Science.gov

Sample records for advanced community pharmacy

  1. Partner for Promotion: An Innovative Advanced Community Pharmacy Practice Experience

    PubMed Central

    Legg, Julie E.; Casper, Kristin A.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To implement the Partner for Promotion (PFP) program which was designed to enhance the skills and confidence of students and community pharmacy preceptors to deliver and expand advanced patient care services in community pharmacies and also to assess the program's impact. Design A 10-month longitudinal community advanced pharmacy practice experience was implemented that included faculty mentoring of students and preceptors via formal orientation; face-to-face training sessions; online monthly meetings; feedback on service development materials; and a web site offering resources and a discussion board. Pre- and post-APPE surveys of students and preceptors were used to evaluate perceptions of knowledge and skills. Assessment The skills survey results for the first 2 years of the PFP program suggest positive changes occurring from pre- to post-APPE survey in most areas for both students and preceptors. Four of the 7 pharmacies in 2005-2006 and 8 of the 14 pharmacies in 2006-2007 were able to develop an advanced patient care service and begin seeing patients prior to the conclusion of the APPE. As a result of the PFP program from 2005-2007, 14 new experiential sites entered into affiliation agreements with The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy. Conclusion The PFP program offers an innovative method for community pharmacy faculty members to work with students and preceptors in community pharmacies in developing patient care services. PMID:19325954

  2. Promoting direct patient care services at community pharmacies through advanced pharmacy practice experiences.

    PubMed

    Kassam, Rosemin; Kwong, Mona; Collins, John B

    2013-12-01

    To determine the relative benefits of three different models of advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) in successfully integrating the delivery of direct patient care into students' final year community pharmacy clerkships. All fourth-year pharmacy students at the University of British Columbia were divided into one of three study arms for their community APPE: a 2 × 4-week rotation in a traditional format, a 1 × 8-week rotation where their preceptors had experienced a 2-day education course and a 1 × 8-week rotation with both preceptor education plus a 5-day pre-APPE in-store orientation and peer debriefing. All 123 students conducted patient consultations and documented their care. Students in the pre-APPE + preceptor education arm provided nearly double the number of direct patient consultations than did students in the preceptor-education-only arm or the traditional 2 × 4-week arm. Numbers of drug-related problems identified and interventions performed per patient consult did not differ across study arms. Pre-APPE orientation activities provided an enhanced learning environment, promoted greater student engagement, provided care to more patients, increased preceptor preparedness and enhanced in-store patient-centred care practice. Certain of these learning activities can also form part of third- and fourth-year introductory pharmacy practice experiences to prepare students for their final-year APPE. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  3. Incorporation of a community pharmacy-based heart failure assessment tool by advanced pharmacy practice experience students.

    PubMed

    Kelling, Sarah E; Walker, Paul C; Mason, James G; Zara, Nadir; Bleske, Barry E

    To incorporate a published clinical tool related to heart failure (HF) assessment into advanced pharmacy practice experiences in the community pharmacy setting to provide a meaningful and innovative learning experience for students. Sixteen independent and chain community pharmacies that served as advanced pharmacy practice experience locations. Sixteen community pharmacy locations served as rotation sites and participated in data collection (8 chain and 8 independent). This was the first study in which pharmacy students used The One-Minute Clinic for Heart Failure (TOM-C HF) tool to assess HF within the community pharmacy setting. Trained student pharmacists identified patients who may have heart failure by evaluating medication dispensing records, interviewed the patient using the TOM-C HF tool, and made interventions as clinically appropriate. The number of students using the TOM-C HF tool, the number and types of interventions made, and student perceptions about the educational and professional value of the patient interaction. Thirty-three of 83 (40%) students completed 63 patient assessments. Thirty-five percent of patients (22/63) were candidates for an intervention. Interventions were performed in 9 of 22 patients (41%). More than 65% of students found the patient interaction to have educational and professional value. Students were able to assess HF patients and make interventions in a community pharmacy setting. The majority of students also perceived some value in these assessments. The incorporation of a clinical tool in the community setting driven by fourth-year pharmacy students has been shown to be feasible and to provide both a novel advanced practice experience. In addition, it may be expandable to the services offered at community pharmacies. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Developing Structured-Learning Exercises for a Community Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Renee Ahrens

    2006-01-01

    The recent growth in the number of pharmacy schools across the nation has resulted in the need for high-quality community advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) sites. A vital part of a student's education, these APPEs should be structured and formalized to provide an environment conducive to student learning. This paper discusses how to use a calendar, structured-learning activities, and scheduled evaluations to develop students' knowledge, skills, and abilities in a community pharmacy setting. PMID:17136164

  5. Neighborhood geographical factors and the presence of advanced community pharmacy practice sites in Greater Chicago.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Charisse L; Crawford, Stephanie Y; Lin, Swu-Jane; Salmon, J Warren; Smith, Miriam Mobley

    2009-02-19

    To determine the availability of experiential learning opportunities in culturally diverse areas and to identify opportunities and barriers to attract and sustain sites for the University of Illinois at Chicago College of Pharmacy. Utilizing variables of census tract income, racial/ethnicity composition and crime index, data analyses included descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression. Faculty members involved in experiential education were interviewed to identify other factors influencing site placement and selection for community-based advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs). Median family income and Asian population were significantly higher and black population was significantly lower in census tracts with community APPE sites than in census tracts without APPE sites (p < 0.05). No significant differences were found in the population variables of white and Latino populations and crime index. The Asian population variable was the only significant predictor of an APPE site (p = 0.0148) when controlling for other variables. Distance from the College, pharmacy staffing issues, goodwill, influence of district and corporate managers, and strategic initiatives were critical considerations in site establishment and overall sustainability. Advanced community pharmacy practice sites were fairly well distributed across metropolitan Chicago, indicating that exposure to diverse populations during the advanced community practice experiences parallels with strategic College objectives of expanding and diversifying experiential sites to enhance pharmacy students' abilities to meet emerging patient care challenges and opportunities.

  6. Neighborhood Geographical Factors and the Presence of Advanced Community Pharmacy Practice Sites in Greater Chicago

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Stephanie Y.; Lin, Swu-Jane; Salmon, J. Warren; Smith, Miriam Mobley

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To determine the availability of experiential learning opportunities in culturally diverse areas and to identify opportunities and barriers to attract and sustain sites for the University of Illinois at Chicago College of Pharmacy. Methods Utilizing variables of census tract income, racial/ethnicity composition and crime index, data analyses included descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression. Faculty members involved in experiential education were interviewed to identify other factors influencing site placement and selection for community-based advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs). Results Median family income and Asian population were significantly higher and black population was significantly lower in census tracts with community APPE sites than in census tracts without APPE sites (p < 0.05). No significant differences were found in the population variables of white and Latino populations and crime index. The Asian population variable was the only significant predictor of an APPE site (p = 0.0148) when controlling for other variables. Distance from the College, pharmacy staffing issues, goodwill, influence of district and corporate managers, and strategic initiatives were critical considerations in site establishment and overall sustainability. Conclusion Advanced community pharmacy practice sites were fairly well distributed across metropolitan Chicago, indicating that exposure to diverse populations during the advanced community practice experiences parallels with strategic College objectives of expanding and diversifying experiential sites to enhance pharmacy students' abilities to meet emerging patient care challenges and opportunities. PMID:19513145

  7. An Enhanced Community Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience Model to Improve Patient Care

    PubMed Central

    Kwong, Mona

    2009-01-01

    Objective To quantify the benefits of an enhanced advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) community pharmacy model compared to the traditional program by comparing basic and comprehensive pharmaceutical care provided by students and assessing preceptors’ perceptions of the APPE. Methods A pilot study consisting of 1 enhanced APPE arm and 2 traditional APPE (control) arms was conducted. The enhanced APPE consisted of a preceptor education program, a 5-day onsite student orientation, and an 8-week experience completed at 1 rather than 2 community sites. Results The level of interventions provided by students in the enhanced APPE arm significantly surpassed that of students in the control arms. In addition, preceptor questionnaires indicated overwhelming support for the enhanced model over the traditional APPE. Conclusions The study's findings demonstrated that the enhanced APPE model enabled the participating pharmacies to provide increased level of patient care (as compared to the control sites) and improved preceptor satisfaction with the APPE. PMID:19513163

  8. Enhancing an advanced community pharmacy practice experience through use of a student pharmacist manual.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jeegisha

    2008-01-01

    To present a model to preceptors in a community setting for a structured and quality advanced community pharmacy practice experience (ACPPE). Experiential report. Chain pharmacy. Not applicable. Development and use of a student pharmacist manual in a structured, organized ACPPE. Not applicable. The manual, in addition to introductory materials and competencies for the ACCPE, contains five modules that focus on dispensing, management and law, nonprescription medications, consultation, and patient care. The student pharmacist is also provided with a schedule and calendar showing how goals and objectives for the rotation are distributed throughout the modules and activities of the ACCPE. Activities and assignments during the ACCPE include topic discussions, physical assessment skills review, "living with diabetes for the weekend," developing patient handouts, implementing a new pharmacy patient care service, patient consultations, and presentations. Evaluations conducted during the ACCPE help student pharmacists monitor their progress and identify strengths and weaknesses. Efforts to enhance a community practice experience can be rewarding and beneficial to both the student pharmacists and the pharmacy. A structured ACPPE gives student pharmacists an opportunity to develop skills to improve patient care in the community.

  9. Defining professional pharmacy services in community pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Moullin, Joanna C; Sabater-Hernández, Daniel; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando; Benrimoj, Shalom I

    2013-01-01

    Multiple terms and definitions exist to describe specific aspects of pharmacy practice and service provision, yet none encompass the full range of professional services delivered by community pharmacy. The majority of current pharmacy service definitions and nomenclature refer to either the professional philosophy of pharmaceutical care or to specific professional pharmacy services; particularly pharmaceutical services provided by pharmacists with a focus on drug safety, effectiveness and health outcomes. The objective of this paper is therefore to define a professional pharmacy service within the context of the community pharmacy model of service provision. A professional pharmacy service is defined as "an action or set of actions undertaken in or organised by a pharmacy, delivered by a pharmacist or other health practitioner, who applies their specialised health knowledge personally or via an intermediary, with a patient/client, population or other health professional, to optimise the process of care, with the aim to improve health outcomes and the value of healthcare." Based on Donabedian's framework, the professional pharmacy service definition incorporates the concepts of organizational structure, process indicators and outcome measures. The definition will assist in many areas including recognition of the full range of services provided by community pharmacy and facilitating the identification of indicators of professional pharmacy service implementation and sustainable provision. A simple conceptual model for incorporating all services provided by community pharmacy is proposed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Web-based Multimedia Vignettes in Advanced Community Pharmacy Practice Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Vanderbush, Ross E.; Hastings, Jan K.; West, Donna

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of Web-based multimedia vignettes on complex drug administration techniques to augment the training of pharmacy students in advanced community pharmacy practice experiences. Design During the orientation for a community APPE, students were randomly assigned to either a study group or control group After they began their APPE, students in the study group were given an Internet address to access multimedia vignettes which they were required to watch to augment their training and standardize their counseling of patients in the use of inhalers and ear and eye drops. Assessment A 12-item questionnaire was administered to students in both groups at the orientation and again on the last day of the APPE to evaluate their knowledge of counseling patients in the use of inhalers and ear and eye drops. The control group did not experience any improvement in their counseling knowledge of the research topics during their month-long experience. Students in the intervention group scored higher on their postintervention test than students in the control group (p < 0.001). Conclusions Student learning outcomes from experiential training can be improved through the use of Web-based multimedia instructional vignettes. PMID:20498732

  11. Conflict in community pharmacy practice

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Paul A. M.; Austin, Zubin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Intraprofessional conflict among pharmacists, regulated technicians and assistants may undermine attempts to advance patient care in community pharmacy. There is no available research examining this issue in light of the evolution of the profession and roles within the profession. Methods: A combination of interviews and focus groups involving pharmacists, technicians and assistants was undertaken. Each participant completed the Conflict Management Scale as a way of identifying conflict management style. Data were analyzed and coded using a constant-comparative, iterative method. Results: A total of 41 pharmacy team members participated in this research (14 pharmacists, 14 technicians and 13 assistants). Four key themes were identified that related to conflict within community pharmacy: role misunderstanding, threats to self-identity, differences in conflict management style and workplace demotivation. Interpretation: As exploratory research, this study highlighted the need for greater role clarity and additional conflict management skills training as supports for the pharmacy team. The impact of conflict in the workplace was described by participants as significant, adverse and multifactorial. Conclusions: To support practice change, there has been major evolution of roles and responsibilities of pharmacists, technicians and assistants. Conflict among pharmacy team members has the potential to adversely affect the quality of care provided to patients and is an issue for managers, owners, regulators and educators. PMID:28286591

  12. Teaching Management in a Community Pharmacy

    PubMed Central

    Calomo, Joseph M.

    2006-01-01

    Students need strong interpersonal skills to ensure application of their clinical skills and knowledge. Pharmacy schools across the nation must assess the quantity and quality of management skills instruction within their curriculums, including experiential education. The purpose of this article is to describe the importance of the development and utilization of business and people management skills within a community pharmacy, as well as how to incorporate these skills into a student's advanced pharmacy practice experience. PMID:17149420

  13. Advancing the use of community pharmacy quality measures: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Shiyanbola, Olayinka O; Mort, Jane R; Lyons, Kayley

    2013-01-01

    To describe consumers' ability to interpret pharmacy quality measures data presented in a report card, to examine the tools that consumers require to interpret the information available in a pharmacy quality report card, and to determine whether pharmacy quality measures influence consumers' choice of a pharmacy. Qualitative study. Three semistructured focus groups conducted in a private meeting space at a public library in Sioux Falls, SD, from April 2011 to May 2011. 29 laypeople. Participants' skills interpreting and using pharmacy quality information were examined based on mock report cards containing the Pharmacy Quality Alliance (PQA) quality measures. Consumer perceptions of pharmacy quality data. Participants reported difficulty understanding quality measures because of knowledge deficits. They wanted supportive resources on drug class of their medications to help them understand the measures. Participants had different opinions on whether their pharmacies should be compared with other pharmacies based on specific quality measures. For example, they favored the use of drug-drug interactions as a quality measure for comparing pharmacies, while medication adherence was deemed of limited use for comparison. Participants stated that pharmacy report cards would be useful information but would not prompt a change in pharmacy. However, participants perceived that this information would be useful in selecting a new pharmacy. The results suggest that consumers require simplification of PQA quality measures and supportive resources to interpret the measures. Consumers may favor certain quality measures based on their perception of the role of the pharmacist. Education is required before full use of this quality-of-care information can be realized.

  14. Engaging Students in Self-care Activities During an Advanced Community Pharmacy Practice Experience

    PubMed Central

    Angelo, Lauren B.

    2006-01-01

    Objective To provide experiential rotation students with educational activities to enhance learning and patient communication skills with respect to nonprescription drug therapy. Design A longitudinal project, a consultation guide, and a list of mini-projects were developed for a 4-week community pharmacy rotation experience. The longitudinal project was a nonprescription pocket formulary consisting of 4 disease states and their respective treatment options. The consultation guide was a 1-page data collection form intended to capture patient information regarding the use of nonprescription products in a thorough and brief manner. The mini-projects were questions to be answered while spending time in the nonprescription medication aisles. Assessment Students were very creative in developing their formularies. They also became more familiar with using nonprescription product references and package labeling information. The consultation guide taught students to apply the “PQRSTA” mnemonic. It prompted discussion of self-care issues and served as a useful educational tool for the preceptor. The list of mini-projects forced students to become familiar with the many nonprescription products available, as well as product line extensions and duplication. Conclusion Students were able to apply and build upon what was learned during their didactic education. The activities provided an excellent means of enhancing patient counseling and problem-solving skills. Additionally, the preceptor relied on these activities to engage students in conversation pertaining to nonprescription products and self-care related issues. PMID:17332869

  15. Fellowships in community pharmacy research: Experiences of five schools and colleges of pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Margie E; Frail, Caitlin K; Gernant, Stephanie A; Bacci, Jennifer L; Coley, Kim C; Colip, Lauren M; Ferreri, Stefanie P; Hagemeier, Nicholas E; McGivney, Melissa Somma; Rodis, Jennifer L; Smith, Megan G; Smith, Randall B

    2016-01-01

    To describe common facilitators, challenges, and lessons learned in 5 schools and colleges of pharmacy in establishing community pharmacy research fellowships. Five schools and colleges of pharmacy in the United States. Schools and colleges of pharmacy with existing community partnerships identified a need and ability to develop opportunities for pharmacists to engage in advanced research training. Community pharmacy fellowships, each structured as 2 years long and in combination with graduate coursework, have been established at the University of Pittsburgh, Purdue University, East Tennessee State University, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and The Ohio State University. Program directors from each of the 5 community pharmacy research fellowships identified common themes pertaining to program structure, outcomes, and lessons learned to assist others planning similar programs. Common characteristics across the programs include length of training, prerequisites, graduate coursework, mentoring structure, and immersion into a pharmacist patient care practice. Common facilitators have been the existence of strong community pharmacy partnerships, creating a fellowship advisory team, and networking. A common challenge has been recruitment, with many programs experiencing at least one year without filling the fellowship position. All program graduates (n = 4) have been successful in securing pharmacy faculty positions. Five schools and colleges of pharmacy share similar experiences in implementing community pharmacy research fellowships. Early outcomes show promise for this training pathway in growing future pharmacist-scientists focused on community pharmacy practice. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Fellowships in Community Pharmacy Research: Experiences of Five Schools and Colleges of Pharmacy

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Margie E.; Frail, Caitlin K.; Gernant, Stephanie A.; Bacci, Jennifer L.; Coley, Kim C.; Colip, Lauren M.; Ferreri, Stefanie P.; Hagemeier, Nicholas E.; McGivney, Melissa Somma; Rodis, Jennifer L.; Smith, Megan G.; Smith, Randall B.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To describe common facilitators, challenges, and lessons learned of five schools and colleges of pharmacy in establishing community pharmacy research fellowships. Setting Five schools and colleges of pharmacy in the United States. Practice Description Schools and colleges of pharmacy with existing community partnerships identified a need and ability to develop opportunities for pharmacists to engage in advanced research training. Practice Innovation Community pharmacy fellowships, each structured as two years in length and in combination with graduate coursework, have been established at the University of Pittsburgh, Purdue University, East Tennessee State University, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and The Ohio State University. Evaluation Program directors from each of the five community pharmacy research fellowships identified common themes pertaining to program structure, outcomes, and lessons learned to assist others planning similar programs. Results Common characteristics across the programs include length of training, pre-requisites, graduate coursework, mentoring structure, and immersion into a pharmacist patient care practice. Common facilitators have been the existence of strong community pharmacy partnerships, creating a fellowship advisory team, and networking. A common challenge has been recruitment, with many programs experiencing at least one year without filling the fellowship position. All program graduates (n=4) have been successful in securing pharmacy faculty positions. Conclusion Five schools and colleges of pharmacy share similar experiences in implementing community pharmacy research fellowships. Early outcomes show promise for this training pathway in growing future pharmacist-scientists focused on community pharmacy practice. PMID:27083852

  17. [Development of an advanced education program for community medicine by Nagasaki pharmacy and nursing science union consortium].

    PubMed

    Teshima, Mugen; Nakashima, Mikiro; Hatakeyama, Susumi

    2012-01-01

    The Nagasaki University School of Pharmaceutical Sciences has conducted a project concerning "development of an advanced education program for community medicine" for its students in collaboration with the University's School of Nursing Sciences, the University of Nagasaki School of Nursing Sciences, and the Nagasaki International University School of Pharmaceutical Sciences. The project was named "formation of a strategic base for the integrated education of pharmacy and nursing science specially focused on home-healthcare and welfare", that has been adopted at "Strategic University Cooperative Support Program for Improving Graduate" by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan from the 2009 academic year to the 2011 academic year. Our project is a novel education program about team medical care in collaboration with pharmacist and nurse. In order to perform this program smoothly, we established "Nagasaki pharmacy and nursing science union consortium (Nagasaki University, The University of Nagasaki, Nagasaki International University, Nagasaki Pharmaceutical Association, Nagasaki Society of Hospital Pharmacists, Nagasaki Nursing Association, Nagasaki Medical Association, Nagasaki Prefectural Government)". In this symposium, we introduce contents about university education program and life learning program of the project.

  18. Pharmacy specialists' attitudes toward pharmaceutical service quality at community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Urbonas, Gvidas; Jakušovaitė, Irayda; Savickas, Arūnas

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyze pharmacy specialists' attitudes toward the quality of pharmaceutical services at Lithuanian community pharmacies. Between April and June 2009, a total of 471 Lithuanian community pharmacy specialists completed a questionnaire designed to evaluate their attitudes toward the quality of pharmaceutical services at community pharmacies. The main dimensions of pharmaceutical service quality were extracted by principal component analysis. Two main dimensions of pharmaceutical service quality were extracted: pharmacotherapeutic aspects (provision of information about drug therapy, possible side effects, health promotion, the amount of time spent with a patient, and the ascertainment that a patient understood the provided information) and socioeconomic aspects (considering patient's needs and financial capabilities, making a patient confident with the services provided). Pharmacy specialists evaluated the quality of both dimensions positively, but the quality of the first dimension was rated significantly worse than that of the second dimension. The attitudes of pharmacy specialists working at independent pharmacies were more positive toward pharmacotherapeutic aspects as compared to the specialists working at chain or state pharmacies. Pharmacotherapeutic aspects were rated better by pharmacy specialists, aged ≥ 55 years, than those younger than 45 years. Moreover, the attitudes of 45-54-year-old pharmacy specialists toward the socioeconomic aspects were more positive as compared with those of 35-44-year olds. Pharmacists rated the socioeconomic aspects of pharmaceutical service quality worse as compared with pharmacy technicians. The attitudes of pharmacy specialists working at pharmacies with 6-9 specialists were more negative toward pharmacotherapeutic aspects than those of the pharmacies with 1-2 specialists. Pharmacy specialists working at pharmacies with ≥ 10 specialists reported lower scores of socioeconomic

  19. Pharmacy students' experiences in provision of community pharmacy mental health services.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Andrea; Szumilas, Magdalena; Rowe, Denise; Landry, Kathryn; Martin-Misener, Ruth; Kutcher, Stan; Gardner, David

    2014-01-01

    Little information is available describing the pharmacy student's experience working in community practice with people with lived experience of mental illness. Students' perspectives as observers, learners, technical staff and future pharmacists are important. To gain a better understanding of the pharmacy student experience in community pharmacy-based service provision to people with lived experience of mental illness. We conducted a qualitative study using interpretive description and application of the Theoretical Domains Framework. Focus groups were held with third- and fourth-year undergraduate pharmacy students from one Canadian university. Two student focus groups were held in the fall of 2012 with 11 students (7 third year and 4 fourth year), 6 women and 5 men, mean age 24.5 (range, 21 to 30) years, averaging 3.2 years (range, 2 weeks to 7 years) of cumulative, mostly part-time, community pharmacy experience. Three broad themes emerged from the pharmacy student experience: (1) business tension; (2) roles, responsibilities and relationships; and (3) stigma. Students discussed their own roles, responsibilities and relationships in a pluralistic identity experience (i.e., pharmacy student, technician, future pharmacist). Application of the Theoretical Domains Framework demonstrated numerous influences on behaviour. From the students' description of community pharmacy-based care of people with lived experience of mental illness, significant issues exist with current practices and behaviours. Advancing the role of pharmacists and pharmacy students to meet the needs of people with mental illness will require strategies to address multifactorial influences on behaviour.

  20. Historical development and emerging trends of community pharmacy residencies.

    PubMed

    Stolpe, Samuel F; Adams, Alex J; Bradley-Baker, Lynette R; Burns, Anne L; Owen, James A

    2011-10-10

    Clinical pharmacy services necessitate appropriately trained pharmacists. Postgraduate year one (PGY1) community pharmacy residency programs (CPRPs) provide advanced training for pharmacists to provide multiple patient care services in the community setting. These programs provide an avenue to translate innovative ideas and services into clinical practice. In this paper, we describe the history and current status of PGY1 community pharmacy residency programs, including an analysis of the typical settings and services offered. Specific information on the trends of community programs compared with other PGY1 pharmacy residencies is also discussed. The information presented in this paper is intended to encourage discussion regarding the need for increasing the capacity of PGY1 community pharmacy residency programs.

  1. Historical Development and Emerging Trends of Community Pharmacy Residencies

    PubMed Central

    Stolpe, Samuel F.; Adams, Alex J.; Bradley-Baker, Lynette R.; Burns, Anne L.; Owen, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Clinical pharmacy services necessitate appropriately trained pharmacists. Postgraduate year one (PGY1) community pharmacy residency programs (CPRPs) provide advanced training for pharmacists to provide multiple patient care services in the community setting. These programs provide an avenue to translate innovative ideas and services into clinical practice. In this paper, we describe the history and current status of PGY1 community pharmacy residency programs, including an analysis of the typical settings and services offered. Specific information on the trends of community programs compared with other PGY1 pharmacy residencies is also discussed. The information presented in this paper is intended to encourage discussion regarding the need for increasing the capacity of PGY1 community pharmacy residency programs. PMID:22102750

  2. A residency program in community pharmacy practice.

    PubMed

    Pollock, L L; Levine, M

    1984-09-01

    As pharmacists increase their involvement in patients' drug therapy, the lack of opportunity for advanced clinical and administrative training becomes more critical, particularly for community pharmacists. To assist in the postgraduate development of community pharmacists, the faculty of pharmaceutical sciences at the University of British Columbia began a residency program in community pharmacy practice in June 1981. Modeled on the successful hospital pharmacy residencies, the program goals are to provide advanced clinical training in ambulatory patient care, and detailed and practical management training, and to develop pharmacists with skill in clinical teaching who will participate in the undergraduate programs of the faculty. The 12-month residency includes guided self-study and a series of practica in areas of therapeutics, management, drug information, clinical and teaching skill, professional service, and continuing education. These practica are served mainly in clinical practice settings such as community pharmacies, clinics, physicians' offices, and teaching hospitals. The residency has demonstrated its value and viability. Growing interest in such programs, and the success of this program in particular, should encourage the development of similar programs in Canada.

  3. Rural pharmacy closures: implications for rural communities.

    PubMed

    Todd, Kelli; Ullrich, Fred; Mueller, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Retail pharmacies provide essential services to residents of rural areas and serve many communities as the sole provider of pharmacist services. Losing the only retail pharmacy within a rural community (census designated city), and within a 10 mile radius based on driving distance ("sole community pharmacy"), may affect access to prescription and over-the-counter drugs and, in some cases, leave the community without proximate access to any clinical provider. This policy brief documents the closure of local retail pharmacies in which the pharmacist was the only clinical provider available in the community at the time the pharmacy closed. Characteristics of the community and the retail pharmacy are described. The findings may suggest future policy actions to minimize the risk or mitigate the negative consequences of pharmacy closures. Key Findings. (1) Between May 1, 2006, and October 31, 2010, 119 sole community pharmacies closed. (2) Of those 119 pharmacies, 31 were located in rural communities with no other health professionals or clinical providers. (3) In 16 states, at least 1 community lost a sole community retail pharmacy, and there was no other pharmacy within 10 miles (actual driving distance). (4) Of the 31 pharmacy closures in communities with no other providers, 17% were located in remote rural areas designated with a Rural-Urban Commuting Area (RUCA) score of 10 or higher. Such a score means that, on average, 60 minutes of travel time is required to reach an urbanized area, and 40 minutes is required to reach a large urban cluster of 20,000 population or more.

  4. A Strategy to Develop Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Sam; Giles, Joel; Maffeo, Carrie; Hansen, Laura; Saseen, Joseph J.; Ulrich, Heather; Valdez, Connie; Altiere, Ralph; Bainbridge, Jacquelyn; Page, Robert; Sintek, Charles; Vondracek, Sheryl; Zadvorny, Emily; Fish, Douglas

    2007-01-01

    Objective To establish statewide medication, disease management, and other clinical programs to serve as advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) training sites for the University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center School of Pharmacy, and to guarantee year-round support for the programs by providing pharmacy students with the necessary competencies to carry a significant proportion of each program's workload. Methods Partnerships with pharmacies willing to use students to expand their scope of clinical practice or support existing programs were established. Partners were asked to choose the clinical program(s) they wished implemented or supported and were guaranteed that APPE students would contribute to carrying each program's clinical service workload for 48 week/year under the supervision of the partners' pharmacists. In addition, partners implementing new programs were offered other support, including equipment, supplies, and training and mentoring for their pharmacists. Evaluation Twenty-two partnerships involving anticoagulation, diabetes, immunization, medication reconciliation, and other clinical programs were established with hospital, community, and community health center pharmacies. The partnerships provided 213 APPE placements in the 2006-2007 academic year. Conclusion This work demonstrates that by using innovative approaches, a pharmacy school can form new partnerships with hospital, community health center, and community pharmacies, as well as work with existing clinical programs, to create a variety of medication, disease management, and other APPEs to meet its increasing placement needs and evolving accreditation standards. PMID:17619646

  5. A strategy to develop advanced pharmacy practice experiences.

    PubMed

    Turner, Christopher J; Ellis, Sam; Giles, Joel; Maffeo, Carrie; Hansen, Laura; Saseen, Joseph J; Ulrich, Heather; Valdez, Connie; Altiere, Ralph; Bainbridge, Jacquelyn; Page, Robert; Sintek, Charles; Vondracek, Sheryl; Zadvorny, Emily; Fish, Douglas

    2007-06-15

    To establish statewide medication, disease management, and other clinical programs to serve as advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) training sites for the University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center School of Pharmacy, and to guarantee year-round support for the programs by providing pharmacy students with the necessary competencies to carry a significant proportion of each program's workload. Partnerships with pharmacies willing to use students to expand their scope of clinical practice or support existing programs were established. Partners were asked to choose the clinical program(s) they wished implemented or supported and were guaranteed that APPE students would contribute to carrying each program's clinical service workload for 48 week/year under the supervision of the partners' pharmacists. In addition, partners implementing new programs were offered other support, including equipment, supplies, and training and mentoring for their pharmacists. Twenty-two partnerships involving anticoagulation, diabetes, immunization, medication reconciliation, and other clinical programs were established with hospital, community, and community health center pharmacies. The partnerships provided 213 APPE placements in the 2006-2007 academic year. This work demonstrates that by using innovative approaches, a pharmacy school can form new partnerships with hospital, community health center, and community pharmacies, as well as work with existing clinical programs, to create a variety of medication, disease management, and other APPEs to meet its increasing placement needs and evolving accreditation standards.

  6. Factors affecting pharmacy engagement and pharmacy customer devotion in community pharmacy: A structural equation modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Nitadpakorn, Sujin; Farris, Karen B; Kittisopee, Tanattha

    2017-01-01

    The concept of customer engagement and devotion has been applied in various service businesses to keep the customers with business However, a limited number of studies were performed to examine the context of customer engagement and devotion in pharmacy business which focus on the impact of customer perceptions about pharmacists, perceived quality of pharmacy structure, medication price strategy on pharmacy engagement and pharmacy customer devotion in a pharmacy providing pharmaceutical care to the customers. This study aimed to assess a conceptual model depicting the relationships among customer perceptions about pharmacists, pharmacy quality structure, medication price, customer engagement, and customer devotion. And also aimed to assess and measure if there is a direct or indirect relationship between these factors. A quantitative study was conducted by using self-administered questionnaires. Two hundred and fifty three customers who regularly visited the pharmacy were randomly recruited from a purposively selected 30 community pharmacies in Bangkok. The survey was completed during February to April 2016. A structural equation model (SEM) was used to assess the direct and indirect relationships between constructs. A total of 253/300 questionnaires were returned for analysis, and the response rate was 84%. Only perceptions about pharmacist in customers receiving professional pharmacy services was statically significant regarding relationship with pharmacy engagement (beta=0.45). Concurrently, the model from empirical data fit with the hypothetical model (p-value = 0.06, adjusted chi-square (CMIN/DF)=1.16, Goodness of Fit Index (GFI)=0.93, Comparatively Fit Index (CFI)=0.99, and Root Mean Square Error Approximation (RMSEA)=0.03). The study confirmed the indirect positive influence of customer perceptions about pharmacist on pharmacy customer devotion in providing pharmacy services via pharmacy engagement It was customer perceptions about pharmacist that influenced

  7. Market dynamics of community pharmacies in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Schommer, Jon C; Singh, Reshmi L; Cline, Richard R; Hadsall, Ronald S

    2006-09-01

    From a pharmacist workforce perspective, an understanding of pharmacy location is important for monitoring access points for pharmacist services such as medication dispensing, medication counseling, medication therapy management, and disease management. To understand access to community pharmacies, our goal was to describe changes in pharmacy mix (independent vs chain) between 1992 and 2002 for 87 counties in Minnesota. Study objectives were to describe the association of (1) change in population density, (2) metropolitan designation, change in (3) proportion of nonwhite population, (4) proportion of elderly population, and (5) household income with change in (a) number of community pharmacies overall, (b) number of chain pharmacies, (c) number of independent pharmacies, and (d) the independent-to-total community pharmacy ratio. Records from the State of Minnesota Board of Pharmacy were used to examine changes in the community pharmacy mix from 1992 to 2002. Data on county level demographics in 1990 and 2000 were obtained from the US Census Bureau and Datanet. Chi-square analysis was used to test the relationships between the independent and dependent variables. As of 2002, every county in Minnesota had at least one pharmacy as was the case in 1992. The ratio of independent to chain pharmacies changed from approximately 2:1 in 1992 to approximately 1:1 in 2002. Chi-square results revealed that change in population density was significantly associated with change in the number of community pharmacies overall (P<0.001) and with change in chain pharmacies (P=0.03). The findings revealed an interesting u-shaped pattern for the association between population density and change in independent pharmacies. It appears that chain pharmacies follow changes in population density for making decisions about market entry and exit. The results suggest that some independent pharmacies might be closing due to chain competition in high population density growth areas. However, there

  8. Strategic planning by independent community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Donald L

    2005-01-01

    (1) To assess the degree and level of use of the strategic planning process (none, partly, fully) by independent community pharmacy owners/managers and (2) to evaluate the relationships between independent community pharmacy owners/managers' level of strategic planning and indicators of pharmacy performance; including new and refill prescriptions filled, gross margin, rated patient care performance, rated dispensing performance, rated non-pharmacy performance, and rated financial performance. Cross-sectional study. United States. Nationwide random sample of 1,250 owners/managers of independent community pharmacies. Mailed survey. Quality of strategic planning conducted; pharmacy performance measures. Only 141 of 527 (26.8%) usable responses indicated use of some (77 pharmacies, 54.6%) or all (64 pharmacies, 45.4%) of the seven steps typical of strategic planning. Significant associations were observed between the level of strategic planning use and all pharmacy performance variables assessed, including indicators such as greater numbers of new and refill prescriptions dispensed, gross margins, patient care performance, dispensing performance, non-pharmacy performance, and financial performance. Greater ratings of pharmacy performance were significantly associated with the level of strategic planning use. Respondents who fully used strategic planning had significantly higher indicators than partial users; respondents who partly used the process had significantly higher ratings than respondents who did not conduct strategic planning.

  9. College/school of pharmacy affiliation and community pharmacies' involvement in public health activities.

    PubMed

    Westrick, Salisa C; Mount, Jeanine; Watcharadamrongkun, Suntaree

    2009-11-12

    To examine the relationship between pharmacy college/school affiliation and community pharmacies' involvement in immunization and emergency preparedness activities. Telephone interviews were completed with 1,704 community pharmacies randomly sampled from 17 states to determine the pharmacies' involvement in immunization promotion, vaccine distribution, in-house immunization delivery, and health emergency preparedness and response, affiliation with college/school of pharmacy, and selected pharmacy and public health-related characteristics. Pharmacy college/school-affiliated community pharmacies were more likely than non-affiliated pharmacies to participate in immunization and emergency preparedness when controlling for pharmacy characteristics. College/school affiliation generally became nonsignificant, however, when public health-related characteristics were included in the analysis. Affiliation with a college/school of pharmacy was related to community pharmacies' involvement in immunization and emergency preparedness.

  10. Valued characteristics of community pharmacy residency applicants.

    PubMed

    Scalise, Alissa A; Ležaja, Gabrielle S; Nemec, Eric C; Spooner, Joshua J; Kennedy, Daniel R

    To determine the attributes of postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) community pharmacy residency applicants and candidates that are most appealing to community residency program directors (CRPDs). A 22-question online survey, designed to collect residency demographics, desirable characteristics for consideration for interview invitation (applicants), and characteristics that should be displayed during an interview (candidates). American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP)-recognized community pharmacy residency programs (CPRPs). The CRPDs of 109 ASHP-recognized CPRPs throughout the United States. Not applicable. Minimum applicant requirements; rank order of valued characteristics at application and interview stage of hiring process. The response rate was 71/109 (65.1%). Applicant work experience in chain pharmacy (90.1%) and independent pharmacy (77.5%) was most highly valued by CRPDs, with 85.9% preferring applicants with a minimum of 1 year or more of community pharmacy experience. A large majority of CPRPs (91.4%) indicated a preference for applicants who have been an officer of a student organization. Among CPRPs that required minimum grade point averages (GPAs), a mean GPA of 2.88 ± 0.34 was reported (range 2.0 to 3.5; mode 3.0). Pharmacy work experience (68.1%) and letters of recommendation (59.4%) were most frequently cited as top factors in the decision-making process for selecting candidates to interview. At the interview stage, CRPDs rated interest and knowledge about the residency (62.3%), time management and prioritization (50.7%), and self-awareness and commitment to improvement (43.5%) as the most important skills for candidates to demonstrate. Community pharmacy work experience, organizational leadership experience, and positive letters of recommendation appear to be the most valued attributes of a community pharmacy residency applicant. Applicants should consider aligning themselves with these characteristics to successfully match to a community

  11. Factors affecting pharmacy engagement and pharmacy customer devotion in community pharmacy: A structural equation modeling approach

    PubMed Central

    Nitadpakorn, Sujin; Kittisopee, Tanattha

    2017-01-01

    Background: The concept of customer engagement and devotion has been applied in various service businesses to keep the customers with business However, a limited number of studies were performed to examine the context of customer engagement and devotion in pharmacy business which focus on the impact of customer perceptions about pharmacists, perceived quality of pharmacy structure, medication price strategy on pharmacy engagement and pharmacy customer devotion in a pharmacy providing pharmaceutical care to the customers. Objective: This study aimed to assess a conceptual model depicting the relationships among customer perceptions about pharmacists, pharmacy quality structure, medication price, customer engagement, and customer devotion. And also aimed to assess and measure if there is a direct or indirect relationship between these factors. Methods: A quantitative study was conducted by using self-administered questionnaires. Two hundred and fifty three customers who regularly visited the pharmacy were randomly recruited from a purposively selected 30 community pharmacies in Bangkok. The survey was completed during February to April 2016. A structural equation model (SEM) was used to assess the direct and indirect relationships between constructs. Results: A total of 253/300 questionnaires were returned for analysis, and the response rate was 84%. Only perceptions about pharmacist in customers receiving professional pharmacy services was statically significant regarding relationship with pharmacy engagement (beta=0.45). Concurrently, the model from empirical data fit with the hypothetical model (p-value = 0.06, adjusted chi-square (CMIN/DF)=1.16, Goodness of Fit Index (GFI)=0.93, Comparatively Fit Index (CFI)=0.99, and Root Mean Square Error Approximation (RMSEA)=0.03). Conclusion: The study confirmed the indirect positive influence of customer perceptions about pharmacist on pharmacy customer devotion in providing pharmacy services via pharmacy engagement It was

  12. Exploring health literacy competencies in community pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Emmerton, Lynne M; Mampallil, Liz; Kairuz, Therese; McKauge, Leigh M; Bush, Robert A

    2012-03-01

    Health literacy is the ability to obtain, interpret and use health information. Low rates of health literacy in Australia have been suggested, but no validated measure exists. To explore health literacy competencies in a sample of community pharmacy consumers. Structured interviews were undertaken by a team of researchers during August, 2009. The instrument was derived from available literature, measuring aspects of functional, interactive and critical health literacy regarding use of medicines. Twelve community pharmacies in the Brisbane region, Australia. Six hundred and forty-seven consumers participated; 64% were women. A wide distribution of ages was evident. English was the first language of 89% of respondents. More than half of the sample (55%), predominantly aged 26-45 years, was tertiary educated. While 87% of respondents recognized a sample prescription, 20% could not readily match the prescription to a labelled medicine box. Eighty-two percentage of respondents interpreted 'three times a day' appropriately, but interpretation of a standard ancillary label was highly variable. Advanced age, less formal education, non-English-speaking background and male gender were independently related to lower performance in some variables. This health literacy measure applied comprehension and numeracy skills required of adults receiving prescription medications. While the majority of consumers adequately performed these tasks, some behaviours and responses were of sufficient concern to propose additional verbal and written information interventions by pharmacy staff. This research provides insight into issues that may affect consumers' appropriate use of medicines and self-efficacy. Initiatives to improve public health literacy are warranted. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. An Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience in Sports Pharmacy

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Objective To establish and evaluate an advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) in sports pharmacy. Design Students actively participated in a variety of activities for this new 6-week elective APPE, including drug-testing collections, delivering presentations, and providing drug information. Students also learned about assays, compounding, and dispensing medications specifically for athletes, and visited various athletic medical facilities. Student were given written and practical certification examinations for drug-testing collections, and their specimen measurements were compared to those obtained by the testing laboratory for validation; satisfaction surveys were obtained from testing sites; and presentation evaluations were obtained from audience participants. Assessment Students were able to accurately measure pH and specific gravity of urine samples and all students passed the certification examination. Students rated the APPE very high. Also, students received high satisfaction ratings on surveys administered to the officials of the schools where they tested and members of the groups to whom they gave presentations. Conclusion Students gained experience and insight into the various roles of pharmacists in sports pharmacy and developed confidence in their ability to conduct drug-testing collections. PMID:18322580

  14. Providing patient care through community pharmacies in the UK: policy, practice, and research.

    PubMed

    Noyce, Peter R

    2007-05-01

    To describe the provision of patient services through community pharmacies in the UK, with particular reference to England, and to explore the research evidence and policy developments for enhancing the contribution of community pharmacy to primary care and public health. In the UK, National Health Service (NHS) pharmaceutical services are delivered under contract by privately owned community pharmacies. In England, a new 3 tier structure for pharmaceutical services was introduced in 2005 comprising essential, advanced, and enhanced-level services. All NHS pharmacies must deliver 7 essential pharmaceutical services and provide evidence that they meet the requirements of a comprehensive quality assurance framework. In the first year of the contract, around 40% of pharmacies were accredited to undertake medicine use reviews, the first advanced-level service to be implemented. Meanwhile, up to 25% of pharmacies provide a variety of enhanced-level services; the most common of these is supervised administration of methadone as well as support programs for patients quitting smoking. New legislation is being introduced that will accomplish the following: allow pharmacists to acquire independent prescribing rights, require pharmacy technicians to be licensed, necessitate that both pharmacists and pharmacy technicians periodically demonstrate their continuing qualification to practice, and introduce the concept of the "responsible pharmacist" to the operation of community pharmacies. Community pharmacy is now being recognized by the government as a mainstream contributor to primary care and public health. The current priority is to integrate services provided through community pharmacies into programs provided by other primary care professionals, through strengthening information technology and contractual arrangements. While major changes to the regulation of the pharmacy workforce are occurring, the quality management of community pharmacy services merits further

  15. Pharmacy students’ experiences in provision of community pharmacy mental health services

    PubMed Central

    Szumilas, Magdalena; Rowe, Denise; Landry, Kathryn; Martin-Misener, Ruth; Kutcher, Stan; Gardner, David

    2014-01-01

    Background: Little information is available describing the pharmacy student’s experience working in community practice with people with lived experience of mental illness. Students’ perspectives as observers, learners, technical staff and future pharmacists are important. Objective: To gain a better understanding of the pharmacy student experience in community pharmacy–based service provision to people with lived experience of mental illness. Methods: We conducted a qualitative study using interpretive description and application of the Theoretical Domains Framework. Focus groups were held with third- and fourth-year undergraduate pharmacy students from one Canadian university. Results: Two student focus groups were held in the fall of 2012 with 11 students (7 third year and 4 fourth year), 6 women and 5 men, mean age 24.5 (range, 21 to 30) years, averaging 3.2 years (range, 2 weeks to 7 years) of cumulative, mostly part-time, community pharmacy experience. Three broad themes emerged from the pharmacy student experience: (1) business tension; (2) roles, responsibilities and relationships; and (3) stigma. Students discussed their own roles, responsibilities and relationships in a pluralistic identity experience (i.e., pharmacy student, technician, future pharmacist). Application of the Theoretical Domains Framework demonstrated numerous influences on behaviour. Conclusions: From the students’ description of community pharmacy–based care of people with lived experience of mental illness, significant issues exist with current practices and behaviours. Advancing the role of pharmacists and pharmacy students to meet the needs of people with mental illness will require strategies to address multifactorial influences on behaviour. PMID:24494016

  16. Qualitative study on the implementation of professional pharmacy services in Australian community pharmacies using framework analysis.

    PubMed

    Moullin, Joanna C; Sabater-Hernández, Daniel; Benrimoj, Shalom I

    2016-08-25

    Multiple studies have explored the implementation process and influences, however it appears there is no study investigating these influences across the stages of implementation. Community pharmacy is attempting to implement professional services (pharmaceutical care and other health services). The use of implementation theory may assist the achievement of widespread provision, support and integration. The objective was to investigate professional service implementation in community pharmacy to contextualise and advance the concepts of a generic implementation framework previously published. Purposeful sampling was used to investigate implementation across a range of levels of implementation in community pharmacies in Australia. Twenty-five semi-structured interviews were conducted and analysed using a framework methodology. Data was charted using implementation stages as overarching themes and each stage was thematically analysed, to investigate the implementation process, the influences and their relationships. Secondary analyses were performed of the factors (barriers and facilitators) using an adapted version of the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), and implementation strategies and interventions, using the Expert Recommendations for Implementing Change (ERIC) discrete implementation strategy compilation. Six stages emerged, labelled as development or discovery, exploration, preparation, testing, operation and sustainability. Within the stages, a range of implementation activities/steps and five overarching influences (pharmacys' direction and impetus, internal communication, staffing, community fit and support) were identified. The stages and activities were not applied strictly in a linear fashion. There was a trend towards the greater the number of activities considered, the greater the apparent integration into the pharmacy organization. Implementation factors varied over the implementation stages, and additional factors were added

  17. Influences on the frequency and type of community pharmacy services.

    PubMed

    Doucette, William R; Rippe, Julia J; Gaither, Caroline A; Kreling, David H; Mott, David A; Schommer, Jon C

    To describe services provided by community pharmacies and to identify factors associated with services being provided in community pharmacies. Cross-sectional national mail survey. Pharmacists actively practicing in community pharmacies (independent, chain, mass merchandisers, and supermarkets). Frequency and type of pharmacy services available in a community pharmacy, including medication therapy management, immunization, adjusting medication therapy, medication reconciliation, disease state management, health screening or coaching, complex nonsterile compounding, and point-of-care testing. With a 48.4% response rate, the survey showed that community pharmacies offered on average 3 of the 8 services studied. Pharmacy chains and supermarket pharmacies reported providing significantly more services than did mass merchandise pharmacies. The number of pharmacy services provided was positively associated with involvement in an interprofessional care team, innovativeness, and perceived workload. The number of pharmacy services was negatively correlated with having 3.5 or more pharmacy technicians on duty. Pharmacy chains and supermarkets are providing the most pharmacy services among community pharmacy settings. The number of services provided was associated with innovativeness, technician staffing, and perceived workload. Also, involvement with an interprofessional care team supported greater service delivery. Community pharmacies vary in their provision of services beyond dispensing. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Faculties of Pharmacy Schools Should Make an Effort to Network with Community Pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Ryo

    2016-01-01

    By law, medical faculties are mandated to have a designated partner hospital for the purposes of student practical training. In contrast, pharmacy faculties do not have such a legal requirement for student training in a community pharmacy setting. Nevertheless, there are several public and private universities that do have community pharmacies. However, there is no national university that has established both an educational hospital and a community pharmacy. When Kanazawa University (KU) established a graduate school with a clinical pharmacy course, the faculty of KU deemed it necessary to set up an independent community pharmacy for the purpose of practical training. Thus, in 2003, the Acanthus Pharmacy was set up as the first educational community pharmacy in Japan, managed by a nonprofit organization, with the permission of the Ishikawa Pharmaceutical Association and local community pharmacists. Since that time, Acanthus has managed a clinical pharmacy practice for students from both the undergraduate and graduate schools of KU. From 2006, the undergraduate pharmacy program was changed to a 6-year program, and the Acanthus Pharmacy has continued its roles in educating undergraduate pharmaceutical students, medical students, and as a site of early exposure for KU freshmen. From our experience, it is important to have a real clinical environment available to university pharmacy faculty and students, especially in training for community pharmacy practices.

  19. An Elective Course in Community Pharmacy Management with Practitioner Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiederholt, Joseph B.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A course in community pharmacy management that involves community pharmacy managers in the instruction of the course found a high degree of pharmacist interest in course projects and in participation in the program. (MSE)

  20. Compounding practices in a Portuguese community pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Reis, Maria; Carvalho, Maria; Rodrigues, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    All Portuguese community pharmacies have a compounding laboratory and minimum equipment for the preparation of nonsterile (traditional) compounded medicines, but a few community pharmacies specialize in compounding. At Farmácia Lordelo, the most frequently dispensed compounded medicines are oral liquids for pediatrics and multi-drug, semi-solid preparations for dermatology patients. The majority of the compounded medicines is prepared in accordance with the national galenic formulary and standardized monographs, in order to guarantee the quality and safety of the compounded medicines dispensed.

  1. Development of a Community Pharmacy Management Elective Rotation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zgarrick, David P.; Talluto, Beverly A.

    1997-01-01

    Midwestern University-Chicago College of Pharmacy has developed a five-week elective community pharmacy management rotation in partnership with local pharmacies. Students work directly with district and pharmacy managers, covering a list of topics developed by faculty and preceptors and performing one major project and several smaller ones.…

  2. Community pharmacy loyalty among individuals with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Lauzier, Sophie; Grégoire, Jean-Pierre; Lesage, Alain; Moisan, Jocelyne

    2013-01-01

    Community pharmacists can use medication records to assist individuals who are loyal to their pharmacy in better managing their pharmacotherapy. However, the extent of community pharmacy loyalty among individuals with severe mental illness such as schizophrenia remains unknown. To assess the extent of community pharmacy loyalty among individuals with schizophrenia and identify factors associated with loyalty. Using the Quebec Health Insurance Board databases, a cohort study of individuals with schizophrenia who claimed an antipsychotic drug for the first time between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2005 was conducted. Such individuals were considered loyal to their community pharmacy if they filled all their prescriptions for any drug at the same community pharmacy during the second year after antipsychotics initiation. Logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with community pharmacy loyalty (measured in the first year after antipsychotics initiation). Of the 6159 individuals in the study, 57.8% were loyal to one pharmacy. Men were more likely to be loyal (Adjusted OR = 1.29; 95% CI = 1.16-1.44), as were individuals aged 30-64 years and those aged ≥65 years, when compared to individuals 20-29 years (1.70; 1.48-1.95 and 2.39; 1.97-2.90, respectively). Individuals who filled their antipsychotics on a weekly basis were also more likely to be loyal (1.39; 1.18-1.63). Factors associated with non-loyalty were welfare beneficiary status (0.79; 0.70-0.89), having substance-use disorder (0.69; 0.60-0.80), a greater number of different types of drugs (5-8 types = 0.76; 0.66-0.87; 9-51 = 0.59; 0.50-0.69), and emergency department visits (0.71; 0.60-0.82). Results suggest that medication records in community pharmacies are incomplete for 42.2% of individuals with schizophrenia. Individuals more likely to experience more severe illness were also those less likely to be loyal. Given the potentially severe consequences of medication-related problems

  3. Market dynamics of community pharmacies in Minnesota, U.S. from 1992 through 2012.

    PubMed

    Schommer, Jon C; Yusuf, Akeem A; Hadsall, Ronald S

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of community pharmacy market dynamics is important for monitoring access points for pharmacist services. The purpose of this study was to describe (1) changes in pharmacy mix (independent versus chain) between 1992 and 2002 and between 2002 and 2012 for 87 counties in Minnesota (state in U.S.) and (2) the number (and proportion) of community pharmacies in Minnesota for the years 1992, 2002, and 2012 using a new categorization method developed specifically for this study. Data included licensure records for 1992, 2002, and 2012 from the State of Minnesota Board of Pharmacy and county level demographics for 1990, 2000 and 2010 from the US Census Bureau. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize findings over time and to describe associations between study variables. The ratio of independent pharmacies to chain pharmacies changed from approximately 2:1 in 1992 to 1:2 in 2012. The primary market factors associated with changes in the number of community pharmacies per county were (1) the metropolitan designation of the county and (2) whether the population density (persons/square mile) was increasing or decreasing. The face of community pharmacy in Minnesota changed between 1992 and 2012. By 2012, pharmacies were located in traditional retail pharmacies, mass merchandiser outlets, supermarkets, and clinics/medical centers. Furthermore, specialty pharmacies grew in proportion to meet patient needs. Between 1992 and 2012, the market dynamics of community pharmacies in Minnesota was characterized by vigorous market entry and exit. In light of recent health reform that is exhibiting characteristics such as continuity-of-care models, performance-based payment, technology advances, and the care of patients becoming more "ambulatory" (versus in-patient), we suggest that the market dynamics of community pharmacies will continue to exhibit vigorous market entry and exit in this new environment. It is proposed that the community pharmacy categories developed

  4. An Analysis of Community Pharmacy Shared Faculty Members' Contributions to Teaching, Service, and Scholarship.

    PubMed

    Bacci, Jennifer L; Akinwale, Tolu P; Adams, Alex J; McGivney, Melissa Somma

    2016-09-25

    Objective. To identify community pharmacy shared faculty members across the United States and to describe their roles and responsibilities in terms of teaching, service, and scholarship. Methods. This study was a mixed-methods analysis using surveys and key informant interviews. Results. Twenty-two faculty members completed the survey; nine were interviewed. Their major roles and responsibilities included teaching in community-based and experiential learning courses, precepting students and/or residents, being actively involved in professional organizations, providing patient care while leading innovation, and disseminating findings through scholarship. Conclusion. Community pharmacy shared faculty members contribute to their academic institutions and community pharmacy organizations by educating learners, providing direct patient care, and advancing community practice through innovation and service to the profession. Findings of this study can be used as a guide for academic institutions and community pharmacy organizations interested in partnering to develop a community pharmacy shared faculty position.

  5. An Analysis of Community Pharmacy Shared Faculty Members’ Contributions to Teaching, Service, and Scholarship

    PubMed Central

    Akinwale, Tolu P.; Adams, Alex J.; McGivney, Melissa Somma

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To identify community pharmacy shared faculty members across the United States and to describe their roles and responsibilities in terms of teaching, service, and scholarship. Methods. This study was a mixed-methods analysis using surveys and key informant interviews. Results. Twenty-two faculty members completed the survey; nine were interviewed. Their major roles and responsibilities included teaching in community-based and experiential learning courses, precepting students and/or residents, being actively involved in professional organizations, providing patient care while leading innovation, and disseminating findings through scholarship. Conclusion. Community pharmacy shared faculty members contribute to their academic institutions and community pharmacy organizations by educating learners, providing direct patient care, and advancing community practice through innovation and service to the profession. Findings of this study can be used as a guide for academic institutions and community pharmacy organizations interested in partnering to develop a community pharmacy shared faculty position. PMID:27756923

  6. Geographical access to community pharmacies in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Norris, Pauline; Horsburgh, Simon; Sides, Gerald; Ram, Sanya; Fraser, John

    2014-09-01

    Geographic access to community pharmacies is an important aspect of access to appropriate medicines. This study aimed to explore changes in the number and location of pharmacies in New Zealand and determine whether some populations have poor geographical access to pharmacies. Pharmacy numbers in New Zealand have been declining since the mid-1980s, and, adjusted for population growth, there are now only half the number there was in 1965. While the urbanisation of pharmacies has been matched by loss of population in rural areas, the loss of pharmacies from smaller rural towns leaves many people with poor access to pharmacy services.

  7. Assessment of workflow redesign in community pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Angelo, Lauren B; Ferreri, Stefanie P

    2005-01-01

    To assess the effect that workflow enhancements have on dispensing responsibilities and pharmacist-patient interaction in the community pharmacy setting. Pre-post comparison. Pre-assessment data were obtained from a multisite observational study. Pharmacy within a regional pharmacy chain. 3 pharmacists and 110 patients. The pharmacy was physically remodeled to enable workflow changes, including defining dispensing responsibilities with an emphasis on patient counseling, providing an additional 6 feet of counter space, upgrading technology, installing a third computer, implementing tools to augment the filling process, and requesting that cashiers rephrase the offer to counsel to encourage patient acceptance. Patients and pharmacists were surveyed about the experiences and beliefs, and pharmacy activities were observed directly. Patient counseling and prescription dispensing. activities. The number of pharmacists who perceived that they had adequate time to counsel patients increased as a result of the intervention (0 of 3 responding pharmacists before the intervention, compared with 2 of 2 afterward). Patient satisfaction scores both before and after the intervention were predominantly favorable and did not differ significantly. The most relevant change in dispensing activities was pharmacist involvement with data entry into the computer, which decreased from 61% to 10%. Oral counseling offers to patients increased significantly, from 5% to 85%, but counseling rates remained low throughout the study and were not measurably affected by workload. Workflow redesign has positively affected the dispensing activities at the study site. Technicians took more responsibility for dispensing tasks. Given the drastic increase in counseling offers but lack of effect on counseling rates, patient behavior and expectations with regard to counseling likely need to change to further improve dynamics in the community pharmacy.

  8. Pharmaceutical care in community pharmacies: practice and research in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Volmer, Daisy; Vendla, Kaidi; Vetka, Andre; Bell, J Simon; Hamilton, David

    2008-07-01

    To describe practice and research related to pharmaceutical care in Estonia following the country's restoration of independence from Russia in 1991. The transition from a Soviet to a free market economy has impacted the healthcare and pharmacy systems in Estonia. Following independence, ownership of community pharmacies was transferred from the State government to individual pharmacists. However, pharmacy ownership is no longer restricted to pharmacists and recent years have seen the emergence of large pharmacy chains. The number of community pharmacies in Estonia increased from 270 in 1992 to 523 in 2007. In addition to dispensing, Estonian pharmacies retain a focus on compounding of extemporaneous products and supply of herbal medications. Research into pharmaceutical care has addressed topics including pharmaceutical policy and the quality of pharmacy services provided at community pharmacies. There has been limited pressure to date from the governmental institutions and patient organizations to introduce extended pharmaceutical services. However, the trend toward providing health services in primary care will create greater responsibilities and new opportunities for community pharmacists. Recent inclusion of clinical pharmacy and interprofessional learning in the undergraduate pharmacy curriculum will help ensure ongoing development of the profession and high-quality pharmacy services in the future. Pharmaceutical care services in Estonian community pharmacies have become more patient-oriented over the past 17 years. However, community pharmacies continue to retain a focus on traditional roles.

  9. Community pharmacy incident reporting: a new tool for community pharmacies in Canada.

    PubMed

    Ho, Certina; Hung, Patricia; Lee, Gary; Kadija, Medina

    2010-01-01

    Incident reporting offers insight into a variety of intricate processes in healthcare. However, it has been found that medication incidents are under reported in the community pharmacy setting. The Community Pharmacy Incident Reporting (CPhIR) program was created by the Institute for Safe Medication Practices Canada specifically for incident reporting in the community pharmacy setting in Canada. The initial development of key elements for CPhIR included several focus-group teleconferences with pharmacists from Ontario and Nova Scotia. Throughout the development and release of the CPhIR pilot, feedback from pharmacists and pharmacy technicians was constantly incorporated into the reporting program. After several rounds of iterative feedback, testing and consultation with community pharmacy practitioners, a final version of the CPhIR program, together with self-directed training materials, is now ready to launch. The CPhIR program provides users with a one-stop platform to report and record medication incidents, export data for customized analysis and view comparisons of individual and aggregate data. These unique functions allow for a detailed analysis of underlying contributing factors in medication incidents. A communication piece for pharmacies to share their experiences is in the process of development. To ensure the success of the CPhIR program, a patient safety culture must be established. By gaining a deeper understanding of possible causes of medication incidents, community pharmacies can implement system-based strategies for quality improvement and to prevent potential errors from occurring again in the future. This article highlights key features of the CPhIR program that will assist community pharmacies to improve their drug distribution system and, ultimately, enhance patient safety.

  10. Quality of Handoffs in Community Pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Abebe, Ephrem; Stone, Jamie A; Lester, Corey A; Chui, Michelle A

    2017-04-27

    The aims of the study were to characterize handoffs in community pharmacies and to examine factors that contribute to perceived handoff quality. A cross-sectional study of community pharmacists in a Midwest State of the United States. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect information on participant and practice setting characteristics. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression. A total of 445 completed surveys were returned (response rate, 82%). In almost half of the time, handoffs that occur in a community pharmacy setting were inaccurate or incomplete. Nearly half of the time handoffs occur in environments full of interruptions and distractions. More than 90% of the respondents indicated that they have undergone no formal training on proper ways of handing off information. Nearly 40% of respondents reported that their pharmacy dispensing technology does not have adequate functionality to support handing off information and that at least 50% of the time, poor handoffs result in additional work to the pharmacist because of the need for complete information before providing patient care. Multivariate analysis showed that being very familiar with patients, lower daily prescription volume, not having a 24-hour operation, and larger percentage of handoffs occurring in a synchronous fashion are all associated with better handoff quality. Handoffs occur frequently and are problematic in community pharmacies. Current pharmacy environments offer limited support to conduct good handoffs, and as a result, pharmacists report loss of information. This could present as a significant patient safety hazard. Future interventions should target facilitating better communication during shift changes.

  11. The Development and Implementation of a Community Pharmacy Practice Clerkship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissman, Fred G.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    A clerkship at the University of Southern California School of Pharmacy was developed to provide students with (1) experience in the identification, development,, implementation, and evaluation of patient care services in community pharmacies and (2) the skills required to successfully operate a community pharmacy on a day-to-day basis.…

  12. The Development and Implementation of a Community Pharmacy Practice Clerkship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissman, Fred G.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    A clerkship at the University of Southern California School of Pharmacy was developed to provide students with (1) experience in the identification, development,, implementation, and evaluation of patient care services in community pharmacies and (2) the skills required to successfully operate a community pharmacy on a day-to-day basis.…

  13. Exploring Information Chaos in Community Pharmacy Handoffs

    PubMed Central

    Chui, Michelle A; Stone, Jamie A

    2013-01-01

    Background A handoff is the process of conveying necessary information in order to transfer primary responsibility for providing safe and effective drug therapy to a patient from one community pharmacist to another, typically during a shift change. The handoff information conveyed in pharmacies has been shown to be unstructured and variable, leading to pharmacist stress and frustration, prescription delays, and medication errors. Objective The purpose of this study was to describe and categorize the information hazards present in handoffs in community pharmacies. Methods A qualitative research approach was used to elicit the subjective experiences of community pharmacists. Community pharmacists who float or work in busy community pharmacies were recruited and participated in a face to face semi-structured interview. Using a systematic content data analysis, the study identified five categories of information hazards that can lead to information chaos, a framework grounded in human factors and ergonomics. Results Information hazards including erroneous information and information overload, underload, scatter, and conflict, are experienced routinely by community pharmacists during handoff communication and can result in information chaos. The consequences of information chaos include increased mental workload, which can precipitate problematic prescriptions “falling between the cracks”. This can ultimately impact patient care and pharmacist quality of working life. Conclusions The results suggest that handoffs in community pharmacies result in information hazards. These information hazards can distract pharmacists from their primary work of assessing prescriptions and educating their patients. Further research on how handoffs are conducted can produce information on how hazards in the system can be eliminated. PMID:23665076

  14. Canadian educational approaches for the advancement of pharmacy practice.

    PubMed

    Frankel, Grace; Louizos, Christopher; Austin, Zubin

    2014-09-15

    Canadian faculties (schools) of pharmacy are actively engaged in the advancement and restructuring of their programs in response to the shift in pharmacy to pharmacists having/assuming an advanced practitioner role. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of evidence outlining optimal strategies for accomplishing this task. This review explores several educational changes proposed in the literature to aid in the advancement of pharmacy education such as program admission requirements, critical-thinking assessment and teaching methods, improvement of course content delivery, value of interprofessional education, advancement of practical experiential education, and mentorship strategies. Collectively, implementation of these improvements to pharmacy education will be crucial in determining the direction the profession will take.

  15. Community pharmacy practice in Japan--results of a survey.

    PubMed

    Iguchi, S; Ohnishi, M; Nishiyama, T; Hosono, K; Umezawa, C

    1998-06-01

    To survey the present condition of community pharmacies as future sites for pharmacy students' externship in Japan. A questionnaire consisting of 55 questions was sent to 425 graduates from Kobe Gakuin University, School of Pharmacy, who owned or worked in community pharmacies. Of the 85 responders, about half were owners and half employees of pharmacies. Ninety per cent of pharmacy owners operated three and fewer pharmacies. Fifty per cent of pharmacies only dispensed drugs, 32% handled both OTC drugs and dispensing, and 18% handled only OTC drugs. Among the 44 dispensing pharmacies, 16 were one-to-one type pharmacies, 13 were located in front of the big medical institutions, nine dispensed prescriptions from various medical institutions and five were hospital-owned pharmacies. Forty-five per cent of pharmacies employed 1-4 part-time pharmacists and 52% employed 1-4 pharmacist assistants. Thirty-one per cent of prescriptions came from internal medicine departments and the daily number of prescriptions dispensed by each pharmacy was in the range 10-99 for 41% of the pharmacies and 100-199 for 36% of the pharmacies. The average daily number of prescriptions dispersed by each pharmacist was in the range 30-39 for 29% of pharmacies and in the range 20-29 for 22% of pharmacies. Pharmaceutical information was provided at 73% of pharmacies and patients were counselled orally on their medication at 80% of pharmacies. Patients' medication histories were recorded at 88% pharmacies. Only 15% of pharmacies conducted patients' medication counselling at their home, but 34% of pharmacies were planning to start this service. Community pharmacists attended very few professional meetings or continuing education programmes and only 20% of them obtained information through computers. Forty-seven pharmacists out of the 85 obtained their information from medical representatives of pharmaceutical companies and 32 pharmacists through marketing specialists of wholesalers. Ninety per cent

  16. Students as catalysts to increase community pharmacy-led direct patient care services.

    PubMed

    Rodis, Jennifer L; Ulbrich, Timothy R; Jennings, Brandon T; Elswick, Betsy M; McKinley, Rebekah Jackowski

    2015-01-01

    To describe the impact on community pharmacy service development of a faculty-student-pharmacist collaborative program offered by five U.S. colleges. Colleges of pharmacy and community pharmacies in Arizona, Illinois, Ohio, Utah, and West Virginia. Partner for Promotion (PFP) is an elective, longitudinal advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) focused on enhancement of community pharmacy management skills, specifically the development and implementation of direct patient care services. This faculty-student-pharmacist collaborative model has been implemented in five U.S. colleges of pharmacy beyond the originating institution. Data on pharmacy demographics and the impact of PFP on service creation and longevity at these partnering schools were reported via annual online surveys completed by faculty directors at each partnering college of pharmacy. Over a 3-year period, 19 pharmacy teams across five states worked to create a total of 15 direct patient care services, 12 of which were still being offered to patients at the time of data collection (80% longevity). The PFP program guided 38 students through the process of developing and implementing a sustainable service at a community pharmacy. All participating faculty from partnering colleges of pharmacy (100%) indicated that PFP model materials were "very useful" (4-point Likert scale; 1, not useful, to 4, very useful), and all five colleges plan to continue offering the program moving forward. The PFP model of training and service development can have a positive impact on the pharmacy profession, serve as an avenue for training students in the development of clinical services, and be a catalyst for establishing the growth of community pharmacy as a patient-centered, service-oriented partner in the health care system.

  17. Providing patient care in community pharmacies in Australia.

    PubMed

    Benrimoj, Shalom I; Roberts, Alison S

    2005-11-01

    To describe Australia's community pharmacy network in the context of the health system and outline the provision of services. The 5000 community pharmacies form a key component of the healthcare system for Australians, for whom health expenditures represent 9% of the Gross Domestic Product. A typical community pharmacy dispenses 880 prescriptions per week. Pharmacists are key partners in the Government's National Medicines Policy and contribute to its objectives through the provision of cognitive pharmaceutical services (CPS). The Third Community Pharmacy Agreement included funding for CPS including medication review and the provision of written drug information. Funding is also provided for a quality assurance platform with which the majority of pharmacies are accredited. Fifteen million dollars (Australian) have been allocated to research in community pharmacy, which has focused on achieving quality use of medicines (QUM), as well as developing new CPS and facilitating change. Elements of the Agreements have taken into account QUM principles and are now significant drivers of practice change. Although accounting for 10% of remuneration for community pharmacy, the provision of CPS represents a significant shift in focus to view pharmacy as a service provider. Delivery of CPS through the community pharmacy network provides sustainability for primary health care due to improvement in quality presumably associated with a reduction in healthcare costs. Australian pharmacy practice is moving strongly in the direction of CPS provision; however, change does not occur easily. The development of a change management strategy is underway to improve the uptake of professional and business opportunities in community pharmacy.

  18. Comparison of patients' expectations and experiences at traditional pharmacies and pharmacies offering enhanced advanced pharmacy practice experiences.

    PubMed

    Kassam, Rosemin; Collins, John B; Berkowitz, Jonathan

    2010-06-15

    To compare patients' expectations and experiences at pharmacies offering traditional APPE learning opportunities with those offering enhanced APPEs that incorporate pharmaceutical care activities. A survey of anchored measures of patient satisfaction was conducted in 2 groups of APPE- affiliated community pharmacies: those participating in an enhanced APPE model versus those participating in the traditional model. The enhanced intervention included preceptor training, a comprehensive student orientation, and an extended experience at a single pharmacy rather than the traditional 2 x 4-week experience at different pharmacies. While patient expectations were similar in both traditional and enhanced APPE pharmacies, patients in enhanced pharmacies reported significantly higher in-store satisfaction and fewer service gaps. Additionally, satisfaction was significantly higher for patients who had received any form of consultation, from either pharmacist or students, than those reporting no consultations. Including provision of pharmaceutical care services as part of APPEs resulted in direct and measurable improvements in patient satisfaction.

  19. Comparison of Patients' Expectations and Experiences at Traditional Pharmacies and Pharmacies Offering Enhanced Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Collins, John B.; Berkowitz, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To compare patients' expectations and experiences at pharmacies offering traditional APPE learning opportunities with those offering enhanced APPEs that incorporate pharmaceutical care activities. Methods A survey of anchored measures of patient satisfaction was conducted in 2 groups of APPE- affiliated community pharmacies: those participating in an enhanced APPE model versus those participating in the traditional model. The enhanced intervention included preceptor training, a comprehensive student orientation, and an extended experience at a single pharmacy rather than the traditional 2 x 4-week experience at different pharmacies. Results While patient expectations were similar in both traditional and enhanced APPE pharmacies, patients in enhanced pharmacies reported significantly higher in-store satisfaction and fewer service gaps. Additionally, satisfaction was significantly higher for patients who had received any form of consultation, from either pharmacist or students, than those reporting no consultations. Conclusion Including provision of pharmaceutical care services as part of APPEs resulted in direct and measurable improvements in patient satisfaction. PMID:20798795

  20. [Adverse drug effects in the community pharmacy].

    PubMed

    Arnet, Isabelle; Seidling, Hanna M; Hersberger, Kurt E

    2015-12-01

    Community pharmacists represent an important pillar for the identification and the reporting of adverse drug effects (ADE}. Thanks to their broad view on the pharmacotherapy, over-the-counter medication included, they contribute greatly to the improvement of drug safety. In principle, the community pharmacy will face three groups of ADE which require specific attention. This article deals with these specific ADE groups and presents some illustrative examples from daily practice. Furthermore, we suggest some solutions to identify potential relevant interactions - including herbal-drug interactions - and give tips for daily practice, along with some often overseen cutaneous ADE.

  1. Relationship between e-prescriptions and community pharmacy workflow.

    PubMed

    Odukoya, Olufunmilola K; Chui, Michelle A

    2012-01-01

    To understand how community pharmacists use electronic prescribing (e-prescribing) technology and to describe the workflow challenges pharmacy personnel encounter as a result of using e-prescribing technology. Cross-sectional qualitative study. Seven community pharmacies in Wisconsin from December 2010 to March 2011. 16 pharmacists and 14 pharmacy technicians (in three chain and four independent pharmacies). Think-aloud protocols and pharmacy group interviews. Pharmacy staff descriptions of their use of e-prescribing technology and challenges encountered in their daily workflow related to this technology. Two contributing factors were perceived to influence e-prescribing workflow: issues stemming from prescribing or transmitting software and issues from within the pharmacy. Pharmacies experienced both delayed and inaccurate e-prescriptions from physician offices. An overwhelming number of e-prescriptions with inaccurate or unclear information resulted in serious time delays for patients as pharmacists contacted physicians to clarify wrong information. In addition, lack of formal training and the disconnect between pharmacy procedures for verifying prescription accuracy and presentation of e-prescription information on the computer screen influenced the speed of processing an e-prescription. E-prescriptions processing can hinder pharmacy workflow. As the number of e-prescriptions transmitted to pharmacies increases because of legislative mandates, it is essential that the technology supporting e-prescriptions (both on the prescriber and pharmacy operating systems) be redesigned to facilitate pharmacy workflow processes and to prevent unintended increase in medication errors, user frustration, and stress.

  2. When procedures meet practice in community pharmacies: qualitative insights from pharmacists and pharmacy support staff.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Christian E L; Phipps, Denham L; Ashcroft, Darren M

    2016-06-06

    Our aim was to explore how members of community pharmacy staff perceive and experience the role of procedures within the workplace in community pharmacies. Community pharmacies in England and Wales. 24 community pharmacy staff including pharmacists and pharmacy support staff were interviewed regarding their view of procedures in community pharmacy. Transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis. 3 main themes were identified. According to the 'dissemination and creation of standard operating procedures' theme, community pharmacy staff were required to follow a large amount of procedures as part of their work. At times, complying with all procedures was not possible. According to the 'complying with procedures' theme, there are several factors that influenced compliance with procedures, including work demands, the high workload and the social norm within the pharmacy. Lack of staff, pressure to hit targets and poor communication also affected how able staff felt to follow procedures. The third theme 'procedural compliance versus using professional judgement' highlighted tensions between the standardisation of practice and the professional autonomy of pharmacists. Pharmacists feared being unsupported by their employer for working outside of procedures, even when acting for patient benefit. Some support staff believed that strictly following procedures would keep patients and themselves safe. Dispensers described following the guidance of the pharmacist which sometimes meant working outside of procedures, but occasionally felt unable to voice concerns about not working to rule. Organisational resilience in community pharmacy was apparent and findings from this study should help to inform policymakers and practitioners regarding factors likely to influence the implementation of procedures in community pharmacy settings. Future research should focus on exploring community pharmacy employees' intentions and attitudes towards rule-breaking behaviour and the impact this

  3. When procedures meet practice in community pharmacies: qualitative insights from pharmacists and pharmacy support staff

    PubMed Central

    Ashcroft, Darren M

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Our aim was to explore how members of community pharmacy staff perceive and experience the role of procedures within the workplace in community pharmacies. Setting Community pharmacies in England and Wales. Participants 24 community pharmacy staff including pharmacists and pharmacy support staff were interviewed regarding their view of procedures in community pharmacy. Transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis. Results 3 main themes were identified. According to the ‘dissemination and creation of standard operating procedures’ theme, community pharmacy staff were required to follow a large amount of procedures as part of their work. At times, complying with all procedures was not possible. According to the ‘complying with procedures’ theme, there are several factors that influenced compliance with procedures, including work demands, the high workload and the social norm within the pharmacy. Lack of staff, pressure to hit targets and poor communication also affected how able staff felt to follow procedures. The third theme ‘procedural compliance versus using professional judgement’ highlighted tensions between the standardisation of practice and the professional autonomy of pharmacists. Pharmacists feared being unsupported by their employer for working outside of procedures, even when acting for patient benefit. Some support staff believed that strictly following procedures would keep patients and themselves safe. Dispensers described following the guidance of the pharmacist which sometimes meant working outside of procedures, but occasionally felt unable to voice concerns about not working to rule. Conclusions Organisational resilience in community pharmacy was apparent and findings from this study should help to inform policymakers and practitioners regarding factors likely to influence the implementation of procedures in community pharmacy settings. Future research should focus on exploring community pharmacy employees' intentions

  4. Environmental contamination with methotrexate in Canadian community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Merger, Delphine; Tanguay, Cynthia; Langlois, Éric; Lefebvre, Michel; Bussières, Jean-François

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate environmental contamination with methotrexate, cyclophosphamide, and ifosfamide in Quebec, Canada, community pharmacies and to describe hazardous drug handling practices in these pharmacies. Three standardized sites were sampled in each participating community pharmacy. Samples were analyzed for the presence of cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, and methotrexate by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The limits of detection were 0.10, 0.12, and 0.41 ng/mL for cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, and methotrexate, respectively. Nine working practices were assessed. 20 community pharmacies participated in the study, and 60 samples were analyzed. No traces of cyclophosphamide or ifosfamide were detected. Traces of methotrexate were found in 12 of 20 pharmacies (60%). Of the 20 pharmacies, 8 (40%) had a storage space reserved for hazardous drugs and none had a preparation area reserved for handling methotrexate tablets. All of the participating community pharmacies had a tablet counter reserved for the handling of hazardous drugs, and all pharmacies cleaned their tablet counter reserved for handling hazardous drugs after use. None of the pharmacies cut or crushed methotrexate tablets. The growing number of hazardous drugs represents a challenge for community pharmacies. Community pharmacists must be made aware of their presence and the need to comply with personal protection measures to reduce staff occupational exposure to hazardous drugs.

  5. Development of a community pharmacy disaster preparedness manual.

    PubMed

    Noe, Brooke; Smith, April

    2013-01-01

    To share an independent pharmacy's experience creating a practical manual for disaster preparedness that incorporates applicable pharmacy regulations, provides a plan to prepare a community pharmacy for disasters, and addresses the pharmacy's duty to the community during disasters. A literature search was performed to determine if such a manual or a guide had been published previously. The search returned examples of expectations of hospitals during disasters, but few results were specific to community pharmacy. An Internet search for pharmacy contingency planning returned only a few checklists and descriptive reports of pharmacist involvement in past disasters. Public resources available from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Environmental Protection Agency, Drug Enforcement Administration, Department of Public Health, Federal Emergency Management Agency, National Community Pharmacists Association, and American Pharmacists Association were explored. The Iowa State Board of Pharmacy also was contacted. Information was compiled to create a useful guide that addressed disaster planning, risk assessment, and public need during a disaster and that prioritized the needs of the pharmacy and community. Every community pharmacy should have a detailed disaster preparedness manual that is readily accessible and easy to follow. The manual created for Valley Drug focused on continuing pharmacy operations while minimizing disruptions in patient care during a disaster. Our manual included only necessary information required to prepare for, operate during, or recover from a disaster.

  6. An Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience in Academia

    PubMed Central

    Sylvia, Lynne M.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To create an advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) that would encourage students to consider a career in academia. Design A 6-week, 6-credit elective APPE was created that offered students the opportunity to observe and participate in activities consistent with a full-time faculty appointment. Assessment A 9-question survey instrument was administered to 27 students who completed the APPE between 2000 and 2004 to determine the impact of the APPE on the student's career choice. Sixteen (59%) of the 27 students returned the completed survey instrument. Ten of the 16 respondents noted that the APPE had influenced their pursuit of a position with a teaching component. Conclusion Offering APPEs in academia may encourage students to incorporate teaching and scholarship into their career plans. PMID:17149426

  7. Pharmacy Student Learning During Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences in Relation to the CAPE 2013 Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    May, Dianne W.; Kanmaz, Tina J.; Reidt, Shannon L.; Serres, Michelle L.; Edwards, Heather D.

    2016-01-01

    Outcomes from The Center for Advancement of Pharmacy Education (CAPE) are intended to represent the terminal knowledge, skills, and attitudes pharmacy students should possess and have guided delivery of pharmacy education for more than two decades. Advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) are the endpoint of pharmacy curricula where demonstration and assessment of terminal learning occurs. This review examines published literature in relation to the most recent CAPE outcomes to determine the extent to which they have been addressed during APPEs since 1996. Details related to the APPE focus, intervention(s)/learning setting(s), and assessments are summarized according to the 15 CAPE outcomes. Further, the assessments are categorized according to the level of learning achieved using an available method. Common CAPE outcomes are highlighted, as well as those for which published reports are lacking for APPEs. The range and quality of assessments are discussed and emphasize the need for continuous improvement of scholarly design and assessment. PMID:27756935

  8. Constructs underlying community pharmacy dispensing functions relative to Florida pharmacy technicians.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Debbie L; Kimberlin, Carole L; Brushwood, David B; Segal, Richard

    2007-01-01

    To assess pharmacist and pharmacy technician opinions on functions community pharmacy technicians should perform. Cross-sectional and descriptive. Florida community pharmacies during August and September 2004. Random sample of Florida community pharmacists (n = 2,000) and Certified Pharmacy Technicians (n = 2,000). Self-administered mail questionnaire. Participant attitudes (6-point Likert-type scale: 1, strongly disagree; 6, strongly agree) regarding whether pharmacy technicians should perform 26 community pharmacy dispensing functions. Chi-square difference tests and separate group exploratory factor analyses (EFAs) were conducted. Pharmacists (n = 383) and technicians (n = 579) agreed that technicians should perform 17 of the 26 (65%) functions. The groups differed significantly on eight items that were focused on patient care and beyond technicians' traditional involvement in processing prescriptions, with technicians having a more expansive view of their roles than did pharmacist respondents. Three similar factors were extracted in both groups from the EFAs: functions typical of pharmacy technicians in current practice, clinical pharmacy knowledge functions, and pharmacist-only functions as specified by law. Additionally, general drug knowledge (technician data only) and pharmacy information evaluation and management skills (pharmacist data only) factors were generated. Generally, pharmacists and technicians agreed on basic functions involving prescription and claims processing; however, technicians, as compared with pharmacists, supported a more expanded patient care role for themselves.

  9. Evaluation of the Pharmacy Safety Climate Questionnaire in European community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Phipps, Denham L; De Bie, Jolanda; Herborg, Hanne; Guerreiro, Mara; Eickhoff, Christiane; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando; Bouvy, Marcel L; Rossing, Charlotte; Mueller, Uta; Ashcroft, Darren M

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the internal reliability, factor structure and construct validity of the Pharmacy Safety Climate Questionnaire (PSCQ) when applied to a pan-European sample of community pharmacies. A cross-sectional survey design was used. Community pharmacies in Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, Portugal and Great Britain. A total of 4105 members of the community pharmacy workforce, all drawn from one of the five participating countries. Each participant completed a copy of the Pharmacy Safety Climate Questionnaire in his or her respective language and rated the perceived safety of the pharmacy in which he or she worked. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of the data identified four factors that accounted for item responses, with 24 of the original 34 items loading onto them. They were labelled organizational learning, blame culture, working conditions and safety focus. These factors were found to have an acceptable level of reliability (with Cronbach's alpha values ranging from 0.70 to 0.92) and to predict the rating of pharmacy safety. This study provided information on the PSCQ's psychometric properties when used in community pharmacies in different European countries. A modified version of the original PSCQ (known as PSCQ-4) is presented, and further work is proposed to demonstrate its application to safety improvements in pharmacies.

  10. Medicine shortages--a study of community pharmacies in Finland.

    PubMed

    Heiskanen, K; Ahonen, R; Karttunen, P; Kanerva, R; Timonen, J

    2015-02-01

    To explore the frequency, the reasons behind, and the consequences of medicine shortages in Finnish community pharmacies. During the 27-day study period in the autumn of 2013, randomly selected pharmacies reported on medicines that were in short supply from orders made to wholesalers. Altogether 129 (66%, n=195) pharmacies participated in the study, and the study material consisted of 3311 report forms. Of the study pharmacies, 79.8% had medicine shortages daily or almost daily. Medicines in short supply were most commonly medicines that affect the nervous system (30.8%) and the cardiovascular system (17.5%). The reason behind the shortage was reported to the pharmacies in 11.2% of the shortage cases. The medicine shortages caused problems for the pharmacies in 33.0% of the cases. In most cases (67.0%) the medicine shortages did not cause problems for the pharmacies, usually because a substitutable product was available (48.5%). Medicine shortages are common in Finnish community pharmacies. Medicines in short supply were commonly used medicines. The reason behind the shortage was rarely told to the pharmacies. Medicine shortages caused problems for the pharmacies in one-third of all the shortage cases. These shortages may be significant for the customers or the pharmacies, as they cause customer dissatisfaction and increase the workload of the pharmacy staff. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Community pharmacy owners' views of star ratings and performance measurement: In-depth interviews.

    PubMed

    Teeter, Benjamin S; Fox, Brent I; Garza, Kimberly B; Harris, Stanley G; Nau, David P; Owensby, Justin K; Westrick, Salisa C

    2016-01-01

    The star rating system implemented by Medicare has the potential to positively affect patient health and may have financial implications for community pharmacies. Learning from owners of community pharmacies with high performance on these quality measures may help us to identify and further understand factors contributing to their success. This study described high-performing community pharmacy owners' current awareness and knowledge of star ratings, attitudes toward star ratings and performance measurement, and initiatives being offered in pharmacies that aim to improve the quality of care. Qualitative interviews with owners of independent community pharmacies were conducted in Spring 2015. Fifteen community pharmacies with high performance on the star rating measures were invited to participate. Recruitment did not end until the saturation point had been reached. All interviews were transcribed verbatim. Interview data were analyzed with the use of ATLAS.ti by 2 coders trained in thematic analysis. Krippendorf's alpha was calculated to assess intercoder reliability. Ten high-performing pharmacy owners participated. Analysis identified 8 themes, which were organized into the following categories: 1) current awareness and knowledge (i.e., superficial or advanced knowledge); 2) attitudes toward star ratings (positive perceptions, skeptical of performance rewards, and lack a feeling of control); and 3) pharmacy initiatives (personal patient relationships, collaborative employee relationships, and use of technology). Intercoder reliability was good overall. Interviews with high-performing pharmacies suggested that awareness of the star rating measures, overall positive attitudes toward the star ratings, the relationships that pharmacy owners have with their patients and their employees, and the use of technology as a tool to enhance patient care may contribute to high performance on the star rating measures. Future research is needed to determine if and how these

  12. Implementing disease management in community pharmacy practice.

    PubMed

    Holdford, D; Kennedy, D T; Bernadella, P; Small, R E

    1998-01-01

    Disease management (DM) is a comprehensive approach to preventing and treating disease that: (1) targets patients with specific diseases; (2) provides integrated services across organizational and professional boundaries; (3) utilizes services based on the best scientific evidence available; and (4) focuses on outcomes. DM differs from pharmaceutical care in that pharmaceutical care targets not only patients with specific diseases but also those with risk factors for drug-related problems, a history of nonadherence, and frequent changes in medication regimens. Steps to starting a DM program include: (1) identifying a target population based on the population's strategic importance to the goals and aims of the organization; (2) assessing the organization's available resources, both internal and external; (3) defining key indicators with which to assess the program for the purposes of internal quality control and of obtaining compensation from third-party payers; (4) implementing the program using the best scientific methods available; and (5) assessing the impact of the program. The development of a smoking cessation program at a nationwide retail pharmacy chain is used as an example of a DM program initiated in community pharmacy practice. Pharmacists are well positioned to take a major role in DM, because they are accessible to the community and because DM frequently involves drug therapy. DM is also widely used in managed care. It is important that community pharmacists be closely involved in the DM approach as it evolves.

  13. Living in an older adult community: a pharmacy student's experience.

    PubMed

    Anastasia, Emily; Estus, Erica

    2013-12-01

    Interacting with older adults is a daily practice for pharmacists. It is important to understand how medications affect their wellbeing, but there are many other factors that affect quality of life. To truly understand some of the challenges facing older adults, Emily Anastasia, a sixth-year pharmacy student at the University of Rhode Island, moved into South Bay Retirement Living, a senior living community, for an eight-day immersion experience as a special project within one of her advanced pharmacy practice experience rotations. During her stay, she did not attend classes nor leave the facility unless on the South Bay bus with the other assisted living residents. She lived with a 92-year-old roommate, developed close friendships with many of the residents, and kept a detailed journal of her experience. The purpose of this reflection is to share her experience and recognize lifestyle as well as social and physical environment as factors in understanding the aging process. Immersing a pharmacy student within an assisted living community provides a unique opportunity to observe and appreciate characteristics of older adults that cannot be learned within a classroom setting.

  14. The Redesign of a Community Pharmacy Internship Program.

    PubMed

    Pattin, Anthony J; Kelling, Sarah E; Szyskowski, Jim; Izor, Michelle L; Findley, Susan

    2016-06-01

    Pharmacy internships provide students with practical experiences that lead to enhancement of clinical skills and personal growth. To describe the design and implementation of a structured 10-week summer pharmacy internship program in a supermarket chain pharmacy. The pharmacy leadership team developed and piloted a new format of the pharmacy internship during the summer of 2013. Pharmacy students in professional year 1 (P1), 2 (P2), and 4 (P4) were invited to apply for a paid internship. Pharmacy students were recruited from all colleges of pharmacy in the state of Michigan. The goal of the new program was to create a focused learning opportunity that encouraged students to develop knowledge, skills, and abilities about patient care, pharmacy management, and working within a team. A total of 19 interns were recruited (P1 = 7, P2 = 7, and P4 = 5). Students practiced 40 hours per week and participated in the medication dispensing process and employee biometrics screening program. Interns provided approximately 500 assessments on pharmacy employees and all P1 and P2 interns completed a patient care project. The restructured internship program provided pharmacy students with a 10-week program that exposed them to many aspects of community pharmacy practice. The program needs future refinement and assessment measures to verify interns improve skills throughout the program. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Profitability, third-party reimbursement, and access to community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Carroll, N V; Miederhoff, P A; Waters, L W

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the extent to which third-party reimbursement programs have affected the profitability and availability of community pharmacies. Data were taken from records maintained by the Virginia Board of Pharmacy and a survey of 177 community pharmacies. Between 1989 and 1994, 258 outpatient pharmacies opened and 342 closed. Chain and independent pharmacies suffered net losses, and supermarket and mass merchandiser pharmacies experienced net increases. Few significant changes occurred in the distribution of pharmacies over the study period. Fifty-nine chain and independent pharmacies and 1 supermarket pharmacy chain provided usable profit and reimbursement data. These pharmacies experienced declines in profits and increases in the percentage of prescriptions reimbursed by private third-party prescription programs over the last several years. Regression analyses indicated that higher ratios of sales of private third-party prescriptions to private-pay prescriptions were associated with lower profits. All respondents indicated that changes in private third-party reimbursement had substantially reduced profits over the past 5 years. The results indicate that the growth of private third-party payment has led to lower pharmacy profits but has not yet resulted in problems of consumer access.

  16. Tobacco and alcohol sales in community pharmacies: policy statements from U.S. professional pharmacy associations.

    PubMed

    Corelli, Robin L; Chai, Tiffany; Karic, Alda; Fairman, Melinda; Baez, Karina; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek

    2014-01-01

    To characterize the extent to which state and national professional pharmacy associations have implemented formal policies addressing the sale of tobacco and alcohol products in community pharmacies. To determine existence of tobacco and alcohol policies, national professional pharmacy associations (n = 10) and state-level pharmacy associations (n = 86) affiliated with the American Pharmacists Association (APhA) and/or the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) were contacted via telephone and/or e-mail, and a search of the association websites was conducted. Of 95 responding associations (99%), 14% have a formal policy opposing the sale of tobacco products in pharmacies and 5% have a formal policy opposing the sale of alcohol in pharmacies. Of the associations representing major tobacco-producing states, 40% have a formal policy against tobacco sales in pharmacies, significantly more than the 8% of non-tobacco state associations with such policies. Among national professional pharmacy associations, only APhA and ASHP have formal policy statements opposing the sale of both tobacco and alcohol in pharmacies. Most state-level professional pharmacy associations affiliated with these two national organizations have no formal policy statement or position.

  17. Overview and reflections of a new experimental community pharmacy internship module for undergraduate pharmacy students in western Nepal.

    PubMed

    Timsina, Sangita; K C, Bhuvan; Adhikari, Dristi; Alrasheedy, Alian A; Mohamed Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham; Kaundinnyayana, Atisammodavardhana

    2017-08-16

    The community pharmacies in Nepal and other South Asian countries is in a mediocre state due to poor regulation and the pharmacies being run by people with short training on dispensing. This has led to inappropriate use of medicines. The problem due to poor regulation and mediocre state of community pharmacies in South Asia encompasses both academia and practice. In this paper, the two-week community pharmacy internship programme of the two pharmacy graduating students of Pokhara University (Nepalese public university) at Sankalpa Pharmacy, Pokhara, Nepal is illustrated. During the internship, they were systematically trained on store management, pharmaceutical care, counseling skill, use of medical devices, pharmaceutical business plan, medicine information sources and ADR reporting. Orientation, observation and hands-on training, case presentation, discussion, and feedback by two senior pharmacists were used as the training method. Proper community pharmacy internship format, good pharmacy practice standards and better work environment for pharmacist may improve the quality of the community pharmacies.

  18. Promoting weight management services in community pharmacy: perspectives of the pharmacy team in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Weidmann, Anita Elaine; MacLure, Katie; Marshall, Sarah; Gray, Gwen; Stewart, Derek

    2015-08-01

    Obesity has reached pandemic levels with more than 1.4 billion adults affected worldwide. While there is a need to systematically develop and evaluate community pharmacy based models of weight management, it is imperative to describe and understand the perspectives of pharmacy staff. In the UK, trained and accredited community pharmacy medicines counter assistants (MCAs) are commonly the front line staff involved in patient consultations and sale of over-the-counter medicines. To explore the beliefs and experiences of pharmacists and MCAs in the North-East of Scotland on community pharmacy weight management. All 135 community pharmacies in the North-East of Scotland. A qualitative approach of semi-structured telephone interviews with 31 pharmacists and 20 MCAs in the North-East of Scotland. The semi-structured interview schedule was developed with reference to key domains describing professional practice (i.e. awareness and knowledge, skills, practicalities, motivation, acceptance and beliefs) and contextualised with policy documents and published research on community pharmacy based weight management. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed thematically. Pharmacists' and MCAs' beliefs and experiences with delivering weight management services in community pharmacy. There were mixed responses from pharmacists and MCAs around pharmacy based weight management services from positive views of providing the service in community pharmacy to those more reticent who would always favour patients visiting their physician. While all described similar services e.g. measurement of weight, healthy eating advice, supply of products, they acknowledged that support was often opportunistic at the request of customers, with little integration of other providers. Roles described varied from pharmacist only functions to any staff member. While pharmacists generally felt comfortable and confident, MCAs gave more diverse responses. Both Pharmacist and MCAs highlighted

  19. Time Investment in Drug Supply Problems by Flemish Community Pharmacies.

    PubMed

    De Weerdt, Elfi; Simoens, Steven; Casteels, Minne; Huys, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Drug supply problems are a known problem for pharmacies. Community and hospital pharmacies do everything they can to minimize impact on patients. This study aims to quantify the time spent by Flemish community pharmacies on drug supply problems. Materials and Methods: During 18 weeks, employees of 25 community pharmacies filled in a template with the total time spent on drug supply problems. The template stated all the steps community pharmacies could undertake to manage drug supply problems. Results: Considering the median over the study period, the median time spent on drug supply problems was 25 min per week, with a minimum of 14 min per week and a maximum of 38 min per week. After calculating the median of each pharmacy, large differences were observed between pharmacies: about 25% spent less than 15 min per week and one-fifth spent more than 1 h per week. The steps on which community pharmacists spent most time are: (i) "check missing products from orders," (ii) "contact wholesaler/manufacturers regarding potential drug shortages," and (iii) "communicating to patients." These three steps account for about 50% of the total time spent on drug supply problems during the study period. Conclusion: Community pharmacies spend about half an hour per week on drug supply problems. Although 25 min per week does not seem that much, the time spent is not delineated and community pharmacists are constantly confronted with drug supply problems.

  20. Time Investment in Drug Supply Problems by Flemish Community Pharmacies

    PubMed Central

    De Weerdt, Elfi; Simoens, Steven; Casteels, Minne; Huys, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Drug supply problems are a known problem for pharmacies. Community and hospital pharmacies do everything they can to minimize impact on patients. This study aims to quantify the time spent by Flemish community pharmacies on drug supply problems. Materials and Methods: During 18 weeks, employees of 25 community pharmacies filled in a template with the total time spent on drug supply problems. The template stated all the steps community pharmacies could undertake to manage drug supply problems. Results: Considering the median over the study period, the median time spent on drug supply problems was 25 min per week, with a minimum of 14 min per week and a maximum of 38 min per week. After calculating the median of each pharmacy, large differences were observed between pharmacies: about 25% spent less than 15 min per week and one-fifth spent more than 1 h per week. The steps on which community pharmacists spent most time are: (i) “check missing products from orders,” (ii) “contact wholesaler/manufacturers regarding potential drug shortages,” and (iii) “communicating to patients.” These three steps account for about 50% of the total time spent on drug supply problems during the study period. Conclusion: Community pharmacies spend about half an hour per week on drug supply problems. Although 25 min per week does not seem that much, the time spent is not delineated and community pharmacists are constantly confronted with drug supply problems. PMID:28878679

  1. Canadian Educational Approaches for the Advancement of Pharmacy Practice

    PubMed Central

    Louizos, Christopher; Austin, Zubin

    2014-01-01

    Canadian faculties (schools) of pharmacy are actively engaged in the advancement and restructuring of their programs in response to the shift in pharmacy to pharmacists having/assuming an advanced practitioner role. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of evidence outlining optimal strategies for accomplishing this task. This review explores several educational changes proposed in the literature to aid in the advancement of pharmacy education such as program admission requirements, critical-thinking assessment and teaching methods, improvement of course content delivery, value of interprofessional education, advancement of practical experiential education, and mentorship strategies. Collectively, implementation of these improvements to pharmacy education will be crucial in determining the direction the profession will take. PMID:25258448

  2. Patient satisfaction with community pharmacy: comparing urban and suburban chain-pharmacy populations.

    PubMed

    Malewski, David F; Ream, Aimrie; Gaither, Caroline A

    2015-01-01

    Patient satisfaction with pharmaceutical care can be a strong predictor of medication and other health-related outcomes. Less understood is the role that location of pharmacies in urban or suburban environments plays in patient satisfaction with pharmacy and pharmacist services. The purpose of this study was to serve as a pilot examining urban and suburban community pharmacy populations for similarities and differences in patient satisfaction. Community pharmacy patients were asked to self-administer a 30-question patient satisfaction survey. Fifteen questions addressed their relationship with the pharmacist, 10 questions addressed satisfaction and accessibility of the pharmacy, and five questions addressed financial concerns. Five urban and five suburban pharmacies agreed to participate. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and chi-square analysis. Most patients reported high levels of satisfaction. Satisfaction with pharmacist relationship and service was 70% or higher with no significant differences between locations. There were significant differences between the urban and suburban patients regarding accessibility of pharmacy services, customer service and some patient/pharmacist trust issues. The significant differences between patient satisfaction in the suburban and urban populations warrant a larger study with more community pharmacies in other urban, suburban and rural locations to better understand and validate study findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The organizational framework of community pharmacies in Europe.

    PubMed

    Martins, Sílvia Filipa; van Mil, J W Foppe; da Costa, Filipa Alves

    2015-10-01

    The role of the pharmacist has undergone profound changes over the recent years. In most European countries, the tendency seems to be that pharmacists are moving from being product-oriented to service-oriented. An interesting series of papers describing care related services of pharmacy in various countries has been published in 2006, but much has changed since then. This paper aims to provide an updated view on the overall health care sector in Europe, with a special focus on services in community pharmacy. To list and compare health care and community pharmacy structure in Europe; and to discuss the facilitators and barriers that can be found in health care systems and may promote or hinder the implementation of new community pharmacy services. European community pharmacy practice. A cross-sectional study was undertaken where data were collected using an online survey sent to a purposive sample of representatives from 27 European countries. Main outcome measure variation in professional community pharmacy services across Europe. Data were obtained from 22 respondents in 19 countries (70.4%). Health care is mainly provided by a form of public National Health Services in 17 of the 19 countries. Demographic criteria for founding new pharmacies were present in 17 countries. Medicines are exclusively available in pharmacies in approximately one third of the countries. Smoking cessation (93.8%), drug waste management (81.3%) and pharmaceutical care programmes for specific diseases (77.8%) were reported as the most widely disseminated services in European pharmacies. There are still major differences between community pharmacy practice in Europe. Differences are mostly due to the legal framework and remuneration issues, which impact on the range of services available from pharmacies to the community of each country.

  4. Pharmaceutical care in community pharmacies: practice and research in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Westerlund, Lo Tommy; Björk, H Thony

    2006-06-01

    To describe the organization and delivery of community pharmacy and medical care, as well as pharmaceutical care practice and research, in Sweden. The Swedish retail pharmacy system of 800 community pharmacies and nearly 80 hospital pharmacies is unique in that it is organized into one single, government-owned chain, known as Apoteket AB. The pharmacy staff consists of pharmacists, prescriptionists, and pharmacy technicians. Some activities related to pharmaceutical care have been directed toward specific patient groups during annual theme campaigns. In the past few years, there has been a growing emphasis on the identification, resolution, and documentation of drug-related problems (DRPs) in Swedish pharmacy practice. A classification system for documenting DRPs and pharmacy interventions was developed in 1995 and incorporated into the software of all community pharmacies in 2001. A national DRP database (SWE-DRP) was established in 2004 to collect and analyze DRPs and interventions on a nationwide basis. Recently, a new counseling technique composed of key questions to facilitate the detection of DRPs has been tested successfully. Patient medication profiles are kept in 160 pharmacies, and a new national register of drugs dispensed to patients became available in 2006. Most pharmaceutical care studies in Sweden have focused on DRPs and resulting pharmacy interventions. Swedish community pharmacy DRP work is in the international forefront but there is a potential for further developing cognitive services, given the beneficial organization of the country's pharmacies into one single pharmacy chain. The introduction of patient medication profiles has been both late and slow and has only had a marginal effect on pharmaceutical care practice so far. The universities do not appear to have any desire to influence the practice of pharmacy and could potentially take on a more active role in preparing pharmacy students for patient-oriented services. Current threats to

  5. Community health integration through pharmacy process and ergonomics redesign (CHIPPER).

    PubMed

    Jahn, Michelle A; Caldwell, Barrett S

    2017-07-13

    As the expansion and utilisation of community pharmacy systems increases, so does the risk for an adverse drug event to occur. In attempts to mitigate this risk, many community pharmacies implement health information technology (IT); however, there are challenges in integrating the wider systems components necessary for a successful implementation with minimal unintended consequences. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a Community Health Integration through Pharmacy Process and Ergonomics Redesign (CHIPPER) framework, which explores the multiple angles of health IT integration to support medication delivery processes in community pharmacy systems. Specifically, CHIPPER identifies the information flows that occur between different parts of the system (initiation, upstream, midstream and downstream) with varying end-users and tasks related to medication delivery processes. In addition to the justification and presentation of the CHIPPER model, this paper reviews several broad applications for CHIPPER and presents two example studies that demonstrate the CHIPPER framework. Practitioner Summary: Most medication delivery in the US occurs through outpatient-based community pharmacy practice. Community pharmacies are challenged by inconsistent and incomplete information flow and technology integration between providers, pharmacy practitioners and patients. This paper presents a framework for improved healthcare systems engineering analysis of pharmacy practice, with case study examples.

  6. Medication adherence communications in community pharmacies: A naturalistic investigation.

    PubMed

    Rickles, Nathaniel M; Young, Gary J; Hall, Judith A; Noland, Carey; Kim, Ayoung; Peterson, Conner; Hong, Mina; Hale, John

    2016-03-01

    To describe the extent of pharmacy detection and monitoring of medication non-adherence, and solutions offered to improve adherence. Participants were 60 residents of the Boston area who had a generic chronic medication with 30 day supplies from their usual pharmacy. Participants received a duplicate prescription which they filled at a different pharmacy. For 5 months, participants alternated between the two pharmacies, creating gaps in their refill records at both pharmacies but no gaps in their medication adherence. Participants followed a scripted protocol and after each pharmacy visit reported their own and the pharmacy staff's behavior. Across 78 unique community pharmacies and 260 pharmacy visits, pharmacies were inconsistent and inadequate in asking if participants had questions, discussing the importance of adherence, providing adequate consultations with new medication, and detecting and intervening on non-adherence. Insurers rarely contacted the participants about adherence concerns. There is a need for more structured intervention systems to ensure pharmacists are consistently and adequately educating patients and detecting/managing potential medication non-adherence. The present study calls for more attention to building infrastructure in pharmacy practice that helps pharmacists more consistently identify, monitor, and intervene on medication adherence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Pharmacy Student Learning Through Community Service.

    PubMed

    Sobota, Kristen Finley; Barnes, Jeremiah; Fitzpatrick, Alyse; Sobota, Micah J

    2015-07-01

    The Ohio Northern University American Society of Consultant Pharmacists chapter provides students the opportunity to apply classroom knowledge with learning through community service. One such program took place at the Lima Towers Apartment Community from September 18, 2014, to October 2, 2014, in Lima, Ohio. Three evening educational sessions focused on a different health topic: 1) mental health, 2) medication adherence/brown bag, and 3) healthy lifestyle choices/nutrition/smoking cessation. All three programs were structured identically, starting with dinner, followed by educational intervention, survey, blood pressure checks, and medication reviews. Two pharmacists and 16 pharmacy students implemented the program. Participants completed a total of 76 satisfaction surveys for the three programs, which were included in the data analysis. The average age of the participants was 65 years; 82% (n = 63) were female. Data demonstrated that 94% (n = 72) "learned something new," while 96% (n = 74) would "recommend the program to a friend/family member." The collected data showed the vast majority of participants from the surrounding community found value in the presentations performed by students, especially with regard to the new information they received and its perceived benefits. In light of such successes, we encourage other student chapters to implement similar community outreach events. ASCP student members can make a strong, positive impact in the community while learning in a nontraditional environment.

  8. Consumer satisfaction with community pharmacies in Warri, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oparah, Azuka C; Kikanme, Luke C

    2006-12-01

    Consumer satisfaction is likely to affect the image of the pharmacist and pharmacy profession. Efforts should not only be made to track consumer satisfaction with pharmacy services but also to improve it where needed. To investigate consumer satisfaction with community pharmacies in a Nigerian city. A cross-sectional survey of a consecutive sample of 700 pharmacy consumers at 35 randomly selected community pharmacies was conducted. Data were gathered on consumer demographics and their satisfaction with the community pharmacies using a 32-item rated instrument that combined pharmaceutical care and traditional pharmacy items. Descriptive statistics was computed on sample characteristics and the questionnaire items. Inferential statistics used Student's t test and one-way ANOVA. The response rate for the survey was 71.9% (503/700). Cronbach's alpha test of reliability was computed to be 0.980. Of the respondents, 298 (59.2%), 284 (56.5%), and 101 (20.1%) rated their satisfaction as excellent regarding availability of genuine drugs, the pharmacist, and household consumer goods, respectively. The mean total score for pharmaceutical care items was found to be 3.50+/-1.32, while the mean total score for traditional pharmacy items was computed to be 3.56+/-1.34 (midpoint=3, range=1 to 5). Consumers' income status was associated with their satisfaction, with the lower income earners experiencing higher satisfaction (F=2.668, P=.050). Consumers in this survey experienced moderate service satisfaction with their community pharmacy encounters. The consumers were most satisfied with the pharmacists' professional attitude but dissatisfied with the provision of nondrug services in the community pharmacy. These services are mainly health promotion activities that are advocated under pharmaceutical care philosophy. There is an opportunity for the community pharmacies to introduce new services and enhance their consumer loyalty.

  9. Opinion comparison concerning future information technology in Finnish community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Westerling, Anna Marietta; Hynninen, Jaana Tuulikki; Haikala, Veikko Ewald; Airaksinen, Marja S

    2010-12-01

    To compare the opinions of community pharmacy owners, managers and personnel concerning the key features of the future information technology system needed in Finnish community pharmacies. The study was targeted to the pharmacists working in community pharmacies as managers (owners and staff pharmacists with M.Sc. degree) or personnel responsible for dispensing and patient counselling (pharmacists with B.Sc. degree). A national cross-sectional survey to all of Finnish community pharmacy owners (n = 580) and staff pharmacists (B.Sc. and M.Sc. degrees, n = 1709) working in community pharmacies, was conducted in order to determine differences in opinions between these occupation groups with different professional duties. The response rates were 53% for pharmacy owners (n = 308) and 22% for staff pharmacists (n = 373). The main outcome measure was the perceived importance of 89 potential features for a new IT system ranked by using a five-point Likert scale. The responding community pharmacy managers and staff pharmacists had differences in their ranking of more than half (52%) of the potential features listed in the survey questionnaire. The features related to the pharmacy's internal processes, such as financial management, sales and marketing management and stock holding, were ranked significantly higher by the managers, while the personnel prioritized the features supporting pharmaceutical service provision and personnel management. The managers and personnel shared their opinion on the importance of features supporting drug information and patient counselling, medication safety and interprofessional collaboration. The managers and staff pharmacists have different views of the importance of IT features, reflecting their different professional duties in the community pharmacy. A high priority was given for the features familiar to the users and needed in their daily practice. This indicates the need for involving different occupation groups in planning the new IT

  10. Relationship between E-Prescriptions and Community Pharmacy Workflow

    PubMed Central

    Odukoya, Olufunmilola K.; Chui, Michelle A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To understand how community pharmacists use electronic prescribing (e-prescribing) technology; and to describe the workflow challenges pharmacy personnel encounter as a result of using e-prescribing technology. Design Cross-sectional qualitative study. Setting Seven community pharmacies in Wisconsin from December 2010 to March 2011 Participants 16 pharmacists and 14 pharmacy technicians (in three chain and four independent pharmacies). Interventions Think-aloud protocol and pharmacy group interviews. Main outcome measures Pharmacy staff description of their use of e-prescribing technology and challenges encountered in their daily workflow related to this technology. Results Two contributing factors were perceived to influence e-prescribing workflow: issues stemming from prescribing or transmitting software, and issues from within the pharmacy. Pharmacies experienced both delays in receiving, and inaccurate e-prescriptions from physician offices. Receiving an overwhelming number of e-prescriptions with inaccurate or unclear information resulted in significant time delays for patients as pharmacists contacted physicians to clarify wrong information. In addition, pharmacy personnel reported that lack of formal training and the disconnect between the way pharmacists verify accuracy and conduct drug utilization review and the presentation of e-prescription information on the computer screen significantly influenced the speed of processing an e-prescription. Conclusion E-prescriptions processing can hinder pharmacy workflow. As the number of e-prescriptions transmitted to pharmacies increases due to legislative mandates; it is essential that the technology that supports e-prescriptions (both on the prescriber and pharmacy operating systems) be redesigned to facilitate pharmacy workflow processes and to prevent unintended consequences, such as increased medication errors, user frustration, and stress. PMID:23229979

  11. An exploration of the utility of appraisals for the revalidation of pharmacy professionals in community pharmacy in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Jee, Samuel D; Jacobs, Sally; Schafheutle, Ellen I; Elvey, Rebecca; Hassell, Karen; Noyce, Peter R

    2013-01-01

    With revalidation in pharmacy in the United Kingdom fast approaching, appropriate systems of revalidation in community pharmacy are required. With little known about the potential use of appraisals for evaluating fitness to practice in pharmacy professionals (pharmacists and pharmacy technicians) in this sector, research was undertaken to explore their potential utility in a revalidation process. To examine existing structures and processes in community pharmacy appraisals in Great Britain (ie, England, Scotland, and Wales) and consider the views of pharmacy stakeholders on if, and how, appraisals could contribute to revalidation of pharmacy professionals. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with senior staff (eg, superintendents and professional development managers) from chain community pharmacies as well as pharmacy managers/owners from independent pharmacies. Senior staff from locum agencies and pharmacy technician stakeholders were also interviewed. Appraisals were in place for pharmacists in most chain pharmacies but not in independent pharmacies. Locum pharmacists were not appraised, either by the companies they worked for or by the locum agencies. Pharmacy managers/owners working in independent pharmacies were also not appraised. Pharmacy technicians were appraised in most chain pharmacies but only in some independent pharmacies. Where appraisals were in operation, they were carried out by line managers who may or may not be a pharmacist. Appraisals did not seem to cover areas relevant to fitness to practice but instead focused more on performance related to business targets. This was particularly true for those in more senior positions within the organization such as area managers and superintendent pharmacists. Existing systems of appraisal, on their own, do not seem to be suitable for revalidating a pharmacy professional. Considerable changes to the existing appraisal systems in community pharmacy and employer engagement may be necessary

  12. Racial and ethnic disparities in influenza vaccinations among community pharmacy patients and non-community pharmacy respondents

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junling; Munshi, Kiraat D.; Hong, Song Hee

    2013-01-01

    Background Since 2009, pharmacists in all 50 states in the U.S. have been authorized to administer vaccinations. Objectives This study examined racial and ethnic disparities in the reported receipt of influenza vaccinations within the past year among noninstitutionalized community pharmacy patients and non-community pharmacy respondents. Methods The 2009 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey was analyzed. The sample consisted of respondents aged 50 years or older, as per the 2009 recommendations by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the influenza vaccination rates and disparities in receiving influenza vaccinations within past year between non-Hispanic Whites (Whites), non-Hispanic Blacks (Blacks) and Hispanics. The influenza vaccination rates between community pharmacy patients and non-community pharmacy respondents were also examined. Results Bivariate analyses found that among the community pharmacy patients, a greater proportion of Whites reported receiving influenza vaccinations compared to Blacks (60.9% vs. 49.1%; P < 0.0001) and Hispanics (60.9% vs. 51.7%; P < 0.0001). Among non-community pharmacy respondents, differences also were observed in reported influenza vaccination rates among Whites compared to Blacks (41.0% vs. 24.3%; P < 0.0001) and Hispanics (41.0% vs. 26.0%; P < 0.0001). Adjusted logistic regression analyses found significant racial disparities between Blacks and Whites in receiving influenza vaccinations within the past year among both community pharmacy patients (odds ratio [OR]: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.69–0.95) and non-community pharmacy respondents (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.46–0.94). Sociodemographic characteristics and health status accounted for the disparities between Hispanics and Whites. Overall, community pharmacy patients reported higher influenza vaccination rates compared to non-community pharmacy respondents (59.0% vs. 37.2%; P < 0.0001). Conclusion

  13. Racial and ethnic disparities in influenza vaccinations among community pharmacy patients and non-community pharmacy respondents.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junling; Munshi, Kiraat D; Hong, Song Hee

    2014-01-01

    Since 2009, pharmacists in all 50 states in the U.S. have been authorized to administer vaccinations. This study examined racial and ethnic disparities in the reported receipt of influenza vaccinations within the past year among noninstitutionalized community pharmacy patients and non-community pharmacy respondents. The 2009 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey was analyzed. The sample consisted of respondents aged 50 years or older, as per the 2009 recommendations by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the influenza vaccination rates and disparities in receiving influenza vaccinations within past year between non-Hispanic Whites (Whites), non-Hispanic Blacks (Blacks) and Hispanics. The influenza vaccination rates between community pharmacy patients and non-community pharmacy respondents were also examined. Bivariate analyses found that among the community pharmacy patients, a greater proportion of Whites reported receiving influenza vaccinations compared to Blacks (60.9% vs. 49.1%; P < 0.0001) and Hispanics (60.9% vs. 51.7%; P < 0.0001). Among non-community pharmacy respondents, differences also were observed in reported influenza vaccination rates among Whites compared to Blacks (41.0% vs. 24.3%; P < 0.0001) and Hispanics (41.0% vs. 26.0%; P < 0.0001). Adjusted logistic regression analyses found significant racial disparities between Blacks and Whites in receiving influenza vaccinations within the past year among both community pharmacy patients (odds ratio [OR]: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.69-0.95) and non-community pharmacy respondents (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.46-0.94). Sociodemographic characteristics and health status accounted for the disparities between Hispanics and Whites. Overall, community pharmacy patients reported higher influenza vaccination rates compared to non-community pharmacy respondents (59.0% vs. 37.2%; P < 0.0001). Although influenza vaccination rates were

  14. Characteristics of Rural Communities with a Sole, Independently Owned Pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Nattinger, Matthew; Ullrich, Fred; Mueller, Keith J

    2015-04-01

    Prior RUPRI Center policy briefs have described the role of rural pharmacies in providing many essential clinical services (in addition to prescription and nonprescription medications), such as blood pressure monitoring, immunizations, and diabetes counseling, and the adverse effects of Medicare Part D negotiated networks on the financial viability of rural pharmacies.1 Because rural pharmacies play such a broad role in health care delivery, pharmacy closures can sharply reduce access to essential health care services in rural and underserved communities. These closures are of particular concern in rural areas served by a sole, independently owned pharmacy (i.e., a pharmacy unaffiliated with a chain or franchise). This policy brief characterizes the population of rural areas served by a sole, independently owned pharmacy. Dependent on a sole pharmacy, these areas are at highest risk to lose access to many essential clinical services. Key Findings. (1) In 2014 over 2.7 million people lived in 663 rural communities served by a sole, independently owned pharmacy. (2) More than one-quarter of these residents (27.9 percent) were living below 150 percent of the federal poverty level. (3) Based on estimates from 2012, a substantial portion of the residents of these areas were dependent on public insurance (i.e., Medicare and/or Medicaid, 20.5 percent) or were uninsured (15.0 percent). (4) If the sole, independent retail pharmacy in these communities were to close, the next closest retail pharmacy would be over 10 miles away for a majority of rural communities (69.7 percent).

  15. Self-medication with antibiotics in the Republic of Srpska community pharmacies: pharmacy staff behavior.

    PubMed

    Marković-Peković, Vanda; Grubiša, Nataša

    2012-10-01

    Self-medication with antibiotics adds to the global risk of increased spread of bacterial resistance. Attitudes and behavior of health professionals also may reinforce self-medication with antibiotics. The aim of this study was to determine whether self-medication with antibiotics is possible in our community pharmacies and to what extent, and to evaluate the behavior and service of pharmacy health professionals regarding non-prescription antibiotic dispensation. An observational, cross-section study was conducted, and pseudo-patient methodology was used to establish the kind of professional service provided in case of patient's explicit demand to buy an antibiotic for treatment of self-diagnosed upper respiratory tract infection. Of the total 318 community pharmacies, 131 (41%) were visited and included in the study. Non-prescription antibiotics were dispensed in 76 (58%) pharmacies. Counseling and symptomatic therapy was offered in 88 (67%) pharmacies. In 25% of pharmacies, no symptomatic therapy was offered; instead, only an antibiotic was sold. Amoxicillin was sold in 85% of cases and, mostly, the one of 1.30 Euro per pack. Both oral and written use instructions were given in 78% cases, whereas none was given in 3% of cases. Self-medication with antibiotics occurs in our community pharmacies, despite being illegal. Pharmacy staff behavior can be a factor that puts patients at risk for self-medication with antibiotics. Community pharmacies are failing their tasks in enhancing rational use of antibiotics. Such a practice may be a consequence of weak enforcement and control over the legislation and professional standards. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Pharmacy practice and injection use in community pharmacies in Pokhara city, Western Nepal.

    PubMed

    Gyawali, Sudesh; Rathore, Devendra Singh; Adhikari, Kishor; Shankar, Pathiyil Ravi; K C, Vikash Kumar; Basnet, Suyog

    2014-04-28

    Community pharmacies in Nepal serve as the first point of contact for the public with the health care system and provide many services, including administering injections. However, there is a general lack of documented information on pharmacy practice and injection use in these pharmacies. This study aims to provide information about pharmacy practice in terms of service and drug information sources, and injection use, including the disposal of used injection equipment. A mixed method, cross-sectional study was conducted in 54 community pharmacies in Pokhara city. Data was collected using a pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire, and also by the direct observation of pharmacy premises. Interviews with pharmacy supervisors (proprietors) were also conducted to obtain additional information about certain points. Interviews were carried out with 54 pharmacy supervisors/proprietors (47 males and 7 females) with a mean age and experience of 35.54 and 11.73 years, respectively. Approximately a half of the studied premises were operated by legally recognized pharmaceutical personnel, while the remainder was run by people who did not have the legal authority to operate pharmacies independently. About a quarter of pharmacies were providing services such as the administration of injections, wound dressing, and laboratory and consultation services in addition to medicine dispensing and counseling services. The 'Current Index of Medical Specialties' was the most commonly used source for drug information. Almost two-thirds of patients visiting the pharmacies were dispensed medicines without a prescription. Tetanus Toxoid, Depot-Medroxy Progesterone Acetate, and Diclofenac were the most commonly-used/administered injections. Most of the generated waste (including sharps) was disposed of in a municipal dump without adhering to the proper procedures for the disposal of hazardous waste. Community pharmacies in Pokhara offer a wide range of services including, but not limited to

  17. Pharmacy practice and injection use in community pharmacies in Pokhara city, Western Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Community pharmacies in Nepal serve as the first point of contact for the public with the health care system and provide many services, including administering injections. However, there is a general lack of documented information on pharmacy practice and injection use in these pharmacies. This study aims to provide information about pharmacy practice in terms of service and drug information sources, and injection use, including the disposal of used injection equipment. Methods A mixed method, cross-sectional study was conducted in 54 community pharmacies in Pokhara city. Data was collected using a pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire, and also by the direct observation of pharmacy premises. Interviews with pharmacy supervisors (proprietors) were also conducted to obtain additional information about certain points. Results Interviews were carried out with 54 pharmacy supervisors/proprietors (47 males and 7 females) with a mean age and experience of 35.54 and 11.73 years, respectively. Approximately a half of the studied premises were operated by legally recognized pharmaceutical personnel, while the remainder was run by people who did not have the legal authority to operate pharmacies independently. About a quarter of pharmacies were providing services such as the administration of injections, wound dressing, and laboratory and consultation services in addition to medicine dispensing and counseling services. The ‘Current Index of Medical Specialties’ was the most commonly used source for drug information. Almost two-thirds of patients visiting the pharmacies were dispensed medicines without a prescription. Tetanus Toxoid, Depot-Medroxy Progesterone Acetate, and Diclofenac were the most commonly-used/administered injections. Most of the generated waste (including sharps) was disposed of in a municipal dump without adhering to the proper procedures for the disposal of hazardous waste. Conclusions Community pharmacies in Pokhara offer a wide range

  18. Net Income of Pharmacy Faculty Compared to Community and Hospital Pharmacists

    PubMed Central

    Gatwood, Justin; Spivey, Christina A.; Dickey, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To compare the net cumulative income of community pharmacists, hospital pharmacists, and full-time pharmacy faculty members (residency-trained or with a PhD after obtaining a PharmD) in pharmacy practice, medicinal chemistry, pharmaceutics, pharmacology, and social and administrative sciences. Methods. Markov modeling was conducted to calculate net projected cumulative earnings of career paths by estimating the costs of education, including the costs of obtaining degrees and student loans. Results. The economic model spanned 49 years, from ages 18 to 67 years. Earning a PharmD and pursuing an academic career resulted in projected net cumulative lifetime earnings ranging from approximately $4.7 million to $6.3 million. A pharmacy practice faculty position following public pharmacy school and one year of residency resulted in higher net cumulative income than community pharmacy. Faculty members with postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) training also had higher net income than other faculty and hospital pharmacy career paths, given similar years of prepharmacy education and type of pharmacy school attended. Faculty members with either a PharmD or PhD in the pharmacology discipline may net as much as $5.9 million and outpace all other PhD graduates by at least $75 000 in lifetime earnings. Projected career earnings of postgraduate year 2 (PGY2) trained faculty and PharmD/PhD faculty members were lower than those of community pharmacists. Findings were more variable when comparing pharmacy faculty members and hospital pharmacists. Conclusion. With the exception of PGY1 trained academic pharmacists, faculty projected net cumulative incomes generally lagged behind community pharmacists, likely because of delayed entry into the job market as a result of advanced training/education. However, nonsalary benefits such as greater flexibility and autonomy may enhance the desirability of academic pharmacy as a career path. PMID:27756925

  19. Net Income of Pharmacy Faculty Compared to Community and Hospital Pharmacists.

    PubMed

    Chisholm-Burns, Marie A; Gatwood, Justin; Spivey, Christina A; Dickey, Susan E

    2016-09-25

    Objective. To compare the net cumulative income of community pharmacists, hospital pharmacists, and full-time pharmacy faculty members (residency-trained or with a PhD after obtaining a PharmD) in pharmacy practice, medicinal chemistry, pharmaceutics, pharmacology, and social and administrative sciences. Methods. Markov modeling was conducted to calculate net projected cumulative earnings of career paths by estimating the costs of education, including the costs of obtaining degrees and student loans. Results. The economic model spanned 49 years, from ages 18 to 67 years. Earning a PharmD and pursuing an academic career resulted in projected net cumulative lifetime earnings ranging from approximately $4.7 million to $6.3 million. A pharmacy practice faculty position following public pharmacy school and one year of residency resulted in higher net cumulative income than community pharmacy. Faculty members with postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) training also had higher net income than other faculty and hospital pharmacy career paths, given similar years of prepharmacy education and type of pharmacy school attended. Faculty members with either a PharmD or PhD in the pharmacology discipline may net as much as $5.9 million and outpace all other PhD graduates by at least $75 000 in lifetime earnings. Projected career earnings of postgraduate year 2 (PGY2) trained faculty and PharmD/PhD faculty members were lower than those of community pharmacists. Findings were more variable when comparing pharmacy faculty members and hospital pharmacists. Conclusion. With the exception of PGY1 trained academic pharmacists, faculty projected net cumulative incomes generally lagged behind community pharmacists, likely because of delayed entry into the job market as a result of advanced training/education. However, nonsalary benefits such as greater flexibility and autonomy may enhance the desirability of academic pharmacy as a career path.

  20. Independent Community Pharmacists' Perspectives on Compounding in Contemporary Pharmacy Education

    PubMed Central

    McPherson, Timothy B.; Fontane, Patrick E.; Berry, Tricia; Chereson, Rasma; Bilger, Rhonda

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To identify compounding practices of independent community pharmacy practitioners in order to make recommendations for the development of curricular objectives for doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) programs. Methods Independent community practitioners were asked about compounding regarding their motivations, common activities, educational exposures, and recommendations for PharmD education. Results Most respondents (69%) accepted compounding as a component of pharmaceutical care and compounded dermatological preparations for local effects, oral solutions, and suspensions at least once a week. Ninety-five percent were exposed to compounding in required pharmacy school courses and most (98%) who identified compounding as a professional service offered in their pharmacy sought additional postgraduate compounding education. Regardless of the extent of compounding emphasis in the practices surveyed, 84% stated that PharmD curricula should include compounding. Conclusions Pharmacy schools should define compounding curricular objectives and develop compounding abilities in a required laboratory course to prepare graduates for pharmaceutical care practice. PMID:19564997

  1. Evaluation of community pharmacy service mix: evidence from the 2004 National Pharmacist Workforce Study.

    PubMed

    Doucette, William R; Kreling, David H; Schommer, Jon C; Gaither, Caroline A; Mott, David A; Pedersen, Craig A

    2006-01-01

    To describe the mix of pharmacy services being offered in different types of community pharmacy practices and to identify factors associated with a community pharmacy offering pharmacy services. Cross-sectional study. Community pharmacies (independent, chain, mass merchandiser, and supermarket pharmacies). Pharmacists practicing full-time or part-time who worked in community pharmacies and responded to the 2004 National Pharmacist Workforce Survey. Mailed survey from the 2004 National Pharmacist Workforce Survey, which included core content questions for all sampled pharmacists and supplemental surveys that included workplace questions for a selected subsample of pharmacists. Type and frequency of pharmacy services being offered in a community pharmacy, including dispensing and product-related services (e.g., specialty compounding), and pharmacist care services (e.g., immunizations, smoking cessation, health screening, medication therapy management, wellness screening, nutritional support, and disease management services). Four pharmacist care services were reported as being offered at more than 10% of community pharmacy practices: immunizations, smoking cessation, health screening, and diabetes management. The number of pharmacist care services offered at a community pharmacy was positively associated with having at least three pharmacists on duty, innovativeness of the pharmacy, status as an independent pharmacy, and status as a supermarket pharmacy. More than one half of the community pharmacy practices did not offer any of the eight pharmacist care services included in a pharmacy service index. Pharmacy services were reported at relatively few community pharmacies, and were associated with pharmacy innovativeness, pharmacist staffing levels, and pharmacy setting. Some community pharmacies are offering pharmacy services as part of their business strategy, while others are dedicated to dispensing services. Continued study of pharmacy service availability in

  2. A Comparison of Community and Hospital Pharmacy Preceptors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Charles H.

    1978-01-01

    A preliminary study that seeks to determine, quantitatively and qualitatively, the effectiveness of externship preceptors in training Purdue University students to practice pharmacy in community and hospital environments is described. Variables that can effect externships are appended. (JMD)

  3. A Comparison of Community and Hospital Pharmacy Preceptors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Charles H.

    1978-01-01

    A preliminary study that seeks to determine, quantitatively and qualitatively, the effectiveness of externship preceptors in training Purdue University students to practice pharmacy in community and hospital environments is described. Variables that can effect externships are appended. (JMD)

  4. Frequency and consequences of violence in community pharmacies in Ireland.

    PubMed

    FitzGerald, D; Reid, A

    2012-12-01

    Violence in community pharmacies in Ireland is thought to be common but underreported. The frequency and consequences of violence has not been studied previously. To establish the frequency and nature of violence in community pharmacies over 12 months, and to investigate the impact of violence on employees and possible consequence for the industry. A two-part survey was distributed to community pharmacies in Ireland in 2011 (n = 200). The first part related to pharmacy demographics, the frequency of various violent events (verbal abuse, threats etc.), the respondents' worry regarding violence and its impact on their co-workers. The second part concerned individual employees' subjective response to a violent event, using the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R). Fifty-seven per cent of the pharmacies responded, with 77% reporting some violent event (verbal or physical), over the past year. Eighteen per cent reported physical assault, and 63% were worried about workplace violence. There was no association between late night opening hours or pharmacy size and violence frequency. Positive statistically significant correlations were present between all types of violence and absenteeism and employee fear levels. An IES-R score could be calculated for 75 respondents; the median IES-R score was 8 with 19% reporting clinically significant scores. Violence is common in Irish community pharmacies and impacts on employees and the industry.

  5. Workload and availability of technology in metropolitan community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Skrepnek, Grant H; Armstrong, Edward P; Malone, Daniel C; Abarca, Jacob; Murphy, John E; Grizzle, Amy J; Rehfeld, Rick A; Woosley, Raymond L

    2006-01-01

    To assess workload characteristics and the presence of prescription processing technologies within metropolitan community pharmacies in the United States. Cross-sectional postal survey. 18 metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) in the United States. 3000 managers located in community pharmacies processing at least 500 third-party claims per month for four major pharmacy benefits managers. 34-item survey instrument designed to collect data about the pharmacy including demographics, workload issues, handling of drug-drug interactions (DDIs), and pharmacists' attitudes toward computerized DDI alerts. Workload (hours of operation, prescription volume, staffing hours, prescription processing intensity) and prescription processing technologies (telecommunication systems, automated counting/filling or verification devices, number of computer terminals, and computer software vendors). Overall, 736 usable surveys were returned (response rate, 25.3%). On average, respondents reported a volume of approximately 1340 prescriptions per week processed at a rate of almost 17 prescriptions per hour. Independent pharmacies processed approximately 3 prescriptions per hour more than chain pharmacies even though a statistically equal or slightly lower proportion of those pharmacies had automated technologies. The presence of technology was generally high for all pharmacies, particularly countertop tablet/capsule-counting devices and telefacsimile machines. The most common software vendors differed considerably between chain and independent pharmacies. The number of prescriptions processed per hour and number of technologies available increased with the total weekly volume of prescriptions processed in this national survey. A majority of pharmacies had at least one type of automated prescription processing technology and an automated telecommunication system for accepting new or refill prescriptions. Independent pharmacies processed more prescriptions per hour than did chains but did so

  6. Changes to supervision in community pharmacy: pharmacist and pharmacy support staff views.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Fay; Schafheutle, Ellen I; Willis, Sarah C; Noyce, Peter R

    2013-11-01

    Pharmacists now offer increasing levels and ranges of clinical, diagnostic and public health services, which may require a pharmacist to be absent from the pharmacy premises. Currently, in the UK, many pharmacy activities legally require the direct supervision and physical presence of the pharmacist. This study aimed to explore the potential for changes to supervision, allowing pharmacist absence, and greater utilisation of pharmacy support staff. Four nominal group discussions were conducted in May 2012 with community pharmacists (CPs), community pharmacy support staff, hospital pharmacists and hospital pharmacy support staff, involving 21 participants. Participants were asked to generate pharmacy activities, which they felt could/could not be safely performed by support staff in the absence of a pharmacist, followed by a discussion of these items and voting using an agreement scale. A written record of the items generated and voting scores was made and the group discussion elements were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. The selling of general sales list medicines, assembly of prescriptions and provision of public health services received a high level of agreement between groups, as activities that could be performed. There was greater disagreement about the safety of support staff selling pharmacy medicines and handing out checked and bagged prescription items to patients. Group discussion revealed some of the main challenges to supervision changes, including CPs' perceptions about their presence being critical to patient safety, reluctance to relinquish control, concerns about knowing and trusting the competencies of support staff, and reluctance by support staff to take greater professional responsibility. The findings of this study aim to inform a future consultation on changes to pharmacy supervision in the UK. The empowerment of pharmacy technicians as a professional group may be key to any future change; this may require

  7. Service quality in community pharmacy: an exploration of determinants.

    PubMed

    White, Lesley; Klinner, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    Although various instruments have been developed to measure customer satisfaction with community pharmacy services, there is limited research regarding pharmacy staffs' understanding of service quality and its determinants. This study aimed to explore the perceptions of pharmacy staff regarding the factors that constitute a high level of service quality using the service quality determinants proposed by the Conceptual Model of Service Quality. Structured interviews were conducted with 27 pharmacy assistants and 6 pharmacists in 3 community pharmacies in Sydney. The interview questions focused on the participants' perceptions of consumer expectations, the translation of these perceptions into service quality specifications, the actual service delivery, and the communication to customers. From the pharmacy staff perspective, service quality is significantly limited by insufficient internal communication and control processes that impede role clarity and the resolution of conflicting role expectations among customer service personnel. Participants indicated that these problems could be alleviated through the implementation of more transparent, realistic, measurable, and accepted quality specifications by pharmacy management. The study indicates that the extent to which pharmacy management sets, maintains, and communicates service quality specifications to staff directly affects role clarity, role conflict, and organizational commitment among customer service staff, which in turn directly influence the level of service quality provided to the customers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Sequential advanced pharmacy practice experiences at one institution for students from three pharmacy schools.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Rebecca A; Wisneski, S Scott; Kaun, Megan A; Parteleno, Patricia; Williams, Jonathan; Goldman, Morton P

    2014-01-15

    The structure and implementation of an advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) that was sequential in nature are described. In early 2008, the pharmacy department of the Cleveland Clinic began conversations with three partner pharmacy schools in the surrounding area to accommodate rotations for advanced practice experiences pharmacy students. The resulting sequential APPE (SAE) program is offered at each school for four or five months and incorporates a longitudinal student project component to be completed over the SAE's duration. Program coordination and scheduling are unique to this program, where rotations are set up outside of the typical rotation selection. Since 2009, 23 students have completed the program, and 10 are currently enrolled. The SAE program was implemented in 2009 and continues to provide a depth of experience for pharmacy students. Preceptors have reported that SAE students are more motivated, have goals that fit with the institution, and offer decreased orientation burden compared with traditional APPE students. Students report a maximum of 19 hours gained per month in decreased orientation time to the computer system and site, allowing them to focus more time on patient care. Over a five-month period, a student could gain 76 hours in clinical experience over the traditional APPE student due to the decreased orientation burden. SAEs at one institution have proven advantageous to preceptors, students, and the site. SAEs have provided enriching student rotations while increasing site efficiencies, allowing longitudinal projects, and enhancing the site's exposure to students as potential residency candidates.

  9. Restructuring supervision and reconfiguration of skill mix in community pharmacy: Classification of perceived safety and risk.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Fay; Willis, Sarah C; Noyce, Peter R; Schafheutle, Ellen I

    2016-01-01

    Broadening the range of services provided through community pharmacy increases workloads for pharmacists that could be alleviated by reconfiguring roles within the pharmacy team. To examine pharmacists' and pharmacy technicians (PTs)' perceptions of how safe it would be for support staff to undertake a range of pharmacy activities during a pharmacist's absence. Views on supervision, support staff roles, competency and responsibility were also sought. Informed by nominal group discussions, a questionnaire was developed and distributed to a random sample of 1500 pharmacists and 1500 PTs registered in England. Whilst focused on community pharmacy practice, hospital pharmacy respondents were included, as more advanced skill mix models may provide valuable insights. Respondents were asked to rank a list of 22 pharmacy activities in terms of perceived risk and safety of these activities being performed by support staff during a pharmacist's absence. Descriptive and comparative statistic analyses were conducted. Six-hundred-and-forty-two pharmacists (43.2%) and 854 PTs (57.3%) responded; the majority worked in community pharmacy. Dependent on agreement levels with perceived safety, from community pharmacists and PTs, and hospital pharmacists and PTs, the 22 activities were grouped into 'safe' (n = 7), 'borderline' (n = 9) and 'unsafe' (n = 6). Activities such as assembly and labeling were considered 'safe,' clinical activities were considered 'unsafe.' There were clear differences between pharmacists and PTs, and sectors (community pharmacy vs. hospital). Community pharmacists were most cautious (particularly mobile and portfolio pharmacists) about which activities they felt support staff could safely perform; PTs in both sectors felt significantly more confident performing particularly technical activities than pharmacists. This paper presents novel empirical evidence informing the categorization of pharmacy activities into 'safe,' 'borderline' or 'unsafe

  10. Chlamydia screening interventions from community pharmacies: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gudka, Sajni; Afuwape, Folasade E; Wong, Bessie; Yow, Xuan Li; Anderson, Claire; Clifford, Rhonda M

    2013-07-01

    Chlamydia (Chlamydia trachomatis) is the most commonly notified sexually transmissible infection in Australia. Increasing the number of people aged 16-25 years being tested for chlamydia has become a key objective. The strategy recommends that chlamydia screening sites should be easy to access. Community pharmacies are conveniently located and easily accessible. This review aimed to determine the different types of pharmacy-based chlamydia screening interventions, describe their uptake rates, and understand issues around the acceptability of and barriers to testing. Seven electronic databases were searched for peer-reviewed articles published up to 30 October 2011 for studies that reported chlamydia screening interventions from community pharmacies, or had qualitative evidence on acceptability or barriers linked with interventions. Of the 163 publications identified, 12 met the inclusion criteria. Nine reported chlamydia screening interventions in a pharmacy setting, whereas three focussed on perspectives on chlamydia screening. Pharmacists could offer a chlamydia test to consumers attending the pharmacy for a sexual health-related consultation, or consumers could request a chlamydia test as part of a population-based intervention. Participating consumers said pharmacies were accessible and convenient, and pharmacists were competent when offering a chlamydia test. Pharmacists reported selectively offering tests to women they thought would be most at risk, undermining the principles of opportunistic interventions. Chlamydia screening from community pharmacies is feasible, and can provide an accessible, convenient venue to get a test. Professional implementation support, alongside resources, education and training programs, and incentives may overcome the issue of pharmacists selectively offering the test.

  11. Analysis of enhanced pharmacy services in rural community pharmacies in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Wibowo, Yosi; Berbatis, Constantine; Joyce, Andrew; Sunderland, V B

    2010-01-01

    . Additional support for EPS provision in rural and remote communities is required to increase uptake among pharmacists. Government and pharmacy bodies need to implement rural practice models to address identified pharmacist workforce barriers and improve access to EPS to rural communities.

  12. Changes in number and distribution of community and ambulatory pharmacies in Virginia from 1994 to 1999.

    PubMed

    Adams, D W; Carroll, N V

    2000-01-01

    To determine whether market changes have resulted in a decrease in the number or geographic distribution of pharmacies available to ambulatory patients in Virginia. Retrospective review of Virginia Board of Pharmacy records of pharmacy registrations in 1994 and 1999. The Commonwealth of Virginia. All pharmacies classified as outpatient pharmacies (including community and other types of ambulatory pharmacies) and operating in Virginia in 1994 and 1999. Not applicable. Changes in the total number, geographic distribution, and metropolitan/nonmetropolitan distribution of outpatient pharmacies between 1994 and 1999. The total number of outpatient pharmacies increased from 1,290 to 1,337 between 1994 and 1999. Chain pharmacies, mass merchandiser, and grocery pharmacies increased in number while independent pharmacies declined. There was little change in the geographic or metropolitan/nonmetropolitan distribution of pharmacies. Changes in the number and distribution of community and other ambulatory pharmacies in Virginia have not diminished their availability to consumers.

  13. [Approach to alternative therapies in community pharmacy].

    PubMed

    Noda, Toshihiro; Takaichi, Kazuyuki; Nakamura, Mineo; Karasawa, Hidetaka; Okamoto, Yasunori; Mizuno, Satoshi; Kurihara, Tomohito; Makino, Toshiaki; Hirano, Takeshi; Iseki, Ken

    2009-12-01

    The growth of the dietary supplement in Japanese market suggests that the patient's need for assistance with self-care will also continue to grow. Patients' burgeoning acceptance and use of alternative therapies is another indication that patients seeking more from the health care system. The questionnaire showed that the most of them are expecting the pharmacists to provide their knowledge of dietary supplements. However, only limited amount of information is available. We founded the group Alterna in 2003, that compose the pharmacists working in community pharmacies accompanied with those in pharmaceutical universities. We have published the journal named "Alterna" that includes the information of dietary supplements, and it attained Vol. 9 in 2008. In the past studies, we evaluated the content and solubility of coenzyme Q10 dietary supplements in Japanese markets, some of which showed poor solubility. In others, we had taken up the information about vitamin and minerals, tea catechins, DHA and EPA, cooking oils to reduce body fat, collagen, etc. Findings in these studies present the opportunities for the pharmacists to provide the significant positive impact on health care outcomes and costs to patients.

  14. Barriers to the implementation of advanced clinical pharmacy services at Portuguese hospitals.

    PubMed

    Brazinha, Isabel; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando

    2014-10-01

    In some countries, such as Portugal, clinical pharmacy services in the hospital setting may be implemented to a lower extent than desirable. Several studies have analysed the perceived barriers to pharmacy service implementation in community pharmacy. To identify the barriers towards the implementation of advanced clinical pharmacy services at a hospital level in Portugal, using medication follow-up as an example. Hospital pharmacies in Portugal. A qualitative study based on 20 face-to-face semi-structured interviews of strategists and hospital pharmacists. The interview guide was based on two theoretical frameworks, the Borum's theory of organisational change and the Social Network Theory, and then adapted for the Portuguese reality and hospital environments. A constant comparison process with previously analysed interviews, using an inductive approach, was carried out to allow themes to emerge. Themes were organised following the Leavitt's Organizational Model: functions and objectives; hospital pharmacist; structure of pharmacy services; environment; technology; and medication follow-up based on the study topic. Barriers towards practice change. Medication follow-up appeared not to be a well-known service in Portuguese hospital pharmacies. The major barriers at the pharmacist level were their mind-set, resistance to change, and lack of readiness. Lack of time, excessive bureaucratic and administrative workload, reduced workforce, and lack of support from the head of the service and other colleagues were identified as structural barriers. Lack of access to patients' clinical records and cumbersome procedures to implement medication follow-up were recognised as technological barriers. Poor communication with other healthcare professionals, and lack of support from professional associations were the major environmental barriers. Few of the barriers identified by Portuguese hospital pharmacists were consistent with previous reports from community pharmacy. The mind

  15. Pharmacist and Technician Perceptions of Tech-Check-Tech in Community Pharmacy Practice Settings.

    PubMed

    Frost, Timothy P; Adams, Alex J

    2017-01-01

    Tech-check-tech (TCT) is a practice model in which pharmacy technicians with advanced training can perform final verification of prescriptions that have been previously reviewed for appropriateness by a pharmacist. Few states have adopted TCT in part because of the common view that this model is controversial among members of the profession. This article aims to summarize the existing research on pharmacist and technician perceptions of community pharmacy-based TCT. A literature review was conducted using MEDLINE (January 1990 to August 2016) and Google Scholar (January 1990 to August 2016) using the terms "tech* and check," "tech-check-tech," "checking technician," and "accuracy checking tech*." Of the 7 studies identified we found general agreement among both pharmacists and technicians that TCT in community pharmacy settings can be safely performed. This agreement persisted in studies of theoretical TCT models and in studies assessing participants in actual community-based TCT models. Pharmacists who had previously worked with a checking technician were generally more favorable toward TCT. Both pharmacists and technicians in community pharmacy settings generally perceived TCT to be safe, in both theoretical surveys and in surveys following actual TCT demonstration projects. These perceptions of safety align well with the actual outcomes achieved from community pharmacy TCT studies.

  16. Effect of an Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience on Medication Therapy Management Services in a Centralized Retail Pharmacy Program.

    PubMed

    Vande Griend, Joseph P; Rodgers, Melissa; Nuffer, Wesley

    2017-05-01

    Medication therapy management (MTM) delivery is increasingly important in managed care. Successful delivery positively affects patient health and improves Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services star ratings, a measure of health plan quality. As MTM services continue to grow, there is an increased need for efficient and effective care models. The primary objectives of this project were to describe the delivery of MTM services by fourth-year Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience (APPE) students in a centralized retail pharmacy system and to evaluate and quantify the clinical and financial contributions of the students. The secondary objective was to describe the engagement needed to complete comprehensive medication reviews (CMRs) and targeted interventions. From May 2015 to December 2015, thirty-five APPE students from the University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy provided MTM services at Albertsons Companies using the OutcomesMTM and Mirixa platforms. Students delivered patient care services by phone at the central office and provided face-to-face visits at pharmacies in the region. With implementation of the MTM APPE in 2015, the team consisted of 2 MTM pharmacists and pharmacy students, as compared with 1 MTM pharmacist in 2014. The number of CMRs and targeted interventions completed and the estimated additional revenue generated during the 2015 time period were compared with those completed from May through December 2014. The patient and provider engagement needed to complete the CMRs and targeted interventions was summarized. 125 CMRs and 1,918 targeted interventions were billed in 2015, compared with 13 CMRs and 767 targeted interventions in 2014. An estimated $16,575-$49,272 of additional revenue was generated in 2015. To complete the interventions in 2015, the team engaged in 1,714 CMR opportunities and 4,686 targeted intervention opportunities. In this MTM rotation, students provided real-life care to patients, resulting in financial and clinical

  17. An investigation on pharmacy functions and services affecting satisfaction of patients with prescriptions in community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Hidehiko; Nakajima, Fumio; Tada, Yuichirou; Yoshikawa, Emi; Iwahashi, Yoshiki; Fujita, Kenji; Hayase, Yukitoshi

    2009-05-01

    Various functions expected by patient expects are needed with progress in the system for separation of dispensing and prescribing functions. In this investigation, the relationship between patient satisfaction and pharmacy function were analyzed quantitatively. A questionnaire survey was conducted in 178 community pharmacies. Questions on pharmacy functions and services totaled 87 items concerning information service, amenities, safety, personnel training, etc. The questionnaires for patients had five-grade scales and composed 11 items (observed variables). Based on the results, "the percentage of satisfied patients" was determined. Multivariate analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between patient satisfaction and pharmacy functions or services provided, to confirm patient's evaluation of the pharmacy, and how factors affected comprehensive satisfaction. In correlation analysis, "the number of pharmacists" and "comprehensive satisfaction" had a negative correlation. Other interesting results were obtained. As a results of factor analysis, three latent factors were obtained: the "human factor," "patients' convenience," and "environmental factor," Multiple regression analysis showed that the "human factor" affected "comprehensive satisfaction" the most. Various pharmacy functions and services influence patient satisfaction, and improvement in their quality increases patient satisfaction. This will result in the practice of patient-centered medicine.

  18. Pharmaceutical Compounding in Portuguese Community Pharmacies: CHARACTERIZATION AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES.

    PubMed

    Palmeira-de-Oliveira, Rita; Macedo, Marina; Machado, Rita M; Pacheco, Ana Filipa; Palmeira-de-Oliveira, Ana; Martinez-de-Oliveira, José; Duarte, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    A study of compounding practices among Portuguese community pharmacies from 2008 to 2011 and pharmacists' perspectives concerning compounding was conducted. The retrospective study was based on an online questionnaire developed to gather information on pharmacies characteristics frequency, and type of compounded preparations. Additionally, difficulties, motivations, and pharmacist's perspectives regarding compounding were assessed. Up to 1,450 Portuguese pharmacies were contacted, and 250 completed questionnaires obtained. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS Version 21. Frequency and cross-tab analysis was used to describe data. Chi-square test was used to assess statistical significant differences between compounding and non-compounding pharmacies' characteristics. Among all pharmacies, 75.2% reported compounding practices, although the majority prepared less than 50 preparations per year, corresponding to less than 10 different formulations. Those pharmacies' with a higher lifetime activity, number of customers, and team members were associated to compounding practices. Dermatological preparations were the most frequently prepared formulations, followed by oral solutions, and otorhinolaryngological preparations. Dermatologists and pediatricians were the most frequent prescribers of compounded medicines. Regarding future perspectives, 51.4% of pharmacists believed that compounding will decrease. However, 79.1% indicated that they will continue to compound, and 70.7% considered that compounded prescriptions should be encouraged. Patient satisfaction (66.1%) and improvement of the pharmacy image (63.8%) were considered the main advantages of compounding services. Compounded medicines are still prepared in the community pharmacy setting to fulfill special patients' therapeutic needs, especially following dermatologists' and pediatricians' prescriptions. Offering compounding services is perceived by pharmacists as an important factor for high

  19. Drug information resources at community pharmacies in Amman, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Wazaify, Mayyada; Maani, Mais; Ball, Douglas

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the drug information resources available in community pharmacies in Amman, Jordan. A total of 156 private community (retail) pharmacies in different parts of Amman, the capital of Jordan, were recruited by personal contact. Pharmacists at the sample pharmacies completed a self-administered questionnaire that consisted of two sections. The first section elicited the drug information resources available in their pharmacies. The second section presented five mock medicines information scenarios and asked respondents to identify the most suitable information resource to be used from a given list. Answers then were coded and entered into SPSS for Windows for statistical analysis. All pharmacies had at least one reference book, but most were outdated. The Monthly Index of Medical Specialties (MIMS) was the most commonly found (n = 101; 64.7%), and 40.4% (n = 63) had internet access. Only 19.2% (n = 30) of the respondents reported getting medicines information directly from pharmaceutical companies, usually through pharmaceutical representatives. Most pharmacists could identify appropriate information resources for drug dosing and side effects but did not fare well for medicine identification, drug interactions and primary research evidence. The quality of drug information resources in private community pharmacies in Amman is far from optimal. This will affect the quality of information provided to patients and prescribers and have an adverse effect on the role that pharmacists can play in the health system in Jordan.

  20. Establishment and Implementation of a Required Medication Therapy Management Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience

    PubMed Central

    Gilliam, Eric; Thompson, Megan; Vande Griend, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To develop a community pharmacy-based medication therapy management (MTM) advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) that provides students with skills and knowledge to deliver entry-level pharmacy MTM services. Design. The University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences (SSPPS) partnered with three community pharmacy chains to establish this three-week, required MTM APPE. Students completed the American Pharmacists Association MTM Certificate Course prior to entering the APPE. Students were expected to spend 90% or more of their time at this experience working on MTM interventions, using store MTM platforms. Assessment. All 151 students successfully completed this MTM APPE, and each received a passing evaluation from their preceptor. Preceptor evaluations of students averaged above four (entry-level practice) on a five-point Likert scale. The majority of students reported engagement in MTM services for more than 80% of the time on site. Students’ self-reporting of their ability to perform MTM interventions improved after participation in the APPE. Conclusion. The SSPPS successfully implemented a required MTM APPE, preparing students for entry-level delivery of MTM services. PMID:28381896

  1. Establishment and Implementation of a Required Medication Therapy Management Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience.

    PubMed

    Nuffer, Wesley; Gilliam, Eric; Thompson, Megan; Vande Griend, Joseph

    2017-03-25

    Objective. To develop a community pharmacy-based medication therapy management (MTM) advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) that provides students with skills and knowledge to deliver entry-level pharmacy MTM services. Design. The University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences (SSPPS) partnered with three community pharmacy chains to establish this three-week, required MTM APPE. Students completed the American Pharmacists Association MTM Certificate Course prior to entering the APPE. Students were expected to spend 90% or more of their time at this experience working on MTM interventions, using store MTM platforms. Assessment. All 151 students successfully completed this MTM APPE, and each received a passing evaluation from their preceptor. Preceptor evaluations of students averaged above four (entry-level practice) on a five-point Likert scale. The majority of students reported engagement in MTM services for more than 80% of the time on site. Students' self-reporting of their ability to perform MTM interventions improved after participation in the APPE. Conclusion. The SSPPS successfully implemented a required MTM APPE, preparing students for entry-level delivery of MTM services.

  2. Community pharmacy rapid influenza A and B screening

    PubMed Central

    Papastergiou, John; Folkins, Chris; Li, Wilson; Young, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the impact and feasibility of community pharmacist-directed influenza screening and to evaluate the proportion of influenza-positive cases that resulted in the initiation of antiviral therapy by pharmacists. Methods: Patients aged 5 and older with symptoms suggestive of influenza were recruited at 2 Shoppers Drug Mart locations in Toronto, Ontario, from December 12, 2014, to February 4, 2015. Nasal swabs were collected by pharmacists and screened using the BD Veritor system for Rapid Detection of Flu A+B. Positive tests for influenza were reported to patients’ physicians and recommendations for antiviral therapy were made when indicated. Supportive care recommendations and telephone follow-up within 48 hours of assessment were provided to all patients. Results: A total of 59 patients participated in the influenza screening program. Sixty-one percent of patients were at high risk for influenza-related complications, while 15% had more than one risk factor. Thirty-four percent of patients screened positive for influenza, of which 100% were influenza A. Of the patients who screened positive, a prescription for oseltamivir was obtained in 40% of cases. The majority of prescriptions were provided directly to the pharmacy (63%), while the balance was provided after the patients underwent medical examination at the request of their physicians (37%). The pharmacy team offered supportive care to all patients for symptom management. Over-the-counter pharmacotherapy was provided to 85% of patients. Conclusion: These results highlight the readiness of community pharmacists to participate in the management of patients with influenza and their ability to implement screening into pharmacy workflow. Community pharmacy–based influenza screening may facilitate prompt access to pharmacologic treatment for patients with influenza, as well as decrease burden on the health care system by redirecting influenza-negative patients from physicians’ offices and

  3. Patient satisfaction with pharmaceutical care delivery in community pharmacies

    PubMed Central

    Kassam, Rosemin; Collins, John B; Berkowitz, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to validate previously published satisfaction scales in larger and more diversified patient populations; to expand the number of community pharmacies represented; to test the robustness of satisfaction measures across a broader demographic spectrum and a variety of health conditions; to confirm the three-factor scale structure; to test the relationships between satisfaction and consultation practices involving pharmacists and pharmacy students; and to examine service gaps and establish plausible norms. Methods Patients completed a 15-question survey about their expectations regarding pharmaceutical care-related activities while shopping in any pharmacy and a parallel 15 questions about their experiences while shopping in this particular pharmacy. The survey also collected information regarding pharmaceutical care consultation received by the patients and brief demographic data. Results A total of 628 patients from 55 pharmacies completed the survey. The pilot study’s three-factor satisfaction structure was confirmed. Overall, satisfaction measures did not differ by demographics or medical condition, but there were strong and significant store-to-store differences and consultation practice advantages when pharmacists or pharmacists-plus-students participated, but not for consultations with students alone. Conclusion Patient satisfaction can be reliably measured by surveys structured around pharmaceutical care activities. The introduction of pharmaceutical care in pharmacies improves patient satisfaction. Service gap details indicated that pharmacy managers need to pay closer attention to various consultative activities involving patients and doctors. PMID:22563242

  4. A collaborative and reflective academic advanced pharmacy practice experience.

    PubMed

    Roche, Victoria F; Limpach, Aimee L

    2011-08-10

    To implement a co-precepted advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) focused on traditional pharmacy faculty and administrative responsibilities and reflection opportunities. A multi-faceted, reflection-infused academic APPE was designed that exposed students to activities related to teaching, curriculum revision, scholarly writing, committee service, faculty role-modeling, mentorship and development, and school-level administrative decision-making. Two students completed the APPE in the first 2 semesters it was offered (1 in spring 2010 and 1 in fall 2010). Formative and summative evaluations confirmed that the students achieved the APPE goals and viewed the experience as valuable, informative, and enjoyable as expressed both in reflective journal submissions and survey comments. Co-precepting by pharmacy faculty members primarily engaged in traditional faculty- and administration-related responsibilities can provide students with a robust learning experience that surpasses that which could be achieved by a single mentor.

  5. Pharmacy Characteristics Associated with the Provision of Drug Therapy Services in Nonmetropolitan Community Pharmacies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadkari, Abhijit S.; Mott, David A.; Kreling, David H.; Bonnarens, Joseph K.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Higher prevalence of chronic diseases and reduced access to other health professionals in rural areas suggest that rural Medicare enrollees will benefit from pharmacist-provided drug therapy services (DTS). Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe non-metropolitan community pharmacy sites in Wisconsin, the provision of DTS at…

  6. Pharmacy Characteristics Associated with the Provision of Drug Therapy Services in Nonmetropolitan Community Pharmacies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadkari, Abhijit S.; Mott, David A.; Kreling, David H.; Bonnarens, Joseph K.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Higher prevalence of chronic diseases and reduced access to other health professionals in rural areas suggest that rural Medicare enrollees will benefit from pharmacist-provided drug therapy services (DTS). Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe non-metropolitan community pharmacy sites in Wisconsin, the provision of DTS at…

  7. The I-Tribe Community Pharmacy Practice Model: professional pharmacy unshackled.

    PubMed

    Alston, Greg L; Waitzman, Jennifer A

    2013-01-01

    To describe a mechanism by which pharmacists could create a disruptive innovation to provide professional primary care services via a Web-based delivery model. Several obstacles have prevented pharmacists from using available technology to develop business models that capitalize on their clinical skills in primary care. Community practice has experienced multiple sustaining innovations that have improved dispensing productivity but have not stimulated sufficient demand for pharmacy services to disrupt the marketplace and provide new opportunities for pharmacists. Pharmacists are in a unique position to bridge the gap between demand for basic primary medical care and access to a competent medical professional. Building on the historic strengths of community pharmacy practice, modern pharmacists could provide a disruptive innovation in the marketplace for primary care by taking advantage of new technology and implementing the I-Tribe Community Pharmacy Practice Model (I-Tribe). This model would directly connect pharmacists to patients through an interactive, secure Web presence that would liberate the relationship from geographic restrictions. The I-Tribe is a disruptive innovation that could become the foundation for a vibrant market in pharmacist professional service offerings. The I-Tribe model could benefit society by expanding access to primary medical care while simultaneously providing a new source of revenue for community practice pharmacists. Entrepreneurial innovation through I-Tribe pharmacy would free pharmacists to become the care providers envisioned by the profession's thought leaders.

  8. Complete-block scheduling for advanced pharmacy practice experiences.

    PubMed

    Hatton, Randy C; Weitzel, Kristin W

    2013-12-01

    An innovative approach to meeting increased student demand for advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) is described, including lessons learned during a two-year pilot project. To achieve more efficient allocation of preceptor resources, the University of Florida College of Pharmacy (UFCOP) adopted a new APPE rotation model in which 20 pharmacy students per year complete all required and elective APPEs at one practice site, an affiliated academic medical center. Relative to the prevailing model of experiential training for Pharm.D. students, the "complete-block scheduling" model offers a number of potential benefits to students, preceptors, and the pharmacy school. In addition to potentially reduced student housing expenses and associated conveniences, complete-block scheduling may enable (1) more efficient use of teaching resources, (2) increased collaboration among preceptors, (3) greater continuity and standardization of educational experiences, and (4) enhanced opportunities for students to engage in longer and more complex research projects. The single-site APPE rotation model also can provide value to the training site by enabling the extension of clinical pharmacy services; for example, UFCOP students perform anticoagulation monitoring and discharge medication counseling at the host institution. Despite logistical and other challenges encountered during pilot testing of the new scheduling model, the program has been well received by students and preceptors alike. Complete-block APPE scheduling is a viable model for some health systems to consider as a means of streamlining experiential education practices and helping to ensure high-quality clinical rotations for Pharm.D. students.

  9. Community pharmacies as sites of adult vaccination: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Burson, Randall C.; Buttenheim, Alison M.; Armstrong, Allison; Feemster, Kristen A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vaccine-preventable deaths among adults remain a major public health concern, despite continued efforts to increase vaccination rates in this population. Alternative approaches to immunization delivery may help address under-vaccination among adults. This systematic review assesses the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of community pharmacies as sites for adult vaccination. We searched 5 electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Cochrane, LILACS) for studies published prior to June 2016 and identified 47 relevant articles. We found that pharmacy-based immunization services (PBIS) have been facilitated by state regulatory changes and training programs that allow pharmacists to directly provide vaccinations. These services are widely accepted by both patients and pharmacy staff, and are capable of improving access and increasing vaccination rates. However, political and organizational barriers limit the feasibility and effectiveness of vaccine delivery in pharmacies. These studies provide evidence to inform policy and organizational efforts that promote the efficacy and sustainability of PBIS. PMID:27715409

  10. Subsidised nicotine replacement therapy in a community pharmacy setting.

    PubMed

    Poder, Natasha; Perusco, Andrew; Hua, Myna

    2005-08-01

    Nicotine replacement therapies are effective, but are mostly under-utilised and often not used for an appropriate duration. The paper reports on a pilot project that used subsidies for NRT as a means to engage community pharmacists to deliver tobacco cessation to the Arabic-speaking community. Arabic-speaking community pharmacists were recruited through direct mail-outs and trained in tobacco cessation brief intervention. Fifteen selected pharmacies recruited Arabic smokers through their pharmacies. Pharmacy follow-up was conducted three months after the program was implemented. A total of 65 participants attended the seminar. A total of 31 pharmacy customers received at least one packet of subsidised NRT patches. Twenty (64.5%) clients received both the first and second subsidised pack. Fifteen clients continued to use patches after the third packet, however only three clients continued the patches to the eighth pack. The pilot was successful in improving recruitment of pharmacies into training for smoking cessation counselling as well as engaging community pharmacists to deliver tobacco cessation intervention with small incentive.

  11. A model to inform community pharmacy's collaboration in outpatient care.

    PubMed

    Smith, Megan G; Ferreri, Stefanie P

    2016-01-01

    Value-driven health care and team-based care are gaining momentum from policymakers, payers, and providers. An important facet to examine is the health care team, especially in outpatient care. Community pharmacy is a significant aspect of the patient's health experience and a valuable component of outpatient care. An in-depth look into how community pharmacy can participate in the outpatient care team is described. To function as a team, it is crucial to address collaboration among outpatient practices, while making it easier for patients to navigate the outpatient health system. Previously published characteristics, principles, and values of effective health care teams within primary care can aid in establishing teams across practice settings including community pharmacy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Dispensing errors in community pharmacy: perceived influence of sociotechnical factors.

    PubMed

    Szeinbach, Sheryl; Seoane-Vazquez, Enrique; Parekh, Ashish; Herderick, Michelle

    2007-08-01

    This study examined the impact of pharmacists' perceptions of errors in dispensing, errors in communication, delays in prescription processing, efficiency and physical mobility in the pharmacy by practice setting and sociotechnical factors (i.e. pharmacy design, drive through pick-up window services and automated dispensing systems). Community pharmacy practice in the USA. A two-page survey was mailed to a geographically stratified random sample of 1047 community pharmacies. One-way analysis of variance was used to determine the impact of attitudinal items with respect to pharmacy practice setting (e.g. mass merchant, supermarket, chain and independent) and sociotechnical factors. Pharmacy characteristics, pharmacist experience and total dispensing errors were also addressed. The response rate was 45.0% (n = 429). Pharmacists perceived that pharmacy design significantly (P < 0.05) contributed to dispensing errors, errors in communication, problems with efficiency and those similar problems were observed for all items relating to drive through window pick-up services. Automated dispensing systems were perceived as less likely (P < 0.05) to contribute to dispensing errors, errors in communication, efficiency problems and extra physical movement. Perceived dispensing error rate was 0.057%, and the number of dispensing errors was positively and significantly (P < 0.001) correlated with prescription volume. Cognitive errors accounted for approximately 80% of the dispensing errors. Perceptions of dispensing errors by pharmacists are influenced by design, drive through pick-up window services, and automated dispensing systems. However, more effort is needed to determine how cognitive processes relate to sociotechnical variables in pharmacy practice and other environments.

  13. Medication therapy management services in community pharmacy: a pilot programme in HIV specialty pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Rosenquist, Ashley; Best, Brookie M; Miller, Teresa A; Gilmer, Todd P; Hirsch, Jan D

    2010-12-01

    Pharmacist-provided medication therapy management services (MTMS) have been shown to increase patient's adherence to medications, improve health outcomes and reduce overall medical costs. The purpose of this study was to describe a pilot programme that provided pharmacy-based MTMS for patients with HIV/AIDS in the state of California, USA. Pharmacists from the 10 pilot pharmacies were surveyed using an online data collection tool. Information was collected to describe the types of MTMS offered, proportion of patients actively using specific MTMS, pharmacist beliefs regarding effect on patient outcomes and barriers to providing MTMS, ability to offer MTMS without pilot programme funding and specialized pharmacist or staff training. Each responding pharmacy (7 of 10) varied in the number of HIV/AIDS patients served and prescription volume. All pharmacists had completed HIV/AIDS-related continuing education programmes, and some had other advanced training. The type of MTMS being offered varied at each pharmacy with 'individualized counselling by a pharmacist when overuse or underuse was detected' and 'refill reminders by telephone' being actively used by the largest proportion of patients. Most, but not all, pharmacists cited reimbursement as a barrier to MTMS provision. Pharmacists believed the MTMS they provide resulted in improved satisfaction (patient and provider), medication usage, therapeutics response and patient quality of life. The type of MTMS offered, and proportion of patients actively using, varied among participating pilot pharmacies. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Evaluation of consultation in community pharmacies with mystery shoppers.

    PubMed

    Alte, Dietrich; Weitschies, Werner; Ritter, Christoph A

    2007-06-01

    Consultation of patients in community pharmacies (CPs) must meet standards, especially in selling over-the-counter drugs; however, there has been no information as to whether northeastern German CPs meet these standards. To estimate aspects of consultation quality in CPs in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, located in northeastern Germany, study factors related to consultation quality, and check compliance with Pharmacy Practice Law, because not all pharmaceutical professions may legally sell drugs. In 2005, 6 mystery shoppers (pharmacy students) presented with a headache to 146 of 398 CPs; they requested a sleeping pill plus an antihistaminic drug and completed data collection forms. Consultation scores were calculated and effects of pharmacy/staff characteristics on consultation were modeled with linear (consultation score) and logistic regression (failure to detect a drug-drug interaction). Variables used in models were staff profession, pharmacy size (number of staff), city/town size (number of pharmacies), and day of the week in which shoppers visited the pharmacy. Despite a high willingness of pharmacy staff to provide consultation (83% spontaneously offered advice), northeastern German CPs did not achieve their professional mission. Extreme variation was evident in their questioning of the mystery shoppers regarding use of important single items (from 1% for pregnancy/breast-feeding considerations to 56% for dosing instructions). In all cases, drugs were sold to the shoppers; most (91%) were single agents. Drug-drug interaction detection was low: 43 (30%) counselors informed mystery shoppers about the interaction. The profession of the consulting staff and the size of the pharmacy were associated with consultation quality (highest for pharmacists; lowest for small pharmacies [2-4 staff]). For interaction detection, consulting staff profession was relevant: pharmacists had OR of 3.2 for the detection compared with pharmacy engineers/assistants. In 7 pharmacies, staff

  15. Evaluation of a Longitudinal Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience.

    PubMed

    Frasiolas, Jorie A; Wright, Kelly; Dzierba, Amy L

    2017-04-01

    Objective. To describe satisfaction and career path of students who participated in the longitudinal advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE). Methods. A 3-part survey was administered to students enrolled between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2013. The sections of the survey evaluated respondents' baseline characteristics, satisfaction, and career path. Results. Majority of the respondents had a GPA above 3.0 (91%), pharmacy school honors (84%), work experience in retail (16%) or multiple pharmacy sites (38%), and were members of at least one professional organization (76%). Sixty-nine percent reported that the program exceeded their expectations. Strengths included practice site consistency, rotation diversity, preceptors, presentations, and collaboration with health care professionals. Students gained approximately 76 hours of additional clinical experience, compared to if they completed rotations at individual sites. After graduation, more than half of the respondents accepted a pharmacy practice residency (67%). Conclusion. The results of this study support the need for APPE programs that prepare students to deliver advanced patient care, while providing them with professional development.

  16. Implementation of a health information exchange into community pharmacy workflow.

    PubMed

    Hohmeier, Kenneth C; Spivey, Christina A; Boldin, Samantha; Moore, Tara B; Chisholm-Burns, Marie

    To explore the feasibility and report preliminary outcomes of the integration of a health information exchange (HIE) into community pharmacy workflow clinical service delivery. Independent pharmacy in eastern Tennessee. The pharmacy offers medication reconciliation services via HIE access, as well as other clinical pharmacy services. The average number of prescriptions filled weekly is 1900, and staffing included 3.5 full-time-equivalent (FTE) pharmacists, and 7 FTE technicians. HIE integration within the workflow of the pharmacy was used to enhance existing patient care services, such as medication distribution, drug use review, medication therapy management, and immunizations, as well as to implement a novel transitional care service. A mixed-methods design was used to explore HIE workflow. Data collection included a pharmacist and pharmacy technician perceptions survey, mapping steps involved in HIE use in workflow via a think-aloud protocol, and quantitatively reporting the number and type of discordant medications found on medication reconciliation. In total, 25 patients qualified for the medication reconciliation intervention and data collection. All 25 patients (100%) had at least 1 discordant medication. HIE access was used for 60% of patients. Community pharmacists were confident in their abilities to perform medication reconciliation and were able to perform the medication reconciliation with the use of the HIE within their workflow, albeit with some reported barriers. The average time spent per patient for HIE-facilitated transitional care was 21 minutes. Integration and utilization of an HIE within the workflow for the purposes of patient care service delivery in the community pharmacy is feasible, but not without limitations. Such HIE utilization and extended access to the patient's clinical picture may represent a scalable method to enhance currently delivered pharmacist services. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by

  17. Consumer interest in community pharmacy HIV screening services.

    PubMed

    Darin, Kristin M; Scarsi, Kimberly K; Klepser, Donald G; Klepser, Stephanie A; Reeves, Andrew; Young, Maria; Klepser, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate consumers' interest in pharmacist-provided human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) screening and to evaluate potential barriers and facilitators to HIV screening in the community pharmacy setting. Cross-sectional survey of adult patients who presented to one of five community (chain and independent) pharmacies from November 2010 to August 2011. Based on 380 usable surveys, 135 (35.8%) participants were interested in pharmacy-based HIV screening. Independent predictors of interest in HIV screening identified in multivariate analysis (reference groups: ages 30 to 49 years old and white, non-Hispanic race) included younger age (18 to 29 years old) (odds ratio [OR], 2.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31 to 4.71); black, non-Hispanic race (OR, 2.37; CI, 1.40 to 4.03); and other race (OR, 4.58; CI, 1.63 to 12.87). Lack of perceived risk for HIV was the most commonly cited barrier to HIV screening; and free, rapid, or confidential HIV testing were identified as potential facilitators. Interest in pharmacy-based HIV screening was high among participants representing age and race groups disproportionately affected by HIV. Expansion of HIV screening efforts to community pharmacies warrants further consideration.

  18. An advanced clinical track within a doctor of pharmacy program.

    PubMed

    New, James; Garner, Sandra; Ragucci, Kelly; Spencer, Anne

    2012-04-10

    To evaluate the advanced clinical track, a curricular track designed to prepare doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students for residency training and institutional practice. The advanced clinical track required completion of elective coursework, an additional advanced practice experience, 8 clinical experiences, and a skills checklist, and participation in a clinical skills competition. Thirty-two graduates of the advanced clinical track were surveyed. Of the 23 respondents, 95% of those who pursued residency training were successfully matched with a residency program. Ninety-one percent of respondents felt that the advanced clinical track increased their confidence and 74% felt it was definitely an advantage when applying to a residency program. All participants agreed that the advanced clinical track met their expectations or goals and would recommend it to other students. Completion of an advanced clinical track was viewed by PharmD graduates as valuable preparation for residency training and institutional practice and would be recommended to other students.

  19. Could community pharmacies help to improve youth health? Service availability and views of pharmacy personnel in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Horsfield, Emma; Kelly, Fiona; Sheridan, Janie; Stewart, Joanna; Clark, Terryann

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the availability of youth-relevant community pharmacy services in New Zealand (NZ), and the opinions of pharmacy personnel on the appropriateness of these services for young people aged 12-24. Pharmacist and pharmacy support staff (PSS) questionnaires were developed collaboratively with a Youth Advisory Group (YAG) and were mailed to 500 randomly selected community pharmacies in NZ. Response rates for questionnaires were 50.5 % for pharmacists and 37.0 % for PSS. The majority of community pharmacies in NZ offer public health services relevant to youth health including emergency contraception, condoms, smoking cessation, weight management and harm reduction services for drug use. Not all pharmacy personnel believed these services are appropriate for youth, particularly for those aged 16 or under. PSS appeared less likely than pharmacists to feel services were appropriate. Community pharmacies are offering an increasing range of youth-relevant health services, and may, therefore, be able to improve youth healthcare access. More research is required to investigate the barriers to young people accessing services from pharmacies, and also the challenges for pharmacy personnel in providing services to this age group.

  20. Randomized, community-based pharmacy intervention to expand services beyond sale of sterile syringes to injection drug users in pharmacies in New York City.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Natalie D; Amesty, Silvia; Rivera, Alexis V; Harripersaud, Katherine; Turner, Alezandria; Fuller, Crystal M

    2013-09-01

    Structural interventions may help reduce racial/ethnic disparities in HIV. In 2009 to 2011, we randomized pharmacies participating in a nonprescription syringe access program in minority communities to intervention (pharmacy enrolled and delivered HIV risk reduction information to injection drug users [IDUs]), primary control (pharmacy only enrolled IDUs), and secondary control (pharmacy did not engage IDUs). Intervention pharmacy staff reported more support for syringe sales than did control staff. An expanded pharmacy role in HIV risk reduction may be helpful.

  1. Randomized, Community-Based Pharmacy Intervention to Expand Services Beyond Sale of Sterile Syringes to Injection Drug Users in Pharmacies in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Amesty, Silvia; Rivera, Alexis V.; Harripersaud, Katherine; Turner, Alezandria; Fuller, Crystal M.

    2013-01-01

    Structural interventions may help reduce racial/ethnic disparities in HIV. In 2009 to 2011, we randomized pharmacies participating in a nonprescription syringe access program in minority communities to intervention (pharmacy enrolled and delivered HIV risk reduction information to injection drug users [IDUs]), primary control (pharmacy only enrolled IDUs), and secondary control (pharmacy did not engage IDUs). Intervention pharmacy staff reported more support for syringe sales than did control staff. An expanded pharmacy role in HIV risk reduction may be helpful. PMID:23865644

  2. The Utrecht Pharmacy Practice network for Education and Research: a network of community and hospital pharmacies in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Koster, Ellen S; Blom, Lyda; Philbert, Daphne; Rump, Willem; Bouvy, Marcel L

    2014-08-01

    Practice-based networks can serve as effective mechanisms for the development of the profession of pharmacists, on the one hand by supporting student internships and on the other hand by collection of research data and implementation of research outcomes among public health practice settings. This paper presents the characteristics and benefits of the Utrecht Pharmacy Practice network for Education and Research, a practice based research network affiliated with the Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Utrecht University. Yearly, this network is used to realize approximately 600 student internships (in hospital and community pharmacies) and 20 research projects. To date, most research has been performed in community pharmacy and research questions frequently concerned prescribing behavior or adherence and subjects related to uptake of regulations in the pharmacy setting. Researchers gain access to different types of data from daily practice, pharmacists receive feedback on the functioning of their own pharmacy and students get in depth insight into pharmacy practice.

  3. Pharmaceutical Consultation in UAE Community Pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Hamoudi, N M; Shirwaikar, A A; Ali, H S; Al Ayoubi, E I

    2011-07-01

    In recent years, the focus of pharmacists as traditional drug dispensers has shifted to more active and participative role in risk assessment, risk management, and other medication related consultation activities. Pharmacy profession is evolving steadily in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Pharmacists in UAE are so much occupied in their administrative and managerial duties that dispensing is mostly attended to by pharmacy technicians. Pharmacist-led patient counseling is limited to the dosage and frequency of medications and rarely adverse reactions and drug interactions with other medications. Therefore we decided to perform quantitative questionnaires study to explore the role of pharmacist in patient counseling in UAE, the evaluation of pharmacist's opinion on patient counseling and the potential determinants of personal consultation. Results show the frequency and nature of inquiries received by pharmacist. Five to twenty inquires per month are received from patient, most of them related to drug prescription and dose recommendation. Thirty nine percent of pharmacists received inquiries from doctors, most of them related to the dose and mode of action. Ninty two percent of the pharmacists agreed that patient counseling is their professional responsibility. About 82% of pharmacists agreed that counseling will increase their sales and enhance the reputation of their pharmacies. Seventy percent of pharmacists mentioned that they need to undergo training for effective counseling while 46% of pharmacists felt that more staff in the pharmacies would have a positive influence on patient compliance to medication therapies and patient safety. The potential determinants of personal consultation show that 52% of participants trusted pharmacist and 55% considered the pharmacist as a friend. Forty eight percent of participants visited the pharmacy for medical recommendation while 30% for drug compounding, 72% agreed that pharmacist conducts full instruction while 31% agreed

  4. Pharmaceutical Consultation in UAE Community Pharmacies

    PubMed Central

    Hamoudi, N. M.; Shirwaikar, A. A.; Ali, H. S.; Al Ayoubi, E. I.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the focus of pharmacists as traditional drug dispensers has shifted to more active and participative role in risk assessment, risk management, and other medication related consultation activities. Pharmacy profession is evolving steadily in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Pharmacists in UAE are so much occupied in their administrative and managerial duties that dispensing is mostly attended to by pharmacy technicians. Pharmacist-led patient counseling is limited to the dosage and frequency of medications and rarely adverse reactions and drug interactions with other medications. Therefore we decided to perform quantitative questionnaires study to explore the role of pharmacist in patient counseling in UAE, the evaluation of pharmacist's opinion on patient counseling and the potential determinants of personal consultation. Results show the frequency and nature of inquiries received by pharmacist. Five to twenty inquires per month are received from patient, most of them related to drug prescription and dose recommendation. Thirty nine percent of pharmacists received inquiries from doctors, most of them related to the dose and mode of action. Ninty two percent of the pharmacists agreed that patient counseling is their professional responsibility. About 82% of pharmacists agreed that counseling will increase their sales and enhance the reputation of their pharmacies. Seventy percent of pharmacists mentioned that they need to undergo training for effective counseling while 46% of pharmacists felt that more staff in the pharmacies would have a positive influence on patient compliance to medication therapies and patient safety. The potential determinants of personal consultation show that 52% of participants trusted pharmacist and 55% considered the pharmacist as a friend. Forty eight percent of participants visited the pharmacy for medical recommendation while 30% for drug compounding, 72% agreed that pharmacist conducts full instruction while 31% agreed

  5. Tobacco Sales in Community Pharmacies: Remote Decisions and Demographic Targets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Cory M.; Peterson, N. Andrew; Schneider, John E.; Smith, Brian J.; Armstead, Theresa L.

    2010-01-01

    This study applied multilevel modeling procedures with data from 678 community pharmacies and 382 residential census tracts in a Midwestern U.S. state to determine if two sets of variables: retail type (e.g., remotely owned, independently owned) and population demographics of the tracts in which outlets were located were associated with retail…

  6. Tobacco Sales in Community Pharmacies: Remote Decisions and Demographic Targets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Cory M.; Peterson, N. Andrew; Schneider, John E.; Smith, Brian J.; Armstead, Theresa L.

    2010-01-01

    This study applied multilevel modeling procedures with data from 678 community pharmacies and 382 residential census tracts in a Midwestern U.S. state to determine if two sets of variables: retail type (e.g., remotely owned, independently owned) and population demographics of the tracts in which outlets were located were associated with retail…

  7. Economic Costs and Benefits Associated with a Community Pharmacy Rotation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selander, Linda Krypel; Larson, Lon N.

    1995-01-01

    A study investigated costs and benefits to five pharmacists serving as preceptors of community pharmacy rotations by examining student work activities, cost of preceptor's time, and time saved by student work. When student work output was assigned a value of 50% of a pharmacist's salary, costs to benefits were balanced. (MSE)

  8. How do Community Pharmacies Recover from E-prescription Errors?

    PubMed Central

    Odukoya, Olufunmilola K.; Stone, Jamie A.; Chui, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of e-prescribing is increasing annually, with over 788 million e-prescriptions received in US pharmacies in 2012. Approximately 9% of e-prescriptions have medication errors. Objective To describe the process used by community pharmacy staff to detect, explain, and correct e-prescription errors. Methods The error recovery conceptual framework was employed for data collection and analysis. 13 pharmacists and 14 technicians from five community pharmacies in Wisconsin participated in the study. A combination of data collection methods were utilized, including direct observations, interviews, and focus groups. The transcription and content analysis of recordings were guided by the three-step error recovery model. Results Most of the e-prescription errors were detected during the entering of information into the pharmacy system. These errors were detected by both pharmacists and technicians using a variety of strategies which included: (1) performing double checks of e-prescription information; (2) printing the e-prescription to paper and confirming the information on the computer screen with information from the paper printout; and (3) using colored pens to highlight important information. Strategies used for explaining errors included: (1) careful review of patient’ medication history; (2) pharmacist consultation with patients; (3) consultation with another pharmacy team member; and (4) use of online resources. In order to correct e-prescription errors, participants made educated guesses of the prescriber’s intent or contacted the prescriber via telephone or fax. When e-prescription errors were encountered in the community pharmacies, the primary goal of participants was to get the order right for patients by verifying the prescriber’s intent. Conclusion Pharmacists and technicians play an important role in preventing e-prescription errors through the detection of errors and the verification of prescribers’ intent. Future studies are needed

  9. How do community pharmacies recover from e-prescription errors?

    PubMed

    Odukoya, Olufunmilola K; Stone, Jamie A; Chui, Michelle A

    2014-01-01

    The use of e-prescribing is increasing annually, with over 788 million e-prescriptions received in US pharmacies in 2012. Approximately 9% of e-prescriptions have medication errors. To describe the process used by community pharmacy staff to detect, explain, and correct e-prescription errors. The error recovery conceptual framework was employed for data collection and analysis. 13 pharmacists and 14 technicians from five community pharmacies in Wisconsin participated in the study. A combination of data collection methods were utilized, including direct observations, interviews, and focus groups. The transcription and content analysis of recordings were guided by the three-step error recovery model. Most of the e-prescription errors were detected during the entering of information into the pharmacy system. These errors were detected by both pharmacists and technicians using a variety of strategies which included: (1) performing double checks of e-prescription information; (2) printing the e-prescription to paper and confirming the information on the computer screen with information from the paper printout; and (3) using colored pens to highlight important information. Strategies used for explaining errors included: (1) careful review of patient's medication history; (2) pharmacist consultation with patients; (3) consultation with another pharmacy team member; and (4) use of online resources. In order to correct e-prescription errors, participants made educated guesses of the prescriber's intent or contacted the prescriber via telephone or fax. When e-prescription errors were encountered in the community pharmacies, the primary goal of participants was to get the order right for patients by verifying the prescriber's intent. Pharmacists and technicians play an important role in preventing e-prescription errors through the detection of errors and the verification of prescribers' intent. Future studies are needed to examine factors that facilitate or hinder recovery

  10. The feasibility of contraceptive injections at the community pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Heller, R; Johnstone, A; Cameron, S T

    2017-08-29

    The progestogen-only intramuscular injectable Depo-Provera(®) (depot medroxyprogesterone acetate) is an effective contraceptive method, but users need to attend a clinic every 12-13 weeks for a repeat injection from a doctor/nurse. This limits convenience of the method and may affect continuation rates. We conducted a pilot study to examine the feasibility and acceptability of users receiving the subcutaneous form of the contraception injection from pharmacists in the community pharmacy setting. Existing users of Depo-Provera(®), who wished to switch to the subcutaneous preparation with the same active ingredient (Sayana Press(®)) were invited to attend 1 of 11 community pharmacies for up to three repeat injections, given by a pharmacist. Evaluation consisted of (i) self-administered questionnaires of women and (ii) interviews with participating pharmacists, at study exit on their respective experiences. Global unavailability of the product during the study adversely affected recruitment and retention. 50 women were recruited. Only 48 injections were delivered at the pharmacy out of a possible 150 (34%). About 26 participants received no injections at the pharmacy and only seven (14%) participants received all three injections at the pharmacy. Participants reported mixed experiences, with some welcoming the intervention but others experiencing difficulty with pharmacist availability. Pharmacists were enthusiastic about this expansion of their role, and did not view their availability as a barrier to service delivery. Delivery of the subcutaneous contraceptive injectable from a community pharmacy may be feasible but availability of sufficient numbers of pharmacists trained in this technique is necessary for a robust model of service delivery.

  11. Community, autonomy and bespoke services: Independent community pharmacy practice in hyperdiverse, London communities.

    PubMed

    Duckett, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    The landscape of pharmacy continues to evolve including in Great Britain, where, by 2012, almost 50% of pharmacy contracts were held by just 9 national chains. To further explicate the concept of 'independence' as it was positioned by independent pharmacists, particularly examining personal interpretations of their role in contemporary pharmacy and health care delivery. Research was situated in East and South-east London between 2008 and 2009. The study took an ethnographic approach; combining participant observation within 7 pharmacies and 36 active interviews with pharmacists. Recruitment criteria demanded that pharmacists self-identified as independent and were either owners or managers in sole-owned or independent chain pharmacies. Independence was expressed through a framework of three overarching themes: autonomy, engagement and bespoke practice. Autonomy formed the basis of professional expression ultimately enabling pharmacists to exercise control over customer relationships. This facilitated engagement with communities and individuals and ultimately made possible an offering of a bespoke 'personal' service. The diverse urban environment was a space where independence was seen to be of particular value. The complexity of this setting was used symbolically to support the need for independent thinking. These themes are examined through stories of 'acceptance' and developing pharmacy 'communities' alongside the practise of maintaining personal relationships to provide a distinct service offer. This study highlights distinct 'independent' expression of professional identity and suggests the need to assess the value of independent community pharmacy as being different from but complementary to the service provided by multiples/large chains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Community Pharmacy Practice in India: Past, Present and Future

    PubMed Central

    Basak, Subal Chandra; Sathyanarayana, Dondeti

    2009-01-01

    Today, community pharmacists play an important role in any country as they take responsibility for patient’s medicine related needs for access to healthcare. However, in India only the supply of medicines remains the core activity of the community pharmacist. Most community pharmacists in the country still hardly offer patient‐oriented service. The role of the pharmacists in the community, and with it their medicine management, may change in the wake of the rapid growth of domestic medicine output and national healthcare expenditure. This article seeks to discuss the genesis of Indian community pharmacy, the majority of which are privately owned, and sketches its education, training and future prospects. PMID:23093872

  13. Impact of advanced pharmacy practice experience placement changes in colleges and schools of pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Duke, Lori J; Staton, April G; McCullough, Elizabeth S; Jain, Rahul; Miller, Mindi S; Lynn Stevenson, T; Fetterman, James W; Lynn Parham, R; Sheffield, Melody C; Unterwagner, Whitney L; McDuffie, Charles H

    2012-04-10

    To document the annual number of advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) placement changes for students across 5 colleges and schools of pharmacy, identify and compare initiating reasons, and estimate the associated administrative workload. Data collection occurred from finalization of the 2008-2009 APPE assignments throughout the last date of the APPE schedule. Internet-based customized tracking forms were used to categorize the initiating reason for the placement change and the administrative time required per change (0 to 120 minutes). APPE placement changes per institution varied from 14% to 53% of total assignments. Reasons for changes were: administrator initiated (20%), student initiated (23%), and site/preceptor initiated (57%) Total administrative time required per change varied across institutions from 3,130 to 22,750 minutes, while the average time per reassignment was 42.5 minutes. APPE placements are subject to high instability. Significant differences exist between public and private colleges and schools of pharmacy as to the number and type of APPE reassignments made and associated workload estimates.

  14. Migraine management in community pharmacies: practice patterns and knowledge of pharmacy personnel in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Saengcharoen, Woranuch; Lerkiatbundit, Sanguan

    2013-10-01

    To describe practice behavior and understanding among pharmacy personnel, both pharmacists and non-pharmacist staff, in the management of mild and moderate migraines. Migraine is recognized as a prevalent and chronic neurological disorder. In developing countries, such as Thailand, community pharmacies are a widely used source of health care for various illnesses including migraine. However, the quality of migraine management and knowledge among pharmacy personnel is unclear. Cross-sectional study. The sample comprised 142 randomly selected community pharmacies in a city in the south of Thailand. Simulated clients visited the pharmacies twice, at least 1 month apart, to ask for the treatment of mild and moderate migraines. After the encounters, question asking, drug dispensing, and advice giving by pharmacy staff were recorded. Subsequently, the providers in 135 pharmacies participated in the interview to evaluate their knowledge in migraine management. The majority of pharmacy personnel were less likely to ask questions in cases of mild migraine when compared with moderate attack (mean score [full score = 12] 1.8 ± 1.6 vs 2.6 ± 1.5, respectively, P < 0.001). Mean difference of question asking between mild and moderate migraines was -0.8 (95% confidence interval -1.1 to -0.5, P < 0.001). Approximately 33% and 54% of the providers appropriately dispensed non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for mild attack and ergotamine for moderate migraine, respectively, P < 0.001. Prophylactic medications (eg, atenolol, propranolol, flunarizine) were inappropriately recommended, particularly in moderate attack (28.2% vs 17.6% in mild migraine, P = 0.018). Less than 30% of providers advised the patients on the maximum limit of dose or discontinuity of medications when recovered. Compared with non-pharmacists, pharmacists tended to ask more questions, give more advice, and dispense less appropriately; however, there were no significant differences

  15. Three-year financial analysis of pharmacy services at an independent community pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Doucette, William R; McDonough, Randal P; Mormann, Megan M; Vaschevici, Renata; Urmie, Julie M; Patterson, Brandon J

    2012-01-01

    To assess the financial performance of pharmacy services including vaccinations, cholesterol screenings, medication therapy management (MTM), adherence management services, employee health fairs, and compounding services provided by an independent community pharmacy. Three years (2008-10) of pharmacy records were examined to determine the total revenue and costs of each service. Costs included products, materials, labor, marketing, overhead, equipment, reference materials, and fax/phone usage. Costs were allocated to each service using accepted principles (e.g., time for labor). Depending on the service, the total revenue was calculated by multiplying the frequency of the service by the revenue per patient or by adding the total revenue received. A sensitivity analysis was conducted for the adherence management services to account for average dispensing net profit. 7 of 11 pharmacy services showed a net profit each year. Those services include influenza and herpes zoster immunization services, MTM, two adherence management services, employee health fairs, and prescription compounding services. The services that realized a net loss included the pneumococcal immunization service, cholesterol screenings, and two adherence management services. The sensitivity analysis showed that all adherence services had a net gain when average dispensing net profit was included. Most of the pharmacist services had an annual positive net gain. It seems likely that these services can be sustained. Further cost management, such as reducing labor costs, could improve the viability of services with net losses. However, even with greater efficiency, external factors such as competition and reimbursement challenge the sustainability of these services.

  16. Shopper marketing: a new challenge for Spanish community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Gavilan, Diana; Avello, Maria; Abril, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Changes that have occurred over the past few decades in retailing and in the health care sector--namely, a drastic reduction in drug profit-margins, and a more critical use of health services by patients--have created a scenario characterized by rising competitiveness. This new context is necessitating community pharmacies (hereafter, pharmacies) to improve their business model through new strategies. Shopper marketing has proven invaluable in other retail settings and therefore, could be a critical element for new practices in pharmacies. First, to analyze how shopping experiences in pharmacies based on new practices in shopper marketing affect shopping behavior. Second, to study the mediating effect of customer satisfaction on the relationship between shopping experiences and shopping behavior. A self-reported questionnaire was developed to measure four concepts: hedonic experience (enjoyable), functional experience (goal-oriented), customer satisfaction and shopping behavior. Data were collected from 28 different pharmacies dispersed throughout Spain. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test the relationships in the theoretical model. First, the measurement model was estimated to assess model fit, reliability, convergent and discriminant validity. Then, the parameters of the structural model were estimated and the mediation effects were subsequently tested. Functional experience and hedonic experience each significantly and positively correlate with consumer satisfaction and with customer shopping behavior (purchases and loyalty). Moreover, the effects of each type of experience on shopping behavior are partially mediated by customer satisfaction. The results suggest that even in Spanish pharmacies, which have traditionally been considered as strictly functional retailers, ensuring customer satisfaction and enhancing shopping behavior now demand more than just functional experiences. Moreover, a customer's experience at a pharmacy can itself trigger a

  17. Availability of snacks, candy and beverages in hospital, community clinic and commercial pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Whitehouse, Anne; Simon, Anna; French, Simone A; Wolfson, Julian

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to measure the availability of energy-dense foods and sugar-sweetened beverages in pharmacies and to examine differences by pharmacy type and presence of a food policy. Trained research staff visited pharmacies (n 37) to measure shelf space and variety of snacks, candy and sugar-sweetened beverages available within 10 ft (3·05 m) of the pharmacy register. Community clinic, hospital and commercial pharmacies in Minneapolis, MN, USA. Employees were interviewed regarding pharmacy food policies. Approximately 60 % of pharmacies had foods and/or sugar-sweetened beverages available for purchase within 10 ft (3·05 m) of the pharmacy register. Total shelf space (P = 0·02) and variety (P = 0·0003) differed significantly by pharmacy type and were greatest among community clinic pharmacies. Over half of pharmacies had no food policy (58·3 %). Pharmacies with food policies were less likely to have foods/beverages available within 10 ft (3·05 m) of the pharmacy register than pharmacies with no food policies (P = 0·03). Candy, snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages are highly available in the pharmacy environment. Presence of a policy is associated with less food availability within 10 ft (3·05 m) of the pharmacy register and represents an important potential intervention strategy.

  18. Marketing activity in the community pharmacy sector - A scoping review.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, Ardalan; Carter, Stephen R; Schneider, Carl R

    2017-03-30

    Community pharmacy ownership requires engaging with marketing strategies to influence consumer behaviour. There is a plethora of information from trade journals, expert opinion, and published discussion surrounding this issue. Despite this, evidence relating to the efficacy of marketing activity within the pharmacy sector is scant. To review how marketing activity has been conceptualised in the community pharmacy sector and to determine the evidence for the effect of marketing activity. Seven databases were systematically searched using a scoping review framework with the reporting protocol of PRISMA-P. The search yielded 33 studies that were analysed for year of publication, journal, country of focus, and framework of marketing. The majority of marketing research papers focused on the United States and were published in healthcare journals. These were various marketing strategy elements, including; segmentation, targeting, differentiation, and positioning. Also evident was research regarding marketing mix, which predominately involved the "4Ps" model. Actual marketing activity comprised little of the research. Research into marketing activity in community pharmacy is limited, and little evidence is available to show the effects of such activities. Future research needs to demonstrate the causality for the effect of marketing activities on consumer behaviour and economic outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Community pharmacy compounding-impact on professional status.

    PubMed

    Giam, Jennifer Anne; McLachlan, Andrew J; Krass, Ines

    2011-04-01

    Extemporaneous compounding has been a core function for pharmacists and was the basis of pharmacy's claim to professional status. The re-emergence of compounding as a specialised practice warrants investigation regarding the influence of this practice on pharmacy's professional status. The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of extemporaneous compounding to the professional status of pharmacists in community practice. A search of the literature was conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE, IPA, ISI WEB OF KNOWLEDGE, PROQUEST SOCIAL SCIENCE JOURNALS, JSTOR and SOCIOLOGICAL ABSTRACTS databases to identify relevant original research articles, reviews or commentaries. Compounding was an important part of pharmacy's claim to professional status. The expansion of the pharmaceutical industry and decline in demand for compounded medications led to a view that pharmacy suffered a loss of professional status. In recent decades patient centred services have been introduced as a reprofessionalisation strategy. Evidence suggests that compounding, as a specialty practice based on a patient centred approach, is increasingly provided in Australia and the United States. Compounding has emerged as a specialised area of pharmacy practice in Australia and the United States, and when practiced as a patient centred activity may be a strategy for reprofessionalisation. The extension of compounding beyond mere supply and distribution of a pharmaceutical product to become a platform for development of collaborative professional relationships may also lead to enhanced professional status of pharmacists.

  20. Young women's perceptions and experiences with contraception supply in community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Fakih, Souhiela; Batra, Peter; Gatny, Heather H; Kusunoki, Yasamin; Barber, Jennifer S; Farris, Karen B

    2015-01-01

    Unintended pregnancy is a major public health problem in the United States.Correct contraceptive use can reduce the rate of unintended pregnancy. Community pharmacies are well positioned to provide contraceptives and advice about contraception. To determine young women's perceptions and experiences with contraception supply in community pharmacies and to identify whether pharmacy characteristics predicted very positive experiences. This study comprised two cross-sectional surveys including an online women's pharmacy perceptions and experiences (PPE) survey and a faxed/observed survey of community pharmacies. One county in Michigan. Young women and community pharmacies. The two surveys were merged to explore pharmacy characteristics that may impact women's perceptions and experiences with community pharmacies. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to explore relationships between pharmacy characteristics and positive outcomes. The response rate for the PPE survey was 54% (n = 343/637). Data from all community pharmacies in the county was retrieved via fax (n = 41/94, 43.6%) or observation (n = 53/94, 56.4%). Women were included in this analysis if they indicated a regular pharmacy (one they go to most often) in the county of interest (n = 210). More than 50% of women (n = 125/210) visited a pharmacy more than once per month. Sixty percent of women were currently using something to prevent pregnancy (n = 124/210, 60.8%). Thirty-five percent of women had a positive experience (n = 73/210, 34.8%). In the multiple logistic regression, women who visited a chain pharmacy had almost 65% lower odds of an overall positive experience with their regular pharmacy compared with women who visited a grocery or mass merchandise pharmacy (odds ratio 0.35 [95% CI 0.16], P = 0.75). Young women visit community pharmacies and use contraceptives frequently. Interventions need to be developed and implemented to improve young women's perceptions and experiences with

  1. Community pharmacists' prescription intervention practices--exploring variations in practice in Norwegian pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Mandt, Ingunn; Horn, Anne Marie; Ekedahl, Anders; Granas, Anne Gerd

    2010-03-01

    Evidence suggests that prescription intervention frequencies have been found to vary as much as 10-fold among Norwegian pharmacies and among pharmacists within the same pharmacy. To explore community pharmacists' perceptions of how their prescription intervention practices were influenced by their working environment, their technological resources, the physical and social structures of the pharmacies, their relations with colleagues, and to the individual pharmacist's professional skills. Two focus groups consisting of 14 community pharmacists in total, from urban and rural areas in Norway, discussed their working procedures and professional judgments related to prescription interventions. Organizational theories were used as theoretical and analytical frameworks in the study. A framework based on Leavitt's organizational model was to structure our interview guide. The study units were the statements of the individual pharmacists. Recurrent themes were identified and condensed. Two processes describing variations in the dispensing workflow including prescription interventions were derived--an active dispensing process extracting information about the patient's medication from several sources and a fast dispensing process focusing mainly on the information available on the prescription. Both workflow processes were used in the same pharmacies and by the same pharmacist but on different occasions. A pharmacy layout allowing interactions between pharmacist and patients and a convenient organization of technology, layout, pharmacist-patient and pharmacist-coworker transactions at the workplace was essential for detecting and solving prescription problems. Pharmacists limited their contact with general practitioners when they considered the problem a formality and/or when they knew the answers themselves. The combined use of dispensing software and the Internet was a driving force toward more independent and cognitively advanced prescription interventions

  2. An audit of drug shortages in a community pharmacy practice.

    PubMed

    Costelloe, E M; Guinane, M; Nugent, F; Halley, O; Parsons, C

    2015-06-01

    There are no firm data on drug shortages in Irish community pharmacy. This prospective observational study aimed to characterise the drug shortage problem in an Irish community pharmacy. The primary aim was to determine numbers and durations of drug shortages. Secondary aims included comparing these shortages with Irish Pharmacy Union (IPU) drug shortage lists and determining the frequency with which notifications were received prior to shortages. Further secondary aims were to examine relationships between causes of drug shortages and drug costs and between causes of drug shortages and shortage durations. The study took place in a community pharmacy in a Limerick City suburb between October 2012 and February 2013. Data were collected daily regarding drugs that were dispensed, but unavailable to purchase. Suppliers/manufacturers provided data on the reasons for shortages. 65/1,232 dispensed drugs (5.3%) were in short supply over the study period. Median shortage duration was 13 days (interquartile range 4-32 days) and median cost was 8.10. Numbers of unavailable drugs by month varied from 13 to 38. Monthly IPU drug shortage lists identified between six and eight of these shortages depending on the month. Two notifications were received from suppliers/manufacturers regarding shortages. Parallel exports had the highest mean costs (mean 38.05) and manufacturing problems were associated with the longest durations (mean 57.44 days). This study highlights the drug shortage problem in an Irish community pharmacy. We propose that enhanced communication between all stakeholders is the most worthwhile solution. Further studies are needed.

  3. Prescription drug monitoring program utilization in Kentucky community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Wixson, Sarah E; Blumenschein, Karen; Goodin, Amie J; Talbert, Jeffery; Freeman, Patricia R

    2015-01-01

    Identify characteristics of Kentucky community pharmacists and community pharmacists' practice environment associated with utilization of the Kentucky All Schedule Prescription Electronic Reporting Program (KASPER). Surveys were mailed to all 1,018 Kentucky pharmacists with a KASPER account and an additional 1,000 licensed pharmacists without an account. Bivariate analyses examined the association between KASPER utilization and practice type (independent or chain) and practice location (rural or urban). A multivariate Poisson regression model with robust error variance estimated risk ratios (RR) of KASPER utilization by characteristics of pharmacists' practice environment. Responses were received from 563 pharmacists (response rate 27.9%). Of these, 402 responses from community pharmacists were included in the analyses. A majority of responding pharmacists (84%) indicated they or someone in their pharmacy had requested a patient's controlled substance history since KASPER's inception. Bivariate results showed that pharmacists who practiced in independent pharmacies reported greater KASPER utilization (94%) than pharmacists in chain pharmacies (75%; p<0.001). Multivariate regression results found utilization of KASPER varied significantly among practice environments of community pharmacists with those who practiced in an urban location (RR: 1.11; [1.01-1.21]) or at an independent pharmacy (RR: 1.27; [1.14-1.40]) having an increased likelihood of KASPER utilization. Utilization of KASPER differs by community pharmacists' practice environment, predominantly by practice type and location. Understanding characteristics of community pharmacists and community pharmacists' practice environment associated with PDMP use is necessary to remove barriers to access and increase utilization thereby increasing PDMP effectiveness.

  4. Identifying relationships between the professional culture of pharmacy, pharmacists' personality traits, and the provision of advanced pharmacy services.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Meagen; Tsao, Nicole W; Tsuyuki, Ross T; Marra, Carlo A

    2016-01-01

    Legislative changes are affording pharmacists the opportunity to provide more advanced pharmacy services. However, many pharmacists have not yet been able to provide these services sustainably. Research from implementation science suggests that before sustained change in pharmacy can be achieved an improved understanding of pharmacy context, through the professional culture of pharmacy and pharmacists' personality traits, is required. The primary objective of this study was to investigate possible relationships between cultural factors, and personality traits, and the uptake of advanced practice opportunities by pharmacists in British Columbia, Canada. The study design was a cross-sectional survey of registered, and practicing, pharmacists from one Canadian province. The survey gauged respondents' characteristics, practice setting, and the provision of advanced pharmacy services, and contained the Organizational Culture Profile (OCP), a measure of professional culture, as well as the Big Five Inventory (BFI), a measure of personality traits. A total of 945 completed survey instruments were returned. The majority of respondents were female (61%), the average age of respondents was 42 years (SD: 12), and the average number of years in practice was 19 (SD: 12). A significant positive relationship was identified for respondents perceiving greater value in the OCP factors competitiveness and innovation and providing a higher number of all advanced services. A positive relationship was observed for respondents scoring higher on the BFI traits extraversion and the immunizations provided, and agreeableness and openness and medication reviews completed. This is the first work to identify statistically significant relationships between the OCP and BFI, and the provision of advanced pharmacy services. As such, this work serves as a starting place from which to develop more detailed insight into how the professional culture of pharmacy and pharmacists personality traits may

  5. From community pharmacy to healthy living pharmacy: positive early experiences from Portsmouth, England.

    PubMed

    Brown, David; Portlock, Jane; Rutter, Paul; Nazar, Zacharia

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown the potential for community pharmacies to promote better health and prevent disease by providing individual services in a limited range of settings. In the UK, the healthy living pharmacy (HLP) framework has been developed to allow pharmacies to provide a portfolio of such services tailored to local need. This paper reports an evaluation of the uptake and success of HLP introduction in Portsmouth, the original pathfinder site for a national program. To assesses the impact on service provision and staff engagement at an early stage in HLP program development. Quantitative data, derived from pharmacy records, on service provision by HLPs (n = 17) and non-HLPs (n = 19) during April 2011-March 2012 was evaluated for trends and differences. Face-to-face interviews were conducted during November 2011 and February 2012, to gauge staff opinion on HLP development and sustainability, using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Significantly more clients per pharmacy were seen in HLPs than non-HLPs for the following services: targeted respiratory medicine use reviews (medians: 29 vs 11; P = 0.0167); smoking cessation at initiation (62 vs 18; P < 0.001) and at 4-week (26 vs 10; P < 0.001) and 12-week (5 vs 1; P = 0.023) follow-ups. Medians for alcohol awareness and weight management were appreciably higher in HLP pharmacies, but the differences did not reach statistical significance. Medians for clients seeking emergency hormonal contraception were comparable. Interviews with 38 staff from 32 pharmacies revealed a positive impact on service development in HLPs, largely engineered through revision of skill mix and additional training of non-pharmacist staff to become healthy living champions. Obstacles to HLP development were managing the increased workload, raising awareness of clients and other healthcare professionals of the services available, and receiving remuneration for service provision. These data point to a largely successful

  6. Predicting tobacco sales in community pharmacies using population demographics and pharmacy type.

    PubMed

    Hickey, Lisa M; Farris, Karen B; Peterson, N Andrew; Aquilino, Mary L

    2006-01-01

    To determine whether the population demographics of the location of pharmacies were associated with tobacco sales in pharmacies, when controlling for pharmacy type. Retrospective analysis. Iowa. All retailers in Iowa that obtained tobacco licenses and all pharmacies registered with the Iowa Board of Pharmacy in 2003. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE AND INTERVENTIONS: Percentage of pharmacies selling tobacco (examined by pharmacy type using chi-square analysis); median income and distribution of race/ethnicity in the county for pharmacies that did or did not sell tobacco (t tests); predictors of whether a pharmacy sold tobacco (logistic regression using the independent variables county-level demographic variables and pharmacy characteristics). County gender composition, race/ethnicity make-up, and income levels were different for tobacco-selling and -nonselling pharmacies. Logistic regression showed that whether a pharmacy sold tobacco was strongly dependent on the type of pharmacy; compared with independent pharmacies (of which only 5% sold tobacco products), chain pharmacies were 34 times more likely to sell tobacco products, mass merchandiser outlets were 47 times more likely to stock these goods, and grocery stores were 378 times more likely to do so. Pharmacies selling tobacco were more likely to be located in counties with significantly higher numbers of multiracial groups. The best predictor of whether an Iowa pharmacy sells tobacco products is type of pharmacy. In multivariable analyses, population demographics of the county in which pharmacies were located were generally not predictive of whether a pharmacy sold tobacco.

  7. Advances in Navy pharmacy information technology: accessing Micromedex via the Composite Healthcare Computer System and local area networks.

    PubMed

    Koerner, S D; Becker, F

    1999-07-01

    The pharmacy profession has long used technology to more effectively bring health care to the patient. Navy pharmacy has embraced technology advances in its daily operations, from computers to dispensing robots. Evolving from the traditional role of compounding and dispensing specialists, pharmacists are establishing themselves as vital team members in direct patient care: on the ward, in ambulatory clinics, in specialty clinics, and in other specialty patient care programs (e.g., smoking cessation). An important part of the evolution is the timely access to the most up-to-date information available. Micromedex, Inc. (Denver, Colorado), has developed a number of computer CD-ROM-based full-text pharmacy, toxicology, emergency medicine, and patient education products. Micromedex is a recognized leader with regard to total pharmaceutical information availability. This article discusses the implementation of Micromedex products within the established Composite Healthcare Computer System and the subsequent use by and effect on the international Navy pharmacy community.

  8. A Quantitative Professionalism Policy in a Community Pharmacy Introductory Pharmacy Practice Experience

    PubMed Central

    Rivkin, Anastasia; Shah, Bupendra; Rush, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To determine whether implementing a quantitative professionalism policy would lead to improved behaviors in an introductory pharmacy practice experience (IPPE) and to evaluate students’ attitudes about professionalism expectations in the IPPE. Design. A policy using quantitative parameters for assessing unprofessional behaviors was developed and implemented in the community pharmacy IPPE after discrepancies were identified in the way professional expectations were assessed. Assessment. The quantitative professionalism policy reduced the number of assignments submitted post deadline (p<0.05). There was no change in students’ attitudes towards professional behaviors after the implementation of the policy. Conclusion. The quantitative professionalism policy was effective in changing some of the students’ professional behaviors in an IPPE. PMID:24371341

  9. Pharmacy Residencies and Dual Degrees as Complementary or Competitive Advanced Training Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Bradley-Baker, Lynette R.; Truong, Hoai-An

    2012-01-01

    The impact of pharmacy practice has been enhanced through additional graduate training opportunities, such as pharmacy residencies and dual-degree programs. This article compares and contrasts key aspects of pharmacy residencies and dual-degree programs, as well as examines the efforts of US colleges and schools of pharmacy in promoting these advanced training opportunities on their Web sites. Pharmacy residencies and dual-degree programs are complementary opportunities that allow student pharmacists to gain advanced knowledge and specialized skills beyond the traditional Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) degree. The combination of these credentials can be highly advantageous in a variety of practice settings. As pharmacists collaborate with healthcare providers and professionals from other disciplines, more support is needed to expand the availability and use of these cross-profession, advanced training opportunities to enhance the future of the pharmacy profession. PMID:23129844

  10. Returned medicines in community pharmacies of Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Coma, Anna; Modamio, Pilar; Lastra, Cecilia F; Bouvy, Marcel L; Mariño, Eduardo L

    2008-06-01

    To monitor the amount of unused drugs and the cost to the public health system. Setting A random sample of community pharmacies in Barcelona, Spain. Method The drugs were collected from 38 community pharmacies over a period of 7 consecutive working days (excluding Sundays). A questionnaire was designed to evaluate each returned medicine. The resulting data were analyzed and evaluated. The number of drugs collected at the pharmacy, the characteristics of the clients and the reasons why they returned the drugs, and finally the economic value of the drugs returned and the cost to the public health system. A total of 227 clients (54.6% women, 64 +/- 20 years-old) returned 1,176 packages to the pharmacy. The number of packages collected in one return ranged from 1 to 121. The number of packages collected per pharmacy ranged from 0 to 188. In more than half of the cases (52.4%) the patients returned their drug in person and in 32.2% of the cases a relative returned it on their behalf. The main reason (28.2%) why drugs were returned was the expiry date. In 24.9% of the cases the patient's condition had improved and there was no further need for the drug. In 20.8% the patient had died. The estimated total cost of the collected drugs was euro8,539.9. Over 75% of this amount (euro6,463.9) had been paid by the public health system. This study confirms the importance of analyzing the return of unwanted medicines to reduce unnecessary health expenditure. It also highlights the inadequacies of the Spanish health system in the areas of prescription, dispensing and use of medicines. Establishing strategies to reduce the wastage of unused medicines is necessary.

  11. Professional values in community and public health pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Badcott, David

    2011-05-01

    General practice (community) pharmacy as a healthcare profession is largely devoted to therapeutic treatment of individual patients whether in dispensing medically authorised prescriptions or by providing members of the public with over-the-counter advice and service for a variety of common ailments. Recently, community pharmacy has been identified as an untapped resource available to undertake important aspects of public health and in particular health promotion. In contrast to therapeutic treatment, public health primarily concerns the health of the entire population, rather than the health of individuals (Childress et al. in J Law Med Ethics 30:170-178, 2002). Thus, an important question for the profession is whether those moral and professional values that are appropriate to the therapeutic care of individual patients are relevant and adequate to support the additional public health role.

  12. Implementation of asthma guidelines to West Australian community pharmacies: an exploratory, quasi-experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Trevenen, Michelle; Murray, Kevin; Kendall, Peter A; Schneider, Carl R; Clifford, Rhonda

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Pharmacy assistants are often the first point of contact for patients presenting in community pharmacies. The current role of pharmacy assistants in the supply of asthma-reliever medications (short-acting β-agonists) was identified as a barrier to appropriate guideline-based care. The aim of this research was to devise and evaluate a team-based intervention to formalise the role of pharmacy assistants and to improve asthma guideline-based care in community pharmacy. Design A controlled pre-post intervention study was conducted in 336 metropolitan pharmacies located in Perth, Western Australia. Pharmacies were stratified into 2 groups (187 intervention and 149 control) based on known confounders for asthma control. The intervention was designed using a common-sense approach and resources developed included a checklist, videos and web page. Delivery was via workshops (25 pharmacies) or academic detailing (162 pharmacies). Pharmacy practice was assessed preintervention and postintervention via covert simulated patient methodology. Primary outcome measures included patient medical referral, device use demonstration and counselling, internal referral and/or direct involvement of a pharmacist in consultations. Results There was a significant increase in patient medical referral in intervention pharmacies from 32% to 47% (p=0.0007) from preintervention to postintervention, while control pharmacies showed a non-significant decrease from 50% to 44% (p=0.22). Device counselling was not routinely carried out at any stage or in any cohort of this research and no significant changes in internal referral were observed. Conclusions Increases in medical referral indicate that asthma guideline compliance can be improved in community pharmacy if implementation employs a team-based approach and involves pharmacy assistants. However, results were variable and the intervention did not improve practice related to device counselling or internal referral/pharmacist involvement

  13. Patient-guided counseling in the community pharmacy setting.

    PubMed

    Barnett, C W; Nykamp, D; Ellington, A M

    2000-01-01

    To test a new prescription counseling method termed "patient-guided counseling" (PGC) in community pharmacies. Post-test experimental design in which subjects were randomized to three groups. Six community pharmacies (three chain and three independent). Patients presenting new prescriptions. Patients were randomly assigned to one of three comparison groups. The PGC group was given a written prompt instructing them to write any questions they wished to ask about their prescription or their medical condition. The pharmacist then incorporated these questions into the subsequent verbal counseling. A second group was given a written prompt encouraging them to ask the pharmacist questions. This was followed by customary verbal counseling. A third group served as the control. No prompts were provided, but the pharmacist did provide customary verbal counseling. Patients' demographics, recall of medication information, and satisfaction with counseling. Patients were contacted by telephone 5 days after the start of drug therapy to measure compliance. Pharmacists rated their satisfaction with the information communicated and with their interactions with patients. Compared with customary verbal counseling, the PGC method was associated with more supplemental questions asked by the patient. Compared with the other two methods, PGC was associated with greater pharmacist satisfaction with the information communicated and slightly longer counseling sessions. No significant differences were found for patients' overall satisfaction with counseling, recall of information, and compliance. In the community pharmacy setting, PGC fosters patient participation in medication counseling, a necessary element for the provision of pharmaceutical care.

  14. Establishing a community pharmacy residency at an independent pharmacy: Time allocation and valuation.

    PubMed

    Shugart, Katherine; Bryant, Jason; Kress, Dean; Ziegler, Bryan; Connelly, Lynn; Brittain, Kristy

    2015-12-01

    The value of a first-year community pharmacy residency program (CPRP) at an independent pharmacy was estimated based on time allocation for resident responsibilities. Predefined time allocation categories for the pharmacy resident were used to consistently classify and document time completing residency activities. Benefit-to-cost ratio was determined by tabulating total costs and total benefits of the residency program. A retrospective-prospective comparison of overall change in revenue, operating expense, and prescription volume was performed between the preresident time period (July 2012 to June 2013) and the postresident time period (July 2013 to June 2014). This comparison accounted for resident activities that did not directly generate revenue. Time allocations for the resident out of 2,221 total hours logged were dispensing (40%), clinical setup (16%), research (8%), professional meetings (7%), clinical activities (5%), resident education (5%), site precepting (4%), residency meetings (4%), didactic teaching (3%), miscellaneous (3%), marketing (2%), training (2%), and public health promotion (1%). Total costs were $77,422, and total benefits were $118,410. The benefit-to-cost ratio was 1.53. The postresident time interval had $172,451 more revenue and $6,622 more in operating expenses than the preresident time interval, and prescription volume decreased by 2,000 prescriptions compared to the previous year. The benefit-to-cost analysis indicated a $1.53 return for every $1.00 invested into a CPRP. An increase in revenue and operating expenses for the pharmacy was observed after implementation of the CPRP compared to the previous year. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Challenges in the management of community pharmacies in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background: The provision of professional pharmacy services by community pharmacists continues to be limited, particularly in low and middle income countries. It was postulated that multiple management challenges faced by community pharmacists contribute to this situation. Objective: The primary aim of the research was to determine the challenges faced in the management of community pharmacies in Sarawak (the largest state in Malaysia), and practical strategies to cope and overcome the challenges. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were carried out with community pharmacists practising in Sarawak. Purposive and snowball sampling were employed to ensure a diverse group of informants. The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim, with the resultant data analysed using thematic analysis. Data collection, coding, interpretation were carried out iteratively until theoretical saturation. Results: Twenty respondents from different demographic characteristics were recruited. Six major themes were identified. Management challenges faced by community pharmacists traverse five major domains: market competition, legislative issues, customers’ knowledge and expectations, macroeconomic impacts and operational challenges. Most of these challenges require government intervention to be resolved. In the meantime, improving customer service and expanding the range of professional services were seen as the most viable strategies to cope with existing challenges. The main concern is that current legislative and economic landscape may hinder these strategies. Enactment of dispensing separation and more protective measures against market competition were suggested to alleviate the challenges faced. Conclusion: Numerous management challenges faced by community pharmacists that distract them from delivering professional pharmacy services have been highlighted. Urgent affirmative actions by the government are warranted in supporting community pharmacists to realise and

  16. Challenges in the management of community pharmacies in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kho, Boon P; Hassali, Mohamed A; Lim, Ching J; Saleem, Fahad

    2017-01-01

    The provision of professional pharmacy services by community pharmacists continues to be limited, particularly in low and middle income countries. It was postulated that multiple management challenges faced by community pharmacists contribute to this situation. The primary aim of the research was to determine the challenges faced in the management of community pharmacies in Sarawak (the largest state in Malaysia), and practical strategies to cope and overcome the challenges. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with community pharmacists practising in Sarawak. Purposive and snowball sampling were employed to ensure a diverse group of informants. The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim, with the resultant data analysed using thematic analysis. Data collection, coding, interpretation were carried out iteratively until theoretical saturation. Twenty respondents from different demographic characteristics were recruited. Six major themes were identified. Management challenges faced by community pharmacists traverse five major domains: market competition, legislative issues, customers' knowledge and expectations, macroeconomic impacts and operational challenges. Most of these challenges require government intervention to be resolved. In the meantime, improving customer service and expanding the range of professional services were seen as the most viable strategies to cope with existing challenges. The main concern is that current legislative and economic landscape may hinder these strategies. Enactment of dispensing separation and more protective measures against market competition were suggested to alleviate the challenges faced. Numerous management challenges faced by community pharmacists that distract them from delivering professional pharmacy services have been highlighted. Urgent affirmative actions by the government are warranted in supporting community pharmacists to realise and maximise their potentials.

  17. [Patient medication record in pharmacy: development of specialized information system and possibilities of its application in Lithuanian community pharmacies].

    PubMed

    Skyrius, Vaidas; Kapocius, Kestutis; Radziūnas, Raimondas

    2003-01-01

    To examine whether the managers of Lithuanian community pharmacies need a special information system for the creation of patients' medication record in the pharmacy. To design the system and to analyze the possibilities of its application. RESEARCH MATERIALS AND METHODS: In order to determine the need for a specialized information system a questionnaire-based survey of pharmacies managers was used. During the development of information system the detailed requirements analysis was performed and basing on this analysis the architecture of the system and its user interface were designed. System was built using "Microsoft Access 2000" and "Visual Basic 6" development tools. Survey revealed that managers of community pharmacies require an information system for the creation of patients' medication record in the pharmacy. The design of the system was prepared and the initial version was built. Examinations of the developed system showed that it could be used to form the patient information database, which would improve the quality of service. The developed information system or its analogue should be used in community pharmacies because absence of the patients medical records database makes it impossible to implement the recommendations of good pharmacy practice.

  18. Trends in pharmacy staff's perception of patient safety in Swedish community pharmacies after re-regulation of conditions.

    PubMed

    Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia; Nordén-Hägg, Annika

    2014-10-01

    All changes in the regulation of pharmacies have an impact on the work carried out in pharmacies and also on patient safety, regardless of whether this is the intention or not. To compare staff apprehension regarding some aspects of patient safety and quality in community pharmacies prior to and after the 2009 changes in regulation of the Swedish community pharmacy market. Questionnaires targeted at pharmacy staff before and after the changes in regulation (in 2008, 2011/12, and 2012/13 respectively) used four identical items, making comparisons of some aspects possible. All four items demonstrated a significant decrease in the first survey after the changes as compared to before. In the second survey significant differences were found on the two items representing safety climate whereas the items representing team climate and management showed no significant differences. The comparison carried out in this study indicates a negative effect in Swedish community pharmacies on safety and quality issues, as experienced by pharmacy staff. It is recommended that the possible effects of healthcare reforms are assessed before implementation, in order to counteract conceivable decline in factors including patient safety and working conditions.

  19. Trends in pharmacy staff’s perception of patient safety in Swedish community pharmacies after re-regulation of conditions

    PubMed Central

    kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia; nordén-hägg, Annika

    2014-01-01

    Background: All changes in the regulation of pharmacies have an impact on the work carried out in pharmacies and also on patient safety, regardless of whether this is the intention or not. Objective: To compare staff apprehension regarding some aspects of patient safety and quality in community pharmacies prior to and after the 2009 changes in regulation of the Swedish community pharmacy market. Methods: Questionnaires targeted at pharmacy staff before and after the changes in regulation (in 2008, 2011/12, and 2012/13 respectively) used four identical items, making comparisons of some aspects possible. Results: All four items demonstrated a significant decrease in the first survey after the changes as compared to before. In the second survey significant differences were found on the two items representing safety climate whereas the items representing team climate and management showed no significant differences. Conclusions: The comparison carried out in this study indicates a negative effect in Swedish community pharmacies on safety and quality issues, as experienced by pharmacy staff. It is recommended that the possible effects of healthcare reforms are assessed before implementation, in order to counteract conceivable decline in factors including patient safety and working conditions. PMID:25580175

  20. Strategies for Employee Learning in Professional Service Firms: A Study of Community Pharmacies in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotey, Bernice; Saini, Bandana; While, Lesley

    2011-01-01

    The study investigated employee learning strategies in community pharmacies in Australia and the factors that explain differences among pharmacies in the strategies employed. A qualitative methodology was applied, involving semi-structured interviews with owners, managers, or senior employees of 12 pharmacies. The findings revealed learning…

  1. Strategies for Employee Learning in Professional Service Firms: A Study of Community Pharmacies in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotey, Bernice; Saini, Bandana; While, Lesley

    2011-01-01

    The study investigated employee learning strategies in community pharmacies in Australia and the factors that explain differences among pharmacies in the strategies employed. A qualitative methodology was applied, involving semi-structured interviews with owners, managers, or senior employees of 12 pharmacies. The findings revealed learning…

  2. Bossier Parish Community College and Delgado Community College Collaborative Pharmacy Technician Program Distance Education Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bossier Parish Community Coll., Bossier City, LA.

    Two Louisiana community colleges--Bossier Parish Community College (BPCC) and Delgado Community College (DCC)--proposed, developed, and implemented a collaborative Pharmacy Technician program for delivery through the use of two-way interactive video. The new program was inspired by new certification requirements instituted by the state of…

  3. Variables Affecting Pharmacy Students’ Patient Care Interventions during Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Brandon J.; Sen, Sanchita; Bingham, Angela L.; Bowen, Jane F.; Ereshefsky, Benjamin; Siemianowski, Laura A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To identify the temporal effect and factors associated with student pharmacist self-initiation of interventions during acute patient care advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPE). Methods. During the APPE, student pharmacists at an academic medical center recorded their therapeutic interventions and who initiated the intervention throughout clinical rotations. At the end of the APPE student pharmacists completed a demographic survey. Results. Sixty-two student pharmacists were included. Factors associated with lower rates of self-initiated interventions were infectious diseases and pediatrics APPEs and an intention to pursue a postgraduate residency. Timing of the APPE, previous specialty elective course completion, and previous hospital experience did not result in any significant difference in self-initiated recommendations. Conclusion. Preceptors should not base practice experience expectations for self-initiated interventions on previous student experience or future intentions. Additionally, factors leading to lower rates of self-initiated interventions on infectious diseases or pediatrics APPEs should be explored. PMID:27756924

  4. Variables Affecting Pharmacy Students' Patient Care Interventions during Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences.

    PubMed

    Bio, Laura L; Patterson, Brandon J; Sen, Sanchita; Bingham, Angela L; Bowen, Jane F; Ereshefsky, Benjamin; Siemianowski, Laura A

    2016-09-25

    Objective. To identify the temporal effect and factors associated with student pharmacist self-initiation of interventions during acute patient care advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPE). Methods. During the APPE, student pharmacists at an academic medical center recorded their therapeutic interventions and who initiated the intervention throughout clinical rotations. At the end of the APPE student pharmacists completed a demographic survey. Results. Sixty-two student pharmacists were included. Factors associated with lower rates of self-initiated interventions were infectious diseases and pediatrics APPEs and an intention to pursue a postgraduate residency. Timing of the APPE, previous specialty elective course completion, and previous hospital experience did not result in any significant difference in self-initiated recommendations. Conclusion. Preceptors should not base practice experience expectations for self-initiated interventions on previous student experience or future intentions. Additionally, factors leading to lower rates of self-initiated interventions on infectious diseases or pediatrics APPEs should be explored.

  5. Recruitment of community pharmacies in a randomized trial to generate patient referrals to the tobacco quitline

    PubMed Central

    Corelli, Robin L.; Zillich, Alan J.; de Moor, Carl; Giuliano, Margherita R.; Arnold, Jennifer; Fenlon, Christine M.; Douglas, Cami L.; Magnusson, Brooke; Zbikowski, Susan M.; Prokhorov, Alexander V.; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek

    2012-01-01

    Background Community pharmacies have the potential to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use, yet most pharmacies do not integrate cessation activities into routine practice. Acquiring participation of community pharmacies is difficult. Strategies detailing requirements by researchers to elicit such participation have not been established. Objectives The objective of this study was to describe the recruitment strategy and participant yield for a two-state, randomized trial evaluating two intervention approaches for increasing pharmacy-based referrals to tobacco quitlines. Methods Detailed study recruitment tracking forms were used to document all contact attempts between the study investigators and each potential study site. These data were analyzed to characterize the overall recruitment and consent process for community pharmacies and pharmacy personnel (pharmacists, technicians). Results Achieving the target sample size of 64 study sites required contacting a total of 150 pharmacies (84 independent and 66 chain). Excluding 22 ineligible pharmacies, participation rates were 49% (32 of 65) for independent pharmacies and 51% (32 of 63) for chain pharmacies (50% overall). Across the 64 participating pharmacies, a total of 124 pharmacists (of 171; 73%) and 127 pharmacy technicians (of 215; 59%) were enrolled in the study. Pharmacies that chose not to participate most often cited time constraints as the primary reason. Overall, combining both the recruitment and consent process, a median of 5 contacts were made with each participating pharmacy (range, 2–19; IQR, 4–7), and the median overall duration of time elapsed from initial contact to consent was 25 days (range, 3–122 days; IQR, 12–47 days). Conclusions Results from this study suggest that pharmacy personnel are willing to provide brief tobacco cessation interventions in a community pharmacy setting and are receptive to participation in multi-site clinical research trials. However, execution of a

  6. A Computer Simulation of Community Pharmacy Practice for Educational Use

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Tristan; Bereznicki, Luke; Westbury, Juanita; Chalmers, Leanne; Peterson, Gregory; Ollington, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To provide a computer-based learning method for pharmacy practice that is as effective as paper-based scenarios, but more engaging and less labor-intensive. Design. We developed a flexible and customizable computer simulation of community pharmacy. Using it, the students would be able to work through scenarios which encapsulate the entirety of a patient presentation. We compared the traditional paper-based teaching method to our computer-based approach using equivalent scenarios. The paper-based group had 2 tutors while the computer group had none. Both groups were given a prescenario and postscenario clinical knowledge quiz and survey. Assessment. Students in the computer-based group had generally greater improvements in their clinical knowledge score, and third-year students using the computer-based method also showed more improvements in history taking and counseling competencies. Third-year students also found the simulation fun and engaging. Conclusion. Our simulation of community pharmacy provided an educational experience as effective as the paper-based alternative, despite the lack of a human tutor. PMID:26056406

  7. Pharmacists' self-perceptions in relation to the 'Advanced Pharmacy Practice Framework'.

    PubMed

    Ali, A S; Fejzic, J; Grant, G D; Nissen, L M

    2016-01-01

    The Australian Pharmacy Practice Framework was developed by the Advanced Pharmacy Practice Steering Committee and endorsed by the Pharmacy Board of Australia in October 2012. The Steering Committee conducted a study that found practice portfolios to be the preferred method to assess and credential Advanced Pharmacy Practitioner, which is currently being piloted by the Australian Pharmacy Council. Credentialing is predicted to open to all pharmacists practising in Australia by November 2015. To explore how Australian pharmacists self-perceived being advanced in practice and how they related their level of practice to the Australian Advanced Pharmacy Practice Framework. This was an explorative, cross-sectional study with mixed methods analysis. Advanced Pharmacy Practice Framework, a review of the recent explorative study on Advanced Practice conducted by the Advanced Pharmacy Practice Framework Steering Committee and semi-structured interviews (n = 10) were utilized to create, refine and pilot the questionnaire. The questionnaire was advertised across pharmacy-organizational websites via a purposive sampling method. The target population were pharmacists currently registered in Australia. Seventy-two participants responded to the questionnaire. The participants were mostly female (56.9%) and in the 30-40 age group (26.4%). The pharmacists self-perceived their levels of practice as either entry, transition, consolidation or advanced, with the majority selecting the consolidation level (38.9%). Although nearly half (43.1%) of the participants had not seen the Framework beforehand, they defined Advanced Pharmacy Practice similarly to the definition outlined in the Framework, but also added specialization as a requirement. Pharmacists explained why they were practising at their level of practice, stating that not having more years of practice, lacking experience, or postgraduate/post-registration qualifications, and more involvement and recognition in practice were the

  8. Does deregulation in community pharmacy impact accessibility of medicines, quality of pharmacy services and costs? Evidence from nine European countries.

    PubMed

    Vogler, Sabine; Habimana, Katharina; Arts, Danielle

    2014-09-01

    To analyse the impact of deregulation in community pharmacy on accessibility of medicines, quality of pharmacy services and costs. We analysed and compared community pharmacy systems in five rather deregulated countries (England, Ireland, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden) and four rather regulated countries (Austria, Denmark, Finland, Spain). Data were collected by literature review, a questionnaire survey and interviews. Following a deregulation, several new pharmacies and dispensaries of Over-the-Counter (OTC) medicines tended to be established, predominantly in urban areas. Unless prevented by regulation, specific stakeholders, e.g. wholesalers, were seen to gain market dominance which limited envisaged competition. There were indications for an increased workload for pharmacists in some deregulated countries. Economic pressure to increase the pharmacy turnover through the sale of OTC medicines and non-pharmaceuticals was observed in deregulated and regulated countries. Prices of OTC medicines were not found to decrease after a deregulation in pharmacy. Access to pharmacies usually increases after a deregulation but this is likely to favour urban populations with already good accessibility. Policy-makers are recommended to take action to ensure equitable accessibility and sustainable competition in a more deregulated environment. No association between pharmaceutical expenditure and the extent of regulation/deregulation appears to exist. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Employing the nominal group technique to explore the views of pharmacists, pharmacy assistants and women on community pharmacy weight management services and educational resources.

    PubMed

    Fakih, Souhiela; Marriott, Jennifer L; Hussainy, Safeera Y

    2016-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate how pharmacists, pharmacy assistants and women feel about community pharmacy involvement in weight management, and to identify what pharmacists, pharmacy assistants and women want in weight management educational resources. Three homogenous and one heterogeneous nominal group (NG) sessions of up to 120-min duration were conducted with nine women, ten pharmacists and eight pharmacy assistants. The NG technique was used to conduct each session to determine the most important issues that should be considered surrounding community pharmacy weight management services and development of any educational resources. The heterogeneous NG session was used to finalise what women, pharmacists and pharmacy assistants want in educational resources. Overall, pharmacists, pharmacy assistants and women believe that pharmacy staff have an important role in the management of overweight and obesity because of their accessibility, trust and the availability of products in pharmacy. Regarding the most suitable healthcare professional(s) to treat overweight and obesity, the majority of participants believed that no one member of the healthcare team was most suitable and that overweight and obesity needs to be treated by a multidisciplinary team. The importance of having weight management educational resources for pharmacy staff and women that come from trustworthy resources without financial gain or commercialisation was also emphasised. Pharmacists, pharmacy assistants and women feel that community pharmacies have a definite role to play in weight management. Pharmacy-specific weight management educational resources that are readily available to pharmacy staff and women are highly desirable. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  10. Strategies and steps fostering the success of medication management services in community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Pestka, Deborah L; Frail, Caitlin K; Palombi, Laura C; Von Hoff, Bethany A; Conway, Jeannine M; Sorensen, Todd D

    2016-01-01

    To identify and describe the steps and strategies that community pharmacies with established medication management services have used to integrate medication management services into their practice settings. Qualitative case study with semistructured interviews and focus groups. Community pharmacy organizations in Minnesota. Pharmacists and pharmacy leadership from 4 different pharmacy organizations including independent, chain, and health system pharmacies. Not applicable. Qualitative case study analysis of community pharmacy management and pharmacists' perceptions of the factors that led to the establishment and sustainability of their medication management programs. Focus groups and interviews were undertaken with 25 pharmacists and pharmacy leaders from 4 distinct community pharmacy organizations from April to June 2015. Five themes emerged, representing specific implementation and continuation stages of medication management services in community practice: Deciding to Act, Setting the Stage, Executing the Service, Sticking to It, and Continuing to Grow. This study sheds light on key stages that have commonly occurred across community pharmacies that are delivering medication management services. The results of this work may serve as a road map for other community pharmacies looking to integrate medication management services into their own practice settings. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Flexibility in community pharmacy: a qualitative study of business models and cognitive services.

    PubMed

    Feletto, Eleonora; Wilson, Laura K; Roberts, Alison S; Benrimoj, Shalom I

    2010-04-01

    To identify the capacity of current pharmacy business models, and the dimensions of organisational flexibility within them, to integrate products and services as well as the perceptions of viability of these models. Fifty-seven semi-structured interviews were conducted with community pharmacy owners or managers and support staff in 30 pharmacies across Australia. A framework of organisational flexibility was used to analyse their capacity to integrate services and perceptions of viability. Data were analysed using the method of constant comparison by two independent researchers. The study found that Australian community pharmacies have used the four types of flexibility to build capacity in distinct ways and react to changes in the local environment. This capacity building was manifested in four emerging business models which integrate services to varying degrees: classic community pharmacy, retail destination pharmacy, health care solution pharmacy and networked pharmacy. The perception of viability is less focused on dispensing medications and more focused on differentiating pharmacies through either a retail or services focus. Strategic flexibility appeared to offer pharmacies the ability to integrate and sustainably deliver services more successfully than other types, as exhibited by health care solution and networked pharmacies. Active support and encouragement to transition from being dependent on dispensing to implementing services is needed. The study showed that pharmacies where services were implemented and showed success are those strategically differentiating their businesses to become focused health care providers. This holistic approach should inevitably influence the sustainability of services.

  12. Analysis of primary prevention services for cardiovascular disease in Australia's community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Andrew; Berbatis, Constantine G; Sunderland, V Bruce; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S

    2007-12-01

    To analyse the prevalence and factors associated with the provision of primary preventive services for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Australia's community pharmacies. The data were from the 2002 Australia's National Pharmacy Database Project. Questionnaires were completed by a nationally representative 1,131 out of a possible 1,391 pharmacies (81.3% response rate), stratified into PhARIA (remoteness) zones. Preventive services for CVD were analysed by frequency of provision of services. Ordinal analysis and logistic regression analysis were used to ascertain predictors of services. Most community pharmacies initiated nicotine replacement therapies, 58.1% provided blood pressure screening, 11.6% anthropometric tests and 7.6% blood cholesterol screening. Pharmacies in promotional groups, having high customer numbers, an enclosed counselling area, or forward pharmacy area, were significantly associated with providing preventive services for CVD. The configuration and size of Australia's community pharmacies were associated with providing primary preventive services for CVD.

  13. Mental health consumer and caregiver perceptions of stigma in Australian community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Knox, Kathy; Fejzic, Jasmina; Mey, Amary; Fowler, Jane L; Kelly, Fiona; McConnell, Denise; Hattingh, Laetitia; Wheeler, Amanda J

    2014-09-01

    The stigma of mental illness can be a barrier to effective medication management in the community pharmacy setting. This article explored mental health consumers' or caregivers' experiences of stigma in Australian community pharmacies. Semi-structured interviews and focus groups were conducted with a purposive sample of consumers or caregivers (n = 74). Interview transcripts were analysed using a general inductive approach. Stigma presented a barrier to effective mental health management. Self-stigma impeded consumers' community pharmacy engagement. Positive relationships with knowledgeable staff are fundamental to reducing stigma. Findings provide insight into the stigma of mental illness in community pharmacies. © The Author(s) 2013.

  14. 'Pharmacy deserts' are prevalent in Chicago's predominantly minority communities, raising medication access concerns.

    PubMed

    Qato, Dima M; Daviglus, Martha L; Wilder, Jocelyn; Lee, Todd; Qato, Danya; Lambert, Bruce

    2014-11-01

    Attempts to explain and address disparities in the use of prescription medications have focused almost exclusively on their affordability. However, the segregation of residential neighborhoods by race or ethnicity also may influence access to the pharmacies that, in turn, provide access to prescription medications within a community. We examined whether trends in the availability of pharmacies varied across communities in Chicago with different racial or ethnic compositions. We also examined the geographic accessibility of pharmacies to determine whether "pharmacy deserts," or low-access neighborhoods, were more common in segregated black and Hispanic communities than elsewhere. We found that throughout the period 2000-2012 the number of pharmacies was lower in segregated minority communities than in segregated white communities and integrated communities. In 2012 there were disproportionately more pharmacy deserts in segregated black communities, as well as in low-income communities and federally designated Medically Underserved Areas. Our findings suggest that public policies aimed at improving access to prescription medications may need to address factors beyond insurance coverage and medication affordability. Such policies could include financial incentives to locate pharmacies in pharmacy deserts or the incorporation of pharmacies into community health centers in Medically Underserved Areas. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  15. Medicine-related services in community pharmacy: public preferences for pharmacy attributes and promotional methods and comparison with pharmacists’ perceptions

    PubMed Central

    Gammie, Shivaun M; Rodgers, Ruth M; Loo, Ruey Leng; Corlett, Sarah A; Krska, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Background Public awareness of pharmacy services designed to support the use of medicines is low, yet little is known about how the public view promotion of these services, or their preferences for the attributes of pharmacies from which they would like to receive them. Objective To compare the public’s preferred attributes of pharmacies and methods for promoting medicine-related services with community pharmacists’ perceptions of their customers’ views. Methods Parallel surveys were conducted in South East England, using a street survey for the general public and a postal survey for community pharmacists. Results Response rates were as follows: public 47.2% (1,000/2,012) and pharmacists 40.8% (341/836). Pharmacists’ perceptions of customer preferences for using the same pharmacy, independent ownership, and personal knowledge of the pharmacist were higher than actual public preferences. More pharmacists than public respondents also believed that approachability and previous good service would be important. The public’s desires for long opening hours and for a pharmacy with a good relationship with their doctor’s surgery were higher than pharmacists believed. The majority of the public prefer not to interrupt a pharmacist who is busy in the dispensary, which was not perceived by pharmacists as a factor. Pharmacists’ perceptions aligned more with the preferences of regular medicine users and frequent pharmacy users. Both groups viewed direct recommendation as the most effective approach for promoting pharmacy services, particularly by doctors and pharmacy staff. Pharmacists’ expectations of the effectiveness of posters and mass media methods were much higher than those of the public. Conclusion Pharmacists and pharmacy owners must ensure good relationships with local medical practices to enable them to maximize opportunities for using the promotional methods judged most effective in encouraging the use of medicine-related services. Staff must be

  16. Medicine-related services in community pharmacy: public preferences for pharmacy attributes and promotional methods and comparison with pharmacists' perceptions.

    PubMed

    Gammie, Shivaun M; Rodgers, Ruth M; Loo, Ruey Leng; Corlett, Sarah A; Krska, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Public awareness of pharmacy services designed to support the use of medicines is low, yet little is known about how the public view promotion of these services, or their preferences for the attributes of pharmacies from which they would like to receive them. To compare the public's preferred attributes of pharmacies and methods for promoting medicine-related services with community pharmacists' perceptions of their customers' views. Parallel surveys were conducted in South East England, using a street survey for the general public and a postal survey for community pharmacists. Response rates were as follows: public 47.2% (1,000/2,012) and pharmacists 40.8% (341/836). Pharmacists' perceptions of customer preferences for using the same pharmacy, independent ownership, and personal knowledge of the pharmacist were higher than actual public preferences. More pharmacists than public respondents also believed that approachability and previous good service would be important. The public's desires for long opening hours and for a pharmacy with a good relationship with their doctor's surgery were higher than pharmacists believed. The majority of the public prefer not to interrupt a pharmacist who is busy in the dispensary, which was not perceived by pharmacists as a factor. Pharmacists' perceptions aligned more with the preferences of regular medicine users and frequent pharmacy users. Both groups viewed direct recommendation as the most effective approach for promoting pharmacy services, particularly by doctors and pharmacy staff. Pharmacists' expectations of the effectiveness of posters and mass media methods were much higher than those of the public. Pharmacists and pharmacy owners must ensure good relationships with local medical practices to enable them to maximize opportunities for using the promotional methods judged most effective in encouraging the use of medicine-related services. Staff must be approachable and enable access to pharmacists, ensuring that

  17. Language issues in the community pharmacy: a perspective from Wales.

    PubMed

    Hughes, M Louise; John, Dai N; Jones, Arwyn T; Jones, Elen H; Wilkins, M Lowri

    2009-06-01

    This study aimed to obtain the views of Welsh speakers to explore the role of the Welsh language in community pharmacies in bilingual communities in Wales. Two communities with a high proportion of Welsh speakers were purposively identified for the research: one in North Wales and one in West Wales. Stage 1: semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of Welsh speakers to identify key themes. Data collection continued until no new themes emerged. Interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed verbatim, coded manually and analysed thematically. Stage 2: self-complete questionnaire developed based on the interview results. The anonymous, bilingual questionnaire and covering letter, with a postage-paid envelope, were delivered to 500 homes (250 in each community) for completion by the person in the household who visited a pharmacy most often. There was no follow-up mailing due to anonymity. Data were analysed using SPSS version 12. Results from both interviews (n = 36) and questionnaires (response rate was 52%, 82% of whom were Welsh speakers) found that the majority of Welsh speakers in the study were able to understand English but preferred to use Welsh in the pharmacy. They would find it easier to explain symptoms and would ask more about their medication if they could speak Welsh with the pharmacist. In addition, the study participants would generally feel more at ease with a Welsh-speaking pharmacist and would feel they were getting a better service if they could use their first language. This study of Welsh speakers indicates that language choice is important for bilingual people who may prefer to use their native, minority language for consultation with health professionals. Further, it is clear that a concordant partnership between patient and pharmacist is less likely where one party is using a language with which they are not confident or comfortable. Pharmacists need to be aware of the linguistic needs and preferences of bilingual clients.

  18. What is known about community pharmacy supply of naloxone? A scoping review.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Suzanne; Van Hout, Marie Claire

    2016-06-01

    There is growing evidence that expanded supply of take-home naloxone to prevent opioid overdose deaths is needed. Potential routes for expansion of naloxone provision include through community pharmacies. The aim of this scoping review is to establish what is known about community pharmacy supply of naloxone, in light of unique challenges and opportunities present in pharmacy settings. A scoping review methodology was employed using the six stage iterative process advocated by Arksey and O'Malley (2005) and Levac et al. (2010). Searches used key words and terms such as 'naloxone'; 'overdose prevention/drug overdose/opiate overdose'; 'community/retail pharmacy'; 'pharmacist/pharmacy/community pharmacy/pharmaceutical services'; 'professional practice/role'; 'community care'; attitude of health personnel'; 'training/supply/cost'. Appropriate search terms were selected for each database. After initial exploratory searches, comprehensive searches were conducted with Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Medline, Medline in Process, Embase, PsycINFO and CINAHL. Eligibility criteria centered on whether studies broadly described supply of naloxone in community pharmacy or had content relating to community pharmacy supply. The search identified 95 articles, of which 16 were related to pharmacy supply of naloxone. Five themes were presented after initial review of the data and consultation with the project Expert Group, and are; 'Pharmacists Perceptions of Naloxone: Facilitators and Barriers', 'Patient Populations: Identification and Recruitment', 'Supply Systems and Cost', 'Legal Issues', and 'Training of Pharmacists and Community Pharmacy Naloxone Recipients'. Findings from this scoping review suggest that community pharmacy based supply of take-home naloxone warrants the community pharmacy based route for distribution of take home naloxone provision warrants further consideration and development. Existing strengths include a range of established supply models, and

  19. Implementing an integrated care management program in community pharmacies: A focus on medication management services.

    PubMed

    Smith, Megan G; Ferreri, Stefanie P; Brown, Patrick; Wines, Kristen; Shea, Christopher M; Pfeiffenberger, Trista M

    To describe the initiation of a community pharmacy medication management service within a statewide integrated care management program. One hundred twenty-three community and community health center pharmacies in 58 counties of North Carolina. Independent and community health center pharmacies offering medication management as part of an integrated care management program to Medicaid, Medicare, dually eligible Medicare-Medicaid, and NC Health Choice beneficiaries in North Carolina. Community pharmacies joined an enhanced service network created by Community Care of North Carolina to provide medication management services as part of an integrated care management program. During the first 3 months of the program, 41% of pharmacies consistently documented the medication management services. Interviews were conducted with pharmacists from the inconsistent pharmacies to drive program improvements. Pharmacists at 73 community and community health center pharmacies were interviewed. The majority of pharmacists reported that challenges in "initiating services" and "documenting" were due to increased intensity of service and documentation compared with Medicare Part D medication therapy management requirements. Program changes to improve participation included revision of documentation requirements, authorization of technicians to transcribe pharmacists' interventions, additional documentation templates, workflow consultations, and feedback on documentation quality. Community pharmacies are capable of providing medication management integrated with care management. Some pharmacies have more difficulty initiating new services in the current workflow landscape. To facilitate implementation, it is important to minimize administrative burden and provide mechanisms for direct feedback. Pharmacy owners, managers, and leaders in pharmacy policy can use these findings to aid implementation of new services in community pharmacies. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association

  20. [Treatment of pain at a community pharmacy].

    PubMed

    Malonne, H; Leemans, L; Fontaine, J

    1996-01-01

    The first part of this article deals with the physiology of pain. We focus on the different pathways of pain. Two main mechanisms of pain control are described, namely peripheral control, by the supraspinal gate and central or supra-medular control. Three different mechanisms can induce pain. We focus on pain perception by excess of stimuli and desafferent ways of pain. The following part deals with the different kinds of pain presented to the community pharmacist. At the end we discuss the treatment of pain, describing the pharmacological aspects of the three most important "Over The Counter" molecules, namely paracetamol, aspirin and ibuprofen. Also some combinations of analgesic agents and adjuvants are discussed.

  1. Management of drug-interaction alerts in community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Indermitte, J; Beutler, M; Bruppacher, R; Meier, C R; Hersberger, K E

    2007-04-01

    Drug-interaction alert systems are commonly used in community pharmacies to identify potential drug-drug interactions. However, depending on the software default setting, pharmacists may override alerts because they are too numerous. We explored the handling of drug-interaction alerts by community pharmacies in Switzerland. Data were collected by 15 trained pharmacy students in 15 Swiss community pharmacies. The medication history and the drug-interaction alerts of 600 patients who had >or=2 drugs on prescription were assessed, and the pharmacists in charge were interviewed about their management of drug-interaction alerts. In the 15 pharmacies studied, the computer systems were programmed to flag only 'severe' drug interactions in four, 'severe or moderate' in six or 'severe, moderate or minor' in five pharmacies. The median frequency of drug-interaction alerts increased with decreasing default severity level from 0.5 to 40, respectively, to 76 per 40 patient visits and pharmacy. Because of these default settings, 277 (35 x 2%) of 787 potential drug-interaction alerts on new or repeated prescriptions were overridden by the computer systems. Only 256 (32 x 5%) of 787 potential drug interactions emerged from new prescriptions. The alert systems produced 656 alerts of which 146 were irrelevant because of multiple alerting of the same interaction or of drug combinations currently no longer taken. Of the 510 remaining relevant drug-interaction alerts, 289 (56 x 7%) were overridden by community pharmacists without any action taken. If the pharmacist took care of a patient's prescription him- or herself (as opposed to just controlling a prescription after a technician took care of the patient), fewer drug-interaction alerts were overridden by the pharmacist [Odds ratio (OR) 0 x 6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0 x 42-0 x 98; P=0 x 042). Technical overrides (by default settings) and pharmacists' overrides together accounted for 71 x 9% (566 of 787 potential drug

  2. An oral cancer awareness intervention in community pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Rogers, S N; Lowe, D; Catleugh, M; Edwards, D

    2010-10-01

    We investigated the impact on 95 community pharmacies of an educational package on awareness of oral cancer, which consisted of a training evening, pharmacy protocol, and information for patients. Results of a questionnaire and the experience of a mystery shopper before the intervention and 6 months later were used to evaluate its effectiveness. Before the intervention 29% of pharmacies advised "my 60-year-old friend who has had an ulcer in his mouth for 4 weeks" to see a doctor or a dentist. Afterwards this rose to 45% with advice being confined to seeing a doctor. There was also a substantial reduction in advice being given to buy a product. The questionnaire showed that although responses between the baseline and follow up were similar regarding health behaviours and signs and symptoms in relation to oral cancer, more (74-89%) thought that drinking alcohol, and less (46-36%) thought that passive smoking increased the risk of oral cancer. There was also an increase in the number who thought that burning sensations (42-57%), white patches (52-76%), red patches (57-76%), speckled patches (46-68%), and a persistent ulcer (82-91%) might be signs or symptoms of oral cancer. The intervention was well received, and changes in knowledge and practice were evident, but the study showed that there is potential for much greater awareness of oral cancer amongst pharmacists and their staff.

  3. Application of the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research to community pharmacy: A framework for implementation research on pharmacy services.

    PubMed

    Shoemaker, Sarah J; Curran, Geoffrey M; Swan, Holly; Teeter, Benjamin S; Thomas, Jeremy

    Community pharmacies are an increasingly important health care setting with opportunities for improving quality and safety, yet little is understood about determinants of implementation in this setting. This paper presents an implementation framework for pharmacy based on the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR). This study employed a critical review of 45 articles on professional services provided in community pharmacies, including medication therapy management (MTM), immunizations, and rapid HIV testing. The relevant domains and associated constructs for pharmacy services were as follows. Intervention Characteristics ultimately depend on the specific service; of particular note for pharmacy are relative advantage and complexity. The former because implementation of services can pose a cost-benefit challenge where dispensing is the primary role and the latter because of the greater challenge implementing multi-faceted services like MTM compared to a discrete service like immunizations. "In terms of Outer Setting, pharmacies are affected by patient needs and acceptance, and external policies and incentives such as reimbursement and regulations. For Inner Setting, structural characteristics like pharmacy type, size and staff were important as was pharmacists' perception of their role and available resources to provide the service. Key Characteristics of Individuals include training, preparedness, and self-efficacy of the pharmacist for providing a new service. Few studies revealed relevant Process constructs, but if they did it was primarily related to engaging (e.g., champions). As pharmacists' roles in health care are continuing to expand, a framework to inform implementation research in community pharmacy (and other) settings is crucially needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A Quality Improvement Course Review of Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Hornsby, Lori B.; Phillippe, Haley M.; Kelley, Kristi; McDonough, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. To determine strengths of and quality improvements needed in advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPE) through a systematic course review process. Design. Following the “developing a curriculum” (DACUM) format, course materials and assessments were reviewed by the curricular subcommittee responsible for experiential education and by key stakeholders. Course sequence overview and data were presented and discussed. A course review worksheet was completed, outlining strengths and areas for improvement. Assessment. Student feedback was positive. Strengths and areas for improvement were identified. The committee found reviewing the sequence of 8 APPE courses to be challenging. Conclusions. Course reviews are a necessary process in curricular quality improvement but can be difficult to accomplish. We found overall feedback about APPEs was positive and student performance was high. Areas identified as needing improvement will be the focus of continuous quality improvement of the APPE sequence. PMID:21931454

  5. SCREENING COMMUNITY PHARMACY PATIENTS FOR RISK OF PRESCRIPTION OPIOID MISUSE

    PubMed Central

    Rubinstein, Jessica; Bacci, Jennifer L.; Ylioja, Thomas; Tarter, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The current study tested screening feasibility and described the behavioral, mental, and physical health of patients filling prescriptions for opioid medications in the community pharmacy setting. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey in rural/urban community pharmacies with adult non-cancer patients. The survey included validated measures for opioid medication misuse risk, drug and alcohol use, and physical and mental health problems. Descriptive statistics were calculated, and bivariate and multivariable logistic regression evaluated relationships between opioid medication misuse risk and patient demographics, behavioral, mental, and physical health. Results 164 patients completed the survey (87% response rate) revealing positive screens for prescription opioid misuse risk (14.3%), illicit drug use (7.3%), hazardous alcohol use (21.4%), depression (25.8%), and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD; 17.1%). Bivariate analyses revealed increased odds of a positive opioid medication misuse risk score with a positive screen for illicit drug use in the previous year (OR=3.91, 95% CI=1.05–14.63) and PTSD (OR=6.7, 95% CI= 2.54–17.69). In adjusted multivariable analyses, these relationships strengthened such that a positive screen for illicit drug use (AOR=12.96, 95% CI= 2.18–76.9) and PTSD (AOR=13.3, 95% CI= 3.48–50.66) increased odds for a positive opioid medication misuse risk score. Conclusion Findings confirmed the feasibility of screening risk factors and positive opioid medication misuse risk among community pharmacy patients. Future research should validate these findings as a foundation to intervention development. PMID:26291546

  6. Community pharmacy patient perceptions of a pharmacy-initiated mobile technology app to improve adherence.

    PubMed

    DiDonato, Kristen L; Liu, Yifei; Lindsey, Cameron C; Hartwig, David Matthew; Stoner, Steven C

    2015-10-01

    To determine patient perceptions of using a demonstration application (app) of mobile technology to improve medication adherence and to identify desired features to assist in the management of medications. A qualitative study using key informant interviews was conducted in a community pharmacy chain for patients aged 50 and older, on statin therapy and owning a smart device. Three main themes emerged from 24 interviews at four pharmacy locations, which included benefits, barriers and desired features of the app. Benefits such as accessibility, privacy, pros of appearance and beneficiaries were more likely to lead to usage of the app. Barriers that might prevent usage of the app were related to concerns of appearance, the burden it might cause for others, cost, privacy, motivation and reliability. Specific features patients desired were categorized under appearance, customization, communication, functionality, input and the app platform. Patients provided opinions about using a mobile app to improve medication adherence and assist with managing medications. Patients envisioned the app within their lifestyle and expressed important considerations, identifying benefits to using this technology and voicing relevant concerns. App developers can use patient perceptions to guide development of a mobile app addressing patient medication-related needs. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  7. Factors influencing the current practice of self-medication consultations in Eastern Indonesian community pharmacies: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Brata, Cecilia; Fisher, Colleen; Marjadi, Brahmaputra; Schneider, Carl R; Clifford, Rhonda M

    2016-05-13

    Research has shown that the current practice of pharmacy staff when providing self-medication consultations in Indonesia is suboptimal. To improve the performance of pharmacy staff when providing self-medication consultations in community pharmacies, the factors that influence current practice need to be understood. The aim of this study is to identify the factors that influence current practice of pharmacy staff when handling self-medication consultations in Eastern Indonesian community pharmacies. Fifteen in-depth interviews were conducted with pharmacists, pharmacy technicians, pharmacy owners, and counter attendants. Thematic analysis was used to generate findings. The current practice of pharmacy staff when handling self-medication consultations is directly influenced by the professionalism of pharmacy staff and patient responses to the consultations. These factors are in turn affected by the organisational context of the pharmacy and the external pharmacy environment. The organisational context of the pharmacy includes staffing, staff affordability, and the availability of time and facilities in which to provide consultations. The external pharmacy environment includes the number of trained pharmacy staff in the research setting, the relevance of pharmacy education to the needs of pharmacy practice, the support offered by the Indonesian Pharmacists Association, a competitive business environment, and the policy environment. Complex and inter-related factors influence the current practice of pharmacy staff when providing self-medication consultations in community pharmacies in this research setting. Multiple strategies will be required to improve consultation practices.

  8. Space, time, and emotion in the community pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Lee; Bidwell, Susan

    2015-07-01

    Community pharmacies have a complex relationship with the field of health care. This is especially so in countries where pharmaceuticals are dispensed from privately owned retail premises. Using qualitative data and social theoretical concepts, we argue that the time, space and emotional entanglements that take place in and through these sites are far from simple and can be more or less productive in terms of meeting customer needs and fostering professional identity for pharmacists. Unpicking this complexity has the potential to highlight lacunae that result from differential expectations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Challenges to UK community pharmacy: a bio-photographic study of workspace in relation to professional pharmacy practice.

    PubMed

    Rapport, F L; Doel, M A; Jerzembek, G S

    2009-12-01

    This paper presents a novel, qualitative, bio-photographic study with intertextual analysis highlighting the relationship between community pharmacy workspace and practice. Sixteen pharmacists working across pharmacy types such as independent shops, large and small pharmacy chains and multiple pharmacies such as those in supermarkets participated in data capture and feedback consultation. Findings disclosed workspaces unfit for purpose and a workforce ill at ease with their new professional identity, involving increasingly complex tasks in health provision and retail. There was conflict between delegating to others and taking personal responsibility, and there were pressures from a demanding public within the context of a target-driven, litigious society. The study highlights that innovative, mixed methods in this context reveal nuanced, rich data.

  10. The use of community pharmacies in North West England: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Mackridge, Adam J; Stokes, Elizabeth C; Gray, Nicola J

    2017-04-01

    There are few studies of community pharmacy footfall and activity in the existing literature, especially by direct observation. To describe the characteristics of counter interactions between pharmacy staff and customers. Structured observation of all interactions between pharmacy staff and customers across the weekly opening hours of five pharmacies diverse in location and ownership. Three-quarters (76%) of observed interactions were associated with prescriptions, but a significant minority accessed cognitive services. Dispensing was the primary activity across the diverse range of pharmacies. Reasons for visits are diversifying into advice and services, particularly among younger users. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  11. Exploration of over the counter sales of antibiotics in community pharmacies of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: pharmacy professionals' perspective.

    PubMed

    Gebretekle, Gebremedhin Beedemariam; Serbessa, Mirgissa Kaba

    2016-01-01

    Over the counter sale of antibiotics is a global problem and it is increasingly recognized as a source of antibiotic misuse and is believed to increase treatment costs, adverse effects of treatment and emergence of resistance. The increasing trend of over the counter sale of antibiotics in Ethiopia calls for exploration of why such dispensing is practiced. This study aims to explore reasons for over the counter sale of antibiotics in the community pharmacies of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A phenomenological qualitative study was conducted in five randomly selected community pharmacies of Addis Ababa. One pharmacy professional from each pharmacy were interviewed at the spot using semi-structured, open-ended interview checklist. Besides, observation of professionals' dispensing practice was made for at least one hour in the same community pharmacies using an observation checklist. Findings were categorized into specific themes that were developed following the objectives. This was facilitated by use of OpenCode 3.6 software. All participants pointed out that antibiotics were frequently dispensed without prescription and contend that the trend of such dispensing has been increasing. The findings indicated that the nonprescription sales of antibiotics were common for Amoxicillin, Ciprofloxacin and Cotrimoxazole. The poor, less educated and younger groups of the population were reported to frequently request antibiotics without prescription. The main reasons for nonprescription sale of antibiotics by pharmacy professionals were found to be related to pharmacy owner's influence to maximize revenue, customer's pressure, weak regulatory mechanism and professional conflicts of interest. The study shows that nonprescription sale of antibiotics was common practice at least in Addis Ababa. The main reasons for this malpractice were the need to maximize revenue and weak regulatory mechanism. Hence, strong regulatory enforcement and community awareness campaign is called for to limit

  12. Sleep health awareness in pharmacy undergraduates and practising community pharmacists.

    PubMed

    Tze-Min Ang, K; Saini, B; Wong, K

    2008-12-01

    Pharmacists are in an optimal position to provide health care to patients with sleep disorders, however, at present their involvement in sleep services is limited. This study aimed to (i) establish an understanding of baseline levels of sleep health awareness, and attitudes towards sleep health in pharmacists and pharmacy undergraduate students in comparison with sleep physicians and (ii) collate the expressed preferences for sleep health training by final year pharmacy undergraduate students and practising community pharmacists. Two previously validated instruments, the Dartmouth sleep knowledge survey and the ASKME (attitudes section) were used to construct a self-report style questionnaire. Data from respondents were collated and analysed to evaluate differences in responses and test scores between the groups, using the statistical software package-spss 14.0. Responses from 14 specialized sleep pharmacists, 14 general community pharmacists, 134 final-year undergraduate pharmacy students and 26 sleep physicians were obtained. The mean knowledge score per cent (35.5 +/- 14.0% for students, 48.2 +/- 19.5% for general and 50.6 +/- 16.6% for specialized sleep pharmacists, 86.7 +/- 9.3% for sleep physicians) and attitudes scores (37.3 +/- 4.0 for students, 37.2 +/- 5.4 for general and 40.3 +/- 5.3 for sleep specialist pharmacists, 42.6 +/- 4.7 for sleep physicians, expressed as a score out of 50) were significantly different between groups (Kruskal-Wallis test, P < 0.001). All groups reported slightly different preferences for future training formats and topics. There is a need to improve practising pharmacists' as well as undergraduate students' knowledge of sleep health. The positive attitude reported by the respondents indicates a high level of interest in acquiring knowledge and suggests that a tailored educational programme would be well received and timely. These results provide a valid indication of the pharmacy profession's expressed and actual training needs

  13. Capacity Ratios to Assess the Solvency of a College’s Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience Program

    PubMed Central

    McClellan, Nicole H.; Byrd, Debbie C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To use the capacity ratio to determine solvency in 10 advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) offered by a college of pharmacy. Methods. Availability in each APPE was determined based on preceptor responses, and student need was tabulated from 3 preference forms. Capacity ratios were calculated by dividing preceptor availability by the sum of student requests plus 20% of student requests; ratios ≥ 1 indicated solvency. For the 3 required APPEs, minimum capacity ratios were calculated by dividing availability by the sum of student number plus 20% of the student number. When possible, the capacity ratio for the APPE was calculated by geographic zone. Results. The 3 required APPEs had statewide minimum capacity ratios that were consistent with solvency: advanced community (2.8), advanced institutional (1.6), and ambulatory care (2.5). Only 3 of 7 elective APPEs demonstrated solvency. The elective APPEs for which requests exceeded availability were association management (0.8), emergency medicine (0.8), cardiology (0.6), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) ambulatory care clinic (0.4). Analysis by zone revealed additional insolvent practice experiences in some locations. Conclusions. The capacity ratio allowed for assessment of 10 APPEs and identification of practice experience areas that need expansion. While the capacity ratio is a proposed standardized assessment, it does have some limitations, such as an inability to account for practice experience quality, scheduling conflicts, and geographic zone issues. PMID:23519687

  14. Use of chronic disease management algorithms in Australian community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Hana; Ball, Patrick; Jackson, David; Pilloto, Louis; Nielsen, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    In Australia, standardized chronic disease management algorithms are available for medical practitioners, nursing practitioners and nurses through a range of sources including prescribing software, manuals and through government and not-for-profit non-government organizations. There is currently no standardized algorithm for pharmacist intervention in the management of chronic diseases.. To investigate if a collaborative community pharmacists and doctors' model of care in chronic disease management could improve patients' outcomes through ongoing monitoring of disease biochemical markers, robust self-management skills and better medication adherence. This project was a pilot pragmatic study, measuring the effect of the intervention by comparing the baseline and the end of the study patient health outcomes, to support future definitive studies. Algorithms for selected chronic conditions were designed, based on the World Health Organisation STEPS™ process and Central Australia Rural Practitioners' Association Standard Treatment Manual. They were evaluated in community pharmacies in 8 inland Australian small towns, mostly having only one pharmacy in order to avoid competition issues. The algorithms were reviewed by Murrumbidgee Medicare Local Ltd, New South Wales, Australia, Quality use of Medicines committee. They constitute a pharmacist-driven, doctor/pharmacist collaboration primary care model. The Pharmacy owners volunteered to take part in the study and patients were purposefully recruited by in-store invitation. Six out of 9 sites' pharmacists (67%) were fully capable of delivering the algorithm (each site had 3 pharmacists), one site (11%) with 2 pharmacists, found it too difficult and withdrew from the study, and 2 sites (22%, with one pharmacist at each site) stated that they were personally capable of delivering the algorithm but unable to do so due to workflow demands. This primary care model can form the basis of workable collaboration between doctors

  15. Young women’s perceptions and experiences with contraception supply in community pharmacies

    PubMed Central

    Fakih, Souhiela; Batra, Peter; Gatny, Heather H; Kusunoki, Yasamin; Barber, Jennifer S.; Farris, Karen B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Unintended pregnancy is a major public health problem in the United States.. Correct contraceptive use can reduce the rate of unintended pregnancy. Community pharmacies are well positioned to provide contraceptives and advise about contraception. Objectives (1) determine young women’s perceptions and experiences with contraception supply in community pharmacies and (2) identify whether very pharmacy characteristics predicted positive experiences. Design This study was comprised of two cross-sectional surveys including an online women’s pharmacy perceptions and experiences (PPE) survey and a faxed/observed survey of community pharmacies. Setting One County in Michigan, USA Participants Young women and community pharmacies Main outcome measure The two surveys were merged to explore pharmacy characteristics that may impact women’s perceptions and experiences with community pharmacies. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to explore relationships between pharmacy characteristics and positive outcomes. Results The response rate for the PPE survey was 54% (n= 334/637). Data from all community pharmacies in the county was retrieved via fax (n= 41/94, 43.6%) or observation (n= 53/94, 56.4%). Women were included in this analysis if they indicated a regular (most commonly used) pharmacy in the county of interest (n=210). Over 50% of women (n= 125/210) visited a pharmacy more than once per month. Sixty percent of women were currently using something to prevent pregnancy (n=124/210, 60.8%). Thirty-five percent of women had a positive experience (n=73/210, 34.8%). In the multiple logistic regression, women who visited a chain pharmacy had almost 65% lower odds of an overall positive experience with their regular pharmacy, compared to women who visited a grocery or mass merchandise pharmacy (OR: 0.35, 95% CI: 0.16, 0.75). Conclusion Young women visit community pharmacies and use contraceptives frequently. Interventions need to be developed and

  16. Integration of an Introductory Pharmacy Practice Experience With an Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience in Adult Internal Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Matthew L.; Vesta, Kimi S.; Harrison, Donald L.; Dennis, Vincent C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To describe the development, implementation, and assessment of an internal medicine introductory pharmacy practice experience (IPPE) that was integrated with an existing advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) in internal medicine. Design. A structured IPPE was designed for first-, second-, and third-year pharmacy (P1, P2, and P3) students. Activities for the IPPE were based on the established APPE and the individual learner's educational level. Assessment. Students reported a greater understanding of clinical pharmacists’ roles, increased confidence in their clinical skills, and better preparation for APPEs. Peers viewed the approach as innovative and transferable to other practice settings. Participating faculty members provided a greater number of contact hours compared to traditional one-time site visits. Conclusions. Integrating an IPPE with an existing APPE is an effective and efficient way to provide patient care experiences for students in the P1-P3 years in accordance with accreditation standards. PMID:22544969

  17. Role Model Ambulatory Care Clinical Training Site in a Community-Based Pharmacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magarian, Edward O.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    An interdisciplinary project provided ambulatory care clinical training for pharmacy and nursing students in community-based pharmacies, promoting early detection and medical follow-up of common health problems within the community. Students learned new clinical skills in patient health assessment, new diagnostic technologies, patient education…

  18. A Continuous Community Pharmacy Practice Experience: Design and Evaluation of Instructional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Selby Greer; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A two-year community pharmacy clinical experience using self-directed learning modules is described and evaluated. The modules were designed to stimulate interest in community pharmacy, motivate learning by demonstrating applicability of didactic work to contemporary practice, develop communication and psychosocial skills, and promote…

  19. Role Model Ambulatory Care Clinical Training Site in a Community-Based Pharmacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magarian, Edward O.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    An interdisciplinary project provided ambulatory care clinical training for pharmacy and nursing students in community-based pharmacies, promoting early detection and medical follow-up of common health problems within the community. Students learned new clinical skills in patient health assessment, new diagnostic technologies, patient education…

  20. A Continuous Community Pharmacy Practice Experience: Design and Evaluation of Instructional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Selby Greer; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A two-year community pharmacy clinical experience using self-directed learning modules is described and evaluated. The modules were designed to stimulate interest in community pharmacy, motivate learning by demonstrating applicability of didactic work to contemporary practice, develop communication and psychosocial skills, and promote…

  1. Recruitment of community pharmacies in a randomized trial to generate patient referrals to the tobacco quitline.

    PubMed

    Corelli, Robin L; Zillich, Alan J; de Moor, Carl; Giuliano, Margherita R; Arnold, Jennifer; Fenlon, Christine M; Douglas, Cami L; Magnusson, Brooke; Zbikowski, Susan M; Prokhorov, Alexander V; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek

    2013-01-01

    Community pharmacies have the potential to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use, yet most pharmacies do not integrate cessation activities into routine practice. The objective of this study was to describe the recruitment strategy and participant yield for a 2-state, randomized trial evaluating 2 intervention approaches for increasing pharmacy-based referrals to tobacco quitlines. Detailed study recruitment tracking forms were used to document all contact attempts between the study investigators and each potential study site. These data were analyzed to characterize the overall recruitment and consent process for community pharmacies and pharmacy personnel (pharmacists, technicians). Achieving the target sample size of 64 study sites required contacting a total of 150 pharmacies (84 independent and 66 chain). Excluding 22 ineligible pharmacies, participation rates were 49% (32 of 65) for independent pharmacies and 51% (32 of 63) for chain pharmacies (50% overall). Across the 64 participating pharmacies, a total of 124 pharmacists (of 171; 73%) and 127 pharmacy technicians (of 215; 59%) were enrolled in the study. Pharmacies that chose not to participate most often cited time constraints as the primary reason. Overall, combining both the recruitment and consent process, a median of 5 contacts were made with each participating pharmacy (range, 2-19; interquartile range [IQR], 4-7), and the median overall duration of time elapsed from initial contact to consent was 25 days (range, 3-122 days; IQR, 12-47 days). Results from this study suggest that community pharmacy personnel are receptive to participation in multisite, tobacco cessation clinical research trials. However, execution of a representative sampling and recruitment scheme for a multistate study in this practice setting is a time- and labor-intensive process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Mapping the terrain: A conceptual schema for a mental health medication support service in community pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Scahill, Shane; Fowler, Jane L; Hattingh, H Laetitia; Kelly, Fiona; Wheeler, Amanda J

    2015-01-01

    Mental health-related problems pose a serious issue for primary care, and community pharmacy could make a significant contribution, but there is a dearth of information. This article reports synthesis of the literature on mental health interventions across a range of pharmacy models, and pharmacy services in contexts beyond mental health. To best inform the design of a community pharmacy medication support intervention for mental health consumers, the literature was reported as a conceptual schema and subsequent recommendations for development, implementation and evaluation of the service. A broad conceptualisation was taken in this review. In addition to mental health and community pharmacy literature, policy/initiatives, organisational culture and change management principles, and evaluative processes were reviewed. Key words were selected and literature reviews undertaken using EMBASE, PubMed, CINAHL and Web of Science. Recommendations were made around: medication support intervention design, consumer recruitment, implementation in community pharmacy and evaluation. Surprisingly, there is a scarce literature relating to mental health interventions in community pharmacy. Even so, findings from other pharmacy models and broader medicines management for chronic illness can inform development of a medication support service for mental health consumers. Key learnings include the need to expand medicines management beyond adherence with respect to both intervention design and evaluation. The conceptual framework is grounded in the need for programmes to be embedded within pharmacies that are part of the health system as a whole.

  3. Mapping the terrain: A conceptual schema for a mental health medication support service in community pharmacy

    PubMed Central

    Scahill, Shane; Fowler, Jane L; Hattingh, H Laetitia; Kelly, Fiona; Wheeler, Amanda J

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Mental health–related problems pose a serious issue for primary care, and community pharmacy could make a significant contribution, but there is a dearth of information. Methods: This article reports synthesis of the literature on mental health interventions across a range of pharmacy models, and pharmacy services in contexts beyond mental health. To best inform the design of a community pharmacy medication support intervention for mental health consumers, the literature was reported as a conceptual schema and subsequent recommendations for development, implementation and evaluation of the service. A broad conceptualisation was taken in this review. In addition to mental health and community pharmacy literature, policy/initiatives, organisational culture and change management principles, and evaluative processes were reviewed. Key words were selected and literature reviews undertaken using EMBASE, PubMed, CINAHL and Web of Science. Results: Recommendations were made around: medication support intervention design, consumer recruitment, implementation in community pharmacy and evaluation. Surprisingly, there is a scarce literature relating to mental health interventions in community pharmacy. Even so, findings from other pharmacy models and broader medicines management for chronic illness can inform development of a medication support service for mental health consumers. Key learnings include the need to expand medicines management beyond adherence with respect to both intervention design and evaluation. Conclusion: The conceptual framework is grounded in the need for programmes to be embedded within pharmacies that are part of the health system as a whole. PMID:26770802

  4. Pharmaceutical care in community pharmacies: practice and research in the US.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Dale B; Farris, Karen B

    2006-01-01

    To describe the state of community pharmacy, including patient care services, in the US. Chain pharmacies, including traditional chains, mass merchandisers, and supermarkets, comprise more than 50% of community pharmacies in the US. Dispensing of drugs remains the primary focus, yet the incidence of patients being counseled on medications appears to be increasing. More than 25% of independent community pharmacy owners report providing some patient clinical care services, such as medication counseling and chronic disease management. Most insurance programs pay pharmacists only for dispensing services, yet there are a growing number of public and private initiatives that reimburse pharmacists for cognitive services. Clinical care opportunities exist in the new Medicare prescription drug benefit plan, as it requires medication therapy management services for specific enrollees. The private market approach to healthcare delivery in the US, including pharmacy services, precludes national and statewide strategies to change the basic business model. To date, most pharmacies remain focused on dispensing prescriptions. With lower dispensing fees and higher operating costs, community pharmacies are focused on increasing productivity and efficiency through technology and technicians. Pharmacists remain challenged to establish the value of their nondispensing-related pharmaceutical care services in the private sector. As the cost of suboptimal drug therapy becomes more evident, medication therapy management may become a required pharmacy benefit in private drug insurance plans. Pharmacy school curricula, as well as national and state pharmacy associations, continually work to train and promote community pharmacists for these roles. Practice research is driven primarily by interested academics and, to a lesser degree, by pharmacy associations. Efficient dispensing of prescriptions is the primary focus of community pharmacies in the US. Some well designed practice-based research

  5. Evaluating the implementation fidelity of New Medicines Service for asthma patients in community pharmacies in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Fraeyman, Jessica; Foulon, Veerle; Mehuys, Els; Boussery, Koen; Saevels, Jan; De Vriese, Carine; Dalleur, Olivia; Housiaux, Marie; Steurbaut, Stephane; Naegels, Marc; De Meyer, Guido Ry; De Loof, Hans; Van Hal, Guido; Van den Broucke, Stephan

    In October 2013, a New Medicines Service (NMS) was introduced in community pharmacies in Belgium to support asthma patients who are novice users of inhaler devices with corticosteroids. The protocol-based intervention used the Asthma Control Test (ACT) and the Medication Adherence Report Scale (MARS) to assess asthma control and medication adherence. The NMS is the first initiative that puts advanced pharmaceutical care into practice in Belgium. The present study evaluated the degree to which the NMS program is delivered as intended, drawing on the concept of implementation fidelity (IF). The main dimensions of IF and potential moderating and facilitating factors for the implementation of NMS in community pharmacies were evaluated using telephone interviews with pharmacists (n = 497), semi-structured interviews with patients eligible for NMS (n = 30), focus groups among general practitioners (n = 72) and lung specialists (n = 5), and a work system analysis in community pharmacies (n = 19). The uptake of NMS in Belgian community pharmacies remains low. In addition to practical barriers, pharmacists found it difficult to identify new asthmatic patients when they were not informed about the diagnosis. A lack of commitment from physicians, patients and pharmacists was noted in the early start-up phase of the program. Many pharmacists did not see how NMS differed from existing pharmaceutical care. Physicians considered this service as part of their own tasks and discouraged ACT for asthma follow-up in the community pharmacy. The introduction of the NMS program was not sufficiently embedded in the Belgian health care organization, causing low uptake and resistance to its implementation by pharmacists, patients, and other health care professionals. To increase the uptake of this type of service and its possible extension to other patient groups, more collaboration among the different health care professionals during design and implementation is necessary, as

  6. Medication therapy management services in North Carolina community pharmacies: current practice patterns and projected demand.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Richard A; Roth, Mary T; Brouwer, Emily S; Herndon, Susan; Christensen, Dale B

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the types of cognitive services offered and the number of patients being served in community pharmacies, determine the number of pharmacies that plan to offer medication therapy management (MTM) services under the Medicare Part D prescription drug benefit, and assess whether current and expected practices will meet the potential needs of enrollees. Cross-sectional study. North Carolina in January 2005. 1,593 community pharmacy managers. Survey using a Web-based tool. Provision of cognitive services and number of patients for whom services are provided. A total of 262 (16%) pharmacy managers provided usable responses. Approximately 42% of respondents (n = 110) indicated that they provide some type of cognitive service. Comprehensive MTM services, or services consistent with the professionwide consensus definition, were provided by 31% of respondents (n = 81). Independent pharmacies were more likely to offer some type of service compared with chain pharmacies (58% versus 31%, respectively; P < .001). Pharmacy managers with a doctor of pharmacy degree were less likely than pharmacy managers with a bachelor's degree to offer services in their pharmacies (P = .02), and pharmacies with pharmacists on staff who had received certificate training were more likely to offer cognitive services (P = .03). Of all respondents, 28% (n = 73) indicated that they planned to offer MTM services under the Medicare Part D prescription drug benefit. Comparing these results with those of a 1999 survey of North Carolina pharmacists that used some of the same items, the percentage of community pharmacies that provide cognitive services has increased in the intervening years but remains low. Among the services being offered in 2005, most were focused on patient education and training, coordinating and integrating care, and medication regimen reviews. Implementation of MTM services under the Medicare Part D prescription drug benefit should hasten the development and offering of

  7. Reflections on the role of the pharmacy regulatory authority in enhancing quality related event reporting in community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Todd A; Bishop, Andrea C; Mahaffey, Thomas; Mackinnon, Neil J; Ashcroft, Darren M; Zwicker, Bev; Reid, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    Given the demanding nature of providing pharmacy services, coupled with the expanded scope of practice of the professions in jurisdictions around the world, greater commitment to continuous quality improvement through adoption of quality-related event (QRE) reporting is necessary to ensure patient safety. Pharmacy regulatory authorities (PRAs) are in a unique position to enhance QRE reporting and learning through the standardization of expected practice. This study was aimed to gain a better understanding of the perceived roles of PRAs in enhancing QRE reporting and learning in community pharmacies, and identifying regulatory best practices to execute such roles. A purposive case sampling approach was used to identify PRA staff members from two groups (Deputy registrars and pharmacy inspectors) in 10 Canadian jurisdictions to participate in focus groups in the fall of 2011. Focus groups were used to explore perceptions of the role of PRAs in enhancing and promoting QRE reporting and learning, and perceived barriers to effective implementation in practice. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data. Two focus groups were conducted, one with seven Deputy registrars/Practice managers, and one with nine pharmacy inspectors. Five themes were identified, including (1) defining QRE reporting and compliance, (2) navigating role conflict, (3) educating for enhanced QRE reporting and learning, (4) promoting the positive/removing the fear of QREs, and (5) tailoring QRE reporting and learning consistency. Overall, participants perceived a strong role for PRAs in enhancing QRE reporting and learning and providing education for pharmacies to support their compliance with reporting standards. However, PRAs must navigate the conflict inherent in both educating and promoting a process for achieving a standard while simultaneously inspecting compliance to that standard. Ensuring pharmacies have autonomy in operationalizing standards may help to mitigate this conflict

  8. Exploring communications around medication review in community pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Kaae, Susanne; Sørensen, Ellen Westh; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig

    2011-06-01

    Investigation into aspects that influence outcomes of medication reviews have been called for. The aim of this study was to assess how pharmacy internship students in a Danish medication review and reconciliation model communicated with both diabetes patients and the patients' General Practitioners (GPs) when conveying the results of the review by writing letters to the different parties. Special attention was drawn to how differences in health care provider and patient perspectives of the disease as well as inclusion of the patient in the decision making process is influenced by the identified practices of communication. 18 Danish community pharmacies with The Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapy at the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Copenhagen. Number of identified drug related problems, life-world problems and solutions to these described in the letters sent to patients and their GPs were registered. Further a qualitative documentary analysis was conducted by analyzing the letters using the theory of transactional analysis, developed by Berne. Identified and conveyed drug related and life-world related problems when comparing patients' letters with GPs' letters. Whether students assumed a superior, inferior or equal role in relation to the recipient of the letter and compared whether students assumed the same role in relation to patients and GPs. 18 pairs of patient and GP letters were analyzed. The analysis showed that students conveyed more drug-related problems to GPs than to patients. Furthermore, students assumed an equal relationship to GPs, whereas they frequently took superior positions when writing to patients. Students reported lifestyle problems both to GPs and to patients. Pharmacy students in a Danish medication review and reconciliation model managed to detect and address lifestyle problems of patients to their GPs, thereby facilitating the merger of their professional-technical perspective with the life

  9. Informal learning processes in support of clinical service delivery in a service-oriented community pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Brandon J; Bakken, Brianne K; Doucette, William R; Urmie, Julie M; McDonough, Randal P

    The evolving health care system necessitates pharmacy organizations' adjustments by delivering new services and establishing inter-organizational relationships. One approach supporting pharmacy organizations in making changes may be informal learning by technicians, pharmacists, and pharmacy owners. Informal learning is characterized by a four-step cycle including intent to learn, action, feedback, and reflection. This framework helps explain individual and organizational factors that influence learning processes within an organization as well as the individual and organizational outcomes of those learning processes. A case study of an Iowa independent community pharmacy with years of experience in offering patient care services was made. Nine semi-structured interviews with pharmacy personnel revealed initial evidence in support of the informal learning model in practice. Future research could investigate more fully the informal learning model in delivery of patient care services in community pharmacies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Pharmacists' Interest in and Commitment to Obtaining an Advanced Pharmacy Degree through Continuing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, David A.

    1986-01-01

    Describes results of a survey of all West Virginia pharmacists concerning their views on continuing education and advanced pharmacy degrees. Conclusions indicate a small percentage of pharmacists are interested in a higher degree via continuing education. (Author/CT)

  11. Trends in community pharmacy counts and closures before and after the implementation of Medicare part D.

    PubMed

    Klepser, Donald G; Xu, Liyan; Ullrich, Fred; Mueller, Keith J

    2011-01-01

    Medicare Part D provided 3.4 million American seniors with prescription drug insurance. It may also have had an unintended effect on pharmacy viability. This study compares trends in the number of pharmacies and rate of pharmacy closures before and after the implementation of Medicare Part D. This retrospective observational study used data from National Council for Prescription Drug Programs (NCPDP) to track retail pharmacy closures and counts between January 2004 and January 2009. Pharmacies were classified by ownership (chain or independent), location (urban or rural), and whether they were the only pharmacy in a community. Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models were used to examine trends in pharmacy counts and closures. The number of independent and rural pharmacies decreased significantly after the implementation of Medicare Part D. The number of communities that saw their only pharmacy close also increased. Unintended consequences of Medicare Part D may serve to reduce patient access to pharmacy services in opposition to the stated goals of the program. © 2010 National Rural Health Association.

  12. Availability of Tobacco and Alcohol Products in Los Angeles Community Pharmacies

    PubMed Central

    Aschebrook-Kilfoy, Briseis; Kim, Gilwan; Ambrose, Peter J.; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek

    2012-01-01

    The availability of tobacco and alcohol products in community pharmacies contradicts the pharmacists’ Code of Ethics and presents challenges for a profession that is overwhelmingly not in favor of the sale of these products in its practice settings. The primary aim of this study was to estimate the proportion of pharmacies that sell tobacco products and/or alcoholic beverages and to characterize promotion of these products. The proportion of pharmacies that sell non-prescription nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) products as aids to smoking cessation also was estimated. Among 250 randomly-selected community pharmacies in Los Angeles, 32.8% sold cigarettes, and 26.0% sold alcohol products. Cigarettes were more likely to be available in traditional chain pharmacies and grocery stores than in independently-owned pharmacies (100% versus 10.8%; P < 0.001), and traditional chain drug stores and grocery stores were more likely to sell alcoholic beverages than were independently-owned pharmacies (87.5% vs. 5.4%; P < 0.001). Thirty-four (41.5%) of the 82 pharmacies that sold cigarettes and 47 (72.3%) of the 65 pharmacies that sold alcohol also displayed promotional materials for these products. NRT products were merchandised by 58% of pharmacies. Results of this study suggest that when given a choice, pharmacists choose not to sell tobacco or alcohol products. PMID:21644021

  13. The prevalence and experience of Australian naturopaths and Western herbalists working within community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Braun, Lesley A; Spitzer, Ondine; Tiralongo, Evelin; Wilkinson, Jenny M; Bailey, Michael; Poole, Susan; Dooley, Michael

    2011-05-23

    Naturopaths and Western herbal medicine (WHM) practitioners were surveyed to identify their extent, experience and roles within the community pharmacy setting and to explore their attitudes to integration of complementary medicine (CM) practitioners within the pharmacy setting. Practising naturopaths and WHM practitioners were invited to participate in an anonymous, self-administered, on-line survey. Participants were recruited using the mailing lists and websites of CM manufacturers and professional associations. 479 practitioners participated. 24% of respondents (n=111) reported they had worked in community pharmacy, three-quarters for less than 5 years. Whilst in this role 74% conducted specialist CMs sales, 62% short customer consultations, 52% long consultations in a private room and 51% staff education. This was generally described as a positive learning experience and many appreciated the opportunity to utilise their specialist knowledge in the service of both customers and pharmacy staff. 14% (n=15) did not enjoy the experience of working in pharmacy at all and suggested pharmacist attitude largely influenced whether the experience was positive or not. Few practitioners were satisfied with the remuneration received. 44% of the total sample provided comment on the issue of integration into pharmacy, with the main concern being the perceived incommensurate paradigms of practice between pharmacy and naturopathy. Of the total sample, 38% reported that they would consider working as a practitioner in retail pharmacy in future. The level of integration of CM into pharmacy is extending beyond the mere stocking of supplements. Naturopaths and Western Herbalists are becoming utilised in pharmacies.

  14. Availability of tobacco and alcohol products in Los Angeles community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Corelli, Robin L; Aschebrook-Kilfoy, Briseis; Kim, Gilwan; Ambrose, Peter J; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek

    2012-02-01

    The availability of tobacco and alcohol products in community pharmacies contradicts the pharmacists' Code of Ethics and presents challenges for a profession that is overwhelmingly not in favor of the sale of these products in its practice settings. The primary aim of this study was to estimate the proportion of pharmacies that sell tobacco products and/or alcoholic beverages and to characterize promotion of these products. The proportion of pharmacies that sell non-prescription nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) products as aids to smoking cessation also was estimated. Among 250 randomly-selected community pharmacies in Los Angeles, 32.8% sold cigarettes, and 26.0% sold alcohol products. Cigarettes were more likely to be available in traditional chain pharmacies and grocery stores than in independently-owned pharmacies (100% versus 10.8%; P < 0.001), and traditional chain drug stores and grocery stores were more likely to sell alcoholic beverages than were independently-owned pharmacies (87.5% vs. 5.4%; P < 0.001). Thirty-four (41.5%) of the 82 pharmacies that sold cigarettes and 47 (72.3%) of the 65 pharmacies that sold alcohol also displayed promotional materials for these products. NRT products were merchandised by 58% of pharmacies. Results of this study suggest that when given a choice, pharmacists choose not to sell tobacco or alcohol products.

  15. Oral health promotion in the community pharmacy: an evaluation of a pilot oral health promotion intervention.

    PubMed

    Sturrock, A; Cussons, H; Jones, C; Woodcock, C; Bird, L

    2017-09-15

    Introduction Poor oral health is a significant public health concern, costing the NHS in England £3.4 billion annually. Community pharmacies are easily accessible, frequently visited by patients and the community pharmacy contractual framework requires pharmacies to provide healthy living advice to patients - therefore offering a little explored avenue for the delivery of oral health interventions.Methodology A pilot oral health promotion intervention was introduced in five pharmacies in deprived areas of County Durham between September and December 2016. A mixed methods approach to the evaluation was performed, utilising a patient evaluation questionnaire and semi-structured qualitative interviews with pharmacy staff.Results One thousand and eighty-nine participants received the intervention. Following the intervention 72% of participants perceived their knowledge of oral health as much better, 66% definitely intended to change their oral health habits and 64% definitely thought a pharmacy was the right place to receive advice about oral health. Three themes emerged from the qualitative data: (1) intervention feedback, (2) knowledge gap and (3) service development.Discussion The data demonstrated the acceptability of patients to a community pharmacy based oral health intervention, with most patients reporting intentions to change their oral healthcare habits after receiving the intervention. Previous literature has identified a willingness of pharmacy staff to become involved with oral health; this study provides evidence that patients are also receptive to such services being delivered in the community pharmacy setting. Further work is required to assess the benefits of a community pharmacy based oral health intervention and the potential for further growth of this role.Conclusion A community pharmacy is perceived by patients as an acceptable provider of oral health interventions and has the potential to provide positive changes to the oral health of the

  16. Implementation of asthma guidelines to West Australian community pharmacies: an exploratory, quasi-experimental study.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Kim; Trevenen, Michelle; Murray, Kevin; Kendall, Peter A; Schneider, Carl R; Clifford, Rhonda

    2016-08-31

    Pharmacy assistants are often the first point of contact for patients presenting in community pharmacies. The current role of pharmacy assistants in the supply of asthma-reliever medications (short-acting β-agonists) was identified as a barrier to appropriate guideline-based care. The aim of this research was to devise and evaluate a team-based intervention to formalise the role of pharmacy assistants and to improve asthma guideline-based care in community pharmacy. A controlled pre-post intervention study was conducted in 336 metropolitan pharmacies located in Perth, Western Australia. Pharmacies were stratified into 2 groups (187 intervention and 149 control) based on known confounders for asthma control. The intervention was designed using a common-sense approach and resources developed included a checklist, videos and web page. Delivery was via workshops (25 pharmacies) or academic detailing (162 pharmacies). Pharmacy practice was assessed preintervention and postintervention via covert simulated patient methodology. Primary outcome measures included patient medical referral, device use demonstration and counselling, internal referral and/or direct involvement of a pharmacist in consultations. There was a significant increase in patient medical referral in intervention pharmacies from 32% to 47% (p=0.0007) from preintervention to postintervention, while control pharmacies showed a non-significant decrease from 50% to 44% (p=0.22). Device counselling was not routinely carried out at any stage or in any cohort of this research and no significant changes in internal referral were observed. Increases in medical referral indicate that asthma guideline compliance can be improved in community pharmacy if implementation employs a team-based approach and involves pharmacy assistants. However, results were variable and the intervention did not improve practice related to device counselling or internal referral/pharmacist involvement. Undertaking more workshops may have

  17. Evaluation of the performance of drug-drug interaction screening software in community and hospital pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Abarca, Jacob; Colon, Lisa R; Wang, Victoria S; Malone, Daniel C; Murphy, John E; Armstrong, Edward P

    2006-06-01

    Computerized drug-drug interaction (DDI) screening is widely used to identify potentially harmful drug combinations in the inpatient and outpatient setting. To evaluate the performance of drug-drug interaction (DDI) screening software in identifying select clinically significant DDIs in pharmacy computer systems in community and hospital pharmacies. Ten community pharmacies and 10 hospital pharmacies in the Tucson metropolitan area were invited to participate in the study in 2004. To test the performance of each of the systems used by the pharmacies, 25 medications were used to create 6 mock patient profiles containing 37 drug-drug pairs, 16 of which are clinically meaningful DDIs that pose a potential risk to patient safety. Each profile was entered into the computer pharmacy system, and the system response in terms of the presence or absence of a DDI alert was recorded for each drug pair. The percentage of correct responses and the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of each system to correctly classify each drug pair as a DDI or not was calculated. Summary statistics of these measures were calculated separately for community and hospital pharmacies. Eight community pharmacies and 5 hospital pharmacies in the Tucson metropolitan area agreed to participate in the study. The median sensitivity and median specificity for community pharmacies was 0.88 (range, 0.81-0.94) and 0.91 (range, 0.67-1.00), respectively. For hospital pharmacies, the median sensitivity and median specificity was 0.38 (range, 0.15-0.94) and 0.95 (range, 0.81-0.95), respectively. Based on this convenience sample of 8 community pharmacies and 5 hospital pharmacies in 1 metropolitan area, the performance of community pharmacy computer systems in screening DDIs appears to have improved over the last several years compared with research published previously in 2001. However, significant variation remains in the performance of hospital pharmacy computer

  18. Point-of-care testing for infectious diseases: opportunities, barriers, and considerations in community pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Gubbins, Paul O; Klepser, Michael E; Dering-Anderson, Allison M; Bauer, Karri A; Darin, Kristin M; Klepser, Stephanie; Matthias, Kathryn R; Scarsi, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To identify opportunities to perform point-of-care (POC) testing and/or screening for infectious diseases in community pharmacies, provide an overview of such tests and how they are used in current practice, discuss how the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (CLIA) affect pharmacists performing POC testing, and identify and discuss barriers and provide recommendations for those wanting to establish POC testing for infectious diseases services in community pharmacies. DATA SOURCES PubMed and Google Scholar were searched from November 2012 through May 2013 and encompassed the years 2000 and beyond for the narrative review section of this article using the search terms rapid diagnostic tests, POC testing and infectious diseases, pharmacy services, CLIA waiver, and collaborative drug therapy management. All state boards of pharmacy in the United States were contacted and their regulatory and legislative websites accessed in 2012 and January 2013 to review relevant pharmacy practice laws. DATA SYNTHESIS POC testing for infectious diseases represents a significant opportunity to expand services in community pharmacies. Pharmacist education and training are addressing knowledge deficits in good laboratory practices and test performance and interpretation. Federal regulations do not define the qualifications for those who perform CLIA-waived tests, yet few pharmacists perform such services. Fewer than 20% of states address POC testing in their statutes and regulations governing pharmacy. CONCLUSION POC testing for infectious diseases could benefit patients and society and represents an opportunity to expand pharmacy services in community pharmacies. Existing barriers to the implementation of such services in community pharmacies, including deficits in pharmacist training and education along with state regulatory and legislative variance and vagueness in statutes governing pharmacy, are not insurmountable.

  19. The structure and function of urban pharmacies: visits to community pharmacies in inner-city Chicago.

    PubMed

    Reutzel, T J; Wilson, L A

    1992-01-01

    Visits were made to 21 pharmacies in two poor neighborhoods on the west side of Chicago and interviews conducted with pharmacists-in-charge. The objective of the study was to provide a comprehensive description of the function, capabilities, and problems of urban pharmacy. We present results on the structure and function of these inner-city pharmacies. The pharmacies fit one of three structural forms: chain, independent, or medical center. The majority of respondents viewed the function of the inner-city pharmacy as patient-centered but also identified several barriers to effective patient communication. The results suggest that inner-city physicians and pharmacists should communicate with patients more often and in ways that patients understand. Also, Medicaid and other drug insurance programs should develop patient information networks and coverage packages intended to maximize patient health status.

  20. Shortage of psychotropic medications in community pharmacies in Saudi Arabia: Causes and solutions.

    PubMed

    Al-Ruthia, Yazed Sulaiman; Mansy, Wael; Barasin, Mohammad; Ghawaa, Yazeed Mohammad; AlSultan, Mohammed; Alsenaidy, Mohammad A; Alhawas, Solaiman; AlGhadeer, Sultan

    2017-07-01

    Background: Patients with mental disorders, such as depression and anxiety, who seek medical care in private psychiatric clinics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, have recently expressed concerns to doctors about difficulty in filling psychotropic medications, such as Amitriptyline and Aripiprazole, at retail community pharmacies. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a shortage of some commonly prescribed psychotropic medications in retail community pharmacies in Saudi Arabia, and if so, to explore the possible reasons behind the shortage of these medications. Methods: The availability of 28 commonly prescribed psychotropic medications was checked in multiple retail community pharmacies in 4 different regions of Saudi Arabia. Further, potential reasons behind the shortage of some psychotropic medications in retail community pharmacies were also explored. Results: Amitriptyline, Amoxapine, Aripiprazole, Bupropion, Buspirone, Duloxetine, Haloperidol, Hydroxyzine, Lithium, Prochlorperazine, Procyclidine, Promethazine, Thioridazine, Trazodone, and Trifluoperazine were unavailable in over half of the 248 community pharmacies surveyed. Four possible reasons behind the shortage of these medications were reported by 31 pharmacists working in different retail community pharmacies' purchasing departments, with a majority (58.06%) reporting the primary reason for a shortage of these medications that they are slow-moving items with low profit margins. Conclusions: The findings of this study should expedite the reform process in both the Ministry of Health and the Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA) to publish and enforce an essential list of medications for retail community pharmacies, which should include the most commonly prescribed psychotropic medications.

  1. Identifying masked uncontrolled hypertension in the community pharmacy setting.

    PubMed

    Sabater-Hernández, Daniel; Sendra-Lillo, Jose; Jiménez-Monleón, Jose J; Benrimoj, Shalom I; Durks, Desire; Martínez-Martínez, Fernando; de la Sierra, Alejandro

    2015-06-01

    Masked uncontrolled hypertension (MUCH) is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk. This condition is frequent in the community pharmacy (i.e., CP-MUCH), but there is no evidence on the factors associated with its presence in that setting. The aim of this analysis was to explore these factors. A sample of 98 treated hypertensive patients from the MEPAFAR study, with normal community pharmacy blood pressure (CPBP <135/85 mmHg), were analyzed. Blood pressure (BP) was also measured at home (4 days) and monitored for 24 h. CP-MUCH was identified when either ambulatory (daytime) or home BP averages were equal to or higher than 135/85 mmHg. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out to identify the factors associated with CP-MUCH. The prevalence of CP-MUCH tends to be higher as systolic and diastolic CPBP increase, reaching 47% in patients with both systolic  and diastolic CPBP equal to or higher than 123 mmHg and 79 mmHg, respectively.  The multivariate regression analysis showed only systolic CPBP as an independent factor of CP-MUCH [≥123 mmHg: odds ratio=16.46 (P=0.012); from 115 to 122.9 mmHg: odds ratio=10.74 (P=0.036); systolic CPBP <115 mmHg as the reference]. Further assessment, using ambulatory and/or home BP monitoring, is recommended in patients with normal CPBP, but systolic CPBP equal to or higher than 115 mmHg. A more feasible approach would be evaluating patients with systolic CPBP equal to or higher than 123 mmHg and diastolic CPBP equal to or higher than 79 mmHg.

  2. Community pharmacy and mail order cost and utilization for 90-day maintenance medication prescriptions.

    PubMed

    Khandelwal, Nikhil; Duncan, Ian; Rubinstein, Elan; Ahmed, Tamim; Pegus, Cheryl

    2012-04-01

    Pharmacy benefit management (PBM) companies promote mail order programs that typically dispense 90-day quantities of maintenance medications, marketing this feature as a key cost containment strategy to address plan sponsors' rising prescription drug expenditures. In recent years, community pharmacies have introduced 90-day programs that provide similar cost advantages, while allowing these prescriptions to be dispensed at the same pharmacies that patients frequent for 30-day quantities. To compare utilization rates and corresponding costs associated with obtaining 90-day prescriptions at community and mail order pharmacies for payers that offer equivalent benefits in different 90-day dispensing channels. We performed a retrospective, cross-sectional investigation using pharmacy claims and eligibility data from employer group clients of a large PBM between January 2008 and September 2010. We excluded the following client types: government, third-party administrators, schools, hospitals, 340B (federal drug pricing), employers in Puerto Rico, and miscellaneous clients for which the PBM provided billing services (e.g., the pharmacy's loyalty card program members). All employer groups in the sample offered 90-day community pharmacy and mail order dispensing and received benefits management services, such as formulary management and mail order pharmacy, from the PBM. We further limited the sample to employer groups that offered equivalent benefits for community pharmacy and mail order, defined as groups in which the mean and median copayments per claim for community and mail order pharmacy, by tier, differed by no more than 5%. Enrollees in the sample were required to have a minimum of 6 months of eligibility in each calendar year but were not required to have filled a prescription in any year. We evaluated pharmacy costs and utilization for a market basket of 14 frequently dispensed therapeutic classes of maintenance medications. The proportional share of claims for

  3. Factors Associated With Reflection Among Students After an Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience (APPE) in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Lindblad, Åsa Kettis; Gustavsson, Maria; Ring, Lena

    2009-01-01

    Objective To identify individual and social factors associated with pharmacy students' level of reflection in an advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE). Methods A postal questionnaire, including a reflective assignment, was sent to all pharmacy interns (n=262) at Uppsala University, Sweden, for 4 semesters in 2005-2007. Results In a univariate analysis, 7 factors were found to be associated with students' level of reflection. After controlling for covariates, 3 social factors were found to be independently associated with reflection: having a formal preceptor (OR=5.3), being at a small pharmacy (OR=19.8), and students' perception of the importance of discussing critical thinking with the preceptor (OR=1.2). No correlation could be observed between level of reflection and critical thinking, nor learning style. Conclusion Social components seem to be of higher importance than individual components in students' reflective levels after pharmacy internship experience. Trained preceptors are important to foster reflection skills. PMID:19885076

  4. Factors associated with reflection among students after an advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Wallman, Andy; Lindblad, Asa Kettis; Gustavsson, Maria; Ring, Lena

    2009-10-01

    To identify individual and social factors associated with pharmacy students' level of reflection in an advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE). A postal questionnaire, including a reflective assignment, was sent to all pharmacy interns (n=262) at Uppsala University, Sweden, for 4 semesters in 2005-2007. In a univariate analysis, 7 factors were found to be associated with students' level of reflection. After controlling for covariates, 3 social factors were found to be independently associated with reflection: having a formal preceptor (OR=5.3), being at a small pharmacy (OR=19.8), and students' perception of the importance of discussing critical thinking with the preceptor (OR=1.2). No correlation could be observed between level of reflection and critical thinking, nor learning style. Social components seem to be of higher importance than individual components in students' reflective levels after pharmacy internship experience. Trained preceptors are important to foster reflection skills.

  5. Pharmacy Technician Competency Validation for the Eastern Iowa Community College District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastern Iowa Community Coll. District, Davenport. Office of Academic Affairs and Planning.

    In preparation for the possible establishment of a Pharmacy Technician program, the Eastern Iowa Community College District convened a Developing a Curriculum (DACUM) workshop in December 1989, involving a panel of eight pharmacy technicians (PT's). Panelists helped to develop a DACUM chart, graphically describing the occupation in terms of…

  6. Campus to Community Linkages: Roles, Commitments, and Responsibilities of a Pharmacy Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holder, Maurice S.; Lewis, Henry, III; Kirksey, Otis W.; Harris, Cynthia

    1998-01-01

    The Florida A & M University College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Services' commitment to community outreach is evidenced in these program emphases: acceptance and retention portfolios for students and pharmacies; effective recruiting of local students into college programs; attention to critical health care deficiencies; applied research;…

  7. Campus to Community Linkages: Roles, Commitments, and Responsibilities of a Pharmacy Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holder, Maurice S.; Lewis, Henry, III; Kirksey, Otis W.; Harris, Cynthia

    1998-01-01

    The Florida A & M University College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Services' commitment to community outreach is evidenced in these program emphases: acceptance and retention portfolios for students and pharmacies; effective recruiting of local students into college programs; attention to critical health care deficiencies; applied research;…

  8. Labor Market Assessment of Pharmacy Technicians for the Eastern Iowa Community College District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastern Iowa Community Coll. District, Davenport. Office of Academic Affairs and Planning.

    In January 1990, there were no Pharmacy Technician (PT) programs in Iowa. To determine the need for a PT program in the Eastern Iowa Community College District, a survey was conducted of 958 pharmacy-related businesses in Iowa and the Quad Cities of Illinois believed to be employing PT's. The survey gathered information on personnel employed;…

  9. An evaluation of the quality of Turkish community pharmacy web sites concerning HON principles.

    PubMed

    Yegenoglu, Selen; Sozen, Bilge; Aslan, Dilek; Calgan, Zeynep; Cagirci, Simge

    2008-05-01

    The objective of this study was to find all the existing Web sites of Turkish community pharmacies and evaluate their "quality" in terms of Health on the Net (HON) Code of conduct principles. Multiple Internet search engines were used (google.com, yahoo.com, altavista.com, msn.com). While searching on the Internet, "eczane (pharmacy)" and "eczanesi (pharmacy of)" key words were used. The Internet search lasted for 2 months starting from March 1, 2007 until May 1, 2007. SPSS ver. 11.5 statistical program (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL) was used for data entry and analysis. At the end of the Internet search via all the indicated search engines, a total of 203 (all different from each other) community pharmacy Web sites were determined; of these, 14 were under construction and 6 were not accessible. As a result, 183 community pharmacy Web sites were included in the study. All of the Web sites could be accessed (100%). However, the availability of some characteristics of the pharmacies were quite poor. None of the pharmacies met all of the HON principles. Only 11 Web sites were appropriate in terms of complementarity (6.0%). Confidentiality criteria was met by only 14 pharmacies (7.7%). Nine pharmacies (4.9%) completed the "attribution" criteria. Among 183 pharmacy Web sites, the most met HON principle was the "transparency of authorship" (69 pharmacy Web sites; 37.7%). Because of the results of our study, the Turkish Pharmacists Association can take a pioneer role to apply some principles such as HON code of conduct in order to increase the quality of Turkish community pharmacists' Web sites.

  10. Non-prescription medicines: a process for standards development and testing in community pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Benrimoj, Shalom Charlie I; Gilbert, Andrew; Quintrell, Neil; Neto, Abilio C de Almeida

    2007-08-01

    The objective of the study was to develop and test standards of practice for handling non-prescription medicines. In consultation with pharmacy registering authorities, key professional and consumer groups and selected community pharmacists, standards of practice were developed in the areas of Resource Management; Professional Practice; Pharmacy Design and Environment; and Rights and Needs of Customers. These standards defined and described minimum professional activities required in the provision of non-prescription medicines at a consistent and measurable level of practice. Seven standards were described and further defined by 20 criteria, including practice indicators. The Standards were tested in 40 community pharmacies in two States and after further adaptation, endorsed by all Australian pharmacy registering authorities and major Australian pharmacy and consumer organisations. The consultation process effectively engaged practicing pharmacists in developing standards to enable community pharmacists meet their legislative and professional responsibilities. Community pharmacies were audited against a set of standards of practice for handling non-prescription medicines developed in this project. Pharmacies were audited on the Standards at baseline, mid-intervention and post-intervention. Behavior of community pharmacists and their staff in relation to these standards was measured by conducting pseudo-patron visits to participating pharmacies. The testing process demonstrated a significant improvement in the quality of service delivered by staff in community pharmacies in the management of requests involving non-prescription medicines. The use of pseudo-patron visits, as a training tool with immediate feedback, was an acceptable and effective method of achieving changes in practice. Feedback from staff in the pharmacies regarding the pseudo-patron visits was very positive. Results demonstrated the methodology employed was effective in increasing overall

  11. Association between community pharmacy loyalty and persistence and implementation of antipsychotic treatment among individuals with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Zongo, Frank E; Moisan, Jocelyne; Grégoire, Jean-Pierre; Lesage, Alain; Dossa, Anara Richi; Lauzier, Sophie

    2016-12-28

    Non-adherence is a major obstacle to optimal treatment of schizophrenia. Community pharmacists are in a key position to detect non-adherence and put in place interventions. Their role is likely to be more efficient when individuals are loyal to a single pharmacy. To assess the association between the level of community pharmacy loyalty and persistence with and implementation of antipsychotic drug treatment among individuals with schizophrenia. A cohort study using databases from the Quebec health insurance board (Canada) was conducted among new antipsychotic users insured by Quebec's public drug plan. Level of community pharmacy loyalty was assessed as the number of pharmacies visited in the year after antipsychotics initiation. Persistence was defined as having an antipsychotic supply in the user's possession on the 730(th) day after its initiation and implementation as having antipsychotics in the user's possession for ≥80% of the days in the second year after antipsychotics initiation (among persistent only). Generalized linear models were used to estimate adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). 6,251 individuals were included in the cohort and 54.1% had their drug prescriptions filled in >1 pharmacy. When compared to those who had their prescriptions filled in a single pharmacy, those who had their prescriptions filled in ≥4 different pharmacies were 22% more likely to be non-persistent (aPR = 1.22; 95%CI = 1.10-1.37) and 49% more likely to have an antipsychotic for <80% of the days (aPR = 1.49; 95%IC = 1.28-1.74). This first exploration of community pharmacy loyalty in the context of severe mental illness indicates that this healthcare organisation factor might be associated with antipsychotics persistence and implementation. Identification of individuals with low community pharmacy loyalty and initiatives to optimize community pharmacy loyalty could contribute to enhanced persistence and implementation. Copyright

  12. The corporatization of community pharmacy: implications for service provision, the public health function, and pharmacy's claims to professional status in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Bush, Joseph; Langley, Christopher A; Wilson, Keith A

    2009-12-01

    Pharmacy has experienced both incomplete professionalization and deprofessionalization. Since the late 1970s, a concerted attempt has been made to re-professionalize pharmacy in the United Kingdom (UK) through role extension-a key feature of which has been a drive for greater pharmacy involvement in public health. However, the continual corporatization of the UK community pharmacy sector may reduce the professional autonomy of pharmacists and may threaten to constrain attempts at reprofessionalization. The objectives of the research: to examine the public health activities of community pharmacists in the UK; to explore the attitudes of community pharmacists toward recent relevant UK policy and barriers to the development of their public health function; and, to investigate associations between activity, attitudes, and the type of community pharmacy worked in (eg, supermarket, chain, independent). A self-completion postal questionnaire was sent to a random sample of practicing community pharmacists, stratified for country and sex, within Great Britain (n=1998), with a follow-up to nonresponders 4 weeks later. Data were analyzed using SPSS (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) (v12.0). A final response rate of 51% (n=1023/1998) was achieved. The level of provision of emergency hormonal contraception on a patient group direction, supervised administration of medicines, and needle-exchange schemes was lower in supermarket pharmacies than in the other types of pharmacy. Respondents believed that supermarkets and the major multiple pharmacy chains held an advantageous position in terms of attracting financing for service development despite suggesting that the premises of such pharmacies may not be the most suitable for the provision of such services. A mixed market in community pharmacy may be required to maintain a comprehensive range of pharmacy-based public health services and provide maximum benefit to all patients. Longitudinal monitoring is recommended to ensure that

  13. Assessing equity in the geographical distribution of community pharmacies in South Africa in preparation for a national health insurance scheme.

    PubMed

    Ward, Kim; Sanders, David; Leng, Henry; Pollock, Allyson M

    2014-07-01

    To investigate equity in the geographical distribution of community pharmacies in South Africa and assess whether regulatory reforms have furthered such equity. Data on community pharmacies from the national department of health and the South African pharmacy council were used to analyse the change in community pharmacy ownership and density (number per 10,000 residents) between 1994 and 2012 in all nine provinces and 15 selected districts. In addition, the density of public clinics, alone and with community pharmacies, was calculated and compared with a national benchmark of one clinic per 10,000 residents. Interviews were conducted with nine national experts from the pharmacy sector. Community pharmacies increased in number by 13% between 1994 and 2012--less than the 25% population growth. In 2012, community pharmacy density was higher in urban provinces and was eight times higher in the least deprived districts than in the most deprived ones. Maldistribution persisted despite the growth of corporate community pharmacies. In 2012, only two provinces met the 1 per 10,000 benchmark, although all provinces achieved it when community pharmacies and clinics were combined. Experts expressed concerns that a lack of rural incentives, inappropriate licensing criteria and a shortage of pharmacy workers could undermine access to pharmaceutical services, especially in rural areas. To reduce inequity in the distribution of pharmaceutical services, new policies and legislation are needed to increase the staffing and presence of pharmacies.

  14. Assessing equity in the geographical distribution of community pharmacies in South Africa in preparation for a national health insurance scheme

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, David; Leng, Henry; Pollock, Allyson M

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate equity in the geographical distribution of community pharmacies in South Africa and assess whether regulatory reforms have furthered such equity. Methods Data on community pharmacies from the national department of health and the South African pharmacy council were used to analyse the change in community pharmacy ownership and density (number per 10 000 residents) between 1994 and 2012 in all nine provinces and 15 selected districts. In addition, the density of public clinics, alone and with community pharmacies, was calculated and compared with a national benchmark of one clinic per 10 000 residents. Interviews were conducted with nine national experts from the pharmacy sector. Findings Community pharmacies increased in number by 13% between 1994 and 2012 – less than the 25% population growth. In 2012, community pharmacy density was higher in urban provinces and was eight times higher in the least deprived districts than in the most deprived ones. Maldistribution persisted despite the growth of corporate community pharmacies. In 2012, only two provinces met the 1 per 10 000 benchmark, although all provinces achieved it when community pharmacies and clinics were combined. Experts expressed concerns that a lack of rural incentives, inappropriate licensing criteria and a shortage of pharmacy workers could undermine access to pharmaceutical services, especially in rural areas. Conclusion To reduce inequity in the distribution of pharmaceutical services, new policies and legislation are needed to increase the staffing and presence of pharmacies. PMID:25110373

  15. Stakeholders' views of service quality in community pharmacy: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    White, Lesley; Clark, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the views of a range of stakeholders regarding the effectiveness of service quality as a differentiating position for community pharmacy. Using qualitative methodology, 20 in-depth interviews were conducted with various stakeholders of the retail pharmacy market, including community pharmacists. It was found that current service levels were perceived to be variable, with a strong level of concern evident that the rhetoric of professionalism in community pharmacy is not always matched by the reality. There was disagreement regarding whether potential market entrants such as supermarkets would be capable of delivering a high quality of service and indeed whether that would even be their objective.

  16. Pharmacists' perceptions of participation in a community pharmacy-based nicotine replacement therapy distribution program.

    PubMed

    Hoch, Matthew A; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Lee, Linh; Cupp, Rebecca; Aragon, Linda; Tyree, Rachel A; Corelli, Robin L

    2012-08-01

    The community pharmacy has been proposed as an ideal location for providing smoking cessation therapy to large numbers of patients. Studies of public health initiatives providing free nicotine replacement products through telephone quitlines have found increased call volumes and cessation rates. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a program where nicotine replacement therapy starter packs were provided to patients through community pharmacies at no cost. An online survey was developed to assess community pharmacists' participation in the program, perceptions of the initiative as a whole, and perceptions of smoking cessation counseling activities. Eighty-three pharmacists working at participating pharmacies completed the survey (65% response rate). Ninety-nine percent of pharmacists provided smoking cessation counseling during the study period; the median (IQR) number of patients counseled over the initial 3.5-months of the NRT distribution program was 50 (24-100), and the median number of minutes per counseling session was five (3-7). Most (89%) agreed smoking cessation counseling was accommodated into the pharmacy work-flow. A majority (85%) agreed the community pharmacy is an ideal location for distributing free NRT products and that the program should be replicated in other pharmacies (78%). Participating pharmacists viewed the program positively and perceived it to be effective in helping patients quit smoking. In conclusion, the community pharmacy is a viable location for implementation of community-based public health initiatives related to smoking cessation.

  17. Client priorities and satisfaction with community pharmacies: the situation in Tehran.

    PubMed

    Mehralian, Gholamhossein; Rangchian, Maryam; Rasekh, Hamid Reza

    2014-08-01

    Client satisfaction is an important criterion to evaluate pharmacy services. In addition, knowledge about client satisfaction can be helpful to identify strengths and weaknesses which can be used to improve health services. The aim of this study was to assess clients' priorities and satisfaction with community pharmacy services in Tehran. This study was conducted on clients visiting community pharmacies settled in Tehran, the capital city of Iran. A cross-sectional descriptive study involving clients of community pharmacies was undertaken using a self-administrated anonymous questionnaire. Data were collected from 800 clients of 200 community pharmacies settled in 22 districts of Tehran. Clients' satisfaction with four areas including community pharmacies physical space, relationship quality, consultation quality and other dimensions of service delivery, and clients' priorities about different issues related to community pharmacies. The study showed that client satisfaction regarding the four mentioned areas (relationship quality, physical space, consultation quality and other dimensions of service delivery) was more than the average of Likert scale (cut point = 3). However, satisfaction with consultations is not much higher than the mentioned cut point. Moreover, "observing courtesy and respect" and "computerized dispensing" showed the most and the least priority to respondents, respectively. According to the findings, it seems that a wide range of corrective actions can be performed to promote the level of client satisfaction especially in case of consultations. More importantly, clients' needs and priorities should be taken into account to select and prioritize these actions.

  18. Assessment of knowledge and practice of community pharmacy personnel on diabetes mellitus management in Kathmandu district: a cross sectional descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, M; Maharjan, R; Prajapati, A; Ghimire, S; Shrestha, N; Banstola, A

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacists are the most reachable healthcare professionals to many chronically ill patients. It has been found that pharmacists see patients with diabetes up to five times more often than any other healthcare provider. Therefore, to provide quality health care to patients it is important that they have appropriate knowledge and practice on diabetes mellitus management. Thus, this study was conducted to assess the knowledge and practice of diabetes mellitus management among community pharmacy personnel involved in retail community pharmacies of Kathmandu. Three hundred and fifteen community pharmacies, selected by systematic random sampling were surveyed by using pre-validated self-administered questionnaires. The first set of questionnaire evaluated the community pharmacy personnel's diabetes knowledge based on a pre-validated 20-item questionnaire. The second set of questionnaire documented about the practice of community pharmacy personnel on diabetes mellitus management which contained 22 questions. Data was entered in EPI Data and analyzed by using SPSS version 20. This survey demonstrated that 76.5 % respondents had poor knowledge and 86.4 % had negative practice on diabetes mellitus (DM) management. Only 26.2 % respondents had good knowledge as well as good practice. 31.4 % of respondents had poor knowledge as well as poor practice on DM management. Laws and regulations regarding community pharmacy personnel need to be implemented. There should be more advanced and experiment based training. Additionally, the provision for further education curriculum in pharmacy education should be implemented which should intensively include disease and proper management. Guidelines covering diabetes care should be distributed and implemented throughout community pharmacies.

  19. Implementation of a community pharmacy-based falls prevention program.

    PubMed

    Casteel, Carri; Blalock, Susan J; Ferreri, Stefanie; Roth, Mary T; Demby, Karen B

    2011-10-01

    Falls are the leading cause of fatal and nonfatal unintentional injury among older adults in the United States. Multifaceted falls prevention programs, which have been reported to reduce the risk for falls among older adults, usually include a medication review and modification component. Based on a literature search, no randomized trials that have examined the effectiveness of this component have been published. The aim of this article was to report on a retrospective process evaluation of data from a randomized, controlled trial conducted to examine the effectiveness of a medication review intervention, delivered through community pharmacies, on the rate of falls among community-dwelling older adults. Patients were recruited through 32 pharmacies in North Carolina. Participants were community-dwelling older adults at high risk for falls based on age (≥ 65 years), number of concurrent medications (≥ 4), and medication classes (emphasis on CNS-active agents). The process evaluation measured the recruitment of patients into the study, the process through which the intervention was delivered, the extent to which patients implemented the recommendations for intervention, and the acceptance of pharmacists' recommendations by prescribing physicians. Of the 7793 patients contacted for study participation, 981 (12.6%) responded to the initial inquiry. A total of 801 (81.7%) participated in an eligibility interview, of whom 342 (42.7%) were eligible. Baseline data collection was completed in 186 of eligible patients (54.4%), who were randomly assigned to the intervention group (n = 93) or the control group (n = 93). Pharmacists delivered a medication review to 73 of the patients (78.5%) in the intervention group, with 41 recommendations for changes in medication, of which 10 (24.4%) were implemented. Of the 31 prescribing physicians contacted with pharmacists' recommendations, 14 (45.2%) responded, and 10 (32.3%) authorized the changes. Based on the findings from the

  20. Evaluation of Pharmaceutical Care Opportunities Within an Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience

    PubMed Central

    Kassam, Rosemin

    2006-01-01

    Objective To determine the nature and extent of learning opportunities presented to students during a community advanced pharmacy practice experience. Methods Learning opportunities were determined by reviewing students' portfolios. The numbers of unique learning opportunities in which students were engaged were calculated. Results While all students had ample opportunities to participate in consultations involving the assessment of new and refill prescriptions and nonprescription drugs, only 78% of students had the opportunity to engage in even 1 comprehensive pharmaceutical care consult over an 8-week period. Students' experiences in providing follow-up care, participating in a patient care project, and shadowing another healthcare professional were also limited. Conclusion Analysis of the student portfolios suggested that the learning environment did not provide students with adequate opportunities to develop pharmaceutical care competencies. PMID:17136170

  1. [Basic study to establish medication safety culture with patient-commitment style in community pharmacy: An examination from meeting reports].

    PubMed

    Onda, Mitsuko; Okuda, Noriko; Kosaka, Naohiro; Takahashi, Nobuaki; Matsuura, Masayoshi; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Yamada, Rika

    2007-12-01

    Our group conducted a Medication Safety Culture Building Drive, enlisting the cooperation of pharmacy patients to clarify obstacles and verify the effect of the measures implemented. Pharmacists at 38 community pharmacies instituted a 3-month trial period of rigorous prescription confirmation by checking filled prescriptions against the accompanying drug information (DI) in the presence of patients at pharmacy counters, whenever prescription drugs were dispensed. During the first month, 29 pharmacies reported carrying out the program with the rate of patient coverage was over 50%; while 8 others reported that rate of patient coverage was less than 50%. Factors standing in the way of checking filled prescriptions with the patients could be characterized as "physical conditions," "prescription content," or "patient attributes." The measures devised to counter these obstacles all fell within the categories of "education of patients and pharmacists," "advance arrangements made in preparation for checking," "methods of checking and nature of items checked," "checking procedure," and "DI literature." After three month, 34 pharmacies reported that the effort had been effective. During the three months, the average implementation rate (patient coverage rate) was improved from 92.5% in April to 96.5% in June (p<0.001). The specific qualitative effects listed below were among those mentioned in reports compiled from meetings. 1) Improvement of patients' and pharmacists' awareness regarding dispensing error prevention, 2) Increase in patients' interest in, and understanding of, their own prescription medications, 3) Increase in patients' understanding about the efforts and in number of patients cooperating with the effort.

  2. Measuring organizational flexibility in community pharmacy: Building the capacity to implement cognitive pharmaceutical services.

    PubMed

    Feletto, Eleonora; Wilson, Laura Kate; Roberts, Alison Sarah; Benrimoj, Shalom Isaac

    2011-03-01

    Community pharmacy is undergoing transformation with increasing pressure to build its capacity to deliver cognitive pharmaceutical services ("services"). The theoretical framework of organizational flexibility (OF) may be used to assess the capacity of community pharmacy to implement change programs and guide capacity-building initiatives. To test the applicability of an existing scale measuring OF to the industry of community pharmacy in Australia. A mail survey was used to test a preexisting scale measuring OF amended from 28 items to 20 items testing 3 underlying factors of operational, structural, and strategic flexibility in the Australian community pharmacy context. The sample was 2006 randomly-stratified community pharmacies. A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to assess the validity and reliability of the 1-factor models for each underlying construct and the full measurement model. Responses were received from a total of 395 (19.7%) community pharmacies. The 1-factor models of operational, structural, and strategic flexibility fit the data with appropriate respecification. Overall, the favorable fit of the individual factor constructs suggested that the multiple-factor measurement model should be tested. However, this model did not yield an interpretable response. Operational flexibility covaried negatively to the other factors, whereas structural and strategic flexibility shared covariance. Despite this, the results highlighting the individual factor fit suggest the constructs have application to pharmacy. The individual OF constructs were useful in the development and initial testing of a scale adapted for community pharmacy. When further developed and validated, the scale could be used to identify group of pharmacies that require individualized assistance to build capacity and integrate services and other new endeavors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Analysis of possibilities of pharmaceutical care elements implementation in Lithuanian community pharmacies].

    PubMed

    Skyrius, Vaidas; Radziūnas, Raimondas; Barsteigiene, Zita; Baranauskas, Algirdas; Grincevicius, Jonas

    2003-01-01

    Objective of this survey--possibilities of implementation of pharmaceutical care elements in daily work of Lithuanian community pharmacies. All pharmacists have to ensure the best quality of pharmaceutical services which they render to their patients. Pharmacists also must improve the quality of pharmaceutical services, according to recommendations of pharmaceutical care. For a start they should implement at least separate elements of pharmaceutical care if they are going to provide pharmaceutical care services in their community pharmacies in the future. That's why this survey was designed to clarify the possibilities of implementation of separate pharmaceutical care elements in to daily work of community pharmacies. Material of this survey--pharmaceutical services rendered in Lithuanian community pharmacies. This survey has an analytical character and was accomplished with questionnaire. Chiefs of community pharmacies were asked to complete of questionnaire. We gave 150 questionnaires and received answers from 128 pharmacists. After gathered data analysis we found out that only 2% of pharmacies are almost prepared and well equipped for provision of pharmaceutical care services; however, they still have to rearrange their facilities. Lithuanian community pharmacies are not ready to work according to recommendations of pharmaceutical care today. Some elements of pharmaceutical care (such as blood pressure measurement, provision of written information for patient, etc.) are already implemented by almost all Lithuanian community pharmacies. If pharmacists want to provide pharmaceutical care services they should create a database of patient medication records in pharmacy. Unfortunately Lithuanian pharmacists do not have such databases today. Only with such databases there is a possibility to render pharmaceutical services of the best quality.

  4. Barriers to promote cardiovascular health in community pharmacies: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Perales, María Del Mar; Lasheras, Berta; Beitia, Guadalupe; Beltrán, Idoia; Marcos, Beatriz; Núñez-Córdoba, Jorge M

    2017-06-01

    Community pharmacists play an important role in the provision of health promotion services, and community pharmacies are considered as a potentially ideal site for cardiovascular health promotion. Information based on a systematic review of barriers to promoting cardiovascular health in community pharmacy is currently lacking. We have sought to identify the most important barriers to cardiovascular health promotion in the community pharmacy. We have systematically searched PubMed and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts for a period of 15 years from 1 April 1998 to 1 April 2013, contacted subject experts and hand-searched bibliographies. We have included peer-reviewed articles, with English abstracts in the analysis, if they reported community pharmacists' perceptions of the barriers to cardiovascular health promotion activities in a community pharmacy setting. Two reviewers have independently extracted study characteristics and data. We identified 24 studies that satisfy the eligibility criteria. The main barriers to cardiovascular health promotion in the community pharmacy included pharmacist-related factors; practice site factors; financial factors; legal factors; and patient-related factors. This review will help to provide reliable evidence for health promotion practitioners of the barriers to promoting cardiovascular health in the community pharmacy setting. This knowledge is valuable for the improvement of cardiovascular health promotion in this setting and guiding future research. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Benefits and tensions in delivering public health in community pharmacies - a qualitative study of healthy living pharmacy staff champions.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Richard J; Tsoneva, Jo

    2017-10-01

    Healthy Living Pharmacies (HLP) were introduced in the United Kingdom (UK) in a further attempt to deliver public health benefits in community pharmacy settings. Central to the initiative are staff trained as Healthy Living Champions (HLC) and this study sought to explore HLC perceptions of positive and negative aspect of their work and the wider scheme. A qualitative study was undertaken with a purposive sample of HLCs working in pathfinder HCPs in the Sheffield area in 2014. Participants were recruited by email to either a focus group (n = 7) held at a training event or later semi-structured one-to-one interviews in pharmacies (n = 6). Four stages of interpretative phenomenological analysis were used to code and identify themes. Four main themes emerged relating to the positive workforce development impact HLPs had upon HLCs themselves and on perceived customer and patient engagement and benefits. Tensions were identified with existing commercial business demands and negative views overall of the pharmacy setting with a perceived lack of not only integration with other services but also awareness among the public and health care staff. HLCs felt empowered and more confident in initiating conversation about health issues with patients, but identified barriers relating to workload, a lack of time to perform their role, isolation, tensions with non-HLC staff and logistical barriers such as poor Internet access. Delivering public health activities through the HLC role in UK pharmacies is associated with several perceived benefits for different stakeholders, but may be threatened by well recognised barriers in UK pharmacies related to the commercial setting. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  6. "Click for Closer Care": A Content Analysis of Community Pharmacy Websites in Four Countries.

    PubMed

    Zwier, Sandra

    2017-06-14

    Combinations of professional and commercial communication are typically very controversial, particularly in health care communication on the Internet. Websites of licensed community pharmacies on the other hand tend to raise remarkably little controversy, although they typically contain controversial combinations of clinical and commercial services previously unprecedented in professional health care communication. The aim of this study was to fill the void of knowledge about the combination of clinical and commercial services presented on the websites of licensed community pharmacies. A content analysis of clinical and commercial services presented in a random sample of 200 licensed community pharmacy websites from Great Britain, the Netherlands, the Canadian provinces British Columbia and Manitoba, and the Australian states New South Wales and Western Australia was conducted. The top five specific services mentioned on the community pharmacy websites were cosmetic products (126/200, 63.0%), medication refill request options (124/200, 62.0%), over-the-counter medicine (115/200, 57.5%), complementary and alternative medicine (107/200, 53.5%), and home medical aids (98/200, 49.0%). On average, 72.5% (145/200) of the community pharmacy websites across the 4 countries included a combination of clinical and commercial services. A combination of clinical and commercial services was more often present on chain pharmacy websites (120/147, 82.8%) than single pharmacy websites (25/53, 47%; P<.001), and most often on the Canadian community pharmacy websites, followed by the Australian, British, and Dutch pharmacy websites, respectively (P<.02). Furthermore, more than half of the pharmacies' homepages contained a combination of clinical and commercial images (107/200, 53.5%), and almost half of the homepage menus contained a combination of clinical and commercial items (99/200, 49.5%). The latter were, again, more common on chain pharmacy than single pharmacy websites (P<.001

  7. Managing Minor Ailments; The Public's Preferences for Attributes of Community Pharmacies. A Discrete Choice Experiment.

    PubMed

    Porteous, Terry; Ryan, Mandy; Bond, Christine; Watson, Margaret; Watson, Verity

    2016-01-01

    Demand for health services continues to rise. Greater use of community pharmacy services instead of medical services for minor ailments could help relieve pressure on healthcare providers in high-cost settings. Community pharmacies are recognised sources of treatment and advice for people wishing to manage these ailments. However, increasing the public's use of pharmacy services may depend on attributes of pharmacies and their staff. This study aimed to determine the general public's relative preferences for community pharmacy attributes using a discrete choice experiment (DCE). A UK-wide DCE survey of the general public was conducted using face-to-face computer-assisted personal interviews. Attributes and levels for the DCE were informed by a literature review and a cohort study of community pharmacy customers. The context for the experiment was a minor ailment scenario describing flu-like symptoms. The DCE choice sets described two hypothetical community pharmacy services; respondents were asked to choose which (if either) of the two pharmacies they would prefer to help them manage symptoms. Data from 1,049 interviews were analysed using an error components logit model. Willingness to pay (WTP), a monetary measure of benefit, was estimated for the different attribute levels. When seeking help or treatment for flu-like symptoms, respondents most valued a pharmacy service that would improve their understanding and management of symptoms (WTP = £6.28), provided by staff who are trained (WTP (pharmacist) = £2.63: WTP(trained assistant) = £3.22), friendly and approachable (WTP = £3.38). Waiting time, pharmacy location and availability of parking also contributed to respondents' preferences. WTP for a service comprising the best possible combination of attributes and levels was calculated as £55.43. Attributes of a community pharmacy and its staff may influence people's decisions about which pharmacy they would visit to access treatment and advice for minor

  8. The fate of pediatric prescriptions in community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Condren, Michelle E; Desselle, Shane P

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe behaviors of community pharmacists related to pediatric prescriptions and examine the effect of demographic and situational factors on behaviors and confidence in performing recommended activities when dispensing medications for pediatric patients. The study employed a self-administered survey of community pharmacists in a regional chain. One intervention group attended a live continuing education session. A second intervention group received a dosing guide in the mail. One month after the intervention, both intervention groups and a control group completed the survey. Sixty pharmacists participated, for a response rate of 61%. Obtaining a weight for a pediatric prescription was reported as difficult by participants, and 60% rarely obtained a weight if one was not provided. Only 32% of participants reported calculating a dose when the weight was available. The majority (92%) of participants stated they were confident in calculating a dose and detecting a dosing error for a child. Only the pharmacist's perception of the organizational culture correlated with their behaviors and level of confidence toward performing the activities surveyed (P < 0.005). Because of the small number of participants in the continuing education program, the impact of the intervention was unable to be measured. Pharmacists rarely check the accuracy of a weight-based dose for pediatric prescriptions, although they are confident in their ability to do so. Integrating this activity into the pharmacist's workflow and pharmacy culture is critical to reducing pediatric medication errors and promoting patient safety.

  9. The conflict between ethics and business in community pharmacy: what about patient counseling?

    PubMed

    Resnik, D B; Ranelli, P L; Resnik, S P

    2000-11-01

    Patient counseling is a cornerstone of ethical pharmacy practice and high quality pharmaceutical care. Counseling promotes patient compliance with prescription regimens and prevents dangerous drug interactions and medication errors. Counseling also promotes informed consent and protects pharmacists against legal risks. However, economic, social, and technological changes in pharmacy practice often force community pharmacists to choose between their professional obligations to counsel patients and business objectives. State and federal legislatures have enacted laws that require pharmacists to counsel patients, but these laws have had mixed results. This essay argues that community pharmacy's patient counseling conundrum can be solved through additional moral education persuasion, not through additional legal mandates.

  10. Community pharmacy-based point-of-care testing: A case study of pharmacist-physician collaborative working relationships.

    PubMed

    Bacci, Jennifer L; Klepser, Donald; Tilley, Heather; Smith, Jaclyn K; Klepser, Michael E

    2017-01-03

    Building collaborative working relationships (CWRs) with physicians or other prescribers is an important step for community pharmacists in establishing a collaborative practice agreement (CPA). This case study describes the individual, context, and exchange factors that drive pharmacist-physician CWR development for community pharmacy-based point-of-care (POC) testing. Two physicians who had entered in a CPA with community pharmacists to provide POC testing were surveyed and interviewed. High scores on the pharmacist-physician collaborative index indicated a high level of collaboration between the physicians and the pharmacist who initiated the relationship. Trust was established through the physicians' personal relationships with the pharmacist or due to the community pharmacy organization's strong reputation. The physicians' individual perceptions of community pharmacy-based POC testing affected their CWRs and willingness to establish a CPA. These findings suggest that exchange characteristics remain significant factors in CWR development. Individual factors may also contribute to physicians' willingness to advance their CWR to include a CPA for POC testing.

  11. Social and economic value of Portuguese community pharmacies in health care.

    PubMed

    Félix, Jorge; Ferreira, Diana; Afonso-Silva, Marta; Gomes, Marta Vargas; Ferreira, César; Vandewalle, Björn; Marques, Sara; Mota, Melina; Costa, Suzete; Cary, Maria; Teixeira, Inês; Paulino, Ema; Macedo, Bruno; Barbosa, Carlos Maurício

    2017-08-29

    Community pharmacies are major contributors to health care systems across the world. Several studies have been conducted to evaluate community pharmacies services in health care. The purpose of this study was to estimate the social and economic benefits of current and potential future community pharmacies services provided by pharmacists in health care in Portugal. The social and economic value of community pharmacies services was estimated through a decision-model. Model inputs included effectiveness data, quality of life (QoL) and health resource consumption, obtained though literature review and adapted to Portuguese reality by an expert panel. The estimated economic value was the result of non-remunerated pharmaceutical services plus health resource consumption potentially avoided. Social and economic value of community pharmacies services derives from the comparison of two scenarios: "with service" versus "without service". It is estimated that current community pharmacies services in Portugal provide a gain in QoL of 8.3% and an economic value of 879.6 million euros (M€), including 342.1 M€ in non-remunerated pharmaceutical services and 448.1 M€ in avoided expense with health resource consumption. Potential future community pharmacies services may provide an additional increase of 6.9% in QoL and be associated with an economic value of 144.8 M€: 120.3 M€ in non-remunerated services and 24.5 M€ in potential savings with health resource consumption. Community pharmacies services provide considerable benefit in QoL and economic value. An increase range of services including a greater integration in primary and secondary care, among other transversal services, may add further social and economic value to the society.

  12. Investigating influences on current community pharmacy practice at micro, meso, and macro levels.

    PubMed

    Hermansyah, Andi; Sainsbury, Erica; Krass, Ines

    The nature of Australian community pharmacy is continually evolving, raising the need to explore the current situation in order to understand the potential impact of any changes. Although community pharmacy has the potential to play a greater role in health care, it is currently not meeting this potential. To investigate the nature of the contemporary practice of community pharmacy in Australia and examine the potential missed opportunities for role expansion in health care. In-depth semi-structured interviews with a wide-range of key stakeholders within and beyond community pharmacy circles were conducted. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed for emerging themes. Twenty-seven key informants across Eastern half of Australia were interviewed between December 2014 and August 2015. Several key elements of the current situation representing the social, economic and policy context of community pharmacy have been identified. These elements operate interdependently, influence micro, meso and macro levels of community pharmacy operation and are changing in the current climate. Community pharmacy has untapped potential in primary health care, but it has been slow to change to meet opportunities available in the current situation. As the current situation is complex, interrelated and dynamic with often unintended and unpredictable consequences, this paper suggests that policy makers to consider the micro, meso and macro levels of community pharmacy operation when making significant policy changes. The framework proposed in this study can be a helpful tool to analyze the processes operating at these three levels and their influences on practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Community pharmacists’ attitudes toward dispensing errors at community pharmacy setting in Central Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Arifi, Mohamed N.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The main objective of this study was to survey pharmacists’ attitudes toward dispensing errors in community pharmacy settings in Saudi Arabia. Methods A cross-sectional survey of community pharmacists in Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia was conducted over a period of 6 months from March through September 2012. A stratified random sample of eight hundred registered pharmacy practitioners was collected all over Riyadh region. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version19.0 for windows (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois). Results The response rate was almost 82%. The majority of the respondents are young adults (90.2%). The median for years of registration of respondent pharmacists was 9 years (range 1–37 years). About 62% (407) of the respondents have a positive response while only 37.8% (n = 248) have a negative response in this respect. The major factors identified were pharmacist assistant (82.2%) and high workload (72.5%). The most appreciated factors that help reducing dispensing errors are improving doctors’ hand writing and reducing work load of the pharmacist (82.9% and 82.8% respectively), having drug names that are distinctive (76.1%) and having more than one pharmacist in duty (75.5%). Conclusion In conclusion, majority of community pharmacists indicated that the risk of dispensing errors was increasing and most of them were aware of dispensing errors. It is obvious from the study results that dispensing errors is a big concern for community pharmacy practice in Saudi Arabia. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the professional organizations and Pharmacy Boards in Saudi Arabia to determine standards for the profession. PMID:25061403

  14. An Opportunity Revisited: Research in Community Pharmacy Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penna, Richard P.

    1987-01-01

    Research in ambulatory pharmacy is needed because of changes in its organizational financing and patient population. With health care payers seeking to move patients out of hospitals and into less costly care environments, pharmacy must help discover how to care for this growing patient population effectively and efficiently. (MSE)

  15. Requests Made in Community Pharmacies: Implications for Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, G. Dwaine; Linn, Lawrence S.

    1978-01-01

    A study that sought to identify and describe the nature and content of questions asked by pharmacy patrons at the prescription counter is reported. The results indicate that the pharmacy is an important area in primary and self-health care, and that students should be trained in methods of responding and educating in one-to-one situations. (JMD)

  16. Assessment of disease management of insomnia at community pharmacies through simulated visits in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Azhar; Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham; Malik, Madeeha

    2013-10-01

    The study aimed to document the state of insomnia management at community pharmacies in Pakistan. A cross-sectional study was conducted at randomly selected 371 pharmacies in three cities of Pakistan. Simulated patient visits were performed to collect information on case management of insomnia in terms of history taking and patient counseling at community pharmacies. The data was coded, entered and analyzed by using SPSS Version 16. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann Whitney tests (p<0.05) were performed to find out differences. The patients were mainly handled by salesman 83.8% (n=311), by pharmacist 3.5% (n=13) and pharmacy assistants 12.7% (n=47). The mean dispensing time was 1.11 minutes (SD=5.61) with the range of 0.5 - 6 minutes. Of the 371 simulated patients who visited the pharmacies, 72.8% (n=270) subjects were given medicines and 24.3% (n=90) subjects were referred to the doctor for treatment of insomnia. 61.8% (n=193) of the subjects were given benzodiazepines, 35.6% (n=111) antihistamines and 2.6% (n=8) NSAIDs at community pharmacies in the three cities. The mean cost of treatment in case of insomnia was PKR12.7 (SD=10.13, median=10). The disease management of insomnia by community pharmacies in Pakistan is not appropriate. The overall process of history taking, medication counselling and referral practices at community pharmacies either located in rural or urban setting and irrespective of the provider type and location of pharmacies, in the three cities is limited.

  17. E-prescribing: Characterization of Patient Safety Hazards in Community Pharmacies Using a Sociotechnical Systems Approach

    PubMed Central

    Chui, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To characterize safety hazards related to e-prescribing in community pharmacies. Methods The Sociotechnical Systems (STS) framework was used to investigate the e-prescribing technology interface in community pharmacies by taking into consideration the social, technical and environmental work elements of a user’s interaction with technology. This study focused specifically on aspects of the social subsystem. Study Design and Setting The study employed a cross-sectional qualitative design and was conducted in seven community pharmacies in Wisconsin. Direct observations, think aloud protocols, and group interviews were conducted with 14 pharmacists and 16 technicians, and audio-recorded. Recordings were transcribed and subjected to thematic content analysis guided by the sociotechnical systems theoretical framework. Results Three major themes that may increase the potential for medication errors with e-prescribing were identified and described. The three themes included: (1) increased cognitive burden on pharmacy staff, such as having to memorize parts of e-prescriptions or having to perform dosage calculations mentally; (2) interruptions during the e-prescription dispensing process; and (3) communication issues with prescribers, patients, and among pharmacy staff. Pharmacy staff reported these consequences of e-prescribing increased the likelihood of medication errors. Conclusions This study is the first of its kind to identify patient safety risks related to e-prescribing in community pharmacies using a sociotechnical systems framework. The findings shed light on potential interventions that may enhance patient safety in pharmacies and facilitate improved e-prescribing use. Future studies should confirm patient safety hazards reported and identify ways to utilize e-prescribing effectively and safely in community pharmacies. PMID:23708439

  18. e-Prescribing: characterisation of patient safety hazards in community pharmacies using a sociotechnical systems approach.

    PubMed

    Odukoya, Olufunmilola K; Chui, Michelle A

    2013-10-01

    To characterise the safety hazards related to e-prescribing in community pharmacies. The sociotechnical systems framework was used to investigate the e-prescribing technology interface in community pharmacies by taking into consideration the social, technical and environmental work elements of a user's interaction with technology. This study focused specifically on aspects of the social subsystem. The study employed a cross-sectional qualitative design and was conducted in seven community pharmacies in Wisconsin. Direct observations, think aloud protocols and group interviews were conducted with 14 pharmacists and 16 technicians, and audio recorded. Recordings were transcribed and subjected to thematic content analysis guided by the sociotechnical systems' theoretical framework. Three major themes that may increase the potential for medication errors with e-prescribing were identified and described. The three themes included: (1) increased cognitive burden on pharmacy staff, such as having to memorise parts of e-prescriptions or having to perform dosage calculations mentally; (2) interruptions during the e-prescription dispensing process; and (3) communication issues with prescribers, patients and among pharmacy staff. Pharmacy staff reported these consequences of e-prescribing increased the likelihood of medication errors. This study is the first of its kind to identify patient safety risks related to e-prescribing in community pharmacies using a sociotechnical systems framework. The findings shed light on potential interventions that may enhance patient safety in pharmacies and facilitate improved e-prescribing use. Future studies should confirm patient safety hazards reported and identify ways to use e-prescribing effectively and safely in community pharmacies.

  19. Australian mental health consumers and carers expect more health management information from community pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Fejzic, Jasmina; Knox, Kathy; Hattingh, Hendrika Laetitia; Mey, Amary; McConnell, Denise; Wheeler, Amanda J

    2017-03-16

    To identify the health management information needs of Australian mental health consumers and carers and explore the role of community pharmacy in meeting those needs. Interviews and focus groups were conducted with a purposive convenience sample of 74 mental health consumers and carers across three Australian states, representing metropolitan, rural and remote settings, including those with culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds. Recruitment and interviews continued until data saturation was reached. Interviews and group discussions were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim, and data were managed using NVivo(®) software. A 'coding framework' or set of themes was created, and all transcripts were coded accordingly. Thematic analysis was informed by a general inductive approach. Participants had unmet needs for information from community pharmacy. They expressed the requirement for receiving easy-to-understand, relevant medication information about mental health management from community pharmacy staff, communicated in a respectful way, with clear and comprehensive medication labelling, while respecting consumer privacy. The information needs of mental health consumers and carers remain largely unmet within Australian community pharmacy. This was particularly evident regarding the provision of information about adverse effects of medicines. The overall perceived lack of information is experienced as disempowering. Australian community pharmacy is well placed to respond to the unmet demand for information needs of mental health consumers and carers. While many community pharmacies are embracing the principles of patient-centred care, there is an opportunity to optimise the quality of care provided to mental health consumers and carers. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  20. “Click for Closer Care”: A Content Analysis of Community Pharmacy Websites in Four Countries

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background Combinations of professional and commercial communication are typically very controversial, particularly in health care communication on the Internet. Websites of licensed community pharmacies on the other hand tend to raise remarkably little controversy, although they typically contain controversial combinations of clinical and commercial services previously unprecedented in professional health care communication. Objective The aim of this study was to fill the void of knowledge about the combination of clinical and commercial services presented on the websites of licensed community pharmacies. Methods A content analysis of clinical and commercial services presented in a random sample of 200 licensed community pharmacy websites from Great Britain, the Netherlands, the Canadian provinces British Columbia and Manitoba, and the Australian states New South Wales and Western Australia was conducted. Results The top five specific services mentioned on the community pharmacy websites were cosmetic products (126/200, 63.0%), medication refill request options (124/200, 62.0%), over-the-counter medicine (115/200, 57.5%), complementary and alternative medicine (107/200, 53.5%), and home medical aids (98/200, 49.0%). On average, 72.5% (145/200) of the community pharmacy websites across the 4 countries included a combination of clinical and commercial services. A combination of clinical and commercial services was more often present on chain pharmacy websites (120/147, 82.8%) than single pharmacy websites (25/53, 47%; P<.001), and most often on the Canadian community pharmacy websites, followed by the Australian, British, and Dutch pharmacy websites, respectively (P<.02). Furthermore, more than half of the pharmacies’ homepages contained a combination of clinical and commercial images (107/200, 53.5%), and almost half of the homepage menus contained a combination of clinical and commercial items (99/200, 49.5%). The latter were, again, more common on chain

  1. Quality indicators for pharmaceutical care: a comprehensive set with national scores for Dutch community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Teichert, Martina; Schoenmakers, Tim; Kylstra, Nico; Mosk, Berend; Bouvy, Marcel L; van de Vaart, Frans; De Smet, Peter A G M; Wensing, Michel

    2016-08-01

    Background The quality of pharmaceutical care in community pharmacies in the Netherlands has been assessed annually since 2008. The initial set has been further developed with pharmacists and patient organizations, the healthcare inspectorate, the government and health insurance companies. The set over 2012 was the first set of quality indicators for community pharmacies which was validated and supported by all major stakeholders. The aims of this study were to describe the validated set of quality indicators for community pharmacies and to report their scores over 2012. In subanalyses the score development over 5 years was described for those indicators, that have been surveyed before and remained unchanged. Methods Community pharmacists in the Netherlands were invited in 2013 to provide information for the set of 2012. Quality indicators were mapped by categories relevant for pharmaceutical care and defined for structures, processes and dispensing outcomes. Scores for categorically-measured quality indicators were presented as the percentage of pharmacies reporting the presence of a quality aspect. For numerical quality indicators, the mean of all reported scores was expressed. In subanalyses for those indicators that had been questioned previously, scores were collected from earlier measurements for pharmacies providing their scores in 2012. Multilevel analysis was used to assess the consistency of scores within one pharmacy over time by the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Results For the set in 2012, 1739 Dutch community pharmacies (88 % of the total) provided information for 66 quality indicators in 10 categories. Indicator scores on the presence of quality structures showed relatively high quality levels. Scores for processes and dispensing outcomes were lower. Subanalyses showed that overall indicators scores improved within pharmacies, but this development differed between pharmacies. Conclusions A set of validated quality indicators provided

  2. OA53 "dementia friendly pharmacies" a community based health promotion project.

    PubMed

    Heimerl, Katharina; Plunger, Petra; Tatzer, Verena; Reitinger, Elisabeth

    2015-04-01

    Inspired by the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion, which is a major point of reference also for the "Compassionate Communities", we would like to propose that communities consolidate various settings like schools, workplaces, and health care organisations like community pharmacies, all of which might be included in a compassionate communities approach. We aim at enabling community pharmacies to offer informal consulting and support for people with dementia and their informal caregivers. Furthermore we want to support pharmacies to reach out in the community through various activities. By this means the project seeks to contribute to de-stigmatising dementia. The project is based on the approach "Participatory Health Research" (Hockley, Froggatt, Heimerl 2013; Wright et al . 2010). The core elements of the approach are participation, action and reflection. Approximately 40 staff (almost exclusively women) in 18 community pharmacies actively participates in the project, i.e. needs assessment, interactive workshops, practice projects and evaluation. People with dementia and their informal care givers are included in the needs assessment and in different steps of the programme. Community pharmacy staff raised several issues, closely related to communication, counselling and providing advice in a community pharmacy setting: They believe further development of professional practice to be important, since dementia care will become a more prominent issue for the community pharmacy. Moreover, a high frequency of contact with people living with dementia and their caregivers was reported by the majority of staff. Professional competencies related to dementia care are a key issue, and community pharmacy personnel viewed their practice with a critical eye: Communicating with disoriented persons poses some challenges, as does communicating with caregivers. In the still ongoing project the raised issues are being dealt with in practice projects that are performed by the

  3. Community Pharmacists’ Views and Practices Regarding Natural Health Products Sold in Community Pharmacies

    PubMed Central

    Necyk, Candace

    2016-01-01

    Background Reports of regulatory and evidentiary gaps have raised concerns about the marketing and use of natural health products (NHPs). The majority of NHPs offered for sale are purchased at a community pharmacy and pharmacists are “front-line” health professionals involved in the marketing and provision of NHPs. To date, the involvement of pharmacists in pharmacy care involving NHPs and the degree to which concerns over the safety, efficacy, marketing and regulation of NHPs are addressed in pharmacy care in Canada have not been studied. Methods Using Qualtrics, a web-based data collection and analysis software, and a study instrument made up of fifteen (15) open-ended, closed and rating scale questions, we surveyed the attitudes and practices of 403 community pharmacists in the Canadian province of Alberta regarding NHPs offered for sale in community pharmacies. Results The majority of pharmacists surveyed (276; 68%) recommend NHPs to clients sometimes to very often. Vitamin D, calcium, multivitamins, prenatal vitamins, probiotics and fish oil and omega-3 fatty acids were the most frequently recommended NHPs. The most common indications for which NHPs are recommended include bone and musculoskeletal disorders, maintenance of general health, gastrointestinal disorders and pregnancy. Review articles published in the Pharmacist’s Letter and Canadian Pharmacists Journal were the primary basis for recommending NHPs. The majority of pharmacists surveyed (339; 84%) recommend the use of NHPs concurrently with conventional drugs, while a significant number and proportion (125; 31%) recommend alternative use. Pharmacists in the study overwhelmingly reported providing counselling on NHPs to clients based on information obtained mainly from the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database. Conclusions The study findings indicate a high prevalence of pharmacy care relating to NHPs among study participants. Although pharmacists’ practices around NHPs are consistent with

  4. Community Pharmacists' Views and Practices Regarding Natural Health Products Sold in Community Pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Ogbogu, Ubaka; Necyk, Candace

    Reports of regulatory and evidentiary gaps have raised concerns about the marketing and use of natural health products (NHPs). The majority of NHPs offered for sale are purchased at a community pharmacy and pharmacists are "front-line" health professionals involved in the marketing and provision of NHPs. To date, the involvement of pharmacists in pharmacy care involving NHPs and the degree to which concerns over the safety, efficacy, marketing and regulation of NHPs are addressed in pharmacy care in Canada have not been studied. Using Qualtrics, a web-based data collection and analysis software, and a study instrument made up of fifteen (15) open-ended, closed and rating scale questions, we surveyed the attitudes and practices of 403 community pharmacists in the Canadian province of Alberta regarding NHPs offered for sale in community pharmacies. The majority of pharmacists surveyed (276; 68%) recommend NHPs to clients sometimes to very often. Vitamin D, calcium, multivitamins, prenatal vitamins, probiotics and fish oil and omega-3 fatty acids were the most frequently recommended NHPs. The most common indications for which NHPs are recommended include bone and musculoskeletal disorders, maintenance of general health, gastrointestinal disorders and pregnancy. Review articles published in the Pharmacist's Letter and Canadian Pharmacists Journal were the primary basis for recommending NHPs. The majority of pharmacists surveyed (339; 84%) recommend the use of NHPs concurrently with conventional drugs, while a significant number and proportion (125; 31%) recommend alternative use. Pharmacists in the study overwhelmingly reported providing counselling on NHPs to clients based on information obtained mainly from the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database. The study findings indicate a high prevalence of pharmacy care relating to NHPs among study participants. Although pharmacists' practices around NHPs are consistent with the existing licensing framework, we found some

  5. Barriers and facilitators to recovering from e-prescribing errors in community pharmacies

    PubMed Central

    Odukoya, Olufunmilola K.; Stone, Jamie A.; Chui, Michelle A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore barriers and facilitators to recovery from e-prescribing errors in community pharmacies and to explore practical solutions for work system redesign to ensure successful recovery from errors. Design Cross-sectional qualitative design using direct observations, interviews, and focus groups. Setting Five community pharmacies in Wisconsin. Participants 13 pharmacists and 14 pharmacy technicians. Interventions Observational field notes and transcribed interviews and focus groups were subjected to thematic analysis guided by the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety (SEIPS) work system and patient safety model. Main Outcome Measures Barriers and facilitators to recovering from e-prescription errors in community pharmacies. Results Organizational factors, such as communication, training, teamwork, and staffing levels, play an important role in recovering from e-prescription errors. Other factors that could positively or negatively affect recovery of e-prescription errors include level of experience, knowledge of the pharmacy personnel, availability or usability of tools and technology, interruptions and time pressure when performing tasks, and noise in the physical environment. Conclusion The SEIPS model sheds light on key factors that may influence recovery from eprescribing errors in pharmacies, including the environment, teamwork, communication, technology, tasks, and other organizational variables. To be successful in recovering from eprescribing errors, pharmacies must provide the appropriate working conditions that support recovery from errors. PMID:25539495

  6. Barriers and facilitators to recovering from e-prescribing errors in community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Odukoya, Olufunmilola K; Stone, Jamie A; Chui, Michelle A

    2015-01-01

    To explore barriers and facilitators to recovery from e-prescribing errors in community pharmacies and to explore practical solutions for work system redesign to ensure successful recovery from errors. Cross-sectional qualitative design using direct observations, interviews, and focus groups. Five community pharmacies in Wisconsin. 13 pharmacists and 14 pharmacy technicians. Observational field notes and transcribed interviews and focus groups were subjected to thematic analysis guided by the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety (SEIPS) work system and patient safety model. Barriers and facilitators to recovering from e-prescription errors in community pharmacies. Organizational factors, such as communication, training, teamwork, and staffing levels, play an important role in recovering from e-prescription errors. Other factors that could positively or negatively affect recovery of e-prescription errors include level of experience, knowledge of the pharmacy personnel, availability or usability of tools and technology, interruptions and time pressure when performing tasks, and noise in the physical environment. The SEIPS model sheds light on key factors that may influence recovery from e-prescribing errors in pharmacies, including the environment, teamwork, communication, technology, tasks, and other organizational variables. To be successful in recovering from e-prescribing errors, pharmacies must provide the appropriate working conditions that support recovery from errors.

  7. Community pharmacy and the extended community pharmacist practice roles: The UAE experiences.

    PubMed

    Sadek, Mirai Mourad; Elnour, Asim Ahmed; Al Kalbani, Naama M S; Bhagavathula, Akshaya Srikanth; Baraka, Mohamed A; Aziz, Alaa Mohammed Abdul; Shehab, Abdulla

    2016-09-01

    Background: The pharmaceutical care and 'extended' roles are still not practiced optimally by community pharmacists. Several studies have discussed the practice of community pharmacy in the UAE and have shown that most community pharmacists only counsel patients. However, UAE, has taken initiatives to allow and prepare community pharmacists to practice 'extended' roles. Aim of the review: The aim was to review the current roles of community pharmacists in Abu Dhabi Emirate, United Arab Emirates (UAE). Objective: The objective was to encourage community pharmacists toward extending their practice roles. Methods: In 2010, Health Authority Abu Dhabi (HAAD) surveyed community pharmacists, using an online questionnaire, on their preferences toward extending their counseling roles and their opinion of the greatest challenge facing the extension of their counseling roles. Results: Following this survey, several programs have been developed to prepare community pharmacists to undertake these extended counseling roles. In addition to that, HAAD redefined the scope of pharmacist roles to include some extended/enhanced roles. Abu Dhabi Health Services (SEHA) mission is to ensure reliable excellence in healthcare. It has put clear plans to achieve this; these include increasing focus on public health matters, developing and monitoring evidence-based clinical policies, training health professionals to comply with international standards to deliver world-class quality care, among others. Prior to making further plans to extend community pharmacists' roles, and to ensure the success of these plans, it is imperative to establish the views of community pharmacists in Abu Dhabi on practicing extended roles and to gain understanding and information on what pharmacists see as preferred change strategies or facilitators to change. Conclusions: In an attempt to adapt to the changes occurring and to the growing needs of patients and to maximize the utilization of community pharmacists

  8. Health literacy among consumers in community pharmacy: perceptions of pharmacy staff.

    PubMed

    Kairuz, Therese E; Bellamy, Kim M; Lord, Elisabeth; Ostini, Remo; Emmerton, Lynne M

    2015-10-01

    Low health literacy has important consequences for health status, medication adherence and use of health services. There is little insight from the perspective of pharmacy staff into how they identify the information needs of consumers and particularly the signals and risk factors of limited health literacy that they encounter in their day-to-day communication with consumers. To investigate factors impacting on consumer health literacy, from the perspective of pharmacy staff. The research comprised semi-structured interviews conducted in a convenience sample of pharmacies in the south-east region of Queensland, Australia. Eleven pharmacists and nine pharmacy assistants agreed to participate. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Initial coding of the anonymized transcripts was performed using NVivo(®). Codes were analysed into overarching themes and subthemes, which were then re-named and refined through consensus discussion. Three overarching themes were identified from the coding process: complexity of the health system, clarity of information, and dialogue among consumers and health-care professionals. Two of the themes were system related, namely the health system and pharmacy labels; the health literacy issues included lack of clarity, complexity and misunderstanding. The third theme was related to communication. Complexity of the health system, clarity of information and dialogue among consumers and health-care professionals were identified as factors associated with consumers' health literacy. We call for increased engagement between pharmacy staff and consumers with improved focus on areas of potential confusion, such as medicine labels and navigation of the health system, aiming to minimize negative consequences of limited health literacy and optimize patient health outcomes. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Journal clubs during advanced pharmacy practice experiences to teach literature-evaluation skills.

    PubMed

    Arif, Sally A; Gim, Suzanna; Nogid, Anna; Shah, Bupendra

    2012-06-18

    To determine pharmacy students' attitudes and academic performance related to journal club during 2 advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs). Fourth-year pharmacy students were required to complete 3 journal club assignments during drug information and internal medicine APPEs. A majority (91.3%) of the 105 students who responded to a 21-item survey instrument indicated that journal club assignments during the drug-information APPE were valuable to their understanding of research design and statistics. Students who completed the drug-information APPE before the internal medicine APPE scored higher on their understanding of the strengths and weaknesses and the clinical relevance of studies and had a higher learning slope (p = 0.01) than did students who completed the internal medicine APPE first. Incorporating journal clubs into APPEs is an effective means of teaching literature-evaluation skills to pharmacy students.

  10. Do remote community telepharmacies have higher medication error rates than traditional community pharmacies? Evidence from the North Dakota Telepharmacy Project.

    PubMed

    Friesner, Daniel L; Scott, David M; Rathke, Ann M; Peterson, Charles D; Anderson, Howard C

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the differences in medication dispensing errors between remote telepharmacy sites (pharmacist not physically present) and standard community pharmacy sites (pharmacist physically present and no telepharmacy technology; comparison group). Pilot, cross-sectional, comparison study. North Dakota from January 2005 to September 2008. Pharmacy staff at 14 remote telepharmacy sites and 8 comparison community pharmacies. The Pharmacy Quality Commitment (PQC) reporting system was incorporated into the North Dakota Telepharmacy Project. A session was conducted to train pharmacists and technicians on use of the PQC system. A quality-related event (QRE) was defined as either a near miss (i.e., mistake caught before reaching patient; pharmacy discovery), or an error (i.e., mistake discovered after patient received medication; patient discovery). QREs for prescriptions. During a 45-month period, the remote telepharmacy group reported 47,078 prescriptions and 631 QREs compared with 123,346 prescriptions and 1,002 QREs in the standard pharmacy group. Results for near misses (pharmacy discovery) and errors (patient discovery) for the remote and comparison sites were 553 and 887 and 78 and 125, respectively. Percentage of "where the mistake was caught" (i.e., pharmacist check) for the remote and comparison sites were 58% and 69%, respectively. This study reported a lower overall rate (1.0%) and a slight difference in medication dispensing error rates between remote telepharmacy sites (1.3%) and comparison sites (0.8%). Both rates are comparable with nationally reported levels (1.7% error rate for 50 pharmacies).

  11. Pharmacist and physician perspectives on diabetes service delivery within community pharmacies in Indonesia: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Wibowo, Yosi; Sunderland, Bruce; Hughes, Jeffery

    2016-05-01

    To explore perspectives of physicians and pharmacists on diabetes service delivery within community pharmacies in Indonesia. In depth interviews were conducted with 10 physicians and 10 community pharmacists in Surabaya, Indonesia, using a semi-structured interview guide. Nvivo version 9 was used to facilitate thematic content analysis to identify barriers/facilitators for community pharmacists to provide diabetes services. The identified themes indicating barriers/facilitators for diabetes service delivery within Indonesian community pharmacies included: (1) pharmacist factors - i.e. positive views (facilitator) and perceived lack of competence (barrier); (2) pharmacist-physician relationships - i.e. physicians' lack of support and accessibility (barriers); (3) pharmacist-patient relationships - i.e. perceived patients' lack of support and accessibility (barriers); (4) pharmacy environment - i.e. business orientation (barrier), lack of staff and poor pharmacist availability (barriers), and availability of supporting resources, such as counselling areas/rooms, procedures/protocols and IT systems for labelling and patient records (facilitators); and (5) external environment - i.e. a health system to support pharmacist roles, remuneration, marketing and professional assistance (facilitators). Issues related to the pharmacist-physician-patient relationships, pharmacy environment and external environment need to be addressed before Indonesian community pharmacists can provide additional pharmacy services for type 2 diabetes patients. Collaboration between the Government, Ikatan Apoteker Indonesia (Indonesian Pharmacists Association) and Ikatan Dokter Indonesia (Indonesian Medical Association) is required to improve the pharmacy professional environment and facilities. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  12. The UK Pharmacy Care Plan service: Description, recruitment and initial views on a new community pharmacy intervention

    PubMed Central

    Wright, David; Kirkdale, Charlotte L.; Desborough, James A.; Thornley, Tracey

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The UK government advocates person-centred healthcare which is ideal for supporting patients to make appropriate lifestyle choices and to address non-adherence. The Community Pharmacy Future group, a collaboration between community pharmacy companies and independents in the UK, introduced a person-centred service for patients with multiple long-term conditions in 50 pharmacies in Northern England. Objective Describe the initial findings from the set up and delivery of a novel community pharmacy-based person-centred service. Method Patients over fifty years of age prescribed more than one medicine including at least one for cardiovascular disease or diabetes were enrolled. Medication review and person-centred consultation resulted in agreed health goals and steps towards achieving them. Data were collated and analysed to determine appropriateness of patient recruitment process and quality of outcome data collection. A focus group of seven pharmacists was used to ascertain initial views on the service. Results Within 3 months of service initiation, 683 patients had baseline clinical data recorded, of which 86.9% were overweight or obese, 53.7% had hypertension and 80.8% had high cardiovascular risk. 544 (77.2%) patients set at least one goal during the first consultation with 120 (22.1%) setting multiple goals. A majority of patients identified their goals as improvement in condition, activity or quality of life. Pharmacists could see the potential patient benefit and the extended role opportunities the service provided. Allowing patients to set their own goals occasionally identified gaps to be addressed in pharmacist knowledge. Conclusion Pharmacists successfully recruited a large number of patients who were appropriate for such a service. Patients were willing to identify goals with the pharmacist, the majority of which, if met, may result in improvements in quality of life. While challenges in delivery were acknowledged, allowing patients to identify

  13. The UK Pharmacy Care Plan service: Description, recruitment and initial views on a new community pharmacy intervention.

    PubMed

    Twigg, Michael J; Wright, David; Kirkdale, Charlotte L; Desborough, James A; Thornley, Tracey

    2017-01-01

    The UK government advocates person-centred healthcare which is ideal for supporting patients to make appropriate lifestyle choices and to address non-adherence. The Community Pharmacy Future group, a collaboration between community pharmacy companies and independents in the UK, introduced a person-centred service for patients with multiple long-term conditions in 50 pharmacies in Northern England. Describe the initial findings from the set up and delivery of a novel community pharmacy-based person-centred service. Patients over fifty years of age prescribed more than one medicine including at least one for cardiovascular disease or diabetes were enrolled. Medication review and person-centred consultation resulted in agreed health goals and steps towards achieving them. Data were collated and analysed to determine appropriateness of patient recruitment process and quality of outcome data collection. A focus group of seven pharmacists was used to ascertain initial views on the service. Within 3 months of service initiation, 683 patients had baseline clinical data recorded, of which 86.9% were overweight or obese, 53.7% had hypertension and 80.8% had high cardiovascular risk. 544 (77.2%) patients set at least one goal during the first consultation with 120 (22.1%) setting multiple goals. A majority of patients identified their goals as improvement in condition, activity or quality of life. Pharmacists could see the potential patient benefit and the extended role opportunities the service provided. Allowing patients to set their own goals occasionally identified gaps to be addressed in pharmacist knowledge. Pharmacists successfully recruited a large number of patients who were appropriate for such a service. Patients were willing to identify goals with the pharmacist, the majority of which, if met, may result in improvements in quality of life. While challenges in delivery were acknowledged, allowing patients to identify their own personalised goals was seen as a

  14. Health care policy and community pharmacy: implications for the New Zealand primary health care sector.

    PubMed

    Scahill, Shane; Harrison, Jeff; Carswell, Peter; Shaw, John

    2010-06-25

    The aim of our paper is to expose the challenges primary health care reform is exerting on community pharmacy and other groups. Our paper is underpinned by the notion that a broad understanding of the issues facing pharmacy will help facilitate engagement by pharmacy and stakeholders in primary care. New models of remuneration are required to deliver policy expectations. Equally important is redefining the place of community pharmacy, outlining the roles that are mooted and contributions that can be made by community pharmacy. Consistent with international policy shifts, New Zealand primary health care policy outlines broad directives which community pharmacy must respond to. Policymakers are calling for greater integration and collaboration, a shift from product to patient-centred care; a greater population health focus and the provision of enhanced cognitive services. To successfully implement policy, community pharmacists must change the way they think and act. Community pharmacy must improve relationships with other primary care providers, District Health Boards (DHBs) and Primary Health Organisations (PHOs). There is a requirement for DHBs to realign funding models which increase integration and remove the requirement to sell products in pharmacy in order to deliver services. There needs to be a willingness for pharmacy to adopt a user pays policy. General practitioners (GPs) and practice nurses (PNs) need to be aware of the training and skills that pharmacists have, and to understand what pharmacists can offer that benefits their patients and ultimately general practice. There is also a need for GPs and PNs to realise the fiscal and professional challenges community pharmacy is facing in its attempt to improve pharmacy services and in working more collaboratively within primary care. Meanwhile, community pharmacists need to embrace new approaches to practice and drive a clearly defined agenda of renewal in order to meet the needs of health funders, patients

  15. Case management of malaria fever at community pharmacies in Pakistan: a threat to rational drug use

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Madeeha; Hassali, Mohamed A.; Shafie, Asrul A.; Hussain, Azhar; Aljadhey, Hisham; Saleem, Fahad

    Objective To document the case management of uncomplicated malaria fever at community pharmacies located in the two major cities of Pakistan; Islamabad (national capital) and Rawalpindi (twin city). Methods A comparative, cross-sectional study was designed to document the management of uncomplicated malaria fever at community pharmacies in twin cities of Pakistan through simulated patient visits. Visits were conducted in 238 randomly selected pharmacies to request advice for a simulated patient case of malaria. The pharmacy’s management was scored on a checklist including history taking and provision of advice and information. Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to compare management of uncomplicated malaria fever by different types of dispensers working at community pharmacies situated at different locations in the twin cities. Results The simulated patients were handled by salesmen (74.8%, n=178), pharmacist (5.4%, n=13) and diploma holders (19.8 %, n=47). Medication was dispensed in 83.1 % (n=198) of the visits, but only few of the treated cases were in accordance to standard treatment guidelines for malaria. However, in 14.8% (n=35) of the cases the simulated patients were directly referred to a physician. There was a significant difference observed in the process of history taking performed by different dispensers (e.g. pharmacist, pharmacy assistant, pharmacy diploma holders and salesman) while no significant differences in the provision of advice by these dispensers was observed. Pharmacists were seen more frequently involved in the process of history taking if available at the community pharmacies. On the other hand, no significant differences were observed in the case management (history taking and provision of advice) for the treatment of malaria fever among community pharmacies situated at different locations (e.g. near hospital/super market/small market) in the twin cities. Conclusions The results of the study revealed that the

  16. The positive pharmacy care law: an area-level analysis of the relationship between community pharmacy distribution, urbanity and social deprivation in England

    PubMed Central

    Todd, Adam; Copeland, Alison; Husband, Andy; Kasim, Adetayo; Bambra, Clare

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To: (1) determine the percentage of the population in England that have access to a community pharmacy within 20 min walk; (2) explore any relationship between the walking distance and urbanity; (3) explore any relationship between the walking distance and social deprivation; and (4) explore any interactions between urbanity, social deprivation and community pharmacy access. Design This area level analysis spatial study used postcodes for all community pharmacies in England. Each postcode was assigned to a population lookup table and lower super output area (LSOA). The LSOA was then matched to urbanity (urban, town and fringe or village, hamlet and isolated dwellings) and deprivation decile (using the Index of Multiple Deprivation score). Primary outcome measure Access to a community pharmacy within 20 min walk. Results Overall, 89.2% of the population is estimated to have access to a community pharmacy within 20 min walk. For urban areas, that is 98.3% of the population, for town and fringe, 79.9% of the population, while for rural areas, 18.9% of the population. For areas of lowest deprivation (deprivation decile 1) 90.2% of the population have access to a community pharmacy within 20 min walk, compared to 99.8% in areas of highest deprivation (deprivation decile 10), a percentage difference of 9.6% (8.2, 10.9). Conclusions Our study shows that the majority of the population can access a community pharmacy within 20 min walk and crucially, access is greater in areas of highest deprivation—a positive pharmacy care law. More research is needed to explore the perceptions and experiences of people—from various levels of deprivation—around the accessibility of community pharmacy services. PMID:25116456

  17. The positive pharmacy care law: an area-level analysis of the relationship between community pharmacy distribution, urbanity and social deprivation in England.

    PubMed

    Todd, Adam; Copeland, Alison; Husband, Andy; Kasim, Adetayo; Bambra, Clare

    2014-08-12

    To: (1) determine the percentage of the population in England that have access to a community pharmacy within 20 min walk; (2) explore any relationship between the walking distance and urbanity; (3) explore any relationship between the walking distance and social deprivation; and (4) explore any interactions between urbanity, social deprivation and community pharmacy access. This area level analysis spatial study used postcodes for all community pharmacies in England. Each postcode was assigned to a population lookup table and lower super output area (LSOA). The LSOA was then matched to urbanity (urban, town and fringe or village, hamlet and isolated dwellings) and deprivation decile (using the Index of Multiple Deprivation score). Access to a community pharmacy within 20 min walk. Overall, 89.2% of the population is estimated to have access to a community pharmacy within 20 min walk. For urban areas, that is 98.3% of the population, for town and fringe, 79.9% of the population, while for rural areas, 18.9% of the population. For areas of lowest deprivation (deprivation decile 1) 90.2% of the population have access to a community pharmacy within 20 min walk, compared to 99.8% in areas of highest deprivation (deprivation decile 10), a percentage difference of 9.6% (8.2, 10.9). Our study shows that the majority of the population can access a community pharmacy within 20 min walk and crucially, access is greater in areas of highest deprivation--a positive pharmacy care law. More research is needed to explore the perceptions and experiences of people--from various levels of deprivation--around the accessibility of community pharmacy services. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. A patient-centered pharmacy services model of HIV patient care in community pharmacy settings: a theoretical and empirical framework.

    PubMed

    Kibicho, Jennifer; Owczarzak, Jill

    2012-01-01

    Reflecting trends in health care delivery, pharmacy practice has shifted from a drug-specific to a patient-centered model of care, aimed at improving the quality of patient care and reducing health care costs. In this article, we outline a theoretical model of patient-centered pharmacy services (PCPS), based on in-depth, qualitative interviews with a purposive sample of 28 pharmacists providing care to HIV-infected patients in specialty, semispecialty, and nonspecialty pharmacy settings. Data analysis was an interactive process informed by pharmacists' interviews and a review of the general literature on patient centered care, including Medication Therapy Management (MTM) services. Our main finding was that the current models of pharmacy services, including MTM, do not capture the range of pharmacy services in excess of mandated drug dispensing services. In this article, we propose a theoretical PCPS model that reflects the actual services pharmacists provide. The model includes five elements: (1) addressing patients as whole, contextualized persons; (2) customizing interventions to unique patient circumstances; (3) empowering patients to take responsibility for their own health care; (4) collaborating with clinical and nonclinical providers to address patient needs; and (5) developing sustained relationships with patients. The overarching goal of PCPS is to empower patients' to take responsibility for their own health care and self-manage their HIV-infection. Our findings provide the foundation for future studies regarding how widespread these practices are in diverse community settings, the validity of the proposed PCPS model, the potential for standardizing pharmacist practices, and the feasibility of a PCPS framework to reimburse pharmacists services.

  19. E-Prescribing Errors in Community Pharmacies: Exploring Consequences and Contributing Factors

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Jamie A.; Chui, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore types of e-prescribing errors in community pharmacies and their potential consequences, as well as the factors that contribute to e-prescribing errors. Methods Data collection involved performing 45 total hours of direct observations in five pharmacies. Follow-up interviews were conducted with 20 study participants. Transcripts from observations and interviews were subjected to content analysis using NVivo 10. Results Pharmacy staff detected 75 e-prescription errors during the 45 hour observation in pharmacies. The most common e-prescribing errors were wrong drug quantity, wrong dosing directions, wrong duration of therapy, and wrong dosage formulation. Participants estimated that 5 in 100 e-prescriptions have errors. Drug classes that were implicated in e-prescribing errors were antiinfectives, inhalers, ophthalmic, and topical agents. The potential consequences of e-prescribing errors included increased likelihood of the patient receiving incorrect drug therapy, poor disease management for patients, additional work for pharmacy personnel, increased cost for pharmacies and patients, and frustrations for patients and pharmacy staff. Factors that contribute to errors included: technology incompatibility between pharmacy and clinic systems, technology design issues such as use of auto-populate features and dropdown menus, and inadvertently entering incorrect information. Conclusion Study findings suggest that a wide range of e-prescribing errors are encountered in community pharmacies. Pharmacists and technicians perceive that causes of e-prescribing errors are multidisciplinary and multifactorial, that is to say e-prescribing errors can originate from technology used in prescriber offices and pharmacies. PMID:24657055

  20. E-prescribing errors in community pharmacies: exploring consequences and contributing factors.

    PubMed

    Odukoya, Olufunmilola K; Stone, Jamie A; Chui, Michelle A

    2014-06-01

    To explore types of e-prescribing errors in community pharmacies and their potential consequences, as well as the factors that contribute to e-prescribing errors. Data collection involved performing 45 total hours of direct observations in five pharmacies. Follow-up interviews were conducted with 20 study participants. Transcripts from observations and interviews were subjected to content analysis using NVivo 10. Pharmacy staff detected 75 e-prescription errors during the 45 h observation in pharmacies. The most common e-prescribing errors were wrong drug quantity, wrong dosing directions, wrong duration of therapy, and wrong dosage formulation. Participants estimated that 5 in 100 e-prescriptions have errors. Drug classes that were implicated in e-prescribing errors were antiinfectives, inhalers, ophthalmic, and topical agents. The potential consequences of e-prescribing errors included increased likelihood of the patient receiving incorrect drug therapy, poor disease management for patients, additional work for pharmacy personnel, increased cost for pharmacies and patients, and frustrations for patients and pharmacy staff. Factors that contribute to errors included: technology incompatibility between pharmacy and clinic systems, technology design issues such as use of auto-populate features and dropdown menus, and inadvertently entering incorrect information. Study findings suggest that a wide range of e-prescribing errors is encountered in community pharmacies. Pharmacists and technicians perceive that causes of e-prescribing errors are multidisciplinary and multifactorial, that is to say e-prescribing errors can originate from technology used in prescriber offices and pharmacies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The prevalence and experience of Australian naturopaths and Western herbalists working within community pharmacies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Naturopaths and Western herbal medicine (WHM) practitioners were surveyed to identify their extent, experience and roles within the community pharmacy setting and to explore their attitudes to integration of complementary medicine (CM) practitioners within the pharmacy setting. Method Practising naturopaths and WHM practitioners were invited to participate in an anonymous, self-administered, on-line survey. Participants were recruited using the mailing lists and websites of CM manufacturers and professional associations. Results 479 practitioners participated. 24% of respondents (n = 111) reported they had worked in community pharmacy, three-quarters for less than 5 years. Whilst in this role 74% conducted specialist CMs sales, 62% short customer consultations, 52% long consultations in a private room and 51% staff education. This was generally described as a positive learning experience and many appreciated the opportunity to utilise their specialist knowledge in the service of both customers and pharmacy staff. 14% (n = 15) did not enjoy the experience of working in pharmacy at all and suggested pharmacist attitude largely influenced whether the experience was positive or not. Few practitioners were satisfied with the remuneration received. 44% of the total sample provided comment on the issue of integration into pharmacy, with the main concern being the perceived incommensurate paradigms of practice between pharmacy and naturopathy. Of the total sample, 38% reported that they would consider working as a practitioner in retail pharmacy in future. Conclusions The level of integration of CM into pharmacy is extending beyond the mere stocking of supplements. Naturopaths and Western Herbalists are becoming utilised in pharmacies PMID:21600060

  2. National community pharmacy NHS influenza vaccination service in Wales: a primary care mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Andrew M; Wood, Fiona C; Carter, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Background Influenza is a significant cause of morbidity and excess mortality, yet vaccine coverage in the UK remains below target. Community pharmacies are increasingly being promoted as an alternative to vaccination by GPs. Aim To explore and verify the factors that influence the relative performance of pharmacies providing NHS influenza vaccinations. Design and setting A mixed methods study utilising qualitative, semi-structured interviews and quantitative analysis of predictors of vaccination numbers in community pharmacies in Wales. Method Interviews were conducted with 16 pharmacists who participated in the Welsh national pharmacy influenza service in 2013–2014. A purposive sampling strategy was used. Qualitative findings were analysed using framework analysis. Potential predictors of vaccination numbers were identified from interviews and a literature review, and included in a multivariable regression model. Results The contribution of community pharmacies towards vaccination in Wales is small. Findings suggest that community pharmacies reach younger at-risk individuals, in whom vaccine uptake is low, in greater proportion than influenza vaccination programmes as a whole. Extended opening hours and urban locations were positively associated with the number of vaccinations given, although pharmacists reported that workload, vaccine costs, unforeseen delays, lack of public awareness, and GPs’ views of the service limited their contribution. Pharmacists, aware of the potential for conflict with GPs, moderated their behaviour to mitigate such risk. Conclusion Before community pharmacies take greater responsibility for delivering healthcare services, obstacles including increasing pharmacist capacity, vaccine procurement, health service delays, managing GP–pharmacy relationships, and improving public awareness must be overcome. PMID:26965025

  3. Establishment, Implementation, and Consolidation of Clinical Pharmacy Services in Community Pharmacies: Perceptions of a Group of Pharmacists.

    PubMed

    Dosea, Aline S; Brito, Giselle C; Santos, Lincoln M C; Marques, Tatiane C; Balisa-Rocha, Blície; Pimentel, Deborah; Bueno, Denise; Lyra, Divaldo P

    2015-12-10

    When pharmacists incorporate clinical practice into their routine, barriers and facilitators influence the implementation of patient care services. Three focus groups were conducted with 11 pharmacists who were working for the Farmácia Popular do Brasil program on the establishment, implementation, and consolidation of clinical pharmacy services. The perception of the pharmacists in Brazil about the program was that it facilitated access to health care and medication. The distance between neighboring cities made it difficult for patients to return for services. Lack of staff training created a lack of communication skills and knowledge. The pharmacists wanted to have increased technical support, skill development opportunities, and monitoring of researchers who assessed progress of the service. Pharmacists overcame many of their insecurities and felt more proactive and committed to quality service. Positive experiences in service implementations have shown that it is possible to develop a model of clinical services in community pharmacies.

  4. Patient reactions to community pharmacies' roles: evidence from the Portuguese market.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Francisco G; Anderson, Janet E; Martins, Luis M

    2015-12-01

    There is little knowledge about how patients perceive and react to the extended role of community pharmacies. To develop a model describing the expanded role of Portuguese community pharmacies as comprising three roles - medicines supplier, advice provider and community health promoter - and two important patient reactions: satisfaction and loyalty. In 2010, 1200 face-to-face interviews were conducted with patients of community pharmacies in Portugal. A model comprising the three pharmacy roles and the two patient reactions was developed and tested using structural equation modelling. The results showed that the model was appropriate and that the roles of medicines supplier, advice provider and community health promoter were positively related to patients' satisfaction and loyalty. These results show that patients are aware of the different roles played by community pharmacies in Portugal. The data support the idea that the movement of Portuguese pharmacists' extended role, framed within a global context where society sends expectations regarding the role of organizations in the community in which they operate, is producing positive results for both patients and pharmacists. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Tobacco users' perceptions of a brief tobacco cessation intervention in community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Patwardhan, Pallavi D; Chewning, Betty A

    2010-01-01

    To explore factors affecting tobacco users' perceived appropriateness of a brief and proactive tobacco cessation counseling program, ask, advise, and refer (AAR), at community pharmacies. Inductive thematic analysis. Southern Wisconsin during fall 2008. 24 tobacco users who had recently received brief and proactive tobacco cessation counseling at a community pharmacy. Semistructured telephone interviews conducted by primary author. Perceptions of a brief and proactive tobacco cessation counseling program conducted at community pharmacies. In conducting the thematic analysis, eight distinct themes were identified. Display of information and resources at pharmacies for use by tobacco users as needed was identified as the most predominant theme and was found to be most helpful by many respondents. Other themes identified in decreasing order of prevalence were: tobacco users' perceptions of the role of pharmacists in health care, tobacco users' belief that smoking could interact with a current medication or health condition, tobacco users' sensitivity toward their tobacco use behavior or being told what to do, nonconfrontational and friendly approach of pharmacists, tobacco users' readiness to quit at the time of AAR counseling, tobacco user initiation of tobacco use discussion, and tobacco users' belief that tobacco use is bad. Overall, this qualitative investigation suggests that several factors might influence tobacco users' perceived appropriateness of AAR counseling at community pharmacies. AAR might be well received by tobacco users and pharmacy patrons as long as it is done in a professional and respectful manner.

  6. Health Promotion in Community Pharmacy: The UK Situation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Claire

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the research pertaining to pharmacy health promotion and examples of good practice in the UK. Concludes with a discussion about the contribution pharmacists can make and about some issues that will need to be overcome first. (Author/MKA)

  7. Health Promotion in Community Pharmacy: The UK Situation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Claire

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the research pertaining to pharmacy health promotion and examples of good practice in the UK. Concludes with a discussion about the contribution pharmacists can make and about some issues that will need to be overcome first. (Author/MKA)

  8. Patients’ perception of pharmaceutical services available in a community pharmacy among patients living in a rural area of the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Patients’ opinion about prevalence of pharmaceutical services available in a community pharmacy among patients living in a rural area of the United Kingdom. The secondary objective was to identify appropriate action(s) to enhance patients’ awareness of pharmaceutical services in rural areas. Methods: A self-administered, anonymous questionnaire was distributed to patients visiting a community pharmacy in Eye, Suffolk, United Kingdom between July and August, 2015. The main inclusion criterion was living in a rural area. Comparisons were performed using chi-square tests and logistic regression. Results: The study included 103 respondents: 70 women (69.0%) and 33 men (32.0%), aged 16–85 years. Most respondents declared the primary tasks of a community pharmacy were dispensing medicines (86.4% of respondents) and repeat dispensing (72.8% of respondents). Additionally, 23.3% of respondents treated minor ailments at the pharmacy, including bacterial/viral infections, minor injuries, stomach problems, and allergies. The Medicines Use Review service was the only advanced service used in this pharmacy (12.6% of respondents), primarily by men. Younger patients were more familiar with the term of pharmaceutical care (p<0.05; OR=0.33). Conclusions: Only a few pharmaceutical services are utilized by people living in rural areas in the UK, namely prescription dispensing, repeat dispensing, and sale of medications that support self-care for minor ailments. We found an overall poor awareness of the expanded variety of pharmaceutical services encouraged by the community pharmacy contract introduced in the UK in 2005. Therefore, politicians, pharmacists, and pharmacy experts should actively promote these advanced pharmaceutical services in rural areas. PMID:27785163

  9. Self-medication Activities in a Community Pharmacy for Student Pharmacist Training.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Mayumi

    2016-01-01

    Japan's Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare published "the required function and the desired operating form of a pharmacy" and proposed that "a pharmacy should demonstrate a positive role for the promotion of self-medication". In the future, it will be indispensable to pharmacies that pharmacists play a role not only in dispensing medicine but also in serving a central health-station role in the community, including promoting the self-selection of proper OTC medications for the maintenance of health. My pharmacy in a traditional area in Tokyo carries OTC drugs, health and nursing care goods, medical supplies, etc. besides dispensing medicine by prescription. Moreover, a "sample measurement room" where a person can conduct a blood test by self-puncture was prepared in April of 2014. In addition, my pharmacy has held "health consultation meetings" for patients in collaboration with a registered dietitian, as well as "meetings for briefing sessions on how to better take or administer medicines" for parents of infants, etc. These activities have been useful to local residents in the prevention of lifestyle-related diseases and in promoting a better understanding of medicine. Moreover, on-site student trainees from schools of pharmacy are helping with planning, data collection, and explanation on the days of these meetings. For trainees from schools of pharmacy, participating in these activities is important to becoming a pharmacist trusted at the community level in the future.

  10. Implementation of a method for glucose measurements in community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Kjome, Reidun L S; Nerhus, Kari; Sandberg, Sverre

    2010-02-01

    We aimed to implement a method for glucose measurements that could be used as a comparison method for asessing patients' self-monitoring of blood glucose. Further, we investigated whether pharmacies could achieve an analytical quality comparable to glucose measurements performed in general practice. Sixteen Norwegian pharmacy employees were trained in glucose measurement, quality control and blood sampling. The comparison method, HemoCue Glucose 201+, was validated in four steps: (1) estimation of the variation between the HemoCue instruments to be used at the 16 pharmacies, (2) comparison between HemoCue results and a laboratory glucose method, (3) monitoring quality by internal quality controls and (4) an external quality-assessment scheme. The pharmacies' results of the external quality assessment were compared to those of 359 general practices. The coefficient of variation for HemoCue instruments was 6.1% at the low level and 1.7% at the normal and high levels. Bias was negligible at the normal level. The coefficients of variation for internal quality controls were 4.5, 1.5 and 1.2% for the low, normal and high levels, respectively. All pharmacies achieved good precision and acceptable or good trueness in the external quality assessment. The pharmacies exhibited significantly lower variation between sites (2.2 and 1.2%) than general practices (3.8 and 2.9%) on both external quality-assessment samples. Given correct training and the establishment of a system of quality assurance, pharmacies are capable of obtaining glucose measurements that can be used as comparison measurements for controlling patients' meters. The pharmacies had external quality-assessment results comparable to general practice.

  11. Improved antiretroviral refill adherence in HIV-focused community pharmacies

    PubMed Central

    Cocohoba, Jennifer M.; Murphy, Patricia; Pietrandoni, Glen; Guglielmo, B. Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine differences in patient characteristics, antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen characteristics, and regimen refill adherence for HIV-focused pharmacy (HIV-P) versus traditional pharmacy (TP) users. Design Retrospective cohort study Setting California Walgreens pharmacies, May 2007 – August 2009 Participants HIV-positive (HIV+) patients with greater than 30 days of antiretroviral prescription claims. Main outcome measures Modified medication possession ratio (mMPR) to calculate regimen refill adherence, and dichotomous measure of optimal adherence ≥ 95%. Results 4254 HIV-P and 11679 TP users were included. Compared to TP users, HIV-P users traveled farther to pharmacies (5.03 vs. 1.26 miles), filled more chronic disease medications (35% vs. 30%), and received more fixed-dose combination tablets (92% vs. 83%); all p < 0.01. Median mMPR was higher for HIV-P users (90% vs. 77%, p < 0.0001). After adjustment for age, gender, insurance, medication use, and distance from pharmacy, use of HIV-P (OR= 2.18, 95% CI 1.88–2.52) and use of fixed-dose combination antiretroviral tablets (OR=2.43, 95% CI 1.83–3.22) were factors most strongly associated with having ≥ 95% regimen refill adherence. Conclusion For HIV+ patients struggling with antiretroviral adherence, clinicians could consider minimizing pill burden with combination tablets and referral to an HIV-focused pharmacy. PMID:23023860

  12. Pharmacy Malpractice: The rate and prevalence of dispensing high-risk prescription-only medications at community pharmacies in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alshammari, Thamir M; Alhindi, Salman A; Alrashdi, Ahmed M; Benmerzouga, Imaan; Aljofan, Mohamad

    2017-07-01

    To assess the compliance of community pharmacies with the regulations that prohibit the dispensing of prescription-only medications in the absence of a physician prescription in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the period between October 2014 and January 2015. A list of 10 prescription-only medications were selected to be studied. 150 community pharmacies were visited across 6 major regions in Saudi Arabia to assess the prevalence of non-compliance among community pharmacies. Pharmacies were selected in random and researchers (disguised as patients) requested to purchase prescription-only medications in the absence of a prescription. Not all medications were purchased at once. Data were recorded per pharmacy, where pharmacies that approved dispense of the selected drug were scored as non-compliant and the pharmacies that rejected dispense of the selected drug were scored as compliant. Compliance rate was calculated per region per drug. Pharmacies based in governmental hospitals were visited in parallel. A total of 20 were visited. Data and statistical analysis were performed using Statistical Analyses Software (SAS 9.3). A total of 150 pharmacies were visited over a period of 3 months. On average, the percent approved dispense of prescription-only drugs across 6 regions in Saudi Arabia is 63% and the percent rejected dispense is 37% representing a significant non-compliance rate regarding the selected list of medications in this study. The frequency of dispense per medication across 6 major regions in Saudi Arabia is as follows: Isosorbide dinitrate (86%), Enoxaparin (82%), nitroglycerin (74%), Propranolol (73%), Verapamil (70%), Warfarin (65%), Methyldopa (64%), Ciprofloxacin (57%) and Codeine (4%). Non-compliance of community pharmacies with the law of pharmaceutical practice is at an alarming rate in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and authoritative figures must intervene to impede and combat such activities.

  13. Medication dispensing errors in Palestinian community pharmacy practice: a formal consensus using the Delphi technique.

    PubMed

    Shawahna, Ramzi; Haddad, Aseel; Khawaja, Baraa; Raie, Rand; Zaneen, Sireen; Edais, Tasneem

    2016-10-01

    Background Medication dispensing errors (MDEs) are frequent in community pharmacy practice. A definition of MDEs and scenarios representing MDE situations in Palestinian community pharmacy practice were not previously approached using formal consensus techniques. Objective This study was conducted to achieve consensus on a definition of MDEs and a wide range of scenarios that should or should not be considered as MDEs in Palestinian community pharmacy practice by a panel of community pharmacists. Setting Community pharmacy practice in Palestine. Method This was a descriptive study using the Delphi technique. A panel of fifty community pharmacists was recruited from different geographical locations of the West Bank of Palestine. A three round Delphi technique was followed to achieve consensus on a proposed definition of MDEs and 83 different scenarios representing potential MDEs using a nine-point scale. Main outcome measure Agreement or disagreement of a panel of community pharmacists on a proposed definition of MDEs and a series of scenarios representing potential MDEs. Results In the first Delphi round, views of key contact community pharmacists on MDEs were explored and situations representing potential MDEs were collected. In the second Delphi round, consensus was achieved to accept the proposed definition and to include 49 (59 %) of the 83 proposed scenarios as MDEs. In the third Delphi round, consensus was achieved to include further 13 (15.7 %) scenarios as MDEs, exclude 9 (10.8 %) scenarios and the rest of 12 (14.5 %) scenarios were considered equivocal based on the opinions of the panelists. Conclusion Consensus on a definition of MDEs and scenarios representing MDE situations in Palestinian community pharmacy practice was achieved using a formal consensus technique. The use of consensual definitions and scenarios representing MDE situations in community pharmacy practice might minimize methodological variations and their significant effects on the

  14. Using Think Aloud Protocols to Assess E-Prescribing in Community Pharmacies

    PubMed Central

    Chui, Michelle A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Think aloud protocol has rarely been used as a method of data collection in community pharmacies. Purpose The aim of the report is to describe how think aloud protocols were used to identify issues that arise when using e-prescribing technology in pharmacies. In this paper, we report on the benefits and challenges of using think aloud protocols in pharmacies to examine the use of e-prescribing systems. Methods Sixteen pharmacists and pharmacy technicians were recruited from seven community pharmacies in Wisconsin. Data were collected using direct observation alongside think aloud protocol. Direct observations and think aloud protocols took place between January-February, 2011. Participants were asked to verbalize their thoughts as they process electronic prescriptions. Results Participants identify weaknesses in e-prescribing that they had previously not conceived. This created heightened awareness for vigilance when processing e-prescriptions. The main challenge with using think aloud protocols were interruptions in the pharmacy. Some participants found it difficult to remember to continue verbalizing during think aloud sessions. Conclusion The use of think aloud protocols as method of data collection is a new way for understanding the issues related to technology use in community pharmacy practice. Think aloud protocol was beneficial in providing objective information on e-prescribing not based on pharmacist’s or technician’s opinion of the technology. This method provided detailed information and also a wide variety of real time challenges with e-prescribing technology in community pharmacies. Using this data collection method can help identify potential patient safety issues when using e-prescribing and suggestions for redesign. PMID:24860689

  15. A qualitative study of community pharmacy perceptions of the Electronic Prescriptions Service in England.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Jasmine; Avery, Anthony J; Barber, Nick

    2014-12-01

    To explore attitudes and perceptions of early adopters of the Electronic Prescription Service (release two) in England (EPS2). EPS2 is information technology that allows community pharmacies to download and dispense electronically written prescriptions from general practices. When the prescriber writes a prescription electronically, it is sent and stored on a national central database, commonly called the Spine. The community pharmacy that the patient nominates is then able to download the prescription and dispense to the patient. In-depth interviews were conducted with professionals from eight early adopter community pharmacies in the midlands and north of England, and 56 hours of non-participant observations were recorded as field notes. Each interview transcript was coded using a line-by-line approach. Overall, 37 200 words were analysed from 10 transcripts using a 'bottom up' approach to identify key perceptions. Field notes from the observation were analysed thematically and were used to verify interview findings. Findings follow a narrative which shows that (a) early adopter pharmacies had to cope with challenges such as missing EPS2 prescriptions, (b) despite this, they perceived EPS2 as helpful in streamlining pharmacy workflow and (c) were therefore keen to retain EPS2. Initial user perception of EPS2 provides a key message on the likelihood of the system being adopted beyond these eight pharmacies. Our findings provide key information for other pharmacies in the adoption process, and policymakers on the potential of EPS2 to achieve its goals and become sustainable in terms of its value to community pharmacies. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  16. Using Think Aloud Protocols to Assess E-Prescribing in Community Pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Odukoya, Olufunmilola K; Chui, Michelle A

    2012-01-01

    Think aloud protocol has rarely been used as a method of data collection in community pharmacies. The aim of the report is to describe how think aloud protocols were used to identify issues that arise when using e-prescribing technology in pharmacies. In this paper, we report on the benefits and challenges of using think aloud protocols in pharmacies to examine the use of e-prescribing systems. Sixteen pharmacists and pharmacy technicians were recruited from seven community pharmacies in Wisconsin. Data were collected using direct observation alongside think aloud protocol. Direct observations and think aloud protocols took place between January-February, 2011. Participants were asked to verbalize their thoughts as they process electronic prescriptions. Participants identify weaknesses in e-prescribing that they had previously not conceived. This created heightened awareness for vigilance when processing e-prescriptions. The main challenge with using think aloud protocols were interruptions in the pharmacy. Some participants found it difficult to remember to continue verbalizing during think aloud sessions. The use of think aloud protocols as method of data collection is a new way for understanding the issues related to technology use in community pharmacy practice. Think aloud protocol was beneficial in providing objective information on e-prescribing not based on pharmacist's or technician's opinion of the technology. This method provided detailed information and also a wide variety of real time challenges with e-prescribing technology in community pharmacies. Using this data collection method can help identify potential patient safety issues when using e-prescribing and suggestions for redesign.

  17. A model for assessment and referral of clients with bowel symptoms in community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Sriram, Deepa; McManus, Alexandra; Emmerton, Lynne M; Parsons, Richard W; Jiwa, Moyez

    2016-01-01

    To expedite diagnosis of serious bowel disease, efforts are required to signpost patients with high-risk symptoms to appropriate care. Community pharmacies are a recognized source of health advice regarding bowel symptoms. This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of a validated self-administered questionnaire, Jodi Lee Test (JLT), for detection, triage, and referral of bowel symptoms suggestive of carcinoma, in pharmacies. 'Usual Practice' was monitored for 12 weeks in 21 pharmacies in Western Australia, documenting outcomes for 84 clients presenting with bowel symptoms. Outcome measures were: acceptance of verbal advice from the pharmacist; general practitioner consultation; and diagnosis. Trial of the JLT involved staff training in the research protocol and monitoring of outcomes for 80 recruited clients over 20 weeks. Utility of the JLT was assessed by post-trial survey of pharmacy staff. Significantly more referrals were made by staff using the JLT than during Usual Practice: 30 (38%) vs 17 (20%). Clients' acceptance of referrals was also higher for the intervention group (40% vs 6%). Two-thirds of pharmacy staff agreed that the JLT could be incorporated into pharmacy practice, and 70% indicated they would use the JLT in the future. A pre-post design was considered more appropriate than a randomized control trial due to an inability to match pharmacies. Limitations of this study were: lack of control over adherence to the study protocol by pharmacy staff; no direct measure of client feedback on the JLT; and loss to follow-up. The JLT was effective in prompting decision-making by pharmacy staff and inter-professional care between pharmacies and general practice, in triage of clients at risk of bowel cancer.

  18. Practice Experiences at a Single Institutional Practice Site to Improve Advanced Pharmacy Practice Examination Performance

    PubMed Central

    Britton, Mark L.; Wheeler, Richard E.; Carter, Sandra M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To determine whether sequential assignment of students to the same facility for institutional practice experiences improves their advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) examination scores. Design. Student volunteers were assigned to the same healthcare facility for all institutional introductory pharmacy practice experiences (IPPEs) and advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs). Other students completed institutional IPPEs and APPEs at separate healthcare facilities, ranging from 2 to 4 different facilities per student. APPE examination scores of students assigned to the same facility for all institutional learning experiences were compared with those of students assigned to more than 1 institutional practice site. Assessment. Holding grade point average constant, students assigned to the same facility for institutional IPPEs and APPEs scored 3 percentage points higher on the APPE institutional examination compared with students assigned to separate facilities for these experiences. Conclusion. Assigning students to the same facility for both institutional IPPEs and APPEs positively influenced knowledge-based APPE examination performance. PMID:24761021

  19. Counselling quality in community pharmacies: implementation of the pseudo customer methodology in Germany.

    PubMed

    Berger, K; Eickhoff, C; Schulz, M

    2005-02-01

    To investigate a new method for evaluating counselling performance of staff in community pharmacies and to assess the quality of patient counselling. Trained pseudo customers, instructed to play their role according to two different self-medication scenarios, visited voluntarily participating community pharmacies in Berlin. After documenting the counselling process, immediately after each visit, outside the pharmacy on an assessment form, the pseudo customer re-entered the pharmacy and gave detailed performance feedback to the counsellor and the pharmacist in charge in order to provide support for improving counselling skills and practice behaviour, when appropriate. This was followed with a written summary of the general performance of all participating pharmacies and additional individual feedback and suggestions for improvement. Educational needs were identified for subsequent performance-based educational strategies such as group-workshops, team-training and on-site team-coaching. Forty-nine community pharmacies in Berlin volunteered to participate in this pilot study. Ninety-eight per cent of the participating pharmacies offered advice. However, in 36% of the cases, advice was only given on request. The different types of scenarios--presentation of a symptom or request for a specific product--made a great difference to the spontaneity of questions and advice. At least one question to check on accuracy of self-diagnosis was asked in 95% of the cases of symptom presentation but in only 47% of the cases of specific product request. Information on appropriate self-medication was provided on at least one item in 74% of pseudo customer visits, but most of the time the information was not sufficient. Communication skills (nonverbal elements, comprehensibility etc.) were very good or good in 54% of the visits. Potential for improvement was mainly in relation to the use of open-ended questions to gain more information and on counselling about appropriate self

  20. Patient knowledge of medicines dispensed from Ghanaian community pharmacies

    PubMed Central

    Marfo, Afia Frimpomaa; Owusu-Daaku, Frances Thelma; Kyerewaa-Akromah, Evelyn

    Background One vital requirement for patient adherence to medicines is good patient knowledge of the medicines dispensed and this will invariably be linked to good labelling and counselling. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of labelling of medicines and determine patient knowledge of the administration of medicines dispensed from a community pharmacy in Ghana. Methods From 6th to 29th January, 2010, dispensed prescriptions of 280 clients were purposely sampled to evaluate the quality of labelling. These clients were also interviewed about their knowledge of the last medicine received immediately after dispensing. A scoring system was employed by awarding a point for each attribute written on the package and each attribute stated by the patient. The dispensing attributes noted were name, dosage, frequency, duration, quantity and route of administration. Results Of the 280 patients interviewed, 157 (56%) were males. Thirty one (11%) had no education and 99(35%) were secondary school graduates. Antimalarials comprised 17.9% and analgesics, 15.4% of medicines dispensed. The name, quantity, dosage, frequency, duration of therapy and route of administration were written on the label in 98%, 99%, 55%, 54%, 6% and 2% respectively of the dispensed medicines. The mean labelling score was 3.096 (SD=1.05) out of 6. The corresponding patient knowledge values were 63%, 80%, 80%, 75%, 57% and 86%. The mean knowledge score was 4.375 (SD; 1.38) out of 6. The chi square test p-value for the effect of demographic characteristics (sex, educational background, location) on patient knowledge of medicines dispensed were p=0.454; p=0.000, and p=0.138 respectively. Conclusions Patient knowledge of the administration of dispensed medicines was rated good; and this largely corresponded with the quality of labelling, except that the duration of therapy and route of administration was not frequently written and so labelling was rated just above average. PMID:24155852

  1. Adherence to treatment: practice, education and research in Danish community pharmacy

    PubMed Central

    Haugbølle, Lotte S.; Herborg, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To describe the practice, education and research concerning medication adherence in Danish community pharmacy. Methods: The authors supplemented their expertise in the area of medication adherence through their contacts with other educators and researchers as well as by conducting searches in the Danish Pharmacy Practice Evidence Database, which provides annually updated literature reviews on intervention research in Danish pharmacy practice. Results: Practice: Medication adherence is the focus of and/or is supported by a large number of services and initiatives used in pharmacy practice such as governmental funding, IT-supported medicine administration systems, dose-dispensing systems, theme years in pharmacies on adherence and concordance, standards for counselling at the counter, pharmacist counselling, medication reviews and inhaler technique assessment. Education: In Denmark, pharmacy and pharmaconomist students are extensively trained in the theory and practice of adherence to therapy. Pharmacy staff can choose from a variety of continuing education and post-graduate programmes which address patient adherence. Research: Nine ongoing and recently completed studies are described. Early research in Denmark comprised primarily smaller, qualitative studies centred on user perspectives, whereas later research has shifted the focus towards larger, quantitative, controlled studies and action-oriented studies focusing on patient groups with chronic diseases (such as diabetes, asthma, coronary vascular diseases). Conclusions: Our analysis has documented that Danish pharmaceutical education and research has focused strongly on adherence to treatment for more than three decades. Adherence initiatives in Danish community pharmacies have developed substantially in the past 5-10 years, and, as pharmacies have prioritised their role in health care and patient safety, this development can be expected to continue in future years. PMID:25136393

  2. Effects of a management technician on structured working in Dutch community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Pronk, Miranda C M; Blom, Lyda Th G; Jonkers, Ruud; Bakker, Albert

    2004-08-01

    To study the effects of 'stepwise working with the help of a management technician' on structured working with regard to patient education in a sample of Dutch community pharmacies. The intervention program provided the management technician with knowledge, tools and skills needed for the organisation of patient education activities in her community pharmacy. Twenty-eight pharmacies were selected for the study. After matching, each pharmacy was randomly assigned to either the experimental or control group. In the pharmacies of the experimental group, a technician was selected to become the management technician. Pharmacy technicians were assessed by means of written questionnaires at baseline and immediately after the intervention (12 months). The outcomes were the variables that were directly targeted by the intervention, and included technicians' perception of the availability of policy plans, support for patient education activities towards their implementation, evaluation, and provisions for continuity. After 12 months, the following indicators for structured working were noted to have increased in the experimental group compared to the control group: the technicians in the experimental group more often reported an awareness of policy plans, less lack of continuity of activities, support and evaluation for implementing patient education activities. We also observed that the control group had a higher baseline level and the effects on support and evaluation showed differences between pharmacies. The observed increases were more pronounced in pharmac higher exposure to the intervention, and in the case of support and evaluation relevant in this more exposed group. We found indications for effects of the intervention program, especially in the pharmacies with increased exposure. However, results could be influenced by regression to the mean, as the control group started with a higher mean than the experimental group. We conclude that technicians' participation in

  3. Compliance with legal requirements at community pharmacies: a cross sectional study from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Azhar; Ibrahim, Mohamed I M; Baber, Zaheer-ud-Din

    2012-06-01

    The study evaluated the compliance of community pharmacies with legal requirements as laid down by the drug regulatory framework in Pakistan. An exploratory cross sectional survey was conducted with a total of 371 randomly selected community pharmacies in three cities in Pakistan, namely Islamabad (n = 118), Peshawar (n = 120) and Lahore (n = 133). A questionnaire was developed and finalized by focus-group discussions and pilot testing. The questionnaire included background information and a legal requirement scale consisting of six subscales: licensing requirements, premises requirements, storage requirements, documentation requirements, narcotics section requirements and prescription checking. The data were coded, entered and analysed using SPSS software (version 16). Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney and chi square tests were used for analysis. The pharmacies were operating with one of the three licence types operating in Pakistan: type A (n = 96, 25.9%), type B (n = 186, 50.1%) and type C (n = 89, 24.0%). A narcotics licence was issued to 133 (35.8%) pharmacies; licences of 66 (17.8%) pharmacies were expired while the validity of 87 (23.0%) licences could not be determined. Only 113 (30.5%) pharmacies were totally clean. Eighty percent of the pharmacies had a refrigerator for storage of medicines, but only 284 (76%) of the refrigerators were in working condition. Complete medicine purchase records with warranties were available at 210 (56.6%) pharmacies. None of the pharmacies completely complied with the legal requirements in terms of licensing, premises, storage, documentation, narcotics section, drug labelling and prescription checking. This speaks of poor regulation and control by health authorities on the sale and dispensing of medicines in Pakistan. This study will serve as a baseline for policy makers, managers, researchers and other stakeholders in developing designs for future interventions as well as for methods of accountability and control. © 2011 The

  4. Disruptive innovation in community pharmacy - Impact of automation on the pharmacist workforce.

    PubMed

    Spinks, Jean; Jackson, John; Kirkpatrick, Carl M; Wheeler, Amanda J

    Pharmacy workforce planning has been relatively static for many decades. However, like all industries, health care is exposed to potentially disruptive technological changes. Automated dispensing systems have been available to pharmacy for over a decade and have been applied to a range of repetitive technical processes which are at risk of error, including record keeping, item selection, labeling and dose packing. To date, most applications of this technology have been at the local level, such as hospital pharmacies or single-site community pharmacies. However, widespread implementation of a more centralized automated dispensing model, such as the 'hub and spoke' model currently being debated in the United Kingdom, could cause a 'technology shock,' delivering industry-wide efficiencies, improving medication accessibility and lowering costs to consumers and funding agencies. Some of pharmacists' historical roles may be made redundant, and new roles may be created, decoupling pharmacists to a certain extent from the dispensing and supply process. It may also create an additional opportunity for pharmacists to be acknowledged and renumerated for professional services that extend beyond the dispensary. Such a change would have significant implications for the organization and funding of community pharmacy services as well as pharmacy workforce planning. This paper discusses the prospect of centralized automated dispensing systems and how this may impact on the pharmacy workforce. It concludes that more work needs to be done in the realm of pharmacy workforce planning to ensure that the introduction of any new technology delivers optimal outcomes to consumers, insurers and the pharmacy workforce. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Adult Education and Community Advancement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Association of Adult Education.

    The seventeen papers following the Introductory Address by P. H. Sheats are: Literacy in Territory of Papua and New Guinea by A. Tavai; The Role of the Teacher in Community Advancement by W. Hatton; Financial Education and Community Advancement in Papua and New Guinea by E. V. Fleming; Army Education in Papua and New Guinea by R. T. Jones;…

  6. A structured patient identification model for medication therapy management services in a community pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Pagano, Gina M; Groves, Brigid K; Kuhn, Catherine H; Porter, Kyle; Mehta, Bella H

    To describe the development and implementation of a structured patient identification model for medication therapy management (MTM) services within traditional dispensing activities of a community pharmacy to facilitate pharmacist-provided completion of MTM services. A daily clinical opportunity report was developed as a structured model to identify MTM opportunities daily for all MTM-eligible patients expecting to pick up a prescription. Pharmacy staff was trained and the standardized model was implemented at study sites. One hundred nineteen grocery store-based community pharmacies throughout Ohio, West Virginia, and Michigan. A structured patient identification model in a community pharmacy consists of reviewing a clinical opportunity report, identifying interventions for MTM-eligible patients, and possibly collaborating with an interdisciplinary team. This model allows pharmacists to increase MTM cases performed by providing a structured process for identifying MTM-eligible patients and completing MTM services. The development and implementation of a structured patient identification model in the community pharmacy was completed and consists of pharmacists reviewing a clinical opportunity report to identify MTM opportunities and perform clinical interventions for patients. In a 3-month pre- and post-implementation comparison, there was a 49% increase in the number of MTM services provided by pharmacists (P < 0.001). A structured patient identification model in the community pharmacy was associated with an increase in the amount of MTM services provided by pharmacists. This method could be a useful tool at a variety of community pharmacies to solve challenges associated with MTM completion. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. What proportion of prescription items dispensed in community pharmacies are eligible for the New Medicine Service?

    PubMed

    Wells, Katharine M; Boyd, Matthew J; Thornley, Tracey; Boardman, Helen F

    2014-03-07

    The payment structure for the New Medicine Service (NMS) in England is based on the assumption that 0.5% of prescription items dispensed in community pharmacies are eligible for the service. This assumption is based on a theoretical calculation. This study aimed to find out the actual proportion of prescription items eligible for the NMS dispensed in community pharmacies in order to compare this with the theoretical assumption. The study also aimed to investigate whether the proportion of prescription items eligible for the NMS is affected by pharmacies' proximity to GP practices. The study collected data from eight pharmacies in Nottingham belonging to the same large chain of pharmacies. Pharmacies were grouped by distance from the nearest GP practice and sampled to reflect the distribution by distance of all pharmacies in Nottingham. Data on one thousand consecutive prescription items were collected from each pharmacy and the number of NMS eligible items recorded. All NHS prescriptions were included in the sample. Data were analysed and proportions calculated with 95% confidence intervals used to compare the study results against the theoretical figure of 0.5% of prescription items being eligible for the NMS. A total of 8005 prescription items were collected (a minimum of 1000 items per pharmacy) of which 17 items were eligible to receive the service. The study found that 0.25% (95% confidence intervals: 0.14% to 0.36%) of prescription items were eligible for the NMS which differs significantly from the theoretical assumption of 0.5%. The opportunity rate for the service was lower, 0.21% (95% confidence intervals: 0.10% to 0.32%) of items, as some items eligible for the NMS did not translate into opportunities to offer the service. Of all the prescription items collected in the pharmacies, 28% were collected by patient representatives. The results of this study show that the proportion of items eligible for the NMS dispensed in community pharmacies is lower than

  8. The community pharmacy and discursive complexity: a qualitative study of interaction between counter assistants and customers.

    PubMed

    Banks, Jonathan; Shaw, Alison; Weiss, Marjorie C

    2007-07-01

    The present paper examines the developing role of the medicines counter assistant (MCA) based in community pharmacies in the UK. In recent years, community pharmacies have been promoted as sources of primary care advice, and this has been accompanied by an increase in the number of pharmacy-only medicines made available for purchase without prescription. At the forefront of these changes is the MCA, who responds to requests for medicines and also advises customers seeking guidance on treating minor illness. This paper uses qualitative data drawn from non-participant observation of interactions between MCAs and customers in six community pharmacies in the south-west region of the UK. The data show communication in the pharmacy to be a complex process, characterised by multiple discourses including medical, retail and pharmaceutical information. At times, the different discourses worked in equilibrium, but there were also regular occurrences of clashes between the different discourses, where interaction became problematic. The authors argue that the current focus on pharmacy protocols to structure communication is, in some cases, too rigid for meaningful interaction and does not acknowledge the complexity of the encounter. A specific way forward for developing the interaction is discussed.

  9. Determinants of potential drug-drug interaction associated dispensing in community pharmacies in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Becker, Matthijs L; Caspers, Peter W J; Kallewaard, Marjon; Bruinink, Riekert J; Kylstra, Nico B; Heisterkamp, Siem; de Valk, Vincent; van der Veen, André A; Stricker, Bruno H Ch

    2007-04-01

    There are many drug-drug interactions (D-DI) of which some may cause severe adverse patient outcomes. Dispensing interacting drug combinations should be avoided when the risks are higher than the benefits. The objective of this study was to identify determinants of dispensing undesirable interacting drug combinations by community pharmacies in the Netherlands. A total of 256 Dutch community pharmacies were selected, based on the dispensing of 11 undesirable interacting drug combinations between January 1st, 2001 and October 31st, 2002. These pharmacies were sent a questionnaire by the Inspectorate for Health Care (IHC) concerning their process and structure characteristics. The number of times the 11 undesirable interacting drug combinations were dispensed. Two hundred and forty-six questionnaires (response rate 96.1%) were completed. Dispensing determinants were only found for the D-DI between macrolide antibiotics and digoxin but not for the other 10 D-DIs. Pharmacies using different medication surveillance systems differed in the dispensing of this interacting drug combination, and pharmacies, which were part of a health care centre dispensed this interacting drug combination more often. Medication surveillance in Dutch community pharmacies seems to be effective. Although for most D-DIs no determinants were found, process and structure characteristics may have consequences for the dispensing of undesirable interacting drug combinations.

  10. Treatment experience of people with obstructive sleep apnoea seeking continuous positive airways pressure device provision through community pharmacies: a role for pharmacists?

    PubMed

    Shoukry, Grace; Wong, Keith; Bartlett, Delwyn; Saini, Bandana

    2011-10-01

    OBJECTIVES  This study aimed to explore the unique experiences of people with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) who source their treatment through community pharmacies. METHODS  A qualitative study employing the phenomenological approach was used. In-depth semi-structured interviews with a purposive convenience sample of 20 participants were conducted. Twenty participants were recruited from community pharmacies offering continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) device provision and a teaching hospital in Sydney, Australia. Interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim, coded using Nvivo8 software and analysed based on the 'framework' method. KEY FINDINGS  The quality and delivery of information at diagnosis was reported to have been inappropriate for participants' personal needs. Many barriers emerged in regards to CPAP use, consistent with current literature. Participants' self-reported individual styles, coping practices and health beliefs appeared to be the most influential factors in CPAP uptake and adherence, regardless of mechanical advancements and environmental support. High satisfaction was expressed with CPAP obtainment from pharmacy services listing convenience and good service as notable characteristics. CONCLUSIONS  Community pharmacies have the potential to increase OSA awareness and improve optimal usage of CPAP. Psychosocial based models of adherence intervention could potentially be implemented through CPAP providers, including the community pharmacy, to address some of these factors which impede CPAP adherence. © 2011 The Authors. IJPP © 2011 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  11. Challenges of standardized continuous quality improvement programs in community pharmacies: the case of SafetyNET-Rx.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Todd A; MacKinnon, Neil J; Mahaffey, Thomas; Duggan, Kellie; Dow, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    Research on continuous quality improvement (CQI) in community pharmacies lags in comparison to service, manufacturing, and various health care sectors. As a result, very little is known about the challenges community pharmacies face when implementing CQI programs in general, let alone the challenges of implementing a standardized and technologically sophisticated one. This research identifies the initial challenges of implementing a standardized CQI program in community pharmacies and how such challenges were addressed by pharmacy staff. Through qualitative interviews, a multisite study of the SafetyNET-Rx CQI program involving community pharmacies in Nova Scotia, Canada, was performed to identify such challenges. Interviews were conducted with the CQI facilitator (ie, staff pharmacist or technician) in 55 community pharmacies that adopted the SafetyNET-Rx program. Of these 55 pharmacies, 25 were part of large national corporate chains, 22 were part of banner chains, and 8 were independent pharmacies. A total of 10 different corporate chains and banners were represented among the 55 pharmacies. Thematic content analysis using well-established coding procedures was used to explore the interview data and elicit the key challenges faced. Six major challenges were identified, specifically finding time to report, having all pharmacy staff involved in quality-related event (QRE) reporting, reporting apprehensiveness, changing staff relationships, meeting to discuss QREs, and accepting the online technology. Challenges were addressed in a number of ways including developing a manual-online hybrid reporting system, managers paying staff to meet after hours, and pharmacy managers showing visible commitment to QRE reporting and learning. This research identifies key challenges to implementing CQI programs in community pharmacies and also provides a starting point for future research relating to how the challenges of QRE reporting and learning in community pharmacies change

  12. Community pharmacies automation: any impact on counselling duration and job satisfaction?

    PubMed

    Cavaco, Afonso Miguel; Krookas, Anette Aaland

    2014-04-01

    One key indicator of the quality of health practitioners-patient interaction is the encounters' duration. Automation have been presented as beneficial to pharmacy staff work with patients and thus with a potential impact on pharmacists' and technicians' job satisfaction. To compare the interaction length between pharmacy staff and patients, as well as their job satisfaction, in community pharmacies with and without automation. Portuguese community pharmacies with and without automation. This cross-sectional study followed a quasi-experimental design, divided in two phases. In the first, paired community pharmacies with and without automation were purposively selected for a non-participant overt observation. The second phase comprised a job satisfaction questionnaire of both pharmacists and technical staff. Practitioners and patients demographic and interactional data, as well as job satisfaction, were statistically compared across automation. Interaction length and job satisfaction. Sixty-eight practitioners from 10 automated and non-automated pharmacies produced 721 registered interaction episodes. Automation had no significant influence in interaction duration, controlling for gender and professional categories, being significantly longer with older patients (p = 0.017). On average, staff working at the pharmacy counter had 45 % of free time from direct patient contact. The mean overall satisfaction in this sample was 5.52 (SD = 0.98) out of a maximum score of seven, with no significant differences with automation as well as between professional categories, only with a significant lower job satisfaction for younger pharmacists. As with previous studies in other settings, duration of the interactions was not influenced by pharmacy automation, as well as practitioners' job satisfaction, while practitioners' time constrains seem to be a subjective perception.

  13. Implementation of a pharmacy residency in a Veterans Affairs community-based outpatient clinic.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Beth Bryles; Williams, Kim C

    2012-05-15

    The implementation of an innovative ambulatory care pharmacy residency program at a Veterans Affairs (VA) outpatient clinic is described. Community-based outpatient clinics (CBOCs) are a largely underutilized resource for pharmacy residency training. Through a collaboration of the University of Georgia College of Pharmacy in Athens and Charlie Norwood VA Medical Center in Augusta, a postgraduate year 2 (PGY2) pharmacy residency program was established at the CBOC in Athens. The program graduated its first resident in 2009; components of training included (1) disease state management at an anticoagulation clinic and a newly created disease state-focused pharmacotherapy clinic, (2) participation in the planning and implementation of a new lipid management service, (3) a variety of didactic, laboratory, and experiential teaching activities at the college of pharmacy, and (4) management experiences such as completing requests for nonformulary medications, management of drug shortages, adverse drug reaction reporting, and participation in meetings of local and regional VA pharmacy and therapeutics committees. The demonstrated value of the ongoing program led to position upgrades for two CBOC clinical pharmacists and the addition of a clinical faculty member, enabling the program to offer additional learning experiences and preceptorship opportunities. A PGY2 ambulatory care residency program established in a CBOC provided a novel practice setting for the resident, helped improve patient care and pharmacy student education, and assisted in the professional development of preceptors and providers at the training site.

  14. Current state of community pharmacy in Japan: practice, research, and future opportunities or challenges.

    PubMed

    Yamamura, Shigeo; Yamamoto, Nobuo; Oide, Sentato; Kitazawa, Shikifumi

    2006-11-01

    To describe the activities related to pharmaceutical care and research in community pharmacies in Japan. Japan is an aging society; the proportion of elderly people aged at least 65 years was 19.9% in 2005 and is expected to rise to 26.0% by 2015. This increase will result in ballooning healthcare costs. To curb the huge and rapidly increasing expenditure on medical treatment, many structural reforms have been undertaken in Japan. The healthcare services in community pharmacies will also undergo reforms to meet social needs and patient/customer requirements. In 2006, the undergraduate pharmacy program offered by universities was changed to a 6 year program, including 6 months of clinical training in both hospitals and community pharmacies. This change should provide an opportunity for community pharmacists and academics to communicate with each other, and we anticipate that it will further the research in community pharmacies. Accreditation programs will also improve the level of health care. The healthcare system should undergo reforms to address the problems related to Japan's low birth rate and the needs of an aging population. Such reforms are also required to ensure a healthy aging society and should not have adverse effects on socially vulnerable children and the elderly. Pharmacists should contribute to the development of a healthcare system for an aging society by providing appropriate pharmaceutical care. Since a large number of prescriptions are dispensed through community pharmacies, pharmacists have a greater opportunity to improve health care. In addition, pharmacist associations are encouraging their members to actively participate in home medical care services. An effective community healthcare program should reduce the need for institutional care. Although Japanese pharmacists are not fully capable of providing pharmaceutical care at this stage, they will play a crucial role in ensuring a healthy aging society in the future, particularly in the

  15. Free antibiotic and vaccination programmes in community pharmacies of Miami-Dade County, FL, USA.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Timothy P; Suda, Katie J; Mathur, Sunil Kumar; Harriman, David; Pham, Jenny; Aragon, Laura; Abbo, Lilian M; Hooton, Thomas M

    2015-02-01

    Some community pharmacies provide prescribed oral antibiotics for free to incentivize customers. This can influence prescribing practices and may increase inappropriate antibiotic use. Thus, pleas to incorporate education and/or vaccinations into these initiatives have been made by the CDC and IDSA. This study aims to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of free antibiotic programmes (FAPs) and free vaccination programmes (FVPs) offered by community pharmacies within a major US county. Additionally, we evaluated the association between FAP location and proximate socioeconomic status. A telephone survey was administered to all community pharmacies in operation and located in Miami-Dade County, FL, USA (n=668). Population characteristics at the five-digit ZIP code level were acquired from the 2010 US Census and American Communities Survey. An independent t-test, Kruskal-Wallis and logistic regression were used for statistical analysis. A total of 660 community pharmacies agreed to the telephone survey (response rate=98.8%). FAPs were present in 6.8% of pharmacies (n=45) and none incorporated an educational component targeted at patients or prescribers. Ciprofloxacin and amoxicillin were offered by all FAPs and 84.4% provided up to a 14 day supply (n=38). Thirty-four of 72 ZIP codes had an FAP and those with a programme had larger populations and higher incomes (P≤0.05). Family income≥$75,000 (P=0.0002) was an independent predictor of FAP availability. None of the surveyed pharmacies offered a FVP. Frequently provided by chain pharmacies and located in areas of higher income, FAPs within Miami-Dade County offer broad-spectrum antibiotics for long durations without additional education to patients or prescribers. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Documenting Student Engagement Using an Intention/Reflection Exercise during an Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fierke, Kerry K.; Lepp, Gardner A.

    2015-01-01

    The article shares the outcomes of a practice called Intention/Reflection (I/R) when applied to a group of ten students in a five-week course involving an international advanced pharmacy practice experience. Developed by the authors and founded on a combination of theoretical principles, this practice is unique because of the blend of formative…

  17. Documenting Student Engagement Using an Intention/Reflection Exercise during an Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fierke, Kerry K.; Lepp, Gardner A.

    2015-01-01

    The article shares the outcomes of a practice called Intention/Reflection (I/R) when applied to a group of ten students in a five-week course involving an international advanced pharmacy practice experience. Developed by the authors and founded on a combination of theoretical principles, this practice is unique because of the blend of formative…

  18. The Raison D’être for the Community Pharmacy and the Community Pharmacist in Sweden: A Qualitative Interview Study

    PubMed Central

    Wisell, Kristin; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark

    2015-01-01

    Community pharmacies are balancing between business (selling medicines and other products) and healthcare (using the pharmacists’ knowledge in order to improve drug utilization). This balance could be affected by regulations decided upon by politicians, but also influenced by others. The aim of this study was to explore important stakeholders’ views on community pharmacy and community pharmacists in Sweden. The method used was that of semi-structured qualitative interviews. Political, professional, and patient organization representatives were interviewed. The results show that informants who are pharmacists or representatives of a professional pharmacist organization generally have a healthcare-centered view on community pharmacy/pharmacists. However, different views on how this orientation should be performed were revealed, ranging from being specialists to dealing with uncomplicated tasks. Political organization representatives generally had a more business-oriented view, where competition in the market was believed to be the main driving force for development. A third dimension in which competition was not stressed also emerged; that community pharmacies should primarily distribute medicines. This dimension was most prevalent among the political and patient organization representatives. One conclusion to be drawn is that no stakeholder seemed to have a clear vision or was willing to take the lead for the development of the community pharmacy sector.

  19. Tobacco Cessation through Community Pharmacies: Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices and Perceived Barriers among Pharmacists in Penang

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taha, Nur Akmar; Tee, Ooi Guat

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Tobacco cessation is the primary goal of tobacco control measures. Community pharmacists are possible providers of tobacco cessation counselling due to their close contact with the public and the availability of non-prescription nicotine replacement therapies in pharmacies. However, community pharmacists often do not provide tobacco…

  20. Tobacco Cessation through Community Pharmacies: Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices and Perceived Barriers among Pharmacists in Penang

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taha, Nur Akmar; Tee, Ooi Guat

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Tobacco cessation is the primary goal of tobacco control measures. Community pharmacists are possible providers of tobacco cessation counselling due to their close contact with the public and the availability of non-prescription nicotine replacement therapies in pharmacies. However, community pharmacists often do not provide tobacco…

  1. Evaluation of oral medication delivery devices provided by community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Honey, Brooke L; Condren, Michelle; Phillips, Christina; Votruba, Allyson

    2013-05-01

    Oral liquids remain common medication dosage forms used for patients who have difficulty swallowing. However, liquids require a delivery device and thus have been linked to medication administration errors. This study identified medication delivery devices available at pharmacies. Delivery devices were obtained from area pharmacies and analyzed for units of measurement, abbreviations, and largest/smallest measurable volume. A total of 58 devices were collected from 22 pharmacies. All devices were marked with mL, and 79% were additionally marked in teaspoons. The 5-mL syringe was the only device dispensed at 14% of locations. Other devices included the dosing spoon, dropper, and cup. The largest measurable volume was 30 mL, whereas the smallest was 0.01 mL, with significant variability among devices. A more consistent approach in prescribing units of measurement is needed. Prescribing in milliliters is an optimal choice because of the accessibility of measuring devices containing this measurement.

  2. Standardization of rotation schedules for pharmacy students' advanced practice rotations and potential impact on rotation site availability.

    PubMed

    Brackbill, M L; Weist, P L; Coffey, W L

    2009-08-01

    Increasing enrollment in pharmacy schools has led to a shortage of adequate advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) sites. We sought to assess our preceptors' support for a standardized rotation schedule for the multiple schools that compete for APPE sites in our area. A secondary objective was to ascertain preceptors' beliefs about the impact a regional standardized rotation schedule might have on the number of students their sites would be able to accept on rotation. A short questionnaire was developed. All APPE preceptors at our institution were invited to participate by e-mail, telephone and/or U.S. mail. A total of 232 preceptors were contacted; questionnaires were returned by 133 preceptors (57%). A proposed region-wide rotation schedule was supported by 75.2% of respondents. Most (79%) believed that the standardization of schedules will not affect the number of students they will be able to accommodate on rotations, while 18.1% believed the new schedule will allow them to accept more students. APPE preceptors in our area generally support standardization of pharmacy students' community rotation schedules, and this may increase the APPE availability but perhaps for only a minority of sites.

  3. Psychometric Properties of the AHRQ Community Pharmacy Survey on Patient Safety Culture: A Factor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Aboneh, Ephrem A.; Look, Kevin; Stone, Jamie; Lester, Corey; Chui, Michelle A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) developed a hospital patient safety culture survey in 2004, and has adapted this survey to other healthcare settings, such as nursing homes and medical offices, and most recently community pharmacies. However, it is unknown if safety culture dimensions developed in hospital settings can be transferred to community pharmacies. The aim of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Community Pharmacy Survey on Patient Safety Culture. Method The survey was administered to 543 community pharmacists in [state], United States. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess the fit of our data with the proposed AHRQ model. Exploratory factor analysis was used to determine the underlying factor structure. Internal consistency reliabilities were calculated. Results A total of 433 usable surveys were returned (response rate of 80%). Results from the confirmatory factor analysis showed inadequate model fit for the original 36 item, 11-factor structure. Exploratory factor analysis showed that a modified 27 item, 4-factor structure better reflected the underlying safety culture dimensions in community pharmacies. The communication openness factor, with 3 items, dropped in its entirety while 6 items dropped from multiple factors. The remaining 27 items redistributed to form the 4-factor structure: safety related communication, staff training and work environment, organizational response to safety events, and staffing, work pressure and pace. Cronbach's α of 0.95 suggested good internal consistency. Conclusion Dimensions related to safety culture in a community pharmacy environment may differ from those in other healthcare settings such as in hospitals. Our findings suggest that validation studies need to be conducted before applying safety dimensions from other healthcare settings into community pharmacies. PMID:26208535

  4. What proportion of prescription items dispensed in community pharmacies are eligible for the New Medicine Service?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The payment structure for the New Medicine Service (NMS) in England is based on the assumption that 0.5% of prescription items dispensed in community pharmacies are eligible for the service. This assumption is based on a theoretical calculation. This study aimed to find out the actual proportion of prescription items eligible for the NMS dispensed in community pharmacies in order to compare this with the theoretical assumption. The study also aimed to investigate whether the proportion of prescription items eligible for the NMS is affected by pharmacies’ proximity to GP practices. Methods The study collected data from eight pharmacies in Nottingham belonging to the same large chain of pharmacies. Pharmacies were grouped by distance from the nearest GP practice and sampled to reflect the distribution by distance of all pharmacies in Nottingham. Data on one thousand consecutive prescription items were collected from each pharmacy and the number of NMS eligible items recorded. All NHS prescriptions were included in the sample. Data were analysed and proportions calculated with 95% confidence intervals used to compare the study results against the theoretical figure of 0.5% of prescription items being eligible for the NMS. Results A total of 8005 prescription items were collected (a minimum of 1000 items per pharmacy) of which 17 items were eligible to receive the service. The study found that 0.25% (95% confidence intervals: 0.14% to 0.36%) of prescription items were eligible for the NMS which differs significantly from the theoretical assumption of 0.5%. The opportunity rate for the service was lower, 0.21% (95% confidence intervals: 0.10% to 0.32%) of items, as some items eligible for the NMS did not translate into opportunities to offer the service. Of all the prescription items collected in the pharmacies, 28% were collected by patient representatives. Conclusions The results of this study show that the proportion of items eligible for the NMS

  5. Patient preferences for healthcare delivery through community pharmacy settings in the USA: A discrete choice study.

    PubMed

    Feehan, M; Walsh, M; Godin, J; Sundwall, D; Munger, M A

    2017-06-18

    In order to improve public health, it is necessary to facilitate patients' easy access to affordable high-quality primary health care, and one enhanced approach to do so may be to provide primary healthcare services in the community pharmacy setting. Discrete choice experiments to evaluate patient demand for services in pharmacy are relatively limited and have been hampered by a focus on only a few service alternatives, most focusing on changes in more traditional pharmacy services. The study aim was to gauge patient preferences explicitly for primary healthcare services that could be delivered through community pharmacy settings in the USA, using a very large sample to accommodate multiple service delivery options. An online survey was administered to a total of 9202 adult patients from the general population. A subsequent online survey was administered to 50 payer reimbursement decision-makers. The patient survey included a discrete choice experiment (DCE) which showed competing scenarios describing primary care service offerings. The respondents chose which scenario would be most likely to induce them to switch from their current pharmacy, and an optimal patient primary care service model was derived. The likelihood this model would be reimbursed was then determined in the payer survey. The final optimal service configuration that would maximize patient preference included the pharmacy: offering appointments to see a healthcare provider in the pharmacy, having access to their full medical record, provide point-of-care diagnostic testing, offer health preventive screening, provide limited physical examinations such as measuring vital signs, and drug prescribing in the pharmacy. The optimal model had the pharmacist as the provider; however, little change in demand was evident if the provider was a nurse-practitioner or physician's assistant. The demand for this optimal model was 2-fold higher (25.5%; 95% Bayesian precision interval (BPI) 23.5%-27.0%) than for a

  6. A study protocol: a community pharmacy-based intervention for improving the management of sleep disorders in the community settings

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sleep disorders are very common in the community and are estimated to affect up to 45% of the world’s population. Pharmacists are in a position to give advice and provide appropriate services to individuals who are unable to easily access medical care. The purpose of this study is to develop an intervention to improve the management of sleep disorders in the community. The aims are– (1) to evaluate the effectiveness of a community pharmacy-based intervention in managing sleep disorders, (2) to evaluate the role of actigraph as an objective measure in monitoring certain sleep disorders and (3) to evaluate the extended role of community pharmacists in managing sleep disorders. This intervention is developed to monitor individuals undergoing treatment and overcome the difficulties in validating self-reported feedback. Method/design This is a community-based intervention, prospective, controlled trial, with one intervention group and one control group, comparing individuals receiving a structured intervention with those receiving usual care for sleep-related disorders at community pharmacies. Discussion This study will demonstrate the utilisation and efficacy of community pharmacy-based intervention to manage sleep disorders in the community, and will assess the possibility of implementing this intervention into the community pharmacy workflow. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry: ACTRN12612000825853 PMID:24533916

  7. Community pharmacy based research activity in India: A bibliometric study of the past ten years.

    PubMed

    Basak, Subal Chandra; Sathyanarayana, Dondeti

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze and record the published evidence regarding community pharmacy practice in India during the past decade (1998-2008). A bibliometric review analysis of the original papers was undertaken to assess the different aspects of community pharmacy practice in India. The MEDLINE, Index Copernicus, IndMed, DOAJ databases and the journals such as Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Indian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy were used as data sources. Type of papers, type of journals, category of papers, production indicators and impact factor of the journals were analyzed. Thirty papers were included in the study. The papers were published in 13 different journals, 33.3% of them being in the Indian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy. The average number of authors per paper was 2.73 (SD=1.41). Impact factor was available for only three journals. There are limited studies being published in India which cover the community pharmacy related activities in India. The key indicators which emerge from the literature review present some fundamental challenges to the development of the role of the community pharmacist in India.

  8. Community pharmacy based research activity in India: A bibliometric study of the past ten years

    PubMed Central

    Basak, Subal Chandra; Sathyanarayana, Dondeti

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to analyze and record the published evidence regarding community pharmacy practice in India during the past decade (1998-2008). Methods: A bibliometric review analysis of the original papers was undertaken to assess the different aspects of community pharmacy practice in India. The MEDLINE, Index Copernicus, IndMed, DOAJ databases and the journals such as Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Indian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy were used as data sources. Type of papers, type of journals, category of papers, production indicators and impact factor of the journals were analyzed. Results: Thirty papers were included in the study. The papers were published in 13 different journals, 33.3% of them being in the Indian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy. The average number of authors per paper was 2.73 (SD=1.41). Impact factor was available for only three journals. Conclusions: There are limited studies being published in India which cover the community pharmacy related activities in India. The key indicators which emerge from the literature review present some fundamental challenges to the development of the role of the community pharmacist in India. PMID:23093877

  9. A qualitative study examining HIV Antiretroviral Adherence Counseling and Support in Community Pharmacies

    PubMed Central

    Cocohoba, Jennifer; Comfort, Megan; Kianfar, Hamaseh; Johnson, Mallory O.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To use qualitative research methods to obtain an in-depth understanding of how antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence support and counseling is provided in HIV-focused community pharmacies. To determine relevant facilitators and barriers around adherence support from both patient’s and pharmacist’s perspectives. METHODS Qualitative research study of patients who patronize and pharmacists employed at HIV-focused pharmacies in the San Francisco Bay Area. Participants were recruited using flyers at HIV clinics, community-based organizations, and using newsletter blurbs. Transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory methods to determine emergent themes in the data. RESULTS 19 eligible patients with a self-reported diagnosis of HIV, taking their current ART regimen for at least 3 months, and who obtained their ART from a community pharmacy in the San Francisco Bay Area were included. 9 pharmacists employed at 13 different pharmacy locations frequented by participants were interviewed. Emergent themes included descriptions of pharmacy adherence counseling and support, roles and responsibilities regarding medication adherence, barriers to providing adherence support, and feeling connected as a facilitator to adherence support relationships. CONCLUSION Pharmacists provide diverse types of ART adherence support and are uniquely positioned to help clients manage their medications. Additional training on developing relationships with patients and advertising regarding their adherence services may further the role of community pharmacists in supporting antiretroviral adherence. PMID:23806059

  10. How to enhance public health service utilization in community pharmacy?: general public and health providers' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Saramunee, Kritsanee; Krska, Janet; Mackridge, Adam; Richards, Jacqueline; Suttajit, Siritree; Phillips-Howard, Penelope

    2014-01-01

    Community pharmacists (PHs) in England are increasingly providing a range of public health services. However, the general public view pharmacists as drug experts and not experts in health, and therefore, services may be underutilized. To explore experiences and views of 4 groups of participants, the general public, PHs, general practitioners (GPs), and other stakeholders (STs) on pharmacy-based public health services, and identify potential factors affecting service use. The study was undertaken in a locality of North West England. Three focus groups were conducted with the general public (n=16), grouped by socioeconomic status. Fourteen semistructured interviews were undertaken with PHs (n=9), GPs (n=2), and STs (n=3). Discussions/interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed thematically. All 4 groups of participants agreed that community pharmacies are a good source of advice on medicines and minor ailments but were less supportive of public health services. Six factors were identified affecting utilization of pharmacy services: community pharmacy environment, pharmacist and support staff, service publicity, general public, GP services, and health care system and policies. Crucial obstacles that could inhibit service utilization are perceptions of both the general public and other health providers toward pharmacists' competencies, privacy and confidentiality in pharmacies, high dispensing workload, and inadequate financial support. Networking between local health professionals could enhance confidence in service delivery, general awareness, and thus utilization. Community pharmacy has the potential to deliver public health services, although the impact on public health may be limited. Addressing the factors identified could help to increase utilization and impact of pharmacy public health services. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Community pharmacy in Australia: a health hub destination of the future.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Sara S; Wheeler, Amanda J; Sav, Adem; King, Michelle A; Whitty, Jennifer A; Kendall, Elizabeth; Kelly, Fiona

    2013-01-01

    Rates of chronic illness are rising in Australia and as medications are frequently used in the management of a range of chronic conditions, community pharmacists are in an ideal position to better assist these consumers. There is currently limited information as to how pharmacy can do this from the perspective of consumer health organizations, health advocates and professional support organizations. To explore new roles, opportunities and any associated barriers for community pharmacy to better assist consumers with chronic illnesses. Representatives of non-government consumer health organizations (n = 10) were interviewed from the key health priority areas emphasized by the Australian government. Health advocates (n = 3), innovative health care professionals (n = 4) and representatives of health care professional organizations (n = 4) from pharmacy and medicine also participated. Interviews were analyzed via thematic analysis. Twenty-one in-depth interviews were conducted. The core finding was the potential for community pharmacies to become a health hub destination, whereby pharmacy staff assist consumers with chronic conditions to: navigate the health system (e.g., provide information on support services), manage their medications, and provide health advocacy. Participants expressed their concern that consumers may not be aware of the breadth of the pharmacist's expertise and that further collaboration is needed with non-government consumer health organizations and other health providers. Emphasis was placed on the improvement of the pharmacist's current role, particularly in the area of medication advice and accessibility, with the current pharmacy remuneration model identified as a barrier to becoming a health hub destination. The eventual progression toward a health hub destination was seen to be important to better assist consumers with chronic conditions. This focuses on a more proactive approach to care encompassing simple advice, referrals to consumer

  12. Use of CLIA-waived point-of-care tests for infectious diseases in community pharmacies in the United States.

    PubMed

    Weber, Natalie C; Klepser, Michael E; Akers, Julie M; Klepser, Donald G; Adams, Alex J

    2016-01-01

    Review of point-of-care (POC) testing in community pharmacies, availability and specifications of CLIA-waived infectious disease POC tests, and provide recommendations for future community pharmacy POC models in an effort to improve patient outcomes while reducing antibiotic resistance. PubMed and Medscape were searched for the following keywords: infectious disease, community pharmacy, rapid diagnostic tests, rapid assay, and POC tests. All studies utilizing POC tests in community pharmacies for infectious disease were included. Studies, articles, recommendations, and posters were reviewed and information categorized into general implementation of POC testing in community pharmacies, CLIA-waived tests available, Influenza, Group A Streptococcus pharyngitis, Helicobacter pylori, HIV and Hepatitis C. POC testing provides a unique opportunity for community pharmacists to implement collaborative disease management programmes for infectious diseases and reduce over-prescribing of antibiotics and improve patient outcomes through early detection, treatment and/or referral to a specialist.

  13. Improving student knowledge in medication management through an advanced pharmacy practice experience.

    PubMed

    Childress, Bc; Bosler, Julie N; Beck, Morgan

    2013-06-01

    To assess the impact of an advanced pharmacy practice rotation on student therapeutic knowledge, confidence in performing medication therapy management (MTM), and ability to use MTM documentation platforms. Pretest/post-test quasi-experiment. This study was conducted at the InterNational Center for Advanced Pharmacy Services (INCAPS), a licensed pharmacy that provides MTM services to geriatric patients in Louisville, Kentucky. This research evaluated 37 advanced pharmacy practice students who participated in the five-week learning rotation at INCAPS between October 1, 2011, and June 30, 2012. Thirty-seven students were tested before (pretest) beginning the rotation. During the rotation, students performed daily MTM consultations and participated in weekly topic discussions pertaining to relevant areas of chronic disease management and geriatric pharmacotherapy. Following the five-week rotation, a post-test was administered to these 37 students to analyze the changes in their knowledge. The primary outcome measure was the test score for the assessment of chronic disease management and geriatric pharmacotherapy. Compared with baseline, post-test scores showed a statistically significant improvement in the areas that were assessed-osteoporosis, hypertension, diabetes, asthma/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and inappropriate medication use in the elderly. A post-rotation survey also reflected positive improvements in student confidence when performing MTM consults for geriatric patients. The five-week MTM-focused rotation at INCAPS with weekly topic discussions and daily MTM consults showed a positive impact on students' ability to manage medication therapy for chronically ill and geriatric patients.

  14. Effect of strategic planning education on attitudes and perceptions of independent community pharmacy owners/managers.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Donald L

    2007-01-01

    To assess the impact of formal education program participation on the attitudes and perceptions of independent community pharmacy owners/managers toward strategic planning. Cross-sectional study. United States; June 4-July 30, 2004. Nationwide random sample of 1,250 owners/managers of independent community pharmacies. Mailed survey. Strategic planning formal education program participation. Comprehensiveness of strategic planning. Attitudes and perceptions of owners/managers of independent community pharmacies toward strategic planning. A total of 527 (42.1%) usable questionnaires were returned. Only 124 (23.5%) respondents indicated that they participated in a formal strategic planning education program. However, of the 141 (26.85%) respondents who indicated that they had conducted strategic planning for their community pharmacy, 111 (89.5%) had participated in a formal strategic planning education program. A significant association was detected between formal education program participation and the conducting of strategic planning (P< or =0.0001). Significant differences were observed for all attitudes and perceptions of independent community pharmacy owners/managers toward strategic planning based on program participation (P< or =0.0001). Finally, respondents who indicated that they had participated in a formal education program had a significantly higher comprehensiveness of strategic planning rating than those respondents who did not participate in an educational program (P< or =0.0001). A significant association exists between formal strategic planning education program participation and the conducting of strategic planning by owner/managers of independent community pharmacies, and those participating in such programs have significantly different attitudes and perceptions toward the conducting of strategic planning and have a significantly higher comprehensiveness of strategic planning rating.

  15. Educational Card Games to Teach Pharmacotherapeutics in an Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience

    PubMed Central

    Jeffres, Meghan N.; Bhakta, Ragini

    2011-01-01

    Objective To implement and assess the effectiveness of card games to teach pharmacotherapeutic topics to pharmacy students and to determine the relationship between students' assessment scores and their learning styles. Design Two card games, Cardiology Go Fish and Infectious Diseases Gin Rummy, were created and taught to pharmacy students enrolled in an advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE). Students were required to play each game for 1 hour, 3 times over a 6-week period. Assessment Forty-five students completed a 90-question assessment administered prior to and after the 6-week period in which the games were played. Students' cardiology and infectious diseases assessment scores improved significantly as compared with scores on pharmacy practice questions, 19.2% vs. 5.1%, (p < 0.001) and 10.3% vs. 5.1% (p = 0.006), respectively. Students learned from participating in the games regardless of their learning preference as determined by the VARK (visual, aural, read/write, kinesthetic) questionnaire; however, the cardiology assessment scores of students with a preference for kinetic learning improved the most. Conclusions Incorporating innovative learning tools such as card games into the curriculum of APPEs can enhance the educational experience of pharmacy students. PMID:21519422

  16. Educational card games to teach pharmacotherapeutics in an advanced pharmacy practice experience.

    PubMed

    Barclay, Sean M; Jeffres, Meghan N; Bhakta, Ragini

    2011-03-10

    To implement and assess the effectiveness of card games to teach pharmacotherapeutic topics to pharmacy students and to determine the relationship between students' assessment scores and their learning styles. Two card games, Cardiology Go Fish and Infectious Diseases Gin Rummy, were created and taught to pharmacy students enrolled in an advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE). Students were required to play each game for 1 hour, 3 times over a 6-week period. Forty-five students completed a 90-question assessment administered prior to and after the 6-week period in which the games were played. Students' cardiology and infectious diseases assessment scores improved significantly as compared with scores on pharmacy practice questions, 19.2% vs. 5.1%, (p < 0.001) and 10.3% vs. 5.1% (p = 0.006), respectively. Students learned from participating in the games regardless of their learning preference as determined by the VARK (visual, aural, read/write, kinesthetic) questionnaire; however, the cardiology assessment scores of students with a preference for kinetic learning improved the most. Incorporating innovative learning tools such as card games into the curriculum of APPEs can enhance the educational experience of pharmacy students.

  17. Prevalence and types of disease management programs in community pharmacies in California.

    PubMed

    Law, Anandi V; Okamoto, Mark P; Chang, Peter S

    2005-01-01

    To (1) evaluate the prevalence and types of disease management (DM) programs provided by independent and chain community pharmacies in the state of California, (2) examine the interest among community pharmacists in establishing programs, and (3) assess perceived barriers to developing a successful DM program in community pharmacy. An exploratory telephone survey was conducted from February 2003 to February 2004 to collect data from community (primarily independent and chainstore) pharmacies across California. The survey evaluated existence (or lack of) and types of DM programs in community pharmacies in California. Pharmacies that did not have a DM program were queried on their interest and decisionmaking authority in establishing new programs. Pharmacies that had existing DM programs were sent a follow-up survey to determine the details of the DM programs, including challenges in establishing DM programs, reimbursement issues, and program effectiveness. The sample comprised 1,875 pharmacies, 60 (3.2%) of which had existing DM programs. There were significantly more independent pharmacies (37) with DM programs than chain-store pharmacies (23), P<0.001. There was a statistically significant difference between independent and chain pharmacies in operating hours, number of pharmacist and nonpharmacist staff members per day, and proximity to a clinic or hospital (P<0.05). The most common type of DM program was diabetes, and the second most common type was asthma. Limited time, limited staff, and limited reimbursement were the 3 most commonly reported barriers to establishing new DM programs. About 20% of the sample that did not have a DM program reported interest in developing DM programs, and an equal percentage reported having the decision-making authority to start a program. There were no differences between independent and chain pharmacies on interest (P = 0.234); however, there were significantly more chain pharmacists that did not have the decision

  18. Implementation of a mental health medication management intervention in Australian community pharmacies: Facilitators and challenges.

    PubMed

    Hattingh, H Laetitia; Kelly, Fiona; Fowler, Jane; Wheeler, Amanda J

    Community pharmacists are in an ideal position to promote and provide mental health medication management services. However, formalised or structured pharmacy services to support consumers with mental health conditions are scarce. Australian mental health consumers indicated a need for targeted community pharmacy mental health services which presented an opportunity to develop an intervention that were integrated with remunerated professional services. The study aimed to pilot a mental health medication management intervention in Australian community pharmacies. Pharmacists worked in partnership with consumers, carers and mental health workers over three to six months to set and support achievement of individual goals related to medicines use, physical health and mental wellbeing. This paper provides a comparison of community pharmacies that successfully delivered the intervention with those that did not and identifies facilitators and challenges to service implementation. One hundred pharmacies opted to pilot the delivery of the intervention in three Australian states (Queensland, Western Australia and northern New South Wales). Of those, 55 successfully delivered the intervention (completers) whilst 45 were unsuccessful (non-completers). A mixed methods approach, including quantitative pharmacy surveys and qualitative semi-structured interviews, was used to gather data from participating pharmacies. Following intervention development, 142 pharmacists and 21 pharmacy support staff attended training workshops, received resource kits and ongoing support from consumer and pharmacist mentors throughout intervention implementation. Baseline quantitative data was collected from each pharmacy on staff profile, volume of medicines dispensed, the range of professional services delivered and relationships with health professionals. At the completion of the study participants were invited to complete an online exit survey and take part in a semi-structured interview that

  19. Characterisation of patient encounters in community pharmacies (with special focus on self-medication).

    PubMed

    De Bolle, Leen; Mehuys, Els; Christiaens, Thierry; Van Tongelen, Inge; Remon, Jean-Paul; Boussery, Koen

    2015-06-01

    To characterise patient encounters during routine drug dispensing in community pharmacies. Cross-sectional survey in community pharmacies (Belgium). Fifty-four per cent of all encounters (N = 1650) concerned patients carrying a prescription, of which 39% were prescriptions for new medication and 61% were repeat prescriptions. In 62% of all encounters, patients asked for non-prescribed medication. Almost one-third of self-medication requests related to special patient populations (mainly children and elderly). CONCLUSIONS : Many encounters related to self-medication, and a substantial number of these self-medication requests concerned vulnerable patient populations. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  20. Pharmacy diabetes care program: analysis of two screening methods for undiagnosed type 2 diabetes in Australian community pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Krass, I; Mitchell, B; Clarke, P; Brillant, M; Dienaar, R; Hughes, J; Lau, P; Peterson, G; Stewart, K; Taylor, S; Wilkinson, J; Armour, C

    2007-03-01

    To compare the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of two methods of screening for undiagnosed type 2 diabetes in Australian community pharmacy. A random sample of 30 pharmacies were allocated into two groups: (i) tick test only (TTO); or (ii) sequential screening (SS) method. Both methods used the same initial risk assessment for type 2 diabetes. Subjects with one or more risk factors in the TTO group were offered a referral to their general practitioner (GP). Under the SS method, patients with risk factors were offered a capillary blood glucose test and those identified as being at risk referred to a GP. The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of these approaches was assessed. A total of 1286 people were screened over a period of 3 months. The rate of diagnosis of diabetes was significantly higher for SS compared with the TTO method (1.7% versus 0.2%; p=0.008). The SS method resulted in fewer referrals to the GP and a higher uptake of referrals than the TTO method and so was the more cost-effective screening method. SS is the superior method from a cost and efficacy perspective. It should be considered as the preferred option for screening by community based pharmacists in Australia.

  1. An organizational culture gap analysis in 6 New Zealand community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Scahill, Shane L; Carswell, Peter; Harrison, Jeff

    2011-09-01

    The barriers to moving forward and meeting the expectations of policy makers and professional pharmacy bodies appear to relate to the organizational culture of community pharmacy. Despite the importance of cultural change for business transformation, organizational culture has largely gone unnoticed in community pharmacy practice research. To perform an organizational culture gap analysis in 6 New Zealand community pharmacies. Mean scores from a cultural rating survey (n=47) were calculated for 8 cultural clusters and mapped onto a typical and a beneficial pattern match (ladder diagram) for each case site. These ladder diagrams provide an understanding of the gap between the 2 ratings based on the gradient of the lines joining cultural clusters-the rungs of the ladder. Software can be used to generate a Pearson correlation describing the strength of the relationship between the typical and beneficial ratings. Eight cultural clusters were mapped: "leadership and staff management"; "valuing each other and the team"; "free-thinking, fun and, open to challenge"; "trusted behavior"; "customer relations"; "focus on external integration"; "provision of systematic advice"; and the "embracing of innovation." Analysis suggested a high level of correlation between the means of the typical and beneficial ratings. Although the variance between average ratings might be quite small, the relative difference can still be meaningful to participants in the cultural setting. The diagrams suggest a requirement for external integration, the provision of systematic advice, and the embracing of innovation to become more typical in most pharmacies. Trusted behavior is the most typical and most beneficial cultural dimension in most pharmacies, whereas valuing each other and the team is the least beneficial. Gaps in organizational culture have been identified through the use of a rating survey. The dimensions of focus on external integration, providing systematic advice, and embracing

  2. Community Pharmacy Use Patterns of Women with HIV and Women At Risk for HIV in the San Francisco Bay Area

    PubMed Central

    Cocohoba, Jennifer; Hsu, Tracy; Greenblatt, Ruth M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Community pharmacies play a key role in the care of patients when dispensing antiretroviral therapy. The primary objective of this study was to describe patterns of community pharmacy use of women enrolled in the San Francisco site of the Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). The secondary objective was to determine whether the number of pharmacies a patient uses is associated with specific patient characteristics or virologic outcomes in HIV positive women. Objectives The primary objective was to determine factors which were associated with using multiple dispensing pharmacies to obtain medications in a population of HIV+ and at-risk women. The secondary objective was to determine whether use of multiple pharmacies was associated with immunologic or virologic changes for the subset of HIV+ women. Methods A survey on community pharmacy use was distributed to San Francisco WIHS participants from 2004–2007. Poisson, linear, and logistic regression methods were used to determine associations between specific patient characteristics and use of multiple dispensing pharmacies and associations between multiple pharmacy use and CD4+ cell count or viral load changes. Results There was a trend towards an association between HIV status and use of multiple pharmacies (IRR=1.23; 95% CI 1.00–1.51, p =0.05). In multivariable analyses of HIV positive women, use of additional pharmacies (over the primary pharmacy) during the study period was not associated with statistically significant changes in CD4+ count or viral load. Conclusion HIV positive participants may tend to use multiple pharmacies more frequently than their HIV negative counterparts, though this practice does not appear to be associated with poorer immunologic or virologic outcomes. Future studies should be conducted to determine whether different patient patterns of community pharmacy use affect HIV treatment outcomes. PMID:26478916

  3. Impact and feasibility of a community pharmacy bone mineral density screening and education program.

    PubMed

    Cerulli, Jennifer; Zeolla, Mario M

    2004-01-01

    To assess the impact of a community pharmacy-based bone mineral density (BMD) screening and education program and determine the feasibility of providing such a service in community pharmacies. Uncontrolled study using convenience sample combined with economic feasibility analysis. Two independent and four chain community pharmacies. Women age 18 years and older. Pharmacy patrons were invited to a free BMD screening. Demographic information was collected, and patients were screened using an ultrasound BMD analyzer. BMD results were reviewed with the participant during an education session and forwarded to primary care providers. Questionnaires were completed at baseline and after 3 months. Time spent with each participant, project costs, and willingness to pay for screenings were used to estimate feasibility; questionnaire responses assessed impact of the intervention on participants' health care decisions, lifestyle modifications, and communications with their prescribers about osteoporosis. Of the 140 women screened at baseline, 82% indicated the screening was "very useful" for making health care decisions, and 91% believed it encouraged them to talk with their physicians about osteoporosis. At 3 months, 11% of patients reported having improved exercise habits, and 30% had increased their calcium and vitamin D intake. A total of 41% of respondents indicated a willingness to pay dollar 20 or more for the BMD screening service. The average screening time was 23 minutes. Based on fixed costs of the screening device and materials and variable costs associated with personnel time, a community pharmacy could generate a positive net income with a BMD screening program. Cost of the BMD analyzer could be recovered through revenue generated in 24-35 screening days, depending on the fees charged. A community pharmacy osteoporosis program had a positive impact on patient health care by influencing lifestyle modifications, increasing use of medications, and encouraging

  4. Survey of dispensing error practices in community pharmacies in Finland: a nationwide study.

    PubMed

    Teinilä, Tuula; Grönroos, Virpi; Airaksinen, Marja

    2009-01-01

    To assess the actions taken to manage dispensing errors, to investigate pharmacists' perceptions of ideal methods for managing dispensing errors, and to evaluate the reliability of in-house dispensing error reporting systems. National cross-sectional survey. Main outlets of all privately owned Finnish community pharmacies (n = 599) in March 2005. Owners and operational managers of Finnish community pharmacies. Mail survey containing structured and open-ended questions. Current actions taken in the dispensing error managing process, pharmacist perceptions on the ideal ways of action to manage dispensing errors, and reported dispensing error rates. 340 participants responded to the survey (response rate 57%). Almost 90% of the responding outlets documented dispensing errors at least occasionally, 47% always documented, and 29% almost always documented. Discussion about dispensing errors was considered the most ideal method for managing dispensing errors in the pharmacy (76% of the respondents), followed by documenting them (45%). The error rate collected from in-house error reporting systems was 14 per 100,000 prescriptions dispensed in 2004. Most Finnish community pharmacies have an in-house dispensing error reporting system, but reporting has not been fully implemented in all pharmacies. The actual error reporting in most Finnish community pharmacies is not reliable and needs further development and coordination. Discussing dispensing errors and documenting dispensing errors were reported as the most ideal methods for managing errors. Respondents indicated a hope that dispensing errors would be discussed more frequently with the whole staff. These findings demonstrate that Finnish community pharmacists are aware of some of the principles of managing dispensing errors based on the system approach and the benefits of error reporting systems in managing dispensing errors.

  5. Exploring an increased role for Australian community pharmacy in mental health professional service delivery: evaluation of the literature().

    PubMed

    Hattingh, H Laetitia; Scahill, Shane; Fowler, Jane L; Wheeler, Amanda J

    2016-12-01

    Australian general practitioners primarily treat mental health problems by prescribing medication dispensed by community pharmacists. Pharmacists therefore have regular interactions with mental health consumers and carers. This narrative review explored the potential role of community pharmacy in mental health services. Medline, CINAHL, ProQuest, Emerald, PsycINFO, Science Direct, PubMed, Web of Knowledge and IPA were utilised. The Cochrane Library as well as grey literature and "lay" search engines such as GoogleScholar were also searched. Four systematic reviews and ten community pharmacy randomised controlled trials were identified. Various relevant reviews outlining the impact of community pharmacy based disease state or medicines management services were also identified. International studies involving professional service interventions for mental health consumers could be contextualised for the Australian setting. Australian studies of pharmacy professional services for chronic physical health conditions provided further guidance for the expansion of community pharmacy mental health professional services.

  6. Examination of England's New Medicine Service (NMS) of complex health care interventions in community pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Latif, Asam; Waring, Justin; Watmough, Deborah; Barber, Nick; Chuter, Anthony; Davies, James; Salema, Nde-Eshimuni; Boyd, Matthew J; Elliott, Rachel A

    Community pharmacies are increasingly commissioned to deliver new, complex health interventions in response to the growing demands on family doctors and secondary health care services. Little is known about how these complex interventions are being accommodated and translated into the community pharmacy setting and whether their aims and objectives are realized in practice. The New Medicine Service (NMS) is a complex medicine management intervention that aims to support patients' adherence to newly prescribed medicines for a long-term condition. This study explores the recent implementation of the NMS in community pharmacies across England. It also seeks to understand how the service is becoming manifest in practice and what lessons can be learned for future service implementation. Structured, organizational ethnographic observations and in situ workplace interviews with pharmacists and support staff were undertaken within 23 English community pharmacies. Additionally, one-to-one, semi-structured interviews were carried out with 47 community pharmacists and 11 general practitioners (GPs). Observational and interview data were transcribed and analyzed thematically and guided by Damschroder's consolidated framework for implementation research. The NMS workload had been implemented and absorbed into pharmacists' daily routines alongside existing responsibilities with no extra resources and little evidence of reduction in other responsibilities. Pharmacists were pragmatic, simplifying, and adapting the NMS to facilitate its delivery and using discretion to circumvent perceived non-essential paperwork. Pharmacist understanding of the NMS was found to impact on what they believed should be achieved from the service. Despite pharmacists holding positive views about the value of the NMS, not all were convinced of its perceived benefits and necessity, with reports that many consultations did not identify any problems with the patients' medicines. GPs were generally

  7. Views of the Scottish general public on community pharmacy weight management services: international implications.

    PubMed

    Weidmann, Anita Elaine; Cunningham, Scott; Gray, Gwen; Hansford, Denise; Bermano, Giovanna; Stewart, Derek

    2012-04-01

    Obesity has reached pandemic levels, with more than 1.5 billion adults being affected worldwide. In Scotland two-thirds of men and more than half of women are either overweight or obese, placing Scotland overall third behind the United States of America and Mexico. All community pharmacies in Scotland are contracted to provide public health services such as smoking cessation and there is increasing interest in their contribution to weight management. Researching this area in Scotland may provide valuable information to facilitate the development of community pharmacy services in other parts of the UK and internationally. To describe the views of the Scottish general public on the provision of weight management services via community pharmacies. General public in Scotland. A cross-sectional postal questionnaire survey of 6,000 randomly selected members of the Scottish general public aged 18 years and over. Views on community pharmacy led weight management services. Questionnaires were returned by 20.6% (n = 1,236). Over half 60.1% (n = 751) agreed or strongly agreed that they had easy access to pharmacy services in general and around one-third agreed (35%; n = 438) that it was more convenient to obtain weight management advice from a pharmacist than it is to make an appointment with a GP. Most respondents however lacked awareness of the types of health services available through community pharmacy (13.2%; n = 162) and would not feel comfortable speaking to a pharmacist or medicines counter assistant about weight related issues (25%; n = 320). Concerns over privacy (47.3%; n = 592) and perceived lack of pharmacists' specialist knowledge (open comments) were identified as potential barriers to service uptake by the general public. Overall, respondents appear to be receptive to the idea of accessing weight management services through community pharmacy but a perceived lack of privacy, poor knowledge of pharmacists' skill level and of public health services available to

  8. Innvestigation on patient's and pharmacist's attitudes toward medical services in community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Hidehiko; Konno, Hirotaka; Shimamori, Yoshimitsu; Sugiyama, Hiroyuki; Yoshimachi, Masako; Kouno, Hiroyuki; Gotou, Teruaki; Hayase, Yukitoshi

    2009-05-01

    An investigation of patients' and pharmacists' attitudes toward medical services provided in community pharmacies was conducted in September, 2007. Respondents to the survey were patients and pharmacists in 160 stores of a chain pharmacy. The questionnaire consisted of 15 question items about pharmacy functions and three comprehensive evaluations of the pharmacy. The degree of importance and satisfaction was surveyed among 8995 patients, and the degree of importance and sufficiency was surveyed among 408 pharmacists. Multivariate analyses were performed using these data. Patients considered pharmacy functions as less important than did pharmacists for all items. The difference in attitude toword "the medication notebook" was particularly marked. Next, factor analysis was performed of the degree of importance in patients' and pharmacists' responses and three potential factors were extracted for each. However, the items constituting potential factors differed slightly between patients and pharmacists. Finally, multiple-regression analyses using three comprehensive evaluations as the independent variable and satisfaction with 15 items as a dependent variable were performed. In all three models, the standardization regression coefficient of "explanation of medicine" was large in the regression model of patients. On the other hand, the standardization regression coefficient of "consideration for patients" was large in the model of pharmacists. The influence of some patient attribute dummy variables was significant. Differences in the attitudes toward medical services and pharmacy functions were found between patients and pharmacists, and some items that should be improved were revealed.

  9. Design and implementation of a laboratory-based drug design and synthesis advanced pharmacy practice experience.

    PubMed

    Philip, Ashok; Stephens, Mark; Mitchell, Sheila L; Watkins, E Blake

    2015-04-25

    To provide students with an opportunity to participate in medicinal chemistry research within the doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum. We designed and implemented a 3-course sequence in drug design or drug synthesis for pharmacy students consisting of a 1-month advanced elective followed by two 1-month research advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs). To maximize student involvement, this 3-course sequence was offered to third-year and fourth-year students twice per calendar year. Students were evaluated based on their commitment to the project's success, productivity, and professionalism. Students also evaluated the course sequence using a 14-item course evaluation rubric. Student feedback was overwhelmingly positive. Students found the experience to be a valuable component of their pharmacy curriculum. We successfully designed and implemented a 3-course research sequence that allows PharmD students in the traditional 4-year program to participate in drug design and synthesis research. Students report the sequence enhanced their critical-thinking and problem-solving skills and helped them develop as independent learners. Based on the success achieved with this sequence, efforts are underway to develop research APPEs in other areas of the pharmaceutical sciences.

  10. Assessing the relationship between pharmacists' job satisfaction and over-the-counter counselling at community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Urbonas, Gvidas; Kubilienė, Loreta

    2016-04-01

    Community pharmacies have an increasing role in self-medication and community health is dependent on the quality of counselling services provided to patients. Some studies show that pharmacists' job satisfaction affects their work quality; other studies found that higher involvement in clinical services increases pharmacists' job satisfaction. To test the relationship between job satisfaction and over-the-counter counselling practice at community pharmacies. Community pharmacies in Lithuania. A convenience sample (n = 305) of community pharmacists participated in the cross-sectional survey where they expressed satisfaction with job and reported on their over-the-counter counselling behaviour on self-report scales. The Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling approach was employed for data analysis. The strength of the relationship between job satisfaction and over-the-counter counselling service. A bidirectional relationship between job satisfaction and over-the-counter counselling service was found. In addition, job satisfaction and over-the-counter counselling quality depended on pharmacists' age. Organizations were recommended to create a counselling friendly environment that would increase pharmacists' job satisfaction and, in return, counselling quality. Also, additional motivation of the retired pharmacists, as well as development of counselling skills of the younger pharmacy workforce, were seen as a means to improve both organizational climate and counselling quality over the counter.

  11. Pharmacists' role in handling problems with prescriptions for antithrombotic medication in Belgian community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Desmaele, S; De Wulf, I; Dupont, A G; Steurbaut, S

    2015-08-01

    Community pharmacists have an important task in the follow-up of patients treated with antithrombotics. When delivering these medicines, pharmacists can encounter drug-related problems (DRPs) with substantial clinical and economic impact. To investigate the amount and type of antithrombotic related DRPs as well as how community pharmacists handled these DRPs. Belgian community pharmacies. MSc pharmacy students of six Belgian universities collected data about all DRPs encountered by a pharmacist during ten half days of their pharmacy internship. Data were registered about DRPs detected at delivery and in an a posteriori setting, when consulting the medical history of the patient. Classification of the DRP, cause of the DRP, intervention and result of the intervention were registered. Amount and type of antotrombitocs related DRPs occurring in community pharmacies, as well as how community pharmacists handled these DRPs. 3.1 % of the 15,952 registered DRPs concerned antithrombotics. 79.3 % of these DRPs were detected at delivery and 20.7 % were detected a posteriori. Most antithrombotic-related DRPs concerned problems with the choice of the drug (mainly because of drug-drug interactions) or concerned logistic problems. Almost 80 % of the antithrombotic-related DRPs were followed by an intervention of the pharmacist, mainly at the patient's level, resulting in 90.1 % of these DRPs partially or totally solved. Different DRPs with antithrombotic medication occurred in Belgian community pharmacies. About 20 % was detected in an a posteriori setting, showing the benefit of medication review. Many of the encountered DRPs were of technical nature (60.7 %). These DRPs were time-consuming for the pharmacist to resolve and should be prevented. Most of the DRPs could be solved, demonstrating the added value of the community pharmacist as first line healthcare provider.

  12. Medication Incidents Related to Automated Dose Dispensing in Community Pharmacies and Hospitals - A Reporting System Study

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Ka-Chun; van den Bemt, Patricia M. L. A.; Bouvy, Marcel L.; Wensing, Michel; De Smet, Peter A. G. M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Automated dose dispensing (ADD) is being introduced in several countries and the use of this technology is expected to increase as a growing number of elderly people need to manage their medication at home. ADD aims to improve medication safety and treatment adherence, but it may introduce new safety issues. This descriptive study provides insight into the nature and consequences of medication incidents related to ADD, as reported by healthcare professionals in community pharmacies and hospitals. Methods The medication incidents that were submitted to the Dutch Central Medication incidents Registration (CMR) reporting system were selected and characterized independently by two researchers. Main Outcome Measures Person discovering the incident, phase of the medication process in which the incident occurred, immediate cause of the incident, nature of incident from the healthcare provider's perspective, nature of incident from the patient's perspective, and consequent harm to the patient caused by the incident. Results From January 2012 to February 2013 the CMR received 15,113 incidents: 3,685 (24.4%) incidents from community pharmacies and 11,428 (75.6%) incidents from hospitals. Eventually 1 of 50 reported incidents (268/15,113 = 1.8%) were related to ADD; in community pharmacies more incidents (227/3,685 = 6.2%) were related to ADD than in hospitals (41/11,428 = 0.4%). The immediate cause of an incident was often a change in the patient's medicine regimen or relocation. Most reported incidents occurred in two phases: entering the prescription into the pharmacy information system and filling the ADD bag. Conclusion A proportion of incidents was related to ADD and is reported regularly, especially by community pharmacies. In two phases, entering the prescription into the pharmacy information system and filling the ADD bag, most incidents occurred. A change in the patient's medicine regimen or relocation was the immediate causes of an incident

  13. Pediatric asthma medication therapy management through community pharmacy and primary care collaboration.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Courtney L; Luder, Heidi R; Beck, Andrew F; Bowen, Rachel; Heaton, Pamela C; Kahn, Robert S; Mansour, Mona; Obszarski, Stephen; Frede, Stacey M

    2016-01-01

    To design and implement a collaborative medication therapy management (MTM) program targeting pediatric patients with high-risk asthma in a community pharmacy. Underserved inner city of Cincinnati, OH. A large national grocery store chain pharmacy and an academic hospital developed a partnership aimed at improving asthma care for shared patients. An interdisciplinary project team was formed, including 2 clinical pharmacists, 1 pharmacy district clinical coordinator, 1 pharmacy division clinical coordinator, 1 associate professor at a college of pharmacy, 1 pharmacy resident, and 3 pediatric physicians. This pilot project involved 2 Kroger Pharmacy sites and Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center's (CCHMC) 3 pediatric primary care centers. Kroger and CCHMC staff identified shared high-risk asthma patients (those cared for at the included primary care centers who used Kroger for their medication fills) with the use of information from validated symptom assessments (Asthma Control Test), refill history, and recent health care utilization. Community pharmacists recruited jointly identified patients and provided a targeted MTM intervention. Education focused on asthma diagnosis, types of asthma medications, appropriate medication administration, and environmental triggers. Pharmacists suggested medication changes to prescribers via facsimile. Pharmacists followed up with patients in 30 days to assess asthma control, provide additional education, and propose further recommendations. Outcomes evaluated included the average number of recommendations made to patients and prescribers and acceptance rates for each of those measures. Six patients completed the project. Pharmacists provided an average of 3.7 recommendations to each patient and 1.5 to prescribers for each patient; 77.3% and 100% recommendations were accepted, respectively. This pilot project describes the design and implementation of a pharmacist-physician collaborative program for high-risk pediatric

  14. Over-the-counter sales of antibiotics from community pharmacies in Abu Dhabi.

    PubMed

    Dameh, Majd; Green, James; Norris, Pauline

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate over-the-counter sale of antibiotics from community pharmacies in Abu Dhabi city, focusing on the extent, demographic and socioeconomic determinants of this practice. The study was conducted in the capital of the United Arab Emirates, Abu Dhabi, and involved 17 randomly selected private pharmacies. A cross-sectional design using structured observations of 30 clients purchasing antibiotics from a pharmacy staff (either a pharmacist or pharmacy assistant) at each selected pharmacy. A total of 510 interactions were observed. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS. The extent and types of antibiotics sold over-the-counter in Abu Dhabi city as observed in the selected sample of community pharmacies, and the demographic and socioeconomic factors that contributed to this practice. Sixty eight percent (68.4%) of the observed antibiotic sales were sold over-the-counter without prescriptions. Injection antibiotics constituted 2.2% of the antibiotics sold, 45.5% of which were sold over-the-counter. Combination of penicillins including β-lactamase inhibitors (34.0%), penicillins with extended spectrum (22.3%) and second generation cephalosporins (11.2%) were the mostly commonly sold antibiotic groups. Respiratory conditions (63.1%) were the most frequent reason for purchasing antibiotics. Over-the-counter sales of antibiotics were related to client ethnicity and age, gender of pharmacy staff and health complaint. Our study revealed high sales of over-the-counter antibiotics, despite this being illegal. The ineffectiveness of antibiotics in treating respiratory conditions of viral origin and effects of such practice on the emergence of bacterial resistance necessitates prompt action.

  15. Medication Therapy Management in community pharmacy practice: core elements of an MTM service (version 1.0).

    PubMed

    2005-01-01

    To develop a model framework of Medication Therapy Management (MTM) in community pharmacy designed to improve care, enhance communication among patients and providers, improve collaboration among providers, and optimize medication use that leads to improved patient outcomes. Peer-reviewed literature, structured discussions with community pharmacy leaders and representatives from pharmacy benefit providers and health plans, and input from pharmacists and pharmacy associations. Building on an MTM consensus definition adopted by 11 national pharmacy organizations in July 2004, this model describes core elements of an MTM service that can be provided by pharmacists across the spectrum of community pharmacy. The model is structured for pharmacists to use with all patients in need of MTM services, both in the private and public sector. The model describes five core elements of MTM in the community pharmacy setting: medication therapy review (MTR), a personal medication record (PMR), a medication action plan (MAP), intervention and referral, and documentation and follow-up. The MTR can be comprehensive or targeted, depending onthe needs of the patient. The PMR and MAP are patient-centered documents intended to be used by the patient to improve medication self-management. A collaborative approach to patient care involving patients, pharmacists, and physicians and other health care providers is advocated in the model. General patient eligibility considerations are also described. A model framework for consideration by community pharmacists in developing MTM services is described. The model consists of five core elements for MTM service delivery in community pharmacy practice.

  16. Pharmacovigilance and adverse drug reaction reporting: a perspective of community pharmacists and pharmacy technicians in Sana’a, Yemen

    PubMed Central

    Al-Worafi, Yaser Mohammed; Kassab, Yaman Walid; Alseragi, Wafa Mohammed; Almutairi, Masaad Saeed; Ahmed, Ali; Ming, Long Chiau; Alkhoshaiban, Ali Saleh; Hadi, Muhammad Abdul

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to compare the knowledge, attitude and barriers of pharmacy technicians and pharmacists toward pharmacovigilance, adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and ADR reporting in community pharmacies in Yemen. Methods This cross-sectional survey was conducted among community pharmacists and pharmacy technicians in the capital of Yemen, Sana’a. A total of 289 community pharmacies were randomly selected. The validated and pilot-tested questionnaire consisted of six sections: demographic data, knowledge about pharmacovigilance, experience with ADR reporting, attitudes toward ADR reporting, and the facilitators to improve ADR reporting. Results A total of 428 pharmacy technicians and pharmacists were contacted and 179 went on to complete a questionnaire (response rate: 41.8%). Of the 179 respondents, 21 (11.7%) were pharmacists and 158 (88.3%) were pharmacy technicians, of which, 176 (98.3%) were male and 3 (1.7%) were female. The mean age of the respondents was 25.87±2.63 years. There was a significant difference between the pharmacists and pharmacy technicians in terms of knowledge scores (P<0.05). The mean knowledge scores for pharmacists was 3.33±2.852 compared to 0.15±0.666 for pharmacy technicians. With regard to attitudes toward ADR reporting, all pharmacists (100%) showed a positive attitude, while only 43% of pharmacy technicians showed a positive attitude. Conclusion Pharmacists have a significantly better knowledge than pharmacy technicians with regard to pharmacovigilance. More than half of pharmacy technicians showed a negative attitude toward ADR reporting. Therefore, educational interventions and training is very important for community pharmacists and pharmacy technicians in Yemen to increase their awareness and participation in ADR reporting. PMID:28924350

  17. Psychometric properties of the AHRQ Community Pharmacy Survey on Patient Safety Culture: a factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Aboneh, Ephrem A; Look, Kevin A; Stone, Jamie A; Lester, Corey A; Chui, Michelle A

    2016-05-01

    The U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) developed a hospital patient safety culture survey in 2004 and has adapted this survey to other healthcare settings, such as nursing homes and medical offices, and most recently, community pharmacies. However, it is unknown whether safety culture dimensions developed for hospitals can be transferred to community pharmacies. The aim of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Community Pharmacy Survey on Patient Safety Culture. The survey was administered to 543 community pharmacists in Wisconsin, USA. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess the fit of our data with the proposed AHRQ model. Exploratory factor analysis was used to determine the underlying factor structure. Internal consistency reliabilities were calculated. A total of 433 usable surveys were returned (response rate 80%). Results from the confirmatory factor analysis showed inadequate model fit for the original 36 item, 11-factor structure. Exploratory factor analysis showed that a modified 27-item, four-factor structure better reflected the underlying safety culture dimensions in community pharmacies. The communication openness factor, with three items, dropped in its entirety while six items dropped from multiple factors. The remaining 27 items redistributed to form the four-factor structure: safety-related communication, staff training and work environment, organisational response to safety events, and staffing, work pressure and pace. Cronbach's α of 0.95 suggested good internal consistency. Our findings suggest that validation studies need to be conducted before applying safety dimensions from other healthcare settings into community pharmacies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. The Prescription Handoff in Community Pharmacy: a Study of its Form and Function

    PubMed Central

    Chui, Michelle A.; Stone, Jamie A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To describe and explore handoffs in community pharmacy. Design Descriptive, exploratory, non-experimental study Setting Wisconsin, August – October, 2008 Participants Community pharmacists Intervention Brief, face-to-face, Semi-structured interviews Main outcome Measure Information on characteristics of handoffs, including the reasons for handoffs, what kind of information is shared during handoffs, and how information is shared. Results The overarching reasons handoffs are done in community pharmacy are because some of the necessary information is confusing, contradictory, or absent, and/or the drug product is not in stock. Handoff information typically consists of a description of the problem, the current status of the problem, what information are still needed, and future steps to resolve the problem. Handoffs can occur synchronously during a shift change or asynchronously when one pharmacist signs out at the end of the day, and another pharmacist opens the pharmacy the next morning. While synchronous handoffs are generally verbal in nature, asynchronous handoff information is primarily conveyed via paper or electronic notes on the dispensing computer system. Conclusion Our results suggest that handoffs do take place in community pharmacies and that the process is unstructured and variable. Future studies should fully characterize this process and explore possible strategies for improvement. PMID:23229978

  19. The Diffusion Process of Patient Education in Dutch Community Pharmacy: An Exploration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pronk, M. C. M.; Blom, A. Th. G.; Van Burg, A.; Jonkers, R.

    2001-01-01

    Identifies barriers and facilitators to the implementation of patient education in community pharmacies and classifies these barriers and facilitators into the diffusion stages of Rogers'"Innovations in Organizations" model. Discusses the implementation of patient education activities that require individual and organizational change in…

  20. Abuse and Misuse of Prescription and Nonprescription Drugs from Community Pharmacies in Aden City-Yemen.

    PubMed

    Abood, Ebtesam A; Wazaify, Mayyada

    2016-06-06

    The abuse and misuse of prescription and nonprescription or the so-called Over-The-Counter (OTC) drugs is a serious and growing public health problem worldwide. The increased availability of these drugs has contributed to a dramatic rise of inappropriate use. The aim of this study was to investigate abuse/misuse of prescription and non-prescription drugs in community pharmacies in Aden city-Yemen and to gather information about suspected drug abusers in the community. A cross-sectional survey using a structured questionnaire randomly distributed to 200 community pharmacies (June-September 2013). Data were coded and analyzed using SPSS Results: A total of 170 pharmacists completed the questionnaire (85.0% response rate), more than half of which (57.7%) suspected drug abuse/misuse in their pharmacies. The top four suspected medications of abuse were Alprazolam, Ketoprofen, Tramadol, and antibiotics. Most participating pharmacists in this study (83.3%) noticed an increasing pattern of abuse/misuse. The majority of suspects of prescription and non-prescription drug abuse (64.1%) were either chewing Khat or carrying it while buying the drug from the pharmacists. Abuse/misuse of prescription and nonprescription drugs is present in community pharmacies in Aden and it is linked to the recreational use of Khat. Current methods for controlling the problem are ineffective, and better methods should be developed.

  1. A Modular Pharmacy Practice Laboratory Course Integrating Role-Playing Scenarios with Community and Hospital Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triplett, John W.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the development and evolution of a modular pharmacy practice course that uses practitioners as role-model instructors in prepared and impromptu scenarios. The course reviews the top 200 drug products while introducing students to both community and institutional practice settings. Appendices include a summary of the…

  2. Healthcare professional-patient relationships: Systematic review of theoretical models from a community pharmacy perspective.

    PubMed

    Sabater-Galindo, Marta; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando; Sabater-Hernández, Daniel; Martínez-Martínez, Fernando; Benrimoj, Shalom Isaac

    2016-03-01

    To identify health care professional-patient relationship theoretical models and individual factors that may have an influence on this relationship and be relevant to community pharmacy practice. Using the recommended methodology by Prisma Statement, a search was undertaken in PubMed for health care professional-patient relationship theoretical models that included individual factors. Eight theoretical models met the inclusion criteria. These models were classified based on their aim, their focus on the interaction process, external factors influencing the process, and their practical applications. The most common influential modifiable factors were knowledge, needs, values, expectations, beliefs and perceptions. 'The Theory of Goal Attainment' (TGA) appears to be the most useful model for community pharmacy practice. The perceptions and expectations of both patients and pharmacists could be the two most interesting modifiable factors to apply in pharmacy practice. These modifiable influential factors could be altered by specific training such as behavioral aspects. No theoretical model has been specifically developed for analyzing the community pharmacist-patient relationship. TGA may be appropriate for community pharmacy practice, since it takes into consideration both, attaining patients health outcomes, as well as improving patient-pharmacist relationship. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Screening for osteoporosis among post-menopausal women in community pharmacy

    PubMed Central

    Barris Blundell, Damià; Rodríguez Zarzuelo, Carmen; Sabio Sánchez, Belén; Gutiérrez álvarez, José Luis; Navarro Visa, Elena; Muñoz Valdés, Oscar; Garrido Jiménez, Belén; Gómez, Rocío Sánchez

    Objectives To identify postmenopausal women with risk of osteoporosis through quantitative ultrasound imaging (QUI) and to value the medical intervention after the determination of the bone mineral density (BMD). Methods Cross-sectional descriptive study developed in a community pharmacy. During the month of June of 2005 the community pharmacy enrolled postmenopausal women into the study. Women in treatment with calcium, vitamin D, hormone replacement therapy, estrogen receptor modulators, calcitonin or biphosphonates were considered criteria for exclusion. To all the women that consent to participate, the pharmacist measured BMD with the device Sahara Hologic Ultrasound Bone Densitometer at right calcaneus. Following the World Health Organization, women were classified as osteoporotic if their T-Score was less than -2.5 and as osteopenic if their T-Score ranged between -2.5 and -1.0. Results Of the 100 women screened, 11 (11%) presented risk of osteoporosis and 61 (61%) of osteopenia. The 18.5% postmenopausal women with body mass index lesser than 30 presented risk of osteoporosis and the 63.0% osteopenia. Conclusions The QUI constitutes a useful tool in community pharmacy for the screening of osteoporosis and it supposes a greater integration of the community pharmacy within the health care. PMID:25247006

  4. The Diffusion Process of Patient Education in Dutch Community Pharmacy: An Exploration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pronk, M. C. M.; Blom, A. Th. G.; Van Burg, A.; Jonkers, R.

    2001-01-01

    Identifies barriers and facilitators to the implementation of patient education in community pharmacies and classifies these barriers and facilitators into the diffusion stages of Rogers'"Innovations in Organizations" model. Discusses the implementation of patient education activities that require individual and organizational change in…

  5. The operation of a Research and Development (R&D) program and its significance for practice change in community pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Hermansyah, Andi; Sainsbury, Erica; Krass, Ines

    2017-01-01

    Community pharmacy practice in Australia is changing and Research and Development (R&D) in community pharmacy plays an important role in contributing to the changes. A range of Cognitive Pharmacy Services (CPS) were developed from R&D programs, yet their implementation has been minimal indicating slow practice change within community pharmacy. Given the vital role of R&D, little is known about the operation and the extent to which it has been effective in supporting practice change in community pharmacy. In depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 27 key stakeholders in the pharmacy and healthcare system in Australia. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed ad verbatim and analysed using an inductive approach. Participants perceived that the R&D program has played an important role in the advent of CPS. Furthermore, they considered that evidence generated by the R&D projects is a critical influence on policy formulation, funding and implementation of CPS into practice. However, policy decisions and subsequent implementation are also influenced by other factors associated with context and facilitation which in turn foster or inhibit effective Knowledge Translation (KT) in the community pharmacy sector. While R&D programs have been viewed as essential for supporting changes in community pharmacy practice through development and funding of CPS, the overall impact has been small, as contemporary practice continues to be predominantly a dispensing model. Given the complexity and dynamic nature of the community pharmacy system, stakeholders must take into account the inter-relationship between context, evidence and facilitation for successful KT in community pharmacy practice.

  6. Assessing safety culture in pharmacies: the psychometric validation of the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ) in a national sample of community pharmacies in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Nordén-Hägg, Annika; Sexton, J Bryan; Kälvemark-Sporrong, Sofia; Ring, Lena; Kettis-Lindblad, Åsa

    2010-04-11

    Safety culture assessment is increasingly recognized as an important component in healthcare quality improvement, also in pharmacies. One of the most commonly used and rigorously validated tools to measure safety culture is the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire; SAQ. This study presents the validation of the SAQ for use in Swedish pharmacies. The psychometric properties of the translated questionnaire are presented The original English language version of the SAQ was translated and adapted to the Swedish context and distributed by e-mail. The survey was carried out on a national basis, covering all 870 Swedish community pharmacies. In total, 7,244 questionnaires were distributed. Scale psychometrics were analysed using Cronbach alphas and intercorrelations among the scales. Multiple group confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted. SAQ data from 828 community pharmacies in Sweden, including 4,090 (60.22%) pharmacy personnel out of 6,683 eligible respondents, were received. There were 252 (28.97%) pharmacies that met the inclusion criteria of having at least 5 respondents and a minimum response rate of 60% within that pharmacy.The coefficient alpha value for each of the SAQ scales ranged from .72 to .89. The internal consistency results, in conjunction with the confirmatory factor analysis results, demonstrate that the Swedish translation of the SAQ has acceptable to good psychometric properties. Perceptions of the pharmacy (Teamwork Climate, Job Satisfaction, Perceptions of Management, Safety Climate, and Working Conditions) were moderately to highly correlated with one another whereas attitudes about stress (Stress Recognition) had only low correlations with other factors. Perceptions of management showed the most variability across pharmacies (SD = 26.66), whereas Stress Recognition showed the least (SD = 18.58). There was substantial variability ranging from 0% to 100% in the percent of positive scores for each of the factors across the 252 pharmacies. The

  7. Assessing Safety Culture in Pharmacies: The psychometric validation of the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ) in a national sample of community pharmacies in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Safety culture assessment is increasingly recognized as an important component in healthcare quality improvement, also in pharmacies. One of the most commonly used and rigorously validated tools to measure safety culture is the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire; SAQ. This study presents the validation of the SAQ for use in Swedish pharmacies. The psychometric properties of the translated questionnaire are presented Methods The original English language version of the SAQ was translated and adapted to the Swedish context and distributed by e-mail. The survey was carried out on a national basis, covering all 870 Swedish community pharmacies. In total, 7,244 questionnaires were distributed. Scale psychometrics were analysed using Cronbach alphas and intercorrelations among the scales. Multiple group confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted. Results SAQ data from 828 community pharmacies in Sweden, including 4,090 (60.22%) pharmacy personnel out of 6,683 eligible respondents, were received. There were 252 (28.97%) pharmacies that met the inclusion criteria of having at least 5 respondents and a minimum response rate of 60% within that pharmacy. The coefficient alpha value for each of the SAQ scales ranged from .72 to .89. The internal consistency results, in conjunction with the confirmatory factor analysis results, demonstrate that the Swedish translation of the SAQ has acceptable to good psychometric properties. Perceptions of the pharmacy (Teamwork Climate, Job Satisfaction, Perceptions of Management, Safety Climate, and Working Conditions) were moderately to highly correlated with one another whereas attitudes about stress (Stress Recognition) had only low correlations with other factors. Perceptions of management showed the most variability across pharmacies (SD = 26.66), whereas Stress Recognition showed the least (SD = 18.58). There was substantial variability ranging from 0% to 100% in the percent of positive scores for each of the factors

  8. Cost analysis of a novel HIV testing strategy in community pharmacies and retail clinics.

    PubMed

    Lecher, Shirley Lee; Shrestha, Ram K; Botts, Linda W; Alvarez, Jorge; Moore, James H; Thomas, Vasavi; Weidle, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    To document the cost of implementing point-of-care (POC) human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) rapid testing in busy community pharmacies and retail clinics. Providing HIV testing services in community pharmacies and retail clinics is an innovative way to expand HIV testing. The cost of implementing POC HIV rapid testing in a busy retail environment needs to be documented to provide program and policy leaders with adequate information for planning and budgeting. Cost analysis from a pilot project that provided confidential POC HIV rapid testing services in community pharmacies and retail clinics. The pharmacy sites were operated under several different ownership structures (for-profit, nonprofit, sole proprietorship, corporation, public, and private) in urban and rural areas. We included data from the initial six sites that participated in the project. We collected the time spent by pharmacy and retail clinic staff for pretest and posttest counseling in an activity log for time-in-motion for each interaction. Pharmacists and retail clinic staff. HIV rapid testing. The total cost was calculated to include costs of test kits, control kits, shipping, test supplies, training, reporting, program administration, and advertising. The six sites trained 22 staff to implement HIV testing. A total of 939 HIV rapid tests were conducted over a median time of 12 months, of which 17 were reactive. Median pretest counseling time was 2 minutes. Median posttest counseling time was 2 minutes for clients with a nonreactive test and 10 minutes for clients with a reactive test. The average cost per person tested was an estimated $47.21. When we considered only recurrent costs, the average cost per person tested was $32.17. Providing POC HIV rapid testing services required a modest amount of staff time and costs that are comparable to other services offered in these settings. HIV testing in pharmacies and retail clinics can provide an additional alternative venue for increasing the

  9. Pharmacy students screening for pre-diabetes/diabetes with a validated questionnaire in community pharmacies during their experiential rotation in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Banh, Hoan Linh; Chow, Sheldon; Li, Shuai; Letassy, Nancy; Cox, Cheryl; Cave, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a major condition impacting morbidity, mortality, and health care costs in Canada. Pharmacists are very accessible and are in an ideal position to promote public health education. The primary goal of this study was to incorporate public health promotion and education into a community pharmacy experiential education rotation for fourth year pharmacy students to screen for the risk of pre-diabetes/diabetes in adults. A secondary goal was to determine the frequency of common risk factors for pre-diabetes/diabetes in adults in the community setting. Fourth year pharmacy students were invited to recruit all adults 25 years or older attending community pharmacies to complete a pre-diabetes/diabetes risk assessment questionnaire. If the participants were at risk, the participants were provided education about risk reduction for developing pre-diabetes/diabetes. A total of 340 participants completed a risk assessment questionnaire. Over 90% of people approached agreed to complete a risk assessment questionnaire. The common risk factors were overweight (154/45%), hypertension (102/30%), taking medications for hypertension (102/30%), and having symptoms of diabetes (111/33%). The ethnic minorities have 2.56 (confidence interval = 1.48-44.1) times greater odds of having a family history of diabetes compared to non-minority subjects. Pharmacy students are able to screen community-based patients for pre-diabetes/diabetes risks. The most common risk factors presented were overweight, hypertension, and taking medications for hypertension.

  10. Know your diabetes risk project: Student pharmacists educating adults about diabetes risk in a community pharmacy setting.

    PubMed

    Letassy, Nancy; Dennis, Vincent; Lyons, Timothy J; Harrison, Don; Burton, Michael; Kirkpatrick, Alice

    To determine the feasibility of educating adults about their risk of prediabetes/diabetes in a community pharmacy, to determine the common risk factors for prediabetes/diabetes in adults visiting a community pharmacy, and to assess any association between risk factors and age. Cross sectional. Oklahoma community pharmacies between April 1 and December 31, 2008. 1,852 patients aged 18 to 80 years. Student pharmacists invited adults to complete a survey to assess their risk for diabetes/prediabetes. Students reviewed participants' risk and educated them on lifestyle changes to lower diabetes risk. Patient risk factors, pharmacy identifier, and pharmacy type (independent, chain, or clinic pharmacy) and location (rural, suburban, or city). Diabetes risk assessment and education of 1,852 adults was performed by 110 student pharmacists in 52 community pharmacies located in 27 cities across 13 (of 77) Oklahoma counties. Obesity/overweight was the most common risk factor (57%), with positive family history, hypertension, elevated cholesterol, member of high-risk ethnic group, and sedentary lifestyle being reported by at least 20% of participants. The number of risk factors increased with age, with a significant increase occurring in participants older than 40 years of age. This project demonstrated that it is feasible to perform diabetes risk assessment and to provide education on lowering that risk through community pharmacies.

  11. Advancing Patient Care Through Specialty Pharmacy Services in an Academic Health System.

    PubMed

    Bagwell, Autumn; Kelley, Tara; Carver, Alicia; Lee, Jennifer B; Newman, Brandon

    2017-08-01

    With the rapid growth of specialty pharmacies, including those within academic health systems, pharmacists have the opportunity to improve patient care through the management of specialty medications. Specialty pharmacists within academic health systems are uniquely positioned to overcome restrictions to medication access, financial constraints, and provider burdens that often lead to obstacles for patients to start and maintain necessary treatments. The Vanderbilt Specialty Pharmacy (VSP) model at Vanderbilt University Medical Center (VUMC) provides an example of a patient-centered, collaborative care prototype that places pharmacists directly into specialty clinics to assist with comprehensive management of patients on specialty medications. VSP integrates specialty pharmacy services within existing specialty clinics based on the needs of each individual clinic. Each clinic is staffed with at least 1 clinical pharmacist and 1 pharmacy technician. The pharmacist is integrally involved in medication selection, initiation, and monitoring. The specialty pharmacy team ensures appropriate medication access and cost, provides extensive medication education, ensures patients are adherent to treatment, and coordinates care between patients and providers using the electronic medical record. Integration of pharmacists within specialty clinics at VUMC benefits providers, the health system, and patient care. This model has demonstrated decreased provider and clinic burden, decreased time to medication approval and initiation, excellent patient and provider satisfaction, substantial patient cost savings, optimal medication adherence, and overall improved continuity of care for patients on specialty medications. Since its inception in 2011, VSP has integrated 24 clinical pharmacists and 17 pharmacy technicians into 20 specialty clinics, with continued quarterly growth. The VSP model advances the role of pharmacists in managing patients on specialty medications in collaboration

  12. Impact of an Introductory Pharmacy Practice Experience on Students' Performance in an Advanced Practice Experience

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Thomas J.; Hedge, Dennis D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the impact of an introductory pharmacy practice experience (IPPE) on students' clinical skills during their initial advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE). Design A 4-week First Steps course that focused on students developing pharmacy practice skills, clinical communications skills, and effective use of reference materials was introduced in 2006 at the end of the third-year curriculum, prior to students beginning their APPEs. Assessment During the third week of the first APPE, faculty members rated students' demonstration of 9 clinical skills on a 5-point Likert scale (1 being always and 5 being never). The evaluation was performed in 2005 prior to implementation of the course (control group) and again in 2006 after implementation of the course. Students who completed the First Steps course scored better on all 9 skills and had a better average clinical skills value (2.3) compared to the control group (2.6, p < 0.01). Conclusion Completion of an IPPE course that focused on critical pharmacy practice aspects, clinical communication skills, and use of reference materials resulted in increased frequency of desired clinical behaviors on a subsequent APPE. PMID:20221362

  13. Development of Clinical Pharmacy in Switzerland: Involvement of Community Pharmacists in Care for Older Patients.

    PubMed

    Hersberger, Kurt E; Messerli, Markus

    2016-03-01

    The role of the community pharmacist in primary care has been undergoing change in Switzerland in parallel to international developments: it has become more clinically and patient oriented. Special services of community pharmacists to older patients taking long-term or multiple medications, discharged from hospitals or experiencing cognitive impairment or disability have been developed. These services require more clinical knowledge and skills from community pharmacists and are based on, for example, 'simple or intermediate medication reviews' focused primarily to improve medication adherence and rational drug use by a patient. Reflecting the new role of community pharmacies, this article describes the current services provided by community pharmacies in Switzerland, e.g., 'polymedication check', 'weekly pill organizer', and 'services for chronic patients', as well as new Swiss educational and reimbursement systems supporting development of these services. In the international context, involvement of community pharmacists in patient-oriented care is growing. This review summarizes positive and negative experiences from implementation of community pharmacy services in Switzerland and provides examples for the development of such services in other countries.

  14. Assessment and management of serotonin syndrome in a simulated patient study of Australian community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Macfarlane, Brett; Bergin, Jenny; Peterson, Gregory M

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of serotonin syndrome is increasing due to the widening use of serotonergic drugs. Identification of serotonin syndrome is challenging as the manifestations are diverse. Misdiagnosis can lead to delay in care and inappropriate treatment. The objectives of this study were to determine if staff of community pharmacies in Australia could identify the symptoms of serotonin syndrome in simulated patients and recommend an appropriate course of action. Agents acting on behalf of a simulated patient were trained on a patient scenario that reflected possible serotonin syndrome due to an interaction between duloxetine and recently prescribed tramadol. They entered 148 community pharmacies in Australia to ask for advice about a 60 year old male simulated patient who was 'not feeling well'. The interaction was audio recorded and analysed for degree of access to the pharmacist, information gathered by pharmacy staff, management advice given and pharmacotherapy recommended. The simulated patient's agent was consulted by a pharmacist in 94.0% (139/148) of cases. The potential for serotonin syndrome was identified by 35.1% (52/148) of pharmacies. Other suggested causes of the simulated patient's symptoms were viral (16.9%; 25/148) and cardiac (15.5%; 23/148). A total of 33.8% (50/148) of pharmacies recommended that the simulated patient should cease taking tramadol. This advice always came from the pharmacist. Immediate cessation of tramadol was advised by 94.2% (49/52) of pharmacists correctly identifying serotonin syndrome. The simulated patient was advised to seek urgent medical care in 14.2% (21/148) of cases and follow up with a doctor when possible in 68.2% (101/148) of cases. The majority of pharmacies (87.8%; 130/148) did not recommend non-prescription medicines. While not identifying the cause of the simulated patient's symptoms in the majority of cases, community pharmacies recommended appropriate action to minimise the health impact of serotonin syndrome

  15. Surveillance and uncertainty: community pharmacy responses to over the counter medicine abuse.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Richard

    2013-05-01

    The sale of over-the-counter (OTC) medicines from community pharmacies offers important opportunities for members of the public to access medicines and self-treat conditions. They are increasingly recognised, however, as having the potential for abuse and harm despite their perceived relative safety. This study reports on a qualitative study that explored the experiences and views of community pharmacy staff in relation to current practices and concerns, management and support relating to OTC medicine abuse. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with a purposive sample of ten pharmacists and seven medicines counter assistants in the United Kingdom. Analysis of interviews indicated that a range of medicines was implicated, including opiates, sedative antihistamines, laxatives and decongestants. A surveillance role was apparent for assistants, who placed emphasis on regulations, procedure and monitoring frequency of purchases to manage abuse, with referral on to pharmacists. Frequency of purchase was central to assistants' definition of those suspected of OTC medicine abuse, which pharmacists also utilised as well as a distinction between intentional abuse and unintentional medicine misuse. A lack of information about customers, easy access to, and poor communication between community pharmacies were emergent barriers to pharmacists providing more support. Many appeared uncertain of referral options or how pharmacists could effectively stop the problem of abuse. The commercial environment was a particular concern, in relation to customer expectations, medicine advertising and easy access to different community pharmacies. A key tension emerged between providing medicine supplies that permitted consumer freedom, with the needs of healthcare professionals to understand more about those consumers qua patients. Policy implications include the need for improved knowledge for community pharmacy staff about signposting to relevant services, increased awareness of who

  16. Strategies to facilitate the implementation of collaborative practice agreements in chain community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Bacci, Jennifer L; Coley, Kim C; McGrath, Kyle; Abraham, Olufunmilola; Adams, Alex J; McGivney, Melissa Somma

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe (1) key factors affecting the implementation and scalability of collaborative practice agreements (CPAs) and (2) CPA implementation strategies that have been used by chain community pharmacy organizations. Qualitative analysis using a work system approach. Eight chain community pharmacy organizations with at least one pharmacy location in New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, or West Virginia from August 2014 to March 2015. Ten clinical pharmacist managers and 9 practicing community pharmacists. Semistructured interviews with study participants. Interview transcripts were thematically analyzed using the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety (SEIPS) 2.0 model of work system and patient safety. Clinical pharmacist managers' and community pharmacists' perceptions of key factors and strategies for implementing and scaling CPAs, tools, and resources that could facilitate the implementation of CPAs. Seven themes emerged as key factors for the implementation and scalability of CPAs within the person, organization, external environment, and task domains of the SEIPS model, which include the need for building relationships with physicians and other health care providers, optimizing pharmacists' education and training, addressing patient perceptions, ensuring consistent operations, developing a sustainable business model, advocating for permissive state and federal legislation, and structuring time and workload. Examples of specific strategies included using existing physician relationships, identifying pharmacy- and regional-level champions, and allocating staffing based on prescription volume and clinical services. A number of key factors were identified that, when addressed, can facilitate the implementation and scalability of patient care services and CPAs. Chain community pharmacies should use the specific strategies for addressing each key factor that match the needs of their organization. Copyright © 2016 American

  17. An evaluation of the impact of a restrictive retail food environment intervention in a rural community pharmacy setting.

    PubMed

    Minaker, Leia M; Olstad, Dana Lee; MacKenzie, Graham; Nguyen, Nghia; Azagba, Sunday; Cook, Brian E; Mah, Catherine L

    2016-07-16

    Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption is associated with morbidity and mortality. The retail food environment influences food and beverage purchasing and consumption. This study assesses the impact of a community pharmacy's removal of sweet beverages on overall community sales of carbonated soft drinks (CSD) in a rural setting. We also examined whether the pharmacy intervention affected CSD sales in the town's other food stores. Weekly CSD sales data were acquired from the three food retailers in the town of Baddeck, Nova Scotia (January 1, 2013 to May 8, 2015, n = 123 weeks). Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) analysis was used to analyse the interrupted time series data and estimate the impact of the pharmacy intervention (September 11, 2014) on overall CSD sales at the community level. Data were analysed in 2015. Before the intervention, the pharmacy accounted for approximately 6 % of CSD sales in the community. After the intervention, declines in total weekly average community CSD sales were not statistically significantly. CSD sales at the other food stores did not increase after the pharmacy intervention. This study was among the first to examine the impact of a restrictive retail food environment intervention, and found a non-significant decline in CSD sales at the community level. It is the first study to examine a retail food environment intervention in a community pharmacy. Pharmacies may have an important role to play in creating healthy retail food environments.

  18. Assessment of Factors Influencing Community Pharmacy Residents' Pursuit of Academic Positions

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Colleen A.; Rodis, Jennifer L.; Pruchnicki, Maria C.; Pedersen, Craig A.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To determine the percentage of residents accepting faculty positions following completion of a community pharmacy residency program (CPRP) and identify influences to pursue/not pursue an academic career. Methods CPRP directors and preceptors across the United States were contacted and 53 community pharmacy residents were identified. The residents were invited to participate in surveys at the beginning and end of the 2005-2006 residency year. Results Forty-five residents (85%) completed the preliminary survey instrument and 40 (75%) completed the follow-up survey instrument. Of these, 36 completed both survey instruments. Initially, 28 (62%) respondents indicated a faculty position as one of their potential job preferences. After completing their residency program, 3 (8%) residents accepted faculty positions; and 3 (8%) others were awaiting offers at follow-up. Reasons for accepting a faculty position were positive teaching experiences and the influence of a mentor or preceptor. Reasons for not pursuing a faculty position included lack of interest, geographic location, disliked teaching experiences, lack of preparedness, and non-competitive salary. Conclusion Many community pharmacy residents consider faculty positions early in their residency but few pursue faculty positions. CPRPs and colleges of pharmacy should work together to enhance residents' experiences to foster interest in academia. PMID:18322566

  19. Culture in community pharmacy organisations: what can we glean from the literature?

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Sally; Ashcroft, Darren; Hassell, Karen

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to report on the findings of a systematic literature review-seeking to elicit existing evidence of the nature of organisational culture in community pharmacy organisations. This review takes a novel approach to systematically identifying and synthesising the peer-reviewed research literature pertaining to organisational culture in this setting, its antecedents and outcomes. The review provides an overview of the scope of and research methods used in the identified literature, together with a narrative synthesis of its findings, framed within five dimensions of organisational culture: the professional-business role dichotomy; workload, management style, social support and autonomy; professional culture; attitudes to change and innovation; and entrepreneurial orientation. There is a need for more detailed and holistic exploration of organisational culture in community pharmacy, using a greater diversity of research methods and a greater focus on patient-related outcomes. This paper demonstrates that, whilst little research has explicitly investigated organisational culture in this context, there exists a range of evidence describing aspects of that culture, some of the environmental and organisational factors helping to shape it, and its impact on the pharmacy workforce, services delivered and business outcomes. It highlights the importance of the business-professional role dichotomy in community pharmacy; the influence of individual pharmacists' characteristics and organisational setting; and the impact on pharmacists' wellbeing and job satisfaction and the services delivered. It provides less evidence of the impact of organisational culture on the quality and safety of service provision.

  20. The general pharmacy work explored in The Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine the frequency and nature of general pharmacy work at three Dutch community pharmacies. Methods In a purposive and convenience sample of three Dutch community pharmacies the general work was investigated. Multi-dimensional work sampling (MDWS) was used. The study took six weeks: two weeks at each pharmacy. Main outcome measure The number of care related items emerging in the general work. Results Care related work represented 34% of all pharmacy activities. Conclusion Although care related work was present at all three studied pharmacies, this part of the work still needs serious attention of Dutch pharmacists in order to advance pharmaceutical care. It is suggested that an efficient pharmacy organization in combination with robotization, task specialization, and interior design can expand the care related work at the pharmacy. PMID:18205026

  1. The good pharmacy practice on Einstein Program at Paraisópolis Community

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Lara Tânia de Assumpção Domingues Gonçalves; da Silva, Camila Pontes; Guedes, Maria das Vitorias; Sousa, Ana Célia de Oliveira; Sarno, Flávio

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: To describe indicators and processes developed and implemented for pharmaceutical assistance at the Einstein Program at Paraisópolis Community pharmacy. Methods: This was a descriptive study of retrospective data from January 2012 to December 2015. Data were obtained from spreadsheets developed for monitoring the productivity and care quality provided at the pharmacy. The evaluated variables were pharmaceutical assistance to prescription, pharmaceutical intervention, orientation (standard and pharmaceutical) and pharmaceutical orientation rate. Results: The pharmacy assisted, on average, 2,308 prescriptions monthly, dispensing 4,871 items, including medications, materials and food supplements. Since March 2015, virtually, the pharmacist analyzed all prescriptions, prior to dispensing. In the analyzed period, there was an increase in monthly pharmaceutical interventions from 7 to 32 on average, and, although there was a decrease in the number of standard orientation, the pharmaceutical orientation had an increase, causing a rise of pharmaceutical orientation rate from 4 to 11%. Conclusion: The processes developed and implemented at the program pharmacy sought to follow the good pharmacy practice, and help patients to make the best use of their medications. PMID:27759833

  2. The Relationship between the Financial Status of Sole Community Independent Pharmacies and Their Broader Involvement with Other Rural Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radford, Andrea; Slifkin, Rebecca; King, Jennifer; Lampman, Michelle; Richardson, Indira; Rutledge, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To document sole community pharmacists' involvement with other local health care organizations, these pharmacies' current financial status, and to determine whether financial position was associated with the provision of pharmacy services to other local health care providers. Methods: We conducted semistructured interviews with…

  3. AmbCare--A Relational Database for Implementing a Community Pharmacy Ambulatory Care Teaching Program: A Descriptive Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magarian, Edward O.; Peterson, Charles D.

    1995-01-01

    An IBM-compatible information storage and retrieval software program was developed to support an eight-week community pharmacy ambulatory care clerkship for entry-level Doctor of Pharmacy students. The program helps evaluate and identify patients for health and medication problems, perform patient risk-factor assessment, monitor drug therapy,…

  4. The Relationship between the Financial Status of Sole Community Independent Pharmacies and Their Broader Involvement with Other Rural Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radford, Andrea; Slifkin, Rebecca; King, Jennifer; Lampman, Michelle; Richardson, Indira; Rutledge, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To document sole community pharmacists' involvement with other local health care organizations, these pharmacies' current financial status, and to determine whether financial position was associated with the provision of pharmacy services to other local health care providers. Methods: We conducted semistructured interviews with…

  5. The Effect of Pharmacist Intervention on Herpes Zoster Vaccination in Community Pharmacies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junling; Ford, Lindsay J.; Wingate, La’Marcus; Uroza, Sarah Frank; Jaber, Nina; Smith, Cindy T.; Randolph, Richard; Lane, Steve; Foster, Stephan L.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effectiveness of community pharmacy-based interventions in increasing vaccination rates for the herpes zoster vaccine. DESIGN Prospective intervention study with a pre-post design. SETTING Three independent community pharmacies in Tennessee. PATIENTS Patients whose pharmacy profiles indicated they were eligible for the vaccine and patients presenting to receive the vaccine at study sites. INTERVENTIONS Interventions initiated by pharmacists to promote the herpes zoster vaccine included a press release published in local newspapers, a flyer accompanying each prescription dispensed at p