts of the Croatian-Slavonian Pharmaceutical Association and the professors of the Faculty of Philosophy. The study went through a series of reforms. The most significant one came with the introduction of the four-year study of pharmacy and the establishment of the Pharmacy Department of the Faculty of Philosophy (1928). The independent Faculty of Pharmacy (today's Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry) was founded at the University of Zagreb in 1942. Since 1989, it has had two separate studies (Pharmacy and Medical Biochemistry).
Pemmaraju, Naveen; Utengen, Audun; Gupta, Vikas; Kiladjian, Jean-Jacques; Mesa, Ruben; Thompson, Michael A
The social media platform Twitter has provided the hematology/oncology community with unprecedented, novel methods of interpersonal communication and increased ability for the dissemination of important updates in a rapidly moving field. The advent, and subsequent success, of disease-specific Twitter communities have further enabled interested healthcare stakeholders to become quickly organized around a unique set of rare medical conditions, such as hematologic malignancies, that, historically, generally lack large amounts of reliable online information. One example is the Twitter community #MPNSM (myeloproliferative neoplasms on social media), which was started approximately one and half years ago and has served as a recognized venue for discussion among many members of the MPN community, including patients, researchers, providers, and advocacy organizations. This article will focus on understanding the impact of the founding of this community via the analysis of advanced Twitter metrics of user experience, from the first year of use for this novel healthcare hashtag.
Low, Bee Yean; Wongpoowarak, Payom; Moolasarn, Summana; Anderson, Claire
Objective. To explore the current status of pharmacy education in Thailand. Methods. The International Pharmaceutical Federation of the World Health Organization’s (FIP-WHO) Global Survey of Pharmacy Schools was used for this study. The survey instrument was distributed to the deans of the 19 faculties (colleges) of pharmacy in Thailand. Results. More than half the colleges have been in existence less than 20 years, and the government owns 80% of them. There were 2 paths of admission to study pharmacy: direct admission and central admission system. The doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) programs can be divided into 4 types. Approximately 60% of all teaching staff holds a doctoral degree. Regarding the work balance among teaching staff, around 60% focus on teaching activities, 20% focus on research, and less than 20% focus on patient care services concurrent with real practice teaching. The proportion of student time dedicated to theory, practice, and research in PharmD programs is 51.5%, 46.7%, and 1.8%, respectively. Sites owned by the colleges or by others were used for student training. Colleges followed the Office of the National Education Standards’ Internal Quality Assurance (IQA) and External Quality Assurance (EQA), and the Pharmacy Council’s Quality Assessment (ONESQA) . Conclusion. This study provides a picture of the current status of curriculum, teaching staff, and students in pharmacy education in Thailand. The curriculum was adapted from the US PharmD program with the aim of meeting the country’s needs and includes industrial pharmacy and public health tracks as well as clinical tracks. However, this transition in pharmacy education in Thailand needs to be monitored and evaluated. PMID:26056400
Blair, Jan N.; Lipman, Arthur G.
A combined program leading to the MS in Hospital Pharmacy, MBA, and Certificate of Residency in Hospital Pharmacy established at the University of Utah in 1978 is described. The program provides coursework in both hospital pharmacy and management plus practical experience in hospital pharmacy practice management. (Author/MLW)
Ciampa, Donna Lynn
This study examined how the role expectations, responsibilities toward fundraising, and professional relationships by the vice president of institutional advancement influenced commitment to the institution. A qualitative analysis was conducted across the mid-Atlantic region by interviewing community college vice presidents of institutional…
Castillo-Garrison, Estella M.
This mixed-methods research study examined the effects on the career preparation, advancement, and enhancement of women from California community college leadership who participated in the Asilomar Leadership Skills Seminar (Asilomar) from 2005-2011. Data were collected during the 2011-2012 academic year and were gathered from the results of 67…
Dean, Meredith J.; Mumper, Russell J.; Blouin, Robert A.; Roth, Mary T.
Educational research must play a critical role in informing practice and policy within pharmacy education. Understanding the educational environment and its impact on students, faculty members, and other stakeholders is imperative for improving outcomes and preparing pharmacy students to meet the needs of 21st century health care. To aid in the design and implementation of meaningful educational research within colleges and schools of pharmacy, this roadmap addresses philosophy and educational language; guidelines for the conduct of educational research; research design, including 4 approaches to defining, collecting, and analyzing educational data; measurement issues; ethical considerations; resources and tools; and the value of educational research in guiding curricular transformation. PMID:24371342
and friends; I am truly blessed to have them all in my life . 71 Pharmacy Satisfaction 3 F7 Abstract F The primary objective of this study was to...the purpose of this project satisfaction was focused on patient’s expectations, and their perspective. Doucette (2003) would agree as well , stating...Tricare Extra 7 0.5 Tricare for Life 167 11.1 Tricare Plus 9 0.6 Medicare 154 10.3 Other 57 3.8 n = 1500 Pharmacy Satisfaction 31 1] Table 7. Pharmacy
McLaughlin, Jacqueline E; Dean, Meredith J; Mumper, Russell J; Blouin, Robert A; Roth, Mary T
Educational research must play a critical role in informing practice and policy within pharmacy education. Understanding the educational environment and its impact on students, faculty members, and other stakeholders is imperative for improving outcomes and preparing pharmacy students to meet the needs of 21st century health care. To aid in the design and implementation of meaningful educational research within colleges and schools of pharmacy, this roadmap addresses philosophy and educational language; guidelines for the conduct of educational research; research design, including 4 approaches to defining, collecting, and analyzing educational data; measurement issues; ethical considerations; resources and tools; and the value of educational research in guiding curricular transformation.
Jeon, Yong-Jin; Kim, Gyoung-Mo
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the predictive properties of Berg Balance Scale and Fullerton Advanced Balance Scales, in a group of independently-functioning community dwelling older adults. [Subjects and Methods] Ninety-seven community-dwelling older adults (male=39, female=58) who were capable of walking independently on assessment were included in this study. A binary logistic regression analysis of the Berg Balance Scale and Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale scores was used to investigate a predictive model for fall risk. A receiver operating characteristic analysis was conducted for each, to determine the cut-off for optimal levels of sensitivity and specificity. [Results] The overall prediction success rate was 89.7%; the total Berg Balance Scale and Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale scores were significant in predicting fall risk. Receiver operating characteristic analysis determined that a cut-off score of 40 out of 56 on the Berg Balance Scale produced the highest sensitivity (0.82) and specificity (0.67), and a cut-off score of 22 out of 40 on the Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale produced the highest sensitivity (0.85) and specificity (0.65) in predicting faller status. [Conclusion] The Berg Balance Scale and Fullerton Advanced Balance Scales can predict fall risk, when used for independently-functioning community-dwelling older adults. PMID:28265146
Jeon, Yong-Jin; Kim, Gyoung-Mo
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the predictive properties of Berg Balance Scale and Fullerton Advanced Balance Scales, in a group of independently-functioning community dwelling older adults. [Subjects and Methods] Ninety-seven community-dwelling older adults (male=39, female=58) who were capable of walking independently on assessment were included in this study. A binary logistic regression analysis of the Berg Balance Scale and Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale scores was used to investigate a predictive model for fall risk. A receiver operating characteristic analysis was conducted for each, to determine the cut-off for optimal levels of sensitivity and specificity. [Results] The overall prediction success rate was 89.7%; the total Berg Balance Scale and Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale scores were significant in predicting fall risk. Receiver operating characteristic analysis determined that a cut-off score of 40 out of 56 on the Berg Balance Scale produced the highest sensitivity (0.82) and specificity (0.67), and a cut-off score of 22 out of 40 on the Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale produced the highest sensitivity (0.85) and specificity (0.65) in predicting faller status. [Conclusion] The Berg Balance Scale and Fullerton Advanced Balance Scales can predict fall risk, when used for independently-functioning community-dwelling older adults.
Kamat, Vinay R; Nyato, Daniel J
The retail sector has been at the center of recent policy debates concerning its role in malaria control programs in Africa. This article closely examines the perspectives of owners and managers of retail pharmacies and drug shops in Dar es Salaam, toward the dominant public health discourse and practices surrounding the deployment of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) as a way forward in malaria control. Drawing on fieldwork conducted between May-August 2007, and July-August 2009, involving in-depth interviews and participant observation in pharmacies and drug shops in Dar es Salaam, the article describes the social realities facing people who manage retail pharmacies, the nature of their interactions with customers, the kinds of antimalarials they sell, and their perspective on how the new malaria treatment guidelines have affected their business. Findings suggest that for most pharmacy owners and managers, it is 'business as usual' concerning the sale of conventional antimalarials, with a majority reporting that the introduction of ACT in public health facilities had not negatively affected their business. Implications of the research findings are examined in the context of proposed interventions to make pharmacy owners and managers more socially responsible and adhere to government health regulations. The article makes a case for actively involving pharmacy owners and managers in decision making processes surrounding the implementation of new treatment guidelines, and training programs that have an impact on their business, social responsibility, and community health. In considering regulatory interventions, health planners must explicitly address the concern that retail pharmacies fill an important role in the country's health care system, and that the complex nexus that drives the global pharmaceutical market often governs their operations at the local level.
Rotta, Inajara; Souza, Thais Teles; Salgado, Teresa M; Correr, Cassyano J; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando
A critical analysis of the research on clinical pharmacy services with regards to study characteristics has not been undertaken since 1998. However, several meta-analyses have been conducted to demonstrate the impact of pharmacists' interventions in specific medical conditions. These meta-analyses present high heterogeneity in part because the interventions are poorly and inconsistently described in primary studies. The aim of this article is to present the characteristics of randomized control trials (RCTs) that assess clinical pharmacy services to identify areas of improvement in future pharmacy practice research studies. Different emphasis of research across geographic regions of the world were also examined. During these 40 years, 520 articles reporting 439 RCTs assessing clinical pharmacy services were published. Of the 439 studies, 77.7% (n = 341) were published in the year 2000 or thereafter, 41.46% (n = 182) were conducted in the US, 27.56% (n = 121) in Europe, and 30.98% (n = 136) in the rest of the world. Studies in pharmacy practice have improved in terms of design, with an increase in the number of published RCTs after 2000. However, the small sample size of RCTs is still an issue. After 2000, a significantly higher proportion of studies were conducted in community pharmacy, targeting specific medical conditions, and with a higher number of patients randomized to the intervention group. Conversely, a significantly smaller proportion of studies were conducted in the hospital and targeted a single recipient after 2000. Studies conducted in the US had significantly more intervention arms, focused mostly on a specific medical condition, and were performed in primary care. Different health care systems' organization and policies may influence clinical pharmacy services research across countries.
Maestre, Jose Maria; Ocampo-Martinez, Carlos
This extended abstract addresses the preliminary results of applying uncertainty handling strategies and advanced control techniques to the inventary management of hospitality pharmacy. Inventory management is one of the main tasks that a pharmacy department has to carry out in a hospital. It is a complex problem because it requires to establish a tradeoff between contradictory optimization criteria. The final goal of the proposed research is to update the inventory management system of hospitals such that it is possible to reduce the average inventory while maintaining preestablished clinical guarantees.
A poster entitled "Space Medicine - A New Role for Clinical Pharmacists" was presented in December 2001 highlighting an up-and-coming role for pharmacists at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, Texas. Since that time, the operational need for the pharmacy profession has expanded with the administration s decision to open a pharmacy on site at JSC to complement the care provided by the Flight Medicine and Occupational Medicine Clinics. The JSC Pharmacy is a hybrid of traditional retail and hospital pharmacy and is compliant with the ambulatory care standards set forth by the Joint Commission. The primary charge for the pharmacy is to provide medication management for JSC. In addition to providing ambulatory care for both clinics, the pharmacists also practice space medicine. A pharmacist had been involved in the packing of both the Space Shuttle and International Space Station Medical Kits before the JSC Pharmacy was established; however, the role of the pharmacist in packing medical kits has grown. The pharmacists are now full members of the operations team providing consultation for new drug delivery systems, regulations, and patient safety issues. As the space crews become more international, so does the drug information provided by the pharmacists. This presentation will review the journey of the JSC Pharmacy as it celebrated its five year anniversary in April of 2008. The implementation of the pharmacy, challenges to the incorporation of the pharmacy into an existing health-care system, and the current responsibilities of a pharmacist at the Johnson Space Center will be discussed.
Landi, Macayla; Springer, Sydney; Estus, Erica; Ward, Kristina
After attending an educational session on hosting journal clubs at the 2013 Annual Meeting & Exhibition, American Society of Consultant Pharmacists, Seattle, Washington, two third-year professional pharmacy students created a student-run journal club through the University of Rhode Island's ASCP student chapter. Three journal club sessions were held during the spring semester and were open to all pharmacy students. Students completed an anonymous pre- and post-survey to assess confidence in evaluating medical literature. Of the 18 participants, 5 were lost to follow-up. Significant improvements were found among all participants in their confidence in critically evaluating clinical research, interpreting statistical methods, and completing a journal club during Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience rotations. This activity can be replicated in academic settings as well as workplace environments where pharmacy students are involved.
Barker, Michelle; Hills, Ruth; Priddle, Alannah
Objective. To examine the effectiveness of simulated learning modules (SLMs) encompassing EXcellence in Cultural Experiential Learning and Leadership (EXCELL) core competencies in enhancing pharmacy students’ professional communication skills. Methods. Students completed three hours of preparatory lectures and eight hours of workshops comprising six SLMs themed around pharmacy practice and pharmacy placements. Each SLM comprised role-plays with actors, facilitation using EXCELL Social Interaction Maps (SIMs), and debriefing. Evaluations of SLMs included quantitative and qualitative survey responses collected before, during and after workshops, and after placements. Facilitators reflected on SLMs as a pedagogic modality. Results. Student feedback was positive about SLMs as an effective learning tool. The majority indicated areas of new learning and found SLMs enhanced their professional skills and confidence. Facilitator feedback was positive, and suggested SLM optimization strategies. Conclusion. Student and teaching team recommendations will inform future curriculum development including the optimization of SLMs in pharmacy education. PMID:27073281
Fejzic, Jasmina; Barker, Michelle; Hills, Ruth; Priddle, Alannah
Objective. To examine the effectiveness of simulated learning modules (SLMs) encompassing EXcellence in Cultural Experiential Learning and Leadership (EXCELL) core competencies in enhancing pharmacy students' professional communication skills. Methods. Students completed three hours of preparatory lectures and eight hours of workshops comprising six SLMs themed around pharmacy practice and pharmacy placements. Each SLM comprised role-plays with actors, facilitation using EXCELL Social Interaction Maps (SIMs), and debriefing. Evaluations of SLMs included quantitative and qualitative survey responses collected before, during and after workshops, and after placements. Facilitators reflected on SLMs as a pedagogic modality. Results. Student feedback was positive about SLMs as an effective learning tool. The majority indicated areas of new learning and found SLMs enhanced their professional skills and confidence. Facilitator feedback was positive, and suggested SLM optimization strategies. Conclusion. Student and teaching team recommendations will inform future curriculum development including the optimization of SLMs in pharmacy education.
Kolar, Claire; Nelson, Michael H.; Fierke, Kerry K.; Sucher, Brandon J.; Janke, Kristin K.
Objective. To determine the frequency distribution of pharmacy students across Emotionally Intelligent Leadership Inventory (EILI) measures. Methods. The EILI was administered to 235 pharmacy students at two schools. The instrument was systematically compared to the 2013 CAPE Outcomes and analyzed by confirmatory factor analysis. Results. The EILI has primary connections with pharmacy competencies related to interprofessional communication and leadership. The three facets of the EILI were verified for internal consistency (Context, α=.78; Self, α=.74; Others, α=.79). Student scores were the highest for the consciousness of self facet, with a mean score of 31.4 out of 40. Conclusion. The EILI shows promise as an instrument for use in assessing pharmacy students’ emotional intelligence and leadership skills. PMID:28381889
Smith, Michael A; Benedict, Neal
A review of the literature on the effectiveness of educational technologies to teach patient care skills to pharmacy students was conducted. Nineteen articles met inclusion criteria for the review. Seven of the articles included computer-aided instruction, 4 utilized human-patient simulation, 1 used both computer-aided instruction and human-patient simulation, and 7 utilized virtual patients. Educational technology was employed with more than 2700 students at 12 colleges and schools of pharmacy in courses including pharmacotherapeutics, skills and patient care laboratories, drug diversion, and advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) orientation. Students who learned by means of human-patient simulation and virtual patients reported enjoying the learning activity, whereas the results with computer-aided instruction were mixed. Moreover, the effect on learning was significant in the human-patient simulation and virtual patient studies, while conflicting data emerged on the effectiveness of computer-aided instruction.
The third advanced workshop of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan for pharmaceutical teachers was held from October 12th to 14th, 2013, and participants discussed an outcome-based approach to curriculum development in pharmacy education. In this article, I report the outcome-based spiral curriculum model of group 2A, which was designed to enable pharmacy students to understand a patient's condition, and to provide a basic practical ability in medical therapy. In the curriculum, pharmacy students will learn biochemistry and functional morphology in the first and second years, skills to interview patients in the third year, pathophysiology and pharmacotherapeutics in the third and fourth years, skills to estimate patient disease from physical examination in the fourth year, and practice in understanding real patient conditions in a clinical clerkship in the fifth year. The curriculum also included learning and evaluation methods.
Nakada, Akiko; Akagawa, Keiko; Yamamoto, Hitomi; Kato, Yasuhisa; Yamamoto, Toshinori
A questionnaire survey was performed to obtain pharmacy students' impressions of pharmacists' behavior, to classify these based on professionalism, and to analyze the relationship between these experiences and students' satisfaction with their clinical practice in Japan. The questionnaire was answered by 327 5th-year pharmacy school students upon completing clinical practice at community pharmacies from 2011 to 2012. They rated their satisfaction with their clinical practice using a 6-point Likert scale, and provided descriptions of their experience such as, "This health provider is professional", or "What a great person he/she is as a health provider". We counted the words and then categorized the responses into 10 traits, as defined by the American Pharmaceutical Association Academy of Students of Pharmacy-American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, Council of Deans Task Force on Professionalism 1999, using text mining. We analyzed the relationship between their experiences with respectful persons, and satisfaction, using the Mann-Whitney U-test (significance level<0.05). Most students (337 of 364, 92.6%) reported experiences with respectful health providers. These students experienced significantly more satisfaction than did other students (p<0.001). We analyzed 343 sentences written by 261 students, using text mining analysis after excluding unsuitable responses. The word most used was "patient" (121 times). Many students noted their impression that the pharmacists had answered patients' questions. Of the 10 trait categories, "professional knowledge and skills" was mentioned most often (151 students).
Background Continuing pharmacy education is becoming mandatory in most countries in order to keep the professional license valid. Increasing number of pharmacists are now using e-learning as part of their continuing education. Consequently, the increasing popularity of this method of education calls for standardization and validation practices. The conducted research explored validation aspects of e-learning in terms of knowledge increase and user acceptance. Methods Two e-courses were conducted as e-based continuing pharmacy education for graduated pharmacists. Knowledge increase and user acceptance were the two outcome measured. The change of knowledge in the first e-course was measured by a pre- and post-test and results analysed by the Wilcoxon signed–rank test. The acceptance of e-learning in the second e-course was investigated by a questionnaire and the results analysed using descriptive statistics. Results Results showed that knowledge increased significantly (p < 0.001) by 16 pp after participation in the first e-course. Among the participants who responded to the survey in the second course, 92% stated that e-courses were effective and 91% stated that they enjoyed the course. Conclusions The study shows that e-learning is a viable medium of conducting continuing pharmacy education; e-learning is effective in increasing knowledge and highly accepted by pharmacists from various working environments such as community and hospital pharmacies, faculties of pharmacy or wholesales. PMID:24528547
Ingrim, N B; Guernsey, B G; Doutre, W H; Galvan, E; Hokanson, J A; Richard, P L
A data base management system (System 2000) was utilized to develop a pharmacy personnel inventory that would allow the pharmacy and hospital administrators to quickly and easily obtain biographic and demographic information about employees in a large pharmacy department. The inventory provides personal information about each employee and administrative data such as previous employment and salary histories, benefits packages, and special skills. In addition, the personnel inventory provides other administrative functions including: 1) a tally of vacation or sick days accrued; 2) salary and merit increase information for pay evaluations; 3) a personnel telephone directory; 4) the immediate access to employee emergency contact information; 5) a tally of continuing education credits accrued by each pharmacist; 6) a list of languages, other than English, spoken by pharmacy personnel; 7) pharmacist licensure information; and 8) a list of the ethnic groups represented in the department for use in equal opportunity employment. Computer-prompted instructions allow use of the system by individuals with little or no computer background. Implementation of the system required less than 200 hours and maintenance costs have been relatively minimal. Recent advances in computer technology have made data base management systems similar to that described in this report, a realistic investment for the administrative needs of even the smaller hospital pharmacy.
Bayuse, T.; Schuyler, C.; Bayuse, Tina M.
This viewgraph poster presentation reviews the rationale for a call for a new program in residency for aerospace pharmacy. Aerospace medicine provides a unique twist on traditional medicine, and a specialty has evolved to meet the training for physicians, and it is becoming important to develop such a program for training in pharmacy designed for aerospace. The reasons for this specialist training are outlined and the challenges of developing a program are reviewed.
Bell, J. Simon; Enlund, Hannes; Vainio, Kirsti
Aims To describe pharmacy education, research, practice and policy related to medication adherence in Finland since the year 2000. Methods The three universities that provide pharmacy education (Åbo Akademi, University of Eastern Finland, and University of Helsinki) completed a structured pro-forma questionnaire regarding education related to medication adherence. A MEDLINE and EMBASE literature search was performed to identify English language peer-reviewed research that reported medication compliance, adherence or persistence. The Ministry of Social Affairs and Health was invited to nominate policies and documents related to medication adherence. A narrative review of medication counselling practices and professional service delivery through Finnish community pharmacies was undertaken. Results Medication adherence was a theme integrated into obligatory and elective courses for bachelors and masters degree students. The literature search identified 33 English language peer-reviewed research articles reporting medication compliance, adherence or persistence published since the year 2000. Policy documents of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health recognise that poor medication adherence may lead to suboptimal treatment outcomes, and encourage patient participation in treatment decision making. Adherence practice in Finnish pharmacies has been strongly linked to the development of medication counselling services. Conclusions Adherence research and education has focused on understanding and addressing the contextual factors that contribute to medication nonadherence. Adherence practice in community pharmacies has tended to focus on medication counselling and programs specific to particular disease states. Medication adherence is a topic that is integrated into courses for bachelor’s and master’s level pharmacy students in Finland. PMID:25126134
Stokes, Laura B; Rogers, Joseph W; Hertig, John B; Weber, Robert J
Big Data refers to datasets that are so large and complex that traditional methods and hardware for collecting, sharing, and analyzing them are not possible. Big Data that is accurate leads to more confident decision making, improved operational efficiency, and reduced costs. The rapid growth of health care information results in Big Data around health services, treatments, and outcomes, and Big Data can be used to analyze the benefit of health system pharmacy services. The goal of this article is to provide a perspective on how Big Data can be applied to health system pharmacy. It will define Big Data, describe the impact of Big Data on population health, review specific implications of Big Data in health system pharmacy, and describe an approach for pharmacy leaders to effectively use Big Data. A few strategies involved in managing Big Data in health system pharmacy include identifying potential opportunities for Big Data, prioritizing those opportunities, protecting privacy concerns, promoting data transparency, and communicating outcomes. As health care information expands in its content and becomes more integrated, Big Data can enhance the development of patient-centered pharmacy services.
Erstad, Brian L; Mann, Henry J; Weber, Robert J
Critical care medicine has grown from a small group of physicians participating in patient care rounds in surgical and medical intensive care units (ICUs) to a highly technical, interdisciplinary team. Pharmacy's growth in the area of critical care is as exponential. Today's ICU requires a comprehensive pharmaceutical service that includes both operational and clinical services to meet patient medication needs. This article provides the elements for a business plan to justify critical care pharmacy services by describing the pertinent background and benefit of ICU pharmacy services, detailing a current assessment of ICU pharmacy services, listing the essential ICU pharmacy services, describing service metrics, and delineating an appropriate timeline for implementing an ICU pharmacy service. The structure and approach of this business plan can be applied to a variety of pharmacy services. By following the format and information listed in this article, the pharmacy director can move closer to developing patient-centered pharmacy services for ICU patients.
Stein, G L; Bonuck, K A
Gay men and lesbians have special interests in documenting their preferences regarding advance care planning and end-of-life care. A 64-item survey instrument was developed to ascertain the preferences of this community regarding approaches to end-of-life care, viewpoints on physician-assisted suicide (PAS) and euthanasia, and practices regarding advance care planning. The survey was completed by 575 participants recruited through community-based health care and social service organizations serving the lesbian and gay community, primarily in the New York metropolitan area. Respondents represent a diverse group of women (36%) and men (63%) from various age, racial/ethnic, and religious/spiritual backgrounds; 10% were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive. Respondents' perspectives on end-of-life care are generally consistent with findings from other attitudinal studies of U.S. adults: a majority supported legalization of PAS and preferred a palliative approach to end-of-life care. However, the gay community sample revealed even stronger support for assisted suicide and palliative care. Although respondents completed advance directives at a higher rate than adults generally, the legal importance for gay men and lesbians to execute directives should encourage health care providers and community organizations to assume a larger educational role on advance care planning. Results confirm other reports on the need to address provider communication skills. It is speculated that the HIV epidemic was a major influence behind these results because of the overwhelming personal impact of the epidemic on most gay men and lesbians during the past two decades.
Our Pharmacy has been practicing pharmaceutical management guidance for 69 homecare patients in the last 13 years. After we started a home parenteral nutrition service, an opportunity to work with the end-stage cancer patient was increased. To contribute to the patient and community health team, we have practiced pharmaceutical management guidance for homecare patient based on the medical and pharmacology point of view with other area of occupational people. We distributed a pain diary and medical usage of drug guidance to the end-stage cancer outpatients. We also made a drug instructional manual and provided a proper prescription to the patient. Because of our efforts, we believe that we had good consistent results from the end-stage cancer outpatients. On the other hand, we have a lot of problems that have to be resolved. They are associated with medical treatment fee, drug dispensing fee, pharmacy management pressure felt from a low dispensing fee, poor quality stocked narcotic drugs and a low recognition of the pharmacist from the patients and regional community medical team. We believe that we can contribute more to the patients, if we can overcome these problems.
Alkhateeb, Fadi M.; Latif, David A.; Adkins, Rachel
Schools and colleges of pharmacy in the United States have struggled over the past several decades with identifying a consistent title for the broad body of knowledge related to the social, economic, behavioral, and administrative aspects of pharmacy. This paper examines the educational background and professional experience of those teaching…
Fyke, Jeremy P; Hoffman, Mary F
Analysis of interviews with certified pharmacy technicians revealed that they experience work-related stressors related to the need for accuracy, workload expansion, and customer interaction. Three types of supportive communication (i.e., instrumental , emotional, informational) are discussed as methods to reduce the negative impact of these stressors on pharmacy operations.
Kegler, Michelle C; Swan, Deanne W
Community coalitions have the potential to enhance a community's capacity to engage in effective problem solving for a range of community concerns. Although numerous studies have documented correlations between member engagement and coalition processes and structural characteristics, fewer have examined associations between coalition factors and community capacity outcomes. The current study uses data from an evaluation of the California Healthy Cities and Communities program to examine pathways between coalition factors (i.e. membership, processes), member engagement (i.e. participation, satisfaction) and community capacity as hypothesized by the Community Coalition Action Theory (CCAT). Surveys were completed by 231 members of 19 healthy cities and communities coalitions. Multilevel mediation analyses were used to examine possible mediating effects of member engagement on three community capacity indicators: new skills, sense of community and social capital. Results generally supported CCAT. Member engagement mediated the effects of leadership and staffing on community capacity outcomes. Results also showed that member engagement mediated several relationships between process variables (i.e. task focus, cohesion) and community capacity, but several unmediated direct effects were also observed. This suggests that although member engagement does explain some relationships, it alone is not sufficient to explain how coalition processes influence indicators of community capacity.
Klima, K.; Winkelman, S.
As the annual costs of severe weather events in the US grow into the billions of dollars, companies and communities are examining how best to plan ahead to protect their assets and bolster their bottom line. The Center for Clean Air Policy's Weathering Climate Risks program aims to help cities and companies enhance resilience to the economic impacts of severe weather and a changing climate. This presentation will highlight three communication techniques aimed at different types of audiences such as businesses, policymakers, the media, and society. First, we find that although planning for natural hazards now saves money later, stakeholders must fi¬nd their own self-interest if they are going to engage in a solution. Thus we research best practices and hold informational, off-the-record interviews to better understand the different stakeholders' perspectives, key concerns, and issues surrounding adaptation, resilience, and/or hazard mitigation. Diverse stakeholders find it attractive when a solution has multiple co-benefits such as climate resilience, greenhouse gas reduction, reduced costs, and social benefits. Second, we use off-the-record dialogues emphasizing candid public-private discussion to promote collaborative problem solving. Our high-level workshops typically consist of 30-40 scientists, companies, communities, and policymakers. We begin with presenting background material, such as geographic information systems (GIS) maps. Then we move to informal conservation. Topics include ideas such as "Ask the Climate Question": How will infrastructure, land development, and investment decisions affect GHG emissions and resilience to climate change impacts? We find these dialogues help stakeholders share their perspectives and advance public-private collaboration on climate resilience to protect critical urban infrastructure, ensure business continuity, and increase extreme weather resilience. Third, we find that communication to the general public must capture
Manunta, Michele; De Luca, Claudio; Elefante, Stefano; Lanari, Riccardo; Pepe, Antonio; Zinno, Ivana; Casu, Francesco
The quantitative evaluation of ground deformation is traditionally based on in-situ surveying techniques that, through the intensive use of GPS stations, automatic total stations and levelling benchmarks, can measure up to sub-centimetre displacements. In the last decades, the extensive use of satellite remote sensing data, such as Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images, has represented an important breakthrough in the context of non-invasive ground deformation analyses over large areas, thanks to their large spatial coverage and relatively short revisit time, as well as to their medium-high ground resolution. In such a context, the well-known Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) technique allows us to map and measure deformation phenomena due to both natural and man-made causes with centimetre to millimetre accuracy. The Earth Science community has a wide interest in the use of DInSAR displacement maps both for crisis management and risk mitigation activities, and for surveillance, monitoring and analysis of geophysical phenomena. In areas characterized by high level of hazards the availability of routinely generated advanced DInSAR products would allow a fast analysis of their current status, providing a near real time monitoring. Similarly, an on-demand service would allow the customization of the products by selecting the area of interest, the SAR data to be processed, and other processing parameters to be set by the users to edit/correct/improve the final products. In this work we discuss the Satellite Data Thematic Core Service of EPOS and we present the EPOSAR service. In particular, the EPOSAR service, based on the well-known DInSAR approach referred to as Small Baseline Subset (SBAS), accomplishes a shared and synergic Earth Observation (EO) service aimed at designing, implementing and harmonizing efficient satellite data processing chains capable of ingesting the significantly increased data stream expected from the ESA Sentinel-1 satellites. EPOSAR
North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh. Academy for Community Coll. Leadership Advancement, Innovation, and Modeling.
The Academy for Community College Leadership, Innovation, and Modeling (ACCLAIM) is a 3-year pilot project funded by the W. K. Kellogg Foundation, North Carolina State University (NCSU), and the community college systems of Maryland, Virginia, South Carolina, and North Carolina. ACCLAIM's purpose is to help the region's community colleges assume a…
Kegler, Michelle C.; Swan, Deanne W.
Community coalitions have the potential to enhance a community’s capacity to engage in effective problem solving for a range of community concerns. Although numerous studies have documented correlations between member engagement and coalition processes and structural characteristics, fewer have examined associations between coalition factors and community capacity outcomes. The current study uses data from an evaluation of the California Healthy Cities and Communities program to examine pathways between coalition factors (i.e. membership, processes), member engagement (i.e. participation, satisfaction) and community capacity as hypothesized by the Community Coalition Action Theory (CCAT). Surveys were completed by 231 members of 19 healthy cities and communities coalitions. Multilevel mediation analyses were used to examine possible mediating effects of member engagement on three community capacity indicators: new skills, sense of community and social capital. Results generally supported CCAT. Member engagement mediated the effects of leadership and staffing on community capacity outcomes. Results also showed that member engagement mediated several relationships between process variables (i.e. task focus, cohesion) and community capacity, but several unmediated direct effects were also observed. This suggests that although member engagement does explain some relationships, it alone is not sufficient to explain how coalition processes influence indicators of community capacity. PMID:21911845
Bellamy, Kim; Ostini, Remo; Martini, Nataly; Kairuz, Therese
The difficulties that resettled refugees experience in accessing primary health-care services have been widely documented. In most developed countries, pharmacists are often the first health-care professional contacted by consumers; however, the ability of refugees to access community pharmacies and medication may be limited. This review systematically reviewed the literature and synthesised findings of research that explored barriers and/or facilitators of access to medication and pharmacy services for resettled refugees. This review adhered to guidelines for systematic reviews by PRISMA (preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses). Databases were searched during March 2014 and included Scopus, ProQuest Sociological Abstracts, PubMed, Embase and APAIS Health. The Australian and International grey literature was also explored. Nine studies met the quality and inclusion criteria. The research reported in seven of the nine studies was conducted in the US, one was conducted in Australia and the other in the UK. The majority of studies focussed on South-east Asian refugees. Themes identified across the studies included language and the use of interpreters; navigating the Western health-care system; culture and illness beliefs; medication non-adherence; use of traditional medicine; and family, peer and community support. There is a significant paucity of published research exploring barriers to medication and pharmacy services among resettled refugees. This systematic review highlights the need for appropriate interpreting and translation services, as well as pharmacy staff demonstrating effective cross-cultural communication skills.
Kiuchi, Yuji; Masuda, Yutaka; Kamei, Daisuke; Kogo, Mari; Nakamura, Akihiro
In Showa University School of pharmacy, 7 competencies for outcome-based education were set up in 2011. We are now creating sequential curriculum in order to achieve these competencies. As a member of team medical treatment, pharmacist must share a patient's information with other members, assess each patient's condition, propose the best medication with evidence, and also check the effect of medication. Therefore, many active practices in a hospital and community and problem-based learning (PBL) tutorials are carried out in curriculum in School of Pharmacy. As a training for the future pharmacists who positively perform primary care with responsibility in community pharmacy, students study the method of clinical assessment (assessment of condition of disease from the patient's complain, and choice of appropriate proposal). Furthermore, the exercise and training of parenteral medication, physical assessment, and first aid, etc. are also taken in the curriculums as new clinical skill. The systematic and gradual interprofessional education curriculum for the team medical education has been carried out aiming at training of active members in medical team in a hospital and community. At this symposium, I will introduce these systematic advanced curriculums for the pharmacist of a new age, and to show the usefulness and learning effect.
Gubbins, Paul O; Micek, Scott T; Badowski, Melissa; Cheng, Judy; Gallagher, Jason; Johnson, Samuel G; Karnes, Jason H; Lyons, Kayley; Moore, Katherine G; Strnad, Kyle
Clinical pharmacy has a rich history of advancing practice through innovation. These innovations helped to mold clinical pharmacy into a patient-centered discipline recognized for its contributions to improving medication therapy outcomes. However, innovations in clinical pharmacy practice have now waned. In our view, the growth of academic–practice partnerships could reverse this trend and stimulate innovation among the next generation of pioneering clinical pharmacists. Although collaboration facilitates innovation,academic institutions and health care systems/organizations are not taking full advantage of this opportunity. The academic–practice partnership can be optimized by making both partners accountable for the desired outcomes of their collaboration, fostering symbiotic relationships that promote value-added clinical pharmacy services and emphasizing continuous quality improvement in the delivery of these services. Optimizing academic–practice collaboration on a broader scale requires both partners to adopt a culture that provides for dedicated time to pursue innovation, establishes mechanisms to incubate ideas, recognizes where motivation and vision align, and supports the purpose of the partnership. With appropriate leadership and support, a shift in current professional education and training practices, and a commitment to cultivate future innovators, the academic–practice partnership can develop new and innovative practice advancements that will improve patient outcomes.
Goyal, Ramesh K.; Bhise, Satish B.; Srinivasan, B. P.; Rao, C. Mallikarjun; Sen, Tuhinadri; Koneri, Raju
The curriculum of pharmacy institutions in India is regulated by the All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) and the Pharmacy Council of India (PCI) at degree and diploma levels. However, it has been over two decades that the syllabi have been revised by these regulatory agencies. Considering the dynamic character of pharmacology, it is essential to prepare a syllabus that caters to the contemporary needs of the academic institutions and pharmaceutical industry, the community. Pharmacists are also witnessing a greater role in community pharmacy practice as well as in several healthcare sectors. Considering these facts, a panel discussion was held at IPSCON 2013, (the Annual Conference of Indian Pharmacological Society) at Bangalore. The discussion saw several recommendations for syllabi for institutions offering various pharmacy courses to meet the objectives of teaching, learning and research in Pharmacology. This article documents a summary of the discussion. For B. Pharm. course, a balance between industry-oriented pharmacology and clinical pharmacy has been recommended. Redundant animal experiments should be replaced with the simulation experiments or those which are feasible in the light of stringent regulations of the Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision of Experiments on Animals (CPCSEA). It is recommended that the M. Pharm curriculum should focus on preclinical research with the inclusion of molecular biology and experiments on gene expression, proteomics, pharmacogenomics, cell culture and tissue culture. In general, at all levels, exposure of students to hospitals and clinicians is needed. Pharm. D., syllabus too should lay lesser emphasis on experimental pharmacology. Present experiments in the D. Pharm. course have no relevance to the program objectives and hence, only experiments through demonstrations or simulated preparations or interactive videos maybe undertaken. Regulatory bodies as well as universities should design a
Goyal, Ramesh K; Bhise, Satish B; Srinivasan, B P; Rao, C Mallikarjun; Sen, Tuhinadri; Koneri, Raju
The curriculum of pharmacy institutions in India is regulated by the All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) and the Pharmacy Council of India (PCI) at degree and diploma levels. However, it has been over two decades that the syllabi have been revised by these regulatory agencies. Considering the dynamic character of pharmacology, it is essential to prepare a syllabus that caters to the contemporary needs of the academic institutions and pharmaceutical industry, the community. Pharmacists are also witnessing a greater role in community pharmacy practice as well as in several healthcare sectors. Considering these facts, a panel discussion was held at IPSCON 2013, (the Annual Conference of Indian Pharmacological Society) at Bangalore. The discussion saw several recommendations for syllabi for institutions offering various pharmacy courses to meet the objectives of teaching, learning and research in Pharmacology. This article documents a summary of the discussion. For B. Pharm. course, a balance between industry-oriented pharmacology and clinical pharmacy has been recommended. Redundant animal experiments should be replaced with the simulation experiments or those which are feasible in the light of stringent regulations of the Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision of Experiments on Animals (CPCSEA). It is recommended that the M. Pharm curriculum should focus on preclinical research with the inclusion of molecular biology and experiments on gene expression, proteomics, pharmacogenomics, cell culture and tissue culture. In general, at all levels, exposure of students to hospitals and clinicians is needed. Pharm. D., syllabus too should lay lesser emphasis on experimental pharmacology. Present experiments in the D. Pharm. course have no relevance to the program objectives and hence, only experiments through demonstrations or simulated preparations or interactive videos maybe undertaken. Regulatory bodies as well as universities should design a
Objectives To implement and evaluate an innovative approach to a pharmacy seminar course intended to develop students' presentation skills and encourage them to think critically about contemporary pharmacy issues. Design The instructor provided lectures intended to prepare students for their presentations. These lectures included tips on writing abstracts, learning objectives, use of visual aids, and presentation delivery. Pairs of students chose a pharmacy issue, researched their topic including identifying various strengths of evidence to support a perspective, wrote an abstract and learning objectives, prepared their visual aids, and delivered a pro/con perspective. Students also provided peer evaluations for these presentations. A personal response system was used to provide class input on the presentations. Assessment Ninety-five percent of the peer evaluations of the presentations were good to excellent. The overall course evaluations indicated achievement of course goals. Conclusions A pharmacy seminar course intended to develop student presentation skills and critical thinking about contemporary pharmacy issues was demonstrated to be successful. The “taking sides” format was an effective design for accomplishing these objectives. PMID:18483598
Pergolizzi, Joseph V; Labhsetwar, Sumedha; LeQuang, Jo Ann
Compounding pharmacies play an increasing and increasingly important role in our healthcare system, but recent media attention has exposed limited regulatory control over these organizations at the same time their role is expanding. Compounding pharmacies are not regulated in the same manner as pharmaceutical companies and are governed largely by Chapter <797>, a monograph on the pharmaceutical compounding of sterile products, issued but not enforced by the U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention. Not all states require adherence to Chapter <797>, and those that do may choose not to enforce it stringently. Furthermore, Chapter <797> is not a strong standard--for example, it does not require documentation of drug lot numbers or cross-references for patient identification. Thus, there have long been many potential quality issues associated with compounding pharmacies. As these compounding pharmacies provide important products and services, better regulation is urgently needed. Moreover, clinicians should be better aware that some injectable products they use may have been prepared by a compounding pharmacy.
Illingworth, Andrea; Aranda, Kay F; De Goeas, Sharon M; Lindley, Penny J
The redesign of the healthcare workforce in the United Kingdom (UK) has resulted in the rapid introduction of more 'advanced' community nursing roles. This presents varying challenges for universities seeking to prepare practitioners for these roles. This paper reports on a qualitative study conducted at one university in England which sought to explore the educational experiences of students preparing for and engaging in advanced nursing roles. Data was collected through focus groups and semi-structured interviews. This study found that educational preparation for advanced nursing roles in the community is varied and complex and involved a number of claims, concerns and issues, captured in three themes: 1. Re-inventing roles; 2. Re-creating selves; and 3. Re-engaging with learning. The findings reveal how those in advanced roles work across occupational boundaries and manage conflicts, using differentiated and complex sources and forms of knowledge and skills. Learning occurs in non-linear ways and is a good example of expansive or sideways learning. There is a need for further research on the type of curriculum and methods to best support students preparing for these roles and further study on the impact on patient experience and outcomes.