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Sample records for advanced concepts flight

  1. Advanced concepts flight simulation facility.

    PubMed

    Chappell, S L; Sexton, G A

    1986-12-01

    The cockpit environment is changing rapidly. New technology allows airborne computerised information, flight automation and data transfer with the ground. By 1995, not only will the pilot's task have changed, but also the tools for doing that task. To provide knowledge and direction for these changes, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Lockheed-Georgia Company have completed three identical Advanced Concepts Flight Simulation Facilities. Many advanced features have been incorporated into the simulators - e g, cathode ray tube (CRT) displays of flight and systems information operated via touch-screen or voice, print-outs of clearances, cockpit traffic displays, current databases containing navigational charts, weather and flight plan information, and fuel-efficient autopilot control from take-off to touchdown. More importantly, this cockpit is a versatile test bed for studying displays, controls, procedures and crew management in a full-mission context. The facility also has an air traffic control simulation, with radio and data communications, and an outside visual scene with variable weather conditions. These provide a veridical flight environment to evaluate accurately advanced concepts in flight stations.

  2. Design and analysis of advanced flight planning concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, John A.

    1987-01-01

    The objectives of this continuing effort are to develop and evaluate new algorithms and advanced concepts for flight management and flight planning. This includes the minimization of fuel or direct operating costs, the integration of the airborne flight management and ground-based flight planning processes, and the enhancement of future traffic management systems design. Flight management (FMS) concepts are for on-board profile computation and steering of transport aircraft in the vertical plane between a city pair and along a given horizontal path. Flight planning (FPS) concepts are for the pre-flight ground based computation of the three-dimensional reference trajectory that connects the city pair and specifies the horizontal path, fuel load, and weather profiles for initializing the FMS. As part of these objectives, a new computer program called EFPLAN has been developed and utilized to study advanced flight planning concepts. EFPLAN represents an experimental version of an FPS. It has been developed to generate reference flight plans compatible as input to an FMS and to provide various options for flight planning research. This report describes EFPLAN and the associated research conducted in its development.

  3. Parabolic Flight Investigation for Advanced Exercise Concept Hardware Hybrid Ultimate Lifting Kit (HULK)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, A. S.; Funk, J. H.; Funk, N. W.; Sheehan, C. C.; Humphreys, B. T.; Perusek, G. P.

    2015-01-01

    Long-duration space flight poses many hazards to the health of the crew. Among those hazards is the physiological deconditioning of the musculoskeletal and cardiovascular systems due to prolonged exposure to microgravity. To combat this erosion of physical condition space flight may take on the crew, the Human Research Program (HRP) is charged with developing Advanced Exercise Concepts to maintain astronaut health and fitness during long-term missions, while keeping device mass, power, and volume to a minimum. The goal of this effort is to preserve the physical capability of the crew to perform mission critical tasks in transit and during planetary surface operations. The HULK is a pneumatic-based exercise system, which provides both resistive and aerobic modes to protect against human deconditioning in microgravity. Its design targeted the International Space Station (ISS) Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) high level performance characteristics and provides up to 600 foot pounds resitive loading with the capability to allow for eccentric to concentric (E:C) ratios of higher than 1:1 through a DC motor assist component. The device's rowing mode allows for high cadence aerobic activity. The HULK parabolic flight campaign, conducted through the NASA Flight Opportunities Program at Ellington Field, resulted in the creation of device specific data sets including low fidelity motion capture, accelerometry and both inline and ground reaction forces. These data provide a critical link in understanding how to vibration isolate the device in both ISS and space transit applications. Secondarily, the study of human exercise and associated body kinematics in microgravity allows for more complete understanding of human to machine interface designs to allow for maximum functionality of the device in microgravity.

  4. Advanced Concepts, Technologies and Flight Experiments for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meredith, Barry D.

    2000-01-01

    Over the last 25 years, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has established a tradition of excellence in scientific research and leading-edge system developments, which have contributed to improved scientific understanding of our Earth system. Specifically, LaRC advances knowledge of atmospheric processes to enable proactive climate prediction and, in that role, develops first-of-a-kind atmospheric sensing capabilities that permit a variety of new measurements to be made within a constrained enterprise budget. These advances are enabled by the timely development and infusion of new, state-of-the-art (SOA), active and passive instrument and sensor technologies. In addition, LaRC's center-of-excellence in structures and materials is being applied to the technological challenges of reducing measurement system size, mass, and cost through the development and use of space-durable materials; lightweight, multi-functional structures; and large deployable/inflatable structures. NASA Langley is engaged in advancing these technologies across the full range of readiness levels from concept, to components, to prototypes, to flight experiments, and on to actual science mission infusion. The purpose of this paper is to describe current activities and capabilities, recent achievements, and future plans of the integrated science, engineering, and technology team at Langley Research Center who are working to enable the future of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise.

  5. Advanced life support control/monitor instrumentation concepts for flight application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heppner, D. B.; Dahlhausen, M. J.; Fell, R. B.

    1986-01-01

    Development of regenerative Environmental Control/Life Support Systems requires instrumentation characteristics which evolve with successive development phases. As the development phase moves toward flight hardware, the system availability becomes an important design aspect which requires high reliability and maintainability. This program was directed toward instrumentation designs which incorporate features compatible with anticipated flight requirements. The first task consisted of the design, fabrication and test of a Performance Diagnostic Unit. In interfacing with a subsystem's instrumentation, the Performance Diagnostic Unit is capable of determining faulty operation and components within a subsystem, perform on-line diagnostics of what maintenance is needed and accept historical status on subsystem performance as such information is retained in the memory of a subsystem's computerized controller. The second focus was development and demonstration of analog signal conditioning concepts which reduce the weight, power, volume, cost and maintenance and improve the reliability of this key assembly of advanced life support instrumentation. The approach was to develop a generic set of signal conditioning elements or cards which can be configured to fit various subsystems. Four generic sensor signal conditioning cards were identified as being required to handle more than 90 percent of the sensors encountered in life support systems. Under company funding, these were detail designed, built and successfully tested.

  6. An Aerodynamic Performance Evaluation of the NASA/Ames Research Center Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donohue, Paul F.

    1987-01-01

    The results of an aerodynamic performance evaluation of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Ames Research Center Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator (ACFS), conducted in association with the Navy-NASA Joint Institute of Aeronautics, are presented. The ACFS is a full-mission flight simulator which provides an excellent platform for the critical evaluation of emerging flight systems and aircrew performance. The propulsion and flight dynamics models were evaluated using classical flight test techniques. The aerodynamic performance model of the ACFS was found to realistically represent that of current day, medium range transport aircraft. Recommendations are provided to enhance the capabilities of the ACFS to a level forecast for 1995 transport aircraft. The graphical and tabular results of this study will establish a performance section of the ACFS Operation's Manual.

  7. Advanced flight control system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, G. L.; Wall, J. E., Jr.; Rang, E. R.; Lee, H. P.; Schulte, R. W.; Ng, W. K.

    1982-01-01

    A fly by wire flight control system architecture designed for high reliability includes spare sensor and computer elements to permit safe dispatch with failed elements, thereby reducing unscheduled maintenance. A methodology capable of demonstrating that the architecture does achieve the predicted performance characteristics consists of a hierarchy of activities ranging from analytical calculations of system reliability and formal methods of software verification to iron bird testing followed by flight evaluation. Interfacing this architecture to the Lockheed S-3A aircraft for flight test is discussed. This testbed vehicle can be expanded to support flight experiments in advanced aerodynamics, electromechanical actuators, secondary power systems, flight management, new displays, and air traffic control concepts.

  8. Advanced Concept Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaput, Armand; Johns, Zachary; Hodges, Todd; Selfridge, Justin; Bevirt, Joeben; Ahuja, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    Advanced Concepts Modeling software validation, analysis, and design. This was a National Institute of Aerospace contract with a lot of pieces. Efforts ranged from software development and validation for structures and aerodynamics, through flight control development, and aeropropulsive analysis, to UAV piloting services.

  9. Flight management concepts development for fuel conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, J. A.; Morello, S. A.

    1983-01-01

    It is pointed out that increased airspace congestion will produce increased flight delay unless advanced flight management concepts are developed to compensate. It has been estimated that a 5 percent reduction in delay is approximately equivalent, in terms of direct operating costs, to a 5 percent reduction in drag. The present investigation regarding the development of the required flight management concepts is organized into three sections, related to background, current research, and future effort. In the background section, a summary is provided of past technical effort concerning flight management. The second section is concerned with on-going efforts to integrate flight management with ground-based flight planning, and with an advanced concepts simulator to test the new developments. In the third section, attention is given to research concerning airborne flight management integration with other flight functions.

  10. Advanced flight software reconfiguraton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porcher, Bryan

    1991-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on advanced flight software reconfiguration. Reconfiguration is defined as identifying mission and configuration specific requirements, controlling mission and configuration specific data, binding this information to the flight software code to perform specific missions, and the release and distribution of the flight software. The objectives are to develop, demonstrate, and validate advanced software reconfiguration tools and techniques; to demonstrate reconfiguration approaches on Space Station Freedom (SSF) onboard systems displays; and to interactively test onboard systems displays, flight software, and flight data.

  11. Parameter identification studies on the NASA/Ames Research Center Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckavitt, Thomas P., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The results of an aircraft parameters identification study conducted on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Ames Research Center Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator (ACFS) in conjunction with the Navy-NASA Joint Institute of Aeronautics are given. The ACFS is a commercial airline simulator with a design based on future technology. The simulator is used as a laboratory for human factors research and engineering as applied to the commercial airline industry. Parametric areas examined were engine pressure ratio (EPR), optimum long range cruise Mach number, flap reference speed, and critical take-off speeds. Results were compared with corresponding parameters of the Boeing 757 and 767 aircraft. This comparison identified two areas where improvements can be made: (1) low maximum lift coefficients (on the order of 20-25 percent less than those of a 757); and (2) low optimum cruise Mach numbers. Recommendations were made to those anticipated with the application of future technologies.

  12. SCIENCE BRIEF: ADVANCED CONCEPTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research on advanced concepts will evaluate and demonstrate the application of innovative infrastructure designs, management procedures and operational approaches. Advanced concepts go beyond simple asset management. The infusion of these advanced concepts into established wastew...

  13. Advances in robust flight design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Kelvin K.; Dhand, Sanjeev K.

    1991-01-01

    Current launch vehicle trajectory design philosophies, generally based on maximizing payload capability, result in an expensive and time-consuming iteration in trajectory design for each mission. However, for a launch system that is not performance-driven, a flight design that is robust to variations in missions and provides single-engine-out capability can be highly cost-effective. This philosophy has led to the development of two flight design concepts to reduce recurring costs: standard trajectories and command multiplier steering. Preliminary analyses of these two concepts had proven the feasibility and showed encouraging results in applications to an Advanced Launch System vehicle. Recent progress has demonstrated the effective and efficient integration of the two concepts with minimal payload penalty.

  14. An Advanced Fly-By-Wire Flight Control System for the RASCAL Research Rotorcraft: Concept to Reality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rediess, Nicholas A.; Dones, Fernando; McManus, Bruce L.; Ulmer, Lon; Aiken, Edwin W. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Design features of a new fly-by-wire flight control system for the Rotorcraft-Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) are described. Using a UH-60A Black Hawk helicopter as a baseline vehicle, the RASCAL will be a flying laboratory capable of supporting the research requirements of major NASA and Army guidance, control, and display research programs. The paper describes the research facility requirements of these pro-rams and the design implementation of the research flight control system (RFCS), with emphasis on safety-of-flight, adaptability to multiple requirements and performance considerations.

  15. Advanced manned space flight simulation and training: An investigation of simulation host computer system concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montag, Bruce C.; Bishop, Alfred M.; Redfield, Joe B.

    1989-01-01

    The findings of a preliminary investigation by Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) in simulation host computer concepts is presented. It is designed to aid NASA in evaluating simulation technologies for use in spaceflight training. The focus of the investigation is on the next generation of space simulation systems that will be utilized in training personnel for Space Station Freedom operations. SwRI concludes that NASA should pursue a distributed simulation host computer system architecture for the Space Station Training Facility (SSTF) rather than a centralized mainframe based arrangement. A distributed system offers many advantages and is seen by SwRI as the only architecture that will allow NASA to achieve established functional goals and operational objectives over the life of the Space Station Freedom program. Several distributed, parallel computing systems are available today that offer real-time capabilities for time critical, man-in-the-loop simulation. These systems are flexible in terms of connectivity and configurability, and are easily scaled to meet increasing demands for more computing power.

  16. Supersonic Retropropulsion Flight Test Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Post, Ethan A.; Dupzyk, Ian C.; Korzun, Ashley M.; Dyakonov, Artem A.; Tanimoto, Rebekah L.; Edquist, Karl T.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Exploration Technology Development and Demonstration Program has proposed plans for a series of three sub-scale flight tests at Earth for supersonic retropropulsion, a candidate decelerator technology for future, high-mass Mars missions. The first flight test in this series is intended to be a proof-of-concept test, demonstrating successful initiation and operation of supersonic retropropulsion at conditions that replicate the relevant physics of the aerodynamic-propulsive interactions expected in flight. Five sub-scale flight test article concepts, each designed for launch on sounding rockets, have been developed in consideration of this proof-of-concept flight test. Commercial, off-the-shelf components are utilized as much as possible in each concept. The design merits of the concepts are compared along with their predicted performance for a baseline trajectory. The results of a packaging study and performance-based trade studies indicate that a sounding rocket is a viable launch platform for this proof-of-concept test of supersonic retropropulsion.

  17. Advanced Pointing Imaging Camera (APIC) Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, R. S.; Bills, B. G.; Jorgensen, J.; Jun, I.; Maki, J. N.; McEwen, A. S.; Riedel, E.; Walch, M.; Watkins, M. M.

    2016-10-01

    The Advanced Pointing Imaging Camera (APIC) concept is envisioned as an integrated system, with optical bench and flight-proven components, designed for deep-space planetary missions with 2-DOF control capability.

  18. Advanced flight control system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgough, J.; Moses, K.; Klafin, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The architecture, requirements, and system elements of an ultrareliable, advanced flight control system are described. The basic criteria are functional reliability of 10 to the minus 10 power/hour of flight and only 6 month scheduled maintenance. A distributed system architecture is described, including a multiplexed communication system, reliable bus controller, the use of skewed sensor arrays, and actuator interfaces. Test bed and flight evaluation program are proposed.

  19. Advanced concepts for acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, D.

    1986-07-01

    Selected examples of advanced accelerator concepts are reviewed. Such plasma accelerators as plasma beat wave accelerator, plasma wake field accelerator, and plasma grating accelerator are discussed particularly as examples of concepts for accelerating relativistic electrons or positrons. Also covered are the pulsed electron-beam, pulsed laser accelerator, inverse Cherenkov accelerator, inverse free-electron laser, switched radial-line accelerators, and two-beam accelerator. Advanced concepts for ion acceleration discussed include the electron ring accelerator, excitation of waves on intense electron beams, and two-wave combinations. (LEW)

  20. Advanced Civilian Aeronautical Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, Dennis M.

    1996-01-01

    Paper discusses alternatives to currently deployed systems which could provide revolutionary improvements in metrics applicable to civilian aeronautics. Specific missions addressed include subsonic transports, supersonic transports and personal aircraft. These alternative systems and concepts are enabled by recent and envisaged advancements in electronics, communications, computing and Designer Fluid Mechanics in conjunction with a design approach employing extensive synergistic interactions between propulsion, aerodynamics and structures.

  1. Advanced flight computer. Special study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coo, Dennis

    1995-01-01

    This report documents a special study to define a 32-bit radiation hardened, SEU tolerant flight computer architecture, and to investigate current or near-term technologies and development efforts that contribute to the Advanced Flight Computer (AFC) design and development. An AFC processing node architecture is defined. Each node may consist of a multi-chip processor as needed. The modular, building block approach uses VLSI technology and packaging methods that demonstrate a feasible AFC module in 1998 that meets that AFC goals. The defined architecture and approach demonstrate a clear low-risk, low-cost path to the 1998 production goal, with intermediate prototypes in 1996.

  2. Cryogenic fluid management program flight concept definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroeger, Erich

    1987-01-01

    The Lewis Research Center's cryogenic fluid management program flight concept definition is presented in viewgraph form. Diagrams are given of the cryogenic fluid management subpallet and its configuration with the Delta launch vehicle. Information is given in outline form on feasibility studies, requirements definition, and flight experiments design.

  3. Advanced Concepts. Chapter 21

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les; Mulqueen, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Before there is a funded space mission, there must be a present need for the mission. Space science and exploration are expensive, and without a well-defined and justifiable need, no one is going to commit significant funding for any space endeavor. However, as discussed in Chapter 1, applications of space technology and many and broad, hence there are many ways to determine and establish a mission need. Robotic science missions are justified by their science return. To be selected for flight, questions like these must be addressed: What is the science question that needs answering, and will the proposed mission be the most cost-effective way to answer it? Why does answering the question require an expensive space flight, instead of some ground-based alternative? If the question can only be answered by flying in space, then why is this approach better than other potential approaches? How much will it cost? And is the technology required to answer the question in hand and ready to use? If not, then how much will it cost and how long will it take to mature the technology to a usable level? There are also many ways to justify human exploration missions, including science return, technology advancement, as well as intangible reasons, such as national pride. Nonetheless, many of the questions that need answering, are similar to those for robotic science missions: Where are the people going, why, and will the proposed mission be the most cost-effective way to get there? What is the safest method to achieve the goal? How much will it cost? And is the technology required to get there and keep the crew alive in hand and ready to use? If not, then how much will it cost and how long will it take to mature the technology to a usable level? Another reason for some groups sending spacecraft into space is for profit. Telecommunications, geospatial imaging, and tourism are examples of proven, market-driven space missions and applications. For this specific set of users, the

  4. Advanced microwave processing concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L.

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace; and (2) microwave curing of polymer composites. The variable frequency microwave furnace, whose initial conception and design was funded by the AIC Materials Program, will allow us, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies. Microwave curing of thermoset resins will be studied because it hold the potential of in-situ curing of continuous-fiber composites for strong, lightweight components. Microwave heating can shorten curing times, provided issues of scaleup, uniformity, and thermal management can be adequately addressed.

  5. Advanced microwave processing concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L.

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace; and (2) microwave curing of polymeric materials. The variable frequency microwave furnace, whose initial conception and design was funded by the AIM Materials Program, allows the authors, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies. Microwave curing of various thermoset resins will be studied because it holds the potential of in-situ curing of continuous-fiber composites for strong, lightweight components or in-situ curing of adhesives, including metal-to-metal. Microwave heating can shorten curing times, provided issues of scaleup, uniformity, and thermal management can be adequately addressed.

  6. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS

    SciTech Connect

    Apostolos A. Nikolopoulos; Santosh K. Gangwal; William J. McMichael; Jeffrey W. Portzer

    2003-01-01

    Conventional sulfur removal in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants involves numerous steps: COS (carbonyl sulfide) hydrolysis, amine scrubbing/regeneration, Claus process, and tail-gas treatment. Advanced sulfur removal in IGCC systems involves typically the use of zinc oxide-based sorbents. The sulfides sorbent is regenerated using dilute air to produce a dilute SO{sub 2} (sulfur dioxide) tail gas. Under previous contracts the highly effective first generation Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) for catalytic reduction of this SO{sub 2} tail gas to elemental sulfur was developed. This process is currently undergoing field-testing. In this project, advanced concepts were evaluated to reduce the number of unit operations in sulfur removal and recovery. Substantial effort was directed towards developing sorbents that could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur in an Advanced Hot Gas Process (AHGP). Development of this process has been described in detail in Appendices A-F. RTI began the development of the Single-step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP) to eliminate the use of sorbents and multiple reactors in sulfur removal and recovery. This process showed promising preliminary results and thus further process development of AHGP was abandoned in favor of SSRP. The SSRP is a direct Claus process that consists of injecting SO{sub 2} directly into the quenched coal gas from a coal gasifier, and reacting the H{sub 2}S-SO{sub 2} mixture over a selective catalyst to both remove and recover sulfur in a single step. The process is conducted at gasifier pressure and 125 to 160 C. The proposed commercial embodiment of the SSRP involves a liquid phase of molten sulfur with dispersed catalyst in a slurry bubble-column reactor (SBCR).

  7. AGATE Concept Flight Animation (Part 2 of 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    An Advanced General Aviation Transport Experiments (AGATE) concept flight animation (Part 2 of 2) depicting next-generation cockpit and landing sequence. Cockpit uses a single lever power control and a computer that provides up-to-date weather reports, the latest in airways and facilities information, and map displays that point out restricted areas, terrain hazards, airports, and airspace conditions.

  8. Concepts for generating optimum vertical flight profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    Algorithms for generating optimum vertical profiles are derived and examined. These algorithms form the basis for the design of onboard flight management concepts. The variations in the optimum vertical profiles (resulting from these concepts) due to variations in wind, takeoff weight, and range-to-destination are presented. Further considerations for mechanizing two different onboard methods of computing near-optimum flight profiles are then outlined. Finally, the results are summarized, and recommendations are made for further work. Technical details of optimum trajectory design, steering requirements for following these trajectories, and off-line computer programs for testing the concepts are included.

  9. Asset Analysis and Operational Concepts for Separation Assurance Flight Testing at Dryden Flight Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costa, Guillermo J.; Arteaga, Ricardo A.

    2011-01-01

    A preliminary survey of existing separation assurance and collision avoidance advancements, technologies, and efforts has been conducted in order to develop a concept of operations for flight testing autonomous separation assurance at Dryden Flight Research Center. This effort was part of the Unmanned Aerial Systems in the National Airspace System project. The survey focused primarily on separation assurance projects validated through flight testing (including lessons learned), however current forays into the field were also examined. Comparisons between current Dryden flight and range assets were conducted using House of Quality matrices in order to allow project management to make determinations regarding asset utilization for future flight tests. This was conducted in order to establish a body of knowledge of the current collision avoidance landscape, and thus focus Dryden s efforts more effectively towards the providing of assets and test ranges for future flight testing within this research field.

  10. Enroute flight planning: Evaluating design concepts for the development of cooperative problem-solving concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Philip J.; Mccoy, C. Elaine

    1991-01-01

    The goals of this research were to develop design concepts to support the task of enroute flight planning. And within this context, to explore and evaluate general design concepts and principles to guide the development of cooperative problem solving systems. A detailed model is to be developed of the cognitive processes involved in flight planning. Included in this model will be the identification of individual differences of subjects. Of particular interest will be differences between pilots and dispatchers. The effect will be studied of the effect on performance of tools that support planning at different levels of abstraction. In order to conduct this research, the Flight Planning Testbed (FPT) was developed, a fully functional testbed environment for studying advanced design concepts for tools to aid in flight planning.

  11. Robust flight design for an advanced launch system vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhand, Sanjeev K.; Wong, Kelvin K.

    1991-01-01

    Current launch vehicle trajectory design philosophies are generally based on maximizing payload capability. This approach results in an expensive trajectory design process for each mission. Two concepts of robust flight design have been developed to significantly reduce this cost: Standardized Trajectories and Command Multiplier Steering (CMS). These concepts were analyzed for an Advanced Launch System (ALS) vehicle, although their applicability is not restricted to any particular vehicle. Preliminary analysis has demonstrated the feasibility of these concepts at minimal loss in payload capability.

  12. Advanced Welding Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Four advanced welding techniques and their use in NASA are briefly reviewed in this poster presentation. The welding techniques reviewed are: Solid State Welding, Friction Stir Welding (FSW), Thermal Stir Welding (TSW) and Ultrasonic Stir Welding.

  13. Advanced ramjet concepts program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leingang, J. L.

    1992-01-01

    Uniquely advantageous features, on both the performance and weight sides of the ledger, can be achieved through synergistic design integration of airbreathing and rocket technologies in the development of advanced orbital space transport propulsion systems of the combined cycle type. In the context of well understood advanced airbreathing and liquid rocket propulsion principles and practices, this precept of synergism is advanced mainly through six rather specific examples. These range from the detailed component level to the overall vehicle system level as follows: using jet compression; achieving a high area ratio rocket nozzle; ameliorating gas generator cycle rocket system deficiencies; using the in-duct special rocket thrust chamber assembly as the principal scramjet fuel injection operation; using the unstowed, covered fan as a duct closure for effecting high area ratio rocket mode operation; and creating a unique airbreathing rocket system via the onboard, cryogenic hydrogen induced air liquefaction process.

  14. Advanced sulfur control concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, D.P.; Lopez-Ortiz, A.; White, J.D.; Groves, F.R. Jr.

    1995-11-01

    The primary objective of this study is the direct production of elemental sulfur during the regeneration of high temperature desulfurization sorbents. Three possible regeneration concepts were identified as a result of a literature search. The potential for elemental sulfur production from a number of candidate metal oxide sorbents using each regeneration concept was evaluated on the basis of a thermodynamic analysis. Two candidate sorbents, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CeO{sub 2} were chosen for experimental testing. The experimental test program using both electrobalance and fixed-bed reactor sis now getting underway. The objective is to determine reaction conditions--temperature, pressure, space velocity, and regeneration feed gas composition--which will maximize the yield of elemental sulfur in the regeneration product gas. Experimental results are to be used to define a conceptual desulfurization-regeneration process and to provide a preliminary economic evaluation.

  15. Advanced sulfur control concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Gangwal, S.K.; Turk, B.S.; Gupta, R.P.

    1995-11-01

    Regenerable metal oxide sorbents, such as zinc titanate, are being developed to efficiently remove hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gas in advanced power systems. Dilute air regeneration of the sorbents produces a tailgas containing a few percent sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}). Catalytic reduction of the SO{sub 2} to elemental sulfur with a coal gas slipstream using the Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) is a leading first-generation technology. Currently the DSRP is undergoing field testing at gasifier sites. The objective of this study is to develop second-generation processes that produce elemental sulfur without coal gas or with limited use. Novel approaches that were evaluated to produce elemental sulfur from sulfided sorbents include (1) sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) regeneration, (2) substoichiometric (partial) oxidation, (3) steam regeneration followed by H{sub 2}S oxidation, and (4) steam-air regeneration. Preliminary assessment of these approaches indicated that developing SO{sub 2} regeneration faced the fewest technical and economic problems among the four process options. Elemental sulfur is the only likely product of SO{sub 2} regeneration and the SO{sub 2} required for the regeneration can be obtained by burning a portion of the sulfur produced. Experimental efforts have thus been concentrated on SO{sub 2}-based regeneration processes. Results from laboratory investigations are presented and discussed.

  16. Advanced Turbulence Modeling Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Tsan-Hsing

    2005-01-01

    The ZCET program developed at NASA Glenn Research Center is to study hydrogen/air injection concepts for aircraft gas turbine engines that meet conventional gas turbine performance levels and provide low levels of harmful NOx emissions. A CFD study for ZCET program has been successfully carried out. It uses the most recently enhanced National combustion code (NCC) to perform CFD simulations for two configurations of hydrogen fuel injectors (GRC- and Sandia-injector). The results can be used to assist experimental studies to provide quick mixing, low emission and high performance fuel injector designs. The work started with the configuration of the single-hole injector. The computational models were taken from the experimental designs. For example, the GRC single-hole injector consists of one air tube (0.78 inches long and 0.265 inches in diameter) and two hydrogen tubes (0.3 inches long and 0.0226 inches in diameter opposed at 180 degree). The hydrogen tubes are located 0.3 inches upstream from the exit of the air element (the inlet location for the combustor). To do the simulation, the single-hole injector is connected to a combustor model (8.16 inches long and 0.5 inches in diameter). The inlet conditions for air and hydrogen elements are defined according to actual experimental designs. Two crossing jets of hydrogen/air are simulated in detail in the injector. The cold flow, reacting flow, flame temperature, combustor pressure and possible flashback phenomena are studied. Two grid resolutions of the numerical model have been adopted. The first computational grid contains 0.52 million elements, the second one contains over 1.3 million elements. The CFD results have shown only about 5% difference between the two grid resolutions. Therefore, the CFD result obtained from the model of 1.3-million grid resolution can be considered as a grid independent numerical solution. Turbulence models built in NCC are consolidated and well tested. They can handle both coarse and

  17. A rotor technology assessment of the advancing blade concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pleasants, W. A.

    1983-01-01

    A rotor technology assessment of the Advancing Blade Concept (ABC) was conducted in support of a preliminary design study. The analytical methodology modifications and inputs, the correlation, and the results of the assessment are documented. The primary emphasis was on the high-speed forward flight performance of the rotor. The correlation data base included both the wind tunnel and the flight test results. An advanced ABC rotor design was examined; the suitability of the ABC for a particular mission was not considered. The objective of this technology assessment was to provide estimates of the performance potential of an advanced ABC rotor designed for high speed forward flight.

  18. Next Generation NASA GA Advanced Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, Andrew S.

    2006-01-01

    Not only is the common dream of frequent personal flight travel going unfulfilled, the current generation of General Aviation (GA) is facing tremendous challenges that threaten to relegate the Single Engine Piston (SEP) aircraft market to a footnote in the history of U.S. aviation. A case is made that this crisis stems from a generally low utility coupled to a high cost that makes the SEP aircraft of relatively low transportation value and beyond the means of many. The roots of this low value are examined in a broad sense, and a Next Generation NASA Advanced GA Concept is presented that attacks those elements addressable by synergistic aircraft design.

  19. Advanced Turbofan Duct Liner Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bielak, Gerald W.; Premo, John W.; Hersh, Alan S.

    1999-01-01

    The Advanced Subsonic Technology Noise Reduction Program goal is to reduce aircraft noise by 10 EPNdB by the year 2000 relative, to 1992 technology. The improvement goal for nacelle attenuation is 25% relative to 1992 technology by 1997 and 50% by 2000. The Advanced Turbofan Duct Liner Concepts Task work by Boeing presented in this document was in support of these goals. The basis for the technical approach was a Boeing study conducted in 1993-94 under NASA/FAA contract NAS1-19349, Task 6, investigating broadband acoustic liner concepts. As a result of this work, it was recommended that linear double layer, linear and perforate triple layer, parallel element, and bulk absorber liners be further investigated to improve nacelle attenuations. NASA LaRC also suggested that "adaptive" liner concepts that would allow "in-situ" acoustic impedance control also be considered. As a result, bias flow and high-temperature liner concepts were also added to the investigation. The major conclusion from the above studies is that improvements in nacelle liner average acoustic impedance characteristics alone will not result in 25% increased nacelle noise reduction relative to 1992 technology. Nacelle design advancements currently being developed by Boeing are expected to add 20-40% more acoustic lining to hardwall regions in current inlets, which is predicted to result in and additional 40-80% attenuation improvement. Similar advancements are expected to allow 10-30% more acoustic lining in current fan ducts with 10-30% more attenuation expected. In addition, Boeing is currently developing a scarf inlet concept which is expected to give an additional 40-80% attenuation improvement for equivalent lining areas.

  20. An advanced manned launch system concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, H. W.; Piland, W. M.

    1992-08-01

    A two-stage fully reusable rocked powered concept is defined and analyzed in detail for the Advanced Manned Launch System missions. The concept elements include a Mach 3 staging unmanned glideback booster and a 149-ft long winged orbiter with an external payload canister with a 15-ft diameter and 30-ft long payload bay. The booster and orbiter main propulsion system is a lightweight derivative of the current Space Shuttle Main Engine. The primary mission is the Space Station Freedom logistics mission, 40,000-lb payload with two crew members and eight passengers. The structural design and material selection, the thermal protection system, the integral cryogenic tanks and insulation, the propulsion system, and the modular payload canister system are described. The ground and flight operations approach analysis, the manufacturing and certification plan, and the technology development requirements are also discussed.

  1. Advanced Concepts for Sea Control,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-11-01

    technology sea control missions, 1,000 tonnes to advances occur, and the threat needs 25,000 tonnes would be representative change, a proper balance can be...sea loiter aircraft, conventional subcavitating fully-sub- utilizing the stopped rotor concept; merged foils, thus providing a very a small sea...augmentation engines have been platform characteristics at conventional moved from their overhung location to a displacement ship speeds but at a re- . place

  2. Evaluation of advanced airship concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joner, B. A.; Schneider, J. J.

    1975-01-01

    A historical overview of the airship, technical and operational characteristics of conventional and hybrid concepts, and the results of a parametric design analysis and evaluation are presented. The lift capabilities of certain buoyant fluids for a hypothetical 16 million cu.ft. volume airship are compared. The potential advanced airship concepts are surveyed, followed by a discussion of the six configurations: conventional nonrigid, conventional rigid, Deltoid (Dynairship), Guppoid (Megalifter), Helipsoid, and Heli-Stat. It is suggested that a partially buoyant Helipsoid concept of the optimum buoyancy ratio has the potential to solve the problems facing future airship development, such as Ballast and Ballast Recovery System, Full Low-Speed Controllability, Susceptibility to Wind/Gusting, Weather/Icing Constraints, Ground Handling/Hangaring, and Direct/Indirect Operating Costs.

  3. Flight management concepts compatible with air traffic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morello, S. A.

    1986-01-01

    With the advent of airline deregulation and increased competition, the need for cost efficient airline operations is critical. This paper summarizes past research efforts and planned research thrusts toward the development of compatible flight management and air traffic control systems that promise increased operational effectiveness and efficiency. Potential capacity improvements resulting from a time-based ATC simulation (fast-time) are presented. Advanced display concepts with time guidance and velocity vector information to allow the flight crew to play an important role in the future ATC environment are discussed. Results of parametric sensitivity analyses are also presented that quantify the fuel/cost penalties for idle-thrust mismodeling and wind-modeling errors.

  4. Advanced nuclear thermal propulsion concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, Steven D.

    1993-01-01

    In 1989, a Presidential directive created the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) which had a goal of placing mankind on Mars in the early 21st century. The SEI was effectively terminated in 1992 with the election of a new administration. Although the initiative did not exist long enough to allow substantial technology development, it did provide a venue, for the first time in 20 years, to comprehensively evaluate advanced propulsion concepts which could enable fast, manned transits to Mars. As part of the SEI based investigations, scientists from NASA, DoE National Laboratories, universities, and industry met regularly and proceeded to examine a variety of innovative ideas. Most of the effort was directed toward developing a solid-core, nuclear thermal rocket and examining a high-power nuclear electric propulsion system. In addition, however, an Innovative Concepts committee was formed and charged with evaluating concepts that offered a much higher performance but were less technologically mature. The committee considered several concepts and eventually recommended that further work be performed in the areas of gas core fission rockets, inertial confinement fusion systems, antimatter based rockets, and gas core fission electric systems. Following the committee's recommendations, some computational modeling work has been performed at Los Alamos in certain of these areas and critical issues have been identified.

  5. Advanced fusion concepts: project summaries

    SciTech Connect

    1980-12-01

    This report contains descriptions of the activities of all the projects supported by the Advanced Fusion Concepts Branch of the Office of Fusion Energy, US Department of Energy. These descriptions are project summaries of each of the individual projects, and contain the following: title, principle investigators, funding levels, purpose, approach, progress, plans, milestones, graduate students, graduates, other professional staff, and recent publications. Information is given for each of the following programs: (1) reverse-field pinch, (2) compact toroid, (3) alternate fuel/multipoles, (4) stellarator/torsatron, (5) linear magnetic fusion, (6) liners, and (7) Tormac. (MOW)

  6. NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassanova, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts (NIAC) is to provide an independent, open forum for the external analysis and definition of space and aeronautics advanced concepts to complement the advanced concepts activities conducted within the NASA Enterprises. The NIAC will issue Calls for Proposals during each year of operation and will select revolutionary advanced concepts for grant or contract awards through a peer review process. Final selection of awards will be with the concurrence of NASA's Chief Technologist. The operation of the NIAC is reviewed biannually by the NIAC Science, Exploration and Technology Council (NSETC) whose members are drawn from the senior levels of industry and universities. The process of defining the technical scope of the initial Call for Proposals was begun with the NIAC "Grand Challenges" workshop conducted on May 21-22, 1998 in Columbia, Maryland. These "Grand Challenges" resulting from this workshop became the essence of the technical scope for the first Phase I Call for Proposals which was released on June 19, 1998 with a due date of July 31, 1998. The first Phase I Call for Proposals attracted 119 proposals. After a thorough peer review, prioritization by NIAC and technical concurrence by NASA, sixteen subgrants were awarded. The second Phase I Call for Proposals was released on November 23, 1998 with a due date of January 31, 1999. Sixty-three (63) proposals were received in response to this Call. On December 2-3, 1998, the NSETC met to review the progress and future plans of the NIAC. The next NSETC meeting is scheduled for August 5-6, 1999. The first Phase II Call for Proposals was released to the current Phase I grantees on February 3,1999 with a due date of May 31, 1999. Plans for the second year of the contract include a continuation of the sequence of Phase I and Phase II Calls for Proposals and hosting the first NIAC Annual Meeting and USRA/NIAC Technical Symposium in NASA HQ.

  7. Design of an advanced flight planning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, J. A.; Goka, T.

    1985-01-01

    The demand for both fuel conservation and four-dimensional traffic management require that the preflight planning process be designed to account for advances in airborne flight management and weather forecasting. The steps and issues in designing such an advanced flight planning system are presented. Focus is placed on the different optimization options for generating the three-dimensional reference path. For the cruise phase, one can use predefined jet routes, direct routes based on a network of evenly spaced grid points, or a network where the grid points are existing navaid locations. Each choice has its own problem in determining an optimum solution. Finding the reference path is further complicated by choice of cruise altitude levels, use of a time-varying weather field, and requiring a fixed time-of-arrival (four-dimensional problem).

  8. HIAD on ULA (HULA) Orbital Reentry Flight Experiment Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinonno, J. M.; Cheatwood, F. M.; Hughes, S. J.; Ragab, M. M.; Dillman, R. A.; Bodkin, R. J.; Zumwalt, C. H.; Johnson, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a proposed orbital velocity reentry flight test of a Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD). The flight test builds upon ground development activities that continue to advance the materials, design, and manufacturing techniques for the inflatable structure and flexible thermal protection system (F-TPS) that comprise the inflatable heat shield. While certain aspects of material and system performance can be assessed using a variety of ground testing capabilities, only orbital velocity energy on a trajectory through the gradient density of the atmosphere can impart the combined aerodynamic and aeroheating design environments in real time. To achieve this at limited cost, the HIAD would be delivered to a spin-stabilized entry trajectory as a secondary payload on the Centaur stage of a United Launch Alliance (ULA) Atlas V launch vehicle. Initial trajectory studies indicate that the combination of launch vehicle capability and achievable reentry vehicle ballistic numbers make this a strategic opportunity for technology development. This 4 to 6 meter diameter scale aeroshell flight, referred to as HIAD on ULA (HULA), would also contribute to ULA asset recovery development. ULA has proposed that a HIAD be utilized as part of the Sensible, Modular, Autonomous Return Technology (SMART) initiative to enable recovery of the Vulcan launch vehicle booster main engines [1], including a Mid-Air Recovery (MAR) to gently return these assets for reuse. Whereas HULA will attain valuable aerothermal and structural response data toward advancing HIAD technology, it may also provide a largest-to-date scaled flight test of the MAR operation, which in turn would allow the examination of a nearly pristine post-entry aeroshell. By utilizing infrared camera imaging, HULA will also attain aft-side thermal response data, enhancing understanding of the aft side aerothermal environment, an area of high uncertainty. The aeroshell inflation will utilize a

  9. Selected advanced aerodynamic and active control concepts development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A summary is presented of results obtained during analysis, design and test activities on six selected technical tasks directed at exploratory improvement of fuel efficiency for new and derivative transports. The work included investigations into the potential offered by natural laminar flow, improved surface coatings and advanced high lift concepts. Similar investigations covering optimum low-energy flight path control, integrated application of active controls and evaluation of primary flight control systems reliability and maintenance are also summarized. Recommendations are included for future work needed to exploit potential advancements.

  10. MSFC Advanced Concepts Office and the Iterative Launch Vehicle Concept Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the work of the Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) with particular emphasis on the method used to model launch vehicles using INTegrated ROcket Sizing (INTROS), a modeling system that assists in establishing the launch concept design, and stage sizing, and facilitates the integration of exterior analytic efforts, vehicle architecture studies, and technology and system trades and parameter sensitivities.

  11. Concept for Space Technology Advancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Jeremiah J.

    2005-02-01

    The space industry is based on an antiquated concept of disposable rockets, earth construction, and non-repairable satellites. Current space vehicle concepts hearken from a time of Cold War animosity and expeditiousness. Space systems are put together in small, single-purpose chunks that are launched with mighty, single-use rockets. Spacecraft need to change to a more versatile, capable, reusable, and mission efficient design. The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) that President Bush put forward in his space initiative on Jan. 14, 2004 is a small first step. But like all first steps, the risk of eventual failure is great without a complementary set of steps, a reliable handhold, and a goal, which are outlined in this paper. The system for space access and development needs to be overhauled to allow for the access to space to complement the building in space, which promotes the production of goods in space, which enhances the exploitation of space resources… and the list goes on. Without supplemental and complementary infrastructure, all political, scientific, and idealistic endeavors to explore and exploit the near solar system will result in quagmires of failures and indecision. Renewed focus on fundamentals, integration, total-system consideration, and solid engineering can avoid catastrophe. Mission success, simple solutions, mission efficiency, and proper testing all seem to have been lost in the chase for the nickels and dimes. These items will increase capabilities available from a system or combination of systems. New propulsion options and materials will enable vehicles previously unachievable. Future spacecraft should exploit modular designs for repeatability and reduced cost. Space construction should use these modular systems on major components built in orbit. All vehicles should apply smart designs and monitoring systems for increased reliability and system awareness. Crew safety systems must use this awareness in alerting the crew, aiding collision

  12. Joint Institute for Advancement of Flight Sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The program objectives were defined in the original proposal entitled "Program of Research in Flight Dynamics in the JIAFS at NASA Langley Research Center" which was originated March 20, 1975, and in yearly renewals of the research program dated December 1, 1979 to December 1, 1998. The program included three major topics: 1) Improvement of existing methods and development of new methods for flight and wind tunnel data analysis based on system identification methodology. 2) Application of these methods to flight and wind tunnel data obtained from advanced aircraft. 3) Modeling and control of aircraft, space structures and spacecraft. The principal investigator of the program was Dr. Vladislav Klein, Professor at The George Washington University, Washington, D.C.. Thirty-seven Graduate Research Scholar Assistants, two of them doctoral students, also participated in the program. The results of the research conducted during nineteen years of the total co-operative period were published in 23 NASA technical reports, 2 D.Sc. Dissertations, 14 M.S. Theses and 33 papers. The list of these publications is included. The results were also reported in more than 30 seminar lectures presented at various research establishments world-wide. For contributions to the research supported by the co-operative agreement, three NASA Awards were received: 1) NASA LARC Group Achievement Award, May 30, 1990, to Dr. V. Klein as a member of the X-29 Drop Model Team. 2) NASA Medal for Exceptional Engineering Achievement, March 27, 1992, to Dr. V. Klein for innovative contributions in the development of advanced techniques and computer programs in the field of system identification. 3) NASA LaRC Team Excellence Award, May 7, 1994, to Dr. V. Klein as a member of the X-31 Drop Model Team.

  13. Advanced aeroservoelastic stabilization techniques for hypersonic flight vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Samuel Y.; Cheng, Peter Y.; Myers, Thomas T.; Klyde, David H.; Magdaleno, Raymond E.; Mcruer, Duane T.

    1992-01-01

    Advanced high performance vehicles, including Single-Stage-To-Orbit (SSTO) hypersonic flight vehicles, that are statically unstable, require higher bandwidth flight control systems to compensate for the instability resulting in interactions between the flight control system, the engine/propulsion dynamics, and the low frequency structural modes. Military specifications, such as MIL-F-9490D and MIL-F-87242, tend to limit treatment of structural modes to conventional gain stabilization techniques. The conventional gain stabilization techniques, however, introduce low frequency effective time delays which can be troublesome from a flying qualities standpoint. These time delays can be alleviated by appropriate blending of gain and phase stabilization techniques (referred to as Hybrid Phase Stabilization or HPS) for the low frequency structural modes. The potential of using HPS for compensating structural mode interaction was previously explored. It was shown that effective time delay was significantly reduced with the use of HPS; however, the HPS design was seen to have greater residual response than a conventional gain stablized design. Additional work performed to advance and refine the HPS design procedure, to further develop residual response metrics as a basis for alternative structural stability specifications, and to develop strategies for validating HPS design and specification concepts in manned simulation is presented. Stabilization design sensitivity to structural uncertainties and aircraft-centered requirements are also assessed.

  14. Advanced beamed-energy and field propulsion concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myrabo, L. N.

    1983-01-01

    Specific phenomena which might lead to major advances in payload, range and terminal velocity of very advanced vehicle propulsion are studied. The effort focuses heavily on advanced propulsion spinoffs enabled by current government-funded investigations in directed-energy technology: i.e., laser, microwave, and relativistic charged particle beams. Futuristic (post-year 2000) beamed-energy propulsion concepts which indicate exceptional promise are identified and analytically investigated. The concepts must be sufficiently developed to permit technical understanding of the physical processes involved, assessment of the enabling technologies, and evaluation of their merits over conventional systems. Propulsion concepts that can be used for manned and/or unmanned missions for purposes of solar system exploration, planetary landing, suborbital flight, transport to orbit, and escape are presented. Speculations are made on the chronology of milestones in beamed-energy propulsion development, such as in systems applications of defense, satellite orbit-raising, global aerospace transportation, and manned interplanetary carriers.

  15. Flight Test of Advanced Digital Control Concepts.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    the model (Equation 51). 34 OPTIONII .>-COFY, GMATr, MMArtCOPY, IMATvAMAT, COP’Y, JMAT, BmA, 87, >COPY , FMArNMAT, COPYY GMAT , GMAT Next, EKEY...YCMA;TFFMAT ,COPY, FMAT, AMATY,COPY, MMA-T, EMAr ,74, COPY, CMAT r (ThAT, ’:.COFY LMAT, AMAT YCOPYP NMAT, EMAT,73, COPY, GMAT , BmAr, *::COFY, pmA, AMAT...74, COPY, GMAT , UMA’TLMAT, MMAT, NMA T, MA-T, PFMAT, ’UMATPUMAT Next use CKEY to check the results. C B and CF are substituted into the "simulator

  16. Design and Testing of a Low Noise Flight Guidance Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David H.; Oseguera-Lohr, Rosa M.; Lewis, Elliot T.

    2004-01-01

    A flight guidance concept was developed to assist in flying continuous descent approach (CDA) procedures designed to lower the noise under the flight path of jet transport aircraft during arrival operations at an airport. The guidance consists of a trajectory prediction algorithm that was tuned to produce a high-efficiency, low noise flight profile with accompanying autopilot and flight display elements needed by the flight control system and pilot to fly the approach. A key component of the flight guidance was a real-time display of energy error relative to the predicted flight path. The guidance was integrated with the conventional Flight Management System (FMS) guidance of a modern jet transport airplane and tested in a high fidelity flight simulation. A charted arrival procedure, which allowed flying conventional arrivals, CDA arrivals with standard guidance, and CDA arrivals with the new low noise guidance, was developed to assist in the testing and evaluation of the low noise guidance concept. Results of the simulation testing showed the low noise guidance was easy to use by airline pilot test subjects and effective in achieving the desired noise reduction. Noise under the flight path was reduced by at least 2 decibels in Sound Exposure Level (SEL) at distances from about 3 nautical miles out to about 17.5 nautical miles from the runway, with a peak reduction of 8.5 decibels at about 10.5 nautical miles. Fuel consumption was also reduced by about 17% for the LNG conditions compared to baseline runs for the same flight distance. Pilot acceptance and understanding of the guidance was quite high with favorable comments and ratings received from all test subjects.

  17. General Aviation Flight Test of Advanced Operations Enabled by Synthetic Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaab, Louis J.; Hughhes, Monica F.; Parrish, Russell V.; Takallu, Mohammad A.

    2014-01-01

    A flight test was performed to compare the use of three advanced primary flight and navigation display concepts to a baseline, round-dial concept to assess the potential for advanced operations. The displays were evaluated during visual and instrument approach procedures including an advanced instrument approach resembling a visual airport traffic pattern. Nineteen pilots from three pilot groups, reflecting the diverse piloting skills of the General Aviation pilot population, served as evaluation subjects. The experiment had two thrusts: 1) an examination of the capabilities of low-time (i.e., <400 hours), non-instrument-rated pilots to perform nominal instrument approaches, and 2) an exploration of potential advanced Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC)-like approaches in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC). Within this context, advanced display concepts are considered to include integrated navigation and primary flight displays with either aircraft attitude flight directors or Highway In The Sky (HITS) guidance with and without a synthetic depiction of the external visuals (i.e., synthetic vision). Relative to the first thrust, the results indicate that using an advanced display concept, as tested herein, low-time, non-instrument-rated pilots can exhibit flight-technical performance, subjective workload and situation awareness ratings as good as or better than high-time Instrument Flight Rules (IFR)-rated pilots using Baseline Round Dials for a nominal IMC approach. For the second thrust, the results indicate advanced VMC-like approaches are feasible in IMC, for all pilot groups tested for only the Synthetic Vision System (SVS) advanced display concept.

  18. Development of Advanced Plant Habitat Flight Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Curtis J., Jr

    2013-01-01

    With NASA's current goals and resources moving forward to bring the idea of Manned Deep-Space missions from a long-thought concept to a reality, innovative research methods and expertise are being utilized for studies that integrate human needs with that of technology to make for the most efficient operations possible. Through the capability to supply food, provide oxygen from what was once carbon dioxide, and various others which help to make plant research one of the prime factors of future long-duration mission, the Advanced Plant Habitat will be the largest microgravity plant growth chamber on the International Space Station when it is launched in the near future (2014- 2015). Soon, the Advanced Plant Habitat unit will continue on and enrich the discoveries and studies on the long-term effects of microgravity on plants.

  19. Rotorcraft aircrew systems concepts airborne laboratory (RASCAL) helmet-mounted display flight research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hindson, William S.; Njaka, Chima E.; Aiken, Edwin W.; Barnhart, Warren A.

    1994-06-01

    The Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) is a UH-60A Black Hawk helicopter that is being modified by the US Army and NASA for flight systems research. One of the objectives of the research is to develop and integrate technologies for Automated Nap-of-the Earth (ANOE) flight. The principal elements of this system include video imaging sensors, advanced real-time image processing capabilities, a graphics supercomputer, a wide field-of-view color helmet mounted display (HMD), and an advanced fly-by-wire flight control system. The development methodology and the current status of the ANOE Flight Program are summarized, a description of the visionics system is provided, and the plans for the initial applications of the color HMD are presented.

  20. The Max Launch Abort System - Concept, Flight Test, and Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) is an independent engineering analysis and test organization providing support across the range of NASA programs. In 2007 NASA was developing the launch escape system for the Orion spacecraft that was evolved from the traditional tower-configuration escape systems used for the historic Mercury and Apollo spacecraft. The NESC was tasked, as a programmatic risk-reduction effort to develop and flight test an alternative to the Orion baseline escape system concept. This project became known as the Max Launch Abort System (MLAS), named in honor of Maxime Faget, the developer of the original Mercury escape system. Over the course of approximately two years the NESC performed conceptual and tradeoff analyses, designed and built full-scale flight test hardware, and conducted a flight test demonstration in July 2009. Since the flight test, the NESC has continued to further develop and refine the MLAS concept.

  1. Joint Institute for Advancement of Flight Sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Aeroacoustics Research Program is an integral part of the Joint Institute for Advancement of Flight Sciences at The George Washington University. It is affiliated with many civil, mechanical, and environmental engineering courses, particularly those that stress theory and numerical or other analytic methods in engineering. This report lists the courses presented, the names of graduate research assistants, and bibliographic information regarding publications and presentations. Three graduate degrees were awarded and the abstracts of each dissertation is included. The dissertations were as follows: "A Numerical Investigation of Thermoacoustic Oscillations", which discusses advances in the study of acoustic phenomena through the use of computational aeroacoustics. "Computation of Vortex Shedding and Radiated Sound for a Circular Cylinder: Subcritical to Transcritical Reynolds Numbers", which discusses predicting tonal noise generated by vortex shedding from a circular cylinder. And finally, "The Radiated Field Generated by a Monopole Source in a Short, Rigid, Rectangular Duct", which develops a method for modeling the acoustic field generated by a monopole source placed in a moving rectangular duct.

  2. Advanced Concepts: Aneutronic Fusion Power and Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, John J.

    2012-01-01

    Aneutronic Fusion for In-Space thrust, power. Clean energy & potential nuclear gains. Fusion plant concepts, potential to use advanced fuels. Methods to harness ionic momentum for high Isp thrust plus direct power conversion into electricity will be presented.

  3. NASA advanced turboprop research and concept validation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlow, John B., Jr.; Sievers, G. Keith

    1988-01-01

    NASA has determined by experimental and analytical effort that use of advanced turboprop propulsion instead of the conventional turbofans in the older narrow-body airline fleet could reduce fuel consumption for this type of aircraft by up to 50 percent. In cooperation with industry, NASA has defined and implemented an Advanced Turboprop (ATP) program to develop and validate the technology required for these new high-speed, multibladed, thin, swept propeller concepts. This paper presents an overview of the analysis, model-scale test, and large-scale flight test elements of the program together with preliminary test results, as available.

  4. Integrated technology rotor/flight research rotor hub concept definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dixon, P. G. C.

    1983-01-01

    Two variations of the helicopter bearingless main rotor hub concept are proposed as bases for further development in the preliminary design phase of the Integrated Technology Rotor/Flight Research Rotor (ITR/FRR) program. This selection was the result of an evaluation of three bearingless hub concepts and two articulated hub concepts with elastomeric bearings. The characteristics of each concept were evaluated by means of simplified methodology. These characteristics included the assessment of stability, vulnerability, weight, drag, cost, stiffness, fatigue life, maintainability, and reliability.

  5. Advanced transport operating system software upgrade: Flight management/flight controls software description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clinedinst, Winston C.; Debure, Kelly R.; Dickson, Richard W.; Heaphy, William J.; Parks, Mark A.; Slominski, Christopher J.; Wolverton, David A.

    1988-01-01

    The Flight Management/Flight Controls (FM/FC) software for the Norden 2 (PDP-11/70M) computer installed on the NASA 737 aircraft is described. The software computes the navigation position estimates, guidance commands, those commands to be issued to the control surfaces to direct the aircraft in flight based on the modes selected on the Advanced Guidance Control System (AGSC) mode panel, and the flight path selected via the Navigation Control/Display Unit (NCDU).

  6. Advanced instrumentation concepts for environmental control subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, P. Y.; Schubert, F. H.; Gyorki, J. R.; Wynveen, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    Design, evaluation and demonstration of advanced instrumentation concepts for improving performance of manned spacecraft environmental control and life support systems were successfully completed. Concepts to aid maintenance following fault detection and isolation were defined. A computer-guided fault correction instruction program was developed and demonstrated in a packaged unit which also contains the operator/system interface.

  7. High speed research system study. Advanced flight deck configuration effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swink, Jay R.; Goins, Richard T.

    1992-01-01

    In mid-1991 NASA contracted with industry to study the high-speed civil transport (HSCT) flight deck challenges and assess the benefits, prior to initiating their High Speed Research Program (HSRP) Phase 2 efforts, then scheduled for FY-93. The results of this nine-month effort are presented, and a number of the most significant findings for the specified advanced concepts are highlighted: (1) a no nose-droop configuration; (2) a far forward cockpit location; and (3) advanced crew monitoring and control of complex systems. The results indicate that the no nose-droop configuration is critically dependent upon the design and development of a safe, reliable, and certifiable Synthetic Vision System (SVS). The droop-nose configuration would cause significant weight, performance, and cost penalties. The far forward cockpit location, with the conventional side-by-side seating provides little economic advantage; however, a configuration with a tandem seating arrangement provides a substantial increase in either additional payload (i.e., passengers) or potential downsizing of the vehicle with resulting increases in performance efficiencies and associated reductions in emissions. Without a droop nose, forward external visibility is negated and takeoff/landing guidance and control must rely on the use of the SVS. The technologies enabling such capabilities, which de facto provides for Category 3 all-weather operations on every flight independent of weather, represent a dramatic benefits multiplier in a 2005 global ATM network: both in terms of enhanced economic viability and environmental acceptability.

  8. Advances in time-of-flight PET

    PubMed Central

    Surti, Suleman; Karp, Joel S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a review and an update on time-of-flight PET imaging with a focus on PET instrumentation, ranging from hardware design to software algorithms. We first present a short introduction to PET, followed by a description of TOF PET imaging and its history from the early days. Next, we introduce the current state-of-art in TOF PET technology and briefly summarize the benefits of TOF PET imaging. This is followed by a discussion of the various technological advancements in hardware (scintillators, photo-sensors, electronics) and software (image reconstruction) that have led to the current widespread use of TOF PET technology, and future developments that have the potential for further improvements in the TOF imaging performance. We conclude with a discussion of some new research areas that have opened up in PET imaging as a result of having good system timing resolution, ranging from new algorithms for attenuation correction, through efficient system calibration techniques, to potential for new PET system designs. PMID:26778577

  9. Prototype Flight Management Capabilities to Explore Temporal RNP Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballin, Mark G.; Williams, David H.; Allen, Bonnie Danette; Palmer, Michael T.

    2008-01-01

    Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) concepts of operation may require aircraft to fly planned trajectories in four dimensions three spatial dimensions and time. A prototype 4D flight management capability is being developed by NASA to facilitate the development of these concepts. New trajectory generation functions extend today's flight management system (FMS) capabilities that meet a single Required Time of Arrival (RTA) to trajectory solutions that comply with multiple RTA constraints. When a solution is not possible, a constraint management capability relaxes constraints to achieve a trajectory solution that meets the most important constraints as specified by candidate NextGen concepts. New flight guidance functions provide continuous guidance to the aircraft s flight control system to enable it to fly specified 4D trajectories. Guidance options developed for research investigations include a moving time window with varying tolerances that are a function of proximity to imposed constraints, and guidance that recalculates the aircraft s planned trajectory as a function of the estimation of current compliance. Compliance tolerances are related to required navigation performance (RNP) through the extension of existing RNP concepts for lateral containment. A conceptual temporal RNP implementation and prototype display symbology are proposed.

  10. Advanced concepts in knee arthrodesis

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Jennifer H; Conway, Janet D

    2015-01-01

    The aim is to describe advanced strategies that can be used to diagnose and treat complications after knee arthrodesis and to describe temporary knee arthrodesis to treat infected knee arthroplasty. Potential difficult complications include nonunited knee arthrodesis, limb length discrepancy after knee arthrodesis, and united but infected knee arthrodesis. If a nonunited knee arthrodesis shows evidence of implant loosening or failure, then bone grafting the nonunion site as well as exchange intramedullary nailing and/or supplemental plate fixation are recommended. If symptomatic limb length discrepancy cannot be satisfactorily treated with a shoe lift, then the patient should undergo tibial lengthening over nail with a monolateral fixator or exchange nailing with a femoral internal lengthening device. If a united knee arthrodesis is infected, the nail must be removed. Then the surgeon has the option of replacing it with a long, antibiotic cement-coated nail. The authors also describe temporary knee arthrodesis for infected knee arthroplasty in patients who have the potential to undergo insertion of a new implant. The procedure has two goals: eradication of infection and stabilization of the knee. A temporary knee fusion can be accomplished by inserting both an antibiotic cement-coated knee fusion nail and a static antibiotic cement-coated spacer. These advanced techniques can be helpful when treating difficult complications after knee arthrodesis and treating cases of infected knee arthroplasty. PMID:25793160

  11. Advanced fuel concepts and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Miley, G.H.

    1981-01-01

    Despite their more stringent plasma heating and confinement requirements, advanced fuel (AF) fusion cycles potentially offer improved environmental compatibility and lower costs. This comes about by elimination of tritium breeding requirements and by a reduction in neutron flux (hence, activation and radiation damage). Also a larger energy fraction carried by charged particles makes direct energy conversion more suitable. As a first application, a symbiotic system of semi-catalyzed-deuterium fueled hybrid fuel factories, supplying both fissle fuel to light water reactors and /sup 3/He to D-/sup 3/He satellite fusion reactors, is proposed. Subsequently, an evolution into a system of synfuel factories with satellite D-/sup 3/He reactors is envisioned.

  12. Advanced LMMHD space power generation concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Vincent; Wong, Albert; Kim, Kilyoo; Dhir, Vijay

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generation concept has been proposed and studied worldwide as one of the future power generation sources. An advanced one fluid two phase liquid metal (LM) MHD power generation concept was developed for space nuclear power generation design. The concept employs a nozzle to accelerate the liquid metal coolant to an acceptable velocity with Mach number greater than unity. Such nozzle and the MHD power generator replace the turbogenerator of a high temperature Rankine turboelectric cycle concept. As a result, the power generation system contains no movable parts. This provides high reliability, which is a very important factor in space application.

  13. Flight tests of the total automatic flight control system (Tafcos) concept on a DHC-6 Twin Otter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wehrend, W. R., Jr.; Meyer, G.

    1980-01-01

    Flight control systems capable of handling the complex operational requirements of the STOL and VTOL aircraft designs as well as designs using active control concepts are considered. Emphasis is placed on the total automatic flight control system (TACOS) (TAFCOS). Flight test results which verified the performance of the system concept are presented.

  14. Advanced Accelerator Concepts Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wurtele, Jonathan S.

    2014-05-13

    A major focus of research supported by this Grant has been on the ALPHA antihydrogen trap. We first trapped antihydrogen in 2010 and soon thereafter demonstrated trapping for 1000s. We now have observed resonant quantum interactions with antihydrogen. These papers in Nature and Nature Physics report the major milestones in anti-atom trapping. The success was only achieved through careful work that advanced our understanding of collective dynamics in charged particle systems, the development of new cooling and diagnostics, and in- novation in understanding how to make physics measurements with small numbers of anti-atoms. This research included evaporative cooling, autoresonant excitation of longitudinal motion, and centrifugal separation. Antihydrogen trapping by ALPHA is progressing towards the point when a important theories believed by most to hold for all physical systems, such as CPT (Charge-Parity-Time) invariance and the Weak Equivalence Principle (matter and antimatter behaving the same way under the influence of gravity) can be directly tested in a new regime. One motivation for this test is that most accepted theories of the Big Bang predict that we should observe equal amounts of matter and antimatter. However astrophysicists have found very little antimatter in the universe. Our experiment will, if successful over the next seven years, provide a new test of these ideas. Many earlier detailed and beautiful tests have been made, but the trapping of neutral antimatter allows us to explore the possibility of direct, model-independent tests. Successful cooling of the anti atoms, careful limits on systematics and increased trapping rates, all planned for our follow-up experiment (ALPHA-II) will reach unrivaled precision. CPT invariance implies that the spectra of hydrogen and antihydrogen should be identical. Spectra can be measured in principle with great precision, and any di erences we might observe would revolutionize fundamental physics. This is the

  15. Concept report: Experimental vector magnetograph (EXVM) operational configuration balloon flight assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The observational limitations of earth bound solar studies has prompted a great deal of interest in recent months in being able to gain new scientific perspectives through, what should prove to be, relatively low cost flight of the magnetograph system. The ground work done by TBE for the solar balloon missions (originally planned for SOUP and GRID) as well as the rather advanced state of assembly of the EXVM has allowed the quick formulation of a mission concept for the 30 cm system currently being assembled. The flight system operational configuration will be discussed as it is proposed for short duration flight (on the order of one day) over the continental United States. Balloon hardware design requirements used in formulation of the concept are those set by the National Science Balloon Facility (NSBF), the support agency under NASA contract for flight services. The concept assumes that the flight hardware assembly would come together from three development sources: the scientific investigator package, the integration contractor package, and the NSBF support system. The majority of these three separate packages can be independently developed; however, the computer control interfaces and telemetry links would require extensive preplanning and coordination. A special section of this study deals with definition of a dedicated telemetry link to be provided by the integration contractor for video image data for pointing system performance verification. In this study the approach has been to capitalize to the maximum extent possible on existing hardware and system design. This is the most prudent step that can be taken to reduce eventual program cost for long duration flights. By fielding the existing EXVM as quickly as possible, experience could be gained from several short duration flight tests before it became necessary to commit to major upgrades for long duration flights of this system or of the larger 60 cm version being considered for eventual development.

  16. Flight evaluation of advanced third-generation midwave infrared sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Chyau N.; Donn, Matthew

    1998-08-01

    In FY-97 the Counter Drug Optical Upgrade (CDOU) demonstration program was initiated by the Program Executive Office for Counter Drug to increase the detection and classification ranges of P-3 counter drug aircraft by using advanced staring infrared sensors. The demonstration hardware is a `pin-for-pin' replacement of the AAS-36 Infrared Detection Set (IRDS) located under the nose radome of a P-3 aircraft. The hardware consists of a 3rd generation mid-wave infrared (MWIR) sensor integrated into a three axis-stabilized turret. The sensor, when installed on the P- 3, has a hemispheric field of regard and analysis has shown it will be capable of detecting and classifying Suspected Drug Trafficking Aircraft and Vessels at ranges several factors over the current IRDS. This paper will discuss the CDOU system and it's lab, ground, and flight evaluation results. Test targets included target templates, range targets, dedicated target boats, and targets of opportunity at the Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division and at operational test sites. The objectives of these tests were to: (1) Validate the integration concept of the CDOU package into the P-3 aircraft. (2) Validate the end-to-end functionality of the system, including sensor/turret controls and recording of imagery during flight. (3) Evaluate the system sensitivity and resolution on a set of verified resolution targets templates. (4) Validate the ability of the 3rd generation MWIR sensor to detect and classify targets at a significantly increased range.

  17. An Overview of Advanced Concepts for Launch

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-09

    public release; distribution unlimited. PA Clearance Number XXXXX 22 Ideal Process LCA LMS Practical Process LTF None Net? Clear nCA nMS nTF...Advanced Propellants Concept Description Pros Eval. Cons Lithium-Fluorine-Hydrogen LCA LMS LTF nCA nMS nTF m TIsp ∝ •Low m usually low ρ...Air Breathing Concepts Concept Description Pros Eval. Cons X-51 WaveRider LCA LMS LTF nCA nMS nTF mox >> mpay •Multiple modes required

  18. Training needs for advanced technology flight decks.

    PubMed

    Maurino, D

    1991-05-01

    The author examines training implications of increased automation in aircraft flight decks. Training issues include the need for basic pilot skills and knowledge, general knowledge of the aircraft, revision of Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) to reflect changes due to technology, and tailoring Line-Oriented Flight Training to focus on routine human-automation interfaces and CRM principles in addition to scenarios of abnormal conditions.

  19. Advanced Free Flight Planner and Dispatcher's Workstation: Preliminary Design Specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J.; Wright, C.; Couluris, G. J.

    1997-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has implemented the Advanced Air Transportation Technology (AATT) program to investigate future improvements to the national and international air traffic management systems. This research, as part of the AATT program, developed preliminary design requirements for an advanced Airline Operations Control (AOC) dispatcher's workstation, with emphasis on flight planning. This design will support the implementation of an experimental workstation in NASA laboratories that would emulate AOC dispatch operations. The work developed an airline flight plan data base and specified requirements for: a computer tool for generation and evaluation of free flight, user preferred trajectories (UPT); the kernel of an advanced flight planning system to be incorporated into the UPT-generation tool; and an AOC workstation to house the UPT-generation tool and to provide a real-time testing environment. A prototype for the advanced flight plan optimization kernel was developed and demonstrated. The flight planner uses dynamic programming to search a four-dimensional wind and temperature grid to identify the optimal route, altitude and speed for successive segments of a flight. An iterative process is employed in which a series of trajectories are successively refined until the LTPT is identified. The flight planner is designed to function in the current operational environment as well as in free flight. The free flight environment would enable greater flexibility in UPT selection based on alleviation of current procedural constraints. The prototype also takes advantage of advanced computer processing capabilities to implement more powerful optimization routines than would be possible with older computer systems.

  20. Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) Flight Management/Flight Controls (FM/FC) software description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, David A.; Dickson, Richard W.; Clinedinst, Winston C.; Slominski, Christopher J.

    1993-01-01

    The flight software developed for the Flight Management/Flight Controls (FM/FC) MicroVAX computer used on the Transport Systems Research Vehicle for Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) research is described. The FM/FC software computes navigation position estimates, guidance commands, and those commands issued to the control surfaces to direct the aircraft in flight. Various modes of flight are provided for, ranging from computer assisted manual modes to fully automatic modes including automatic landing. A high-level system overview as well as a description of each software module comprising the system is provided. Digital systems diagrams are included for each major flight control component and selected flight management functions.

  1. Conflict Probe Concepts Analysis in Support of Free Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, Anthony W.; Schwab, Robert W.; Geels, Timothy J.; Shakarian, Arek

    1997-01-01

    This study develops an operational concept and requirements for en route Free Flight using a simulation of the Cleveland Air Route Traffic Control Center, and develops requirements for an automated conflict probe for use in the Air Traffic Control (ATC) Centers. In this paper, we present the results of simulation studies and summarize implementation concepts and infrastructure requirements to transition from the current air traffic control system to mature Free Right. The transition path to Free Flight envisioned in this paper assumes an orderly development of communications, navigation, and surveillance (CNS) technologies based on results from our simulation studies. The main purpose of this study is to provide an overall context and methodology for evaluating airborne and ground-based requirements for cooperative development of the future ATC system.

  2. Electrolysis Performance Improvement Concept Study (EPICS) Flight Experiment-Reflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.

    1997-01-01

    The Electrolysis Performance Improvement Concept Study (EPICS) is a flight experiment to demonstrate and validate in a microgravity environment the Static Feed Electrolyzer (SFE) concept which was selected for the use aboard the International Space Station (ISS) for oxygen (O2) generation. It also is to investigate the impact of microgravity on electrochemical cell performance. Electrochemical cells are important to the space program because they provide an efficient means of generating O2 and hydrogen (H2) in space. Oxygen and H2 are essential not only for the survival of humans in space but also for the efficient and economical operation of various space systems. Electrochemical cells can reduce the mass, volume and logistical penalties associated with resupply and storage by generating and/or consuming these gases in space. An initial flight of the EPICS was conducted aboard STS-69 from September 7 to 8, 1995. A temperature sensor characteristics shift and a missing line of software code resulted in only partial success of this initial flight. Based on the review and recommendations of a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) review team a reflight activity was initiated to obtain the remaining desired results, not achieved during the initial flight.

  3. Implementation of an Adaptive Controller System from Concept to Flight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, Richard R.; Burken, John J.; Butler, Bradley S.; Yokum, Steve

    2009-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Dryden Flight Research Center (Edwards, California) is conducting ongoing flight research using adaptive controller algorithms. A highly modified McDonnell-Douglas NF-15B airplane called the F-15 Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS) is used to test and develop these algorithms. Modifications to this airplane include adding canards and changing the flight control systems to interface a single-string research controller processor for neural network algorithms. Research goals include demonstration of revolutionary control approaches that can efficiently optimize aircraft performance in both normal and failure conditions and advancement of neural-network-based flight control technology for new aerospace system designs. This report presents an overview of the processes utilized to develop adaptive controller algorithms during a flight-test program, including a description of initial adaptive controller concepts and a discussion of modeling formulation and performance testing. Design finalization led to integration with the system interfaces, verification of the software, validation of the hardware to the requirements, design of failure detection, development of safety limiters to minimize the effect of erroneous neural network commands, and creation of flight test control room displays to maximize human situational awareness; these are also discussed.

  4. Implementation of an Adaptive Controller System from Concept to Flight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, Richard R.; Burken, John J.; Butler, Bradley S.

    2009-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Dryden Flight Research Center (Edwards, California) is conducting ongoing flight research using adaptive controller algorithms. A highly modified McDonnell-Douglas NF-15B airplane called the F-15 Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS) was used for these algorithms. This airplane has been modified by the addition of canards and by changing the flight control systems to interface a single-string research controller processor for neural network algorithms. Research goals included demonstration of revolutionary control approaches that can efficiently optimize aircraft performance for both normal and failure conditions, and to advance neural-network-based flight control technology for new aerospace systems designs. Before the NF-15B IFCS airplane was certified for flight test, however, certain processes needed to be completed. This paper presents an overview of these processes, including a description of the initial adaptive controller concepts followed by a discussion of modeling formulation and performance testing. Upon design finalization, the next steps are: integration with the system interfaces, verification of the software, validation of the hardware to the requirements, design of failure detection, development of safety limiters to minimize the effect of erroneous neural network commands, and creation of flight test control room displays to maximize human situational awareness.

  5. Advanced concepts and missions division publications, 1971

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    This report is part of a series of annual papers on Advanced Concepts and Missions Division (ACMD) publications. It contains a bibliography and corresponding abstract of all papers presented or published by personnel of ACMD during the calendar year 1971. Also included are abstracts of final reports ACMD contracted studies perfomed during this time period.

  6. Nanotechnology Concepts at Marshall Space Flight Center: Engineering Directorate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, B.; Kaul, R.; Shah, S.; Smithers, G.; Watson, M. D.

    2001-01-01

    Nanotechnology is the art and science of building materials and devices at the ultimate level of finesse: atom by atom. Our nation's space program has need for miniaturization of components, minimization of weight, and maximization of performance, and nanotechnology will help us get there. Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Engineering Directorate is committed to developing nanotechnology that will enable MSFC missions in space transportation, space science, and space optics manufacturing. MSFC has a dedicated group of technologists who are currently developing high-payoff nanotechnology concepts. This poster presentation will outline some of the concepts being developed including, nanophase structural materials, carbon nanotube reinforced metal and polymer matrix composites, nanotube temperature sensors, and aerogels. The poster will outline these concepts and discuss associated technical challenges in turning these concepts into real components and systems.

  7. Generation of optimum vertical profiles for an advanced flight management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, J. A.; Waters, M. H.

    1981-01-01

    Algorithms for generating minimum fuel or minimum cost vertical profiles are derived and examined. The option for fixing the time of flight is included in the concepts developed. These algorithms form the basis for the design of an advanced on-board flight management system. The variations in the optimum vertical profiles (resulting from these concepts) due to variations in wind, takeoff mass, and range-to-destination are presented. Fuel savings due to optimum climb, free cruise altitude, and absorbing delays enroute are examined.

  8. Analysis and Preliminary Design of an Advanced Technology Transport Flight Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazzini, R.; Vaughn, D.

    1975-01-01

    The analysis and preliminary design of an advanced technology transport aircraft flight control system using avionics and flight control concepts appropriate to the 1980-1985 time period are discussed. Specifically, the techniques and requirements of the flight control system were established, a number of candidate configurations were defined, and an evaluation of these configurations was performed to establish a recommended approach. Candidate configurations based on redundant integration of various sensor types, computational methods, servo actuator arrangements and data-transfer techniques were defined to the functional module and piece-part level. Life-cycle costs, for the flight control configurations, as determined in an operational environment model for 200 aircraft over a 15-year service life, were the basis of the optimum configuration selection tradeoff. The recommended system concept is a quad digital computer configuration utilizing a small microprocessor for input/output control, a hexad skewed set of conventional sensors for body rate and body acceleration, and triple integrated actuators.

  9. Proposed research on advanced accelerator concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, R.C.; Wurtele, J.S.

    1991-09-01

    This report summarizes technical progress and accomplishments during the proposed three-year research on advanced accelerator concepts supported by the Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-FG02-88ER40465. A vigorous theoretical program has been pursued in critical problem areas related to advanced accelerator concepts and the basic equilibrium, stability, and radiation properties of intense charged particle beams. Broadly speaking, our research has made significant contributions in the following three major areas: Investigations of physics issues related to particle acceleration including two-beam accelerators and cyclotron resonance laser (CRL) accelerators; Investigations of RF sources including the free- electron lasers, cyclotron resonance masers, and relativistic magnetrons; Studies of coherent structures in electron plasmas and beams ranging from a low-density, nonrelativistic, pure electron plasma column to high-density, relativistic, non-neutral electron flow in a high-voltage diode. The remainder of this report presents theoretical and computational advances in these areas.

  10. The relationship of certified flight instructors' emotional intelligence levels on flight student advancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hokeness, Mark Merrill

    Aviation researchers estimate airline companies will require nearly 500,000 pilots in the next 20 years. The role of a Certified Flight Instructor (CFI) is to move student pilots to professional pilots with training typically conducted in one-on-one student and instructor sessions. The knowledge of aviation, professionalism as a teacher, and the CFI’s interpersonal skills can directly affect the successes and advancement of a student pilot. A new and emerging assessment of people skills is known as emotional intelligence (EI). The EI of the CFI can and will affect a flight students’ learning experiences. With knowledge of emotional intelligence and its effect on flight training, student pilot dropouts from aviation may be reduced, thus helping to ensure an adequate supply of pilots. Without pilots, the growth of the commercial aviation industry will be restricted. This mixed method research study established the correlation between a CFI’s measured EI levels and the advancement of flight students. The elements contributing to a CFI’s EI level were not found to be teaching or flight-related experiences, suggesting other life factors are drawn upon by the CFI and are reflected in their emotional intelligence levels presented to flight students. Students respond positively to CFIs with higher levels of emotional intelligence. Awareness of EI skills by both the CFI and flight student contribute to flight student successes and advancement.

  11. ADVANCED HIGH PERFORMANCE SOLID WALL BLANKET CONCEPTS

    SciTech Connect

    WONG, CPC; MALANG, S; NISHIO, S; RAFFRAY, R; SAGARA, S

    2002-04-01

    OAK A271 ADVANCED HIGH PERFORMANCE SOLID WALL BLANKET CONCEPTS. First wall and blanket (FW/blanket) design is a crucial element in the performance and acceptance of a fusion power plant. High temperature structural and breeding materials are needed for high thermal performance. A suitable combination of structural design with the selected materials is necessary for D-T fuel sufficiency. Whenever possible, low afterheat, low chemical reactivity and low activation materials are desired to achieve passive safety and minimize the amount of high-level waste. Of course the selected fusion FW/blanket design will have to match the operational scenarios of high performance plasma. The key characteristics of eight advanced high performance FW/blanket concepts are presented in this paper. Design configurations, performance characteristics, unique advantages and issues are summarized. All reviewed designs can satisfy most of the necessary design goals. For further development, in concert with the advancement in plasma control and scrape off layer physics, additional emphasis will be needed in the areas of first wall coating material selection, design of plasma stabilization coils, consideration of reactor startup and transient events. To validate the projected performance of the advanced FW/blanket concepts the critical element is the need for 14 MeV neutron irradiation facilities for the generation of necessary engineering design data and the prediction of FW/blanket components lifetime and availability.

  12. Advanced design concepts for shuttle airframe structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, M. F.; Davis, J. G., Jr.; Shideler, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    The development of weight-saving advanced design concepts for shuttle airframe structure is presented. Design concepts under investigation employ selective composite reinforcement and/or efficient geometric arrangements. An effort to develop metallic panel designs which exploit the relaxation of smooth external-surface requirements for skin structure is reviewed. Available highlights from research and development studies which investigate the application of composite reinforcement to the design of two types of fuselage panels, a shear web, a large fuselage frame, and a landing-gear-door assembly are presented. Preliminary results from these studies suggest weight savings of 25 percent can be obtained.

  13. Research Opportunities in Advanced Aerospace Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Gregory S.; Bangert, Linda S.; Garber, Donald P.; Huebner, Lawrence D.; McKinley, Robert E.; Sutton, Kenneth; Swanson, Roy C., Jr.; Weinstein, Leonard

    2000-01-01

    This report is a review of a team effort that focuses on advanced aerospace concepts of the 21st Century. The paper emphasis advanced technologies, rather than cataloging every unusual aircraft that has ever been attempted. To dispel the myth that "aerodynamics is a mature science" an extensive list of "What we cannot do, or do not know" was enumerated. A zeit geist, a feeling for the spirit of the times, was developed, based on existing research goals. Technological drivers and the constraints that might influence these technological developments in a future society were also examined. The present status of aeronautics, space exploration, and non-aerospace applications, both military and commercial, including enabling technologies are discussed. A discussion of non-technological issues affecting advanced concepts research is presented. The benefit of using the study of advanced vehicles as a tool to uncover new directions for technology development is often necessary. An appendix is provided containing examples of advanced vehicle configurations currently of interest.

  14. Advanced Video Data-Acquisition System For Flight Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Geoffrey; Richwine, David M.; Hass, Neal E.

    1996-01-01

    Advanced video data-acquisition system (AVDAS) developed to satisfy variety of requirements for in-flight video documentation. Requirements range from providing images for visualization of airflows around fighter airplanes at high angles of attack to obtaining safety-of-flight documentation. F/A-18 AVDAS takes advantage of very capable systems like NITE Hawk forward-looking infrared (FLIR) pod and recent video developments like miniature charge-couple-device (CCD) color video cameras and other flight-qualified video hardware.

  15. Advanced flight computers for planetary exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephenson, R. Rhoads

    1988-01-01

    Research concerning flight computers for use on interplanetary probes is reviewed. The history of these computers from the Viking mission to the present is outlined. The differences between ground commercial computers and computers for planetary exploration are listed. The development of a computer for the Mariner Mark II comet rendezvous asteroid flyby mission is described. Various aspects of recently developed computer systems are examined, including the Max real time, embedded computer, a hypercube distributed supercomputer, a SAR data processor, a processor for the High Resolution IR Imaging Spectrometer, and a robotic vision multiresolution pyramid machine for processsing images obtained by a Mars Rover.

  16. Advanced boundary layer transition measurement methods for flight applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, B. J.; Croom, C. C.; Gail, P. D.; Manuel, G. S.; Carraway, D. L.

    1986-01-01

    In modern laminar flow flight research, it is important to understand the specific cause(s) of laminar to turbulent boundary-layer transition. Such information is crucial to the exploration of the limits of practical application of laminar flow for drag reduction on aircraft. The transition modes of interest in current flight investigations include the viscous Tollmien-Schlichting instability, the inflectional instability at laminar separation, and the crossflow inflectional instability, as well as others. This paper presents the results to date of research on advanced devices and methods used for the study of laminar boundary-layer transition phenomena in the flight environment. Recent advancements in the development of arrayed hot-film devices and of a new flow visualization method are discussed. Arrayed hot-film devices have been designed to detect the presence of laminar separation, and of crossflow vorticity. The advanced flow visualization method utilizes color changes in liquid-crystal coatings to detect boundary-layer transition at high altitude flight conditions. Flight and wind tunnel data are presented to illustrate the design and operation of these advanced methods. These new research tools provide information on disturbance growth and transition mode which is essential to furthering our understanding of practical design limits for applications of laminar flow technology.

  17. ATS-6 - Flight performance of the Advanced Thermal Control Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, J. P.; Brennan, P. J.

    1975-01-01

    The Advanced Thermal Control Flight Experiment on ATS-6 was designed to demonstrate the thermal control capability of a thermal diode (one-way) heat pipe, a phase-change material for thermal storage, and a feedback-controlled heat pipe. Flight data for the different operational modes are compared to ground test data, and the performance of the components is evaluated on an individual basis and as an integrated temperature-control system.

  18. Flight Simulator Evaluation of Synthetic Vision Display Concepts to Prevent Controlled Flight Into Terrain (CFIT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Kramer, Lynda J.; Parrish, Russell V.; Bailey, Randall E.

    2004-01-01

    In commercial aviation, over 30-percent of all fatal accidents worldwide are categorized as Controlled Flight Into Terrain (CFIT) accidents, where a fully functioning airplane is inadvertently flown into the ground. The major hypothesis for a simulation experiment conducted at NASA Langley Research Center was that a Primary Flight Display (PFD) with synthetic terrain will improve pilots ability to detect and avoid potential CFITs compared to conventional instrumentation. All display conditions, including the baseline, contained a Terrain Awareness and Warning System (TAWS) and Vertical Situation Display (VSD) enhanced Navigation Display (ND). Each pilot flew twenty-two approach departure maneuvers in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) to the terrain challenged Eagle County Regional Airport (EGE) in Colorado. For the final run, flight guidance cues were altered such that the departure path went into terrain. All pilots with a synthetic vision system (SVS) PFD (twelve of sixteen pilots) noticed and avoided the potential CFIT situation. The four pilots who flew the anomaly with the conventional baseline PFD configuration (which included a TAWS and VSD enhanced ND) had a CFIT event. Additionally, all the SVS display concepts enhanced the pilot s situational awareness, decreased workload and improved flight technical error (FTE) compared to the baseline configuration.

  19. Second Annual Transformative Vertical Flight Concepts Workshop: Enabling New Flight Concepts Through Novel Propulsion and Energy Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudley, Michael R. (Editor); Duffy, Michael; Hirschberg, Michael; Moore, Mark; German, Brian; Goodrich, Ken; Gunnarson, Tom; Petermaier,Korbinian; Stoll, Alex; Fredericks, Bill; Gibson, Andy; Newman, Aron; Ouellette, Richard; Antcliff, Kevin; Sinkula, Michael; Buettner-Garrett, Josh; Ricci, Mike; Keogh, Rory; Moser, Tim; Borer, Nick; Rizzi, Steve; Lighter, Gwen

    2015-01-01

    On August 3rd and 4th, 2015, a workshop was held at the NASA Ames Research Center, located at the Moffett Federal Airfield in California to explore the aviation communities interest in Transformative Vertical Flight (TVF) Concepts. The Workshop was sponsored by the AHS International (AHS), the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and hosted by the NASA Aeronautics Research Institute (NARI). This second annual workshop built on the success and enthusiasm generated by the first TVF Workshop held in Washington, DC in August of 2014. The previous Workshop identified the existence of a multi-disciplinary community interested in this topic and established a consensus among the participants that opportunities to establish further collaborations in this area are warranted. The desire to conduct a series of annual workshops augmented by online virtual technical seminars to strengthen the TVF community and continue planning for advocacy and collaboration was a direct outcome of the first Workshop. The second Workshop organizers focused on four desired action-oriented outcomes. The first was to establish and document common stakeholder needs and areas of potential collaborations. This includes advocacy strategies to encourage the future success of unconventional vertiport capable flight concept solutions that are enabled by emerging technologies. The second was to assemble a community that can collaborate on new conceptual design and analysis tools to permit novel configuration paths with far greater multi-disciplinary coupling (i.e., aero-propulsive-control) to be investigated. The third was to establish a community to develop and deploy regulatory guidelines. This community would have the potential to initiate formation of an American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) F44 Committee Subgroup for the development of consensus-based certification standards for General Aviation scale vertiport

  20. Advanced Accelerator Concepts: Seventh Workshop. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Chattopadhyay, S.; McCullough, J.; Dahl, P.

    1997-09-01

    These proceedings are based on the Seventh Workshop on Advanced Accelerator Concepts held in October, 1996 at Lake Tahoe, California. This workshop was sponsored by the US Department of Energy(High Energy Physics Division, Advanced Technology Branch) and by the center for Beam Physics at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory of the University of California. A wide range of applications was covered at the workshop, from high energy colliders to synchrotron radiation sources. This scope included topics such as new methods of particle acceleration, production of ultrahigh gradient electromagnetic fields, diagnostics and control of particle/photon beams in ultrashort dimensions and ultrafast time scales, and various energy and beam sources. There were 87 papers presented at the workshop and out of these, 65 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database.(AIP)

  1. Outlook for advanced concepts in transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, D. W.

    1980-01-01

    Air transportation demand trends, air transportation system goals, and air transportation system trends well into the 21st century were examined in detail. The outlook is for continued growth in both air passenger travel and air freight movements. The present system, with some improvements, is expected to continue to the turn of the century and to utilize technologically upgraded, derivative versions of today's aircraft, plus possibly some new aircraft for supersonic long haul, short haul, and high density commuter service. Severe constraints of the system, expected by early in the 21st century, should lead to innovations at the airport, away from the airport, and in the air. The innovations are illustrated by descriptions of three candidate systems involving advanced aircraft concepts. Advanced technologies and vehicles expected to impact the airport are illustrated by descriptions of laminar flow control aircraft, very large air freighters and cryogenically fueled transports.

  2. The Design and Implementation of NASA's Advanced Flight Computing Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alkakaj, Leon; Straedy, Richard; Jarvis, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a working flight computer Multichip Module developed jointly by JPL and TRW under their respective research programs in a collaborative fashion. The MCM is fabricated by nCHIP and is packaged within a 2 by 4 inch Al package from Coors. This flight computer module is one of three modules under development by NASA's Advanced Flight Computer (AFC) program. Further development of the Mass Memory and the programmable I/O MCM modules will follow. The three building block modules will then be stacked into a 3D MCM configuration. The mass and volume of the flight computer MCM achieved at 89 grams and 1.5 cubic inches respectively, represent a major enabling technology for future deep space as well as commercial remote sensing applications.

  3. Integrated Flight and Propulsion Controls for Advanced Aircraft Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, Walter; Garg, Sanjay

    1995-01-01

    The research vision of the NASA Lewis Research Center in the area of integrated flight and propulsion controls technologies is described. In particular the Integrated Method for Propulsion and Airframe Controls developed at the Lewis Research Center is described including its application to an advanced aircraft configuration. Additionally, future research directions in integrated controls are described.

  4. The First Test Flight of the Delta Clipper-Experimental Advanced (DC-XA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    The Delta Clipper-Experimental Advanced (DC-XA) is a single-stage-to-orbit, vertical takeoff / vertical landing launch vehicle concept, whose development was geared to significantly reduce launch cost and provided a test bed for NASA Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) technology. This photograph shows the descending vehicle landing during the first successful test flight at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico. The program was discontinued in 2003.

  5. ASME Material Challenges for Advanced Reactor Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Piyush Sabharwall; Ali Siahpush

    2013-07-01

    This study presents the material Challenges associated with Advanced Reactor Concept (ARC) such as the Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR). ACR are the next generation concepts focusing on power production and providing thermal energy for industrial applications. The efficient transfer of energy for industrial applications depends on the ability to incorporate cost-effective heat exchangers between the nuclear heat transport system and industrial process heat transport system. The heat exchanger required for AHTR is subjected to a unique set of conditions that bring with them several design challenges not encountered in standard heat exchangers. The corrosive molten salts, especially at higher temperatures, require materials throughout the system to avoid corrosion, and adverse high-temperature effects such as creep. Given the very high steam generator pressure of the supercritical steam cycle, it is anticipated that water tube and molten salt shell steam generators heat exchanger will be used. In this paper, the ASME Section III and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Section VIII requirements (acceptance criteria) are discussed. Also, the ASME material acceptance criteria (ASME Section II, Part D) for high temperature environment are presented. Finally, lack of ASME acceptance criteria for thermal design and analysis are discussed.

  6. Advanced Gasifier Pilot Plant Concept Definition

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Fusselman; Alan Darby; Fred Widman

    2005-08-31

    This report presents results from definition of a preferred commercial-scale advanced gasifier configuration and concept definition for a gasification pilot plant incorporating those preferred technologies. The preferred commercial gasifier configuration was established based on Cost Of Electricity estimates for an IGCC. Based on the gasifier configuration trade study results, a compact plug flow gasifier, with a dry solids pump, rapid-mix injector, CMC liner insert and partial quench system was selected as the preferred configuration. Preliminary systems analysis results indicate that this configuration could provide cost of product savings for electricity and hydrogen ranging from 15%-20% relative to existing gasifier technologies. This cost of product improvement draws upon the efficiency of the dry feed, rapid mix injector technology, low capital cost compact gasifier, and >99% gasifier availability due to long life injector and gasifier liner, with short replacement time. A pilot plant concept incorporating the technologies associated with the preferred configuration was defined, along with cost and schedule estimates for design, installation, and test operations. It was estimated that a 16,300 kg/day (18 TPD) pilot plant gasifier incorporating the advanced gasification technology and demonstrating 1,000 hours of hot-fire operation could be accomplished over a period of 33 months with a budget of $25.6 M.

  7. Advanced Vehicle Concepts and Implications for NextGen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, Matt; Smith, Jim; Wright, Ken; Mediavilla Ricky; Kirby, Michelle; Pfaender, Holger; Clarke, John-Paul; Volovoi, Vitali; Dorbian, Christopher; Ashok, Akshay; Reynolds, Tom; Waitz, Ian; Hileman, James; Arunachalam, Sarav; Hedrick, Matt; Vempati, Lakshmi; Laroza, Ryan; denBraven, Wim; Henderson, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    This report presents the results of a major NASA study of advanced vehicle concepts and their implications for the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). Comprising the efforts of dozens of researchers at multiple institutions, the analyses presented here cover a broad range of topics including business-case development, vehicle design, avionics, procedure design, delay, safety, environmental impacts, and metrics. The study focuses on the following five new vehicle types: Cruise-efficient short takeoff and landing (CESTOL) vehicles Large commercial tiltrotor aircraft (LCTRs) Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) Very light jets (VLJs) Supersonic transports (SST). The timeframe of the study spans the years 2025-2040, although some analyses are also presented for a 3X scenario that has roughly three times the number of flights as today. Full implementation of NextGen is assumed.

  8. Low-speed wind-tunnel investigation of the flight dynamic characteristics of an advanced turboprop business/commuter aircraft configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coe, Paul L., Jr.; Turner, Steven G.; Owens, D. Bruce

    1990-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the low-speed flight dynamic behavior of a representative advanced turboprop business/commuter aircraft concept. Free-flight tests were conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center's 30- by 60-Foot Tunnel. In support of the free-flight tests, conventional static, dynamic, and free-to-roll oscillation tests were performed. Tests were intended to explore normal operating and post stall flight conditions, and conditions simulating the loss of power in one engine.

  9. Flight evaluation of advanced flight control systems and cockpit displays for powered-lift STOL Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, J. A.; Smith, D. W.; Watson, D. M.; Warner, D. N., Jr.; Innis, R. C.; Hardy, G. H.

    1976-01-01

    A flight research program was conducted to assess the improvements, in longitudinal path control during a STOL approach and landing, that can be achieved with manual and automatic control system concepts and cockpit displays with various degrees of complexity. NASA-Ames powered-lift Augmentor Wing Research Aircraft was used in the research program. Satisfactory flying qualities were demonstrated for selected stabilization and command augmentation systems and flight director combinations. The ability of the pilot to perform precise landings at low touchdown sink rates with a gentle flare maneuver was also achieved. The path-control improvement is considered to be applicable to other powered-lift aircraft configurations.

  10. Basic concepts of advanced MRI techniques.

    PubMed

    Pagani, Elisabetta; Bizzi, Alberto; Di Salle, Francesco; De Stefano, Nicola; Filippi, Massimo

    2008-10-01

    An overview is given of magnetic resonance (MR) techniques sensitized to diffusion, flow, magnetization transfer effect, and local field inhomogeneities induced by physiological changes, that can be viewed, in the clinical practice, as advanced because of their challenging implementation and interpretation. These techniques are known as diffusion-weighted, perfusion, magnetization transfer, functional MRI and MR spectroscopy. An important issue is that they can provide quantitative estimates of structural and functional characteristics that are below the voxel resolution. This review does not deal with the basic concepts of the MR physics and the description of the available acquisition and postprocessing methods, but hopefully provides an adequate background to readers and hence facilitate the understanding of the following clinical contributions.

  11. Comparison of Pilots' Situational Awareness While Monitoring Autoland Approaches Using Conventional and Advanced Flight Display Formats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Busquets, Anthony M.

    2000-01-01

    A simulation experiment was performed to assess situation awareness (SA) and workload of pilots while monitoring simulated autoland operations in Instrument Meteorological Conditions with three advanced display concepts: two enhanced electronic flight information system (EFIS)-type display concepts and one totally synthetic, integrated pictorial display concept. Each concept incorporated sensor-derived wireframe runway and iconic depictions of sensor-detected traffic in different locations on the display media. Various scenarios, involving conflicting traffic situation assessments, main display failures, and navigation/autopilot system errors, were used to assess the pilots' SA and workload during autoland approaches with the display concepts. From the results, for each scenario, the integrated pictorial display concept provided the pilots with statistically equivalent or substantially improved SA over the other display concepts. In addition to increased SA, subjective rankings indicated that the pictorial concept offered reductions in overall pilot workload (in both mean ranking and spread) over the two enhanced EFIS-type display concepts. Out of the display concepts flown, the pilots ranked the pictorial concept as the display that was easiest to use to maintain situational awareness, to monitor an autoland approach, to interpret information from the runway and obstacle detecting sensor systems, and to make the decision to go around.

  12. Advanced composite combustor structural concepts program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sattar, M. A.; Lohmann, R. P.

    1984-01-01

    An analytical study was conducted to assess the feasibility of and benefits derived from the use of high temperature composite materials in aircraft turbine engine combustor liners. The study included a survey and screening of the properties of three candidate composite materials including tungsten reinforced superalloys, carbon-carbon and silicon carbide (SiC) fibers reinforcing a ceramic matrix of lithium aluminosilicate (LAS). The SiC-LAS material was selected as offering the greatest near term potential primarily on the basis of high temperature capability. A limited experimental investigation was conducted to quantify some of the more critical mechanical properties of the SiC-LAS composite having a multidirection 0/45/-45/90 deg fiber orientation favored for the combustor linear application. Rigorous cyclic thermal tests demonstrated that SiC-LAS was extremely resistant to the thermal fatigue mechanisms that usually limit the life of metallic combustor liners. A thermal design study led to the definition of a composite liner concept that incorporated film cooled SiC-LAS shingles mounted on a Hastelloy X shell. With coolant fluxes consistent with the most advanced metallic liner technology, the calculated hot surface temperatures of the shingles were within the apparent near term capability of the material. Structural analyses indicated that the stresses in the composite panels were low, primarily because of the low coefficient of expansion of the material and it was concluded that the dominant failure mode of the liner would be an as yet unidentified deterioration of the composite from prolonged exposure to high temperature. An economic study, based on a medium thrust size commercial aircraft engine, indicated that the SiC-LAS combustor liner would weigh 22.8N (11.27 lb) less and cost less to manufacture than advanced metallic liner concepts intended for use in the late 1980's.

  13. Advanced Nacelle Acoustic Lining Concepts Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bielak, G.; Gallman, J.; Kunze, R.; Murray, P.; Premo, J.; Kosanchick, M.; Hersh, A.; Celano, J.; Walker, B.; Yu, J.; Parrott, Tony L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The work reported in this document consisted of six distinct liner technology development subtasks: 1) Analysis of Model Scale ADP Fan Duct Lining Data (Boeing): An evaluation of an AST Milestone experiment to demonstrate 1995 liner technology superiority relative to that of 1992 was performed on 1:5.9 scale model fan rig (Advanced Ducted Propeller) test data acquired in the NASA Glenn 9 x 15 foot wind tunnel. The goal of 50% improvement was deemed satisfied. 2) Bias Flow Liner Investigation (Boeing, VCES): The ability to control liner impedance by low velocity bias flow through liner was demonstrated. An impedance prediction model to include bias flow was developed. 3) Grazing Flow Impedance Testing (Boeing): Grazing flow impedance tests were conducted for comparison with results achieved at four different laboratories. 4) Micro-Perforate Acoustic Liner Technology (BFG, HAE, NG): Proof of concept testing of a "linear liner." 5) Extended Reaction Liners (Boeing, NG): Bandwidth improvements for non-locally reacting liner were investigated with porous honeycomb core test liners. 6) Development of a Hybrid Active/Passive Lining Concept (HAE): Synergism between active and passive attenuation of noise radiated by a model inlet was demonstrated.

  14. Experimental assessment of advanced Stirling component concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziph, B.

    1985-01-01

    The results of an experimental assessment of some advanced Stirling engine component concepts are presented. High performance piston rings, reciprocating oil scrapers and heat pipes with getters and with mechanical couplings were tested. The tests yielded the following results: (1) Bonded, split, pumping piston rings, in preliminary testing, proved a promising concept, exhibiting low leakage and friction losses. Solid piston rings proved impractical in view of their sensitivity to the operating temperature; (2) A babbit oil scraper in a compliant housing performed well in atmospheric endurance testing. In pressurized tests the scraper did not perform well as a containment seal. The latter tests suggest modifications which may adapt Ti successfully to that application; and (3) Heat pipe endurance tests indicated the adequacy of simple, inexpensive fabrication and filling procedures. Getters were provided to increase the tolerance of the heat pipes to the presence of air and commercially available couplings were demonstrated to be suitable for heat pipe application. In addition to the above tests, the program also included a design effort for a split shaft applicable to a swashplate driven engine with a pressurized crank-case. The design is aimed, and does accomplish, an increase in component life to more than 10,000 hours.

  15. Introduction to Advanced Engine Control Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanjay, Garg

    2007-01-01

    With the increased emphasis on aircraft safety, enhanced performance and affordability, and the need to reduce the environmental impact of aircraft, there are many new challenges being faced by the designers of aircraft propulsion systems. The Controls and Dynamics Branch at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio, is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced controls and health management technologies that will help meet these challenges through the concept of Intelligent Propulsion Systems. The key enabling technologies for an Intelligent Propulsion System are the increased efficiencies of components through active control, advanced diagnostics and prognostics integrated with intelligent engine control to enhance operational reliability and component life, and distributed control with smart sensors and actuators in an adaptive fault tolerant architecture. This presentation describes the current activities of the Controls and Dynamics Branch in the areas of active component control and propulsion system intelligent control, and presents some recent analytical and experimental results in these areas.

  16. Advanced Technology Display House. Volume 2: Energy system design concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maund, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    The preliminary design concept for the energy systems in the Advanced Technology Display House is analyzed. Residential energy demand, energy conservation, and energy concepts are included. Photovoltaic arrays and REDOX (reduction oxidation) sizes are discussed.

  17. Feasibility of a Networked Air Traffic Infrastructure Validation Environment for Advanced NextGen Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCormack, Michael J.; Gibson, Alec K.; Dennis, Noah E.; Underwood, Matthew C.; Miller,Lana B.; Ballin, Mark G.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract-Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) applications reliant upon aircraft data links such as Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) offer a sweeping modernization of the National Airspace System (NAS), but the aviation stakeholder community has not yet established a positive business case for equipage and message content standards remain in flux. It is necessary to transition promising Air Traffic Management (ATM) Concepts of Operations (ConOps) from simulation environments to full-scale flight tests in order to validate user benefits and solidify message standards. However, flight tests are prohibitively expensive and message standards for Commercial-off-the-Shelf (COTS) systems cannot support many advanced ConOps. It is therefore proposed to simulate future aircraft surveillance and communications equipage and employ an existing commercial data link to exchange data during dedicated flight tests. This capability, referred to as the Networked Air Traffic Infrastructure Validation Environment (NATIVE), would emulate aircraft data links such as ADS-B using in-flight Internet and easily-installed test equipment. By utilizing low-cost equipment that is easy to install and certify for testing, advanced ATM ConOps can be validated, message content standards can be solidified, and new standards can be established through full-scale flight trials without necessary or expensive equipage or extensive flight test preparation. This paper presents results of a feasibility study of the NATIVE concept. To determine requirements, six NATIVE design configurations were developed for two NASA ConOps that rely on ADS-B. The performance characteristics of three existing in-flight Internet services were investigated to determine whether performance is adequate to support the concept. Next, a study of requisite hardware and software was conducted to examine whether and how the NATIVE concept might be realized. Finally, to determine a business case

  18. Integrated technology rotor/flight research rotor concept definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, R. G.; Beno, E. A.; Ulisnik, H. D.

    1983-01-01

    As part of the Integrated Technology Rotor/Flight Research Rotor (ITR/FRR) Program a number of advanced rotor system designs were conceived and investigated. From these, several were chosen that best meet the started ITR goals with emphasis on stability, reduced weight and hub drag, simplicity, low head moment stiffness, and adequate strength and fatigue life. It was concluded that obtaining low hub moment stiffness was difficult when only the blade flexibility of bearingless rotor blades is considered, unacceptably low fatigue life being the primary problem. Achieving a moderate hub moment stiffness somewhat higher than state of the art articulated rotors in production today is possible within the fatigue life constraint. Alternatively, low stiffness is possible when additional rotor elements, besides the blades themselves, provide part of the rotor flexibility. Two primary designs evolved as best meeting the general ITR requirements that presently exist. An I shaped flexbeam with an external torque tube can satisfy the general goals but would have either higher stiffness or reduced fatigue life. The elastic gimbal rotor can achieve a better combination of low stiffness and high fatigue life but would be a somewhat heavier design and possibly exhibit a higher risk of aeromechanical instability.

  19. Advanced-Ignition-Concept Exploration on OMEGA

    SciTech Connect

    Theobald, W; Anderson, K S; Betti, R; Craxton, R S; Delettrez, J A; Frenje, J A; Glebov, V Yu; Gotchev, O V; Kelly, J H; Li, C K; Mackinnon, A J; Marshall, F J; McCrory, R L; Meyerhofer, D D; Myatt, J F; Norreys, P A; Nilson, P M; Patel, P K; Petrasso, R D; Radha, P B; Ren, C; Sangster, T C; Seka, W; Smalyuk, V A; Solodov, A A; Stephens, R B; Stoeckl, C; Yaakobi, B

    2009-11-24

    Advanced ignition concepts, such as fast ignition and shock ignition, are being investigated at the Omega Laser Facility. Integrated fast-ignition experiments with room-temperature re-entrant cone targets have begun, using 18 kJ of 351 nm drive energy to implode empty 40μm thick CD shells, followed by 1.0 kJ of 1053 nm wavelength, short-pulse energy. Short pulses of 10 ps width have irradiated the inside of a hollow gold re-entrant cone at the time of peak compression. A threefold increase in the time-integrated, 2 to 7 keV x-ray emission was observed with x-ray pinhole cameras, indicating that energy is coupled from the short-pulse laser into the core by fast electrons. In shock-ignition experiments, spherical plastic-shell targets were compressed to high areal densities on a low adiabat, and a strong shock wave was sent into the converging, compressed capsule. In one experiment, 60 beams were used with an intensity spike at the end of the laser pulse, and the implosion performance was studied through neutron-yield and areal-density measurements. In a second experiment, the 60 OMEGA beams were split into a 40+20 configuration, with 40 low-intensity beams used for fuel assembly and 20 delayed beams with a short, high-intensity pulse shape (up to 1×1016 Wcm^-2) for shock generation.

  20. Advanced-Ignition-Concept Exploration on OMEGA

    SciTech Connect

    Theobald, W; Anderson, K S; Betti, R; Craxton, R S; Delettrez, J A; Frenje, J A; Glebov, V Yu; Gotchev, O V; Kelly, J H; Li, C K; Mackinnon, A J; Marshall, F J; McCrory, R L; Meyerhofer, D D; Myatt, J F; Norreys, P A; Nilson, P M; Patel, P K; Petrasso, R D; Radha, P B; Ren, C; Sangster, T C; Seka, W; Smalyuk, V A; Solodov, A A; Stephens, R B; Stoeckl, C; Yaakobi, B

    2009-11-24

    Advanced ignition concepts, such as fast ignition and shock ignition, are being investigated at the Omega Laser Facility. Integrated fast-ignition experiments with room-temperature re-entrant cone targets have begun, using 18 kJ of 351 nm drive energy to implode empty 40μm thick CD shells, followed by 1.0 kJ of 1053 nm wavelength, short-pulse energy. Short pulses of 10 ps width have irradiated the inside of a hollow gold re-entrant cone at the time of peak compression. A threefold increase in the time-integrated, 2 to 7 keV x-ray emission was observed with x-ray pinhole cameras, indicating that energy is coupled from the short-pulse laser into the core by fast electrons. In shock-ignition experiments, spherical plastic-shell targets were compressed to high areal densities on a low adiabat, and a strong shock wave was sent into the converging, compressed capsule. In one experiment, 60 beams were used with an intensity spike at the end of the laser pulse, and the implosion performance was studied through neutron-yield and areal-density measurements. In a second experiment, the 60 OMEGA beams were split into a 40+20 configuration, with 40 low-intensity beams used for fuel assembly and 20 delayed beams with a short, high-intensity pulse shape (up to 1×1016 Wcm-2) for shock generation.

  1. User type certification for advanced flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilson, Richard D.; Abbott, David W.

    1994-01-01

    Advanced avionics through flight management systems (FMS) coupled with autopilots can now precisely control aircraft from takeoff to landing. Clearly, this has been the most important improvement in aircraft since the jet engine. Regardless of the eventual capabilities of this technology, it is doubtful that society will soon accept pilotless airliners with the same aplomb they accept driverless passenger trains. Flight crews are still needed to deal with inputing clearances, taxiing, in-flight rerouting, unexpected weather decisions, and emergencies; yet it is well known that the contribution of human errors far exceed those of current hardware or software systems. Thus human errors remain, and are even increasing in percentage as the largest contributor to total system error. Currently, the flight crew is regulated by a layered system of certification: by operation, e.g., airline transport pilot versus private pilot; by category, e.g., airplane versus helicopter; by class, e.g., single engine land versus multi-engine land; and by type (for larger aircraft and jet powered aircraft), e.g., Boeing 767 or Airbus A320. Nothing in the certification process now requires an in-depth proficiency with specific types of avionics systems despite their prominent role in aircraft control and guidance.

  2. The Effects of Advanced 'Glass Cockpit' Displayed Flight Instrumentation on In-flight Pilot Decision Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steigerwald, John

    The Cognitive Continuum Theory (CCT) was first proposed 25 years ago to explain the relationship between intuition and analytical decision making processes. In order for aircraft pilots to make these analytical and intuitive decisions, they obtain information from various instruments within the cockpit of the aircraft. Advanced instrumentation is used to provide a broad array of information about the aircraft condition and flight situation to aid the flight crew in making effective decisions. The problem addressed is that advanced instrumentation has not improved the pilot decision making in modern aircraft. Because making a decision is dependent upon the information available, this experimental quantitative study sought to determine how well pilots organize and interpret information obtained from various cockpit instrumentation displays when under time pressure. The population for this study was the students, flight instructors, and aviation faculty at the Middle Georgia State College School of Aviation campus in Eastman, Georgia. The sample was comprised of two groups of 90 individuals (45 in each group) in various stages of pilot licensure from student pilot to airline transport pilot (ATP). The ages ranged from 18 to 55 years old. There was a statistically significant relationship at the p < .05 level in the ability of the participants to organize and interpret information between the advanced glass cockpit instrumentation and the traditional cockpit instrumentation. It is recommended that the industry explore technological solutions toward creating cockpit instrumentation that could match the type of information display to the type of decision making scenario in order to aid pilots in making decisions that will result in better organization of information. Understanding the relationship between the intuitive and analytical decisions that pilots make and the information source they use to make those decisions will aid engineers in the design of instrumentation

  3. The Design of a Primary Flight Trainer using Concurrent Engineering Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ladesic, James G.; Eastlake, Charles N.; Kietzmann, Nicholas H.

    1993-01-01

    Concurrent Engineering (CE) concepts seek to coordinate the expertise of various disciplines from initial design configuration selection through product disposal so that cost efficient design solutions may be achieve. Integrating this methodology into an undergraduate design course sequence may provide a needed enhancement to engineering education. The Advanced Design Program (ADP) project at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University (EMU) is focused on developing recommendations for the general aviation Primary Flight Trainer (PFT) of the twenty first century using methods of CE. This project, over the next two years, will continue synthesizing the collective knowledge of teams composed of engineering students along with students from other degree programs, their faculty, and key industry representatives. During the past year (Phase I). conventional trainer configurations that comply with current regulations and existing technologies have been evaluated. Phase I efforts have resulted in two baseline concepts, a high-wing, conventional design named Triton and a low-wing, mid-engine configuration called Viper. In the second and third years (Phases II and III). applications of advanced propulsion, advanced materials, and unconventional airplane configurations along with military and commercial technologies which are anticipated to be within the economic range of general aviation by the year 2000, will be considered.

  4. Illustration of the X-37 Advanced Technology Demonstrator during flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    An artist's conception of the X-37 Advanced Technology Demonstrator as it glides to a landing on earth. Its design features a rounded fuselage topped by an experiment bay; short, double delta wings (like those of the Shuttle orbiter); and two stabilizers (that form a V-shape) at the rear of the vehicle.

  5. Time Series Analysis in Flight Flutter Testing at the Air Force Flight Test Center: Concepts and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lenz, R. W.; Mckeever, B.

    1976-01-01

    The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC) flight flutter facility is described. Concepts of using a minicomputer-based time series analyzer and a modal analysis software package for flight flutter testing are examined. The results of several evaluations of the software package are given. The reasons for employing a minimum phase concept in analyzing response only signals are discussed. The use of a Laplace algorithm is shown to be effective for the modal analysis of time histories in flutter testing. Sample results from models and flight tests are provided. The limitations inherent in time series analysis methods are discussed, and the need for effective noise reduction techniques is noted. The use of digital time series analysis techniques in flutter testing is shown to be fast, accurate, and cost effective.

  6. Potential of balloon payloads for in flight validation of direct and nulling interferometry concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demangeon, Olivier; Ollivier, Marc; Le Duigou, Jean-Michel; Cassaing, Frédéric; Coudé du Foresto, Vincent; Mourard, Denis; Kern, Pierre; Lam Trong, Tien; Evrard, Jean; Absil, Olivier; Defrere, Denis; Lopez, Bruno

    2010-07-01

    While the question of low cost / low science precursors is raised to validate the concepts of direct and nulling interferometry space missions, balloon payloads offer a real opportunity thanks to their relatively low cost and reduced development plan. Taking into account the flight capabilities of various balloon types, we propose in this paper, several concepts of payloads associated to their flight plan. We also discuss the pros and cons of each concepts in terms of technological and science demonstration power.

  7. Voice measures of workload in the advanced flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Sid J.; Alpert, Murray; Odonnell, Richard

    1989-01-01

    Voice samples were obtained from 14 male subjects under high and low workload conditions. Acoustical analysis of the voice suggested that high workload conditions can be revealed by their effects on the voice over time. Aircrews in the advanced flight deck will be voicing short, imperative sentences repeatedly. A drop in the energy of the voice, as reflected by reductions in amplitude and frequency over time, and the failure to achieve old amplitude and frequency levels after rest periods, can signal that the workload demands of the situation are straining the speaker. This kind of measurement would be relatively unaffected by individual differences in acoustical measures.

  8. A Concept for the HIFiRE 8 Flight Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alesi, H.; Paull, A.; Smart, M.; Bowcutt, K. G.

    2015-09-01

    HIFiRE 8 is a hypersonic flight test experiment scheduled for launch in late 2018 from the Woomera Test Center in Australia. This project aims to develop a Flight Test Vehicle that will, for the first time, complete 30 seconds of scramjet powered hypersonic flight at a Mach Number of 7.0. The engine used for this flight will be a rectangular to elliptic shape transition scramjet. It will be fuelled with gaseous hydrogen. The flight test engine configuration will be derived using scientific and engineering evaluation in the UQ shock tunnel T4 and other potential ground-based facilities. This paper presents current plans for the HIFiRE 8 trajectory, mission events, airframe and engine designs and also includes descriptions of critical subsystems and associated modelling, simulation and analysis activities.

  9. Stability and control issues associated with lightly loaded rotors autorotating in high advance ratio flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigsby, James Michael

    Interest in high speed rotorcraft has directed attention toward the slowed-rotor, high advance ratio compound autogyro concept as evidenced by the current DARPA Heliplane project. The behavior of partially unloaded rotors, autorotating at high advance ratio is not well understood and numerous technical issues must be resolved before the vehicle can be realized. Autorotation in helicopters usually indicates an emergency loss of power. For the concept vehicle autorotation is the normal working state of the rotor. The necessity for a reduction in rotor speed with increasing flight speed results in high advance ratio operation where the retreating side of the rotor is dominated by the reverse flow region. Further, rotor speed changes also affect the rotor dynamics and the associated hub moments generated by cyclic flapping. The result is rotor characteristics that vary widely depending on advance ratio. In the present work, rotor behavior is characterized in terms of issues relevant to the control system conceptual design and the rotor impact on the intrinsic vehicle flight dynamics characteristics. A series of trim, stability, and control analyses, based on features inherent in the concept vehicle, are performed. Trends are identified through parametric variation of rotor operating conditions, augmented by inclusion of the sensitivities to blade mass and blade stiffness properties. In this research, non-linear models, including the rotor speed degree of freedom, were created and analyzed with FLIGHTLAB(TM) rotorcraft modeling software. Performance analysis for rotors trimmed to autorotate with zero average hub pitching and rolling moments indicates reduced rotor thrust is achieved primarily through rotor speed reduction at lower shaft incidence angle, and imposing hub moment trim constraints results in a thrust increment sign reversal with collective pitch angle above advance ratio mu ˜ 1.0. Swashplate control perturbations from trim indicate an increase in control

  10. High-pressure propulsion - advanced concepts for cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoerman, Leonard

    The state-of-the-art liquid propellant cooled combustion chambers utilized in the space shuttle are third-generation designs which have evolved from a continuing demand for higher operating pressure and aircraft-type reusability. History has shown that major advances in cooling occur in approximately ten-year cycles, with each cycle providing a nominal 400% increase in operating pressure and/or a higher degree of reusability. The previous technologies include the first-generation double-wall steel jackets used in the 220 psi V-2 and Aerobee, and the second generation wire-wrapped double tapered tubular assemblies typical of the 800 psi Titan I, II, and III, and 1000 psi F-1 engines. The third-generation designs utilize milled slot, high thermal conductivity liners and electrodeposited nickel closures. The space shuttle main engine operating at 3200 psia is adequate for individual flights; however, the desired goal of 55 service-free missions has yet to be realized. Future single-stage-to-orbit propulsion concepts can benefit from a further increase in operating pressures to 6000 to 10,000 psi combined with engine reuse capabilities in excess of the 55 flight goals of the space shuttle. A fourth-generation approach will be required to attain these more ambitious goals. These new designs will require a combination of cooling processes, including regenerative and transpiration, combined with improved high-temperature materials and new fabrication techniques. The limitations of the third-generation designs, the impact of propellant/coolant selection, and the approaches for the coming fourth-generation cooling technologies are discussed.

  11. Concept of Operations for Integrated Intelligent Flight Deck Displays and Decision Support Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Randall E.; Prinzel, Lawrence J.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Young, Steve D.

    2011-01-01

    The document describes a Concept of Operations for Flight Deck Display and Decision Support technologies which may help enable emerging Next Generation Air Transportation System capabilities while also maintaining, or improving upon, flight safety. This concept of operations is used as the driving function within a spiral program of research, development, test, and evaluation for the Integrated Intelligent Flight Deck (IIFD) project. As such, the concept will be updated at each cycle within the spiral to reflect the latest research results and emerging developments

  12. Technical and economic evaluation of advanced air cargo system concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehead, A. H., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The paper reviews NASA air cargo market studies, reports on NASA and NASA-sponsored studies of advanced freighter concepts, and identifies the opportunities for the application of advanced technology. The air cargo market is studied to evaluate the timing for, and the potential market response to, advanced technology aircraft. The degree of elasticity in future air freight markets is also being investigated, since the demand for a new aircraft is most favorable in a price-sensitive environment. Aircraft design studies are considered with attention to mission and design requirements, incorporation of advanced technologies in transport aircraft, new cargo aircraft concepts, advanced freighter evaluation, and civil-military design commonality.

  13. Structural Framework for Flight: NASA's Role in Development of Advanced Composite Materials for Aircraft and Space Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tenney, Darrel R.; Davis, John G., Jr.; Johnston, Norman J.; Pipes, R. Byron; McGuire, Jack F.

    2011-01-01

    This serves as a source of collated information on Composite Research over the past four decades at NASA Langley Research Center, and is a key reference for readers wishing to grasp the underlying principles and challenges associated with developing and applying advanced composite materials to new aerospace vehicle concepts. Second, it identifies the major obstacles encountered in developing and applying composites on advanced flight vehicles, as well as lessons learned in overcoming these obstacles. Third, it points out current barriers and challenges to further application of composites on future vehicles. This is extremely valuable for steering research in the future, when new breakthroughs in materials or processing science may eliminate/minimize some of the barriers that have traditionally blocked the expanded application of composite to new structural or revolutionary vehicle concepts. Finally, a review of past work and identification of future challenges will hopefully inspire new research opportunities and development of revolutionary materials and structural concepts to revolutionize future flight vehicles.

  14. Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) Technology Maturation in Preparation for Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Wayne A.; Cornell, Peggy A.

    2012-01-01

    The Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) is being developed by an integrated team of Sunpower and National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA s) Glenn Research Center (GRC). The ASC development, funded by NASA s Science Mission Directorate, started as a technology development effort in 2003 and has since evolved through progressive convertor builds and successful testing to demonstrate high conversion efficiency, low mass, and capability to meet long-life Radioisotope Power System (RPS) requirements. The technology has been adopted by the Department of Energy and Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company s Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), which has been selected for potential flight demonstration on Discovery 12. This paper provides an overview of the status of ASC development including the most recent ASC-E2 convertors that have been delivered to GRC and an introduction to the ASC-E3 and ASC flight convertors that Sunpower will build next. The paper also describes the technology maturation and support tasks being conducted at GRC to support ASC and ASRG development in the areas of convertor and generator extended operation, high-temperature materials, heater head life assessment, organics, nondestructive inspection, spring fatigue testing, and other reliability verification tasks.

  15. Accomplishments of the Advanced Reusable Technologies (ART) RBCC Project at NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Karl W.; McArthur, J. Craig (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The focus of the NASA / Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Advanced Reusable Technologies (ART) project is to advance and develop Rocket-Based Combined-Cycle (RBCC) technologies. The ART project began in 1996 as part of the Advanced Space Transportation Program (ASTP). The project is composed of several activities including RBCC engine ground testing, tool development, vehicle / mission studies, and component testing / development. The major contractors involved in the ART project are Aerojet and Rocketdyne. A large database of RBCC ground test data was generated for the air-augmented rocket (AAR), ramjet, scramjet, and ascent rocket modes of operation for both the Aerojet and Rocketdyne concepts. Transition between consecutive modes was also demonstrated as well as trajectory simulation. The Rocketdyne freejet tests were conducted at GASL in the Flight Acceleration Simulation Test (FAST) facility. During a single test, the FAST facility is capable of simulating both the enthalpy and aerodynamic conditions over a range of Mach numbers in a flight trajectory. Aerojet performed freejet testing in the Pebble Bed facility at GASL as well as direct-connect testing at GASL. Aerojet also performed sea-level static (SLS) testing at the Aerojet A-Zone facility in Sacramento, CA. Several flight-type flowpath components were developed under the ART project. Aerojet designed and fabricated ceramic scramjet injectors. The structural design of the injectors will be tested in a simulated scramjet environment where thermal effects and performance will be assessed. Rocketdyne will be replacing the cooled combustor in the A5 rig with a flight-weight combustor that is near completion. Aerojet's formed duct panel is currently being fabricated and will be tested in the SLS rig in Aerojet's A-Zone facility. Aerojet has already successfully tested a cooled cowl panel in the same facility. In addition to MSFC, other NASA centers have contributed to the ART project as well. Inlet testing

  16. Advanced sunflower antenna concept development. [stowable reflectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Archer, J. S.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of stowing large solid antenna reflectors in the shuttle was demonstrated for applications with 40 foot apertures at frequencies of 100 GHz. Concepts allowing extension of the basic concept to 80-foot apertures operable at 60 GHz were identified.

  17. Integration of energy management concepts into the flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morello, S. A.

    1981-01-01

    The rapid rise of fuel costs has become a major concern of the commercial aviation industry, and it has become mandatory to seek means by which to conserve fuel. A research program was initiated in 1979 to investigate the integration of fuel-conservative energy/flight management computations and information into today's and tomorrow's flight deck. One completed effort within this program has been the development and flight testing of a fuel-efficient, time-based metering descent algorithm in a research cockpit environment. Research flights have demonstrated that time guidance and control in the cockpit was acceptable to both pilots and ATC controllers. Proper descent planning and energy management can save fuel for the individual aircraft as well as the fleet by helping to maintain a regularized flow into the terminal area.

  18. Integrated Flight-propulsion Control Concepts for Supersonic Transport Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Gilyard, Glenn B.; Gelhausen, Paul A.

    1990-01-01

    Integration of propulsion and flight control systems will provide significant performance improvements for supersonic transport airplanes. Increased engine thrust and reduced fuel consumption can be obtained by controlling engine stall margin as a function of flight and engine operating conditions. Improved inlet pressure recovery and decreased inlet drag can result from inlet control system integration. Using propulsion system forces and moments to augment the flight control system and airplane stability can reduce the flight control surface and tail size, weight, and drag. Special control modes may also be desirable for minimizing community noise and for emergency procedures. The overall impact of integrated controls on the takeoff gross weight for a generic high speed civil transport is presented.

  19. SERI Advanced and Innovative Wind-Energy-Concepts Program

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, R.L.; Jacobs, E.W.

    1983-06-01

    In 1978 the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) was given the responsibility of managing the Advanced and Innovative Wind Energy Concepts (AIWEC) Task by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The objective of this program has been to determine the technical and economic potential of advanced wind energy concepts. Assessment and R and D efforts in the AIWEC program have included theoretical performance analyses, wind tunnel testing, and/or costing studies. Concepts demonstrating sufficient potential undergo prototype testing in a Proof-of-Concept research phase. Several concepts, such as the Dynamic Inducer, the Diffuser Augmented wind Turbine, the Electrofluid Dynamic Wind-Driven Generator, the Passive Cyclic Pitch concept, and higher performance airfoil configurations for vertical axis wind turbines, have recently made significant progress. The latter has currently reached the Proof-of-Concept phase. The present paper provides an overview of the technical progress and current status of these concepts.

  20. Advanced Wind Turbine Drivetrain Concepts. Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2010-12-01

    This report presents key findings from the Department of Energy’s Advanced Drivetrain Workshop, held on June 29-30, 2010, to assess different advanced drivetrain technologies, their relative potential to improve the state-of-the-art in wind turbine drivetrains, and the scope of research and development needed for their commercialization in wind turbine applications.

  1. NASA Advanced Concepts Office, Earth-To-Orbit Team Design Process and Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, Eric D.; Garcia, Jessica; Beers, Benjamin; Philips, Alan; Holt, James B.; Threet, Grady E., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The Earth to Orbit (ETO) Team of the Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA Marshal Space Flight Center (MSFC) is considered the preeminent group to go to for prephase A and phase A concept definition. The ACO team has been at the forefront of a multitude of launch vehicle studies determining the future direction of the Agency as a whole due, in part, to their rapid turnaround time in analyzing concepts and their ability to cover broad trade spaces of vehicles in that limited timeframe. Each completed vehicle concept includes a full mass breakdown of each vehicle to tertiary subsystem components, along with a vehicle trajectory analysis to determine optimized payload delivery to specified orbital parameters, flight environments, and delta v capability. Additionally, a structural analysis of the vehicle based on material properties and geometries is performed as well as an analysis to determine the flight loads based on the trajectory outputs. As mentioned, the ACO Earth to Orbit Team prides themselves on their rapid turnaround time and often need to fulfill customer requests within limited schedule or little advanced notice. Due to working in this fast paced environment, the ETO team has developed some finely honed skills and methods to maximize the delivery capability to meet their customer needs. This paper will describe the interfaces between the 3 primary disciplines used in the design process; weights and sizing, trajectory, and structural analysis, as well as the approach each discipline employs to streamline their particular piece of the design process.

  2. A perspective on 15 years of proof-of-concept aircraft development and flight research at Ames-Moffett by the Rotorcraft and Powered-Lift Flight Projects Division, 1970-1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Few, David D.

    1987-01-01

    A proof-of-concept (POC) aircraft is defined and the concept of interest described for each of the six aircraft developed by the Ames-Moffet Rotorcraft and Powered-Lift Flight Projects Division from 1970 through 1985; namely, the OV-10, the C-8A Augmentor Wing, the Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA), the XV-15 Tilt Rotor Research Aircraft (TRRA), the Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA)-compound, and the yet-to-fly RSRA/X-Wing Aircraft. The program/project chronology and most noteworthy features of the concepts are reviewed. The paper discusses the significance of each concept and the project demonstrating it; it briefly looks at what concepts are on the horizon as potential POC research aircraft and emphasizes that no significant advanced concept in aviation technology has ever been accepted by civilian or military users without first completing a demonstration through flight testing.

  3. Rotorcraft flight-propulsion control integration: An eclectic design concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mihaloew, James R.; Ballin, Mark G.; Ruttledge, D. C. G.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Ames and Lewis Research Centers, in conjunction with the Army Research and Technology Laboratories, have initiated and partially completed a joint research program focused on improving the performance, maneuverability, and operating characteristics of rotorcraft by integrating the flight and propulsion controls. The background of the program, its supporting programs, its goals and objectives, and an approach to accomplish them are discussed. Results of the modern control governor design of the General Electric T700 engine and the Rotorcraft Integrated Flight-Propulsion Control Study, which were key elements of the program, are also presented.

  4. Flight service evaluation of an advanced composite empennage component on commercial transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The development and flight evaluation of an advanced composite empennage component is presented. The recommended concept for the covers is graphite-epoxy hats bonded to a graphite-epoxy skin. The hat flare-out has been eliminated, instead the hat is continuous into the joint. The recommended concept for the spars is graphite-epoxy caps and a hybrid of Kevlar-49 and graphite-epoxy in the spar web. The spar cap, spar web stiffeners for attaching the ribs, and intermediate stiffeners are planned to be fabricated as a unit. Access hole in the web will be reinforced with a donut type, zero degree graphite-epoxy wound reinforcement. The miniwich design concept in the upper three ribs originally proposed is changed to a graphite-epoxy stiffened solid laminate design concept. The recommended configuration for the lower seven ribs remains as graphite-epoxy caps with aluminum cruciform diagonals. The indicated weight saving for the current advanced composite vertical fin configuration is 20.2% including a 24 lb growth allowance. The project production cost saving is approximately 1% based on a cumulative average of 250 aircraft and including only material, production labor, and quality assurance costs.

  5. Advanced protein crystal growth flight hardware for the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrmann, Frederick T.

    1988-01-01

    The operational environment of the Space Station will differ considerably from the previous short term missions such as the Spacelabs. Limited crew availability combined with the near continuous operation of Space Station facilities will require a high degree of facility automation. This paper will discuss current efforts to develop automated flight hardware for advanced protein crystal growth on the Space Station. Particular areas discussed will be the automated monitoring of key growth parameters for vapor diffusion growth and proposed mechanisms for control of these parameters. A history of protein crystal growth efforts will be presented in addition to the rationale and need for improved protein crystals for X-ray diffraction. The facility will be capable of simultaneously processing several hundred protein samples at various temperatures, pH's, concentrations etc., and provide allowances for real time variance of growth parameters.

  6. Advanced Command Destruct System (ACDS) Enhanced Flight Termination System (EFTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tow, David

    2009-01-01

    NASA Dryden started working towards a single vehicle enhanced flight termination system (EFTS) in January 2008. NASA and AFFTC combined their efforts to work towards final operating capability for multiple vehicle and multiple missions simultaneously, to be completed by the end of 2011. Initially, the system was developed to support one vehicle and one frequency per mission for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) at NASA Dryden. By May 2008 95% of design and hardware builds were completed, however, NASA Dryden's change of software safety scope and requirements caused delays after May 2008. This presentation reviews the initial and final operating capabilities for the Advanced Command Destruct System (ACDS), including command controller and configuration software development. A requirements summary is also provided.

  7. Flight Phase Status Monitor Study. Phase I. Systems Concepts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-10

    analysis Title indepindent altitude monitor &.; --. ods j or aircraft alerting I(Report No.) monitor concept and modes study Ir s~tems data ( FAA -RD-73...168) ( FAA -RO-75-861 ( FAA RD--6-2221 Objectives 0 Identify nature of typical 0 Develop operational alert 0 Tabulate current boerting inadvertent terrain...alerting system ’ for system design(Rpr o)concepts system concept concepts (DOT/ FAA /RD-82-26) ( FAA -RD-Ba-68) evaluations ( FAA -RO-81-38 I & 11) Objectives 0

  8. Advanced Space Transportation Concepts and Propulsion Technologies for a New Delivery Paradigm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, John W.; McCleskey, Carey M.; Rhodes, Russel E.; Lepsch, Roger A.; Henderson, Edward M.; Joyner, Claude R., III; Levack, Daniel J. H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes Advanced Space Transportation Concepts and Propulsion Technologies for a New Delivery Paradigm. It builds on the work of the previous paper "Approach to an Affordable and Productive Space Transportation System". The scope includes both flight and ground system elements, and focuses on their compatibility and capability to achieve a technical solution that is operationally productive and also affordable. A clear and revolutionary approach, including advanced propulsion systems (advanced LOX rich booster engine concept having independent LOX and fuel cooling systems, thrust augmentation with LOX rich boost and fuel rich operation at altitude), improved vehicle concepts (autogeneous pressurization, turbo alternator for electric power during ascent, hot gases to purge system and keep moisture out), and ground delivery systems, was examined. Previous papers by the authors and other members of the Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST) focused on space flight system engineering methods, along with operationally efficient propulsion system concepts and technologies. This paper continues the previous work by exploring the propulsion technology aspects in more depth and how they may enable the vehicle designs from the previous paper. Subsequent papers will explore the vehicle design, the ground support system, and the operations aspects of the new delivery paradigm in greater detail.

  9. Aircraft concepts for advanced short haul systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galloway, T. L.

    1975-01-01

    The results of recent NASA-sponsored high-density and medium-density short-haul (less than 500 miles) air transportation systems studies are summarized. Trends in vehicle characteristics, in particular of RTOL and STOL concepts, are noted, and their economic suitability and impact on the community are examined.

  10. Advanced Propulsion Concepts at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    Current interest in advanced propulsion within NASA and research activities in advanced propulsion concepts at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory are reviewed. The concepts, which include high power plasma thrusters such as lithuim-fueled Lorentz-Force-Accelerators, MEMS-scale propulsion systems, in-situ propellant utilization techniques, fusion propulsion systems and methods of using antimatter, offer the potential for either significantly enhancing space transportation capability as compared with that of traditional chemical propulsion, or enabling ambitious new missions.

  11. Advanced Interval Management (IM) Concepts of Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmore, Bryan E.; Ahmad, Nash'at N.; Underwood, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    This document provides a high-level description of several advanced IM operations that NASA is considering for future research and development. It covers two versions of IM-CSPO and IM with Wake Mitigation. These are preliminary descriptions to support an initial benefits analysis

  12. Advanced concepts for controlling energy surety microgrids.

    SciTech Connect

    Menicucci, David F.; Ortiz-Moyet, Juan

    2011-05-01

    Today, researchers, engineers, and policy makers are seeking ways to meet the world's growing demand for energy while addressing critical issues such as energy security, reliability, and sustainability. Many believe that distributed generators operating within a microgrid have the potential to address most of these issues. Sandia National Laboratories has developed a concept called energy surety in which five of these 'surety elements' are simultaneously considered: energy security, reliability, sustainability, safety, and cost-effectiveness. The surety methodology leads to a new microgrid design that we call an energy surety microgrid (ESM). This paper discusses the unique control requirement needed to produce a microgrid system that has high levels of surety, describes the control system from the most fundamental level through a real-world example, and discusses our ideas and concepts for a complete system.

  13. Workshop II: Nanotechnology and Advanced Cell Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Workshop focused on few emerging concepts(beyond tandem cells): 1. Engineering incident sun spectrum and transparency losses a) Nano emitters (dot concentrator); b) Surface plasmonics; c) Up converters; d) Down converter. 2. Intermediate band solar cells a) Efficiency projections (detail energy balance projections); b) Inserting 0,1 and 2D semiconductor structures in solar cells 3. Polymer and hybrid cells a) Nanotubes/dot polymers; b) Exciton dissociation.

  14. Advanced General Aviation Turbine Engine (GATE) concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lays, E. J.; Murray, G. L.

    1979-01-01

    Concepts are discussed that project turbine engine cost savings through use of geometrically constrained components designed for low rotational speeds and low stress to permit manufacturing economies. Aerodynamic development of geometrically constrained components is recommended to maximize component efficiency. Conceptual engines, airplane applications, airplane performance, engine cost, and engine-related life cycle costs are presented. The powerplants proposed offer encouragement with respect to fuel efficiency and life cycle costs, and make possible remarkable airplane performance gains.

  15. Investigating the Scope of an Advance Organizer for Compiler Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Lawrence H.; Loerinc, Beatrice M.

    1985-01-01

    Investigates effectiveness of advance organizers for teaching functioning and use of compilers to undergraduate students in computer science courses. Two experimental groups used the advance organizer while two control groups did not. Findings indicate that an explicitly concept-directed organizer is effective in providing a framework for…

  16. Flight demonstration of integrated airport surface automation concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.; Young, Steven D.

    1995-01-01

    A flight demonstration was conducted to address airport surface movement area capacity issues by providing pilots with enhanced situational awareness information. The demonstration showed an integration of several technologies to government and industry representatives. These technologies consisted of an electronic moving map display in the cockpit, a Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) receiver, a high speed VHF data link, an ASDE-3 radar, and the Airport Movement Area Safety System (AMASS). Aircraft identification was presented to an air traffic controller on AMASS. The onboard electronic map included the display of taxi routes, hold instructions, and clearances, which were sent to the aircraft via data link by the controller. The map also displayed the positions of other traffic and warning information, which were sent to the aircraft automatically from the ASDE-3/AMASS system. This paper describes the flight demonstration in detail, along with preliminary results.

  17. Advanced propulsion concepts for orbital transfer vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, L. P.

    1982-01-01

    Studies of the United States Space Transportation System show that in the mid-to-late 1990s expanded capabilities for Orbital Transfer Vehicles (OTV) will be needed to meet increased payload requirements for transporting materials and possible men to geosynchronous orbit. NASA is conducting a technology program in support of an advanced propulsion system for future OTVs. This program is briefly described with results to date of the first program element, the Conceptual Design and Technology Definition studies.

  18. Red Teaming of Advanced Information Assurance Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    DUGGAN,RUTH A.; WOOD,BRADLEY

    1999-10-07

    Red Teaming is an advanced form of assessment that can be used to identify weaknesses in a variety of cyber systems. it is especially beneficial when the target system is still in development when designers can readily affect improvements. This paper discusses the red team analysis process and the author's experiences applying this process to five selected Information Technology Office (ITO) projects. Some detail of the overall methodology, summary results from the five projects, and lessons learned are contained within this paper.

  19. The Next Generation Advanced Video Guidance Sensor: Flight Heritage and Current Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T.; Bryan, Thomas C.

    2009-01-01

    The Next Generation Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (NGAVGS) is the latest in a line of sensors that have flown four times in the last 10 years. The NGAVGS has been under development for the last two years as a long-range proximity operations and docking sensor for use in an Automated Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D) system. The first autonomous rendezvous and docking in the history of the U.S. Space Program was successfully accomplished by Orbital Express, using the Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (AVGS) as the primary docking sensor. That flight proved that the United States now has a mature and flight proven sensor technology for supporting Crew Exploration Vehicles (CEV) and Commercial Orbital Transport Systems (COTS) Automated Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D). NASA video sensors have worked well in the past: the AVGS used on the Demonstration of Autonomous Rendezvous Technology (DART) mission operated successfully in "spot mode" out to 2 km, and the first generation rendezvous and docking sensor, the Video Guidance Sensor (VGS), was developed and successfully flown on Space Shuttle flights in 1997 and 1998. This paper presents the flight heritage and results of the sensor technology, some hardware trades for the current sensor, and discusses the needs of future vehicles that may rendezvous and dock with the International Space Station (ISS) and other Constellation vehicles. It also discusses approaches for upgrading AVGS to address parts obsolescence, and concepts for minimizing the sensor footprint, weight, and power requirements. In addition, the testing of the various NGAVGS development units will be discussed along with the use of the NGAVGS as a proximity operations and docking sensor.

  20. An overview of the NASA Advanced Propulsion Concepts program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curran, Francis M.; Bennett, Gary L.; Frisbee, Robert H.; Sercel, Joel C.; Lapointe, Michael R.

    1992-07-01

    NASA Advanced Propulsion Concepts (APC) program for the development of long-term space propulsion system schemes is managed by both NASA-Lewis and the JPL and is tasked with the identification and conceptual development of high-risk/high-payoff configurations. Both theoretical and experimental investigations have been undertaken in technology areas deemed essential to the implementation of candidate concepts. These APC candidates encompass very high energy density chemical propulsion systems, advanced electric propulsion systems, and an antiproton-catalyzed nuclear propulsion concept. A development status evaluation is presented for these systems.

  1. An overview of the NASA Advanced Propulsion Concepts program

    SciTech Connect

    Curran, F.M.; Bennett, G.L.; Frisbee, R.H.; Sercel, J.C.; Lapointe, M.R. JPL, Pasadena, CA Sverdrup Technology, Inc., Brook Park, OH NASA, Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH )

    1992-07-01

    NASA Advanced Propulsion Concepts (APC) program for the development of long-term space propulsion system schemes is managed by both NASA-Lewis and the JPL and is tasked with the identification and conceptual development of high-risk/high-payoff configurations. Both theoretical and experimental investigations have been undertaken in technology areas deemed essential to the implementation of candidate concepts. These APC candidates encompass very high energy density chemical propulsion systems, advanced electric propulsion systems, and an antiproton-catalyzed nuclear propulsion concept. A development status evaluation is presented for these systems. 45 refs.

  2. Study of advanced fuel system concepts for commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffinberry, G. A.

    1985-01-01

    An analytical study was performed in order to assess relative performance and economic factors involved with alternative advanced fuel systems for future commercial aircraft operating with broadened property fuels. The DC-10-30 wide-body tri-jet aircraft and the CF6-8OX engine were used as a baseline design for the study. Three advanced systems were considered and were specifically aimed at addressing freezing point, thermal stability and lubricity fuel properties. Actual DC-10-30 routes and flight profiles were simulated by computer modeling and resulted in prediction of aircraft and engine fuel system temperatures during a nominal flight and during statistical one-day-per-year cold and hot flights. Emergency conditions were also evaluated. Fuel consumption and weight and power extraction results were obtained. An economic analysis was performed for new aircraft and systems. Advanced system means for fuel tank heating included fuel recirculation loops using engine lube heat and generator heat. Environmental control system bleed air heat was used for tank heating in a water recirculation loop. The results showed that fundamentally all of the three advanced systems are feasible but vary in their degree of compatibility with broadened-property fuel.

  3. Autonomous Flight Rules Concept: User Implementation Costs and Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotton, William B.; Hilb, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The costs to implement Autonomous Flight Rules (AFR) were examined for estimates in acquisition, installation, training and operations. The user categories were airlines, fractional operators, general aviation and unmanned aircraft systems. Transition strategies to minimize costs while maximizing operational benefits were also analyzed. The primary cost category was found to be the avionics acquisition. Cost ranges for AFR equipment were given to reflect the uncertainty of the certification level for the equipment and the extent of existing compatible avionics in the aircraft to be modified.

  4. An ABC status report. [Advancing Blade Concept for XH-59A rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linden, A. W.; Ruddell, A. J.

    1981-01-01

    The Advancing Blade Concept (ABC) uses two rigid counterrotating rotors in a coaxial arrangement to provide advancing blades on both sides of the aircraft. This makes use of the high dynamic pressure on the advancing side of the rotors at high forward speed, virtually ignoring the low dynamic pressure on the retreating side, while still keeping the rotor system in roll trim. Theoretically such a rotor system will maintain its lift potential as speed increases. The XH-59A was designed to investigate this theory. A description is provided of the flight test program from May, 1980 to January, 1981. A summary is presented of the knowledge gained throughout the entire program, and current pitfalls are reviewed. It is concluded that the ABC has been verified, with the XH-59A envelope of blade lift coefficient as a function of advance ratio greatly exceeding that of conventional helicopter rotor systems.

  5. Advanced Command Destruct System (ACDS) Enhanced Flight Termination System (EFTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tow, David K.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation provides information on the development, integration, and operational usage of the Enhanced Flight Termination System (EFTS) at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center and Air Force Flight Test Center. The presentation will describe the efforts completed to certify the system and acquire approval for operational usage, the efforts to integrate the system into the NASA Dryden existing flight termination infrastructure, and the operational support of aircraft with EFTS at Edwards AFB.

  6. Aeronautical satellite data link concept, design, and flight test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Samuel S.; Hogle, Lawrence H.; Breitwisch, Ronald; Edwards, C. P.; Hamilton, Robert J.; Lipke, David W.

    The MITRE Corporation has conducted a three-year study of aeronautical satellite communications that culminated in a set of flight tests over the North Atlantic during August of 1985. The flight tests required the cooperation of four organizations in addition to MITRE: The Communications Satellite Corporation (COMSAT), Rockwell International, Ball Aerospace and Avantek. A test aircraft, equipped with a specially designed satellite data link terminal and antenna configuration, was flown from Cedar Rapids, Iowa across the North Atlantic to Iceland, and north of Iceland to 75° latitude. The purpose of the flight tests was to measure the performance of a full duplex aeronautical satellite data link (ASDL) using the International Maritime Satellite Organization's (INMARSAT's) spacecraft and earth station at Southbury, Connecticut, and to demonstrate potential applications. The data link operates at 200 bits-per-second (bps), uses forward error correction (FEC) coding, and employs a terminal monitor that provides interfaces to on-board avionics, data recording equipment, and an industry-standard personal computer (PC). The PC serves as a user terminal as well as a real-time monitor of bit-error-rate (BER) performance. In addition to channel propagation and BER experiments, demonstrations of potential applications of an oceanic ASDL system were conducted. A standard commercial airline data link management unit (MU) was used to communicate data over the ASDL using standard protocols. The interface to the MU allowed access to data from two distinct navigation systems: an inertial navigation system (INS) and a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver. Aircraft position data was transmitted from the aircraft to the earth station on an automatic basis to simulate automatic dependent surveillance (ADS) of oceanic air space. This paper is divided into three sections: 1) A discussion of background issues, such as the motivation for the reported research and development, and

  7. New Design Concept and Flight Test of Superpressure Balloon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izutsu, Naoki; Yajima, Nobuyuki; Ohta, Shigeo; Honda, Hideyuki; Kurokawa, Haruhisa; Matsushima, Kiyoho

    A new ballon design method named ‘three-dimensional gore design’ was developed. It is based on a pumpkin shape balloon with bulges of small radii between adjacent load tapes without the help of film extensibility. This type of balloon can be manufactured with gores having a size larger than that of the conventional gore. The sides of each gore are fixed to the adjacent short load tapes with controlled shortening rates. The gore length is chosen so as not to create any meridional tension. Hence, the superpressure limit of these balloons is simply given as film strength divided by bulge radius. As the limit does not depend on the balloon size, a large balloon with a high superpressure limit can be easily constructed without strong films. A test flight as well as indoor inflation and burst experiment showed that this new design method can realize a larger and lighter superpressure balloon capable of suspending a heavy payload in the stratosphere.

  8. E-2D Advanced Hawkeye: primary flight display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paolillo, Paul W.; Saxena, Ragini; Garruba, Jonathan; Tripathi, Sanjay; Blanchard, Randy

    2006-05-01

    This paper is a response to the challenge of providing a large area avionics display for the E-2D AHE aircraft. The resulting display design provides a pilot with high-resolution visual information content covering an image area of almost three square feet (Active Area of Samsung display = 33.792cm x 27.0336 cm = 13.304" x 10.643" = 141.596 square inches = 0.983 sq. ft x 3 = 2.95 sq. ft). The avionics display application, design and performance being described is the Primary Flight Display for the E-2D Advanced Hawkeye aircraft. This cockpit display has a screen diagonal size of 17 inches. Three displays, with minimum bezel width, just fit within the available instrument panel area. The significant design constraints of supporting an upgrade installation have been addressed. These constraints include a display image size that is larger than the mounting opening in the instrument panel. This, therefore, requires that the Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) window, LCD panel and backlight all fit within the limited available bezel depth. High brightness and a wide dimming range are supported with a dual mode Cold Cathode Fluorescent Tube (CCFT) and LED backlight. Packaging constraints dictated the use of multiple U shaped fluorescent lamps in a direct view backlight design for a maximum display brightness of 300 foot-Lamberts. The low intensity backlight levels are provided by remote LEDs coupled through a fiber optic mesh. This architecture generates luminous uniformity within a minimum backlight depth. Cross-cockpit viewing is supported with ultra-wide field-of-view performance including contrast and the color stability of an advanced LCD cell design supports. Display system design tradeoffs directed a priority to high optical efficiency for minimum power and weight.

  9. Development and flight test of a helicopter compact, portable, precision landing system concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, J. S.; Clary, G. R.; Davis, T. J.; Chisholm, J. P.

    1984-01-01

    An airborne, radar based, precision approach concept is being developed and flight tested as a part of NASA's Rotorcraft All-Weather Operations Research Program. A transponder based beacon landing system (BLS) applying state of the art X band radar technology and digital processing techniques, has been built and is being flight tested to demonstrate the concept feasibility. The BLS airborne hardware consists of an add on microprocessor, installed in conjunction with the aircraft weather/mapping radar, which analyzes the radar beacon receiver returns and determines range, localizer deviation, and glide slope derivation. The ground station is an inexpensive, portable unit which can be quickly deployed at a landing site. Results from the flight test program show that the BLS concept has a significant potential for providing rotorcraft with low cost, precision instrument approach capability in remote areas.

  10. Development and flight test of a helicopter compact, portable, precision landing system concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clary, G. R.; Bull, J. S.; Davis, T. J.; Chisholm, J. P.

    1984-01-01

    An airborne, radar-based, precision approach concept is being developed and flight tested as a part of NASA's Rotorcraft All-Weather Operations Research Program. A transponder-based beacon landing system (BLS) applying state-of-the-art X-band radar technology and digital processing techniques, was built and is being flight tested to demonstrate the concept feasibility. The BLS airborne hardware consists of an add-on microprocessor, installed in conjunction with the aircraft weather/mapping radar, which analyzes the radar beacon receiver returns and determines range, localizer deviation, and glide-slope deviation. The ground station is an inexpensive, portable unit which can be quickly deployed at a landing site. Results from the flight test program show that the BLS concept has a significant potential for providing rotorcraft with low-cost, precision instrument approach capability in remote areas.

  11. Advanced progress concepts for direct coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.; Derbyshire, F.; Givens, E.

    1995-09-01

    Given the low cost of petroleum crude, direct coal liquefaction is still not an economically viable process. The DOE objectives are to further reduce the cost of coal liquefaction to a more competitive level. In this project the primary focus is on the use of low-rank coal feedstocks. A particular strength is the use of process-derived liquids rather than model compound solvents. The original concepts are illustrated in Figure 1, where they are shown on a schematic of the Wilsonville pilot plant operation. Wilsonville operating data have been used to define a base case scenario using run {number_sign}263J, and Wilsonville process materials have been used in experimental work. The CAER has investigated: low severity CO pretreatment of coal for oxygen rejection, increasing coal reactivity and mg inhibiting the propensity for regressive reactions; the application of more active. Low-cost Fe and Mo dispersed catalysts; and the possible use of fluid coking for solids rejection and to generate an overhead product for recycle. CONSOL has investigated: oil agglomeration for coal ash rejection, for the possible rejection of ash in the recycled resid, and for catalyst addition and recovery; and distillate dewaxing to remove naphthenes and paraffins, and to generate an improved quality feed for recycle distillate hydrogenation. At Sandia, research has been concerned with the production of active hydrogen donor distillate solvent fractions produced by the hydrogenation of dewaxed distillates and by fluid coking via low severity reaction with H{sub 2}/CO/H{sub 2}O mixtures using hydrous metal oxide and other catalysts.

  12. Advanced Concepts for Underwater Acoustic Channel Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etter, P. C.; Haas, C. H.; Ramani, D. V.

    2014-12-01

    This paper examines nearshore underwater-acoustic channel modeling concepts and compares channel-state information requirements against existing modeling capabilities. This process defines a subset of candidate acoustic models suitable for simulating signal propagation in underwater communications. Underwater-acoustic communications find many practical applications in coastal oceanography, and networking is the enabling technology for these applications. Such networks can be formed by establishing two-way acoustic links between autonomous underwater vehicles and moored oceanographic sensors. These networks can be connected to a surface unit for further data transfer to ships, satellites, or shore stations via a radio-frequency link. This configuration establishes an interactive environment in which researchers can extract real-time data from multiple, but distant, underwater instruments. After evaluating the obtained data, control messages can be sent back to individual instruments to adapt the networks to changing situations. Underwater networks can also be used to increase the operating ranges of autonomous underwater vehicles by hopping the control and data messages through networks that cover large areas. A model of the ocean medium between acoustic sources and receivers is called a channel model. In an oceanic channel, characteristics of the acoustic signals change as they travel from transmitters to receivers. These characteristics depend upon the acoustic frequency, the distances between sources and receivers, the paths followed by the signals, and the prevailing ocean environment in the vicinity of the paths. Properties of the received signals can be derived from those of the transmitted signals using these channel models. This study concludes that ray-theory models are best suited to the simulation of acoustic signal propagation in oceanic channels and identifies 33 such models that are eligible candidates.

  13. Brush seal numerical simulation: Concepts and advances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, M. J.; Kudriavtsev, V. V.

    1994-01-01

    The development of the brush seal is considered to be most promising among the advanced type seals that are presently in use in the high speed turbomachinery. The brush is usually mounted on the stationary portions of the engine and has direct contact with the rotating element, in the process of limiting the 'unwanted' leakage flows between stages, or various engine cavities. This type of sealing technology is providing high (in comparison with conventional seals) pressure drops due mainly to the high packing density (around 100 bristles/sq mm), and brush compliance with the rotor motions. In the design of modern aerospace turbomachinery leakage flows between the stages must be minimal, thus contributing to the higher efficiency of the engine. Use of the brush seal instead of the labyrinth seal reduces the leakage flow by one order of magnitude. Brush seals also have been found to enhance dynamic performance, cost less, and are lighter than labyrinth seals. Even though industrial brush seals have been successfully developed through extensive experimentation, there is no comprehensive numerical methodology for the design or prediction of their performance. The existing analytical/numerical approaches are based on bulk flow models and do not allow the investigation of the effects of brush morphology (bristle arrangement), or brushes arrangement (number of brushes, spacing between them), on the pressure drops and flow leakage. An increase in the brush seal efficiency is clearly a complex problem that is closely related to the brush geometry and arrangement, and can be solved most likely only by means of a numerically distributed model.

  14. Advances in low-thrust trajectory optimization and flight mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yang

    The dissertation presents advances in trajectory optimization and flight mechanics of low-thrust spacecraft. With the aid of the extended multiple-shooting techniques with state and costate nodes, the hybrid method and the direct-shooting method are systematically described and used to solve a variety of optimal orbit transfer problems. The optimization methods are demonstrated by presenting solutions for optimal Earth-orbit and interplanetary trajectory examples, and complex interplanetary missions using solar electric propulsion (such as Eros sample return and Pluto-flyby missions). Alternative formulations of equations of motion are discussed, which include inertial frame transformation in terms of three Euler angles and a modified set of equinoctial elements using non-dimensional angular momentum. Finally, a low-thrust Earth-capture guidance scheme is developed and presented, which makes novel use of Perkins' low-thrust universal solution and doesn't require a stored reference trajectory. The simplicity and performance of this new guidance design makes it a viable candidate for onboard implementation.

  15. Preliminary Sizing of 120-Passenger Advanced Civil Rotorcraft Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vanAken, Johannes M.; Sinsay, Jeffrey D.

    2006-01-01

    The results of a preliminary sizing study of advanced civil rotorcraft concepts that are capable of carrying 120 passengers over a range of 1,200 nautical miles are presented. The cruise altitude of these rotorcraft is 30,000 ft and the cruise velocity is 350 knots. The mission requires a hover capability, creating a runway independent solution, which might aid in reducing strain on the existing airport infrastructure. Concepts studied are a tiltrotor, a tandem rotor compound, and an advancing blade concept. The first objective of the study is to determine the relative merits of these designs in terms of mission gross weight, engine size, fuel weight, aircraft purchase price, and direct operating cost. The second objective is to identify the enabling technology for these advanced heavy lift civil rotorcraft.

  16. Advanced Optical Burst Switched Network Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nejabati, Reza; Aracil, Javier; Castoldi, Piero; de Leenheer, Marc; Simeonidou, Dimitra; Valcarenghi, Luca; Zervas, Georgios; Wu, Jian

    In recent years, as the bandwidth and the speed of networks have increased significantly, a new generation of network-based applications using the concept of distributed computing and collaborative services is emerging (e.g., Grid computing applications). The use of the available fiber and DWDM infrastructure for these applications is a logical choice offering huge amounts of cheap bandwidth and ensuring global reach of computing resources [230]. Currently, there is a great deal of interest in deploying optical circuit (wavelength) switched network infrastructure for distributed computing applications that require long-lived wavelength paths and address the specific needs of a small number of well-known users. Typical users are particle physicists who, due to their international collaborations and experiments, generate enormous amounts of data (Petabytes per year). These users require a network infrastructures that can support processing and analysis of large datasets through globally distributed computing resources [230]. However, providing wavelength granularity bandwidth services is not an efficient and scalable solution for applications and services that address a wider base of user communities with different traffic profiles and connectivity requirements. Examples of such applications may be: scientific collaboration in smaller scale (e.g., bioinformatics, environmental research), distributed virtual laboratories (e.g., remote instrumentation), e-health, national security and defense, personalized learning environments and digital libraries, evolving broadband user services (i.e., high resolution home video editing, real-time rendering, high definition interactive TV). As a specific example, in e-health services and in particular mammography applications due to the size and quantity of images produced by remote mammography, stringent network requirements are necessary. Initial calculations have shown that for 100 patients to be screened remotely, the network

  17. The IXV experience, from the mission conception to the flight results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumino, G.; Mancuso, S.; Gallego, J.-M.; Dussy, S.; Preaud, J.-P.; Di Vita, G.; Brunner, P.

    2016-07-01

    The atmospheric re-entry domain is a cornerstone of a wide range of space applications, ranging from reusable launcher stages developments, robotic planetary exploration, human space flight, to innovative applications such as reusable research platforms for in orbit validation of multiple space applications technologies. The Intermediate experimental Vehicle (IXV) is an advanced demonstrator which has performed in-flight experimentation of atmospheric re-entry enabling systems and technologies aspects, with significant advancements on Europe's previous flight experiences, consolidating Europe's autonomous position in the strategic field of atmospheric re-entry. The IXV mission objectives were the design, development, manufacturing, assembling and on-ground to in-flight verification of an autonomous European lifting and aerodynamically controlled reentry system, integrating critical re-entry technologies at system level. Among such critical technologies of interest, special attention was paid to aerodynamic and aerothermodynamics experimentation, including advanced instrumentation for aerothermodynamics phenomena investigations, thermal protections and hot-structures, guidance, navigation and flight control through combined jets and aerodynamic surfaces (i.e. flaps), in particular focusing on the technologies integration at system level for flight, successfully performed on February 11th, 2015.

  18. NASA Advanced Concepts Office, Earth-To-Orbit Team Design Process and Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, Eric D.; Garcia, Jessica; Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Phillips, Alan

    2013-01-01

    The Earth-to-Orbit Team (ETO) of the Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is considered the pre-eminent "go-to" group for pre-phase A and phase A concept definition. Over the past several years the ETO team has evaluated thousands of launch vehicle concept variations for a significant number of studies including agency-wide efforts such as the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), Constellation, Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV), Augustine Report, Heavy Lift Propulsion Technology (HLPT), Human Exploration Framework Team (HEFT), and Space Launch System (SLS). The ACO ETO Team is called upon to address many needs in NASA's design community; some of these are defining extremely large trade-spaces, evaluating advanced technology concepts which have not been addressed by a large majority of the aerospace community, and the rapid turn-around of highly time critical actions. It is the time critical actions, those often limited by schedule or little advanced warning, that have forced the five member ETO team to develop a design process robust enough to handle their current output level in order to meet their customer's needs. Based on the number of vehicle concepts evaluated over the past year this output level averages to four completed vehicle concepts per day. Each of these completed vehicle concepts includes a full mass breakdown of the vehicle to a tertiary level of subsystem components and a vehicle trajectory analysis to determine optimized payload delivery to specified orbital parameters, flight environments, and delta v capability. A structural analysis of the vehicle to determine flight loads based on the trajectory output, material properties, and geometry of the concept is also performed. Due to working in this fast-paced and sometimes rapidly changing environment, the ETO Team has developed a finely tuned process to maximize their delivery capabilities. The objective of this paper is to describe the interfaces

  19. NASA Advanced Concepts Office, Earth-To-Orbit Team Design Process and Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, Eric D.; Creech, Dennis M.; Garcia, Jessica; Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Phillips, Alan

    2012-01-01

    The Earth-to-Orbit Team (ETO) of the Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is considered the pre-eminent go-to group for pre-phase A and phase A concept definition. Over the past several years the ETO team has evaluated thousands of launch vehicle concept variations for a significant number of studies including agency-wide efforts such as the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), Constellation, Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV), Augustine Report, Heavy Lift Propulsion Technology (HLPT), Human Exploration Framework Team (HEFT), and Space Launch System (SLS). The ACO ETO Team is called upon to address many needs in NASA s design community; some of these are defining extremely large trade-spaces, evaluating advanced technology concepts which have not been addressed by a large majority of the aerospace community, and the rapid turn-around of highly time critical actions. It is the time critical actions, those often limited by schedule or little advanced warning, that have forced the five member ETO team to develop a design process robust enough to handle their current output level in order to meet their customer s needs. Based on the number of vehicle concepts evaluated over the past year this output level averages to four completed vehicle concepts per day. Each of these completed vehicle concepts includes a full mass breakdown of the vehicle to a tertiary level of subsystem components and a vehicle trajectory analysis to determine optimized payload delivery to specified orbital parameters, flight environments, and delta v capability. A structural analysis of the vehicle to determine flight loads based on the trajectory output, material properties, and geometry of the concept is also performed. Due to working in this fast-paced and sometimes rapidly changing environment, the ETO Team has developed a finely tuned process to maximize their delivery capabilities. The objective of this paper is to describe the interfaces

  20. Advanced fighter technology integration (AFTI)/F-16 Automated Maneuvering Attack System final flight test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowden, Donald J.; Bessette, Denis E.

    1987-01-01

    The AFTI F-16 Automated Maneuvering Attack System has undergone developmental and demonstration flight testing over a total of 347.3 flying hours in 237 sorties. The emphasis of this phase of the flight test program was on the development of automated guidance and control systems for air-to-air and air-to-ground weapons delivery, using a digital flight control system, dual avionics multiplex buses, an advanced FLIR sensor with laser ranger, integrated flight/fire-control software, advanced cockpit display and controls, and modified core Multinational Stage Improvement Program avionics.

  1. Overview of an Advanced Hypersonic Structural Concept Test Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, Craig A.; Hudson, Larry D.; Piazza, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of hypersonics M&S advanced structural concepts development and experimental methods. The discussion on concepts development includes the background, task objectives, test plan, and current status of the C/SiC Ruddervator Subcomponent Test Article (RSTA). The discussion of experimental methods examines instrumentation needs, sensors of interest, and examples of ongoing efforts in the development of extreme environment sensors.

  2. Heuristics Applied in the Development of Advanced Space Mission Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nilsen, Erik N.

    1998-01-01

    Advanced mission studies are the first step in determining the feasibility of a given space exploration concept. A space scientist develops a science goal in the exploration of space. This may be a new observation method, a new instrument or a mission concept to explore a solar system body. In order to determine the feasibility of a deep space mission, a concept study is convened to determine the technology needs and estimated cost of performing that mission. Heuristics are one method of defining viable mission and systems architectures that can be assessed for technology readiness and cost. Developing a viable architecture depends to a large extent upon extending the existing body of knowledge, and applying it in new and novel ways. These heuristics have evolved over time to include methods for estimating technical complexity, technology development, cost modeling and mission risk in the unique context of deep space missions. This paper examines the processes involved in performing these advanced concepts studies, and analyzes the application of heuristics in the development of an advanced in-situ planetary mission. The Venus Surface Sample Return mission study provides a context for the examination of the heuristics applied in the development of the mission and systems architecture. This study is illustrative of the effort involved in the initial assessment of an advance mission concept, and the knowledge and tools that are applied.

  3. An advanced hypervelocity aerophysics facility - A ground-based flight-test range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witcofski, R. D.; Scallion, W. I.; Carter, D. J., Jr.; Courter, R. W.

    1991-01-01

    The paper discusses a concept for a ground-based flight-test facility, a large aeroballistic range capable of launching models large enough to permit the installation of significant amounts of onboard instrumentation. The large model size would also provide thick shock/boundary layers, thus providing the opportunity to measure flow-field properties via advanced offboard diagnostics. Current fabrication technology should permit the construction of a two-stage light-gas gun capable of accelerating 20 to 25 cm diameter models to velocities on the order of 6 km/sec. An electromagnetic launcher or a ram accelerator is considered as a potential means for achieving larger model sizes and/or greater launch velocities. Possible methods for obtaining and recording data are discussed as are the test chamber and model deceleration section requirements.

  4. Qualification of the flight-critical AFTI/F-16 digital flight control system. [Advanced Fighter Technology Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackall, D. A.; Ishmael, S. D.; Regenie, V. A.

    1983-01-01

    Qualification considerations for assuring the safety of a life-critical digital flight control system include four major areas: systems interactions, verification, validation, and configuration control. The AFTI/F-16 design, development, and qualification illustrate these considerations. In this paper, qualification concepts, procedures, and methodologies are discussed and illustrated through specific examples.

  5. Flight Test Results of the Earth Observing-1 Advanced Land Imager Advanced Land Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendenhall, Jeffrey A.; Lencioni, Donald E.; Hearn, David R.; Digenis, Constantine J.

    2002-09-01

    The Advanced Land Imager (ALI) is the primary instrument on the Earth Observing-1 spacecraft (EO-1) and was developed under NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP). The NMP mission objective is to flight-validate advanced technologies that will enable dramatic improvements in performance, cost, mass, and schedule for future, Landsat-like, Earth Science Enterprise instruments. ALI contains a number of innovative features designed to achieve this objective. These include the basic instrument architecture, which employs a push-broom data collection mode, a wide field-of-view optical design, compact multi-spectral detector arrays, non-cryogenic HgCdTe for the short wave infrared bands, silicon carbide optics, and a multi-level solar calibration technique. The sensor includes detector arrays that operate in ten bands, one panchromatic, six VNIR and three SWIR, spanning the range from 0.433 to 2.35 μm. Launched on November 21, 2000, ALI instrument performance was monitored during its first year on orbit using data collected during solar, lunar, stellar, and earth observations. This paper will provide an overview of EO-1 mission activities during this period. Additionally, the on-orbit spatial and radiometric performance of the instrument will be compared to pre-flight measurements and the temporal stability of ALI will be presented.

  6. Overview on NASA's Advanced Electric Propulsion Concepts Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisbee, Robert H.

    1999-01-01

    Advanced electric propulsion research activities are currently underway that seek to addresses feasibility issues of a wide range of advanced concepts, and may result in the development of technologies that will enable exciting new missions within our solar system and beyond. Each research activity is described in terms of the present focus and potential future applications. Topics include micro-electric thrusters, electrodynamic tethers, high power plasma thrusters and related applications in materials processing, variable specific impulse plasma thrusters, pulsed inductive thrusters, computational techniques for thruster modeling, and advanced electric propulsion missions and systems studies.

  7. Parachute systems technology: Fundamentals, concepts, and applications: Advanced parachute design

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, C.W.; Johnson, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Advances in high-performance parachute systems and the technologies needed to design them are presented in this paper. New parachute design and performance prediction codes are being developed to assist the designer in meeting parachute system performance requirements after a minimum number of flight tests. The status of advanced design codes under development at Sandia National Laboratories is summarized. An integral part of parachute performance prediction is the rational use of existing test data. The development of a data base for parachute design has been initiated to illustrate the effects of inflated diameter, geometric porosity, reefing line length, suspension line length, number of gores, and number of ribbons on parachute drag. Examples of advancements in parachute materials are presented, and recent problems with Mil-Spec broadgoods are reviewed. Finally, recent parachute systems tested at Sandia are summarized to illustrate new uses of old parachutes, new parachute configurations, and underwater recovery of payloads.

  8. Advancing Your Career: Concepts of Professional Nursing. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearney, Rose

    This textbook, intended for registered nurses (RN's) returning to school, is designed to provide practicing RN's with professional concepts to advance their careers. The book contains 22 chapters organized in five sections. Each chapter includes chapter objectives, key terms, key points, chapter exercises, references, and a bibliography. Section I…

  9. Launch vehicle flight control augmentation using smart materials and advanced composites (CDDF Project 93-05)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barret, C.

    1995-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center has a rich heritage of launch vehicles that have used aerodynamic surfaces for flight stability such as the Saturn vehicles and flight control such as on the Redstone. Recently, due to aft center-of-gravity locations on launch vehicles currently being studied, the need has arisen for the vehicle control augmentation that is provided by these flight controls. Aerodynamic flight control can also reduce engine gimbaling requirements, provide actuator failure protection, enhance crew safety, and increase vehicle reliability, and payload capability. In the Saturn era, NASA went to the Moon with 300 sq ft of aerodynamic surfaces on the Saturn V. Since those days, the wealth of smart materials and advanced composites that have been developed allow for the design of very lightweight, strong, and innovative launch vehicle flight control surfaces. This paper presents an overview of the advanced composites and smart materials that are directly applicable to launch vehicle control surfaces.

  10. Flight Test Evaluation of the Airborne Information for Lateral Spacing (AILS) Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Terence S.

    2002-01-01

    The Airborne Information for Lateral Spacing (AILS) concept is designed to support independent parallel approach operations to runways spaced as close as 2,500 feet. This report briefly describes the AILS operational concept and the results of a flight test of one implementation of this concept. The focus of this flight test experiment was to validate a prior simulator study, evaluating pilot performance, pilot acceptability, and minimum miss-distances for the rare situation in which an aircraft on one approach intrudes into the path of an aircraft on the other approach. Although the flight data set was not meant to be a statistically valid sample, the trends acquired in flight followed those of the simulator and therefore met the intent of validating the findings from the simulator. Results from this study showed that the design-goal mean miss-distance of 1,200 feet to potential collision situations was surpassed with an actual mean miss-distance of 1,859 feet. Pilot reaction times to the alerting system, which was an operational concern, averaged 0.65 seconds, were well below the design goal reaction time of 2.0 seconds. From the results of both of these tests, it can be concluded that this operational concept, with supporting technology and procedures, may provide an operationally viable means for conducting simultaneous, independent instrument approaches to runways spaced as close as 2500 ft.

  11. Display content in advanced NVG and HMD systems: a pilot/flight surgeon's concerns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonio, Joseph C.

    2008-04-01

    Night vision goggles have been in use for many years and limitations in their use have been well studied through training research and flight experience. However, advances in technology have led to improvements in NVG display capabilities and in some cases helmet mounted display (HMD) technology has begun replacing NVG systems. These advances have led to an increase in the complexity of imaged scene content, thus requiring a greater level of cognitive effort for interpretation, especially when compared to the images provided by current NVG systems. In some cases the complexity of visual imagery has resulted in systems not being classified as operationally suitable. This presentation will focus on a few of the problems noted while testing some of these advanced systems. Topics will include: added complexity of imagery in wide-field-of-view (WFOV) NVG systems, effects due to imagery created by sensors displaced from the normal eye position (increased interocular separation), effects due to imagery projected onto seethrough visor designs, and effects resulting from cockpit design/geometry (e.g., location and design of large-format head-down displays, and the position of structures such as window frames). Training concerns and potential mitigation strategies for HMD design concepts will also be covered. The issues discussed are important for manufacturers to understand during the early design phase, and for testers to understand during developmental or operational testing.

  12. Advanced laser sensing receiver concepts based on FPA technology.

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, P. L.; Petrin, R. R.; Jolin, J. L.; Foy, B. R.; Lowrance, J. L.; Renda, G.

    2002-01-01

    The ultimate performance of any remote sensor is ideally governed by the hardware signal-to-noise capability and allowed signal-averaging time. In real-world scenarios, this may not be realizable and the limiting factors may suggest the need for more advanced capabilities. Moving from passive to active remote sensors offers the advantage of control over the illumination source, the laser. Added capabilities may include polarization discrimination, instantaneous imaging, range resolution, simultaneous multi-spectral measurement, or coherent detection. However, most advanced detection technology has been engineered heavily towards the straightforward passive sensor requirements, measuring an integrated photon flux. The need for focal plane array technology designed specifically for laser sensing has been recognized for some time, but advances have only recently made the engineering possible. This paper will present a few concepts for laser sensing receiver architectures, the driving specifications behind those concepts, and test/modeling results of such designs.

  13. Systems analysis and futuristic designs of advanced biofuel factory concepts.

    SciTech Connect

    Chianelli, Russ; Leathers, James; Thoma, Steven George; Celina, Mathias Christopher; Gupta, Vipin P.

    2007-10-01

    The U.S. is addicted to petroleum--a dependency that periodically shocks the economy, compromises national security, and adversely affects the environment. If liquid fuels remain the main energy source for U.S. transportation for the foreseeable future, the system solution is the production of new liquid fuels that can directly displace diesel and gasoline. This study focuses on advanced concepts for biofuel factory production, describing three design concepts: biopetroleum, biodiesel, and higher alcohols. A general schematic is illustrated for each concept with technical description and analysis for each factory design. Looking beyond current biofuel pursuits by industry, this study explores unconventional feedstocks (e.g., extremophiles), out-of-favor reaction processes (e.g., radiation-induced catalytic cracking), and production of new fuel sources traditionally deemed undesirable (e.g., fusel oils). These concepts lay the foundation and path for future basic science and applied engineering to displace petroleum as a transportation energy source for good.

  14. The Naturalistic Flight Deck System: An Integrated System Concept for Improved Single-Pilot Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutte, Paul C.; Goodrich, Kenneth H.; Cox, David E.; Jackson, Bruce; Palmer, Michael T.; Pope, Alan T.; Schlecht, Robin W.; Tedjojuwono, Ken K.; Trujillo, Anna C.; Williams, Ralph A.; Kinney, J. Bryan; Barry, John S., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews current and emerging operational experiences, technologies, and human-machine interaction theories to develop an integrated flight system concept designed to increase the safety, reliability, and performance of single-pilot operations in an increasingly accommodating but stringent national airspace system. This concept, know as the Naturalistic Flight Deck (NFD), uses a form of human-centered automation known as complementary-automation (or complemation) to structure the relationship between the human operator and the aircraft as independent, collaborative agents having complimentary capabilities. The human provides commonsense knowledge, general intelligence, and creative thinking, while the machine contributes specialized intelligence and control, extreme vigilance, resistance to fatigue, and encyclopedic memory. To support the development of the NFD, an initial Concept of Operations has been created and selected normal and non-normal scenarios are presented in this document.

  15. Recent Advances and Future Advances in Time-of-Flight PET

    PubMed Central

    Moses, William W.

    2007-01-01

    Simple theory predicts that the statistical noise variance in PET can be reduced by an order of magnitude by using time-of-flight (TOF) information. This reduction can be obtained by improving the coincidence timing resolution, and so would be achievable in clinical, whole body studies using with PET systems that differ little from existing cameras. The potential impact of this development is large, especially for oncology studies in large patients, where it is sorely needed. TOF PET was extensively studied in the 1980’s but died away in the 1990’s, as it was impossible to reliably achieve sufficient timing resolution without sacrificing other important PET performance aspects, such as spatial resolution and efficiency. Recent advances in technology (scintillators, photodetectors, and high speed electronics) have renewed interest in TOF PET, which is experiencing a rebirth. However, there is still much to be done, both in instrumentation development and evaluating the true benefits of TOF in modern clinical PET. This paper looks at what has been accomplished and what needs to be done before time-of-flight PET can reach its full potential. PMID:18836513

  16. Validation Database Based Thermal Analysis of an Advanced RPS Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balint, Tibor S.; Emis, Nickolas D.

    2006-01-01

    Advanced RPS concepts can be conceived, designed and assessed using high-end computational analysis tools. These predictions may provide an initial insight into the potential performance of these models, but verification and validation are necessary and required steps to gain confidence in the numerical analysis results. This paper discusses the findings from a numerical validation exercise for a small advanced RPS concept, based on a thermal analysis methodology developed at JPL and on a validation database obtained from experiments performed at Oregon State University. Both the numerical and experimental configurations utilized a single GPHS module enabled design, resembling a Mod-RTG concept. The analysis focused on operating and environmental conditions during the storage phase only. This validation exercise helped to refine key thermal analysis and modeling parameters, such as heat transfer coefficients, and conductivity and radiation heat transfer values. Improved understanding of the Mod-RTG concept through validation of the thermal model allows for future improvements to this power system concept.

  17. External Vision Systems (XVS) Proof-of-Concept Flight Test Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelton, Kevin J.; Williams, Steven P.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Arthur, Jarvis J.; Prinzel, Lawrence, III; Bailey, Randall E.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Fundamental Aeronautics Program, High Speed Project is performing research, development, test and evaluation of flight deck and related technologies to support future low-boom, supersonic configurations (without forward-facing windows) by use of an eXternal Vision System (XVS). The challenge of XVS is to determine a combination of sensor and display technologies which can provide an equivalent level of safety and performance to that provided by forward-facing windows in today's aircraft. This flight test was conducted with the goal of obtaining performance data on see-and-avoid and see-to-follow traffic using a proof-of-concept XVS design in actual flight conditions. Six data collection flights were flown in four traffic scenarios against two different sized participating traffic aircraft. This test utilized a 3x1 array of High Definition (HD) cameras, with a fixed forward field-of-view, mounted on NASA Langley's UC-12 test aircraft. Test scenarios, with participating NASA aircraft serving as traffic, were presented to two evaluation pilots per flight - one using the proof-of-concept (POC) XVS and the other looking out the forward windows. The camera images were presented on the XVS display in the aft cabin with Head-Up Display (HUD)-like flight symbology overlaying the real-time imagery. The test generated XVS performance data, including comparisons to natural vision, and post-run subjective acceptability data were also collected. This paper discusses the flight test activities, its operational challenges, and summarizes the findings to date.

  18. Mission Concepts Enabled by Solar Electric Propulsion and Advanced Modular Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaus, Kurt K.; Elsperman, M. S.; Rogers, F.

    2013-10-01

    Introduction: Over the last several years we have introduced a number of planetary mission concepts enabled by Solar Electric Propulsion and Advanced Modular Power systems. The Boeing 702 SP: Using a common spacecraft for multiple missions reduces costs. Solar electric propulsion (SEP) provides the flexibility required for multiple mission objectives. Hosted payloads allow launch and operations costs to be shared. Advanced Modular Power System (AMPS): The 702 SP for deep space is designed to be able to use the Advanced Modular Power System (AMPS) solar array, producing multi Kw power levels with significantly lower system mass than current solar power system technologies. Mission Concepts: Outer Planets. 1) Europa Explorer - Our studies demonstrate that New Frontiers-class science missions to the Jupiter and Saturn systems are possible with commercial solar powered spacecraft. 2) Trojan Tour -The mission objective is 1143 Odysseus, consistent with the Decadal Survey REP (Radioisotope Electric Propulsion) mission objective. Small Body. 1) NEO Precursor Mission - NEO missions benefit greatly by using high ISP (Specific Impulse) Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) coupled with high power generation systems. This concept further sets the stage for human exploration by doing the type of science exploration needed and flight demonstrating technology advances (high power generation, SEP). 2) Multiple NEO Rendezvous, Reconnaissance and In Situ Exploration - We propose a two spacecraft mission (Mother Ship and Small Body Lander) rendezvous with multiple Near Earth Objects (NEO). Mars. Our concept involved using the Boeing 702SP with a highly capable SAR imager that also conducts autonomous rendezvous and docking experiments accomplished from Mars orbit. Conclusion: Using advanced in-space power and propulsion technologies like High Power Solar Electric Propulsion provides enormous mission flexibility to execute baseline science missions and conduct Technology Demonstrations in

  19. Mission Concepts Enabled by Solar Electric Propulsion and Advanced Modular Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsperman, M. S.; Klaus, K.; Rogers, F.

    2013-12-01

    Introduction: Over the last several years we have introduced a number of planetary mission concepts enabled by Solar Electric Propulsion and Advanced Modular Power systems. The Boeing 702 SP: Using a common spacecraft for multiple missions reduces costs. Solar electric propulsion (SEP) provides the flexibility required for multiple mission objectives. Hosted payloads allow launch and operations costs to be shared. Advanced Modular Power System (AMPS): The 702 SP for deep space is designed to be able to use the Advanced Modular Power System (AMPS) solar array, producing multi Kw power levels with significantly lower system mass than current solar power system technologies. Mission Concepts: Outer Planets. 1) Europa Explorer - Our studies demonstrate that New Frontiers-class science missions to the Jupiter and Saturn systems are possible with commercial solar powered spacecraft. 2) Trojan Tour -The mission objective is 1143 Odysseus, consistent with the Decadal Survey REP (Radioisotope Electric Propulsion) mission objective. Small Body. 1) NEO Precursor Mission - NEO missions benefit greatly by using high ISP (Specific Impulse) Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) coupled with high power generation systems. This concept further sets the stage for human exploration by doing the type of science exploration needed and flight demonstrating technology advances (high power generation, SEP). 2) Multiple NEO Rendezvous, Reconnaissance and In Situ Exploration - We propose a two spacecraft mission (Mother Ship and Small Body Lander) rendezvous with multiple Near Earth Objects (NEO). Mars. Our concept involved using the Boeing 702SP with a highly capable SAR imager that also conducts autonomous rendezvous and docking experiments accomplished from Mars orbit. Conclusion: Using advanced in-space power and propulsion technologies like High Power Solar Electric Propulsion provides enormous mission flexibility to execute baseline science missions and conduct Technology Demonstrations in

  20. Evaluating Nextgen Closely Spaced Parallel Operations Concepts with Validated Human Performance Models: Flight Deck Guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooey, Becky Lee; Gore, Brian Francis; Mahlstedt, Eric; Foyle, David C.

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of the current research were to develop valid human performance models (HPMs) of approach and land operations; use these models to evaluate the impact of NextGen Closely Spaced Parallel Operations (CSPO) on pilot performance; and draw conclusions regarding flight deck display design and pilot-ATC roles and responsibilities for NextGen CSPO concepts. This document presents guidelines and implications for flight deck display designs and candidate roles and responsibilities. A companion document (Gore, Hooey, Mahlstedt, & Foyle, 2013) provides complete scenario descriptions and results including predictions of pilot workload, visual attention and time to detect off-nominal events.

  1. A concept of a hypersonic flight experiment of a winged vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirouzu, Masao; Watanabe, Shigeya

    A concept of a flight experiment using a winged hypersonic research vehicle is proposed by the National Aerospace Laboratory (NAL) as one of the flight experiment series preceding to the development of HOPE (H-II Orbiting Plane). The present paper describes the purpose of the experiment, the outline of the flight, the configuration and aerodynamic characteristics of the vehicle, and items of experiment and measurement. The present experiment is to acquire experience on the development and the flight of a hypersonic winged vehicle, in contrast to the ballistic flight of the OREX (Orbital Reentry Experiment) and to collect flight data for validation of tests and simulations on the ground. The vehicle of about 1.5 tons will be launched by a two-stage version of the J-I. The vehicle will be separated at an altitude of 70-80 km at a velocity of Mach 18-20, and inserted to the reentry trajectory of HOPE. The vehicle will be decelerated by parachutes and splash into the ocean south of Japan, where it will be recovered.

  2. In-flight load testing of advanced shuttle thermal protection systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, B. M.; Meyer, R., Jr.; Sawko, P. M.

    1983-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center has conducted in-flight airload testing of some advanced thermal protection systems (TPS) at the Dryden Flight Research Center. The two flexible TPS materials tested, felt reusable surface insulation (FRSI) and advanced flexible reusable surface insulation (AFRSI), are currently certified for use on the Shuttle orbiter. The objectives of the flight tests were to evaluate the performance of FRSI and AFRSI at simulated launch airloads and to provide a data base for future advanced TPS flight tests. Five TPS configurations were evaluated in a flow field which was representative of relatively flat areas without secondary flows. The TPS materials were placed on a fin, the Flight Test fixture (FTF), that is attached to the underside of the fuselage of an F-104 aircraft. This paper describes the test approach and techniques used and presents the results of the advanced TPS flight test. There were no failures noted during post-flight inspections of the TPS materials which were exposed to airloads 40 percent higher than the design launch airloads.

  3. Advanced fuel cell concepts for future NASA missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stedman, J. K.

    1987-01-01

    Studies of primary fuel cells for advanced all electric shuttle type vehicles show an all fuel cell power system with peak power capability of 100's of kW to be potentially lighter and have lower life cycle costs than a hybrid system using advanced H2O2 APU's for peak power and fuel cells for low power on orbit. Fuel cell specific weights of 1 to 3 lb/kW, a factor of 10 improvement over the orbiter power plant, are projected for the early 1990's. For satellite applications, a study to identify high performance regenerative hydrogen oxygen fuel cell concepts for geosynchronous orbit was completed. Emphasis was placed on concepts with the potential for high energy density (Wh/lb) and passive means for water and heat management to maximize system reliability. Both alkaline electrolyte and polymer membrane fuel cells were considered.

  4. Advanced fuel cell concepts for future NASA missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stedman, J. K.

    1987-09-01

    Studies of primary fuel cells for advanced all electric shuttle type vehicles show an all fuel cell power system with peak power capability of 100's of kW to be potentially lighter and have lower life cycle costs than a hybrid system using advanced H2O2 APU's for peak power and fuel cells for low power on orbit. Fuel cell specific weights of 1 to 3 lb/kW, a factor of 10 improvement over the orbiter power plant, are projected for the early 1990's. For satellite applications, a study to identify high performance regenerative hydrogen oxygen fuel cell concepts for geosynchronous orbit was completed. Emphasis was placed on concepts with the potential for high energy density (Wh/lb) and passive means for water and heat management to maximize system reliability. Both alkaline electrolyte and polymer membrane fuel cells were considered.

  5. Advanced operator/system interface concepts for the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, C. M.; Lin, P. S. Y.

    1986-01-01

    Concepts and data developed as part of the Preliminary Space Station Automation and Robotics Plan are reviewed as well as candidate selection criteria, technology assessments, and preliminary candidate recommendations. A need for development of advanced operator/systems interface (OSI) concepts to support future Space Station automation and robotics applications is identified. Four candidate applications, illustrating the potential benefits of an advanced OSI, are described. These include: (1) a conversational OSI system, (2) a laboratory experiment manipulator system, (3) a module safety advisor, and (4) an integrated maintenance/training system. These specific automation and robotics applications are expected to occur relatively early in the growth of the Space Station and to provide significant commercial and station benefits throughout the life of the station.

  6. Development of environmentally advanced hydropower turbine system design concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Franke, G.F.; Webb, D.R.; Fisher, R.K. Jr.

    1997-08-01

    A team worked together on the development of environmentally advanced hydro turbine design concepts to reduce hydropower`s impact on the environment, and to improve the understanding of the technical and environmental issues involved, in particular, with fish survival as a result of their passage through hydro power sites. This approach brought together a turbine design and manufacturing company, biologists, a utility, a consulting engineering firm and a university research facility, in order to benefit from the synergy of diverse disciplines. Through a combination of advanced technology and engineering analyses, innovative design concepts adaptable to both new and existing hydro facilities were developed and are presented. The project was divided into 4 tasks. Task 1 investigated a broad range of environmental issues and how the issues differed throughout the country. Task 2 addressed fish physiology and turbine physics. Task 3 investigated individual design elements needed for the refinement of the three concept families defined in Task 1. Advanced numerical tools for flow simulation in turbines are used to quantify characteristics of flow and pressure fields within turbine water passageways. The issues associated with dissolved oxygen enhancement using turbine aeration are presented. The state of the art and recent advancements of this technology are reviewed. Key elements for applying turbine aeration to improve aquatic habitat are discussed and a review of the procedures for testing of aerating turbines is presented. In Task 4, the results of the Tasks were assembled into three families of design concepts to address the most significant issues defined in Task 1. The results of the work conclude that significant improvements in fish passage survival are achievable.

  7. Evaluation of restraint system concepts for the Japanese Experiment Module flight demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampaio, Carlos E.; Fleming, Terence F.; Stuart, Mark A.; Backemeyer, Lynn A.

    1995-01-01

    The current International Space Station configuration includes a Japanese Experiment Module which relies on a large manipulator and a smaller dexterous manipulator to operate outside the pressurized environment of the experiment module. The module's flight demonstration is a payload that will be mounted in the aft flight deck on STS-87 to evaluate a prototype of the dexterous manipulator. Since the payload operations entail two 8-hour scenarios on consecutive days, adequate operator restraint at the workstation will be critical to the perceived success or failure of the payload. Simulations in reduced gravity environment on the KC-135A were the only way to evaluate the restraint systems and workstation configuration. Two astronaut and two non-astronaut operators evaluated the Advanced Lower Body Extremities Restraint Test and a foot loop restraint system by performing representative tasks at the workstation in each of the two restraint systems; at the end of each flight they gave their impressions of each system and the workstation. Results indicated that access to the workstation switch panels was difficult and manipulation of the hand controllers forced operators too low for optimal viewing of the aft flight deck monitors. The workstation panel should be angled for better visibility, and infrequently used switches should be on the aft flight deck panel. Pitch angle and placement of the hand controllers should optimize the operator's eye position with respect to the monitors. The lower body restraint was preferred over the foot loops because it allowed operators to maintain a more relaxed posture during long-duration tasks, its height adjustability allowed better viewing of aft flight deck monitors, and it provided better restraint for reacting forces imparted on the operator at the workstation. The foot loops provide adequate restraint for the flight demonstration tasks identified. Since results will impact the design of the workstation, both restraints should be

  8. Structural Configuration Systems Analysis for Advanced Aircraft Fuselage Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek; Welstead, Jason R.; Quinlan, Jesse R.; Guynn, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    Structural configuration analysis of an advanced aircraft fuselage concept is investigated. This concept is characterized by a double-bubble section fuselage with rear mounted engines. Based on lessons learned from structural systems analysis of unconventional aircraft, high-fidelity finite-element models (FEM) are developed for evaluating structural performance of three double-bubble section configurations. Structural sizing and stress analysis are applied for design improvement and weight reduction. Among the three double-bubble configurations, the double-D cross-section fuselage design was found to have a relatively lower structural weight. The structural FEM weights of these three double-bubble fuselage section concepts are also compared with several cylindrical fuselage models. Since these fuselage concepts are different in size, shape and material, the fuselage structural FEM weights are normalized by the corresponding passenger floor area for a relative comparison. This structural systems analysis indicates that an advanced composite double-D section fuselage may have a relative structural weight ratio advantage over a conventional aluminum fuselage. Ten commercial and conceptual aircraft fuselage structural weight estimates, which are empirically derived from the corresponding maximum takeoff gross weight, are also presented and compared with the FEM- based estimates for possible correlation. A conceptual full vehicle FEM model with a double-D fuselage is also developed for preliminary structural analysis and weight estimation.

  9. Application of Design of Experiments and Surrogate Modeling within the NASA Advanced Concepts Office, Earth-to-Orbit Design Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwack, Matthew R.; Dees, Patrick D.; Holt, James B.

    2016-01-01

    Decisions made during early conceptual design can have a profound impact on life-cycle cost (LCC). Widely accepted that nearly 80% of LCC is committed. Decisions made during early design must be well informed. Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at Marshall Space Flight Center aids in decision making for launch vehicles. Provides rapid turnaround pre-phase A and phase A studies. Provides customer with preliminary vehicle sizing information, vehicle feasibility, and expected performance.

  10. Feasibility of Supersonic Aircraft Concepts for Low-Boom and Flight Trim Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Wu

    2015-01-01

    This paper documents a process for analyzing whether a particular supersonic aircraft configuration layout and a given cruise condition are feasible to achieve a trimmed low-boom design. This process was motivated by the need to know whether a particular configuration at a given cruise condition could be reshaped to satisfy both low-boom and flight trim constraints. Without such a process, much effort could be wasted on shaping a configuration layout at a cruise condition that could never satisfy both low-boom and flight trim constraints simultaneously. The process helps to exclude infeasible configuration layouts with minimum effort and allows a designer to develop trimmed low-boom concepts more effectively. A notional low-boom supersonic demonstrator concept is used to illustrate the analysis/design process.

  11. The concept of cellular "fight-or-flight" reaction to stress.

    PubMed

    Goligorsky, M S

    2001-04-01

    As animals respond to environmental stress with a set of default reactions described as the "fight-or-flight" response, so do epithelial and endothelial cells when they are confronting stressors in their microenvironment. This review will summarize a growing body of data suggesting the existence of a set of stereotypical cellular reactions to stress, provide some examples of diseases that are characterized by excessive flight reactions, describe the cellular mechanisms whereby the fight-or-flight reaction is accomplished, as well as cellular mechanisms triggering either fight or flight. It is proposed that cell-matrix adhesion is a sensitive indicator of the severity of stress. This indicator is interfaced with several default programs for cellular survival or death, thus dictating the fate of the cell. Some diagnostic and therapeutic applications of the concept, presently used and potentially useful, are outlined. The essential feature of this concept is its ability to categorize cellular events in terms of either type of default reaction, predict the details of each, and potentially exploit them clinically.

  12. Design and simulation of advanced fault tolerant flight control schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gururajan, Srikanth

    This research effort describes the design and simulation of a distributed Neural Network (NN) based fault tolerant flight control scheme and the interface of the scheme within a simulation/visualization environment. The goal of the fault tolerant flight control scheme is to recover an aircraft from failures to its sensors or actuators. A commercially available simulation package, Aviator Visual Design Simulator (AVDS), was used for the purpose of simulation and visualization of the aircraft dynamics and the performance of the control schemes. For the purpose of the sensor failure detection, identification and accommodation (SFDIA) task, it is assumed that the pitch, roll and yaw rate gyros onboard are without physical redundancy. The task is accomplished through the use of a Main Neural Network (MNN) and a set of three De-Centralized Neural Networks (DNNs), providing analytical redundancy for the pitch, roll and yaw gyros. The purpose of the MNN is to detect a sensor failure while the purpose of the DNNs is to identify the failed sensor and then to provide failure accommodation. The actuator failure detection, identification and accommodation (AFDIA) scheme also features the MNN, for detection of actuator failures, along with three Neural Network Controllers (NNCs) for providing the compensating control surface deflections to neutralize the failure induced pitching, rolling and yawing moments. All NNs continue to train on-line, in addition to an offline trained baseline network structure, using the Extended Back-Propagation Algorithm (EBPA), with the flight data provided by the AVDS simulation package. The above mentioned adaptive flight control schemes have been traditionally implemented sequentially on a single computer. This research addresses the implementation of these fault tolerant flight control schemes on parallel and distributed computer architectures, using Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) sockets and Message Passing Interface (MPI) for inter

  13. Airborne Coherent Lidar for Advanced In-Flight Measurements (ACLAIM) Flight Testing of the Lidar Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soreide, David C.; Bogue, Rodney K.; Ehernberger, L. J.; Hannon, Stephen M.; Bowdle, David A.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the ACLAIM program is ultimately to establish the viability of light detection and ranging (lidar) as a forward-looking sensor for turbulence. The goals of this flight test are to: 1) demonstrate that the ACLAIM lidar system operates reliably in a flight test environment, 2) measure the performance of the lidar as a function of the aerosol backscatter coefficient (beta), 3) use the lidar system to measure atmospheric turbulence and compare these measurements to onboard gust measurements, and 4) make measurements of the aerosol backscatter coefficient, its probability distribution and spatial distribution. The scope of this paper is to briefly describe the ACLAIM system and present examples of ACLAIM operation in flight, including comparisons with independent measurements of wind gusts, gust-induced normal acceleration, and the derived eddy dissipation rate.

  14. Electrolysis Performance Improvement Concept Study (EPICS) flight experiment phase C/D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Lee, M. G.

    1995-01-01

    The overall purpose of the Electrolysis Performance Improvement Concept Study flight experiment is to demonstrate and validate in a microgravity environment the Static Feed Electrolyzer concept as well as investigate the effect of microgravity on water electrolysis performance. The scope of the experiment includes variations in microstructural characteristics of electrodes and current densities in a static feed electrolysis cell configuration. The results of the flight experiment will be used to improve efficiency of the static feed electrolysis process and other electrochemical regenerative life support processes by reducing power and expanding the operational range. Specific technologies that will benefit include water electrolysis for propulsion, energy storage, life support, extravehicular activity, in-space manufacturing and in-space science in addition to other electrochemical regenerative life support technologies such as electrochemical carbon dioxide and oxygen separation, electrochemical oxygen compression and water vapor electrolysis. The Electrolysis Performance Improvement Concept Study flight experiment design incorporates two primary hardware assemblies: the Mechanical/Electrochemical Assembly and the Control/Monitor Instrumentation. The Mechanical/Electrochemical Assembly contains three separate integrated electrolysis cells along with supporting pressure and temperature control components. The Control/Monitor Instrumentation controls the operation of the experiment via the Mechanical/Electrochemical Assembly components and provides for monitoring and control of critical parameters and storage of experimental data.

  15. Advanced Warheads Concepts: An Advanced Equation of State for Overdriven Detonation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-01

    The FY90 Advanced Warhead Concepts effort has produced an advanced thermodynamic equation of state (Jones-Wilkens-Lee-Baker (JWLB)) for high explosives detonation. JWLB is suitable for overdriven detonation and material acceleration applications. It has been implemented into the dynamic finite element programs SYNA2D and DYNA3D and parameterized for octol 75/25. Calculated and experimental results are compared.

  16. Crew systems and flight station concepts for a 1995 transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sexton, G. A.

    1983-01-01

    Aircraft functional systems and crew systems were defined for a 1995 transport aircraft through a process of mission analysis, preliminary design, and evaluation in a soft mockup. This resulted in a revolutionary pilot's desk flight station design featuring an all-electric aircraft, fly-by-wire/light flight and thrust control systems, large electronic color head-down displays, head-up displays, touch panel controls for aircraft functional systems, voice command and response systems, and air traffic control systems projected for the 1990s. The conceptual aircraft, for which crew systems were designed, is a generic twin-engine wide-body, low-wing transport, capable of worldwide operation. The flight control system consists of conventional surfaces (some employed in unique ways) and new surfaces not used on current transports. The design will be incorporated into flight simulation facilities at NASA-Langley, NASA-Ames, and the Lockheed-Georgia Company. When interfaced with advanced air traffic control system models, the facilities will provide full-mission capability for researching issues affecting transport aircraft flight stations and crews of the 1990s.

  17. A potential flight evaluation of an upper-surface-blowing/circulation-control-wing concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riddle, Dennis W.; Eppel, Joseph C.

    1987-01-01

    The technology data base for powered lift aircraft design has advanced over the last 15 years. NASA's Quiet Short Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA) has provided a flight verification of upper surface blowing (USB) technology. The A-6 Circulation Control Wing flight demonstration aricraft has provide data for circulation control wing (CCW) technology. Recent small scale wind tunnel model tests and full scale static flow turning test have shown the potential of combining USB with CCW technology. A flight research program is deemed necessary to fully explore the performance and control aspects of CCW jet substitution for the mechanical USB Coanda flap. The required hardware design would also address questions about the development of flight weight ducts and CCW jets and the engine bleed-air capabilities vs requirements. NASA's QSRA would be an optimum flight research vehicle for modification to the USB/CCW configuration. The existing QSRA data base, the design simplicity of the QSRA wing trailing edge controls, availability of engine bleed-air, and the low risk, low cost potential of the suggested program is discussed.

  18. Composite Structure Modeling and Analysis of Advanced Aircraft Fuselage Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek; Sorokach, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project and the Boeing Company are collabrating to advance the unitized damage arresting composite airframe technology with application to the Hybrid-Wing-Body (HWB) aircraft. The testing of a HWB fuselage section with Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) construction is presently being conducted at NASA Langley. Based on lessons learned from previous HWB structural design studies, improved finite-element models (FEM) of the HWB multi-bay and bulkhead assembly are developed to evaluate the performance of the PRSEUS construction. In order to assess the comparative weight reduction benefits of the PRSEUS technology, conventional cylindrical skin-stringer-frame models of a cylindrical and a double-bubble section fuselage concepts are developed. Stress analysis with design cabin-pressure load and scenario based case studies are conducted for design improvement in each case. Alternate analysis with stitched composite hat-stringers and C-frames are also presented, in addition to the foam-core sandwich frame and pultruded rod-stringer construction. The FEM structural stress, strain and weights are computed and compared for relative weight/strength benefit assessment. The structural analysis and specific weight comparison of these stitched composite advanced aircraft fuselage concepts demonstrated that the pressurized HWB fuselage section assembly can be structurally as efficient as the conventional cylindrical fuselage section with composite stringer-frame and PRSEUS construction, and significantly better than the conventional aluminum construction and the double-bubble section concept.

  19. Advanced piloted aircraft flight control system design methodology. Volume 2: The FCX flight control design expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Thomas T.; Mcruer, Duane T.

    1988-01-01

    The development of a comprehensive and electric methodology for conceptual and preliminary design of flight control systems is presented and illustrated. The methodology is focused on the design states starting with the layout of system requirements and ending when some viable competing system architectures (feedback control structures) are defined. The approach is centered on the human pilot and the aircraft as both the sources of, and the keys to the solution of, many flight control problems. The methodology relies heavily on computational procedures which are highly interactive with the design engineer. To maximize effectiveness, these techniques, as selected and modified to be used together in the methodology, form a cadre of computational tools specifically tailored for integrated flight control system preliminary design purposes. The FCX expert system as presently developed is only a limited prototype capable of supporting basic lateral-directional FCS design activities related to the design example used. FCX presently supports design of only one FCS architecture (yaw damper plus roll damper) and the rules are largely focused on Class IV (highly maneuverable) aircraft. Despite this limited scope, the major elements which appear necessary for application of knowledge-based software concepts to flight control design were assembled and thus FCX represents a prototype which can be tested, critiqued and evolved in an ongoing process of development.

  20. Flight research and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, Terrill W.; Ayers, Theodore G.

    1988-01-01

    Flight research and testing form a critical link in the aeronautic R and D chain. Brilliant concepts, elegant theories, and even sophisticated ground tests of flight vehicles are not sufficient to prove beyond doubt that an unproven aeronautical concept will actually perform as predicted. Flight research and testing provide the ultimate proof that an idea or concept performs as expected. Ever since the Wright brothers, flight research and testing have been the crucible in which aeronautical concepts have advanced and been proven to the point that engineers and companies have been willing to stake their future to produce and design new aircraft. This is still true today, as shown by the development of the experimental X-30 aerospace plane. The Dryden Flight Research Center (Ames-Dryden) continues to be involved in a number of flight research programs that require understanding and characterization of the total airplane in all the aeronautical disciplines, for example the X-29. Other programs such as the F-14 variable-sweep transition flight experiment have focused on a single concept or discipline. Ames-Dryden also continues to conduct flight and ground based experiments to improve and expand the ability to test and evaluate advanced aeronautical concepts. A review of significant aeronautical flight research programs and experiments is presented to illustrate both the progress made and the challenges to come.

  1. Flight research and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, Terrill W.; Ayers, Theodore G.

    1989-01-01

    Flight research and testing form a critical link in the aeronautic research and development chain. Brilliant concepts, elegant theories, and even sophisticated ground tests of flight vehicles are not sufficient to prove beyond a doubt that an unproven aeronautical concept will actually perform as predicted. Flight research and testing provide the ultimate proof that an idea or concept performs as expected. Ever since the Wright brothers, flight research and testing were the crucible in which aeronautical concepts were advanced and proven to the point that engineers and companies are willing to stake their future to produce and design aircraft. This is still true today, as shown by the development of the experimental X-30 aerospace plane. The Dryden Flight Research Center (Ames-Dryden) continues to be involved in a number of flight research programs that require understanding and characterization of the total airplane in all the aeronautical disciplines, for example the X-29. Other programs such as the F-14 variable-sweep transition flight experiment have focused on a single concept or discipline. Ames-Dryden also continues to conduct flight and ground based experiments to improve and expand the ability to test and evaluate advanced aeronautical concepts. A review of significant aeronautical flight research programs and experiments is presented to illustrate both the progress being made and the challenges to come.

  2. Orbital Express Advanced Video Guidance Sensor: Ground Testing, Flight Results and Comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinson, Robin M.; Howard, Richard T.; Heaton, Andrew F.

    2008-01-01

    Orbital Express (OE) was a successful mission demonstrating automated rendezvous and docking. The 2007 mission consisted of two spacecraft, the Autonomous Space Transport Robotic Operations (ASTRO) and the Next Generation Serviceable Satellite (NEXTSat) that were designed to work together and test a variety of service operations in orbit. The Advanced Video Guidance Sensor, AVGS, was included as one of the primary proximity navigation sensors on board the ASTRO. The AVGS was one of four sensors that provided relative position and attitude between the two vehicles. Marshall Space Flight Center was responsible for the AVGS software and testing (especially the extensive ground testing), flight operations support, and analyzing the flight data. This paper briefly describes the historical mission, the data taken on-orbit, the ground testing that occurred, and finally comparisons between flight data and ground test data for two different flight regimes.

  3. New Developments in the Simulation of Advanced Accelerator Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Bruhwiler, David L.; Cary, John R.; Cowan, Benjamin M.; Paul, Kevin; Mullowney, Paul J.; Messmer, Peter; Geddes, Cameron G. R.; Esarey, Eric; Cormier-Michel, Estelle; Leemans, Wim; Vay, Jean-Luc

    2009-01-22

    Improved computational methods are essential to the diverse and rapidly developing field of advanced accelerator concepts. We present an overview of some computational algorithms for laser-plasma concepts and high-brightness photocathode electron sources. In particular, we discuss algorithms for reduced laser-plasma models that can be orders of magnitude faster than their higher-fidelity counterparts, as well as important on-going efforts to include relevant additional physics that has been previously neglected. As an example of the former, we present 2D laser wakefield accelerator simulations in an optimal Lorentz frame, demonstrating >10 GeV energy gain of externally injected electrons over a 2 m interaction length, showing good agreement with predictions from scaled simulations and theory, with a speedup factor of {approx}2,000 as compared to standard particle-in-cell.

  4. New Developments in the Simulation of Advanced Accelerator Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, K.; Cary, J.R.; Cowan, B.; Bruhwiler, D.L.; Geddes, C.G.R.; Mullowney, P.J.; Messmer, P.; Esarey, E.; Cormier-Michel, E.; Leemans, W.P.; Vay, J.-L.

    2008-09-10

    Improved computational methods are essential to the diverse and rapidly developing field of advanced accelerator concepts. We present an overview of some computational algorithms for laser-plasma concepts and high-brightness photocathode electron sources. In particular, we discuss algorithms for reduced laser-plasma models that can be orders of magnitude faster than their higher-fidelity counterparts, as well as important on-going efforts to include relevant additional physics that has been previously neglected. As an example of the former, we present 2D laser wakefield accelerator simulations in an optimal Lorentz frame, demonstrating>10 GeV energy gain of externally injected electrons over a 2 m interaction length, showing good agreement with predictions from scaled simulations and theory, with a speedup factor of ~;;2,000 as compared to standard particle-in-cell.

  5. Advanced liquid oxygen (LO2) propellant conditioning concept testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, G. L. E.; Suter, J. D.; Turner, S. G.

    1995-01-01

    Advanced methods of liquid oxygen (LO2) propellant conditioning were studied as part of an effort for increasing reliability and operability while reducing cost of future heavy lift launch vehicles. The most promising conditioning concept evaluated was no-bleed (passive recirculation) followed by low-bleed, helium injection, and use of a recirculation line. Full-scale cryogenic testing was performed with a sloped feedline test article to validate models of behavior of LO2 in the feedline and to prove no-bleed feasibility. Test data are also intended to help generate design guidelines for the development of a main propulsion system feed duct. A design-of-experiments matrix of over 100 tests was developed to test all four propellant conditioning concepts and the impact of design parameters on the concepts. Liquid nitrogen was used as the test fluid. The work for this project was conducted from October 1992 through January 1994 at the hydrogen cold flow facility of the west test area of MSFC. Test data have shown that satisfactory temperatures are being obtained for the no-bleed conditioning concept.

  6. Advanced remotely maintainable force-reflecting servomanipulator concept

    SciTech Connect

    Kuban, D.P.; Martin, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    A remotely maintainable force-reflecting servomanipulator concept is being developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory as part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program. This new manipulator addresses requirements of advanced nuclear fuel reprocessing with emphasis on force reflection, remote maintainability, reliability, radiation tolerance, and corrosion resistance. The advanced servomanipulator is uniquely subdivided into remotely replaceable modules which will permit in situ manipulator repair by spare module replacement. Manipulator modularization and increased reliability are accomplished through a force transmission system that uses gears and torque tubes. Digital control algorithms and mechanical precision are used to offset the increased backlash, friction, and inertia resulting from the gear drives. This results in the first remotely maintainable force-reflecting servomanipulator in the world. 10 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  7. Post Landsat-D advanced concept evaluation /PLACE/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, L. D.; Alvarado, U. R.; Flatow, F. S.

    1979-01-01

    The aim of the Post Landsat-D Advanced Concept Evaluation (PLACE) program was to identify the key technology requirements of earth resources satellite systems for the 1985-2000 period. The program involved four efforts: (1) examination of future needs in the earth resources area, (2) creation of a space systems technology model capable of satisfying these needs, (3) identification of key technology requirements posed by this model, and (4) development of a methodology (PRISM) to assist in the priority structuring of the resulting technologies.

  8. Advanced flight deck/crew station simulator functional requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, R. L.; Tate, J. L.; Moss, M. J.

    1980-01-01

    This report documents a study of flight deck/crew system research facility requirements for investigating issues involved with developing systems, and procedures for interfacing transport aircraft with air traffic control systems planned for 1985 to 2000. Crew system needs of NASA, the U.S. Air Force, and industry were investigated and reported. A matrix of these is included, as are recommended functional requirements and design criteria for simulation facilities in which to conduct this research. Methods of exploiting the commonality and similarity in facilities are identified, and plans for exploiting this in order to reduce implementation costs and allow efficient transfer of experiments from one facility to another are presented.

  9. Proof-of-Concept Demonstrations of a Flight Adjustment Logging and Communication Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Underwood, Matthew C.; Merlino, Daniel K.; Carboneau, Lindsey M.; Wilson, C. Logan; Wilder, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    The National Airspace System is a highly complex system of systems within which a number of participants with widely varying business and operating models exist. From the airspace user's perspective, a means by which to operate flights in a more flexible and efficient manner is highly desired to meet their business objectives. From the air navigation service provider's viewpoint, there is a need for increasing the capacity of the airspace, while maintaining or increasing the levels of efficiency and safety that currently exist in order to meet the charter under which they operate. Enhancing the communication between airspace operators and users is essential in order to meet these demands. In the spring of 2015, a prototype system that implemented an airborne tool to optimize en-route flight paths for fuel and time savings was designed and tested. The system utilized in-flight Internet as a high-bandwidth data link to facilitate collaborative decision making between the flight deck and an airline dispatcher. The system was tested and demonstrated in a laboratory environment, as well as in-situ. Initial results from these tests indicate that this system is not only feasible, but could also serve as a growth path and testbed for future air traffic management concepts that rely on shared situational awareness through data exchange and electronic negotiation between multiple entities operating within the National Airspace System.

  10. Generic Repository Concepts and Thermal Analysis for Advanced Fuel Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Hardin, Ernest; Blink, James; Carter, Joe; Massimiliano, Fratoni; Greenberg, Harris; Howard, Rob L

    2011-01-01

    The current posture of the used nuclear fuel management program in the U.S. following termination of the Yucca Mountain Project, is to pursue research and development (R&D) of generic (i.e., non-site specific) technologies for storage, transportation and disposal. Disposal R&D is directed toward understanding and demonstrating the performance of reference geologic disposal concepts selected to represent the current state-of-the-art in geologic disposal. One of the principal constraints on waste packaging and emplacement in a geologic repository is management of the waste-generated heat. This paper describes the selection of reference disposal concepts, and thermal management strategies for waste from advanced fuel cycles. A geologic disposal concept for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) or high-level waste (HLW) consists of three components: waste inventory, geologic setting, and concept of operations. A set of reference geologic disposal concepts has been developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Used Fuel Disposition Campaign, for crystalline rock, clay/shale, bedded salt, and deep borehole (crystalline basement) geologic settings. We performed thermal analysis of these concepts using waste inventory cases representing a range of advanced fuel cycles. Concepts of operation consisting of emplacement mode, repository layout, and engineered barrier descriptions, were selected based on international progress and previous experience in the U.S. repository program. All of the disposal concepts selected for this study use enclosed emplacement modes, whereby waste packages are in direct contact with encapsulating engineered or natural materials. The encapsulating materials (typically clay-based or rock salt) have low intrinsic permeability and plastic rheology that closes voids so that low permeability is maintained. Uniformly low permeability also contributes to chemically reducing conditions common in soft clay, shale, and salt formations. Enclosed modes are associated

  11. Flight Evaluation of the Army/NASA Variable Stability Fly-by-Wire Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concept Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) JUH-60A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arterburn, Dave

    2002-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center and the U.S. Army Aeroflightdynamics Directorate (AFDD) have performed initial flight evaluations of the Research Flight Control System (RFCS) integrated into the Army/NASA Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) JUH-60A. The highly modified JUH-6OA Black Hawk helicopter is a full authority, high bandwidth, variable stability, in-flight simulator designed to support development of advanced flight control, sensor, and integrated display and control technologies in a fail safe environment. Preparation for flight test required an extensive hazard analysis and ground testing to ensure proper system operation. A hardware in the loop development facility was utilized to evaluate control law stability following software changes, assess servo hardover upset conditions during manual and monitor disengagements and provide pilot familiarization of test techniques and software changes prior to flight. First engagement of the RFCS was conducted on 31 Aug 2001. RFCS transfer system operation, envelope expansion and a limited rate monitor evaluation have been completed with low bandwidth and model following control laws.

  12. Flight investigation of effects of a fan-in-fin yaw control concept on helicopter flying-quality characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, H. L.; West, T. C.

    1974-01-01

    Flight-test results which describe flying-quality factors related to the fan-in-fin yaw control concept as utilized on a pre-production version of a European helicopter are presented. Design compromises to be considered with this concept are also presented. The large, fixed vertical fin associated with the fan-in-fin system was helpful in maneuvering flight, but introduced several flying-quality problems when combined with the fan.

  13. Development and flight evaluation of an augmented stability active controls concept with a small tail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Parasite drag reduction evaluation is composed of wind tunnel tests with a standard L-1011 tail and two reduced area tail configurations. Trim drag reduction is evaluated by rebalancing the airplane for relaxed static stability. This is accomplished by pumping water to tanks in the forward and aft of the airplane to acheive desired center of gravity location. Also, the L-1011 is modified to incorporate term and advanced augmented systems. By using advanced wings and aircraft relaxed static stability significant fuel savings can be realized. An airplane's dynamic stability becomes more sensitive for decreased tail size, relaxed static stability, and advanced wing configurations. Active control pitch augmentation will be used to acheive the required handling qualities. Flight tests will be performed to evaluate the pitch augmentation systems. The effect of elevator downrig on stabilizer/elevator hinge moments will be measured. For control system analysis, the normal acceleration feedback and pitch rate feedback are analyzed.

  14. Operational efficiency: Automatic ascent flight design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Major objectives, milestones, key contacts, major accomplishments, technology issues, and candidate programs of the automatic ascent flight design are outlined. Topics discussed include: advanced avionics concepts; advanced training concepts; telerobotics/telepresence; integrated command and control; advanced software integration; atmospheric adaptive guidance; and health status and monitoring concept. This presentation is represented by viewgraphs only.

  15. Development and flight test of a weather radar precision approach concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clary, G. R.; Anderson, D. J.; Chisholm, J. P.

    1984-01-01

    In order to make full use of the helicopter's unique capability of remote-site, off-airport landings, it would be desirable to employ a self-contained navigation system requiring minimum groundable-based equipment. For this reason, research is being conducted with the aim to develop the use of airborne weather radar as a primary navigation aid for helicopter approach and landing in instrument flight rules (IFR) conditions. Anderson et al. (1982) have reported about the first phase of this effort, taking into account the detection of passive ground-based corner reflectors with the aid of an 'echo processor'. The technology of passive-reflector detection in the overland environment provides the pilot with the range and bearing to the landing site. The present investigation is concerned with a second research phase, which was undertaken with the objective to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a weather radar-based precision approach concept. Preliminary flight test results are considered.

  16. Hydrogen Vent Ground Umbilical Quick Disconnect - Flight Seal Advanced Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Girard, Doug; Jankowski, Fred; Minich, Mark C.; Yu, Weiping

    2012-01-01

    This project is a team effort between NASA Engineering (NE) and Team QNA Engineering personnel to provide support for the Umbilical Systems Development project which is funded by Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) and 21st Century Launch Complex. Specifically, this project seeks to develop a new interface between the PPBE baselined Legacy SSP LH2 Vent Arm QD probe and SLS vent seal.

  17. Advanced application flight experiment breadboard pulse compression radar altimeter program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Design, development and performance of the pulse compression radar altimeter is described. The high resolution breadboard system is designed to operate from an aircraft at 10 Kft above the ocean and to accurately measure altitude, sea wave height and sea reflectivity. The minicomputer controlled Ku band system provides six basic variables and an extensive digital recording capability for experimentation purposes. Signal bandwidths of 360 MHz are obtained using a reflective array compression line. Stretch processing is used to achieve 1000:1 pulse compression. The system range command LSB is 0.62 ns or 9.25 cm. A second order altitude tracker, aided by accelerometer inputs is implemented in the system software. During flight tests the system demonstrated an altitude resolution capability of 2.1 cm and sea wave height estimation accuracy of 10%. The altitude measurement performance exceeds that of the Skylab and GEOS-C predecessors by approximately an order of magnitude.

  18. Fiber optic (flight quality) sensors for advanced aircraft propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poppel, Gary L.

    1994-01-01

    Development of flight prototype, fiber-optic sensing system components for measuring nine sensed parameters (three temperatures, two speeds, three positions, and one flame) on an F404-400 aircraft engine is described. Details of each sensor's design, functionality, and environmental testing, and the electro-optics architecture for sensor signal conditioning are presented. Eight different optical sensing techniques were utilized. Design, assembly, and environmental testing of an engine-mounted, electro-optics chassis unit (EOU), providing MIL-C-1553 data output, are related. Interconnection cables and connectors between the EOU and the sensors are identified. Results of sensor/cable/circuitry integrated testing, and installation and ground testing of the sensor system on an engine in October 1993 and April 1994 are given, including comparisons with the engine control system's electrical sensors. Lessons learned about the design, fabrication, testing, and integration of the sensor system components are included.

  19. Advanced planning activity. [for interplanetary flight and space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Selected mission concepts for interplanetary exploration through 1985 were examined, including: (1) Jupiter orbiter performance characteristics; (2) solar electric propulsion missions to Mercury, Venus, Neptune, and Uranus; (3) space shuttle planetary missions; (4) Pioneer entry probes to Saturn and Uranus; (5) rendezvous with Comet Kohoutek and Comet Encke; (6) space tug capabilities; and (7) a Pioneer mission to Mars in 1979. Mission options, limitations, and performance predictions are assessed, along with probable configurational, boost, and propulsion requirements.

  20. Development of a VOR/DME model for an advanced concepts simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinmetz, G. G.; Bowles, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    The report presents a definition of a VOR/DME, airborne and ground systems simulation model. This description was drafted in response to a need in the creation of an advanced concepts simulation in which flight station design for the 1980 era can be postulated and examined. The simulation model described herein provides a reasonable representation of VOR/DME station in the continental United States including area coverage by type and noise errors. The detail in which the model has been cast provides the interested researcher with a moderate fidelity level simulator tool for conducting research and evaluation of navigator algorithms. Assumptions made within the development are listed and place certain responsibilities (data bases, communication with other simulation modules, uniform round earth, etc.) upon the researcher.

  1. Applications of flight control system methods to an advanced combat rotorcraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, Mark B.; Fletcher, Jay W.; Morris, Patrick M.; Tucker, George T.

    1989-01-01

    Advanced flight control system design, analysis, and testing methodologies developed at the Ames Research Center are applied in an analytical and flight test evaluation of the Advanced Digital Optical Control System (ADOCS) demonstrator. The primary objectives are to describe the knowledge gained about the implications of digital flight control system design for rotorcraft, and to illustrate the analysis of the resulting handling-qualities in the context of the proposed new handling-qualities specification for rotorcraft. Topics covered in-depth are digital flight control design and analysis methods, flight testing techniques, ADOCS handling-qualities evaluation results, and correlation of flight test results with analytical models and the proposed handling-qualities specification. The evaluation of the ADOCS demonstrator indicates desirable response characteristics based on equivalent damping and frequency, but undersirably large effective time-delays (exceeding 240 m sec in all axes). Piloted handling-qualities are found to be desirable or adequate for all low, medium, and high pilot gain tasks; but handling-qualities are inadequate for ultra-high gain tasks such as slope and running landings.

  2. An advanced concept secondary power systems study for an advanced transport technology aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The application of advanced technology to the design of an integrated secondary power system for future near-sonic long-range transports was investigated. The study showed that the highest payoff is achieved by utilizing secondary power equipment that contributes to minimum cruise drag. This is best accomplished by the use of the dedicated auxiliary power unit concept (inflight APU) as the prime power source for an airplane with a body-mounted engine or by the use of the internal engine generator concept (electrical power extraction from the propulsion engine) for an airplane with a wing-pod-mounted engine.

  3. Flight evaluation of configuration management system concepts during transition to the landing approach for a powered-lift STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, J. A.; Innis, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    Flight experiments were conducted to evaluate two control concepts for configuration management during the transition to landing approach for a powered-lift STOL aircraft. NASA Ames' augmentor wing research aircraft was used in the program. Transitions from nominal level-flight configurations at terminal area pattern speeds were conducted along straight and curved descending flightpaths. Stabilization and command augmentation for attitude and airspeed control were used in conjunction with a three-cue flight director that presented commands for pitch, roll, and throttle controls. A prototype microwave system provided landing guidance. Results of these flight experiments indicate that these configuration management concepts permit the successful performance of transitions and approaches along curved paths by powered-lift STOL aircraft. Flight director guidance was essential to accomplish the task.

  4. Multiplexing electro-optic architectures for advanced aircraft integrated flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seal, D. W.

    1989-01-01

    This report describes the results of a 10 month program sponsored by NASA. The objective of this program was to evaluate various optical sensor modulation technologies and to design an optimal Electro-Optic Architecture (EOA) for servicing remote clusters of sensors and actuators in advanced aircraft flight control systems. The EOA's supply optical power to remote sensors and actuators, process the modulated optical signals returned from the sensors, and produce conditioned electrical signals acceptable for use by a digital flight control computer or Vehicle Management System (VMS) computer. This study was part of a multi-year initiative under the Fiber Optic Control System Integration (FOCSI) program to design, develop, and test a totally integrated fiber optic flight/propulsion control system for application to advanced aircraft. Unlike earlier FOCSI studies, this program concentrated on the design of the EOA interface rather than the optical transducer technology itself.

  5. Development of Advanced Hydrocarbon Fuels at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bai, S. D.; Dumbacher, P.; Cole, J. W.

    2002-01-01

    This was a small-scale, hot-fire test series to make initial measurements of performance differences of five new liquid fuels relative to rocket propellant-1 (RP-1). The program was part of a high-energy-density materials development at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and the fuels tested were quadricyclane, 1-7 octodiyne, AFRL-1, biclopropylidene, and competitive impulse noncarcinogenic hypergol (CINCH) (di-methyl-aminoethyl-azide). All tests were conducted at MSFC. The first four fuels were provided by the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), Edwards Air Force Base, CA. The U.S. Army, Redstone Arsenal, Huntsville, AL, provided the CINCH. The data recorded in all hot-fire tests were used to calculate specific impulse and characteristic exhaust velocity for each fuel, then compared to RP-1 at the same conditions. This was not an exhaustive study, comparing each fuel to RP-1 at an array of mixture ratios, nor did it include important fuel parameters, such as fuel handling or long-term storage. The test hardware was designed for liquid oxygen (lox)/RP-1, then modified for gaseous oxygen/RP-1 to avoid two-phase lox at very small flow rates. All fuels were tested using the same thruster/injector combination designed for RP-1. The results of this test will be used to determine which fuels will be tested in future test programs.

  6. NASA Langley Research Center's Simulation-To-Flight Concept Accomplished through the Integration Laboratories of the Transport Research Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, Debbie; Davidson, Paul C.; Kenney, P. Sean; Hutchinson, Brian K.

    2004-01-01

    The Flight Simulation and Software Branch (FSSB) at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) maintains the unique national asset identified as the Transport Research Facility (TRF). The TRF is a group of facilities and integration laboratories utilized to support the LaRC's simulation-to-flight concept. This concept incorporates common software, hardware, and processes for both groundbased flight simulators and LaRC s B-757-200 flying laboratory identified as the Airborne Research Integrated Experiments System (ARIES). These assets provide Government, industry, and academia with an efficient way to develop and test new technology concepts to enhance the capacity, safety, and operational needs of the ever-changing national airspace system. The integration of the TRF enables a smooth continuous flow of the research from simulation to actual flight test.

  7. Formal representation of the requirements for an Advanced Subsonic Civil Transport (ASCT) flight control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frincke, Deborah; Wolber, Dave; Fisher, Gene; Cohen, Gerald C.; Mclees, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    A partial requirement specification for an Advanced Subsonic Civil Transport (ASCT) Flight Control System is described. The example was adopted from requirements given in a NASA Contractor report. The language used to describe the requirements, Requirements Specification Language (RSL), is described in a companion document.

  8. Advanced liquid Oxygen (LO2) propellant conditioning concept testing. 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasting, J. H.; Perry, G. L. E.; Mehta, G. K.

    1996-01-01

    Extensive testing was performed on the promising L02 propellant conditioning concept of passive recirculation (no-bleed). Data from the project is being used to further anchor models in L02 conditioning behavior and broaden the data base of no-bleed and low-bleed conditioning. Data base expansion includes results from testing the limits of no-bleed and low-bleed conditioning with various configuration changes to the test facility and designed test article. Configuration changes include low velocity effects in the recirculation loop above the test article, test article internal constriction impacts, test article out-of-plane effects, impact from an actual Titan L02 pump attachment, feed duct slope effects, and up-leg booster effects. LN2 was used as the test fluid. The testing was conducted between July 1994 and January 1995 at the west test area of Marshall Space Flight Center. Data have shown that in most cases passive recirculation was demonstrated when the aforementioned limits were applied.

  9. Development of an air ground data exchange concept: Flight deck perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flathers, G. W., II

    1987-01-01

    The planned modernization of the U.S. National Airspace System (NAS) includes the development and use of a digital data link as a means to exchange information between aircraft and ground-based facilities. This report presents an operationally-oriented concept on how data link could be used for applications related directly to air traffic control. The specific goal is to establish the role that data link could play in the air-ground communications. Due regard is given to the unique characteristics of data link and voice communications, current principles of air traffic control, operational procedures, human factors/man-machine interfaces, and the integration of data link with other air and ground systems. The resulting concept is illustrated in the form of a paper-and-pencil simulation in which data link and voice communications during the course of a hypothetical flight are described.

  10. Enroute flight planning: Evaluating design concepts for the development of cooperative problem-solving systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Philip J.

    1995-01-01

    There are many problem-solving tasks that are too complex to fully automate given the current state of technology. Nevertheless, significant improvements in overall system performance could result from the introduction of well-designed computer aids. We have been studying the development of cognitive tools for one such problem-solving task, enroute flight path planning for commercial airlines. Our goal has been two-fold. First, we have been developing specific system designs to help with this important practical problem. Second, we have been using this context to explore general design concepts to guide in the development of cooperative problem-solving systems. These design concepts are described below, along with illustrations of their application.

  11. Operational Concept for Flight Crews to Participate in Merging and Spacing of Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Barmore, Bryan E.; Abbott, Terence S.; Capron, William R.

    2006-01-01

    The predicted tripling of air traffic within the next 15 years is expected to cause significant aircraft delays and create a major financial burden for the airline industry unless the capacity of the National Airspace System can be increased. One approach to improve throughput and reduce delay is to develop new ground tools, airborne tools, and procedures to reduce the variance of aircraft delivery to the airport, thereby providing an increase in runway throughput capacity and a reduction in arrival aircraft delay. The first phase of the Merging and Spacing Concept employs a ground based tool used by Air Traffic Control that creates an arrival time to the runway threshold based on the aircraft s current position and speed, then makes minor adjustments to that schedule to accommodate runway throughput constraints such as weather and wake vortex separation criteria. The Merging and Spacing Concept also employs arrival routing that begins at an en route metering fix at altitude and continues to the runway threshold with defined lateral, vertical, and velocity criteria. This allows the desired spacing interval between aircraft at the runway to be translated back in time and space to the metering fix. The tool then calculates a specific speed for each aircraft to fly while enroute to the metering fix based on the adjusted land timing for that aircraft. This speed is data-linked to the crew who fly this speed, causing the aircraft to arrive at the metering fix with the assigned spacing interval behind the previous aircraft in the landing sequence. The second phase of the Merging and Spacing Concept increases the timing precision of the aircraft delivery to the runway threshold by having flight crews using an airborne system make minor speed changes during enroute, descent, and arrival phases of flight. These speed changes are based on broadcast aircraft state data to determine the difference between the actual and assigned time interval between the aircraft pair. The

  12. Affordable Flight Demonstration of the GTX Air-Breathing SSTO Vehicle Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krivanek, Thomas M.; Roche, Joseph M.; Riehl, John P.; Kosareo, Daniel N.

    2003-01-01

    The rocket based combined cycle (RBCC) powered single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) reusable launch vehicle has the potential to significantly reduce the total cost per pound for orbital payload missions. To validate overall system performance, a flight demonstration must be performed. This paper presents an overview of the first phase of a flight demonstration program for the GTX SSTO vehicle concept. Phase 1 will validate the propulsion performance of the vehicle configuration over the supersonic and hypersonic air- breathing portions of the trajectory. The focus and goal of Phase 1 is to demonstrate the integration and performance of the propulsion system flowpath with the vehicle aerodynamics over the air-breathing trajectory. This demonstrator vehicle will have dual mode ramjetkcramjets, which include the inlet, combustor, and nozzle with geometrically scaled aerodynamic surface outer mold lines (OML) defining the forebody, boundary layer diverter, wings, and tail. The primary objective of this study is to demon- strate propulsion system performance and operability including the ram to scram transition, as well as to validate vehicle aerodynamics and propulsion airframe integration. To minimize overall risk and develop ment cost the effort will incorporate proven materials, use existing turbomachinery in the propellant delivery systems, launch from an existing unmanned remote launch facility, and use basic vehicle recovery techniques to minimize control and landing requirements. A second phase would demonstrate propulsion performance across all critical portions of a space launch trajectory (lift off through transition to all-rocket) integrated with flight-like vehicle systems.

  13. Affordable Flight Demonstration of the GTX Air-Breathing SSTO Vehicle Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krivanek, Thomas M.; Roche, Joseph M.; Riehl, John P.; Kosareo, Daniel N.

    2002-01-01

    The rocket based combined cycle (RBCC) powered single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) reusable launch vehicle has the potential to significantly reduce the total cost per pound for orbital payload missions. To validate overall system performance, a flight demonstration must be performed. This paper presents an overview of the first phase of a flight demonstration program for the GTX SSTO vehicle concept. Phase 1 will validate the propulsion performance of the vehicle configuration over the supersonic and hypersonic airbreathing portions of the trajectory. The focus and goal of Phase 1 is to demonstrate the integration and performance of the propulsion system flowpath with the vehicle aerodynamics over the air-breathing trajectory. This demonstrator vehicle will have dual mode ramjet/scramjets, which include the inlet, combustor, and nozzle with geometrically scaled aerodynamic surface outer mold lines (OML) defining the forebody, boundary layer diverter, wings, and tail. The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate propulsion system performance and operability including the ram to scram transition, as well as to validate vehicle aerodynamics and propulsion airframe integration. To minimize overall risk and development cost the effort will incorporate proven materials, use existing turbomachinery in the propellant delivery systems, launch from an existing unmanned remote launch facility, and use basic vehicle recovery techniques to minimize control and landing requirements. A second phase would demonstrate propulsion performance across all critical portions of a space launch trajectory (lift off through transition to all-rocket) integrated with flight-like vehicle systems.

  14. Autonomous Flight Rules - A Concept for Self-Separation in U.S. Domestic Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.; Cotton, William B.

    2011-01-01

    Autonomous Flight Rules (AFR) are proposed as a new set of operating regulations in which aircraft navigate on tracks of their choice while self-separating from traffic and weather. AFR would exist alongside Instrument and Visual Flight Rules (IFR and VFR) as one of three available flight options for any appropriately trained and qualified operator with the necessary certified equipment. Historically, ground-based separation services evolved by necessity as aircraft began operating in the clouds and were unable to see each other. Today, technologies for global navigation, airborne surveillance, and onboard computing enable the functions of traffic conflict management to be fully integrated with navigation procedures onboard the aircraft. By self-separating, aircraft can operate with more flexibility and fewer restrictions than are required when using ground-based separation. The AFR concept is described in detail and provides practical means by which self-separating aircraft could share the same airspace as IFR and VFR aircraft without disrupting the ongoing processes of Air Traffic Control.

  15. Advanced direct liquefaction concepts for PETC generic units

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    In the Advance Coal Liquefaction Concept Proposal (ACLCP) carbon monoxide (CO) and water have been proposed as the primary reagents in the pretreatment process. The main objective of this project is to develop a methodology for pretreating coal under mild conditions based on a combination of existing processes which have shown great promise in liquefaction, extraction and pyrolysis studies. The aim of this pretreatment process is to partially depolymerise the coal, eliminate oxygen and diminish the propensity for retograde reactions during subsequent liquefaction. The desirable outcome of the CO pretreatment step should be: (1) enhanced liquefaction activity and/or selectivity toward products of higher quality due to chemical modification of the coal structure; (2) cleaner downstream products; (3) overall improvement in operability and process economics.

  16. Advanced Gas Storage Concepts: Technologies for the Future

    SciTech Connect

    Freeway, Katy; Rogers, R.E.; DeVries, Kerry L.; Nieland, Joel D.; Ratigan, Joe L.; Mellegard, Kirby D.

    2000-02-01

    This full text product includes: 1) A final technical report titled Advanced Underground Gas Storage Concepts, Refrigerated-Mined Cavern Storage and presentations from two technology transfer workshops held in 1998 in Houston, Texas, and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (both on the topic of Chilled Gas Storage in Mined Caverns); 2) A final technical report titled Natural Gas Hydrates Storage Project, Final Report 1 October 1997 - 31 May 1999; 3) A final technical report titled Natural Gas Hydrates Storage Project Phase II: Conceptual Design and Economic Study, Final Report 9 June - 10 October 1999; 4) A final technical report titled Commerical Potential of Natural Gas Storage in Lined Rock Caverns (LRC) and presentations from a DOE-sponsored workshop on Alternative Gas Storage Technologies, held Feb 17, 2000 in Pittsburgh, PA; and 5) Phase I and Phase II topical reports titled Feasibility Study for Lowering the Minimum Gas Pressure in Solution-Mined Caverns Based on Geomechanical Analyses of Creep-Induced Damage and Healing.

  17. Candidate advanced energy storage concepts for multimegawatt burst power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boretz, John E.; Sollo, Charles

    Three candidate advanced energy storage systems are reviewed and compared with the Thermionic Operating Reactor (THOR) concept. The three systems considered are the flywheel generator, the lithium-metal sulfide battery and the alkaline fuel cell. From a minimum mass viewpoint, only the regenerative fuel cell (RFC) can result in a lighter system than THOR. Because of its lower operating temperature, as compared to THOR, a considerable reduction in materials problems is to be expected when compared to the extremely high operating temperatures of the THOR system. Frozen heat pipes and their impact on response time as well as the complexity of the required retraction/extension mechanism of the THOR system would tend to place the RFC system in a much lower category of development risk. Finally, if spot shielding of sensitive electronic and power conditioning equipment becomes necessary for the reactor radiation environment of the THOR system, the weight advantage of the RFC system may become even greater.

  18. System concept for an advanced stand-off weapon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barzan, Riccardo

    1992-11-01

    A typical conceptual design process is described as applicable to an advanced Stand Off Weapon (SOW). Different design requirement sets, which include system performance parameters, are established to satisfy different mission requirements. In order to cope with these sets and to reach the flexibility needed, some specific design criteria are suggested. The trade between modularity and commonality makes the difference among different SOW's and affects them in affordability and effectiveness. The Skyshark weapon system is given as example of an SOW system concept. The description allows the understanding of links between design requirements, design criteria, and technical characteristics. Extensive modularity is adopted for all components that enhance flexibility (Armament, Avionics, Propulsion), while a favorable configuration layout choice allows maximizing commonality. This paper presents an industrial point of view and is related to almost 10 years of Alenia activities on Stand Off Weapons.

  19. Flight Test Comparison of Synthetic Vision Display Concepts at Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaab, Louis J.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Arthur, Trey; Parrish, Russell V.; Barry, John S.

    2003-01-01

    Limited visibility is the single most critical factor affecting the safety and capacity of worldwide aviation operations. Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) technology can solve this visibility problem with a visibility solution. These displays employ computer-generated terrain imagery to present 3D, perspective out-the-window scenes with sufficient information and realism to enable operations equivalent to those of a bright, clear day, regardless of weather conditions. To introduce SVS display technology into as many existing aircraft as possible, a retrofit approach was defined that employs existing HDD display capabilities for glass cockpits and HUD capabilities for the other aircraft. This retrofit approach was evaluated for typical nighttime airline operations at a major international airport. Overall, 6 evaluation pilots performed 75 research approaches, accumulating 18 hours flight time evaluating SVS display concepts that used the NASA LaRC's Boeing B-757-200 aircraft at Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport. Results from this flight test establish the SVS retrofit concept, regardless of display size, as viable for tested conditions. Future assessments need to extend evaluation of the approach to operations in an appropriate, terrain-challenged environment with daytime test conditions.

  20. Development of an advanced high-speed rotor - Final results from the Advanced Flight Research Rotor program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenks, Mark; Haslim, Leonard

    1988-01-01

    The final results of the Advanced Flight Research Rotor (AFRR) study, a NASA sponsored research program, are summarized. First, the results of the initial phase of the AFRR program, consisting of the definition of a conventional rotor with planform and prescribed twist distributions, are briefly reviewed. The mechanism of the calculated performance benefit is then explained, and a detailed analysis of the prescribed twist distribution is presented. Recommendations are made on the practical means of approximating the prescribed twist on the actual rotor.

  1. The flight telerobotic servicer Tinman concept: System design drivers and task analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andary, J. F.; Hewitt, D. R.; Hinkal, S. W.

    1989-01-01

    A study was conducted to develop a preliminary definition of the Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) that could be used to understand the operational concepts and scenarios for the FTS. Called the Tinman, this design concept was also used to begin the process of establishing resources and interfaces for the FTS on Space Station Freedom, the National Space Transportation System shuttle orbiter, and the Orbital Maneuvering vehicle. Starting with an analysis of the requirements and task capabilities as stated in the Phase B study requirements document, the study identified eight major design drivers for the FTS. Each of these design drivers and their impacts on the Tinman design concept are described. Next, the planning that is currently underway for providing resources for the FTS on Space Station Freedom is discussed, including up to 2000 W of peak power, up to four color video channels, and command and data rates up to 500 kbps between the telerobot and the control station. Finally, an example is presented to show how the Tinman design concept was used to analyze task scenarios and explore the operational capabilities of the FTS. A structured methodology using a standard terminology consistent with the NASA/National Bureau of Standards Standard Reference Model for Telerobot Control System Architecture (NASREM) was developed for this analysis.

  2. Flight Test Evaluation of Synthetic Vision Concepts at a Terrain Challenged Airport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Prince, Lawrence J., III; Bailey, Randell E.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Parrish, Russell V.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) Project is striving to eliminate poor visibility as a causal factor in aircraft accidents as well as enhance operational capabilities of all aircraft through the display of computer generated imagery derived from an onboard database of terrain, obstacle, and airport information. To achieve these objectives, NASA 757 flight test research was conducted at the Eagle-Vail, Colorado airport to evaluate three SVS display types (Head-up Display, Head-Down Size A, Head-Down Size X) and two terrain texture methods (photo-realistic, generic) in comparison to the simulated Baseline Boeing-757 Electronic Attitude Direction Indicator and Navigation/Terrain Awareness and Warning System displays. The results of the experiment showed significantly improved situation awareness, performance, and workload for SVS concepts compared to the Baseline displays and confirmed the retrofit capability of the Head-Up Display and Size A SVS concepts. The research also demonstrated that the tunnel guidance display concept used within the SVS concepts achieved required navigation performance (RNP) criteria.

  3. Aeronautical technology 2000: A projection of advanced vehicle concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board (ASEB) of the National Research Council conducted a Workshop on Aeronautical Technology: a Projection to the Year 2000 (Aerotech 2000 Workshop). The panels were asked to project advances in aeronautical technologies that could be available by the year 2000. As the workshop was drawing to a close, it became evident that a more comprehensive investigation of advanced air vehicle concepts than was possible in the limited time available at the workshop would be valuable. Thus, a special panel on vehicle applications was organized. In the course of two meetings, the panel identified and described representative types of aircraft judged possible with the workshop's technology projections. These representative aircraft types include: military aircraft; transport aircraft; rotorcraft; extremely high altitude aircraft; and transatmospheric aircraft. Improvements in performance, efficiency, and operational characteristics possible through the application of the workshop's year 2000 technology projections were discussed. The subgroups also identified the technologies considered essential and enhancing or supporting to achieve the projected aircraft improvements.

  4. A graphical workstation based part-task flight simulator for preliminary rapid evaluation of advanced displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wanke, Craig; Kuchar, James; Hahn, Edward; Pritchett, Amy; Hansman, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    Advances in avionics and display technology are significantly changing the cockpit environment in current transport aircraft. The MIT Aeronautical Systems Lab (ASL) has developed a part-task flight simulator specifically to study the effects of these new technologies on flight crew situational awareness and performance. The simulator is based on a commercially-available graphics workstation, and can be rapidly reconfigured to meet the varying demands of experimental studies. The simulator has been successfully used to evaluate graphical microburst alerting displays, electronic instrument approach plates, terrain awareness and alerting displays, and ATC routing amendment delivery through digital datalinks.

  5. A graphical workstation based part-task flight simulator for preliminary rapid evaluation of advanced displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wanke, Craig; Kuchar, James; Hahn, Edward; Pritchett, A.; Hansman, R. John

    1994-01-01

    Advances in avionics and display technology are significantly changing the cockpit environment in current transport aircraft. The MIT Aeronautical Systems Lab (ASL) developed a part-task flight simulator specifically to study the effects of these new technologies on flight crew situational awareness and performance. The simulator is based on a commercially-available graphics workstation, and can be rapidly reconfigured to meet the varying demands of experimental studies. The simulator was successfully used to evaluate graphical microbursts alerting displays, electronic instrument approach plates, terrain awareness and alerting displays, and ATC routing amendment delivery through digital datalinks.

  6. A Flight Dynamic Simulation Program in Air-Path Axes Using ACSL (Advanced Continuous Simulation Language).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    NO-A±?3 649 A FLIGHT DYNANIC SINULRTION PROGRAM IN AIR-PRTH AXES 11𔃼 USING ACSL (ADVANCED.. (U) AERONAUTICAL RESEARCH LABS MELBOURNE (AUSTRALIA) P W...Aeronajutical Restvarch Laboratrmes, ....,. i P.O. Box 4331,M lo re Vic:toria. 3001, Aus trali ."-" Melbourne.-a ’ 𔃾’ -- .-,, : _" • , (C) CMMONWALTH F...of time dependent results . e Tne DERIVATIVE section contains tne aitnd1- of the six degrees look- of freedom flight model. Tr imm inrg o f tnte a ir

  7. An example of requirements for Advanced Subsonic Civil Transport (ASCT) flight control system using structured techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclees, Robert E.; Cohen, Gerald C.

    1991-01-01

    The requirements are presented for an Advanced Subsonic Civil Transport (ASCT) flight control system generated using structured techniques. The requirements definition starts from initially performing a mission analysis to identify the high level control system requirements and functions necessary to satisfy the mission flight. The result of the study is an example set of control system requirements partially represented using a derivative of Yourdon's structured techniques. Also provided is a research focus for studying structured design methodologies and in particular design-for-validation philosophies.

  8. Flight elements subpanel introduction and overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sollock, Paul E.

    1990-01-01

    Major objectives, milestones, key contacts, technology issues, accomplishments, and candidate programs are outlined. Topics addressed include: advanced avionics systems architectures; advanced information processing; avionics concepts; integrated Global Positioning System/guidance, navigation, and command concepts; advanced communication and telemetry; display and control concepts; advanced sensors and instrumentation; fault detection and fault management; advanced electric power, distribution, and control; EMA/power systems; and in-flight crew training. This presentation is represented by viewgraphs only.

  9. Preparation for the Proof of Concept Flight of the Veggie Plant Growth Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massa, Gioia; Morrow, Robert; Hummerick, Mary; Newsham, Gerard; Wheeler, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    Veggie is a small plant growth chamber designed and built by ORBITEC that will fly to the International Space Station on SpaceX-3, scheduled for the summer of 2013. Ultimately Veggie will be used for research, education and outreach, and crew recreation. We want to demonstrate the functionality of this hardware by testing a scenario that could allow the crew to grow and consume fresh vegetables. Veggie will be collapsed and transported flat in a cargo transfer bag, and deployed on orbit, where it will be installed in an EXPRESS rack. The chamber consists of three subsystems: an LED light cap, a transparent bellows, and a root mat reservoir assembly. The bellows and flexible support arms allow the distance between plants and light cap to be adjusted for different ages and types of plants. Researchers at Kennedy Space Center and ORBITEC have been working to develop the plant growth interfaces for the proof of concept flight. We have developed a rooting pillow, consisting of a small bag containing media, time release fertilizer, seeds, and a wicking surface to conduct water from the root mat reservoir. Prototype pillows have been tested and results have influenced the design of flight pillows, which will be modified for microgravity from flight-approved materials. Several studies have been conducted selecting species and comparing media types in analog systems. Water content seems to be the most important factor differentiating media types in these small growth volumes (100 mL). Media type also influenced microbial levels on plants. Since produce sanitizing agents are not currently approved for growing food crops on orbit, plants and media types having very low microbial levels are being selected. Lettuce, mizuna, and other salad greens typically have microbial counts less than 10(exp 4) colony forming units and thus are good candidates for spaceflight. As we approach flight verification testing, we will finalize species, media selection, harvesting, and microbial

  10. The hybrid bio-inspired aerial vehicle: Concept and SIMSCAPE flight simulation.

    PubMed

    Tao Zhang; Su, Steven; Nguyen, Hung T

    2016-08-01

    This paper introduces a Silver Gull-inspired hybrid aerial vehicle, the Super Sydney Silver Gull (SSSG), which is able to vary its structure, under different manoeuvre requirements, to implement three flight modes: the flapping wing flight, the fixed wing flight, and the quadcopter flight (the rotary wing flight of Unmanned Air Vehicle). Specifically, through proper mechanism design and flight mode transition, the SSSG can imitate the Silver Gull's flight gesture during flapping flight, save power consuming by switching to the fixed wing flight mode during long-range cruising, and hover at targeted area when transferring to quadcopter flight mode. Based on the aerodynamic models, the Simscape, a product of MathWorks, is used to simulate and analyse the performance of the SSSG's flight modes. The entity simulation results indicate that the created SSSG's 3D model is feasible and ready to be manufactured for further flight tests.

  11. In-flight quality and accuracy of attitude measurements from the CHAMP advanced stellar compass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jørgensen, Peter S.; Jørgensen, John L.; Denver, Troelz; Betto, Maurizio

    2005-01-01

    The German geo-observations satellite CHAMP carries highly accurate vector instruments. The orientation of these relative to the inertial reference frame is obtained using star trackers. These advanced stellar compasses (ASC) are fully autonomous units, which provide, in real time, the absolute attitude with accuracy in the arc second range. In order to investigate the in-flight accuracy of the ASC, the terminology to characterize noise and biases is introduced. Relative instrument accuracy (RIA) and absolute instrument accuracy (AIA) can in principle be determined in-flight. However problems with modeling external noise sources often arise. The special CHAMP configuration with two star tracker cameras mounted fixed together provides an excellent opportunity to determine the AIA in-flight using the inter boresight angle.

  12. Development and flight test of an X-band precision approach concept for remote-area rotorcraft operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clary, G. R.; Chisholm, J. P.

    1983-01-01

    A novel airborne radar-based precision approach concept was developed and flight tested as a part of NASA's Rotorcraft All-Weather Operations Research Program. A demonstration, transponder-based beacon landing system (BLS), incorporating state-of-the-art X-band radar technology and digital processing techniques, was built and flight tested to demonstrate the concept feasibility. The BLS airborne hardware consists of an add-on microprocessor, installed in conjunction with the aircraft weather/mapping radar, which analyzes the radar beacon receiver returns and determines range, localizer deviation, and glide slope deviation. The ground station is an inexpensive, portable unit which can be quickly deployed at a landing site. Results from the flight test program show that the BLS concept has a significant potential for providing rotorcraft with low-cost, precision, instrument approach capability in remote areas.

  13. Development and flight test of an X-band precision approach concept for remote-area rotorcraft operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clary, G. R.; Chisholm, J. P.

    1983-01-01

    A novel airborne radar-based precision approach concept was developed and flight tested as a part of NASA's Rotorcraft All-Weather Operations Research Program. A demonstration, transponder-based beacon landing system (BLS), incorporating state-of-the-art X-band radar technology and digital processing techniques, was built and flight tested to demonstrate the concept feasibility. The BLS airborne hardware consists of an add-on microprocessor, installed in conjunction with the aircraft weather/mapping radar, which analyzes the radar beacon receiver returns and determines range, localizer deviation, and glide slope deviation. The ground station is an inexpensive, portable unit which can be quickly deployed at a landing site. Results from the flight test program show that the BLS concept has a significant potential for providing rotorcraft with low-cost, precision, instrument approach capability in remote areas. Previously announced in STAR as N84-10041

  14. Fiber-Reinforced-Foam (FRF) Core Composite Sandwich Panel Concept for Advanced Composites Technologi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Fiber-Reinforced-Foam (FRF) Core Composite Sandwich Panel Concept for Advanced Composites Technologies Project - Preliminary Manufacturing Demonstration Articles for Ares V Payload Shroud Barrel Acreage Structure

  15. Mission Opportunities for the Flight Validation of the Kinetic Impactor Concept for Asteroid Deflection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hernandez, Sonia; Barbee, Brent W.; Bhaskaran, Shyam; Getzandanner, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    The kinetic impactor technique for deflecting near-Earth objects (NEOs), whereby a spacecraft is directed to collide with a NEO to alter its orbit via momentum transfer, is one of several proposed methods for defendingEarth against hazardous NEOs (asteroids and comets). In this paper we present detailed mission design concepts for a notionally feasible and aff ordable kinetic impactor flight validation mission deployed to a currently known near-Earth asteroid (NEA). Several filter steps are devised that utilize relevant criteria to optimally balance keyparameters, such as approach phase angle, estimated NEA diameter, relative velocity at intercept, and current NEA orbit knowledge, and produce refined lists of the most promising candidate target NEAs.

  16. Investigations and advanced concepts on gyrotron interaction modeling and simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Avramidis, K. A.

    2015-12-15

    In gyrotron theory, the interaction between the electron beam and the high frequency electromagnetic field is commonly modeled using the slow variables approach. The slow variables are quantities that vary slowly in time in comparison to the electron cyclotron frequency. They represent the electron momentum and the high frequency field of the resonant TE modes in the gyrotron cavity. For their definition, some reference frequencies need to be introduced. These include the so-called averaging frequency, used to define the slow variable corresponding to the electron momentum, and the carrier frequencies, used to define the slow variables corresponding to the field envelopes of the modes. From the mathematical point of view, the choice of the reference frequencies is, to some extent, arbitrary. However, from the numerical point of view, there are arguments that point toward specific choices, in the sense that these choices are advantageous in terms of simulation speed and accuracy. In this paper, the typical monochromatic gyrotron operation is considered, and the numerical integration of the interaction equations is performed by the trajectory approach, since it is the fastest, and therefore it is the one that is most commonly used. The influence of the choice of the reference frequencies on the interaction simulations is studied using theoretical arguments, as well as numerical simulations. From these investigations, appropriate choices for the values of the reference frequencies are identified. In addition, novel, advanced concepts for the definitions of these frequencies are addressed, and their benefits are demonstrated numerically.

  17. Advanced transportation system studies. Alternate propulsion subsystem concepts: Propulsion database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levack, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Transportation System Studies alternate propulsion subsystem concepts propulsion database interim report is presented. The objective of the database development task is to produce a propulsion database which is easy to use and modify while also being comprehensive in the level of detail available. The database is to be available on the Macintosh computer system. The task is to extend across all three years of the contract. Consequently, a significant fraction of the effort in this first year of the task was devoted to the development of the database structure to ensure a robust base for the following years' efforts. Nonetheless, significant point design propulsion system descriptions and parametric models were also produced. Each of the two propulsion databases, parametric propulsion database and propulsion system database, are described. The descriptions include a user's guide to each code, write-ups for models used, and sample output. The parametric database has models for LOX/H2 and LOX/RP liquid engines, solid rocket boosters using three different propellants, a hybrid rocket booster, and a NERVA derived nuclear thermal rocket engine.

  18. The Advanced Patricle-astrophysics Telescope (APT) Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, James

    2017-01-01

    The Advanced Pair Telescope (APT) is a concept for a probe-class gamma-ray mission aimed at two primary science objects: (1) providing sensitivity to thermal-WIMP dark matter over the entire natural range of annihilation cross-sections and masses and (2) identifying short GRBs or gravity wave sources by detecting and localizing MeV gamma-ray transients. The instrument combines a pair tracker and Compton telescope in one simple monolithic design. By using scintillating fibers for the tracker and wavelength-shifting fibers to readout CsI detectors, the instrument could achieve an order of magnitude improvement in sensitivity compared with Fermi at GeV energies, and several orders of magnitude improvement in MeV sensitivity compared to Comptel. The instrument would have roughly the same number of electronic channels as Fermi, but would provide an effective area of 12m2, and a geometry factor of 100 m2 str. The same CsI detectors used in the tracker/Compton telescope could be used for detection of high-energy transition radiation for measurements of light cosmic-ray abundances, making this a multi-purpose astro-particle physics observatory. The instantaneous all-sky sensitivity would provide a capability almost unique over the entire electromagnetic spectrum, providing a critical component of multi-messenger studies of the universe. We acknowledge support from the Washington University McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences.

  19. Concept of Operations Evaluation for Mitigating Space Flight-Relevant Medical Issues in a Planetary Habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barsten, Kristina; Hurst, Victor, IV; Scheuring, Richard; Baumann, David K.; Johnson-Throop, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Analogue environments assist the NASA Human Research Program (HRP) in developing capabilities to mitigate high risk issues to crew health and performance for space exploration. The Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) is an analogue habitat used to assess space-related products for planetary missions. The Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) element at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) was tasked with developing planetary-relevant medical scenarios to evaluate the concept of operations for mitigating medical issues in such an environment. Methods: Two medical scenarios were conducted within the simulated planetary habitat with the crew executing two space flight-relevant procedures: Eye Examination with a corneal injury and Skin Laceration. Remote guidance for the crew was provided by a flight surgeon (FS) stationed at a console outside of the habitat. Audio and video data were collected to capture the communication between the crew and the FS, as well as the movements of the crew executing the procedures. Questionnaire data regarding procedure content and remote guidance performance also were collected from the crew immediately after the sessions. Results: Preliminary review of the audio, video, and questionnaire data from the two scenarios conducted within the HDU indicate that remote guidance techniques from an FS on console can help crew members within a planetary habitat mitigate planetary-relevant medical issues. The content and format of the procedures were considered concise and intuitive, respectively. Discussion: Overall, the preliminary data from the evaluation suggest that use of remote guidance techniques by a FS can help HDU crew execute space exploration-relevant medical procedures within a habitat relevant to planetary missions, however further evaluations will be needed to implement this strategy into the complete concept of operations for conducting general space medicine within similar environments

  20. Flight evaluation results from the general-aviation advanced avionics system program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callas, G. P.; Denery, D. G.; Hardy, G. H.; Nedell, B. F.

    1983-01-01

    A demonstration advanced avionics system (DAAS) for general-aviation aircraft was tested at NASA Ames Research Center to provide information required for the design of reliable, low-cost, advanced avionics systems which would make general-aviation operations safer and more practicable. Guest pilots flew a DAAS-equipped NASA Cessna 402-B aircraft to evaluate the usefulness of data busing, distributed microprocessors, and shared electronic displays, and to provide data on the DAAS pilot/system interface for the design of future integrated avionics systems. Evaluation results indicate that the DAAS hardware and functional capability meet the program objective. Most pilots felt that the DAAS representative of the way avionics systems would evolve and felt the added capability would improve the safety and practicability of general-aviation operations. Flight-evaluation results compiled from questionnaires are presented, the results of the debriefings are summarized. General conclusions of the flight evaluation are included.

  1. NASA Advanced Explorations Systems: Concepts for Logistics to Living

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shull, Sarah A.; Howe, A. Scott; Flynn, Michael T.; Howard, Robert

    2012-01-01

    , Howard 2010]. Several of the L2L concepts that have shown the most potential in the past are based on NASA cargo transfer bags (CTBs) or their equivalents which are currently used to transfer cargo to and from the ISS. A high percentage of all logistics supplies are packaging mass and for a 6-month mission a crew of four might need over 100 CTBs. These CTBs are used for on-orbit transfer and storage but eventually becomes waste after use since down mass is very limited. The work being done in L2L also considering innovative interior habitat construction that integrate the CTBs into the walls of future habitats. The direct integration could provide multiple functions: launch packaging, stowage, radiation protection, water processing, life support augmentation, as well as structure. Reuse of these CTBs would reduce the amount of waste generated and also significantly reduce future up mass requirements for exploration missions. Also discussed here is the L2L water wall , an innovative reuse of an unfolded CTB as a passive water treatment system utilizing forward osmosis. The bags have been modified to have an inner membrane liner that allows them to purify wastewater. They may also provide a structural water-wall element that can be used to provide radiation protection and as a structural divider. Integration of the components into vehicle/habitat architecture and consideration of operations concepts and human factors will be discussed. In the future these bags could be designed to treat wastewater, concentrated brines, and solid wastes, and to dewater solid wastes and produce a bio-stabilized construction element. This paper will describe the follow-on work done in design, fabrication and demonstrations of various L2L concepts, including advanced CTBs for reuse/repurposing, internal outfitting studies and the CTB-based forward osmosis water wall.

  2. Performance-Based Testing and Success in Naval Advanced Flight Training.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-01

    tabulation tables that the failure rate for women is comparable to that for 15 the men . Of course, the overall number of women in the data base is...association between a dual-task performance test and success in advanced flight training. These results are presented using a different method, as compared to...Tracking test, the Absolute Difference test, and the combined Absolute Difference -Horizontal Tracking test because these tests exbibited an association

  3. Development and testing of advanced cryogenic thermal switch concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marland, B.; Bugby, D.; Stouffer, C.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the development and testing of two advanced cryogenic thermal switch (CTSW) options for use in long-life cryogenic space systems. The principal application for these two CTSW options in such systems is in implementing cryocooler redundancy with a minimum parasitic heating penalty. The two CTSW configurations covered in the paper are a hydrogen gas-gap (H2-GG) design, flown on STS-95 in October 1998 as part of the CRYOTSU Hitchhiker flight experiment, and a differential thermal expansion (DTE) design. Both options are constructed primarily of beryllium for CTE compatibility with beryllium cryogenic components. The H2-GG design utilizes a flat 2-mil gap between two cylindrical beryllium halves that are supported by a thin-walled titanium tube. A highly convoluted stainless steel bellows seals the unit. The H2-GG CTSW is nominally ``off'' (evacuated) until actuated ``on'' by heating a metal hydride getter, which evolves hydrogen and provides thermal conductance across the gap. The H2-GG design has demonstrated an ``on'' conductance of 1.0 W/K, an ``off'' resistance of 1000-1500 K/W and a range of operation from 15K-300K. The DTE design, which has just three parts, is very similar to the H2-GG design except that a stainless steel tube replaces the titanium tube and the bellows and getter are no longer needed. The DTE CSTW is actuated ``on'' (both sides cold) by the higher CTE of stainless steel compared to beryllium and actuated ``off'' by temporarily applying power to a small heater on the stainless steel tube to expand the tube enough to open the gap. After the smaller of the two beryllium parts warms sufficiently, the heater is no longer needed and the DTE CTSW remains ``off'' (one side cold, one side warm). The DTE design has demonstrated the potential for an ``on'' conductance greater than 1.0 W/K, an ``off'' resistance of 1400 K/W and a range of operation from less than 4K to 300K. This paper describes the design of each CTSW option and the

  4. Feasibility of using a knowledge-based system concept for in-flight primary flight display research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricks, Wendell R.

    1991-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the feasibility of using knowledge-based systems architectures for inflight research of primary flight display information management issues. The feasibility relied on the ability to integrate knowledge-based systems with existing onboard aircraft systems. And, given the hardware and software platforms available, the feasibility also depended on the ability to use interpreted LISP software with the real time operation of the primary flight display. In addition to evaluating these feasibility issues, the study determined whether the software engineering advantages of knowledge-based systems found for this application in the earlier workstation study extended to the inflight research environment. To study these issues, two integrated knowledge-based systems were designed to control the primary flight display according to pre-existing specifications of an ongoing primary flight display information management research effort. These two systems were implemented to assess the feasibility and software engineering issues listed. Flight test results were successful in showing the feasibility of using knowledge-based systems inflight with actual aircraft data.

  5. Final Report for the Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transports Entering Service in the 2030 to 2035 Period, N+3 Supersonic Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgenstern, John; Norstrud, Nicole; Stelmack, Marc; Skoch, Craig

    2010-01-01

    The N+3 Final Report documents the work and progress made by Lockheed Martin Aeronautics in response to the NASA sponsored program "N+3 NRA Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transports Entering Service in the 2030 to 2035 Period." The key technical objective of this effort was to generate promising supersonic concepts for the 2030 to 2035 timeframe and to develop plans for maturing the technologies required to make those concepts a reality. The N+3 program is aligned with NASA's Supersonic Project and is focused on providing alternative system-level solutions capable of overcoming the efficiency, environmental, and performance barriers to practical supersonic flight

  6. A 60-meter erectable assembly concept for a control of flexible structures flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Judith J.; Heard, Walter L., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    A flight experiment which proposes to use a 60-m deployable/retractable truss beam attached to the Space Shuttle to study dynamic characterization and control of flexible structures is being studied by NASA. The concept requires a relatively complex mechanism for deploying and retracting the truss on-orbit. Development of such a mechanism having a high degree of reliability will be expensive. An alternative method for constructing the truss is discussed requiring no new technology development or complex mechanisms and has already been demonstrated on-orbit. The alternative method proposes an erectable truss beam which can be assembled by two astronauts in EVA. The EVA crew would have to manually assemble the beam from 468 struts and 165 nodes, and install 7 instrumentation platforms with signal and power cabling. The predicted assembly time is 3 hr and 23 min. The structure would also have to be disassembled and restowed following testing, thus 2 EVA days would be required. To allow 25 hr for data collection (probably a bare minimum to accomplish meaningful tests), current Shuttle operations policy dictates a 9-day mission. The design, assembly procedure and issues associated with the alternative concept are discussed.

  7. Predicting Human Error in Air Traffic Control Decision Support Tools and Free Flight Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogford, Richard; Kopardekar, Parimal

    2001-01-01

    The document is a set of briefing slides summarizing the work the Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AATT) Project is doing on predicting air traffic controller and airline pilot human error when using new decision support software tools and when involved in testing new air traffic control concepts. Previous work in this area is reviewed as well as research being done jointly with the FAA. Plans for error prediction work in the AATT Project are discussed. The audience is human factors researchers and aviation psychologists from government and industry.

  8. Advanced Packaging Materials and Techniques for High Power TR Module: Standard Flight vs. Advanced Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, James Patrick; Del Castillo, Linda; Miller, Jennifer; Jenabi, Masud; Hunter, Donald; Birur, Gajanana

    2011-01-01

    The higher output power densities required of modern radar architectures, such as the proposed DESDynI [Deformation, Ecosystem Structure, and Dynamics of Ice] SAR [Synthetic Aperture Radar] Instrument (or DSI) require increasingly dense high power electronics. To enable these higher power densities, while maintaining or even improving hardware reliability, requires advances in integrating advanced thermal packaging technologies into radar transmit/receive (TR) modules. New materials and techniques have been studied and compared to standard technologies.

  9. To Fly or Not to Fly: Teaching Advanced Secondary School Students about Principles of Flight in Biological Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietsch, Renée B.; Bohland, Cynthia L.; Schmale, David G., III.

    2015-01-01

    Biological flight mechanics is typically taught in graduate level college classes rather than in secondary school classes. We developed an interdisciplinary unit for advanced upper-level secondary school students (ages 15-18) to teach the principles of flight and applications to biological systems. This unit capitalised on the tremendous…

  10. Advanced Concept Exploration for Fast Ignition Science Program, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, Richard Burnite; McLean, Harry M.; Theobald, Wolfgang; Akli, Kramer U.; Beg, Farhat N.; Sentoku, Yasuhiko; Schumacher, Douglass W.; Wei, Mingsheng

    2013-09-04

    The Fast Ignition (FI) Concept for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) has the potential to provide a significant advance in the technical attractiveness of Inertial Fusion Energy reactors. FI differs from conventional “central hot spot” (CHS) target ignition by decoupling compression from heating: using a laser (or heavy ion beam or Z pinch) drive pulse (10’s of nanoseconds) to create a dense fuel and a second, much shorter (~10 picoseconds) high intensity pulse to ignite a small volume within the dense fuel. The physics of fast ignition process was the focus of our Advanced Concept Exploration (ACE) program. Ignition depends critically on two major issues involving Relativistic High Energy Density (RHED) physics: The laser-induced creation of fast electrons and their propagation in high-density plasmas. Our program has developed new experimental platforms, diagnostic packages, computer modeling analyses, and taken advantage of the increasing energy available at laser facilities to advance understanding of the fundamental physics underlying these issues. Our program had three thrust areas: • Understand the production and characteristics of fast electrons resulting from FI relevant laser-plasma interactions and their dependence on laser prepulse and laser pulse length. • Investigate the subsequent fast electron transport in solid and through hot (FI-relevant) plasmas. • Conduct and understand integrated core-heating experiments by comparison to simulations. Over the whole period of this project (three years for this contract), we have greatly advanced our fundamental understanding of the underlying properties in all three areas: • Comprehensive studies on fast electron source characteristics have shown that they are controlled by the laser intensity distribution and the topology and plasma density gradient. Laser pre-pulse induced pre-plasma in front of a solid surface results in increased stand-off distances from the electron origin to the high density

  11. Spaceflight Holography Investigation in a Virtual Apparatus (SHIVA) Ground Experiments and Concepts for Flight Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miernik, Janie H.; Trolinger, James D.; Lackey, Jeffrey D.; Milton, Martha E.; Waggoner, Jason; Pope, Regina D.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the development and design of an experimental test cell for ground-based testing to provide requirements for the Spaceflight Holography Investigation in a Virtual Apparatus (SHIVA) experiment. Ground-based testing of a hardware breadboard set-up is being conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. SHIVA objectives are to test and validate new solutions of the general equation of motion of a particle in a fluid, including particle-particle interaction, wall effects, motion at higher Reynolds Number, and a motion and dissolution of a crystal moving in a fluid. These objectives will be achieved by recording a large number of holograms of particle motion in the International Space Station (ISS) glove box under controlled conditions, extracting the precise three- dimensional position of all the particles as a function of time, and examining the effects of all parameters on the motion of the particles. This paper will describe the mechanistic approach to enabling the SHIVA experiment to be performed in a ISS glove box in microgravity. Because the particles are very small, surface tension becomes a major consideration in designing the mechanical method to meet the experiments objectives in microgravity, To keep a particle or particles in the center of the test cell long enough to perform and record the experiment and to preclude contribution to particle motion, requires avoiding any initial velocity in particle placement. A Particle Injection Mechanism (PIM) designed for microgravity has been devised and tested to enable SHIVA imaging. Also, a test cell capture mechanism, to secure the test cell during vibration on a specially designed shaker table for the SHIVA experiment will be described. Concepts for flight design are also presented.

  12. Implementation of an Adaptive Controller System from Concept to Flight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, Richard R.; Burken, John J.; Butler, Bradley S.; Yokum, Steve

    2009-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) at the Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) has been conducting flight-test research using an F-15 aircraft (figure 1). This aircraft has been specially modified to interface a neural net (NN) controller as part of a single-string Airborne Research Test System (ARTS) computer with the existing quad-redundant flight control system (FCC) shown in figure 2. The NN commands are passed to FCC channels 2 and 4 and are cross channel data linked (CCDL) to the other computers as shown. Numerous types of fault-detection monitors exist in the FCC when the NN mode is engaged; these monitors would cause an automatic disengagement of the NN in the event of a triggering fault. Unfortunately, these monitors still may not prevent a possible NN hard-over command from coming through to the control laws. Therefore, an additional and unique safety monitor was designed for a single-string source that allows authority at maximum actuator rates but protects the pilot and structural loads against excessive g-limits in the case of a NN hard-over command input. This additional monitor resides in the FCCs and is executed before the control laws are computed. This presentation describes a "floating limiter" (FL) concept that was developed and successfully test-flown for this program (figure 3). The FL computes the rate of change of the NN commands that are input to the FCC from the ARTS. A window is created with upper and lower boundaries, which is constantly "floating" and trying to stay centered as the NN command rates are changing. The limiter works by only allowing the window to move at a much slower rate than those of the NN commands. Anywhere within the window, however, full rates are allowed. If a rate persists in one direction, it will eventually "hit" the boundary and be rate-limited to the floating limiter rate. When this happens, a persistent counter begins and after a limit is reached, a NN disengage command is generated. The

  13. Advanced flight computing technologies for validation by NASA's new millennium program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkalai, Leon

    1996-11-01

    The New Millennium Program (NMP) consists of a series of Deep-Space and Earth Orbiting missions that are technology-driven, in contrast to the more traditional science-driven space exploration missions of the past. These flights are designed to validate technologies that will enable a new era of low-cost highly miniaturized and highly capable spacebome applications in the new millennium. In addition to the series of flight projects managed by separate flight teams, the NMP technology initiatives are managed by the following six focused technology programs: Microelectronics Systems, Autonomy, Telecommunications, Instrument Technologies and Architectures, In-Situ Instruments and Micro-electromechanical Systems, and Modular and Multifunctional Systems. Each technology program is managed as an Integrated Product Development Team (IPDT) of government, academic, and industry partners. In this paper, we will describe elements of the technology roadmap proposed by the NMP Microelectronics IPDT. Moreover, we will relate the proposed technology roadmap to existing NASA technology development programs, such as the Advanced Flight Computing (AFC) program, and the Remote Exploration and Experimentation (REE) program, which constitute part of the on-going NASA technology development pipeline. We will also describe the Microelectronics Systems technologies that have been accepted as part of the first New Millennium Deep-Space One spacecraft, which is an asteroid fly-by mission scheduled for launched in July 1998.

  14. The Next Generation Advanced Video Guidance Sensor: Flight Heritage and Current Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Richard T.; Bryan, Thomas C.

    2009-03-01

    The Next Generation Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (NGAVGS) is the latest in a line of sensors that have flown four times in the last 10 years. The NGAVGS has been under development for the last two years as a long-range proximity operations and docking sensor for use in an Automated Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D) system. The first autonomous rendezvous and docking in the history of the U.S. Space Program was successfully accomplished by Orbital Express, using the Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (AVGS) as the primary docking sensor. That flight proved that the United States now has a mature and flight proven sensor technology for supporting Crew Exploration Vehicles (CEV) and Commercial Orbital Transport Systems (COTS) Automated Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D). NASA video sensors have worked well in the past: the AVGS used on the Demonstration of Autonomous Rendezvous Technology (DART) mission operated successfully in "spot mode" out to 2 km, and the first generation rendezvous and docking sensor, the Video Guidance Sensor (VGS), was developed and successfully flown on Space Shuttle flights in 1997 and 1998.

  15. Analysis of interior noise ground and flight test data for advanced turboprop aircraft applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, M. A.; Tran, B. N.

    1991-01-01

    Interior noise ground tests conducted on a DC-9 aircraft test section are described. The objectives were to study ground test and analysis techniques for evaluating the effectiveness of interior noise control treatments for advanced turboprop aircraft, and to study the sensitivity of the ground test results to changes in various test conditions. Noise and vibration measurements were conducted under simulated advanced turboprop excitation, for two interior noise control treatment configurations. These ground measurement results were compared with results of earlier UHB (Ultra High Bypass) Demonstrator flight tests with comparable interior treatment configurations. The Demonstrator is an MD-80 test aircraft with the left JT8D engine replaced with a prototype UHB advanced turboprop engine.

  16. Advanced-power-reactor design concepts and performance characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davison, H. W.; Kirchgessner, T. A.; Springborn, R. H.; Yacobucci, H. G.

    1974-01-01

    Five reactor cooling concepts which allow continued reactor operation following a single rupture of the coolant system are presented for application with the APR. These concepts incorporate convective cooling, double containment, or heat pipes to ensure operation after a coolant line rupture. Based on an evaluation of several control system concepts, a molybdenum clad, beryllium oxide sliding reflector located outside the pressure vessel is recommended.

  17. Advancement of proprotor technology. Task 1: Design study summary. [aerodynamic concept of minimum size tilt proprotor research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    A tilt-proprotor proof-of-concept aircraft design study has been conducted. The results are presented. The ojective of the contract is to advance the state of proprotor technology through design studies and full-scale wind-tunnel tests. The specific objective is to conduct preliminary design studies to define a minimum-size tilt-proprotor research aircraft that can perform proof-of-concept flight research. The aircraft that results from these studies is a twin-engine, high-wing aircraft with 25-foot, three-bladed tilt proprotors mounted on pylons at the wingtips. Each pylon houses a Pratt and Whitney PT6C-40 engine with a takeoff rating of 1150 horsepower. Empty weight is estimated at 6876 pounds. The normal gross weight is 9500 pounds, and the maximum gross weight is 12,400 pounds.

  18. Flight evaluation of an advanced technology light twin-engine airplane (ATLIT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, B. J.

    1977-01-01

    Project organization and execution, airplane description and performance predictions, and the results of the flight evaluation of an advanced technology light twin engine airplane (ATLIT) are presented. The ATLIT is a Piper PA-34-200 Seneca I modified by the installation of new wings incorporating the GA(W)-1 (Whitcomb) airfoil, reduced wing area, roll control spoilers, and full span Fowler flaps. The conclusions for the ATLIT evaluation are based on complete stall and roll flight test results and partial performance test results. The Stalling and rolling characteristics met design expectations. Climb performance was penalized by extensive flow separation in the region of the wing body juncture. Cruise performance was found to be penalized by a large value of zero lift drag. Calculations showed that, with proper attention to construction details, the improvements in span efficiency and zero lift drag would permit the realization of the predicted increases in cruising and maximum rate of climb performance.

  19. Applications of Advanced Nondestructive Measurement Techniques to Address Safety of Flight Issues on NASA Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, Bill

    2016-01-01

    Advanced nondestructive measurement techniques are critical for ensuring the reliability and safety of NASA spacecraft. Techniques such as infrared thermography, THz imaging, X-ray computed tomography and backscatter X-ray are used to detect indications of damage in spacecraft components and structures. Additionally, sensor and measurement systems are integrated into spacecraft to provide structural health monitoring to detect damaging events that occur during flight such as debris impacts during launch and assent or from micrometeoroid and orbital debris, or excessive loading due to anomalous flight conditions. A number of examples will be provided of how these nondestructive measurement techniques have been applied to resolve safety critical inspection concerns for the Space Shuttle, International Space Station (ISS), and a variety of launch vehicles and unmanned spacecraft.

  20. NASA's Advanced Information Systems Technology (AIST) Program: Advanced Concepts and Disruptive Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, M. M.; Moe, K.; Komar, G.

    2014-12-01

    NASA's Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) manages a wide range of information technology projects under the Advanced Information Systems Technology (AIST) Program. The AIST Program aims to support all phases of NASA's Earth Science program with the goal of enabling new observations and information products, increasing the accessibility and use of Earth observations, and reducing the risk and cost of satellite and ground based information systems. Recent initiatives feature computational technologies to improve information extracted from data streams or model outputs and researchers' tools for Big Data analytics. Data-centric technologies enable research communities to facilitate collaboration and increase the speed with which results are produced and published. In the future NASA anticipates more small satellites (e.g., CubeSats), mobile drones and ground-based in-situ sensors will advance the state-of-the-art regarding how scientific observations are performed, given the flexibility, cost and deployment advantages of new operations technologies. This paper reviews the success of the program and the lessons learned. Infusion of these technologies is challenging and the paper discusses the obstacles and strategies to adoption by the earth science research and application efforts. It also describes alternative perspectives for the future program direction and for realizing the value in the steps to transform observations from sensors to data, to information, and to knowledge, namely: sensor measurement concepts development; data acquisition and management; data product generation; and data exploitation for science and applications.

  1. Pathfinding the Flight Advanced Stirling Convertor Design with the ASC-E3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Wayne A.; Wilson, Kyle; Smith, Eddie; Collins, Josh

    2012-01-01

    The Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) was initially developed by Sunpower, Inc. under contract to NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) as a technology development project. The ASC technology fulfills NASA s need for high efficiency power convertors for future Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS). Early successful technology demonstrations between 2003 to 2005 eventually led to the expansion of the project including the decision in 2006 to use the ASC technology on the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG). Sunpower has delivered 22 ASC convertors of progressively mature designs to date to GRC. Currently, Sunpower with support from GRC, Lockheed Martin Space System Company (LMSSC), and the Department of Energy (DOE) is developing the flight ASC-F in parallel with the ASC-E3 pathfinders. Sunpower will deliver four pairs of ASC-E3 convertors to GRC which will be used for extended operation reliability assessment, independent validation and verification testing, system interaction tests, and to support LMSSC controller verification. The ASC-E3 and -F convertors are being built to the same design and processing documentation and the same product specification. The initial two pairs of ASC-E3 are built before the flight units and will validate design and processing changes prior to implementation on the ASC-F flight convertors. This paper provides a summary on development of the ASC technology and the status of the ASC-E3 build and how they serve the vital pathfinder role ahead of the flight build for ASRG. The ASRG is part of two of the three candidate missions being considered for selection for the Discovery 12 mission.

  2. Pathfinding the Flight Advanced Stirling Convertor Design with the ASC-E3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Wayne A.; Wilson, Kyle; Smith, Eddie; Collins, Josh

    2012-01-01

    The Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) was initially developed by Sunpower, Inc. under contract to NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) as a technology development project. The ASC technology fulfills NASA's need for high efficiency power convertors for future Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS). Early successful technology demonstrations between 2003 to 2005 eventually led to the expansion of the project including the decision in 2006 to use the ASC technology on the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG). Sunpower has delivered 22 ASC convertors of progressively mature designs to date to GRC. Currently, Sunpower with support from GRC, Lockheed Martin Space System Company (LMSSC), and the Department of Energy (DOE) is developing the flight ASC-F in parallel with the ASC-E3 pathfinders. Sunpower will deliver four pairs of ASC-E3 convertors to GRC which will be used for extended operation reliability assessment, independent validation and verification testing, system interaction tests, and to support LMSSC controller verification. The ASC-E3 and -F convertors are being built to the same design and processing documentation and the same product specification. The initial two pairs of ASC-E3 are built before the flight units and will validate design and processing changes prior to implementation on the ASC-F flight convertors. This paper provides a summary on development of the ASC technology and the status of the ASC-E3 build and how they serve the vital pathfinder role ahead of the flight build for ASRG. The ASRG is part of two of the three candidate missions being considered for selection for the Discovery 12 mission.

  3. From an automated flight-test management system to a flight-test engineer's workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, E. L.; Brumbaugh, Randal W.; Hewett, M. D.; Tartt, D. M.

    1991-01-01

    The capabilities and evolution is described of a flight engineer's workstation (called TEST-PLAN) from an automated flight test management system. The concept and capabilities of the automated flight test management systems are explored and discussed to illustrate the value of advanced system prototyping and evolutionary software development.

  4. Advanced Modeling and Uncertainty Quantification for Flight Dynamics; Interim Results and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyde, David C.; Shweyk, Kamal M.; Brown, Frank; Shah, Gautam

    2014-01-01

    As part of the NASA Vehicle Systems Safety Technologies (VSST), Assuring Safe and Effective Aircraft Control Under Hazardous Conditions (Technical Challenge #3), an effort is underway within Boeing Research and Technology (BR&T) to address Advanced Modeling and Uncertainty Quantification for Flight Dynamics (VSST1-7). The scope of the effort is to develop and evaluate advanced multidisciplinary flight dynamics modeling techniques, including integrated uncertainties, to facilitate higher fidelity response characterization of current and future aircraft configurations approaching and during loss-of-control conditions. This approach is to incorporate multiple flight dynamics modeling methods for aerodynamics, structures, and propulsion, including experimental, computational, and analytical. Also to be included are techniques for data integration and uncertainty characterization and quantification. This research shall introduce new and updated multidisciplinary modeling and simulation technologies designed to improve the ability to characterize airplane response in off-nominal flight conditions. The research shall also introduce new techniques for uncertainty modeling that will provide a unified database model comprised of multiple sources, as well as an uncertainty bounds database for each data source such that a full vehicle uncertainty analysis is possible even when approaching or beyond Loss of Control boundaries. Methodologies developed as part of this research shall be instrumental in predicting and mitigating loss of control precursors and events directly linked to causal and contributing factors, such as stall, failures, damage, or icing. The tasks will include utilizing the BR&T Water Tunnel to collect static and dynamic data to be compared to the GTM extended WT database, characterizing flight dynamics in off-nominal conditions, developing tools for structural load estimation under dynamic conditions, devising methods for integrating various modeling elements

  5. Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transports Entering Service in the 2018 to 2020 Period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgenstern, John; Norstrud, Nicole; Sokhey, Jack; Martens, Steve; Alonso, Juan J.

    2013-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company (LM), working in conjunction with General Electric Global Research (GE GR), Rolls-Royce Liberty Works (RRLW), and Stanford University, herein presents results from the "N+2 Supersonic Validations" contract s initial 22 month phase, addressing the NASA solicitation "Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transports Entering Service in the 2018 to 2020 Period." This report version adds documentation of an additional three month low boom test task. The key technical objective of this effort was to validate integrated airframe and propulsion technologies and design methodologies. These capabilities aspired to produce a viable supersonic vehicle design with environmental and performance characteristics. Supersonic testing of both airframe and propulsion technologies (including LM3: 97-023 low boom testing and April-June nozzle acoustic testing) verified LM s supersonic low-boom design methodologies and both GE and RRLW's nozzle technologies for future implementation. The N+2 program is aligned with NASA s Supersonic Project and is focused on providing system-level solutions capable of overcoming the environmental and performance/efficiency barriers to practical supersonic flight. NASA proposed "Initial Environmental Targets and Performance Goals for Future Supersonic Civil Aircraft". The LM N+2 studies are built upon LM s prior N+3 100 passenger design studies. The LM N+2 program addresses low boom design and methodology validations with wind tunnel testing, performance and efficiency goals with system level analysis, and low noise validations with two nozzle (GE and RRLW) acoustic tests.

  6. A fast preamplifier concept for SiPM-based time-of-flight PET detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huizenga, J.; Seifert, S.; Schreuder, F.; van Dam, H. T.; Dendooven, P.; Löhner, H.; Vinke, R.; Schaart, D. R.

    2012-12-01

    Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) offer high gain and fast response to light, making them interesting for fast timing applications such as time-of-flight (TOF) PET. To fully exploit the potential of these photosensors, dedicated preamplifiers that do not deteriorate the rise time and signal-to-noise ratio are crucial. Challenges include the high sensor capacitance, typically >300 pF for a 3 mm×3 mm SiPM sensor, as well as oscillation issues. Here we present a preamplifier concept based on low noise, high speed transistors, designed for optimum timing performance. The input stage consists of a transimpedance common-base amplifier with a very low input impedance even at high frequencies, which assures a good linearity and avoids that the high detector capacitance affects the amplifier bandwidth. The amplifier has a fast timing output as well as a 'slow' energy output optimized for determining the total charge content of the pulse. The rise time of the amplifier is about 300 ps. The measured coincidence resolving time (CRT) for 511 keV photon pairs using the amplifiers in combination with 3 mm×3 mm SiPMs (Hamamatsu MPPC-S10362-33-050C) coupled to 3 mm×3 mm×5 mm LaBr3:Ce and LYSO:Ce crystals equals 95 ps FWHM and 138 ps FWHM, respectively.

  7. Flight Simulator Evaluation of Display Media Devices for Synthetic Vision Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthur, J. J., III; Williams, Steven P.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Kramer, Lynda J.; Bailey, Randall E.

    2004-01-01

    The Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) Project of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) is striving to eliminate poor visibility as a causal factor in aircraft accidents as well as enhance operational capabilities of all aircraft. To accomplish these safety and capacity improvements, the SVS concept is designed to provide a clear view of the world around the aircraft through the display of computer-generated imagery derived from an onboard database of terrain, obstacle, and airport information. Display media devices with which to implement SVS technology that have been evaluated so far within the Project include fixed field of view head up displays and head down Primary Flight Displays with pilot-selectable field of view. A simulation experiment was conducted comparing these display devices to a fixed field of view, unlimited field of regard, full color Helmet-Mounted Display system. Subject pilots flew a visual circling maneuver in IMC at a terrain-challenged airport. The data collected for this experiment is compared to past SVS research studies.

  8. Lacking a Formal Concept of Limit: Advanced Non-Mathematics Students' Personal Concept Definitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beynon, Kenneth A.; Zollman, Alan

    2015-01-01

    This mixed-methods study examines the conceptual understanding of limit among 22 undergraduate engineering students from two different sections of the same introductory differential equations course. The participants' concepts of limit (concept images and personal concept definitions) were examined using written tasks followed by one-on-one…

  9. Affordable In-Space Transportation. Phase 2; An Advanced Concepts Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Affordable In-Space Transportation (AIST) program was established by the NASA Office of Space Access to improve transportation and lower the costs from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) and beyond (to Lunar orbit, Mars orbit, inner solar system missions, and return to LEO). A goal was established to identify and develop radically innovative concepts for new upper stages for Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV) and Highly Reusable Space Transportation (HRST) systems. New architectures and technologies are being identified which have the potential to meet a cost goal of $1,000 to $2,000 per pound for transportation to GEO and beyond for overall mission cost (including the cost to LEO). A Technical Interchange Meeting (ITM) was held on October 16 and 17, 1996 in Huntsville, Alabama to review previous studies, present advanced concepts and review technologies that could be used to meet the stated goals. The TIM was managed by NASA-Mar-shaU Space Flight Center (MSFC) Advanced Concepts Office with Mr. Alan Adams providing TIM coordination. Mr. John C. Manidns of NASA Headquarters provided overall sponsorship. The University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) Propulsion Research Center hosted the TM at the UAH Research Center. Dr. Clark Hawk, Center Director, was the principal investigator. Technical support was provided by Christensen Associates. Approximately 70 attendees were present at the meeting. This Executive Summary provides a record of the key discussions and results of the TIM in a summary format. It incorporates the response to the following basic issues of the TPA, which addressed the following questions: 1. What are the cost drivers and how can they be reduced? 2. What are the operational issues and their impact on cost? What is the current Technology Readiness Level (TRL) and what will it take to reach TRL 6? 4. What are the key enabling technologies and sequence for their accomplishment? 5. What is the proposed implementation time frame

  10. Affordable In-Space Transportation Phase 2: An Advanced Concepts Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Affordable In-Space Transportation (AIST) program was established by the NASA Office of Space Access to improve transportation and lower the costs from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) and beyond (to Lunar orbit, Mars orbit, inner solar system missions, and return to LEO). A goal was established to identify and develop radically innovative concepts for new upper stages for Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV) and Highly Reusable Space Transportation (HRST) systems. New architectures and technologies are being identified which have the potential to meet a cost goal of $1,000 to $2,000 per pound for transportation to GEO and beyond for overall mission cost (including the cost to LEO). A Technical Interchange Meeting (TTM) was held on October 16 and 17, 1996 in Huntsville, Alabama to review previous studies, present advanced concepts and review technologies that could be used to meet the stated goals. The TIN4 was managed by NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Advanced Concepts Office with Mr. Alan Adams providing TIM coordination. Mr. John C. Mankins of NASA Headquarters provided overall sponsorship. The University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) Propulsion Research Center hosted the TIM at the UAH Research Center. Dr. Clark Hawk, Center Director, was the principal investigator. Technical support was provided by Christensen Associates. Approximately 70 attendees were present at the meeting. This Executive Summary provides a record of the key discussions and results of the TIN4 in a summary for-mat. It incorporates the response to the following basic issues of the TDVL which addressed the following questions: 1. What are the cost drivers and how can they be reduced? 2. What are the operational issues and their impact on cost? 3. What is the current technology readiness level (TRL) and what will it take to reach TRL 6? 4. What are the key enabling technologies and sequence for their accomplishment? 5 . What is the proposed implementation time

  11. Development of electrical feedback controlled heat pipes and the advanced thermal control flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bienert, W. B.

    1974-01-01

    The development and characteristics of electrical feedback controlled heat pipes (FCHP) are discussed. An analytical model was produced to describe the performance of the FCHP under steady state and transient conditions. An advanced thermal control flight experiment was designed to demonstrate the performance of the thermal control component in a space environment. The thermal control equipment was evaluated on the ATS-F satellite to provide performance data for the components and to act as a thermal control system which can be used to provide temperature stability of spacecraft components in future applications.

  12. A landmark recognition and tracking experiment for flight on the Shuttle/Advanced Technology Laboratory (ATL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    The preliminary design of an experiment for landmark recognition and tracking from the Shuttle/Advanced Technology Laboratory is described. It makes use of parallel coherent optical processing to perform correlation tests between landmarks observed passively with a telescope and previously made holographic matched filters. The experimental equipment including the optics, the low power laser, the random access file of matched filters and the electro-optical readout device are described. A real time optically excited liquid crystal device is recommended for performing the input non-coherent optical to coherent optical interface function. A development program leading to a flight experiment in 1981 is outlined.

  13. Advanced composites structural concepts and materials technologies for primary aircraft structures: Design/manufacturing concept assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Robert L.; Bayha, Tom D.; Davis, HU; Ingram, J. ED; Shukla, Jay G.

    1992-01-01

    Composite Wing and Fuselage Structural Design/Manufacturing Concepts have been developed and evaluated. Trade studies were performed to determine how well the concepts satisfy the program goals of 25 percent cost savings, 40 percent weight savings with aircraft resizing, and 50 percent part count reduction as compared to the aluminum Lockheed L-1011 baseline. The concepts developed using emerging technologies such as large scale resin transfer molding (RTM), automatic tow placed (ATP), braiding, out-of-autoclave and automated manufacturing processes for both thermoset and thermoplastic materials were evaluated for possible application in the design concepts. Trade studies were used to determine which concepts carry into the detailed design development subtask.

  14. X-29 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Two X-29 aircraft, featuring one of the most unusual designs in aviation history, were flown at the NASA Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (later redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, Calif., as technology demonstrators to investigate a host of advanced concepts and technologies. This 23 second clip begins with a camera pan from the aircraft's right rear quarter forward as the X-29 flies along in a near- stall maneuver.

  15. Advanced design concepts in nuclear electric propulsion. [and spacecraft configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peelgren, M. L.; Mondt, J. F.

    1974-01-01

    Conceptual designs of the nuclear propulsion programs are reported. Major areas of investigation were (1) design efforts on spacecraft configuration and heat rejection subsystem, (2) high-voltage thermionic reactor concepts, and (3) dual-mode spacecraft configuration study.

  16. Reference Operational Concepts for Advanced Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hugo, Jacques Victor; Farris, Ronald Keith

    2015-09-01

    This report represents the culmination of a four-year research project that was part of the Instrumentation and Control and Human Machine Interface subprogram of the DOE Advanced Reactor Technologies program.

  17. Advanced Turbine Systems Program industrial system concept development

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, S.

    1995-10-01

    The objective of Phase II of the Advanced Turbine Systems Program is to develop conceptual designs of gas fired advanced turbine systems that can be adapted for operation on coal and biomass fuels. The technical, economic, and environmental performance operating on natural gas and in a coal fueled mode is to be assessed. Detailed designs and test work relating to critical components are to be completed and a market study is to be conducted.

  18. Advanced Numerical-Algebraic Thinking: Constructing the Concept of Covariation as a Prelude to the Concept of Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitt, Fernando; Morasse, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: In this document we stress the importance of developing in children a structure for advanced numerical-algebraic thinking that can provide an element of control when solving mathematical situations. We analyze pupils' conceptions that induce errors in algebra due to a lack of control in connection with their numerical thinking. We…

  19. Aeroelastic Deformation: Adaptation of Wind Tunnel Measurement Concepts to Full-Scale Vehicle Flight Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burner, Alpheus W.; Lokos, William A.; Barrows, Danny A.

    2005-01-01

    The adaptation of a proven wind tunnel test technique, known as Videogrammetry, to flight testing of full-scale vehicles is presented. A description is presented of the technique used at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center for the measurement of the change in wing twist and deflection of an F/A-18 research aircraft as a function of both time and aerodynamic load. Requirements for in-flight measurements are compared and contrasted with those for wind tunnel testing. The methodology for the flight-testing technique and differences compared to wind tunnel testing are given. Measurement and operational comparisons to an older in-flight system known as the Flight Deflection Measurement System (FDMS) are presented.

  20. Validation test of advanced technology for IPV nickel-hydrogen flight cells: Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, John J.; Hall, Stephen W.

    1992-01-01

    Individual pressure vessel (IPV) nickel-hydrogen technology was advanced at NASA Lewis and under Lewis contracts with the intention of improving cycle life and performance. One advancement was to use 26 percent potassium hydroxide (KOH) electrolyte to improve cycle life. Another advancement was to modify the state-of-the-art cell design to eliminate identified failure modes. The modified design is referred to as the advanced design. A breakthrough in the low-earth-orbit (LEO) cycle life of IPV nickel-hydrogen cells has been previously reported. The cycle life of boiler plate cells containing 26 percent KOH electrolyte was about 40,000 LEO cycles compared to 3,500 cycles for cells containing 31 percent KOH. The boiler plate test results are in the process of being validated using flight hardware and real time LEO testing at the Naval Weapons Support Center (NWSC), Crane, Indiana under a NASA Lewis Contract. An advanced 125 Ah IPV nickel-hydrogen cell was designed. The primary function of the advanced cell is to store and deliver energy for long-term, LEO spacecraft missions. The new features of this design are: (1) use of 26 percent rather than 31 percent KOH electrolyte; (2) use of a patented catalyzed wall wick; (3) use of serrated-edge separators to facilitate gaseous oxygen and hydrogen flow within the cell, while still maintaining physical contact with the wall wick for electrolyte management; and (4) use of a floating rather than a fixed stack (state-of-the-art) to accommodate nickel electrode expansion due to charge/discharge cycling. The significant improvements resulting from these innovations are: extended cycle life; enhanced thermal, electrolyte, and oxygen management; and accommodation of nickel electrode expansion. The advanced cell design is in the process of being validated using real time LEO cycle life testing of NWSC, Crane, Indiana. An update of validation test results confirming this technology is presented.

  1. Three input concepts for flight crew interaction with information presented on a large-screen electronic cockpit display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.

    1990-01-01

    A piloted simulation study was conducted comparing three different input methods for interfacing to a large-screen, multiwindow, whole-flight-deck display for management of transport aircraft systems. The thumball concept utilized a miniature trackball embedded in a conventional side-arm controller. The touch screen concept provided data entry through a capacitive touch screen. The voice concept utilized a speech recognition system with input through a head-worn microphone. No single input concept emerged as the most desirable method of interacting with the display. Subjective results, however, indicate that the voice concept was the most preferred method of data entry and had the most potential for future applications. The objective results indicate that, overall, the touch screen concept was the most effective input method. There was also significant differences between the time required to perform specific tasks and the input concept employed, with each concept providing better performance relative to a specific task. These results suggest that a system combining all three input concepts might provide the most effective method of interaction.

  2. Comparing middleware concepts for advanced healthcare system architectures.

    PubMed

    Blobel, B; Holena, M

    1997-09-01

    Different approaches to middleware, supporting systems integration in healthcare, are described and evaluated, regarding concepts, architectural framework, and relevance for healthcare enterprises. This evaluation includes CORBA, DHE, and HL7. CORBA, promoted in the healthcare area through the efforts of CORBAmed, is a strictly object-oriented approach, whereas DHE is based on process-related concepts. The earlier HL7 approach, without any modelling and with proprietary communication management, is changing to a harmonised information interchange concept in healthcare, taking into account also other protocols and medical domains with orientation to an electronic patient record. The opening also includes the separation of message definition and message exchange format, enabling the migration of different EDI standards. HL7 will also support the integration of standardised platforms as 'networking mediator applications'. Finally, some recommendations for future developments are given.

  3. Advanced Concepts in Multi-Dimensional Radiation Detection and Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetter, Kai; Haefner, Andy; Barnowski, Ross; Pavlovsky, Ryan; Torii, Tatsuo; Sanada, Yukihisa; Shikaze, Yoshiaki

    Recent developments in the detector fabrication, signal readout, and data processing enable new concepts in radiation detection that are relevant for applications ranging from fundamental physics to medicine as well as nuclear security and safety. We present recent progress in multi-dimensional radiation detection and imaging in the Berkeley Applied Nuclear Physics program. It is based on the ability to reconstruct scenes in three dimensions and fuse it with gamma-ray image information. We are using the High-Efficiency Multimode Imager HEMI in its Compton imaging mode and combining it with contextual sensors such as the Microsoft Kinect or visual cameras. This new concept of volumetric imaging or scene data fusion provides unprecedented capabilities in radiation detection and imaging relevant for the detection and mapping of radiological and nuclear materials. This concept brings us one step closer to the seeing the world with gamma-ray eyes.

  4. [Advance Directives: theoretical concept and practical significance in the USA].

    PubMed

    Vollmann, J; Pfaff, M

    2003-07-04

    The article examines on the basic of empirical data the discrepancy between the theoretical demand and the practical role of advance directives. Often advance directives have no influence on medical decision-making in clinical care of critically ill patients. The vague language of the widely used standard living wills and the lack of physician-patient communication in the process of delivering an advance directives are contributing factors. However, many physicians even disregard patients' preferences in concrete and meaningful living wills at the end of life. Besides the lack of information many even seriously ill patients do not deliver an advance because they misjudge their medical prognosis and life expectancy. Often the communication between patients and doctors are blocked because they expect from the each other the first step to talk about end of life decisions and advance directives. In this context physicians claim lack of time, training in communication skills and their discomfort in talking about death and dying with their patients.

  5. Advanced radiator concepts utilizing honeycomb panel heat pipes (stainless steel)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleischman, G. L.; Tanzer, H. J.

    1985-08-01

    The feasibility of fabricating and processing moderate temperature range heat pipes in a low mass honeycomb sandwich panel configuration for highly efficient radiator fins for the NASA space station was investigated. A variety of honeycomb panel facesheet and core-ribbon wick concepts were evaluated within constraints dictated by existing manufacturing technology and equipment. Concepts evaluated include: type of material, material and panel thicknesses, wick type and manufacturability, liquid and vapor communication among honeycomb cells, and liquid flow return from condenser to evaporator facesheet areas. In addition, the overall performance of the honeycomb panel heat pipe was evaluated analytically.

  6. Advanced radiator concepts utilizing honeycomb panel heat pipes (stainless steel)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleischman, G. L.; Tanzer, H. J.

    1985-01-01

    The feasibility of fabricating and processing moderate temperature range heat pipes in a low mass honeycomb sandwich panel configuration for highly efficient radiator fins for the NASA space station was investigated. A variety of honeycomb panel facesheet and core-ribbon wick concepts were evaluated within constraints dictated by existing manufacturing technology and equipment. Concepts evaluated include: type of material, material and panel thicknesses, wick type and manufacturability, liquid and vapor communication among honeycomb cells, and liquid flow return from condenser to evaporator facesheet areas. In addition, the overall performance of the honeycomb panel heat pipe was evaluated analytically.

  7. Advanced transportation concept for round-trip space travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, Chen-Wan L.

    1988-01-01

    A departure from the conventional concept of round-trip space travel is introduced. It is shown that a substantial reduction in the initial load required of the Shuttle or other launch vehicle can be achieved by staging the ascent orbit and leaving fuel for the return trip at each stage of the orbit. Examples of round trips from a low-inclination LEO to a high-inclination LEO and from an LEO to a GEO are used to show the merits of the new concept. Potential problem areas and research needed for the development of an efficient space transportation network are discussed.

  8. Analytic concepts for assessing risk as applied to human space flight

    SciTech Connect

    Garrick, B.J.

    1997-04-30

    Quantitative risk assessment (QRA) principles provide an effective framework for quantifying individual elements of risk, including the risk to astronauts and spacecraft of the radiation environment of space flight. The concept of QRA is based on a structured set of scenarios that could lead to different damage states initiated by either hardware failure, human error, or external events. In the context of a spacecraft risk assessment, radiation may be considered as an external event and analyzed in the same basic way as any other contributor to risk. It is possible to turn up the microscope on any particular contributor to risk and ask more detailed questions than might be necessary to simply assess safety. The methods of QRA allow for as much fine structure in the analysis as is desired. For the purpose of developing a basis for comprehensive risk management and considering the tendency to {open_quotes}fear anything nuclear,{close_quotes} radiation risk is a prime candidate for examination beyond that necessary to answer the basic question of risk. Thus, rather than considering only the customary damage states of fatalities or loss of a spacecraft, it is suggested that the full range of damage be analyzed to quantify radiation risk. Radiation dose levels in the form of a risk curve accomplish such a result. If the risk curve is the complementary cumulative distribution function, then it answers the extended question of what is the likelihood of receiving a specific dose of radiation or greater. Such results can be converted to specific health effects as desired. Knowing the full range of the radiation risk of a space mission and the contributors to that risk provides the information necessary to take risk management actions [operational, design, scheduling of missions around solar particle events (SPE), etc.] that clearly control radiation exposure.

  9. Flight performance of a navigation, guidance, and control system concept for automatic approach and landing of space shuttle orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, F. G.; Foster, J. D.; Hegarty, D. M.; Smith, D. W.; Drinkwater, F. J., III; Wingrove, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    Unpowered automatic approaches and landings were conducted to study navigation, guidance, and control problems associated with terminal area approach and landing for the space shuttle vehicle. The flight tests were performed in a Convair 990 aircraft equipped with a digital flight control computer connected to the aircraft control system and displays. The tests were designed to evaluate the performance of a navigation and guidance concept that utilized blended radio/inertial navigation with VOR, DME, and ILS as the ground navigation aids. Results from 36 automatic approaches and landings from 11,300 m (37,000 ft) to touchdown are presented. Preliminary results indicate that this concept may provide sufficient accuracy to accomplish automatic landing of the shuttle orbiter without air-breathing engines.

  10. Synergistic Allocation of Flight Expertise on the Flight Deck (SAFEdeck): A Design Concept to Combat Mode Confusion, Complacency, and Skill Loss in the Flight Deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutte, Paul; Goodrich, Kenneth; Williams, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a new design and function allocation philosophy between pilots and automation that seeks to support the human in mitigating innate weaknesses (e.g., memory, vigilance) while enhancing their strengths (e.g., adaptability, resourcefulness). In this new allocation strategy, called Synergistic Allocation of Flight Expertise in the Flight Deck (SAFEdeck), the automation and the human provide complementary support and backup for each other. Automation is designed to be compliant with the practices of Crew Resource Management. The human takes a more active role in the normal operation of the aircraft without adversely increasing workload over the current automation paradigm. This designed involvement encourages the pilot to be engaged and ready to respond to unexpected situations. As such, the human may be less prone to error than the current automation paradigm.

  11. CFD evaluation of an advanced thrust vector control concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiarn, Weihnurng; Cavalleri, Robert

    1990-01-01

    A potential concept that can offer an alternate method for thrust vector control of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster is the use of a cylindrical probe that is inserted (on demand) through the wall of the rocket nozzle. This Probe Thrust Vector Control (PTVC) concept is an alternate to that of a gimbaled nozzle or a Liquid Injection Thrust Vector (LITVC) system. The viability of the PTVC concept can be assessed either experimentally and/or with the use of CFD. A purely experimental assessment can be time consuming and expensive, whereas a CFD assessment can be very time- and cost-effective. Two key requirements of the proposed concept are PTVC vectoring performance and the active cooling requirements for the probe to maintain its thermal and structural integrity. An active thermal cooling method is the injection of coolant around the pheriphery of the probe. How much coolant is required and how this coolant distributes itself in the flow field is of major concern. The objective of the work reported here is the use of CFD to answer these question and in the design of test hardware to substantiate the results of the CFD predictions.

  12. In-flight acoustic results from an advanced-design propeller at Mach numbers to 0.8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackall, K. G.; Lasagna, P. L.; Walsh, K.; Dittmar, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    Acoustic data for the advanced-design SR-3 propeller at Mach numbers to 0.8 and helical tip Mach numbers to 1.14 are presented. Several advanced-design propellers, previously tested in wind tunnels at the Lewis Research Center, are being tested in flight at the Dryden Flight Research Facility. The flight-test propellers are mounted on a pylon on the top of the fuselage of a JetStar airplane. Instrumentation provides near-field acoustic data for the SR-3. Acoustic data for the SR-3 propeller at Mach numbers up to 0.8, for propeller helical tip Mach numbers up to 1.14, and comparison of wind tunnel to flight data are included. Flowfield profiles measured in the area adjacent to the propeller are also included.

  13. Fostering Visions for the Future: A Review of the NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts (NIAC) was formed in 1998 to provide an independent source of advanced aeronautical and space concepts that could dramatically impact how NASA develops and conducts its missions. Until the program's termination in August 2007, NIAC provided an independent open forum, a high-level point of entry to NASA for an external community of innovators, and an external capability for analysis and definition of advanced aeronautics and space concepts to complement the advanced concept activities conducted within NASA. Throughout its 9-year existence, NIAC inspired an atmosphere for innovation that stretched the imagination and encouraged creativity. As requested by Congress, this volume reviews the effectiveness of NIAC and makes recommendations concerning the importance of such a program to NASA and to the nation as a whole, including the proper role of NASA and the federal government in fostering scientific innovation and creativity and in developing advanced concepts for future systems. Key findings and recommendations include that in order to achieve its mission, NASA must have, and is currently lacking, a mechanism to investigate visionary, far-reaching advanced concepts. Therefore, a NIAC-like entity should be reestablished to fill this gap.

  14. Full Scale Advanced Systems Testbed (FAST): Capabilities and Recent Flight Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    At the NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center research is being conducted into flight control technologies that will enable the next generation of air and space vehicles. The Full Scale Advanced Systems Testbed (FAST) aircraft provides a laboratory for flight exploration of these technologies. In recent years novel but simple adaptive architectures for aircraft and rockets have been researched along with control technologies for improving aircraft fuel efficiency and control structural interaction. This presentation outlines the FAST capabilities and provides a snapshot of the research accomplishments to date. Flight experimentation allows a researcher to substantiate or invalidate their assumptions and intuition about a new technology or innovative approach Data early in a development cycle is invaluable for determining which technology barriers are real and which ones are imagined Data for a technology at a low TRL can be used to steer and focus the exploration and fuel rapid advances based on real world lessons learned It is important to identify technologies that are mature enough to benefit from flight research data and not be tempted to wait until we have solved all the potential issues prior to getting some data Sometimes a stagnated technology just needs a little real world data to get it going One trick to getting data for low TRL technologies is finding an environment where it is okay to take risks, where occasional failure is an expected outcome Learning how things fail is often as valuable as showing that they work FAST has been architected to facilitate this type of testing for control system technologies, specifically novel algorithms and sensors Rapid prototyping with a quick turnaround in a fly-fix-fly paradigm Sometimes it's easier and cheaper to just go fly it than to analyze the problem to death The goal is to find and test control technologies that would benefit from flight data and find solutions to the real barriers to innovation. The FAST

  15. Modeling and Test Data Analysis of a Tank Rapid Chill and Fill System for the Advanced Shuttle Upper Stage (ASUS) Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flachbart, Robin; Hedayat, Ali; Holt, Kimberly A.; Cruit, Wendy (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Advanced Shuttle Upper Stage (ASUS) concept addresses safety concerns associated .with cryogenic stages by launching empty, and filling on ascent. The ASUS employs a rapid chill and fill concept. A spray bar is used to completely chill the tank before fill, allowing the vent valve to be closed during the fill process. The first tests of this concept, using a flight size (not flight weight) tank. were conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) during the summer of 2000. The objectives of the testing were to: 1) demonstrate that a flight size tank could be filled in roughly 5 minutes to accommodate the shuttle ascent window, and 2) demonstrate a no-vent fill of the tank. A total of 12 tests were conducted. Models of the test facility fill and vent systems, as well as the tank, were constructed. The objective of achieving tank fill in 5 minutes was met during the test series. However, liquid began to accumulate in the tank before it was chilled. Since the tank was not chilled until the end of each test, vent valve closure during fill was not possible. Even though the chill and fill process did not occur as expected, reasonable model correlation with the test data was achieved.

  16. Recent advances in approximation concepts for optimum structural design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barthelemy, Jean-Francois M.; Haftka, Raphael T.

    1991-01-01

    The basic approximation concepts used in structural optimization are reviewed. Some of the most recent developments in that area since the introduction of the concept in the mid-seventies are discussed. The paper distinguishes between local, medium-range, and global approximations; it covers functions approximations and problem approximations. It shows that, although the lack of comparative data established on reference test cases prevents an accurate assessment, there have been significant improvements. The largest number of developments have been in the areas of local function approximations and use of intermediate variable and response quantities. It also appears that some new methodologies are emerging which could greatly benefit from the introduction of new computer architecture.

  17. Assessment of Advanced Logistics Delivery System (ALDS) Launch Systems Concepts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-10-01

    roller coasters . They have also been included in preliminary EMALS / EARS launch system designs; however, ALDS launcher system accelerations and path...is based on a permanent magnet linear motor design incorporating high temperature superconducting materials in the rotor, stator windings, and...linear induction motor concept similar to the Electro- Magnetic Aircraft Launcher System (EMALS) that is currently under development for use as a

  18. Advanced Structural Concepts for Weapons Storage - Flat and Mountainous Terrains.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    OF THIS PAGEWm, Dea Satmmo BLOCK 20. (Cont’d). " This study has developed 12 concepts for a modern weapons storage area and evaluated them in terms of...these more modern criteria, yet still have as little effect on the local environment as possible, require minimum personnel and resources, and require...evaluated in terms of their construction and life cycle costa, number of personnel required to operate the security and safety features, load-out time, and

  19. An advanced concept that promises ecological and economic viability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, B. R.; Sedgwick, T. A.; Urie, D. M.

    1976-01-01

    The actuality of supersonic commercial service being provided by Concorde is demonstrating to the world the advantages offered by supersonic travel for both business and recreation. Public acceptance will gradually and persistently stimulate interest to proceed with a second generation design that meets updated economic and ecological standards. It is estimated that this concept could operate profitably on world-wide routes with a revenue structure based upon economy fares. Airplanes will meet all present day ecological requirements regarding noise and emissions.

  20. A Vision of Quantitative Imaging Technology for Validation of Advanced Flight Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvath, Thomas J.; Kerns, Robert V.; Jones, Kenneth M.; Grinstead, Jay H.; Schwartz, Richard J.; Gibson, David M.; Taylor, Jeff C.; Tack, Steve; Dantowitz, Ronald F.

    2011-01-01

    Flight-testing is traditionally an expensive but critical element in the development and ultimate validation and certification of technologies destined for future operational capabilities. Measurements obtained in relevant flight environments also provide unique opportunities to observe flow phenomenon that are often beyond the capabilities of ground testing facilities and computational tools to simulate or duplicate. However, the challenges of minimizing vehicle weight and internal complexity as well as instrumentation bandwidth limitations often restrict the ability to make high-density, in-situ measurements with discrete sensors. Remote imaging offers a potential opportunity to noninvasively obtain such flight data in a complementary fashion. The NASA Hypersonic Thermodynamic Infrared Measurements Project has demonstrated such a capability to obtain calibrated thermal imagery on a hypersonic vehicle in flight. Through the application of existing and accessible technologies, the acreage surface temperature of the Shuttle lower surface was measured during reentry. Future hypersonic cruise vehicles, launcher configurations and reentry vehicles will, however, challenge current remote imaging capability. As NASA embarks on the design and deployment of a new Space Launch System architecture for access beyond earth orbit (and the commercial sector focused on low earth orbit), an opportunity exists to implement an imagery system and its supporting infrastructure that provides sufficient flexibility to incorporate changing technology to address the future needs of the flight test community. A long term vision is offered that supports the application of advanced multi-waveband sensing technology to aid in the development of future aerospace systems and critical technologies to enable highly responsive vehicle operations across the aerospace continuum, spanning launch, reusable space access and global reach. Motivations for development of an Agency level imagery

  1. Advanced Polarimetric Concepts - Part 2 (Polarimetric Target Classification)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    polarization and single polarization /single polarization modes, and the C- band RADARSAT II [Meisl 2000] and L- band ALOS ...likelihood classifiers to a. Each individual polarization , | HH |2, |VV|2 and |HV|2, for all three bands . b. Combinations of dual polarizations without the...advanced satellite radar systems such as PALSAR, an L- band SAR sensor on board the NASDA ALOS satellite and Radarsat II, a C- band polarimetric

  2. Evaluation of ADAM/1 model for advanced coal extraction concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deshpande, G. K.; Gangal, M. D.

    1982-01-01

    Several existing computer programs for estimating life cycle cost of mining systems were evaluated. A commercially available program, ADAM/1 was found to be satisfactory in relation to the needs of the advanced coal extraction project. Two test cases were run to confirm the ability of the program to handle nonconventional mining equipment and procedures. The results were satisfactory. The model, therefore, is recommended to the project team for evaluation of their conceptual designs.

  3. Technology Alignment and Portfolio Prioritization (TAPP): Advanced Methods in Strategic Analysis, Technology Forecasting and Long Term Planning for Human Exploration and Operations, Advanced Exploration Systems and Advanced Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funaro, Gregory V.; Alexander, Reginald A.

    2015-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA, Marshall Space Flight Center is expanding its current technology assessment methodologies. ACO is developing a framework called TAPP that uses a variety of methods, such as association mining and rule learning from data mining, structure development using a Technological Innovation System (TIS), and social network modeling to measure structural relationships. The role of ACO is to 1) produce a broad spectrum of ideas and alternatives for a variety of NASA's missions, 2) determine mission architecture feasibility and appropriateness to NASA's strategic plans, and 3) define a project in enough detail to establish an initial baseline capable of meeting mission objectives ACO's role supports the decision­-making process associated with the maturation of concepts for traveling through, living in, and understanding space. ACO performs concept studies and technology assessments to determine the degree of alignment between mission objectives and new technologies. The first step in technology assessment is to identify the current technology maturity in terms of a technology readiness level (TRL). The second step is to determine the difficulty associated with advancing a technology from one state to the next state. NASA has used TRLs since 1970 and ACO formalized them in 1995. The DoD, ESA, Oil & Gas, and DoE have adopted TRLs as a means to assess technology maturity. However, "with the emergence of more complex systems and system of systems, it has been increasingly recognized that TRL assessments have limitations, especially when considering [the] integration of complex systems." When performing the second step in a technology assessment, NASA requires that an Advancement Degree of Difficulty (AD2) method be utilized. NASA has used and developed or used a variety of methods to perform this step: Expert Opinion or Delphi Approach, Value Engineering or Value Stream, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), Technique for the Order of

  4. A Novel superconducting toroidal field magnet concept using advanced materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, J.

    1992-03-01

    The plasma physics database indicates that two distinct approaches to tokamak design may lead to commercial fusion reactors: low Aspect ratio, high plasma current, relatively low magnetic field devices, and high Aspect ratio, high field devices. The former requires significant enhancements in plasma performance, while the latter depends primarily upon technology development. The key technology for the commercialization of the high-field approach is large, high magnetic field superconducting magnets. In this paper, the physics motivation for the high field approach and key superconducting magnet (SCM) development issues are reviewed. Improved SCM performance may be obtained from improved materials and/or improved engineering. Superconducting materials ranging from NbTi to high- T c oxides are reviewed, demonstrating the broad range of potential superconducting materials. Structural material options are discussed, including cryogenic steel alloys and fiber-reinforced composite materials. Again, the breadth of options is highlighted. The potential for improved magnet engineering is quantified in terms of the Virial Theorem Limit, and two examples of approaches to highly optimized magnet configurations are discussed. The force-reduced concept, which is a finite application of the force-free solutions to Ampere's Law, appear promising for large SCMs but may be limited by the electromagnetics of a fusion plasma. The Solid Superconducting Cylinder (SSC) concept is proposed. This concept combines the unique properties of high- T c superconductors within a low- T c SCM to obtain (1) significant reductions in the structural material volume, (2) a decoupling of the tri-axial (compressive and tensile) stress state, and (3) a demountable TF magnet system. The advantages of this approach are quantified in terms of a 24 T commercial reactor TF magnet system. Significant reductions in the mechanical stress and the TF radial build are demonstrated.

  5. Advanced Direct Liquefaction Concepts for PETC Generic Units - Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    Reported here are the results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments and supporting technical and economic assessments conducted under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-91PC9104O during the period October 1, 1996 to December 31, 1996. This contract is with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation which supports work with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, CONSOI+ Inc., LDP Associates, and Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. This work invoives the introduction into the basic two stage liquefaction process several novel concepts which include dispersed lower-cost catalysts, coal cleaning by oil agglomeration, and distillate hydrotreating and dewaxing.

  6. ADVANCED DIRECT LIQUEFACTION CONCEPTS FOR PETC GENERIC UNITS

    SciTech Connect

    Adam J. Berkovich

    2001-08-01

    The results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments and supporting technical and economic assessments conducted under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-91PC91040 are reported for the period April 1, 2001 to June 30 2001. This work involves the introduction into the basic two-stage liquefaction process several novel concepts, which include dispersed lower-cost catalysts, coal cleaning by oil agglomeration, and distillate hydrotreating and dewaxing. This project has been modified to include an investigation into the production of value added materials from coal using low-severity liquefaction based technologies.

  7. ADVANCED DIRECT LIQUEFACTION CONCEPTS FOR PETC GENERIC UNITS

    SciTech Connect

    Adam J. Berkovich

    2001-11-01

    The results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments and supporting technical and economic assessments conducted under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-91PC91040 are reported for the period July 1, 2001 to September 30 2001. This work involves the introduction into the basic two-stage liquefaction process several novel concepts, which include dispersed lower-cost catalysts, coal cleaning by oil agglomeration, and distillate hydrotreating and dewaxing. This project has been modified to include an investigation into the production of value added materials from coal using low-severity liquefaction based technologies.

  8. ADVANCED DIRECT LIQUEFACTION CONCEPTS FOR PETC GENERIC UNITS

    SciTech Connect

    Adam J. Berkovich

    2001-04-01

    The results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments and supporting technical and economic assessments conducted under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-91PC91040 are reported for the period January 1, 2001 to March 31 2001. This work involves the introduction into the basic two-stage liquefaction process several novel concepts, which include dispersed lower-cost catalysts, coal cleaning by oil agglomeration, and distillate hydrotreating and dewaxing. This project has been modified to include an investigation into the production of value added materials from coal using low-severity liquefaction based technologies.

  9. Advanced supersonic technology concept study: Hydrogen fueled configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, G. D.

    1974-01-01

    Conceptual designs of hydrogen fueled supersonic transport configurations for the 1990 time period were developed and compared with equivalent technology Jet A-1 fueled vehicles to determine the economic and performance potential of liquid hydrogen as an alternate fuel. Parametric evaluations of supersonic cruise vehicles with varying design and transport mission characteristics established the basis for selecting a preferred configuration which was then studied in greater detail. An assessment was made of the general viability of the selected concept including an evaluation of costs and environmental considerations, i.e., exhaust emissions and sonic boom characteristics. Technology development requirements and suggested implementation schedules are presented.

  10. Commercial space opportunities - Advanced concepts and technology overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reck, Gregory M.

    1993-01-01

    The paper discusses the status of current and future commercial space opportunities. The goal is to pioneer innovative, customer-focused space concepts and technologies, leveraged through industrial, academic, and government alliance, to ensure U.S. commercial competitiveness and preeminence in space. The strategy is to develop technologies which enable new products and processes, deploy existing technology into commercial and military products and processes, and integrate military and commercial research and production activities. Technology development areas include information infrastructure, electronics design and manufacture, health care technology, environment technology, and aeronautical technologies.

  11. Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC)--From Technology Development to Future Flight Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Wayne A.; Wood, J. Gary; Wilson, Kyle

    2008-01-01

    The Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) is being developed by Sunpower Inc. under contract to NASA s Glenn Research Center (GRC) with critical technology support tasks led by GRC. The ASC development, funded by NASA s Science Mission Directorate, started in 2003 as one of 10 competitively awarded contracts that were intended to address the power conversion needs of future Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS). The ASC technology has since evolved through progressive convertor builds and successful testing to demonstrate high conversion efficiency (38 percent), low mass (1.3 kg), hermetic sealing, launch vibration simulation, EMI characterization, and is undergoing extended operation. The GRC and Sunpower team recently delivered two ASC-E convertors to the Department of Energy (DOE) and Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company for integration onto the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Engineering Unit (ASRG EU) plus one spare. The design of the next build, called the ASC-E2, has recently been initiated and is based on the heritage ASC-E with design refinements to increase reliability margin and offer higher temperature operation and improve performance. The ASC enables RPS system specific power of about 7 to 8 W/kg. This paper provides a chronology of ASC development to date and summarizes technical achievements including advancements toward flight implementation of the technology on ASRG by as early as 2013.

  12. Advanced radiator concepts utilizing honeycomb panel heat pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleischman, G. L.; Peck, S. J.; Tanzer, H. J.

    1987-01-01

    The feasibility of fabricating and processing moderate temperature range vapor chamber type heat pipes in a low mass honeycomb panel configuration for highly efficient radiator fins for potential use on the space station was investigated. A variety of honeycomb panel facesheet and core-ribbon wick concepts were evaluated within constraints dictated by existing manufacturing technology and equipment. Concepts evaluated include type of material, material and panel thickness, wick type and manufacturability, liquid and vapor communication among honeycomb cells, and liquid flow return from condenser to evaporator facesheet areas. A thin-wall all-welded stainless steel design with methanol as the working fluid was the initial prototype unit. It was found that an aluminum panel could not be fabricated in the same manner as a stainless steel panel due to diffusion bonding and resistance welding considerations. Therefore, a formed and welded design was developed. The prototype consists of ten panels welded together into a large panel 122 by 24 by 0.15 in., with a heat rejection capability of 1000 watts and a fin efficiency of essentially 1.0.

  13. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS FOR HOT GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-30

    The objective of this project is to develop a hot-gas desulfurization process scheme for control of H2S in HTHP coal gas that can be more simply and economically integrated with known regenerable sorbents in DOE/METC-sponsored work than current leading hot-gas desulfurization technologies. In addition to being more economical, the process scheme to be developed must yield an elemental sulfur byproduct. The Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), a leading process for producing an elemental sulfur byproduct in hot-gas desulfurization systems, incurs a coal gas use penalty, because coal gas is required to reduce the SO2 in regeneration off-gas to elemental sulfur. Alternative regeneration schemes, which avoid coal gas use and produce elemental sulfur, will be evaluated. These include (i) regeneration of sulfided sorbent using SO2 ; (ii) partial oxidation of sulfided sorbent in an O2 starved environment; and (iii) regeneration of sulfided sorbent using steam to produce H2S followed by direct oxidation of H2S to elemental sulfur. Known regenerable sorbents will be modified to improve the feasibility of the above alternative regeneration approaches. Performance characteristics of the modified sorbents and processes will be obtained through lab- and bench-scale testing. Technical and economic evaluation of the most promising processes concept(s) will be carried out.

  14. Bone effects of space flight analysis by quantum concept of bone remodelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parfitt, A. M.

    During the manned Skylab flights mineral losses from the calcaneum and changes in external calcium balance were in the ranges found for healthy subjects at bedrest. Calcium balance reached a nadir of -200 mg/day by two months with no change thereafter; the negative balance was due to increased urinary excretion with no change in net absorption. The total calcium loss averaged 18 g in the longest flight of 84 days; the densitiometric data suggested that about two-thirds of this came from trabecular bone and about one-third from cortical bone. These data could represent reversible bone loss due to increased birth rate of normal osteoclasts and osteoblasts and consequent increase in bone turnover and in reversible mineral deficit, or irreversible bone loss due to overactive osteoclasts and/or underactive osteoblasts. If the former explanation is correct, significant bone loss is unlikely whatever the duration of future flights, except in older persons already losing bone; if the latter explanation is correct, space flights longer than six months may lead to a significant increase in fracture risk in later life. Neither terrestrial immobilization nor unwilling animals in orbit are ideal models for the effects of space flight on human bone. To choose between reversible and irreversible mechanisms of bone loss, and to determine the effects of space flight on lifelong fracture risk, future astronauts and cosmonauts must undergo adequate histologic study of bone after in vivo tetracycline labeling.

  15. Proof-of-concept and advancement of the CellFlux concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odenthal, Christian; Steinmann, Wolf-Dieter

    2016-05-01

    The CellFlux storage system is a new concept for reducing the costs of medium to high temperature thermal energy storage. Initially designed for solar thermal power plants, the concept is suitable for industrial processes and power to heat applications as well. This paper gives first results of a new pilot scale plant set up at DLR in Stuttgart as a proof of concept. Experimental results are used for the validation of a simplified model. The model is apllied to calculate pareto optimal storage configurations in terms of necessary storage mass and exergetic efficiency, suitable for two types of solar thermal power plants. Particularly for applications having larger temperature differences, high exergetic efficiencies at low costs for the storage material can be achieved.

  16. Engine Concept Study for an Advanced Single-Aisle Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guynn, Mark D.; Berton, Jeffrey J.; Fisher, Kenneth L.; Haller, William J.; Tong, Michael; Thurman, Douglas R.

    2009-01-01

    The desire for higher engine efficiency has resulted in the evolution of aircraft gas turbine engines from turbojets, to low bypass ratio, first generation turbofans, to today's high bypass ratio turbofans. Although increased bypass ratio has clear benefits in terms of propulsion system metrics such as specific fuel consumption, these benefits may not translate into aircraft system level benefits due to integration penalties. In this study, the design trade space for advanced turbofan engines applied to a single aisle transport (737/A320 class aircraft) is explored. The benefits of increased bypass ratio and associated enabling technologies such as geared fan drive are found to depend on the primary metrics of interest. For example, bypass ratios at which mission fuel consumption is minimized may not require geared fan technology. However, geared fan drive does enable higher bypass ratio designs which result in lower noise. The results of this study indicate the potential for the advanced aircraft to realize substantial improvements in fuel efficiency, emissions, and noise compared to the current vehicles in this size class.

  17. SPHERES tethered formation flight testbed: advancements in enabling NASA's SPECS mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Soon-Jo; Adams, Danielle; Saenz-Otero, Alvar; Kong, Edmund; Miller, David W.; Leisawitz, David; Lorenzini, Enrico; Sell, Steve

    2006-06-01

    This paper reports on efforts to control a tethered formation flight spacecraft array for NASA's SPECS mission using the SPHERES test-bed developed by the MIT Space Systems Laboratory. Specifically, advances in methodology and experimental results realized since the 2005 SPIE paper are emphasized. These include a new test-bed setup with a reaction wheel assembly, a novel relative attitude measurement system using force torque sensors, and modeling of non-ideal tethers to account for tether vibration modes. The nonlinear equations of motion of multi-vehicle tethered spacecraft with elastic flexible tethers are derived from Lagrange's equations. The controllability analysis indicates that both array resizing and spin-up are fully controllable by the reaction wheels and the tether motor, thereby saving thruster fuel consumption. Based upon this analysis, linear and nonlinear controllers have been successfully implemented on the tethered SPHERES testbed, and tested at the NASA MSFC's flat floor facility using two and three SPHERES configurations.

  18. Ejector nozzle test results at simulated flight conditions for an advanced supersonic transport propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, D. P.; Bresnahan, D. L.

    1983-01-01

    Results are presented of wind tunnel tests conducted to verify the performance improvements of a refined ejector nozzle design for advanced supersonic transport propulsion systems. The analysis of results obtained at simulated engine operating conditions is emphasized. Tests were conducted with models of approximately 1/10th scale which were configured to simulate nozzle operation at takeoff, subsonic cruise, transonic cruise, and supersonic cruise. Transonic cruise operation was not a consideration during the nozzle design phase, although an evaluation at this condition was later conducted. Test results, characterized by thrust and flow coefficients, are given for a range of nozzle pressure ratios, emphasizing the thrust performance at the engine operating conditions predicted for each flight Mach number. The results indicate that nozzle performance goals were met or closely approximated at takeoff and supersonic cruise, while subsonic cruise performance was within 2.3 percent of the goal with further improvement possible.

  19. ADVANCED DIRECT LIQUEFACTION CONCEPTS FOR PETC GENERIC UNITS - PHASE II

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2000-07-01

    The results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments and supporting technical and economic assessments conducted under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-91PC91040 are reported for the period January 1, 1999 to March 31, 2000. This contract is with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation, which supports work with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, CONSOL, Inc., LDP Associates, and Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. This work involves the introduction into the basic two-stage liquefaction process several novel concepts, which include dispersed lower-cost catalysts, coal cleaning by oil agglomeration, and distillate hydrotreating and dewaxing. This project has been modified to include an investigation into the production of value added materials from coal using low-severity liquefaction based technologies.

  20. Teaching advanced science concepts through Freshman Research Immersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahila, M. J.; Amey-Proper, J.; Jones, W. E.; Stamp, N.; Piper, L. F. J.

    2017-03-01

    We have developed a new introductory physics/chemistry programme that teaches advanced science topics and practical laboratory skills to freshmen undergraduate students through the use of student-led, bona fide research activities. While many recent attempts to improve college-level physics education have focused on integrating interactive demonstrations and activities into traditional passive lectures, we have taken the idea of active-learning several steps further. Working in conjunction with several research faculty at Binghamton University, we have created a programme that puts undergraduate students on an accelerated path towards working in real research laboratories performing publishable research. Herein, we describe in detail the programme goals, structure, and educational content, and report on our promising initial student outcomes.

  1. Advanced Turbine Systems Program industrial system concept development

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, S.

    1995-12-31

    Solar approached Phase II of ATS program with the goal of 50% thermal efficiency. An intercolled and recuperated gas turbine was identified as the ultimate system to meet this goal in a commercial gas turbine environment. With commercial input from detailed market studies and DOE`s ATS program, Solar redefined the company`s proposed ATS to fit both market and sponsor (DOE) requirements. Resulting optimized recuperated gas turbine will be developed in two sizes, 5 and 15 MWe. It will show a thermal efficiency of about 43%, a 23% improvement over current industrial gas turbines. Other ATS goals--emissions, RAMD (reliability, availability, maintainability, durability), cost of power--will be met or exceeded. During FY95, advanced development of key materials, combustion and component technologies proceeded to the point of acceptance for inclusion in ATS Phase III.

  2. Small angle slot divertor concept for long pulse advanced tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, H. Y.; Sang, C. F.; Stangeby, P. C.; Lao, L. L.; Taylor, T. S.; Thomas, D. M.

    2017-04-01

    SOLPS-EIRENE edge code analysis shows that a gas-tight slot divertor geometry with a small-angle (glancing-incidence) target, named the small angle slot (SAS) divertor, can achieve cold, dissipative/detached divertor conditions at relatively low values of plasma density at the outside midplane separatrix. SAS exhibits the following key features: (1) strong enhancement of the buildup of neutral density in a localized region near the plasma strike point on the divertor target; (2) spreading of the cooling front across the divertor target with the slot gradually flaring out from the strike point, thus effectively reducing both heat flux and erosion on the entire divertor target surface. Such a divertor may potentially provide a power and particle handling solution for long pulse advanced tokamaks.

  3. Modeling small-scale unmanned rotorcraft for advanced flight control design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mettler, Bernard F.

    Rotorcraft can take off and land vertically, and can perform flight ranging from hovering to airplane-like cruising with agility and maneuverability. These qualities have made them indispensable vehicles for a variety of applications. Today, there is a growing interest in using small-scale rotorcraft as platforms for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Current RUAVs, however, fail to exploit the vehicles' full potential because of deficient flight control systems. The design of high performance control systems for a vehicle with complex dynamics requires a mathematical model that accurately describes the vehicle's dynamics. Linear, low order models are preferred, setting difficult constraints on the modeling task. This thesis describes the development of a dynamic model for a small-scale Yamaha R-50 helicopter using rotorcraft system identification techniques. Based on experimental data collected from the vehicle, a parameterized model of its dynamics was identified. The parameterized model accounts for the presence of a stabilizer bar and an active yaw damping system; which are typical stability augmentation system on small-scale helicopters. Because rotorcraft dynamics change with operating conditions, both a hover and cruise flight condition were identified. The resulting models were validated against flight-test data and were shown to be highly accurate in predicting the vehicle responses, and the identified parameters were shown to be close to the theoretical values. The model helped us understand typical characteristics of small-scale rotorcraft. We used dynamic scaling rules to determine the effect of scale on the dynamic characteristics of helicopters, and at the same time, we used these rules to compare between the characteristics of the R-50 and those of a full-scale Bell UH-1H helicopter. By explicitly accounting for the stabilizer bar, we were able to use our model to determine and simulate the effect that system has on the vehicle dynamics. Finally, by

  4. Artist concept computer graphic of Lockheed Martin X-33 Advance Technology Demonstrator vehicle in f

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    An artist's conception of the X-33 in flight, with the aerospike engine firing. The X-33 demonstrator was designed to test a wide range of new technologies (including the aerospike engine), that would be used in a future single-stage-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle called the VentureStar. Due to technical problems with the liquid hydrogen tank, however, the X-33 program was cancelled in February 2001.

  5. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS FOR HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    A. LOPEZ ORTIZ; D.P. HARRISON; F.R. GROVES; J.D. WHITE; S. ZHANG; W.-N. HUANG; Y. ZENG

    1998-10-31

    This research project examined the feasibility of a second generation high-temperature coal gas desulfurization process in which elemental sulfur is produced directly during the sorbent regeneration phase. Two concepts were evaluated experimentally. In the first, FeS was regenerated in a H2O-O2 mixture. Large fractions of the sulfur were liberated in elemental form when the H2O-O2 ratio was large. However, the mole percent of elemental sulfur in the product was always quite small (<<1%) and a process based on this concept was judged to be impractical because of the low temperature and high energy requirements associated with condensing the sulfur. The second concept involved desulfurization using CeO2 and regeneration of the sulfided sorbent, Ce2O2S, using SO2 to produce elemental sulfur directly. No significant side reactions were observed and the reaction was found to be quite rapid over the temperature range of 500°C to 700°C. Elemental sulfur concentrations (as S2) as large as 20 mol% were produced. Limitations associated with the cerium sorbent process are concentrated in the desulfurization phase. High temperature and highly reducing coal gas such as produced in the Shell gasification process are required if high sulfur removal efficiencies are to be achieved. For example, the equilibrium H2S concentration at 800°C from a Shell gas in contact with CeO2 is about 300 ppmv, well above the allowable IGCC specification. In this case, a two-stage desulfurization process using CeO2 for bulk H2S removal following by a zinc sorbent polishing step would be required. Under appropriate conditions, however, CeO2 can be reduced to non-stoichiometric CeOn (n<2) which has significantly greater affinity for H2S. Pre-breakthrough H2S concentrations in the range of 1 ppmv to 5 ppmv were measured in sulfidation tests using CeOn at 700°C in highly reducing gases, as measured by equilibrium O2 concentration, comparable to the Shell gas. Good sorbent durability was indicated in

  6. Advanced composite structural concepts and material technologies for primary aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Anthony

    1991-01-01

    Structural weight savings using advanced composites have been demonstrated for many years. Most military aircraft today use these materials extensively and Europe has taken the lead in their use in commercial aircraft primary structures. A major inhibiter to the use of advanced composites in the United States is cost. Material costs are high and will remain high relative to aluminum. The key therefore lies in the significant reduction in fabrication and assembly costs. The largest cost in most structures today is assembly. As part of the NASA Advanced Composite Technology Program, Lockheed Aeronautical Systems Company has a contract to explore and develop advanced structural and manufacturing concepts using advanced composites for transport aircraft. Wing and fuselage concepts and related trade studies are discussed. These concepts are intended to lower cost and weight through the use of innovative material forms, processes, structural configurations and minimization of parts. The approach to the trade studies and the downselect to the primary wing and fuselage concepts is detailed. The expectations for the development of these concepts is reviewed.

  7. Advanced electric propulsion system concept for electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raynard, A. E.; Forbes, F. E.

    1979-01-01

    Seventeen propulsion system concepts for electric vehicles were compared to determine the differences in components and battery pack to achieve the basic performance level. Design tradeoffs were made for selected configurations to find the optimum component characteristics required to meet all performance goals. The anticipated performance when using nickel-zinc batteries rather than the standard lead-acid batteries was also evaluated. The two systems selected for the final conceptual design studies included a system with a flywheel energy storage unit and a basic system that did not have a flywheel. The flywheel system meets the range requirement with either lead-acid or nickel-zinc batteries and also the acceleration of zero to 89 km/hr in 15 s. The basic system can also meet the required performance with a fully charged battery, but, when the battery approaches 20 to 30 percent depth of discharge, maximum acceleration capability gradually degrades. The flywheel system has an estimated life-cycle cost of $0.041/km using lead-acid batteries. The basic system has a life-cycle cost of $0.06/km. The basic system, using batteries meeting ISOA goals, would have a life-cycle cost of $0.043/km.

  8. Advanced Nuclear Power Concepts for Human Exploration Missions

    SciTech Connect

    Robert L. Cataldo; Lee S. Mason

    2000-06-04

    The design reference mission for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) human mission to Mars supports a philosophy of living off the land in order to reduce crew risk, launch mass, and life-cycle costs associated with logistics resupply to a Mars base. Life-support materials, oxygen, water, and buffer gases, and the crew's ascent-stage propellant would not be brought from Earth but rather manufactured from the Mars atmosphere. The propellants would be made over {approx}2 yr, the time between Mars mission launch window opportunities. The production of propellants is very power intensive and depends on type, amount, and time to produce the propellants. Closed-loop life support and food production are also power intensive. With the base having several habitats, a greenhouse, and propellant production capability, total power levels reach well over 125 kW(electric). The most mass-efficient means of satisfying these requirements is through the use of nuclear power. Studies have been performed to identify a potential system concept, described in this paper, using a mobile cart to transport the power system away from the Mars lander and provide adequate separation between the reactor and crew. The studies included an assessment of reactor and power conversion technology options, selection of system and component redundancy, determination of optimum separation distance, and system performance sensitivity to some key operating parameters.

  9. Some Advanced Concepts in Discrete Aerodynamic Sensitivity Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Arthur C., III; Green, Lawrence L.; Newman, Perry A.; Putko, Michele M.

    2001-01-01

    An efficient incremental-iterative approach for differentiating advanced flow codes is successfully demonstrated on a 2D inviscid model problem. The method employs the reverse-mode capability of the automatic- differentiation software tool ADIFOR 3.0, and is proven to yield accurate first-order aerodynamic sensitivity derivatives. A substantial reduction in CPU time and computer memory is demonstrated in comparison with results from a straight-forward, black-box reverse- mode application of ADIFOR 3.0 to the same flow code. An ADIFOR-assisted procedure for accurate second-order aerodynamic sensitivity derivatives is successfully verified on an inviscid transonic lifting airfoil example problem. The method requires that first-order derivatives are calculated first using both the forward (direct) and reverse (adjoint) procedures; then, a very efficient non-iterative calculation of all second-order derivatives can be accomplished. Accurate second derivatives (i.e., the complete Hessian matrices) of lift, wave-drag, and pitching-moment coefficients are calculated with respect to geometric- shape, angle-of-attack, and freestream Mach number

  10. Some Advanced Concepts in Discrete Aerodynamic Sensitivity Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Arthur C., III; Green, Lawrence L.; Newman, Perry A.; Putko, Michele M.

    2003-01-01

    An efficient incremental iterative approach for differentiating advanced flow codes is successfully demonstrated on a two-dimensional inviscid model problem. The method employs the reverse-mode capability of the automatic differentiation software tool ADIFOR 3.0 and is proven to yield accurate first-order aerodynamic sensitivity derivatives. A substantial reduction in CPU time and computer memory is demonstrated in comparison with results from a straightforward, black-box reverse-mode applicaiton of ADIFOR 3.0 to the same flow code. An ADIFOR-assisted procedure for accurate second-rder aerodynamic sensitivity derivatives is successfully verified on an inviscid transonic lifting airfoil example problem. The method requires that first-order derivatives are calculated first using both the forward (direct) and reverse (adjoinct) procedures; then, a very efficient noniterative calculation of all second-order derivatives can be accomplished. Accurate second derivatives (i.e., the complete Hesian matrices) of lift, wave drag, and pitching-moment coefficients are calculated with respect to geometric shape, angle of attack, and freestream Mach number.

  11. Innovative Networking Concepts Tested on the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Daniel; Gupta, Sonjai; Zhang, Chuanguo; Ephremides, Anthony

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a program of experiments conducted over the advanced communications technology satellite (ACTS) and the associated TI-VSAT (very small aperture terminal). The experiments were motivated by the commercial potential of low-cost receive only satellite terminals that can operate in a hybrid network environment, and by the desire to demonstrate frame relay technology over satellite networks. The first experiment tested highly adaptive methods of satellite bandwidth allocation in an integrated voice-data service environment. The second involved comparison of forward error correction (FEC) and automatic repeat request (ARQ) methods of error control for satellite communication with emphasis on the advantage that a hybrid architecture provides, especially in the case of multicasts. Finally, the third experiment demonstrated hybrid access to databases and compared the performance of internetworking protocols for interconnecting local area networks (LANs) via satellite. A custom unit termed frame relay access switch (FRACS) was developed by COMSAT Laboratories for these experiments; the preparation and conduct of these experiments involved a total of 20 people from the University of Maryland, the University of Colorado and COMSAT Laboratories, from late 1992 until 1995.

  12. Advanced direct coal liquefaction concepts. Final report, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, D.J.; Parker, R.J.; Simpson, P.L.

    1994-07-01

    Integration of innovative steps into new advanced processes have the potential to reduce costs for producing liquid fuels. In this program, objective is to develop a new approach to liquefaction that generates an all distillate product slate at a reduced cost of about US$25/barrel of crude oil equivalent. A Counterflow Reactor was developed in cooperation with GfK mbH, Germany. Advantages are low hydrogen recycle rates and low feed preheating requirements. Coal/heavy oil slurry is injected into the top of the reactor while the recycle gas and make up hydrogen is introduced into the bottom; hydrogenation products are withdrawn from the top. PU study resulted in distillable oil yields up to 74 wt % on feed (dry ash free) from coprocessing feed slurries containing 40 wt % Vesta subbituminous coal and 60 wt % Cold Lake heavy vacuum tower bottoms. Technologies developed separately by CED and ARC were combined. A 1-kg/hr integrated continuous flow bench scale unit was constructed at the ARC site in Devon, Alberta, based on modifications to a unit at Nisku, Alberta (the modified unit was used in the preliminary economic evaluation).

  13. Composite Fan Blade Design for Advanced Engine Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abumeri, Galib H.; Kuguoglu, Latife H.; Chamis, Christos C.

    2004-01-01

    The aerodynamic and structural viability of composite fan blades of the revolutionary Exo-Skeletal engine are assessed for an advanced subsonic mission using the NASA EST/BEST computational simulation system. The Exo-Skeletal Engine (ESE) calls for the elimination of the shafts and disks completely from the engine center and the attachment of the rotor blades in spanwise compression to a rotating casing. The fan rotor overall adiabatic efficiency obtained from aerodynamic analysis is estimated at 91.6 percent. The flow is supersonic near the blade leading edge but quickly transitions into a subsonic flow without any turbulent boundary layer separation on the blade. The structural evaluation of the composite fan blade indicates that the blade would buckle at a rotor speed that is 3.5 times the design speed of 2000 rpm. The progressive damage analysis of the composite fan blade shows that ply damage is initiated at a speed of 4870 rpm while blade fracture takes place at 7640 rpm. This paper describes and discusses the results for the composite blade that are obtained from aerodynamic, displacement, stress, buckling, modal, and progressive damage analyses. It will be demonstrated that a computational simulation capability is readily available to evaluate new and revolutionary technology such as the ESE.

  14. Current concepts of space flight induced changes in hormonal control of fluid and electrolyte metabolism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, C. S.; Johnson, P. C.; Suki, W. N.

    1983-01-01

    A systematic analysis of body fluid and renal dynamics during simulated space flight (head-down bedrest) was undertaken to increase understanding of the physiologic effects of acute cephalad fluid shifts. The earliest effects were increases in central venous pressure and decreases in plasma aldosterone, epinephrine and norepinephrine and glomerular filtration rate, 2 h after the beginning of bedrest. Decreases in plasma angiotensin I at 6 h may have resulted from the increased effective pressure and decreased sympathetic activity seen earlier in bedrest. The early decrease in aldosterone and ADH is thought to contribute to an increase, by 6 h, in urinary excretion of salt and water. Fluid and electrolyte losses occur during space flight, and analysis of body fluids from Space Shuttle crewmembers has indicated that conservation of these substances is begun almost immediately upon cessation of weightlessness. Operational medicine measures to counteract dehydration and electrolyte loss resulted in a less extreme physiologic response to the flight.

  15. The NASA MERIT program - Developing new concepts for accurate flight planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, R.

    1982-01-01

    It is noted that the rising cost of aviation fuel has necessitated the development of a new approach to upper air forecasting for flight planning. It is shown that the spatial resolution of the present weather forecast models used in fully automated computer flight planning is an important accuracy-limiting factor, and it is proposed that man be put back into the system, although not in the way he has been used in the past. A new approach is proposed which uses the application of man-computer interactive display techniques to upper air forecasting to retain the fine scale features of the atmosphere inherent in the present data base in order to provide a more accurate and cost effective flight plan. It is pointed out that, as a result of NASA research, the hardware required for this approach already exists.

  16. RASC-AL (Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts-Academic Linkage): 2002 Advanced Concept Design Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts-Academic Linkage (RASC-AL) is a program of the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) in collaboration with the Universities Space Research Association's (USRA) ICASE institute through the NASA Langley Research Center. The RASC-AL key objectives are to develop relationships between universities and NASA that lead to opportunities for future NASA research and programs, and to develop aerospace systems concepts and technology requirements to enable future NASA missions. The program seeks to look decades into the future to explore new mission capabilities and discover what's possible. NASA seeks concepts and technologies that can make it possible to go anywhere, at anytime, safely, reliably, and affordably to accomplish strategic goals for science, exploration, and commercialization. University teams were invited to submit research topics from the following themes: Human and Robotic Space Exploration, Orbital Aggregation & Space Infrastructure Systems (OASIS), Zero-Emissions Aircraft, and Remote Sensing. RASC-AL is an outgrowth of the HEDS-UP (University Partners) Program sponsored by the LPI. HEDS-UP was a program of the Lunar and Planetary Institute designed to link universities with NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) enterprise. The first RASC-AL Forum was held November 5-8, 2002, at the Hilton Cocoa Beach Oceanfront Hotel in Cocoa Beach, Florida. Representatives from 10 university teams presented student research design projects at this year's Forum. Each team contributed a written report and these reports are presented.

  17. Concept and Viability of Androgen Annihilation for Advanced Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mohler, James L.

    2014-01-01

    There remains no standard of care for patients with a rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA) after radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy but who have no radiographic metastases, even though this is the second largest group of prostate cancer (CaP) patients in the United States. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) may cure some men with advanced CaP based on single institution series and a randomized clinical trial of immediate versus delayed ADT for men found to have pelvic lymph node metastasis at the time of radical prostatectomy. ADT may be more effective when initiated for minimal disease burden, which can be detected using PSA after radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy, and if more complete disruption of the androgen axis using newer agents decreases the chance that androgen-sensitive cells survive to adapt to a low androgen environment. Androgens may be “annihilated” sing simultaneously a luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) antagonist or agonist to inhibit testicular production of testosterone, a cytochrome P45017A1 (CYP17A1) inhibitor to diminish metabolism of testosterone via the adrenal pathway and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) via the backdoor pathway, a 5α-reductase inhibitor to diminish testosterone reduction to DHT and backdoor metabolism of progesterone substrates to DHT, and a newer anti-androgen to compete better with DHT for the androgen receptor ligand-binding domain. Early initiation of androgen annihilation for induction as part of planned intermittent ADT should be safe, may reduce tumor burden below a threshold that allows eradication by the immune system, and may cure many men who have failed definitive local therapy. PMID:24771515

  18. Application of Design of Experiments and Surrogate Modeling within the NASA Advanced Concepts Office, Earth-to-Orbit Design Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwack, Mathew R.; Dees, Patrick D.; Holt, James B.

    2016-01-01

    Decisions made during early conceptual design have a large impact upon the expected life-cycle cost (LCC) of a new program. It is widely accepted that up to 80% of such cost is committed during these early design phases [1]. Therefore, to help minimize LCC, decisions made during conceptual design must be based upon as much information as possible. To aid in the decision making for new launch vehicle programs, the Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) provides rapid turnaround pre-phase A and phase A concept definition studies. The ACO team utilizes a proven set of tools to provide customers with a full vehicle mass breakdown to tertiary subsystems, preliminary structural sizing based upon worst-case flight loads, and trajectory optimization to quantify integrated vehicle performance for a given mission [2]. Although the team provides rapid turnaround for single vehicle concepts, the scope of the trade space can be limited due to analyst availability and the manpower requirements for manual execution of the analysis tools. In order to enable exploration of a broader design space, the ACO team has implemented an advanced design methods (ADM) based approach. This approach applies the concepts of design of experiments (DOE) and surrogate modeling to more exhaustively explore the trade space and provide the customer with additional design information to inform decision making. This paper will first discuss the automation of the ACO tool set, which represents a majority of the development effort. In order to fit a surrogate model within tolerable error bounds a number of DOE cases are needed. This number will scale with the number of variable parameters desired and the complexity of the system's response to those variables. For all but the smallest design spaces, the number of cases required cannot be produced within an acceptable timeframe using a manual process. Therefore, automation of the tools was a key enabler for the successful

  19. Advanced Direct Liquefaction Concepts for PETC Generic Units - Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    The results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments and supporting technical and economic assessments conducted under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-91PC91040 are reported for the period July 1, 1997 to September 30, 1997. This contract is with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation which supports work with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, CONSOL, Inc., LDP Associates, and Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. This work involves the introduction into the basic two stage liquefaction process several novel concepts which include dispersed lower-cost catalysts, coal cleaning by oil agglomeration, and distillate hydrotreating and dewaxing. Results are reported from experiments in which various methods were tested to activate dispersed Mo precursors. Several oxothiomolybdates precursors having S/Mo ratios from two to six were prepared. Another having a S/Mo ratio of eleven was also prepared that contained an excess of sulfur. In the catalyst screening test, none of these precursors exhibited an activity enhancement that might suggest that adding sulfur into the structure of the Mo precursors would be beneficial to the process. In another series of experiments, AHM impregnated coal slurried in the reaction mixture was pretreated withH S/H under pressure and successively heated for 30 min at 120, 250 2 2 and 360 C. THF conversions in the catalyst screening test were not affected while resid conversions o increased such that pretreated coals impregnated with 100 ppm Mo gave conversions equivalent to untreated coals impregnated with 300 ppm fresh Mo. Cobalt, nickel and potassium phosphomolybdates were prepared and tested as bimetallic precursors. The thermal stability of these compounds was evaluated in TG/MS to determine whether the presence of the added metal would stabilize the Keggin structure at reaction temperature. Coals impregnated with these salts showed the Ni and Co salts gave the same THF conversion as PMA while the Ni salt gave higher

  20. Flight vehicle thermal testing with infrared lamps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, Roger A.

    1992-01-01

    The verification and certification of new structural material concepts for advanced high speed flight vehicles relies greatly on thermal testing with infrared quartz lamps. The basic quartz heater system characteristics and design considerations are presented. Specific applications are illustrated with tests that were conducted for the X-15, the Space Shuttle, and YF-12 flight programs.

  1. ADVANCED UNDERGROUND GAS STORAGE CONCEPTS REFRIGERATED-MINED CAVERN STORAGE

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    Limited demand and high cost has prevented the construction of hard rock caverns in this country for a number of years. The storage of natural gas in mined caverns may prove technically feasible if the geology of the targeted market area is suitable; and economically feasible if the cost and convenience of service is competitive with alternative available storage methods for peak supply requirements. It is believed that mined cavern storage can provide the advantages of high delivery rates and multiple fill-withdrawal cycles in areas where salt cavern storage is not possible. In this research project, PB-KBB merged advanced mining technologies and gas refrigeration techniques to develop conceptual designs and cost estimates to demonstrate the commercialization potential of the storage of refrigerated natural gas in hard rock caverns. Five regions of the U.S.A. were studied for underground storage development and PB-KBB reviewed the literature to determine if the geology of these regions was suitable for siting hard rock storage caverns. Area gas market conditions in these regions were also studied to determine the need for such storage. Based on an analysis of many factors, a possible site was determined to be in Howard and Montgomery Counties, Maryland. The area has compatible geology and a gas industry infrastructure for the nearby market populous of Baltimore and Washington D.C.. As Gas temperature is lowered, the compressibility of the gas reaches an optimum value. The compressibility of the gas, and the resultant gas density, is a function of temperature and pressure. This relationship can be used to commercial advantage by reducing the size of a storage cavern for a given working volume of natural gas. This study looks at this relationship and and the potential for commercialization of the process in a storage application. A conceptual process design, and cavern design were developed for various operating conditions. Potential site locations were considered

  2. Proceedings of the Workshop on Advanced Network and Technology Concepts for Mobile, Micro, and Personal Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Lori (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The Workshop on Advanced Network and Technology Concepts for Mobile, Micro, and Personal Communications was held at NASA's JPL Laboratory on 30-31 May 1991. It provided a forum for reviewing the development of advanced network and technology concepts for turn-of-the-century telecommunications. The workshop was organized into three main categories: (1) Satellite-Based Networks (L-band, C-band, Ku-band, and Ka-band); (2) Terrestrial-Based Networks (cellular, CT2, PCN, GSM, and other networks); and (3) Hybrid Satellite/Terrestrial Networks. The proceedings contain presentation papers from each of the above categories.

  3. Advanced Radioisotope Power System Enabled Titan Rover Concept with Inflatable Wheels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balint, Tibor S.; Schriener, Timothy M.; Shirley, James H.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews study into exploration of Titan. Including a possible Titan Rover that would use the advanced radioisotope power system (RPS). The goal of the study is to demonstrate a simple, credible and affordable rover mission concept for Titan in-situ exploration, enabled by an Advanced RPS. The presentation reviews the possible launch vehicle, and trajectory options; desired instrumentation that would be aboard the rover; and considerations for the design of the rover.

  4. An advanced bioprocessing concept for the conversion of wastepaper to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, C.D.; Davison, B.H.; Scott, T.C.; Woodward, J.; Dees, C.; Rothrock, D.S.

    1993-06-01

    Wastepaper is a plentiful and low-cost lignocellulosic feed material that may represent the most direct way to penetrate the market with an advanced bioprocessing system. Innovative bioprocessing concepts integrated into such a system for the production of ethanol should be economically viable. Several of the proposed processing advances for such a system have only been studied on a laboratory scale, so a more thorough process development and scale-up effort will be required.

  5. Hyper-X Research Vehicle - Artist Concept in Flight with Scramjet Engine Firing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This is an artist's depiction of a Hyper-X research vehicle under scramjet power in free-flight following separation from its booster rocket. The X-43A was developed to flight test a dual-mode ramjet/scramjet propulsion system at speeds from Mach 7 up to Mach 10 (7 to 10 times the speed of sound, which varies with temperature and altitude). Hyper-X, the flight vehicle for which is designated as X-43A, is an experimental flight-research program seeking to demonstrate airframe-integrated, 'air-breathing' engine technologies that promise to increase payload capacity for future vehicles, including hypersonic aircraft (faster than Mach 5) and reusable space launchers. This multiyear program is currently underway at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Hyper-X schedule calls for its first flight later this year (2000). Hyper-X is a joint program, with Dryden sharing responsibility with NASA's Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. Dryden's primary role is to fly three unpiloted X-43A research vehicles to validate engine technologies and hypersonic design tools as well as the hypersonic test facility at Langley. Langley manages the program and leads the technology development effort. The Hyper-X Program seeks to significantly expand the speed boundaries of air-breathing propulsion by being the first aircraft to demonstrate an airframe-integrated, scramjet-powered free flight. Scramjets (supersonic-combustion ramjets) are ramjet engines in which the airflow through the whole engine remains supersonic. Scramjet technology is challenging because only limited testing can be performed in ground facilities. Long duration, full-scale testing requires flight research. Scramjet engines are air-breathing, capturing their oxygen from the atmosphere. Current spacecraft, such as the Space Shuttle, are rocket powered, so they must carry both fuel and oxygen for propulsion. Scramjet technology-based vehicles need to carry only fuel. By eliminating the need

  6. Evaluating the Effects of Dimensionality in Advanced Avionic Display Concepts for Synthetic Vision Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Amy L.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Wickens, Christopher D.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Arthur, Jarvis J.; Bailey, Randall E.

    2007-01-01

    Synthetic vision systems provide an in-cockpit view of terrain and other hazards via a computer-generated display representation. Two experiments examined several display concepts for synthetic vision and evaluated how such displays modulate pilot performance. Experiment 1 (24 general aviation pilots) compared three navigational display (ND) concepts: 2D coplanar, 3D, and split-screen. Experiment 2 (12 commercial airline pilots) evaluated baseline 'blue sky/brown ground' or synthetic vision-enabled primary flight displays (PFDs) and three ND concepts: 2D coplanar with and without synthetic vision and a dynamic multi-mode rotatable exocentric format. In general, the results pointed to an overall advantage for a split-screen format, whether it be stand-alone (Experiment 1) or available via rotatable viewpoints (Experiment 2). Furthermore, Experiment 2 revealed benefits associated with utilizing synthetic vision in both the PFD and ND representations and the value of combined ego- and exocentric presentations.

  7. Contemporary conception of anti-G protection of cosmonauts in flights aboard "Soyuz" space vehicles.

    PubMed

    Kotovskaya, A R; Vil-Viliams, I F; Lukianiuk, V Yu

    2004-07-01

    To ensure safety of cosmonauts impacted by +Gx loads during insertion into orbit of a Soyuz-type space vehicle, it is critical to conduct appropriate medical selection of candidates to space flights, to give them proper complete physical and specialized centrifuge training, and to make it sure that at the moment of actual injection the cosmonaut's posture is optimal relative to the g-vector and that the body is tight fitting the custom-molded couch. No AGS is needed. For the purposes of protection of cosmonauts descending in the Soyuz vehicles, vital are countermeasures applied in the course of flight, water-salt supplements on the descent day, and the optimal posture, an anti-g suit, and a custom-molded couch with an additional body-restraint system and dampers used on the phase of reentry.

  8. Inflated concepts for the earth science geostationary platform and an associated flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friese, G.

    1992-01-01

    Large parabolic reflectors and solar concentrators are of great interest for microwave transmission, solar powered rockets, and Earth observations. Collector subsystems have been under slow development for a decade. Inflated paraboloids have a great weight and package volume advantage over mechanically erected systems and, therefore, have been receiving greater attention recently. The objective of this program was to produce a 'conceptual definition of an experiment to assess in-space structural damping characteristics and effects of the space meteoroid environment upon structural integrity and service life of large inflatable structures.' The flight experiment was to have been based upon an inflated solar concentration, but much of that was being done on other programs. To avoid redundancy, the Earth Science Geostationary Platform (ESGP) was selected as a focus mission for the experiment. Three major areas were studied: the ESGP reflector configuration; flight experiment; and meteoroids.

  9. Development and flight test of a helicopter, X-band, portable precision landing system concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, T. J.; Clary, G. R.; Chisholm, J. P.; Macdonald, S. L.

    1985-01-01

    A beacon landing system (BLS) is being developed and flight tested as a part of NASA's Rotorcraft All-Weather Operations Research Program. The system is based on state-of-of-the-art X-band radar technology and digital processing techniques. The bLS airborne hardware consists of an X-band receiver and a small micropreocessor, installed in conjunction wht the aircraft instrument landing system (ILS) receiver. The microprocessor analyzes the X-band, BLS pulses and outputs ILS-compatible localizer and glide slope signals. Range information is obtained using an on-board weather/mapping radar in conjunction with the BLS. The ground station is an inexpensive, portable unit; it weighs less than 70 lb and can be quickly deployed at a landing site. Results from the flight-test program show that the BLS has a significant potential for providing rotorcaraft with low-cost, precision instrument approach capability in remote areas.

  10. Development and flight test of a helicopter, X-band, portable precision landing system concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, T. J.; Clary, G. R.; Chisholm, J. P.; Macdonald, S. L.

    1985-01-01

    A beacon landing system (BLS) is being developed and flight tested as a part of NASA's Rotorcraft All-Weather Operations Research Program. The system is based on state-of-the-art X-band radar technology and digital processing techniques. The BLS airborne hardware consists of an X-band receiver and a small microprocessor, installed in conjunction with the aircraft instrument landing system (ILS) receiver. The microprocessor analyzes the X-band, BLS pulses and outputs ILS-compatible localizer and glide slope signals. Range information is obtained using an on-board weather/mapping radar in conjunction with the BLS. The ground station is an inexpensive, portable unit; it weighs less than 70 lb and can be quickly deployed at a landing site. Results from the flight-test program show that the BLS has a significant potential for providing rotorcraft with low-cost, precision instrument approach capability in remote areas.

  11. Flight test to determine feasibility of a proposed airborne wake vortex detection concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branstetter, James R.; Hastings, E. C., Jr.; Patterson, James C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This investigation was conducted to determine the radial extent at which aircraft mounted flow vanes or roll rate gyros can sense the circulatory flow field that exists around the lift induced vortex system generated by an aircraft in flight. The probe aircraft was equipped with wingtip sensors for measuring angle of attack and angle of sideslip, and with a fuselage mounted gyroscope for measuring roll rate. Analysis of flight test data indicated that the vortex was detectable at a lateral distance of about 105 feet (best results) using unsophisticated equipment. Measurements were made from the centerline of the probe aircraft to the center of the nearest vortex with the probe aircraft flying between one half and one and one half miles behind the vortex generating aircraft.

  12. Options for Organizing the Tanker Airlift Control Center Flight Dispatch Function: An Exploratory Concept Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-06-01

    Jeffrey A. Sheppard, Major, USAF AFIT/ GMO /ENS/00E-10 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR UNIVERSITY AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Wright...Force, Department of Defense, or the U. S. Government. AFIT/ GMO /ENS/00E-10 OPTIONS FOR ORGANIZING THE TANKER AIRLIFT CONTROL CENTER FLIGHT...Program Goal…….……….…61 vi AFIT/ GMO /ENS/00E-10 Abstract The Tanker Airlift Control Center (TACC) is the central execution agency for

  13. Design and Test of a Hydra-Optic Flight Control Actuation System (HOFCAS) Concept

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    surface actuation system that provides immunity to electromagnetic radiation. The direct drive actuator, developed in a previous multi- phase Navy...direct digital control of a surface actuator, and the HOFCAS extends this technology to demonstrate that conventional interconnecting electrical wiring...to the surface actuators can be eliminated. The HOFCAS was laboratory tested using T-2C flight hardware and the results demonstrated the system to

  14. Development of a metal-clad advanced composite shear web design concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laakso, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    An advanced composite web concept was developed for potential application to the Space Shuttle Orbiter main engine thrust structure. The program consisted of design synthesis, analysis, detail design, element testing, and large scale component testing. A concept was sought that offered significant weight saving by the use of Boron/Epoxy (B/E) reinforced titanium plate structure. The desired concept was one that was practical and that utilized metal to efficiently improve structural reliability. The resulting development of a unique titanium-clad B/E shear web design concept is described. Three large scale components were fabricated and tested to demonstrate the performance of the concept: a titanium-clad plus or minus 45 deg B/E web laminate stiffened with vertical B/E reinforced aluminum stiffeners.

  15. Development and flight evaluation of an augmented stability active controls concept: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guinn, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    A pitch active control system (PACS) was developed and flight tested on a wide body jet transport (L-1011) with a flying horizontal stabilizer. Two dual channel digital computers and the associated software provide command signals to a dual channel series servo which controls the stabilizer power actuators. Input sensor signals to the computer are pitch rate, column trim position, and dynamic pressure. Control laws are given for the PACS and the system architecture is defined. Discussions are given regarding piloted flight simulation and vehicle system simulation and vehicle system simulation tests that are performed to verify control laws and system operation prior to installation on the aircraft. Modifications to the basic aircraft included installation of the PACS, addition of a c.g. management system to provide a c.g. range from 25 to 39% mac, and downrigging of the geared elevator to provide the required nose down control authority for aft c.g. flight test conditions. Three pilots used the Cooper-Harper Rating Scale to judge flying qualities of the aircraft with PACS on and off. The handling qualities with the c.g. at 39% mac (41% stability margin) and PACS operating were judged to be as good as the handling qualities with the c.g. at 25% mac (+15% stability margin) and PACS off.

  16. Integrated Technology Rotor/Flight Research Rotor (ITR/FRR) concept definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harse, J. H.

    1983-01-01

    A program was performed to identify and evaluate a variety of candidate rotor hub configurations for the ITR/FRR. Design criteria were established for the development of the hub concepts. Eight initial hub configurations were examined and two were selected for further refinement and evaluation. The selected concepts were bearingless designs with and without lead-lag dampers. The selected concepts were refined to the point that their physical properties relative to the Government's technical goals and manufacturing aspects could be assessed. In addition, variations that could be incorporated for the FRR were identified and compatibility for installation on the RSRA was addressed.

  17. Digital flight control actuation system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossing, R.; Hupp, R.

    1974-01-01

    Flight control actuators and feedback sensors suitable for use in a redundant digital flight control system were examined. The most appropriate design approach for an advanced digital flight control actuation system for development and use in a fly-by-wire system was selected. The concept which was selected consisted of a PM torque motor direct drive. The selected system is compatible with concurrent and independent development efforts on the computer system and the control law mechanizations.

  18. Evaluation of Alternate Concepts for Synthetic Vision Flight Displays With Weather-Penetrating Sensor Image Inserts During Simulated Landing Approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Russell V.; Busquets, Anthony M.; Williams, Steven P.; Nold, Dean E.

    2003-01-01

    A simulation study was conducted in 1994 at Langley Research Center that used 12 commercial airline pilots repeatedly flying complex Microwave Landing System (MLS)-type approaches to parallel runways under Category IIIc weather conditions. Two sensor insert concepts of 'Synthetic Vision Systems' (SVS) were used in the simulated flights, with a more conventional electro-optical display (similar to a Head-Up Display with raster capability for sensor imagery), flown under less restrictive visibility conditions, used as a control condition. The SVS concepts combined the sensor imagery with a computer-generated image (CGI) of an out-the-window scene based on an onboard airport database. Various scenarios involving runway traffic incursions (taxiing aircraft and parked fuel trucks) and navigational system position errors (both static and dynamic) were used to assess the pilots' ability to manage the approach task with the display concepts. The two SVS sensor insert concepts contrasted the simple overlay of sensor imagery on the CGI scene without additional image processing (the SV display) to the complex integration (the AV display) of the CGI scene with pilot-decision aiding using both object and edge detection techniques for detection of obstacle conflicts and runway alignment errors.

  19. An Exploration of Learners' Conceptions of Language, Culture, and Learning in Advanced-Level Spanish Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drewelow, Isabelle; Mitchell, Claire

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on an exploratory study, which examines learners' rating of culture in relation to other concepts in advanced Spanish courses and their justification of the ratings attributed. Open-ended responses, elicited from a questionnaire completed by 179 respondents, were analysed line by line using an interpretive approach. Data…

  20. Recognizing and Managing Complexity: Teaching Advanced Programming Concepts and Techniques Using the Zebra Puzzle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crabtree, John; Zhang, Xihui

    2015-01-01

    Teaching advanced programming can be a challenge, especially when the students are pursuing different majors with diverse analytical and problem-solving capabilities. The purpose of this paper is to explore the efficacy of using a particular problem as a vehicle for imparting a broad set of programming concepts and problem-solving techniques. We…

  1. The Effect of Background Experience and an Advance Organizer on the Attainment of Certain Science Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdaragh, Mary Kathleen

    This study examined the effects of an advance organizer and background experience in science on the attainment of science concepts. Ninth-grade earth science students (N=90) were given the Dubbins Earth Science Test (DEST) and a Science Background Experience Inventory (SBEI) developed by the author. They were then placed into high, medium, and low…

  2. Teaching Advanced Concepts in Computer Networks: VNUML-UM Virtualization Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Pereniguez-Garcia, F.; Marin-Lopez, R.; Ruiz-Martinez, P. M.; Skarmeta-Gomez, A. F.

    2013-01-01

    In the teaching of computer networks the main problem that arises is the high price and limited number of network devices the students can work with in the laboratories. Nowadays, with virtualization we can overcome this limitation. In this paper, we present a methodology that allows students to learn advanced computer network concepts through…

  3. Advanced Monobore Concept, Development of CFEX Self-Expanding Tubular Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Jeff Spray

    2007-09-30

    The Advanced Monobore Concept--CFEX{copyright} Self-Expanding Tubular Technology Development was a successfully executed fundamental research through field demonstration project. This final report is presented as a progression, according to basic technology development steps. For this project, the research and development steps used were: concept development, engineering analysis, manufacturing, testing, demonstration, and technology transfer. The CFEX{copyright} Technology Development--Advanced Monobore Concept Project successfully completed all of the steps for technology development, covering fundamental research, conceptual development, engineering design, advanced-level prototype construction, mechanical testing, and downhole demonstration. Within an approximately two year period, a partially defined, broad concept was evolved into a substantial new technological area for drilling and production engineering applicable a variety of extractive industries--which was also successfully demonstrated in a test well. The demonstration achievement included an actual mono-diameter placement of two self-expanding tubulars. The fundamental result is that an economical and technically proficient means of casing any size of drilling or production well or borehole is indicated as feasible based on the results of the project. Highlighted major accomplishments during the project's Concept, Engineering, Manufacturing, Demonstration, and Technology Transfer phases, are given.

  4. AVID - A design system for technology studies of advanced transportation concepts. [Aerospace Vehicle Interactive Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilhite, A. W.; Rehder, J. J.

    1979-01-01

    The basic AVID (Aerospace Vehicle Interactive Design) is a general system for conceptual and preliminary design currently being applied to a broad range of future space transportation and spacecraft vehicle concepts. AVID hardware includes a minicomputer allowing rapid designer interaction. AVID software includes (1) an executive program and communication data base which provide the automated capability to couple individual programs, either individually in an interactive mode or chained together in an automatic sequence mode; and (2) the individual technology and utility programs which provide analysis capability in areas such as graphics, aerodynamics, propulsion, flight performance, weights, sizing, and costs.

  5. Space Station propulsion - Advanced development testing of the water electrolysis concept at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Lee W.; Bagdigian, Deborah R.

    1989-01-01

    The successful demonstration at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) that the water electrolysis concept is sufficiently mature to warrant adopting it as the baseline propulsion design for Space Station Freedom is described. In particular, the test results demonstrated that oxygen/hydrogen thruster, using gaseous propellants, can deliver more than two million lbf-seconds of total impulse at mixture ratios of 3:1 to 8:1 without significant degradation. The results alao demonstrated succcessful end-to-end operation of an integrated water electrolysis propulsion system.

  6. Galerkin CFD solvers for use in a multi-disciplinary suite for modeling advanced flight vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffitt, Nicholas J.

    This work extends existing Galerkin CFD solvers for use in a multi-disciplinary suite. The suite is proposed as a means of modeling advanced flight vehicles, which exhibit strong coupling between aerodynamics, structural dynamics, controls, rigid body motion, propulsion, and heat transfer. Such applications include aeroelastics, aeroacoustics, stability and control, and other highly coupled applications. The suite uses NASA STARS for modeling structural dynamics and heat transfer. Aerodynamics, propulsion, and rigid body dynamics are modeled in one of the five CFD solvers below. Euler2D and Euler3D are Galerkin CFD solvers created at OSU by Cowan (2003). These solvers are capable of modeling compressible inviscid aerodynamics with modal elastics and rigid body motion. This work reorganized these solvers to improve efficiency during editing and at run time. Simple and efficient propulsion models were added, including rocket, turbojet, and scramjet engines. Viscous terms were added to the previous solvers to create NS2D and NS3D. The viscous contributions were demonstrated in the inertial and non-inertial frames. Variable viscosity (Sutherland's equation) and heat transfer boundary conditions were added to both solvers but not verified in this work. Two turbulence models were implemented in NS2D and NS3D: Spalart-Allmarus (SA) model of Deck, et al. (2002) and Menter's SST model (1994). A rotation correction term (Shur, et al., 2000) was added to the production of turbulence. Local time stepping and artificial dissipation were adapted to each model. CFDsol is a Taylor-Galerkin solver with an SA turbulence model. This work improved the time accuracy, far field stability, viscous terms, Sutherland?s equation, and SA model with NS3D as a guideline and added the propulsion models from Euler3D to CFDsol. Simple geometries were demonstrated to utilize current meshing and processing capabilities. Air-breathing hypersonic flight vehicles (AHFVs) represent the ultimate

  7. Development and flight evaluation of an augmented stability active controls concept with a small horizontal tail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rising, J. J.; Kairys, A. A.; Maass, C. A.; Siegart, C. D.; Rakness, W. L.; Mijares, R. D.; King, R. W.; Peterson, R. S.; Hurley, S. R.; Wickson, D.

    1982-01-01

    A limited authority pitch active control system (PACS) was developed for a wide body jet transport (L-1011) with a flying horizontal stabilizer. Two dual channel digital computers and the associated software provide command signals to a dual channel series servo which controls the stabilizer power actuators. Input sensor signals to the computer are pitch rate, column-trim position, and dynamic pressure. Control laws are given for the PACS and the system architecture is defined. The piloted flight simulation and vehicle system simulation tests performed to verify control laws and system operation prior to installation on the aircraft are discussed. Modifications to the basic aircraft are described. Flying qualities of the aircraft with the PACS on and off were evaluated. Handling qualities for cruise and high speed flight conditions with the c.g. at 39% mac ( + 1% stability margin) and PACS operating were judged to be as good as the handling qualities with the c.g. at 25% (+15% stability margin) and PACS off.

  8. Nonlinear Aerodynamic Modeling From Flight Data Using Advanced Piloted Maneuvers and Fuzzy Logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandon, Jay M.; Morelli, Eugene A.

    2012-01-01

    Results of the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate Seedling Project Phase I research project entitled "Nonlinear Aerodynamics Modeling using Fuzzy Logic" are presented. Efficient and rapid flight test capabilities were developed for estimating highly nonlinear models of airplane aerodynamics over a large flight envelope. Results showed that the flight maneuvers developed, used in conjunction with the fuzzy-logic system identification algorithms, produced very good model fits of the data, with no model structure inputs required, for flight conditions ranging from cruise to departure and spin conditions.

  9. Advanced Spacesuit Portable Life Support System Packaging Concept Mock-Up Design & Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O''Connell, Mary K.; Slade, Howard G.; Stinson, Richard G.

    1998-01-01

    A concentrated development effort was begun at NASA Johnson Space Center to create an advanced Portable Life Support System (PLSS) packaging concept. Ease of maintenance, technological flexibility, low weight, and minimal volume are targeted in the design of future micro-gravity and planetary PLSS configurations. Three main design concepts emerged from conceptual design techniques and were carried forth into detailed design, then full scale mock-up creation. "Foam", "Motherboard", and "LEGOtm" packaging design concepts are described in detail. Results of the evaluation process targeted maintenance, robustness, mass properties, and flexibility as key aspects to a new PLSS packaging configuration. The various design tools used to evolve concepts into high fidelity mock ups revealed that no single tool was all encompassing, several combinations were complimentary, the devil is in the details, and, despite efforts, many lessons were learned only after working with hardware.

  10. Flight evaluation of stabilization and command augmentation system concepts and cockpit displays during approach and landing of powered-lift STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, J. A.; Innis, R. C.; Hardy, G. H.

    1980-01-01

    A flight research program was conducted to assess the effectiveness of manual control concepts and various cockpit displays in improving altitude (pitch, roll, and yaw) and longitudinal path control during short takeoff aircraft approaches and landings. Satisfactory flying qualities were demonstrared to minimum decision heights of 30 m (100 ft) for selected stabilization and command augmentation systems and flight director combinations. Precise landings at low touchdown sink rates were achieved with a gentle flare maneuver.

  11. A Framework for Human Performance Criteria for Advanced Reactor Operational Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Jacques V Hugo; David I Gertman; Jeffrey C Joe

    2014-08-01

    This report supports the determination of new Operational Concept models needed in support of the operational design of new reactors. The objective of this research is to establish the technical bases for human performance and human performance criteria frameworks, models, and guidance for operational concepts for advanced reactor designs. The report includes a discussion of operating principles for advanced reactors, the human performance issues and requirements for human performance based upon work domain analysis and current regulatory requirements, and a description of general human performance criteria. The major findings and key observations to date are that there is some operating experience that informs operational concepts for baseline designs for SFR and HGTRs, with the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) as a best-case predecessor design. This report summarizes the theoretical and operational foundations for the development of a framework and model for human performance criteria that will influence the development of future Operational Concepts. The report also highlights issues associated with advanced reactor design and clarifies and codifies the identified aspects of technology and operating scenarios.

  12. Advanced EVA Capabilities: A Study for NASA's Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concept Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    This report documents the results of a study carried out as part of NASA s Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts Program examining the future technology needs of extravehicular activities (EVAs). The intent of this study is to produce a comprehensive report that identifies various design concepts for human-related advanced EVA systems necessary to achieve the goals of supporting future space exploration and development customers in free space and on planetary surfaces for space missions in the post-2020 timeframe. The design concepts studied and evaluated are not limited to anthropomorphic space suits, but include a wide range of human-enhancing EVA technologies as well as consideration of coordination and integration with advanced robotics. The goal of the study effort is to establish a baseline technology "road map" that identifies and describes an investment and technical development strategy, including recommendations that will lead to future enhanced synergistic human/robot EVA operations. The eventual use of this study effort is to focus evolving performance capabilities of various EVA system elements toward the goal of providing high performance human operational capabilities for a multitude of future space applications and destinations. The data collected for this study indicate a rich and diverse history of systems that have been developed to perform a variety of EVA tasks, indicating what is possible. However, the data gathered for this study also indicate a paucity of new concepts and technologies for advanced EVA missions - at least any that researchers are willing to discuss in this type of forum.

  13. Earth resources programs at the Langley Research Center. Part 1: Advanced Applications Flight Experiments (AAFE) and microwave remote sensing program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, R. N.

    1972-01-01

    The earth resources activity is comprised of two basic programs as follows: advanced applications flight experiments, and microwave remote sensing. The two programs are in various stages of implementation, extending from experimental investigations within both the AAFE program and the microwave remote sensing program, to multidisciplinary studies and planning. The purpose of this paper is simply to identify the main thrust of the Langley Research Center activity in earth resources.

  14. Quality nursing care for hospitalized patients with advanced illness: concept development.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Shigeko; Baggs, Judith G; Knafl, Kathleen A

    2010-08-01

    The quality of nursing care as perceived by hospitalized patients with advanced illness has not been examined. A concept of quality nursing care for this population was developed by integrating the literature on constructs defining quality nursing care with empirical findings from interviews of 16 patients with advanced illness. Quality nursing care was characterized as competence and personal caring supported by professionalism and delivered with an appropriate demeanor. Although the attributes of competence, caring, professionalism, and demeanor were identified as common components of quality care across various patient populations, the caring domain increased in importance when patients with advanced illness perceived themselves as vulnerable. Assessment of quality nursing care for patients with advanced illness needs to include measures of patient perceptions of vulnerability.

  15. The Application of Advanced Cultivation Techniques in the Long Term Maintenance of Space Flight Plant Biological Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyenga, A. G.

    2003-01-01

    The development of the International Space Station (ISS) presents extensive opportunities for the implementation of long duration space life sciences studies. Continued attention has been placed in the development of plant growth chamber facilities capable of supporting the cultivation of plants in space flight microgravity conditions. The success of these facilities is largely dependent on their capacity to support the various growth requirements of test plant species. The cultivation requirements for higher plant species are generally complex, requiring specific levels of illumination, temperature, humidity, water, nutrients, and gas composition in order to achieve normal physiological growth and development. The supply of water, nutrients, and oxygen to the plant root system is a factor, which has proven to be particularly challenging in a microgravity space flight environment. The resolution of this issue is particularly important for the more intensive crop cultivation of plants envisaged in Nasa's advanced life support initiative. BioServe Space Technologies is a NASA, Research Partnership Center (RPC) at the University of Colorado, Boulder. BioServe has designed and operated various space flight plant habitat systems, and placed specific emphasis on the development and enhanced performance of subsystem components such as water and nutrient delivery, illumination, gas exchange and atmosphere control, temperature and humidity control. The further development and application of these subsystems to next generation habitats is of significant benefit and contribution towards the development of both the Space Plant biology and the Advanced Life Support Programs. The cooperative agreement between NASA Ames Research center and BioServe was established to support the further implementation of advanced cultivation techniques and protocols to plant habitat systems being coordinated at NASA Ames Research Center. Emphasis was placed on the implementation of passive

  16. From Concept-to-Flight: An Active Active Fluid Loop Based Thermal Control System for Mars Science Laboratory Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birur, Gajanana C.; Bhandari, Pradeep; Bame, David; Karlmann, Paul; Mastropietro, A. J.; Liu, Yuanming; Miller, Jennifer; Pauken, Michael; Lyra, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover, Curiosity, which was launched on November 26, 2011, incorporates a novel active thermal control system to keep the sensitive electronics and science instruments at safe operating and survival temperatures. While the diurnal temperature variations on the Mars surface range from -120 C to +30 C, the sensitive equipment are kept within -40 C to +50 C. The active thermal control system is based on a single-phase mechanically pumped fluid loop (MPFL) system which removes or recovers excess waste heat and manages it to maintain the sensitive equipment inside the rover at safe temperatures. This paper will describe the entire process of developing this active thermal control system for the MSL rover from concept to flight implementation. The development of the rover thermal control system during its architecture, design, fabrication, integration, testing, and launch is described.

  17. Early Flight Fission Test Facilities (EFF-TF) and Concepts That Support Near-Term Space Fission Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanDyke, Melissa; Houts, Mike; Godfroy, Thomas; Martin, James

    2003-01-01

    Fission technology can enable rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system. If fusion propulsion systems are to be developed to their full potential; however, near-term customers must be identified and initial fission systems successfully developed, launched, and utilized. Successful utilization will most likely occur if frequent, significant hardware-based milestones can be achieved throughout the program. If the system is designed to operate within established radiation damage and fuel burn up limits while simultaneously being designed to allow close simulation of heat from fission using resistance heaters, high confidence in fission system pe$ormance and lifetime can be attained through non-nuclear testing. Through demonstration of systems concepts (designed by DOE National Laboratories) in relevant environments, this philosophy has been demonstrated through hardware testing in the Early Flight Fission Test Facilities (EFF-TF) at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The EFF-TF is designed to enable very realistic non-nuclear testing of space fission systems. Ongoing research at the EFF-TF is geared towards facilitating research, development, system integration, and system utilization via cooperative efforts with DOE labs, industry, universities, and other NASA centers.

  18. Advanced transportation system study: Manned launch vehicle concepts for two way transportation system payloads to LEO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffy, James B.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the Advanced Transportation System Study (ATSS) task area 1 study effort is to examine manned launch vehicle booster concepts and two-way cargo transfer and return vehicle concepts to determine which of the many proposed concepts best meets NASA's needs for two-way transportation to low earth orbit. The study identified specific configurations of the normally unmanned, expendable launch vehicles (such as the National Launch System family) necessary to fly manned payloads. These launch vehicle configurations were then analyzed to determine the integrated booster/spacecraft performance, operations, reliability, and cost characteristics for the payload delivery and return mission. Design impacts to the expendable launch vehicles which would be required to perform the manned payload delivery mission were also identified. These impacts included the implications of applying NASA's man-rating requirements, as well as any mission or payload unique impacts. The booster concepts evaluated included the National Launch System (NLS) family of expendable vehicles and several variations of the NLS reference configurations to deliver larger manned payload concepts (such as the crew logistics vehicle (CLV) proposed by NASA JSC). Advanced, clean sheet concepts such as an F-1A engine derived liquid rocket booster (LRB), the single stage to orbit rocket, and a NASP-derived aerospace plane were also included in the study effort. Existing expendable launch vehicles such as the Titan 4, Ariane 5, Energia, and Proton were also examined. Although several manned payload concepts were considered in the analyses, the reference manned payload was the NASA Langley Research Center's HL-20 version of the personnel launch system (PLS). A scaled up version of the PLS for combined crew/cargo delivery capability, the HL-42 configuration, was also included in the analyses of cargo transfer and return vehicle (CTRV) booster concepts. In addition to strictly manned payloads, two-way cargo

  19. Advanced transportation system study: Manned launch vehicle concepts for two way transportation system payloads to LEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy, James B.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of the Advanced Transportation System Study (ATSS) task area 1 study effort is to examine manned launch vehicle booster concepts and two-way cargo transfer and return vehicle concepts to determine which of the many proposed concepts best meets NASA's needs for two-way transportation to low earth orbit. The study identified specific configurations of the normally unmanned, expendable launch vehicles (such as the National Launch System family) necessary to fly manned payloads. These launch vehicle configurations were then analyzed to determine the integrated booster/spacecraft performance, operations, reliability, and cost characteristics for the payload delivery and return mission. Design impacts to the expendable launch vehicles which would be required to perform the manned payload delivery mission were also identified. These impacts included the implications of applying NASA's man-rating requirements, as well as any mission or payload unique impacts. The booster concepts evaluated included the National Launch System (NLS) family of expendable vehicles and several variations of the NLS reference configurations to deliver larger manned payload concepts (such as the crew logistics vehicle (CLV) proposed by NASA JSC). Advanced, clean sheet concepts such as an F-1A engine derived liquid rocket booster (LRB), the single stage to orbit rocket, and a NASP-derived aerospace plane were also included in the study effort. Existing expendable launch vehicles such as the Titan 4, Ariane 5, Energia, and Proton were also examined. Although several manned payload concepts were considered in the analyses, the reference manned payload was the NASA Langley Research Center's HL-20 version of the personnel launch system (PLS). A scaled up version of the PLS for combined crew/cargo delivery capability, the HL-42 configuration, was also included in the analyses of cargo transfer and return vehicle (CTRV) booster concepts. In addition to strictly manned payloads, two-way cargo

  20. X-29 flight maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Two X-29 aircraft, featuring one of the most unusual designs in aviation history, were flown at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., as technology demonstrators to investigate a host of advanced concepts and technologies. This 30-second clip of air-to-air footage shows the X-29 as it makes hard left and right aileron turns followed up with a few barrel rolls.

  1. Innovation in Flight: Research of the NASA Langley Research Center on Revolutionary Advanced Concepts for Aeronautics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, Joseph R.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this publication is to provide an overview of the topic of revolutionary research in aeronautics at Langley, including many examples of research efforts that offer significant potential benefits, but have not yet been applied. The discussion also includes an overview of how innovation and creativity is stimulated within the Center, and a perspective on the future of innovation. The documentation of this topic, especially the scope and experiences of the example research activities covered, is intended to provide background information for future researchers.

  2. The advancement of a new human factors report--'The Unique Report'--facilitating flight crew auditing of performance/operations as part of an airline's safety management system.

    PubMed

    Leva, M C; Cahill, J; Kay, A M; Losa, G; McDonald, N

    2010-02-01

    This paper presents the findings of research relating to the specification of a new human factors report, conducted as part of the work requirements for the Human Integration into the Lifecycle of Aviation Systems project, sponsored by the European Commission. Specifically, it describes the proposed concept for a unique report, which will form the basis for all operational and safety reports completed by flight crew. This includes all mandatory and optional reports. Critically, this form is central to the advancement of improved processes and technology tools, supporting airline performance management, safety management, organisational learning and knowledge integration/information-sharing activities. Specifically, this paper describes the background to the development of this reporting form, the logic and contents of this form and how reporting data will be made use of by airline personnel. This includes a description of the proposed intelligent planning process and the associated intelligent flight plan concept, which makes use of airline operational and safety analyses information. Primarily, this new reporting form has been developed in collaboration with a major Spanish airline. In addition, it has involved research with five other airlines. Overall, this has involved extensive field research, collaborative prototyping and evaluation of new reports/flight plan concepts and a number of evaluation activities. Participants have included both operational and management personnel, across different airline flight operations processes. Statement of Relevance: This paper presents the development of a reporting concept outlined through field research and collaborative prototyping within an airline. The resulting reporting function, embedded in the journey log compiled at the end of each flight, aims at enabling employees to audit the operations of the company they work for.

  3. A Comparison of Two Control Display Unit Concepts on Flight Management System Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Terence S.

    1997-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges for a pilot in the transition to a 'glass' cockpit is understanding the flight management system (FMS). Because of both the complex nature of the FMS and the pilot-FMS interface, a large portion of transition training is devoted to the FMS. The current study examined the impact of the primary pilot-FMS interface, the control display unit (CDU), on FMS training. Based on the hypothesis that the interface design could have a significant impact on training, an FMS simulation with two separate interfaces was developed. One interface was similar to a current-generation design, and the other was a multiwindows CDU based on graphical user interface techniques. For both application and evaluation reasons, constraints were applied to the graphical CDU design to maintain as much similarity as possible with the conventional CDU. This preliminary experiment was conducted to evaluate the interface effects on training. Sixteen pilots with no FMS experience were used in a between-subjects test. A time-compressed, airline-type FMS training environment was simulated. The subjects were trained to a fixed-time criterion, and performance was measured in a final, full-mission simulation context. This paper describes the technical approach, simulation implementation, and experimental results of this effort.

  4. The History of the XV-15 Tilt Rotor Research Aircraft: From Concept to Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maisel, Martin D.; Giulianetti, Demo J.; Dugan, Daniel C.

    2000-01-01

    This monograph is a testament to the efforts of many people overcoming multiple technical challenges encountered while developing the XV-15 tilt rotor research aircraft. The Ames involvement with the tilt rotor aircraft began in 1957 with investigations of the performance and dynamic behavior of the Bell XV-3 tilt rotor aircraft. At that time, Ames Research Center was known as the Ames Aeronautical Laboratory of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). As we approach the new millennium, and after more than 40 years of effort and the successful completion of our initial goals, it is appropriate to reflect on the technical accomplishments and consider the future applications of this unique aircraft class, the tilt rotor. The talented engineers, technicians, managers, and leaders at Ames have worked hard with their counterparts in the U.S. rotorcraft industry to overcome technology barriers and to make the military and civil tilt rotor aircraft safer, environmentally acceptable, and more efficient. The tilt rotor aircraft combines the advantages of vertical takeoff and landing capabilities, inherent to the helicopter, with the forward speed and range of a fixed wing turboprop airplane. Our studies have shown that this new vehicle type can provide the aviation transportation industry with the flexibility for highspeed, long-range flight, coupled with runway-independent operations, thus having a significant potential to relieve airport congestion. We see the tilt rotor aircraft as an element of the solution to this growing air transport problem.

  5. Lifting Entry & Atmospheric Flight (LEAF) System Concept Applications at Solar System Bodies With an Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Greg; Polidan, Ronald; Ross, Floyd; Sokol, Daniel; Warwick, Steve

    2015-11-01

    Northrop Grumman and L’Garde have continued the development of a hypersonic entry, semi-buoyant, maneuverable platform capable of performing long-duration (months to a year) in situ and remote measurements at any solar system body that possesses an atmosphere.The Lifting Entry & Atmospheric Flight (LEAF) family of vehicles achieves this capability by using a semi-buoyant, ultra-low ballistic coefficient vehicle whose lifting entry allows it to enter the atmosphere without an aeroshell. The mass savings realized by eliminating the heavy aeroshell allows significantly more payload to be accommodated by the platform for additional science collection and return.In this presentation, we discuss the application of the LEAF system at various solar system bodies: Venus, Titan, Mars, and Earth. We present the key differences in platform design as well as operational differences required by the various target environments. The Venus implementation includes propulsive capability to reach higher altitudes during the day and achieves full buoyancy in the mid-cloud layer of Venus’ atmosphere at night.Titan also offers an attractive operating environment, allowing LEAF designs that can target low or medium altitude operations, also with propulsive capabilities to roam within each altitude regime. The Mars version is a glider that descends gradually, allowing targeted delivery of payloads to the surface or high resolution surface imaging. Finally, an Earth version could remain in orbit in a stowed state until activated, allowing rapid response type deployments to any region of the globe.

  6. Integrated Technology Rotor/Flight Research Rotor (ITR/FRR) concept definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howes, H. E.; Tomashofski, C. A.

    1983-01-01

    A program was performed to identify and evaluate a variety of candidate rotor hub configurations for the ITR/FRR. Design criteria were established for the development of the hub concepts. Five initial hub configurations were examined and two were selected for further refinement and evaluation. The selected configurations were bearingless designs. The Classic Elastic Pitch Beam (CEPB) and the Plain Elastic Pitch Beam (PEPB), both exhibit superior qualities for the criteria in the final evalution. The CEPB is favored over the PEPB primarily because it offers better capability for built in damping for stability and is judged to have a lower risk in development.

  7. Yttrium-90 Radioembolization of Hepatocellular Carcinoma-Performance, Technical Advances, and Future Concepts.

    PubMed

    Molvar, Christopher; Lewandowski, Robert

    2015-12-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a lethal tumor, claiming over half a million lives per year. Treatment of HCC is commonly performed without curative intent, and palliative options dominate, including catheter-based therapies, namely, transarterial chemoembolization and yttrium-90 ((90)Y) radioembolization. This review will showcase the performance of (90)Y radioembolization for the treatment of HCC, focusing on recent seminal data and technical advances. In particular, novel radioembolization treatment concepts are discussed and compared with conventional HCC therapy.

  8. Yttrium-90 Radioembolization of Hepatocellular Carcinoma–Performance, Technical Advances, and Future Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Molvar, Christopher; Lewandowski, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a lethal tumor, claiming over half a million lives per year. Treatment of HCC is commonly performed without curative intent, and palliative options dominate, including catheter-based therapies, namely, transarterial chemoembolization and yttrium-90 (90Y) radioembolization. This review will showcase the performance of 90Y radioembolization for the treatment of HCC, focusing on recent seminal data and technical advances. In particular, novel radioembolization treatment concepts are discussed and compared with conventional HCC therapy. PMID:26622103

  9. Redundant actuator development program. [for flight control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chenoweth, C. C.; Fain, D. M.; Svensson, C. I.

    1975-01-01

    Two concepts of redundant secondary actuator mechanization, applicable to future advanced flight control systems, were studied to quantitatively assess their design applicability to an AST. The two actuator concepts, a four-channel, force summed system and a three-channel, active/standby system have been developed and evaluated through analysis, analog computer simulation, and piloted motion simulation. The quantitative comparison of the two concepts indicates that the force summed concept better meet performance requirements, although the active/standby is superior in other respects. Both concepts are viable candidates for advanced control application dependent on the specific performance requirements.

  10. The ParaShield entry vehicle concept - Basic theory and flight test development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akin, David L.

    The ParaShield concept of the Space Systems Laboratory is an ultra-low ballistic coefficient entry vehicle, created to meet the need for entry vehicle technology to return mass from low earth orbit. The concept involves decoupling the ballistic coefficient from the launch vehicle parameters, to pick a value (beta) which optimizes the desired entry vehicle characteristics. Trajectory simulations show that, as the ballistic coefficient is lowered to range of 100-150 Pa, the total heat load and peak heating flux drop markedly, due to primary deceleration in regions of extremely low dynamic pressure. These same low values of beta also result in a low terminal velocity, allowing the use of simple impact attenuation to provide a soft landing on water or dry land. Because the deployable fabric framework serves the functions of both heat shield and parachute, it is referred to as a ParaShield. The experience gained from the design, construction, and integration of a ParaShield test vehicle is discussed.

  11. Study of advanced composite structural design concepts for an arrow wing supersonic cruise configuration, task 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A structural design study was conducted to assess the relative merits of structural concepts using advanced composite materials for an advanced supersonic aircraft cruising at Mach 2.7. The configuration and structural arrangement developed during Task I and II of the study, was used as the baseline configuration. Allowable stresses and strains were established for boron and advanced graphite fibers based on projected fiber properties available in the next decade. Structural concepts were designed and analyzed using graphite polyimide and boron polyimide, applied to stiffened panels and conventional sandwich panels. The conventional sandwich panels were selected as the structural concept to be used on the wing structure. The upper and lower surface panels of the Task I arrow wing were redesigned using high-strength graphite polyimide sandwich panels over the titanium spars and ribs. The ATLAS computer system was used as the basis for stress analysis and resizing the surface panels using the loads from the Task II study, without adjustment for change in aeroelastic deformation. The flutter analysis indicated a decrease in the flutter speed compared to the baseline titanium wing design. The flutter analysis indicated a decrease in the flutter speed compared to the baseline titanium wing design. The flutter speed was increased to that of the titanium wing, with a weight penalty less than that of the metallic airplane.

  12. Prestressed-concrete pressure vessels and their applicability to advanced-energy-system concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, D.J

    1983-01-01

    Prestressed concrete pressure vessels (PCPVs) are, in essence, spaced steel structures since their strength is derived from a multitude of steel elements made up of deformed reinforcing bars and prestressing tendons which are present in sufficient quantities to carry tension loads imposed on the vessel. Other major components of a PCPV include the concrete, liner and cooling system, and insulation. PCPVs exhibit a number of advantages which make them ideally suited for application to advanced energy concepts: fabricability in virtually any size and shape using available technology, improved safety, reduced capital costs, and a history of proven performance. PCPVs have many applications to both nuclear- and non-nuclear-based energy systems concepts. Several of these concepts will be discussed as well as the research and development activities conducted at ORNL in support of PCPV development.

  13. Prestressed concrete pressure vessels and their applicability to advanced energy system concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    Prestressed concrete pressure vessels (PCPVs) are, in essence, spaced steel structures since their strength is derived from a multitude of steel elements made up of deformed reinforcing bars and prestressing tendons which are present in sufficient quantities to carry tension loads imposed on the vessel. Other major components of a PCPV include the concrete, liner and cooling system, and insulation. PCPVs exhibit a number of advantages which make them ideally suited for application to advanced energy concepts: fabricability in virtually any size and shape using available technology, improved safety, reduced capital costs, and a history of proven performance. PCPVs have many applications to both nuclear- and non-nuclear-based energy systems concepts. Several of these concepts are discussed as well as the research and development activities conducted at ORNL in support of PCPV development.

  14. Study of advanced electric propulsion system concept using a flywheel for electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Younger, F. C.; Lackner, H.

    1979-01-01

    Advanced electric propulsion system concepts with flywheels for electric vehicles are evaluated and it is predicted that advanced systems can provide considerable performance improvement over existing electric propulsion systems with little or no cost penalty. Using components specifically designed for an integrated electric propulsion system avoids the compromises that frequently lead to a loss of efficiency and to inefficient utilization of space and weight. A propulsion system using a flywheel power energy storage device can provide excellent acceleration under adverse conditions of battery degradation due either to very low temperatures or high degrees of discharge. Both electrical and mechanical means of transfer of energy to and from the flywheel appear attractive; however, development work is required to establish the safe limits of speed and energy storage for advanced flywheel designs and to achieve the optimum efficiency of energy transfer. Brushless traction motor designs using either electronic commutation schemes or dc-to-ac inverters appear to provide a practical approach to a mass producible motor, with excellent efficiency and light weight. No comparisons were made with advanced system concepts which do not incorporate a flywheel.

  15. Noise and economic characteristics of an advanced blended supersonic transport concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molloy, J. K.; Grantham, W. D.; Neubauer, M. J., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Noise and economic characteristics were obtained for an advanced supersonic transport concept that utilized wing body blending, a double bypass variable cycle engine, superplastically formed and diffusion bonded titanium in both the primary and secondary structures, and an alternative interior arrangement that provides increased seating capacity. The configuration has a cruise Mach number of 2.62, provisions for 290 passengers, a mission range of 8.19 Mm (4423 n.mi.), and an average operating cruise lift drag ratio of 9.23. Advanced operating procedures, which have the potential to reduce airport community noise, were explored by using a simulator. Traded jet noise levels of 105.7 and 103.4 EPNdB were obtained by using standard and advanced takeoff operational procedures, respectively. A new method for predicting lateral attenuation was utilized in obtaining these jet noise levels.

  16. F-15B in flight with test panels covered with advanced spray-on foam insulation material for the Spa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Test panels covered with an advanced foam insulation material for the Space Shuttle's giant external fuel tank were test flown aboard an F-15B research aircraft at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. Six panels were mounted on the left side of a heavily instrumented Flight Text Fixture mounted underneath the F-15B's fuselage. Insulation on this panel was finely machined over a horizontal rib structure to simulate in-line airflow past the tank; other panels had the ribs mounted vertically or had the insulation left in a rough as-sprayed surface. The tests were part of an effort by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center to determine why small particles of the new insulation flaked off the tank on recent Shuttle missions. The tests with Dryden's F-15B were designed to replicate the pressure environment the Shuttle encounters during the first minute after launch. No noticeable erosion of the insulation material was noted after the flight experiment at Dryden.

  17. Flight-service program for advanced composite rudders on transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Flight service experience and in-service inspection results are reported for DC-10 graphite composite rudders during the third year of airline service. Test results and status are also reported for ground-based and airborne graphite-epoxy specimens with three different epoxy resin systems to obtain moisture absorption data. Twenty graphite composite rudders were produced, nine of which were installed on commercial aircraft during the past three years. The rudders collectively accumulated 75,863 flight hours. The high time rudder accumulated 12,740 flight hours in slightly over 36 months. The graphite composite rudders were inspected visually at approximately 1000 flight hour intervals and ultrasonically at approximately 3000 flight hour intervals in accordance with in-service inspection plans. All rudders were judged acceptable for continued service as a result of these inspections. Composite moisture absorption data on small specimens, both ground-based and carried aboard three flight-service aircraft, are given. The specimens include Thornel 300 fibers in Narmco 5208 and 5209 resin systems, and Type AS fibers in the Hercules 3501-6 resin system.

  18. SMAHTR - A Concept for a Small, Modular Advanced High Temperaure Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Gehin, Jess C; Greene, Sherrell R; Holcomb, David Eugene; Carbajo, Juan J; Cisneros, Anselmo T; Corwin, William R; Ilas, Dan; Wilson, Dane F; Varma, Venugopal Koikal; Bradley, Eric Craig; Yoder, III, Graydon L

    2010-01-01

    Several new high temperature reactor concepts, referred to as Fluoride Salt Cooled High Temperature Reactors (FHRs), have been developed over the past decade. These FHRs use a liquid salt coolant combined with high temperature gas-cooled reactor fuels (TRISO) and graphite structural materials to provide a reactor that operates at very high temperatures and is scalable to large sizes perhaps exceeding 2400 MWt. This paper presents a new small FHR the Small Modular Advanced High Temperature Reactor or SmAHTR . SmAHTR is targeted at applications that require compact, high temperature heat sources either for high efficiency electricity production or process heat applications. A preliminary SmAHTR concept has been developed that delivers 125 MWt of energy in an integral primary system design that places all primary and decay heat removal heat exchangers inside the reactor vessel. The current reactor baseline concept utilizes a prismatic fuel block core, but multiple removable fuel assembly concepts are under evaluation as well. The reactor vessel size is such that it can be transported on a standard tractor-trailer to support simplified deployment. This paper will provide a summary of the current SmAHTR system concept and on-going technology and system architecture trades studies.

  19. Measurements of Forward Flight Effects on the Advanced Ducted Propulsion Demonstrator Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, W. C.; Soderman, P. T.; Larkin, M.; Bock, L.; Olson, Lawrence (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The performance of the Pratt & Whitney Advanced Ducted Propulsion (ADP) UHB concept has been recently evaluated with studies of a 17 in. diameter fan simulator. Following the model scale tests, a 118 in. diameter demonstrator was tested at the NASA Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel. The 18 blade fan was driven by the low compressor shaft of a PW2037 core through a reduction gear system fabricated by Fiat with approximately 1:3.7 reduction ratio. ne variable pitch fan was hydraulically actuated with settings for take-off, cruise, feather, and reverse thrust. The low-pressure turbine was built by MTU to provide higher shaft power in comparison with the standard PW2037. The demonstrator was provided with 45 vanes located 2.6 fan chords downstream of the rotor, and 10 case struts approximately 1 fan chord downstream of the vanes. The inlet, mid-duct, and exhaust linings were acoustically treated. Acoustic surveys were taken in the for-ward thrust mode for fan speeds of 898, 1120, 1205, and 1302 R.P.M., and at tunnel speeds of 25, 50, 100, and 140 kts. The lowest speed was achieved with the wind tunnel fans at flat pitch, but with the engine pumping the test section Microphone signals were recorded for 30 seconds at 5 deg. increments. These measurements will be used to assess the effects of forward speed on UHB engines, to compare these effects with the corresponding characteristics of conventional bypass ratio engines, and to discuss the various aspects of testing large engines in the wind tunnel.

  20. The Los Alamos Laser Acceleration of Particles Workshop and beginning of the advanced accelerator concepts field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, C.

    2012-12-01

    The first Advanced Acceleration of Particles-AAC-Workshop (actually named Laser Acceleration of Particles Workshop) was held at Los Alamos in January 1982. The workshop lasted a week and divided all the acceleration techniques into four categories: near field, far field, media, and vacuum. Basic theorems of particle acceleration were postulated (later proven) and specific experiments based on the four categories were formulated. This landmark workshop led to the formation of the advanced accelerator R&D program in the HEP office of the DOE that supports advanced accelerator research to this day. Two major new user facilities at Argonne and Brookhaven and several more directed experimental efforts were built to explore the advanced particle acceleration schemes. It is not an exaggeration to say that the intellectual breadth and excitement provided by the many groups who entered this new field provided the needed vitality to then recently formed APS Division of Beams and the new online journal Physical Review Special Topics-Accelerators and Beams. On this 30th anniversary of the AAC Workshops, it is worthwhile to look back at the legacy of the first Workshop at Los Alamos and the fine groundwork it laid for the field of advanced accelerator concepts that continues to flourish to this day.

  1. Conception on the cell mechanisms of bone tissue loss under spase flight conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodionova, Natalia; Oganov, Victor; Kabitskaya, Olga

    Basing on the analysis of available literature and the results of our own electron microscopic and radioautographic researches the data are presented about the morpho-functional peculiarities and succession of cellular interactions in adaptive remodeling of bone structures under normal conditions and after exposure of animals (rats, monkeys, mice) to microgravity (SLS-2, Bion-11, BionM-1). The probable cellular mechanisms of the development of osteopenia and osteoporosis are considered. Our conception on remodeling proposes the following sequence in the development of cellular interactions after decrease of the mechanical loading: a primary response of osteocytes (mechanosensory cells) to the mechanical stimulus; osteocytic remodeling (osteolysis); transmission of the mechanical signals through a system of canals and processes to functionally active osteoblasts and surface osteocytes as well as to the bone-marrow stromal cells and to those lying on bone surfaces. As a response to the mechanical stimulus (microgravity) the system of stromal cell-preosteoblast-osteoblast shows a delay in proliferation, differentiation and specific functioning of the osteogenetic cells, some of the osteoblasts undergo apoptosis. Then the osteoclastic reaction occurs (attraction of monocytes and formation of osteoclasts and bone matrix resorption in the loci of apoptosis of osteoblasts and osteocytes). The macrophagal reaction is followed by osteoblastogenesis, which appears to be a rehabilitating process. However, during prolonged absence of mechanical stimuli (microgravity, long-time immobilization) the adaptive activization of osteoblastogenesis doesn’t occur (as it is the case during the physiological remodeling of bone tissue) or it occurs to a smaller degree. The loading deficit leads to an adaptive differentiation of stromal cells to fibroblastic cells and adipocytes in these remodeling loci. These cell reactions are considered as adaptive-compensatory, but they don’t result

  2. US long distance fiber optic networks: Technology, evolution and advanced concepts. Volume 3: Advanced networks and economics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This study projects until 2000 the evolution of long distance fiber optic networks in the U.S. Volume 1 is the executive Summary. Volume 2 focuses on fiber optic components and systems that are directly related to the operation of long-haul networks. Optimistic, pessimistic and most likely scenarios of technology development are presented. The activities of national and regional companies implementing fiber long haul networks are also highlighted, along with an analysis of the market and regulatory forces affecting network evolution. Volume 3 presents advanced fiber optic network concept definitions. Inter-LATA traffic is quantified and forms the basis for the construction of 11-, 15-, 17-, and 23-node networks. Using the technology projections from Volume 2, a financial model identifies cost drivers and determines circuit mile costs between any two LATAs. A comparison of fiber optics with alternative transmission concludes the report.

  3. Flight service evaluation of advanced composite ailerons on the L-1011 transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    A flight service evaluation of composite inboard ailerons on the L-1011 is discussed. This is the second annual report of the maintenance evaluation program, and covers the period from July 1983 when the first yearly inspections were completed, through July 1984. Four shipsets of graphite/epoxy composite ailerons were installed on L-1011 aircraft for this maintenance evaluation program. These include two Delta aircraft and two TWA aircraft. A fifth shipset of composite ailerons were installed in 1980 on Lockheed's flight test L-1011. A visual inspection was also conducted on these components. No visible damage was observed on any of the composite ailerons, and no maintenance action has occurred on any of the composite parts except for repainting of areas with paint loss. Flight hours on the airline components at the time of inspection ranged from 6318 to 6989 hours, after approximately 2 years of service.

  4. Preliminary flight-test results of an advanced technology light twin-engine airplane /ATLIT/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, B. J.; Kohlman, D. L.; Crane, H. L.

    1976-01-01

    The present status and flight-test results are presented for the ATLIT airplane. The ATLIT is a Piper PA-34 Seneca I modified by the installation of new wings incorporating the GA(W)-1 (Whitcomb) airfoil, reduced wing area, roll-control spoilers, and full-span Fowler flaps. Flight-test results on stall and spoiler roll characteristics show good agreement with wind-tunnel data. Maximum power-off lift coefficients are greater than 3.0 with flaps deflected 37 deg. With flaps down, spoiler deflections can produce roll helix angles in excess of 0.11 rad. Flight testing is planned to document climb and cruise performance, and supercritical propeller performance and noise characteristics. The airplane is scheduled for testing in the NASA-Langley Research Center Full-Scale Tunnel.

  5. Advanced AFCS developments on the XV-15 tilt rotor research aircraft. [Automatic Flight Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Churchill, G. B.; Gerdes, R. M.

    1984-01-01

    The design criteria and control and handling qualities of the Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS), developed in the framework of the XV-15 tilt-rotor research aircraft, are evaluated, differentiating between the stability and control criteria. A technically aggressive SCAS control law was implemented, demonstrating that significant benefits accrue when stability criteria are separated from design criteria; the design analyses for application of the control law are presented, and the limit bandwidth for stabilization in hovering flight is shown to be defined by rotor or control lag functions. Flight tests of the aircraft resulted in a rating of 3 on the Cooper-Harper scale; a possibility of achieving a rating of 2 is expected if the system is applied to the yaw and heave control modes.

  6. Design of a magnetic shielding system for the time of flight enhanced diagnostics neutron spectrometer at Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak.

    PubMed

    Cui, Z Q; Chen, Z J; Xie, X F; Peng, X Y; Hu, Z M; Du, T F; Ge, L J; Zhang, X; Yuan, X; Xia, Z W; Hu, L Q; Zhong, G Q; Lin, S Y; Wan, B N; Fan, T S; Chen, J X; Li, X Q; Zhang, G H

    2014-11-01

    The novel neutron spectrometer TOFED (Time of Flight Enhanced Diagnostics), comprising 90 individual photomultiplier tubes coupled with 85 plastic scintillation detectors through light guides, has been constructed and installed at Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak. A dedicated magnetic shielding system has been constructed for TOFED, and is designed to guarantee the normal operation of photomultiplier tubes in the stray magnetic field leaking from the tokamak device. Experimental measurements and numerical simulations carried out employing the finite element method are combined to optimize the design of the magnetic shielding system. The system allows detectors to work properly in an external magnetic field of 200 G.

  7. Advanced concepts for electromagnetic launcher power supplies incorporating magnetic flux compression

    SciTech Connect

    Driga, M.D. . Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering); Fair, H.D. )

    1991-01-01

    Electromagnetic coil launchers offer the potential for extremely high efficiency, flexible, noncontracting, hypervelocity electromagnetic accelerators. Unfortunately, their implementation and development has been severely limited by the lack of compact power supplies capable of providing the required high energy and high powers. Integrating novel magnetic flux compression features into multistage rotating machines provides the flexible means for generating tailored, high-energy, high-power electromagnetic pulses required to efficiently drive these promising coil launchers. This paper presents advanced concepts of high energy power supplies for coil launchers. These concepts are designed to produce high inductive compression ratios and large current and magnetic field multiplication ratios in the range of megamperes of current and gigawatts of active power. As a consequence of the flexibility of multiwinding rotating generators, such designs provide an extensive range of output pulse shaping in single or multiple pulses, enabling optimum operation of the coil launcher.

  8. Advanced leading edge thermal-structure concept. Direct bond reusable surface insulation to a composite structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riccitiello, S. R.; Figueroa, H.; Coe, C. F.; Kuo, C. P.

    1984-01-01

    An advanced leading-edge concept was analyzed using the space shuttle leading edge system as a reference model. The comparison indicates that a direct-bond system utilizing a high temperature (2700 F) fibrous refractory composite insulation tile bonded to a high temperature (PI/graphite) composite structure can result in a weight savings of up to 800 lb. The concern that tile damage or loss during ascent would result in adverse entry aerodynamics if a leading edge tile system were used is addressed. It was found from experiment that missing tiles (as many as 22) on the leading edge would not significantly affect the basic force-and-moment aerodynamic coefficients. Additionally, this concept affords a degree of redundancy to a thermal protection system in that the base structure (being a composite material) ablates and neither melts nor burns through when subjected to entry heating in the event tiles are actually lost or damaged during ascent.

  9. Investigation of trailing-edge-flap, spanwise-blowing concepts on an advanced fighter configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulson, J. W., Jr.; Quinto, P. F.; Banks, D. W.

    1984-01-01

    The aerodynamic effects of spanwise blowing on the trailing edge flap of an advanced fighter aircraft configuration were determined in the 4 by 7 Meter Tunnel. A series of tests were conducted with variations in spanwise-blowing vector angle, nozzle exit area, nozzle location, thrust coefficient, and flap deflection in order to determine a superior configuration for both an underwing cascade concept and an overwing port concept. This screening phase of the testing was conducted at a nominal approach angle of attack from 12 deg to 16 deg; and then the superior configurations were tested over a more complete angle of attack range from 0 deg to 20 deg at tunnel free stream dynamic pressures from 20 to 40 lbf/sq ft at thrust coefficients from 0 to 2.

  10. Optimization of an Advanced Hybrid Wing Body Concept Using HCDstruct Version 1.2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinlan, Jesse R.; Gern, Frank H.

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) aircraft concepts continue to be promising candidates for achieving the simultaneous fuel consumption and noise reduction goals set forth by NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project. In order to evaluate the projected benefits, improvements in structural analysis at the conceptual design level were necessary; thus, NASA researchers developed the Hybrid wing body Conceptual Design and structural optimization (HCDstruct) tool to perform aeroservoelastic structural optimizations of advanced HWB concepts. In this paper, the authors present substantial updates to the HCDstruct tool and related analysis, including: the addition of four inboard and eight outboard control surfaces and two all-movable tail/rudder assemblies, providing a full aeroservoelastic analysis capability; the implementation of asymmetric load cases for structural sizing applications; and a methodology for minimizing control surface actuation power using NASTRAN SOL 200 and HCDstruct's aeroservoelastic finite-element model (FEM).

  11. Work Domain Analysis Methodology for Development of Operational Concepts for Advanced Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Hugo, Jacques

    2015-05-01

    This report describes a methodology to conduct a Work Domain Analysis in preparation for the development of operational concepts for new plants. This method has been adapted from the classical method described in the literature in order to better deal with the uncertainty and incomplete information typical of first-of-a-kind designs. The report outlines the strategy for undertaking a Work Domain Analysis of a new nuclear power plant and the methods to be used in the development of the various phases of the analysis. Basic principles are described to the extent necessary to explain why and how the classical method was adapted to make it suitable as a tool for the preparation of operational concepts for a new nuclear power plant. Practical examples are provided of the systematic application of the method and the various presentation formats in the operational analysis of advanced reactors.

  12. Study of advanced composite structural design concepts for an arrow wing supersonic cruise configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, M. J.; Grande, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    Based on estimated graphite and boron fiber properties, allowable stresses and strains were established for advanced composite materials. Stiffened panel and conventional sandwich panel concepts were designed and analyzed, using graphite/polyimide and boron/polyimide materials. The conventional sandwich panel was elected as the structural concept for the modified wing structure. Upper and lower surface panels of the arrow wing structure were then redesigned, using high strength graphite/polyimide sandwich panels, retaining the titanium spars and ribs from the prior study. The ATLAS integrated analysis and design system was used for stress analysis and automated resizing of surface panels. Flutter analysis of the hybrid structure showed a significant decrease in flutter speed relative to the titanium wing design. The flutter speed was increased to that of the titanium design by selective increase in laminate thickness and by using graphite fibers with properties intermediate between high strength and high modulus values.

  13. Development and proof-testing of advanced absorption refrigeration cycle concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Modahl, R.J.; Hayes, F.C. . Applied Unitary/Refrigeration Systems Div.)

    1992-03-01

    The overall objectives of this project are to evaluate, develop, and proof-test advanced absorption refrigeration cycles that are applicable to residential and commercial heat pumps for space conditioning. The heat pump system is to be direct-fired with natural gas and is to use absorption working fluids whose properties are known. Target coefficients of performance (COPs) are 1.6 at 47{degrees}F and 1.2 at 17{degrees} in the heating mode, and 0.7 at 95{degree}F in the cooling mode, including the effect of flue losses. The project is divided into three phases. Phase I entailed the analytical evaluation of advanced cycles and included the selection of preferred concepts for further development. Phase II involves the development and testing of critical components and of a complete laboratory breadboard version of the selected system. Phase III calls for the development of a prototype unit and is contingent on the successful completion of Phase II. This report covers Phase I work on the project. In Phase 1, 24 advanced absorption cycle/fluid combinations were evaluated, and computer models were developed to predict system performance. COP, theoretical pump power, and internal heat exchange were calculated for each system, and these calculations were used as indicators of operating and installed costs in order to rank the relative promise of each system. The highest ranking systems involve the cycle concept of absorber/generator heat exchange, generator heat exchanger/absorber heat exchange, regeneration, and resorption/desorption, in combination with the NH{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O/LiBr ternary absorption fluid mixture or with the NH{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O binary solution. Based upon these conclusions, the recommendation was made to proceed to Phase II, the laboratory breadboard proof-of- concept.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF OPERATIONAL CONCEPTS FOR ADVANCED SMRs: THE ROLE OF COGNITIVE SYSTEMS ENGINEERING

    SciTech Connect

    Jacques Hugo; David Gertman

    2014-04-01

    Advanced small modular reactors (AdvSMRs) will use advanced digital instrumentation and control systems, and make greater use of automation. These advances not only pose technical and operational challenges, but will inevitably have an effect on the operating and maintenance (O&M) cost of new plants. However, there is much uncertainty about the impact of AdvSMR designs on operational and human factors considerations, such as workload, situation awareness, human reliability, staffing levels, and the appropriate allocation of functions between the crew and various automated plant systems. Existing human factors and systems engineering design standards and methodologies are not current in terms of human interaction requirements for dynamic automated systems and are no longer suitable for the analysis of evolving operational concepts. New models and guidance for operational concepts for complex socio-technical systems need to adopt a state-of-the-art approach such as Cognitive Systems Engineering (CSE) that gives due consideration to the role of personnel. This approach we report on helps to identify and evaluate human challenges related to non-traditional concepts of operations. A framework - defining operational strategies was developed based on the operational analysis of Argonne National Laboratory’s Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II), a small (20MWe) sodium-cooled reactor that was successfully operated for thirty years. Insights from the application of the systematic application of the methodology and its utility are reviewed and arguments for the formal adoption of CSE as a value-added part of the Systems Engineering process are presented.

  15. Advanced Propulsion for Gun Launched Projectiles and Missiles: Phase 1 - Low Cost Flight Test Platform Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-30

    Son blueberry fields as shown in Figure 113. All FAA and Maine DOT permits were acquired. Richard Willey was the designated LSO (Launch Safety...The launch area is on the Jasper Wyman & Son blueberry fields as shown in Figure 113. FAA and Maine DOT permits are required for flight testing

  16. Advanced piloted aircraft flight control system design methodology. Volume 1: Knowledge base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcruer, Duane T.; Myers, Thomas T.

    1988-01-01

    The development of a comprehensive and electric methodology for conceptual and preliminary design of flight control systems is presented and illustrated. The methodology is focused on the design stages starting with the layout of system requirements and ending when some viable competing system architectures (feedback control structures) are defined. The approach is centered on the human pilot and the aircraft as both the sources of, and the keys to the solution of, many flight control problems. The methodology relies heavily on computational procedures which are highly interactive with the design engineer. To maximize effectiveness, these techniques, as selected and modified to be used together in the methodology, form a cadre of computational tools specifically tailored for integrated flight control system preliminary design purposes. While theory and associated computational means are an important aspect of the design methodology, the lore, knowledge and experience elements, which guide and govern applications are critical features. This material is presented as summary tables, outlines, recipes, empirical data, lists, etc., which encapsulate a great deal of expert knowledge. Much of this is presented in topical knowledge summaries which are attached as Supplements. The composite of the supplements and the main body elements constitutes a first cut at a a Mark 1 Knowledge Base for manned-aircraft flight control.

  17. Flight Performance of an Advanced Thermal Protection Material: Toughened Uni-Piece Fibrous Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leiser, Daniel B.; Gordon, Michael P.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The flight performance of a new class of low density, high temperature, thermal protection materials (TPM), is described and compared to "standard" Space Shuttle TPM. This new functionally gradient material designated as Toughened Uni-Piece Fibrous Insulation (TUFI), was bonded on a removable panel attached to the base heatshield of Orbiter 105, Endeavor.

  18. Flight Performance of an Advanced Thermal Protection Material: Toughened Uni-Piece Fibrous Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leiser, Daniel B.; Gordon, Michael P.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The flight performance of a new class of low density, high temperature thermal protection materials (TPM) is described and compared to "standard" Space Shuttle TPM. This new functionally gradient material designated as Toughened Uni-Piece Fibrous Insulation (TUFI), was bonded on a removable panel attached to the base heat shield of Orbiter 105, Endeavour.

  19. Proceedings of the 1986 workshop on advanced time-of-flight neutron powder diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, A.C.; Smith, K.

    1986-09-01

    This report contains abstracts of talks and summaries of discussions from a small workshop held to discuss the future of time-of-flight neutron powder diffraction and its implementation at the Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center. 47 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Advanced software development workstation: Object-oriented methodologies and applications for flight planning and mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izygon, Michel

    1993-01-01

    The work accomplished during the past nine months in order to help three different organizations involved in Flight Planning and in Mission Operations systems, to transition to Object-Oriented Technology, by adopting one of the currently most widely used Object-Oriented analysis and Design Methodology is summarized.

  1. Thermal/structural analyses of several hydrogen-cooled leading-edge concepts for hypersonic flight vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gladden, Herbert J.; Melis, Matthew E.; Mockler, Theodore T.; Tong, Mike

    1990-01-01

    The aerodynamic heating at high flight Mach numbers, when shock interference heating is included, can be extremely high and can exceed the capability of most conventional metallic and potential ceramic materials available. Numerical analyses of the heat transfer and thermal stresses are performed on three actively cooled leading-edge geometries (models) made of three different materials to address the issue of survivability in a hostile environment. These analyses show a mixture of results from one configuration to the next. Results for each configuration are presented and discussed. Combinations of enhanced internal film coefficients and high material thermal conductivity of copper and tungsten are predicted to maintain the maximum wall temperature for each concept within acceptable operating limits. The exception is the TD nickel material which is predicted to melt for most cases. The wide range of internal impingement film coefficients (based on correlations) for these conditions can lead to a significant uncertainty in expected leading-edge wall temperatures. The equivalent plastic strain, inherent in each configuration which results from the high thermal gradients, indicates a need for further cyclic analysis to determine component life.

  2. Draft Function Allocation Framework and Preliminary Technical Basis for Advanced SMR Concepts of Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Jacques Hugo; John Forester; David Gertman; Jeffrey Joe; Heather Medema; Julius Persensky; April Whaley

    2013-08-01

    This report presents preliminary research results from the investigation into the development of new models and guidance for Concepts of Operations in advanced small modular reactor (AdvSMR) designs. AdvSMRs are nuclear power plants (NPPs), but unlike conventional large NPPs that are constructed on site, AdvSMRs systems and components will be fabricated in a factory and then assembled on site. AdvSMRs will also use advanced digital instrumentation and control systems, and make greater use of automation. Some AdvSMR designs also propose to be operated in a multi-unit configuration with a single central control room as a way to be more cost-competitive with existing NPPs. These differences from conventional NPPs not only pose technical and operational challenges, but they will undoubtedly also have regulatory compliance implications, especially with respect to staffing requirements and safety standards.

  3. Advance directives in english and French law: different concepts, different values, different societies.

    PubMed

    Horn, Ruth Judith

    2014-03-01

    In Western societies advance directives are widely recognised as important means to extend patient self-determination under circumstances of incapacity. Following other countries, England and France have adopted legislation aiming to clarify the legal status of advance directives. In this paper, I will explore similarities and differences in both sets of legislation, the arguments employed in the respective debates and the socio-political structures on which these differences are based. The comparison highlights how different legislations express different concepts emphasising different values accorded to the duty to respect autonomy and to protect life, and how these differences are informed by different socio-political contexts. Furthermore each country associates different ethical concerns with ADs which raise doubts about whether these directives are a theoretical idea which is hardly applicable in practice.

  4. Basic principles and concepts underlying recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging of the developing brain.

    PubMed

    Panigrahy, Ashok; Borzage, Matthew; Blüml, Stefan

    2010-02-01

    Over the last decade, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has become an essential tool in the evaluation of both in vivo human brain development and perinatal brain injury. Recent technology including MR-compatible neonatal incubators, neonatal head coils, advanced MR pulse sequences, and 3-T field strength magnets allow high-quality MR imaging studies to be performed on sick neonates. This article will review basic principles and concepts underlying recent advances in MR spectroscopy, diffusion, perfusion, and volumetric MR imaging. These techniques provide quantitative assessment and novel insight of both brain development and brain injury in the immature brain. Knowledge of normal developmental changes in quantitative MR values is also essential to interpret pathologic cases.

  5. Accuracy improvement capability of advanced projectile based on course correction fuze concept.

    PubMed

    Elsaadany, Ahmed; Wen-jun, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Improvement in terminal accuracy is an important objective for future artillery projectiles. Generally it is often associated with range extension. Various concepts and modifications are proposed to correct the range and drift of artillery projectile like course correction fuze. The course correction fuze concepts could provide an attractive and cost-effective solution for munitions accuracy improvement. In this paper, the trajectory correction has been obtained using two kinds of course correction modules, one is devoted to range correction (drag ring brake) and the second is devoted to drift correction (canard based-correction fuze). The course correction modules have been characterized by aerodynamic computations and flight dynamic investigations in order to analyze the effects on deflection of the projectile aerodynamic parameters. The simulation results show that the impact accuracy of a conventional projectile using these course correction modules can be improved. The drag ring brake is found to be highly capable for range correction. The deploying of the drag brake in early stage of trajectory results in large range correction. The correction occasion time can be predefined depending on required correction of range. On the other hand, the canard based-correction fuze is found to have a higher effect on the projectile drift by modifying its roll rate. In addition, the canard extension induces a high-frequency incidence angle as canards reciprocate at the roll motion.

  6. Accuracy Improvement Capability of Advanced Projectile Based on Course Correction Fuze Concept

    PubMed Central

    Elsaadany, Ahmed; Wen-jun, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Improvement in terminal accuracy is an important objective for future artillery projectiles. Generally it is often associated with range extension. Various concepts and modifications are proposed to correct the range and drift of artillery projectile like course correction fuze. The course correction fuze concepts could provide an attractive and cost-effective solution for munitions accuracy improvement. In this paper, the trajectory correction has been obtained using two kinds of course correction modules, one is devoted to range correction (drag ring brake) and the second is devoted to drift correction (canard based-correction fuze). The course correction modules have been characterized by aerodynamic computations and flight dynamic investigations in order to analyze the effects on deflection of the projectile aerodynamic parameters. The simulation results show that the impact accuracy of a conventional projectile using these course correction modules can be improved. The drag ring brake is found to be highly capable for range correction. The deploying of the drag brake in early stage of trajectory results in large range correction. The correction occasion time can be predefined depending on required correction of range. On the other hand, the canard based-correction fuze is found to have a higher effect on the projectile drift by modifying its roll rate. In addition, the canard extension induces a high-frequency incidence angle as canards reciprocate at the roll motion. PMID:25097873

  7. Advanced direct liquefaction concepts for PETC generic units. Final report, Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    The Advanced Concepts for Direct Coal Liquefaction program was initiated by the Department of Energy in 1991 to develop technologies that could significantly reduce the cost of producing liquid fuels by the direct liquefaction of coal. The advanced 2-stage liquefaction technology that was developed at Wilsonville over the past 10 years has contributed significantly toward decreasing the cost of producing liquids from coal to about $33/bbl. It remains, however, the objective of DOE to further reduce this cost to a level more competitive with petroleum based products. This project, among others, was initiated to investigate various alternative approaches to develop technologies that might ultimately lead to a 25 % reduction in cost of product. In this project a number of novel concepts were investigated, either individually or in a coupled configuration that had the potential to contribute toward meeting the DOE goal. The concepts included mature technologies or ones closely related to them, such as coal cleaning by oil agglomeration, fluid coking and distillate hydrotreating and dewaxing. Other approaches that were either embryonic or less developed were chemical pretreatment of coal to remove oxygen, and dispersed catalyst development for application in the 2-stage liquefaction process. This report presents the results of this project. It is arranged in four sections which were prepared by participating organizations responsible for that phase of the project. A summary of the overall project and the principal results are given in this section. First, however, an overview of the process economics and the process concepts that were developed during the course of this program is presented.

  8. Advanced Hybrid Spacesuit Concept Featuring Integrated Open Loop and Closed Loop Ventilation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniel, Brian A.; Fitzpatrick, Garret R.; Gohmert, Dustin M.; Ybarra, Rick M.; Dub, Mark O.

    2013-01-01

    A document discusses the design and prototype of an advanced spacesuit concept that integrates the capability to function seamlessly with multiple ventilation system approaches. Traditionally, spacesuits are designed to operate both dependently and independently of a host vehicle environment control and life support system (ECLSS). Spacesuits that operate independent of vehicle-provided ECLSS services must do so with equipment selfcontained within or on the spacesuit. Suits that are dependent on vehicle-provided consumables must remain physically connected to and integrated with the vehicle to operate properly. This innovation is the design and prototype of a hybrid spacesuit approach that configures the spacesuit to seamlessly interface and integrate with either type of vehicular systems, while still maintaining the ability to function completely independent of the vehicle. An existing Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES) was utilized as the platform from which to develop the innovation. The ACES was retrofitted with selected components and one-off items to achieve the objective. The ventilation system concept was developed and prototyped/retrofitted to an existing ACES. Components were selected to provide suit connectors, hoses/umbilicals, internal breathing system ducting/ conduits, etc. The concept utilizes a lowpressure- drop, high-flow ventilation system that serves as a conduit from the vehicle supply into the suit, up through a neck seal, into the breathing helmet cavity, back down through the neck seal, out of the suit, and returned to the vehicle. The concept also utilizes a modified demand-based breathing system configured to function seamlessly with the low-pressure-drop closed-loop ventilation system.

  9. Evaluation of advanced lift concepts and fuel conservative short-haul aircraft, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renshaw, J. H.; Bowden, M. K.; Narucki, C. W.; Bennett, J. A.; Smith, P. R.; Ferrill, R. S.; Randall, C. C.; Tibbetts, J. G.; Patterson, R. W.; Meyer, R. T.

    1974-01-01

    The performance and economics of a twin-engine augmentor wing airplane were evaluated in two phases. Design aspects of the over-the-wing/internally blown flap hybrid, augmentor wing, and mechanical flap aircraft were investigated for 910 m. field length with parametric extension to other field lengths. Fuel savings achievable by application of advanced lift concepts to short-haul aircraft were evaluated and the effect of different field lengths, cruise requirements, and noise levels on fuel consumption and airplane economics at higher fuel prices were determined. Conclusions and recommendations are presented.

  10. Advanced Transportation System Studies. Technical Area 3: Alternate Propulsion Subsystem Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levack, Daniel J. H.

    2000-01-01

    The Alternate Propulsion Subsystem Concepts contract had seven tasks defined for this report. The tasks were: F-1A Restart Study, J-2S Restart Study, Propulsion Database Development, SSME Upper Stage Use, CERs for Liquid Propellant Rocket Engines, Advanced Low Cost Engines, and Tripropellant Comparison Study. The detailed study results, with the data to support the conclusions from various analyses, are being reported as a series of five separate Final Task Reports. Consequently, this volume only reports the required programmatic information concerning Computer Aided Design Documentation, and New Technology Reports. A detailed Executive Summary, covering all the tasks, is also available as Volume I of this report.

  11. Work Domain Analysis and Operational Concepts for Advanced Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Jacques Hugo

    2001-02-01

    The nuclear industry is currently designing and building a new generation of reactors that will differ in important respects from the older generation. Differences in new plants will include different structural, functional, and environmental aspects, all of which are likely to have a significant impact on the way these plants are operated. In order to meet economic and safety objectives, these new reactors will all use advanced technologies to some extent, including new materials and advanced digital instrumentation and control systems. Examples of these advances include distribution of load-following demand among multiple units, different product streams (steam, process heat, or electricity), increased use of passive safety systems, high levels of automation with humans in supervisory roles, integration of computerized procedures for control room and field work, and remote surveillance and on-line monitoring. New technologies will affect not only operational strategies, but will also require a new approach to how functions are allocated to humans or machines to ensure optimal performance. There is still much uncertainty about the effect of large scale changes in plant design on operations and human tasks, such as workload, situation awareness, human reliability, staffing levels, and the appropriate allocation of functions between the crew and various automated plant systems. This uncertainty will remain until sound technical bases are developed for new operational concepts and strategies. Existing human factors and systems engineering design standards and methodologies are not current in terms of human interaction requirements for dynamic automated systems and are no longer suitable for the analysis of evolving operational concepts. Up-to-date models and guidance are required for the development of operational concepts for complex socio-technical systems. Designers need to be able to identify and evaluate specific human factors challenges related to non

  12. Swingbed Amine Carbon Dioxide Removal Flight Experiment - Feasibility Study and Concept Development for Cost-Effective Exploration Technology Maturation on The International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodgson, Edward; Papale, William; Nalette, Timothy; Graf, John; Sweterlitsch, Jeffery; Hayley, Elizabeth; Williams, Antony; Button, Amy

    2011-01-01

    The completion of International Space Station Assembly and transition to a full six person crew has created the opportunity to create and implement flight experiments that will drive down the ultimate risks and cost for human space exploration by maturing exploration technologies in realistic space environments that are impossible or incredibly costly to duplicate in terrestrial laboratories. An early opportunity for such a technology maturation experiment was recognized in the amine swingbed technology baselined for carbon dioxide and humidity control on the Orion spacecraft and Constellation Spacesuit System. An experiment concept using an existing high fidelity laboratory swing bed prototype has been evaluated in a feasibility and concept definition study leading to the conclusion that the envisioned flight experiment can be both feasible and of significant value for NASA s space exploration technology development efforts. Based on the results of that study NASA has proceeded with detailed design and implementation for the flight experiment. The study effort included the evaluation of technology risks, the extent to which ISS provided unique opportunities to understand them, and the implications of the resulting targeted risks for the experiment design and operational parameters. Based on those objectives and characteristics, ISS safety and integration requirements were examined, experiment concepts developed to address them and their feasibility assessed. This paper will describe the analysis effort and conclusions and present the resulting flight experiment concept. The flight experiment, implemented by NASA and launched in two packages in January and August 2011, integrates the swing bed with supporting elements including electrical power and controls, sensors, cooling, heating, fans, air- and water-conserving functionality, and mechanical packaging structure. It is now on board the ISS awaiting installation and activation.

  13. Flight control systems development and flight test experience with the HiMAT research vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempel, Robert W.; Earls, Michael R.

    1988-01-01

    Two highly maneuverable aircraft technology (HiMAT) remotely piloted vehicles were flown a total of 26 flights. These subscale vehicles were of advanced aerodynamic configuration with advanced technology concepts such as composite and metallic structures, digital integrated propulsion control, and ground (primary) and airborne (backup) relaxed static stability, digital fly-by-wire control systems. Extensive systems development, checkout, and flight qualification were required to conduct the flight test program. The design maneuver goal was to achieve a sustained 8-g turn at Mach 0.9 at an altitude of 25,000 feet. This goal was achieved, along with the acquisition of high-quality flight data at subsonic and supersonic Mach numbers. Control systems were modified in a variety of ways using the flight-determined aerodynamic characteristics. The HiMAT program was successfully completed with approximately 11 hours of total flight time.

  14. Technology research for digital flight control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carestia, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    The use of advanced digital systems for flight control and guidance for a specific mission is investigated. The research areas include advanced electronic system architectures, tests with the global positioning system (GPS) in a helicopter, and advanced integrated systems concept for rotorcraft. Emphasis is on a search and rescue mission, differential global positioning systems to provide a data base of performance information for navigation, and a study to determine the present usage and trends of microcomputers and microcomputer components in the avionics industries.

  15. The Effects of Using Concept Mapping for Improving Advanced Level Biology Students' Lower- and Higher-Order Cognitive Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramwell-Lalor, Sharon; Rainford, Marcia

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on teachers' use of concept mapping as an alternative assessment strategy in advanced level biology classes and its effects on students' cognitive skills on selected biology concepts. Using a mixed methods approach, the study employed a pre-test/post-test quasi-experimental design involving 156 students and 8 teachers from…

  16. Advanced onboard storage concepts for natural gas-fueled automotive vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remick, R. J.; Elkins, R. H.; Camara, E. H.; Bulicz, T.

    1984-01-01

    The evaluation of several advanced concepts for storing natural gas at reduced pressure is presented. The advanced concepts include adsorption on high surface area carbon, adsorption in high porosity zeolite, storage in clathration compounds, and storage by dissolution in liquid solvents. High surface area carbons with high packing density are the best low pressure storage mediums. A simple mathematical model is used to compare adsorption storage on a state of the art carbon with compression storage. The model indicates that a vehicle using adsorption storage of natural gas at 3.6 MPa will have 36 percent of the range, on the EPA city cycle, of a vehicle operating on a compression storage system having the same physical size and a peak storage pressure of 21 MPa. Preliminary experiments and current literature suggest that the storage capacity of state of the art carbons could be improved by as much as 50 percent, and that adsorption systems having a capacity equal to compression storage at 14 MPa are possible without exceeding a maximum pressure of 3.6 MPa.

  17. Advanced Transportation System Studies. Technical Area 3: Alternate Propulsion Subsystem Concepts. Volume 1; Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levack, Daniel J. H.

    2000-01-01

    The Alternate Propulsion Subsystem Concepts contract had seven tasks defined that are reported under this contract deliverable. The tasks were: FAA Restart Study, J-2S Restart Study, Propulsion Database Development. SSME Upper Stage Use. CERs for Liquid Propellant Rocket Engines. Advanced Low Cost Engines, and Tripropellant Comparison Study. The two restart studies, F-1A and J-2S, generated program plans for restarting production of each engine. Special emphasis was placed on determining changes to individual parts due to obsolete materials, changes in OSHA and environmental concerns, new processes available, and any configuration changes to the engines. The Propulsion Database Development task developed a database structure and format which is easy to use and modify while also being comprehensive in the level of detail available. The database structure included extensive engine information and allows for parametric data generation for conceptual engine concepts. The SSME Upper Stage Use task examined the changes needed or desirable to use the SSME as an upper stage engine both in a second stage and in a translunar injection stage. The CERs for Liquid Engines task developed qualitative parametric cost estimating relationships at the engine and major subassembly level for estimating development and production costs of chemical propulsion liquid rocket engines. The Advanced Low Cost Engines task examined propulsion systems for SSTO applications including engine concept definition, mission analysis. trade studies. operating point selection, turbomachinery alternatives, life cycle cost, weight definition. and point design conceptual drawings and component design. The task concentrated on bipropellant engines, but also examined tripropellant engines. The Tripropellant Comparison Study task provided an unambiguous comparison among various tripropellant implementation approaches and cycle choices, and then compared them to similarly designed bipropellant engines in the

  18. Draft Function Allocation Framework and Preliminary Technical Basis for Advanced SMR Concepts of Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Jacques Hugo; John Forester; David Gertman; Jeffrey Joe; Heather Medema; Julius Persensky; April Whaley

    2013-04-01

    This report presents preliminary research results from the investigation in to the development of new models and guidance for concepts of operations (ConOps) in advanced small modular reactor (aSMR) designs. In support of this objective, three important research areas were included: operating principles of multi-modular plants, functional allocation models and strategies that would affect the development of new, non-traditional concept of operations, and the requiremetns for human performance, based upon work domain analysis and current regulatory requirements. As part of the approach for this report, we outline potential functions, including the theoretical and operational foundations for the development of a new functional allocation model and the identification of specific regulatory requirements that will influence the development of future concept of operations. The report also highlights changes in research strategy prompted by confirmationof the importance of applying the work domain analysis methodology to a reference aSMR design. It is described how this methodology will enrich the findings from this phase of the project in the subsequent phases and help in identification of metrics and focused studies for the determination of human performance criteria that can be used to support the design process.

  19. The Generation-X Vision Mission Study and Advanced Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brissenden, Roger J. V.; Generation-X Team

    2008-03-01

    The Generation-X (Gen-X) mission was selected as one of NASA's Vision Missions as a concept for a next generation X-ray telescope designed to study the very early universe with 1000-times greater sensitivity than current X-ray telescopes. The mission has also been proposed as an Advanced Mission Concept Study (AMCS) to further define the technology development plan and mission design. The scientific goals for Gen-X include studying the first generations of stars and black holes in the epoch z=10-20, the evolution of black holes and galaxies from high z to the present, the chemical evolution of the universe and the properties of matter under extreme conditions. The key parameters required to meet these goals define a challenging mission and include an effective area of 50 m2 at 1 keV, and an angular resolution (HPD) of 0.1 arcsec over an energy band of 0.1-10 keV. The required effective area implies that extremely lightweight grazing incidence X-ray optics must be developed. To achieve the required areal density of at least 100 times lower than in Chandra, thin ( 0.1 mm) mirrors that have active on-orbit figure control are required. We present the major findings from the Gen-X Vision Mission Study and a streamlined mission concept enabled by the Ares V launch capability, as proposed in response to the AMSC call.

  20. Tribopolymerization: An advanced lubrication concept for automotive engines and systems of the future

    SciTech Connect

    Furey, M.J.; Kajdas, C.; Kaltenbach, K.W.

    1997-12-31

    Advanced lubrication technologies based on the concept of tribopolymerization as a mechanism of boundary lubrication are described. Advantages of this approach as well as potential applications which could have an impact on the design, manufacture, and performance of existing and future automotive engines are presented and discussed. Tribopolymerization, a novel concept of molecular design developed by Furey and Kajdas, involves the continuous formation of thin polymeric films on rubbing surfaces; the protective films formed are self-replenishing. The antiwear compounds developed from this technology are effective with metals as well as ceramics and in the liquid as well as vapor phases. Furthermore, they are ashless and contain no harmful phosphorus or sulfur; and many are biodegradable. Thus, potential applications of this technology are diverse and include a variety of cost/performance/energy/environmental advantages. Examples include the following: (a) machining and cutting applications using thin films to reduce friction and ceramic tool wear; (b) the lubrication of ceramic engines (e.g., low heat rejection diesel engines) or ceramic components; (c) the development of ashless lubricants for existing and future automotive engines to reduce exhaust catalyst poisoning and environmental emissions; (d) ashless antiwear or ``lubricity`` additives for fuels, including gasoline, diesel and jet fuel; (e) vapor phase applications of this technology to high temperature gaseous systems or to fuel injector wear problems associated with the use of natural gas engines; and (f) the use of the concept of tribopolymerization as an enabling technology in the development of new engines and new automotive propulsion systems.

  1. Generic Repository Concepts and Thermal Analysis for Advanced Fuel Cycles - 12477

    SciTech Connect

    Hardin, Ernest; Blink, James; Carter, Joe; Fratoni, Massimiliano; Greenberg, Harris; Sutton, Mark; Howard, Robert

    2012-07-01

    A geologic disposal concept for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) or high-level waste (HLW) consists of three components: waste inventory, geologic setting, and concept of operations. A set of reference geologic disposal concepts has been developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Used Fuel Disposition campaign. Reference concepts are identified for crystalline rock, clay/shale, bedded salt, and deep borehole (crystalline basement) geologic settings. These were analyzed for waste inventory cases representing a range of waste types that could be produced by advanced nuclear fuel cycles. Concepts of operation consisting of emplacement mode, repository layout, and engineered barrier descriptions, were selected based on international progress. All of these disposal concepts are enclosed emplacement modes, whereby waste packages are in direct contact with encapsulating engineered or natural materials. Enclosed modes have less capacity to dissipate heat than open modes such as that proposed for a repository at Yucca Mountain. Thermal analysis has identified important relationships between waste package size and capacity, and the duration of surface decay storage needed to meet temperature limits for different disposal concepts. For the crystalline rock and clay/shale repository concepts, a waste package surface temperature limit of 100 deg. C was assumed to prevent changes in clay-based buffer material or clay-rich host rock. Surface decay storage of 50 to 100 years is needed for disposal of high-burnup LWR SNF in 4-PWR packages, or disposal of HLW glass from reprocessing LWR uranium oxide (UOX) fuel. High-level waste (HLW) from reprocessing of metal fuel used in a fast reactor could be disposed after decay storage of 50 years or less. For disposal in salt the rock thermal conductivity is significantly greater, and higher temperatures (200 deg. C) can be tolerated at the waste package surface. Decay storage of 10 years or less is needed for high-burnup LWR SNF in 4-PWR

  2. Advanced payload concepts and system architecture for emerging services in Indian National Satellite Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramanian, E. P.; Rao, N. Prahlad; Sarkar, S.; Singh, D. K.

    2008-07-01

    Over the past two decades Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) has developed and operationalized satellites to generate a large capacity of transponders for telecommunication service use in INSAT system. More powerful on-board transmitters are built to usher-in direct-to-home broadcast services. These have transformed the Satcom application scenario in the country. With the proliferation of satellite technology, a shift in the Indian market is witnessed today in terms of demand for new services like Broadband Internet, Interactive Multimedia, etc. While it is imperative to pay attention to market trends, ISRO is also committed towards taking the benefits of technological advancement to all round growth of our population, 70% of which dwell in rural areas. The initiatives already taken in space application related to telemedicine, tele-education and Village Resource Centres are required to be taken to a greater height of efficiency. These targets pose technological challenges to build a large capacity and cost-effective satellite system. This paper addresses advanced payload concepts and system architecture along with the trade-off analysis on design parameters in proposing a new generation satellite system capable of extending the reach of the Indian broadband structure to individual users, educational and medical institutions and enterprises for interactive services. This will be a strategic step in the evolution of INSAT system to employ advanced technology to touch every human face of our population.

  3. Exploring the theoretical basis of nursing using advanced techniques of concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Morse, J M

    1995-03-01

    In this article, the traditional methods of concept development are critiqued, and alternative methods that use qualitative methods of inquiry are presented. Variations of concept development techniques appropriate to the maturity of the concept being explored are then described, including methods for concept delineation, concept comparison, concept clarification, concept correction, and concept identification. To illustrate the application of concept development methods to nursing theory, a research program to delineate the construct of comfort is described.

  4. Advanced Fiber-optic Monitoring System for Space-flight Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, M. S.; VanTassell, R. L.; Pennington, C. D.; Roman, M.

    2005-01-01

    Researchers at Luna Innovations Inc. and the National Aeronautic and Space Administration s Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA MSFC) have developed an integrated fiber-optic sensor system for real-time monitoring of chemical contaminants and whole-cell bacterial pathogens in water. The system integrates interferometric and evanescent-wave optical fiber-based sensing methodologies with atomic force microscopy (AFM) and long-period grating (LPG) technology to provide versatile measurement capability for both micro- and nano-scale analytes. Sensors can be multiplexed in an array format and embedded in a totally self-contained laboratory card for use with an automated microfluidics platform.

  5. Researcher's guide to the NASA Ames Flight Simulator for Advanced Aircraft (FSAA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinacori, J. B.; Stapleford, R. L.; Jewell, W. F.; Lehman, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    Performance, limitations, supporting software, and current checkout and operating procedures are presented for the flight simulator, in terms useful to the researcher who intends to use it. Suggestions to help the researcher prepare the experimental plan are also given. The FSAA's central computer, cockpit, and visual and motion systems are addressed individually but their interaction is considered as well. Data required, available options, user responsibilities, and occupancy procedures are given in a form that facilitates the initial communication required with the NASA operations' group.

  6. Advanced Technology Subsonic Transport Study: N+3 Technologies and Design Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raymer, Daniel P.; Wilson, Jack; Perkins, H. Douglas; Rizzi, Arthur; Zhang, Mengmeng; RamirezPuentes, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    Conceptual Research Corporation, the Science of the Possible, has completed a two-year study of concepts and technologies for future airliners in the 180-passenger class. This NASA-funded contract was primarily focused on the ambitious goal of a 70 percent reduction in fuel consumption versus the market-dominating Boeing 737-800. The study is related to the N+3 contracts awarded in 2008 by NASA s Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate to teams led by Boeing, GE Aviation, MIT, and Northrop Grumman, but with more modest goals and funding. CRC s contract featured a predominant emphasis on propulsion and fuel consumption, but since fuel consumption depends upon air vehicle design as much as on propulsion technology, the study included notional vehicle design, analysis, and parametric studies. Other NASA goals including NOx and noise reduction are of long-standing interest but were not highlighted in this study, other than their inclusion in the propulsion system provided to CRC by NASA. The B-737-800 was used as a benchmark, parametric tool, and design point of departure. It was modeled in the RDS-Professional aircraft design software then subjected to extensive parametric variations of parasitic drag, drag-due-to-lift, specific fuel consumption, and unsized empty weight. These studies indicated that the goal of a 70 percent reduction in fuel consumption could be attained with roughly a 30 percent improvement in all four parameters. The results were then fit to a Response Surface and coded for ease of use in subsequent trade studies. Potential technologies to obtain such savings were identified and discussed. More than 16 advanced concept designs were then prepared, attempting to investigate almost every possible emerging concept for application to this class airliner. A preliminary assessment of these concepts was done based on their total wetted area after design normalization of trimmed maximum lift. This assessment points towards a Tailless Airliner concept which

  7. Validation of a Computational Model for the SLS Core Stage Oxygen Tank Diffuser Concept and the Low Profile Diffuser - An Advanced Development Design for the SLS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brodnick, Jacob; Richardson, Brian; Ramachandran, Narayanan

    2015-01-01

    The Low Profile Diffuser (LPD) project originated as an award from the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Advanced Development (ADO) office to the Main Propulsion Systems Branch (ER22). The task was created to develop and test an LPD concept that could produce comparable performance to a larger, traditionally designed, ullage gas diffuser while occupying a smaller volume envelope. Historically, ullage gas diffusers have been large, bulky devices that occupy a significant portion of the propellant tank, decreasing the tank volume available for propellant. Ullage pressurization of spacecraft propellant tanks is required to prevent boil-off of cryogenic propellants and to provide a positive pressure for propellant extraction. To achieve this, ullage gas diffusers must slow hot, high-pressure gas entering a propellant tank from supersonic speeds to only a few meters per second. Decreasing the incoming gas velocity is typically accomplished through expansion to larger areas within the diffuser which has traditionally led to large diffuser lengths. The Fluid Dynamics Branch (ER42) developed and applied advanced Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis methods in order to mature the LPD design from and initial concept to an optimized test prototype and to provide extremely accurate pre-test predictions of diffuser performance. Additionally, the diffuser concept for the Core Stage of the Space Launch System (SLS) was analyzed in a short amount of time to guide test data collection efforts of the qualification of the device. CFD analysis of the SLS diffuser design provided new insights into the functioning of the device and was qualitatively validated against hot wire anemometry of the exterior flow field. Rigorous data analysis of the measurements was performed on static and dynamic pressure data, data from two microphones, accelerometers and hot wire anemometry with automated traverse. Feasibility of the LPD concept and validation of the computational model were

  8. Accelerated development and flight evaluation of active controls concepts for subsonic transport aircraft. Volume 1: Load alleviation/extended span development and flight tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, J. F.

    1979-01-01

    Active wing load alleviation to extend the wing span by 5.8 percent, giving a 3 percent reduction in cruise drag is covered. The active wing load alleviation used symmetric motions of the outboard ailerons for maneuver load control (MLC) and elastic mode suppression (EMS), and stabilizer motions for gust load alleviation (GLA). Slow maneuvers verified the MLC, and open and closed-loop flight frequency response tests verified the aircraft dynamic response to symmetric aileron and stabilizer drives as well as the active system performance. Flight tests in turbulence verified the effectiveness of the active controls in reducing gust-induced wing loads. It is concluded that active wing load alleviation/extended span is proven in the L-1011 and is ready for application to airline service; it is a very practical way to obtain the increased efficiency of a higher aspect ratio wing with minimum structural impact.

  9. Rocket-Induced Magnetohydrodynamic Ejector: A Single-Stage-to-Orbit Advanced Propulsion Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, John; Campbell, Jonathan; Robertson, Anthony

    1995-01-01

    During the atmospheric boost phase of a rocket trajectory, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) principles can be utilized to augment the thrust by several hundred percent without the input of additional energy. The concept is an MHD implementation of a thermodynamic ejector. Some ejector history is described and some test data showing the impressive thrust augmentation capabilities of thermodynamic ejectors are provided. A momentum and energy balance is used to derive the equations to predict the MHD ejector performance. Results of these equations are compared with the test data and then applied to a specific performance example. The rocket-induced MHD ejector (RIME) engine is described and a status of the technology and availability of the engine components is provided. A top level vehicle sizing analysis is performed by scaling existing MHD designs to the required flight vehicle levels. The vehicle can achieve orbit using conservative technology. Modest improvements are suggested using recently developed technologies, such as superconducting magnets, which can improve predicted performance well beyond those expected for current single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) designs.

  10. System Concepts for the Advanced Post-TRMM Rainfall Profiling Radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Im, Eastwood; Smith, Eric A.

    2000-01-01

    Global rainfall is the primary distributor of latent heat through atmospheric circulation. The recently launched Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite is dedicated to advance our understanding of tropical precipitation patterns and their implications on global climate and its change. The Precipitation Radar (PR) aboard the satellite is the first radar ever flown in space and has provided. exciting, new data on the 3-D rain structures for a variety of scientific uses. However, due to the limited mission lifetime and the dynamical nature of precipitation, the TRMM PR data acquired cannot address all the issues associated with precipitation, its related processes, and the long-term climate variability. In fact, a number of new post-TRMM mission concepts have emerged in response to the recent NASA's request for new ideas on Earth science missions at the post 2002 era. This paper will discuss the system concepts for two advanced, spaceborne rainfall profiling radars. In the first portion of this paper, we will present a system concept for a second-generation spaceborne precipitation radar for operations at the Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The key PR-2 electronics system will possess the following capabilities: (1) A 13.6/35 GHz dual frequency radar electronics that has Doppler and dual-polarization capabilities. (2) A large but light weight, dual-frequency, wide-swath scanning, deployable antenna. (3) Digital chirp generation and the corresponding on-board pulse compression scheme. This will allow a significant improvement on rain signal detection without using the traditional, high-peak-power transmitters and without sacrificing the range resolution. (4) Radar electronics and algorithm to adaptively scan the antenna so that more time can be spent to observe rain rather than clear air. and (5) Built-in flexibility on the radar parameters and timing control such that the same radar can be used by different future rain missions. This will help to reduce the overall

  11. An integrated Rotorcraft Avionics/Controls Architecture to support advanced controls and low-altitude guidance flight research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobsen, Robert A.; Doane, Douglas H.; Eshow, Michelle M.; Aiken, Edwin W.; Hindson, William S.

    1992-01-01

    Salient design features of a new NASA/Army research rotorcraft--the Rotorcraft-Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) are described. Using a UH-60A Black Hawk helicopter as a baseline vehicle, the RASCAL will be a flying laboratory capable of supporting the research requirements of major NASA and Army guidance, control, and display research programs. The paper describes the research facility requirements of these programs together with other critical constraints on the design of the research system. Research program schedules demand a phased development approach, wherein specific research capability milestones are met and flight research projects are flown throughout the complete development cycle of the RASCAL. This development approach is summarized, and selected features of the research system are described. The research system includes a real-time obstacle detection and avoidance system which will generate low-altitude guidance commands to the pilot on a wide field-of-view, color helmet-mounted display and a full-authority, programmable, fault-tolerant/fail-safe, fly-by-wire flight control system.

  12. Benefits associated with advanced technologies applied to a high-speed civil transport concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ozoroski, L. P.; Shields, E. W.; Fenbert, J. W.; Mcelroy, M. O.

    1993-01-01

    Results of a first-order assessment of the mission performance benefits associated with the technology improvements and goals of the Phase II High-Speed Research (HSR) Program are presented. A breakdown of the four major disciplines resulted in the following estimated TOGW savings from the 1990 vehicle: propulsion at 14.3 percent, structures at 11.7 percent, flight-deck systems at 4.0 percent, and aerodynamics at 15.0 percent. Based on 100 percent success of the HSR Phase II proposed technology advancements, the overall combined impact is estimated to result in a 45 percent reduction in TOGW from a 1990 entry-into-service (EIS) date, which could result in a viable 2005 EIS vehicle with an acceptable TOGW that meets Stage III community noise restrictions. Through supersonic laminar flow control and the possible reduction in reserve fuel requirements resulting from synthetic vision capability, the potential exists for an additional 9.6 percent reduction in TOGW.

  13. Study of advanced fuel system concepts for commercial aircraft and engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Versaw, E. F.; Brewer, G. D.; Byers, W. D.; Fogg, H. W.; Hanks, D. E.; Chirivella, J.

    1983-01-01

    The impact on a commercial transport aircraft of using fuels which have relaxed property limits relative to current commercial jet fuel was assessed. The methodology of the study is outlined, fuel properties are discussed, and the effect of the relaxation of fuel properties analyzed. Advanced fuel system component designs that permit the satisfactory use of fuel with the candidate relaxed properties in the subject aircraft are described. The two fuel properties considered in detail are freezing point and thermal stability. Three candidate fuel system concepts were selected and evaluated in terms of performance, cost, weight, safety, and maintainability. A fuel system that incorporates insulation and electrical heating elements on fuel tank lower surfaces was found to be most cost effective for the long term.

  14. Development of advanced concepts for DIR-MCFC cogeneration applications in the European Market

    SciTech Connect

    Kortbeek, P.J.; Ottervanger, R.G.; Dicks, A.L.

    1996-12-31

    Early 1996 a three year (1996 - 1998) joint European project was launched under the name {open_quote}Advanced DIR-MCFC Development{close_quote}, aiming at the development of Direct Internal Reforming (DIR) Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) systems for cogeneration applications for the European market. In this project participate: Brandstofcel Nederland BV (BCN), British Gas pic (BG), Gaz de France (GDF), Netherlands Energy Research foundation (ECN), Stork, Royal Schelde and Sydkraft AB. The European Fuel Cell User Group (EFCUG) supports the project as an advisory board. Whereas the US and Japanese programmes are aimed at large-scale demonstrations of the MCFC technology, this project focusses on the development of concepts and technology, required for MCFC systems that will be competative on the cogeneration market. The project partners provide the essential expertise: from end-user, system engineering, stack development up to fundamental material research.

  15. AICD -- Advanced Industrial Concepts Division Biological and Chemical Technologies Research Program. 1993 Annual summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, G.; Bair, K.; Ross, J.

    1994-03-01

    The annual summary report presents the fiscal year (FY) 1993 research activities and accomplishments for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Biological and Chemical Technologies Research (BCTR) Program of the Advanced Industrial Concepts Division (AICD). This AICD program resides within the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE). The annual summary report for 1993 (ASR 93) contains the following: A program description (including BCTR program mission statement, historical background, relevance, goals and objectives), program structure and organization, selected technical and programmatic highlights for 1993, detailed descriptions of individual projects, a listing of program output, including a bibliography of published work, patents, and awards arising from work supported by BCTR.

  16. Advanced direct liquefaction concepts for PETC generic units. Quarterly technical progress report, January--March 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    In the Advance Coal Liquefaction Concept Proposal (ACLCP) carbon monoxide (CO) and water have been proposed as the primary reagents in the pretreatment process. The main objective of this project is to develop a methodology for pretreating coal under mild conditions based on a combination of existing processes which have shown great promise in liquefaction, extraction and pyrolysis studies. The aim of this pretreatment process is to partially depolymerise the coal, eliminate oxygen and diminish the propensity for retograde reactions during subsequent liquefaction. The desirable outcome of the CO pretreatment step should be: (1) enhanced liquefaction activity and/or selectivity toward products of higher quality due to chemical modification of the coal structure; (2) cleaner downstream products; (3) overall improvement in operability and process economics.

  17. Fatigue-creep lifetime analysis of four advanced central receiver concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, J.

    1981-01-01

    Four advanced central receiver concepts were analyzed for their fatigue-creep design lifetimes. Using the flux profiles provided by the designers, the thermal hydraulic performance of an individual tube in a receiver panel was ascertained by computer analysis. A linear model of the tube crown strain for the tube on given thermal and structural finite element analyses were performed. The computed stresses and strains were used in evaluation of the creep and fatigue design lifetimes by N-47 and compared to the desired lifetime of 30 years. Three of the four designs met or exceeded the desired lifetime and the fourth met the desired lifetime when the factor of safety incorporated in N-47 was reduced. All four designs were judged adequate for the current level of design effort.

  18. Simulated flight acoustic investigation of treated ejector effectiveness on advanced mechanical suppresors for high velocity jet noise reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brausch, J. F.; Motsinger, R. E.; Hoerst, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    Ten scale-model nozzles were tested in an anechoic free-jet facility to evaluate the acoustic characteristics of a mechanically suppressed inverted-velocity-profile coannular nozzle with an accoustically treated ejector system. The nozzle system used was developed from aerodynamic flow lines evolved in a previous contract, defined to incorporate the restraints imposed by the aerodynamic performance requirements of an Advanced Supersonic Technology/Variable Cycle Engine system through all its mission phases. Accoustic data of 188 test points were obtained, 87 under static and 101 under simulated flight conditions. The tests investigated variables of hardwall ejector application to a coannular nozzle with 20-chute outer annular suppressor, ejector axial positioning, treatment application to ejector and plug surfaces, and treatment design. Laser velocimeter, shadowgraph photograph, aerodynamic static pressure, and temperature measurement were acquired on select models to yield diagnositc information regarding the flow field and aerodynamic performance characteristics of the nozzles.

  19. Voice measures of workload in the advanced flight deck: Additional studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Sid J.; Alpert, Murray

    1989-01-01

    These studies investigated acoustical analysis of the voice as a measure of workload in individual operators. In the first study, voice samples were recorded from a single operator during high, medium, and low workload conditions. Mean amplitude, frequency, syllable duration, and emphasis all tended to increase as workload increased. In the second study, NASA test pilots performed a laboratory task, and used a flight simulator under differing work conditions. For two of the pilots, high workload in the simulator brought about greater amplitude, peak duration, and stress. In both the laboratory and simulator tasks, high workload tended to be associated with more statistically significant drop-offs in the acoustical measures than were lower workload levels. There was a great deal of intra-subject variability in the acoustical measures. The results suggested that in individual operators, increased workload might be revealed by high initial amplitude and frequency, followed by rapid drop-offs over time.

  20. Application of Design of Experiments and Surrogate Modeling within the NASA Advanced Concepts Office, Earth-to-Orbit Design Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwack, Mathew R.; Dees, Patrick D.; Holt, James B.

    2016-01-01

    Decisions made during early conceptual design have a large impact upon the expected life-cycle cost (LCC) of a new program. It is widely accepted that up to 80% of such cost is committed during these early design phases.1 Therefore, to help minimize LCC, decisions made during conceptual design must be based upon as much information as possible. To aid in the decision making for new launch vehicle programs, the Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) provides rapid turnaround pre-phase A and phase A concept definition studies. The ACO team utilizes a proven set of tools to provide customers with a full vehicle mass breakdown to tertiary subsystems, preliminary structural sizing based upon worst-case flight loads, and trajectory optimization to quantify integrated vehicle performance for a given mission.2 Although the team provides rapid turnaround for single vehicle concepts, the scope of the trade space can be limited due to analyst availability and the manpower requirements for manual execution of the analysis tools. In order to enable exploration of a broader design space, the ACO team has implemented an Advanced Design Methods (ADM) based approach. This approach applies the concepts of Design of Experiments (DOE) and surrogate modeling to more exhaustively explore the trade space and provide the customer with additional design information to inform decision making. This paper will first discuss the automation of the ACO tool set, which represents a majority of the development e ort. In order to t a surrogate model within tolerable error bounds a number of DOE cases are needed. This number will scale with the number of variable parameters desired and the complexity of the system's response to those variables. For all but the smallest design spaces, the number of cases required cannot be produced within an acceptable timeframe using a manual process. Therefore, automation of the tools was a key enabler for the successful