Science.gov

Sample records for advanced control strategy

  1. Advanced control strategies for fluidized bed dryers

    SciTech Connect

    Siettos, C.I.; Kiranoudis, C.T.; Bafas, G.V.

    1999-11-01

    Generating the best possible control strategy comprises a necessity for industrial processes, by virtue of product quality, cost reduction and design simplicity. Three different control approaches, namely an Input-Output linearizing, a fuzzy logic and a PID controller, are evaluated for the control of a fluidized bed dryer, a typical non-linear drying process of wide applicability. Based on several closed loop characteristics such as settling times, maximum overshoots and dynamic performance criteria such as IAE, ISE and ITAE, it is shown that the Input-Output linearizing and the fuzzy logic controller exhibit a better performance compared to the PID controller tuned optimally with respect to IAE, for a wide range of disturbances; yet, the relevant advantage of the fuzzy logic over the conventional nonlinear controller issues upon its design simplicity. Typical load rejection and set-point tracking examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  2. Advanced control strategy for plant heat rate improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, P.; Frerichs, D.K.; Kyr, D.

    1995-12-31

    Florida Power & Light Company (FPL) supplies electricity to about half of the population of Florida, roughly 6.5 million people. The load base is largely residential/business with the obvious seasonal extremes due to the climate. FPL`s generating capacity is 16,320 MW composed of 70% traditional fossil cycle, 18% nuclear, and 12% gas turbine. The system load profile coupled with bulk power purchases is such that the 400 MW class units (9 Foster Wheeler drum type units comprising 24% of total capacity) are now forced to cycle daily all year, and to come off line on weekends during the winter months. The current economic realities of power generation force utility companies to seek methods to improve plant heat rate, and FPL is no exception. FPL believed it possible to achieve the goal of lower heat rate and follow the required load demand with the 400 MW class units through the use of an advanced control strategy implemented totally within the unit`s Distributed Control System (DCS). As of the writing of this paper, the project is still ongoing. This paper will present the theory and methodology of the advanced control strategy along with the current design and implementation status and results obtained to date.

  3. Advanced Control Technologies and Strategies Linking DemandResponse and Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann

    2005-09-02

    This paper presents a preliminary framework to describe how advanced controls can support multiple modes of operations including both energy efficiency and demand response (DR). A general description of DR, its benefits, and nationwide status is outlined. The role of energy management and control systems for DR is described. Building systems such as HVAC and lighting that utilize control technologies and strategies for energy efficiency are mapped on to DR and demand shedding strategies are developed. Past research projects are presented to provide a context for the current projects. The economic case for implementing DR from a building owner perspective is also explored.

  4. Energy Savings and Economics of Advanced Control Strategies for Packaged Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Weimin; Huang, Yunzhi; Katipamula, Srinivas

    2012-10-31

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Program (BTP), evaluated a number of control strategies for packaged cooling equipment that can be implemented in an advanced controller, which can be retrofit into existing packaged heat pump units to improve their operational efficiency. This report documents the results of that analysis.

  5. Advanced control strategies for HVAC&R systems—An overview: Part II: Soft and fusion control

    SciTech Connect

    D. Subbaram Naidu; Craig G. Rieger

    2011-04-01

    A chronological overview of the advanced control strategies for HVAC&R is presented. The overview focuses on hard-computing or control techniques, such as proportional-integral-derivative, optimal, nonlinear, adaptive, and robust; soft-computing or control techniques, such as neural networks, fuzzy logic, genetic algorithms; and the fusion or hybrid of hard and soft control techniques. Part I focused on hardcontrol strategies; Part II focuses on soft and fusion control and some future directions in HVA&R research. This overview is not intended to be an exhaustive survey on this topic, and any omissions of other works is purely unintentional.

  6. Advanced regulatory control and coordinated plant-wide control strategies for IGCC targeted towards improving power ramp-rates

    SciTech Connect

    Mahapatra, P.; Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01

    As part of ongoing R&D activities at the National Energy Technology Laboratory's (NETL) Advanced Virtual Energy Simulation Training & Research (AVESTAR™) Center, this paper highlights strategies for enhancing low-level regulatory control and system-wide coordinated control strategies implemented in a high-fidelity dynamic simulator for an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant with carbon capture. The underlying IGCC plant dynamic model contains 20 major process areas, each of which is tightly integrated with the rest of the power plant, making individual functionally-independent processes prone to routine disturbances. Single-loop feedback control although adequate to meet the primary control objective for most processes, does not take into account in advance the effect of these disturbances, making the entire power plant undergo large offshoots and/or oscillations before the feedback action has an opportunity to impact control performance. In this paper, controller enhancements ranging from retuning feedback control loops, multiplicative feed-forward control and other control techniques such as split-range control, feedback trim and dynamic compensation, applicable on various subsections of the integrated IGCC plant, have been highlighted and improvements in control responses have been given. Compared to using classical feedback-based control structure, the enhanced IGCC regulatory control architecture reduces plant settling time and peak offshoots, achieves faster disturbance rejection, and promotes higher power ramp-rates. In addition, improvements in IGCC coordinated plant-wide control strategies for “Gasifier-Lead”, “GT-Lead” and “Plantwide” operation modes have been proposed and their responses compared. The paper is concluded with a brief discussion on the potential IGCC controller improvements resulting from using advanced process control, including model predictive control (MPC), as a supervisory control layer.

  7. Advanced control strategies for heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, and refrigeration systems—An overview: Part I: Hard control

    SciTech Connect

    D. Subbaram Naidu; Craig G. Rieger

    2011-02-01

    A chronological overview of the advanced control strategies for heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, and refrigeration (HVAC&R) is presented in this article. The overview focuses on hard-computing or control techniques, such as proportional-integral-derivative, optimal, nonlinear, adaptive, and robust; soft-computing or control techniques, such as neural networks, fuzzy logic, genetic algorithms; and on the fusion or hybrid of hard- and soft-control techniques. Thus, it is to be noted that the terminology “hard” and “soft” computing/control has nothing to do with the “hardware” and “software” that is being generally used. Part I of a two-part series focuses on hard-control strategies, and Part II focuses on softand fusion-control in addition to some future directions in HVAC&R research. This overview is not intended to be an exhaustive survey on this topic, and any omission of other works is purely unintentional.

  8. Energy Savings and Economics of Advanced Control Strategies for Packaged Air-Conditioning Units with Gas Heat

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Huang, Yunzhi; Brambley, Michael R.

    2011-12-31

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's Building Technologies Program (BTP) evaluated a number of control strategies that can be implemented in a controller, to improve the operational efficiency of the packaged air conditioning units. The two primary objectives of this research project are: (1) determine the magnitude of energy savings achievable by retrofitting existing packaged air conditioning units with advanced control strategies not ordinarily used for packaged units and (2) estimating what the installed cost of a replacement control with the desired features should be in various regions of the U.S. This document reports results of the study.

  9. Development, Implementation, and Testing of Fault Detection Strategies on the National Wind Technology Center's Controls Advanced Research Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, K. E.; Fleming, P. A.

    2011-06-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's National Wind Technology Center dedicates two 600 kW turbines for advanced control systems research. A fault detection system for both turbines has been developed, analyzed, and improved across years of experiments to protect the turbines as each new controller is tested. Analysis of field data and ongoing fault detection strategy improvements have resulted in a system of sensors, fault definitions, and detection strategies that have thus far been effective at protecting the turbines. In this paper, we document this fault detection system and provide field data illustrating its operation while detecting a range of failures. In some cases, we discuss the refinement process over time as fault detection strategies were improved. The purpose of this article is to share field experience obtained during the development and field testing of the existing fault detection system, and to offer a possible baseline for comparison with more advanced turbine fault detection controllers.

  10. Avionics advanced development strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyer, D.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed here is the problem of how to put together an integrated, phased, and affordable avionics advanced development program that links and applies to operational, evolving, and developing programs/vehicles, as well as those in the planning phases. Collecting technology needs from individual programs/vehicles and proposed technology items from individual developers usually results in a mismatch and something that is unaffordable. A strategy to address this problem is outlined with task definitions which will lead to avionics advanced development items that will fit within an overall framework, prioritized to support budgeting, and support the scope of NASA space transportations needs.

  11. An optimal control strategy for crop growth in advanced life support systems.

    PubMed

    Fleisher, D H; Baruh, H

    2001-01-01

    A feedback control method for regulating crop growth in advanced life support systems is presented. Two models for crop growth are considered, one developed by the agricultural industry and used by the Ames Research Center, and a mechanistic model, termed the Energy Cascade model. Proportional and pointwise-optimal control laws are applied to both models using wheat as the crop and light intensity as the control input. The control is particularly sensitive to errors in measurement of crop dry mass. However, it is shown that the proposed approach is a potentially viable way of controlling crop growth as it compensates for model errors and problems associated with applying the desired control input due to environmental disturbances. Grant numbers: NGT5-50229. PMID:11725784

  12. DOE Project: Optimization of Advanced Diesel Engine Combustion Strategies "University Research in Advanced Combustion and Emissions Control" Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program

    SciTech Connect

    Reitz, Rolf; Foster, D.; Ghandhi, J.; Rothamer, D.; Rutland, C.; Sanders, S.; Trujillo, M.

    2012-10-26

    The goal of the present technology development was to increase the efficiency of internal combustion engines while minimizing the energy penalty of meeting emissions regulations. This objective was achieved through experimentation and the development of advanced combustion regimes and emission control strategies, coupled with advanced petroleum and non-petroleum fuel formulations. To meet the goals of the project, it was necessary to improve the efficiency of expansion work extraction, and this required optimized combustion phasing and minimized in-cylinder heat transfer losses. To minimize fuel used for diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration, soot emissions were also minimized. Because of the complex nature of optimizing production engines for real-world variations in fuels, temperatures and pressures, the project applied high-fidelity computing and high-resolution engine experiments synergistically to create and apply advanced tools (i.e., fast, accurate predictive models) developed for low-emission, fuel-efficient engine designs. The companion experiments were conducted using representative single- and multi-cylinder automotive and truck diesel engines.

  13. Advanced Outage and Control Center: Strategies for Nuclear Plant Outage Work Status Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory Weatherby

    2012-05-01

    The research effort is a part of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program. LWRS is a research and development program sponsored by the Department of Energy, performed in close collaboration with industry to provide the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe and economical operation of current nuclear power plants. The LWRS Program serves to help the US nuclear industry adopt new technologies and engineering solutions that facilitate the continued safe operation of the plants and extension of the current operating licenses. The Outage Control Center (OCC) Pilot Project was directed at carrying out the applied research for development and pilot of technology designed to enhance safe outage and maintenance operations, improve human performance and reliability, increase overall operational efficiency, and improve plant status control. Plant outage management is a high priority concern for the nuclear industry from cost and safety perspectives. Unfortunately, many of the underlying technologies supporting outage control are the same as those used in the 1980’s. They depend heavily upon large teams of staff, multiple work and coordination locations, and manual administrative actions that require large amounts of paper. Previous work in human reliability analysis suggests that many repetitive tasks, including paper work tasks, may have a failure rate of 1.0E-3 or higher (Gertman, 1996). With between 10,000 and 45,000 subtasks being performed during an outage (Gomes, 1996), the opportunity for human error of some consequence is a realistic concern. Although a number of factors exist that can make these errors recoverable, reducing and effectively coordinating the sheer number of tasks to be performed, particularly those that are error prone, has the potential to enhance outage efficiency and safety. Additionally, outage management requires precise coordination of work groups that do not always share similar objectives. Outage

  14. Supervisory Control Strategy Development

    SciTech Connect

    Gary D. Storrick; Bojan Petrovic

    2007-02-28

    Task 4 of this collaborative effort between ORNL, Brazil, and Westinghouse for the International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative entitled “Development of Advanced Instrumentation and Control for an Integrated Primary System Reactor” focused on the design of the hierarchical supervisory control for multiple-module units. The state of the IRIS plant design – specifically, the lack of a detailed secondary system design – made developing a detailed hierarchical control difficult at this time. However, other simultaneous and ongoing efforts have contributed to providing the needed information. This report summarizes the results achieved under Task 4 of this Financial Assistance Award. Section 1.2 describes the scope of this effort. Section 2 discusses the IRIS control functions. Next, it briefly reviews the current control concepts, and then reviews the maneuvering requirements for the IRIS plant. It closes by noting the benefits that automated sequences have in reducing operator workload. Section 3 examines reactor loading in the frequency domain to establish some guidelines for module operation, paying particular attention to strategies for using process steam for desalination and/or district heating. The final subsection discusses the implications for reactor control, and argues that using the envisioned percentage (up to 10%) of the NSSS thermal output for these purposes should not significantly affect the NSSS control strategies. Section 4 uses some very general economic assumptions to suggest how one should approach multi-module operation. It concludes that the well-known algorithms used for economic dispatching could be used to help manage a multi-unit IRIS site. Section 5 addresses the human performance factors of multi-module operation. Section 6 summarizes our conclusions.

  15. Advances in cancer control

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, P.N. ); Engstrom, P.F. ); Mortenson, L.E. )

    1989-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the sixth annual meeting on Advances in Cancer Control. Included are the following articles: Barriers and facilitators to compliance with routine mammographic screening, Preliminary report of an intervention to improve mammography skills of radiologists.

  16. Advances in Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, David L.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Advances in electronics and computer science have enabled industries (pulp/paper, iron/steel, petroleum/chemical) to attain better control of their processes with resulting increases in quality, productivity, profitability, and compliance with government regulations. (JN)

  17. Advanced Process Control Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deshpande, Pradeep B.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Describes laboratory experiments of a chemistry course on advanced process control. The equipment for the process around which these experiments were developed by the University of Louisville was constructed from data provided by Exxon Oil Company. (HM)

  18. Advanced Aerodynamic Control Effectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.

    1999-01-01

    A 1990 research program that focused on the development of advanced aerodynamic control effectors (AACE) for military aircraft has been reviewed and summarized. Data are presented for advanced planform, flow control, and surface contouring technologies. The data show significant increases in lift, reductions in drag, and increased control power, compared to typical aerodynamic designs. The results presented also highlighted the importance of planform selection in the design of a control effector suite. Planform data showed that dramatic increases in lift (greater than 25%) can be achieved with multiple wings and a sawtooth forebody. Passive porosity and micro drag generator control effector data showed control power levels exceeding that available from typical effectors (moving surfaces). Application of an advanced planform to a tailless concept showed benefits of similar magnitude as those observed in the generic studies.

  19. ADVANCED EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    G.A. Farthing

    2001-02-06

    The primary objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs, or air toxics) from coal-fired boilers. The project goal is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), fabric filters (baghouses), and wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) systems. Development work initially concentrated on the capture of trace metals, fine particulate, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen fluoride. Recent work has focused almost exclusively on the control of mercury emissions.

  20. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    G. A. Farthing; G. T. Amrhein; G. A. Kudlac; D. A. Yurchison; D. K. McDonald; M. G. Milobowski

    2001-03-31

    The primary objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs, or air toxics) from coal-fired boilers. This objective is being met by identifying ways to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), fabric filters (fabric filters), and wet flue gas desulfurization (wet FGD) systems. Development work initially concentrated on the capture of trace metals, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen fluoride. Recent work has focused almost exclusively on the control of mercury emissions.

  1. Aquila field: Advanced contracting strategies

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    Aquila oil field, in 2,800 ft of water, is in the middle of the Otranto Channel in the Mediterranean Sea, approximately 28 miles offshore southern Italy, and is subject to difficult sea and weather conditions. The many difficulties, caused mainly by water depth, requires the use of advanced technology that can be obtained only through the direct association with contractor companies. This solution safeguards the technological reliability and allows for maximum control of time and cost. The selection of a floating production, storage, and offloading (FPSO) system resulted from a feasibility study that indicated this solution was the only method that would provide economical exploitation of the Aquila field. The system includes flowlines and control lines. The ship, FPSO Agip Firenze, has been specially redesigned to manage the field development. Agip will provide the subsea production system, the Christmas tree, control system, and artificial lift.

  2. Avian influenza control strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Control strategies for avian influenza in poultry vary depending on whether the goal is prevention, management, or eradication. Components used in control programs include: 1) education which includes communication, public awareness, and behavioral change, 2) changes to production and marketing sys...

  3. Advanced Wavefront Control Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Olivier, S S; Brase, J M; Avicola, K; Thompson, C A; Kartz, M W; Winters, S; Hartley, R; Wihelmsen, J; Dowla, F V; Carrano, C J; Bauman, B J; Pennington, D M; Lande, D; Sawvel, R M; Silva, D A; Cooke, J B; Brown, C G

    2001-02-21

    this project, work was performed in four areas (1) advanced modeling tools for deformable mirrors (2) low-order wavefront correctors with Alvarez lenses, (3) a direct phase measuring heterdyne wavefront sensor, and (4) high-spatial-frequency wavefront control using spatial light modulators.

  4. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    A.P.Evans; K.E. Redinger; M.J. Holmes

    1998-04-01

    The objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. Ideally, the project aim is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPS), fabric filters (baghouse), and wet flue gas desulfurization. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate and hydrogen chloride. Following the construction and evaluation of a representative air toxics test facility in Phase I, Phase II focused on the evaluation of mercury and several other air toxics emissions. The AECDP is jointly funded by the United States Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development (oCDO), and Babcock& Wilcox-a McDermott company (B&W).

  5. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program: Mercury Control

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, A.P.; Redinger, K.W.; Holmes, M.J.

    1997-07-01

    McDermott Technology, Inc. (a subsidiary of Babcock & Wilcox) is conducting the Advanced Emissions Control Development Project (AECDP) which is aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPS) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for such controls may arise as the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proceeds with implementation of requirements set forth in the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA`s) of 1990. Promulgation of air toxics emissions regulations for electric utility plants could dramatically impact utilities burning coal, their industrial and residential customers, and the coal industry. AECDP project work will supply the information needed by utilities to respond to potential HAPs regulations in a timely, cost-effective, enviromnentally-sound manner which supports the continued use of the Nation`s abundant reserves of coal, such as those in the State of Ohio. The development work is being carried out using the 10 MW Clean Environment Development Facility wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions. The specific objectives of the project are to (1) measure and understand production and partitioning of air toxics species for a variety of coals, (2) optimize the air toxics removal performance of conventional flue gas cleanup systems, (3) develop advanced air toxics emissions control concepts, (4) develop and validate air toxics emissions measurement and monitoring techniques, and (5) establish a comprehensive, self-consistent air toxics data library. This project is supported by the Department of Energy, the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development and Babcock & Wilcox. A comprehensive assessment of HAP emissions from coal-fired electric utility boilers sponsored by the Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute concluded that with the exception of selenium and mercury

  6. ADVANCED EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    M.J. Holmes

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop practical strategies and systems for the simultaneous control of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, particulate matter, and air toxics emissions from coal-fired boilers in such a way as to keep coal economically and environmentally competitive as a utility boiler fuel. Of particular interest is the control of air toxics emissions through the cost-effective use of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESP's), fabric filters (baghouses), and SO{sub 2} removal systems such as wet scrubbers and various clean coal technologies. This objective will be achieved through extensive development testing in the state-of-the art, 10 MW{sub e} equivalent, Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF). The project has extended the capabilities of the CEDF to facilitate air toxics emissions control development work on backend flue gas cleanup equipment. Specifically, an ESP, a baghouse, and a wet scrubber for SO{sub 2} (and air toxics) control were added--all designed to yield air toxics emissions data under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. A schematic of the CEDF and the project test equipment is shown in Figure 1. The specific objectives of the project are to: (1) Measure and understand production and partitioning of air toxics species in coal-fired power plant systems; (2) Optimize the air toxics removal performance of conventional flue gas cleanup systems; (3) Quantify the impacts of coal cleaning on air toxics emissions; (4) Identify and/or develop advanced air toxics emissions control concepts; (5) Develop and validate air toxics emissions measurement and monitoring techniques; (6) Establish an air toxics data library to facilitate studies of the impacts of coal selection, coal cleaning, and emissions control strategies on the emissions of coal-fired power plants.

  7. ADVANCED EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    M.J. Holmes

    1998-10-01

    The objective of this project is to develop practical strategies and systems for the simultaneous control of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, particulate matter, and air toxics emissions from coal-fired boilers in such a way as to keep coal economically and environmentally competitive as a utility boiler fuel. Of particular interest is the control of air toxics emissions through the cost-effective use of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESP's), fabric filters (baghouses), and SO{sub 2} removal systems such as wet scrubbers and various clean coal technologies. This objective will be achieved through extensive development testing in the state-of-the art, 10 MW{sub e} equivalent, Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF). The project has extended the capabilities of the CEDF to facilitate air toxics emissions control development work on backend flue gas cleanup equipment. Specifically, an ESP, a baghouse, and a wet scrubber for SO{sub 2} (and air toxics) control were added--all designed to yield air toxics emissions data under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. A schematic of the CEDF and the project test equipment is shown in Figure 1. The specific objectives of the project are to: (1) Measure and understand production and partitioning of air toxics species in coal-fired power plant systems; (2) Optimize the air toxics removal performance of conventional flue gas cleanup systems; (3) Quantify the impacts of coal cleaning on air toxics emissions; (4) Identify and/or develop advanced air toxics emissions control concepts; (5) Develop and validate air toxics emissions measurement and monitoring techniques; (6) Establish an air toxics data library to facilitate studies of the impacts of coal selection, coal cleaning, and emissions control strategies on the emissions of coal-fired power plants.

  8. ADVANCED EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    M.J. Holmes

    1998-07-01

    The objective of this project is to develop practical strategies and systems for the simultaneous control of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, particulate matter, and air toxics emissions from coal-fired boilers in such a way as to keep coal economically and environmentally competitive as a utility boiler fuel. Of particular interest is the control of air toxics emissions through the cost-effective use of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESP's), fabric filters (baghouses), and SO{sub 2} removal systems such as wet scrubbers and various clean coal technologies. This objective will be achieved through extensive development testing in the state-of-the art, 10 MW{sub e} equivalent, Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF). The project has extended the capabilities of the CEDF to facilitate air toxics emissions control development work on backend flue gas cleanup equipment. Specifically, an ESP, a baghouse, and a wet scrubber for SO{sub 2} (and air toxics) control were added--all designed to yield air toxics emissions data under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. A schematic of the CEDF and the project test equipment is shown in Figure 1. The specific objectives of the project are to: (1) Measure and understand production and partitioning of air toxics species in coal-fired power plant systems; (2) Optimize the air toxics removal performance of conventional flue gas cleanup systems; (3) Quantify the impacts of coal cleaning on air toxics emissions; (4) Identify and/or develop advanced air toxics emissions control concepts; (5) Develop and validate air toxics emissions measurement and monitoring techniques; (6) Establish an air toxics data library to facilitate studies of the impacts of coal selection, coal cleaning, and emissions control strategies on the emissions of coal-fired power plants.

  9. Learning to Control Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subramanian, Devika

    2004-01-01

    Advanced life support systems have many interacting processes and limited resources. Controlling and optimizing advanced life support systems presents unique challenges. In particular, advanced life support systems are nonlinear coupled dynamical systems and it is difficult for humans to take all interactions into account to design an effective control strategy. In this project. we developed several reinforcement learning controllers that actively explore the space of possible control strategies, guided by rewards from a user specified long term objective function. We evaluated these controllers using a discrete event simulation of an advanced life support system. This simulation, called BioSim, designed by Nasa scientists David Kortenkamp and Scott Bell has multiple, interacting life support modules including crew, food production, air revitalization, water recovery, solid waste incineration and power. They are implemented in a consumer/producer relationship in which certain modules produce resources that are consumed by other modules. Stores hold resources between modules. Control of this simulation is via adjusting flows of resources between modules and into/out of stores. We developed adaptive algorithms that control the flow of resources in BioSim. Our learning algorithms discovered several ingenious strategies for maximizing mission length by controlling the air and water recycling systems as well as crop planting schedules. By exploiting non-linearities in the overall system dynamics, the learned controllers easily out- performed controllers written by human experts. In sum, we accomplished three goals. We (1) developed foundations for learning models of coupled dynamical systems by active exploration of the state space, (2) developed and tested algorithms that learn to efficiently control air and water recycling processes as well as crop scheduling in Biosim, and (3) developed an understanding of the role machine learning in designing control systems for

  10. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS

    SciTech Connect

    Apostolos A. Nikolopoulos; Santosh K. Gangwal; William J. McMichael; Jeffrey W. Portzer

    2003-01-01

    Conventional sulfur removal in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants involves numerous steps: COS (carbonyl sulfide) hydrolysis, amine scrubbing/regeneration, Claus process, and tail-gas treatment. Advanced sulfur removal in IGCC systems involves typically the use of zinc oxide-based sorbents. The sulfides sorbent is regenerated using dilute air to produce a dilute SO{sub 2} (sulfur dioxide) tail gas. Under previous contracts the highly effective first generation Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) for catalytic reduction of this SO{sub 2} tail gas to elemental sulfur was developed. This process is currently undergoing field-testing. In this project, advanced concepts were evaluated to reduce the number of unit operations in sulfur removal and recovery. Substantial effort was directed towards developing sorbents that could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur in an Advanced Hot Gas Process (AHGP). Development of this process has been described in detail in Appendices A-F. RTI began the development of the Single-step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP) to eliminate the use of sorbents and multiple reactors in sulfur removal and recovery. This process showed promising preliminary results and thus further process development of AHGP was abandoned in favor of SSRP. The SSRP is a direct Claus process that consists of injecting SO{sub 2} directly into the quenched coal gas from a coal gasifier, and reacting the H{sub 2}S-SO{sub 2} mixture over a selective catalyst to both remove and recover sulfur in a single step. The process is conducted at gasifier pressure and 125 to 160 C. The proposed commercial embodiment of the SSRP involves a liquid phase of molten sulfur with dispersed catalyst in a slurry bubble-column reactor (SBCR).

  11. Advances in infection control

    PubMed Central

    Marra, Alexandre Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Several initiatives took place in recent years in relation to nosocomial infection control in order to increase patient safety. Some of these initiatives will be commented in this brief review. PMID:27074240

  12. Natural Gas for Advanced Dual-Fuel Combustion Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Nicholas Ryan

    Natural gas fuels represent the next evolution of low-carbon energy feedstocks powering human activity worldwide. The internal combustion engine, the energy conversion device widely used by society for more than one century, is capable of utilizing advanced combustion strategies in pursuit of ultra-high efficiency and ultra-low emissions. Yet many emerging advanced combustion strategies depend upon traditional petroleum-based fuels for their operation. In this research the use of natural gas, namely methane, is applied to both conventional and advanced dual-fuel combustion strategies. In the first part of this work both computational and experimental studies are undertaken to examine the viability of utilizing methane as the premixed low reactivity fuel in reactivity controlled compression ignition, a leading advanced dual-fuel combustion strategy. As a result, methane is shown to be capable of significantly extending the load limits for dual-fuel reactivity controlled compression ignition in both light- and heavy-duty engines. In the second part of this work heavy-duty single-cylinder engine experiments are performed to research the performance of both conventional dual-fuel (diesel pilot ignition) and advanced dual-fuel (reactivity controlled compression ignition) combustion strategies using methane as the premixed low reactivity fuel. Both strategies are strongly influenced by equivalence ratio; diesel pilot ignition offers best performance at higher equivalence ratios and higher premixed methane ratios, whereas reactivity controlled compression ignition offers superior performance at lower equivalence ratios and lower premixed methane ratios. In the third part of this work experiments are performed in order to determine the dominant mode of heat release for both dual-fuel combustion strategies. By studying the dual-fuel homogeneous charge compression ignition and single-fuel spark ignition, strategies representative of autoignition and flame propagation

  13. Advanced sulfur control concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Gangwal, S.K.; Turk, B.S.; Gupta, R.P.

    1995-11-01

    Regenerable metal oxide sorbents, such as zinc titanate, are being developed to efficiently remove hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gas in advanced power systems. Dilute air regeneration of the sorbents produces a tailgas containing a few percent sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}). Catalytic reduction of the SO{sub 2} to elemental sulfur with a coal gas slipstream using the Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) is a leading first-generation technology. Currently the DSRP is undergoing field testing at gasifier sites. The objective of this study is to develop second-generation processes that produce elemental sulfur without coal gas or with limited use. Novel approaches that were evaluated to produce elemental sulfur from sulfided sorbents include (1) sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) regeneration, (2) substoichiometric (partial) oxidation, (3) steam regeneration followed by H{sub 2}S oxidation, and (4) steam-air regeneration. Preliminary assessment of these approaches indicated that developing SO{sub 2} regeneration faced the fewest technical and economic problems among the four process options. Elemental sulfur is the only likely product of SO{sub 2} regeneration and the SO{sub 2} required for the regeneration can be obtained by burning a portion of the sulfur produced. Experimental efforts have thus been concentrated on SO{sub 2}-based regeneration processes. Results from laboratory investigations are presented and discussed.

  14. National Drug Control Strategy, 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of National Drug Control Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    In May of 2010, President Obama released the Administration's inaugural "National Drug Control Strategy". Based on the premise that drug use and its consequences pose a threat not just to public safety, but also to public health, the 2010 "Strategy" represented the first comprehensive rebalancing of Federal drug control policy in the nearly 40…

  15. Delayed coker fractionator advanced control

    SciTech Connect

    Jaisinghani, R.; Minter, B. ); Tica, A.; Puglesi, A.; Ojeda, R. )

    1993-08-01

    In a delayed coking process, as coke drum switches are made, rapid changes occur in both the fractionator feed rate and composition. With conventional control, it is not unusual to see long transient behavior of large swings in both quality and flowrates of coker gas oils. This can extract a heavy economic toll, not only in coker operation, but in the operation of downstream units as the upset is propagated. An advanced process control application (APC) was recently implemented on the coker fractionator at the Yacimentos Petroliferos Fiscales (YPF), Lujan de Cuyo Refinery, in Mendoza, Argentina. This coker fractionator control design was unique as it handled two different operating objectives: control of product qualities via tower temperature profile during normal operation and control of gas oil product flow ratio during drum switch. This combination of control objectives in one multivariable predictive control program was achieved by including special logic to decouple the individual tuning requirements. Also, additional logic was included to unambiguously detect and identify drum switch and drum steam out as discrete events within 30 seconds of their actual occurrence. These discrete events were then used as disturbance variables to minimize fractionator transient behavior. As a performance measure, the overhead temperature was controlled within 2 C to 2.5 C of its target, gas oil flows were stabilized during drum switches and steam generation via pump around was maximized. Overall, implementing advanced control for the delayed coker fractionator resulted in substantial benefits from product quality control, product flow control and minimized energy consumption.

  16. Advanced flight control system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgough, J.; Moses, K.; Klafin, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The architecture, requirements, and system elements of an ultrareliable, advanced flight control system are described. The basic criteria are functional reliability of 10 to the minus 10 power/hour of flight and only 6 month scheduled maintenance. A distributed system architecture is described, including a multiplexed communication system, reliable bus controller, the use of skewed sensor arrays, and actuator interfaces. Test bed and flight evaluation program are proposed.

  17. National Drug Control Strategy. Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of National Drug Control Policy, Washington, DC.

    President Bush's new National Drug Control Strategy for 2003 focuses on three core priorities: stopping drug use before it starts; healing America's drug users; and disrupting the market. The 2003 strategy reports progress toward meeting the President's goals of reducing drug use by 10 percent over 2 years, and 25 percent over 5 years. With regard…

  18. National Drug Control Strategy. Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of National Drug Control Policy, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The first National Drug Control Strategy set ambitious two and five-year performance based goals: (1) to lower the rate of drug use by 10 percent over 2 years among both youth and adults; and (2) to lower the rate by 25 percent over 5 years. The chapters in this updated version are keyed to the strategies three priorities: (1) Stopping Use Before…

  19. Advanced Thermal Control Flight Experiment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, J. P.; Brennan, P. J.

    1973-01-01

    The advanced Thermal Control Flight Experiment on the Applications Technology Satellite (ATS-F) will evaluate, for the first time in a space environment, the performance of a feedback-controlled variable conductance heat pipe and a heat pipe thermal diode. In addition, the temperature control aspects of a phase-change material (PCM) will be demonstrated. The methanol/stainless steel feedback-controlled heat pipe uses helium control gas that is stored in a wicked reservoir. This reservoir is electrically heated through a solid state controller that senses the temperature of the heat source directly. The ammonia/stainless steel diode heat pipe uses excess liquid to block heat transfer in the reverse direction. The PCM is octadecane. Design tradeoffs, fabrication problems, and performance during qualification and flight acceptance tests are discussed.

  20. Control strategies for a telerobot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohara, John; Stasi, Bill

    1989-01-01

    One of the major issues impacting the utility of telerobotic systems for space is the development of effective control strategies. For near-term applications, telerobot control is likely to utilize teleoperation methodologies with integrated supervisory control capabilities to assist the operator. Two different approaches to telerobotic control are evaluated: bilateral force reflecting master controllers and proportional rate six degrees-of-freedom hand controllers. The controllers' performance of single manipulator arm tasks is compared. Simultaneous operation of both manipulator arms and complex multiaxis slave arm movements is investigated. Task times are significantly longer and fewer errors are committed with the hand controllers. The hand controllers are also rated significantly higher in cognitive and manual control workload on the two-arm task. The master controllers are rated significantly higher in physical workload. The implications of these findings for space teleoperations and higher levels of control are discussed.

  1. The Advanced Controls Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Knee, H.E.; White, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE), is conducting research that will lead to advanced, automated control of new liquid-metal-reactor (LMR) nuclear power plants. Although this program of research (entitled the Advanced Controls Program'') is focused on LMR technology, it will be capable of providing control design, test, and qualification capability for other advanced reactor designs (e.g., the advanced light water reactor (ALWR) and high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) designs), while also benefiting existing nuclear plants. The Program will also have applicability to complex, non-nuclear process control environments (e.g., petrochemical, aerospace, etc.). The Advanced Controls Program will support capabilities throughout the entire plant design life cycle, i.e., from the initial interactive first-principle dynamic model development for the process, systems, components, and instruments through advanced control room qualification. The current program involves five principal areas of research activities: (1) demonstrations of advanced control system designs, (2) development of an advanced controls design environment, (3) development of advanced control strategies, (4) research and development (R D) in human-system integration for advanced control system designs, and (5) testing and validation of advanced control system designs. Discussion of the research in these five areas forms the basis of this paper. Also included is a description of the research directions of the program. 8 refs.

  2. Advanced flight control system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, G. L.; Wall, J. E., Jr.; Rang, E. R.; Lee, H. P.; Schulte, R. W.; Ng, W. K.

    1982-01-01

    A fly by wire flight control system architecture designed for high reliability includes spare sensor and computer elements to permit safe dispatch with failed elements, thereby reducing unscheduled maintenance. A methodology capable of demonstrating that the architecture does achieve the predicted performance characteristics consists of a hierarchy of activities ranging from analytical calculations of system reliability and formal methods of software verification to iron bird testing followed by flight evaluation. Interfacing this architecture to the Lockheed S-3A aircraft for flight test is discussed. This testbed vehicle can be expanded to support flight experiments in advanced aerodynamics, electromechanical actuators, secondary power systems, flight management, new displays, and air traffic control concepts.

  3. Advanced gray rod control assembly

    DOEpatents

    Drudy, Keith J; Carlson, William R; Conner, Michael E; Goldenfield, Mark; Hone, Michael J; Long, Jr., Carroll J; Parkinson, Jerod; Pomirleanu, Radu O

    2013-09-17

    An advanced gray rod control assembly (GRCA) for a nuclear reactor. The GRCA provides controlled insertion of gray rod assemblies into the reactor, thereby controlling the rate of power produced by the reactor and providing reactivity control at full power. Each gray rod assembly includes an elongated tubular member, a primary neutron-absorber disposed within the tubular member said neutron-absorber comprising an absorber material, preferably tungsten, having a 2200 m/s neutron absorption microscopic capture cross-section of from 10 to 30 barns. An internal support tube can be positioned between the primary absorber and the tubular member as a secondary absorber to enhance neutron absorption, absorber depletion, assembly weight, and assembly heat transfer characteristics.

  4. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    M. J. Holmes

    1998-12-03

    McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using the Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

  5. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    A. P. Evans

    1998-12-03

    McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using the Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and the inorganic species, hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

  6. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, A P

    1998-12-03

    Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using B&W's new Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and the inorganic species hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

  7. Advanced Emission Control Development Program.

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, A.P.

    1997-12-31

    Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using B&W`s new Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and the inorganic species hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

  8. Advanced nuclear plant control complex

    DOEpatents

    Scarola, Kenneth; Jamison, David S.; Manazir, Richard M.; Rescorl, Robert L.; Harmon, Daryl L.

    1993-01-01

    An advanced control room complex for a nuclear power plant, including a discrete indicator and alarm system (72) which is nuclear qualified for rapid response to changes in plant parameters and a component control system (64) which together provide a discrete monitoring and control capability at a panel (14-22, 26, 28) in the control room (10). A separate data processing system (70), which need not be nuclear qualified, provides integrated and overview information to the control room and to each panel, through CRTs (84) and a large, overhead integrated process status overview board (24). The discrete indicator and alarm system (72) and the data processing system (70) receive inputs from common plant sensors and validate the sensor outputs to arrive at a representative value of the parameter for use by the operator during both normal and accident conditions, thereby avoiding the need for him to assimilate data from each sensor individually. The integrated process status board (24) is at the apex of an information hierarchy that extends through four levels and provides access at each panel to the full display hierarchy. The control room panels are preferably of a modular construction, permitting the definition of inputs and outputs, the man machine interface, and the plant specific algorithms, to proceed in parallel with the fabrication of the panels, the installation of the equipment and the generic testing thereof.

  9. National Drug Control Strategy, 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The White House, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This report presents a summary of the Fiscal Year 2007 Budget for the National Drug Control Strategy within the three key priority areas; education and community action, treatment and intervention, and disruption in the illegal drug market. The first chapter, "Stopping Drug Use Before It Starts," outlines the Administration's work to prevent the…

  10. Cysticercosis Control: Bringing Advances to the Field

    PubMed Central

    O’Neal, SE; Winthrop, KL; Gonzalez, AE

    2011-01-01

    Progress towards Taenia solium control is evident in the development of new technologies and in increasing regional coordination, yet disease eradication remains unlikely in the near future. In the meantime, translation of research advances into functioning control programs is necessary to address the ongoing disease burden in endemic areas. Multiple screening assays, effective treatments for both human and porcine infection, and vaccines blocking transmission to pigs are currently available. Strategies based on identification and treatment of T. solium adult tapeworms, as well as interventions that block cysticercosis acquisition in pigs have temporarily reduced transmission. Building on these successes with controlled community trials in varying endemic scenarios will drive progress towards regional elimination. PMID:21731303

  11. Analysis of pilot control strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heffley, R. K.; Hanson, G. D.; Jewell, W. F.; Clement, W. F.

    1983-01-01

    Methods for nonintrusive identification of pilot control strategy and task execution dynamics are presented along with examples based on flight data. The specific analysis technique is Nonintrusive Parameter Identification Procedure (NIPIP), which is described in a companion user's guide (NASA CR-170398). Quantification of pilot control strategy and task execution dynamics is discussed in general terms followed by a more detailed description of how NIPIP can be applied. The examples are based on flight data obtained from the NASA F-8 digital fly by wire airplane. These examples involve various piloting tasks and control axes as well as a demonstration of how the dynamics of the aircraft itself are identified using NIPIP. Application of NIPIP to the AFTI/F-16 flight test program is discussed. Recommendations are made for flight test applications in general and refinement of NIPIP to include interactive computer graphics.

  12. Advanced Light Source control system

    SciTech Connect

    Magyary, S.; Chin, M.; Cork, C.; Fahmie, M.; Lancaster, H.; Molinari, P.; Ritchie, A.; Robb, A.; Timossi, C.

    1989-03-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) is a third generation 1--2 GeV synchrotron radiation source designed to provide ports for 60 beamlines. It uses a 50 MeV electron linac and 1.5 GeV, 1 Hz, booster synchrotron for injection into a 1--2 GeV storage ring. Interesting control problems are created because of the need for dynamic closed beam orbit control to eliminate interaction between the ring tuning requirements and to minimize orbit shifts due to ground vibrations. The extremely signal sensitive nature of the experiments requires special attention to the sources of electrical noise. These requirements have led to a control system design which emphasizes connectivity at the accelerator equipment end and a large I/O bandwidth for closed loop system response. Not overlooked are user friendliness, operator response time, modeling, and expert system provisions. Portable consoles are used for local operation of machine equipment. Our solution is a massively parallel system with >120 Mbits/sec I/O bandwidth and >1500 Mips computing power. At the equipment level connections are made using over 600 powerful Intelligent Local Controllers (ILC-s) mounted in 3U size Eurocard slots using fiber-optic cables between rack locations. In the control room, personal computers control and display all machine variables at a 10 Hz rate including the scope signals which are collected though the control system. Commercially available software and industry standards are used extensively. Particular attention is paid to reliability, maintainability and upgradeability. 10 refs., 11 figs.

  13. 40 CFR 52.07 - Control strategies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategies. 52.07 Section 52.07... PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS General Provisions § 52.07 Control strategies. (a) Each subpart specifies in what respects the control strategies are approved or disapproved. Where emission limitations...

  14. 40 CFR 52.07 - Control strategies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... national standard which the requirement is intended to implement. (b) A control strategy may be disapproved... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategies. 52.07 Section 52.07... PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS General Provisions § 52.07 Control strategies. (a) Each subpart...

  15. 40 CFR 52.07 - Control strategies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... national standard which the requirement is intended to implement. (b) A control strategy may be disapproved... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategies. 52.07 Section 52.07... PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS General Provisions § 52.07 Control strategies. (a) Each subpart...

  16. 40 CFR 52.07 - Control strategies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... national standard which the requirement is intended to implement. (b) A control strategy may be disapproved... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategies. 52.07 Section 52.07... PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS General Provisions § 52.07 Control strategies. (a) Each subpart...

  17. 40 CFR 52.07 - Control strategies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategies. 52.07 Section 52.07... PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS General Provisions § 52.07 Control strategies. (a) Each subpart specifies in what respects the control strategies are approved or disapproved. Where emission limitations...

  18. Winning Strategies in Challenging Times for Advancing Small Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willmer, Wesley K., Ed.

    This volume contains nine papers on advancement issues and strategies for small colleges in the context of this decade's economic and social challenges. Chapter 1, "Setting the Stage" (Wesley K. Willmer), reports on a study of the advancement programs of smaller colleges in 1990-91, the third in a series of studies beginning in 1977-78. Chapter 2,…

  19. An Investigation of Pronunciation Learning Strategies of Advanced EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hismanoglu, Murat

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims at investigating the kinds of strategies deployed by advanced EFL learners at English Language Teaching Department to learn or improve English pronunciation and revealing whether there are any significant differences between the strategies of successful pronunciation learners and those of unsuccessful pronunciation learners. After…

  20. ADVANCED COMPRESSOR ENGINE CONTROLS TO ENHANCE OPERATION, RELIABILITY AND INTEGRITY

    SciTech Connect

    Gary D. Bourn; Jess W. Gingrich; Jack A. Smith

    2004-03-01

    This document is the final report for the ''Advanced Compressor Engine Controls to Enhance Operation, Reliability, and Integrity'' project. SwRI conducted this project for DOE in conjunction with Cooper Compression, under DOE contract number DE-FC26-03NT41859. This report addresses an investigation of engine controls for integral compressor engines and the development of control strategies that implement closed-loop NOX emissions feedback.

  1. Advanced control technology and its potential for future transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The topics covered include fly by wire, digital control, control configured vehicles, applications to advanced flight vehicles, advanced propulsion control systems, and active control technology for transport aircraft.

  2. Advances in fluorescence labeling strategies for dynamic cellular imaging

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Kevin M; Palmer, Amy E

    2014-01-01

    Synergistic advances in optical physics, probe design, molecular biology, labeling techniques and computational analysis have propelled fluorescence imaging into new realms of spatiotemporal resolution and sensitivity. This review aims to discuss advances in fluorescent probes and live-cell labeling strategies, two areas that remain pivotal for future advances in imaging technology. Fluorescent protein– and bio-orthogonal–based methods for protein and RNA imaging are discussed as well as emerging bioengineering techniques that enable their expression at specific genomic loci (for example, CRISPR and TALENs). Important attributes that contribute to the success of each technique are emphasized, providing a guideline for future advances in dynamic live-cell imaging. PMID:24937069

  3. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program: Phase III

    SciTech Connect

    G.T. Amrhein; R.T. Bailey; W. Downs; M.J. Holmes; G.A. Kudlac; D.A. Madden

    1999-07-01

    The primary objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. The project goal is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), fabric filters (baghouses - BH), and wet flue gas desulfurization systems (WFGD). Development work concentrated on the capture of trace metals, fine particulate, hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride, with an emphasis on the control of mercury. The AECDP project is jointly funded by the US Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development (OCDO), and Babcock and Wilcox, a McDermott company (B and W). This report discusses results of all three phases of the AECDP project with an emphasis on Phase III activities. Following the construction and evaluation of a representative air toxics test facility in Phase I, Phase II focused on characterization of the emissions of mercury and other air toxics and the control of these emissions for typical operating conditions of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment. Some general comments that can be made about the control of air toxics while burning a high-sulfur bituminous coal are as follows: (1) particulate control devices such as ESP's and baghouses do a good job of removing non-volatile trace metals, (2) particulate control devices (ESPs and baghouses) effectively remove the particulate-phase mercury, but the particulate-phase mercury was only a small fraction of the total for the coals tested, (3) wet scrubbing can effectively remove hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride, and (4) wet scrubbers show good potential for the removal of mercury when operated under certain conditions, however, for certain applications, system enhancements can be required to achieve high

  4. A National Strategy for Advancing Climate Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlea, Edward; Elfring, Chris

    2012-12-04

    Climate models are the foundation for understanding and projecting climate and climate-related changes and are thus critical tools for supporting climate-related decision making. This study developed a holistic strategy for improving the nation's capability to accurately simulate climate and related Earth system changes on decadal to centennial timescales. The committee's report is a high level analysis, providing a strategic framework to guide progress in the nation's climate modeling enterprise over the next 10-20 years. This study was supported by DOE, NSF, NASA, NOAA, and the intelligence community.

  5. Mixed-Strategy Chance Constrained Optimal Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ono, Masahiro; Kuwata, Yoshiaki; Balaram, J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel chance constrained optimal control (CCOC) algorithm that chooses a control action probabilistically. A CCOC problem is to find a control input that minimizes the expected cost while guaranteeing that the probability of violating a set of constraints is below a user-specified threshold. We show that a probabilistic control approach, which we refer to as a mixed control strategy, enables us to obtain a cost that is better than what deterministic control strategies can achieve when the CCOC problem is nonconvex. The resulting mixed-strategy CCOC problem turns out to be a convexification of the original nonconvex CCOC problem. Furthermore, we also show that a mixed control strategy only needs to "mix" up to two deterministic control actions in order to achieve optimality. Building upon an iterative dual optimization, the proposed algorithm quickly converges to the optimal mixed control strategy with a user-specified tolerance.

  6. Advanced Sensors and Controls for Building Applications: Market Assessment and Potential R&D Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Brambley, M. R.; Haves, P.; McDonald, S. C.; Torcellini, P.; Hansen, D.; Holmberg, D. R.; Roth, K. W.

    2005-04-01

    This document provides a market assessment of existing building sensors and controls and presents a range of technology pathways (R&D options) for pursuing advanced sensors and building control strategies.

  7. 2011 National Drug Control Strategy. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of National Drug Control Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    In May of 2010, President Obama released the Administration's inaugural "National Drug Control Strategy", a comprehensive approach to combat the public health and safety consequences posed by drug use. Now, a year later, the Administration is releasing its update building upon that initial "Strategy". The "Strategy" establishes ambitious goals to…

  8. Development of Advanced Casing Treatments for Flow Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Tsung, Fu-Lin

    2001-01-01

    Under the Base R&T and Ultra Efficient Engine Technology programs, the NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center Compressor Branch is investigating flow control strategies required to increase the loading and efficiency of core compressors while maintaining current levels of operability. Flow-control strategies being studied include advanced casing treatments, wall jet injection, and blade-tip injection for compressor stability enhancement, directed jets for surface boundary layer control, and vortex-generating devices. The use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to assess the effectiveness of flow-control devices and to guide their design is a key element in this research. CFD simulations serve to screen potential flow-control concepts at a lower cost than executing physical experiments in turbomachinery facilities. CFD simulations also provide guidance in designing physical experiments for those flow control concepts, which appear promising.

  9. Strategies of Administrative Control and Organizational Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimann, Bernard C.; Negandhi, Anant R.

    1975-01-01

    The results of a comparative study of 30 manufacturing firms in India indicated that the most effective organizations tended to choose a unidimensional strategy of administrative control. This strategy consisted of the use of formalized procedures to control decentralized decision-making with respect to both human and material resources. (Author)

  10. National Drug Control Strategy. 2008 Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of National Drug Control Policy, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the 2008 National Drug Control Strategy of the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy. The overarching goal of the President's Strategy is to reduce drug use in America through a balanced approach that focuses on stopping use before it starts, healing America's drug users, and disrupting the market for illegal…

  11. Advanced automation in space shuttle mission control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heindel, Troy A.; Rasmussen, Arthur N.; Mcfarland, Robert Z.

    1991-01-01

    The Real Time Data System (RTDS) Project was undertaken in 1987 to introduce new concepts and technologies for advanced automation into the Mission Control Center environment at NASA's Johnson Space Center. The project's emphasis is on producing advanced near-operational prototype systems that are developed using a rapid, interactive method and are used by flight controllers during actual Shuttle missions. In most cases the prototype applications have been of such quality and utility that they have been converted to production status. A key ingredient has been an integrated team of software engineers and flight controllers working together to quickly evolve the demonstration systems.

  12. JPL Advanced Thermal Control Technology Roadmap - 2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birur, Gaj; Rodriguez, Jose I.

    2012-01-01

    NASA's new emphasis on human exploration program for missions beyond LEO requires development of innovative and revolutionary technologies. Thermal control requirements of future NASA science instruments and missions are very challenging and require advanced thermal control technologies. Limited resources requires organizations to cooperate and collaborate; government, industry, universities all need to work together for the successful development of these technologies.

  13. Cylinder Pressure-Based Spark Advance Control for SI Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Seungbum; Yoon, Paljoo; Sunwoo, Myoungho

    The introduction of inexpensive cylinder pressure sensors provides new opportunities for precise engine control. This paper presents a spark advance control strategy based upon cylinder pressure in spark ignition engines. It is well known that the location of peak pressure(LPP) reflects combustion phasing and can be used for controlling the spark advance. The well-known problems of the LPP-based spark advance control method are that many samples of data are required and there is loss of combustion phasing detection capability due to hook-back at late burn conditions. To solve these problems, a multi-layer feedforward neural network is employed. The LPP and hook-back are estimated, using the neural network, which needs only five output voltage samples from the pressure sensor. The neural network plays an important role in mitigating the A/D conversion load of an electronic engine controller by increasing the sampling interval from 1° crank angle (CA) to 20° CA. A proposed control algorithm does not need a sensor calibration and pegging (bias calculation) procedure because the neural network estimates the LPP from the raw sensor output voltage. The estimated LPP can be regarded as a good index for combustion phasing, and can also be used as an MBT control parameter. The feasibility of this methodology is closely examined through steady and transient engine operations to control individual cylinder spark advances. The experimental results have revealed a favorable agreement of optimal combustion phasing in each cylinder.

  14. An evaluation of descent strategies for TNAV-equipped aircraft in an advanced metering environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izumi, K. H.; Schwab, R. W.; Groce, J. L.; Coote, M. A.

    1986-01-01

    Investigated were the effects on system throughput and fleet fuel usage of arrival aircraft utilizing three 4D RNAV descent strategies (cost optimal, clean-idle Mach/CAS and constant descent angle Mach/CAS), both individually and in combination, in an advanced air traffic control metering environment. Results are presented for all mixtures of arrival traffic consisting of three Boeing commercial jet types and for all combinations of the three descent strategies for a typical en route metering airport arrival distribution.

  15. Operational efficiency subpanel advanced mission control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedland, Peter

    1990-01-01

    Herein, the term mission control will be taken quite broadly to include both ground and space based operations as well as the information infrastructure necessary to support such operations. Three major technology areas related to advanced mission control are examined: (1) Intelligent Assistance for Ground-Based Mission Controllers and Space-Based Crews; (2) Autonomous Onboard Monitoring, Control and Fault Detection Isolation and Reconfiguration; and (3) Dynamic Corporate Memory Acquired, Maintained, and Utilized During the Entire Vehicle Life Cycle. The current state of the art space operations are surveyed both within NASA and externally for each of the three technology areas and major objectives are discussed from a user point of view for technology development. Ongoing NASA and other governmental programs are described. An analysis of major research issues and current holes in the program are provided. Several recommendations are presented for enhancing the technology development and insertion process to create advanced mission control environments.

  16. Planner-Based Control of Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscettola, Nicola; Kortenkamp, David; Fry, Chuck; Bell, Scott

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes an approach to the integration of qualitative and quantitative modeling techniques for advanced life support (ALS) systems. Developing reliable control strategies that scale up to fully integrated life support systems requires augmenting quantitative models and control algorithms with the abstractions provided by qualitative, symbolic models and their associated high-level control strategies. This will allow for effective management of the combinatorics due to the integration of a large number of ALS subsystems. By focusing control actions at different levels of detail and reactivity we can use faster: simpler responses at the lowest level and predictive but complex responses at the higher levels of abstraction. In particular, methods from model-based planning and scheduling can provide effective resource management over long time periods. We describe reference implementation of an advanced control system using the IDEA control architecture developed at NASA Ames Research Center. IDEA uses planning/scheduling as the sole reasoning method for predictive and reactive closed loop control. We describe preliminary experiments in planner-based control of ALS carried out on an integrated ALS simulation developed at NASA Johnson Space Center.

  17. Advanced control architecture for autonomous vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, Markus; Dickmanns, Ernst D.

    1997-06-01

    An advanced control architecture for autonomous vehicles is presented. The hierarchical architecture consists of four levels: a vehicle level, a control level, a rule-based level and a knowledge-based level. A special focus is on forms of internal representation, which have to be chosen adequately for each level. The control scheme is applied to VaMP, a Mercedes passenger car which autonomously performs missions on German freeways. VaMP perceives the environment with its sense of vision and conventional sensors. It controls its actuators for locomotion and attention focusing. Modules for perception, cognition and action are discussed.

  18. Advanced technologies for Mission Control Centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, John T.; Hughes, Peter M.

    1991-01-01

    Advance technologies for Mission Control Centers are presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: technology needs; current technology efforts at GSFC (human-machine interface development, object oriented software development, expert systems, knowledge-based software engineering environments, and high performance VLSI telemetry systems); and test beds.

  19. Recent advances in active noise control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guicking, D.

    Advances in the field of active noise control over the last few years are reviewed. Some commercially available products and their technical applications are described, with particular attention given to broadband duct noise silencers, broadband active headphones, waveform synthesis, and LMS controllers. Recent theoretical and experimental research activities are then reviewed. These activities are concerned with duct noise, structural sound, interior spaces, algorithms, echo cancellation, and miscellaneous applications.

  20. MERCURY CONTROL WITH ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller

    2005-05-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addressed Technical Topical Area 4-Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team included the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Power Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., and has been marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter also appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas--solid contactor. The objective of the project was to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach included bench-scale batch tests, larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, and field demonstration at the 2.5-MW (9000-acfm) scale at a utility power plant to prove scale-up and demonstrate longer-term mercury control

  1. Advanced Active Thermal Control Systems Architecture Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanford, Anthony J.; Ewert, Michael K.

    1996-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center (JSC) initiated a dynamic study to determine possible improvements available through advanced technologies (not used on previous or current human vehicles), identify promising development initiatives for advanced active thermal control systems (ATCS's), and help prioritize funding and personnel distribution among many research projects by providing a common basis to compare several diverse technologies. Some technologies included were two-phase thermal control systems, light-weight radiators, phase-change thermal storage, rotary fluid coupler, and heat pumps. JSC designed the study to estimate potential benefits from these various proposed and under-development thermal control technologies for five possible human missions early in the next century. The study compared all the technologies to a baseline mission using mass as a basis. Each baseline mission assumed an internal thermal control system; an external thermal control system; and aluminum, flow-through radiators. Solar vapor compression heat pumps and light-weight radiators showed the greatest promise as general advanced thermal technologies which can be applied across a range of missions. This initial study identified several other promising ATCS technologies which offer mass savings and other savings compared to traditional thermal control systems. Because the study format compares various architectures with a commonly defined baseline, it is versatile and expandable, and is expected to be updated as needed.

  2. Recent Scientific Advances Towards the Development of Tendon Healing Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Sayegh, Eli T.; Sandy, John D.; Virk, Mandeep S.; Romeo, Anthony A.; Wysocki, Robert W.; Galante, Jorge O.; Trella, Katie J.; Plaas, Anna; Wang, Vincent M.

    2015-01-01

    There exists a range of surgical and non-surgical approaches to the treatment of both acute and chronic tendon injuries. Despite surgical advances in the management of acute tears and increasing treatment options for tendinopathies, strategies frequently are unsuccessful, due to impaired mechanical properties of the treated tendon and/or a deficiency in progenitor cell activities. Hence, there is an urgent need for effective therapeutic strategies to augment intrinsic and/or surgical repair. Such approaches can benefit both tendinopathies and tendon tears which, due to their severity, appear to be irreversible or irreparable. Biologic therapies include the utilization of scaffolds as well as gene, growth factor, and cell delivery. These treatment modalities aim to provide mechanical durability or augment the biologic healing potential of the repaired tissue. Here, we review the emerging concepts and scientific evidence which provide a rationale for tissue engineering and regeneration strategies as well as discuss the clinical translation of recent innovations. PMID:26753125

  3. Overview of the US program of controls for advanced reactors

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.D.; Sackett, J.I.; Monson, R.; Lindsay, R.W.; Carroll, D.G.

    1989-01-01

    An automated control system can incorporate control goals and strategies, assessment of present and future plant status, diagnostic evaluation and maintenance planning, and signal and command validation. It has not been feasible to employ these capabilities in conventional hard-wired, analog, control systems. Recent advances in computer-based digital data acquisition systems, process controllers, fiber-optic signal transmission artificial intelligence tools and methods, and small inexpensive, fast, large-capacity computers---with both numeric and symbolic capabilities---have provided many of the necessary ingredients for developing large, practical automated control systems. Furthermore, recent reactor designs which provide strong passive responses to operational upsets or accidents afford good opportunities to apply these advances in control technology. This paper presents an overall US national perspective for advanced controls research and development. The goals of high reliability, low operating cost and simple operation are described. The staged approach from conceptualization through implementation is discussed. Then the paper describes the work being done by ORNL, ANL and GE. The relationship of this work to the US commercial industry is also discussed.

  4. Architectures & requirements for advanced weapon controllers.

    SciTech Connect

    McMurtrey, Brian J.; Klarer, Paul Richard; Bryan, Jon R.

    2004-02-01

    This report describes work done in FY2003 under Advanced and Exploratory Studies funding for Advanced Weapons Controllers. The contemporary requirements and envisioned missions for nuclear weapons are changing from the class of missions originally envisioned during development of the current stockpile. Technology available today in electronics, computing, and software provides capabilities not practical or even possible 20 years ago. This exploratory work looks at how Weapon Electrical Systems can be improved to accommodate new missions and new technologies while maintaining or improving existing standards in nuclear safety and reliability.

  5. Adaptive Control Strategies for Flexible Robotic Arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bialasiewicz, Jan T.

    1996-01-01

    The control problem of a flexible robotic arm has been investigated. The control strategies that have been developed have a wide application in approaching the general control problem of flexible space structures. The following control strategies have been developed and evaluated: neural self-tuning control algorithm, neural-network-based fuzzy logic control algorithm, and adaptive pole assignment algorithm. All of the above algorithms have been tested through computer simulation. In addition, the hardware implementation of a computer control system that controls the tip position of a flexible arm clamped on a rigid hub mounted directly on the vertical shaft of a dc motor, has been developed. An adaptive pole assignment algorithm has been applied to suppress vibrations of the described physical model of flexible robotic arm and has been successfully tested using this testbed.

  6. Introduction to Advanced Engine Control Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanjay, Garg

    2007-01-01

    With the increased emphasis on aircraft safety, enhanced performance and affordability, and the need to reduce the environmental impact of aircraft, there are many new challenges being faced by the designers of aircraft propulsion systems. The Controls and Dynamics Branch at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio, is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced controls and health management technologies that will help meet these challenges through the concept of Intelligent Propulsion Systems. The key enabling technologies for an Intelligent Propulsion System are the increased efficiencies of components through active control, advanced diagnostics and prognostics integrated with intelligent engine control to enhance operational reliability and component life, and distributed control with smart sensors and actuators in an adaptive fault tolerant architecture. This presentation describes the current activities of the Controls and Dynamics Branch in the areas of active component control and propulsion system intelligent control, and presents some recent analytical and experimental results in these areas.

  7. HTGR Resilient Control System Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Lynne M. Stevens

    2010-09-01

    A preeminent objective for corporate and government organizations is the protection of major investments, which is attained by achieving state awareness, a comprehensive understanding of security and safety, for critical infrastructures. Given the dependence of critical infrastructure on control systems for automation, the integrity of these systems and their ability to provide owner/operators a high degree of state awareness is essential in attaining a high degree of investment protection and public acceptance. Operators as well as government are therefore burdened to ensure they have a timely understanding of the status of their plant or all plants, respectively, to ensure efficient operations and investment and public protection. “This characterization is a significant objective that must consider many aspects of instrumentation, control, and intelligent systems in order to achieve the required result. These aspects include sensory, communication, analysis, decision, and human system interfaces necessary to achieve fusion of data and presentation of results that will provide an understanding of what issues are important and why.

  8. Human factors challenges for advanced process control

    SciTech Connect

    Stubler, W.F.; O`Hara, J..M.

    1996-08-01

    New human-system interface technologies provide opportunities for improving operator and plant performance. However, if these technologies are not properly implemented, they may introduce new challenges to performance and safety. This paper reports the results from a survey of human factors considerations that arise in the implementation of advanced human-system interface technologies in process control and other complex systems. General trends were identified for several areas based on a review of technical literature and a combination of interviews and site visits with process control organizations. Human factors considerations are discussed for two of these areas, automation and controls.

  9. Controlling air toxics through advanced coal preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Straszheim, W.E.; Buttermore, W.H.; Pollard, J.L.

    1995-11-01

    This project involves the assessment of advanced coal preparation methods for removing trace elements from coal to reduce the potential for air toxic emissions upon combustion. Scanning electron microscopy-based automated image analysis (SEM-AIA) and advanced washability analyses are being applied with state-of-the-art analytical procedures to predict the removal of elements of concern by advanced column flotation and to confirm the effectiveness of preparation on the quality of quantity of clean coal produced. Specific objectives are to maintain an acceptable recovery of combustible product, while improving the rejection of mineral-associated trace elements. Current work has focused on determining conditions for controlling column flotation system across its operating range and on selection and analysis of samples for determining trace element cleanability.

  10. Emerging trends in vibration control of wind turbines: a focus on a dual control strategy.

    PubMed

    Staino, Andrea; Basu, Biswajit

    2015-02-28

    The paper discusses some of the recent developments in vibration control strategies for wind turbines, and in this context proposes a new dual control strategy based on the combination and modification of two recently proposed control schemes. Emerging trends in the vibration control of both onshore and offshore wind turbines are presented. Passive, active and semi-active structural vibration control algorithms have been reviewed. Of the existing controllers, two control schemes, active pitch control and active tendon control, have been discussed in detail. The proposed new control scheme is a merger of active tendon control with passive pitch control, and is designed using a Pareto-optimal problem formulation. This combination of controllers is the cornerstone of a dual strategy with the feature of decoupling vibration control from optimal power control as one of its main advantages, in addition to reducing the burden on the pitch demand. This dual control strategy will bring in major benefits to the design of modern wind turbines and is expected to play a significant role in the advancement of offshore wind turbine technologies. PMID:25583867

  11. Emerging trends in vibration control of wind turbines: a focus on a dual control strategy.

    PubMed

    Staino, Andrea; Basu, Biswajit

    2015-02-28

    The paper discusses some of the recent developments in vibration control strategies for wind turbines, and in this context proposes a new dual control strategy based on the combination and modification of two recently proposed control schemes. Emerging trends in the vibration control of both onshore and offshore wind turbines are presented. Passive, active and semi-active structural vibration control algorithms have been reviewed. Of the existing controllers, two control schemes, active pitch control and active tendon control, have been discussed in detail. The proposed new control scheme is a merger of active tendon control with passive pitch control, and is designed using a Pareto-optimal problem formulation. This combination of controllers is the cornerstone of a dual strategy with the feature of decoupling vibration control from optimal power control as one of its main advantages, in addition to reducing the burden on the pitch demand. This dual control strategy will bring in major benefits to the design of modern wind turbines and is expected to play a significant role in the advancement of offshore wind turbine technologies.

  12. Supervisory Control System Architecture for Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Cetiner, Sacit M; Cole, Daniel L; Fugate, David L; Kisner, Roger A; Melin, Alexander M; Muhlheim, Michael David; Rao, Nageswara S; Wood, Richard Thomas

    2013-08-01

    This technical report was generated as a product of the Supervisory Control for Multi-Modular SMR Plants project within the Instrumentation, Control and Human-Machine Interface technology area under the Advanced Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Research and Development Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. The report documents the definition of strategies, functional elements, and the structural architecture of a supervisory control system for multi-modular advanced SMR (AdvSMR) plants. This research activity advances the state-of-the art by incorporating decision making into the supervisory control system architectural layers through the introduction of a tiered-plant system approach. The report provides a brief history of hierarchical functional architectures and the current state-of-the-art, describes a reference AdvSMR to show the dependencies between systems, presents a hierarchical structure for supervisory control, indicates the importance of understanding trip setpoints, applies a new theoretic approach for comparing architectures, identifies cyber security controls that should be addressed early in system design, and describes ongoing work to develop system requirements and hardware/software configurations.

  13. Economic convergence of environmental control and advanced technology

    SciTech Connect

    Bolli, R.E.; Haslbeck, J.L.

    1995-12-31

    Emerging advanced technologies for environmental control have many advantages over conventional, single pollutant removal processes. Features include high efficiencies, multiple pollutant control and zero waste streams. In the past, the economics for state-of-the-art emission control processes could not compete with proven, low-efficiency scrubbers that create throw away by-products. With the implementation of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), the entire economic environment has changed. If a single process can provide a facility`s compliance requirements for Title I, Title III and Title IV of the CAAA, its net costs can be lower than conventional technology and actually provide economic incentives for overcontrol. The emission allowance program is maturing and the annual revenues from overcontrol of SO{sub 2} are easily quantified. The economics of NO{sub x} control and offsets are currently being realized as EPA identified Title IV requirements, and facilities begin to realize the impact from Title I NO{sub x} control. Air toxic control from Title III could require yet a third control process for a facility to maintain emission compliance. The costs associated with single control strategies vs. multiple pollutant control processes will be discussed and compared. This paper will also present a specific application of the NOXSO Process and identify the potential advantages that can transform advanced technologies, like NOXSO, into the prudent solution for overall environmental compliance.

  14. Attention, intention, and strategy in preparatory control

    PubMed Central

    Ruge, Hannes; Braver, Todd; Meiran, Nachshon

    2009-01-01

    The neural mechanisms underlying different forms of preparatory control were examined using event-related fMRI. Preparatory brain activation was monitored in relation to different types of advance information: (1) random task cues indicating which of two possible tasks to perform upon subsequent target presentation, (2) task-ambiguous target stimuli, or 3) targets for which the correct response could be pre-determined. Three types of activation pattern were observed in different brain regions. First, more posterior regions of lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) and parietal cortex were activated by both advance task cues and advance targets, but with increased and more sustained activation for the latter. Second, more anterior regions of LPFC and parietal cortex were selectively activated by advance targets. Importantly, in these regions preparatory activation was not further modulated by the availability of advance response information. In contrast, preparatory activation in a third set of brain regions, including medial frontal cortex, reflected the utilization of advance response information, but by only a subset of participants. These results suggest three types of preparatory control: attentional (stimulus-oriented), intentional (action-oriented), and a possibly strategic component that might determine inter-individual differences in response readiness. Notably, the absence of regions selectively or even preferentially activated during cue-based preparation argues against certain conceptualizations of task-selective attention under cued task switching conditions. PMID:19397862

  15. The Advanced Noise Control Fan Baseline Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAllister, Joseph; Loew, Raymond A.; Lauer, Joel T.; Stuliff, Daniel L.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center s (NASA Glenn) Advanced Noise Control Fan (ANCF) was developed in the early 1990s to provide a convenient test bed to measure and understand fan-generated acoustics, duct propagation, and radiation to the farfield. As part of a complete upgrade, current baseline and acoustic measurements were documented. Extensive in-duct, farfield acoustic, and flow field measurements are reported. This is a follow-on paper to documenting the operating description of the ANCF.

  16. Microeconomics of advanced process window control for 50-nm gates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monahan, Kevin M.; Chen, Xuemei; Falessi, Georges; Garvin, Craig; Hankinson, Matt; Lev, Amir; Levy, Ady; Slessor, Michael D.

    2002-07-01

    Fundamentally, advanced process control enables accelerated design-rule reduction, but simple microeconomic models that directly link the effects of advanced process control to profitability are rare or non-existent. In this work, we derive these links using a simplified model for the rate of profit generated by the semiconductor manufacturing process. We use it to explain why and how microprocessor manufacturers strive to avoid commoditization by producing only the number of dies required to satisfy the time-varying demand in each performance segment. This strategy is realized using the tactic known as speed binning, the deliberate creation of an unnatural distribution of microprocessor performance that varies according to market demand. We show that the ability of APC to achieve these economic objectives may be limited by variability in the larger manufacturing context, including measurement delays and process window variation.

  17. Can rewiring strategy control the epidemic spreading?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Chao; Yin, Qiuju; Liu, Wenyang; Yan, Zhijun; Shi, Tianyu

    2015-11-01

    Relation existed in the social contact network can affect individuals' behaviors greatly. Considering the diversity of relation intimacy among network nodes, an epidemic propagation model is proposed by incorporating the link-breaking threshold, which is normally neglected in the rewiring strategy. The impact of rewiring strategy on the epidemic spreading in the weighted adaptive network is explored. The results show that the rewiring strategy cannot always control the epidemic prevalence, especially when the link-breaking threshold is low. Meanwhile, as well as strong links, weak links also play a significant role on epidemic spreading.

  18. Control definition study for advanced vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapins, M.; Martorella, R. P.; Klein, R. W.; Meyer, R. C.; Sturm, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    The low speed, high angle of attack flight mechanics of an advanced, canard-configured, supersonic tactical aircraft designed with moderate longitudinal relaxed static stability (Static Margin, SM = 16% C sub W at M = 0.4) was investigated. Control laws were developed for the longitudinal axis (""G'' or maneuver and angle of attack command systems) and for the lateral/directional axes. The performance of these control laws was examined in engineering simulation. A canard deflection/rate requirement study was performed as part of the ""G'' command law evaluation at low angles of attack. Simulated coupled maneuvers revealed the need for command limiters in all three aircraft axes to prevent departure from controlled flight. When modified with command/maneuver limiters, the control laws were shown to be adequate to prevent aircraft departure during aggressive air combat maneuvering.

  19. Control of Smart Building Using Advanced SCADA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuel, Vivin Thomas

    For complete control of the building, a proper SCADA implementation and the optimization strategy has to be build. For better communication and efficiency a proper channel between the Communication protocol and SCADA has to be designed. This paper concentrate mainly between the communication protocol, and the SCADA implementation, for a better optimization and energy savings is derived to large scale industrial buildings. The communication channel used in order to completely control the building remotely from a distant place. For an efficient result we consider the temperature values and the power ratings of the equipment so that while controlling the equipment, we are setting a threshold values for FDD technique implementation. Building management system became a vital source for any building to maintain it and for safety purpose. Smart buildings, refers to various distinct features, where the complete automation system, office building controls, data center controls. ELC's are used to communicate the load values of the building to the remote server from a far location with the help of an Ethernet communication channel. Based on the demand fluctuation and the peak voltage, the loads operate differently increasing the consumption rate thus results in the increase in the annual consumption bill. In modern days, saving energy and reducing the consumption bill is most essential for any building for a better and long operation. The equipment - monitored regularly and optimization strategy is implemented for cost reduction automation system. Thus results in the reduction of annual cost reduction and load lifetime increase.

  20. Assessing control strategies for ground level ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sule, Neelesh Vijay

    2009-12-01

    Developing cost effective control strategies for ozone has been a challenge to air quality modelers. Conventionally, the control strategies are applied across-the board to the region. The main aim of this research was to develop a Decision-Making Framework (DMF) for evaluating and optimizing the selection of ozone control strategies. Conventional across-the-board reductions conduct emission reductions uniformly throughout the region and throughout the day. By contrast, this dissertation studied targeted reductions, in which emission sources of various types are reduced at various times and locations. The proposed DMF comprised of four phases: (1) Initialization, (2) Mining, (3) Metamodeling, and (4) Optimization. This DMF was tested on a DFW 2009 future case episode which was based on a 10-day episode from August 13-22, 1999. 612 emission variables were identified in three source categories viz. point, area (includes non-road) and line (on-road). The emission control regions and time periods along with ozone monitoring regions and time periods were defined. The control strategy emission reductions and costs were also identified in this stage. Initially a Latin hypercube experimental design was setup to organize 30 sets of emission reduction scenarios to be modeled using the photochemical model CAMx. Data mining reduced the number of variables to a maximum of 126. A second Latin hypercube was setup to organize another 30 emission reduction scenarios for the significant variables identified by data mining. Metamodels were developed for ozone from the 60 CAMx runs using linear regression models constructed with the stepwise model selection method. Stepwise regression further reduced the number of variables. The metamodels were implemented in optimization as a surrogate for time-intensive CAMx modeling. Appropriate constraints were calculated for each metamodel to ensure that it satisfied EPA's MAT. The optimization was formulated to find the most cost effective

  1. Strategies for Controlled Placement of Nanoscale Building Blocks

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    The capability of placing individual nanoscale building blocks on exact substrate locations in a controlled manner is one of the key requirements to realize future electronic, optical, and magnetic devices and sensors that are composed of such blocks. This article reviews some important advances in the strategies for controlled placement of nanoscale building blocks. In particular, we will overview template assisted placement that utilizes physical, molecular, or electrostatic templates, DNA-programmed assembly, placement using dielectrophoresis, approaches for non-close-packed assembly of spherical particles, and recent development of focused placement schemes including electrostatic funneling, focused placement via molecular gradient patterns, electrodynamic focusing of charged aerosols, and others. PMID:21794185

  2. Simulation Of Advanced Train Control Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craven, Paul; Oman, Paul

    This paper describes an Advanced Train Control System (ATCS) simulation environment created using the Network Simulator 2 (ns-2) discrete event network simulation system. The ATCS model is verified using ATCS monitoring software, laboratory results and a comparison with a mathematical model of ATCS communications. The simulation results are useful in understanding ATCS communication characteristics and identifying protocol strengths, weaknesses, vulnerabilities and mitigation techniques. By setting up a suite of ns-2 scripts, an engineer can simulate hundreds of possible scenarios in the space of a few seconds to investigate failure modes and consequences.

  3. A Pollution Control Strategy Game: Costs of Control Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bierma, Thomas J.; Walbert, Mark S.

    1987-01-01

    Describes an interactive classroom game designed to enhance student understanding of air pollution control strategies. Discusses the game's focus on the differences in compliance costs that can occur between the three principal control approaches of emission limits, emission permits, and emission taxes. (TW)

  4. Advanced nuclear plant control room complex

    DOEpatents

    Scarola, Kenneth; Jamison, David S.; Manazir, Richard M.; Rescorl, Robert L.; Harmon, Daryl L.

    1993-01-01

    An advanced control room complex for a nuclear power plant, including a discrete indicator and alarm system (72) which is nuclear qualified for rapid response to changes in plant parameters and a component control system (64) which together provide a discrete monitoring and control capability at a panel (14-22, 26, 28) in the control room (10). A separate data processing system (70), which need not be nuclear qualified, provides integrated and overview information to the control room and to each panel, through CRTs (84) and a large, overhead integrated process status overview board (24). The discrete indicator and alarm system (72) and the data processing system (70) receive inputs from common plant sensors and validate the sensor outputs to arrive at a representative value of the parameter for use by the operator during both normal and accident conditions, thereby avoiding the need for him to assimilate data from each sensor individually. The integrated process status board (24) is at the apex of an information hierarchy that extends through four levels and provides access at each panel to the full display hierarchy. The control room panels are preferably of a modular construction, permitting the definition of inputs and outputs, the man machine interface, and the plant specific algorithms, to proceed in parallel with the fabrication of the panels, the installation of the equipment and the generic testing thereof.

  5. Environmental Strategies for Portion Control in Children

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Thomas N.; Matheson, Donna M.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from laboratory and field studies indicates that large portions lead to greater food and energy intake relative to small portions. However, most children and adults demonstrate limited abilities to estimate and control the amounts of food they serve and consume. Five potential environmental strategies appear promising for improving portion control in children: (1) using tall, thin, and small volume glasses and mugs, (2) using smaller diameter and volume plates, bowls and serving utensils, (3) using plates with rims, (4) reducing total television and other screen watching and (5) reducing or eliminating eating while watching television and/or other screens. Further experimental research in real world settings is needed to test these interventions as strategies for portion control and their roles in prevention and treatment of obesity. PMID:25485874

  6. Advanced Wavefront Sensing and Control Testbed (AWCT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, Fang; Basinger, Scott A.; Diaz, Rosemary T.; Gappinger, Robert O.; Tang, Hong; Lam, Raymond K.; Sidick, Erkin; Hein, Randall C.; Rud, Mayer; Troy, Mitchell

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Wavefront Sensing and Control Testbed (AWCT) is built as a versatile facility for developing and demonstrating, in hardware, the future technologies of wave front sensing and control algorithms for active optical systems. The testbed includes a source projector for a broadband point-source and a suite of extended scene targets, a dispersed fringe sensor, a Shack-Hartmann camera, and an imaging camera capable of phase retrieval wavefront sensing. The testbed also provides two easily accessible conjugated pupil planes which can accommodate the active optical devices such as fast steering mirror, deformable mirror, and segmented mirrors. In this paper, we describe the testbed optical design, testbed configurations and capabilities, as well as the initial results from the testbed hardware integrations and tests.

  7. Reviewing the impact of advanced control room technology

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhelmsen, C.A.; Gertman, D.I.; Ostrom, L.T.; Nelson, W.R.; Galyean, W.J.; Byers, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    Progress to date on assessing the nature of the expected changes in human performance and risk associated with the introduction of digital control, instrumentation, and display systems is presented. Expected changes include the shift toward more supervisory tasks, development of intervention strategies, and reallocation of function between human and machine. Results are reported in terms of the scope of new technology, human performance issues, and crews experience with digital control systems in a variety of industries petrochemical and aerospace. Plans to conduct a limited Probabilistic Risk Assessment/Human Reliability Assessment (PRA/HRA) comparison between a conventional NUREG-1150 series plant and that same plant retrofit with distributed control and advanced instrumentation and display are also presented. Changes needed to supplement existing HRA modeling methods and quantification techniques are discussed.

  8. Reviewing the impact of advanced control room technology

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhelmsen, C.A.; Gertman, D.I.; Ostrom, L.T.; Nelson, W.R.; Galyean, W.J.; Byers, J.C.

    1992-08-01

    Progress to date on assessing the nature of the expected changes in human performance and risk associated with the introduction of digital control, instrumentation, and display systems is presented. Expected changes include the shift toward more supervisory tasks, development of intervention strategies, and reallocation of function between human and machine. Results are reported in terms of the scope of new technology, human performance issues, and crews experience with digital control systems in a variety of industries petrochemical and aerospace. Plans to conduct a limited Probabilistic Risk Assessment/Human Reliability Assessment (PRA/HRA) comparison between a conventional NUREG-1150 series plant and that same plant retrofit with distributed control and advanced instrumentation and display are also presented. Changes needed to supplement existing HRA modeling methods and quantification techniques are discussed.

  9. Status and design of the Advanced Photon Source control system

    SciTech Connect

    McDowell, W.; Knott, M.; Lenkszus, F.; Kraimer, M.; Arnold, N.; Daly, R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the current status of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) control system. It will discuss the design decisions which led us to use industrial standards and collaborations with other laboratories to develop the APS control system. The system uses high performance graphic workstations and the X-windows Graphical User Interface (GUI) at the operator interface level. It connects to VME/VXI-based microprocessors at the field level using TCP/IP protocols over high performance networks. This strategy assures the flexibility and expansibility of the control system. A defined interface between the system components will allow the system to evolve with the direct addition of future, improved equipment and new capabilities.

  10. Status and design of the Advanced Photon Source control system

    SciTech Connect

    McDowell, W.; Knott, M.; Lenkszus, F.; Kraimer, M.; Arnold, N.; Daly, R.

    1993-06-01

    This paper presents the current status of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) control system. It will discuss the design decisions which led us to use industrial standards and collaborations with other laboratories to develop the APS control system. The system uses high performance graphic workstations and the X-windows Graphical User Interface (GUI) at the operator interface level. It connects to VME/VXI-based microprocessors at the field level using TCP/IP protocols over high performance networks. This strategy assures the flexibility and expansibility of the control system. A defined interface between the system components will allow the system to evolve with the direct addition of future, improved equipment and new capabilities.

  11. System Engineering and Integration of Controls for Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Overland, David; Hoo, Karlene; Ciskowski, Marvin

    2006-01-01

    The Advanced Integration Matrix (AIM) project at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) was chartered to study and solve systems-level integration issues for exploration missions. One of the first issues identified was an inability to conduct trade studies on control system architectures due to the absence of mature evaluation criteria. Such architectures are necessary to enable integration of regenerative life support systems. A team was formed to address issues concerning software and hardware architectures and system controls.. The team has investigated what is required to integrate controls for the types of non-linear dynamic systems encountered in advanced life support. To this end, a water processing bioreactor testbed is being developed which will enable prototyping and testing of integration strategies and technologies. Although systems such as the water bioreactors exhibit the complexities of interactions between control schemes most vividly, it is apparent that this behavior and its attendant risks will manifest itself among any set of interdependent autonomous control systems. A methodology for developing integration requirements for interdependent and autonomous systems is a goal of this team and this testbed. This paper is a high-level summary of the current status of the investigation, the issues encountered, some tentative conclusions, and the direction expected for further research.

  12. Polymeric nanotherapeutics: clinical development and advances in stealth functionalization strategies.

    PubMed

    Hu, Che-Ming J; Fang, Ronnie H; Luk, Brian T; Zhang, Liangfang

    2014-01-01

    Long-circulating polymeric nanotherapeutics have garnered increasing interest in research and in the clinic owing to their ability to improve the solubility and pharmacokinetics of therapeutic cargoes. Modulation of carrier properties promises more effective drug localization at the disease sites and can lead to enhanced drug safety and efficacy. In the present review, we highlight the current development of polymeric nanotherapeutics in the clinic. In light of the importance of stealth properties in therapeutic nanoparticles, we also review the advances in stealth functionalization strategies and examine the performance of different stealth polymers in the literature. In addition, we discuss the recent development of biologically inspired "self" nanoparticles, which present a differing stealth concept from conventional approaches.

  13. Polymeric nanotherapeutics: clinical development and advances in stealth functionalization strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Che-Ming J.; Fang, Ronnie H.; Luk, Brian T.; Zhang, Liangfang

    2013-12-01

    Long-circulating polymeric nanotherapeutics have garnered increasing interest in research and in the clinic owing to their ability to improve the solubility and pharmacokinetics of therapeutic cargoes. Modulation of carrier properties promises more effective drug localization at the disease sites and can lead to enhanced drug safety and efficacy. In the present review, we highlight the current development of polymeric nanotherapeutics in the clinic. In light of the importance of stealth properties in therapeutic nanoparticles, we also review the advances in stealth functionalization strategies and examine the performance of different stealth polymers in the literature. In addition, we discuss the recent development of biologically inspired ``self'' nanoparticles, which present a differing stealth concept from conventional approaches.

  14. Advancing infection control in dental care settings

    PubMed Central

    Cleveland, Jennifer L.; Bonito, Arthur J.; Corley, Tammy J.; Foster, Misty; Barker, Laurie; Brown, G. Gordon; Lenfestey, Nancy; Lux, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Background and Overview The authors set out to identify factors associated with implementation by U.S. dentists of four practices first recommended in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Guidelines for Infection Control in Dental Health-Care Settings—2003. Methods In 2008, the authors surveyed a stratified random sample of 6,825 U.S. dentists. The response rate was 49 percent. The authors gathered data regarding dentists’ demographic and practice characteristics, attitudes toward infection control, sources of instruction regarding the guidelines and knowledge about the need to use sterile water for surgical procedures. Then they assessed the impact of those factors on the implementation of four recommendations: having an infection control coordinator, maintaining dental unit water quality, documenting percutaneous injuries and using safer medical devices, such as safer syringes and scalpels. The authors conducted bivariate analyses and proportional odds modeling. Results Responding dentists in 34 percent of practices had implemented none or one of the four recommendations, 40 percent had implemented two of the recommendations and 26 percent had implemented three or four of the recommendations. The likelihood of implementation was higher among dentists who acknowledged the importance of infection control, had practiced dentistry for less than 30 years, had received more continuing dental education credits in infection control, correctly identified more surgical procedures that require the use of sterile water, worked in larger practices and had at least three sources of instruction regarding the guidelines. Dentists with practices in the South Atlantic, Middle Atlantic or East South Central U.S. Census divisions were less likely to have complied. Conclusions Implementation of the four recommendations varied among U.S. dentists. Strategies targeted at raising awareness of the importance of infection control, increasing continuing education

  15. [Treatment strategy for advanced prostate cancer with bone metastases].

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Mikio; Kakehi, Yoshiyuki

    2006-08-01

    The introduction of PSA screening has led to confirming a shift towards an earlier pathological stage in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Consequently, the proportion of detecting early stage prostate cancer has clearly been increasing. On the other hand, progressive cancers in the form of distant metastases and locally advanced ones that have been confirmed at the initial diagnosis exhibit a constant rate. In addition, there have been a lot of cases where hormonal resistance was acquired during hormonal therapy which resulted in advanced metastases of the prostate. Prostate cancer has a tendency to be metastatic to bones. Combining the fact that the survival period of patients undergoing treatment is prolonged after metastases, the length of suffering caused by complications, such as ostealgia, pathological fracture and myelopathy, becomes an issue in which QOL and ADL of the patient are sacrificed for a long time. As for treatment of prostate cancer with metastases, a palliative treatment is common in the clinical scene. However, we can extend a life prognosis with use of radiotherapy and surgical treatment in addition to the palliative treatment at an appropriate time. It appears that a combination of new chemotherapy and hormonal therapy will be promising. In the future, we believe that the appearance of new anticancer drugs, endocrine therapies, bisphosphonates and strontium treatment could be used as a part of the treatment strategy for prostate cancer with bone metastases. PMID:16912523

  16. Advanced Rooftop Control (ARC) Retrofit: Field-Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Ngo, Hung; Underhill, Ronald M.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Lutes, Robert G.

    2013-07-31

    The multi-year research study was initiated to find solutions to improve packaged equipment operating efficiency in the field. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Office (BTO) and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) conducted this research, development and demonstration (RD&D) study. Packaged equipment with constant speed supply fans is designed to provide ventilation at the design rate at all times when the fan is operating as required by building code. Although there are a number of hours during the day when a building may not be fully occupied or the need for ventilation is lower than designed, the ventilation rate cannot be adjusted easily with a constant speed fan. Therefore, modulating the supply fan in conjunction with demand controlled ventilation (DCV) will not only reduce the coil energy but also reduce the fan energy. The objective of this multi-year research, development and demonstration project was to determine the magnitude of energy savings achievable by retrofitting existing packaged rooftop air conditioners with advanced control strategies not ordinarily used for packaged units. First, through detailed simulation analysis, it was shown that significant energy (between 24% and 35%) and cost savings (38%) from fan, cooling and heating energy consumption could be realized when packaged air conditioning units with gas furnaces are retrofitted with advanced control packages (combining multi-speed fan control, integrated economizer controls and DCV). The simulation analysis also showed significant savings for heat pumps (between 20% and 60%). The simulation analysis was followed by an extensive field test of a retrofittable advanced rooftop unit (RTU) controller.

  17. Night ventilation control strategies in office buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhaojun; Yi, Lingli; Gao, Fusheng

    2009-10-15

    In moderate climates night ventilation is an effective and energy-efficient approach to improve the indoor thermal environment for office buildings during the summer months, especially for heavyweight construction. However, is night ventilation a suitable strategy for office buildings with lightweight construction located in cold climates? In order to answer this question, the whole energy-consumption analysis software EnergyPlus was used to simulate the indoor thermal environment and energy consumption in typical office buildings with night mechanical ventilation in three cities in northern China. The summer outdoor climate data was analyzed, and three typical design days were chosen. The most important factors influencing night ventilation performance such as ventilation rates, ventilation duration, building mass and climatic conditions were evaluated. When night ventilation operation time is closer to active cooling time, the efficiency of night ventilation is higher. With night ventilation rate of 10 ach, the mean radiant temperature of the indoor surface decreased by up to 3.9 C. The longer the duration of operation, the more efficient the night ventilation strategy becomes. The control strategies for three locations are given in the paper. Based on the optimized strategies, the operation consumption and fees are calculated. The results show that more energy is saved in office buildings cooled by a night ventilation system in northern China than ones that do not employ this strategy. (author)

  18. Towards energy efficient operation of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning systems via advanced supervisory control design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswiecinska, A.; Hibbs, J.; Zajic, I.; Burnham, K. J.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents conceptual control solution for reliable and energy efficient operation of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems used in large volume building applications, e.g. warehouse facilities or exhibition centres. Advanced two-level scalable control solution, designed to extend capabilities of the existing low-level control strategies via remote internet connection, is presented. The high-level, supervisory controller is based on Model Predictive Control (MPC) architecture, which is the state-of-the-art for indoor climate control systems. The innovative approach benefits from using passive heating and cooling control strategies for reducing the HVAC system operational costs, while ensuring that required environmental conditions are met.

  19. Advanced Noise Control Fan Aerodynamic Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozak, Richard F., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    The Advanced Noise Control Fan at the NASA Glenn Research Center is used to experimentally analyze fan generated acoustics. In order to determine how a proposed noise reduction concept affects fan performance, flow measurements can be used to compute mass flow. Since tedious flow mapping is required to obtain an accurate mass flow, an equation was developed to correlate the mass flow to inlet lip wall static pressure measurements. Once this correlation is obtained, the mass flow for future configurations can be obtained from the nonintrusive wall static pressures. Once the mass flow is known, the thrust and fan performance can be evaluated. This correlation enables fan acoustics and performance to be obtained simultaneously without disturbing the flow.

  20. Advanced CIDI Emission Control System Development

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, Christine

    2006-05-31

    Ford Motor Company, with ExxonMobil and FEV, participated in the Department of Energy's (DOE) Ultra-Clean Transportation Fuels Program with the goal to develop an innovative emission control system for light-duty diesel vehicles. The focus on diesel engine emissions was a direct result of the improved volumetric fuel economy (up to 50%) and lower CO2 emissions (up to 25%) over comparable gasoline engines shown in Europe. Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) with aqueous urea as the NOx reductant and a Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter (CDPF) were chosen as the primary emission control system components. The program expected to demonstrate more than 90% durable reduction in particulate matter (PM) and NOx emissions on a light-duty truck application, based on the FTP-75 drive cycle. Very low sulfur diesel fuel (<15 ppm-wt) enabled lower PM emissions, reduced fuel economy penalty due to the emission control system and improved long-term system durability. Significant progress was made toward a durable system to meet Tier 2 Bin 5 emission standards on a 6000 lbs light-duty truck. A 40% reduction in engine-out NOx emissions was achieved with a mid-size prototype diesel engine through engine recalibration and increased exhaust gas recirculation. Use of a rapid warm-up strategy and urea SCR provided over 90% further NOx reduction while the CDPF reduced tailpipe PM to gasoline vehicle levels. Development work was conducted to separately improve urea SCR and CDPF system durability, as well as improved oxidation catalyst function. Exhaust gas NOx and ammonia sensors were also developed further. While the final emission control system did not meet Tier 2 Bin 5 NOx after 120k mi of aging on the dynamometer, it did meet the standards for HC, NMOG, and PM, and an improved SCR catalyst was shown to have potential to meet the NOx standard, assuming the DOC durability could be improved further. Models of DOC and SCR function were developed to guide the study of several key design

  1. Control Software for Advanced Video Guidance Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T.; Book, Michael L.; Bryan, Thomas C.

    2006-01-01

    Embedded software has been developed specifically for controlling an Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (AVGS). A Video Guidance Sensor is an optoelectronic system that provides guidance for automated docking of two vehicles. Such a system includes pulsed laser diodes and a video camera, the output of which is digitized. From the positions of digitized target images and known geometric relationships, the relative position and orientation of the vehicles are computed. The present software consists of two subprograms running in two processors that are parts of the AVGS. The subprogram in the first processor receives commands from an external source, checks the commands for correctness, performs commanded non-image-data-processing control functions, and sends image data processing parts of commands to the second processor. The subprogram in the second processor processes image data as commanded. Upon power-up, the software performs basic tests of functionality, then effects a transition to a standby mode. When a command is received, the software goes into one of several operational modes (e.g. acquisition or tracking). The software then returns, to the external source, the data appropriate to the command.

  2. Guidance and control strategies for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibey, Joseph L.; Naidu, Desineni S.

    1990-01-01

    The first part of the report concerns broadly the summary of the work done in the areas of singular perturbations and time scales (SPaTS), aerobraking technology, guidance and aerocruise. The synergistic plane change problem connected with orbital transfer employing aeroassist technology, is addressed. The mission involves transfer from high Earth orbit to low Earth orbit with plane change being performed within the atmosphere. The complete mission consists of a deorbit phase, atmospheric phase, and finally reorbit phase. The atmospheric maneuver is composed of an entry mode, a cruise mode, and finally an exit mode. During the cruise mode, constant altitude and velocity are maintained by means of bank angle control with constant thrust or thrust control with constant bank angle. Comparisons between these two control strategies bring out some interesting features.

  3. Control strategies for planetary rover motion and manipulator control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trautwein, W.

    1973-01-01

    An unusual insect-like vehicle designed for planetary surface exploration is made the occasion for a discussion of control concepts in path selection, hazard detection, obstacle negotiation, and soil sampling. A control scheme which actively articulates the pitching motion between a single-loop front module and a dual loop rear module leads to near optimal behavior in soft soil; at the same time the vehicle's front module acts as a reliable tactile forward probe with a detection range much longer than the stopping distance. Some optimal control strategies are discussed, and the photos of a working scale model are displayed.

  4. Advances in Risk Classification and Treatment Strategies for Neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Navin R; Applebaum, Mark A; Volchenboum, Samuel L; Matthay, Katherine K; London, Wendy B; Ambros, Peter F; Nakagawara, Akira; Berthold, Frank; Schleiermacher, Gudrun; Park, Julie R; Valteau-Couanet, Dominique; Pearson, Andrew D J; Cohn, Susan L

    2015-09-20

    Risk-based treatment approaches for neuroblastoma have been ongoing for decades. However, the criteria used to define risk in various institutional and cooperative groups were disparate, limiting the ability to compare clinical trial results. To mitigate this problem and enhance collaborative research, homogenous pretreatment patient cohorts have been defined by the International Neuroblastoma Risk Group classification system. During the past 30 years, increasingly intensive, multimodality approaches have been developed to treat patients who are classified as high risk, whereas patients with low- or intermediate-risk neuroblastoma have received reduced therapy. This treatment approach has resulted in improved outcome, although survival for high-risk patients remains poor, emphasizing the need for more effective treatments. Increased knowledge regarding the biology and genetic basis of neuroblastoma has led to the discovery of druggable targets and promising, new therapeutic approaches. Collaborative efforts of institutions and international cooperative groups have led to advances in our understanding of neuroblastoma biology, refinements in risk classification, and stratified treatment strategies, resulting in improved outcome. International collaboration will be even more critical when evaluating therapies designed to treat small cohorts of patients with rare actionable mutations. PMID:26304901

  5. Advances in Risk Classification and Treatment Strategies for Neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Navin R.; Applebaum, Mark A.; Volchenboum, Samuel L.; Matthay, Katherine K.; London, Wendy B.; Ambros, Peter F.; Nakagawara, Akira; Berthold, Frank; Schleiermacher, Gudrun; Park, Julie R.; Valteau-Couanet, Dominique; Pearson, Andrew D.J.

    2015-01-01

    Risk-based treatment approaches for neuroblastoma have been ongoing for decades. However, the criteria used to define risk in various institutional and cooperative groups were disparate, limiting the ability to compare clinical trial results. To mitigate this problem and enhance collaborative research, homogenous pretreatment patient cohorts have been defined by the International Neuroblastoma Risk Group classification system. During the past 30 years, increasingly intensive, multimodality approaches have been developed to treat patients who are classified as high risk, whereas patients with low- or intermediate-risk neuroblastoma have received reduced therapy. This treatment approach has resulted in improved outcome, although survival for high-risk patients remains poor, emphasizing the need for more effective treatments. Increased knowledge regarding the biology and genetic basis of neuroblastoma has led to the discovery of druggable targets and promising, new therapeutic approaches. Collaborative efforts of institutions and international cooperative groups have led to advances in our understanding of neuroblastoma biology, refinements in risk classification, and stratified treatment strategies, resulting in improved outcome. International collaboration will be even more critical when evaluating therapies designed to treat small cohorts of patients with rare actionable mutations. PMID:26304901

  6. Advances in Risk Classification and Treatment Strategies for Neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Navin R; Applebaum, Mark A; Volchenboum, Samuel L; Matthay, Katherine K; London, Wendy B; Ambros, Peter F; Nakagawara, Akira; Berthold, Frank; Schleiermacher, Gudrun; Park, Julie R; Valteau-Couanet, Dominique; Pearson, Andrew D J; Cohn, Susan L

    2015-09-20

    Risk-based treatment approaches for neuroblastoma have been ongoing for decades. However, the criteria used to define risk in various institutional and cooperative groups were disparate, limiting the ability to compare clinical trial results. To mitigate this problem and enhance collaborative research, homogenous pretreatment patient cohorts have been defined by the International Neuroblastoma Risk Group classification system. During the past 30 years, increasingly intensive, multimodality approaches have been developed to treat patients who are classified as high risk, whereas patients with low- or intermediate-risk neuroblastoma have received reduced therapy. This treatment approach has resulted in improved outcome, although survival for high-risk patients remains poor, emphasizing the need for more effective treatments. Increased knowledge regarding the biology and genetic basis of neuroblastoma has led to the discovery of druggable targets and promising, new therapeutic approaches. Collaborative efforts of institutions and international cooperative groups have led to advances in our understanding of neuroblastoma biology, refinements in risk classification, and stratified treatment strategies, resulting in improved outcome. International collaboration will be even more critical when evaluating therapies designed to treat small cohorts of patients with rare actionable mutations.

  7. A Vehicle Control Strategy in AGV System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kai, Cao; Yamada, Jun; Suzuki, Yuuki; Hamamatsu, Yoshio

    It is important to discuss the behavior of traffic at merging sections in the design of the overall Automated Guided Vehicle System (AGVS) and in the realization of the system. In this paper, we deal with a merging section of the AGVS under time limit for merging. Near the merging section, one flow of traffic must form a queue to avoid collision of vehicles. We propose an improved control strategy and clarify the fundamental features comparing with previous model. It is analyzed that the vehicle behavior at the merging section of the AGVS using the recurrence relation. The analytical solutions have been obtained.

  8. Genetic control of mosquitoes: population suppression strategies.

    PubMed

    Wilke, André Barretto Bruno; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2012-01-01

    Over the last two decades, morbidity and mortality from malaria and dengue fever among other pathogens are an increasing Public Health problem. The increase in the geographic distribution of vectors is accompanied by the emergence of viruses and diseases in new areas. There are insufficient specific therapeutic drugs available and there are no reliable vaccines for malaria or dengue, although some progress has been achieved, there is still a long way between its development and actual field use. Most mosquito control measures have failed to achieve their goals, mostly because of the mosquito's great reproductive capacity and genomic flexibility. Chemical control is increasingly restricted due to potential human toxicity, mortality in no target organisms, insecticide resistance, and other environmental impacts. Other strategies for mosquito control are desperately needed. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is a species-specific and environmentally benign method for insect population suppression, it is based on mass rearing, radiation mediated sterilization, and release of a large number of male insects. Releasing of Insects carrying a dominant lethal gene (RIDL) offers a solution to many of the drawbacks of traditional SIT that have limited its application in mosquitoes while maintaining its environmentally friendly and species-specific utility. The self-limiting nature of sterile mosquitoes tends to make the issues related to field use of these somewhat less challenging than for self-spreading systems characteristic of population replacement strategies. They also are closer to field use, so might be appropriate to consider first. The prospect of genetic control methods against mosquito vectored human diseases is rapidly becoming a reality, many decisions will need to be made on a national, regional and international level regarding the biosafety, social, cultural and ethical aspects of the use and deployment of these vector control methods.

  9. Structureborne noise control in advanced turboprop aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loeffler, Irvin J.

    1987-01-01

    Structureborne noise is discussed as a contributor to propeller aircraft interior noise levels that are nonresponsive to the application of a generous amount of cabin sidewall acoustic treatment. High structureborne noise levels may jeopardize passenger acceptance of the fuel-efficient high-speed propeller transport aircraft designed for cruise at Mach 0.65 to 0.85. These single-rotation tractor and counter-rotation tractor and pusher propulsion systems will consume 15 to 30 percent less fuel than advanced turbofan systems. Structureborne noise detection methodologies and the importance of development of a structureborne noise sensor are discussed. A structureborne noise generation mechanism is described in which the periodic components or propeller swirl produce periodic torques and forces on downstream wings and airfoils that are propagated to the cabin interior as noise. Three concepts for controlling structureborne noise are presented: (1) a stator row swirl remover, (2) selection of a proper combination of blade numbers in the rotor/stator system of a single-rotation propeller, and the rotor/rotor system of a counter-rotation propeller, and (3) a tuned mechanical absorber.

  10. Intermittent locomotion as an optimal control strategy

    PubMed Central

    Paoletti, P.; Mahadevan, L.

    2014-01-01

    Birds, fish and other animals routinely use unsteady effects to save energy by alternating between phases of active propulsion and passive coasting. Here, we construct a minimal model for such behaviour that can be couched as an optimal control problem via an analogy to travelling with a rechargeable battery. An analytical solution of the optimal control problem proves that intermittent locomotion has lower energy requirements relative to steady-state strategies. Additional realistic hypotheses, such as the assumption that metabolic cost at a given power should be minimal (the fixed gear hypothesis), a nonlinear dependence of the energy storage rate on propulsion and/or a preferred average speed, allow us to generalize the model and demonstrate the flexibility of intermittent locomotion with implications for biological and artificial systems. PMID:24711718

  11. Impact of Advance Control on Microturbine Generation System Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamil Mat Hussin, Ahmad; Zamri Che Wanik, Mohd

    2013-06-01

    Advance control employed in microturbine generation system (MTGS) is expected to improve its performance in responding to grid faults. This paper compares the effect of advance control of MTGS power conversion topology on the performance in riding through the grid faults. The analysis and investigation study through simulation shows there is no significant different on MTGS output performance even advance control is employed for its rectifier.

  12. 40 CFR 52.527 - Control strategy: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: General. 52.527... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Florida § 52.527 Control strategy: General. (a... of the plan. (b)...

  13. 40 CFR 52.527 - Control strategy: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: General. 52.527... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Florida § 52.527 Control strategy: General. (a... of the plan. (b)...

  14. Objectives, Strategies, and Challenges for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Piet; Brent Dixon; David Shropshire; Robert Hill; Roald Wigeland; Erich Schneider; J. D. Smith

    2005-04-01

    This paper will summarize the objectives, strategies, and key chemical separation challenges for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). The major objectives are as follows: Waste management - defer the need for a second geologic repository for a century or more, Proliferation resistance - be more resistant than the existing PUREX separation technology or uranium enrichment, Energy sustainability - turn waste management liabilities into energy source assets to ensure that uranium ore resources do not become a constraint on nuclear power, and Systematic, safe, and economic management of the entire fuel cycle. There are four major strategies for the disposal of civilian spent fuel: Once-through - direct disposal of all discharged nuclear fuel, Limited recycle - recycle transuranic elements once and then direct disposal, Continuous recycle - recycle transuranic elements repeatedly, and Sustained recycle - same as continuous except previously discarded depleted uranium is also recycled. The key chemical separation challenges stem from the fact that the components of spent nuclear fuel vary greatly in their influence on achieving program objectives. Most options separate uranium to reduce the weight and volume of waste and the number and cost of waste packages that require geologic disposal. Separated uranium can also be used as reactor fuel. Most options provide means to recycle transuranic (TRU) elements - plutonium (Pu), neptunium (Np), americium (Am), curium (Cm). Plutonium must be recycled to obtain repository, proliferation, and energy recovery benefits. U.S. non-proliferation policy forbids separation of plutonium by itself; therefore, one or more of the other transuranic elements must be kept with the plutonium; neptunium is considered the easiest option. Recycling neptunium also provides repository benefits. Americium recycling is also required to obtain repository benefits. At the present time, curium recycle provides relatively little benefit; indeed

  15. 40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy; Particulate matter... Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part D—Disapproval—USEPA disapproves Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b... control strategy to attain and maintain the standards for particulate matter, because it does not...

  16. 40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy; Particulate matter... Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part D—Disapproval—USEPA disapproves Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b... control strategy to attain and maintain the standards for particulate matter, because it does not...

  17. 40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy; Particulate matter... Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part D—Disapproval—USEPA disapproves Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b... control strategy to attain and maintain the standards for particulate matter, because it does not...

  18. 40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy; Particulate matter... Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part D—Disapproval—USEPA disapproves Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b... control strategy to attain and maintain the standards for particulate matter, because it does not...

  19. 40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy; Particulate matter... Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part D—Disapproval—USEPA disapproves Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b... control strategy to attain and maintain the standards for particulate matter, because it does not...

  20. Strategies for casualty mitigation programs by using advanced tsunami computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    IMAI, K.; Imamura, F.

    2012-12-01

    1. Purpose of the study In this study, based on the scenario of great earthquakes along the Nankai trough, we aim on the estimation of the run up and high accuracy inundation process of tsunami in coastal areas including rivers. Here, using a practical method of tsunami analytical model, and taking into account characteristics of detail topography, land use and climate change in a realistic present and expected future environment, we examined the run up and tsunami inundation process. Using these results we estimated the damage due to tsunami and obtained information for the mitigation of human casualties. Considering the time series from the occurrence of the earthquake and the risk of tsunami damage, in order to mitigate casualties we provide contents of disaster risk information displayed in a tsunami hazard and risk map. 2. Creating a tsunami hazard and risk map From the analytical and practical tsunami model (a long wave approximated model) and the high resolution topography (5 m) including detailed data of shoreline, rivers, building and houses, we present a advanced analysis of tsunami inundation considering the land use. Based on the results of tsunami inundation and its analysis; it is possible to draw a tsunami hazard and risk map with information of human casualty, building damage estimation, drift of vehicles, etc. 3. Contents of disaster prevention information To improve the hazard, risk and evacuation information distribution, it is necessary to follow three steps. (1) Provide basic information such as tsunami attack info, areas and routes for evacuation and location of tsunami evacuation facilities. (2) Provide as additional information the time when inundation starts, the actual results of inundation, location of facilities with hazard materials, presence or absence of public facilities and areas underground that required evacuation. (3) Provide information to support disaster response such as infrastructure and traffic network damage prediction

  1. Seismic isolation of Advanced LIGO: Review of strategy, instrumentation and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matichard, F.; Lantz, B.; Mittleman, R.; Mason, K.; Kissel, J.; Abbott, B.; Biscans, S.; McIver, J.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, S.; Allwine, E.; Barnum, S.; Birch, J.; Celerier, C.; Clark, D.; Coyne, D.; DeBra, D.; DeRosa, R.; Evans, M.; Foley, S.; Fritschel, P.; Giaime, J. A.; Gray, C.; Grabeel, G.; Hanson, J.; Hardham, C.; Hillard, M.; Hua, W.; Kucharczyk, C.; Landry, M.; Le Roux, A.; Lhuillier, V.; Macleod, D.; Macinnis, M.; Mitchell, R.; O'Reilly, B.; Ottaway, D.; Paris, H.; Pele, A.; Puma, M.; Radkins, H.; Ramet, C.; Robinson, M.; Ruet, L.; Sarin, P.; Shoemaker, D.; Stein, A.; Thomas, J.; Vargas, M.; Venkateswara, K.; Warner, J.; Wen, S.

    2015-09-01

    The new generation of gravitational waves detectors require unprecedented levels of isolation from seismic noise. This article reviews the seismic isolation strategy and instrumentation developed for the Advanced LIGO observatories. It summarizes over a decade of research on active inertial isolation and shows the performance recently achieved at the Advanced LIGO observatories. The paper emphasizes the scientific and technical challenges of this endeavor and how they have been addressed. An overview of the isolation strategy is given. It combines multiple layers of passive and active inertial isolation to provide suitable rejection of seismic noise at all frequencies. A detailed presentation of the three active platforms that have been developed is given. They are the hydraulic pre-isolator, the single-stage internal isolator and the two-stage internal isolator. The architecture, instrumentation, control scheme and isolation results are presented for each of the three systems. Results show that the seismic isolation sub-system meets Advanced LIGO’s stringent requirements and robustly supports the operation of the two detectors.

  2. The relevance and prospects of advancing tobacco control in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Achadi, Anhari; Soerojo, Widyastuti; Barber, Sarah

    2005-06-01

    Using published data about consumption, economic aspects, and legislation, this paper analyzes tobacco control in Indonesia, a major consumer and producer of tobacco products. Given its large population and smoking prevalence, Indonesia ranks fifth among countries with the highest tobacco consumption globally. Over 62% of Indonesian adult males smoke regularly, contributing to a growing burden of non-communicable diseases and enormous demands on the health care system. Tobacco control policies, however, have remained low on the political and public health agenda for many years. One reason was the contribution of tobacco to government revenues and employment, particularly in the industrial sector. But tobacco's importance in employment has fallen significantly since the 1970s from 38% of total manufacturing employment compared with 5.6% today. Widespread use of tobacco since the 1970s and the concomitant burden of non-communicable diseases have given rise to a more balanced view of the costs and benefits of tobacco production over the last decade. The first tobacco control regulation passed in 1999, succeeded by amendments in 2000 and 2003. Today, few restrictions exist on tobacco industry conduct, advertising, and promotion in Indonesia. We examine the relevance and prospects of advancing in Indonesia four cost-effective tobacco control strategies: price and tax measures, advertising bans, clean air legislation, and public education. We conclude with several suggestions for action for the public health community.

  3. The relevance and prospects of advancing tobacco control in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Achadi, Anhari; Soerojo, Widyastuti; Barber, Sarah

    2005-06-01

    Using published data about consumption, economic aspects, and legislation, this paper analyzes tobacco control in Indonesia, a major consumer and producer of tobacco products. Given its large population and smoking prevalence, Indonesia ranks fifth among countries with the highest tobacco consumption globally. Over 62% of Indonesian adult males smoke regularly, contributing to a growing burden of non-communicable diseases and enormous demands on the health care system. Tobacco control policies, however, have remained low on the political and public health agenda for many years. One reason was the contribution of tobacco to government revenues and employment, particularly in the industrial sector. But tobacco's importance in employment has fallen significantly since the 1970s from 38% of total manufacturing employment compared with 5.6% today. Widespread use of tobacco since the 1970s and the concomitant burden of non-communicable diseases have given rise to a more balanced view of the costs and benefits of tobacco production over the last decade. The first tobacco control regulation passed in 1999, succeeded by amendments in 2000 and 2003. Today, few restrictions exist on tobacco industry conduct, advertising, and promotion in Indonesia. We examine the relevance and prospects of advancing in Indonesia four cost-effective tobacco control strategies: price and tax measures, advertising bans, clean air legislation, and public education. We conclude with several suggestions for action for the public health community. PMID:15862641

  4. Chemical Biology Strategies for Biofilm Control.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liang; Givskov, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Microbes live as densely populated multicellular surface-attached biofilm communities embedded in self-generated, extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs). EPSs serve as a scaffold for cross-linking biofilm cells and support development of biofilm architecture and functions. Biofilms can have a clear negative impact on humans, where biofilms are a common denominator in many chronic diseases in which they prime development of destructive inflammatory conditions and the failure of our immune system to efficiently cope with them. Our current assortment of antimicrobial agents cannot efficiently eradicate biofilms. For industrial applications, the removal of biofilms within production machinery in the paper and hygienic food packaging industry, cooling water circuits, and drinking water manufacturing systems can be critical for the safety and efficacy of those processes. Biofilm formation is a dynamic process that involves microbial cell migration, cell-to-cell signaling and interactions, EPS synthesis, and cell-EPS interactions. Recent progress of fundamental biofilm research has shed light on novel chemical biology strategies for biofilm control. In this article, chemical biology strategies targeting the bacterial intercellular and intracellular signaling pathways will be discussed.

  5. Gorbachev's arms-control strategy. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nogee, J.L.

    1987-01-22

    Soviet foreign policy under the Gorbachev administration, along with domestic policy, has been in a state of flux, particularly in the realm of arms-control policy. Both in substance and style, Gorbachev introduced a new dynamic in arms-control policy. He has skillfully manipulated the issue for propaganda appeal. But also he has shown flexibility in modifying Soviet positions both to respond to U.S. demands and to exert pressure on the United States to reach an agreement. Soviet arms-control objectives (some of which are incompatible) may be realized either through a formal agreement with the United States or without an agreement. These objectives include: (a) to use arms control to build a new framework for relations with the United States to replace detente; (b) to kill the Strategic Defense Initiative; (c) to constrain U.S. development in manned aircraft and cruise missiles (d) to deligitimize nuclear weapons as an instrument of military strategy; (e) to exacerbate differences between the United States and Europe. During his first year in power, Gorbachev relied heavily on propaganda with calls for eliminating nuclear weapons by the 21st century, his test ban moratorium and denunciation of SDI. After the 21st Party Congress he significantly modified Soviet positions closer to those of the United States with his acceptance of the zero option for INF forces, deep cuts in strategic weapons and willingness to accept limited research on SDI. Gorbachev now sees an arms control agreement as essential to his program for domestic reform and is prepared to make genuine concessions to achieve it.

  6. Malaria control: achievements, problems and strategies.

    PubMed

    Nájera, J A

    2001-06-01

    scale was steered by the Malaria Commission of the League of Nations and greatly supported by the Rockefeller Foundation. Perhaps the most important contribution of this period was the development of malaria epidemiology, including the study of the genesis of epidemics and their possible forecasting and prevention. Although the great effectiveness of DDT was perhaps the main determinant for proposing the global eradication of the disease in the 1950s, it was the confidence in the epidemiological knowledge and the prestige of malariology, which gave credibility to the proposal at the political level. The second part deals with the global malaria eradication campaign of the 1950s and 1960s. It recognises the enormous impact of the eradication effort in the consolidation of the control successes of the first half of the century, as well as its influence in the development of planning of health programmes. Nevertheless, it also stresses the negative influence that the failure to achieve its utopian expectations had on the general disappointment and slow progress of malaria control, which characterised the last third of the century. The paper then analyses the evolution of malaria control funding, which often appears out of tune with political statements. The fourth part is devoted to the search for realistic approaches to malaria control, leading to the adoption of the global malaria control strategy in Amsterdam in 1992, and the challenge, at the end of the century, to rally forces commensurate with the magnitude of the problem, while aiming at realistic objectives. After discussing the conflicting views on the relations between malaria and socio-economic development and the desirable integration of malaria control into sustainable development, the paper ends with some considerations on the perspectives of malaria control, as seen by the author in early 1998, just before the launching of the current Roll Back Malaria initiative by WHO. PMID:11921521

  7. Formulation of a strategy for monitoring control integrity in critical digital control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcastro, Celeste M.; Fischl, Robert; Kam, Moshe

    1991-01-01

    Advanced aircraft will require flight critical computer systems for stability augmentation as well as guidance and control that must perform reliably in adverse, as well as nominal, operating environments. Digital system upset is a functional error mode that can occur in electromagnetically harsh environments, involves no component damage, can occur simultaneously in all channels of a redundant control computer, and is software dependent. A strategy is presented for dynamic upset detection to be used in the evaluation of critical digital controllers during the design and/or validation phases of development. Critical controllers must be able to be used in adverse environments that result from disturbances caused by an electromagnetic source such as lightning, high intensity radiated field (HIRF), and nuclear electromagnetic pulses (NEMP). The upset detection strategy presented provides dynamic monitoring of a given control computer for degraded functional integrity that can result from redundancy management errors and control command calculation error that could occur in an electromagnetically harsh operating environment. The use is discussed of Kalman filtering, data fusion, and decision theory in monitoring a given digital controller for control calculation errors, redundancy management errors, and control effectiveness.

  8. A strategy for sequence control in vinyl polymers via iterative controlled radical cyclization

    PubMed Central

    Hibi, Yusuke; Ouchi, Makoto; Sawamoto, Mitsuo

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing interest in sequence-controlled polymers toward advanced functional materials. However, control of side-chain order for vinyl polymers has been lacking feasibility in the field of polymer synthesis because of the inherent feature of chain-growth propagation. Here we show a general and versatile strategy to control sequence in vinyl polymers through iterative radical cyclization with orthogonally cleavable and renewable bonds. The proposed methodology employs a repetitive and iterative intramolecular cyclization via a radical intermediate in a one-time template with a radical-generating site at one end and an alkene end at the other, each of which is connected to a linker via independently cleavable and renewable bonds. The unique design specifically allowed control of radical addition reaction although inherent chain-growth intermediate (radical species) was used, as well as the iterative cycle and functionalization for resultant side chains, to lead to sequence-controlled vinyl polymers (or oligomers). PMID:26996881

  9. Intervention strategies for control of foodborne pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juneja, Vijay K.

    2004-03-01

    The increasing numbers of illnesses associated with foodborne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7, has renewed concerns about food safety because of consumer preferences for minimally processed foods that offer convenience in availability and preparation. Accordingly, the need for better control of foodborne pathogens has been paramount in recent years. Mechanical removal of microorganisms from food can be accomplished by centrifugation, filtration, trimming and washing. Cleaning and sanitation strategies can be used for minimizing the access of microorganisms in foods from various sources. Other strategies for control of foodborne pathogens include established physical microbiocidal treatments such as ionizing radiation and heating. Research has continued to demonstrate that food irradiation is a suitable process to control and possibly eliminate foodborne pathogens, for example Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7, from a number of raw and cooked meat and poultry products. Heat treatment is the most common method in use today for the inactivation of microorganisms. Microorganisms can also be destroyed by nonthermal treatments, such as application of high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric fields, oscillating magnetic fields or a combination of physical processes such as heat-irradiation, or heat-high hydrostatic pressure, etc. Each of the non-thermal technologies has specific applications in terms of the types of food that can be processed. Both conventional and newly developed physical treatments can be used in combination for controlling foodborne pathogens and enhancing the safety and shelf life of foods. Recent research has focused on combining traditional preservation factors with emerging intervention technologies. However, many key issues still need to be addressed for combination preservation factors or technologies to be useful in the food industry to meet public demands for foods with enhanced safety

  10. [Harm reduction strategy in tobacco control].

    PubMed

    Gorini, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    .Thus, California Department of Health Services prohibits promotion of snus and medicinal nicotine as a harm reduction strategy. However, the US Federal Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, signed by President Obama in 2009, places tobacco products under FDA jurisdiction: FDA must define criteria for lowering carcinogens and toxicants in tobacco products, making more available medicinal nicotine, evaluating PREPs, creating a federal Tobacco Control Agency.Which approaches is Italy going to follow? PMID:21926451

  11. Parasitic Nematode Immunomodulatory Strategies: Recent Advances and Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Dustin; Eleftherianos, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    More than half of the described species of the phylum Nematoda are considered parasitic, making them one of the most successful groups of parasites. Nematodes are capable of inhabiting a wide variety of niches. A vast array of vertebrate animals, insects, and plants are all identified as potential hosts for nematode parasitization. To invade these hosts successfully, parasitic nematodes must be able to protect themselves from the efficiency and potency of the host immune system. Innate immunity comprises the first wave of the host immune response, and in vertebrate animals it leads to the induction of the adaptive immune response. Nematodes have evolved elegant strategies that allow them to evade, suppress, or modulate host immune responses in order to persist and spread in the host. Nematode immunomodulation involves the secretion of molecules that are capable of suppressing various aspects of the host immune response in order to promote nematode invasion. Immunomodulatory mechanisms can be identified in parasitic nematodes infecting insects, plants, and mammals and vary greatly in the specific tactics by which the parasites modify the host immune response. Nematode-derived immunomodulatory effects have also been shown to affect, negatively or positively, the outcome of some concurrent diseases suffered by the host. Understanding nematode immunomodulatory actions will potentially reveal novel targets that will in turn lead to the development of effective means for the control of destructive nematode parasites. PMID:27649248

  12. Parasitic Nematode Immunomodulatory Strategies: Recent Advances and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Dustin; Eleftherianos, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    More than half of the described species of the phylum Nematoda are considered parasitic, making them one of the most successful groups of parasites. Nematodes are capable of inhabiting a wide variety of niches. A vast array of vertebrate animals, insects, and plants are all identified as potential hosts for nematode parasitization. To invade these hosts successfully, parasitic nematodes must be able to protect themselves from the efficiency and potency of the host immune system. Innate immunity comprises the first wave of the host immune response, and in vertebrate animals it leads to the induction of the adaptive immune response. Nematodes have evolved elegant strategies that allow them to evade, suppress, or modulate host immune responses in order to persist and spread in the host. Nematode immunomodulation involves the secretion of molecules that are capable of suppressing various aspects of the host immune response in order to promote nematode invasion. Immunomodulatory mechanisms can be identified in parasitic nematodes infecting insects, plants, and mammals and vary greatly in the specific tactics by which the parasites modify the host immune response. Nematode-derived immunomodulatory effects have also been shown to affect, negatively or positively, the outcome of some concurrent diseases suffered by the host. Understanding nematode immunomodulatory actions will potentially reveal novel targets that will in turn lead to the development of effective means for the control of destructive nematode parasites. PMID:27649248

  13. Learning and remembering strategies of novice and advanced jazz dancers for skill level appropriate dance routines.

    PubMed

    Poon, P P; Rodgers, W M

    2000-06-01

    This study examined the influence of the challenge level of to-be-learned stimulus on learning strategies in novice and advanced dancers. In Study 1, skill-level appropriate dance routines were developed for novice and advanced jazz dancers. In Study 2, 8 novice and 9 advanced female jazz dancers attempted to learn and remember the two routines in mixed model factorial design, with one between-participants factor: skill level (novice or advanced) and two within-participants factors: routine (easy or difficult) and performance (immediate or delayed). Participants were interviewed regarding the strategies used to learn and remember the routines. Results indicated that advanced performers used atypical learning strategies for insufficiently challenging stimuli, which may reflect characteristics of the stimuli rather than the performer. The qualitative data indicate a clear preference of novice and advanced performers for spatial compatibility of stimuli and response.

  14. Development of Fuzzy Logic and Neural Network Control and Advanced Emissions Modeling for Parallel Hybrid Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Rajagopalan, A.; Washington, G.; Rizzoni, G.; Guezennec, Y.

    2003-12-01

    This report describes the development of new control strategies and models for Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) by the Ohio State University. The report indicates results from models created in NREL's ADvanced VehIcle SimulatOR (ADVISOR 3.2), and results of a scalable IC Engine model, called in Willan's Line technique, implemented in ADVISOR 3.2.

  15. Advanced Algorithms for Local Routing Strategy on Complex Networks

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Benchuan; Chen, Bokui; Gao, Yachun; Tse, Chi K.; Dong, Chuanfei; Miao, Lixin; Wang, Binghong

    2016-01-01

    Despite the significant improvement on network performance provided by global routing strategies, their applications are still limited to small-scale networks, due to the need for acquiring global information of the network which grows and changes rapidly with time. Local routing strategies, however, need much less local information, though their transmission efficiency and network capacity are much lower than that of global routing strategies. In view of this, three algorithms are proposed and a thorough investigation is conducted in this paper. These algorithms include a node duplication avoidance algorithm, a next-nearest-neighbor algorithm and a restrictive queue length algorithm. After applying them to typical local routing strategies, the critical generation rate of information packets Rc increases by over ten-fold and the average transmission time 〈T〉 decreases by 70–90 percent, both of which are key physical quantities to assess the efficiency of routing strategies on complex networks. More importantly, in comparison with global routing strategies, the improved local routing strategies can yield better network performance under certain circumstances. This is a revolutionary leap for communication networks, because local routing strategy enjoys great superiority over global routing strategy not only in terms of the reduction of computational expense, but also in terms of the flexibility of implementation, especially for large-scale networks. PMID:27434502

  16. Advanced Algorithms for Local Routing Strategy on Complex Networks.

    PubMed

    Lin, Benchuan; Chen, Bokui; Gao, Yachun; Tse, Chi K; Dong, Chuanfei; Miao, Lixin; Wang, Binghong

    2016-01-01

    Despite the significant improvement on network performance provided by global routing strategies, their applications are still limited to small-scale networks, due to the need for acquiring global information of the network which grows and changes rapidly with time. Local routing strategies, however, need much less local information, though their transmission efficiency and network capacity are much lower than that of global routing strategies. In view of this, three algorithms are proposed and a thorough investigation is conducted in this paper. These algorithms include a node duplication avoidance algorithm, a next-nearest-neighbor algorithm and a restrictive queue length algorithm. After applying them to typical local routing strategies, the critical generation rate of information packets Rc increases by over ten-fold and the average transmission time 〈T〉 decreases by 70-90 percent, both of which are key physical quantities to assess the efficiency of routing strategies on complex networks. More importantly, in comparison with global routing strategies, the improved local routing strategies can yield better network performance under certain circumstances. This is a revolutionary leap for communication networks, because local routing strategy enjoys great superiority over global routing strategy not only in terms of the reduction of computational expense, but also in terms of the flexibility of implementation, especially for large-scale networks. PMID:27434502

  17. 40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1025 Section 52.1025 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The revisions to the control strategy resulting from the modification...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1025 Section 52.1025 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The revisions to the control strategy resulting from the modification...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1025 Section 52.1025 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The revisions to the control strategy resulting from the modification...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1025 Section 52.1025 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The revisions to the control strategy resulting from the modification...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1025 Section 52.1025 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The revisions to the control strategy resulting from the modification...

  2. 40 CFR 52.2033 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.2033 Section 52.2033 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... strategy: Sulfur oxides. (a) The revision to the control strategy resulting from the modification to...

  3. 40 CFR 52.2033 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.2033 Section 52.2033 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... strategy: Sulfur oxides. (a) The revision to the control strategy resulting from the modification to...

  4. 40 CFR 52.2033 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.2033 Section 52.2033 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... strategy: Sulfur oxides. (a) The revision to the control strategy resulting from the modification to...

  5. 40 CFR 52.2033 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.2033 Section 52.2033 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... strategy: Sulfur oxides. (a) The revision to the control strategy resulting from the modification to...

  6. Toward rational design of electrical stimulation strategies for epilepsy control

    PubMed Central

    Sunderam, Sridhar; Gluckman, Bruce; Reato, Davide; Bikson, Marom

    2009-01-01

    Electrical stimulation is emerging as a viable alternative for epilepsy patients whose seizures are not alleviated by drugs or surgery. Its attractions are temporal and spatial specificity of action, flexibility of waveform parameters and timing, and the perception that its effects are reversible unlike resective surgery. However, despite significant advances in our understanding of mechanisms of neural electrical stimulation, clinical electrotherapy for seizures relies heavily on empirical tuning of parameters and protocols. We highlight concurrent treatment goals with potentially conflicting design constraints that must be resolved when formulating rational strategies for epilepsy electrotherapy: namely seizure reduction versus cognitive impairment, stimulation efficacy versus tissue safety, and mechanistic insight versus clinical pragmatism. First, treatment markers, objectives, and metrics relevant to electrical stimulation for epilepsy are discussed from a clinical perspective. Then the experimental perspective is presented, with the biophysical mechanisms and modalities of open-loop electrical stimulation, and the potential benefits of closed-loop control for epilepsy. PMID:19926525

  7. Open architecture controllers for advanced manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Gore, R.A.

    1994-03-01

    The application of intelligent control systems to the real world of machining and manufacturing will benefit form the presence of open architecture control systems on the machines or the processes. The ability to modify the control system as the process or product changes can be essential to the success of the application of neural net or fuzzy logic controllers. The effort at Los Alamos to obtain a commercially available open architecture machine tool controller is described.

  8. Modeling and Advanced Control for Sustainable Process Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    This book chapter introduces a novel process systems engineering framework that integrates process control with sustainability assessment tools for the simultaneous evaluation and optimization of process operations. The implemented control strategy consists of a biologically-insp...

  9. Modeling and Advanced Control for Sustainable Process Systems (chapter 5)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This book chapter introduces a novel process systems engineering framework that integrates process control with sustainability assessment tools for the simultaneous evaluation and optimization of process operations. The implemented control strategy consists of a biologically-insp...

  10. Experiment-Based Teaching in Advanced Control Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Precup, R.-E.; Preitl, S.; Radac, M.-B.; Petriu, E. M.; Dragos, C.-A.; Tar, J. K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses an experiment-based approach to teaching an advanced control engineering syllabus involving controlled plant analysis and modeling, control structures and algorithms, real-time laboratory experiments, and their assessment. These experiments are structured around the representative case of the longitudinal slip control of an…

  11. Advanced, Integrated Control for Building Operations to Achieve 40% Energy Saving

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Yan; Song, Zhen; Loftness, Vivian; Ji, Kun; Zheng, Sam; Lasternas, Bertrand; Marion, Flore; Yuebin, Yu

    2012-10-15

    We developed and demonstrated a software based integrated advanced building control platform called Smart Energy Box (SEB), which can coordinate building subsystem controls, integrate variety of energy optimization algorithms and provide proactive and collaborative energy management and control for building operations using weather and occupancy information. The integrated control system is a low cost solution and also features: Scalable component based architecture allows to build a solution for different building control system configurations with needed components; Open Architecture with a central data repository for data exchange among runtime components; Extendible to accommodate variety of communication protocols. Optimal building control for central loads, distributed loads and onsite energy resource; uses web server as a loosely coupled way to engage both building operators and building occupants in collaboration for energy conservation. Based on the open platform of SEB, we have investigated and evaluated a variety of operation and energy saving control strategies on Carnegie Mellon University Intelligent Work place which is equipped with alternative cooling/heating/ventilation/lighting methods, including radiant mullions, radiant cooling/heating ceiling panels, cool waves, dedicated ventilation unit, motorized window and blinds, and external louvers. Based on the validation results of these control strategies, they were integrated in SEB in a collaborative and dynamic way. This advanced control system was programmed and computer tested with a model of the Intelligent Workplace's northern section (IWn). The advanced control program was then installed in the IWn control system; the performance was measured and compared with that of the state of the art control system to verify the overall energy savings great than 40%. In addition advanced human machine interfaces (HMI's) were developed to communicate both with building occupants and

  12. Comparison of advanced distillation control methods. First annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Riggs, J.B.

    1996-11-01

    A detailed dynamic simulator of a propylene/propane (C{sub 3}) splitter, which was bench-marked against industrial data, has been used to compare dual composition control performance for a diagonal PI controller and several advanced controllers. The advanced controllers considered are dynamic matrix control (DMC), nonlinear process model based control, and artificial neutral networks. Each controller was tuned based upon setpoint changes in the overhead product composition using 50% changes in the impurity levels. Overall, there was not a great deal of difference in controller performance based upon the setpoint and disturbance tests. Periodic step changes in feed composition were also used to compare controller performance. In this case, oscillatory variations of the product composition were observed and the variabilities of the DC and nonlinear process model based controllers were substantially smaller than that of the PI controller. The sensitivity of each controller to the frequency of the periodic step changes in feed composition was also investigated.

  13. Smart Engines Via Advanced Model Based Controls

    SciTech Connect

    Allain, Marc

    2000-08-20

    A ''new'' process for developing control systems - Less engine testing - More robust control system - Shorter development cycle time - ''Smarter'' approach to engine control - On-board models describe engine behavior - Shorter, systematic calibration process - Customer and legislative requirements designed-in.

  14. Advanced control evaluation for structures (ACES) programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, Jerome; Waites, Henry

    1988-01-01

    The ACES programs are a series of past, present, and future activities at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Ground facility for Large Space Structure Control Verification (GF/LSSCV). The main objectives of the ACES programs are to implement control techniques on a series of complex dynamical systems, to determine the control/structure interaction for the control techniques, and to provide a national facility in which dynamics and control verification can be effected. The focus is on these objectives and how they are implemented under various engineering and economic constraints. Future plans that will be effected in upcoming ACES programs are considered.

  15. An advanced intelligent control system framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemeth, ED; Anderson, Ronald R.; Maram, Jon; Norman, Arnie; Merrill, Walt

    1992-01-01

    A reusable rocket-engine intelligent control system (RREICS) framework was developed to a define a control framework for rocket-engine systems that reduces the required engine maintenance, extends the useful operating life, and maximizes the probability of mission success. The RREICS framework defines a controller that handles a rocket engine cluster as a single system rather than as a collection of individual engines. This enables the controller to alter individual engine operations in response to engine performance or integrity degradations while maintaining the propulsion subsystem external parameters at the levels required for mission success. A simplified model of a three engine cluster and the associated propulsion subsystem controller is also described.

  16. Advancing cancer control research in an emerging news media environment.

    PubMed

    Smith, Katherine C; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Blake, Kelly D; Cappella, Joseph N

    2013-12-01

    Cancer is both highly feared and highly newsworthy, and there is a robust body of research documenting the content and effects of cancer news coverage on health behaviors and policy. Recent years have witnessed ongoing, transformative shifts in American journalism alongside rapid advances in communication technology and the public information environment. These changes create a pressing need to consider a new set of research questions, sampling strategies, measurement techniques, and theories of media effects to ensure continued relevance and adaptation of communication research to address critical cancer control concerns. This paper begins by briefly reviewing what we know about the role of cancer news in shaping cancer-related beliefs, attitudes, behaviors, and policies. We then outline challenges and opportunities, both theoretical and methodological, posed by the rapidly changing news media environment and the nature of audience engagement. We organize our discussion around three major shifts associated with the emerging news media environment as it relates to health communication: 1) speed and dynamism of news diffusion, 2) increased narrowcasting of media content for specialized audiences, and 3) broadened participation in shaping media content. In so doing, we articulate a set of questions for future theory and research, in an effort to catalyze innovative communication scholarship to improve cancer prevention and control. PMID:24395988

  17. [Advances of consolidated bioprocessing based on recombinant strategy].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zongbao; Zhao, Meina; Chen, Tao; Zhao, Xueming

    2013-10-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass represents an abundant, low-cost and renewable source of potentially fermentable sugars. It is acandidate besides petroleum as feedstock for fuel and chemical production. Recent researches on utilizing lignocellulosicsas feedstock boost development of numerous-promising processes for a variety of fuels and chemicals, such as biodiesel, biohydrogen and ethanol. However, high cost in depolymerization is a primary obstacle preventing the use of lignocellulosic biomass as feedstock. Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP), refers to the bioprocess without any exogenous cellulolyotic enzymes added, converting the lignocellulosic material into biochemicals directly, which could potentially avoid the cost of the dedicated enzyme generation step by incorporating enzyme-generating, biomass-degrading and bioproduct-producing capabilities into a single organism through genetic engineering. There are two CBP strategies, native strategy and recombinant strategy. We mainly introduce the recombinant strategy, including its principle, the two responding styles, the contributions of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering and the future challenges. PMID:24432651

  18. [Advances of consolidated bioprocessing based on recombinant strategy].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zongbao; Zhao, Meina; Chen, Tao; Zhao, Xueming

    2013-10-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass represents an abundant, low-cost and renewable source of potentially fermentable sugars. It is acandidate besides petroleum as feedstock for fuel and chemical production. Recent researches on utilizing lignocellulosicsas feedstock boost development of numerous-promising processes for a variety of fuels and chemicals, such as biodiesel, biohydrogen and ethanol. However, high cost in depolymerization is a primary obstacle preventing the use of lignocellulosic biomass as feedstock. Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP), refers to the bioprocess without any exogenous cellulolyotic enzymes added, converting the lignocellulosic material into biochemicals directly, which could potentially avoid the cost of the dedicated enzyme generation step by incorporating enzyme-generating, biomass-degrading and bioproduct-producing capabilities into a single organism through genetic engineering. There are two CBP strategies, native strategy and recombinant strategy. We mainly introduce the recombinant strategy, including its principle, the two responding styles, the contributions of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering and the future challenges.

  19. Behavioral Self-Control Strategies for Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Leasha M.; Haraway, Dana L.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, self-control strategies are conceptualized as existing on two intersecting continuums of more or less individual control and increasing complexity depending on individual need. Behavioral self-control strategies for young children require external supports to assist children in learning the skills necessary to practice and implement…

  20. Comparison of advanced distillation control methods. First annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    A detailed dynamic simulator of a propylene/propane (C3) splitter, which was bench-marked against industrial data, has been used to compare dual composition control performance for a diagonal PI controller and several advanced controllers. The advanced controllers considered are DMC, nonlinear process model based control, and articial neutral networks. Each controller was tuned based upon setpoint changes in the overhead product composition using 50% changes in the impurity levels. Overall, there was not a great deal of difference in controller performance based upon the setpoint and disturbance tests. Periodic step changes in feed composition were also used to compare controller performance. In this case, oscillatory variations of the product composition were observed and the variabilities of the DMC and nonlinear process model based controllers were substantially smaller than that of the PI controller. The sensitivity of each controller to the frequency of the periodic step changes in feed composition was also investigated.

  1. Advanced rotorcraft control using parameter optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vansteenwyk, Brett; Ly, Uy-Loi

    1991-01-01

    A reliable algorithm for the evaluation of a quadratic performance index and its gradients with respect to the controller design parameters is presented. The algorithm is part of a design algorithm for an optimal linear dynamic output feedback controller that minimizes a finite time quadratic performance index. The numerical scheme is particularly robust when it is applied to the control law synthesis for systems with densely packed modes and where there is a high likelihood of encountering degeneracies in the closed loop eigensystem. This approach through the use of a accurate Pade series approximation does not require the closed loop system matrix to be diagonalizable. The algorithm has been included in a control design package for optimal robust low order controllers. Usefulness of the proposed numerical algorithm has been demonstrated using numerous practical design cases where degeneracies occur frequently in the closed loop system under an arbitrary controller design initialization and during the numerical search.

  2. Advances in targeting strategies for nanoparticles in cancer imaging and therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    YheeThese Authors Contributed The Same., Ji Young; Lee, Sangmin; Kim, Kwangmeyung

    2014-10-01

    In the last decade, nanoparticles have offered great advances in diagnostic imaging and targeted drug delivery. In particular, nanoparticles have provided remarkable progress in cancer imaging and therapy based on materials science and biochemical engineering technology. Researchers constantly attempted to develop the nanoparticles which can deliver drugs more specifically to cancer cells, and these efforts brought the advances in the targeting strategy of nanoparticles. This minireview will discuss the progress in targeting strategies for nanoparticles focused on the recent innovative work for nanomedicine.

  3. Rotorcraft flying qualities improvement using advanced control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, D.; Postlethwaite, I.; Howitt, J.; Foster, N.

    1993-01-01

    We report on recent experience gained when a multivariable helicopter flight control law was tested on the Large Motion Simulator (LMS) at DRA Bedford. This was part of a study into the application of multivariable control theory to the design of full-authority flight control systems for high-performance helicopters. In this paper, we present some of the results that were obtained during the piloted simulation trial and from subsequent off-line simulation and analysis. The performance provided by the control law led to level 1 handling quality ratings for almost all of the mission task elements assessed, both during the real-time and off-line analysis.

  4. Project T.E.A.M. (Technical Education Advancement Modules). Advanced Statistical Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Dale

    This instructional guide, one of a series developed by the Technical Education Advancement Modules (TEAM) project, is a 20-hour advanced statistical process control (SPC) and quality improvement course designed to develop the following competencies: (1) understanding quality systems; (2) knowing the process; (3) solving quality problems; and (4)…

  5. Advanced Combustion and Emission Control Technical Team Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    2013-06-01

    The Advanced Combustion and Emission Control (ACEC) Technical Team is focused on removing technical barriers to the commercialization of advanced, high-efficiency, emission-compliant internal combustion (IC) engines for light-duty vehicle powertrains (i.e., passenger car, minivan, SUV, and pickup trucks).

  6. Model-free adaptive control of advanced power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, George Shu-Xing; Mulkey, Steven L.; Wang, Qiang

    2015-08-18

    A novel 3-Input-3-Output (3.times.3) Model-Free Adaptive (MFA) controller with a set of artificial neural networks as part of the controller is introduced. A 3.times.3 MFA control system using the inventive 3.times.3 MFA controller is described to control key process variables including Power, Steam Throttle Pressure, and Steam Temperature of boiler-turbine-generator (BTG) units in conventional and advanced power plants. Those advanced power plants may comprise Once-Through Supercritical (OTSC) Boilers, Circulating Fluidized-Bed (CFB) Boilers, and Once-Through Supercritical Circulating Fluidized-Bed (OTSC CFB) Boilers.

  7. Advanced dc-Traction-Motor Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vittone, O.

    1985-01-01

    Motor-control concept for battery-powered vehicles includes stateof-the-art power-transistor switching and separate excitation of motor windings in traction and regenerative braking. Switching transistors and other components of power-conditioning subsystem operate under control of computer that coordinates traction, braking, and protective functions.

  8. A novel control strategy for a Taylor-Couette flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouabdallah, A.; Oualli, H.; Mekadem, M.; Boukrif, M.; Saad, S.; Gad-El-Hak, M.

    2015-11-01

    Advancing transition is desired in applications where heat, mass, or momentum transfer needs to be augmented. On the other hand, delaying transition is imperative in crystal growth devices, where all instabilities are to be avoided in order to prevent the appearance of geometrical irregularities in the resulting crystal. The hydrodynamic stability of a viscous flow in a closed, fully filled Taylor-Couette system is considered in the present numerical study. The fluid evolves in an annular cavity between the rotating inner cylinder and the outer fixed one. The base flow is axis-symmetric with two counter-rotating vortices each wavelength. The Taylor number varies in the range of 0-50. Numerical simulations are implemented on a finite-volume CFD code. The control strategy involves a pulsatile motion superimposed separately on the inner and outer cylinder's cross-section, with maximum amplitude of, respectively, 5% and 15% of the radius. The frequency varies in the range of 0-100 Hz. The objective is to localize the transition and to assess the flow's response to the imposed boundary motions. Substantial advancement of transition is found when the inner cylinder's cross-section is varied, while this transition is delayed when the outer cylinder's cross-section is pulsating.

  9. Strategy to Promote Active Learning of an Advanced Research Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Hilary J.; Dovey, Terence M.

    2013-01-01

    Research methods courses aim to equip students with the knowledge and skills required for research yet seldom include practical aspects of assessment. This reflective practitioner report describes and evaluates an innovative approach to teaching and assessing advanced qualitative research methods to final-year psychology undergraduate students. An…

  10. Advanced Image Search: A Strategy for Creating Presentation Boards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Diane K.; Hines, Jean D.; Swinker, Mary E.

    2008-01-01

    Finding relevant digital images to create presentation boards requires advanced search skills. This article describes a course assignment involving a technique designed to develop students' literacy skills with respect to locating images of desired quality and content from Internet databases. The assignment was applied in a collegiate apparel…

  11. Advanced Topics in Wet-Weather Discharge Control

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report discusses four related but generally independent wet-weather flow (WWF) topic areas, namely: i) opportunities for advanced practices in WWF control technology, particularly as it applies to sewered systems; ii) tradeoffs between storage facilities (tanks) and enlarged...

  12. Status report on the Advanced Light Source control system

    SciTech Connect

    Magyary, S.; Chin, M.; Fahmie, M.; Lancaster, H.; Molinari, P.; Robb, A.; Timossi, C.; Young, J.

    1991-11-11

    This paper is a status report on the ADVANCED LIGHT SOURCE (ALS) control system. The current status, performance data, and future plans will be discussed. Manpower, scheduling, and costs issues are addressed.

  13. Advanced control of a flexible spherical wrist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorgenyi, Louis Alexander

    1993-07-01

    A flexible spherical wrist, susceptible to nonlinear torsional vibrations, was developed which utilizes controllers to provide position control and vibration rejection. The issue of robust performance and stability for this robot wrist is examined while adhearing to practical implementation limits. System identification techniques are used to obtain linear models of the dynamic equations of motion. These models contain physical information such as friction and cable drag, and several different parametric forms are presented. Asymptotic stability of the wrist under proportional derivative control is proven using a linearized set of dynamical equations. Experimental results show only stability rather than asymptotic stability due to friction and unmodeled dynamics. In addition, poor robustness of this control methodology is demonstrated when the orientation and payload are varied. One- and two-parameter Hardy space controllers are designed to address the robustness and implementation issues. Variations in wrist orientation and payload are modeled as multiplicative uncertainties. Simulation and experimental results are presented and compared to those of a tracking controller. The Hardy space controllers are shown to have superior robustness properties but poorer performance.

  14. Attitude Control Subsystem for the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewston, Alan W.; Mitchell, Kent A.; Sawicki, Jerzy T.

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the on-orbit operation of the Attitude Control Subsystem (ACS) for the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS). The three ACTS control axes are defined, including the means for sensing attitude and determining the pointing errors. The desired pointing requirements for various modes of control as well as the disturbance torques that oppose the control are identified. Finally, the hardware actuators and control loops utilized to reduce the attitude error are described.

  15. Improving epidemic control strategies by extended detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karp, Paweł; Dybiec, Bartłomiej; Kleczkowski, Adam

    2014-11-01

    Majority of epidemics eradication programs work in preventive responsive way. The lack of exact information about epidemiological status of individuals makes responsive actions less efficient. Here, we demonstrate that additional tests can significantly increase the efficiency of "blind" treatment (vaccination or culling). Eradication strategy consisting of "blind" treatment in very limited local neighborhood supplemented by extra tests in a little bit larger neighborhood is able to prevent invasion of even highly infectious diseases and to achieve this at a cost lower than for the "blind" strategy. The effectiveness of the extended strategy depends on such parameters as the test efficiency and test cost.

  16. Advanced gel propulsion controls for kill vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuhara, W. K.; Olson, A.; Finato, S.

    1993-06-01

    A gel propulsion control concept for tactical applications is reviewed, and the status of the individual component technologies currently under development at the Aerojet Propulsion Division is discussed. It is concluded that a gel propellant Divert and Attitude Control Subsystem (DACS) provides a safe, insensitive munitions compliant alternative to current liquid Theater Missile Defense (TMD) DACS approaches. The gel kill vehicle (KV) control system packages a total impulse typical of a tactical weapon interceptor for the ground- or sea-based TMD systems. High density packaging makes it possible to increase firepower and to eliminate long-term high pressure gas storage associated with bipropellant systems. The integrated control subsystem technologies encompass solid propellant gas generators, insulated composite overwrapped propellant tanks, lightweight endoatmospheric thrusters, and insensitive munition gel propellants, which meet the requirements of a deployable, operationally safe KV.

  17. Advanced Unit Commitment Strategies for the U.S. Eastern Interconnection: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Ela, E.; Milligan, M.; Meibom, P.; Barth, R.; Tuohy, A.

    2010-10-01

    This paper outlines a study undertaken for the U.S. Eastern Interconnection in which different advanced unit commitment strategies were simulated for three different years to evaluate the benefits that may occur from using these strategies as an operational tool.

  18. Advanced Simulation and Computing Co-Design Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Ang, James A.; Hoang, Thuc T.; Kelly, Suzanne M.; McPherson, Allen; Neely, Rob

    2015-11-01

    This ASC Co-design Strategy lays out the full continuum and components of the co-design process, based on what we have experienced thus far and what we wish to do more in the future to meet the program’s mission of providing high performance computing (HPC) and simulation capabilities for NNSA to carry out its stockpile stewardship responsibility.

  19. English Language Learning Strategies Reported by Advanced Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Juyeon; Heinz, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate effective English language learning strategies (LLSs) employed by successful language learners. The participants in this study were 20 student interpreters enrolled in the graduate school of interpretation and translation in Korea. Data on LLSs were collected through unstructured essay writing, a…

  20. Vocabulary Materials and Study Strategies at Advanced Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauwels, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on a quasi-experimental study of the effect of different vocabulary study materials and strategies used by upper-intermediate English as a foreign language students in higher education. Students were assigned a selection of 163 words from the Academic Word List and were provided with different types of study materials. They were…

  1. Advanced Therapeutic Strategies for Chronic Lung Disease Using Nanoparticle-Based Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Yhee, Ji Young; Im, Jintaek; Nho, Richard Seonghun

    2016-01-01

    Chronic lung diseases include a variety of obstinate and fatal diseases, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cystic fibrosis (CF), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), and lung cancers. Pharmacotherapy is important for the treatment of chronic lung diseases, and current progress in nanoparticles offers great potential as an advanced strategy for drug delivery. Based on their biophysical properties, nanoparticles have shown improved pharmacokinetics of therapeutics and controlled drug delivery, gaining great attention. Herein, we will review the nanoparticle-based drug delivery system for the treatment of chronic lung diseases. Various types of nanoparticles will be introduced, and recent innovative efforts to utilize the nanoparticles as novel drug carriers for the effective treatment of chronic lung diseases will also be discussed. PMID:27657144

  2. Advanced Therapeutic Strategies for Chronic Lung Disease Using Nanoparticle-Based Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Yhee, Ji Young; Im, Jintaek; Nho, Richard Seonghun

    2016-01-01

    Chronic lung diseases include a variety of obstinate and fatal diseases, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cystic fibrosis (CF), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), and lung cancers. Pharmacotherapy is important for the treatment of chronic lung diseases, and current progress in nanoparticles offers great potential as an advanced strategy for drug delivery. Based on their biophysical properties, nanoparticles have shown improved pharmacokinetics of therapeutics and controlled drug delivery, gaining great attention. Herein, we will review the nanoparticle-based drug delivery system for the treatment of chronic lung diseases. Various types of nanoparticles will be introduced, and recent innovative efforts to utilize the nanoparticles as novel drug carriers for the effective treatment of chronic lung diseases will also be discussed. PMID:27657144

  3. Advanced mobile networking, sensing, and controls.

    SciTech Connect

    Feddema, John Todd; Kilman, Dominique Marie; Byrne, Raymond Harry; Young, Joseph G.; Lewis, Christopher L.; Van Leeuwen, Brian P.; Robinett, Rush D. III; Harrington, John J.

    2005-03-01

    This report describes an integrated approach for designing communication, sensing, and control systems for mobile distributed systems. Graph theoretic methods are used to analyze the input/output reachability and structural controllability and observability of a decentralized system. Embedded in each network node, this analysis will automatically reconfigure an ad hoc communication network for the sensing and control task at hand. The graph analysis can also be used to create the optimal communication flow control based upon the spatial distribution of the network nodes. Edge coloring algorithms tell us that the minimum number of time slots in a planar network is equal to either the maximum number of adjacent nodes (or degree) of the undirected graph plus some small number. Therefore, the more spread out that the nodes are, the fewer number of time slots are needed for communication, and the smaller the latency between nodes. In a coupled system, this results in a more responsive sensor network and control system. Network protocols are developed to propagate this information, and distributed algorithms are developed to automatically adjust the number of time slots available for communication. These protocols and algorithms must be extremely efficient and only updated as network nodes move. In addition, queuing theory is used to analyze the delay characteristics of Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) networks. This report documents the analysis, simulation, and implementation of these algorithms performed under this Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) effort.

  4. Human factors survey of advanced instrumentation and controls

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    A survey oriented towards identifying the human factors issues in regard to the use of advanced instrumentation and controls (I C) in the nuclear industry was conducted. A number of United States (US) and Canadian nuclear vendors and utilities were participants in the survey. Human factors items, subsumed under the categories of computer-generated displays (CGD), controls, organizational support, training, and related topics, were discussed. The survey found the industry to be concerned about the human factors issues related to the implementation of advanced I C. Fifteen potential human factors problems were identified. They include: the need for an advanced I C guideline equivalent to NUREG-0700; a role change in the control room from operator to supervisor; information overload; adequacy of existing training technology for advanced I C; and operator acceptance and trust. 11 refs., 1 tab.

  5. Modern advances in sustainable tick control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ticks are the vector of the many different organisms responsible for both animal and human diseases. Understanding the progress we have made and new directions in tick control is critical to the sustainability of human and animal health. The integration of vaccines, acaricides, and new acaricide ap...

  6. Public authority control strategy for opinion evolution in social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xi; Xiong, Xi; Zhang, Minghong; Li, Wei

    2016-08-01

    This paper addresses the need to deal with and control public opinion and rumors. Existing strategies to control public opinion include degree, random, and adaptive bridge control strategies. In this paper, we use the HK model to present a public opinion control strategy based on public authority (PA). This means utilizing the influence of expert or high authority individuals whose opinions we control to obtain the optimum effect in the shortest time possible and thus reach a consensus of public opinion. Public authority (PA) is only influenced by individuals' attributes (age, economic status, and education level) and not their degree distribution; hence, in this paper, we assume that PA complies with two types of public authority distribution (normal and power-law). According to the proposed control strategy, our experiment is based on random, degree, and public authority control strategies in three different social networks (small-world, scale-free, and random) and we compare and analyze the strategies in terms of convergence time (T), final number of controlled agents (C), and comprehensive efficiency (E). We find that different network topologies and the distribution of the PA in the network can influence the final controlling effect. While the effect of PA strategy differs in different network topology structures, all structures achieve comprehensive efficiency with any kind of public authority distribution in any network. Our findings are consistent with several current sociological phenomena and show that in the process of public opinion/rumor control, considerable attention should be paid to high authority individuals.

  7. Public authority control strategy for opinion evolution in social networks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Xiong, Xi; Zhang, Minghong; Li, Wei

    2016-08-01

    This paper addresses the need to deal with and control public opinion and rumors. Existing strategies to control public opinion include degree, random, and adaptive bridge control strategies. In this paper, we use the HK model to present a public opinion control strategy based on public authority (PA). This means utilizing the influence of expert or high authority individuals whose opinions we control to obtain the optimum effect in the shortest time possible and thus reach a consensus of public opinion. Public authority (PA) is only influenced by individuals' attributes (age, economic status, and education level) and not their degree distribution; hence, in this paper, we assume that PA complies with two types of public authority distribution (normal and power-law). According to the proposed control strategy, our experiment is based on random, degree, and public authority control strategies in three different social networks (small-world, scale-free, and random) and we compare and analyze the strategies in terms of convergence time (T), final number of controlled agents (C), and comprehensive efficiency (E). We find that different network topologies and the distribution of the PA in the network can influence the final controlling effect. While the effect of PA strategy differs in different network topology structures, all structures achieve comprehensive efficiency with any kind of public authority distribution in any network. Our findings are consistent with several current sociological phenomena and show that in the process of public opinion/rumor control, considerable attention should be paid to high authority individuals. PMID:27586601

  8. Public authority control strategy for opinion evolution in social networks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Xiong, Xi; Zhang, Minghong; Li, Wei

    2016-08-01

    This paper addresses the need to deal with and control public opinion and rumors. Existing strategies to control public opinion include degree, random, and adaptive bridge control strategies. In this paper, we use the HK model to present a public opinion control strategy based on public authority (PA). This means utilizing the influence of expert or high authority individuals whose opinions we control to obtain the optimum effect in the shortest time possible and thus reach a consensus of public opinion. Public authority (PA) is only influenced by individuals' attributes (age, economic status, and education level) and not their degree distribution; hence, in this paper, we assume that PA complies with two types of public authority distribution (normal and power-law). According to the proposed control strategy, our experiment is based on random, degree, and public authority control strategies in three different social networks (small-world, scale-free, and random) and we compare and analyze the strategies in terms of convergence time (T), final number of controlled agents (C), and comprehensive efficiency (E). We find that different network topologies and the distribution of the PA in the network can influence the final controlling effect. While the effect of PA strategy differs in different network topology structures, all structures achieve comprehensive efficiency with any kind of public authority distribution in any network. Our findings are consistent with several current sociological phenomena and show that in the process of public opinion/rumor control, considerable attention should be paid to high authority individuals.

  9. Elements of an advanced integrated operator control station

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, M.M.; Kreifeldt, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    One of the critical determinants of peformance for any remotely operated maintenance system is the compatibility achieved between elements of the man/machine interface (e.g., master manipulator controller, controls, displays, etc.) and the human operator. In the Remote Control Engineering task of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program, considerable attention has been devoted to optimizing the man/machine interface of the operator control station. This system must be considered an integral element of the overall maintenance work system which includes transporters, manipulators, remote viewing, and other parts. The control station must reflect the integration of the operator team, control/display panels, manipulator master controllers, and remote viewing monitors. Human factors principles and experimentation have been used in the development of an advanced integrated operator control station designed for the advance servomanipulator. Key features of this next-generation design are summarized in this presentation. 7 references, 4 figures.

  10. Elements of an advanced integrated operator control station

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, M.M.; Kreifeldt, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    One of the critical determinants of performance for any remotely operated maintenance system is the compatibility achieved between elements of the man/machine interface (e.g., master manipulator controller, controls, displays) and the human operator. In the remote control engineering task of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program, considerable attention has been devoted to optimizing the man/machine interface of the operator control station. This system must be considered an integral element of the overall maintenance work system which includes transporters, manipulators, remote viewing, and other parts. The control station must reflect the integration of the operator team, control/display panels, manipulator master controllers, and remote viewing monitors. Human factors principles and experimentation have been used in the development of an advanced integrated operator control station designed for the advance servomanipulator. Key features of this next-generation design are summarized in this presentation. 7 references, 4 figures.

  11. 40 CFR 52.930 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.930 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Kentucky § 52.930 Control strategy: Ozone. (a) The VOC..., Campbell and Kenton Counties) ozone nonattainment area. The demonstration of attainment of the...

  12. 40 CFR 52.476 - Control strategy: ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: ozone. 52.476 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS District of Columbia § 52.476 Control strategy: ozone. (a... of Progress Plan for the District of Columbia's portion of the Metropolitan Washington, D.C....

  13. 40 CFR 52.523 - Control strategy: Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...)(2)(J). A FIP is currently in place and approved for Florida at 40 CFR 52.37 for these requirements... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone 52.523 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Florida § 52.523 Control strategy: Ozone (a)...

  14. 40 CFR 52.350 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.350 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.350 Control strategy: Ozone. (a) Revisions to the Colorado State Implementation Plan, 1-hour ozone NAAQS Redesignation Request and...

  15. 40 CFR 52.66 - Control Strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control Strategy: Ozone. 52.66 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Alabama § 52.66 Control Strategy: Ozone. (a) The redesignation request submitted by the State of Alabama, on March 16, 1995 for the Birmingham marginal...

  16. 40 CFR 52.350 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.350 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.350 Control strategy: Ozone. (a) Revisions to the Colorado State Implementation Plan, 1-hour ozone NAAQS Redesignation Request and...

  17. 40 CFR 52.66 - Control Strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control Strategy: Ozone. 52.66 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Alabama § 52.66 Control Strategy: Ozone. (a) The redesignation request submitted by the State of Alabama, on March 16, 1995 for the Birmingham marginal...

  18. 40 CFR 52.930 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.930 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Kentucky § 52.930 Control strategy: Ozone. (a) The VOC..., Campbell and Kenton Counties) ozone nonattainment area. The demonstration of attainment of the...

  19. 40 CFR 52.930 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.930 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Kentucky § 52.930 Control strategy: Ozone. (a) The VOC..., Campbell and Kenton Counties) ozone nonattainment area. The demonstration of attainment of the...

  20. 40 CFR 52.350 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.350 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.350 Control strategy: Ozone. (a) Revisions to the Colorado State Implementation Plan, 1-hour ozone NAAQS Redesignation Request and...

  1. 40 CFR 52.66 - Control Strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control Strategy: Ozone. 52.66 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Alabama § 52.66 Control Strategy: Ozone. (a) The redesignation request submitted by the State of Alabama, on March 16, 1995 for the Birmingham marginal...

  2. 40 CFR 52.476 - Control strategy: ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: ozone. 52.476 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS District of Columbia § 52.476 Control strategy: ozone. (a... of Progress Plan for the District of Columbia's portion of the Metropolitan Washington, D.C....

  3. 40 CFR 52.377 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.377 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut § 52.377 Control strategy: Ozone. (a... requirements of sections 172(c)(9) and 182(c)(9) of the Clean Air Act, for the Greater Hartford serious...

  4. 40 CFR 52.476 - Control strategy: ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.918, suspends the requirements for this area to submit an attainment... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: ozone. 52.476 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS District of Columbia § 52.476 Control strategy: ozone....

  5. 40 CFR 52.523 - Control strategy: Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...)(2)(J). A FIP is currently in place and approved for Florida at 40 CFR 52.37 for these requirements... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone 52.523 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Florida § 52.523 Control strategy: Ozone (a)...

  6. 40 CFR 52.350 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.350 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.350 Control strategy: Ozone. (a) Revisions to the Colorado State Implementation Plan, 1-hour ozone NAAQS Redesignation Request and...

  7. 40 CFR 52.476 - Control strategy: ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.918, suspends the requirements for this area to submit an attainment... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: ozone. 52.476 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS District of Columbia § 52.476 Control strategy: ozone....

  8. 40 CFR 52.930 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.930 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Kentucky § 52.930 Control strategy: Ozone. (a) The VOC..., Campbell and Kenton Counties) ozone nonattainment area. The demonstration of attainment of the...

  9. 40 CFR 52.350 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.350 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.350 Control strategy: Ozone. (a) Revisions to the Colorado State Implementation Plan, 1-hour ozone NAAQS Redesignation Request and...

  10. 40 CFR 52.476 - Control strategy: ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.918, suspends the requirements for this area to submit an attainment... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: ozone. 52.476 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS District of Columbia § 52.476 Control strategy: ozone....

  11. 40 CFR 52.377 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...'s ozone implementation rule (see 40 CFR 51.918), this determination suspends the reasonable further... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.377 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut § 52.377 Control strategy: Ozone....

  12. 40 CFR 52.66 - Control Strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control Strategy: Ozone. 52.66 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Alabama § 52.66 Control Strategy: Ozone. (a) The redesignation request submitted by the State of Alabama, on March 16, 1995 for the Birmingham marginal...

  13. 40 CFR 52.376 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut § 52.376 Control strategy: Carbon... submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base year...

  14. 40 CFR 52.349 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SIP. The Clean Air Campaign was approved into the SIP at 40 CFR 52.320(c)(43)(i)(A). (d) Revisions to... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.349 Control strategy:...

  15. 40 CFR 52.785 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.785 Control strategy: Carbon... for attainment and maintenance of the national standards for carbon monoxide in the...

  16. 40 CFR 52.349 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SIP. The Clean Air Campaign was approved into the SIP at 40 CFR 52.320(c)(43)(i)(A). (d) Revisions to... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.349 Control strategy:...

  17. 40 CFR 52.376 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut § 52.376 Control strategy: Carbon... submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base year...

  18. 40 CFR 52.349 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SIP. The Clean Air Campaign was approved into the SIP at 40 CFR 52.320(c)(43)(i)(A). (d) Revisions to... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.349 Control strategy:...

  19. 40 CFR 52.349 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SIP. The Clean Air Campaign was approved into the SIP at 40 CFR 52.320(c)(43)(i)(A). (d) Revisions to... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.349 Control strategy:...

  20. 40 CFR 52.785 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.785 Control strategy: Carbon... for attainment and maintenance of the national standards for carbon monoxide in the...

  1. 40 CFR 52.376 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut § 52.376 Control strategy: Carbon... submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base year...

  2. 40 CFR 52.349 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SIP. The Clean Air Campaign was approved into the SIP at 40 CFR 52.320(c)(43)(i)(A). (d) Revisions to... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.349 Control strategy:...

  3. 40 CFR 52.729 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.729 Control strategy: Carbon..., Illinois be granted a carbon monoxide (CO) state implementation plan (SIP) revision with...

  4. 40 CFR 52.376 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut § 52.376 Control strategy: Carbon... submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base year...

  5. 40 CFR 52.729 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.729 Control strategy: Carbon..., Illinois be granted a carbon monoxide (CO) state implementation plan (SIP) revision with...

  6. 40 CFR 52.785 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.785 Control strategy: Carbon... for attainment and maintenance of the national standards for carbon monoxide in the...

  7. 40 CFR 52.729 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.729 Control strategy: Carbon..., Illinois be granted a carbon monoxide (CO) state implementation plan (SIP) revision with...

  8. 40 CFR 52.785 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.785 Control strategy: Carbon... for attainment and maintenance of the national standards for carbon monoxide in the...

  9. 40 CFR 52.785 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.785 Control strategy: Carbon... for attainment and maintenance of the national standards for carbon monoxide in the...

  10. 40 CFR 52.728 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. 52.728 Section 52.728 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.728 Control strategy:...

  11. 40 CFR 52.65 - Control Strategy: Nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control Strategy: Nitrogen oxides. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Alabama § 52.65 Control Strategy: Nitrogen... using to implement provisions of the Prevention of Significant Deterioration regulations for...

  12. 40 CFR 52.65 - Control Strategy: Nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control Strategy: Nitrogen oxides. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Alabama § 52.65 Control Strategy: Nitrogen... using to implement provisions of the Prevention of Significant Deterioration regulations for...

  13. 40 CFR 52.65 - Control Strategy: Nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control Strategy: Nitrogen oxides. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Alabama § 52.65 Control Strategy: Nitrogen... using to implement provisions of the Prevention of Significant Deterioration regulations for...

  14. 40 CFR 52.728 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. 52.728 Section 52.728 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.728 Control strategy:...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1676 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... August 10, 1979, is disapproved because it is inconsistent with 40 CFR Subpart G, Control strategy... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. 52...: Nitrogen dioxide. (a) The requirements of § 52.14(c)(3) of this chapter as of May 8, 1974 (39 FR...

  16. 40 CFR 52.728 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. 52.728 Section 52.728 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.728 Control strategy:...

  17. 40 CFR 52.65 - Control Strategy: Nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control Strategy: Nitrogen oxides. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Alabama § 52.65 Control Strategy: Nitrogen... using to implement provisions of the Prevention of Significant Deterioration regulations for...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1676 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... August 10, 1979, is disapproved because it is inconsistent with 40 CFR Subpart G, Control strategy... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. 52...: Nitrogen dioxide. (a) The requirements of § 52.14(c)(3) of this chapter as of May 8, 1974 (39 FR...

  19. 40 CFR 52.728 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. 52.728 Section 52.728 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.728 Control strategy:...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1676 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... August 10, 1979, is disapproved because it is inconsistent with 40 CFR Subpart G, Control strategy... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. 52...: Nitrogen dioxide. (a) The requirements of § 52.14(c)(3) of this chapter as of May 8, 1974 (39 FR...

  1. 40 CFR 52.728 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. 52.728 Section 52.728 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.728 Control strategy:...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1676 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... August 10, 1979, is disapproved because it is inconsistent with 40 CFR Subpart G, Control strategy... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. 52...: Nitrogen dioxide. (a) The requirements of § 52.14(c)(3) of this chapter as of May 8, 1974 (39 FR...

  3. 40 CFR 52.65 - Control Strategy: Nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control Strategy: Nitrogen oxides. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Alabama § 52.65 Control Strategy: Nitrogen... using to implement provisions of the Prevention of Significant Deterioration regulations for...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1676 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... August 10, 1979, is disapproved because it is inconsistent with 40 CFR Subpart G, Control strategy... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. 52...: Nitrogen dioxide. (a) The requirements of § 52.14(c)(3) of this chapter as of May 8, 1974 (39 FR...

  5. 40 CFR 52.527 - Control strategy: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: General. 52.527... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Florida § 52.527 Control strategy: General. (a) Since the testing and research rule (FAC 17-1.585) submitted by the Florida Department of...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted minor revisions to the Columbia Falls, Butte and Missoula PM-10 SIPS. (b) Determination—EPA has determined...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1131 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1131 Section 52.1131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Massachusetts § 52.1131 Control strategy: Particulate matter....

  8. 40 CFR 52.1131 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1131 Section 52.1131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Revisions to the following regulations submitted on March...

  9. 40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  10. 40 CFR 52.2526 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... NAAQS. These determinations, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c), suspend the requirements for these... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) EPA approves West Virginia's November 15, 1991 SIP submittal...

  11. 40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  12. 40 CFR 52.1131 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1131 Section 52.1131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Revisions to the following regulations submitted on March...

  13. 40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  14. 40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  15. 40 CFR 52.477 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1131 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1131 Section 52.1131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Revisions to the following regulations submitted on March...

  17. 40 CFR 52.477 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1374 Section 52.1374 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted...

  19. 40 CFR 52.2526 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... NAAQS. These determinations, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c), suspend the requirements for these... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) EPA approves West Virginia's November 15, 1991 SIP submittal...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1374 Section 52.1374 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1374 Section 52.1374 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted...

  2. 40 CFR 52.477 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  3. 40 CFR 52.477 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1131 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1131 Section 52.1131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Revisions to the following regulations submitted on March...

  5. 40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1341 - Control strategy: particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.1004(c), suspends the requirements for this area to... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: particulate matter... Control strategy: particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of May 23,...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1374 Section 52.1374 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted...

  8. 40 CFR 52.58 - Control strategy: Lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Lead. 52.58 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Alabama § 52.58 Control strategy: Lead. The lead plan... the lead standard throughout Alabama. The lead plan submitted by the State on October 7, 1985,...

  9. 40 CFR 52.2236 - Control strategy; lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy; lead. 52.2236 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Tennessee § 52.2236 Control strategy; lead... SIP on October 6, 1994. These revisions address the requirements necessary to change a...

  10. 40 CFR 52.58 - Control strategy: Lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Lead. 52.58 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Alabama § 52.58 Control strategy: Lead. The lead plan... the lead standard throughout Alabama. The lead plan submitted by the State on October 7, 1985,...

  11. 40 CFR 52.58 - Control strategy: Lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Lead. 52.58 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Alabama § 52.58 Control strategy: Lead. The lead plan... the lead standard throughout Alabama. The lead plan submitted by the State on October 7, 1985,...

  12. 40 CFR 52.797 - Control strategy: Lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Lead. 52.797 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.797 Control strategy: Lead. (a)-(b) (c) On... redesignate the County to attainment of the lead standard. (e) On April 1, 2009, Indiana submitted an...

  13. 40 CFR 52.2236 - Control strategy; lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy; lead. 52.2236 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Tennessee § 52.2236 Control strategy; lead... SIP on October 6, 1994. These revisions address the requirements necessary to change a...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1681 - Control strategy: Lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Lead. 52.1681 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New York § 52.1681 Control strategy: Lead. As part of the attainment demonstration for lead, the State of New York has committed to rate all...

  15. 40 CFR 52.2236 - Control strategy; lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy; lead. 52.2236 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Tennessee § 52.2236 Control strategy; lead... on October 6, 1994. These revisions address the requirements necessary to change a lead...

  16. 40 CFR 52.58 - Control strategy: Lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Lead. 52.58 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Alabama § 52.58 Control strategy: Lead. The lead plan... the lead standard throughout Alabama. The lead plan submitted by the State on October 7, 1985,...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1375 - Control strategy: Lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Lead. 52.1375 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1375 Control strategy: Lead. Determination—EPA has determined that the East Helena Lead nonattainment area has attained the lead...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1375 - Control strategy: Lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Lead. 52.1375 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1375 Control strategy: Lead. Determination—EPA has determined that the East Helena Lead nonattainment area has attained the lead...

  19. 40 CFR 52.2236 - Control strategy; lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy; lead. 52.2236 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Tennessee § 52.2236 Control strategy; lead... on October 6, 1994. These revisions address the requirements necessary to change a lead...

  20. 40 CFR 52.2236 - Control strategy; lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy; lead. 52.2236 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Tennessee § 52.2236 Control strategy; lead... on October 6, 1994. These revisions address the requirements necessary to change a lead...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1375 - Control strategy: Lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Lead. 52.1375 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1375 Control strategy: Lead. Determination—EPA has determined that the East Helena Lead nonattainment area has attained the lead...

  2. 40 CFR 52.58 - Control strategy: Lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Lead. 52.58 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Alabama § 52.58 Control strategy: Lead. The lead plan... the lead standard throughout Alabama. The lead plan submitted by the State on October 7, 1985,...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1681 - Control strategy: Lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Lead. 52.1681 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New York § 52.1681 Control strategy: Lead. As part of the attainment demonstration for lead, the State of New York has committed to rate all...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1375 - Control strategy: Lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Lead. 52.1375 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1375 Control strategy: Lead. Determination—EPA has determined that the East Helena Lead nonattainment area has attained the lead...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1681 - Control strategy: Lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Lead. 52.1681 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New York § 52.1681 Control strategy: Lead. As part of the attainment demonstration for lead, the State of New York has committed to rate all...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1681 - Control strategy: Lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Lead. 52.1681 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New York § 52.1681 Control strategy: Lead. As part of the attainment demonstration for lead, the State of New York has committed to rate all...

  7. 40 CFR 52.797 - Control strategy: Lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Lead. 52.797 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.797 Control strategy: Lead. (a)-(b) (c) On... redesignate the County to attainment of the lead standard. (e) On April 1, 2009, Indiana submitted an...

  8. 40 CFR 52.1681 - Control strategy: Lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Lead. 52.1681 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New York § 52.1681 Control strategy: Lead. As part of the attainment demonstration for lead, the State of New York has committed to rate all...

  9. 40 CFR 52.797 - Control strategy: Lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Lead. 52.797 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.797 Control strategy: Lead. (a)-(b) (c) On... redesignate the County to attainment of the lead standard. (e) On April 1, 2009, Indiana submitted an...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1375 - Control strategy: Lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Lead. 52.1375 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1375 Control strategy: Lead. Determination—EPA has determined that the East Helena Lead nonattainment area has attained the lead...

  11. 40 CFR 52.928 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.928 Section 52.928 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Kentucky § 52.928 Control strategy:...

  12. 40 CFR 52.795 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.795 Control strategy: Sulfur... (sulfur dioxide emission limitation) is disapproved insofar as the provisions identified below...

  13. 40 CFR 52.57 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.57... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Alabama § 52.57 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides... for attainment and maintenance of the national standards for sulfur oxides in the vicinity of...

  14. 40 CFR 52.2575 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Part D—Approval—With the exceptions set forth in this subpart, the Administrator approved the Wisconsin sulfur dioxide control plan. (1) Part D—No action—USEPA takes no action...

  15. 40 CFR 52.57 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.57... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Alabama § 52.57 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides... for attainment and maintenance of the national standards for sulfur oxides in the vicinity of...

  16. 40 CFR 52.57 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.57... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Alabama § 52.57 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides... for attainment and maintenance of the national standards for sulfur oxides in the vicinity of...

  17. 40 CFR 52.795 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.795 Control strategy: Sulfur... (sulfur dioxide emission limitation) is disapproved insofar as the provisions identified below...

  18. 40 CFR 52.57 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.57... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Alabama § 52.57 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides... for attainment and maintenance of the national standards for sulfur oxides in the vicinity of...

  19. 40 CFR 52.57 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.57... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Alabama § 52.57 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides... for attainment and maintenance of the national standards for sulfur oxides in the vicinity of...

  20. 40 CFR 52.834 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.834 Section 52.834 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Iowa § 52.834 Control strategy: Sulfur...

  1. 40 CFR 52.928 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.928 Section 52.928 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Kentucky § 52.928 Control strategy:...

  2. 40 CFR 52.795 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.795 Control strategy: Sulfur... (sulfur dioxide emission limitation) is disapproved insofar as the provisions identified below...

  3. 40 CFR 52.834 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.834 Section 52.834 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Iowa § 52.834 Control strategy: Sulfur...

  4. 40 CFR 52.2575 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Part D—Approval—With the exceptions set forth in this subpart, the Administrator approved the Wisconsin sulfur dioxide control plan. (1) Part D—No action—USEPA takes no action...

  5. 40 CFR 52.928 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.928 Section 52.928 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Kentucky § 52.928 Control strategy:...

  6. 40 CFR 52.834 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.834 Section 52.834 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Iowa § 52.834 Control strategy: Sulfur...

  7. 40 CFR 52.928 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.928 Section 52.928 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Kentucky § 52.928 Control strategy:...

  8. 40 CFR 52.795 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.795 Control strategy: Sulfur... (sulfur dioxide emission limitation) is disapproved insofar as the provisions identified below...

  9. 40 CFR 52.928 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.928 Section 52.928 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Kentucky § 52.928 Control strategy:...

  10. 40 CFR 52.834 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.834 Section 52.834 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Iowa § 52.834 Control strategy: Sulfur...

  11. 40 CFR 52.2575 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Part D—Approval—With the exceptions set forth in this subpart, the Administrator approved the Wisconsin sulfur dioxide control plan. (1) Part D—No action—USEPA takes no action...

  12. 40 CFR 52.2575 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Part D—Approval—With the exceptions set forth in this subpart, the Administrator approved the Wisconsin sulfur dioxide control plan. (1) Part D—No action—USEPA takes no action...

  13. 40 CFR 52.2575 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Part D—Approval—With the exceptions set forth in this subpart, the Administrator approved the Wisconsin sulfur dioxide control plan. (1) Part D—No action—USEPA takes no action...

  14. 40 CFR 52.834 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.834 Section 52.834 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Iowa § 52.834 Control strategy: Sulfur...

  15. 40 CFR 52.573 - Control strategy: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: General. 52.573... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Georgia> § 52.573 Control strategy: General. The generic rules and procedures for emission trades (bubbles), submitted on October 27, 1982, by...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1680 - Control strategy: Monitoring and reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Control strategy: Monitoring and reporting. (a) Section 227.6 (a) and (f) are disapproved because they are not consistent with the continuous monitoring and reporting requirements of 40 CFR 51.214. ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Monitoring...

  17. 40 CFR 52.378 - Control strategy: PM10

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: PM10 52.378 Section 52.378 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut § 52.378 Control strategy: PM10 (a)...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1680 - Control strategy: Monitoring and reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Control strategy: Monitoring and reporting. (a) Section 227.6 (a) and (f) are disapproved because they are not consistent with the continuous monitoring and reporting requirements of 40 CFR 51.214. ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Monitoring...

  19. 40 CFR 52.573 - Control strategy: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: General. 52.573 Section 52.573 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Georgia> § 52.573 Control strategy:...

  20. 40 CFR 52.527 - Control strategy: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: General. 52.527 Section 52.527 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Florida § 52.527 Control strategy: General....

  1. 40 CFR 52.477 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  2. National Drug Control Strategy. FY 2009 Budget Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The White House, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The National Drug Control Budget Summary identifies resources and performance indicators for programs within the Executive Branch that are integral to the President's National Drug Control Strategy. The Strategy, which is the Administration's plan for reducing drug use and availability, is based on three pillars: (1) Stopping Use Before It Starts,…

  3. Prevention and control strategies for ticks and pathogen transmission.

    PubMed

    de La Fuente, J; Kocan, K M; Contreras, M

    2015-04-01

    Ticks and tick-borne pathogens have evolved together, resulting in a complex relationship in which the pathogen's life cycle is perfectly coordinated with the tick's feeding cycle, and the tick can harbour high pathogen levels without affecting its biology. Tick-borne diseases (TBDs) continue to emerge and/or spread, and pose an increasing threatto human and animal health. The disruptive impacts of global change have resulted in ecosystem instability and the future outcomes of management and control programmes for ticks and TBDs are difficult to predict. In particular, the selection of acaricide-resistant ticks has reduced the value of acaricides as a sole means of tick control. Vaccines provide an alternative control method, but the use of tick vaccines has not advanced since the first vaccines were registered in the early 1990s. An understanding of the complex molecular relationship between hosts, ticks and pathogens and the use of systems biology and vaccinomics approaches are needed to discover proteins with the relevant biological function in tick feeding, reproduction, development, immune response, the subversion of host immunity and pathogen transmission, all of which mediate tick and pathogen success. The same approaches will also be required to characterise candidate protective antigens and to validate vaccine formulations. Tick vaccines with a dual effect on tick infestations and pathogen transmission could reduce both tick infestations and their vector capacity for humans, animals and reservoir hosts. The development of integrated tick control strategies, including vaccines and synthetic and botanical acaricides, in combination with managing drug resistance and educating producers, should lead to the sustainable control of ticks and TBDs.

  4. Advanced motor and motor control development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuertz, Kenneth L.; Beauchamp, Edward D.

    1988-08-01

    The capability of operating a high speed permanent magnet brushless dc motor with electronic controller over a wide load and speed range was demonstrated. A centrifugal pump was used as the loading mechanism and hydraulic fluid was pumped in simulation of an aircraft engine fuel pump requirement. A motor speed of 45,000 rpm was reached and a maximum output of 68.5 hp was demonstrated. The response of the system to step commands for speed change was established. Reduction of size and weight of electronic control was established as a primary future goal. The program system concept with minor rotating machine improvements is viable for high speed drive applications up to 100-hp level.

  5. Advanced concepts for controlling energy surety microgrids.

    SciTech Connect

    Menicucci, David F.; Ortiz-Moyet, Juan

    2011-05-01

    Today, researchers, engineers, and policy makers are seeking ways to meet the world's growing demand for energy while addressing critical issues such as energy security, reliability, and sustainability. Many believe that distributed generators operating within a microgrid have the potential to address most of these issues. Sandia National Laboratories has developed a concept called energy surety in which five of these 'surety elements' are simultaneously considered: energy security, reliability, sustainability, safety, and cost-effectiveness. The surety methodology leads to a new microgrid design that we call an energy surety microgrid (ESM). This paper discusses the unique control requirement needed to produce a microgrid system that has high levels of surety, describes the control system from the most fundamental level through a real-world example, and discusses our ideas and concepts for a complete system.

  6. Advanced concepts in accelerator timing control

    SciTech Connect

    Frankel, R.; Salwen, C.

    1988-01-01

    The control system for the Booster accelerator presently under construction at BNL includes a timing section with serial high speed coded data distribution, computer based encoders for both real time and field driven clocks and a method of easily tracking the performance and reliability of these timing streams. We have developed a simple method for the generation of timing which operates to produce pulses which may be repeated as desired with minimal latency.

  7. Global lessons from Nigeria's ebolavirus control strategy.

    PubMed

    Elemuwa, Chris; Kutalek, Ruth; Ali, Mohammad; Mworozi, Edison; Kochhar, Sonali; Rath, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The current Ebola virus disease outbreak challenged medical and public health systems in West Africa. In Nigeria, the existing infrastructure of the polio surveillance system was leveraged rapidly to contain the spread of Ebola virus. We highlight important lessons learnt from the successful implementation of Ebola virus disease surveillance strategies, which should be amplified further to prepare the ground for successful vaccination programs. Close collaboration between national and international stakeholders as well as public/private partnerships will be instrumental in future Ebola virus immunization strategies.

  8. Scientific Society Partnerships & Effective Strategies for Advancing Policy Objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, P. W.; Greenamoyer, J.

    2012-12-01

    From the perspective of Congress, science is just another interest group that seeks a generous slice of an increasingly shrinking federal budget pie. Traditionally, the science community has not been effective at lobbying for the legislative advances and federal appropriations that enable the R&D enterprise. However, over the last couple decades, science societies have become more strategic in their outreach to Congress and the President. Indeed, many societies have lobbyists on staff, many of whom have a background in science. Yet, while science societies are beginning to be more effective as a political interest group, their members have been much slower to come around to this perspective as an important component of their professional lives. In this talk, we will illustrate how the American Institute of Physics partners with AGU and other science societies to identify joint policy priorities and then reach out to Congress and the President to advance these priorities. The biggest issue is funding for R&D, but science education is increasingly important as is other issues such as publishing policy. We will draw from a number examples, such as the NSF budget, funding for Pu-238, K-12 physical science education policy, and Open Access to illustrate how partnerships work and how scientists can be engaged as powerful political actors in the process.

  9. SANITARY-SEWER OVERFLOW CONTROL STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents a strategy for the abatement of pollution from storm-generated sanitary-sewer overflows (SSO). Because of the great lengths of sanitary-sewer systems and their associated vast number of house-service laterals or building connections, it is often less expensive...

  10. Selected advanced aerodynamic and active control concepts development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A summary is presented of results obtained during analysis, design and test activities on six selected technical tasks directed at exploratory improvement of fuel efficiency for new and derivative transports. The work included investigations into the potential offered by natural laminar flow, improved surface coatings and advanced high lift concepts. Similar investigations covering optimum low-energy flight path control, integrated application of active controls and evaluation of primary flight control systems reliability and maintenance are also summarized. Recommendations are included for future work needed to exploit potential advancements.

  11. An extended signal control strategy for urban network traffic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Fei; Tian, Fuli; Shi, Zhongke

    2016-03-01

    Traffic flow patterns are in general repeated on a daily or weekly basis. To improve the traffic conditions by using the inherent repeatability of traffic flow, a novel signal control strategy for urban networks was developed via iterative learning control (ILC) approach. Rigorous analysis shows that the proposed learning control method can guarantee the asymptotic convergence. The impacts of the ILC-based signal control strategy on the macroscopic fundamental diagram (MFD) were analyzed by simulations on a test road network. The results show that the proposed ILC strategy can evenly distribute the accumulation in the network and improve the network mobility.

  12. Advanced Integrated Power and Attitude Control System (IPACS) study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oglevie, R. E.; Eisenhaure, D. B.

    1985-01-01

    Integrated Power and Attitude Control System (IPACS) studies performed over a decade ago established the feasibility of simultaneously satisfying the demands of energy storage and attitude control through the use of rotating flywheels. It was demonstrated that, for a wide spectrum of applications, such a system possessed many advantages over contemporary energy storage and attitude control approaches. More recent technology advances in composite material rotors, magnetic suspension systems, and power control electronics have triggered new optimism regarding the applicability and merits of this concept. This study is undertaken to define an advanced IPACS and to evaluate its merits for a space station application. System and component designs are developed to establish the performance of this concept and system trade studies conducted to examine the viability of this approach relative to conventional candidate systems. It is clearly demonstrated that an advanced IPACS concept is not only feasible, but also offers substantial savings in mass and life-cycle cost for the space station mission.

  13. Advanced instrumentation for next-generation aerospace propulsion control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkhoudarian, S.; Cross, G. S.; Lorenzo, Carl F.

    1993-01-01

    New control concepts for the next generation of advanced air-breathing and rocket engines and hypersonic combined-cycle propulsion systems are analyzed. The analysis provides a database on the instrumentation technologies for advanced control systems and cross matches the available technologies for each type of engine to the control needs and applications of the other two types of engines. Measurement technologies that are considered to be ready for implementation include optical surface temperature sensors, an isotope wear detector, a brushless torquemeter, a fiberoptic deflectometer, an optical absorption leak detector, the nonintrusive speed sensor, and an ultrasonic triducer. It is concluded that all 30 advanced instrumentation technologies considered can be recommended for further development to meet need of the next generation of jet-, rocket-, and hypersonic-engine control systems.

  14. Advanced instrumentation for next-generation aerospace propulsion control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkhoudarian, S.; Cross, G. S.; Lorenzo, Carl F.

    1993-06-01

    New control concepts for the next generation of advanced air-breathing and rocket engines and hypersonic combined-cycle propulsion systems are analyzed. The analysis provides a database on the instrumentation technologies for advanced control systems and cross matches the available technologies for each type of engine to the control needs and applications of the other two types of engines. Measurement technologies that are considered to be ready for implementation include optical surface temperature sensors, an isotope wear detector, a brushless torquemeter, a fiberoptic deflectometer, an optical absorption leak detector, the nonintrusive speed sensor, and an ultrasonic triducer. It is concluded that all 30 advanced instrumentation technologies considered can be recommended for further development to meet need of the next generation of jet-, rocket-, and hypersonic-engine control systems.

  15. Recent Advances in Means Safety as a Suicide Prevention Strategy.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hyejin M; Khazem, Lauren R; Anestis, Michael D

    2016-10-01

    Despite advances in theory and the development and implementation of evidence-based treatments, the United States suicide rate has been rising continuously for over a decade. Although this does not indicate that traditional treatment approaches should be abandoned, it does highlight the need to supplement such approaches with alternatives. One seemingly highly valuable option is means safety, defined as the reduced access to and/or increased safe storage of potentially lethal methods for suicide. This paper provides a review of the current literature on the prevalence of six methods for suicide and preventative efforts aimed to reduce suicide rates. The majority of means safety interventions seem promising given that these methods are common and highly lethal. However, cultural and practical barriers will need to be taken into consideration when implementing these plans. Overall, means safety efforts and preventative measures seem to be promising ways to reduce the national suicide rate if implemented. PMID:27629355

  16. Adaptive control strategies for flexible robotic arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bialasiewicz, Jan T.

    1993-01-01

    The motivation of this research came about when a neural network direct adaptive control scheme was applied to control the tip position of a flexible robotic arm. Satisfactory control performance was not attainable due to the inherent non-minimum phase characteristics of the flexible robotic arm tip. Most of the existing neural network control algorithms are based on the direct method and exhibit very high sensitivity if not unstable closed-loop behavior. Therefore a neural self-tuning control (NSTC) algorithm is developed and applied to this problem and showed promising results. Simulation results of the NSTC scheme and the conventional self-tuning (STR) control scheme are used to examine performance factors such as control tracking mean square error, estimation mean square error, transient response, and steady state response.

  17. Development in Diagnostics Application to Control Advanced Tokamak Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Koide, Y.

    2008-03-12

    For continuous operation expected in DEMO, all the plasma current must be non-inductively driven, with self-generated neoclassical bootstrap current being maximized. The control of such steady state high performance tokamak plasma (so-called 'Advanced Tokamak Plasma') is a challenge because of the strong coupling between the current density, the pressure profile and MHD stability. In considering diagnostic needs for the advanced tokamak research, diagnostics for MHD are the most fundamental, since discharges which violate the MHD stability criteria either disrupt or have significantly reduced confinement. This report deals with the development in diagnostic application to control advanced tokamak plasma, with emphasized on recent progress in active feedback control of the current profile and the pressure profile under DEMO-relevant high bootstrap-current fraction. In addition, issues in application of the present-day actuators and diagnostics for the advanced control to DEMO will be briefly addressed, where port space for the advanced control may be limited so as to keep sufficient tritium breeding ratio (TBR)

  18. A computer simulation approach to measurement of human control strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, J.; Davenport, E. L.; Engler, H. F.; Sears, W. E., III

    1982-01-01

    Human control strategy is measured through use of a psychologically-based computer simulation which reflects a broader theory of control behavior. The simulation is called the human operator performance emulator, or HOPE. HOPE was designed to emulate control learning in a one-dimensional preview tracking task and to measure control strategy in that setting. When given a numerical representation of a track and information about current position in relation to that track, HOPE generates positions for a stick controlling the cursor to be moved along the track. In other words, HOPE generates control stick behavior corresponding to that which might be used by a person learning preview tracking.

  19. Advances in strategies and methodologies in cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lam, Samuel S K; Zhou, Feifan; Hode, Tomas; Nordquist, Robert E; Alleruzzo, Luciano; Raker, Joseph; Chen, Wei R

    2015-04-01

    Since the invention of Coley's toxin by William Coley in early 1900s, the path for cancer immunotherapy has been a convoluted one. Although still not considered standard of care, with the FDA approval of trastuzumab, Provenge and ipilimumab, the medical and scientific community has started to embrace the possibility that immunotherapy could be a new hope for cancer patients with otherwise untreatable metastatic diseases. This review aims to summarize the development of some major strategies in cancer immunotherapy, from the earliest peptide vaccine and transfer of tumor specific antibodies/T cells to the more recent dendritic cell (DC) vaccines, whole cell tumor vaccines, and checkpoint blockade therapy. Discussion of some major milestones and obstacles in the shaping of the field and the future perspectives is included. Photoimmunotherapy is also reviewed as an example of emerging new therapies combining phototherapy and immunotherapy.

  20. A multiple pointing-mount control strategy for space platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. D.

    1992-01-01

    A new disturbance-adaptive control strategy for multiple pointing-mount space platforms is proposed and illustrated by consideration of a simplified 3-link dynamic model of a multiple pointing-mount space platform. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the new platform control strategy. The simulation results also reveal a system 'destabilization phenomena' that can occur if the set of individual platform-mounted experiment controllers are 'too responsive.'

  1. Field testing of linear individual pitch control on the two-bladed controls advanced research turbine

    DOE PAGES

    van Solingen, Edwin; Fleming, Paul A.; Scholbrock, Andrew; van Wingerden, Jan-Willem

    2015-04-17

    This paper presents the results of field tests using linear individual pitch control (LIPC) on the two-bladed Controls Advanced Research Turbine 2 (CART2) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). LIPC has recently been introduced as an alternative to the conventional individual pitch control (IPC) strategy for two-bladed wind turbines. The main advantage of LIPC over conventional IPC is that it requires, at most, only two feedback loops to potentially reduce the periodic blade loads. In previous work, LIPC was designed to implement blade pitch angles at a fixed frequency (e.g., the once-per-revolution (1P) frequency), which made it only applicablemore » in above-rated wind turbine operating conditions. In this study, LIPC is extended to below-rated operating conditions by gain scheduling the controller on the rotor speed. With this extension, LIPC and conventional IPC are successfully applied to the NREL CART2 wind turbine. Lastly, the field-test results obtained during the measurement campaign indicate that LIPC significantly reduces the wind turbine loads for both below-rated and above-rated operation.« less

  2. Field testing of linear individual pitch control on the two-bladed controls advanced research turbine

    SciTech Connect

    van Solingen, Edwin; Fleming, Paul A.; Scholbrock, Andrew; van Wingerden, Jan-Willem

    2015-04-17

    This paper presents the results of field tests using linear individual pitch control (LIPC) on the two-bladed Controls Advanced Research Turbine 2 (CART2) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). LIPC has recently been introduced as an alternative to the conventional individual pitch control (IPC) strategy for two-bladed wind turbines. The main advantage of LIPC over conventional IPC is that it requires, at most, only two feedback loops to potentially reduce the periodic blade loads. In previous work, LIPC was designed to implement blade pitch angles at a fixed frequency (e.g., the once-per-revolution (1P) frequency), which made it only applicable in above-rated wind turbine operating conditions. In this study, LIPC is extended to below-rated operating conditions by gain scheduling the controller on the rotor speed. With this extension, LIPC and conventional IPC are successfully applied to the NREL CART2 wind turbine. Lastly, the field-test results obtained during the measurement campaign indicate that LIPC significantly reduces the wind turbine loads for both below-rated and above-rated operation.

  3. Controlling adsorbate interactions for advanced chemical patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saavedra Garcia, Hector M.

    Molecules designed to have specific interactions were used to influence the structural, physical, and chemical properties of self-assembled monolayers. In the case of 1-adamantanethiolate monolayers, the molecular structure influences lability, enabling alkanethiol molecules in solution to displace the 1-adamantanethiolate monolayers, ultimately leading to complete molecular exchange. The similar Au-S bond environments measured for both n-alkanethiolate and 1-adamantanethiolate monolayers indicate that displacement is not a result of weakened Au-S bonds. Instead, it was hypothesized that the density differences in the two monolayers provide a substantial enthalpic driver, aided by differences in van der Waals forces, ultimately leading to complete displacement of the 1-adamantenthiol molecules. Additionally, it was discovered that displacement occurs via fast insertion of n-dodecanethiolate at the defects in the original 1-adamantanethiolate monolayer, which nucleates an island growth phase and is followed by slow ordering of the n-dodecanethiolate domains into a denser and more crystalline form. Langmuir-based kinetics, which describe alkanethiolate adsorption on bare Au{111}, fail to model this displacement reaction. Instead, a model of perimeter-dependent island growth yields good agreement with kinetic data over a 100-fold variation in n-dodecanethiol concentration. Rescaling the growth rate at each concentration collapses all the data onto a single universal curve, suggesting that displacement is a scale-free process. Exploiting the knowledge gained by studying 1-adamantethiolate monolayer displacement, a reversible molecular resist was developed, in which displacement is controlled via external stimuli. This methodology for the fabrication of controllably displaceable monolayers relies on carboxyl-functionalized self-assembled monolayers and in-situ Fischer esterification. Using an 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid monolayer as a model system, it was shown that in

  4. A formal structure for advanced automatic flight-control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, G.; Cicolani, L. S.

    1975-01-01

    Techniques were developed for the unified design of multimode, variable authority automatic flight-control systems for powered-lift STOL and VTOL aircraft. A structure for such systems is developed to deal with the strong nonlinearities inherent in this class of aircraft, to admit automatic coupling with advanced air traffic control, and to admit a variety of active control tasks. The aircraft being considered is the augmentor wing jet STOL research aircraft.

  5. Langley Research Center contributions in advancing active control technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abel, I.; Newsom, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    The application of active control technology to reduce aeroelastic response of aircraft structures offers a potential for significant payoffs in terms of aerodynamic efficiency and weight savings. Some of the contributions of the Langley Research Center in advancing active control technology are described. Contributions are categorized into the development of appropriate analysis tools, control law synthesis methodology, and experimental investigations aimed at verifying both analysis and synthesis methodology.

  6. Strategy Guideline. Advanced Construction Documentation Recommendations for High Performance Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Lukachko, A.; Gates, C.; Straube, J.

    2011-12-01

    As whole house energy efficiency increases, new materials and new systems require greater coordination and communication between industry stakeholders. This report presents four changes that are recommended to achieve improvements in energy efficiency, durability and health in Building America houses: create coordination drawings, improve specifications, improve detail drawings, and review drawings and prepare a Quality Control Plan.

  7. Health benefit modelling and optimization of vehicular pollution control strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonawane, Nayan V.; Patil, Rashmi S.; Sethi, Virendra

    2012-12-01

    This study asserts that the evaluation of pollution reduction strategies should be approached on the basis of health benefits. The framework presented could be used for decision making on the basis of cost effectiveness when the strategies are applied concurrently. Several vehicular pollution control strategies have been proposed in literature for effective management of urban air pollution. The effectiveness of these strategies has been mostly studied as a one at a time approach on the basis of change in pollution concentration. The adequacy and practicality of such an approach is studied in the present work. Also, the assessment of respective benefits of these strategies has been carried out when they are implemented simultaneously. An integrated model has been developed which can be used as a tool for optimal prioritization of various pollution management strategies. The model estimates health benefits associated with specific control strategies. ISC-AERMOD View has been used to provide the cause-effect relation between control options and change in ambient air quality. BenMAP, developed by U.S. EPA, has been applied for estimation of health and economic benefits associated with various management strategies. Valuation of health benefits has been done for impact indicators of premature mortality, hospital admissions and respiratory syndrome. An optimization model has been developed to maximize overall social benefits with determination of optimized percentage implementations for multiple strategies. The model has been applied for sub-urban region of Mumbai city for vehicular sector. Several control scenarios have been considered like revised emission standards, electric, CNG, LPG and hybrid vehicles. Reduction in concentration and resultant health benefits for the pollutants CO, NOx and particulate matter are estimated for different control scenarios. Finally, an optimization model has been applied to determine optimized percentage implementation of specific

  8. Experimental and computing strategies in advanced material characterization problems

    SciTech Connect

    Bolzon, G.

    2015-10-28

    The mechanical characterization of materials relies more and more often on sophisticated experimental methods that permit to acquire a large amount of data and, contemporarily, to reduce the invasiveness of the tests. This evolution accompanies the growing demand of non-destructive diagnostic tools that assess the safety level of components in use in structures and infrastructures, for instance in the strategic energy sector. Advanced material systems and properties that are not amenable to traditional techniques, for instance thin layered structures and their adhesion on the relevant substrates, can be also characterized by means of combined experimental-numerical tools elaborating data acquired by full-field measurement techniques. In this context, parameter identification procedures involve the repeated simulation of the laboratory or in situ tests by sophisticated and usually expensive non-linear analyses while, in some situation, reliable and accurate results would be required in real time. The effectiveness and the filtering capabilities of reduced models based on decomposition and interpolation techniques can be profitably used to meet these conflicting requirements. This communication intends to summarize some results recently achieved in this field by the author and her co-workers. The aim is to foster further interaction between engineering and mathematical communities.

  9. Experimental and computing strategies in advanced material characterization problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolzon, G.

    2015-10-01

    The mechanical characterization of materials relies more and more often on sophisticated experimental methods that permit to acquire a large amount of data and, contemporarily, to reduce the invasiveness of the tests. This evolution accompanies the growing demand of non-destructive diagnostic tools that assess the safety level of components in use in structures and infrastructures, for instance in the strategic energy sector. Advanced material systems and properties that are not amenable to traditional techniques, for instance thin layered structures and their adhesion on the relevant substrates, can be also characterized by means of combined experimental-numerical tools elaborating data acquired by full-field measurement techniques. In this context, parameter identification procedures involve the repeated simulation of the laboratory or in situ tests by sophisticated and usually expensive non-linear analyses while, in some situation, reliable and accurate results would be required in real time. The effectiveness and the filtering capabilities of reduced models based on decomposition and interpolation techniques can be profitably used to meet these conflicting requirements. This communication intends to summarize some results recently achieved in this field by the author and her co-workers. The aim is to foster further interaction between engineering and mathematical communities.

  10. Utilizing object-oriented design to build advanced optimization strategies with generic implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Eldred, M.S.; Hart, W.E.; Bohnhoff, W.J.; Romero, V.J.; Hutchinson, S.A.; Salinger, A.G.

    1996-08-01

    the benefits of applying optimization to computational models are well known, but their range of widespread application to date has been limited. This effort attempts to extend the disciplinary areas to which optimization algorithms may be readily applied through the development and application of advanced optimization strategies capable of handling the computational difficulties associated with complex simulation codes. Towards this goal, a flexible software framework is under continued development for the application of optimization techniques to broad classes of engineering applications, including those with high computational expense and nonsmooth, nonconvex design space features. Object-oriented software design with C++ has been employed as a tool in providing a flexible, extensible, and robust multidisciplinary toolkit with computationally intensive simulations. In this paper, demonstrations of advanced optimization strategies using the software are presented in the hybridization and parallel processing research areas. Performance of the advanced strategies is compared with a benchmark nonlinear programming optimization.

  11. The design and evaluation of integrated envelope and lighting control strategies for commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, E.S.; Selkowitz, S.E.

    1994-06-01

    This study investigates control strategies for coordinating the variable solar-optical properties of a dynamic building envelope system with a daylight controlled electric lighting system to reduce electricity consumption and increase comfort in the perimeter zone of commercial buildings. Control strategy design can be based on either simple, instantaneous measured data, or on complex, predictive algorithms that estimate the energy consumption for a selected operating state of the dynamic envelope and lighting system. The potential benefits of optimizing the operation of a dynamic envelope and lighting system are (1) significant reductions in electrical energy end-uses - lighting, and cooling due to solar and lighting heat gains - over that achieved by conventional static envelope and lighting systems, (2) significant reductions in peak demand, and (3) increased occupant visual and thermal comfort. The DOE-2 building energy simulation program was used to model two dynamic envelope and lighting systems, an automated venetian blind and an electrochromic glazing system, and their control strategies under a range of building conditions. The energy performance of simple control strategies are compared to the optimum performance of a theoretical envelope and lighting system to determine the maximum potential benefit of using more complex, predictive control algorithms. Results indicate that (1) predictive control algorithms may significantly increase the energy-efficiency of systems with non-optimal solar-optical properties such as the automated venetian blind, and (2) simpler, non-predictive control strategies may suffice for more advanced envelope systems 1 incorporating spectrally selective, narrow-band electrochromic coatings.

  12. Advanced Sensors and Controls for Building Applications: Market Assessment and Potential R&D Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Brambley, Michael R.; Haves, Philip; McDonald, Sean C.; Torcellini, Paul; Hansen, David G.; Holmberg, David; Roth, Kurt

    2005-04-13

    Significant energy savings can be achieved in commercial building operation, along with increased comfort and control for occupants, through the implementation of advanced technologies. This document provides a market assessment of existing building sensors and controls and presents a range of technology pathways (R&D options) for pursuing advanced sensors and building control strategies. This paper is actually a synthesis of five other white papers: the first describes the market assessment including estimates of market potential and energy savings for sensors and control strategies currently on the market as well as a discussion of market barriers to these technologies. The other four cover technology pathways: (1) current applications and strategies for new applications, (2) sensors and controls, (3) networking, security, and protocols and standards, and (4) automated diagnostics, performance monitoring, commissioning, optimal control and tools. Each technology pathway chapter gives an overview of the technology or application. This is followed by a discussion of needs and the current status of the technology. Finally, a series of research topics is proposed.

  13. A reduced energy supply strategy in active vibration control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichchou, M. N.; Loukil, T.; Bareille, O.; Chamberland, G.; Qiu, J.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, a control strategy is presented and numerically tested. This strategy aims to achieve the potential performance of fully active systems with a reduced energy supply. These energy needs are expected to be comparable to the power demands of semi-active systems, while system performance is intended to be comparable to that of a fully active configuration. The underlying strategy is called 'global semi-active control'. This control approach results from an energy investigation based on management of the optimal control process. Energy management encompasses storage and convenient restitution. The proposed strategy monitors a given active law without any external energy supply by considering purely dissipative and energy-demanding phases. Such a control law is offered here along with an analysis of its properties. A suboptimal form, well adapted for practical implementation steps, is also given. Moreover, a number of numerical experiments are proposed in order to validate test findings.

  14. Advanced modelling, monitoring, and process control of bioconversion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Elliott C.

    fermentation with diauxic growth. Model predictive control (MPC), an advanced process control strategy, is capable of utilizing nonlinear models and sensor feedback to provide optimal input while ensuring critical process constraints are met. Using the microorganism Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a commonly used microorganism for biofuel production, and work performed with M. thermoacetica, a nonlinear MPC was implemented on a continuous membrane cell-recycle bioreactor (MCRB) for the conversion of glucose to ethanol. The dilution rate was used to control the ethanol productivity of the system will maintaining total substrate conversion above the constraint of 98%. PLS multivariate models for glucose (RMSEP 1.5 g L-1) and ethanol (RMSEP 0.4 g L-1) were robust in predicting concentrations and a mechanistic kinetic model built accurately predicted continuous fermentation behavior. A setpoint trajectory, ranging from 2 - 4.5 g L-1 h-1 for productivity was closely tracked by the fermentation system using Raman measurements and an extended Kalman filter to estimate biomass concentrations. Overall, this work was able to demonstrate an effective approach for real-time monitoring and control of a complex fermentation system.

  15. A strategy for advancing tilt-rotor technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morlok, Edward K.; Schoendorfer, David L.

    1985-01-01

    Tilt-rotor technology has many features which make it a very promising development in aviation which might have application to a wide variety of transportation and logistics situations. However, aside from military applications and rather specialized industrial applications, little is known regarding the potential of tilt-rotor for commercial transportation and hence it is difficult to plan a development program which would gain support and be likely to produce a stream of significant benefits. The purpose is to attempt to provide some of this information in a manner that would be useful for preparing a strategy for development of tilt-rotor aircraft technology. Specifically, the objectives were: to identify promising paths of development and deployment of tilt-rotor aircraft technology in the air transportation system considering both benefits and disbenefits, and to identify any particular groups that are likely to benefit significantly and propose plans for gaining their support of research and development of this technology. Potential advantages of the tilt-rotor technology in the context of air transportation as a door-to-door system were identified, and then promising paths of development of such tilt-rotor systems were analyzed. These then lead to recommendations for specific studies, information dissemination and development of awareness of the tilt-rotor among specific transport-related groups.

  16. Control system options and strategies for supercritical CO2 cycles.

    SciTech Connect

    Moisseytsev, A.; Kulesza, K. P.; Sienicki, J. J.; Nuclear Engineering Division; Oregon State Univ.

    2009-06-18

    The Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (S-CO{sub 2}) Brayton Cycle is a promising alternative to Rankine steam cycle and recuperated gas Brayton cycle energy converters for use with Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors (SFRs), Lead-Cooled Fast Reactors (LFRs), as well as other advanced reactor concepts. The S-CO{sub 2} Brayton Cycle offers higher plant efficiencies than Rankine or recuperated gas Brayton cycles operating at the same liquid metal reactor core outlet temperatures as well as reduced costs or size of key components especially the turbomachinery. A new Plant Dynamics Computer Code has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory for simulation of a S-CO{sub 2} Brayton Cycle energy converter coupled to an autonomous load following liquid metal-cooled fast reactor. The Plant Dynamics code has been applied to investigate the effectiveness of a control strategy for the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton Cycle for the STAR-LM 181 MWe (400 MWt) Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor. The strategy, which involves a combination of control mechanisms, is found to be effective for controlling the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton Cycle over the complete operating range from 0 to 100 % load for a representative set of transient load changes. While the system dynamic analysis of control strategy performance for STARLM is carried out for a S-CO{sub 2} Brayton Cycle energy converter incorporating an axial flow turbine and compressors, investigations of the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton Cycle have identified benefits from the use of centrifugal compressors which offer a wider operating range, greater stability near the critical point, and potentially further cost reductions due to fewer stages than axial flow compressors. Models have been developed at Argonne for the conceptual design and performance analysis of centrifugal compressors for use in the SCO{sub 2} Brayton Cycle. Steady state calculations demonstrate the wider operating range of centrifugal compressors versus axial compressors installed in a S-CO{sub 2} Brayton Cycle as

  17. Contributions of CCLM to advances in quality control.

    PubMed

    Kazmierczak, Steven C

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The discipline of laboratory medicine is relatively young when considered in the context of the history of medicine itself. The history of quality control, within the context of laboratory medicine, also enjoys a relatively brief, but rich history. Laboratory quality control continues to evolve along with advances in automation, measurement techniques and information technology. Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM) has played a key role in helping disseminate information about the proper use and utility of quality control. Publication of important advances in quality control techniques and dissemination of guidelines concerned with laboratory quality control has undoubtedly helped readers of this journal keep up to date on the most recent developments in this field.

  18. Application of Advanced Process Control techniques to a pusher type reheating furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanoli, S. M.; Pepe, C.; Barboni, L.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper an Advanced Process Control system aimed at controlling and optimizing a pusher type reheating furnace located in an Italian steel plant is proposed. The designed controller replaced the previous control system, based on PID controllers manually conducted by process operators. A two-layer Model Predictive Control architecture has been adopted that, exploiting a chemical, physical and economic modelling of the process, overcomes the limitations of plant operators’ mental model and knowledge. In addition, an ad hoc decoupling strategy has been implemented, allowing the selection of the manipulated variables to be used for the control of each single process variable. Finally, in order to improve the system flexibility and resilience, the controller has been equipped with a supervision module. A profitable trade-off between conflicting specifications, e.g. safety, quality and production constraints, energy saving and pollution impact, has been guaranteed. Simulation tests and real plant results demonstrated the soundness and the reliability of the proposed system.

  19. Neoadjuvant Treatment Strategies for Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Gollins, S; Sebag-Montefiore, D

    2016-02-01

    Improved surgical technique plus selective preoperative radiotherapy have decreased rectal cancer pelvic local recurrence from, historically, 25% down to about 5-10%. However, this improvement has not reduced distant metastatic relapse, which is the main cause of death and a key issue in rectal cancer management. The current standard is local pelvic treatment (surgery ± preoperative radiotherapy) followed by adjuvant chemotherapy, depending on resection histology. For circumferential resection margin (CRM)-threatened cancer on baseline magnetic resonance imaging, downstaging long-course preoperative chemoradiation (LCPCRT) is generally used. However, for non-CRM-threatened disease, varying approaches are currently adopted in the UK, including straight to surgery, short-course preoperative radiotherapy and LCPCRT. Clinical trials are investigating intensification of concurrent chemoradiation. There is also increasing interest in investigating preoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) as a way of exposing micro-metastatic disease to full-dose systemic chemotherapy as early as possible and potentially reducing metastatic relapse. Phase II trials suggest that this strategy is feasible, with promising histological response and low rates of tumour progression during NAC. Phase III trials are needed to determine the benefit of NAC when added to standard therapy and also to determine if it can be used instead of neoadjuvant radiotherapy-based schedules. Although several measures of neoadjuvant treatment response assessment based on imaging or pathology are promising predictive biomarkers for long-term survival, none has been validated in prospective phase III studies. The phase III setting will enable this, also providing translational opportunities to examine molecular predictors of response and survival. PMID:26645661

  20. Maternal control strategies, maternal language usage and children's language usage at two years.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Nicole; Donovan, Wilberta; Miles, Sally; Leavitt, Lewis

    2009-03-01

    The present study determined whether parenting style, defined by control strategies varying in power-assertion mediated the established relation between maternal language usage (grammar and semantics) and child language (grammar, semantics and pragmatics) during toddlerhood (n=60). Based upon their use of control strategies mothers were categorized into continuum-of-control groups (i.e., high guidance (HG), high control (HC) or high negative control (HNC)). Mothers in the high negative control group, who characteristically used high levels of prohibitions and commands, had children who performed relatively poorly overall on the language measures (i.e., MLU, number of bound morphemes, number of different words and use of language functions). In contrast, children of mothers in the HG and HC groups exhibited more advanced language usage overall. The relation between maternal and child language usage was mediated by parenting style for child pragmatics and partially for child grammar.

  1. Minimum Control Requirements for Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boulange, Richard; Jones, Harry; Jones, Harry

    2002-01-01

    Advanced control technologies are not necessary for the safe, reliable and continuous operation of Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems. ALS systems can and are adequately controlled by simple, reliable, low-level methodologies and algorithms. The automation provided by advanced control technologies is claimed to decrease system mass and necessary crew time by reducing buffer size and minimizing crew involvement. In truth, these approaches increase control system complexity without clearly demonstrating an increase in reliability across the ALS system. Unless these systems are as reliable as the hardware they control, there is no savings to be had. A baseline ALS system is presented with the minimal control system required for its continuous safe reliable operation. This baseline control system uses simple algorithms and scheduling methodologies and relies on human intervention only in the event of failure of the redundant backup equipment. This ALS system architecture is designed for reliable operation, with minimal components and minimal control system complexity. The fundamental design precept followed is "If it isn't there, it can't fail".

  2. Strategy Guideline: Advanced Construction Documentation Recommendations for High Performance Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Lukachko, A.; Gates, C.; Straube, J.

    2011-12-01

    As whole house energy efficiency increases, new houses become less like conventional houses that were built in the past. New materials and new systems require greater coordination and communication between industry stakeholders. The Guideline for Construction Documents for High Performance Housing provides advice to address this need. The reader will be presented with four changes that are recommended to achieve improvements in energy efficiency, durability and health in Building America houses: create coordination drawings, improve specifications, improve detail drawings, and review drawings and prepare a Quality Control Plan.

  3. 40 CFR 52.1486 - Control strategy: Hydrocarbons and ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Hydrocarbons and ozone. 52.1486 Section 52.1486 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... strategy: Hydrocarbons and ozone. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1486 - Control strategy: Hydrocarbons and ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Hydrocarbons and ozone. 52.1486 Section 52.1486 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... strategy: Hydrocarbons and ozone. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1486 - Control strategy: Hydrocarbons and ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Hydrocarbons and ozone. 52.1486 Section 52.1486 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... strategy: Hydrocarbons and ozone. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1486 - Control strategy: Hydrocarbons and ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Hydrocarbons and ozone. 52.1486 Section 52.1486 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... strategy: Hydrocarbons and ozone. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1486 - Control strategy: Hydrocarbons and ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Hydrocarbons and ozone. 52.1486 Section 52.1486 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... strategy: Hydrocarbons and ozone. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since...

  8. 40 CFR 52.2125 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for the 1997 8-hour ozone NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.918, suspends the... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.2125... strategy: Ozone. (a) Determination of attaining data. EPA has determined, as of November 15, 2011, the...

  9. 40 CFR 52.2235 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.918, suspends the requirements for this area to submit... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.2235... strategy: Ozone. (a) Determination—EPA is determining that, as of August 8, 1995, the Nashville...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1129 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1129... strategy: Ozone. (a) Revisions to the State Implementation Plan submitted by the Massachusetts Department...) and 182(c)(2)(B) of the Clean Air Act for the Springfield, Massachusetts serious ozone...

  11. 40 CFR 52.2275 - Control strategy and regulations: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Ozone... strategy and regulations: Ozone. (a) Section 510.3 of revised Regulation V, which was submitted by the..., concerning the Victoria County 1-hour ozone maintenance plan. This SIP revision was adopted by TCEQ...

  12. 40 CFR 52.2275 - Control strategy and regulations: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Ozone... strategy and regulations: Ozone. (a) Section 510.3 of revised Regulation V, which was submitted by the..., concerning the Victoria County 1-hour ozone maintenance plan. This SIP revision was adopted by TCEQ...

  13. 40 CFR 52.2275 - Control strategy and regulations: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Ozone... strategy and regulations: Ozone. (a) Section 510.3 of revised Regulation V, which was submitted by the..., concerning the Victoria County 1-hour ozone maintenance plan. This SIP revision was adopted by TCEQ...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1779 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for the 1997 8-hour ozone NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.918, suspends the... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1779... strategy: Ozone. (a) Determination of attaining data. EPA has determined, as of November 15, 2011, the...

  15. 40 CFR 52.2235 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.918, suspends the requirements for this area to submit... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.2235... strategy: Ozone. (a) Determination—EPA is determining that, as of August 8, 1995, the Nashville...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1129 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1129... strategy: Ozone. (a) Revisions to the State Implementation Plan submitted by the Massachusetts Department...) and 182(c)(2)(B) of the Clean Air Act for the Springfield, Massachusetts serious ozone...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1534 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... implementation rule (see 40 CFR 51.918), this determination suspends the reasonable further progress and... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1534... strategy: Ozone. (a) Revisions to the State Implementation Plan submitted by the New Hampshire...

  18. 40 CFR 52.2125 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for the 1997 8-hour ozone NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.918, suspends the... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.2125... strategy: Ozone. (a) Determination of attaining data. EPA has determined, as of November 15, 2011, the...

  19. 40 CFR 52.2088 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the provisions of EPA's ozone implementation rule (see 40 CFR 51.918), this determination suspends the... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.2088... strategy: Ozone. (a) Revisions to the State Implementation Plan submitted by the Rhode Island Department...

  20. 40 CFR 52.2275 - Control strategy and regulations: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Ozone... strategy and regulations: Ozone. (a) Section 510.3 of revised Regulation V, which was submitted by the... Areas Did Not Attain the 1-Hour Ozone NAAQS. EPA has determined that the...

  1. 40 CFR 52.2275 - Control strategy and regulations: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Ozone... strategy and regulations: Ozone. (a) Section 510.3 of revised Regulation V, which was submitted by the... Areas Did Not Attain the 1-Hour Ozone NAAQS. EPA has determined that the...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1779 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for the 1997 8-hour ozone NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.918, suspends the... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1779... strategy: Ozone. (a) Determination of attaining data. EPA has determined, as of November 15, 2011, the...

  3. 40 CFR 52.2125 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for the 1997 8-hour ozone NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.918, suspends the... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.2125... strategy: Ozone. (a) Determination of attaining data. EPA has determined, as of November 15, 2011, the...

  4. 40 CFR 52.2235 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.2235... strategy: Ozone. (a) Determination—EPA is determining that, as of August 8, 1995, the Nashville ozone nonattainment area has attained the ozone standard and that the reasonable further progress and...

  5. 40 CFR 52.2235 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.918, suspends the requirements for this area to submit... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.2235... strategy: Ozone. (a) Determination—EPA is determining that, as of August 8, 1995, the Nashville...

  6. 40 CFR 52.2235 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.918, suspends the requirements for this area to submit... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.2235... strategy: Ozone. (a) Determination—EPA is determining that, as of August 8, 1995, the Nashville...

  7. Alternative Strategies for Control of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Bryce I.

    1975-01-01

    Achievement of air quality goals requires careful consideration of alternative control strategies in view of national concerns with energy and the economy. Three strategies which might be used by coal fired steam electric plants to achieve ambient air quality standards for sulfur dioxide have been compared and the analysis presented. (Author/BT)

  8. 40 CFR 52.1132 - Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon Monoxide. (a) Approval—On November 13, 1992, the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base...

  9. 40 CFR 52.1237 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) The base year carbon monoxide emission inventory requirement of section 187... Metropolitan Area and Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan Area. (b) Approval—The 1993 carbon monoxide...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1528 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On February 1, 1999, the New Hampshire Department of Environmental... program for carbon monoxide that ceased operating on January 1, 1995. The Nashua...

  11. 40 CFR 52.1237 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) The base year carbon monoxide emission inventory requirement of section 187... Metropolitan Area and Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan Area. (b) Approval—The 1993 carbon monoxide...

  12. 40 CFR 52.2089 - Control strategy: carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On September 22, 2008, the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management submitted a request to establish a limited maintenance plan for the Providence Rhode Island...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1528 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On February 1, 1999, the New Hampshire Department of Environmental... program for carbon monoxide that ceased operating on January 1, 1995. The Nashua...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1528 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On February 1, 1999, the New Hampshire Department of Environmental... program for carbon monoxide that ceased operating on January 1, 1995. The Nashua...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1132 - Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon Monoxide. (a) Approval—On November 13, 1992, the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1528 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On February 1, 1999, the New Hampshire Department of Environmental... program for carbon monoxide that ceased operating on January 1, 1995. The Nashua...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1132 - Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon Monoxide. (a) Approval—On November 13, 1992, the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1237 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) The base year carbon monoxide emission inventory requirement of section 187... Metropolitan Area and Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan Area. (b) Approval—The 1993 carbon monoxide...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1132 - Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon Monoxide. (a) Approval—On November 13, 1992, the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base...

  20. 40 CFR 52.2089 - Control strategy: carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On September 22, 2008, the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management submitted a request to establish a limited maintenance plan for the Providence Rhode Island...

  1. 40 CFR 52.2089 - Control strategy: carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On September 22, 2008, the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management submitted a request to establish a limited maintenance plan for the Providence Rhode Island...

  2. 40 CFR 52.2089 - Control strategy: carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On September 22, 2008, the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management submitted a request to establish a limited maintenance plan for the Providence Rhode Island...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1528 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On February 1, 1999, the New Hampshire Department of Environmental... program for carbon monoxide that ceased operating on January 1, 1995. The Nashua...

  4. 40 CFR 52.2089 - Control strategy: carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On September 22, 2008, the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management submitted a request to establish a limited maintenance plan for the Providence Rhode Island...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1237 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) The base year carbon monoxide emission inventory requirement of section 187... Metropolitan Area and Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan Area. (b) Approval—The 1993 carbon monoxide...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1237 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) The base year carbon monoxide emission inventory requirement of section 187... Metropolitan Area and Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan Area. (b) Approval—The 1993 carbon monoxide...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1132 - Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon Monoxide. (a) Approval—On November 13, 1992, the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base...

  8. 40 CFR 52.1576 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. 52... strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. (a) The requirements of § 52.14(c)(3) of this chapter as of May 8, 1974 (39 FR 16346), are not met since the plan does not provide for the degree of nitrogen oxides emission...

  9. 40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since the plan... the Northwest Nevada and Nevada Intrastate Regions. (b) The following rule and portions of the...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1880 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... NAAQS. These determinations, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c), suspend the requirements for these... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met because...

  11. 40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since the plan does not provide for the attainment and maintenance of the national standards for particulate matter...

  12. 40 CFR 52.1880 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... NAAQS. These determinations, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c), suspend the requirements for these... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met because...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since the plan does not provide for the attainment and maintenance of the national standards for particulate matter...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since the plan does not provide for the attainment and maintenance of the national standards for particulate matter...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since the plan does not provide for the attainment and maintenance of the national standards for particulate matter...

  16. 40 CFR 52.2780 - Control strategy for sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy for sulfur oxides. 52... strategy for sulfur oxides. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since there has... maintenance of the national ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides on the island of St. Croix....

  17. 40 CFR 52.2525 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2525 Section 52.2525 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) (b) EPA approves the attainment demonstration State Implementation Plan...

  18. 40 CFR 52.2525 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2525 Section 52.2525 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) The provisions of § 51.112(a) are not met because the State did...

  19. 40 CFR 52.2525 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2525 Section 52.2525 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) The provisions of § 51.112(a) are not met because the State did...

  20. 40 CFR 52.2780 - Control strategy for sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy for sulfur oxides. 52... strategy for sulfur oxides. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since there has... maintenance of the national ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides on the island of St. Croix....

  1. 40 CFR 52.2780 - Control strategy for sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy for sulfur oxides. 52... strategy for sulfur oxides. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since there has... maintenance of the national ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides on the island of St. Croix....

  2. 40 CFR 52.2525 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2525 Section 52.2525 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) The provisions of § 51.112(a) are not met because the State did...

  3. 40 CFR 52.2033 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.2033 Section 52.2033 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... strategy: Sulfur oxides. (a) (b) EPA approves the attainment demonstration State Implementation Plan...

  4. 40 CFR 52.2780 - Control strategy for sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy for sulfur oxides. 52... strategy for sulfur oxides. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since there has... maintenance of the national ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides on the island of St. Croix....

  5. 40 CFR 52.2525 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2525 Section 52.2525 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) The provisions of § 51.112(a) are not met because the State did...

  6. 40 CFR 52.2780 - Control strategy for sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy for sulfur oxides. 52... strategy for sulfur oxides. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since there has... maintenance of the national ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides on the island of St. Croix....

  7. OPTIMIZATION OF INTEGRATED URBAN WET-WEATHER CONTROL STRATEGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An optimization method for urban wet weather control (WWC) strategies is presented. The developed optimization model can be used to determine the most cost-effective strategies for the combination of centralized storage-release systems and distributed on-site WWC alternatives. T...

  8. A nonlinear strategy for sensor based vehicle path control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayr, R.

    1994-01-01

    A method of transverse control which makes use of nonlinear formulations is presented. The strategy is utilized to stabilize a vehicle. The vehicle is autonomously guided and takes its control inputs from an optical sensing system. Additionally, the velocity of the vehicle is dictated by a longitudinal controller, which is also discussed.

  9. The Myriad Strategies for Seeking Control in the Dying Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroepfer, Tracy A.; Noh, Hyunjin; Kavanaugh, Melinda

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored the role control plays in the dying process of terminally ill elders by investigating the aspects of the dying process over which they seek to exercise control, the strategies they use, and whether they desire to exercise more control. Design and Methods: In-depth face-to-face interviews were conducted with 84…

  10. Strategies towards advanced ion track-based biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfonta, L.; Bukelman, O.; Chandra, A.; Fahrner, W. R.; Fink, D.; Fuks, D.; Golovanov, V.; Hnatowicz, V.; Hoppe, K.; Kiv, A.; Klinkovich, I.; Landau, M.; Morante, J. R.; Tkachenko, N. V.; Vacík, J.; Valden, M.

    Three approaches towards ion track-based biosensors appear to be feasible. The development of the first one began a decade ago [Siwy, Z.; Trofin, L.; Kohl, P.; Baker, L.A.; Martin, C.R.; Trautmann, C. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127, 5000-5001; Siwy, Z.S.; Harrell, C.C.; Heins, E.; Martin, C.R.; Schiedt, B.; Trautmann, C.; Trofin, L.; Polman, A. Presented at the 6th International Conference on Swift Heavy Ions in Matter, Aschaffenburg, Germany, May 28-31, 2005] and makes use of the concept that the presence of certain biomolecules within liquids can block the passage through narrow pores if being captured there, thus switching off the pore's electrical conductivity. The second, having been successfully tested half a year ago [Fink, D.; Klinkovich, I.; Bukelman, O.; Marks, R.S.; Fahrner, W.; Kiv, A.; Fuks, D.; Alfonta, L. Biosens. Bioelectron. 2009, 24, 2702-2706], is based on the accumulation of enzymatic reaction products within the confined volume of narrow etched ion tracks which modifies the pore's electrical conductivity. The third and most elegant, at present under development, will exploit the charge transfer from enzymes to semiconductors embedded within etched tracks, enabling the enzymes undergoing specific reactions with the biomolecules to be detected. These strategies can be realized either within carrier-free nanoporous polymeric membranes embedded in the corresponding bioliquids, or within contacted nanoporous insulating layers on semiconducting substrates, the so-called TEMPOS structures [Fink, D.; Petrov, A.; Hoppe, H.; Fahrner, W.R.; Papaleo, R.M.; Berdinsky, A.; Chandra, A.; Biswas, A.; Chadderton, L.T. Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 2004, 218, 355-361]. The latter have the advantage of exhibiting a number of peculiar electronic properties, such as the ability for logic and/or combination of input signals, tunable polarity, negative differential resistances, tunability by external parameters such as light, magnetic fields, etc. and self-pulsations, which

  11. Control Strategies for HCCI Mixed-Mode Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Robert M; Edwards, Kevin Dean

    2010-03-01

    Delphi Automotive Systems and ORNL established this CRADA to expand the operational range of Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) mixed-mode combustion for gasoline en-gines. ORNL has extensive experience in the analysis, interpretation, and control of dynamic engine phenomena, and Delphi has extensive knowledge and experience in powertrain compo-nents and subsystems. The partnership of these knowledge bases was important to address criti-cal barriers associated with the realistic implementation of HCCI and enabling clean, efficient operation for the next generation of transportation engines. The foundation of this CRADA was established through the analysis of spark-assisted HCCI data from a single-cylinder research engine. This data was used to (1) establish a conceptual kinetic model to better understand and predict the development of combustion instabilities, (2) develop a low-order model framework suitable for real-time controls, and (3) provide guidance in the initial definition of engine valve strategies for achieving HCCI operation. The next phase focused on the development of a new combustion metric for real-time characterization of the combustion process. Rapid feedback on the state of the combustion process is critical to high-speed decision making for predictive control. Simultaneous to the modeling/analysis studies, Delphi was focused on the development of engine hardware and the engine management system. This included custom Delphi hardware and control systems allowing for flexible control of the valvetrain sys-tem to enable HCCI operation. The final phase of this CRADA included the demonstration of conventional and spark assisted HCCI on the multi-cylinder engine as well as the characterization of combustion instabilities, which govern the operational boundaries of this mode of combustion. ORNL and Delphi maintained strong collaboration throughout this project. Meetings were held on a bi-weekly basis with additional reports, presentation, and

  12. Unified power flow controller: Modeling, stability analysis, control strategy and control system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreenivasachar, Kannan

    2001-07-01

    Unified power flow controller (UPFC) has been the most versatile Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) device due to its ability to control real and reactive power flow on transmission lines while controlling the voltage of the bus to which it is connected. UPFC being a multi-variable power system controller it is necessary to analyze its effect on power system operation. To study the performance of the UPFC in damping power oscillations using PSCAD-EMTDC software, a de-coupled control system has been designed for the shunt inverter to control the UPFC bus voltage and the DC link capacitor voltage. The series inverter of a UPFC controls the real power flow in the transmission line. One problem associated with using a high gain PI controller (used to achieve fast control of transmission line real power flow) for the series inverter of a UPFC to control the real power flow in a transmission line is the presence of low damping. This problem is solved in this research by using a fuzzy controller. A method to model a fuzzy controller in PSCAD-EMTDC software has also been described. Further, in order to facilitate proper operation between the series and the shunt inverter control system, a new real power coordination controller has been developed and its performance was evaluated. The other problem concerning the operation of a UPFC is with respect to transmission line reactive power flow control. Step changes to transmission line reactive power references have significant impact on the UPFC bus voltage. To reduce the adverse effect of step changes in transmission line reactive power references on the UPFC bus voltage, a new reactive power coordination controller has been designed. Transient response studies have been conducted using PSCAD-EMTDC software to show the improvement in power oscillation damping with UPFC. These simulations include the real and reactive power coordination controllers. Finally, a new control strategy has been proposed for UPFC. In this

  13. Synthesis of nonlinear control strategies from fuzzy logic control algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langari, Reza

    1993-01-01

    Fuzzy control has been recognized as an alternative to conventional control techniques in situations where the plant model is not sufficiently well known to warrant the application of conventional control techniques. Precisely what fuzzy control does and how it does what it does is not quite clear, however. This important issue is discussed and in particular it is shown how a given fuzzy control scheme can resolve into a nonlinear control law and that in those situations the success of fuzzy control hinges on its ability to compensate for nonlinearities in plant dynamics.

  14. 40 CFR 52.1877 - Control strategy: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... oxidants (hydrocarbons). 52.1877 Section 52.1877 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....1877 Control strategy: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons). (a) The requirements of Subpart G of this... national standard for photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons) in the Metropolitan Cincinnati...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1877 - Control strategy: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... oxidants (hydrocarbons). 52.1877 Section 52.1877 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....1877 Control strategy: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons). (a) The requirements of Subpart G of this... national standard for photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons) in the Metropolitan Cincinnati...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1877 - Control strategy: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... oxidants (hydrocarbons). 52.1877 Section 52.1877 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....1877 Control strategy: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons). (a) The requirements of Subpart G of this... national standard for photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons) in the Metropolitan Cincinnati...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1877 - Control strategy: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... oxidants (hydrocarbons). 52.1877 Section 52.1877 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....1877 Control strategy: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons). (a) The requirements of Subpart G of this... national standard for photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons) in the Metropolitan Cincinnati...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1877 - Control strategy: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... oxidants (hydrocarbons). 52.1877 Section 52.1877 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....1877 Control strategy: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons). (a) The requirements of Subpart G of this... national standard for photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons) in the Metropolitan Cincinnati...

  19. Advanced helicopter cockpit and control configurations for helicopter combat missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haworth, Loran A.; Atencio, Adolph, Jr.; Bivens, Courtland; Shively, Robert; Delgado, Daniel

    1987-01-01

    Two piloted simulations were conducted by the U.S. Army Aeroflightdynamics Directorate to evaluate workload and helicopter-handling qualities requirements for single pilot operation in a combat Nap-of-the-Earth environment. The single-pilot advanced cockpit engineering simulation (SPACES) investigations were performed on the NASA Ames Vertical Motion Simulator, using the Advanced Digital Optical Control System control laws and an advanced concepts glass cockpit. The first simulation (SPACES I) compared single pilot to dual crewmember operation for the same flight tasks to determine differences between dual and single ratings, and to discover which control laws enabled adequate single-pilot helicopter operation. The SPACES II simulation concentrated on single-pilot operations and use of control laws thought to be viable candidates for single pilot operations workload. Measures detected significant differences between single-pilot task segments. Control system configurations were task dependent, demonstrating a need for inflight reconfigurable control system to match the optimal control system with the required task.

  20. Comparison of Advanced Distillation Control Methods, Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. James B. Riggs

    2000-11-30

    Detailed dynamic simulations of three industrial distillation columns (a propylene/propane splitter, a xylene/toluene column, and a depropanizer) have been used to evaluate configuration selections for single-ended and dual-composition control, as well as to compare conventional and advanced control approaches. In addition, a simulator of a main fractionator was used to compare the control performance of conventional and advanced control. For each case considered, the controllers were tuned by using setpoint changes and tested using feed composition upsets. Proportional Integral (PI) control performance was used to evaluate the configuration selection problem. For single ended control, the energy balance configuration was found to yield the best performance. For dual composition control, nine configurations were considered. It was determined that the use of dynamic simulations is required in order to identify the optimum configuration from among the nine possible choices. The optimum configurations were used to evaluate the relative control performance of conventional PI controllers, MPC (Model Predictive Control), PMBC (Process Model-Based Control), and ANN (Artificial Neural Networks) control. It was determined that MPC works best when one product is much more important than the other, while PI was superior when both products were equally important. PMBC and ANN were not found to offer significant advantages over PI and MPC. MPC was found to outperform conventional PI control for the main fractionator. MPC was applied to three industrial columns: one at Phillips Petroleum and two at Union Carbide. In each case, MPC was found to significantly outperform PI controls. The major advantage of the MPC controller is its ability to effectively handle a complex set of constraints and control objectives.

  1. Control Strategies for Unmanned Underwater Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craven, Paul J.; Sutton, Robert; Burns, Roland S.

    In recent years, both the offshore industry and the navies of the world have become increasingly interested in the potential operational usage of unmanned underwater vehicles. This paper provides a comprehensive review of a number of modern control approaches and artificial intelligence techniques which have been applied to the autopilot design problem for such craft.

  2. Abnormal Web Usage Control by Proxy Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Hsiang-Fu; Tseng, Li-Ming

    2002-01-01

    Approaches to designing a proxy server with Web usage control and to making the proxy server effective on local area networks are proposed to prevent abnormal Web access and to prioritize Web usage. A system is implemented to demonstrate the approaches. The implementation reveals that the proposed approaches are effective, such that the abnormal…

  3. Vision Based Autonomous Robotic Control for Advanced Inspection and Repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wehner, Walter S.

    2014-01-01

    The advanced inspection system is an autonomous control and analysis system that improves the inspection and remediation operations for ground and surface systems. It uses optical imaging technology with intelligent computer vision algorithms to analyze physical features of the real-world environment to make decisions and learn from experience. The advanced inspection system plans to control a robotic manipulator arm, an unmanned ground vehicle and cameras remotely, automatically and autonomously. There are many computer vision, image processing and machine learning techniques available as open source for using vision as a sensory feedback in decision-making and autonomous robotic movement. My responsibilities for the advanced inspection system are to create a software architecture that integrates and provides a framework for all the different subsystem components; identify open-source algorithms and techniques; and integrate robot hardware.

  4. Second Generation Advanced Reburning for High Efficiency NOx Control

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir M. Zamansky; Peter M. Maly; Vitali V. Lissianski

    1999-06-30

    This project is designed to develop a family of novel NO{sub x} control technologies, called Second Generation Advanced Reburning which has the potential to achieve 90+ NO{sub x} control in coal fired boilers at a significantly lower cost than Selective Catalytic Reduction. The seventh reporting period in Phase II (April 1-June 30, 1999) included experimental activities and combined chemistry-mixing modeling on advanced gas reburning. The goal of combustion tests was to determine the efficiency of advanced reburning using coal as the reburning fuel. Tests were conducted in Boiler Simulator Facility (BSF). Several coals were tested. The modeling effort was focused on the description of N-agent injection along with overfire air. Modeling identified process parameters that can be used to optimize the AR-Lean process.

  5. Second Generation Advanced Reburning for High Efficiency NOx Control

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir M. Zamansky; Pete M. Maly

    2000-03-31

    This project is designed to develop a family of novel NO{sub x} control technologies, called Second Generation Advanced Reburning (SGAR) which has the potential to achieve 90+ NO{sub x} control in coal fired boilers at a significantly lower cost than Selective Catalytic Reduction. The tenth reporting period in Phase II (January 1-March 31, 2000) included proof-of concept tests in the 10 x 10{sup 6} Btu/hr Tower Furnace. Several variants of Second Generation Advanced Reburning (SGAR) were studied, including AR-Lean, AR-Rich, reburning + SNCR, and Multiple Injection Advanced Reburning (MIAR). Tests demonstrated that the SGAR performance was the most effective under MIAR conditions achieving maximum overall NO{sub x} reduction of 96%.

  6. Status report on the Advanced Light Source control system, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.; Brown, W. Jr.; Cork, C.

    1993-10-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), under construction for the past seven years, has become operational. The accelerator has been successfully commissioned using a control system based on hundreds of controllers of our own design and high performance personal computers which are the operator interface. The first beamlines are being commissioned using a control system based on VME hardware and the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) software. The two systems are being integrated, and this paper reports on the current work being done.

  7. Advanced control for airbreathing engines, volume 1: Pratt and Whitney

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ralph, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    The application of advanced control concepts to air breathing engines may yield significant improvements in aircraft/engine performance and operability. Screening studies of advanced control concepts for air breathing engines were conducted by three major domestic aircraft engine manufacturers to determine the potential impact of concepts on turbine engine performance and operability. The purpose of the studies was to identify concepts which offered high potential yet may incur high research and development risk. A target suite of proposed advanced control concepts was formulated and evaluated in a two phase study to quantify each concept's impact on desired engine characteristics. To aid in the evaluation specific aircraft/engine combinations were considered: a Military High Performance Fighter mission, a High Speed Civil Transport mission, and a Civil Tiltrotor mission. Each of the advanced control concepts considered in the study are defined and described. The concept potential impact on engine performance was determined. Relevant figures of merit on which to evaluate the concepts are determined. Finally, the concepts are ranked with respect to the target aircraft/engine missions. A final report describing the screening studies was prepared by each engine manufacturer. Volume 1 of these reports describes the studies performed by Pratt & Whitney.

  8. Advanced controls for airbreathing engines, volume 3: Allison gas turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bough, R. M.

    1993-01-01

    The application of advanced control concepts to airbreathing engines may yield significant improvements in aircraft/engine performance and operability. Screening studies of advanced control concepts for airbreathing engines were conducted by three major domestic aircraft engine manufacturers to determine the potential impact of concepts on turbine engine performance and operability. The purpose of the studies was to identify concepts which offered high potential yet may incur high research and development risk. A target suite of proposed advanced control concepts was formulated and evaluated in a two-phase study to quantify each concept's impact on desired engine characteristics. To aid in the evaluation specific aircraft/engine combinations were considered: a Military High Performance Fighter mission, a High Speed Civil Transport mission, and a Civil Tiltrotor mission. Each of the advanced control concepts considered in the study are defined and described. The concept potential impact on engine performance was determined. Relevant figures of merit on which to evaluate the concepts are determined. Finally, the concepts are ranked with respect to the target aircraft/engine missions. A final report describing the screening studies was prepared by each engine manufacturer. Volume 3 of these reports describes the studies performed by the Allison Gas Turbine Division.

  9. Advances in developing alternative treatments for postharvest pest control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    USDA-ARS made two significant advances in the last 10 years in the development of alternative treatments for postharvest pest control: oxygenated phosphine fumigation and nitric oxide fumigation. Oxygenated phosphine is phosphine fumigation in an oxygen enriched atmosphere. It is significantly more...

  10. Novel device-based interventional strategies for advanced heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Vanderheyden, Marc; Bartunek, Jozef

    2016-01-01

    While heart failure is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity, our tools to provide ultimate treatment solutions are still limited. Recent developments in new devices are designed to fill this therapeutic gap. The scope of this review is to focus on two particular targets, namely (1) left ventricular geometric restoration and (2) atrial depressurization. (1) Reduction of the wall stress by shrinking the ventricular cavity has been traditionally attempted surgically. Recently, the Parachute device (CardioKinetix Inc., Menlo Park, CA, USA) has been introduced to restore ventricular geometry and cardiac mechanics. The intervention aims to partition distal dysfunctional segments that are non-contributory to the ventricular mechanics and forward cardiac output. (2) Diastolic heart failure is characterized by abnormal relaxation and chamber stiffness. The main therapeutic goal achieved should be the reduction of afterload and diastolic pressure load. Recently, new catheter-based approaches were proposed to reduce left atrial pressure and ventricular decompression: the InterAtrial Shunt Device (IASD™) (Corvia Medical Inc., Tewksbury, MA, USA) and the V-Wave Shunt (V-Wave Ltd, Or Akiva, Israel). Both are designed to create a controlled atrial septal defect in symptomatic patients with heart failure. While the assist devices are aimed at end-stage heart failure, emerging device-based percutaneous or minimal invasive techniques comprise a wide spectrum of innovative concepts that target ventricular remodeling, cardiac contractility or neuro-humoral modulation. The clinical adoption is in the early stages of the initial feasibility and safety studies, and clinical evidence needs to be gathered in appropriately designed clinical trials. PMID:26966444

  11. Novel device-based interventional strategies for advanced heart failure.

    PubMed

    Toth, Gabor G; Vanderheyden, Marc; Bartunek, Jozef

    2016-01-01

    While heart failure is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity, our tools to provide ultimate treatment solutions are still limited. Recent developments in new devices are designed to fill this therapeutic gap. The scope of this review is to focus on two particular targets, namely (1) left ventricular geometric restoration and (2) atrial depressurization. (1) Reduction of the wall stress by shrinking the ventricular cavity has been traditionally attempted surgically. Recently, the Parachute device (CardioKinetix Inc., Menlo Park, CA, USA) has been introduced to restore ventricular geometry and cardiac mechanics. The intervention aims to partition distal dysfunctional segments that are non-contributory to the ventricular mechanics and forward cardiac output. (2) Diastolic heart failure is characterized by abnormal relaxation and chamber stiffness. The main therapeutic goal achieved should be the reduction of afterload and diastolic pressure load. Recently, new catheter-based approaches were proposed to reduce left atrial pressure and ventricular decompression: the InterAtrial Shunt Device (IASD™) (Corvia Medical Inc., Tewksbury, MA, USA) and the V-Wave Shunt (V-Wave Ltd, Or Akiva, Israel). Both are designed to create a controlled atrial septal defect in symptomatic patients with heart failure. While the assist devices are aimed at end-stage heart failure, emerging device-based percutaneous or minimal invasive techniques comprise a wide spectrum of innovative concepts that target ventricular remodeling, cardiac contractility or neuro-humoral modulation. The clinical adoption is in the early stages of the initial feasibility and safety studies, and clinical evidence needs to be gathered in appropriately designed clinical trials. PMID:26966444

  12. Control strategies for human intestinal nematode infections.

    PubMed

    Albonico, M; Crompton, D W; Savioli, L

    1999-01-01

    In recent years significant progress has been made in understanding the ecology, epidemiology and related morbidity and development of new tools for the control of soil-transmitted helminths. Such knowledge has recognized the impact of helminth infections on the health of infected groups and has created a rational basis for their control. Schoolchildren harbour some of the most intense helminthic infections, which produce adverse effects on health, growth and scholastic performance. However, although great effort has been put into targeting school-age children, women of child-bearing age and pre-school children are two other groups at high risk of morbidity due to intestinal nematode infections. Highly effective and safety-tested, single-dose anthelminthic drugs are now available, permitting periodical deworming of schoolchildren and other high-risk groups at affordable prices. Four anthelminthics against all intestinal nematodes are included in the WHO Essential Drug List (albendazole, levamisole, mebendazole and pyrantel). Recently ivermectin has also been registered for use against Strongyloides stercoralis in humans. Several well-monitored country experiences have shown that chemotherapy-based control of morbidity due to soil-transmitted helminths is possible and highly cost-effective.

  13. Controlling Microbial Byproducts using Model-Based Substrate Monitoring and Control Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smernoff, David T.; Blackwell, Charles; Mancinelli, Rocco L.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We have developed a computer-controlled bioreactor system to study various aspects of microbially-mediated nitrogen cycling. The system has been used to investigate methods for controlling microbial denitrification (the dissimilatory reduction of nitrate to N2O and N2) in hydroponic plant growth chambers. Such chambers are key elements of advanced life support systems being designed for use on long duration space missions, but nitrogen use efficiency in them is reduced by denitrification. Control software architecture was designed which permits the heterogeneous control of system hardware using traditional feedback control, and quantitative and qualitative models of various system features. Model-based feed forward control entails prediction of future systems in states and automated regulation of system parameters to achieve desired and avoid undesirable system states. A bacterial growth rate model based on the classic Monod model of saturation kinetics was used to evaluate the response of several individual denitrifying species to varying environmental conditions. The system and models are now being applied to mixed microbial communities harvested from the root zone of a hydroponic growth chamber. The use of a modified Monod organism interaction model was evaluated as a means of achieving more accurate description of the dynamic behavior of the communities. A minimum variance parameter estimation routine was also' used to calibrate the constant parameters in the model by iterative evaluation of substrate (nitrate) uptake and growth kinetics. This representation of processes and interactions aids in the formulation of control laws. The feed forward control strategy being developed will increase system autonomy, reduce crew intervention and limit the accumulation of undesirable waste products (NOx).

  14. Dynamic Event Tree advancements and control logic improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Alfonsi, Andrea; Rabiti, Cristian; Mandelli, Diego; Sen, Ramazan Sonat; Cogliati, Joshua Joseph

    2015-09-01

    The RAVEN code has been under development at the Idaho National Laboratory since 2012. Its main goal is to create a multi-purpose platform for the deploying of all the capabilities needed for Probabilistic Risk Assessment, uncertainty quantification, data mining analysis and optimization studies. RAVEN is currently equipped with three different sampling categories: Forward samplers (Monte Carlo, Latin Hyper Cube, Stratified, Grid Sampler, Factorials, etc.), Adaptive Samplers (Limit Surface search, Adaptive Polynomial Chaos, etc.) and Dynamic Event Tree (DET) samplers (Deterministic and Adaptive Dynamic Event Trees). The main subject of this document is to report the activities that have been done in order to: start the migration of the RAVEN/RELAP-7 control logic system into MOOSE, and develop advanced dynamic sampling capabilities based on the Dynamic Event Tree approach. In order to provide to all MOOSE-based applications a control logic capability, in this Fiscal Year an initial migration activity has been initiated, moving the control logic system, designed for RELAP-7 by the RAVEN team, into the MOOSE framework. In this document, a brief explanation of what has been done is going to be reported. The second and most important subject of this report is about the development of a Dynamic Event Tree (DET) sampler named “Hybrid Dynamic Event Tree” (HDET) and its Adaptive variant “Adaptive Hybrid Dynamic Event Tree” (AHDET). As other authors have already reported, among the different types of uncertainties, it is possible to discern two principle types: aleatory and epistemic uncertainties. The classical Dynamic Event Tree is in charge of treating the first class (aleatory) uncertainties; the dependence of the probabilistic risk assessment and analysis on the epistemic uncertainties are treated by an initial Monte Carlo sampling (MCDET). From each Monte Carlo sample, a DET analysis is run (in total, N trees). The Monte Carlo employs a pre-sampling of the

  15. Computer simulation of control strategies for optimal anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Strömberg, S; Possfelt, M O; Liu, J

    2013-01-01

    Three previously published control strategies for anaerobic digestion were implemented in Simulink/Matlab using Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) to model the biological process. The controllers' performance were then simulated and evaluated based on their responses from five different types of process scenarios i.e. start-up and steady state performance as well as disturbances from concentration, pH and ammonia in the inflow. Of the three evaluated control strategies, the extremum-seeking variable gain controller gave the best overall performance. However, a proportional feedback controller based on the pH-level, used as a reference case in the evaluation, proved to give as good results as the extremum-seeking variable gain controller but with a lower wear on the pump. It was therefore concluded that a fast proportional control of the reactor pH is a key element for optimally controlling a low-buffering anaerobic digestion process.

  16. Controlling death: the false promise of advance directives.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Henry S

    2007-07-01

    Advance directives promise patients a say in their future care but actually have had little effect. Many experts blame problems with completion and implementation, but the advance directive concept itself may be fundamentally flawed. Advance directives simply presuppose more control over future care than is realistic. Medical crises cannot be predicted in detail, making most prior instructions difficult to adapt, irrelevant, or even misleading. Furthermore, many proxies either do not know patients' wishes or do not pursue those wishes effectively. Thus, unexpected problems arise often to defeat advance directives, as the case in this paper illustrates. Because advance directives offer only limited benefit, advance care planning should emphasize not the completion of directives but the emotional preparation of patients and families for future crises. The existentialist Albert Camus might suggest that physicians should warn patients and families that momentous, unforeseeable decisions lie ahead. Then, when the crisis hits, physicians should provide guidance; should help make decisions despite the inevitable uncertainties; should share responsibility for those decisions; and, above all, should courageously see patients and families through the fearsome experience of dying.

  17. Handbook II: Advanced Teaching Strategies for Adjunct and Part-Time Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greive, Donald E., Ed.

    This handbook is designed to help part-time and adjunct faculty who need professional enhancement but do not have the time for formal coursework. The focus is on the modern student, who differs in many ways from the traditional college student. The book provides more advanced strategies that those presented in the earlier "Handbook for…

  18. Development of cost effective fenceline monitoring approaches to support advanced leak detection and repair strategies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cost-effective fence line and process monitoring systems to support advanced leak detection and repair (LDAR) strategies can enhance protection of public health, facilitate worker safety, and help companies realize cost savings by reducing lost product. The U.S. EPA Office of Re...

  19. Multisectoral Strategies for Advancing Girls' Education: Principles and Practice. SAGE Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Howard

    This paper describes issues, experiences, and strategies used in developing successful multisectoral partnerships to advance girls' education, using Guinea and Morocco as examples. Chapter 1 introduces the issue, discussing barriers to girls' education and describing the multisectoral response to interrelated barriers. Chapter 2 defines the…

  20. Creating a Web of Support: An Important Leadership Strategy for Advancing Campus Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezar, Adrianna; Eckel, Peter; Contreras-McGavin, Melissa; Quaye, Stephen John

    2008-01-01

    Research demonstrates that leadership, particularly among presidents, is important for moving a diversity agenda forward and make appreciable progress on it. The research questions pursued here are: What is the role of the college president in advancing a diversity agenda? What strategies do presidents identify as important to facilitating a…

  1. Strategy for advancement of IRP in public power, Volume 2: Technical appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Garrick, C.J.

    1995-10-01

    NREL and subcontractor Garrick & Associates are conducting the Advancement of integrated resource planning (IRP) in Public Power Program, sponsored by DOE. The program is intended to develop a consistent strategy for DOE to advance IRP practices in the publicly and cooperatively owned utility sector. The IRP advancement program includes two major tasks: key participant involvement and strategy development. The Program`s initial task is to involve key public and cooperative utility organizations and their constituents in the development of the IRP advancement strategy. Key Participant Involvement is accomplished through two distinct subtasks: Needs Assessment and Steering Committee Involvement. The Needs Assessment identifies key participant needs, expectations, common interests, issues, and divergences that must be addressed by the IRP program. The results of this effort, which are presented in this {open_quotes}Needs Assessment Summary Report,{close_quotes} provide a foundation for the specific strategy development efforts conducted later in the IRP project. The remaining sections of this report present the approach to the Needs Assessment subtask and summarize the findings of this effort.

  2. Reading Strategies Used by Advanced Korean and Chinese ESL Graduate Students: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bang, Hee Jin; Zhao, Cecilia Guanfang

    2007-01-01

    Research in second language acquisition and reading in particular indicate that certain literacy skills transfer across languages. This study examines the reading strategies used by advanced Korean and Chinese ESL learners. Particular attention is devoted to how word recognition and processing skills developed in learners' native languages (L1)…

  3. SARS: hospital infection control and admission strategies.

    PubMed

    Ho, Pak-Leung; Tang, Xiao-Ping; Seto, Wing-Hong

    2003-11-01

    Nosocomial clustering with transmission to health care workers, patients and visitors is a prominent feature of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Hospital outbreaks of SARS typically occurred within the first week after admission of the very first SARS cases when the disease was not recognized and before isolation measures were implemented. In the majority of nosocomial infections, there was a history of close contact with a SARS patient, and transmission occurred via large droplets, direct contact with infectious material or by contact with fomites contaminated by infectious material. In a few instances, potential airborne transmission was reported in association with endotracheal intubation, nebulised medications and non-invasive positive pressure ventilation of SARS patients. In all SARS-affected countries, nosocomial transmission of the disease was effectively halted by enforcement of routine standard, contact and droplet precautions in all clinical areas and additional airborne precautions in the high-risk areas. In Hong Kong, where there are few private rooms for patient isolation, some hospitals have obtained good outcome by having designated SARS teams and separate wards for patient triage, confirmed SARS cases and step-down of patients in whom SARS had been ruled out. In conclusion, SARS represents one of the new challenges for those who are involved in hospital infection control. As SARS might re-emerge, all hospitals should take advantage of the current SARS-free interval to review their infection control programmes, alert mechanisms, response capability and to repair any identified inadequacies.

  4. A study of copper corrosion control strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Qureshi, N.; Sjolund, W.

    1994-10-01

    In compliance with the Lead and Copper Rule of the 1986 Safe Drinking Water Act, Brainerd Public Utilities tested the first drawn water from 60 sampling sites within the city. Ninety percent of these site samples contained elevated copper levels in excess of the 1.3 mg/L (1,300 ppb) action level established by the EPA standard. The samples, however, did not exceed the 0.015 mg/L (15 ppb) action level for lead. A water quality study evaluated the various options for copper corrosion control using a test stand for approximately five months starting in May 1993. The study evaluated the effectiveness of applying various chemicals for the control of copper corrosion. Chemicals tested included sodium hydroxide (NaOH) (for pH adjustment); sodium silicate; ortho/polyphosphate (Calgon C-4). The study also examined the possibility of reducing the level of dissolved oxygen in the water during aeration as a means of reducing the level of copper corrosion.

  5. Field evaluation of advanced controls for the retrofit of packaged air conditioners and heat pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Ngo, Hung; Underhill, Ronald M.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Lutes, Robert G.

    2015-09-01

    This paper documents the magnitude of energy savings achievable in the field by retrofitting existing packaged rooftop units (RTUs) with advanced control strategies not ordinarily used for RTUs. A total of 66 RTUs on 8 different buildings were retrofitted with a commercially available advanced controller for improving RTU operational efficiency. The controller features enhanced air-side economizer control, multi-speed fan control, and demand controlled ventilation. Of the 66 RTUs, 18 are packaged heat pumps and the rest are packaged air conditioners with gas heat. The eight buildings cover four building types and four climate conditions. Based on the data collected for about a whole year, the advanced controller reduced the normalized annual RTU energy consumption between 22% and 90%, with an average of 57% for all RTUs. The average fractional savings uncertainty was 12% at 95% confidence level. Normalized annual electricity savings were in the range between 0.47 kWh/h (kWh per hour of RTU operation) and 7.21 kWh/h, with an average of 2.39 kWh/h. RTUs greater than 53 kW and runtime greater than 14 hours per day had payback periods less than 3 years even at $0.05/kWh.

  6. Spectrophotometric Procedure for Fast Reactor Advanced Coolant Manufacture Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrienko, O. S.; Egorov, N. B.; Zherin, I. I.; Indyk, D. V.

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes a spectrophotometric procedure for fast reactor advanced coolant manufacture control. The molar absorption coefficient of dimethyllead dibromide with dithizone was defined as equal to 68864 ± 795 l·mole-1·cm-1, limit of detection as equal to 0.583 · 10-6 g/ml. The spectrophotometric procedure application range was found to be equal to 37.88 - 196.3 g. of dimethyllead dibromide in the sample. The procedure was used within the framework of the development of the method of synthesis of the advanced coolant for fast reactors.

  7. Control strategy for cooperating disparate manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lew, Jae Young

    1989-01-01

    To manipulate large payloads typical of space construction, the concept of a small arm mounted on the end of a large arm is introduced. The main purposes of such a configuration are to increase the structural stiffness of the robot by bracing against or locking to a stationary frame, and to maintain a firm position constraint between the robot's base and workpieces by grasping them. Possible topologies for a combination of disparate large and small arms are discussed, and kinematics, dynamics, controls, and coordination of the two arms, especially when they brace at the tip of the small arm, are developed. The feasibility and improvement in performance are verified, not only with analytical work and simulation results but also with experiments on the existing arrangement Robotic Arm Large and Flexible and Small Articulated Manipulator.

  8. The DPC-2000 advanced control system for the Dynamitron accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kestler, Bernard A.; Lisanti, Thomas F.

    1993-07-01

    The DPC-2000 is an advanced control system utilizing the latest technology in computer control circuitry and components. Its overall design is modular and technologically advanced to keep up with customer and engineering demands. The full control system is presented as four units. They are the Remote I/O (Input / Output), Local Analog and Digital I/O, Operator Interface and the Main Computer. The central processing unit, the heart of the system, executes a high level language program that communicates to the different sub-assemblies through advanced serial and parallel communication lines. All operational parameters of the accelerator are monitored, controlled and corrected at close to 20 times per second. The operator is provided with a selection of many informative screen displays. The control program handles all graphic screen displays and the updating of these screens directly; it does not have to communicate to a display terminal. This adds to the quick response and excellent operator feedback received while operating the machine. The CPU also has the ability to store and record all process variable setpoints for each product that will be treated. This allows the operator to set up the process parameters by selecting the product identification code from a menu presented on the display screen. All process parameters are printed to report at regular intervals during a process run for later analysis and record keeping.

  9. Advanced actuators for the control of large space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downer, James; Hockney, Richard; Johnson, Bruce; Misovec, Kathleen

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this research was to develop advanced six-degree-of-freedom actuators employing magnetic suspensions suitable for the control of structural vibrations in large space structures. The advanced actuators consist of a magnetically suspended mass that has three-degrees-of-freedom in both translation and rotation. The most promising of these actuators featured a rotating suspended mass providing structural control torques in a manner similar to a control moment gyro (CMG). These actuators employ large-angle-magnetic suspensions that allow gimballing of the suspended mass without mechanical gimbals. Design definitions and sizing algorithms for these CMG type as well as angular reaction mass actuators based on multi-degree-of-freedom magnetic suspensions were developed. The performance of these actuators was analytically compared with conventional reaction mass actuators for a simple space structure model.

  10. 40 CFR 123.46 - Individual control strategies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... is sufficient, in combination with existing controls on point and nonpoint sources of pollution, to... Section 123.46 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS STATE..., approval, and implementation an individual control strategy for each point source identified by the...

  11. 40 CFR 123.46 - Individual control strategies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... is sufficient, in combination with existing controls on point and nonpoint sources of pollution, to... Section 123.46 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS STATE..., approval, and implementation an individual control strategy for each point source identified by the...

  12. 40 CFR 123.46 - Individual control strategies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... is sufficient, in combination with existing controls on point and nonpoint sources of pollution, to... Section 123.46 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS STATE..., approval, and implementation an individual control strategy for each point source identified by the...

  13. 40 CFR 123.46 - Individual control strategies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... is sufficient, in combination with existing controls on point and nonpoint sources of pollution, to... Section 123.46 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS STATE..., approval, and implementation an individual control strategy for each point source identified by the...

  14. 40 CFR 123.46 - Individual control strategies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... is sufficient, in combination with existing controls on point and nonpoint sources of pollution, to... Section 123.46 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS STATE..., approval, and implementation an individual control strategy for each point source identified by the...

  15. Strategies for Control of Man-Made Eutrophication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grundy, Richard D.

    1971-01-01

    The key concerns for both long- and short-term control strategies for cultural eutrophication are: (1) controls which reflect the regional character of the problem, and (2) concern for the potential public health and environmental implications of the nonphosphate detergent formulations. (Author/CP)

  16. 40 CFR 52.1373 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted revisions to the SIP narrative for the Missoula carbon monoxide control plan. (b) Revisions to the Montana State Implementation...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1373 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted revisions to the SIP narrative for the Missoula carbon monoxide control plan. (b) Revisions to the Montana State Implementation...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1373 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted revisions to the SIP narrative for the Missoula carbon monoxide control plan. (b) Revisions to the Montana State Implementation...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1373 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted revisions to the SIP narrative for the Missoula carbon monoxide control plan. (b) Revisions to the Montana State Implementation...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1373 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted revisions to the SIP narrative for the Missoula carbon monoxide control plan. (b) Revisions to the Montana State Implementation...