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Sample records for advanced cyclone processes

  1. Evaluation, engineering and development of advanced cyclone processes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Evaluation, Engineering and Development of Advanced Cyclone Processes'' is a research and development project for the reduction of pyritic sulfur in coal. Project goals are to remove 80 to 90% of the ash and pyritic sulfur while retaining 80 to 90% of the parent coal's heating value. A number of media and media separator options are to be evaluated and tested, culminating with the implementation of the preferred combination in a 1,000 lb/hr bench-scale process optimization circuit.

  2. Evaluation, engineering and development of advanced cyclone processes

    SciTech Connect

    Durney, T.E.; Cook, A.; Ferris, D.D.

    1995-11-01

    This research and development project is one of three seeking to develop advanced, cost-effective, coal cleaning processes to help industry comply with 1990 Clean Air Act Regulations. The specific goal for this project is to develop a cycloning technology that will beneficiate coal to a level approaching 85% pyritic sulfur rejection while retaining 85% of the parent coal`s heating value. A clean coal ash content of less than 6% and a moisture content, for both clean coal and reject, of less than 30% are targeted. The process under development is a physical, gravimetric-based cleaning system that removes ash bearing mineral matter and pyritic sulfur. Since a large portion of the Nation`s coal reserves contain significant amounts of pyrite, physical beneficiation is viewed as a potential near-term, cost effective means of producing an environmentally acceptable fuel.

  3. Evaluation, engineering and development of advanced cyclone processes. Final separating media evaluation and test report (FSMER). Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This report consists of appendices pertaining to the separating media evaluation (calcium nitrate solution) and testing for an advanced cyclone process. Appendices include: materials safety data, aqueous medium regeneration, pH control strategy, and other notes and data.

  4. Evaluation, engineering and development of advanced cyclone processes. Quarterly technical progress report No. 4, July 1, 1991--September 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    ``Evaluation, Engineering and Development of Advanced Cyclone Processes`` is a research and development project for the reduction of pyritic sulfur in coal. Project goals are to remove 80 to 90% of the ash and pyritic sulfur while retaining 80 to 90% of the parent coal`s heating value. A number of media and media separator options are to be evaluated and tested, culminating with the implementation of the preferred combination in a 1,000 lb/hr bench-scale process optimization circuit.

  5. Advances in dust cyclone research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dust cyclones reduce particulate emissions but their operation consumes electrical energy. Response surface methodology was used to compare two strategies to reduce energy costs without increasing emissions. Cyclones of a standard design (1D3D) were operated singly and in series, as was an ‘Experi...

  6. Mesoscale Processes in Tropical Cyclones

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    available work relates to forecast rules relating the observed effects of external processes on the convective structure (e.g. Merrill 1993). Whilst the...cyclone could not exist without moist convection , we have found that some cloud processes also provide an inhibition to intensification. An example is

  7. Evaluation, engineering and development of advanced cyclone processes. Quarterly technical progress report No. 15, April 1, 1994--June 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The project goal is to develop an advanced coal beneficiation technology that can achieve high recovery of the parent coal`s calorific value, while maximizing pyritic sulfur removal. Coal cleaning is to be accomplished by physical means incorporating an advanced form of cycloning or gravimetric process. Evaluation of different media types and their attendant systems for recovery, concentration, and regeneration is to be completed. Phase I, media evaluation, now completed involved a paper study and a number of laboratory tests to eliminate all but the best media options. Phase II, media testing, involved detailed testing of the more promising media and separators in a closed-loop pilot facility circuit. In the final phase, Phase III, it is proposed to test individual components of the process using the optimum medium, separator, and medium recovery systems(s) selected in prior phases. Some of the highlights for this reporting period are: (1) Outomec conducted a second set of hot water wash experiments. These hot water experiments, using prefiltered medium, yielded a significant improvement in calcium nitrate recovery, and showed a consistent decrease in residuum calcium nitrate with increasing wash rate. (2) Several alternatives were investigated for potential reduction in thermal regeneration process costs. Culligan, Spin Tek, and Rochem, manufacturers of reverse osmosis or ultra filtration systems were contacted. Rochem ultimately performed laboratory experiments. Starting with a dilute medium density of 1.07, the Rochem laboratory system achieved a density of 1.11. A density of 1.22 sg would be commercially attainable. This is less than the target medium density of 1.35, meaning that if their system were utilized, some thermal means would still be required to regenerate medium to operating density. (3) Management and Technical Systems initiated work on a preliminary economic study and will submit a report during the next quarterly reporting period.

  8. Evaluation of a Combined Cyclone and Gas Filtration System for Particulate Removal in the Gasification Process

    SciTech Connect

    Rizzo, Jeffrey J.

    2010-04-30

    The Wabash gasification facility, owned and operated by sgSolutions LLC, is one of the largest single train solid fuel gasification facilities in the world capable of transforming 2,000 tons per day of petroleum coke or 2,600 tons per day of bituminous coal into synthetic gas for electrical power generation. The Wabash plant utilizes Phillips66 proprietary E-Gas (TM) Gasification Process to convert solid fuels such as petroleum coke or coal into synthetic gas that is fed to a combined cycle combustion turbine power generation facility. During plant startup in 1995, reliability issues were realized in the gas filtration portion of the gasification process. To address these issues, a slipstream test unit was constructed at the Wabash facility to test various filter designs, materials and process conditions for potential reliability improvement. The char filtration slipstream unit provided a way of testing new materials, maintenance procedures, and process changes without the risk of stopping commercial production in the facility. It also greatly reduced maintenance expenditures associated with full scale testing in the commercial plant. This char filtration slipstream unit was installed with assistance from the United States Department of Energy (built under DOE Contract No. DE-FC26-97FT34158) and began initial testing in November of 1997. It has proven to be extremely beneficial in the advancement of the E-Gas (TM) char removal technology by accurately predicting filter behavior and potential failure mechanisms that would occur in the commercial process. After completing four (4) years of testing various filter types and configurations on numerous gasification feed stocks, a decision was made to investigate the economic and reliability effects of using a particulate removal gas cyclone upstream of the current gas filtration unit. A paper study had indicated that there was a real potential to lower both installed capital and operating costs by implementing a char

  9. Advanced Numerical Prediction and Modeling of Tropical Cyclones Using WRF-NMM modeling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalakrishnan, S. G.; Rogers, R. F.; Marks, F. D.; Atlas, R.

    2007-12-01

    Dramatic improvement in tropical cyclone track forecasts have occurred through advancements in high quality observations, high speed computers and improvements in dynamical models. Similar advancements now need to be made for tropical cyclone intensity, structure and rainfall prediction. The Weather Research Forecasting Model (WRF) is a general purpose, multi-institutional mesoscale modeling system. A version of the WRF model called the HWRF/WRF-NMM modeling system, developed at the National Center for Environmental Protection (NCEP) was recently adopted for hurricane forecasting (Gopalakrishnan et al, 2006) by the National Hurricane Center (NHC). At the Hurricane Research Division (HRD/AOML/OAR) we are developing and further advancing a research version of this modeling system. This work is done in collaboration with the Developmental Test bed Center (DTC), Boulder, CO, Global Systems division (GSD/ESRL/OAR), Boulder, CO, The Air Resources Laboratory (ARL/OAR), Washington, D.C., the U.S. university community, the Indian Institute of Technology, IIT.Delhi, India, and the India Meteorological Department, New Delhi, India Our modeling effort includes advancing the WRF system for Ensemble Hurricane Forecasting, advancing our understanding of Ensemble-vs- High Resolution Forecasting of Hurricanes, advancing WRF/WRF-NMM with better analysis techniques (e.g. Four Dimensional Data Assimilation) for improving forecasts and above all, advancing our understanding of hurricane processes using a high resolution numerical modeling approach. Examples of some of these applications will be shown here. Reference: NCEP's Two-way-Interactive-Moving-Nest NMM-WRF modeling system for Hurricane Forecasting, S.G. Gopalakrishnan, N. Surgi, R. Tuleya, and Z. Janjic 27th Conference on Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology, 24- 28 April 2006, Monterey, California.

  10. Cyclone oil shale retorting concept. [Use it all retorting process

    SciTech Connect

    Harak, A.E.; Little, W.E.; Faulders, C.R.

    1984-04-01

    A new concept for above-ground retorting of oil shale was disclosed by A.E. Harak in US Patent No. 4,340,463, dated July 20, 1982, and assigned to the US Department of Energy. This patent titled System for Utilizing Oil Shale Fines, describes a process wherein oil shale fines of one-half inch diameter and less are pyrolyzed in an entrained-flow reactor using hot gas from a cyclone combustor. Spent shale and supplemental fuel are burned at slagging conditions in this combustor. Because of fines utilization, the designation Use It All Retorting Process (UIARP) has been adopted. A preliminary process engineering design of the UIARP, analytical tests on six samples of raw oil shale, and a preliminary technical and economic evaluation of the process were performed. The results of these investigations are summarized in this report. The patent description is included. It was concluded that such changes as deleting air preheating in the slag quench and replacing the condenser with a quench-oil scrubber are recognized as being essential. The addition of an entrained flow raw shale preheater ahead of the cyclone retort is probably required, but final acceptance is felt to be contingent on some verification that adequate reaction time cannot be obtained with only the cyclone, or possibly some other twin-cyclone configuration. Sufficient raw shale preheating could probably be done more simply in another manner, perhaps in a screw conveyor shale transporting system. Results of the technical and economic evaluations of Jacobs Engineering indicate that further investigation of the UIARP is definitely worthwhile. The projected capital and operating costs are competitive with costs of other processes as long as electric power generation and sales are part of the processing facility.

  11. Validation of Rain-Rate Retrieved from Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) over the Tropical Cyclone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byon, J.

    2002-12-01

    Rain-rate retrieval using the NOAA/AMSU (Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit) (Zaho et al., 2001) has been implemented at METRI/KMA since 2001. Here, we present the validation results of the AMSU derived rain-rate, especially for the rainfall associated with the tropical cyclone for 2001 and 2002. For the validation, we use rain-rate derived from the ground based radar and/or rainfall observation from the rain gauge in Korea. We estimate the bias score, threat score, bias, RMSE and correlation coefficient for total of 25 tropical cyclone cases. Bias score shows around 1.3 and it increases with the increasing threshold value of rain-rate, while the threat score extends from 0.4 to 0.6 with the increasing threshold value of precipitation. The averaged rain-rate for all 25 cases is 3.23mm/hr and 1.01mm/hr for the retrieved from AMSU and the ground observation, respectively. On the other hand, AMSU rain-rate shows a much better agreement with the ground based observation over inner part of tropical cyclone than over the outer part (Correlation coefficient for convective region is about 0.7, while it is only about 0.3 over the stratiform region). The larger discrepancy of the correlation coefficient with the different part of the tropical cyclone is partly due to the time difference in between ice water path and surface rainfall. Another possible cause is the different vertical rain structure within the tropical cyclone which will be further investigated. The detailed procedure we modified for the improvement of current algorithm will be discussed in the presentation. Reference Zaho, L., F. Weng, and R. Ferraro, 2001: A physically-based algorithm to derive surface rainfall rate using advanced microwave sounding unit-B (AMSU-B) measurements. 11th Conf. on satellite meteorology and oceanography, American Meteorological Society 371-374.

  12. Modelling of the process of coal dust combustion in a cyclone furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarzycki, Robert; Bis, Zbigniew

    2017-04-01

    This study presents the concept of a cyclone furnace for coal dust oxy-fuel combustion and gasification. The results of numerical calculations for the combustion and gasification processes were also presented.

  13. Advanced In-Furnace NOx Control for Wall and Cyclone-Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Hamid Sarv

    2009-02-28

    A NO{sub x} minimization strategy for coal-burning wall-fired and cyclone boilers was developed that included deep air staging, innovative oxygen use, reburning, and advanced combustion control enhancements. Computational fluid dynamics modeling was applied to refine and select the best arrangements. Pilot-scale tests were conducted by firing an eastern high-volatile bituminous Pittsburgh No.8 coal at 5 million Btu/hr in a facility that was set up with two-level overfire air (OFA) ports. In the wall-fired mode, pulverized coal was burned in a geometrically scaled down version of the B and W DRB-4Z{reg_sign} low-NO{sub x} burner. At a fixed overall excess air level of 17%, NO{sub x} emissions with single-level OFA ports were around 0.32 lb/million Btu at 0.80 burner stoichiometry. Two-level OFA operation lowered the NO{sub x} levels to 0.25 lb/million Btu. Oxygen enrichment in the staged burner reduced the NO{sub x} values to 0.21 lb/million Btu. Oxygen enrichment plus reburning and 2-level OFA operation further curbed the NO{sub x} emissions to 0.19 lb/million Btu or by 41% from conventional air-staged operation with single-level OFA ports. In the cyclone firing arrangement, oxygen enrichment of the cyclone combustor enabled high-temperature and deeply staged operation while maintaining good slag tapping. Firing the Pittsburgh No.8 coal in the optimum arrangement generated 112 ppmv NO{sub x} (0.15 lb/million Btu) and 59 ppmv CO. The optimum emissions results represent 88% NO{sub x} reduction from the uncontrolled operation. Levelized costs for additional NO{sub x} removal by various in-furnace control methods in reference wall-fired or cyclone-fired units already equipped with single-level OFA ports were estimated and compared with figures for SCR systems achieving 0.1 lb NO{sub x}/10{sup 6} Btu. Two-level OFA ports could offer the most economical approach for moderate NO{sub x} control, especially for smaller units. O{sub 2} enrichment in combination with 2-level

  14. Cyclone Boiler Field Testing of Advanced Layered NOx Control Technology in Sioux Unit 1

    SciTech Connect

    Marc A. Cremer; Bradley R. Adams

    2006-06-30

    A four week testing program was completed during this project to assess the ability of the combination of deep staging, Rich Reagent Injection (RRI), and Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) to reduce NOx emissions below 0.15 lb/MBtu in a cyclone fired boiler. The host site for the tests was AmerenUE's Sioux Unit 1, a 500 MW cyclone fired boiler located near St. Louis, MO. Reaction Engineering International (REI) led the project team including AmerenUE, FuelTech Inc., and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). This layered approach to NOx reduction is termed the Advanced Layered Technology Approach (ALTA). Installed RRI and SNCR port locations were guided by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based modeling conducted by REI. During the parametric testing, NOx emissions of 0.12 lb/MBtu were achieved consistently from overfire air (OFA)-only baseline NOx emissions of 0.25 lb/MBtu or less, when firing the typical 80/20 fuel blend of Powder River Basin (PRB) and Illinois No.6 coals. From OFA-only baseline levels of 0.20 lb/MBtu, NOx emissions of 0.12 lb/MBtu were also achieved, but at significantly reduced urea flow rates. Under the deeply staged conditions that were tested, RRI performance was observed to degrade as higher blends of Illinois No.6 were used. NOx emissions achieved with ALTA while firing a 60/40 blend were approximately 0.15 lb/MBtu. NOx emissions while firing 100% Illinois No.6 were approximately 0.165 lb/MBtu. Based on the performance results of these tests, economics analyses of the application of ALTA to a nominal 500 MW cyclone unit show that the levelized cost to achieve 0.15 lb/MBtu is well below 75% of the cost of a state of the art SCR.

  15. DMS cyclone separation processes for optimization of plastic wastes recycling and their implications.

    PubMed

    Gent, Malcolm Richard; Menendez, Mario; Toraño, Javier; Torno, Susana

    2011-06-01

    It is demonstrated that substantial reductions in plastics presently disposed of in landfills can be achieved by cyclone density media separation (DMS). In comparison with the size fraction of plastics presently processed by industrial density separations (generally 6.4 to 9.5 mm), cyclone DMS methods are demonstrated to effectively process a substantially greater range of particle sizes (from 0.5 up to 120 mm). The purities of plastic products and recoveries obtained with a single stage separation using a cylindrical cyclone are shown to attain virtually 100% purity and recoveries >99% for high-density fractions and >98% purity and recoveries were obtained for low-density products. Four alternative schemas of multi-stage separations are presented and analyzed as proposed methods to obtain total low- and high-density plastics fraction recoveries while maintaining near 100% purities. The results of preliminary tests of two of these show that the potential for processing product purities and recoveries >99.98% of both density fractions are indicated. A preliminary economic comparison of capital costs of DMS systems suggests cyclone DMS methods to be comparable with other DMS processes even if the high volume capacity for recycling operations of these is not optimized.

  16. Sensitivity of movement and intensity of severe cyclone AILA to the physical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rambabu, S.; Gayatri Vani, D.; Ramakrishna, S. S. V. S.; Rama, G. V.; Apparao, B. V.

    2013-08-01

    Accurate prediction of movement and intensity of tropical cyclone is still most challenging problem in numerical weather prediction. The positive progress in this field can be achieved by providing network of observations in the storm region and best representation of atmospheric physical processes in the model. In the present study later part was attempted to investigate the sensitivity of movement and intensity of the severe cyclonic storm AILA to different physical processes in the Weather Research and Forecasting model. Three sets of experiments were conducted for convection, microphysics (MP) and planetary boundary layer (PBL) processes. Model-simulated fields like minimum central surface pressure, maximum surface wind, track and vector displacement error are considered to test the sensitivity. The results indicate that the movement of the system is more sensitive to the cumulus physics and the intensity of the cyclone is sensitive to both PBL and cumulus physics. The combination of Betts Miller Janjic (BMJ) for convection, Yonsei University (YSU) for PBL and Purdue Lin (LIN) for microphysics is found to perform better than other combination schemes. The horizontal and vertical features of the system along with its special features like complete northward movement of the system throughout the travel period and the consistent cyclonic storm intensity until 15 hrs after the landfall could be well simulated by the model.

  17. Advances in Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, David L.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Advances in electronics and computer science have enabled industries (pulp/paper, iron/steel, petroleum/chemical) to attain better control of their processes with resulting increases in quality, productivity, profitability, and compliance with government regulations. (JN)

  18. Advanced Refractory and Anti-Wearing Technology of Cyclone Separator in CFB Boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H. P.; Shen, Y. Q.; Wang, X. H.; Dai, X. M.; Xue, H. Y.; Liu, D. C.

    The circulating fluidized bed is playing more and more vital role in the electric power field. Cyclone separator as the heart of the circulating fluidized bed combustion boiler, the technology of fire-resistant anti-wear layer in cyclone separator is the guarantee for the long-life and working safety of CFB unit. Based on the comparison of insulation-cyclone and water-cooled cyclone, a novel technology of Anchor bricks use in the cyclone separator was put forward. The temperature of Anchor brick surface is just 80˜90°C, much lower than conventional technology. The problems caused by conventional Y-shaped hook welding were overcome, such as fire-resistant anti-wear layer burned, fire-resistant anti-wear layer rupture, the high temperature of separator's surface, a large number of heat dissipation and etc. Simultaneously, three types of Anchor brick were designed for the different parts of cyclone. It was applied successfully in Thermal Power Plant in Shaoguan Iron and Steel Company. The life time and the operation cycle of the fire-resistant anti-wear layer of the cyclone were prolonged, and the number of boiler off was reduced greatly. Hence, the continuous operation time of boiler was extended. It played a key role in improving the overall economic efficiency of power plant. It is great for the utilization and development of CFB technology.

  19. Energy Conservation/Waste Reduction in the Processing of Soft (Unfired) Ceramic Particles Via Dynamic Cyclone Classification

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Steve R.

    2003-04-15

    The objective of this project was to advance the development of a novel inertial classifier technology to a full-scale industrial product by sequentially evaluating performance of pre-commercial prototypes. The technology, termed a ''Dynamic Cyclone Classifier'' (DCC), utilizes boundary layers on rotating annular disks to effect particle separation with minimal particle-rotor impaction. Although a large (2-ton/hr) DCC was originally envisioned for use within the mining industry, a smaller (kg/hr) sub-10-mm ''Fine Particle Dynamic Cyclone Classifier'' (FPDCC) was subsequently developed as a result of market research that showed higher commercialization potential for classifying ultrafine powders. Modified FPDCC prototypes were iteratively tested and evaluated in the sub-10-mm particle size range using standardized test particles (i.e., ISO Fine test dust). Classification performance tests were assessed by varying device parameters to define the operational envelope of the device to obtain sharp classification cuts, to maximize particle dispersion, to limit particle attrition and to increase production yields. The FPDCC exhibited sub-10-mm performance using both ideal (ISO test dust) and pharmaceutical excipient (calcium carbonate) ultrafine powders. Performance was compared with conventional classification technologies having the ability to process sub-10-mm ultrafine powders, specifically high-efficiency cyclones (HECs) and rotary vane classifiers (RVCs). The FPDCC can generate sharper classification cuts than high-pressure/high efficiency cyclones (HECs), since there is no turbulent particle re-entrainment, while using as much as 95% less energy. Being vaneless, particle impact with high RPM rotor components in the FPDCC is much less severe than in rotary vane classifiers (RVCs), leading to less critical component wear/erosion and concomitantly reducing potential product attrition and contamination. FPDCC energy usage is also less than in RVCs, since rotating

  20. Advanced Polymer Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Muenchausen, Ross E.

    2012-07-25

    Some conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Radiation-assisted nanotechnology applications will continue to grow; (2) The APPF will provide a unique focus for radiolytic processing of nanomaterials in support of DOE-DP, other DOE and advanced manufacturing initiatives; (3) {gamma}, X-ray, e-beam and ion beam processing will increasingly be applied for 'green' manufacturing of nanomaterials and nanocomposites; and (4) Biomedical science and engineering may ultimately be the biggest application area for radiation-assisted nanotechnology development.

  1. Using Enabling Technologies to Advance Data Intensive Analysis Tools in the JPL Tropical Cyclone Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knosp, B.; Gangl, M. E.; Hristova-Veleva, S. M.; Kim, R. M.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Li, P.; Niamsuwan, N.; Shen, T. P. J.; Turk, F. J.; Vu, Q. A.

    2014-12-01

    The JPL Tropical Cyclone Information System (TCIS) brings together satellite, aircraft, and model forecast data from several NASA, NOAA, and other data centers to assist researchers in comparing and analyzing data related to tropical cyclones. The TCIS has been supporting specific science field campaigns, such as the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) campaign and the Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) campaign, by creating near real-time (NRT) data visualization portals. These portals are intended to assist in mission planning, enhance the understanding of current physical processes, and improve model data by comparing it to satellite and aircraft observations. The TCIS NRT portals allow the user to view plots on a Google Earth interface. To compliment these visualizations, the team has been working on developing data analysis tools to let the user actively interrogate areas of Level 2 swath and two-dimensional plots they see on their screen. As expected, these observation and model data are quite voluminous and bottlenecks in the system architecture can occur when the databases try to run geospatial searches for data files that need to be read by the tools. To improve the responsiveness of the data analysis tools, the TCIS team has been conducting studies on how to best store Level 2 swath footprints and run sub-second geospatial searches to discover data. The first objective was to improve the sampling accuracy of the footprints being stored in the TCIS database by comparing the Java-based NASA PO.DAAC Level 2 Swath Generator with a TCIS Python swath generator. The second objective was to compare the performance of four database implementations - MySQL, MySQL+Solr, MongoDB, and PostgreSQL - to see which database management system would yield the best geospatial query and storage performance. The final objective was to integrate our chosen technologies with our Joint Probability Density Function (Joint PDF), Wave Number Analysis, and

  2. PFB coal fired combined cycle development program. Advanced hot gas cleanup concept evaluation (Task 4. 3). Volume B. Developmental cyclone evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-02-01

    This report summarizes the results of cold flow model testing of a conventional reverse-flow cyclone containing several developmental features designed to improve its separative performance. The four advanced features evaluated were: Outlet Scroll Skimming - to remove particles from the high dust concentration region at the periphery of the outlet dust; Base Purge - to reduce reentrainment of dust from the disengagement hopper; Increased Outlet Duct Engagement - to reduce short-circuiting of the inlet dust into the outlet; and Vortex Shield - to stabilize the point of vortex attachment at the cyclone base and thus reduce base pickup. A schematic of the advanced cyclone, showing the various developmental features, is provided. The results of the cold flow experiments showed that substantial improvement (approximately 30% reduction in exhaust emission) could be obtained from outlet skimming or from increased engagement of the exhaust dust. Furthermore, the effects of these features are additive so that about 60% overall reduction in emissions could be achieved by incorporating both of these elements. On the other hand, the vortex shield and the base purge had little effect on the separative performance. Almost all of the experimental results exhibited strong electrostatic influence. At high flowrates, the separative performance of the cyclone decreased as the flowrate was reduced, as expected from cyclone theory. Although the improvements obtained with the developmental cyclone are significant, further improvements appear possible with the Air Shield cyclone and the Electrocyclone. Consequently, subsequent efforts under the CFCC program were focused on these concepts.

  3. The Role of Moist Processes in the Intrinsic Predictability of Indian Ocean Cyclones

    SciTech Connect

    Taraphdar, Sourav; Mukhopadhyay, P.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Zhang, Fuqing; Abhilash, S.; Goswami, B. N.

    2014-07-16

    The role of moist processes and the possibility of error cascade from cloud scale processes affecting the intrinsic predictable time scale of a high resolution convection permitting model within the environment of tropical cyclones (TCs) over the Indian region are investigated. Consistent with past studies of extra-tropical cyclones, it is demonstrated that moist processes play a major role in forecast error growth which may ultimately limit the intrinsic predictability of the TCs. Small errors in the initial conditions may grow rapidly and cascades from smaller scales to the larger scales through strong diabatic heating and nonlinearities associated with moist convection. Results from a suite of twin perturbation experiments for four tropical cyclones suggest that the error growth is significantly higher in cloud permitting simulation at 3.3 km resolutions compared to simulations at 3.3 km and 10 km resolution with parameterized convection. Convective parameterizations with prescribed convective time scales typically longer than the model time step allows the effects of microphysical tendencies to average out so convection responds to a smoother dynamical forcing. Without convective parameterizations, the finer-scale instabilities resolved at 3.3 km resolution and stronger vertical motion that results from the cloud microphysical parameterizations removing super-saturation at each model time step can ultimately feed the error growth in convection permitting simulations. This implies that careful considerations and/or improvements in cloud parameterizations are needed if numerical predictions are to be improved through increased model resolution. Rapid upscale error growth from convective scales may ultimately limit the intrinsic mesoscale predictability of the TCs, which further supports the needs for probabilistic forecasts of these events, even at the mesoscales.

  4. Advanced powder processing

    SciTech Connect

    Janney, M.A.

    1997-04-01

    Gelcasting is an advanced powder forming process. It is most commonly used to form ceramic or metal powders into complex, near-net shapes. Turbine rotors, gears, nozzles, and crucibles have been successfully gelcast in silicon nitride, alumina, nickel-based superalloy, and several steels. Gelcasting can also be used to make blanks that can be green machined to near-net shape and then high fired. Green machining has been successfully applied to both ceramic and metal gelcast blanks. Recently, the authors have used gelcasting to make tooling for metal casting applications. Most of the work has centered on H13 tool steel. They have demonstrated an ability to gelcast and sinter H13 to near net shape for metal casting tooling. Also, blanks of H13 have been cast, green machined into complex shape, and fired. Issues associated with forming, binder burnout, and sintering are addressed.

  5. Advanced microwave processing concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L.

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace; and (2) microwave curing of polymer composites. The variable frequency microwave furnace, whose initial conception and design was funded by the AIC Materials Program, will allow us, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies. Microwave curing of thermoset resins will be studied because it hold the potential of in-situ curing of continuous-fiber composites for strong, lightweight components. Microwave heating can shorten curing times, provided issues of scaleup, uniformity, and thermal management can be adequately addressed.

  6. Advanced microwave processing concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L.

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace; and (2) microwave curing of polymeric materials. The variable frequency microwave furnace, whose initial conception and design was funded by the AIM Materials Program, allows the authors, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies. Microwave curing of various thermoset resins will be studied because it holds the potential of in-situ curing of continuous-fiber composites for strong, lightweight components or in-situ curing of adhesives, including metal-to-metal. Microwave heating can shorten curing times, provided issues of scaleup, uniformity, and thermal management can be adequately addressed.

  7. Tropical cyclone formation

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, M.T.; Farrell, B.F. )

    1993-01-15

    The physics of tropical cyclone formation is not well understood, and more is known about the mature hurricane than the formative mechanisms that produce it. It is believed part of the reason for this can be traced to insufficient upper-level atmospheric data. Recent observations suggest that tropical cyclones are initiated by asymmetric interactions associated with migratory upper-level potential vorticity disturbances and low-level disturbances. Favored theories of cyclones formation, however, focus on internal processes associated with cumulus convection and/or air-sea interaction. This work focuses on external mechanisms of cyclone formation and, using both a two- and three-dimensional moist geostrophic momentum model, investigates the role of upper-level potential vorticity disturbances on the formation process. A conceptual model of tropical cyclone formation is proposed, and implications of the theory are discussed. 71 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Understand cyclone design

    SciTech Connect

    Coker, A.K. )

    1993-12-01

    Cyclones are widely used for the separation and recovery of industrial dusts from air or process gases. Cyclones are the principal type of gas-solids separator using centrifugal force. They are simple to construct, of low cost, and are made from a wide range of materials with an ability to operate at high temperatures and pressure. Cyclones are suitable for separating particles where agglomeration occurs. Pollution and emission regulations have compelled designers to study the efficiency of cyclones. Cyclones offer the least expensive means of dust collection. They give low efficiency for collection of particles smaller than 5 [mu]m. A high efficiency of 98% can be achieved on dusts with particle sizes of 0.1 to 0.2 [mu]m that are highly flocculated. The paper discusses the design procedure and operating parameters.

  9. Advanced Hydrogen Liquefaction Process

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Joseph; Kromer, Brian; Neu, Ben; Jankowiak, Jerome; Barrett, Philip; Drnevich, Raymond

    2011-09-28

    The project identified and quantified ways to reduce the cost of hydrogen liquefaction, and reduce the cost of hydrogen distribution. The goal was to reduce the power consumption by 20% and then to reduce the capital cost. Optimizing the process, improving process equipment, and improving ortho-para conversion significantly reduced the power consumption of liquefaction, but by less than 20%. Because the efficiency improvement was less than the target, the program was stopped before the capital cost was addressed. These efficiency improvements could provide a benefit to the public to improve the design of future hydrogen liquefiers. The project increased the understanding of hydrogen liquefaction by modeling different processes and thoroughly examining ortho-para separation and conversion. The process modeling provided a benefit to the public because the project incorporated para hydrogen into the process modeling software, so liquefaction processes can be modeled more accurately than using only normal hydrogen. Adding catalyst to the first heat exchanger, a simple method to reduce liquefaction power, was identified, analyzed, and quantified. The demonstrated performance of ortho-para separation is sufficient for at least one identified process concept to show reduced power cost when compared to hydrogen liquefaction processes using conventional ortho-para conversion. The impact of improved ortho-para conversion can be significant because ortho para conversion uses about 20-25% of the total liquefaction power, but performance improvement is necessary to realize a substantial benefit. Most of the energy used in liquefaction is for gas compression. Improvements in hydrogen compression will have a significant impact on overall liquefier efficiency. Improvements to turbines, heat exchangers, and other process equipment will have less impact.

  10. The Coal Tech Advanced Cyclone Combustor Demonstration Project: A DOE assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate a technology for retrofitting oil/gas designed boilers, and conventional pulverized coal-fired boilers, by using the patented air-cooled slagging coal combustor in place of oil/gas/coal burners. The project aimed to utilize coals with a wide range of sulfur contents and to achieve efficient combustion under fuel-rich conditions. The three performance goals of the combustor were to limit emissions of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}, while maintaining maximum sulfur retention in the slag removed from the combustor. A slagging cyclone combustor is a high-temperature device in which a high-velocity swirling gas is used to burn crushed or pulverized coal. The key novel feature of this combustor is the use of air cooling. This is accomplished by using a ceramic liner which is cooled by secondary air and maintained at a temperature high enough to keep the slag in a liquid, free-flowing state. The arrangement also promotes slag retention in the combustor, an important feature for retrofitting in boilers designed for oil/gas.

  11. Advanced Containerless Processing Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, T. G.

    1985-01-01

    Breadboards for high temperature containerless processing systems are to be developed, the principles of operation are to be studied, the performance is to be characterized, the limitations identified, and the influence of the acoustic field on the samples established. The subjects to be addressed are experimental and theoretical studies of: (1) acoustic positioning and manipulation capabilities in a high temperature gradient environment (from 26 C to 990 C); (2) acoustic waveforms, harmonic contents, power transfer, sample transport and stability associated with high temperature gradient system; (3) high temperature ground based levitation systems which will allow melting, processing, and solidifying samples without crucibles in the laboratory, (4) KC-135 and laboratory tests of various acoustic geometries which may have spherical applications in the Materials Processing in Space Program; and (5) provide technical information to Acoustics Containerless Experimental System (ACES) engineering team and establish the operation conditions for ACES.

  12. Sea ice trends and cyclone activity in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coggins, Jack; McDonald, Adrian; Rack, Wolfgang; Dale, Ethan

    2015-04-01

    Significant trends in the extent of Southern Hemisphere sea ice have been noted over the course of the satellite record, with highly variable trends between different seasons and regions. In this presentation, we describe efforts to assess the impact of cyclones on these trends. Employing a maximum cross-correlation method, we derive Southern Ocean ice-motion vectors from daily gridded SSMI 85.5 GHz brightness temperatures. We then derive a sea ice budget from the NASA-Team 25 km square daily sea ice concentrations. The budget quantifies the total daily change in sea ice area, and includes terms representing the effects of ice advection and divergence. A residual term represents the processes of rafting, ridging, freezing and thawing. We employ a cyclone tracking algorithm developed at the University of Canterbury to determine the timing, location, size and strength of Southern Hemisphere cyclones from mean sea-level pressure fields of the ERA-Interim reanalysis. We then form composites of the of sea ice budget below the location of cyclones. Unsurprisingly, we find that clockwise atmospheric flow around Southern Hemisphere cyclones exerts a strong influence on the movement of sea ice, an effect which is visible in the advection and divergence terms. Further, we assess the climatological importance of cyclones by comparing seasons of sea ice advance for periods with varying numbers of cyclones. This analysis is performed independently for each sea ice concentration pixel, thus affording us insight into the geographical importance of storm systems. We find that Southern Hemisphere sea ice extent is highly sensitive to the presence of cyclones in the periphery of the pack in the advance season. Notably, the sensitivity is particularly high in the northern Ross Sea, an area with a marked positive trend in sea ice extent. We discuss whether trends in cyclone activity in the Southern Ocean may have contributed to sea ice extent trends in this region.

  13. ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Colin P. Horwitz; Dr. Terrence J. Collins

    2003-11-04

    The removal of recalcitrant sulfur species, dibenzothiophene and its derivatives, from automotive fuels is an integral component in the development of cleaner burning and more efficient automobile engines. Oxidative desulfurization (ODS) wherein the dibenzothiophene derivative is converted to its corresponding sulfoxide and sulfone is an attractive approach to sulfur removal because the oxidized species are easily extracted or precipitated and filtered from the hydrocarbon phase. Fe-TAML{reg_sign} activators of hydrogen peroxide (TAML is Tetra-Amido-Macrocyclic-Ligand) catalytically convert dibenzothiophene and its derivatives rapidly and effectively at moderate temperatures (50-60 C) and ambient pressure to the corresponding sulfoxides and sulfones. The oxidation process can be performed in both aqueous systems containing alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, or t-butanol, and in a two-phase hydrocarbon/aqueous system containing tert-butanol or acetonitrile. In the biphasic system, essentially complete conversion of the DBT to its oxidized products can be achieved using slightly longer reaction times than in homogeneous solution. Among the key features of the technology are the mild reaction conditions, the very high selectivity where no over oxidation of the sulfur compounds occurs, the near stoichiometric use of hydrogen peroxide, the apparent lack of degradation of sensitive fuel components, and the ease of separation of oxidized products.

  14. Advanced Sulfur Control Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Gangwal, S.K.; Portzer, J.W.; Turk, B.S.; Gupta, R.

    1996-12-31

    The primary objective of this project is to determine the feasibility of an alternate concept for the regeneration of high temperature desulfurization sorbents in which elemental sulfur, instead of SO{sub 2}, is produced. If successful, this concept will eliminate or alleviate problems caused by the highly exothermic nature of the regeneration reaction, the tendency for metal sulfate formation, and the need to treat the regeneration off-gas to prevent atmospheric SO{sub 2}, emissions. Iron and cerium-based sorbents were chosen on the basis of thermodynamic analysis to determine the feasibility of elemental sulfur production. The ability of both to remove H{sub 2}S during the sulfidation phase is less than that of zinc-based sorbents, and a two-stage desulfurization process will likely be required. Preliminary experimental work used electrobalance reactors to compare the relative rates of reaction of O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O with FeS. More detailed studies of the regeneration of FeS as well as the sulfidation of CeO{sub 2} and regeneration of Ce{sub 2}O{sub 2}S are being carried out in a laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactor equipped with a unique analytical system which permits semi-continuous analysis of the distribution of elemental sulfur, H{sub 2}S, and SO{sub 2} in the reaction product gas.

  15. Advanced composite materials and processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baucom, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    Composites are generally defined as two or more individual materials, which, when combined into a single material system, results in improved physical and/or mechanical properties. The freedom of choice of the starting components for composites allows the generation of materials that can be specifically tailored to meet a variety of applications. Advanced composites are described as a combination of high strength fibers and high performance polymer matrix materials. These advanced materials are required to permit future aircraft and spacecraft to perform in extended environments. Advanced composite precursor materials, processes for conversion of these materials to structures, and selected applications for composites are reviewed.

  16. An estimation of water origins in the vicinity of a tropical cyclone's center and associated dynamic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takakura, Toshinari; Kawamura, Ryuichi; Kawano, Tetsuya; Ichiyanagi, Kimpei; Tanoue, Masahiro; Yoshimura, Kei

    2017-03-01

    To clarify the time evolution of water origins in the vicinity of a tropical cyclone (TC)'s center, we have simulated Typhoon Man-yi (July 2007) in our case study, using an isotopic regional spectral model. The model results confirm that the replacement of water origins occurs successively as the TC develops and migrates northward over the western North Pacific. It is confirmed that, in this case, a significant proportion of total precipitable water around the cyclone center comes from external regions rather than the underlying ocean during the mature stage of a TC. Similar features can also be seen in the proportion of each oceanic origin to total condensation. Indian Ocean, South China Sea, and Maritime Continent water vapors begin to increase gradually at the developing stage and reach their peak at the decay stage when the TC approaches southwestern Japan. These remote ocean vapors are transported to the east of the cyclone via the moisture conveyor belt, a zone characterized by distinct low-level moisture flux that stretches from the Indian Ocean to the TC, and are further supplied into the inner region of the TC by inflow within the boundary layer associated with its secondary circulation. Since it takes time to undergo these two dynamic processes, the delayed influence of remote ocean vapors on the TC appears to become evident during the mature stage.

  17. Process for producing advanced ceramics

    DOEpatents

    Kwong, Kyei-Sing

    1996-01-01

    A process for the synthesis of homogeneous advanced ceramics such as SiC+AlN, SiAlON, SiC+Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, and Si.sub.3 N.sub.4 +AlN from natural clays such as kaolin, halloysite and montmorillonite by an intercalation and heat treatment method. Included are the steps of refining clays, intercalating organic compounds into the layered structure of clays, drying the intercalated mixture, firing the treated atmospheres and grinding the loosely agglomerated structure. Advanced ceramics produced by this procedure have the advantages of homogeneity, cost effectiveness, simplicity of manufacture, ease of grind and a short process time. Advanced ceramics produced by this process can be used for refractory, wear part and structure ceramics.

  18. Tropical Cyclones' influence on the ocean: from event scale processes to climate scale consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, E. M.; Lengaigne, M.; Vialard, J.; Madec, G.; Emanuel, K.

    2013-12-01

    Strong winds associated with Tropical Cyclones (TCs) trigger intense mixing in the upper ocean. The associated sub-surface warming has been suggested to substantially modify the ocean heat budget. A 1/2° global ocean model experiment that realistically samples the ocean response to more than 3,000 TCs over the last 30 years is used to investigate the processes induced by TCs at the local scale and their impact on the ocean at the climate scale. Vertical mixing is the dominant process explaining surface cooling close to the TCs' track. This process has received the largest attention from previous studies investigating the climatic importance of TC-ocean interaction, but surface cooling is increasingly due to heat fluxes as we consider larger space scales. Vertical mixing does induce an enhanced ocean heat uptake (OHU) consistent with previous estimates. However, two processes have to be taken into account when evaluating the importance of this OHU for climate: 1) about 1/3 of the ocean heat uptake is in fact used to compensate ocean heat loss by enhanced surface fluxes due to TCs, 2) most of the remaining heat injected into the ocean during TC seasons is re-entrained by the deepening of the mixed layer in fall and winter. As a consequence, the main TCs' climatological impact is to reduce the amplitude of surface temperature seasonal cycle more than to modify the ocean heat transport. (a) Composite time series of TC-induced total surface flux anomalies within 600 km of TC-tracks. Ocean heat extracted=TC-induced heat fluxes to the atmosphere during TCs passage. Ocean heat uptake=heat input from the atmosphere needed to dissipate the cold wake. Ocean heat release=subsurface anomalies re-emerging during the next winter. Ocean Heat Transport=part of these subsurface anomalies transported laterally before re-emerging. (b) Total heat uptake by the ocean (OHU) in the wake of TCs and its partition into various components

  19. Cyclone Monty

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... traveling inland about 300 kilometers to the south, the cyclonic circulation had decayed considerably, although category 3 force winds ... project:  MISR category:  gallery Storms date:  Feb 29 and Mar 4, 2004 Images:  ...

  20. Plasma Processing of Advanced Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Heberlein, Joachim, V.R.; Pfender, Emil; Kortshagen, Uwe

    2005-02-28

    Plasma Processing of Advanced Materials The project had the overall objective of improving our understanding of the influences of process parameters on the properties of advanced superhard materials. The focus was on high rate deposition processes using thermal plasmas and atmospheric pressure glow discharges, and the emphasis on superhard materials was chosen because of the potential impact of such materials on industrial energy use and on the environment. In addition, the development of suitable diagnostic techniques was pursued. The project was divided into four tasks: (1) Deposition of superhard boron containing films using a supersonic plasma jet reactor (SPJR), and the characterization of the deposition process. (2) Deposition of superhard nanocomposite films in the silicon-nitrogen-carbon system using the triple torch plasma reactor (TTPR), and the characterization of the deposition process. (3) Deposition of films consisting of carbon nanotubes using an atmospheric pressure glow discharge reactor. (4) Adapting the Thomson scattering method for characterization of atmospheric pressure non-uniform plasmas with steep spatial gradients and temporal fluctuations. This report summarizes the results.

  1. Advanced System for Process Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, K. E.; Saus, L. S.; Regenhardt, P. A.

    1992-02-01

    ASPEN (Advanced System for Process Engineering) is a state of the art process simulator and economic evaluation package which was designed for use in engineering fossil energy conversion processes. ASPEN can represent multiphase streams including solids, and handle complex substances such as coal. The system can perform steady state material and energy balances, determine equipment size and cost, and carry out preliminary economic evaluations. It is supported by a comprehensive physical property system for computation of major properties such as enthalpy, entropy, free energy, molar volume, equilibrium ratio, fugacity coefficient, viscosity, thermal conductivity, and diffusion coefficient for specified phase conditions; vapor, liquid, or solid. The properties may be computed for pure components, mixtures, or components in a mixture, as appropriate. The ASPEN Input Language is oriented towards process engineers.

  2. Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, Felix L.

    1993-01-01

    Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) is a computer systems philosophy, a set of validated hardware building blocks, and a set of validated services as embodied in system software. The goal of AIPS is to provide the knowledgebase which will allow achievement of validated fault-tolerant distributed computer system architectures, suitable for a broad range of applications, having failure probability requirements of 10E-9 at 10 hours. A background and description is given followed by program accomplishments, the current focus, applications, technology transfer, FY92 accomplishments, and funding.

  3. Advances in natural language processing.

    PubMed

    Hirschberg, Julia; Manning, Christopher D

    2015-07-17

    Natural language processing employs computational techniques for the purpose of learning, understanding, and producing human language content. Early computational approaches to language research focused on automating the analysis of the linguistic structure of language and developing basic technologies such as machine translation, speech recognition, and speech synthesis. Today's researchers refine and make use of such tools in real-world applications, creating spoken dialogue systems and speech-to-speech translation engines, mining social media for information about health or finance, and identifying sentiment and emotion toward products and services. We describe successes and challenges in this rapidly advancing area.

  4. GEOTECHNICAL/GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ADVANCED COAL PROCESS WASTE STREAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Edwin S. Olson; Charles J. Moretti

    1999-11-01

    Thirteen solid wastes, six coals and one unreacted sorbent produced from seven advanced coal utilization processes were characterized for task three of this project. The advanced processes from which samples were obtained included a gas-reburning sorbent injection process, a pressurized fluidized-bed coal combustion process, a coal-reburning process, a SO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, RO{sub x}, BOX process, an advanced flue desulfurization process, and an advanced coal cleaning process. The waste samples ranged from coarse materials, such as bottom ashes and spent bed materials, to fine materials such as fly ashes and cyclone ashes. Based on the results of the waste characterizations, an analysis of appropriate waste management practices for the advanced process wastes was done. The analysis indicated that using conventional waste management technology should be possible for disposal of all the advanced process wastes studied for task three. However, some wastes did possess properties that could present special problems for conventional waste management systems. Several task three wastes were self-hardening materials and one was self-heating. Self-hardening is caused by cementitious and pozzolanic reactions that occur when water is added to the waste. All of the self-hardening wastes setup slowly (in a matter of hours or days rather than minutes). Thus these wastes can still be handled with conventional management systems if care is taken not to allow them to setup in storage bins or transport vehicles. Waste self-heating is caused by the exothermic hydration of lime when the waste is mixed with conditioning water. If enough lime is present, the temperature of the waste will rise until steam is produced. It is recommended that self-heating wastes be conditioned in a controlled manner so that the heat will be safely dissipated before the material is transported to an ultimate disposal site. Waste utilization is important because an advanced process waste will not require

  5. Impact of subgrid-scale processes on eyewall replacement cycle of tropical cyclones in HWRF system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ping; Zhu, Zhenduo; Gopalakrishnan, Sundararaman; Black, Robert; Marks, Frank D.; Tallapragada, Vijay; Zhang, Jun A.; Zhang, Xuejin; Gao, Cen

    2015-11-01

    Two idealized simulations by the Hurricane Weather Research and Forecast (HWRF) model are presented to examine the impact of model physics on the simulated eyewall replacement cycle (ERC). While no ERC is produced in the control simulation that uses the operational HWRF physics, the sensitivity experiment with different model physics generates an ERC that possesses key features of observed ERCs in real tropical cyclones. Likely reasons for the control simulation not producing ERC include lack of outer rainband convection at the far radii from the eyewall, excessive ice hydrometeors in the eyewall, and enhanced moat shallow convection, which all tend to prevent the formation of a persistent moat between the eyewall and outer rainband. Less evaporative cooling from precipitation in the outer rainband region in the control simulation produces a more stable and dryer environment that inhibits the development of systematic convection at the far radii from the eyewall.

  6. Effects of cyclone diameter on performance of 1D3D cyclones: Cut point and slope

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cyclones are a commonly used air pollution abatement device for separating particulate matter (PM) from air streams in industrial processes. Several mathematical models have been proposed to predict the performance of cyclones, as cyclone diameter varies. The objective of this research was to determ...

  7. Effects of cyclone diameter on performance of 1D3D cyclones: Cut point and slope

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cyclones are a commonly used air pollution abatement device for separating particulate matter (PM) from air streams in industrial processes. Several mathematical models have been proposed to predict the cut point of cyclones as cyclone diameter varies. The objective of this research was to determine...

  8. Electrochromic Windows: Advanced Processing Technology

    SciTech Connect

    SAGE Electrochromics, Inc

    2006-12-13

    This project addresses the development of advanced fabrication capabilities for energy saving electrochromic (EC) windows. SAGE EC windows consist of an inorganic stack of thin films deposited onto a glass substrate. The window tint can be reversibly changed by the application of a low power dc voltage. This property can be used to modulate the amount of light and heat entering buildings (or vehicles) through the glazings. By judicious management of this so-called solar heat gain, it is possible to derive significant energy savings due to reductions in heating lighting, and air conditioning (HVAC). Several areas of SAGE’s production were targeted during this project to allow significant improvements to processing throughput, yield and overall quality of the processing, in an effort to reduce the cost and thereby improve the market penetration. First, the overall thin film process was optimized to allow a more robust set of operating points to be used, thereby maximizing the yield due to the thin film deposition themselves. Other significant efforts aimed at improving yield were relating to implementing new procedures and processes for the manufacturing process, to improve the quality of the substrate preparation, and the quality of the IGU fabrication. Furthermore, methods for reworking defective devices were developed, to enable devices which would otherwise be scrapped to be made into useful product. This involved the in-house development of some customized equipment. Finally, the improvements made during this project were validated to ensure that they did not impact the exceptional durability of the SageGlass® products. Given conservative estimates for cost and market penetration, energy savings due to EC windows in residences in the US are calculated to be of the order 0.026 quad (0.026×1015BTU/yr) by the year 2017.

  9. New trends in the improvement of cyclones

    SciTech Connect

    Rivkinzon, I.B.; Zyuba, B.I.

    1984-05-01

    This article examines the possibilities of reducing catalyst attrition and cyclone wall erosion through optimization of the aerodynamic conditions in the cyclone. It is assumed that the disintegration of catalyst particles and erosion of the cyclone walls take place at exactly the same points (e.g. the seats of erosion in the cyclones can serve as natural indicators in determining the zones of catalyst pulverization). In catalytic cracking units, internal cyclones are used as the primary means of cleanup of the gas for process purposes. Cyclones trap out 99.8-99.95% of the catalyst entrained from the fluidized bed by the contact gas. The retrofitting of standard cyclones with chambers for preliminary aerodynamic stabilization of the flow yielded favorable results. The results of erosion tests on type TsN cyclones with and without a stabilization chamber indicate that the proposed stabilization method can give an approximately fivefold reduction of erosion of the cylindrical part of the cyclone. An important advantage of cyclones with added stabilization is the increased efficiency of dust collection. It is concluded that supplementary aerodynamic stabilization of the dust-laded gas flow and reduction of the angle of attack can give substantial improvements in the operating characteristics of cyclones, both cylindrical and spiral-conical.

  10. Advances in cardiac processing software.

    PubMed

    Gordon DePuey, Ernest

    2014-07-01

    New software methods that incorporate iterative reconstruction, resolution recovery, and noise compensation now provide the ability to maintain or improve myocardial perfusion SPECT image quality with conventional sodium iodide cameras. Despite lower image counting statistics associated with significantly decreased injected radiopharmaceutical doses or shortened acquisition times or both, image quality is preserved or even improved compared with conventional processing methods. The ability to prescribe a desired myocardial count density by preselecting a SPECT acquisition time now avoids additional patient radiation exposure associated with "weight-based" dosing. More recent advancements, including temporal correlation among the gated perfusion frames and higher resolution SPECT acquisitions, hold promise to further improve image quality and diagnostic accuracy. Phase analysis of gated perfusion SPECT provides the ability to assess cardiac dyssynchrony and to select those patients who will most benefit from resynchronization therapy. In combination with the higher counting statistics afforded by the new solid-state dedicated cardiac cameras, these software advancements allow for even further decreased patient radiation doses or acquisition times or both. List-mode software allows for refinement of myocardial perfusion SPECT by interrogating particular data from selected cardiac cycles. Rejection of frames degraded by arrhythmic cardiac cycles or excessive extracardiac uptake can be excluded for reconstruction. Respiratory gating, which diminishes cardiac motion and potentially decreases diaphragmatic attenuation, has been demonstrated to improve diagnostic specificity. With high-count first-pass list-mode acquisitions at rest and during pharmacologic vasodilatation, it may be possible to measure global and regional myocardial perfusion reserve to more accurately diagnose coronary artery disease and avoid false-negative studies owing to balanced ischemia.

  11. Cyclonic variability in the Mediterranean-Black Sea region associated with global processes in the ocean-atmosphere system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslova, V. N.; Voskresenskaya, E. N.; Yurovskiy, A. V.

    2010-09-01

    The aim of the paper is to analyze interannual and decadal variability of cyclonic activity in the Mediterranean and Black Sea regions associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), El-Nino - Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). Using daily NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data sets on the 1000 hPa geopotential height in 1948 - 2006, the main parameters of cyclones such as frequency, area, depth and intensity were calculated for the Western and Eastern Mediterranean and Black Sea region, the data sets of parameters of cyclones were created. Quality control of the detection of cyclones on the basis of reanalysis data was done. Comparison of number of cyclonic centers selected from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis and the same values obtained from cinematic maps of the Ukrainian Hydrometeorological service demonstrates quite good agreement of the analyzed series; correlation coefficient between them reaches 0.91. Interannual variability of the parameters of cyclones associated with NAO index and SOI (Southern Oscillation index) was analyzed. Correctness of the choice of these global signals is corroborated by the results of spectrum analysis of the parameters of cyclones. Particularly, it was shown that typical scales of cyclonic variability in the Mediterranean and Black Sea regions are ~2, 4.3 - 4.8 and 7 - 8 years which confirm that this variability is characterized by the same time scales as NAO (2 - 8 years) and SO (3 - 7 years). Correlation analysis of the monthly cyclonic parameters with NAO and SO indices was performed. Correlation coefficients of the winter-spring cyclonic parameters with NAO index reach -0.6; while the lagged (4 - 6 months) correlation coefficients with SOI reach 0.49. In particular, correlation analysis of the connection between parameters of cyclones and SOI has shown that ENSO variability in September causes up to 20% of anomalous weather conditions in all studied regions in winter (correlation coefficient r = 0.43); ENSO in

  12. Analysis of Sub-Grid Boundary-Layer Processes Observed by the P-3 Doppler Wind Lidar in Support of the Western Pacific Tropical Cyclone Structure 2008 Experiment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-02

    flight hours to one significant atmospheric phenomena. OBJECTIVES The P-3 Doppler Wind Lidar (P3DWL) uses the latest version of a coherent ... Doppler transceiver developed at Lockheed Martin Coherent Technologies. The lidar , with the exception of the scanner, is shown on the top in Figure 1...Processes Observed by the P-3 Doppler Wind Lidar in Support of the Western Pacific Tropical Cyclone Structure 2008 Experiment Ralph Foster Applied

  13. Advanced methods for processing ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, W.B.

    1995-05-01

    Combustion chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) is a flame assisted, open air chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. The process is capable of producing textured, epitaxial coatings on single crystal substrates using low cost reagents. Combustion chemical vapor deposition is a relatively inexpensive, alternative thin film deposition process with potential to replace conventional coating technologies for certain applications. The goals of this project are to develop the CCVD process to the point that potential industrial applications can be identified and reliably assessed.

  14. Advanced methods for processing ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, W.B.

    1997-04-01

    Combustion chemical vapor deposition (combustion CVD) is being developed for the deposition of high temperature oxide coatings. The process is being evaluated as an alternative to more capital intensive conventional coating processes. The thrusts during this reporting period were the development of the combustion CVD process for depositing lanthanum monazite, the determination of the influence of aerosol size on coating morphology, the incorporation of combustion CVD coatings into thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) and related oxidation research, and continued work on the deposition of zirconia-yttria coatings.

  15. Cyclone reactor

    DOEpatents

    Converse, Alvin O.; Grethlein, Hans E.; Holland, Joseph E.

    1989-04-04

    A system is provided to produce sugars from a liquid-solid mixture containing biomass, and an acid, wherein the mixture is heated to an appropriate temperature to achieve hydrolysis. The liquid-solid mixture is introduced as a stream into the circular-cylindrical chamber of a cyclone reaction vessel and steam is introduced to the vessel to provide the necessary heat for hydrolysis as well as to establish the liquid-solid mixture in a rotary flow field whereby the liquids and solids of the mixture move along spiral paths within the chamber. The liquid-solid mixture may be introduced at the periphery of the chamber to spiral down toward and be discharged at or near the center of the chamber. Because of differing mass, the solid particles in the mixture move radially inward at a different rate than the liquid and that rate is controlled to maximize the hydrolysis of the solids and to minimize the decomposition of sugars, thus formed.

  16. Advanced digital SAR processing study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinson, L. W.; Gaffney, B. P.; Liu, B.; Perry, R. P.; Ruvin, A.

    1982-01-01

    A highly programmable, land based, real time synthetic aperture radar (SAR) processor requiring a processed pixel rate of 2.75 MHz or more in a four look system was designed. Variations in range and azimuth compression, number of looks, range swath, range migration and SR mode were specified. Alternative range and azimuth processing algorithms were examined in conjunction with projected integrated circuit, digital architecture, and software technologies. The advaced digital SAR processor (ADSP) employs an FFT convolver algorithm for both range and azimuth processing in a parallel architecture configuration. Algorithm performace comparisons, design system design, implementation tradeoffs and the results of a supporting survey of integrated circuit and digital architecture technologies are reported. Cost tradeoffs and projections with alternate implementation plans are presented.

  17. Processing - Property Relationship in Advanced Intermetallics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-07-01

    AD-A285 262 - IlE I !!III Illl iIII c.,. Processing- Property Relationship I in Advanced Intermetallics Final Report For Period March 4,1991 through...through 03-03-94 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Processing- Property Relationship in Advanced Intermetallics; 4. AUTHOR(S) D.A. Hardwick and P.L...2 M echanical Properties ......................................................................... 9 3 C

  18. The demonstration of an advanced cyclone coal combustor, with internal sulfur, nitrogen, and ash control for the conversion of a 23 MMBTU/hour oil fired boiler to pulverized coal

    SciTech Connect

    Zauderer, B.; Fleming, E.S.

    1991-08-30

    This work contains to the final report of the demonstration of an advanced cyclone coal combustor. Titles include: Chronological Description of the Clean Coal Project Tests,'' Statistical Analysis of Operating Data for the Coal Tech Combustor,'' Photographic History of the Project,'' Results of Slag Analysis by PA DER Module 1 Procedure,'' Properties of the Coals Limestone Used in the Test Effort,'' Results of the Solid Waste Sampling Performed on the Coal Tech Combustor by an Independent Contractor During the February 1990 Tests.'' (VC)

  19. Cyclone disaster vulnerability and response experiences in coastal Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Alam, Edris; Collins, Andrew E

    2010-10-01

    For generations, cyclones and tidal surges have frequently devastated lives and property in coastal and island Bangladesh. This study explores vulnerability to cyclone hazards using first-hand coping recollections from prior to, during and after these events. Qualitative field data suggest that, beyond extreme cyclone forces, localised vulnerability is defined in terms of response processes, infrastructure, socially uneven exposure, settlement development patterns, and livelihoods. Prior to cyclones, religious activities increase and people try to save food and valuable possessions. Those in dispersed settlements who fail to reach cyclone shelters take refuge in thatched-roof houses and big-branch trees. However, women and children are affected more despite the modification of traditional hierarchies during cyclone periods. Instinctive survival strategies and intra-community cooperation improve coping post cyclone. This study recommends that disaster reduction programmes encourage cyclone mitigation while being aware of localised realities, endogenous risk analyses, and coping and adaptation of affected communities (as active survivors rather than helpless victims).

  20. Advanced planning for ISS payload ground processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, Kimberly A.

    2000-01-01

    Ground processing at John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is the concluding phase of the payload/flight hardware development process and is the final opportunity to ensure safe and successful recognition of mission objectives. Planning for the ground processing of on-orbit flight hardware elements and payloads for the International Space Station is a responsibility taken seriously at KSC. Realizing that entering into this operational environment can be an enormous undertaking for a payload customer, KSC continually works to improve this process by instituting new/improved services for payload developer/owner, applying state-of-the-art technologies to the advanced planning process, and incorporating lessons learned for payload ground processing planning to ensure complete customer satisfaction. This paper will present an overview of the KSC advanced planning activities for ISS hardware/payload ground processing. It will focus on when and how KSC begins to interact with the payload developer/owner, how that interaction changes (and grows) throughout the planning process, and how KSC ensures that advanced planning is successfully implemented at the launch site. It will also briefly consider the type of advance planning conducted by the launch site that is transparent to the payload user but essential to the successful processing of the payload (i.e. resource allocation, executing documentation, etc.) .

  1. Advanced Materials and Processing 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunfeng; Su, Chun Wei; Xia, Hui; Xiao, Pengfei

    2011-06-01

    Strain sensors made from MWNT/polymer nanocomposites / Gang Yin, Ning Hu and Yuan Li -- Shear band evolution and nanostructure formation in titanium by cold rolling / Dengke Yang, Peter D. Hodgson and Cuie Wen -- Biodegradable Mg-Zr-Ca alloys for bone implant materials / Yuncang Li ... [et al.] -- Hydroxyapatite synthesized from nanosized calcium carbonate via hydrothermal method / Yu-Shiang Wu, Wen-Ku Chang and Min Jou -- Modeling of the magnetization process and orthogonal fluxgate sensitivity of ferromagnetic micro-wire arrays / Fan Jie ... [et al.] -- Fabrication of silicon oxide nanowires on Ni coated silicon substrate by simple heating process / Bo Peng and Kwon-Koo Cho -- Deposition of TiOxNy thin films with various nitrogen flow rate: growth behavior and structural properties / S.-J. Cho ... [et al.] -- Observation on photoluminescence evolution in 300 KeV self-ion implanted and annealed silicon / Yu Yang ... [et al.] -- Facile synthesis of lithium niobate from a novel precursor H[symbol] / Meinan Liu ... [et al.] -- Effects of the buffer layers on the adhesion and antimicrobial properties of the amorphous ZrAlNiCuSi films / Pai-Tsung Chiang ... [et al.] -- Fabrication of ZnO nanorods by electrochemical deposition process and its photovoltaic properties / Jin-Hwa Kim ... [et al.] -- Cryogenic resistivities of NbTiAlVTaLax, CoCrFeNiCu and CoCrFeNiAl high entropy alloys / Xiao Yang and Yong Zhang -- Modeling of centrifugal force field and the effect on filling and solidification in centrifugal casting / Wenbin Sheng, Chunxue Ma and Wanli Gu -- Electrochemical properties of TiO[symbol] nanotube arrays film prepared by anodic oxidation / Young-Jin Choi ... [et al.] -- Effect of Ce additions on high temperature properties of Mg-5Sn-3Al-1Zn alloy / Byoung Soo Kang ... [et al.] -- Sono-electroless plating of Ni-Mo-P film / Atsushi Chiba, Masato Kanou and Wen-Chang Wu -- Diameter dependence of giant magneto-impedance effect in co-based melt extracted amorphous

  2. Advanced Digital Signal Processing for Hybrid Lidar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    Advanced Digital Signal Processing for Hybrid Lidar William D. Jemison Clarkson University [Technical Section Technical Objectives The technical...objective of this project is the development and evaluation of various digital signal processing (DSP) algorithms that will enhance hybrid lidar ...algorithm as shown in Figure 1. Hardware Platform for Algorithm Implementation + Underwater Channel Characteristics ^ Lidar DSP Algorithm Figure

  3. Coal desulfurization by cyclonic whirl

    SciTech Connect

    Jianguo, Y.; Wenjun, Z.; Yuling, W.

    1999-07-01

    The crux of coal desulfurization is how to improve separation efficiency for 3--0.1mm materials. Cyclonic whirl produce centrifugal force and shearing force, heavy medium cyclone uses former, and cyclone flotation column uses both of them. A new system with heavy medium cyclone and cyclone flotation column is provided and testified to be very efficient in commercial desulfurization.

  4. Degradation of formaldehyde by advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, José Roberto; Farah, Carolina Rittes Turato; Maniero, Milena Guedes; Fadini, Pedro Sérgio

    2012-09-30

    The degradation of formaldehyde in an aqueous solution (400 mg L(-1)) was studied using photolysis, peroxidation and advanced oxidation processes (UV/H(2)O(2), Fenton and photo-Fenton). Photolysis was the only process tested that did not reduce formaldehyde concentration; however, only advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) significantly decreased dissolved organic carbon (DOC). UV/H(2)O(2) and photo-Fenton AOPs were used to degrade formaldehyde at the highest concentrations (1200-12,000 mg L(-1)); the processes were able to reduce CH(2)O by 98% and DOC by 65%. Peroxidation with ultraviolet light (UV/H(2)O(2)) improved the efficiency of treatment of effluent from an anatomy laboratory. The effluent's CH(2)O content was reduced by 91%, DOC by 48%, COD by 46% and BOD by 53% in 420 min of testing.

  5. HANDBOOK ON ADVANCED PHOTOCHEMICAL OXIDATION PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This handbook summarizes commercial-scale system performance and cost data for advanced photochemical oxidation (APO) treatment of contaminated water, air, and solids. Similar information from pilot- and bench-scale evaluations of APO processes is also included to supplement the...

  6. HANDBOOK ON ADVANCED NONPHOTOCHEMICAL OXIDATION PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this handbook is to summarize commercial-scale system performance and cost data for advanced nonphotochemical oxidation (ANPO) treatment of contaminated water, air, and soil. Similar information from pilot-and bench-scale evaluations of ANPO processes is also inclu...

  7. Ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, N.W.; Marwick, A.D.; Roberto, J.B.; International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY . Thomas J. Watson Research Center; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN )

    1989-01-01

    This report contains research programs discussed at the materials research society symposia on ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials. Major topics include: shallow implantation and solid-phase epitaxy; damage effects; focused ion beams; MeV implantation; high-dose implantation; implantation in III-V materials and multilayers; and implantation in electronic materials. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

  8. Tropical Cyclone Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, P. Peggy; Knosp, Brian W.; Vu, Quoc A.; Yi, Chao; Hristova-Veleva, Svetla M.

    2009-01-01

    The JPL Tropical Cyclone Infor ma tion System (TCIS) is a Web portal (http://tropicalcyclone.jpl.nasa.gov) that provides researchers with an extensive set of observed hurricane parameters together with large-scale and convection resolving model outputs. It provides a comprehensive set of high-resolution satellite (see figure), airborne, and in-situ observations in both image and data formats. Large-scale datasets depict the surrounding environmental parameters such as SST (Sea Surface Temperature) and aerosol loading. Model outputs and analysis tools are provided to evaluate model performance and compare observations from different platforms. The system pertains to the thermodynamic and microphysical structure of the storm, the air-sea interaction processes, and the larger-scale environment as depicted by ocean heat content and the aerosol loading of the environment. Currently, the TCIS is populated with satellite observations of all tropical cyclones observed globally during 2005. There is a plan to extend the database both forward in time till present as well as backward to 1998. The portal is powered by a MySQL database and an Apache/Tomcat Web server on a Linux system. The interactive graphic user interface is provided by Google Map.

  9. Process simulation for advanced composites production

    SciTech Connect

    Allendorf, M.D.; Ferko, S.M.; Griffiths, S.

    1997-04-01

    The objective of this project is to improve the efficiency and lower the cost of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processes used to manufacture advanced ceramics by providing the physical and chemical understanding necessary to optimize and control these processes. Project deliverables include: numerical process models; databases of thermodynamic and kinetic information related to the deposition process; and process sensors and software algorithms that can be used for process control. Target manufacturing techniques include CVD fiber coating technologies (used to deposit interfacial coatings on continuous fiber ceramic preforms), chemical vapor infiltration, thin-film deposition processes used in the glass industry, and coating techniques used to deposit wear-, abrasion-, and corrosion-resistant coatings for use in the pulp and paper, metals processing, and aluminum industries.

  10. Assessment of advanced coal gasification processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, J.; Ferrall, J.; Charng, T.; Houseman, J.

    1981-01-01

    A technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes is presented: high throughput gasification (HTG) process; single stage high mass flux (HMF) processes; (CS/R) hydrogasification process; and the catalytic coal gasification (CCG) process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce synthetic natural gas from a bituminous coal. Key similarities, differences, strengths, weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The HTG and the HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging, and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R hydrogasifier is also SRT, but is nonslagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic, fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier.

  11. APR-2 Tropical Cyclone Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durden, S. L.; Tanelli, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Second Generation Airborne Precipitation Radar (APR-2) participated in the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) experiment in August and September of 2010, collecting a large volume of data in several tropical systems, including Hurricanes Earl and Karl. Additional measurements of tropical cyclone have been made by APR-2 in experiments prior to GRIP (namely, CAMEX-4, NAMMA, TC4); Table 1 lists all the APR-2 tropical cyclone observations. The APR-2 observations consist of the vertical structure of rain reflectivity at 13.4 and 35.6 GHz, and at both co-polarization and crosspolarization, as well as vertical Doppler measurements and crosswind measurements. APR-2 normally flies on the NASA DC-8 aircraft, as in GRIP, collecting data with a downward looking, cross-track scanning geometry. The scan limits are 25 degrees on either side of the aircraft, resulting in a roughly 10-km swath, depending on the aircraft altitude. Details of the APR-2 observation geometry and performance can be found in Sadowy et al. (2003).The multiparameter nature of the APR-2 measurements makes the collection of tropical cyclone measurements valuable for detailed studies of the processes, microphysics and dynamics of tropical cyclones, as well as weaker systems that are associated with tropical cyclone formation. In this paper, we give a brief overview of how the APR-2 data are processed. We also discuss use of the APR-2 cross-track winds to estimate various quantities of interest in in studies of storm intensification. Finally, we show examples of the standard products and derived information.

  12. Tropical Cyclone Report, 1993

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    Office of Naval Research (;rant AN00014-914J1721 STAFF JOINT TYPHOON WARNING CENTER LCDR ANTHONY A. MARTINEZ USN TDO. DEPUTY DIRECTOR LCDR TERESA M...OEJFN TDA. GRAPHICS AGAN ANDRESG.GRANT USN TDA, GRAPHICS UNIVERSITY OF GUAM / JTWC RESEARCH LIAISON DR MARK A. LANDER TROPICAL CYCLONE RESEARCH MR...CHARLES P. GUARD TROPICAL CYCLONE RESEARCH * TRANSFERRED DURING 1993 ** ACTIVE DUTY TRAINING S~ii FOREWORD The Annual Tropical Cyclone Report is past four

  13. Cyclone performance and optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Leith, D.

    1990-09-15

    The objectives of this project are: to characterize the gas flow pattern within cyclones, to revise the theory for cyclone performance on the basis of these findings, and to design and test cyclones whose dimensions have been optimized using revised performance theory. This work is important because its successful completion will aid in the technology for combustion of coal in pressurized, fluidized beds. This quarter, an empirical model for predicting pressure drop across a cyclone was developed through a statistical analysis of pressure drop data for 98 cyclone designs. The model is shown to perform better than the pressure drop models of First (1950), Alexander (1949), Barth (1956), Stairmand (1949), and Shepherd-Lapple (1940). This model is used with the efficiency model of Iozia and Leith (1990) to develop an optimization curve which predicts the minimum pressure drop and the dimension rations of the optimized cyclone for a given aerodynamic cut diameter, d{sub 50}. The effect of variation in cyclone height, cyclone diameter, and flow on the optimization curve is determined. The optimization results are used to develop a design procedure for optimized cyclones. 37 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Cyclone performance and optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Leith, D.

    1989-03-15

    The objectives of this project are: to characterize the gas flow pattern within cyclones, to revise the theory for cyclone performance on the basis of these findings, and to design and test cyclones whose dimensions have been optimized using revised performance theory. This work is important because its successful completion will aid in the technology for combustion of coal in pressurized, fluidized beds. This quarter, we have been hampered somewhat by flow delivery of the bubble generation system and arc lighting system placed on order last fall. This equipment is necessary to map the flow field within cyclones using the techniques described in last quarter's report. Using the bubble generator, we completed this quarter a study of the natural length'' of cyclones of 18 different configurations, each configuration operated at five different gas flows. Results suggest that the equation by Alexander for natural length is incorrect; natural length as measured with the bubble generation system is always below the bottom of the cyclones regardless of the cyclone configuration or gas flow, within the limits of the experimental cyclones tested. This finding is important because natural length is a term in equations used to predict cyclone efficiency. 1 tab.

  15. Assessment of Advanced Coal Gasification Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCarthy, John; Ferrall, Joseph; Charng, Thomas; Houseman, John

    1981-01-01

    This report represents a technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes: AVCO High Throughput Gasification (HTG) Process; Bell Single-Stage High Mass Flux (HMF) Process; Cities Service/Rockwell (CS/R) Hydrogasification Process; Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) Process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce SNG from a bituminous coal. In addition to identifying the new technology these processes represent, key similarities/differences, strengths/weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The AVCO HTG and the Bell HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R Hydrogasifier is also SRT but is non-slagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The Exxon CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic, fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier. The report makes the following assessments: 1) while each process has significant potential as coal gasifiers, the CS/R and Exxon processes are better suited for SNG production; 2) the Exxon process is the closest to a commercial level for near-term SNG production; and 3) the SRT processes require significant development including scale-up and turndown demonstration, char processing and/or utilization demonstration, and reactor control and safety features development.

  16. Extratropical Cyclone

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... using data from multiple MISR cameras within automated computer processing algorithms. The stereoscopic algorithms used to generate ... NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Terra spacecraft is managed ...

  17. Impact of parameterization of physical processes on simulation of track and intensity of tropical cyclone Nargis (2008) with WRF-NMM model.

    PubMed

    Pattanayak, Sujata; Mohanty, U C; Osuri, Krishna K

    2012-01-01

    The present study is carried out to investigate the performance of different cumulus convection, planetary boundary layer, land surface processes, and microphysics parameterization schemes in the simulation of a very severe cyclonic storm (VSCS) Nargis (2008), developed in the central Bay of Bengal on 27 April 2008. For this purpose, the nonhydrostatic mesoscale model (NMM) dynamic core of weather research and forecasting (WRF) system is used. Model-simulated track positions and intensity in terms of minimum central mean sea level pressure (MSLP), maximum surface wind (10 m), and precipitation are verified with observations as provided by the India Meteorological Department (IMD) and Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM). The estimated optimum combination is reinvestigated with six different initial conditions of the same case to have better conclusion on the performance of WRF-NMM. A few more diagnostic fields like vertical velocity, vorticity, and heat fluxes are also evaluated. The results indicate that cumulus convection play an important role in the movement of the cyclone, and PBL has a crucial role in the intensification of the storm. The combination of Simplified Arakawa Schubert (SAS) convection, Yonsei University (YSU) PBL, NMM land surface, and Ferrier microphysics parameterization schemes in WRF-NMM give better track and intensity forecast with minimum vector displacement error.

  18. Advancing the Assessment of Dynamic Psychological Processes

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Aidan G. C.; Hopwood, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Most commonly used clinical assessment tools cannot fully capture the dynamic psychological processes often hypothesized as core mechanisms of psychopathology and psychotherapy. There is therefore a gap between our theories of problems and interventions for those problems and the tools we use to understand clients. The purpose of this special issue is to connect theory about clinical dynamics to practice by focusing on methods for collecting dynamic data, statistical models for analyzing dynamic data, and conceptual schemes for implementing dynamic data in applied settings. In this introductory article, we argue for the importance of assessing dynamic processes, highlight recent advances in assessment science that enable their measurement, review challenges in using these advances in applied practice, and adumbrate the articles in this issue. PMID:27313187

  19. Advanced oxidation process sanitization of eggshell surfaces.

    PubMed

    Gottselig, Steven M; Dunn-Horrocks, Sadie L; Woodring, Kristy S; Coufal, Craig D; Duong, Tri

    2016-06-01

    The microbial quality of eggs entering the hatchery represents an important critical control point for biosecurity and pathogen reduction programs in integrated poultry production. The development of safe and effective interventions to reduce microbial contamination on the surface of eggs will be important to improve the overall productivity and microbial food safety of poultry and poultry products. The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and ultraviolet (UV) light advanced oxidation process is a potentially important alternative to traditional sanitizers and disinfectants for egg sanitation. The H2O2/UV advanced oxidation process was demonstrated previously to be effective in reducing surface microbial contamination on eggs. In this study, we evaluated treatment conditions affecting the efficacy of H2O2/UV advanced oxidation in order to identify operational parameters for the practical application of this technology in egg sanitation. The effect of the number of application cycles, UV intensity, duration of UV exposure, and egg rotation on the recovery of total aerobic bacteria from the surface of eggs was evaluated. Of the conditions evaluated, we determined that reduction of total aerobic bacteria from naturally contaminated eggs was optimized when eggs were sanitized using 2 repeated application cycles with 5 s exposure to 14 mW cm(-2) UV light, and that rotation of the eggs between application cycles was unnecessary. Additionally, using these optimized conditions, the H2O2/UV process reduced Salmonella by greater than 5 log10 cfu egg(-1) on the surface of experimentally contaminated eggs. This study demonstrates the potential for practical application of the H2O2/UV advanced oxidation process in egg sanitation and its effectiveness in reducing Salmonella on eggshell surfaces.

  20. Paradigms for Tropical Cyclone Intensification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    Tang and Emanuel 2010 and references), it is imperative to have a firm understanding of the physical processes of intensity change for...defensible when studying the basic physics of tropical cyclone intensification (Nguyen et al. 2008, section 3.2.1), but not, of course, for tropical...They recalled that the premise underlying all physical parameteriszations is that some aspect of the chaotic microscale process is in statistical

  1. Human factors challenges for advanced process control

    SciTech Connect

    Stubler, W.F.; O`Hara, J..M.

    1996-08-01

    New human-system interface technologies provide opportunities for improving operator and plant performance. However, if these technologies are not properly implemented, they may introduce new challenges to performance and safety. This paper reports the results from a survey of human factors considerations that arise in the implementation of advanced human-system interface technologies in process control and other complex systems. General trends were identified for several areas based on a review of technical literature and a combination of interviews and site visits with process control organizations. Human factors considerations are discussed for two of these areas, automation and controls.

  2. Advanced miniature processing handware for ATR applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Daud, Taher (Inventor); Thakoor, Anikumar (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A Hybrid Optoelectronic Neural Object Recognition System (HONORS), is disclosed, comprising two major building blocks: (1) an advanced grayscale optical correlator (OC) and (2) a massively parallel three-dimensional neural-processor. The optical correlator, with its inherent advantages in parallel processing and shift invariance, is used for target of interest (TOI) detection and segmentation. The three-dimensional neural-processor, with its robust neural learning capability, is used for target classification and identification. The hybrid optoelectronic neural object recognition system, with its powerful combination of optical processing and neural networks, enables real-time, large frame, automatic target recognition (ATR).

  3. Cyclone performance by velocity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cyclones are used almost exclusively in the US cotton ginning industry for emission abatement on pneumatic conveying system exhausts because of their high efficiency, and low capital and operating cost.. Cyclone performance is improved by increasing collection effectiveness or decreasing energy cons...

  4. ASPEN. Advanced System for Process Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Bajura, R.A.

    1985-10-01

    ASPEN (Advanced System for Process Engineering) is a state of the art process simulator and economic evaluation package which was designed for use in engineering fossil energy conversion processes. ASPEN can represent multiphase streams including solids, and handle complex substances such as coal. The system can perform steady state material and energy balances, determine equipment size and cost, and carry out preliminary economic evaluations. It is supported by a comprehensive physical property system for computation of major properties such as enthalpy, entropy, free energy, molar volume, equilibrium ratio, fugacity coefficient, viscosity, thermal conductivity, and diffusion coefficient for specified phase conditions; vapor, liquid, or solid. The properties may be computed for pure components, mixtures, or components in a mixture, as appropriate. The ASPEN Input Language is oriented towards process engineers.

  5. Cyclone performance and optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Leith, D.

    1989-06-15

    The objectives of this project are: to characterize the gas flow pattern within cyclones, to revise the theory for cyclone performance on the basis of these findings, and to design and test cyclones whose dimensions have been optimized using revised performance theory. This work is important because its successful completion will aid in the technology for combustion of coal in pressurized, fluidized beds. We have now received all the equipment necessary for the flow visualization studies described over the last two progress reports. We have begun more detailed studies of the gas flow pattern within cyclones as detailed below. Third, we have begun studies of the effect of particle concentration on cyclone performance. This work is critical to application of our results to commercial operations. 1 fig.

  6. Advanced PPA Reactor and Process Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Raymond; Aske, James; Abney, Morgan B.; Miller, Lee A.; Greenwood, Zachary

    2012-01-01

    Design and development of a second generation Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) reactor is currently underway as part of NASA s Atmosphere Revitalization Resource Recovery effort. By recovering up to 75% of the hydrogen currently lost as methane in the Sabatier reactor effluent, the PPA helps to minimize life support resupply costs for extended duration missions. To date, second generation PPA development has demonstrated significant technology advancements over the first generation device by doubling the methane processing rate while, at the same time, more than halving the required power. One development area of particular interest to NASA system engineers is fouling of the PPA reactor with carbonaceous products. As a mitigation plan, NASA MSFC has explored the feasibility of using an oxidative plasma based upon metabolic CO2 to regenerate the reactor window and gas inlet ports. The results and implications of this testing are addressed along with the advanced PPA reactor development work.

  7. Can climate models represent the precipitation associated with extratropical cyclones?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawcroft, Matthew K.; Shaffrey, Len C.; Hodges, Kevin I.; Dacre, Helen F.

    2016-08-01

    Extratropical cyclones produce the majority of precipitation in many regions of the extratropics. This study evaluates the ability of a climate model, HiGEM, to reproduce the precipitation associated with extratropical cyclones. The model is evaluated using the ERA-Interim reanalysis and GPCP dataset. The analysis employs a cyclone centred compositing technique, evaluates composites across a range of geographical areas and cyclone intensities and also investigates the ability of the model to reproduce the climatological distribution of cyclone associated precipitation across the Northern Hemisphere. Using this phenomena centred approach provides an ability to identify the processes which are responsible for climatological biases in the model. Composite precipitation intensities are found to be comparable when all cyclones across the Northern Hemisphere are included. When the cyclones are filtered by region or intensity, differences are found, in particular, HiGEM produces too much precipitation in its most intense cyclones relative to ERA-Interim and GPCP. Biases in the climatological distribution of cyclone associated precipitation are also found, with biases around the storm track regions associated with both the number of cyclones in HiGEM and also their average precipitation intensity. These results have implications for the reliability of future projections of extratropical precipitation from the model.

  8. Advanced Digital Signal Processing for Hybrid Lidar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-31

    project "Advanced Digital Signal Processing for Hybrid Lidar " covering the period of 1/1/2013-3/31/2013. 9LO\\SO^O’IH^’?’ William D. Jemison...Chaotic LIDAR for Naval Applications This document contains a Progress Summary for FY13 Q2 and a Short Work Statement for FY13 Progress Summary for...This technique has the potential to increase the unambiguous range of hybrid lidar -radar while maintaining reasonable range resolution. Proof-of

  9. The tropical cyclone diurnal cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunion, Jason P.

    The research presented in this thesis explores a phenomenon referred to as the tropical cyclone (TC) diurnal cycle (TCDC) and presents satellite, numerical modeling, and observational perspectives pertaining to how it can be monitored, its evolution in time and space, its relevance to TC structure and intensity, and how it manifests in numerical simulations of TCs. Infrared satellite imagery was developed and used to investigate diurnal oscillations in TCs and finds a diurnal pulsing pattern that occurs with notable regularity through a relatively deep layer from the inner core to the surrounding environment. A combination of satellite, numerical model simulations, and aircraft observations found diurnal signals in operationally analyzed radii of 50 kt winds in TCs and in satellite intensity estimates from the Advanced Dvorak Technique and spawned the development of a 24-hr conceptual clock that approximates the temporal and spatial evolution of the TCDC each day. TC diurnal pulses are revealed to significantly impact the thermodynamics and winds in the TC environment and appear as narrow, convectively active rings of high radar reflectivity in NOAA aircraft radar data and are hundreds of kilometers in length. Enhanced nighttime radiational cooling that is particularly favored in the TC outflow layer acts to pre-condition the TC environment in a way that favors triggering of the TCDC and TC diurnal pulses, while in the daytime, the stabilizing effects of shortwave warming begins to suppress TCDC processes in the storm, leading to the culmination of the TCDC each day. Schematics are presented that summarize many of the main findings in this work, including descriptions of the basic state of the TC environment as the TCDC evolves during its early and later stages each day and a TCDC-centric daytime evolution of a TC diurnal pulse, associated squall lines and gust fronts, and radial and vertical winds in the lower and upper levels of the storm. The TCDC represents a

  10. The Effect of Vertical Wind Shear on Tropical Cyclone Movement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    by Sanders and Burpee (1968), is a one-layer model which uses the barotropic vorticity equation to forecast the vertically averaged vorticity field...of factors which could modify cyclone movement. With the advent of numerical predication methods, it became possible to test these concepts. Numerical...conditions to test the cyclone features, are also presented. Chapter 3 investigates the effects of the physical processes on tropical cyclone movement by

  11. Cyclone Chris Hits Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This false-color image shows Cyclone Chris shortly after it hit Australia's northwestern coast on February 6, 2002. This scene was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. (Please note that this scene has not been reprojected.) Cyclone Chris is one of the most powerful storms ever to hit Australia. Initially, the storm contained wind gusts of up to 200 km per hour (125 mph), but shortly after making landfall it weakened to a Category 4 storm. Meteorologists expect the cyclone to weaken quickly as it moves further inland.

  12. Advanced Satellite-Derived Wind Observations, Assimilation, and Targeting Strategies during TCS-08 for Developing Improved Operational Analysis and Prediction of Western Pacific Tropical Cyclones

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    forecasts of tropical cyclone track has been designed. This framework, designed using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, can be...meridional wind, and temperature from the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) analysis as synthetic radiosonde observations. The...significant challenges faced in predicting its structure and intensity. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with 9 km horizontal grid

  13. Structure of Developing Tropical Cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinari, J. E.

    2006-12-01

    Considerable progress has been made in the numerical modeling of tropical cyclones. The very high resolution now routinely used in research models allows realistic simulation of eyewall structure and breakdown, vortex Rossby waves, and numerous other processes that were beyond the capability of previous generations of models. At least one aspect of tropical cyclones, however, has not been reproduced in the current generation of models: early development (or lack of development) during tropical depression and early tropical storm stages. During such times, vertical wind shear often plays a critical role. In this presentation, details of the structure of four tropical cyclones at early stages will be given: Claudette (2003), Danny (1997), Gabrielle (2001), and Edouard (2002). The first three contained intense vortices that formed within downshear convection. Deep-layer vertical wind shear ranged from 8-15 m/s in the storms. In Claudette, a hurricane formed that lasted only 6 hours. In Danny and Gabrielle, the downshear vortices became the new storm center. One became a hurricane and one did not. In Edouard, vertical shear was even larger. Convection fluctuated between downshear of the center and over the center, with analogous intensity changes. This behavior is known to forecasters, but the causes of such fluctuations remain uncertain. The evolving structure of these four storms will be shown, with emphasis on the variation of convection, equivalent potential temperature in the lower troposphere, and azimuthal asymmetries of wind and circulation. Contrast will be made between the structure of forming tropical cyclones in nature and those seen in mesoscale numerical models. Some remarks will be given on the key physical processes that must be simulated.

  14. A comparison of limited-area energetic processes between observations and primitive equation model predictions. [cyclone Numerical Weather Forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alpert, J. C.; Chen, T.-C.

    1979-01-01

    Energetic analyses of the NMC initial conditions and NMC six-layer primitive equation operational prediction model 12-hr forecast for a developing cyclone are presented. Consideration is given to the total kinetic energy, the energetics of the divergent and nondivergent flows and the baroclinic (vertical shear flow) and barotropic (vertical mean flow) components of the kinetic energy. It is found that the model initial conditions lose 10-15% of the kinetic energy at various levels compared to a limited-area multivariate statistical analysis of the observational data, leading to a decrease in the horizontal kinetic energy flux, a misrepresentation of the synoptic scale wave system in the 12-hr forecast. Similar results are obtained for the nondivergent flow, while the divergent flow energetics are not reproduced accurately by the model. The horizontal flux terms of the vertical mean and vertical shear energetics are also not found to be reproduced in the upper levels, although horizontal flux contributions to the baroclinic component are improved at middle and lower levels. Finally, vertical shear kinetic energy generation is found to be well represented in the model prediction, however kinetic energy conversion between vertical shear and mean flow is not reproduced in the lower layer.

  15. Advanced Technology Composite Fuselage - Materials and Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholz, D. B.; Dost, E. F.; Flynn, B. W.; Ilcewicz, L. B.; Nelson, K. M.; Sawicki, A. J.; Walker, T. H.; Lakes, R. S.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of Boeing's Advanced Technology Composite Aircraft Structures (ATCAS) program was to develop the technology required for cost and weight efficient use of composite materials in transport fuselage structure. This contractor report describes results of material and process selection, development, and characterization activities. Carbon fiber reinforced epoxy was chosen for fuselage skins and stiffening elements and for passenger and cargo floor structures. The automated fiber placement (AFP) process was selected for fabrication of monolithic and sandwich skin panels. Circumferential frames and window frames were braided and resin transfer molded (RTM'd). Pultrusion was selected for fabrication of floor beams and constant section stiffening elements. Drape forming was chosen for stringers and other stiffening elements. Significant development efforts were expended on the AFP, braiding, and RTM processes. Sandwich core materials and core edge close-out design concepts were evaluated. Autoclave cure processes were developed for stiffened skin and sandwich structures. The stiffness, strength, notch sensitivity, and bearing/bypass properties of fiber-placed skin materials and braided/RTM'd circumferential frame materials were characterized. The strength and durability of cocured and cobonded joints were evaluated. Impact damage resistance of stiffened skin and sandwich structures typical of fuselage panels was investigated. Fluid penetration and migration mechanisms for sandwich panels were studied.

  16. Cyclone performance and optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Leith, D.

    1990-06-15

    The objectives of this project are: to characterize the gas flow pattern within cyclones, to revise the theory for cyclone performance on the basis of these findings, and to design and test cyclones whose dimensions have been optimized using revised performance theory. This work is important because its successful completion will aid in the technology for combustion of coal in pressurized, fluidized beds. During the past quarter, we have nearly completed modeling work that employs the flow field measurements made during the past six months. In addition, we have begun final work using the results of this project to develop improved design methods for cyclones. This work involves optimization using the Iozia-Leith efficiency model and the Dirgo pressure drop model. This work will be completed this summer. 9 figs.

  17. Tropical Cyclone Nargis: 2008

    NASA Video Gallery

    This new animation, developed with the help of NASA's Pleiades supercomputer, illustrates how tropical cyclone Nargis formed in the Indian Ocean's Bay of Bengal over several days in late April 2008...

  18. Advancements in MEMS materials and processing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivas, John D.; Bolin, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    From achievements in display imaging to air bag deployment, microelectromechanical systems are becoming more commonplace in everyday life. With an abundance of opportunities for innovative R&D in the field, the research trends are not only directed toward novel sensor and actuator development, but also toward further miniaturization, specifically achieving micro- and nanoscaled integrated systems. R&D efforts in space, military, and commercial applications are directing specific research programs focused on the area of materials science as an enabling technology to be exploited by researchers and to further push the envelope of micrometerscaled device technology. These endeavors are making significant progress in bringing this aspect of the microelectro-mechanical field to maturation through advances in materials and processing technologies.

  19. Processing and analyzing advanced hyperspectral imagery data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Nahry, A. H.

    2006-09-01

    The main objective of the current work is to recognize the dominant and predominant clay minerals of South Port Said plain soils, Egypt using the high advanced remote sensing techniques of hyperspectral data. Spectral analyses as one of the most advanced remote sensing techniques were used for the aforementioned purpose. Different spectral processes have been used to execute the prospective spectral analyses. These processes include 1-The reflectance calibration of hyperspectral data belonging to the studied area, 2- Using the minimum noise fraction (MNF) transformation. 3 -Creating the pixel purity index (PPI) which used as a mean of finding the most "spectrally pure", extreme, pixel in hyperspectral images. Making conjunction between the Minimum Noise Fraction Transform (MNF) and Pixel Purity Index (PPI) tools through 3-D visualization offered capabilities to locate, identify, and cluster the purest pixels and most extreme spectral responses in a data set. To identify the clay minerals of the studied area the extracted unknown spectra of the purest pixels was matched to pre-defined (library) spectra providing score with respect to the library spectra. Three methods namely, Spectral Feature Fitting (SFF),Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) and Binary Encoding (BE) were used to produce score between 0 and 1, where the value of I equal a perfect match showing exactly the mineral type. In the investigated area four clay minerals could be identified i.e. Vermiculite, Kaolinite, Montmorillinite, and Illite recording different scores related to their abundance in the soils. In order to check the validity and accuracy of the obtained results, X-ray diffraction analysis was applied on surface soil samples covering the same locations of the end-members that derived from hyperspectral image. Highly correlated and significant results were obtained using the two approaches (spectral signatures and x-ray diffraction).

  20. Novel imazethapyr detoxification applying advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Stathis, Ioannis; Hela, Dimitra G; Scrano, Laura; Lelario, Filomena; Emanuele, Lucia; Bufo, Sabino A

    2011-01-01

    Different degradation methods have been applied to assess the suitability of advanced oxidation process (AOPs) to promote mineralization of imazethapyr [(RS)-5-ethyl-2-(4-isopropyl-4-methyl-5-oxo-2-imidazolin-2-yl)nicotinic acid], a widely used imidazolinone class herbicide, the persistence of which has been demonstrated in surface and ground waters destined to human uses. Independent of the oxidation process assessed, the decomposition of imazethapyr always followed a pseudo-first order kinetic. The direct UV-irradiation (UV) of the herbicide as well as its oxidation with ozone (O₃), and hydrogen peroxide tied to UV-irradiation (H₂O₂/UV) were sufficiently slow to permit the identification of intermediate products, the formation pathway of which has been proposed. Ozonation joined to UV-irradiation (O₃/UV), ozonation joined to titanium dioxide photo-catalysis (TiO₂/UV+O₃), sole photo-catalysis (TiO₂/UV), and photo-catalysis reinforced with hydrogen peroxide-oxidation (TiO₂/UV+H₂O₂) were characterized by a faster degradation and rapid formation of a lot of small molecules, which were quickly degraded to complete mineralization. The most effective oxidation methods were those using titanium dioxide photo-catalysis enhanced either by ozonation or hydrogen peroxide. Most of all, these last processes were useful to avoid the development of dangerous by-products.

  1. Improved water-cooled cyclone constructions in CFBs

    SciTech Connect

    Alliston, M.G.; Luomaharju, T.; Kokko, A.

    1999-07-01

    The construction of CFB boilers has advanced in comparison with early designs. One improvement has been the use of water or steam cooled cyclones, which allows the use of thin refractories and minimizes maintenance needs. Cooled cyclones are also tolerant of wide load variations when the main fuel is biologically based, and coal or some other fuel is used as a back-up. With uncooled cyclones, load changes with high volatile fuels can mean significant temperature transients in the refractory, due to post-combustion phenomena in the cyclone. Kvaerner's development of water-cooled cyclones for CFBs began in the early 1980s. The first boiler with this design was delivered in 1985 in Sweden. Since then, Kvaerner Pulping has delivered over twenty units with cooled cyclones, in capacity ranging from small units up to 400 MW{sub th}. Among these units, Kvaerner has developed unconventional solutions for CFBs, in order to simplify the constructions and to increase the reliability for different applications. The first of them was CYMIC{reg{underscore}sign}, which has its water-cooled cyclone built inside the boiler furnace. There are two commercial CYMIC boilers in operation and one in project stages. The largest CYMIC in operation is a 185 MW{sub th} industrial boiler burning various fuels. For even larger scale units Kvaerner developed the Integrated Cylindrical Cyclone and Loopseal (ICCL) assembly. One of these installations is in operation in USA, having steaming capacity of over 500 t/h. The design bases of these new solutions are quite different in comparison with conventional cyclones. Therefore, an important part of the development has been cold model testing and mathematical modeling of the cyclones. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in water-cooled cyclone construction. The new solutions, their full-scale experience, and a comparison of the actual experience with the preliminary modeling work are introduced.

  2. Impact of Tropical Cyclones on the Ocean Heat Budget in the Bay of Bengal during 1999: Processes and Interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Han, W.; Sriver, R. L.

    2012-12-01

    The impacts of two consecutive, strong tropical cyclones (TCs) from October-November in 1999 on the Bay of Bengal (BoB) heat budget are examined using the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model. The model uses atmospheric conditions from reanalysis, reconstructed TC winds, and satellite-observed winds and precipitation. We conduct a series of diagnostic experiments to isolate the model's response to the individual TC-associated forcings. During the TCs, the BoB ocean heat content (OHC) is reduced, primarily due to TC-wind induced southward ocean heat transport (OHT) and a reduction in surface downward radiation due to increased cloudiness. BoB OHC is largely restored in the following months via enhanced surface heat fluxes, associated with cold wake restoration, and positive northward OHT. The TCs' downward heat pumping effect is estimated to be ~1.74×1018J near the end of February 2000, which is less than estimates using previously published methods based on surface observations. The relatively weak heat pumping results from freshwater input by intense monsoon rainfall and river discharge in the BoB, which stabilizes stratification, forms a barrier layer, and generates temperature inversions during seasonal surface cooling. As a result, early stage TC winds entrain the warm barrier layer water and enhance enthalpy loss in the southeastern Bay, while mature stage TC winds erode the barrier layer, decrease SST through upwelling and entrainment of deeper cold water and reduce enthalpy loss in the northwestern Bay. Our findings suggest TC winds may significantly alter the interseasonal BoB heat budget through OHT and surface heat fluxes.

  3. Impact of tropical cyclones on the ocean heat budget in the Bay of Bengal during 1999: 2. Processes and interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jih-Wang; Han, Weiqing; Sriver, Ryan L.

    2012-09-01

    The impacts of two consecutive, strong tropical cyclones (TCs) from October-November in 1999 on the Bay of Bengal (BoB) heat budget are examined using the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model. The model uses atmospheric conditions from reanalysis, reconstructed TC winds, and satellite-observed winds and precipitation. We conduct a series of diagnostic experiments to isolate the model's response to the individual TC-associated forcings. During the TCs, the BoB ocean heat content (OHC) is reduced, primarily due to TC-wind induced southward ocean heat transport (OHT) and a reduction in surface downward radiation due to increased cloudiness. BoB OHC is largely restored in the following months via enhanced surface heat fluxes, associated with cold wake restoration, and positive northward OHT. The TCs' downward heat pumping effect is estimated to be ˜1.74 × 1018 J near the end of February 2000, which is less than estimates using previously published methods based on surface observations. The relatively weak heat pumping results from freshwater input by intense monsoon rainfall and river discharge in the BoB, which stabilizes stratification, forms a barrier layer, and generates temperature inversions during seasonal surface cooling. As a result, early stage TC winds entrain the warm barrier layer water and enhance enthalpy loss in the southeastern Bay, while mature stage TC winds erode the barrier layer, decrease SST through upwelling and entrainment of deeper cold water and reduce enthalpy loss in the northwestern Bay. Our findings suggest TC winds may significantly alter the interseasonal BoB heat budget through OHT and surface heat fluxes.

  4. Advanced Integrated Optical Signal Processing Components.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastani, Kasra

    This research was aimed at the development of advanced integrated optical components suitable for devices capable of processing multi-dimensional inputs. In such processors, densely packed waveguide arrays with low crosstalk are needed to provide dissection of the information that has been partially processed. Waveguide arrays also expand the information in the plane of the processor while maintaining its coherence. Rib waveguide arrays with low loss, high mode confinement and highly uniform surface quality (660 elements, 8 μm wide, 1 μm high, and 1 cm long with 2 mu m separations) were fabricated on LiNbO _3 substrates through the ion beam milling technique. A novel feature of the multi-dimensional IO processor architecture proposed herein is the implementation of large area uniform outcoupling (with low to moderate outcoupling efficiencies) from rib waveguide arrays in order to access the third dimension of the processor structure. As a means of outcoupling, uniform surface gratings (2 μm and 4 μm grating periods, 0.05 μm high and 1 mm long) with low outcoupling efficiencies (of approximately 2-18%/mm) were fabricated on the nonuniform surface of the rib waveguide arrays. As a practical technique of modulating the low outcoupling efficiencies of the surface gratings, it was proposed to alter the period of the grating as a function of position along each waveguide. Large aperture (2.5 mm) integrated lenses with short positive focal lengths (1.2-2.5 cm) were developed through a modification of the titanium-indiffused proton exchanged (TIPE) technique. Such integrated lenses were fabricated by increasing the refractive index of the slab waveguides by the TIPE process while maintaining the refractive index of the lenses at the lower level of Ti:LiNbO _3 waveguide. By means of curvature reversal of the integrated lenses, positive focal length lenses have been fabricated while providing high mode confinement for the slab waveguide. The above elements performed as

  5. Induced effects of advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Li, Chaolin; Zhao, Zhuanjun; Lu, Gang; Cui, Haibo; Zhang, Wenfang

    2014-02-07

    Hazardous organic wastes from industrial, military, and commercial activities represent one of the greatest challenges to human beings. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are alternatives to the degradation of those organic wastes. However, the knowledge about the exact mechanisms of AOPs is still incomplete. Here we report a phenomenon in the AOPs: induced effects, which is a common property of combustion reaction. Through analysis EDTA oxidation processes by Fenton and UV-Fenton system, the results indicate that, just like combustion, AOPs are typical induction reactions. One most compelling example is that pre-feeding easily oxidizable organic matter can promote the oxidation of refractory organic compound when it was treated by AOPs. Connecting AOPs to combustion, it is possible to achieve some helpful enlightenment from combustion to analyze, predict and understand AOPs. In addition, we assume that maybe other oxidation reactions also have induced effects, such as corrosion, aging and passivation. Muchmore research is necessary to reveal the possibilities of induced effects in those fields.

  6. Induced effects of advanced oxidation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Peng; Li, Chaolin; Zhao, Zhuanjun; Lu, Gang; Cui, Haibo; Zhang, Wenfang

    2014-02-01

    Hazardous organic wastes from industrial, military, and commercial activities represent one of the greatest challenges to human beings. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are alternatives to the degradation of those organic wastes. However, the knowledge about the exact mechanisms of AOPs is still incomplete. Here we report a phenomenon in the AOPs: induced effects, which is a common property of combustion reaction. Through analysis EDTA oxidation processes by Fenton and UV-Fenton system, the results indicate that, just like combustion, AOPs are typical induction reactions. One most compelling example is that pre-feeding easily oxidizable organic matter can promote the oxidation of refractory organic compound when it was treated by AOPs. Connecting AOPs to combustion, it is possible to achieve some helpful enlightenment from combustion to analyze, predict and understand AOPs. In addition, we assume that maybe other oxidation reactions also have induced effects, such as corrosion, aging and passivation. Muchmore research is necessary to reveal the possibilities of induced effects in those fields.

  7. DENSE MEDIUM CYCLONE OPTIMIZATON

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald H. Luttrell; Chris J. Barbee; Peter J. Bethell; Chris J. Wood

    2005-06-30

    Dense medium cyclones (DMCs) are known to be efficient, high-tonnage devices suitable for upgrading particles in the 50 to 0.5 mm size range. This versatile separator, which uses centrifugal forces to enhance the separation of fine particles that cannot be upgraded in static dense medium separators, can be found in most modern coal plants and in a variety of mineral plants treating iron ore, dolomite, diamonds, potash and lead-zinc ores. Due to the high tonnage, a small increase in DMC efficiency can have a large impact on plant profitability. Unfortunately, the knowledge base required to properly design and operate DMCs has been seriously eroded during the past several decades. In an attempt to correct this problem, a set of engineering tools have been developed to allow producers to improve the efficiency of their DMC circuits. These tools include (1) low-cost density tracers that can be used by plant operators to rapidly assess DMC performance, (2) mathematical process models that can be used to predict the influence of changes in operating and design variables on DMC performance, and (3) an expert advisor system that provides plant operators with a user-friendly interface for evaluating, optimizing and trouble-shooting DMC circuits. The field data required to develop these tools was collected by conducting detailed sampling and evaluation programs at several industrial plant sites. These data were used to demonstrate the technical, economic and environmental benefits that can be realized through the application of these engineering tools.

  8. Cyclones in the thermosphere?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, A.; Wang, W.; Killeen, T.

    2003-04-01

    The recovery of the thermosphere and ionosphere from geomagnetic storms is a subject that has not received the attention that it deserves. But, even with the small number of papers that have been published about these conditions, there are apparently conflicting results. Burns et al. (1989) suggested that most recovery was rapid, whereas Fuller-Rowell et al. (1994) found recovery was sufficiently slow that storm effects could be seen a full day after the end of the main phase of a geomagnetic storm. At first sight these two ideas do not seem to be easily reconciled. But, in fact, it is shown here that, while much recovery is fast at solar maximum, large, organized disturbances exist in the thermosphere and ionosphere for a long time. These disturbances, which were first proposed by Banks and Nagy (1974), are mesoscale- to large-scale in size and nature and have some characteristics of tropospheric cyclones. In this work, we discuss the nature of these disturbances, their origin and development and consider the processes that permit their long life. The major conclusions of this work are: 1) After a major geomagnetic storm neutral compositional recovery is rapid over much of the globe; 2) In certain areas, large-to-mesoscale disturbances occur that are both well organized and long lived; 3) The disturbance discussed here was "spun-off" from the dawn convection cell and then briefly formed a secondary horizontal vortex; 4) At times these disturbances are associated with pronounced vertical convection cells.

  9. Tropical Cyclone Gonu

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    You might expect to see a storm with near-perfect symmetry and a well-defined eye hovering over the warm waters of the Caribbean or in the South Pacific, but Tropical Cyclone Gonu showed up in an unusual place. On June 4, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Aqua satellite captured this image, Tropical Cyclone Gonu was approaching the northeastern shore of Oman, a region better known for hot desert conditions. Though rare, cyclones like Gonu are not unheard of in the northern Indian Ocean basin. Most cyclones that form in the region form over the Bay of Bengal, east of India. Those that take shape over the Arabian Sea, west of the Indian peninsula, tend to be small and fizzle out before coming ashore. Cyclone Gonu is a rare exception. As of June 4, 2007, the powerful storm had reached a dangerous Category Four status, and it was forecast to graze Oman's northeastern shore, following the Gulf of Oman. According to storm statistics maintained on Unisys Weather, the last storm of this size to form over the Arabian Sea was Cyclone 01A, which tracked northwest along the coast of India between May 21 and May 28, 2001. Unlike Gonu's forecasted track, Cyclone 01A never came ashore. MODIS acquired this photo-like image at 12:00 p.m. local time (9:00 UTC), a few hours after the Joint Typhoon Warning Center estimated Gonu's sustained winds to be over 240 kilometers per hour (145 miles per hour). The satellite image confirms that Gonu was a super-powerful cyclone. The storm has the hallmark tightly wound arms that spiral around a well-defined, circular eye. The eye is surrounded by a clear wall of towering clouds that cast shadows on the surrounding clouds. Called hot towers, these clouds are a sign of the powerful uplift that feeds the storm. The symmetrical spirals, clear eye, and towering clouds are all features regularly seen in satellite images of other particularly powerful cyclones, which are also known as typhoons or hurricanes

  10. Grey swan tropical cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ning; Emanuel, Kerry

    2016-01-01

    We define `grey swan’ tropical cyclones as high-impact storms that would not be predicted based on history but may be foreseeable using physical knowledge together with historical data. Here we apply a climatological-hydrodynamic method to estimate grey swan tropical cyclone storm surge threat for three highly vulnerable coastal regions. We identify a potentially large risk in the Persian Gulf, where tropical cyclones have never been recorded, and larger-than-expected threats in Cairns, Australia, and Tampa, Florida. Grey swan tropical cyclones striking Tampa, Cairns and Dubai can generate storm surges of about 6 m, 5.7 m and 4 m, respectively, with estimated annual exceedance probabilities of about 1/10,000. With climate change, these probabilities can increase significantly over the twenty-first century (to 1/3,100-1/1,100 in the middle and 1/2,500-1/700 towards the end of the century for Tampa). Worse grey swan tropical cyclones, inducing surges exceeding 11 m in Tampa and 7 m in Dubai, are also revealed with non-negligible probabilities, especially towards the end of the century.

  11. Advanced information processing system: Local system services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkhardt, Laura; Alger, Linda; Whittredge, Roy; Stasiowski, Peter

    1989-01-01

    The Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) is a multi-computer architecture composed of hardware and software building blocks that can be configured to meet a broad range of application requirements. The hardware building blocks are fault-tolerant, general-purpose computers, fault-and damage-tolerant networks (both computer and input/output), and interfaces between the networks and the computers. The software building blocks are the major software functions: local system services, input/output, system services, inter-computer system services, and the system manager. The foundation of the local system services is an operating system with the functions required for a traditional real-time multi-tasking computer, such as task scheduling, inter-task communication, memory management, interrupt handling, and time maintenance. Resting on this foundation are the redundancy management functions necessary in a redundant computer and the status reporting functions required for an operator interface. The functional requirements, functional design and detailed specifications for all the local system services are documented.

  12. Natural language processing and advanced information management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoard, James E.

    1989-01-01

    Integrating diverse information sources and application software in a principled and general manner will require a very capable advanced information management (AIM) system. In particular, such a system will need a comprehensive addressing scheme to locate the material in its docuverse. It will also need a natural language processing (NLP) system of great sophistication. It seems that the NLP system must serve three functions. First, it provides an natural language interface (NLI) for the users. Second, it serves as the core component that understands and makes use of the real-world interpretations (RWIs) contained in the docuverse. Third, it enables the reasoning specialists (RSs) to arrive at conclusions that can be transformed into procedures that will satisfy the users' requests. The best candidate for an intelligent agent that can satisfactorily make use of RSs and transform documents (TDs) appears to be an object oriented data base (OODB). OODBs have, apparently, an inherent capacity to use the large numbers of RSs and TDs that will be required by an AIM system and an inherent capacity to use them in an effective way.

  13. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    Western Energy Company (WECO) was selected by the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) which upgrades low rank coals into high Btu, low sulfur, synthetic bituminous coal. As specified in the Corporate Agreement, RSCP is required to develop an Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) which describes in detail the environmental monitoring activities to be performed during the project execution. The purpose of the EMP is to: (1) identify monitoring activities that will be undertaken to show compliance to applicable regulations, (2) confirm the specific environmental impacts predicted in the National Environmental Policy Act documentation, and (3) establish an information base of the assessment of the environmental performance of the technology demonstrated by the project. The EMP specifies the streams to be monitored (e.g. gaseous, aqueous, and solid waste), the parameters to be measured (e.g. temperature, pressure, flow rate), and the species to be analyzed (e.g. sulfur compounds, nitrogen compounds, trace elements) as well as human health and safety exposure levels. The operation and frequency of the monitoring activities is specified, as well as the timing for the monitoring activities related to project phase (e.g. preconstruction, construction, commissioning, operational, post-operational). The EMP is designed to assess the environmental impacts and the environmental improvements resulting from construction and operation of the project.

  14. Drying in cyclones -- A review

    SciTech Connect

    Nebra, S.A.; Silva, M.A.; Mujumdar, A.S.

    2000-03-01

    This paper presents an overview of the flow, heat and mass transfer characteristics of vortex (or cyclone) dryers. The focus is on the potential of the cyclone configuration for drying of particulates. A selective review is made of the literature pertains to single phase and gas-particle flow in cyclone geometries. Recent data on drying of particulates in cyclone dryers are summarized. 56 refs.

  15. An Evaluation of the Parallel Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition Method in Revealing the Role of Downscaling Processes Associated with African Easterly Waves in Tropical Cyclone Genesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, B. W.; Wu, Y.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we applied the parallel version of the Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (PEEMD) for an analysis of 10-year (2004-2013) ERA-Interim global reanalysis data in order to explore multiscale interaction of tropical cyclone genesis associated with African Easterly Waves (AEWs) in sheared flows. Our focus was aimed at understanding the downscaling process in multiscale flows during storm intensification. To represent the various length scales of atmospheric systems, we extracted Intrinsic Function Modes (IMFs) from raw data using the PEEMD and found that the non-oscillatory trend mode can be used to represent large scale environmental flow and the third oscillatory mode (IMF3) is to represent AEW/TC scale systems. Our results: 1) identified 42 developing cases from 272 AEWs, with 25 eventually developing into hurricanes; 2) indicated that maximum shear largely occurs over the ocean for the IMF3 mode and over land near the coast for the trend mode for developing cases, suggesting shear transfer between the trend mode and the IMF3; 3) displayed opposite wind shear tendencies for the trend mode and the IMF3 during storm intensification, signifying the downscaling process in 13 hurricane cases along their tracks; 4) showed that among the 42 developing cases, only 13 of the 25 hurricanes were found with significant downscaling transfer features, so other processes such as upscaling processes may play an important role in the other developing cases, especially the remaining 12 hurricane cases. Investigating the upscaling process between the convection scale and the AEW/TC requires data from the finer grid resolution and will be the subject of a future study.

  16. Revisiting the steering principal of tropical cyclone motion in a numerical experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Liguang; Chen, Xiaoyu

    2016-12-01

    The steering principle of tropical cyclone motion has been applied to tropical cyclone forecasting and research for nearly 100 years. Two fundamental questions remain unanswered. One is why the steering flow plays a dominant role in tropical cyclone motion, and the other is when tropical cyclone motion deviates considerably from the steering. A high-resolution numerical experiment was conducted with the tropical cyclone in a typical large-scale monsoon trough over the western North Pacific. The simulated tropical cyclone experiences two eyewall replacement processes. Based on the potential vorticity tendency (PVT) diagnostics, this study demonstrates that the conventional steering, which is calculated over a certain radius from the tropical cyclone center in the horizontal and a deep pressure layer in the vertical, plays a dominant role in tropical cyclone motion since the contributions from other processes are largely cancelled out due to the coherent structure of tropical cyclone circulation. Resulting from the asymmetric dynamics of the tropical cyclone inner core, the trochoidal motion around the mean tropical cyclone track cannot be accounted for by the conventional steering. The instantaneous tropical cyclone motion can considerably deviate from the conventional steering that approximately accounts for the combined effect of the contribution of the advection of the symmetric potential vorticity component by the asymmetric flow and the contribution from the advection of the wave-number-one potential vorticity component by the symmetric flow.

  17. High performance cyclone development

    SciTech Connect

    Giles, W.B.

    1981-01-01

    The results of cold flow experiments at atmospheric conditions of an air-shielded 18 in-dia electrocyclone with a central cusped electrode are reported using fine test dusts of both flyash and nickel powder. These results are found to confirm expectations of enhanced performance, similar to earlier work on a 12 in-dia model. An analysis of the combined inertial-electrostatic force field is also presented which identifies general design goals and scaling laws. From this, it is found that electrostatic enhancement will be particularly beneficial for fine dusts in large cyclones. Recommendations for further improvement in cyclone collection efficiency are proposed.

  18. Sensitivity of tropical cyclone intensity to sea surface temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.L. )

    1993-06-01

    Increased occurrence of more intense tropical storms intruding further poleward has been foreshadowed as one of the potential consequences of global warming. This scenario is based almost entirely on the general circulation model predictions of warmer sea surface temperature (SST) with increasing levels of atmospheric CO[sub 2] and some theories of tropical cyclone intensification that support the notion of more intense systems with warmer SST. Whether storms are able to achieve this theoretically determined more intense state depends on whether the temperature of the underlying water is the dominant factor in tropical cyclone intensification. An examination of the historical data record in a number of ocean basins is used to identify the relative importance of SST in the tropical cyclone intensification process. The results reveal that SST alone is an inadequate predictor of tropical cyclone intensity. Other factors known to affect tropical cyclone frequency and intensity are discussed. 16 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Ocean barrier layers' effect on tropical cyclone intensification.

    PubMed

    Balaguru, Karthik; Chang, Ping; Saravanan, R; Leung, L Ruby; Xu, Zhao; Li, Mingkui; Hsieh, Jen-Shan

    2012-09-04

    Improving a tropical cyclone's forecast and mitigating its destructive potential requires knowledge of various environmental factors that influence the cyclone's path and intensity. Herein, using a combination of observations and model simulations, we systematically demonstrate that tropical cyclone intensification is significantly affected by salinity-induced barrier layers, which are "quasi-permanent" features in the upper tropical oceans. When tropical cyclones pass over regions with barrier layers, the increased stratification and stability within the layer reduce storm-induced vertical mixing and sea surface temperature cooling. This causes an increase in enthalpy flux from the ocean to the atmosphere and, consequently, an intensification of tropical cyclones. On average, the tropical cyclone intensification rate is nearly 50% higher over regions with barrier layers, compared to regions without. Our finding, which underscores the importance of observing not only the upper-ocean thermal structure but also the salinity structure in deep tropical barrier layer regions, may be a key to more skillful predictions of tropical cyclone intensities through improved ocean state estimates and simulations of barrier layer processes. As the hydrological cycle responds to global warming, any associated changes in the barrier layer distribution must be considered in projecting future tropical cyclone activity.

  20. Ocean Barrier Layers’ Effect on Tropical Cyclone Intensification

    SciTech Connect

    Balaguru, Karthik; Chang, P.; Saravanan, R.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Xu, Zhao; Li, M.; Hsieh, J.

    2012-09-04

    Improving a tropical cyclone's forecast and mitigating its destructive potential requires knowledge of various environmental factors that influence the cyclone's path and intensity. Herein, using a combination of observations and model simulations, we systematically demonstrate that tropical cyclone intensification is significantly affected by salinity-induced barrier layers, which are 'quasi-permanent' features in the upper tropical oceans. When tropical cyclones pass over regions with barrier layers, the increased stratification and stability within the layer reduce storm-induced vertical mixing and sea surface temperature cooling. This causes an increase in enthalpy flux from the ocean to the atmosphere and, consequently, an intensification of tropical cyclones. On average, the tropical cyclone intensification rate is nearly 50% higher over regions with barrier layers, compared to regions without. Our finding, which underscores the importance of observing not only the upper-ocean thermal structure but also the salinity structure in deep tropical barrier layer regions, may be a key to more skillful predictions of tropical cyclone intensities through improved ocean state estimates and simulations of barrier layer processes. As the hydrological cycle responds to global warming, any associated changes in the barrier layer distribution must be considered in projecting future tropical cyclone activity.

  1. Advanced Reduction Processes: A New Class of Treatment Processes

    PubMed Central

    Vellanki, Bhanu Prakash; Batchelor, Bill; Abdel-Wahab, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new class of treatment processes called advanced reduction processes (ARPs) is proposed. ARPs combine activation methods and reducing agents to form highly reactive reducing radicals that degrade oxidized contaminants. Batch screening experiments were conducted to identify effective ARPs by applying several combinations of activation methods (ultraviolet light, ultrasound, electron beam, and microwaves) and reducing agents (dithionite, sulfite, ferrous iron, and sulfide) to degradation of four target contaminants (perchlorate, nitrate, perfluorooctanoic acid, and 2,4 dichlorophenol) at three pH-levels (2.4, 7.0, and 11.2). These experiments identified the combination of sulfite activated by ultraviolet light produced by a low-pressure mercury vapor lamp (UV-L) as an effective ARP. More detailed kinetic experiments were conducted with nitrate and perchlorate as target compounds, and nitrate was found to degrade more rapidly than perchlorate. Effectiveness of the UV-L/sulfite treatment process improved with increasing pH for both perchlorate and nitrate. We present the theory behind ARPs, identify potential ARPs, demonstrate their effectiveness against a wide range of contaminants, and provide basic experimental evidence in support of the fundamental hypothesis for ARP, namely, that activation methods can be applied to reductants to form reducing radicals that degrade oxidized contaminants. This article provides an introduction to ARPs along with sufficient data to identify potentially effective ARPs and the target compounds these ARPs will be most effective in destroying. Further research will provide a detailed analysis of degradation kinetics and the mechanisms of contaminant destruction in an ARP. PMID:23840160

  2. Assessing Tropical Cyclone Damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Done, J.; Czajkowski, J.

    2012-12-01

    Landfalling tropical cyclones impact large coastal and inland areas causing direct damage due to winds, storm-surge flooding, tornadoes, and precipitation; as well as causing substantial indirect damage such as electrical outages and business interruption. The likely climate change impact of increased tropical cyclone intensity, combined with increases in exposure, bring the possibility of increased damage in the future. A considerable amount of research has focused on modeling economic damage due to tropical cyclones, and a series of indices have been developed to assess damages under climate change. We highlight a number of ways this research can be improved through a series of case study analyses. First, historical loss estimates are revisited to properly account for; time, impacted regions, the source of damage by type, and whether the damage was direct/indirect and insured/uninsured. Second, the drivers of loss from both the socio-economic and physical side are examined. A case is made to move beyond the use of maximum wind speed to more stable metrics and the use of other characteristics of the wind field such as direction, degree of gustiness, and duration is explored. A novel approach presented here is the potential to model losses directly as a function of climate variables such as sea surface temperature, greenhouse gases, and aerosols. This work is the first stage in the development of a tropical cyclone loss model to enable projections of losses under scenarios of both socio-economic change (such as population migration or altered policy) and physical change (such as shifts in tropical cyclone activity one from basin to another or within the same basin).

  3. Advanced Computing Architectures for Cognitive Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    AND IS APPROVED FOR PUBLICATION IN ACCORDANCE WITH ASSIGNED DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT. FOR THE DIRECTOR: / s ... s / LOK YAN EDWARD J. JONES, Deputy Chief Work Unit Manager Advanced Computing Division...ELEMENT NUMBER 62702F 6. AUTHOR( S ) Gregory D. Peterson 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 459T 5e. TASK NUMBER AC 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER CP 7. PERFORMING

  4. 75 FR 66319 - State Systems Advance Planning Document (APD) Process

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES 45 CFR Part 95 RIN 0970-AC33 State Systems Advance Planning Document (APD) Process AGENCY... Health and Human Services (HHS). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Advance Planning Document (APD) process... and Human Services (HHS) provides national leadership and direction in planning, managing,...

  5. Plasma-cyclone technology for firing solid fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpenko, Yu. E.; Messerle, V. E.; Karpenko, E. I.; Basargin, A. P.

    2014-08-01

    A new coal combustion technology is described, which involves preparation of fuel for combustion by subjecting it to electrothermochemical treatment followed by vortex firing of pulverized-coal fuel in a cyclone chamber with removing the molten mineral part of the fuel. A procedure for stepped calculation of the plasma-cyclone process is presented, which includes stage-wise determination of gas flow state parameters, mineral part of fuel, and geometrical characteristics of the chamber. The results of experimental investigations confirming the main theoretical statements are given. The solid fuel plasma-cyclone combustion technology application field including power-generating and power-processing areas is defined.

  6. Extra-tropical Cyclones and Windstorms in Seasonal Forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leckebusch, Gregor C.; Befort, Daniel J.; Weisheimer, Antje; Knight, Jeff; Thornton, Hazel; Roberts, Julia; Hermanson, Leon

    2015-04-01

    Severe damages and large insured losses over Europe related to natural phenomena are mostly caused by extra-tropical cyclones and their related windstorm fields. Thus, an adequate representation of these events in seasonal prediction systems and reliable forecasts up to a season in advance would be of high value for society and economy. In this study, state-of-the-art seasonal forecast prediction systems are analysed (ECMWF, UK Met Office) regarding the general climatological representation and the seasonal prediction of extra-tropical cyclones and windstorms during the core winter season (DJF) with a lead time of up to four months. Two different algorithms are used to identify cyclones and windstorm events in these datasets. Firstly, we apply a cyclone identification and tracking algorithm based on the Laplacian of MSLP and secondly, we use an objective wind field tracking algorithm to identify and track continuous areas of extreme high wind speeds (cf. Leckebusch et al., 2008), which can be related to extra-tropical winter cyclones. Thus, for the first time, we can analyse the forecast of severe wind events near to the surface caused by extra-tropical cyclones. First results suggest a successful validation of the spatial climatological distributions of wind storm and cyclone occurrence in the seasonal forecast systems in comparison with reanalysis data (ECMWF-ERA40 & ERAInterim) in general. However, large biases are found for some areas. The skill of the seasonal forecast systems in simulating the year-to-year variability of the frequency of severe windstorm events and cyclones is investigated using the ranked probability skill score. Positive skill is found over large parts of the Northern Hemisphere as well as for the most intense extra-tropical cyclones and its related wind fields.

  7. Project T.E.A.M. (Technical Education Advancement Modules). Advanced Statistical Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Dale

    This instructional guide, one of a series developed by the Technical Education Advancement Modules (TEAM) project, is a 20-hour advanced statistical process control (SPC) and quality improvement course designed to develop the following competencies: (1) understanding quality systems; (2) knowing the process; (3) solving quality problems; and (4)…

  8. DENSE MEDIA CYCLONE OPTIMIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald H. Luttrell

    2001-09-10

    The fieldwork associated with Task 1 (Baseline Assessment) was completed this quarter. Detailed cyclone inspections completed at all but one plant during maintenance shifts. Analysis of the test samples is also currently underway in Task 4 (Sample Analysis). A Draft Recommendation was prepared for the management at each test site in Task 2 (Circuit Modification). All required procurements were completed. Density tracers were manufactured and tested for quality control purposes. Special sampling tools were also purchased and/or fabricated for each plant site. The preliminary experimental data show that the partitioning performance for all seven HMC circuits was generally good. This was attributed to well-maintained cyclones and good operating practices. However, the density tracers detected that most circuits suffered from poor control of media cutpoint. These problems were attributed to poor x-ray calibration and improper manual density measurements. These conclusions will be validated after the analyses of the composite samples have been completed.

  9. Tropical Cyclone Report, 1986.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    following: would be unwarranted at lower risk levels. A rule for deciding such actions can be derived on an expected outcome basis (e.g. cost/ benefits ...responsi- Changes to this year’s publication include: raw bility. fix data files usually printed in Annex A, plus the raw warning, forecast and best...for this report; to the Navy represents data obtained by the tropical cyclone Publications and Printing Service Branch Office, satellite surveillance

  10. Tropical Cyclone Report, 1988

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    TAIWAN NAVPGSCOL LIBRARY CITIES SERVICES OIL GAS CORP NAVPOLAROCEANCEN SUITLAND CIUDAD UNIVERSITARIA , MEXICO NAVAL RESEARCH LAB CIVIL DEFENSE, SAIPAN...The system software has been provided An effort is now underway to develop a to OAO Corporation for inclusion in the JTWC series of examples...winds in the range of 34 to speed, typically within one degree of the center of a 63 kt (17 to 32 m/sec) inclusive . tropical cyclone. TROPICAL UPPER

  11. Tropical Cyclone Indlala

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    On March 14, 2007, storm-weary Madagascar braced for its fourth land-falling tropical cyclone in as many months. Cyclone Indlala was hovering off the island's northeast coast when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Aqua satellite captured this photo-like image at 1:40 p.m. local time (10:40 UTC). Just over a hundred kilometers offshore, the partially cloudy eye at the heart of the storm seems like a vast drain sucking in a disk of swirling clouds. According to reports from the Joint Typhoon Warning Center issued less than three hours after MODIS captured this image, Indlala had winds of 115 knots (132 miles per hour), with gusts up to 140 knots (161 mph). Wave heights were estimated to be 36 feet. At the time of the report, the storm was predicted to intensify through the subsequent 12-hour period, to turn slightly southwest, and to strike eastern Madagascar as a Category 4 storm with sustained winds up to 125 knots (144 mph), and gusts up to 150 knots (173 mph). According to Reuters AlertNet news service, Madagascar's emergency response resources were taxed to their limit in early March 2007 as a result of extensive flooding in the North, drought and food shortages in the South, and three previous hits from cyclones in the preceding few months: Bondo in December 2006, Clovis in January 2007, and Gamede in February.

  12. 1989 Annual Tropical Cyclone Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    z TYPHOON GAY (32W) The fust tropical cyclone of November turned out to be the worst tropical cyclone to affect the Malay Peninsula in 35 years... Gay developed in the Gulf of Thailand, crossed the Malay Peninsula into the Bay of Bengal and slammed into India with peak sustained winds of 140 kt...70 rn/see). Unique because of its small size, intensity, and point of origin, Gay challenged forecasters by crossing two different tropical cyclone

  13. Challenge to advanced materials processing with lasers in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Isamu

    2003-02-01

    Japan is one of the most advanced countries in manufacturing technology, and lasers have been playing an important role for advancement of manufacturing technology in a variety of industrial fields. Contribution of laser materials processing to Japanese industry is significant for both macroprocessing and microprocessing. The present paper describes recent trend and topics of industrial applications in terms of the hardware and the software to show how Japanese industry challenges to advanced materials processing using lasers, and national products related to laser materials processing are also briefly introduced.

  14. Recent advances in imaging subcellular processes.

    PubMed

    Myers, Kenneth A; Janetopoulos, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Cell biology came about with the ability to first visualize cells. As microscopy techniques advanced, the early microscopists became the first cell biologists to observe the inner workings and subcellular structures that control life. This ability to see organelles within a cell provided scientists with the first understanding of how cells function. The visualization of the dynamic architecture of subcellular structures now often drives questions as researchers seek to understand the intricacies of the cell. With the advent of fluorescent labeling techniques, better and new optical techniques, and more sensitive and faster cameras, a whole array of questions can now be asked. There has been an explosion of new light microscopic techniques, and the race is on to build better and more powerful imaging systems so that we can further our understanding of the spatial and temporal mechanisms controlling molecular cell biology.

  15. Recent advances in imaging subcellular processes

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Kenneth A.; Janetopoulos, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Cell biology came about with the ability to first visualize cells. As microscopy techniques advanced, the early microscopists became the first cell biologists to observe the inner workings and subcellular structures that control life. This ability to see organelles within a cell provided scientists with the first understanding of how cells function. The visualization of the dynamic architecture of subcellular structures now often drives questions as researchers seek to understand the intricacies of the cell. With the advent of fluorescent labeling techniques, better and new optical techniques, and more sensitive and faster cameras, a whole array of questions can now be asked. There has been an explosion of new light microscopic techniques, and the race is on to build better and more powerful imaging systems so that we can further our understanding of the spatial and temporal mechanisms controlling molecular cell biology. PMID:27408708

  16. Cyclone Center: Using Crowdsourcing to Determine Tropical Cyclone Intensity (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennon, C. C.; Knapp, K. R.; Schreck, C. J.; Stevens, S. E.; Kossin, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    The strength of tropical cyclones (TCs) is traditionally determined using the sustained maximum wind speed. Because TCs develop and spend most of their lifetime over tropical oceans, it is rare to directly observe a storm well enough to determine its strength accurately. The Dvorak technique was developed in the 1970s and 1980s to address this problem. By determining a number of cloud and structural characteristics from satellite images, a forecaster could now arrive at a reasonable maximum sustained wind without direct observations. However, the Dvorak technique by nature is subjective and it has been shown that trained experts frequently disagree on storm intensities. Furthermore, the application of the rules and constraints of the process has diverged with time across different forecast centers. This has led in several cases to severe disagreements in storm intensities when two or more forecast centers track the same TC. The accumulation of these differences has caused heterogeneous trends in TC intensity to arise at decadal time scales. A global reanalysis of TC intensity is required to resolve these discrepancies, but such an undertaking is unrealistic. Cyclone Center, an Internet crowd sourcing site for TCs, was created to resolve differences in TC intensities and produce a consistent 32-year (1978-2009) record of it. By using a homogeneous satellite dataset (HURSAT) and adapting the Dvorak technique into a set of three or four simple questions, laypersons perform the actions of the expert. User responses are converted into 3-hourly storm intensities. To capitalize on the crowd sourcing approach, at least 10 different users are shown the same image; this allows critical data such as cloud pattern uncertainties and storm metadata (e.g. eye size, center location, cloud pattern) to be collected. Preliminary analyses show that our citizen scientists many times outperform computer classifications in pattern matching and exhibit low bias and mean error when

  17. Primary processes in sensory cells: current advances.

    PubMed

    Frings, Stephan

    2009-01-01

    In the course of evolution, the strong and unremitting selective pressure on sensory performance has driven the acuity of sensory organs to its physical limits. As a consequence, the study of primary sensory processes illustrates impressively how far a physiological function can be improved if the survival of a species depends on it. Sensory cells that detect single-photons, single molecules, mechanical motions on a nanometer scale, or incredibly small fluctuations of electromagnetic fields have fascinated physiologists for a long time. It is a great challenge to understand the primary sensory processes on a molecular level. This review points out some important recent developments in the search for primary processes in sensory cells that mediate touch perception, hearing, vision, taste, olfaction, as well as the analysis of light polarization and the orientation in the Earth's magnetic field. The data are screened for common transduction strategies and common transduction molecules, an aspect that may be helpful for researchers in the field.

  18. Study on advanced information processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Kang G.; Liu, Jyh-Charn

    1992-01-01

    Issues related to the reliability of a redundant system with large main memory are addressed. In particular, the Fault-Tolerant Processor (FTP) for Advanced Launch System (ALS) is used as a basis for our presentation. When the system is free of latent faults, the probability of system crash due to nearly-coincident channel faults is shown to be insignificant even when the outputs of computing channels are infrequently voted on. In particular, using channel error maskers (CEMs) is shown to improve reliability more effectively than increasing the number of channels for applications with long mission times. Even without using a voter, most memory errors can be immediately corrected by CEMs implemented with conventional coding techniques. In addition to their ability to enhance system reliability, CEMs--with a low hardware overhead--can be used to reduce not only the need of memory realignment, but also the time required to realign channel memories in case, albeit rare, such a need arises. Using CEMs, we have developed two schemes, called Scheme 1 and Scheme 2, to solve the memory realignment problem. In both schemes, most errors are corrected by CEMs, and the remaining errors are masked by a voter.

  19. Advanced processing and properties of superhard materials

    SciTech Connect

    Narayan, J.

    1995-06-01

    The author reviews fundamental aspects of Superhard Materials with hardness close to that of diamond. These materials include cubic boron nitride (c-BN), carbon nitride ({beta}-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}) and diamondlike carbon. Since these materials are metastable at normal temperatures and pressures, novel methods of synthesis and processing of these materials are required. This review focuses on synthesis and processing, detailed materials characterization and properties of c-BN and {beta}C{sub 3}N{sub 4} and diamondlike carbon films.

  20. Optical Multiple Access Network (OMAN) for advanced processing satellite applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendez, Antonio J.; Gagliardi, Robert M.; Park, Eugene; Ivancic, William D.; Sherman, Bradley D.

    1991-01-01

    An OMAN breadboard for exploring advanced processing satellite circuit switch applications is introduced. Network architecture, hardware trade offs, and multiple user interference issues are presented. The breadboard test set up and experimental results are discussed.

  1. Advanced Fuels and Combustion Processes for Propulsion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    production from biomass steam reforming – Conduct a feasibility analysis of the proposed integrated process Energia Technologies - D. Nguyen & K. Parimi...strength foam material development by Ultramet – Combustion experiments performed U. Of Alabama – End-user input provided by Solar Turbines Major

  2. Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Michael I.; Lecun, Yann; Solla, Sara A.

    2001-11-01

    The annual conference on Neural Information Processing Systems (NIPS) is the flagship conference on neural computation. The conference is interdisciplinary, with contributions in algorithms, learning theory, cognitive science, neuroscience, vision, speech and signal processing, reinforcement learning and control, implementations, and diverse applications. Only about 30 percent of the papers submitted are accepted for presentation at NIPS, so the quality is exceptionally high. This CD-ROM contains the entire proceedings of the twelve Neural Information Processing Systems conferences from 1988 to 1999. The files are available in the DjVu image format developed by Yann LeCun and his group at AT&T Labs. The CD-ROM includes free browsers for all major platforms. Michael I. Jordan is Professor of Computer Science and of Statistics at the University of California, Berkeley. Yann LeCun is Head of the Image Processing Research Department at AT&T Labs-Research. Sara A. Solla is Professor of Physics and of Physiology at Northwestern University.

  3. Cold plasma processing technology makes advances

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cold plasma (AKA nonthermal plasma, cool plasma, gas plasma, etc.) is a rapidly maturing antimicrobial process being developed for applications in the food industry. A wide array of devices can be used to create cold plasma, but the defining characteristic is that they operate at or near room temper...

  4. How will precipitation change in extratropical cyclones as the planet warms?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yettella, V. K. R.; Kay, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    The majority of midlatitude precipitation occurs in extratropical cyclones. The purpose of this study is to understand how and why precipitation changes in these cyclones due to global warming. Daily precipitation fields from the Community Earth System Model (CESM) Large Ensemble Project are used for this purpose. Extratropical cyclone centers during three periods (1986 - 2005, 2016 - 2035 and 2081 - 2100 representing the present day, the near future and the far future respectively) are identified using a filtering algorithm based on pressure gradients typical of extratropical cyclone centers. For each cyclone center, the surrounding precipitation field is interpolated from the CESM grid onto a radial cap centered on the cyclone center. Average precipitation fields are calculated for the three periods to obtain "cyclone composites". In agreement with the warm conveyor belt model, the cyclone composites for the three periods have a comma-shaped precipitation band with maximum precipitation close to the cyclone center. The near future and the far future composites are compared with the present day composite to identify locations of significant change (at 95% confidence). Statistically significant precipitation increases are found both for the near future and the far future, especially near the cyclone center. To identify the processes contributing to these changes, we decompose precipitation change into two parts - one part that is due to changes in dynamics (mean cyclone wind speed) and another part that is due to changes in thermodynamics (mean cyclone water vapor path). We find that precipitation increases occur primarily due to changes in thermodynamics. We will also present ongoing work to investigate changes in cyclone location and density in a warming climate and also investigate land-ocean and hemispheric differences in cyclone charactersitics.

  5. Trapped rubber processing for advanced composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marra, P. J.

    1976-01-01

    Trapped rubber processing is a molding technique for composites in which precast silicone rubber is placed within a closed cavity where it thermally expands against the composite's surface supported by the vessel walls. The method has been applied by the Douglas Aircraft Company, under contract to NASA-Langley, to the design and fabrication of 10 DC-10 graphite/epoxy upper aft rudder assemblies. A three-bay development tool form mold die has been designed and manufactured, and tooling parameters have been established. Fabrication procedures include graphite layup, assembly of details in the tool, and a cure cycle. The technique has made it possible for the cocured fabrication of complex primary box structures otherwise impracticable via standard composite material processes.

  6. Extratropical Cyclone in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These images from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) portray an occluded extratropical cyclone situated in the Southern Ocean, about 650 kilometers south of the Eyre Peninsula, South Australia. The left-hand image, a true-color view from MISR's nadir (vertical-viewing) camera, shows clouds just south of the Yorke Peninsula and the Murray-Darling river basin in Australia. Retrieved cloud-tracked wind velocities are indicated by the superimposed arrows. The image on the right displays cloud-top heights. Areas where cloud heights could not be retrieved are shown in black. Both the wind vectors and the cloud heights were derived using data from multiple MISR cameras within automated computer processing algorithms. The stereoscopic algorithms used to generate these results are still being refined, and future versions of these products may show modest changes. Extratropical cyclones are the dominant weather system at midlatitudes, and the term is used generically for regional low-pressure systems in the mid- to high-latitudes. In the southern hemisphere, cyclonic rotation is clockwise. These storms obtain their energy from temperature differences between air masses on either side of warm and cold fronts, and their characteristic pattern is of warm and cold fronts radiating out from a migrating low pressure center which forms, deepens, and dissipates as the fronts fold and collapse on each other. The center of this cyclone has started to decay, with the band of cloud to the south most likely representing the main front that was originally connected with the cyclonic circulation. These views were acquired on October 11, 2001, and the large view represents an area of about 380 kilometers x 1900 kilometers. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/LaRC/JPL, MISR Team.

  7. Extratropical Cyclone in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    These images from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer portray an occluded extratropical cyclone situated in the Southern Ocean, about 650 kilometers south of the Eyre Peninsula, South Australia.

    Parts of the Yorke Peninsula and a portion of the Murray-Darling River basin are visible between the clouds near the top of the left-hand image, a true-color view from MISR's nadir(vertical-viewing) camera. Retrieved cloud-tracked wind velocities are indicated by the superimposed arrows. The image on the right displays cloud-top heights. Areas where cloud heights could not be retrieved are shown in black. Both the wind vectors and the cloud heights were derived using data from multiple MISR cameras within automated computer processing algorithms. The stereoscopic algorithms used to generate these results are still being refined, and future versions of these products may show modest changes.

    Extratropical cyclones are the dominant weather system at midlatitudes, and the term is used generically for region allow-pressure systems in the mid- to high-latitudes. In the southern hemisphere, cyclonic rotation is clockwise. These storms obtain their energy from temperature differences between air masses on either side of warm and cold fronts, and their characteristic pattern is of warm and cold fronts radiating out from a migrating low pressure center which forms, deepens, and dissipates as the fronts fold and collapse on each other. The center of this cyclone has started to decay, with the band of cloud to the south most likely representing the main front that was originally connected with the cyclonic circulation.

    These views were acquired on October 11, 2001 during Terra orbit 9650, and represent an area of about 380 kilometers x 1900 kilometers.

  8. Advanced Digital Signal Processing for Hybrid Lidar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-31

    on a multimeter to ensure that the PMT remained within its linear operating regime. The AC-coupTed signal was demodulated and digitized in the SDR ...receiver. The I and Q samples obtained by"" the SDR are transferred over an Ethernet cable to a PC, where the data are processed in a custom LabVIEW...Q samples are generated by the SDR receiver and used to compute range on a PC. Ranging results from the FDR experiments and RangeFinder simulations

  9. Advanced communications technologies for image processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Likens, W. C.; Jones, H. W.; Shameson, L.

    1984-01-01

    It is essential for image analysts to have the capability to link to remote facilities as a means of accessing both data bases and high-speed processors. This can increase productivity through enhanced data access and minimization of delays. New technology is emerging to provide the high communication data rates needed in image processing. These developments include multi-user sharing of high bandwidth (60 megabits per second) Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) satellite links, low-cost satellite ground stations, and high speed adaptive quadrature modems that allow 9600 bit per second communications over voice-grade telephone lines.

  10. Technology advances for Space Shuttle processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiskerchen, M. J.; Mollakarimi, C. L.

    1988-01-01

    One of the major initial tasks of the Space Systems Integration and Operations Research Applications (SIORA) Program was the application of automation and robotics technology to all aspects of the Shuttle tile processing and inspection system. The SIORA Program selected a nonlinear systems engineering methodology which emphasizes a team approach for defining, developing, and evaluating new concepts and technologies for the operational system. This is achieved by utilizing rapid prototyping testbeds whereby the concepts and technologies can be iteratively tested and evaluated by the team. The present methodology has clear advantages for the design of large complex systems as well as for the upgrading and evolution of existing systems.

  11. Advanced colour processing for mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillich, Eugen; Dörksen, Helene; Lohweg, Volker

    2015-02-01

    Mobile devices such as smartphones are going to play an important role in professionally image processing tasks. However, mobile systems were not designed for such applications, especially in terms of image processing requirements like stability and robustness. One major drawback is the automatic white balance, which comes with the devices. It is necessary for many applications, but of no use when applied to shiny surfaces. Such an issue appears when image acquisition takes place in differently coloured illuminations caused by different environments. This results in inhomogeneous appearances of the same subject. In our paper we show a new approach for handling the complex task of generating a low-noise and sharp image without spatial filtering. Our method is based on the fact that we analyze the spectral and saturation distribution of the channels. Furthermore, the RGB space is transformed into a more convenient space, a particular HSI space. We generate the greyscale image by a control procedure that takes into account the colour channels. This leads in an adaptive colour mixing model with reduced noise. The results of the optimized images are used to show how, e. g., image classification benefits from our colour adaptation approach.

  12. Advances in the electrospark deposition coating process

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.N.; Sheldon, G.L.

    1986-11-01

    Electrospark deposition (ESD) is a pulsed-arc microwelding process using short-duration, high-current electrical pulses to deposit an electrode material on a metallic substrate. It is one of the few methods available by which a fused, metallurgically bonded coating can be applied with such a low total heat input that the bulk substrate material remains at or near ambient temperatures. The short duration of the electrical pulse allows an extremely rapid solidification of the deposited material and results in an exceptionally fine-grained, homogeneous coating that approaches (and with some materials, actually is) an amorphous structure. This structure is believed to contribute to the good tribological and corrosion performance observed for hardsurfacing materials used in the demanding environments of high temperatures, liquid metals, and neutron irradiation. A brief historical review of the process is provided, followed by descriptions of the present state of the art and of the performance and applications of electrospark deposition coating in liquid--metal-cooled nuclear reactors.

  13. Conceptual Models of Frontal Cyclones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagleman, Joe R.

    1981-01-01

    This discussion of weather models uses maps to illustrate the differences among three types of frontal cyclones (long wave, short wave, and troughs). Awareness of these cyclones can provide clues to atmospheric conditions which can lead toward accurate weather forecasting. (AM)

  14. Advanced information processing system for advanced launch system: Avionics architecture synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lala, Jaynarayan H.; Harper, Richard E.; Jaskowiak, Kenneth R.; Rosch, Gene; Alger, Linda S.; Schor, Andrei L.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) is a fault-tolerant distributed computer system architecture that was developed to meet the real time computational needs of advanced aerospace vehicles. One such vehicle is the Advanced Launch System (ALS) being developed jointly by NASA and the Department of Defense to launch heavy payloads into low earth orbit at one tenth the cost (per pound of payload) of the current launch vehicles. An avionics architecture that utilizes the AIPS hardware and software building blocks was synthesized for ALS. The AIPS for ALS architecture synthesis process starting with the ALS mission requirements and ending with an analysis of the candidate ALS avionics architecture is described.

  15. Atlantic tropical cyclones revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Michael E.; Emanuel, Kerry A.; Holland, Greg J.; Webster, Peter J.

    Vigorous discussions have taken place recently in Eos [e.g., Mann and Emanuel, 2006; Landsea, 2007] and elsewhere [Emanuel, 2005; Webster et al., 2005; Hoyos et al., 2006; Trenberth and Shea, 2006; Kossin et al., 2007] regarding trends in North Atlantic tropical cyclone (TC) activity and their potential connection with anthropogenic climate change. In one study, for example [Landsea, 2007], it is argued that a substantial underestimate of Atlantic tropical cyclone counts in earlier decades arising from insufficient observing systems invalidates the conclusion that trends in TC behavior may be connected to climate change. Here we argue that such connections are in fact robust with respect to uncertainties in earlier observations.Several recent studies have investigated trends in various measures of TC activity. Emanuel [2005] showed that a measure of total power dissipation by TCs (the power dissipation index, or PDI) is highly correlated with August-October sea surface temperatures (SST) over the main development region (MDR) for Atlantic TCs over at least the past half century. Some support for this conclusion was provided by Sriver and Ruber [2006]. Webster et al. [2005] demonstrated a statistically significant increase in recent decades in both the total number of the strongest category cyclones (categories 4 and 5) and the proportion of storms reaching hurricane intensity. Hoyos et al. [2006] showed that these increases were closely tied to warming trends in tropical Atlantic SST, while, for example, the modest decrease in vertical wind shear played a more secondary role. Kossin et al. [2007] called into question some trends in other basins, based on a reanalysis of past TC data, but they found the North Atlantic trends to be robust.

  16. Optical metrology for advanced process control: full module metrology solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozdog, Cornel; Turovets, Igor

    2016-03-01

    Optical metrology is the workhorse metrology in manufacturing and key enabler to patterning process control. Recent advances in device architecture are gradually shifting the need for process control from the lithography module to other patterning processes (etch, trim, clean, LER/LWR treatments, etc..). Complex multi-patterning integration solutions, where the final pattern is the result of multiple process steps require a step-by-step holistic process control and a uniformly accurate holistic metrology solution for pattern transfer for the entire module. For effective process control, more process "knobs" are needed, and a tighter integration of metrology with process architecture.

  17. DENSE MEDIA CYCLONE OPTIMIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald H. Luttrell

    2002-09-14

    All project activities are now winding down. Follow-up tracer tests were conducted at several of the industrial test sites and analysis of the experimental data is currently underway. All required field work was completed during this quarter. In addition, the heavy medium cyclone simulation and expert system programs are nearly completed and user manuals are being prepared. Administrative activities (e.g., project documents, cost-sharing accounts, etc.) are being reviewed and prepared for final submission to DOE. All project reporting requirements are up to date. All financial expenditures are within approved limits.

  18. Advanced Manufacturing Systems in Food Processing and Packaging Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafie Sani, Mohd; Aziz, Faieza Abdul

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, several advanced manufacturing systems in food processing and packaging industry are reviewed, including: biodegradable smart packaging and Nano composites, advanced automation control system consists of fieldbus technology, distributed control system and food safety inspection features. The main purpose of current technology in food processing and packaging industry is discussed due to major concern on efficiency of the plant process, productivity, quality, as well as safety. These application were chosen because they are robust, flexible, reconfigurable, preserve the quality of the food, and efficient.

  19. Recent advances in processing and applications of microwave ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Vincent G.; Geiler, Anton; Chen, Yajie; Yoon, Soack Dae; Wu, Mingzhong; Yang, Aria; Chen, Zhaohui; He, Peng; Parimi, Patanjali V.; Zuo, Xu; Patton, Carl E.; Abe, Manasori; Acher, Olivier; Vittoria, Carmine

    2009-07-01

    Next generation magnetic microwave devices will be planar, smaller, weigh less, and perform well beyond the present state-of-the-art. For this to become a reality advances in ferrite materials must first be realized. These advances include self-bias magnetization, tunability of the magnetic anisotropy, low microwave loss, and volumetric and weight reduction. To achieve these goals one must turn to novel materials processing methods. Here, we review recent advances in the processing of microwave ferrites. Attention is paid to the processing of ferrite films by pulsed laser deposition, liquid phase epitaxy, spin spray ferrite plating, screen printing, and compaction of quasi-single crystals. Conventional and novel applications of ferrite materials, including microwave non-reciprocal passive devices, microwave signal processing, negative index metamaterial-based electronics, and electromagnetic interference suppression are discussed.

  20. Advanced oxidation processes with coke plant wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Krzywicka, A; Kwarciak-Kozłowska, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the most efficient method of coke wastewater treatment. This research examined two processes - advanced oxidation with Fenton and photo-Fenton reaction. It was observed that the use of ultraviolet radiation with Fenton process had a better result in removal of impurities.

  1. TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY ADVANCING TANK WASTE RETRIEVAL AND PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect

    SAMS TL; MENDOZA RE

    2010-08-11

    This technology overview provides a high-level summary of technologies being investigated and developed by Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to advance Hanford Site tank waste retrieval and processing. Technology solutions are outlined, along with processes and priorities for selecting and developing them.

  2. A Reverse Osmosis System for an Advanced Separation Process Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, C. S.; Paccione, J. D.

    1987-01-01

    Focuses on the development of a pilot unit for use in an advanced separations process laboratory in an effort to develop experiments on such processes as reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration, adsorption, and chromatography. Discusses reverse osmosis principles, the experimental system design, and some experimental studies. (TW)

  3. TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY ADVANCING TANK WASTE RETREIVAL AND PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect

    SAMS TL

    2010-07-07

    This technology overview provides a high-level summary of technologies being investigated and developed by Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to advance Hanford Site tank waste retrieval and processing. Technology solutions are outlined, along with processes and priorities for selecting and developing them.

  4. The Cyclone meteor radar system for routine wind measurements in the lower thermosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lysenko, I. A.; Mikhailiek, P. P.; Petrov, B. I.

    1987-01-01

    A new meteor wind radar system called Cyclone was devised to extend and update the meteor radar network and for unattended operation. The Cyclone meteor radar system obtains information from four directions simultaneously. To automate data processing a special digital device was developed. An algorithm used to determine the Doppler shifts was adopted, which makes it possible to eliminate selectivity with respect to slow velocity meteor drifts. The operation of the Cyclone system is described.

  5. Potential Application of Airborne Passive Microwave Observations for Monitoring Inland Flooding Caused by Tropical Cyclones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, Robbie E.; Radley, C.D.; LaFontaine, F.J.

    2008-01-01

    Inland flooding from tropical cyclones can be a significant factor in storm-related deaths in the United States and other countries. Information collected during NASA tropical cyclone field studies suggest surface water and flooding induced by tropical cyclone precipitation can be detected and therefore monitored using passive microwave airborne radiometers. In particular, the 10.7 GHz frequency of the NASA Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR) flown on the NASA ER-2 has demonstrated high resolution detection of anomalous surface water and flooding in numerous situations. This presentation will highlight the analysis of three cases utilizing primarily satellite and airborne radiometer data. Radiometer data from the 1998 Third Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-3) are utilized to detect surface water during landfalling Hurricane Georges in both the Dominican Republic and Louisiana. A third case is landfalling Tropical Storm Gert in Eastern Mexico during the Tropical Cloud Systems and Processes (TCSP) experiment in 2005. AMPR data are compared to topographic data and vegetation indices to evaluate the significance of the surface water signature visible in the 10.7 GHz information. The results of this study suggest the benefit of an aircraft 10 GHz radiometer to provide real-time observations of surface water conditions as part of a multi-sensor flood monitoring network.

  6. Advanced information processing system for advanced launch system: Hardware technology survey and projections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Richard

    1991-01-01

    The major goals of this effort are as follows: (1) to examine technology insertion options to optimize Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) performance in the Advanced Launch System (ALS) environment; (2) to examine the AIPS concepts to ensure that valuable new technologies are not excluded from the AIPS/ALS implementations; (3) to examine advanced microprocessors applicable to AIPS/ALS, (4) to examine radiation hardening technologies applicable to AIPS/ALS; (5) to reach conclusions on AIPS hardware building blocks implementation technologies; and (6) reach conclusions on appropriate architectural improvements. The hardware building blocks are the Fault-Tolerant Processor, the Input/Output Sequencers (IOS), and the Intercomputer Interface Sequencers (ICIS).

  7. An Observational Analysis of Tropical Cyclone Recurvature.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-01

    SR = Slowly recurving cyclones TC = Tropical Cyclone TUTT = Tropical Upper Tropospheric Trough W = West WNW = West-Northwest v Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION...latitude at which the cyclone was located. Observations also showed that not all troughs approaching a cyclone caused recurvature. Mid- latitude troughs ...general synoptic conditions which were favorable for tropical cyclone recurvature. These included: 1. High amplitude troughs extending from the westerlies

  8. Submesoscale cyclones in the Agulhas current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krug, M.; Swart, S.; Gula, J.

    2017-01-01

    Gliders were deployed for the first time in the Agulhas Current region to investigate processes of interactions between western boundary currents and shelf waters. Continuous observations from the gliders in water depths of 100-1000 m and over a period of 1 month provide the first high-resolution observations of the Agulhas Current's inshore front. The observations collected in a nonmeandering Agulhas Current show the presence of submesoscale cyclonic eddies, generated at the inshore boundary of the Agulhas Current. The submesoscale cyclones are often associated with warm water plumes, which extend from their western edge and exhibit strong northeastward currents. These features are a result of shear instabilities and extract their energy from the mean Agulhas Current jet.

  9. Adding structure to the transition process to advanced mathematical activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelbrecht, Johann

    2010-03-01

    The transition process to advanced mathematical thinking is experienced as traumatic by many students. Experiences that students had of school mathematics differ greatly to what is expected from them at university. Success in school mathematics meant application of different methods to get an answer. Students are not familiar with logical deductive reasoning, required in advanced mathematics. It is necessary to assist students in this transition process, in moving from general to mathematical thinking. In this article some structure is suggested for this transition period. This essay is an argumentative exposition supported by personal experience and international literature. This makes this study theoretical rather than empirical.

  10. Extratropical cyclone classification and its use in climate studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catto, J. L.

    2016-06-01

    Extratropical cyclones have long been known to be important for midlatitude weather. It is therefore important that our current state-of-the-art climate models are able to realistically represent these features, in order that we can have confidence in how they are projected to change in a warming climate. Despite the observation that these cyclones are extremely variable in their structure and features, there have, over the years, been numerous attempts to classify or group them. Such classifications can provide insight into the different cloud structures, airflows, and dynamical forcing mechanisms within the different cyclone types. This review collects and details as many classification techniques as possible, and may therefore act as a reference guide to classifications. These classifications offer the opportunity to improve the way extratropical cyclone evaluation in climate models is currently done by giving more insight into the dynamical and physical processes that occur in climate models (rather than just evaluating the mean state over a broad region as is often done). Examples of where these ideas have been used, or could be used, are reviewed. Finally, the potential impacts of future climate changes on extratropical cyclones are detailed. The ways in which the classification techniques could improve our understanding of future changes in extratropical cyclones and their impacts are given.

  11. The Life Cycles of Intense Cyclonic and Anticyclonic Circulation Systems Observed over Oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Phillip J.

    1996-01-01

    This report presents a summary of research accomplished over the past four years under the sponsorship of NASA grant #NAG8-915. Building on previously funded NASA grants, this part of the project focused on the following specific goals relative to cyclone/anticyclone systems: the jet streak link between block formation and upstream cyclone activity; the role of northward warm air advection in block formation; the importance of cooperative participation of several forcing mechanisms during explosive cyclone development; and the significance of the vertical distribution of forcing processes during cyclone/anticyclone development.

  12. Monitoring by Control Technique - Cyclone

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Stationary source emissions monitoring is required to demonstrate that a source is meeting the requirements in Federal or state rules. This page is about cyclone control techniques used to reduce pollutant emissions.

  13. Tropical Cyclone Bejisa Near Madagascar

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's TRMM satellite flew over Cyclone Bejisa on December 29, 2013 at 1507 UTC. This 3-D animation of TRMM data revealed strong thunderstorms around Bejisa's center were reaching heights above 16....

  14. Cofiring coal-water slurry in cyclone boilers: Some combustion issues and considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, W.R.; Tillman, D.

    1997-07-01

    Coal-water slurry (CWS) has become a fuel of opportunity with the ability to impact fuel cost at selected power plants; at the same time it has the potential to reduce emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) by driving specific combustion mechanisms. CWS, produced from selected fines generated during coal cleaning operations, has been fired extensively at the Seward Generating Station of General Public Utilities (GPU), and testing has been initiated at cyclone plants as well. Initial combustion modeling of cyclones has shown that the critical issues associated with CWS firing in cyclones include the following: (1) the impact of CWS on fuel chemistry, with particular attention to fuel ash chemistry; (2) the impact of CWS on combustion temperatures; (3) the impact of CWS, and the consequent increased gas flow in the cyclones, on combustion processes in the cyclone barrel and potentially on combustion in the primary furnace as well; (4) the consequence of combustion process changes on patterns of heat release in the cyclone barrel and in the primary furnace; (5) the ability of the CWS to impact NO{sub x} emissions in the cyclone; and (6) the impact of CWS on the formation of trace metal emissions. This paper reviews the results of cyclone boiler modeling, and also reviews some results of initial cyclone testing related to the results of the modeling efforts.

  15. Data Processing (Advanced Business Programming) Volume II. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litecky, Charles R.; Lamkin, Tim

    This curriculum guide for an advanced course in data processing is for use as a companion publication to a textbook or textbooks; references to appropriate textbooks are given in most units. Student completion of assignments in Volume I, available separately (see ED 220 604), is a prerequisite. Topics covered in the 18 units are introduction,…

  16. Adding Structure to the Transition Process to Advanced Mathematical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelbrecht, Johann

    2010-01-01

    The transition process to advanced mathematical thinking is experienced as traumatic by many students. Experiences that students had of school mathematics differ greatly to what is expected from them at university. Success in school mathematics meant application of different methods to get an answer. Students are not familiar with logical…

  17. Advanced Instruction: Facilitation of Individual Learning Processes in Large Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putz, Claus; Intveen, Geesche

    2009-01-01

    By supplying various combinations of advanced instructions and different forms of exercises individual learning processes within the impartation of basic knowledge can be activated and supported at best. The fundamentals of our class "Introduction to spatial-geometric cognition using CAD" are constructional inputs, which systematically induce the…

  18. Annual Tropical Cyclone Report 2010

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    period of rapid intensification. Tropical Cyclone 04B matured as a relatively small cyclone, its upper-level cirrus cloud shield spanning... defined cirrus outflow streak poleward of the low-level circulation center around 22/00Z. These structural changes are evident in the satellite imagery...erratically based on the upper level cloud patterns and convective maxima. It was not until visible imagery became available, that the two low level

  19. Advanced Digital Signal Processing for Hybrid Lidar FY 2013

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    Report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Advance Digital Signal Processing for Hybrid Lidar 6. AUTHOR(S) William D. Jemison 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S...development of signed processing algorithms for hybrid lidar - radar designed to improve detection performance. i , 15. SUBJECT TERMS Hybrid... Lidar - Radar 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: a. REPORT b. ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF

  20. Evaluation of advanced oxidation process for the treatment of groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Garland, S.B. II ); Peyton, G.R. ); Rice, L.E. . Kansas City Div.)

    1990-01-01

    An advanced oxidation process utilizing ozone, ultraviolet radiation, and hydrogen peroxide was selected for the removal of chlorinated hydrocarbons, particularly trichlorethene and 1,2-dichlorethene, from groundwater underlying the US Department of Energy Kansas City Plant. Since the performance of this process for the removal of organics from groundwater is not well-documented, an evaluation was initiated to determine the performance of the treatment plant, document the operation and maintenance costs experience, and evaluate contaminant removal mechanisms. 11 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Aircraft borne combined measurements of the Fukushima radionuclide Xe-133 and fossil fuel combustion generated pollutants in the TIL - Implications for Cyclone induced lift and TIL physical-chemical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Frank; Schlager, Hans; Simgen, Hardy; Aufmhoff, Heinfried; Baumann, Robert; Lindemann, Sigfried; Rauch, Ludwig; Kaether, Frank; Pirjolla, Liisa; Schumann, Ulrich

    2013-04-01

    The radionuclide Xe-133, released by the March 2011 nuclear disaster at Fukushima/Daiichi (hereafter FD), represents an ideal tracer for atmospheric transport. We report the, to our best knowledge, only aircraft borne measurements of FD Xe-133 in the Tropopause Inversion Layer (TIL), indicating rapid lift of Xe-133 rich planetary boundary layer air to the TIL. On the same research aircraft (FALCON), we have also conducted on-line measurements of fossil fuel combustion generated pollutant gases (SO2, NOx, HNO3,NOy), which were found to have increased concentrations in the TIL. In addition, we have conducted supporting model simulations of transport, chemical processes, and aerosol processes. Our investigations reveal a potentially important influence of East-Asian cyclone induced pollutants transport to the TIL, particularly influencing aerosol formation in the TIL.

  2. Advanced Reactors Thermal Energy Transport for Process Industries

    SciTech Connect

    P. Sabharwall; S.J. Yoon; M.G. McKellar; C. Stoots; George Griffith

    2014-07-01

    The operation temperature of advanced nuclear reactors is generally higher than commercial light water reactors and thermal energy from advanced nuclear reactor can be used for various purposes such as liquid fuel production, district heating, desalination, hydrogen production, and other process heat applications, etc. Some of the major technology challenges that must be overcome before the advanced reactors could be licensed on the reactor side are qualification of next generation of nuclear fuel, materials that can withstand higher temperature, improvement in power cycle thermal efficiency by going to combined cycles, SCO2 cycles, successful demonstration of advanced compact heat exchangers in the prototypical conditions, and from the process side application the challenge is to transport the thermal energy from the reactor to the process plant with maximum efficiency (i.e., with minimum temperature drop). The main focus of this study is on doing a parametric study of efficient heat transport system, with different coolants (mainly, water, He, and molten salts) to determine maximum possible distance that can be achieved.

  3. Black Swan Tropical Cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emanuel, K.; Lin, N.

    2012-12-01

    Virtually all assessments of tropical cyclone risk are based on historical records, which are limited to a few hundred years at most. Yet stronger TCs may occur in the future and at places that have not been affected historically. Such events lie outside the realm of historically based expectations and may have extreme impacts. Their occurrences are also often made explainable after the fact (e.g., Hurricane Katrina). We nickname such potential future TCs, characterized by rarity, extreme impact, and retrospective predictability, "black swans" (Nassim Nicholas Taleb, 2007). As, by definition, black swan TCs have yet to happen, statistical methods that solely rely on historical track data cannot predict their occurrence. Global climate models lack the capability to predict intense storms, even with a resolution as high as 14 km (Emanuel et al. 2010). Also, most dynamic downscaling methods (e.g., Bender et al. 2010) are still limited in horizontal resolution and are too expensive to implement to generate enough events to include rare ones. In this study, we apply a simpler statistical/deterministic hurricane model (Emanuel et al. 2006) to simulate large numbers of synthetic storms under a given (observed or projected) climate condition. The method has been shown to generate realistic extremes in various basins (Emanuel et al. 2008 and 2010). We also apply a hydrodynamic model (ADCIRC; Luettich et al. 1992) to simulate the storm surges generated by these storms. We then search for black swan TCs, in terms of the joint wind and surge damage potential, in the generated large databases. Heavy rainfall is another important TC hazard and will be considered in a future study. We focus on three areas: Tampa Bay in the U.S., the Persian Gulf, and Darwin in Australia. Tampa Bay is highly vulnerable to storm surge as it is surrounded by shallow water and low-lying lands, much of which may be inundated by a storm tide of 6 m. High surges are generated by storms with a broad

  4. Nimbus-7 total ozone observations of western North Pacific tropical cyclones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stout, John; Rodgers, Edward B.

    1992-01-01

    The Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) was used to map the distribution of total ozone around western North Pacific tropical cyclones from 1979 to 1982. The strong correlation between total ozone distribution and tropopause height found in the subtropical and midlatitudes made it possible for TOMS to monitor the propagation of upper-tropospheric waves and the mutual adjustment between these waves and tropical cyclones during their interaction. Changes in these total ozone patterns reflect the 3D upper-tropospheric transport processes that are involved in tropical cyclone intensity and intensity and motion changes. The total ozone distributions indicate that: (1) the mean upper-tropospheric circulations associated with western North Pacific and Atlantic tropical cyclones are similar; (2) more intense tropical cyclones have higher tropopauses around their centers; (3) more intense tropical cyclones have higher tropopauses on the anticyclonic-shear side of their outflow jets, which indicate that the more intense tropical cyclones have stronger outflow channels than less intense systems; (4) tropical cyclones that intensify (do not intensify) are within 10 deg (15 deg) latitude of weak (strong) upper-tropospheric troughs that are moderately rich (very rich) in total ozone; and (5) tropical cyclones turn to the left (right) when they move within approximately 15 deg latitude downstream of an ozone-poor (ozone-rich) upper-tropospheric ridge (trough).

  5. Advanced CO2 removal process control and monitor instrumentation development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heppner, D. B.; Dalhausen, M. J.; Klimes, R.

    1982-01-01

    A progam to evaluate, design and demonstrate major advances in control and monitor instrumentation was undertaken. A carbon dioxide removal process, one whose maturity level makes it a prime candidate for early flight demonstration was investigated. The instrumentation design incorporates features which are compatible with anticipated flight requirements. Current electronics technology and projected advances are included. In addition, the program established commonality of components for all advanced life support subsystems. It was concluded from the studies and design activities conducted under this program that the next generation of instrumentation will be greatly smaller than the prior one. Not only physical size but weight, power and heat rejection requirements were reduced in the range of 80 to 85% from the former level of research and development instrumentation. Using a microprocessor based computer, a standard computer bus structure and nonvolatile memory, improved fabrication techniques and aerospace packaging this instrumentation will greatly enhance overall reliability and total system availability.

  6. Advanced oxidation processes in azo dye wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Papić, Sanja; Koprivanac, Natalija; Bozić, Ana Loncarić; Vujević, Dinko; Dragicević, Savka Kusar; Kusić, Hrvoje; Peternel, Igor

    2006-06-01

    The chemical degradation of synthetic azo dyes color index (C.I.) Acid Orange 7, C.I. Direct Orange 39, and C.I. Mordant Yellow 10 has been studied by the following advanced oxidation processes: Fenton, Fenton-like, ozonation, peroxone without or with addition of solid particles, zeolites HY, and NH4ZSM5. Spectrophotometric (UV/visible light spectrum) and total organic carbon measurements were used for determination of process efficiency and reaction kinetics. The degradation rates are evaluated by determining their rate constants. The different hydroxyl radical generation processes were comparatively studied, and the most efficient experimental conditions for the degradation of organic azo dyes solutions were determined.

  7. Analysis of North Atlantic Tropical Cyclone Intensify Change Using Data Mining

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Jiang

    2010-01-01

    Tropical cyclones (TC), especially when their intensity reaches hurricane scale, can become a costly natural hazard. Accurate prediction of tropical cyclone intensity is very difficult because of inadequate observations on TC structures, poor understanding of physical processes, coarse model resolution and inaccurate initial conditions, etc. This…

  8. Discontinuous Cyclone Movement of Mediterranean cyclones identified through formation analysis of daughter cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziv, Baruch; Saaroni, Hadas; Harpaz, Tzvi

    2016-04-01

    A new algorithm developed performs an automated classification methodology for daughter cyclones (DCs) formation, with respect to the thermal field of the parent cyclones (PCs). The classification has been applied to winter Mediterranean Cyclones. The algorithm assigns a DC to one of seven types, according to the following considerations: Has the cyclone formed on a front? Is that a cold, a warm or a quasi-stationary front? Is this front part of the frontal system of the PC or of a non-parental system? If none of the above applies, has the cyclone formed within the warm sector? The measures used are the temperature gradient, temperature advection and temperature Laplacian, computed at the formation location of the DC and the temperature difference between the DC and the PC, each derived from the 850-hPa wind and temperature fields. Out of 4,303 DCs analyzed, 85% were identified to belong to one of the 7 predefined types, implying that 15% cannot be related to either baroclinic or thermal factors. More than half were formed at their PCs' frontal system, third on a non-parental frontal system and only 13% within the warm sector of the PC. Most of the cyclones, formed on the PC's cold front, were found at mountain lee locations, whereas cyclones formed on the warm front were generated mostly over the Aegean and the Adriatic Sea. The new methodology exposed a unique DC formation which is actually a Discontinuous Cyclone Movement (DCM), imposed by an encounter with geographical forcing. This formation was identified in 5.9% of the DC formations and is characterized by the following features: 1) parent-daughter distance (d) <1000 Km, 2) the area enclosed by the inner isobar surrounding both the PC and the DC should be less than 2d, 3) the PC should last no more than 18 hours after the DC has been first detected. DCM events found among DCs formed on warm fronts of PCs, to their east, are suggested as a mechanism which enables the PC to cross topographic barriers

  9. Advanced information processing system: Input/output network management software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagle, Gail; Alger, Linda; Kemp, Alexander

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the software requirements and specifications for the Input/Output Network Management Services for the Advanced Information Processing System. This introduction and overview section is provided to briefly outline the overall architecture and software requirements of the AIPS system before discussing the details of the design requirements and specifications of the AIPS I/O Network Management software. A brief overview of the AIPS architecture followed by a more detailed description of the network architecture.

  10. Model-based advanced process control of coagulation.

    PubMed

    Baxter, C W; Shariff, R; Stanley, S J; Smith, D W; Zhang, Q; Saumer, E D

    2002-01-01

    The drinking water treatment industry has seen a recent increase in the use of artificial neural networks (ANNs) for process modelling and offline process control tools and applications. While conceptual frameworks for integrating the ANN technology into the real-time control of complex treatment processes have been proposed, actual working systems have yet to be developed. This paper presents development and application of an ANN model-based advanced process control system for the coagulation process at a pilot-scale water treatment facility in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. The system was successfully used to maintain a user-defined set point for effluent quality, by automatically varying operating conditions in response to changes in influent water quality. This new technology has the potential to realize significant operational cost saving for utilities when applied in full-scale applications.

  11. Advanced technology development for image gathering, coding, and processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, Friedrich O.

    1990-01-01

    Three overlapping areas of research activities are presented: (1) Information theory and optimal filtering are extended to visual information acquisition and processing. The goal is to provide a comprehensive methodology for quantitatively assessing the end-to-end performance of image gathering, coding, and processing. (2) Focal-plane processing techniques and technology are developed to combine effectively image gathering with coding. The emphasis is on low-level vision processing akin to the retinal processing in human vision. (3) A breadboard adaptive image-coding system is being assembled. This system will be used to develop and evaluate a number of advanced image-coding technologies and techniques as well as research the concept of adaptive image coding.

  12. Process development status report for advanced manufacturing projects

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkman, J.R.; Homan, D.A.

    1990-03-30

    This is the final status report for the approved Advanced Manufacturing Projects for FY 1989. Five of the projects were begun in FY 1987, one in FY 1988, and one in FY 1989. The approved projects cover technology areas in welding, explosive material processing and evaluation, ion implantation, and automated manufacturing. It is expected that the successful completion of these projects well result in improved quality and/or reduced cost for components produced by Mound. Those projects not brought to completion will be continued under Process development in FY 1990.

  13. Integrated Seismic Event Detection and Location by Advanced Array Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kvaerna, T; Gibbons, S J; Ringdal, F; Harris, D B

    2007-02-09

    The principal objective of this two-year study is to develop and test a new advanced, automatic approach to seismic detection/location using array processing. We address a strategy to obtain significantly improved precision in the location of low-magnitude events compared with current fully-automatic approaches, combined with a low false alarm rate. We have developed and evaluated a prototype automatic system which uses as a basis regional array processing with fixed, carefully calibrated, site-specific parameters in conjuction with improved automatic phase onset time estimation. We have in parallel developed tools for Matched Field Processing for optimized detection and source-region identification of seismic signals. This narrow-band procedure aims to mitigate some of the causes of difficulty encountered using the standard array processing system, specifically complicated source-time histories of seismic events and shortcomings in the plane-wave approximation for seismic phase arrivals at regional arrays.

  14. Advances in process intensification through multifunctional reactor engineering

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hern, T. J.

    2012-03-01

    This project was designed to advance the art of process intensification leading to a new generation of multifunctional chemical reactors. Experimental testing was performed in order to fully characterize the hydrodynamic operating regimes critical to process intensification and implementation in commercial applications. Physics of the heat and mass transfer and chemical kinetics and how these processes are ultimately scaled were investigated. Specifically, we progressed the knowledge and tools required to scale a multifunctional reactor for acid-catalyzed C4 paraffin/olefin alkylation to industrial dimensions. Understanding such process intensification strategies is crucial to improving the energy efficiency and profitability of multifunctional reactors, resulting in a projected energy savings of 100 trillion BTU/yr by 2020 and a substantial reduction in the accompanying emissions.

  15. Enhanced performance in graphene RF transistors via advanced process integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Seul Ki; Oh, Joong Gun; Hwang, Wan Sik; Cho, Byung Jin

    2017-04-01

    The state-of-the-art performance of a graphene radio-frequency (RF) field-effect transistor (FET) made of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene is presented. The record high cut-off frequency as high as 380 GHz using CVD graphene was attributed to the implementation of advanced process integration. On the one hand, interface engineering has become critical in two-dimensional (2D) electronics since the charge transport of a 2D electron system like graphene is highly affected by the interface. The interface engineering was made for both the top and bottom of the graphene surface by implementing a non-polar material (1, 3, 5-trimethyl-1, 3, 5-trivinyl cyclotrisiloxane). In contrast to conventional polar materials, such as SiO2, the non-polar materials significantly reduce the surface optical phonon scattering in the graphene channel, leading to the enhanced RF performance of graphene FET. On the other hand, micro-scaled holes over the multilayer graphene and self-aligned structure also become a critical factor in minimizing the parasitic resistance that is inversely proportional to RF performance. As the growth technique of CVD graphene greatly advances, the advanced process integration scheme could bring graphene electronics one step further towards practical application.

  16. Technology advancement of the static feed water electrolysis process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Wynveen, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    A program to advance the technology of oxygen- and hydrogen-generating subsystems based on water electrolysis was studied. Major emphasis was placed on static feed water electrolysis, a concept characterized by low power consumption and high intrinsic reliability. The static feed based oxygen generation subsystem consists basically of three subassemblies: (1) a combined water electrolysis and product gas dehumidifier module; (2) a product gas pressure controller and; (3) a cyclically filled water feed tank. Development activities were completed at the subsystem as well as at the component level. An extensive test program including single cell, subsystem and integrated system testing was completed with the required test support accessories designed, fabricated, and assembled. Mini-product assurance activities were included throughout all phases of program activities. An extensive number of supporting technology studies were conducted to advance the technology base of the static feed water electrolysis process and to resolve problems.

  17. Advanced Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) Reactor and Process Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.; Hadley, Neal M.; Dahl, Roger W.; Abney, Morgan B.; Greenwood, Zachary; Miller, Lee; Medlen, Amber

    2012-01-01

    Design and development of a second generation Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) reactor is currently underway as part of NASA's Atmosphere Revitalization Resource Recovery effort. By recovering up to 75% of the hydrogen currently lost as methane in the Sabatier reactor effluent, the PPA helps to minimize life support resupply costs for extended duration missions. To date, second generation PPA development has demonstrated significant technology advancements over the first generation device by doubling the methane processing rate while, at the same time, more than halving the required power. One development area of particular interest to NASA system engineers is fouling of the PPA reactor with carbonaceous products. As a mitigation plan, NASA MSFC has explored the feasibility of using an oxidative plasma based upon metabolic CO2 to regenerate the reactor window and gas inlet ports. The results and implications of this testing are addressed along with the advanced PPA reactor development.

  18. Advanced materials and biochemical processes for geothermal applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kukacka, L.E.; van Rooyen, D.; Premuzic, E.T.

    1987-04-01

    Two Geothermal Technology Division (GTD)-sponsored programs: (1) Geothermal Materials Development, and (2) Advanced Biochemical Processes for Geothermal Brines, are described. In the former, work in the following tasks is in progress: (1) high temperature elastomeric materials for dynamic sealing applications, (2) advanced high temperature (300/sup 0/C) lightweight (1.1 g/cc) well cementing materials, (3) thermally conductive composites for heat exchanger tubing, (4) corrosion rates for metals in brine-contaminated binary plant working fluids, and (5) elastomeric liners for well casing. Methods for the utilization and/or the low cost environmentally acceptable disposal of toxic geothermal residues are being developed in the second program. This work is performed in two tasks. In one, microorganisms that can interact with toxic metals found in geothermal residues to convert them into soluble species for subsequent reinjection back into the reservoir or to concentrate them for removal by conventional processes are being identified. In the second task, process conditions are being defined for the encapsulation of untreated or partially biochemically treated residues in Portland cement-based formulations and the subsequent utilization of the waste fractions in building materials. Both processing methods yield materials which appear to meet disposal criteria for non-toxic solid waste, and their technical and economic feasibilities have been established.

  19. Electrochemical advanced oxidation processes: today and tomorrow. A review.

    PubMed

    Sirés, Ignasi; Brillas, Enric; Oturan, Mehmet A; Rodrigo, Manuel A; Panizza, Marco

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, new advanced oxidation processes based on the electrochemical technology, the so-called electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs), have been developed for the prevention and remediation of environmental pollution, especially focusing on water streams. These methods are based on the electrochemical generation of a very powerful oxidizing agent, such as the hydroxyl radical ((•)OH) in solution, which is then able to destroy organics up to their mineralization. EAOPs include heterogeneous processes like anodic oxidation and photoelectrocatalysis methods, in which (•)OH are generated at the anode surface either electrochemically or photochemically, and homogeneous processes like electro-Fenton, photoelectro-Fenton, and sonoelectrolysis, in which (•)OH are produced in the bulk solution. This paper presents a general overview of the application of EAOPs on the removal of aqueous organic pollutants, first reviewing the most recent works and then looking to the future. A global perspective on the fundamentals and experimental setups is offered, and laboratory-scale and pilot-scale experiments are examined and discussed.

  20. Impact of Vertical Wind Shear on Tropical Cyclone Rainfall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cecil, Dan; Marchok, Tim

    2014-01-01

    While tropical cyclone rainfall has a large axisymmetric component, previous observational and theoretical studies have shown that environmental vertical wind shear leads to an asymmetric component of the vertical motion and precipitation fields. Composites consistently depict a precipitation enhancement downshear and also cyclonically downwind from the downshear direction. For consistence with much of the literature and with Northern Hemisphere observations, this is subsequently referred to as "Downshear-Left". Stronger shear magnitudes are associated with greater amplitude precipitation asymmetries. Recent work has reinforced the prior findings, and explored details of the response of the precipitation and kinematic fields to environmental vertical wind shear. Much of this research has focused on tropical cyclones away from land, to limit the influence of other processes that might distort the signal related to vertical wind shear. Recent evidence does suggest vertical wind shear can also play a major role in precipitation asymmetries during and after landfall.

  1. High-power ultrasonic processing: Recent developments and prospective advances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego-Juarez, Juan A.

    2010-01-01

    Although the application of ultrasonic energy to produce or to enhance a wide variety of processes have been explored since about the middle of the 20th century, only a reduced number of ultrasonic processes have been established at industrial level. However, during the last ten years the interest in ultrasonic processing has revived particularly in industrial sectors where the ultrasonic technology may represent a clean and efficient tool to improve classical existing processes or an innovation alternative for the development of new processes. Such seems to be the case of relevant sectors such as food industry, environment, pharmaceuticals and chemicals manufacture, machinery, mining, etc where power ultrasound is becoming an emerging technology for process development. The possible major problem in the application of high-intensity ultrasound on industrial processing is the design and development of efficient power ultrasonic systems (generators and reactors) capable of large scale successful operation specifically adapted to each individual process. In the area of ultrasonic processing in fluid media and more specifically in gases, the development of the steppedplate transducers and other power ge with extensive radiating surface has strongly contributed to the implementation at semi-industrial and industrial stage of several commercial applications, in sectors such as food and beverage industry (defoaming, drying, extraction, etc), environment (air cleaning, sludge filtration, etc...), machinery and process for manufacturing (textile washing, paint manufacture, etc). The development of different cavitational reactors for liquid treatment in continuous flow is helping to introduce into industry the wide potential of the area of sonochemistry. Processes such as water and effluent treatment, crystallization, soil remediation, etc have been already implemented at semi-industrial and/or industrial stage. Other single advances in sectors like mining or energy have

  2. The Role of Ultrasound on Advanced Oxidation Processes.

    PubMed

    Babu, Sundaram Ganesh; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian; Neppolian, Bernaurdshaw

    2016-10-01

    This chapter describes the use of ultrasound in remediation of wastewater contaminated with organic pollutants in the absence and presence of other advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) such as sonolysis, sono-ozone process, sonophotocatalysis, sonoFenton systems and sonophoto-Fenton methods in detail. All these methods are explained with the suitable literature illustrations. In most of the cases, hybrid AOPs (combination of ultrasound with one or more AOPs) resulted in superior efficacy to that of individual AOP. The advantageous effects such as additive and synergistic effects obtained by operating the hybrid AOPs are highlighted with appropriate examples. It is worth to mention here that the utilization of ultrasound is not only restricted in preparation of modern active catalysts but also extensively used for the wastewater treatment. Interestingly, ultrasound coupled AOPs are operationally simple, efficient, and environmentally benign, and can be readily applied for large scale industrial processes which make them economically viable.

  3. Comparison of different advanced oxidation processes for phenol degradation.

    PubMed

    Esplugas, Santiago; Giménez, Jaime; Contreras, Sandra; Pascual, Esther; Rodríguez, Miguel

    2002-02-01

    Advanced Oxidation Processes (O3, O3/H2O2, UV, UV/O3, UV/H2O2, O3/UV/H2O2, Fe2+ /H2O2 and photocatalysis) for degradation of phenol in aqueous solution have been studied in earlier works. In this paper, a comparison of these techniques is undertaken: pH influence, kinetic constants, stoichiometric coefficient and optimum oxidant/pollutant ratio. Of the tested processes, Fenton reagent was found to the fastest one for phenol degradation. However, lower costs were obtained with ozonation. In the ozone combinations, the best results were achieved with single ozonation. As for the UV processes, UV/H2O2 showed the highest degradation rate.

  4. Advanced automation for in-space vehicle processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sklar, Michael; Wegerif, D.

    1990-01-01

    The primary objective of this 3-year planned study is to assure that the fully evolved Space Station Freedom (SSF) can support automated processing of exploratory mission vehicles. Current study assessments show that required extravehicular activity (EVA) and to some extent intravehicular activity (IVA) manpower requirements for required processing tasks far exceeds the available manpower. Furthermore, many processing tasks are either hazardous operations or they exceed EVA capability. Thus, automation is essential for SSF transportation node functionality. Here, advanced automation represents the replacement of human performed tasks beyond the planned baseline automated tasks. Both physical tasks such as manipulation, assembly and actuation, and cognitive tasks such as visual inspection, monitoring and diagnosis, and task planning are considered. During this first year of activity both the Phobos/Gateway Mars Expedition and Lunar Evolution missions proposed by the Office of Exploration have been evaluated. A methodology for choosing optimal tasks to be automated has been developed. Processing tasks for both missions have been ranked on the basis of automation potential. The underlying concept in evaluating and describing processing tasks has been the use of a common set of 'Primitive' task descriptions. Primitive or standard tasks have been developed both for manual or crew processing and automated machine processing.

  5. Development of advanced hot-gas desulfurization processes

    SciTech Connect

    Jothimurugesan, K.

    1999-10-14

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants nearing completion, such as Sierra-Pacific, employ a circulating fluidized-bed (transport) reactor hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) process that uses 70-180 {micro}m average particle size (aps) zinc-based mixed-metal oxide sorbent for removing H{sub 2}S from coal gas down to less than 20 ppmv. The sorbent undergoes cycles of absorption (sulfidation) and air regeneration. The key barrier issues associated with a fluidized-bed HGD process are chemical degradation, physical attrition, high regeneration light-off (initiation) temperature, and high cost of the sorbent. Another inherent complication in all air-regeneration-based HGD processes is the disposal of the problematic dilute SO{sub 2} containing regeneration tail-gas. Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), a leading first generation technology, efficiently reduces this SO{sub 2} to desirable elemental sulfur, but requires the use of 1-3 % of the coal gas, thus resulting in an energy penalty to the plant. Advanced second-generation processes are under development that can reduce this energy penalty by modifying the sorbent so that it could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur. The objective of this research is to support the near and long term DOE efforts to commercialize the IGCC-HGD process technology. Specifically we aim to develop: optimized low-cost sorbent materials with 70-80 {micro}m average aps meeting all Sierra specs; attrition resistant sorbents with 170 {micro}m aps that allow greater flexibility in the choice of the type of fluidized-bed reactor e.g. they allow increased throughput in a bubbling-bed reactor; and modified fluidizable sorbent materials that can be regenerated to produce elemental sulfur directly with minimal or no use of coal gas The effort during the reporting period has been devoted to development of an advanced hot-gas process that can eliminate the problematic SO{sub 2} tail gas and yield elemental sulfur

  6. H Scan/AHP advanced technology proposal evaluation process

    SciTech Connect

    Mack, S.; Valladares, M.R.S. de

    1996-10-01

    It is anticipated that a family of high value/impact projects will be funded by the Hydrogen Program to field test hydrogen technologies that are at advanced stages of development. These projects will add substantial value to the Program in several ways, by: demonstrating successful integration of multiple advanced technologies, providing critical insight on issues of larger scale equipment design, construction and operations management, yielding cost and performance data for competitive analysis, refining and deploying enhanced safety measures. These projects will be selected through a competitive proposal evaluation process. Because of the significant scope and funding levels of projects at these development phases, Program management has indicated the need for an augmented proposal evaluation strategy to ensure that supported projects are implemented by capable investigative teams and that their successful completion will optimally advance programmatic objectives. These objectives comprise a complex set of both quantitative and qualitative factors, many of which can only be estimated using expert judgment and opinion. To meet the above need, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Energetics Inc. have jointly developed a proposal evaluation methodology called H Scan/AHP. The H Scan component of the process was developed by NREL. It is a two-part survey instrument that substantially augments the type and scope of information collected in a traditional proposal package. The AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) component was developed by Energetics. The AHP is an established decision support methodology that allows the Program decision makers to evaluate proposals relatively based on a unique set of weighted criteria that they have determined.

  7. Advances in Subcritical Hydro-/Solvothermal Processing of Graphene Materials.

    PubMed

    Sasikala, Suchithra Padmajan; Poulin, Philippe; Aymonier, Cyril

    2017-02-28

    Many promising graphene-based materials are kept away from mainstream applications due to problems of scalability and environmental concerns in their processing. Hydro-/solvothermal techniques overwhelmingly satisfy both the aforementioned criteria, and have matured as alternatives to wet-chemical methods with advances made over the past few decades. The insolubility of graphene in many solvents poses considerable difficulties in their processing. In this context hydro-/solvothermal techniques present an ideal opportunity for processing of graphenic materials with their versatility in manipulating the physical and thermodynamic properties of the solvent. The flexibility in hydro-/solvothermal techniques for manipulation of solvent composition, temperature and pressure provides numerous handles to manipulate graphene-based materials during synthesis. This review provides a comprehensive look at the subcritical hydro-/solvothermal synthesis of graphene-based functional materials and their applications. Several key synthetic strategies governing the morphology and properties of the products such as temperature, pressure, and solvent effects are elaborated. Advances in the synthesis, doping, and functionalization of graphene in hydro-/solvothermal media are highlighted together with our perspectives in the field.

  8. Advanced Manufacturing Processes Laboratory Building 878 hazards assessment document

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, C.; Thornton, W.; Swihart, A.; Gilman, T.

    1994-07-01

    The introduction of the hazards assessment process is to document the impact of the release of hazards at the Advanced Manufacturing Processes Laboratory (AMPL) that are significant enough to warrant consideration in Sandia National Laboratories` operational emergency management program. This hazards assessment is prepared in accordance with the Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requirement that facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment provides an analysis of the potential airborne release of chemicals associated with the operations and processes at the AMPL. This research and development laboratory develops advanced manufacturing technologies, practices, and unique equipment and provides the fabrication of prototype hardware to meet the needs of Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico (SNL/NM). The focus of the hazards assessment is the airborne release of materials because this requires the most rapid, coordinated emergency response on the part of the AMPL, SNL/NM, collocated facilities, and surrounding jurisdiction to protect workers, the public, and the environment.

  9. Recent advancements in optical microstructure fabrication through glass molding process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Tianfeng; Liu, Xiaohua; Liang, Zhiqiang; Liu, Yang; Xie, Jiaqing; Wang, Xibin

    2017-02-01

    Optical microstructures are increasingly applied in several fields, such as optical systems, precision measurement, and microfluid chips. Microstructures include microgrooves, microprisms, and microlenses. This paper presents an overview of optical microstructure fabrication through glass molding and highlights the applications of optical microstructures in mold fabrication and glass molding. The glass-mold interface friction and adhesion are also discussed. Moreover, the latest advancements in glass molding technologies are detailed, including new mold materials and their fabrication methods, viscoelastic constitutive modeling of glass, and microstructure molding process, as well as ultrasonic vibrationassisted molding technology.

  10. Advanced computational research in materials processing for design and manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Zacharia, T.

    1994-12-31

    The computational requirements for design and manufacture of automotive components have seen dramatic increases for producing automobiles with three times the mileage. Automotive component design systems are becoming increasingly reliant on structural analysis requiring both overall larger analysis and more complex analyses, more three-dimensional analyses, larger model sizes, and routine consideration of transient and non-linear effects. Such analyses must be performed rapidly to minimize delays in the design and development process, which drives the need for parallel computing. This paper briefly describes advanced computational research in superplastic forming and automotive crash worthiness.

  11. Tropical Cyclone Ensemble Data Assimilation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    described above, but using a vertical window of influence of 2.0 times the scale hight . Notice that meaningful vertical correlation is found by LETKF...between the scatterometer observation and many points throughout the troposphere. This suggests that for assimilation near tropical cyclones that have

  12. Safety Analysis of Soybean Processing for Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hentges, Dawn L.

    1999-01-01

    Soybeans (cv. Hoyt) is one of the crops planned for food production within the Advanced Life Support System Integration Testbed (ALSSIT), a proposed habitat simulation for long duration lunar/Mars missions. Soybeans may be processed into a variety of food products, including soymilk, tofu, and tempeh. Due to the closed environmental system and importance of crew health maintenance, food safety is a primary concern on long duration space missions. Identification of the food safety hazards and critical control points associated with the closed ALSSIT system is essential for the development of safe food processing techniques and equipment. A Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) model was developed to reflect proposed production and processing protocols for ALSSIT soybeans. Soybean processing was placed in the type III risk category. During the processing of ALSSIT-grown soybeans, critical control points were identified to control microbiological hazards, particularly mycotoxins, and chemical hazards from antinutrients. Critical limits were suggested at each CCP. Food safety recommendations regarding the hazards and risks associated with growing, harvesting, and processing soybeans; biomass management; and use of multifunctional equipment were made in consideration of the limitations and restraints of the closed ALSSIT.

  13. Tropical Cyclone Monty Strikes Western Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) acquired these natural color images and cloud top height measurements for Monty before and after the storm made landfall over the remote Pilbara region of Western Australia, on February 29 and March 2, 2004 (shown as the left and right-hand image sets, respectively). On February 29, Monty was upgraded to category 4 cyclone status. After traveling inland about 300 kilometers to the south, the cyclonic circulation had decayed considerably, although category 3 force winds were reported on the ground. Some parts of the drought-affected Pilbara region received more than 300 millimeters of rainfall, and serious and extensive flooding has occurred.

    The natural color images cover much of the same area, although the right-hand panels are offset slightly to the east. Automated stereoscopic processing of data from multiple MISR cameras was utilized to produce the cloud-top height fields. The distinctive spatial patterns of the clouds provide the necessary contrast to enable automated feature matching between images acquired at different view angles. The height retrievals are at this stage uncorrected for the effects of the high winds associated with cyclone rotation. Areas where heights could not be retrieved are shown in dark gray.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. These data products were generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra orbits 22335 and 22364. The panels cover an area of about 380 kilometers x 985 kilometers, and utilize data from blocks 105 to 111 within World Reference System-2 paths 115 and 113.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the

  14. Tropical cyclone intensities from satellite microwave data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonderhaar, T. H.; Kidder, S. Q.

    1980-01-01

    Radial profiles of mean 1000 mb to 250 mb temperature from the Nimbus 6 scanning microwave spectrometer (SCAMS) were constructed around eight intensifying tropical storms in the western Pacific. Seven storms showed distinct inward temperature gradients required for intensification; the eighth displayed no inward gradient and was decaying 24 hours later. The possibility that satellite data might be used to forecast tropical cyclone turning motion was investigated using estimates obtained from Nimbus 6 SCAMS data tapes of the mean 1000 mb to 250 mb temperature field around eleven tropical storms in 1975. Analysis of these data show that for turning storms, in all but one case, the turn was signaled 24 hours in advance by a significant temperature gradient perpendicular to the storm's path, at a distance of 9 deg to 13 deg in front of the storm. A thresholding technique was applied to the North Central U.S. during the summer to estimate precipitation frequency. except

  15. Integration of Advanced Simulation and Visualization for Manufacturing Process Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chenn; Wang, Jichao; Tang, Guangwu; Moreland, John; Fu, Dong; Wu, Bin

    2016-05-01

    The integration of simulation and visualization can provide a cost-effective tool for process optimization, design, scale-up and troubleshooting. The Center for Innovation through Visualization and Simulation (CIVS) at Purdue University Northwest has developed methodologies for such integration with applications in various manufacturing processes. The methodologies have proven to be useful for virtual design and virtual training to provide solutions addressing issues on energy, environment, productivity, safety, and quality in steel and other industries. In collaboration with its industrial partnerships, CIVS has provided solutions to companies, saving over US38 million. CIVS is currently working with the steel industry to establish an industry-led Steel Manufacturing Simulation and Visualization Consortium through the support of National Institute of Standards and Technology AMTech Planning Grant. The consortium focuses on supporting development and implementation of simulation and visualization technologies to advance steel manufacturing across the value chain.

  16. Integral cylindrical cyclone and loopseal assembly for CFB combustors

    SciTech Connect

    Alliston, M.G.; Wu, S.; Sinn, B.T.; Lato, K.

    1995-12-31

    The cyclone solids separator has been one of the main features characteristically associated with many Circulating Fluidized Bed combustor designs. Most designs incorporating the cyclone coflector also include a pressure sealing device through which the solids collected by the cyclone are returned to the combustor. The cyclone and the loopseal have typically been two separate components, and various designs have arisen for each component comprising refractory, water-cooled, or steam cooled equipment. The two obvious advantages of the use of water-cooled or steam-, cooled equipment are the reduction of refractory requirements and the conversion of these components into boiler-useful devices. The creation of these devices from tube and header assemblies has followed more-or-less artful paths, the directions of which have generally been based upon the goal of maintaining the specific geometric forms that had previously been used for CFB cyclones and loopseals. The assembly described in this paper was instead developed based upon the goals of (a) ease of manufacturing, (b) elimination of problematic components, (c) maximizing the boiler-usefulness of the surfaces created, and (d) adding potential process benefits. The resulting embodiment of these goals was a cylindrical vessel in which the upper portion forms the solids separator and the lower section is divided into chambers to form the loopseal. This report describes the details of the Integral Cylindrical Cyclone and Loopseal (ICCL), and also describes its performance as demonstrated in a CFB cold flow model incorporating the new apparatus. The commercial application of the ICCL in a 1.2 MM lb steam/hr CFB boiler as well as its potential application in reheat CFB units are also discussed.

  17. Improving NASA's Multiscale Modeling Framework for Tropical Cyclone Climate Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Bo-Wen; Nelson, Bron; Cheung, Samson; Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2013-01-01

    One of the current challenges in tropical cyclone (TC) research is how to improve our understanding of TC interannual variability and the impact of climate change on TCs. Recent advances in global modeling, visualization, and supercomputing technologies at NASA show potential for such studies. In this article, the authors discuss recent scalability improvement to the multiscale modeling framework (MMF) that makes it feasible to perform long-term TC-resolving simulations. The MMF consists of the finite-volume general circulation model (fvGCM), supplemented by a copy of the Goddard cumulus ensemble model (GCE) at each of the fvGCM grid points, giving 13,104 GCE copies. The original fvGCM implementation has a 1D data decomposition; the revised MMF implementation retains the 1D decomposition for most of the code, but uses a 2D decomposition for the massive copies of GCEs. Because the vast majority of computation time in the MMF is spent computing the GCEs, this approach can achieve excellent speedup without incurring the cost of modifying the entire code. Intelligent process mapping allows differing numbers of processes to be assigned to each domain for load balancing. The revised parallel implementation shows highly promising scalability, obtaining a nearly 80-fold speedup by increasing the number of cores from 30 to 3,335.

  18. Advances in Process Intensification through Multifunctional Reactor Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hern, Timothy; Evans, Lindsay; Miller, Jim; Cooper, Marcia; Torczynski, John; Pena, Donovan; Gill, Walt

    2011-02-01

    This project was designed to advance the art of process intensification leading to a new generation of multifunctional chemical reactors utilizing pulse flow. Experimental testing was performed in order to fully characterize the hydrodynamic operating regimes associated with pulse flow for implementation in commercial applications. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) operated a pilot-scale multifunctional reactor experiment for operation with and investigation of pulse flow operation. Validation-quality data sets of the fluid dynamics, heat and mass transfer, and chemical kinetics were acquired and shared with Chemical Research and Licensing (CR&L). Experiments in a two-phase air-water system examined the effects of bead diameter in the packing, and viscosity. Pressure signals were used to detect pulsing. Three-phase experiments used immiscible organic and aqueous liquids, and air or nitrogen as the gas phase. Hydrodynamic studies of flow regimes and holdup were performed for different types of packing, and mass transfer measurements were performed for a woven packing. These studies substantiated the improvements in mass transfer anticipated for pulse flow in multifunctional reactors for the acid-catalyzed C4 paraffin/olefin alkylation process. CR&L developed packings for this alkylation process, utilizing their alkylation process pilot facilities in Pasadena, TX. These packings were evaluated in the pilot-scale multifunctional reactor experiments established by Sandia to develop a more fundamental understanding of their role in process intensification. Lummus utilized the alkylation technology developed by CR&L to design and optimize the full commercial process utilizing multifunctional reactors containing the packings developed by CR&L and evaluated by Sandia. This hydrodynamic information has been developed for multifunctional chemical reactors utilizing pulse flow, for the acid-catalyzed C4 paraffin/olefin alkylation process, and is now accessible for use in

  19. Advances in Process Intensification through Multifunctional Reactor Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hern, Timothy; Evans, Lindsay; Miller, Jim; Cooper, Marcia; Torczynski, John; Pena, Donovan; Gill, Walt; Groten, Will; Judzis, Arvids; Foley, Richard; Smith, Larry; Cross, Will; Vogt, T.

    2011-06-27

    This project was designed to advance the art of process intensification leading to a new generation of multifunctional chemical reactors utilizing pulse flow. Experimental testing was performed in order to fully characterize the hydrodynamic operating regimes associated with pulse flow for implementation in commercial applications. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) operated a pilot-scale multifunctional reactor experiment for operation with and investigation of pulse flow operation. Validation-quality data sets of the fluid dynamics, heat and mass transfer, and chemical kinetics were acquired and shared with Chemical Research and Licensing (CR&L). Experiments in a two-phase air-water system examined the effects of bead diameter in the packing, and viscosity. Pressure signals were used to detect pulsing. Three-phase experiments used immiscible organic and aqueous liquids, and air or nitrogen as the gas phase. Hydrodynamic studies of flow regimes and holdup were performed for different types of packing, and mass transfer measurements were performed for a woven packing. These studies substantiated the improvements in mass transfer anticipated for pulse flow in multifunctional reactors for the acid-catalyzed C4 paraffin/olefin alkylation process. CR&L developed packings for this alkylation process, utilizing their alkylation process pilot facilities in Pasadena, TX. These packings were evaluated in the pilot-scale multifunctional reactor experiments established by Sandia to develop a more fundamental understanding of their role in process intensification. Lummus utilized the alkylation technology developed by CR&L to design and optimize the full commercial process utilizing multifunctional reactors containing the packings developed by CR&L and evaluated by Sandia. This hydrodynamic information has been developed for multifunctional chemical reactors utilizing pulse flow, for the acid-catalyzed C4 paraffin/olefin alkylation process, and is now accessible for use in

  20. Recent Advances in Marine Enzymes for Biotechnological Processes.

    PubMed

    Lima, R N; Porto, A L M

    In the last decade, new trends in the food and pharmaceutical industries have increased concern for the quality and safety of products. The use of biocatalytic processes using marine enzymes has become an important and useful natural product for biotechnological applications. Bioprocesses using biocatalysts like marine enzymes (fungi, bacteria, plants, animals, algae, etc.) offer hyperthermostability, salt tolerance, barophilicity, cold adaptability, chemoselectivity, regioselectivity, and stereoselectivity. Currently, enzymatic methods are used to produce a large variety of products that humans consume, and the specific nature of the enzymes including processing under mild pH and temperature conditions result in fewer unwanted side-effects and by-products. This offers high selectivity in industrial processes. The marine habitat has been become increasingly studied because it represents a huge source potential biocatalysts. Enzymes include oxidoreductases, hydrolases, transferases, isomerases, ligases, and lyases that can be used in food and pharmaceutical applications. Finally, recent advances in biotechnological processes using enzymes of marine organisms (bacterial, fungi, algal, and sponges) are described and also our work on marine organisms from South America, especially marine-derived fungi and bacteria involved in biotransformations and biodegradation of organic compounds.

  1. Test results of the advanced translator processing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Alison K.; Sward, William; Brown, Peter

    1992-11-01

    The Advanced Translator Processing System was developed to provide a low cost alternative to tracking translated GPS signals. It is backwards compatible with the Translator Processing System (TPS) currently used to track Ballistic Missile Translators (BMT) by the US Ranges. NAVSYS has also developed a BMT compatible Translator. A key element of the ATPS is the Preamplifier/Downconvertor (P/DC) module which was developed by NAVSYS to condition the received Translator signal so it can be tracked with a conventional C/A code receiver. This significantly reduces the cost of the hardware by allowing the ATPS to be constructed mostly from off-the-shelf components. The ATPS and Translator were tested against the RAJPO Ballistic Missile and Translator Processing System Specifications. This paper presents the results of tests demonstrating the performance of the ATPS and Translator under different operating conditions. NAVSYS has also developed a Post Test Processing System (PTPS), incorporating the same components, which records the Translator data during the tests. When this data is played back, high-accuracy Time and Space Position

  2. Economic assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bierman, G. R.; May, E. H.; Mirabelli, R. E.; Pow, C. N.; Scardino, C.; Wan, E. I.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents the results of a project sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The purpose of the study was to perform an economic and market assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes for application to coal-fired electric utility plants. The time period considered in the study is 1981 through 1990, and costs are reported in 1980 dollars. The task was divided into the following four subtasks: (1) determine the factors affecting FGD cost evaluations; (2) select FGD processes to be cost-analyzed; (3) define the future electric utility FGD system market; and (4) perform cost analyses for the selected FGD processes. The study was initiated in September 1979, and separate reports were prepared for the first two subtasks. The results of the latter two subtasks appear only in this final reprot, since the end-date of those subtasks coincided with the end-date of the overall task. The Subtask 1 report, Criteria and Methods for Performing FGD Cost Evaluations, was completed in October 1980. A slightly modified and condensed version of that report appears as appendix B to this report. The Subtask 2 report, FGD Candidate Process Selection, was completed in January 1981, and the principal outputs of that subtask appear in Appendices C and D to this report.

  3. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. ); Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. )

    1990-01-01

    The overall objective of this program is the development of predictive capability for the design, scale up, simulation, control and feedstock evaluation in advanced coal conversion devices. This technology is important to reduce the technical and economic risks inherent in utilizing coal, a feedstock whose variable and often unexpected behavior presents a significant challenge. This program will merge significant advances made at Advanced Fuel Research, Inc. (AFR) in measuring and quantitatively describing the mechanisms in coal conversion behavior, with technology being developed at Brigham Young University (BYU) in comprehensive computer codes for mechanistic modeling of entrained-bed gasification. Additional capabilities in predicting pollutant formation will be implemented and the technology will be expanded to fixed-bed reactors. The foundation to describe coal-specific conversion behavior is AFR's Functional Group (FG) and Devolatilization, Vaporization, and Crosslinking (DVC) models, developed under previous and on-going METC sponsored programs. These models have demonstrated the capability to describe the time dependent evolution of individual gas species, and the amount and characteristics of tar and char. The combined FG-DVC model will be integrated with BYU's comprehensive two-dimensional reactor model, PCGC-2, which is currently the most widely used reactor simulation for combustion or gasification. Success in this program will be a major step in improving in predictive capabilities for coal conversion processes including: demonstrated accuracy and reliability and a generalized first principles'' treatment of coals based on readily obtained composition data. The progress during the fifteenth quarterly of the program is presented. 56 refs., 41 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Development of advanced hot-gas desulfurization processes

    SciTech Connect

    Jothimurugesan, K.

    2000-04-17

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants nearing completion, such as Sierra-Pacific, employ a circulating fluidized-bed (transport) reactor hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) process that uses 70-180 {micro}m average particle size (aps) zinc-based mixed-metal oxide sorbent for removing H{sub 2}S from coal gas down to less than 20 ppmv. The sorbent undergoes cycles of absorption (sulfidation) and air regeneration. The key barrier issues associated with a fluidized-bed HGD process are chemical degradation, physical attrition, high regeneration light-off (initiation) temperature, and high cost of the sorbent. Another inherent complication in all air-regeneration-based HGD processes is the disposal of the problematic dilute SO{sub 2} containing regeneration tail-gas. Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), a leading first generation technology, efficiently reduces this SO{sub 2} to desirable elemental sulfur, but requires the use of 1-3 % of the coal gas, thus resulting in an energy penalty to the plant. Advanced second-generation processes are under development that can reduce this energy penalty by modifying the sorbent so that it could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur. The objective of this research is to support the near and long term DOE efforts to commercialize the IGCC-HGD process technology. Specifically we aim to develop: optimized low-cost sorbent materials with 70-80 {micro}m average aps meeting all Sierra specs; attrition resistant sorbents with 170 {micro}m aps that allow greater flexibility in the choice of the type of fluidized-bed reactor e.g. they allow increased throughput in a bubbling-bed reactor; and modified fluidizable sorbent materials that can be regenerated to produce elemental sulfur directly with minimal or no use of coal gas. The effort during the reporting period has been devoted to testing the FHR-32 sorbent. FHR-32 sorbent was tested for 50 cycles of sulfidation in a laboratory scale reactor.

  5. Development of advanced hot-gas desulfurization processes

    SciTech Connect

    Jothimurugesan, K.

    1999-04-26

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants nearing completion, such as Sierra-Pacific, employ a circulating fluidized-bed (transport) reactor hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) process that uses 70-180 {micro}m average particle size (aps) zinc-based mixed-metal oxide sorbent for removing H{sub 2}S from coal gas down to less than 20 ppmv. The sorbent undergoes cycles of absorption (sulfidation) and air regeneration. The key barrier issues associated with a fluidized-bed HGD process are chemical degradation, physical attrition, high regeneration light-off (initiation) temperature, and high cost of the sorbent. Another inherent complication in all air-regeneration-based HGD processes is the disposal of the problematic dilute SO{sub 2} containing regeneration tail-gas. Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), a leading first generation technology, efficiently reduces this SO{sub 2} to desirable elemental sulfur, but requires the use of 1-3% of the coal gas, thus resulting in an energy penalty to the plant. Advanced second-generation processes are under development that can reduce this energy penalty by modifying the sorbent so that it could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur. The objective of this research is to support the near and long term DOE efforts to commercialize the IGCC-HGD process technology. Specifically we aim to develop: optimized low-cost sorbent materials with 70-80 {micro}m average aps meeting all Sierra specs; attrition resistant sorbents with 170 {micro}m aps that allow greater flexibility in the choice of the type of fluidized-bed reactor e.g. they allow increased throughput in a bubbling-bed reactor; and modified fluidizable sorbent materials that can be regenerated to produce elemental sulfur directly with minimal or no use of coal gas. The effort during the reporting period has been devoted to development of optimized low-cost zinc-oxide-based sorbents for Sierra-Pacific. The sorbent surface were modified to prevent

  6. Structural analysis of tropical cyclone using INSAT-3D observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaiswal, Neeru; Kishtawal, C. M.

    2016-05-01

    The continuous observations from visible and thermal infrared (TIR) channels of geostationary satellites are highly useful for obtaining the features associated with the shape and dynamics of cloud structures within the tropical cyclones (TCs). As TC develops from an unstructured cloud cluster and intensifies, the cloud structures become more axisymmetric around the centre of the TC. To better understand the structure of TC during different stages of its evolution i.e. from its cyclogenesis to maturity and dissipation, the continuous satellite observations plays a key role. The high spatial and temporal resolution observations from geostationary satellites are very useful in order to analyze the cloud organization during the cyclogenesis. The gradient of the brightness temperatures measures the level of symmetry of each structure, which characterizes the degree of cloud organization of the TC. In the present work, the structural analysis of TC during its life period using the observations from Indian geostationary satellite INSAT-3D has been discussed. The visible and TIR observations from INSAT-3D satellite were used to fix the center position of the cyclone which is an input for the cyclone track and intensity prediction models. This data is also used to estimate the intensity of cyclone in the advanced Dvorak technique (ADT), and in the estimation of radius of maximum winds (Rmax) of TC which is an essential input parameter for the prediction of storm surge associated to the cyclones. The different patterns of cloud structure during the intensification stage, eye-wall formation and dissipation have been discussed. The early identification of these features helps in predicting the rapid intensification of TC which in turn improves the intensity predictions.

  7. Combining Advanced Oxidation Processes: Assessment Of Process Additivity, Synergism, And Antagonism

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Robert W.; Sharma, M.P.; Gbadebo Adewuyi, Yusuf

    2007-07-01

    This paper addresses the process interactions from combining integrated processes (such as advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), biological operations, air stripping, etc.). AOPs considered include: Fenton's reagent, ultraviolet light, titanium dioxide, ozone (O{sub 3}), hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), sonication/acoustic cavitation, among others. A critical review of the technical literature has been performed, and the data has been analyzed in terms of the processes being additive, synergistic, or antagonistic. Predictions based on the individual unit operations are made and compared against the behavior of the combined unit operations. The data reported in this paper focus primarily on treatment of petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents. (authors)

  8. Stratified coastal ocean interactions with tropical cyclones

    PubMed Central

    Glenn, S. M.; Miles, T. N.; Seroka, G. N.; Xu, Y.; Forney, R. K.; Yu, F.; Roarty, H.; Schofield, O.; Kohut, J.

    2016-01-01

    Hurricane-intensity forecast improvements currently lag the progress achieved for hurricane tracks. Integrated ocean observations and simulations during hurricane Irene (2011) reveal that the wind-forced two-layer circulation of the stratified coastal ocean, and resultant shear-induced mixing, led to significant and rapid ahead-of-eye-centre cooling (at least 6 °C and up to 11 °C) over a wide swath of the continental shelf. Atmospheric simulations establish this cooling as the missing contribution required to reproduce Irene's accelerated intensity reduction. Historical buoys from 1985 to 2015 show that ahead-of-eye-centre cooling occurred beneath all 11 tropical cyclones that traversed the Mid-Atlantic Bight continental shelf during stratified summer conditions. A Yellow Sea buoy similarly revealed significant and rapid ahead-of-eye-centre cooling during Typhoon Muifa (2011). These findings establish that including realistic coastal baroclinic processes in forecasts of storm intensity and impacts will be increasingly critical to mid-latitude population centres as sea levels rise and tropical cyclone maximum intensities migrate poleward. PMID:26953963

  9. Stratified coastal ocean interactions with tropical cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenn, S. M.; Miles, T. N.; Seroka, G. N.; Xu, Y.; Forney, R. K.; Yu, F.; Roarty, H.; Schofield, O.; Kohut, J.

    2016-03-01

    Hurricane-intensity forecast improvements currently lag the progress achieved for hurricane tracks. Integrated ocean observations and simulations during hurricane Irene (2011) reveal that the wind-forced two-layer circulation of the stratified coastal ocean, and resultant shear-induced mixing, led to significant and rapid ahead-of-eye-centre cooling (at least 6 °C and up to 11 °C) over a wide swath of the continental shelf. Atmospheric simulations establish this cooling as the missing contribution required to reproduce Irene's accelerated intensity reduction. Historical buoys from 1985 to 2015 show that ahead-of-eye-centre cooling occurred beneath all 11 tropical cyclones that traversed the Mid-Atlantic Bight continental shelf during stratified summer conditions. A Yellow Sea buoy similarly revealed significant and rapid ahead-of-eye-centre cooling during Typhoon Muifa (2011). These findings establish that including realistic coastal baroclinic processes in forecasts of storm intensity and impacts will be increasingly critical to mid-latitude population centres as sea levels rise and tropical cyclone maximum intensities migrate poleward.

  10. Advanced information processing system: Input/output system services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masotto, Tom; Alger, Linda

    1989-01-01

    The functional requirements and detailed specifications for the Input/Output (I/O) Systems Services of the Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) are discussed. The introductory section is provided to outline the overall architecture and functional requirements of the AIPS system. Section 1.1 gives a brief overview of the AIPS architecture as well as a detailed description of the AIPS fault tolerant network architecture, while section 1.2 provides an introduction to the AIPS systems software. Sections 2 and 3 describe the functional requirements and design and detailed specifications of the I/O User Interface and Communications Management modules of the I/O System Services, respectively. Section 4 illustrates the use of the I/O System Services, while Section 5 concludes with a summary of results and suggestions for future work in this area.

  11. Advanced information processing system: Inter-computer communication services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkhardt, Laura; Masotto, Tom; Sims, J. Terry; Whittredge, Roy; Alger, Linda S.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose is to document the functional requirements and detailed specifications for the Inter-Computer Communications Services (ICCS) of the Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS). An introductory section is provided to outline the overall architecture and functional requirements of the AIPS and to present an overview of the ICCS. An overview of the AIPS architecture as well as a brief description of the AIPS software is given. The guarantees of the ICCS are provided, and the ICCS is described as a seven-layered International Standards Organization (ISO) Model. The ICCS functional requirements, functional design, and detailed specifications as well as each layer of the ICCS are also described. A summary of results and suggestions for future work are presented.

  12. Evaluation methodologies for an advanced information processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schabowsky, R. S., Jr.; Gai, E.; Walker, B. K.; Lala, J. H.; Motyka, P.

    1984-01-01

    The system concept and requirements for an Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) are briefly described, but the emphasis of this paper is on the evaluation methodologies being developed and utilized in the AIPS program. The evaluation tasks include hardware reliability, maintainability and availability, software reliability, performance, and performability. Hardware RMA and software reliability are addressed with Markov modeling techniques. The performance analysis for AIPS is based on queueing theory. Performability is a measure of merit which combines system reliability and performance measures. The probability laws of the performance measures are obtained from the Markov reliability models. Scalar functions of this law such as the mean and variance provide measures of merit in the AIPS performability evaluations.

  13. An advanced oxidation process using ionized gas for wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Ju; Chung, Paul Gene; Kwak, Dong Heui; Kim, Lee Hyung; Kim, Min Jeong

    2010-01-01

    This study on removing non-degradable materials in wastewater focused primarily on advanced oxidation methods such as ozone, ozone/UV and ozone/H2O2. Wastewater treatment using an ionized gas from plasma has been actively progressing. The ionized gas involves reactive species such as O2+, O2- cluster, O radical and OH radical. Since the ionized gas method has such outstanding characteristics as relatively simple structures, non-calorification, non-toxicity and low electricity consumption, it evidently of interest as a new process. A series of experiments were conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of ionized gas as a useful element for the diminution of nondegradable organic matters. On the other hand, a large amount of organic matters were changed to hydrophilic and the compounds containing aromatic functional group gradually decreased. The results implied that the ionized gas has been able to degrade the non-biodegradable organic matters. Therefore, the oxidation process by using an ionized gas process could be considered as an effective alternative unit in water and wastewater treatment plants.

  14. Annual Tropical Cyclone Report 1980

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    overall smoothed track, which may have been followed by Orchid at some level above 700 mb. An analogy which may offer some in- A sight into Orchid’s...020000Z October, however, the disturbance had weakening, rather than by a typical smooth , separated from the inflow into Vernon, and gradual...or smoothed tracks of straight,’recurving, and all other prognostic field at designated levels in 6- cyclones that do not meet the criteria of hour

  15. The Dynamics of Tropical Cyclones

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    include three different representations of cumulus convection . Realistic simulations of hurricanes have been carried out with the model. The model...tropical cyclones. We have completed a study of the convective destabilization by an approaching upper level trough and a joint paper on this topic with a...the study has been accepted for publication (Thorncroft and Jones, 2000). We have prepared a review paper on the role of cumulus convection in

  16. Promoting the confluence of tropical cyclone research.

    PubMed

    Marler, Thomas E

    2015-01-01

    Contributions of biologists to tropical cyclone research may improve by integrating concepts from other disciplines. Employing accumulated cyclone energy into protocols may foster greater integration of ecology and meteorology research. Considering experienced ecosystems as antifragile instead of just resilient may improve cross-referencing among ecological and social scientists. Quantifying ecosystem capital as distinct from ecosystem services may improve integration of tropical cyclone ecology research into the expansive global climate change research community.

  17. Promoting the confluence of tropical cyclone research

    PubMed Central

    Marler, Thomas E

    2015-01-01

    Contributions of biologists to tropical cyclone research may improve by integrating concepts from other disciplines. Employing accumulated cyclone energy into protocols may foster greater integration of ecology and meteorology research. Considering experienced ecosystems as antifragile instead of just resilient may improve cross-referencing among ecological and social scientists. Quantifying ecosystem capital as distinct from ecosystem services may improve integration of tropical cyclone ecology research into the expansive global climate change research community. PMID:26480001

  18. Identification of a subtropical cyclone in the proximity of the Canary Islands and its analysis by numerical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quitián-Hernández, L.; Martín, M. L.; González-Alemán, J. J.; Santos-Muñoz, D.; Valero, F.

    2016-09-01

    Subtropical cyclones (STC) are low-pressure systems that share tropical and extratropical characteristics. Because of the great economic and social damage, the study of these systems has recently grown. This paper analyzes the cyclone formed in October 2014 near the Canary Islands and diagnoses such a cyclone in order to identify its correspondence to an STC category, examining its dynamical and thermal evolution. Diverse fields have been obtained from three different numerical models, and several diagnostic tools and cyclone phase space diagrams have been used. An extratropical cyclone, in its early stage, experimented a process of cut-off and isolation from the midlatitude flow. The incursion of a trough in conjunction with a low-level baroclinic zone favored the formation of the STC northwestern of the Canary Islands. Streamers of high potential vorticity linked to the cyclone favored strong winds and precipitation in the study domain. Cyclone phase space diagrams are used to complement the synoptic analysis and the satellite images of the cyclone to categorize such system. The diagrams reveal the transition from extratropical cyclone to STC remaining for several days with a subtropical structure with a quite broad action radius. The study of the mesoscale environment parameters showed an enhanced conditional instability through a deep troposphere layer. It is shown that moderate to strong vertical wind shear together with relatively warm sea surface temperature determine conditions enabling the development of long-lived convective structures.

  19. Optimization of Geometric Parameters of the Cyclone Apparatus Based on its Numerical Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biryuk, V. V.; Gorshkalev, A. A.; Tsapkova, A. B.; Shimanov, A. A.; Blagin, E. V.

    2017-01-01

    This article deals with a cyclone cleaner which separates solid particles from the gas. The influence of the input duct angle and the relation of the conical part of the apparatus to a cylindrical one on the cleaning degree were investigated. 3-d models of the flow channel of the opposite-flow cyclone with input duct angles varied from 0 to 40° and conical and cylindrical parts relation from 2:3 to 4:1 were considered. Numerical modelling of a soot clearing process in the opposite-flow cyclone was carried out in the ANSYS Fluent software. The results of 25 different models are presented.

  20. Tropical Cyclones, Hurricanes, and Climate: NASA's Global Cloud-Scale Simulations and New Observations that Characterize the Lifecycle of Hurricanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putman, William M.

    2010-01-01

    One of the primary interests of Global Change research is the impact of climate changes and climate variability on extreme weather events, such as intense tropical storms and hurricanes. Atmospheric climate models run at resolutions of global weather models have been used to study the impact of climate variability, as seen in sea surface temperatures, on the frequency and intensity of tropical cyclones. NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System Model, version 5 (GEOS-5) in ensembles run at 50 km resolution has been able to reproduce the interannual variations of tropical cyclone frequency seen in nature. This, and other global models, have found it much more difficult to reproduce the interannual changes in intensity, a result that reflects the inability of the models to simulate the intensities of the most extreme storms. Better representation of the structures of cyclones requires much higher resolution models. Such improved representation is also fundamental to making best use of satellite observations. In collaboration with NOAA's Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, GEOS-5 now has the capability of running at much higher resolution to better represent cloud-scale resolutions. Global simulations at cloud-permitting resolutions (10- to 3.5-km) allows for the development of realistic tropical cyclones from tropical storm 119 km/hr winds) to category 5 (>249km1hr winds) intensities. GEOS-5 has produced realistic rain-band and eye-wall structures in tropical cyclones that can be directly analyzed against satellite observations. For the first time a global climate model is capable of representing realistic intensity and track variability on a seasonal scale across basins. GEOS-5 is also used in assimilation mode to test the impact of NASA's observations on tropical cyclone forecasts. One such test, for tropical cyclone Nargis in the Indian Ocean in May 2008, showed that observations from Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit

  1. Idealised simulations of sting jet cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Laura; Gray, Suzanne; Clark, Peter

    2010-05-01

    Extratropical cyclones often produce strong surface winds, mostly associated with low-level jets along the warm and cold fronts. Some severe extratropical cyclones have been found to produce an additional area of localised strong, and potentially very damaging, surface winds during a certain part of their development. These strong winds are associated with air that originates within the cloud head, exiting at the tip of the cloud head and descending rapidly from there to the surface. This rapidly descending air associated with the strong surface winds is known as a sting jet. Previous published work on sting jets has been limited to analyses of only a small number of case studies of observed sting jet cyclones, so a study of idealised sting jet cyclones, rather than specific cases, will be useful in determining the important features and mechanisms that lead to sting jets. This work focuses on an idealised simulation of a cyclone with a sting jet using a periodic channel configuration of the idealised nonhydrostatic Met Office Unified Model. The idealised cyclone simulation is based on baroclinic lifecycle simulations run at sufficiently high resolution for a sting jet to be generated. An analysis of the idealised cyclone and a comparison of the idealised cyclone with case studies of observed sting jet cyclones will be presented.

  2. Tips for selecting highly efficient cyclones

    SciTech Connect

    Amrein, D.L.

    1995-05-01

    Cyclone dust collectors have been used--and misused--all over the world for more than 100 years. One reason for the misuse is a common perception among users that all cyclones are created equal--that is, as long as a cyclone resembles a cylinder with an attached cone, it will do its job. However, to maximize separation efficiency in a specific application requires a precise cyclone design, engineered to exact fit many possible variables. A well-designed cyclone, for instance, can achieve efficiencies as high s 99.9+% when operated properly within the envelope of its specifications. Nonetheless, cyclones are often used only as first-stage filters for performing crude separations, with final collections being carried out by more-costly baghouses and scrubbers. Compared with baghouses and scrubbers, cyclones have two important considerations in their favor. One, they are almost invariably safer--in terms of the potential for generating fires and explosions--than fabric filters. Second, cyclones have lower maintenance costs since there are no filter media to replace. The paper discusses the operation, design, and troubleshooting of cyclones.

  3. OH radical monitoring technologies for AOP advanced oxidation process.

    PubMed

    Han, S K; Nam, S N; Kang, J W

    2002-01-01

    This study has been conducted to investigate OH radical monitoring technologies for the advanced oxidation process (AOP). OH radicals can be measured directly or indirectly through electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), hydrogen peroxide method and probe compounds such as pCBA. Among the various AOPs, we focused on the application of EPR technique for *OH monitoring in the ultrasonic irradiation process. EPR method is a valuable tool and has a high sensitivity for radical measuring. Our study was performed with 20 kHz ultrasonic processor in 20 ml DMPO (1 mM) solution. The amount of DMPO-OH adduct with hyperfine constants aN = aH = 1.49 mT and g-value 2.0054, coincided with those of the DMPO-OH adduct depends on the reaction time of the sonication. Also, we have found that at least, *OH was accumulated by 2 x 10(-10) M for 10 min sonication, when 60% of the initial amount was destroyed through *OH monitoring using a probe compound. With these results, we could assume that recombination of *OH to form hydrogen peroxide occurs at the interfacial region.

  4. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. ); Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. )

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of this proposed study are to establish the mechanisms and rates of basic steps in coal conversion processes, to integrate and incorporate this information into comprehensive computer models for coal conversion processes, to evaluate these models and to apply them to gasification, mild gasification and combustion in heat engines. This report describes progress during twenty second quarter of the program. Specifically, the paper discusses progress in three task areas: (1) Submodel development and evaluation: coal to char chemistry submodel; fundamental high-pressure reaction rate data; secondary reaction of pyrolysis product and burnout submodels; ash physics and chemistry submodel; large particle submodels; large char particle oxidation at high pressures; and SO[sub x]-NO[sub x] submodel development and evaluation; (2) Comprehensive model development and evaluation: integration of advanced submodels into entrained-flow code, with evaluation and documentation; comprehensive fixed-bed modeling review, development evaluation and implementation; and generalized fuels feedstock submodel; and (3) Application of integrated codes: application of generalized pulverized coal comprehensive code and application of fixed-bed code.

  5. Advanced hot gas cleaning system for coal gasification processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newby, R. A.; Bannister, R. L.

    1994-04-01

    The United States electric industry is entering a period where growth and the aging of existing plants will mandate a decision on whether to repower, add capacity, or do both. The power generation cycle of choice, today, is the combined cycle that utilizes the Brayton and Rankine cycles. The combustion turbine in a combined cycle can be used in a repowering mode or in a greenfield plant installation. Today's fuel of choice for new combined cycle power generation is natural gas. However, due to a 300-year supply of coal within the United States, the fuel of the future will include coal. Westinghouse has supported the development of coal-fueled gas turbine technology over the past thirty years. Working with the U.S. Department of Energy and other organizations, Westinghouse is actively pursuing the development and commercialization of several coal-fueled processes. To protect the combustion turbine and environment from emissions generated during coal conversion (gasification/combustion) a gas cleanup system must be used. This paper reports on the status of fuel gas cleaning technology and describes the Westinghouse approach to developing an advanced hot gas cleaning system that contains component systems that remove particulate, sulfur, and alkali vapors. The basic process uses ceramic barrier filters for multiple cleaning functions.

  6. Role of pyro-chemical processes in advanced fuel cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawada, Hosadu Parameswara; Fukuda, Kosaku

    2005-02-01

    Partitioning and Transmutation (P&T) of Minor Actinides (MAs) and Long-Lived Fission Products (LLFP) arising out of the back-end of the fuel cycle would be one of the key-steps in any future sustainable nuclear fuel cycle. Pyro-chemical separation methods would form a critical stage of P&T by recovering long-lived elements and thus reducing the environmental impact by the back-end of the fuel-cycle. This paper attempts to overview global developments of pyro-chemical process that are envisaged in advanced nuclear fuel cycles. Research and development needs for molten-salt electro-refining as well as molten salt extraction process that are foreseen as partitioning methods for spent nuclear fuels such as oxide, metal and nitride fuels from thermal or fast reactors; high level liquid waste from back-end fuel cycle as well as targets from sub-critical Accelerator Driven Sub-critical reactors would be addressed. The role of high temperature thermodynamic data of minor actinides in defining efficiency of recovery or separation of minor actinides from other fission products such as lanthanides will also be illustrated. In addition, the necessity for determination of accurate high temperature thermodynamic data of minor actinides would be discussed.

  7. Recent Advances in Techniques for Hyperspectral Image Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plaza, Antonio; Benediktsson, Jon Atli; Boardman, Joseph W.; Brazile, Jason; Bruzzone, Lorenzo; Camps-Valls, Gustavo; Chanussot, Jocelyn; Fauvel, Mathieu; Gamba, Paolo; Gualtieri, Anthony; Marconcini, Mattia; Tilton, James C.; Trianni, Giovanna

    2009-01-01

    Imaging spectroscopy, also known as hyperspectral imaging, has been transformed in less than 30 years from being a sparse research tool into a commodity product available to a broad user community. Currently, there is a need for standardized data processing techniques able to take into account the special properties of hyperspectral data. In this paper, we provide a seminal view on recent advances in techniques for hyperspectral image processing. Our main focus is on the design of techniques able to deal with the highdimensional nature of the data, and to integrate the spatial and spectral information. Performance of the discussed techniques is evaluated in different analysis scenarios. To satisfy time-critical constraints in specific applications, we also develop efficient parallel implementations of some of the discussed algorithms. Combined, these parts provide an excellent snapshot of the state-of-the-art in those areas, and offer a thoughtful perspective on future potentials and emerging challenges in the design of robust hyperspectral imaging algorithms

  8. Numerical prediction of the Mid-Atlantic states cyclone of 18-19 February 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atlas, R.; Rosenberg, R.

    1982-01-01

    A series of forecast experiments was conducted to assess the accuracy of the GLAS model, and to determine the importance of large scale dynamical processes and diabatic heating to the cyclogenesis. The GLAS model correctly predicted intense coastal cyclogenesis and heavy precipitation. Repeated without surface heat and moisture fluxes, the model failed to predict any cyclone development. An extended range forecast, a forecast from the NMC analysis interpolated to the GLAS grid, and a forecast from the GLAS analysis with the surface moisture flux excluded predicted weak coastal low development. Diabatic heating resulting from oceanic fluxes significantly contributed to the generation of low level cyclonic vorticity and the intensification and slow rate of movement of an upper level ridge over the western Atlantic. As an upper level short wave trough approached this ridge, diabatic heating associated with the release of latent heat intensified, and the gradient of vorticity, vorticity advection and upper level divergence in advance of the trough were greatly increased, providing strong large scale forcing for the surface cyclogenesis.

  9. “Out of our control”: Living through Cyclone Yasi

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Cindy; West, Caryn; Buettner, Petra; Usher, Kim

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of people who lived through Cyclone Yasi on 3 February 2011. Data from two open-ended questions (Q1: n=344; and Q2: n=339) within a survey completed by 433 residents of cyclone-affected areas between Cairns and Townsville, Australia, were analysed using a qualitative, thematic approach. Experiences were portrayed in three main themes: (1) living in the mode of existential threat describes survivors’ sense of panic and feeling at the mercy of nature as they feared for their life; (2) unforgettable memories describe feelings of emotional helplessness and the unimaginable chaos that the cyclone wrought; and (3) centrality of others shows how community support and closeness helped alleviate losses and uncertainty. A critical finding from this study was the negative role of the media in escalating fears for life prior to and during the cyclone, highlighting the need for government, community leaders, and health professionals to have a media plan in place to ensure that disaster warnings are taken seriously without inciting unnecessary panic. Although survivors experienced extreme vulnerability and a threat to life, the disaster also brought communities closer together and connected family, friends, and neighbours through the caring, support, and help they offered each other. This highlights the central role of others during the recovery process and underlines the importance of promoting and facilitating social support to aid recovery post disaster. PMID:24434053

  10. Calculate nonfluidized flow in cyclone diplegs and transition pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Talavera, P.G.

    1995-12-01

    A new method to calculate nonfluidized flow of solid particles accounts for varying void fractions and angle of internal friction for different particle types. Thus, it is more accurate and flexible than existing empirical equations. Nonfluidized flow of solid particles is encountered frequently in the hydrocarbon processing industry. Cyclone diplegs in a FCCU reactor and regenerator is one area where the dense flow of solids is found. Sizing these lines to handle the dense flow of solids uses mainly empirical methods. Designers presently use rules of thumb and empirical equations to determine catalyst flow in pipes and cyclone diplegs. Rates are frequently expressed in flux rates with values ranging from 50 to 350 lb/sec-ft{sup 2}. But these empirical methods do not account for varying void fractions for different types of solids. Nonfluidized dense flow of solids through pipes can be broken into three areas. The first is solids flow into a pipe in nonhindered flow. An example of this is flow from a nonflooded cyclone dust bowl. The second area is solids flow into a pipe in hindered (friction) flow. An example of this is nonfluidized flow of solids from hoppers or from a flooded cyclone bowl. Core transport of solids in a pipe is third. An example of this is solids flow through a pipe with no restrictions.

  11. "Out of our control": living through Cyclone Yasi.

    PubMed

    Woods, Cindy; West, Caryn; Buettner, Petra; Usher, Kim

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of people who lived through Cyclone Yasi on 3 February 2011. Data from two open-ended questions (Q1: n=344; and Q2: n=339) within a survey completed by 433 residents of cyclone-affected areas between Cairns and Townsville, Australia, were analysed using a qualitative, thematic approach. Experiences were portrayed in three main themes: (1) living in the mode of existential threat describes survivors' sense of panic and feeling at the mercy of nature as they feared for their life; (2) unforgettable memories describe feelings of emotional helplessness and the unimaginable chaos that the cyclone wrought; and (3) centrality of others shows how community support and closeness helped alleviate losses and uncertainty. A critical finding from this study was the negative role of the media in escalating fears for life prior to and during the cyclone, highlighting the need for government, community leaders, and health professionals to have a media plan in place to ensure that disaster warnings are taken seriously without inciting unnecessary panic. Although survivors experienced extreme vulnerability and a threat to life, the disaster also brought communities closer together and connected family, friends, and neighbours through the caring, support, and help they offered each other. This highlights the central role of others during the recovery process and underlines the importance of promoting and facilitating social support to aid recovery post disaster.

  12. Statistical Detection of Anthropogenic Temporal Changes in the Distribution of Tropical Cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joannes-boyau, R.; Bodin, T.; Scheffers, A.; Sambridge, M.

    2012-12-01

    Recent studies highlighting the potential impact of climate change on tropical cyclones have added fuel to the already controversial debates. The link between climate change and tropical cyclone intensity and frequency has been disputed, as both appear to remain in the natural variability. The difficulty lies in our ability to distinguish natural changes from anthropogenic-induced anomalies. The increased anthropogenic atmospheric carbon dioxide leads to environmental changes such as warmer Sea Surface Temperatures (SST) and thus could impact tropical cyclones intensities and frequencies. However, recent studies show that, against an increasing SST, no global trend in respect to cyclone frequency has yet emerged. Scientists have warned to consider the heterogeneity of the existing dataset; especially since the historical tropical cyclone record is frequently accused to be incomplete. Given the abundance of cyclone record data and its likely sensitivity to a number of environmental factors, the real limitation comes from our ability to understand the record as a whole. Thus, strong arguments against the impartiality of proposed models are often debated. We will present an impartial and independent statistical tool applicable to a wide variety of physical and biological phenomena such as processes described by power laws, to observe temporal variations in the tropical cyclone track record from 1842 to 2010. This methodology allows us to observe the impact of anthropogenic-induced modifications on climatic events, without being clustered in subjective parameterised models.

  13. Development of an Advanced Fine Coal Suspension Dewatering Process

    SciTech Connect

    B. K. Parekh; D. P. Patil

    2008-04-30

    With the advancement in fine coal cleaning technology, recovery of fine coal (minus 28 mesh) has become an attractive route for the U.S. coal industry. The clean coal recovered using the advanced flotation technology i.e. column flotation, contains on average 20% solids and 80% water, with an average particle size of 35 microns. Fine coal slurry is usually dewatered using a vacuum dewatering technique, providing a material with about 25 to 30 percent moisture. The process developed in this project will improve dewatering of fine (0.6mm) coal slurry to less than 20 percent moisture. Thus, thermal drying of dewatered wet coal will be eliminated. This will provide significant energy savings for the coal industry along with some environmental benefits. A 1% increase in recovery of coal and producing a filter cake material of less than 20 % moisture will amount to energy savings of 1900 trillion Btu/yr/unit. In terms of the amount of coal it will be about 0.8% of the total coal being used in the USA for electric power generation. It is difficult to dewater the fine clean coal slurry to about 20% moisture level using the conventional dewatering techniques. The finer the particle, the larger the surface area and thus, it retains large amounts of moisture on the surface. The coal industry has shown some reluctance in using the advanced coal recovery techniques, because of unavailability of an economical dewatering technique which can provide a product containing less than 20% moisture. The U.S.DOE and Industry has identified the dewatering of coal fines as a high priority problem. The goal of the proposed program is to develop and evaluate a novel two stage dewatering process developed at the University of Kentucky, which involves utilization of two forces, namely, vacuum and pressure for dewatering of fine coal slurries. It has been observed that a fine coal filter cake formed under vacuum has a porous structure with water trapped in the capillaries. When this porous cake

  14. Using the Variable-Resolution General Circulation Model CAM-SE to Simulate Regional Tropical Cyclone Climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarzycki, C. M.; Jablonowski, C.; Taylor, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    The ability of General Circulation Models (GCMs) to resolve tropical cyclones in the climate system has traditionally been difficult due to issues such as small storm size and the existence of key thermodynamic processes requiring significant parameterization. At traditional GCM grid resolutions of 50-300 km tropical cyclones are severely under-resolved, if not totally unresolved. Recent improvements in computational ability as well as advances in GCM model design now allow for simulations with grid spacings as small as 10-25 km. At these resolutions, models are able to more effectively capture key dynamical features of tropical cyclones. This paper explores a variable-resolution global model approach that allows for high spatial resolutions in areas of interest, such as low-latitude ocean basins where tropical cyclogenesis occurs. Such GCM designs with multi-resolution meshes serve to bridge the gap between globally uniform grids and limited area models and have the potential to become a future tool for regional climate assessments. A statically-nested, variable-resolution option has recently been introduced into the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Atmosphere Model's (CAM) Spectral Element (SE) dynamical core. The SE dynamical core is also known as the 'High-Order Method Modeling Environment' (HOMME). We present aquaplanet climate experiments which showcase the ability of nested meshes to produce realistic tropical cyclones selectively in high resolution grids embedded within a global domain. We also evaluate model performance when coupled to an active land model and forced with historical sea surface temperatures by comparing multi-year results from variable-resolution CAM-SE to other globally-uniform high resolution tropical cyclone studies recently completed by the climate modeling community. Specific focus is paid to intensity profiles and track densities as well as the interannual variability in storm count in tropical regions of

  15. Low NO sub x /SO sub x Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the LNS Burner as retrofitted to the host cyclone boiler for effective low-cost control of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions while firing a bituminous coal. The LNS Burner employs a simple, innovative combustion process to burn pulverized coal at high temperatures and provides effective, low-cost control of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions. The coal ash contains sulfur and is removed in the form of molten slag and flyash. Cyclone-fired boiler units are typically older units firing high-sulfur bituminous coals at very high temperatures which results in very high NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions. The addition of conventional emission control equipment, such as wet scrubbers, to these older cyclone units in order to meet current and future environmental regulations is generally not economic. Further, the units are generally not compatible with low sulfur coal switching for S0{sub 2} control or selective catalytic reduction technologies for NO{sub x} control. Because the LNS Burner operates at the same very high temperatures as a typical cyclone boiler and produces a similar slag product, it may offer a viable retrofit option for cyclone boiler emission control. This was confirmed by the Cyclone Boiler Retrofit Feasibility Study carried out by TransAlta and an Operating Committee formed of cyclone boiler owners in 1989. An existing utility cyclone boiler, was then selected for the evaluation of the cost and performance study. It was concluded that the LNS Burner retrofit would be a cost-effective option for control of cyclone boiler emissions. A full-scale demonstration of the LNS Burner retrofit was selected in October 1988 as part of the DOE's Clean Coal Technology Program Round II.

  16. Tropical Cyclone Vulnerability Mapping Using Geospatial Techniques: Application to a Coastal Upazila in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoque, M. A. A.; Phinn, S. R.; Roelfsema, C. M.; Childs, I.

    2015-12-01

    Cyclones are one of the most catastrophic natural disasters. Globally, many coastal regions are vulnerable to different categories cyclones. In Bangladesh, disasters from tropical cyclones are annual occurrences in coastal areas. The intensity and extent of damage due to tropical cyclones are very high. An appropriate mapping approach is essential for producing detail vulnerability assessments to deliver useful information for reducing the impacts of cyclones on people, property and environment. The present study developed and tested a vulnerability mapping approach for tropical cyclone impacts in Sarankhola upazila a 151 km2 local government area located in coastal Bangladesh. The study applied the approach by integrating remote sensing, field data and multi-criteria evaluation at regional scales covering <1000 km2. Seven criteria concerned with cyclone impacts were considered for the study: elevation, slope, geomorphology, proximity to coastline, proximity to cyclone track, land uses and population density. Thematic raster map layers were prepared for every criterion and weighted using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) with sensitivity analysis. Weighted Linear Combination (WLC) technique was used for overlaying standardized criteria maps with their weights to produce the vulnerability map. Our results indicated that 15% of the study area had very high vulnerability; mostly close to the river and densely populated areas, with 40 % area as high vulnerability on cropped grounds. Around 25% area was classified at moderate vulnerability covering most of the forests. The low and very low vulnerable area accounts the 12% and 8% respectively. This approach provided very promising result and it was verified by field survey. The result provides the strong applicability of this approach to assess the vulnerability of coastal Bangladesh to tropical cyclones.

  17. Evolution and Intensification of Cyclone Pam (2015) from Active Convective Populations within a Madden-Julian Oscillation Event in March 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takemi, T.

    2015-12-01

    Cyclone Pam (2015) that developed in the southern tropical Pacific in March 2015 caused severe damages over the islands states in the southern Pacific. According to JTWC warning, Cyclone Pam was a category-5 storm and its maximum wind speed reached about 75 m/s. Because the islands of Vanuatu were severely damaged by the cyclone, the quantitative assessment of hazards induced by the cyclone is important in order to mitigate and prevent resulting disasters. In addition, this cyclone is of meteorological interest, because the cyclone developed and evolved from active convection of an MJO signal. This study numerically investigates the evolution and intensification of Cyclone Pam from the transformation of convective populations into a vortical structure with the use of a regional meteorological model, the WRF model. By examining the impacts of the size of the computational domain, the grid spacing, and the cumulus parameterization scheme employed to the simulated cyclone, we have found that the most intense cyclone with the most rapid intensification is reproduced with doubly nested domains at 6- and 2-km horizontal resolutions and without a cumulus parameterization; the simulated cyclone achieved the minimum central pressure of about 890 hPa. Transition processes from convective populations of MJO into a tropical cyclone are investigated. It was found that at the pre-storm stage when no cyclonic storm developed there was a very weak low within active convective areas of the MJO when they pass over the equatorial Pacific. The low generates weak cyclonic convergence off the equator. From the sensitivity experiments, there is a clear difference in the environmental moisture field among the experiments. This result suggests that the MJO provided a sufficient amount of moisture, which positively contribute to the intensification of the tropical cyclone.

  18. Advanced modelling, monitoring, and process control of bioconversion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Elliott C.

    Production of fuels and chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass is an increasingly important area of research and industrialization throughout the world. In order to be competitive with fossil-based fuels and chemicals, maintaining cost-effectiveness is critical. Advanced process control (APC) and optimization methods could significantly reduce operating costs in the biorefining industry. Two reasons APC has previously proven challenging to implement for bioprocesses include: lack of suitable online sensor technology of key system components, and strongly nonlinear first principal models required to predict bioconversion behavior. To overcome these challenges batch fermentations with the acetogen Moorella thermoacetica were monitored with Raman spectroscopy for the conversion of real lignocellulosic hydrolysates and a kinetic model for the conversion of synthetic sugars was developed. Raman spectroscopy was shown to be effective in monitoring the fermentation of sugarcane bagasse and sugarcane straw hydrolysate, where univariate models predicted acetate concentrations with a root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 1.9 and 1.0 g L-1 for bagasse and straw, respectively. Multivariate partial least squares (PLS) models were employed to predict acetate, xylose, glucose, and total sugar concentrations for both hydrolysate fermentations. The PLS models were more robust than univariate models, and yielded a percent error of approximately 5% for both sugarcane bagasse and sugarcane straw. In addition, a screening technique was discussed for improving Raman spectra of hydrolysate samples prior to collecting fermentation data. Furthermore, a mechanistic model was developed to predict batch fermentation of synthetic glucose, xylose, and a mixture of the two sugars to acetate. The models accurately described the bioconversion process with an RMSEP of approximately 1 g L-1 for each model and provided insights into how kinetic parameters changed during dual substrate

  19. Recent advances in lactic acid production by microbial fermentation processes.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed Ali; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2013-11-01

    Fermentative production of optically pure lactic acid has roused interest among researchers in recent years due to its high potential for applications in a wide range of fields. More specifically, the sharp increase in manufacturing of biodegradable polylactic acid (PLA) materials, green alternatives to petroleum-derived plastics, has significantly increased the global interest in lactic acid production. However, higher production costs have hindered the large-scale application of PLA because of the high price of lactic acid. Therefore, reduction of lactic acid production cost through utilization of inexpensive substrates and improvement of lactic acid production and productivity has become an important goal. Various methods have been employed for enhanced lactic acid production, including several bioprocess techniques facilitated by wild-type and/or engineered microbes. In this review, we will discuss lactic acid producers with relation to their fermentation characteristics and metabolism. Inexpensive fermentative substrates, such as dairy products, food and agro-industrial wastes, glycerol, and algal biomass alternatives to costly pure sugars and food crops are introduced. The operational modes and fermentation methods that have been recently reported to improve lactic acid production in terms of concentrations, yields, and productivities are summarized and compared. High cell density fermentation through immobilization and cell-recycling techniques are also addressed. Finally, advances in recovery processes and concluding remarks on the future outlook of lactic acid production are presented.

  20. Anvil Forecast Tool in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Joe H., III; Hood, Doris

    2009-01-01

    Meteorologists from the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) and National Weather Service Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have identified anvil forecasting as one of their most challenging tasks when predicting the probability of violations of the Lightning Launch Commit Criteria and Space Shuttle Flight Rules. As a result, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) was tasked to create a graphical overlay tool for the Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS) that indicates the threat of thunderstorm anvil clouds, using either observed or model forecast winds as input. The tool creates a graphic depicting the potential location of thunderstorm anvils one, two, and three hours into the future. The locations are based on the average of the upper level observed or forecasted winds. The graphic includes 10 and 20 n mi standoff circles centered at the location of interest, as well as one-, two-, and three-hour arcs in the upwind direction. The arcs extend outward across a 30 sector width based on a previous AMU study that determined thunderstorm anvils move in a direction plus or minus 15 of the upper-level wind direction. The AMU was then tasked to transition the tool to the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS). SMG later requested the tool be updated to provide more flexibility and quicker access to model data. This presentation describes the work performed by the AMU to transition the tool into AWIPS, as well as the subsequent improvements made to the tool.

  1. New heat treatment process for advanced high-strength steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bublíková, D.; Jeníček, Š.; Vorel, I.; Mašek, B.

    2017-02-01

    Today’s advanced steels are required to possess high strength and ductility. It can be achieved by choosing an appropriate steel chemistry which has a substantial effect on the properties obtained by heat treatment. Mechanical properties influenced the presence of retained austenite in the final structure. Steels of this group typically require complicated heat treatment which places great demands on the equipment used. The present paper introduces new procedures aimed at simplifying the heat treatment of high-strength steels with the use of material-technological modelling. Four experimental steels were made and cast, whose main alloying additions were manganese, silicon, chromium, molybdenum and nickel. The steels were treated using the Q-P process with subsequent interrupted quenching. The resulting structure was a mixture of martensite and retained austenite. Strength levels of more than 2000 MPa combined with 10-15 % elongation were obtained. These properties thus offer potential for the manufacture of intricate closed-die forgings with a reduced weight. Intercritical annealing was obtained structure not only on the basis of martensite, but also with certain proportion of bainitic ferrite and retained austenite.

  2. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project. Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    Western Energy Company (WECO) was selected by the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) which upgrades low rank coals into high Btu, low sulfur, synthetic bituminous coal. As specified in the Corporate Agreement, RSCP is required to develop an Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) which describes in detail the environmental monitoring activities to be performed during the project execution. The purpose of the EMP is to: (1) identify monitoring activities that will be undertaken to show compliance to applicable regulations, (2) confirm the specific environmental impacts predicted in the National Environmental Policy Act documentation, and (3) establish an information base of the assessment of the environmental performance of the technology demonstrated by the project. The EMP specifies the streams to be monitored (e.g. gaseous, aqueous, and solid waste), the parameters to be measured (e.g. temperature, pressure, flow rate), and the species to be analyzed (e.g. sulfur compounds, nitrogen compounds, trace elements) as well as human health and safety exposure levels. The operation and frequency of the monitoring activities is specified, as well as the timing for the monitoring activities related to project phase (e.g. preconstruction, construction, commissioning, operational, post-operational). The EMP is designed to assess the environmental impacts and the environmental improvements resulting from construction and operation of the project.

  3. Mineralization of the biocide chloroxylenol by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Skoumal, Marcel; Arias, Conchita; Cabot, Pere Lluís; Centellas, Francesc; Garrido, José Antonio; Rodríguez, Rosa María; Brillas, Enric

    2008-04-01

    Electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs) are environmentally friendly methods based on the destruction of organic pollutants in wastewaters with in situ electrogenerated hydroxyl radical. This species is formed in anodic oxidation (AO) from water oxidation at the anode and in indirect electro-oxidation methods like electro-Fenton (EF) and photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) also from reaction between catalytic Fe2+ and H2O2 continuously produced at the O2-diffusion cathode. The PEF method involves the irradiation of the treated solution with UVA light to enhance the photolysis of organics including Fe(III) complexes. In this work, the oxidation power of such EAOPs to decontaminate synthetic wastewaters of the biocide chloroxylenol (4-chloro-3,5-dimethylphenol) at pH 3.0 is comparatively examined with an undivided electrolytic cell containing a Pt or boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and a stainless steel or O2-diffusion cathode. The initial chlorine is released as Cl(-) ion, which remains stable in the medium using Pt or is oxidized to Cl2 on BDD. The biocide solutions can be completely decontaminated using AO with a BDD anode, as well as PEF with a Pt or BDD anode. The PEF procedure with a BDD anode is the most powerful method leading to total mineralization in about 300 min, practically independent of current density. When current density rises, the degradation rate of processes increases, but they become less efficient due to the larger enhancement of waste reactions of oxidants. Chloroxylenol is much more rapidly removed in EF and PEF than in AO. 2,6-dimethylhydroquinone, 2,6-dimethyl-p-benzoquinone and 3,5-dimethyl-2-hydroxy-p-benzoquinone are identified as aromatic by-products, and maleic, malonic, pyruvic, acetic and oxalic acids are found as generated carboxylic acids. A general pathway for chloroxylenol mineralization by all EAOPs including the above by-products is proposed.

  4. Assessment of advanced coal-gasification processes. [AVCO high throughput gasification in process; Bell High Mass Flux process; CS-R process; and Exxon Gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, J.; Ferrall, J.; Charng, T.; Houseman, J.

    1981-06-01

    This report represents a technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes: AVCO High Throughput Gasification (HTG) Process, Bell Single - Stage High Mass Flux (HMF) Process, Cities Service/Rockwell (CS/R) Hydrogasification Process, and the Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) Process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce SNG from a bituminous coal. In addition to identifying the new technology these processes represent, key similarities/differences, strengths/weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The AVCO HTG and the Bell HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R Hydrogasifier is also SRT but is non-slagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The Exxon CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier.

  5. Tropical Cyclone Report, 1990.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    Reconnaissance and satellites are recovered via Service ARGOS at Fixes. NOAA /NESDIS in Suitland, Maryland. NOAA /NESDIS processes and distributes the 1.2.5...coopcrative effort between the Naval Oceanography Command, the Department of 1.2.6 DRIFTING METEOROLOGICAL the Interior, and NOAA , a network of 20...the polar orbiting NOAA satellites, display of FNOC stored Uefense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) 1.3.11 COMPUTER FACSIMILE - The JTWC

  6. The advanced PFB process: Pilot plant results and design studies

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, A.; Domeracki, W.; Horazak, D.; Rehmat, A.

    1993-11-01

    The plant being developed is a hybrid of two technologies; it incorporates the partial gasification of coal in a vessel called the carbonizer and the combustion of the resultant char residue in a circulating pressurized fluidized bed combustor (CPFBC). In this plant, coal is fed to a pressurized carbonizer that produces a low-Btu fuel gas and char. After passing through a cyclone and a ceramic barrier filter to remove gas-entrained particulates, the fuel gas is burned in a topping combustor to produce the energy required to drive a gas turbine. The gas turbine drives a generator and a compressor that feeds air to the carbonizer, a CPFBC, and a fluidized bed heat exchanger (FBHE). The carbonizer char is burned in the CPFBC with high excess air. The vitiated air from the CPFBC supports combustion of the fuel gas in the gas turbine topping combustor. Steam generated in a heat-recovery steam generator (HRSG) downstream of the gas turbine and in the FBHE associated with the CPFBC drives the steam turbine generator that furnishes the balance of electric power delivered by the plant. The low-Btu gas is produced in the carbonizer by pyrolysis/mild devolatilization of coal in a fluidized bed reactor. Because this unit operates at temperatures much lower than gasifiers currently under development, it also produces a char residue. Left untreated, the fuel gas will contain hydrogen sulfide and sulfur-containing tar/light oil vapors; therefore, lime-based sorbents are injected into the carbonizer to catalytically enhance tar cracking and to capture sulfur as calcium sulfide. Sulfur is captured in situ, and the raw fuel gas is fired hot. Thus the expensive, complex, fuel gas heat exchangers and the chemical or sulfur-capturing bed cleanup systems that are part of the coal gasification combined-cycle plants now being developed are eliminated.

  7. Technology advancement of the electrochemical CO2 concentrating process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Heppner, D. B.; Hallick, T. M.; Woods, R. R.

    1979-01-01

    Two multicell, liquid-cooled, advanced electrochemical depolarized carbon dioxide concentrator modules were fabricated. The cells utilized advanced, lightweight, plated anode current collectors, internal liquid cooling and lightweight cell frames. Both were designed to meet the carbon dioxide removal requirements of one-person, i.e., 1.0 kg/d (2.2 lb/d).

  8. A clinical advancement process revisited: a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Ward, Cynthia W; Goodrich, Cynthia A

    2007-06-01

    Clinical advancement programs are not evaluated often for effectiveness and participant satisfaction. The advancement committee at this community hospital made the commitment to evaluate participant satisfaction periodically. Revisions were made in the program based on the evaluation findings and implemented in 2002. This re-evaluation was conducted to determine participant satisfaction.

  9. Tropical cyclone/upper-atmospheric interaction as inferred from satellite total ozone observations

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, E.B.

    1992-01-01

    The Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) was used to map the distribution of total ozone within and surrounding western North Atlantic and North Pacific tropical cyclones that occurred from 1979-1982. It was found from numerical model simulations and diagnostics and satellite observations that the distribution of total ozone within the subtropical upper-tropospheric waves during the tropical cyclone season corresponded well with the variation of thermodynamic parameters (i.e., temperature, thickness, geopotential heights) near the tropopause and the regions of strong stratospheric and tropospheric exchange processes. These results are similar to previous middle latitudinal observations. It was also found that the three-dimensional transport processes associated with both the western North Atlantic and Pacific tropical cyclone's outflow jet induced secondary circulation and the strong vertical motions associated with active deep convective and eye regions helped to modify the total ozone distribution that is usually observed within these subtropical upper-tropospheric waves. The tropical cyclone induced modifications of the total ozone in the upper-tropospheric waves became greater as the tropical cyclone became more intense and the three-dimensional transpost processes associated with the outflow jet, convection and eye strengthened. The strong relationship between total ozone distribution and the variation of the tropopause topography, made it possible to use TOMS to monitor the propagation of the subtropical upper-tropospheric waves and the mutual adjustment between tropical cyclones and their upper-tropospheric and lower-stratospheric environment when these tropical cyclones and the upper-tropospheric waves interacted. These total ozone patterns during tropical cyclone and upper-tropospheric wave interaction reflected the three-dimensional upper-tropospheric transport processes that were conducive for storm intensification, weakening, or recurvature.

  10. Good field practice helps cyclones do job

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.L.

    1982-11-08

    This article examines use of hydrocyclones in mud equipment operations involving desilters, desanders, shale shakers and degassers for unweighted mud. Presents a diagram of ideal equipment placement, a table sizing cyclones considering mud guns, and a graph sizing cyclones to a drilling rig. Suggests checklists for troubleshooting and operation based on hydrocyclone capacity, plugging, head and flow rates, mud weight and viscosity.

  11. Objective identification of cyclones in GCM simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, W.; Sielmann, F. ); Sausen, R. )

    1993-12-01

    An objective routine for identifying the individual cyclones has been developed. The procedure was designed with the aim to keep the input expenditure low. The method ensures a complete collection of cyclones and an exclusion of short time fluctuations attributed to numerical effects. The cyclones are identified as relative minima of the geopotential height field in 1000 hPa. The initial stages of the cyclones are found by locating relative maxima in the 850-hPa vorticity field. Further on the temporal development of the extrema is taken into consideration. An individual cyclone is regarded only if it exists for at least 24 h and if it attains a mature stage at least once, where a certain margin of the geopotential gradient to the surroundings is exceeded. The identification routine is applied to simulations with the Hamburg general circulation model ECHAM in T21 resolution. Also, cyclone tracks based on ECMWF analyses are evaluated, to which the model results are compared. The effect of different climate conditions, for example, global warming, on cyclone frequency and track location is investigated. It is found that a warmer SST distribution leads to a slight reduction of cyclone frequency in the Southern Hemisphere in fall (March, April, May) and winter (June, July, August); elsewhere the differences are not significant. 25 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  12. GPM Rain Rates in Tropical Cyclone Pam

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA-JAXA's GPM Satellite Close-up of Cyclone Pam's Rainfall NASA-JAXA's GPM core satellite captured rain rates in Tropical Cyclone Pam at 03:51 UTC (2:51 p.m. local time) on March 14, 2015. Heavie...

  13. Pyrolysis with cyclone burner

    DOEpatents

    Green, Norman W.; Duraiswamy, Kandaswamy; Lumpkin, Robert E.

    1978-07-25

    In a continuous process for recovery of values contained in a solid carbonaceous material, the carbonaceous material is comminuted and then subjected to flash pyrolysis in the presence of a particulate heat source over an overflow weir to form a pyrolysis product stream containing a carbon containing solid residue and volatilized hydrocarbons. After the carbon containing solid residue is separated from the pyrolysis product stream, values are obtained by condensing volatilized hydrocarbons. The particulate source of heat is formed by oxidizing carbon in the solid residue and separating out the fines.

  14. Predictability of Sheared Tropical Cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, F.; Tao, D.

    2015-12-01

    Predictability of the formation, rapid intensification and eyewall replacement of sheared tropical cyclones (TCs) are explored through a series of convection-permitting ensemble simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with different environmental vertical wind shear, sea-surface temperature (SST), and ambient moisture conditions. It is found that the intrinsic predictability of the RI onset time is more limited with increasing shear magnitude until the shear magnitude is large enough to prevent the TC formation. Based on ensemble sensitivity and correlation analysis, the RI onset timing within one set is largely related to the vortex tilt magnitude, the diabatic heating distribution and the strength of the primary vortex circulation. Systematic differences amongst the ensemble members begin to arise right after the initial burst of moist convection associated with the incipient vortex. This difference from the randomness inherent in moist convection in terms of both location and intensity first changes the TC vortex structure subtly and then leads to the deviations in system scales and eventually in the development (and precession) of the TC. On average, a higher SST has a positive effect on the TC formation and reduces the uncertainty of development under all shear conditions, while a drier environment has a negative impact on the TCs development and either broadens the ensemble spread of RI onset time or prevents the storm from forming when the shear-induced tilt is large. Nevertheless, the uncertainty in environmental shear magnitudes may dominate over the effect of randomness in moist convection in terms of TC formation and predictability. A byproduct of tropical cyclones under vertical wind shear is the secondary eyewall formation (SEF). It is found that the eyewall formation is more often observed in TCs with moderate to high shear, which was inherently more unpredictable. The inward contraction/axisymmeterization of shear

  15. Cyclone Center: Insights on Historical Tropical Cyclones from Citizen Volunteers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorne, P.; Hennon, C. C.; Knapp, K. R.; Schreck, C. J., III; Stevens, S. E.; Kossin, J. P.; Rennie, J.; Hennon, P. A.; Kruk, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    The cyclonecenter.org project started in fall 2012 and has been collecting citizen scientist volunteer tropical cyclone intensity estimates ever since. The project is hosted by the Citizen Science Alliance (zooniverse) and the platform is supported by a range of scientists. We have over 30 years of satellite imagery of tropical cyclones but the analysis to date has been done on an ocean-basin by ocean-basin basis and worse still practices have changed over time. We therefore do not, presently, have a homogeneous record relevant for discerning climatic changes. Automated techniques can classify many of the images but have a propensity to be challenged during storm transitions. The problem is fundamentally one where many pairs of eyes are invaluable as there is no substitute for human eyes in discerning patterns. Each image is classified by ten unique users before it is retired. This provides a unique insight into the uncertainty inherent in classification. In the three years of the project much useful data has accrued. This presentation shall highlight some of the results and analyses to date and touch on insights as to what has worked and what perhaps has not worked so well. There are still many images left to complete so its far from too late to jump over to www.cyclonecenter.org and help out.

  16. HOMOLOGOUS CYCLONES IN THE QUIET SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Xinting; Zhang, Jun; Li, Ting; Zhang, Yuzong; Yang, Shuhong E-mail: zjun@nao.cas.cn E-mail: yuzong@nao.cas.cn

    2014-02-20

    Through observations with the Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager, we tracked one rotating network magnetic field (RNF) near the solar equator. It lasted for more than 100 hr, from 2013 February 23 to 28. During its evolution, three cyclones were found to be rooted in this structure. Each cyclone event lasted for about 8 to 10 hr. While near the polar region, another RNF was investigated. It lasted for a shorter time (∼70 hr), from 2013 July 7 to 9. There were two cyclones rooted in the RNF and each lasted for 8 and 11 hr, respectively. For the two given examples, the cyclones have a similar dynamic evolution, and thus we put forward a new term: homologous cyclones. The detected brightening in AIA 171 Å maps indicates the release of energy, which is potentially available to heat the corona.

  17. Reconstruction and use of battery cyclones

    SciTech Connect

    Nazarov, V.D.; Zabrodnii, I.V.; Kolomoiskii, V.G.; Dodik, G.A.; Afanas'ev, O.K.; Gusarov, N.I.; Strakhov, A.B.

    1988-03-01

    The authors discuss a sinter plant where reliable and stable operation of its modernized cyclones has made it possible to improve the performance of the gas-cleaning system as a whole, while increasing the life of the exhauster rotors to one year and improving the performance indices of the sintering machines. The battery cyclones were modernized by replacing the existing elements with consolidated cyclone elements and the elements were provided with four-pipe semihelical swirlers. The elements were made of ordinary steel pipes 530 and 273 mm in diameter. During manufacture and installation of the cyclone elements, special attention was given to the coaxiality of the housings and the outlet pipes of the elements, the hermeticity and density of the welds, the dimensional accuracy of the elements, the perpendicularity of the bearing flange and outlet-pipe axis, and the finish of the inside surfaces of the cyclone elements.

  18. DENSE MEDIA CYCLONE OPTIMIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald H. Luttrell

    2002-01-14

    During the past quarter, float-sink analyses were completed for four of seven circuits evaluated in this project. According to the commercial laboratory, the analyses for the remaining three sites will be finished by mid February 2002. In addition, it was necessary to repeat several of the float-sink tests to resolve problems identified during the analysis of the experimental data. In terms of accomplishments, a website is being prepared to distribute project findings and software to the public. This site will include (i) an operators manual for HMC operation and maintenance (already available in hard copy), (ii) an expert system software package for evaluating and optimizing HMC performance (in development), and (iii) a spreadsheet-based process model for plant designers (in development). Several technology transfer activities were also carried out including the publication of project results in proceedings and the training of plant operations via workshops.

  19. Development of a geovisual analytics environment using parallel coordinates with applications to tropical cyclone trend analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steed, Chad Allen

    A global transformation is being fueled by unprecedented growth in the quality, quantity, and number of different parameters in environmental data through the convergence of several technological advances in data collection and modeling. Although these data hold great potential for helping us understand many complex and, in some cases, life-threatening environmental processes, our ability to generate such data is far outpacing our ability to analyze it. In particular, conventional environmental data analysis tools are inadequate for coping with the size and complexity of these data. As a result, users are forced to reduce the problem in order to adapt to the capabilities of the tools. To overcome these limitations, we must complement the power of computational methods with human knowledge, flexible thinking, imagination, and our capacity for insight by developing visual analysis tools that distill information into the actionable criteria needed for enhanced decision support. In light of said challenges, we have integrated automated statistical analysis capabilities with a highly interactive, multivariate visualization interface to produce a promising approach for visual environmental data analysis. By combining advanced interaction techniques such as dynamic axis scaling, conjunctive parallel coordinates, statistical indicators, and aerial perspective shading, we provide an enhanced variant of the classical parallel coordinates plot. Furthermore, the system facilitates statistical processes such as stepwise linear regression and correlation analysis to assist in the identification and quantification of the most significant predictors for a particular dependent variable. These capabilities are combined into a unique geovisual analytics system that is demonstrated via a pedagogical case study and three North Atlantic tropical cyclone climate studies using a systematic workflow. In addition to revealing several significant associations between environmental

  20. Modular advanced oxidation process enabled by cathodic hydrogen peroxide production.

    PubMed

    Barazesh, James M; Hennebel, Tom; Jasper, Justin T; Sedlak, David L

    2015-06-16

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is frequently used in combination with ultraviolet (UV) light to treat trace organic contaminants in advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). In small-scale applications, such as wellhead and point-of-entry water treatment systems, the need to maintain a stock solution of concentrated H2O2 increases the operational cost and complicates the operation of AOPs. To avoid the need for replenishing a stock solution of H2O2, a gas diffusion electrode was used to generate low concentrations of H2O2 directly in the water prior to its exposure to UV light. Following the AOP, the solution was passed through an anodic chamber to lower the solution pH and remove the residual H2O2. The effectiveness of the technology was evaluated using a suite of trace contaminants that spanned a range of reactivity with UV light and hydroxyl radical (HO(•)) in three different types of source waters (i.e., simulated groundwater, simulated surface water, and municipal wastewater effluent) as well as a sodium chloride solution. Irrespective of the source water, the system produced enough H2O2 to treat up to 120 L water d(-1). The extent of transformation of trace organic contaminants was affected by the current density and the concentrations of HO(•) scavengers in the source water. The electrical energy per order (EEO) ranged from 1 to 3 kWh m(-3), with the UV lamp accounting for most of the energy consumption. The gas diffusion electrode exhibited high efficiency for H2O2 production over extended periods and did not show a diminution in performance in any of the matrices.

  1. Modular Advanced Oxidation Process Enabled by Cathodic Hydrogen Peroxide Production

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is frequently used in combination with ultraviolet (UV) light to treat trace organic contaminants in advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). In small-scale applications, such as wellhead and point-of-entry water treatment systems, the need to maintain a stock solution of concentrated H2O2 increases the operational cost and complicates the operation of AOPs. To avoid the need for replenishing a stock solution of H2O2, a gas diffusion electrode was used to generate low concentrations of H2O2 directly in the water prior to its exposure to UV light. Following the AOP, the solution was passed through an anodic chamber to lower the solution pH and remove the residual H2O2. The effectiveness of the technology was evaluated using a suite of trace contaminants that spanned a range of reactivity with UV light and hydroxyl radical (HO•) in three different types of source waters (i.e., simulated groundwater, simulated surface water, and municipal wastewater effluent) as well as a sodium chloride solution. Irrespective of the source water, the system produced enough H2O2 to treat up to 120 L water d–1. The extent of transformation of trace organic contaminants was affected by the current density and the concentrations of HO• scavengers in the source water. The electrical energy per order (EEO) ranged from 1 to 3 kWh m–3, with the UV lamp accounting for most of the energy consumption. The gas diffusion electrode exhibited high efficiency for H2O2 production over extended periods and did not show a diminution in performance in any of the matrices. PMID:26039560

  2. Numerical approach for the voloxidation process of an advanced spent fuel conditioning process (ACP)

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Byung Heung; Jeong, Sang Mun; Seo, Chung-Seok

    2007-07-01

    A voloxidation process is adopted as the first step of an advanced spent fuel conditioning process in order to prepare the SF oxide to be reduced in the following electrolytic reduction process. A semi-batch type voloxidizer was devised to transform a SF pellet into powder. In this work, a simple reactor model was developed for the purpose of correlating a gas phase flow rate with an operation time as a numerical approach. With an assumption that a solid phase and a gas phase are homogeneous in a reactor, a reaction rate for an oxidation was introduced into a mass balance equation. The developed equation can describe a change of an outlet's oxygen concentration including such a case that a gas flow is not sufficient enough to continue a reaction at its maximum reaction rate. (authors)

  3. SULFATE RADICAL-BASED ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESSES- ACS MEETING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper will present an overview of sulfate radical-based advanced oxidation technologies for the destruction of environmentally toxic chemicals in wastewater, industrial water, groundwater and sources of water supply. The paper will include fundamental aspects of the generati...

  4. Evaluation of Resin Dissolution Using an Advanced Oxidation Process - 13241

    SciTech Connect

    Goulart de Araujo, Leandro; Vicente de Padua Ferreira, Rafael; Takehiro Marumo, Julio; Passos Piveli, Roque; Campos, Fabio

    2013-07-01

    The ion-exchange resin is widely used in nuclear reactors, in cooling water purification and removing radioactive elements. Because of the long periods of time inside the reactor system, the resin becomes radioactive. When the useful life of them is over, its re-utilization becomes inappropriate, and for this reason, the resin is considered radioactive waste. The most common method of treatment is the immobilization of spent ion exchange resin in cement in order to form a solid monolithic matrix, which reduces the radionuclides release into the environment. However, the characteristic of contraction and expansion of the resin limits its incorporation in 10%, resulting in high cost in its direct immobilization. Therefore, it is recommended the utilization of a pre-treatment, capable of reducing the volume and degrading the resin, which would increase the load capacity in the immobilization. This work aims to develop a method of degradation of ion spent resins from the nuclear research reactor of Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Brazil, using the Advanced Oxidative Process (AOP) with Fenton's reagent (hydrogen peroxide and ferrous sulphate as catalyst). The resin evaluated was a mixture of cationic (IR 120P) and anionic (IRA 410) resins. The reactions were conducted by varying the concentration of the catalyst (25, 50, 100 e 150 mM) and the volume of the hydrogen peroxide, at three different temperatures, 50, 60 and 70 deg. C. The time of reaction was three hours. Total organic carbon content was determined periodically in order to evaluate the degradation as a function of time. The concentration of 50 mM of catalyst was the most effective in degrading approximately 99%, using up to 330 mL of hydrogen peroxide. The most effective temperature was about 60 deg. C, because of the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide in higher temperatures. TOC content was influenced by the concentration of the catalyst, interfering in the beginning of the degradation

  5. Technology advancement of the electrochemical CO2 concentrating process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Woods, R. R.; Hallick, T. M.; Heppner, D. B.

    1977-01-01

    A five-cell, liquid-cooled advanced electrochemical depolarized carbon dioxide concentrator module was fabricated. The cells utilized the advanced, lightweight, plated anode current collector concept and internal liquid-cooling. The five cell module was designed to meet the carbon dioxide removal requirements of one man and was assembled using plexiglass endplates. This one-man module was tested as part of an integrated oxygen generation and recovery subsystem.

  6. LCSs in tropical cyclone genesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutherford, B.; Montgomery, M. T.

    2011-12-01

    The formation of tropical cyclones in the Atlantic most often occurs at the intersection of the wave trough axis of a westward propagating African easterly wave and the wave critical latitude. Viewed in a moving reference frame with the wave, a cat's eye region of cyclonic recirculation can be seen in streamlines prior to genesis. The cat's eye recirculation region has little strain deformation and its center serves as the focal point for aggregation of convectively generated vertical vorticity. Air inside the cat's eye is repeatedly moistened by convection and is protected from the lateral intrusion of dry air. Since the flow is inherently time-dependent, we contrast the time-dependent structures with Eulerian structures of the wave-relative frame. Time-dependence complicates the kinematic structure of the recirculation region as air masses from the outer environment are allowed to interact with the interior of the cat's eye. LCSs show different boundaries of the cat's eye than the streamlines in the wave-relative frame. These LCSs are particularly important for showing the pathways of air masses that interact with the developing vortex, as moist air promotes development by supporting deep convection, while interaction with dry air impedes development. We primarily use FTLEs to locate the LCSs, and show the role of LCSs in both developing and non-developing storms. In addition, we discuss how the vertical coherence of LCSs is important for resisting the effects of vertical wind shear.

  7. Observational evidence for an ocean heat pump induced by tropical cyclones.

    PubMed

    Sriver, Ryan L; Huber, Matthew

    2007-05-31

    Ocean mixing affects global climate and the marine biosphere because it is linked to the ocean's ability to store and transport heat and nutrients. Observations have constrained the magnitude of upper ocean mixing associated with certain processes, but mixing rates measured directly are significantly lower than those inferred from budget analyses, suggesting that other processes may play an important role. The winds associated with tropical cyclones are known to lead to localized mixing of the upper ocean, but the hypothesis that tropical cyclones are important mixing agents at the global scale has not been tested. Here we calculate the effect of tropical cyclones on surface ocean temperatures by comparing surface temperatures before and after storm passage, and use these results to calculate the vertical mixing induced by tropical cyclone activity. Our results indicate that tropical cyclones are responsible for significant cooling and vertical mixing of the surface ocean in tropical regions. Assuming that all the heat that is mixed downwards is balanced by heat transport towards the poles, we calculate that approximately 15 per cent of peak ocean heat transport may be associated with the vertical mixing induced by tropical cyclones. Furthermore, our analyses show that the magnitude of this mixing is strongly related to sea surface temperature, indicating that future changes in tropical sea surface temperatures may have significant effects on ocean circulation and ocean heat transport that are not currently accounted for in climate models.

  8. Axisymmetric structure of the long lasting summer Arctic cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aizawa, Takuro; Tanaka, H. L.

    2016-09-01

    Arctic cyclones are unique low pressure systems in the Arctic, which are different from the tropical cyclones and the mid-latitude cyclones. The axisymmetric structures of two major Arctic cyclones which appeared in June 2008 and August 2012 are examined based on the cylindrical coordinate system around the Arctic cyclone. The result demonstrates that the Arctic cyclone has a deep barotropic cyclonic circulation, a secondary circulation in the troposphere, a downdraft at the lower stratosphere, a coupling of a warm core at the lower stratosphere and a cold core in the troposphere, and a deep tropopause folding over the cyclone center. The horizontal scale of the Arctic cyclone reaches 5000 km in diameter which is one of the largest cyclones found on the Earth. Note that the cyclone of June 2008 appears showing axisymmetric cyclonic circulations at the surface level. The cyclone of 2012 is characterized by the structure change from the cold core to the warm core at the lower stratosphere, indicating a shift from the ordinary baroclinic cyclone to the typical Arctic cyclone. Although additional studies are needed, a schematic diagram of the Arctic cyclone is proposed in this study.

  9. Contrasting Chl-a responses to the tropical cyclones Thane and Phailin in the Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidya, P. J.; Das, Santosh; Murali, R. Mani

    2017-01-01

    Satellite-derived ocean colour data was used to identify the phytoplankton bloom associated with tropical cyclones Thane and Phailin in the Bay of Bengal (BoB). Cyclone Thane was category 2 cyclone (25-31 December 2011), and Phailin was category 5 cyclone (8-14 October 2013), and both occurred during the post-monsoon season. The present study examined the effect of cyclone intensity difference on the chlorophyll a (Chl-a) production in the BoB. Two and seven times Chl-a enhancement was observed after the passage of Phailin and Thane respectively. Possible causes were examined using the satellite-derived sea surface temperature, sea surface height anomalies and sea surface winds. In both cases, cyclone intensified the strength of the pre-existing cyclonic eddies after its passage. Our study shows that the strong stratification along the Phailin track suppresses the Chl-a enhancement after its passage. However, comparatively weaker stratification along the Thane track promotes entrainment of more nutrients and enhances the Chl-a production even though with lesser intensity. In this study, the extent of Chl-a production associated with cyclones was attributed to upper ocean physical processes than the intensity.

  10. Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) Data Processing Manual

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Wright, C. Wayne; Brock, John C.; Nagle, David

    2009-01-01

    The Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) is an example of a Light Detection and Ranging (Lidar) system that utilizes a blue-green wavelength (532 nanometers) to determine the distance to an object. The distance is determined by recording the travel time of a transmitted pulse at the speed of light (fig. 1). This system uses raster laser scanning with full-waveform (multi-peak) resolving capabilities to measure submerged topography and adjacent coastal land elevations simultaneously (Nayegandhi and others, 2009). This document reviews procedures for the post-processing of EAARL data using the custom-built Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS). ALPS software was developed in an open-source programming environment operated on a Linux platform. It has the ability to combine the laser return backscatter digitized at 1-nanosecond intervals with aircraft positioning information. This solution enables the exploration and processing of the EAARL data in an interactive or batch mode. ALPS also includes modules for the creation of bare earth, canopy-top, and submerged topography Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). The EAARL system uses an Earth-centered coordinate and reference system that removes the necessity to reference submerged topography data relative to water level or tide gages (Nayegandhi and others, 2006). The EAARL system can be mounted in an array of small twin-engine aircraft that operate at 300 meters above ground level (AGL) at a speed of 60 meters per second (117 knots). While other systems strive to maximize operational depth limits, EAARL has a narrow transmit beam and receiver field of view (1.5 to 2 milliradians), which improves the depth-measurement accuracy in shallow, clear water but limits the maximum depth to about 1.5 Secchi disk depth (~20 meters) in clear water. The laser transmitter [Continuum EPO-5000 yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG)] produces up to 5,000 short-duration (1.2 nanosecond), low-power (70 microjoules) pulses each second

  11. Anvil Tool in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Joe, III; Bauman, William, III; Keen, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    Meteorologists from the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) and Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have identified anvil forecasting as one of their most challenging tasks when predicting the probability of violations of the lightning Launch Commit Criteria and Space Shuttle Flight Rules. As a result, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) created a graphical overlay tool for the Meteorological Interactive Data Display Systems (MIDDS) to indicate the threat of thunderstorm anvil clouds, using either observed or model forecast winds as input. In order for the Anvil Tool to remain available to the meteorologists, the AMU was tasked to transition the tool to the Advanced Weather interactive Processing System (AWIPS). This report describes the work done by the AMU to develop the Anvil Tool for AWIPS to create a graphical overlay depicting the threat from thunderstorm anvil clouds. The AWIPS Anvil Tool is based on the previously deployed AMU MIDDS Anvil Tool. SMG and 45 WS forecasters have used the MIDDS Anvil Tool during launch and landing operations. SMG's primary weather analysis and display system is now AWIPS and the 45 WS has plans to replace MIDDS with AWIPS. The Anvil Tool creates a graphic that users can overlay on satellite or radar imagery to depict the potential location of thunderstorm anvils one, two, and three hours into the future. The locations are based on an average of the upper-level observed or forecasted winds. The graphic includes 10 and 20 nm standoff circles centered at the location of interest, in addition to one-, two-, and three-hour arcs in the upwind direction. The arcs extend outward across a 30 degree sector width based on a previous AMU study which determined thunderstorm anvils move in a direction plus or minus 15 degrees of the upper-level (300- to 150-mb) wind direction. This report briefly describes the history of the MIDDS Anvil Tool and then explains how the initial development of the AWIPS Anvil Tool was carried out. After testing was

  12. On Steady-State Tropical Cyclones

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    mass-weighted RAM and domain-integrated kinetic energy (KE) partitioned between cyclonic KE (cKE) and anticyclonic KE (aKE) and how does the...and (b) the mass-weighted kinetic energy of cyclonic flow (cKE, where v > 0) and anticyclonic flow (aKE, where v < 0) normalized by the initial value...focus the study, we have sought to quantify for the first time the partition between the kinetic energy of the cyclone itself and the upper-level

  13. Coal reburning application on a Cyclone boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Maringo, G.J.; Yagiela, A.S.; Newell, R.J.; Farzan, H.

    1994-12-31

    Cyclone reburn involves the injection of a supplemental fuel (natural gas, oil or coal) into the main furnace of a Cyclone-fired boiler to produce locally reducing conditions which convert NO{sub x}, generated in the main combustion zone, to molecular nitrogen, thereby reducing overall NO{sub x} emissions. The world`s only application of the Cyclone reburn technology using pulverized coal as the reburn fuel was installed at Wisconsin Power & Light`s Nelson Dewey Generating Station, Unit 2. The project was selected for demonstration under the US Department of Energy`s Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program, Round II.

  14. The role of microphysics in the development of mesoscale areas of high winds around occluded cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, T. P.; Knippertz, P.; Blyth, A.

    2012-04-01

    observational data from the BAe146 aircraft and other sources such as wind profilers and radiosondes. In initial model simulations of a secondary frontal wave observed during the 2009 T-NAWDEX pilot flights, the microphysics in the parameterization scheme used has a large impact on the winds observed around the hook of the occlusion. The advanced double-moment Morrison and Thompson schemes show 12-hour mean 10m winds about 50% higher than the simpler WSM3 (WRF single moment) scheme in this area. These results suggest that ice processes could play an important role in the downward transport of momentum in this part of the cyclone. Further results from this and other cases from the field campaigns will be presented at the conference.

  15. Orographic Effects on the Severe Snowstorm Associated with an Explosive Cyclone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawano, T.; Kawamura, R.

    2014-12-01

    Extratropical cyclones often develop rapidly in the cold season, called explosive cyclones, cause wide-ranging heavy snowfall and strong winds, which make enormous impacts on lifelines; the damage to electric power cables, the cancellation of flights, ships and trains, traffic jams, and so on. Severe snowstorms associated with explosive cyclones occasionally cause sudden whiteouts, resulting in fatal accidents. Therefore, elucidating processes causing such a sudden change in weather leads to the improvement of weather forecast and disaster prevention in the cold season. An extratropical cyclone occurred over the Japan Sea on March 1 2013 and passed through the Hokkaido Island in Japan developing rapidly, and then peaked over the Sea of Okhotsk on March 3, which is classified into an explosive cyclone according to the rapid deepening rate of the surface central pressure of the cyclone. The severe snowstorm associated with the explosive cyclone caused a sudden whiteout in the eastern part of the Hokkaido Island and killed nine people on March 2. To investigate the mechanism of the sudden whiteout by the severe snowstorm, numerical simulations are performed using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The control simulation with the realistic topography (denoted as CNTL) successfully reproduces the track and evolution of the cyclone, the distribution of strong winds associated with the severe snowstorm, and the sudden change in weather in the eastern part of Hokkaido. To examine orographic effects on the sudden change in weather, an additional simulation, in which the Hokkaido topography is modified into a flat, (denoted as HOK-FLAT) is performed. A comparison of the low-level geopotential and wind distributions between CNTL and HOK-FLAT clearly shows the barrier effects due to the Hokkaido topography. The positive geopotential anomaly generated on the upstream side of the topography in the CNTL simulation rapidly shifts strong winds eastward and also

  16. Modeling and Advanced Control for Sustainable Process Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    This book chapter introduces a novel process systems engineering framework that integrates process control with sustainability assessment tools for the simultaneous evaluation and optimization of process operations. The implemented control strategy consists of a biologically-insp...

  17. Variations of δ2H in an idealised extratropical cyclone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dütsch, Marina; Pfahl, Stephan; Wernli, Heini

    2016-04-01

    Numerical model simulations of stable water isotopes help to improve our understanding of the complex processes driving isotopic variability in atmospheric waters. We use the isotope-enabled COSMO model to study the governing mechanisms of δ2H variations in an idealised extratropical cyclone. A set of experiments with differing initial conditions of δ2H in vapour and partially deactivated isotopic fractionation allows us to quantify the relative roles of cloud fractionation and vertical and horizontal advection for the simulated δ2H signals associated with the cyclone and fronts. Horizontal transport determines the large-scale pattern of δ2H in both vapour and precipitation, while fractionation and vertical transport are more important on a smaller scale, near the fronts. During the passage of the cold front fractionation leads to a V-shaped trend of δ2H in precipitation and vapour, which is, for vapour, superimposed on a gradual decrease caused by horizontal advection.

  18. Contexts of Reading. Advances in Discourse Processes Series. Volume XVIII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedley, Carolyn N., Ed.; Baratta, Anthony N., Ed.

    Focusing on the reading-thinking-learning process, the classrooms in which such processes occur, and the means for studying these processes, this book presents essays on teaching, learning, and assessing the reading process. The first section contains essays on learning contexts that are interactive and participatory, while essays in the second…

  19. Diabatic and frictional forcing effects on the structure and intensity of tropical cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slocum, Christopher J.

    Tropical cyclone intensity forecasting skill has slowed in improvement for both dynamical and statistical-dynamical forecasting methods in comparison to gains seen in track forecasting skill. Also, forecast skill related to rapid intensification, e.g. a 30 kt or greater increase in intensity within a 24-hour period, still remains poor. In order to make advances and gain a greater understanding, the processes that affect intensity change, especially rapid intensification, need further study. This work evaluates the roles of diabatic and frictional forcing on the structure and intensity of tropical cyclones. To assess the diabatic forcing effects on intensity change in tropical cyclones, this study develops applications of Eliassen's balanced vortex model to obtain one-dimensional solutions to the geopotential tendency and two-dimensional solutions to the transverse circulation. The one-dimensional balanced solutions are found with dynamical model outputs as well as aircraft reconnaissance combined with diabatic heating derived from microwave rainfall rate retrievals. This work uses solutions from both datasets to make short-range intensity predictions. The results show that for the one-dimensional solutions, the tangential tendency does not match the dynamical model or aircraft wind tendencies. To relax the assumptions of the one-dimensional solutions to the geopotential tendency, solutions for idealized vortices are examined by finding two-dimensional solutions to the transverse circulation. The two-dimensional solutions allow for evaluation of the axisymmetric structure of the vortex on the (r, z)-plane without setting the baroclinicity to zero and the static stability to a constant value. While the sensitivity of tangential wind tendency to diabatic forcing and the region of high inertial stability is more realistic in the two-dimensional results, the solutions still neglect the influence of friction from the boundary layer. To understand further the role of

  20. Advanced Material Intelligent Processing Center: Next Generation Scalable Lean Manufacturing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-04

    machines and have made significant advances to automated tape laying (ATL) and automated fiber placement (AFP) technologies. Companies are moving...beyond standard thermoplastic and thermoset prepregs and are looking at placing 00A prepregs as well as dry fabrics. Today. Automated Tape Laying (ATL...References [1] Michael N. Grimshaw, " Automated Tape Laying ." in ASM Handbook Vol. 21 Composites.. ASM International, 2001. [2] Obaid Younossi. Michael

  1. Advanced Laser Chemical Processing For Microelectronics and Integrated Optics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-15

    Barbara, CA (June 25-27, 1990). 15. R.M. Osgood, Jr., " Laser - Fabrication for Integrated Electronics and Optics," OITDA Conference, Tokyo, Japan, (July 5...Society Meeting, Boston, MA, November 26 - December 3, 1990. 20. R.M. Osgood, Jr., "Advances in Laser Fabrication for Solid-State Electronics and...Thin, Excimer Laser-Deposited Cd Interlayers," J. Elec. Mat. 12, 1239 (July, 1990). 14. R.M. Osgood, Jr., " Laser - Fabrication for Solid State

  2. Tropical Cyclone Jack in Satellite 3-D

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D flyby from NASA's TRMM satellite of Tropical Cyclone Jack on April 21 shows that some of the thunderstorms were shown by TRMM PR were still reaching height of at least 17 km (10.5 miles). ...

  3. Human influence on tropical cyclone intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobel, Adam H.; Camargo, Suzana J.; Hall, Timothy M.; Lee, Chia-Ying; Tippett, Michael K.; Wing, Allison A.

    2016-07-01

    Recent assessments agree that tropical cyclone intensity should increase as the climate warms. Less agreement exists on the detection of recent historical trends in tropical cyclone intensity. We interpret future and recent historical trends by using the theory of potential intensity, which predicts the maximum intensity achievable by a tropical cyclone in a given local environment. Although greenhouse gas-driven warming increases potential intensity, climate model simulations suggest that aerosol cooling has largely canceled that effect over the historical record. Large natural variability complicates analysis of trends, as do poleward shifts in the latitude of maximum intensity. In the absence of strong reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, future greenhouse gas forcing of potential intensity will increasingly dominate over aerosol forcing, leading to substantially larger increases in tropical cyclone intensities.

  4. GPM Flyby of Tropical Cyclone Uriah

    NASA Video Gallery

    On Feb. 15, GPM saw rain was falling at a rate of over 127 mm (5 inches) per hour in a band of intense storms south of Tropical Cyclone Uriah's center. Thunderstorms moving around the southwestern ...

  5. Human Influence on Tropical Cyclone Intensity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobel, Adam H.; Camargo, Suzana J.; Hall, Timothy M.; Lee, Chia-Ying; Tippett, Michael K.; Wing, Allison A.

    2016-01-01

    Recent assessments agree that tropical cyclone intensity should increase as the climate warms. Less agreement exists on the detection of recent historical trends in tropical cyclone intensity.We interpret future and recent historical trends by using the theory of potential intensity, which predicts the maximum intensity achievable by a tropical cyclone in a given local environment. Although greenhouse gas-driven warming increases potential intensity, climate model simulations suggest that aerosol cooling has largely canceled that effect over the historical record. Large natural variability complicates analysis of trends, as do poleward shifts in the latitude of maximum intensity. In the absence of strong reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, future greenhouse gas forcing of potential intensity will increasingly dominate over aerosol forcing, leading to substantially larger increases in tropical cyclone intensities.

  6. Human influence on tropical cyclone intensity.

    PubMed

    Sobel, Adam H; Camargo, Suzana J; Hall, Timothy M; Lee, Chia-Ying; Tippett, Michael K; Wing, Allison A

    2016-07-15

    Recent assessments agree that tropical cyclone intensity should increase as the climate warms. Less agreement exists on the detection of recent historical trends in tropical cyclone intensity. We interpret future and recent historical trends by using the theory of potential intensity, which predicts the maximum intensity achievable by a tropical cyclone in a given local environment. Although greenhouse gas-driven warming increases potential intensity, climate model simulations suggest that aerosol cooling has largely canceled that effect over the historical record. Large natural variability complicates analysis of trends, as do poleward shifts in the latitude of maximum intensity. In the absence of strong reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, future greenhouse gas forcing of potential intensity will increasingly dominate over aerosol forcing, leading to substantially larger increases in tropical cyclone intensities.

  7. TRMM Flyby of Tropical Cyclone Narelle

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animated, 3-D flyby of Major Cyclone Narelle was created using data on Jan. 11, from NASA's TRMM satellite. Narelle's wind speeds were near 132 mph. A few thunderstorm towers in Narelle's eye ...

  8. Raindrop Size Distribution Measurements in Tropical Cyclones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tokay, Ali; Bashor, Paul G.; Habib, Emad; Kasparis, Takis

    2008-01-01

    Characteristics of the raindrop size distribution in seven tropical cyclones have been studied through impact-type disdrometer measurements at three different sites during the 2004-06 Atlantic hurricane seasons. One of the cyclones has been observed at two different sites. High concentrations of small and/or midsize drops were observed in the presence or absence of large drops. Even in the presence of large drops, the maximum drop diameter rarely exceeded 4 mm. These characteristics of raindrop size distribution were observed in all stages of tropical cyclones, unless the storm was in the extratropical stage where the tropical cyclone and a midlatitude frontal system had merged. The presence of relatively high concentrations of large drops in extratropical cyclones resembled the size distribution in continental thunderstorms. The integral rain parameters of drop concentration, liquid water content, and rain rate at fixed reflectivity were therefore lower in extratropical cyclones than in tropical cyclones. In tropical cyclones, at a disdrometercalculated reflectivity of 40 dBZ, the number concentration was 700 plus or minus 100 drops m(sup -3), while the liquid water content and rain rate were 0.90 plus or minus 0.05 g m(sup -3) and 18.5 plus or minus 0.5 mm h(sup -1), respectively. The mean mass diameter, on the other hand, was 1.67 plus or minus 0.3 mm. The comparison of raindrop size distributions between Atlantic tropical cyclones and storms that occurred in the central tropical Pacific island of Roi-Namur revealed that the number density is slightly shifted toward smaller drops, resulting in higher-integral rain parameters and lower mean mass and maximum drop diameters at the latter site. Considering parameterization of the raindrop size distribution in tropical cyclones, characteristics of the normalized gamma distribution parameters were examined with respect to reflectivity. The mean mass diameter increased rapidly with reflectivity, while the normalized

  9. Tropical cyclone Pam field survey in Vanuatu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, Hermann M.; Pilarczyk, Jessica E.; Kosciuch, Thomas; Hong, Isabel; Rarai, Allan; Harrison, Morris J.; Jockley, Fred R.; Horton, Benjamin P.

    2016-04-01

    Severe tropical cyclone Pam (Cat. 5, SSHS) crossed the Vanuatu archipelago with sustained winds of 270 km/h on March 13 and 14, 2015 and made landfall on Erromango. Pam is the most intense tropical cyclone to make landfall on Vanuatu since the advent of satellite imagery based intensity estimates in the 1970s. Pam caused one of the worst natural disaster in Vanuatu's recorded history. Eleven fatalities were directly attributed to cyclone Pam and mostly due to lack of shelter from airborne debris. On March 6 Pam formed east of the Santa Cruz Islands causing coastal inundation on Tuvalu's Vaitupu Island located some 1100 km east of the cyclone center. Pam intensified while tracking southward along Vanuatu severely affecting the Shefa and Tafea Provinces. An international storm surge reconnaissance team was deployed to Vanuatu from June 3 to 17, 2015 to complement earlier local surveys. Cyclone Pam struck a remote island archipelago particularly vulnerable to the combined cyclonic multi-hazards encompassing extreme wind gusts, massive rainfall and coastal flooding due to a combination of storm surge and storm wave impacts. The team surveyed coastal villages on Epi, the Shepherd Islands (Tongoa and Mataso), Efate (including Lelepa), Erromango, and Tanna. The survey spanned 320 km parallel to the cyclone track between Epi and Tanna encompassing more than 45 sites including the hardest hit settlements. Coastal flooding profiles were surveyed from the shoreline to the limit of inundation. Maximum coastal flood elevations and overland flow depths were measured based on water marks on buildings, scars on trees, rafted debris and corroborated with eyewitness accounts. We surveyed 91 high water marks with characteristic coastal flood levels in the 3 to 7 m range and composed of storm surge with superimposed storm waves. Inundation distances were mostly limited to a few hundred meters but reached 800 m on Epi Island. Wrack lines containing pumice perfectly delineated the

  10. Interactions between climate and tropical cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, P. J.

    2007-05-01

    For the last 50 years, there have been two major thrusts in tropical cyclone research: determining the state of the atmosphere and ocean that is suitable for the formation of tropical storms (the genesis criteria) and short-term forecasting of the track and intensity of storms. Efforts to forecast seasonal storm activity, especially in the North Atlantic Ocean, have been undertaken through empirical means and, more recently, using low-resolution climate models. Climate model results have been exceptionally encouraging suggesting that the tropical cyclogenesis factors are predictable and are part of the large scale tropical circulation. During the last few years, a spate of papers has noted the relationship between changes in sea-surface temperature (SST) and tropical cyclone intensity and frequency. A critical issue is determining to what degree the frequency of hurricanes, as well as their intensity distribution, will change in a warming world. We discuss recent research regarding the interactions of the climate system with tropical cyclones, including the role of climate in determining the genesis of tropical cyclones and the role of tropical cyclones in the heat balance of the planet. Specifically: (i) We re-examine the genesis criteria of tropical cyclones and add two new criteria based on the behavior of waves in a flow varying in longitude and the inertial instability of equatorial flow in a cross-equatorial pressure gradient environment. Tropical cyclones are seen to form where the stretching deformation is negative and where large-scale waves transform into tight smaller and highly energetic scale vortices. We also discuss the tendency for storms to develop and intensify where the near-equatorial flow is inertially unstable. (ii) Tropical cyclones act to cool the tropical oceans by > 1K/year by evaporation of ocean surface water and by entrainment mixing with cooler water from below the mixed layer. We suggest that tropical cyclones are important part of

  11. Assessment of sulfur removal processes for advanced fuel cell systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorton, G. A.

    1980-01-01

    The performance characteristics of potential sulfur removal processes were evaluated and four of these processes, the Selexol process, the Benfield process, the Sulfinol process, and the Rectisol process, were selected for detailed technical and economic comparison. The process designs were based on a consistent set of technical criteria for a grass roots facility with a capacity of 10,000 tons per day of Illinois No. 6 coal. Two raw gas compositions, based on oxygen blown and air blown Texaco gasification, were used. The bulk of the sulfur was removed in the sulfur removal unit, leaving a small amount of sulfur compounds in the gas. The remaining sulfur compounds were removed by reaction with zinc oxide in the sulfur polishing unit. The impact of COS hydrolysis pretreatment on sulfur removal was evaluated. Comprehensive capital and O and M cost estimates for each of the process schemes were developed.

  12. Idealized simulations of sting jet cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, L. H.; Gray, S. L.; Clark, P. A.

    2012-04-01

    An idealized modeling study of sting-jet cyclones is presented. Sting jets are descending mesoscale jets that occur in some extratropical cyclones and produce localized regions of strong low-level winds in the frontal fracture region. Moist baroclinic lifecycle (LC1) simulations are performed with modifications to produce cyclones resembling observed sting-jet cyclones. Two jets exist in the control idealized cyclone that descend into the frontal fracture region and result in strong winds near to the top of the boundary layer; one of these satisfies the criteria for a sting jet, the other is associated with the warm front. Sensitivity experiments show that both these jets are robust features. The sting jet strength (measured by maximum low-level wind speed or descent rate) increases with the cyclone growth rate; growth rate increases with increasing basic-state zonal jet maximum or decreasing basic-state tropospheric static stability. The two cyclones with the weakest basic-state static stability have by far the strongest sting jets, with descent rates comparable to those observed. Evaporative cooling contributes up to 20% of the descent rate in these sting jets compared with up to 4% in the other sting jets. Conditional symmetric instability (CSI) release in the cloud head also contributes to the sting jet, although there is less extensive CSI than in observed cases. The robustness of the sting jets suggests that they could occur frequently in cyclones with frontal fracture; however, they are unlikely to be identified unless momentum transport through the boundary layer leads to strong surface wind gusts.

  13. Advanced Polymer Composite Molding Through Intelligent Process Analysis and Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-11-30

    In this project. process analysis of Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) was carried out and adaptive process control models were developed. In addition, a...aforementioned work in three separate sections: (1) process analysis and adaptive control modeling, (2) manufacturing of non-invasive sensor, end (3) list of publications resulting from this project.

  14. Advanced statistical process control: controlling sub-0.18-μm lithography and other processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeidler, Amit; Veenstra, Klaas-Jelle; Zavecz, Terrence E.

    2001-08-01

    Feed-forward, as a method to control the Lithography process for Critical Dimensions and Overlay, is well known in the semiconductors industry. However, the control provided by simple averaging feed-forward methodologies is not sufficient to support the complexity of a sub-0.18micrometers lithography process. Also, simple feed-forward techniques are not applicable for logics and ASIC production due to many different products, lithography chemistry combinations and the short memory of the averaging method. In the semiconductors industry, feed-forward control applications are generally called APC, Advanced Process Control applications. Today, there are as many APC methods as the number of engineers involved. To meet the stringent requirements of 0.18 micrometers production, we selected a method that is described in SPIE 3998-48 (March 2000) by Terrence Zavecz and Rene Blanquies from Yield Dynamics Inc. This method is called PPC, Predictive Process Control, and employs a methodology of collecting measurement results and the modeled bias attributes of expose tools, reticles and the incoming process in a signatures database. With PPC, before each lot exposure, the signatures of the lithography tool, the reticle and the incoming process are used to predict the setup of the lot process and the expected lot results. Benefits derived from such an implementation are very clear; there is no limitation of the number of products or lithography-chemistry combinations and the technique avoids the short memory of conventional APC techniques. ... and what's next? (Rob Morton, Philips assignee to International Sematech). The next part of the paper will try to answer this question. Observing that CMP and metal deposition significantly influence CD's and overlay results, and even Contact Etch can have a significant influence on Metal 5 overlay, we developed a more general PPC for lithography. Starting with the existing lithography PPC applications database, the authors extended the

  15. Integrated processes for produced water polishing: Enhanced flotation/sedimentation combined with advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Silvia; Micó, María M; Arnaldos, Marina; Ferrero, Enrique; Malfeito, Jorge J; Medina, Francisco; Contreras, Sandra

    2017-02-01

    In this study, bench scale dissolved air flotation (DAF) and settling processes have been studied and compared to a novel flotation technology based on the use of glass microspheres of limited buoyancy and its combination with conventional DAF, (Enhanced DAF or E-DAF). They were evaluated as pretreatments for advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) to polish produced water (PW) for reuse purposes. Settling and E-DAF without air injection showed adequate turbidity and oil and grease (O&G) removals, with eliminations higher than 87% and 90% respectively, employing 70 mg L(-1) of FeCl3 and 83 min of settling time, and 57.9 mg L(-1) of FeCl3, 300 mg L(-1) of microspheres and a flocculation rate of 40 rpm in the E-DAF process. A linear correlation was observed between final O&G concentration and turbidity after E-DAF. In order to polish the O&G content of the effluent even further, to remove soluble compounds as phenol and to take advantage of residual iron after these treatments, Fenton and photo-Fenton reactions were essayed. After 6 h of the Fenton reaction at pH 3, the addition of 1660 mg L(-1) of H2O2 and 133 mg L(-1) of iron showed a maximum O&G elimination of 57.6% and a phenol removal up to 80%. Photo-Fenton process showed better results after 3 h, adding 600 mg L(-1) of H2O2 and 300 mg L(-1) of iron, at pH 3, with a higher fraction of elimination of the O&G content (73.7%) and phenol (95%) compared to the conventional Fenton process.

  16. Effect of tropical cyclones on the stratosphere-troposphere exchange observed using satellite observations over the north Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkat Ratnam, M.; Babu, S. Ravindra; Das, S. S.; Basha, G.; Krishnamurthy, B. V.; Venkateswararao, B.

    2016-07-01

    Tropical cyclones play an important role in modifying the tropopause structure and dynamics as well as stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE) processes in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) region. In the present study, the impact of cyclones that occurred over the north Indian Ocean during 2007-2013 on the STE processes is quantified using satellite observations. Tropopause characteristics during cyclones are obtained from the Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation (RO) measurements, and ozone and water vapour concentrations in the UTLS region are obtained from Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) satellite observations. The effect of cyclones on the tropopause parameters is observed to be more prominent within 500 km of the centre of the tropical cyclone. In our earlier study, we observed a decrease (increase) in the tropopause altitude (temperature) up to 0.6 km (3 K), and the convective outflow level increased up to 2 km. This change leads to a total increase in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) thickness of 3 km within 500 km of the centre of cyclone. Interestingly, an enhancement in the ozone mixing ratio in the upper troposphere is clearly noticed within 500 km from the cyclone centre, whereas the enhancement in the water vapour in the lower stratosphere is more significant on the south-east side, extending from 500 to 1000 km away from the cyclone centre. The cross-tropopause mass flux for different intensities of cyclones is estimated and it is found that the mean flux from the stratosphere to the troposphere for cyclonic storms is 0.05 ± 0.29 × 10-3 kg m-2, and for very severe cyclonic storms it is 0.5 ± 1.07 × 10-3 kg m-2. More downward flux is noticed on the north-west and south-west side of the cyclone centre. These results indicate that the cyclones have significant impact in effecting the tropopause structure, ozone and water vapour budget, and consequentially the STE in the UTLS region.

  17. Cost analysis of advanced turbine blade manufacturing processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, C. F.; Blake, D. E.; Stelson, T. S.

    1977-01-01

    A rigorous analysis was conducted to estimate relative manufacturing costs for high technology gas turbine blades prepared by three candidate materials process systems. The manufacturing costs for the same turbine blade configuration of directionally solidified eutectic alloy, an oxide dispersion strengthened superalloy, and a fiber reinforced superalloy were compared on a relative basis to the costs of the same blade currently in production utilizing the directional solidification process. An analytical process cost model was developed to quantitatively perform the cost comparisons. The impact of individual process yield factors on costs was also assessed as well as effects of process parameters, raw materials, labor rates and consumable items.

  18. Progress and Pitfalls in Satellite Surveillance of Loop Current Frontal Eddy Cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, N. D.; Leben, R. R.; Anderson, S. P.; Balasubramanian, S.

    2007-05-01

    In the last decade, significant advances in active and passive remote sensing have transpired that are enabling researchers to better quantify and model time and space scales of ocean processes. This paper presents recent attempts to track the motion and development of rapidly propagating cyclonic mesoscale eddies along the outer margin of the Loop Current in the Gulf of Mexico. Recent research has shown the critical role that these features play in the intensification of surface currents and as trigger mechanisms for deep flows in oil and gas producing areas in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The rapid motion of these cyclonic frontal features (35 km/day) has made their study problematic. In this paper, we discuss the use of several remote sensing systems and the integration of data from these systems to better understand the behavior and impacts of the frontal eddy cyclones on Gulf circulation processes. Mid-infrared (3.5-3.9 micron) measurements from GOES GVAR, available in real-time every 15 minutes over the Gulf, provide an excellent source of "de-clouded" night-time surface temperature information, from which sea surface temperatures (SST) are estimated with daily updates (http:www.esl.lsu.edu). Measurements in this atmospheric window maximize the sampling frequency of ocean information in cloudy and humid ocean regions such as the Gulf of Mexico. On the other hand, satellite altimetry measurements provide the only remote sensing technique that directly measures a dynamical variable of ocean state - the sea surface height (SSH). Detection of mesoscale eddies has been improved by combining multi-mission measurements from TOPEX-Poseidon, ERS- 2, GFO, Jason-1 and Envisat into a gridded product, updated daily (http:argo.colorado.edu/~realtime/welcome). Ocean color sensors (SeaWiFS, MODIS, Oceansat-1 OCM) provide surface pigment information (chlorophyll a, CDOM) that can aid in the discrimination of Gulf features as cold core eddies contain more chlorophyll a, due to

  19. Research on chemical vapor deposition processes for advanced ceramic coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosner, Daniel E.

    1993-01-01

    Our interdisciplinary background and fundamentally-oriented studies of the laws governing multi-component chemical vapor deposition (VD), particle deposition (PD), and their interactions, put the Yale University HTCRE Laboratory in a unique position to significantly advance the 'state-of-the-art' of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) R&D. With NASA-Lewis RC financial support, we initiated a program in March of 1988 that has led to the advances described in this report (Section 2) in predicting chemical vapor transport in high temperature systems relevant to the fabrication of refractory ceramic coatings for turbine engine components. This Final Report covers our principal results and activities for the total NASA grant of $190,000. over the 4.67 year period: 1 March 1988-1 November 1992. Since our methods and the technical details are contained in the publications listed (9 Abstracts are given as Appendices) our emphasis here is on broad conclusions/implications and administrative data, including personnel, talks, interactions with industry, and some known applications of our work.

  20. AGU governance's decision-making process advances strategic plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhaden, Michael; Finn, Carol; McEntee, Chris

    2012-10-01

    A lot has happened in a little more than 2 years, and we want give AGU members an update on how things are working under AGU's strategic plan and governance model. AGU is an organization committed to its strategic plan (http://www.agu.org/about/strategic_plan.shtml), and if you have not read the plan lately, we encourage you to do so. AGU's vision is to be an organization that "galvanizes a community of Earth and space scientists that collaboratively advances and communicates science and its power to ensure a sustainable future." We are excited about the progress we have made under this plan and the future course we have set for the Union. Everything the Board of Directors, Council, and committees put on their agendas is intended to advance AGU's strategic goals and objectives. Together with headquarters staff, these bodies are working in an integrated, effective manner to carry out this plan. The best way to demonstrate the progress made and each group's role is to walk through a recent example: the creation of a new Union-level award (see Figure 1).

  1. Recent Developments in Advanced Automated Post-Processing at AMOS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    automatically transfers data from AMOS telescopes to supercomputing hardware to process the data as imagery, photometry , or both, dependent on...to process the data as imagery, photometry , or both, dependent on sensor parameters. Users are given an interface that provides access to many...raw data handling daemon or from users. Camera calibration procedures are applied, and then the data undergoes PCID and/or Photometry processing

  2. Production process for advanced space satellite system cables/interconnects.

    SciTech Connect

    Mendoza, Luis A.

    2007-12-01

    This production process was generated for the satellite system program cables/interconnects group, which in essences had no well defined production process. The driver for the development of a formalized process was based on the set backs, problem areas, challenges, and need improvements faced from within the program at Sandia National Laboratories. In addition, the formal production process was developed from the Master's program of Engineering Management for New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology in Socorro New Mexico and submitted as a thesis to meet the institute's graduating requirements.

  3. New Advances in Understanding Northern Seasonal Processes on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, C. J.; Byrne, S.; Bourke, M.; Bridges, N.; Diniega, S.; Dundas, C.; McEwen, A.; Mellon, M.; Pommerol, A.; Portyankina, G.; Thomas, N.

    2014-07-01

    The sublimation of the seasonal CO2 polar caps is an active surface process in today's martian climate. Seasonal processes are responsible for changes in the morphology of the dunes of the north polar erg detected from one Mars year to the next.

  4. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. ); Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. )

    1991-09-25

    The objectives of this study are to establish the mechanisms and rates of basic steps in coal conversion processes, to integrate and incorporate this information into comprehensive computer models for coal conversion processes, to evaluate these models and to apply them to gasification, mild gasification and combustion in heat engines. (VC)

  5. Advances in soil erosion research: processes, measurement, and modeling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil erosion by the environmental agents of water and wind is a continuing global menace that threatens the agricultural base that sustains our civilization. Members of ASABE have been at the forefront of research to understand erosion processes, measure erosion and related processes, and model very...

  6. Dual-Process Theories and Cognitive Development: Advances and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrouillet, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Dual-process theories have gained increasing importance in psychology. The contrast that they describe between an old intuitive and a new deliberative mind seems to make these theories especially suited to account for development. Accordingly, this special issue aims at presenting the latest applications of dual-process theories to cognitive…

  7. Advanced ThioClear process testing. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lani, B.

    1998-03-01

    Wet scrubbing is the leading proven commercial post-combustion FGD technology available to meet the sulfur dioxide reductions required by the Clean Air Act Amendments. To reduce costs associated with wet FGD, Dravo Lime Company has developed the ThioClear process. ThioClear is an ex-situ forced oxidation magnesium-enhanced lime FGD process. ThioClear process differs from the conventional magnesium-enhanced lime process in that the recycle liquor has minimal suspended solids and the by-products are wallboard quality gypsum and magnesium hydroxide, an excellent reagent for water treatment. The process has demonstrated sulfur dioxide removal efficiencies of +95% in both a vertical spray scrubber tower and a horizontal absorber operating at gas velocities of 16 fps, respectively. This report details the optimization studies and associated economics from testing conducted at Dravo Lime Company`s pilot plant located at the Miami Fort Station of the Cincinnati Gas and Electric Company.

  8. The Morphology of Cyclonic Windstorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewson, Tim

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study is to help facilitate the correct interpretation and use of model analyses and predictions of windstorms in the extra-tropics, and to show that 'storm detection' does not just depend on the efficacy of the identification/tracking algorithm. Under the auspices of the IMILAST (Intercomparison of MId-LAtitude STorm diagnostics) project, 29 damaging European cyclonic windstorms have been studied in detail, using observational evidence as the main tool. Accordingly a conceptual model of windstorm evolution has been constructed. This usefully has its roots in the evolution one sees on standard synoptic charts, and highlights that three types of damage footprint can be associated. Building on previous work these are referred to as the warm jet, the sting jet and the cold jet footprints. The jet phenomena themselves each relate to the proximity of fronts on the synoptic charts, and accordingly occur in airmasses with different stability characteristics. These characteristics seem to play a large role in determining the magnitude of surface gusts, and how those gusts vary between coastal and inland sites. These aspects will be discussed with examples, showing that one cannot simply characterise or rank cyclones using wind strength on a lower tropospheric level such as 850hPa. A key finding that sets the sting jet apart, and that makes it a particularly dangerous phenomena, is that gust magnitude is relatively unaffected by passage inland, and this seems to relate to the atmosphere in its environment being destabilised from above. For sting jets wind strength may be greatest below 850hPa. Unfortunately neither current generation global re-analyses, nor global climate models seem to be able to simulate sting jets. This is for various reasons, though their low resolution is key. This limitation has been recognised previously, and the standard way to address this has been to use a re-calibration technique. The potential pitfalls of this approach will be

  9. The Vanderbilt Professional Nursing Practice Program, part 3: managing an advancement process.

    PubMed

    Steaban, Robin; Fudge, Mitzie; Leutgens, Wendy; Wells, Nancy

    2003-11-01

    Consistency of performance standards across multiple clinical settings is an essential component of a credible advancement system. Our advancement process incorporates a central committee, composed of nurses from all clinical settings within the institution, to ensure consistency of performance in inpatient, outpatient, and procedural settings. An analysis of nurses advanced during the first 18 months of the program indicates that performance standards are applicable to nurses in all clinical settings. The first article (September 2003) in this 3-part series described the foundation for and the philosophical background of the Vanderbilt Professional Nursing Practice Program (VPNPP), the career advancement program underway at Vanderbilt University Medical Center. Part 2 described the development of the evaluation tools used in the VPNPP, the implementation and management of this new system, program evaluation, and improvements since the program's inception. The purpose of this article is to review the advancement process, review the roles of those involved in the process, and to describe outcomes and lessons learned.

  10. Development of processing techniques for advanced thermal protection materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selvaduray, Guna S.

    1994-01-01

    The effort, which was focused on the research and development of advanced materials for use in Thermal Protection Systems (TPS), has involved chemical and physical testing of refractory ceramic tiles, fabrics, threads and fibers. This testing has included determination of the optical properties, thermal shock resistance, high temperature dimensional stability, and tolerance to environmental stresses. Materials have also been tested in the Arc Jet 2 x 9 Turbulent Duct Facility (TDF), the 1 atmosphere Radiant Heat Cycler, and the Mini-Wind Tunnel Facility (MWTF). A significant part of the effort hitherto has gone towards modifying and upgrading the test facilities so that meaningful tests can be carried out. Another important effort during this period has been the creation of a materials database. Computer systems administration and support have also been provided. These are described in greater detail below.

  11. Technology advancement of the electrochemical CO2 concentrating process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Woods, R. R.; Hallick, T. M.; Heppner, D. B.

    1978-01-01

    The overall objectives of the present program are to: (1) improve the performance of the electrochemical CO2 removal technique by increasing CO2 removal efficiencies at pCO2 levels below 400 Pa, increasing cell power output and broadening the tolerance of electrochemical cells for operation over wide ranges of cabin relative humidity; (2) design, fabricate, and assemble development hardware to continue the evolution of the electrochemical concentrating technique from the existing level to an advanced level able to efficiently meet the CO2 removal needs of a spacecraft air revitalization system (ARS); (3) develop and incorporate into the EDC the components and concepts that allow for the efficient integration of the electrochemical technique with other subsystems to form a spacecraft ARS; (4) combine ARS functions to enable the elimination of subsystem components and interfaces; and (5) demonstrate the integration concepts through actual operation of a functionally integrated ARS.

  12. Microwave Processing of Simulated Advanced Nuclear Fuel Pellets

    SciTech Connect

    D.E. Clark; D.C. Folz

    2010-08-29

    Throughout the three-year project funded by the Department of Energy (DOE) and lead by Virginia Tech (VT), project tasks were modified by consensus to fit the changing needs of the DOE with respect to developing new inert matrix fuel processing techniques. The focus throughout the project was on the use of microwave energy to sinter fully stabilized zirconia pellets using microwave energy and to evaluate the effectiveness of techniques that were developed. Additionally, the research team was to propose fundamental concepts as to processing radioactive fuels based on the effectiveness of the microwave process in sintering the simulated matrix material.

  13. Comparing Simple and Advanced Video Tools as Supports for Complex Collaborative Design Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zahn, Carmen; Pea, Roy; Hesse, Friedrich W.; Rosen, Joe

    2010-01-01

    Working with digital video technologies, particularly advanced video tools with editing capabilities, offers new prospects for meaningful learning through design. However, it is also possible that the additional complexity of such tools does "not" advance learning. We compared in an experiment the design processes and learning outcomes…

  14. Recent advancements in low cost solar cell processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ralph, E. L.

    1975-01-01

    A proof-of-concept solar cell process has been developed that is adaptable to automation. This involved the development of a new contact system, a new antireflection coating system, a drift field cell design and a new contoured surface treatment. All these processes are performed without the use of vacuum chambers and expensive masking techniques, thus providing the possibility of reduced costs by automation using conventional semiconductor processing machinery. The contacts were printed on the cells by conventional silk screen machinery. The P(+) back field was formed by diffusing in aluminum from a printed aluminum back contact. The antireflection coating was formed by spinning on and baking a TiO2-SiO2 glass film. Air-mass-zero efficiencies of over 10% were achieved using this completely vacuum-free process.

  15. Process Heat Exchanger Options for the Advanced High Temperature Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Piyush Sabharwall; Eung Soo Kim; Michael McKellar; Nolan Anderson

    2011-06-01

    The work reported herein is a significant intermediate step in reaching the final goal of commercial-scale deployment and usage of molten salt as the heat transport medium for process heat applications. The primary purpose of this study is to aid in the development and selection of the required heat exchanger for power production and process heat application, which would support large-scale deployment.

  16. Data processing 1: Advancements in machine analysis of multispectral data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swain, P. H.

    1972-01-01

    Multispectral data processing procedures are outlined beginning with the data display process used to accomplish data editing and proceeding through clustering, feature selection criterion for error probability estimation, and sample clustering and sample classification. The effective utilization of large quantities of remote sensing data by formulating a three stage sampling model for evaluation of crop acreage estimates represents an improvement in determining the cost benefit relationship associated with remote sensing technology.

  17. Experience with different cyclones in CFBs

    SciTech Connect

    Alliston, M.G.; Brink, K.E.; Kokko, A.

    1998-07-01

    Kvaerner Pulping has been designing, manufacturing and delivering different kinds of CFB boilers since the beginning of the 1980s. This paper gives a historical overview of these first generation CFBs and especially operational experience with them. Due to some specific problems in these first generation CFBs, described in this paper, Kvaerner Pulping was among the pioneers in CFB construction development and was probably the first company to deliver a totally water-cooled CFB construction that also included the cyclone. The goal in construction development has been to improve the reliability of the CFB boiler and at the same time minimizing the required service time. Kvaerner's continuous CFB development has created several constructions with different appearances for different applications. The basic development work has been done on the conventional cyclone type and this it is still the most common cyclone type used in all sizes of applications. CYMIC boiler, and especially its cyclone, is one of the new designs. It is also a totally water-cooled construction and it has some additional benefits which are mainly correlated with the space requirements of boiler placement and simple cyclone construction. CYMIC is very suitable for industrial applications and for cases where utilizes existing boiler houses or parts of them are being utilized. For the increased CFB boiler sizes Kvaerner has developed the ICCL (Integral Cylindrical Cyclone and Loop-seal). Again the installation is totally water-cooled and additional benefits are related to the straight cyclone construction, water-cooled vortex finder the ability to locate a significant proportion of heat surfaces in the loopseal. All the constructional features mentioned above are described in detail in this paper. This present paper gives some idea of how these installations have coped in practice and what aspects need to be developed further.

  18. Assessment of sulfur removal processes for advanced fuel cell systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lorton, G.A.

    1980-01-01

    This study consisted of a technical evaluation and economic comparison of sulfur removal processes for integration into a coal gasification-molten carbonate (CGMC) fuel cell power plant. Initially, the performance characteristics of potential sulfur removal processes were evaluated and screened for conformance to the conditions and requirements expected in commercial CGMC power plants. Four of these processes, the Selexol process, the Benfield process, the Sulfinol process, and the Rectisol process, were selected for detailed technical and economic comparison. The process designs were based on a consistent set of technical criteria for a grass roots facility with a capacity of 10,000 tons per day of Illinois No. 6 coal. Two raw gas compositions, based on oxygen-blown and air-blown Texaco gasification, were used. The bulk of the sulfur was removed in the sulfur removal unit, leaving a small amount of sulfur compounds in the gas (1 ppMv or 25 ppMv). The remaining sulfur compounds were removed by reaction with zinc oxide in the sulfur polishing unit. The impact of COS hydrolysis pretreatment on sulfur removal was evaluated. Comprehensive capital and O and M cost estimates for each of the process schemes were developed for the essentially complete removal of sulfur compounds. The impact on the overall plant performance was also determined. The total capital requirement for sulfur removal schemes ranged from $59.4/kW to $84.8/kW for the oxygen-blown cases and from $89.5/kW to $133/kW for the air-blown cases. The O and M costs for sulfur removal for 70% plant capacity factor ranged from 0.82 mills/kWh to 2.76 mills/kWh for the oxygen-blown cases and from 1.77 mills/kWh to 4.88 mills/kWh for the air-blown cases. The Selexol process benefitted the most from the addition of COS hydrolysis pretreatment.

  19. Investigating Sensitivity to Saharan Dust in Tropical Cyclone Formation Using Nasa's Adjoint Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdaway, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    As tropical cyclones develop from easterly waves coming of the coast of Africa they interact with dust from the Sahara desert. There is a long standing debate over whether this dust inhibits or advances the developing storm and how much influence it has. Dust can surround the storm and absorb incoming solar radiation, cooling the air below. As a result an energy source for the system is potentially diminished, inhibiting growth of the storm. Alternatively dust may interact with clouds through micro-physical processes, for example by causing more moisture to condense, potentially increasing the strength. As a result of climate change, concentrations and amount of dust in the atmosphere will likely change. It it is important to properly understand its effect on tropical storm formation. The adjoint of an atmospheric general circulation model provides a very powerful tool for investigating sensitivity to initial conditions. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has recently developed an adjoint version of the Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) dynamical core, convection scheme, cloud model and radiation schemes. This is extended so that the interaction between dust and radiation is also accounted for in the adjoint model. This provides a framework for examining the sensitivity to dust in the initial conditions. Specifically the set up allows for an investigation into the extent to which dust affects cyclone strength through absorption of radiation. In this work we investigate the validity of using an adjoint model for examining sensitivity to dust in hurricane formation. We present sensitivity results for a number of systems that developed during the Atlantic hurricane season of 2006. During this period there was a significant outbreak of Saharan dust and it is has been argued that this outbreak was responsible for the relatively calm season. This period was also covered by an extensive observation campaign. It is shown that the

  20. Investigating sensitivity to Saharan dust in tropical cyclone formation using NASA's adjoint model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holdaway, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    As tropical cyclones develop from easterly waves coming off the coast of Africa they interact with dust from the Sahara desert. There is a long standing debate over whether this dust inhibits or advances the developing storm and how much influence it has. Dust can surround the storm and absorb incoming solar radiation, cooling the air below. As a result an energy source for the system is potentially diminished, inhibiting growth of the storm. Alternatively dust may interact with clouds through micro-physical processes, for example by causing more moisture to condense, potentially increasing the strength. As a result of climate change, concentrations and amount of dust in the atmosphere will likely change. It it is important to properly understand its effect on tropical storm formation. The adjoint of an atmospheric general circulation model provides a very powerful tool for investigating sensitivity to initial conditions. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has recently developed an adjoint version of the Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) dynamical core, convection scheme, cloud model and radiation schemes. This is extended so that the interaction between dust and radiation is also accounted for in the adjoint model. This provides a framework for examining the sensitivity to dust in the initial conditions. Specifically the set up allows for an investigation into the extent to which dust affects cyclone strength through absorption of radiation. In this work we investigate the validity of using an adjoint model for examining sensitivity to dust in hurricane formation. We present sensitivity results for a number of systems that developed during the Atlantic hurricane season of 2006. During this period there was a significant outbreak of Saharan dust and it is has been argued that this outbreak was responsible for the relatively calm season. This period was also covered by an extensive observation campaign. It is shown that the

  1. Tracking Southern Hemisphere extratropical cyclones using different algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilinina, Natalia; Rudeva, Irina; Gulev, Sergey; Simmonds, Ian; Keay, Kevin

    2010-05-01

    We attempt to estimate strengths and weaknesses of the two cyclone tracking algorithms - of the University of Melbourne (UM) and of IORAS (SAIL). The UM scheme is using geostrophic vorticity for tracking cyclones and SAIL tracking is based on sea level pressure. Furthermore, there are many other conceptual differences in the algorithm performance. The SAIL scheme was applied to the NCEP-NCAR reanalysis output for the Southern Hemisphere (1948-2009), the period of intercomparison with the results based on UM scheme was 1990-1999. During time period 1990-1999 the UM scheme identifies 45% more cyclones than the SAIL scheme. The UM tracking output consists of all cyclones which are found by the SAIL scheme and also many short-living vortices, which do not have their imprints in the pressure fields. Many of these vortices are not characterized by the minimum central pressure and the closed isobar - the two major characteristics of cyclone - and require the extension of cyclone definition to be considered as cyclones. Spatial distribution of cyclone counts over Southern Hemisphere clearly shows the two main storm tracks: the Southern (close to the Antarctic) represented by deep and moderate cyclones with minimum central pressure typically lower than 965 hPa and the Northern track primarily associated with the shallow cyclones (central pressure is typically higher than 980hPa). Using the time series of the number of cyclones derived from the SAIL tracking we estimated linear trends in the cyclones counts. The number of deep cyclones (<960 hPa) growths during 1948-2009 by 0,8 cyclones per year, while the number of shallow cyclones (>980 hPa) decreases by 1,3 cyclones per year. Changes in a number of deep cyclones are significantly correlated with the Southern Oscillation Index (e.g. 0,57 in the autumn).

  2. Recent Advances in Food Processing Using High Hydrostatic Pressure Technology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chung-Yi; Huang, Hsiao-Wen; Hsu, Chiao-Ping; Yang, Binghuei Barry

    2016-01-01

    High hydrostatic pressure is an emerging non-thermal technology that can achieve the same standards of food safety as those of heat pasteurization and meet consumer requirements for fresher tasting, minimally processed foods. Applying high-pressure processing can inactivate pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms and enzymes, as well as modify structures with little or no effects on the nutritional and sensory quality of foods. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) have approved the use of high-pressure processing (HPP), which is a reliable technological alternative to conventional heat pasteurization in food-processing procedures. This paper presents the current applications of HPP in processing fruits, vegetables, meats, seafood, dairy, and egg products; such applications include the combination of pressure and biopreservation to generate specific characteristics in certain products. In addition, this paper describes recent findings on the microbiological, chemical, and molecular aspects of HPP technology used in commercial and research applications.

  3. Advanced investment cast processing for gamma titanium aluminide alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, D.; Govern, C.

    1995-12-31

    Investment casting of gamma titanium aluminide alloys has become the near-term process of choice for component manufacture. This is largely due to its near-net shape processing capabilities which allow cast gamma components to be manufactured at a lower cost when compared to wrought or powder methods. Many papers have been published discussing the effect of heat treatment on the microstructure of HIP processed samples. However, the relationship between casting parameters and resultant microstructures has not been widely discussed. An L9 DOE casting experiment was performed to examine mold preheat, furnace atmosphere, shell type and gating design parameters. It was determined that mold preheat had a very significant effect on as-cast and as-HIP processed microstructures. Mold preheats of 70 F and 750 F produced HIP Processed microstructures containing 80 to >90% equiaxed gamma grains and 2,100 F mold preheats produced structures containing 10--30% equiaxed gamma grains. The results of this experiment will be presented, including optical microstructures and microprobe analysis.

  4. Near net shape processing: A necessity for advanced materials applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, Howard A.

    1993-01-01

    High quality discrete parts are the backbones for successful operation of equipment used in transportation, communication, construction, manufacturing, and appliances. Traditional shapemaking for discrete parts is carried out predominantly by machining, or removing unwanted material to produce the desired shape. As the cost and complexity of modern materials escalates, coupled with the expense and environmental hazards associated with handling of scrap, it is increasingly important to develop near net shape processes for these materials. Such processes involve casting of liquid materials, consolidation of powder materials, or deformation processing of simple solid shapes into the desired shape. Frequently, several of these operations may be used in sequence to produce a finished part. The processes for near net shape forming may be applied to any type of material, including metals, polymers, ceramics, and their composites. The ability to produce shapes is the key to implementation of laboratory developments in materials science into real world applications. This seminar presents an overview of near net shapemaking processes, some application examples, current developments, and future research opportunities.

  5. IR camera system with an advanced image processing technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohkubo, Syuichi; Tamura, Tetsuo

    2016-05-01

    We have developed image processing technologies for resolving issues caused by the inherent UFPA (uncooled focal plane array) sensor characteristics to spread its applications. For example, large time constant of an uncooled IR (infra-red) sensor limits its application field, because motion blur is caused in monitoring the objective moving at high speed. The developed image processing technologies can eliminate the blur and retrieve almost the equivalent image observed in still motion. This image processing is based on the idea that output of the IR sensor is construed as the convolution of radiated IR energy from the objective and impulse response of the IR sensor. With knowledge of the impulse response and moving speed of the objective, the IR energy from the objective can be de-convolved from the observed images. We have successfully retrieved the image without blur using the IR sensor of 15 ms time constant under the conditions in which the objective is moving at the speed of about 10 pixels/60 Hz. The image processing for reducing FPN (fixed pattern noise) has also been developed. UFPA having the responsivity in the narrow wavelength region, e.g., around 8 μm is appropriate for measuring the surface of glass. However, it suffers from severe FPN due to lower sensitivity compared with 8-13 μm. The developed image processing exploits the images of the shutter itself, and can reduce FPN significantly.

  6. Satellite-based Tropical Cyclone Monitoring Capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, J.; Richardson, K.; Surratt, M.; Yang, S.; Lee, T. F.; Sampson, C. R.; Solbrig, J.; Kuciauskas, A. P.; Miller, S. D.; Kent, J.

    2012-12-01

    Satellite remote sensing capabilities to monitor tropical cyclone (TC) location, structure, and intensity have evolved by utilizing a combination of operational and research and development (R&D) sensors. The microwave imagers from the operational Defense Meteorological Satellite Program [Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and the Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder (SSMIS)] form the "base" for structure observations due to their ability to view through upper-level clouds, modest size swaths and ability to capture most storm structure features. The NASA TRMM microwave imager and precipitation radar continue their 15+ yearlong missions in serving the TC warning and research communities. The cessation of NASA's QuikSCAT satellite after more than a decade of service is sorely missed, but India's OceanSat-2 scatterometer is now providing crucial ocean surface wind vectors in addition to the Navy's WindSat ocean surface wind vector retrievals. Another Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) onboard EUMETSAT's MetOp-2 satellite is slated for launch soon. Passive microwave imagery has received a much needed boost with the launch of the French/Indian Megha Tropiques imager in September 2011, basically greatly supplementing the very successful NASA TRMM pathfinder with a larger swath and more frequent temporal sampling. While initial data issues have delayed data utilization, current news indicates this data will be available in 2013. Future NASA Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) sensors starting in 2014 will provide enhanced capabilities. Also, the inclusion of the new microwave sounder data from the NPP ATMS (Oct 2011) will assist in mapping TC convective structures. The National Polar orbiting Partnership (NPP) program's VIIRS sensor includes a day night band (DNB) with the capability to view TC cloud structure at night when sufficient lunar illumination exits. Examples highlighting this new capability will be discussed in concert with additional data fusion efforts.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF ADVANCED HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    K. Jothimurugesan; Santosh K. Gangwal

    2000-12-01

    The techniques employed in this project have successfully demonstrated the feasibility of preparing sorbents that achieve greater than 99% H{sub 2}S removal at temperatures 480 C and that retain their activity over 50 cycles. Fundamental understanding of phenomena leading to chemical deactivation and high regeneration light-off temperature has enabled us to successfully prepare and scale up a FHR-32 sorbent that showed no loss in reactivity and capacity over 50 cycles. This sorbent removed H{sub 2}S below 80 ppmv and lighted-off nicely at 480 C during regeneration. Overall the test is a success with potential for an optimized FHR-32 to be a candidate for Sierra-Pacific. An advanced attrition resistant hot-gas desulfurization sorbent that can eliminate the problematic SO{sub 2} tail gas and yield elemental sulfur directly has been developed. Attrition resistant Zn-Fe sorbent (AHI-2) formulations have been prepared that can remove H{sub 2}S to below 20 ppmv from coal gas and can be regenerated using SO{sub 2} to produce elemental sulfur.

  8. Advanced infrared detection and image processing for automated bat censusing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Jeffery D.; Kunz, Tomas H.; Horn, Jason; Cleveland, Cutler; Petronio, Susan M.

    2003-09-01

    The Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis) forms some of the largest aggregations of mammals known to mankind. However, little is known about population sizes and nightly foraging activities. An advanced infrared (IR) thermal imaging system with a real time imaging and data acquisition system is described for censusing Brazilian free-tailed bats during nightly emergences at selected Texas caves. We developed a statistically-based algorithm suitable for counting emerging bats in columns with relative constant trajectories and velocities. Individual bats are not identified and tracked, but instead column density is calculated at intervals of 1/30th of a second and counts are accumulated based upon column velocity. Preliminary evaluation has shown this method to be far more accurate than those previously used to census large bat populations. This real-time automated censusing system allows us to make accurate and repeatable estimates of the number of bats present independent of colony size, ambient light, or weather conditions, and without causing disturbance to the colony.

  9. Advances in fntd technology: Instrumentation, image processing and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartz, James Andrew

    Fluorescent Nuclear Track Detectors (FNTDs), based on Al2O 3:C,Mg single crystal material, enable diffraction limited imaging of ionization patterns. This fast, luminescent material is thermally and optically stable. This work expands and assesses the capability of FNTD technology to measure radiation dose quickly and accurately, especially neutron radition. Developments in FNTD instrumentation, software, image reconstruction, image processing and data processing improved ease of use, productivity and reliability and brought the technology into commercial viability. Descriptions of these developments are presented. Additionally, these developments were assessed and were found to comply with ANSI and ISO standards for personnel neutron dosimetry. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  10. Putting to rest WISHE-ful misconceptions for tropical cyclone intensification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montomery, Michael T.; Persing, John; Smith, Roger K.

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this article is twofold. The first is to point out and correct several misconceptions about the putative WISHE mechanism of tropical cyclone intensification that currently are being taught to atmospheric science students, to tropical weather forecasters, and to laypeople who seek to understand how tropical cyclones intensify. The mechanism relates to the simplest problem of an initial cyclonic vortex in a quiescent environment. This first part is important because the credibility of tropical cyclone science depends inter alia on being able to articulate a clear and consistent picture of the hypothesized intensification process and its dependencies on key flow parameters. The credibility depends also on being able to test the hypothesized mechanisms using observations, numerical models, or theoretical analyses. The second purpose of the paper is to carry out new numerical experiments using a state-of-the-art numerical model to test a recent hypothesis invoking the WISHE feedback mechanism during the rapid intensification phase of a tropical cyclone. The results obtained herein, in conjunction with prior work, do not support this recent hypothesis and refute the view that the WISHE intensification mechanism is the essential mechanism of tropical cyclone intensification in the idealized problem that historically has been used to underpin the paradigm. This second objective is important because it presents a simple way of testing the hypothesized intensification mechanism and shows that the mechanism is neither essential nor the dominant mode of intensification for the prototype intensification problem. In view of the operational, societal, and scientific interest in the physics of tropical cyclone intensification, we believe this paper will be of broad interest to the atmospheric science community and the findings should be useful in both the classroom setting and frontier research.

  11. 15 CFR 713.4 - Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production, processing, or consumption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 2 CHEMICALS § 713.4 Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production... additionally planned production, processing, or consumption of Schedule 2 chemicals. 713.4 Section...

  12. 15 CFR 713.4 - Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production, processing, or consumption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 2 CHEMICALS § 713.4 Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production... additionally planned production, processing, or consumption of Schedule 2 chemicals. 713.4 Section...

  13. 15 CFR 713.4 - Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production, processing, or consumption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 2 CHEMICALS § 713.4 Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production... additionally planned production, processing, or consumption of Schedule 2 chemicals. 713.4 Section...

  14. 15 CFR 713.4 - Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production, processing, or consumption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 2 CHEMICALS § 713.4 Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production... additionally planned production, processing, or consumption of Schedule 2 chemicals. 713.4 Section...

  15. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.; Kline, S.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P. ); Duthie, R.G. )

    1990-04-01

    A project team consisting of the Institute of Gas Technology, Peabody Holding Company, Inc., and Bechtel National, Inc., is developing a mild gasification process that uses a fluidized/entrained-bed reactor. This reactor is designed to process caking bituminous coals over a wide range of particle sizes without oxidative pretreatment, and also without the use of oxygen or air as reactants. The co-product streams, consisting of char, fuel gas, water, and condensables, would be separated by conventional means such as cyclone, staged condensers, and recycle-oil scrubbers. An isothermal process research unit (PRU) has been built at IGT, consisting of an 8-inch-I.D., 8-foot-long fluidized-bed section and a 4-inch-I.D., 13-foot-long entrained flow section, externally heated by electrical heaters. This quarter, eleven mild gasification tests were conducted in the PRU. Illinois No. 6 coal was used in nine of the tests and a West Virginia metallurgical grade of coal was used in the last two tests. The tests conducted in the PRU this quarter were operated with feed rates about three times higher than those used in the last quarter. Results show the effect of process temperature on the shields of char, oils/tars, and gases. Various compositional effects on the oils/tars were also discovered. Char upgrading studies were completed for the char co-product options of smokeless fuel and adsorbent char. A total condensate collection system was designed for the PRU system. 18 figs., 22 tabs.

  16. Electrophysiological Advances on Multiple Object Processing in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Mazza, Veronica; Brignani, Debora

    2016-01-01

    EEG research conducted in the past 5 years on multiple object processing has begun to define how the aging brain tracks the numerosity of the objects presented in the visual field for different goals. We review the recent EEG findings in healthy older individuals (age range: 65–75 years approximately) on perceptual, attentional and memory mechanisms-reflected in the N1, N2pc and contralateral delayed activity (CDA) components of the EEG, respectively-during the execution of a variety of cognitive tasks requiring simultaneous processing of multiple elements. The findings point to multiple loci of neural changes in multi-object analysis, and suggest the involvement of early perceptual mechanisms, attentive individuation and working memory (WM) operations in the neural and cognitive modification due to aging. However, the findings do not simply reflect early impairments with a cascade effect over subsequent stages of stimulus processing, but in fact highlight interesting dissociations between the effects occurring at the various stages of stimulus processing. Finally, the results on older adults indicate the occurrence of neural overactivation in association to good levels of performance in easy perceptual contexts, thus providing some hints on the existence of compensatory phenomena that are associated with the functioning of early perceptual mechanisms. PMID:26973520

  17. Advances in time-dependent methods for multiphoton processes

    SciTech Connect

    Kulander, K.C.; Schafer, K.J.; Krause, J.L.

    1990-09-01

    This paper discusses recent theoretical results on above threshold ionization harmonic generation and high-frequency, high intensity suppression of ionization. These studies of multiphoton processes in atoms and molecules for short, intense pulsed optical lasers have been carried out using techniques which involve the explicit solution of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. 43 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Advanced Natural Language Processing and Temporal Mining for Clinical Discovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehrabi, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    There has been vast and growing amount of healthcare data especially with the rapid adoption of electronic health records (EHRs) as a result of the HITECH act of 2009. It is estimated that around 80% of the clinical information resides in the unstructured narrative of an EHR. Recently, natural language processing (NLP) techniques have offered…

  19. The pultrusion process for structures on advanced aerospace transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Maywood L.; Macconochie, Ian O.; Johnson, Gary S.

    1986-01-01

    The pultrusion process, which has the potential for use in the manufacture of structures for aerospace hardware, is described. In this process, reinforcing fibers are pulled continuously through a resin system for wetting and subsequently through a heated die for polymerization. By using this process, fabrication of very long lengths of high strength, lightweight structures with consistently high quality for aerospace applications is possible. The more conventional processes involve hand lay-up, vacuum bagging, autoclaving or oven curing techniques such that lengths of structural elements produced are limited by the lengths of autoclaves or curing ovens. Several types of developmental structural elements are described in which fiberglass, aramid, graphite, and hybrid fiber systems have been used as reinforcements in an epoxy matrix and their flexural properties compared. Reinforcement fibers having tailor-made orientations which achieve tailor-made strength in the pultrusions are described. The potential aerospace applications for the pultruded products are described with advantages cited over conventional hand lay-up methods.

  20. Electrochemical Processing Tools for Advanced Copper Interconnects: An Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Madhav

    The change from vacuum-deposited aluminum to electroplated copper in 1997 brought about a paradigm shift in interconnect technology and in chip making [1]. Since then, most of the leading chip manufacturers have converted to electroplated Cu technology for chip interconnects. Cu interconnects are fabricated by dual Damascene process which is referred to a metallization patterning process by which two insulator (dielectric) levels are patterned, filled with copper, and planarized to create a metal layer consisting of vias and lines. The process steps consist of laying a sandwich of two levels of insulator and etch stop layers that are patterned as holes for vias and troughs for lines. They are then filled with a single metallization step. Finally, the excess material is removed, and the wafer is planarized by chemical mechanical polishing (CMP). While finer details of exact sequence of fabrication steps vary, the end result of forming a metal layer remains the same in which vias are formed in the lower layer, and trenches are formed in the upper layer. Electroplating enables deposition of Cu in via holes and overlying trenches in a single step thus eliminating a via/line interface and significantly reducing the cycle time. Due to these reasons and due to relatively less expensive tooling, electroplating is a cost-effective and efficient process for Cu interconnects [2, 3]. Compared with vacuum deposition processes, electroplated Cu provides improved super filling capabilities and abnormal grain growth phenomena. These properties contribute significantly to improved reliability of Cu interconnects. With the proper choice of additives and plating conditions, void-free, seam-free Damascene deposits are obtained which eliminates surface-like fast diffusion paths for Cu electromigration.

  1. Advancing microwave technology for dehydration processing of biologics.

    PubMed

    Cellemme, Stephanie L; Van Vorst, Matthew; Paramore, Elisha; Elliott, Gloria D

    2013-10-01

    Our prior work has shown that microwave processing can be effective as a method for dehydrating cell-based suspensions in preparation for anhydrous storage, yielding homogenous samples with predictable and reproducible drying times. In the current work an optimized microwave-based drying process was developed that expands upon this previous proof-of-concept. Utilization of a commercial microwave (CEM SAM 255, Matthews, NC) enabled continuous drying at variable low power settings. A new turntable was manufactured from Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMW-PE; Grainger, Lake Forest, IL) to provide for drying of up to 12 samples at a time. The new process enabled rapid and simultaneous drying of multiple samples in containment devices suitable for long-term storage and aseptic rehydration of the sample. To determine sample repeatability and consistency of drying within the microwave cavity, a concentration series of aqueous trehalose solutions were dried for specific intervals and water content assessed using Karl Fischer Titration at the end of each processing period. Samples were dried on Whatman S-14 conjugate release filters (Whatman, Maidestone, UK), a glass fiber membrane used currently in clinical laboratories. The filters were cut to size for use in a 13 mm Swinnex(®) syringe filter holder (Millipore(™), Billerica, MA). Samples of 40 μL volume could be dehydrated to the equilibrium moisture content by continuous processing at 20% with excellent sample-to-sample repeatability. The microwave-assisted procedure enabled high throughput, repeatable drying of multiple samples, in a manner easily adaptable for drying a wide array of biological samples. Depending on the tolerance for sample heating, the drying time can be altered by changing the power level of the microwave unit.

  2. Advanced Materials Intelligent Processing Center (AMIPC): Manufacturing for Multi-Functionality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-31

    through the development and use of Resin Transfer Molding ( RTM ) and Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding ( VARTM ) to address processing, sensing, and...intelligent processing has been advanced through the development and use of Resin Transfer Molding VRTM) and Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding ( VARTm ...16 Task 4B: Process Developments: Resin Bleeding During VARTM Infusion ....................... _18 Task 5

  3. Advanced precoat filtration and competitive processes for water purification. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L.K.; Wang, M.H.S.

    1989-01-28

    An advanced precoat filtration process system is introduced. Also presented and discussed are major competitive processes for water purification, such as conventional precoat filtration, conventional physical-chemical process, lime softening, carbon adsorption, ion exchange, activated alumina, reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration, microfiltration, electrodialysis, and packed aeration column.

  4. Cyclone reduction of taconite. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, P.R.; Bartlett, R.W.; Abdel-latif, M.A.; Hou, X.; Kumar, P.

    1995-05-01

    A cyclone reactor system for the partial reduction and melting of taconite concentrate fines has been engineered, designed and operated. A non-transferred arc plasma torch was employed as a heat source. Taconite fines, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide were fed axially into the reactor, while the plasma gas was introduced tangentially into the cyclone. The average reactor temperature was maintained at above 1400{degrees}C, and reduction experiments were performed under various conditions. The influence of the following parameters on the reduction of taconite was investigated experimentally; carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide inlet feed ratio, carbon monoxide inlet partial pressure, and average reactor temperature. The interactions of the graphite lining with carbon dioxide and taconite were also studied. An attempt was made to characterize the flow behavior of the molten product within the cyclone. The results suggest that the system may approach a plug flow reactor, with little back mixing. Finally, a fundamental mathematical model was developed. The model describes the flow dynamics of gases and solid particles in a cyclone reactor, energy exchange, mass transfer, and the chemical kinetics associated with cyclone smelting of taconite concentrate fines. The influence of the various parameters on the reduction and melting of taconite particles was evaluated theoretically.

  5. Raindrop Size Distribution Measurements in Tropical Cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokay, A.; Bashor, P. G.; Habib, E.; Kasparis, T. C.

    2006-12-01

    Measurements of the raindrop size distribution (RSD) have been collected in tropical cyclones and hurricanes with an impact type disdrometer during the past three Atlantic hurricane seasons. The measurements were taken at Wallops Island, Virginia, Lafayette, Louisiana, and Orlando, Florida. The RSDs from the remnants of tropical cyclones or hurricanes at 40 dBZ agreed well with each other where the mean mass diameter was 1.65-1.7 mm, and the total concentration had a range of 600 to 800 drops/m3. Assuming the normalized gamma size distribution, the shape parameter will be 5-8 to satisfy the observed rain rate of 18-20 mm/hr. If the observations were taken during the extratropical phase of the storm where the tropical cyclone merges with a frontal system, the composite spectra at 40 dBZ include more large drops and less small to mid-size drops, typical for continental thunderstorms. Thus, the mean mass diameter was larger, while total concentration, and rain rate was less in extratropical cyclones than in tropical cyclones.

  6. Citizen scientists analyzing tropical cyclone intensities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennon, Christopher C.

    2012-10-01

    A new crowd sourcing project called CycloneCenter enables the public to analyze historical global tropical cyclone (TC) intensities. The primary goal of CycloneCenter, which launched in mid-September, is to resolve discrepancies in the recent global TC record arising principally from inconsistent development of tropical cyclone intensity data. The historical TC record is composed of data sets called "best tracks," which contain a forecast agency's best assessment of TC tracks and intensities. Best track data have improved in quality since the beginning of the geostationary satellite era in the 1960s (because TCs could no longer disappear from sight). However, a global compilation of best track data (International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship (IBTrACS)) has brought to light large interagency differences between some TC best track intensities, even in the recent past [Knapp et al., 2010Knapp et al., 2010]. For example, maximum wind speed estimates for Tropical Cyclone Gay (1989) differed by as much as 70 knots as it was tracked by three different agencies.

  7. Dust cyclone technology for gins – A literature review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dust cyclone research leading to more efficient designs has helped the cotton ginning industry to comply with increasingly stringent air quality regulations governing fine particulate emissions. Future changes in regulations may require additional improvements in dust cyclone efficacy. This inter-...

  8. Process Systems Engineering R&D for Advanced Fossil Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zitney, S.E.

    2007-09-11

    This presentation will examine process systems engineering R&D needs for application to advanced fossil energy (FE) systems and highlight ongoing research activities at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under the auspices of a recently launched Collaboratory for Process & Dynamic Systems Research. The three current technology focus areas include: 1) High-fidelity systems with NETL's award-winning Advanced Process Engineering Co-Simulator (APECS) technology for integrating process simulation with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and virtual engineering concepts, 2) Dynamic systems with R&D on plant-wide IGCC dynamic simulation, control, and real-time training applications, and 3) Systems optimization including large-scale process optimization, stochastic simulation for risk/uncertainty analysis, and cost estimation. Continued R&D aimed at these and other key process systems engineering models, methods, and tools will accelerate the development of advanced gasification-based FE systems and produce increasingly valuable outcomes for DOE and the Nation.

  9. Recent advances in brain physiology and cognitive processing.

    PubMed

    Alfredo, Pereira; Pereira, Maria Alice Ornellas; Furlan, Fábio Augusto

    2011-01-01

    The discovery of participation of astrocytes as active elements in glutamatergic tripartite synapses (composed by functional units of two neurons and one astrocyte) has led to the construction of models of cognitive functioning in the human brain, focusing on associative learning, sensory integration, conscious processing and memory formation/retrieval. We have modelled human cognitive functions by means of an ensemble of functional units (tripartite synapses) connected by gap junctions that link distributed astrocytes, allowing the formation of intra- and intercellular calcium waves that putatively mediate large-scale cognitive information processing. The model contains a diagram of molecular mechanisms present in tripartite synapses and contributes to explain the physiological bases of cognitive functions. It can be potentially expanded to explain emotional functions and psychiatric phenomena.

  10. Virtual Welded - Joint Design Integrating Advanced Materials and Processing Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zhishang; Ludewig, Howard W.; Babu, S. Suresh

    2005-06-30

    Virtual Welede-Joint Design, a systematic modeling approach, has been developed in this project to predict the relationship of welding process, microstructure, properties, residual stress, and the ultimate weld fatique strength. This systematic modeling approach was applied in the welding of high strength steel. A special welding wire was developed in this project to introduce compressive residual stress at weld toe. The results from both modeling and experiments demonstrated that more than 10x fatique life improvement can be acheived in high strength steel welds by the combination of compressive residual stress from the special welding wire and the desired weld bead shape from a unique welding process. The results indicate a technology breakthrough in the design of lightweight and high fatique performance welded structures using high strength steels.

  11. Advanced metal mirror processing for tactical ISR systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, John P.

    2013-05-01

    Using its patented VQ™ finishing process, Raytheon EO Innovations has been producing low-scatter, low-figure and affordable aluminum 6061-based mirrors for long stand-off intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) systems in production since 2005. These common aperture multispectral systems require λ/30 root mean square (RMS) surface figure and sub-20Å RMS finishes for optimal visible imaging performance. This paper discusses the process results, scatter performance, and fabrication capabilities of Multispectral Reflective Lightweight Optics Technology (MeRLOT™), a new lightweight substrate material. This new technology enables lightweight, common-aperture, broadband performance that can be put in the hands of the warfighter for precision targeting and surveillance operations.

  12. Advanced Image Processing for Defect Visualization in Infrared Thermography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plotnikov, Yuri A.; Winfree, William P.

    1997-01-01

    Results of a defect visualization process based on pulse infrared thermography are presented. Algorithms have been developed to reduce the amount of operator participation required in the process of interpreting thermographic images. The algorithms determine the defect's depth and size from the temporal and spatial thermal distributions that exist on the surface of the investigated object following thermal excitation. A comparison of the results from thermal contrast, time derivative, and phase analysis methods for defect visualization are presented. These comparisons are based on three dimensional simulations of a test case representing a plate with multiple delaminations. Comparisons are also based on experimental data obtained from a specimen with flat bottom holes and a composite panel with delaminations.

  13. Combining advanced imaging processing and low cost remote imaging capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohrer, Matthew J.; McQuiddy, Brian

    2008-04-01

    Target images are very important for evaluating the situation when Unattended Ground Sensors (UGS) are deployed. These images add a significant amount of information to determine the difference between hostile and non-hostile activities, the number of targets in an area, the difference between animals and people, the movement dynamics of targets, and when specific activities of interest are taking place. The imaging capabilities of UGS systems need to provide only target activity and not images without targets in the field of view. The current UGS remote imaging systems are not optimized for target processing and are not low cost. McQ describes in this paper an architectural and technologic approach for significantly improving the processing of images to provide target information while reducing the cost of the intelligent remote imaging capability.

  14. Advanced processing of the Zerodur R glass ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx, Thomas A.

    1991-11-01

    The Zerodur glass ceramic is an extraordinary material possessing a very low thermal expansion over a broad temperature range. Depending on the size of the castings, a continuous or a discontinuous melting technology is used in the manufacture of Zerodur. Continuous melters are being operated regularly in Germany and recently in the United States. The latest generation of discontinuous melters started production of 8.2 m spincast telescope blanks in early 1991. Zerodur fusion is a special process to generate lightweighted mirror blanks and special components. It requires glassy material and generates bonds that are as strong as the bulk material. Further process development such as waterjet cutting and insertion technologies are underway and may generate components of unique shapes and performance.

  15. Electric power processing, distribution and control for advanced aerospace vehicles.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krausz, A.; Felch, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    The results of a current study program to develop a rational basis for selection of power processing, distribution, and control configurations for future aerospace vehicles including the Space Station, Space Shuttle, and high-performance aircraft are presented. Within the constraints imposed by the characteristics of power generation subsystems and the load utilization equipment requirements, the power processing, distribution and control subsystem can be optimized by selection of the proper distribution voltage, frequency, and overload/fault protection method. It is shown that, for large space vehicles which rely on static energy conversion to provide electric power, high-voltage dc distribution (above 100 V dc) is preferable to conventional 28 V dc and 115 V ac distribution per MIL-STD-704A. High-voltage dc also has advantages over conventional constant frequency ac systems in many aircraft applications due to the elimination of speed control, wave shaping, and synchronization equipment.

  16. Simulating data processing for an Advanced Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Chavarría-Miranda, Daniel; Clowers, Brian H.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Belov, Mikhail E.

    2007-11-03

    We have designed and implemented a Cray XD-1-based sim- ulation of data capture and signal processing for an ad- vanced Ion Mobility mass spectrometer (Hadamard trans- form Ion Mobility). Our simulation is a hybrid application that uses both an FPGA component and a CPU-based soft- ware component to simulate Ion Mobility mass spectrome- try data processing. The FPGA component includes data capture and accumulation, as well as a more sophisticated deconvolution algorithm based on a PNNL-developed en- hancement to standard Hadamard transform Ion Mobility spectrometry. The software portion is in charge of stream- ing data to the FPGA and collecting results. We expect the computational and memory addressing logic of the FPGA component to be portable to an instrument-attached FPGA board that can be interfaced with a Hadamard transform Ion Mobility mass spectrometer.

  17. Advanced Polymer Composite Molding Through Intelligent Process Analysis and Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-30

    assisted resin transfer molding ( VARTM ) and Seemann Composite Resin Infusion Molding Process (SCRIMPT M). All variations of RTM are suitable for the...numerical simulations have been used to design the vent and gate locations for molds used for RTM , VARTM and SCRIMPTM [2,3,7-14]. Regardless of the research...200 Words) To prevent dry spot formation in RTM , a control interface and four different adaptive control algorithms were developed and tested with

  18. Advanced dynamical risk analysis for monitoring anaerobic digestion process.

    PubMed

    Hess, Jonathan; Bernard, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    Methanogenic fermentation involves a natural ecosystem that can be used for waste water treatment. This anaerobic process can have two locally stable steady-states and an unstable one making the process hard to handle. The aim of this work is to propose analytical criteria to detect hazardous working modes, namely situations where the system evolves towards the acidification of the plant. We first introduce a commonly used simplified model and recall its main properties. To assess the evolution of the system we study the phase plane and split it into nineteen zones according to some qualitative traits. Then a methodology is introduced to monitor in real-time the trajectory of the system across these zones and determine its position in the plane. It leads to a dynamical risk index based on the analysis of the transitions from one zone to another, and generates a classification of the zones according to their dangerousness. Finally the proposed strategy is applied to a virtual process based on model ADM1. It is worth noting that the proposed approach do not rely on the value of the parameters and is thus very robust.

  19. Advanced information processing system: Hosting of advanced guidance, navigation and control algorithms on AIPS using ASTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenner, Richard; Lala, Jaynarayan H.; Nagle, Gail A.; Schor, Andrei; Turkovich, John

    1994-01-01

    This program demonstrated the integration of a number of technologies that can increase the availability and reliability of launch vehicles while lowering costs. Availability is increased with an advanced guidance algorithm that adapts trajectories in real-time. Reliability is increased with fault-tolerant computers and communication protocols. Costs are reduced by automatically generating code and documentation. This program was realized through the cooperative efforts of academia, industry, and government. The NASA-LaRC coordinated the effort, while Draper performed the integration. Georgia Institute of Technology supplied a weak Hamiltonian finite element method for optimal control problems. Martin Marietta used MATLAB to apply this method to a launch vehicle (FENOC). Draper supplied the fault-tolerant computing and software automation technology. The fault-tolerant technology includes sequential and parallel fault-tolerant processors (FTP & FTPP) and authentication protocols (AP) for communication. Fault-tolerant technology was incrementally incorporated. Development culminated with a heterogeneous network of workstations and fault-tolerant computers using AP. Draper's software automation system, ASTER, was used to specify a static guidance system based on FENOC, navigation, flight control (GN&C), models, and the interface to a user interface for mission control. ASTER generated Ada code for GN&C and C code for models. An algebraic transform engine (ATE) was developed to automatically translate MATLAB scripts into ASTER.

  20. Molecular beam epitaxy for advanced gate stack materials and processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Locquet, Jean-Pierre

    2005-03-01

    The material requirements for future CMOS generations - as given by the ITRS roadmap - are very challenging. This includes a high K dielectric without a low K interfacial layer, a high mobility channel and the appropriate metal gate. With the help of two projects INVEST and ET4US, we are building up a molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) infrastructure to grow this material set on large area wafers that can be further processed into small scale devices. In the INVEST project, we have developed an MBE system for the growth of complex oxides on semiconductors. The system follows the overall design of a production tool and is equipped with an RF atomic oxygen source, effusion cells, e-beam evaporators and a differential pumping stage. The oxide growth process starts with desorbing the initial surface oxide on the Si wafers in ultra-high vacuum and high temperature to create a clean reconstructed 2x1 surface. Using the atomic oxygen it is possible to oxidize the surface in a well controlled manner at low temperature and to grow very thin and dense SiOx layers, followed by the growth of 2-6 nm amorphous high K dielectrics. The process parameters permit to tune the interface layer from a SiOx rich to a silicide rich interface with a significant impact on the capacitance and the leakage. Initial focus is on developing an optimized growth recipe for high quality amorphous HfO2 and LaHfO3.5 films. This recipe was subsequently used to make wafers for a transistor batch that gave us the first N short channel MBE MOSFET's (100 nm) using an etched gate process flow. Some highlights of the first batch for 3nm HfO2 MOSFET are a high mobility (> 270 cm^2/Vs) with a corresponding low leakage current of 2 mA/cm^2). While there were some process issues for LaHfO3.5, the 3 nm MOSFET showed very low leakage currents below 10-6 A/cm^2. Interestingly all the LaHFO3.5 MOSFETs showed very low threshold voltage instabilities. In collaboration with C. Marchiori, M. Sousa, A.Guiller, H. Siegwart, D

  1. Investigation of Advanced Processed Single-Crystal Turbine Blade Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, B. J.; Biondo, C. M.; DeLuca, D. P.

    1995-01-01

    This investigation studied the influence of thermal processing and microstructure on the mechanical properties of the single-crystal, nickel-based superalloys PWA 1482 and PWA 1484. The objective of the program was to develop an improved single-crystal turbine blade alloy that is specifically tailored for use in hydrogen fueled rocket engine turbopumps. High-gradient casting, hot isostatic pressing (HIP), and alternate heat treatment (HT) processing parameters were developed to produce pore-free, eutectic-free microstructures with different (gamma)' precipitate morphologies. Test materials were cast in high thermal gradient solidification (greater than 30 C/cm (137 F/in.)) casting furnaces for reduced dendrite arm spacing, improved chemical homogeneity, and reduced interdendritic pore size. The HIP processing was conducted in 40 cm (15.7 in.) diameter production furnaces using a set of parameters selected from a trial matrix study. Metallography was conducted on test samples taken from each respective trial run to characterize the as-HIP microstructure. Post-HIP alternate HT processes were developed for each of the two alloys. The goal of the alternate HT processing was to fully solution the eutectic gamma/(gamma)' phase islands and to develop a series of modified (gamma)' morphologies for subsequent characterization testing. This was accomplished by slow cooling through the (gamma)' solvus at controlled rates to precipitate volume fractions of large (gamma)'. Post-solution alternate HT parameters were established for each alloy providing additional volume fractions of finer precipitates. Screening tests included tensile, high-cycle fatigue (HCF), smooth and notched low-cycle fatigue (LCF), creep, and fatigue crack growth evaluations performed in air and high pressure (34.5 MPa (5 ksi)) hydrogen at room and elevated temperature. Under the most severe embrittling conditions (HCF and smooth and notched LCF in 34.5 MPa (5 ksi) hydrogen at 20 C (68 F), screening test

  2. The Intense Arctic Cyclone of Early August 2012: A Dynamically Driven Cyclogenesis Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosart, L. F.; Turchioe, A.; Adamchcik, E.

    2013-12-01

    A series of surface cyclones formed along an anomalously strong northeast-southwest oriented baroclinic zone over north-central Russia on 1-3 August 2012. These cyclones moved northeastward, intensified slowly, and crossed the coast of Russia by 4 August. The last cyclone in the series strengthened rapidly as it moved poleward over the Arctic Ocean on 5-6 August, achieved a minimum sea level pressure of < 965 hPa by 6 August, and was arguably the most intense storm system to impact the Arctic Ocean in the modern data record going back to the International Geophysical Year in 1957-1958. The purpose of this presentation is to illustrate the structure and life cycle of this Arctic Ocean cyclone from a multiscale perspective. Anticyclonic wave breaking in the upper troposphere across Russia in late July and very early August 2012 created an anomalously strong baroclinic zone across northern Asia between 60-80°N. During 1-5 August, negative 850 hPa temperature anomalies between -2° and -4°C were found poleward of 70-75°N between 90°E and the Dateline over the Arctic Ocean while positive 850 hPa temperature anomalies of 8-9°C were found over eastern Russia near 60°N. The associated anomalously strong 850 hPa meridional temperature gradient of ~10°C (2000 km)-1 helped to sustain an anomalously strong (20-30 m s-1) 250 hPa jet along the coast of northeastern Russia. A local wind speed maximum (~50 m s-1 ) embedded in this 250 hPa jet corridor contributed to the extreme intensity of the trailing (last) surface cyclone in the series. Although the dominant surface cyclone in the series of surface cyclones intensified most rapidly over the relatively ice free Arctic Ocean, the impact of surface heat and moisture fluxes appeared to be secondary to jet-driven dynamical processes in the deepening process. Anomalously high observed 1000-500 hPa thickness values between 564-570 dam, precipitable water values between 30-40 mm, and CAPE values between 500-1000 J kg-1 in the

  3. Processing of alnico permanent magnets by advanced directional solidification methods

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, Min; Johnson, Francis; Zhang, Wanming; Zhao, Qi; Rutkowski, Stephen F.; Zhou, Lin; Kramer, Matthew J.

    2016-07-05

    Advanced directional solidification methods have been used to produce large (>15 cm length) castings of Alnico permanent magnets with highly oriented columnar microstructures. In combination with subsequent thermomagnetic and draw thermal treatment, this method was used to enable the high coercivity, high-Titanium Alnico composition of 39% Co, 29.5% Fe, 14% Ni, 7.5% Ti, 7% Al, 3% Cu (wt%) to have an intrinsic coercivity (Hci) of 2.0 kOe, a remanence (Br) of 10.2 kG, and an energy product (BH)max of 10.9 MGOe. These properties compare favorably to typical properties for the commercial Alnico 9. Directional solidification of higher Ti compositions yielded anisotropic columnar grained microstructures if high heat extraction rates through the mold surface of at least 200 kW/m2 were attained. This was achieved through the use of a thin walled (5 mm thick) high thermal conductivity SiC shell mold extracted from a molten Sn bath at a withdrawal rate of at least 200 mm/h. However, higher Ti compositions did not result in further increases in magnet performance. Images of the microstructures collected by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveal a majority α phase with inclusions of secondary αγ phase. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals that the α phase has a spinodally decomposed microstructure of FeCo-rich needles in a NiAl-rich matrix. In the 7.5% Ti composition the diameter distribution of the FeCo needles was bimodal with the majority having diameters of approximately 50 nm with a small fraction having diameters of approximately 10 nm. The needles formed a mosaic pattern and were elongated along one <001> crystal direction (parallel to the field used during magnetic annealing). Cu precipitates were observed between the needles. Regions of abnormal spinodal morphology appeared to correlate with secondary phase precipitates. The presence of these abnormalities did not prevent the material from displaying

  4. Processing of alnico permanent magnets by advanced directional solidification methods

    DOE PAGES

    Zou, Min; Johnson, Francis; Zhang, Wanming; ...

    2016-07-05

    Advanced directional solidification methods have been used to produce large (>15 cm length) castings of Alnico permanent magnets with highly oriented columnar microstructures. In combination with subsequent thermomagnetic and draw thermal treatment, this method was used to enable the high coercivity, high-Titanium Alnico composition of 39% Co, 29.5% Fe, 14% Ni, 7.5% Ti, 7% Al, 3% Cu (wt%) to have an intrinsic coercivity (Hci) of 2.0 kOe, a remanence (Br) of 10.2 kG, and an energy product (BH)max of 10.9 MGOe. These properties compare favorably to typical properties for the commercial Alnico 9. Directional solidification of higher Ti compositions yieldedmore » anisotropic columnar grained microstructures if high heat extraction rates through the mold surface of at least 200 kW/m2 were attained. This was achieved through the use of a thin walled (5 mm thick) high thermal conductivity SiC shell mold extracted from a molten Sn bath at a withdrawal rate of at least 200 mm/h. However, higher Ti compositions did not result in further increases in magnet performance. Images of the microstructures collected by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveal a majority α phase with inclusions of secondary αγ phase. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals that the α phase has a spinodally decomposed microstructure of FeCo-rich needles in a NiAl-rich matrix. In the 7.5% Ti composition the diameter distribution of the FeCo needles was bimodal with the majority having diameters of approximately 50 nm with a small fraction having diameters of approximately 10 nm. The needles formed a mosaic pattern and were elongated along one <001> crystal direction (parallel to the field used during magnetic annealing). Cu precipitates were observed between the needles. Regions of abnormal spinodal morphology appeared to correlate with secondary phase precipitates. The presence of these abnormalities did not prevent the material from displaying superior magnetic properties in the 7.5% Ti

  5. Processing of alnico permanent magnets by advanced directional solidification methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Min; Johnson, Francis; Zhang, Wanming; Zhao, Qi; Rutkowski, Stephen F.; Zhou, Lin; Kramer, Matthew J.

    2016-12-01

    Advanced directional solidification methods have been used to produce large (>15 cm length) castings of Alnico permanent magnets with highly oriented columnar microstructures. In combination with subsequent thermomagnetic and draw thermal treatment, this method was used to enable the high coercivity, high-Titanium Alnico composition of 39% Co, 29.5% Fe, 14% Ni, 7.5% Ti, 7% Al, 3% Cu (wt%) to have an intrinsic coercivity (Hci) of 2.0 kOe, a remanence (Br) of 10.2 kG, and an energy product (BH)max of 10.9 MGOe. These properties compare favorably to typical properties for the commercial Alnico 9. Directional solidification of higher Ti compositions yielded anisotropic columnar grained microstructures if high heat extraction rates through the mold surface of at least 200 kW/m2 were attained. This was achieved through the use of a thin walled (5 mm thick) high thermal conductivity SiC shell mold extracted from a molten Sn bath at a withdrawal rate of at least 200 mm/h. However, higher Ti compositions did not result in further increases in magnet performance. Images of the microstructures collected by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveal a majority α phase with inclusions of secondary αγ phase. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals that the α phase has a spinodally decomposed microstructure of FeCo-rich needles in a NiAl-rich matrix. In the 7.5% Ti composition the diameter distribution of the FeCo needles was bimodal with the majority having diameters of approximately 50 nm with a small fraction having diameters of approximately 10 nm. The needles formed a mosaic pattern and were elongated along one <001> crystal direction (parallel to the field used during magnetic annealing). Cu precipitates were observed between the needles. Regions of abnormal spinodal morphology appeared to correlate with secondary phase precipitates. The presence of these abnormalities did not prevent the material from displaying superior magnetic properties in the 7.5% Ti

  6. Augmentation of Early Intensity Forecasting in Tropical Cyclones

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    1 Augmentation of Early Intensity Forecasting in Tropical Cyclones J. Scott Tyo College of Optical Sciences University of Arizona Tucson, AZ...automatic intensity estimator of Tropical Cyclones (TCs) based on satellite infrared (IR) imagery. The proposed methodology analyzes the TC’s structure to...procedure to objectively estimate the intensity of tropical cyclones . The level of axisymmetry of tropical cyclones is quantified by calcualting the

  7. Advanced Simulation Technology to Design Etching Process on CMOS Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuboi, Nobuyuki

    2015-09-01

    Prediction and control of plasma-induced damage is needed to mass-produce high performance CMOS devices. In particular, side-wall (SW) etching with low damage is a key process for the next generation of MOSFETs and FinFETs. To predict and control the damage, we have developed a SiN etching simulation technique for CHxFy/Ar/O2 plasma processes using a three-dimensional (3D) voxel model. This model includes new concepts for the gas transportation in the pattern, detailed surface reactions on the SiN reactive layer divided into several thin slabs and C-F polymer layer dependent on the H/N ratio, and use of ``smart voxels''. We successfully predicted the etching properties such as the etch rate, polymer layer thickness, and selectivity for Si, SiO2, and SiN films along with process variations and demonstrated the 3D damage distribution time-dependently during SW etching on MOSFETs and FinFETs. We confirmed that a large amount of Si damage was caused in the source/drain region with the passage of time in spite of the existing SiO2 layer of 15 nm in the over etch step and the Si fin having been directly damaged by a large amount of high energy H during the removal step of the parasitic fin spacer leading to Si fin damage to a depth of 14 to 18 nm. By analyzing the results of these simulations and our previous simulations, we found that it is important to carefully control the dose of high energy H, incident energy of H, polymer layer thickness, and over-etch time considering the effects of the pattern structure, chamber-wall condition, and wafer open area ratio. In collaboration with Masanaga Fukasawa and Tetsuya Tatsumi, Sony Corporation. We thank Mr. T. Shigetoshi and Mr. T. Kinoshita of Sony Corporation for their assistance with the experiments.

  8. Carbon formation and metal dusting in advanced coal gasification processes

    SciTech Connect

    DeVan, J.H.; Tortorelli, P.F.; Judkins, R.R.; Wright, I.G.

    1997-02-01

    The product gases generated by coal gasification systems contain high concentrations of CO and, characteristically, have relatively high carbon activities. Accordingly, carbon deposition and metal dusting can potentially degrade the operation of such gasifier systems. Therefore, the product gas compositions of eight representative gasifier systems were examined with respect to the carbon activity of the gases at temperatures ranging from 480 to 1,090 C. Phase stability calculations indicated that Fe{sub 3}C is stable only under very limited thermodynamic conditions and with certain kinetic assumptions and that FeO and Fe{sub 0.877}S tend to form instead of the carbide. As formation of Fe{sub 3}C is a necessary step in the metal dusting of steels, there are numerous gasifier environments where this type of carbon-related degradation will not occur, particularly under conditions associated with higher oxygen and sulfur activities. These calculations also indicated that the removal of H{sub 2}S by a hot-gas cleanup system may have less effect on the formation of Fe{sub 3}C in air-blown gasifier environments, where the iron oxide phase can exist and is unaffected by the removal of sulfur, than in oxygen-blown systems, where iron sulfide provides the only potential barrier to Fe{sub 3}C formation. Use of carbon- and/or low-alloy steels dictates that the process gas composition be such that Fe{sub 3}C cannot form if the potential for metal dusting is to be eliminated. Alternatively, process modifications could include the reintroduction of hydrogen sulfide, cooling the gas to perhaps as low as 400 C and/or steam injection. If higher-alloy steels are used, a hydrogen sulfide-free gas may be processed without concern about carbon deposition and metal dusting.

  9. Advanced Silicon Microring Resonator Devices for Optical Signal Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masilamani, Ashok Prabhu

    Chip level optical interconnects has gained momentum with recent demonstrations of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) based photonic modules such as lasers, modulators, wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) filters, etc. A fundamental building block that has enabled many of these silicon photonic modules is the compact, high Q factor microring resonator cavity. However, most of these demonstrations have WDM processing components based on simple add-drop filters that cannot realize the dense WDM systems required for the chip level interconnects. Dense WDM filters have stringent spectral shape requirements such as flat-top filter passband, steep band transition etc. Optical filters that can meet these specifications involve precise placement of the poles and zeros of the filter transfer function. Realization of such filters requires the use of multiple coupled microring resonators arranged in complex coupling topologies. In this thesis we have proposed and demonstrated new multiple coupled resonator topologies based on compact microring resonators in SOI material system. First we explored novel microring architectures which resulted in the proposal of two new coupled microring architectures, namely, the general 2D microring array topology and the general cascaded microring network topology. We also developed the synthesis procedures for these two microring architectures. The second part of this thesis focussed on the demonstration of the proposed architectures in the SOI material system. To accomplish this, a fabrication process for SOI was developed at the UofA Nanofab facility. Using this process, ultra-compact single microring filters with microring radii as small as 1mum were demonstrated. Higher order filter demonstration with multiple microrings necessitated post-fabrication microring resonance tuning. We developed additional fabrication steps to install micro heaters on top of the microrings to thermally tune its resonance. Subsequently, a thermally tuned fourth

  10. Recent advances in processing and characterization of edgeless detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, X.; Kalliopuska, J.; Eränen, S.; Virolainen, T.

    2012-02-01

    During past five years VTT has actively developed edgeless detector fabrication process. The straightforward and high yield process relies on ion-implantation to activate the edges of the detector. A recent fabrication process was performed at VTT to provide p-on-n edgeless detectors. The layout contained DC- and AC-coupled strip detector and pixel detectors for Medipix/Timepix readouts. The fabricated detector thicknesses were 50, 100 and 150 μm. Electrical characterization was done for 5 × 5 mm2 edgeless diodes on wafer level. All measured electrical parameters showed a dramatic dependence on the diode thickness. Leakage current was measured below 10 nA/cm2 at full depletion. Calculation using a theoretical approximation indicates the diode surface generation current of less than 300 pA. The breakdown voltages were measured to be above 140 V and increased as a function of diode thickness. Reverse bias of 10 V is enough to fully deplete designed edgeless diodes. Leakage current dependence of temperature was investigated for both p-on-n and previous n-on-n edgeless detectors and results show that the leakage current doubles for every 8.5 degree Celsius rise in temperature. TCAD device simulations reveal that breakdown occurs at the lateral p-n junction where the electric field reaches its highest value. Thick edgeless diodes have wider bulk space that allows electric potential to drop and causes smaller curvature of the equipotential lines. This releases the accumulation of electric field at the corner of anode and increases the breakdown voltage. A good match of the simulated and the measured capacitance-voltage curves enables identification of proper parameters used in the simulation.

  11. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes, Volume III

    SciTech Connect

    Ghani, M.U.; Hobbs, M.L.; Hamblen, D.G.

    1993-08-01

    A generalized one-dimensional, heterogeneous, steady-state, fixed-bed model for coal gasification and combustion is presented. The model, FBED-1, is a design and analysis tool that can be used to simulate a variety of gasification, devolatilization, and combustion processes. The model considers separate gas and solid temperatures, axially variable solid and gas flow rates, variable bed void fraction, coal drying, devolatilization based on chemical functional group composition, depolymerization, vaporization and crosslinking, oxidation, and gasification of char, and partial equilibrium in the gas phase.

  12. Advances in Coupling of Kinetics and Molecular Scale Tools to Shed Light on Soil Biogeochemical Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Sparks, Donald

    2014-09-02

    Biogeochemical processes in soils such as sorption, precipitation, and redox play critical roles in the cycling and fate of nutrients, metal(loid)s and organic chemicals in soil and water environments. Advanced analytical tools enable soil scientists to track these processes in real-time and at the molecular scale. Our review focuses on recent research that has employed state-of-the-art molecular scale spectroscopy, coupled with kinetics, to elucidate the mechanisms of nutrient and metal(loid) reactivity and speciation in soils. We found that by coupling kinetics with advanced molecular and nano-scale tools major advances have been made in elucidating important soil chemical processes including sorption, precipitation, dissolution, and redox of metal(loids) and nutrients. Such advances will aid in better predicting the fate and mobility of nutrients and contaminants in soils and water and enhance environmental and agricultural sustainability.

  13. Diabatic modification of potential vorticity in extratropical cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chagnon, J.

    2012-12-01

    Representation of diabatic processes and their impact on extratropical cyclones is a likely source of skill degradation in operational numerical weather prediction systems. This investigation examines the source, structure, and magnitude of diabatic potential vorticity (PV) anomalies generated by small-scale and parameterized processes in both mesoscale and global model simulations of extratropical cyclones in the North Atlantic. Simulations of several cold season extratropical storms have been performed using the Met Office Unified Model. Several cases simulated were drawn from the DIAbatic influences on Mesoscale structures in ExTratropical cyclones (DIAMET) observational campaign during which the National Environmental Research Council (NERC) Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) BAE-146 aircraft was deployed. The influence of specific modelled processes was quantified using a set of tracers, each of which represents a history of the PV contributed by a specific segment of the model (e.g., boundary-layer scheme, cloud microphysics, convection scheme , radiation, etc.). This presentation will highlight several differences and similarities in high and low resolution simulations. For example, in high resolution simulations, tropopause folds are sharpened by a tripolar PV anomaly arising from the convection, boundary-layer, and microphysics schemes; this structure is not present in coarser global model simulations. However, a dipole of PV straddling the tropopause is diagnosed in both coarse- and fine-resolution simulations. The PV dipole, which is strongly influenced by long-wave radiative cooling, increases the gradient of PV near the tropopause and therefore modifies the characteristics Rossby wave propagation and moist baroclinic wave growth.

  14. Cyclone contribution to the Mediterranean Sea water budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flaounas, E.; Di Luca, A.; Drobinski, P.; Mailler, S.; Arsouze, T.; Bastin, S.; Beranger, K.; Lebeaupin Brossier, C.

    2016-02-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of cyclones to the atmospheric components on the Mediterranean Sea Water Budget, namely the cyclones contribution to precipitation and evaporation over the Mediterranean Sea. Three regional simulations were performed with the WRF model for the period 1989-2008. The model was run (1) as a standalone model, (2) coupled with the oceanic model NEMO-MED12 and (3) forced by the smoothed Sea Surface Temperature (SST) fields from the second simulation. Cyclones were tracked in all simulations, and their contribution to the total rainfall and evaporation was quantified. Results show that cyclones are mainly associated with extreme precipitation, representing more than 50 % of the annual rainfall over the Mediterranean Sea. On the other hand, we found that cyclone-induced evaporation represents only a small fraction of the annual total, except in winter, when the most intense Mediterranean cyclones take place. Despite the significant contribution of cyclones to rainfall, our results show that there is a balance between cyclone-induced rainfall and evaporation, suggesting a weak net impact of cyclones on the Mediterranean Sea water budget. The sensitivity of our results with respect to rapid SST changes during the development of cyclones was also investigated. Both rainfall and evaporation are affected in correlation with the SST response to the atmosphere. In fact, air feedbacks to the Mediterranean Sea during the cyclones occurrence were shown to cool down the SST and consequently to reduce rainfall and evaporation at the proximity of cyclone centers.

  15. Ensemble Data Assimilation and Predictability of Tropical Cyclones

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    on comparing and coupling the ensemble and variational data assimilation methods for tropical cyclone applications. Mr. Melhauser, who started to work...understanding of tropical cyclone predictability and further developed ensemble-based data assimilation methods for tropical cyclones. Now that we have

  16. Ensemble Data Assimilation and Predictability of Tropical Cyclones

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    comparing and coupling the ensemble and variational data assimilation methods for tropical cyclone applications using past field campaign observations...understanding of tropical cyclone predictability and further developed ensemble-based data assimilation methods for tropical cyclones. Now that we have

  17. Augmentation of Early Intensity Forecasting in Tropical Cyclones

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    Rodriguez- Herrera, Matthew E. Kucas, and James W. E. Darlow, “A Web-based Interactive Interface for Researching and Forecasting Tropical Cyclone ...Augmentation of Early Intensity Forecasting in Tropical Cyclones J. Scott Tyo College of Optical Sciences...an objective and automatic intensity estimator of Tropical Cyclones (TCs) based on satellite infrared (IR) imagery. The proposed methodology analyzes

  18. Model finds bigger, stronger tropical cyclones with warming seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2014-03-01

    In the wake of powerful tropical cyclones such as Hurricanes Sandy and Katrina and Typhoon Haiyan, questions about the likely effect of climate change on tropical cyclone activity are on the public's mind. The interactions between global warming and cyclone activity, however, are complex, with rising sea surface temperatures, changing energy distributions, and altered atmospheric dynamics all having some effect.

  19. Advanced Research Deposition System (ARDS) for processing CdTe solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barricklow, Keegan Corey

    CdTe solar cells have been commercialized at the Gigawatt/year level. The development of volume manufacturing processes for next generation CdTe photovoltaics (PV) with higher efficiencies requires research systems with flexibility, scalability, repeatability and automation. The Advanced Research Deposition Systems (ARDS) developed by the Materials Engineering Laboratory (MEL) provides such a platform for the investigation of materials and manufacturing processes necessary to produce the next generation of CdTe PV. Limited by previous research systems, the ARDS was developed to provide process and hardware flexibility, accommodating advanced processing techniques, and capable of producing device quality films. The ARDS is a unique, in-line process tool with nine processing stations. The system was designed, built and assembled at the Materials Engineering Laboratory. Final assembly, startup, characterization and process development are the focus of this research. Many technical challenges encountered during the startup of the ARDS were addressed in this research. In this study, several hardware modifications needed for the reliable operation of the ARDS were designed, constructed and successfully incorporated into the ARDS. The effect of process condition on film properties for each process step was quantified. Process development to achieve 12% efficient baseline solar cell required investigation of discrete processing steps, troubleshooting process variation, and developing performance correlations. Subsequent to this research, many advances have been demonstrated with the ARDS. The ARDS consistently produces devices of 12% +/-.5% by the process of record (POR). The champion cell produced to date utilizing the ARDS has an efficiency of 16.2% on low cost commercial sodalime glass and utilizes advanced films. The ARDS has enabled investigation of advanced concepts for processing CdTe devices including, Plasma Cleaning, Plasma Enhanced Closed Space Sublimation

  20. Combustion and Magnetohydrodynamic Processes in Advanced Pulse Detonation Rocket Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Lord Kahil

    A number of promising alternative rocket propulsion concepts have been developed over the past two decades that take advantage of unsteady combustion waves in order to produce thrust. These concepts include the Pulse Detonation Rocket Engine (PDRE), in which repetitive ignition, propagation, and reflection of detonations and shocks can create a high pressure chamber from which gases may be exhausted in a controlled manner. The Pulse Detonation Rocket Induced Magnetohydrodynamic Ejector (PDRIME) is a modification of the basic PDRE concept, developed by Cambier (1998), which has the potential for performance improvements based on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) thrust augmentation. The PDRIME has the advantage of both low combustion chamber seeding pressure, per the PDRE concept, and efficient energy distribution in the system, per the rocket-induced MHD ejector (RIME) concept of Cole, et al. (1995). In the initial part of this thesis, we explore flow and performance characteristics of different configurations of the PDRIME, assuming quasi-one-dimensional transient flow and global representations of the effects of MHD phenomena on the gas dynamics. By utilizing high-order accurate solvers, we thus are able to investigate the fundamental physical processes associated with the PDRIME and PDRE concepts and identify potentially promising operating regimes. In the second part of this investigation, the detailed coupling of detonations and electric and magnetic fields are explored. First, a one-dimensional spark-ignited detonation with complex reaction kinetics is fully evaluated and the mechanisms for the different instabilities are analyzed. It is found that complex kinetics in addition to sufficient spatial resolution are required to be able to quantify high frequency as well as low frequency detonation instability modes. Armed with this quantitative understanding, we then examine the interaction of a propagating detonation and the applied MHD, both in one-dimensional and two

  1. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research

    SciTech Connect

    Speight, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    Accomplishments for the past quarter are presented for the following five tasks: oil shale; tar sand; coal; advanced exploratory process technology; and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research covers oil shale process studies. Tar sand research is on process development of Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) Process. Coal research covers: coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts;advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process; NMR analysis of samples from the ocean drilling program; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; and solid state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens.

  2. Advanced Robotics for In-Space Vehicle Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeffrey H.; Estus, Jay; Heneghan, Cate; Bosley, John

    1990-01-01

    An analysis of spaceborne vehicle processing is described. Generic crew-EVA tasks are presented for a specific vehicle, the orbital maneuvering vehicle (OMV), with general implications to other on-orbit vehicles. The OMV is examined with respect to both servicing and maintenance. Crew-EVA activities are presented by task and mapped to a common set of generic crew-EVA primitives to identify high-demand areas for telerobot services. Similarly, a set of telerobot primitives is presented that can be used to model telerobot actions for alternative telerobot reference configurations. The telerobot primitives are tied to technologies and used for composting telerobot operations for an automated refueling scenario. Telerobotics technology issues and design accomodation guidelines (hooks and scars) for the Space Station Freedom are described.

  3. Recent advances in solution-processed inorganic nanofilm photodetectors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xi; Tian, Wei; Liao, Meiyong; Bando, Yoshio; Golberg, Dmitri

    2014-03-07

    As important opto-electronical devices, nanofilm photodetectors constructed from inorganic low-dimensional nanostructures have drawn prime attention due to their significance in basic scientific research and potential technological applications. This review highlights a selection of important topics pertinent to inorganic nanofilm photodetectors processed via solution strategies. This article begins with a description of the advantages and drawbacks of nanofilm-based photodetectors versus 1D nanostructure-based ones, and then introduces rational design and controlled syntheses of various nanofilms via different wet-chemical routes, and then mainly focuses on their optoelectronic properties and applications in photodetectors based on the different types of nanofilms. Finally, the general challenges and the potential future directions of this exciting research and technology area are presented.

  4. Novel fibrous catalyst in advanced oxidation of photographic processing effluents.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhuxian; Ishtchenko, Vera V; Huddersman, Katherine D

    2006-01-01

    A novel fibrous catalyst was used to destroy the pollutants in Kodak Non-Silver-Bearing (NSB) photographic processing effluents with high chemical oxygen demand (COD) value. The oxidation activity of the catalyst was evaluated in terms of COD reduction of the effluent. The effects of concentrations of hydrogen peroxide and effluent, amount of catalyst, reaction time and temperature on the COD reduction were studied. In addition, the combination of catalysis with UV treatment on the COD reduction of the effluent was also investigated. Based on the experimental results, room temperature is preferred for the catalytic oxidation of NSB effluent. It was found that COD reduction of the effluent depends on the amount of hydrogen peroxide added to the feed in relation to the mass of catalyst used. Significant COD reduction (up to 52%) is achieved after 4 hours of catalytic treatment. Extending the duration of catalysis up to 24 hours gives further slight decrease in COD value.

  5. The power and efficiency of advanced software and parallel processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Ramen P.; Taylor, Lawrence W., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Real-time simulation of flexible and articulating systems is difficult because of the computational burden of the time varying calculations. The mobile servicing system of the NASA Space Station Freedom will handle heavy payloads by local arm manipulations and by translating along the spline of the Station, it is crucial to have real-time simulation available. To enable such a simulation to be of high fidelity and to be able to be hosted on a modest computer, special care must be made in formulating the structural dynamics. Frontal solution algorithms save considerable time in performing these calculations. In addition, it is necessary to take advantage of parallel processing be compatible to take full advantage of both. An approach is offered which will result in high fidelity, real-time simulation for flexible, articulating systems such as the space Station remote servicing system.

  6. Advances in the numerical investigation of the immersion quenching process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, D. S.; Kopun, R.; Kosir, N.; Edelbauer, W.

    2017-01-01

    A numerical investigation of the immersion quenching process is presented in this paper. Immersion quenching is recognized as one of the common ways to achieve the desirable microstructure, and to improve the mechanical properties after thermal treatment. Furthermore it is important to prevent distortion and cracking of the cast parts. Accurate prediction of all three boiling regimes and the heat transfer inside the structure during quenching are important to finally evaluate the residual stresses and deformations of thermally treated parts. Numerical details focus on the handling of the enthalpy with variable specific heat capacity in the solid. For two application cases, comparison between measured and simulated temperatures at different monitoring positions shows very good agreement. The study demonstrates the capability of the present model to overcome the numerical challenges occurring during immersion quenching and it is capable of predicting the complex physics with good accuracy.

  7. Impact of Caribbean cyclones on the detachment of Loop Current anticyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athié, Gabriela; Candela, Julio; Ochoa, José; Sheinbaum, Julio

    2012-03-01

    The western boundary current in the North Atlantic is characterized by an intense flow (reaching 2.5 ms-1, at the surface) that enters the Caribbean Sea through the Lesser Antilles passages, crosses the entire Caribbean and enters the Gulf of Mexico through the Yucatan Channel, where it is known as the Loop Current. A characteristic feature of the Loop Current is eddy-shedding events (i.e., the detachment of large anticyclonic eddies) at irregular intervals. Moored current measurements between January 2005 and July 2009 in the Loop Current, the Yucatan Channel, and the Caribbean coastal waters of Mexico (i.e., the Western Cayman Sea), along with AVISO altimetry, are used to evidence the northward propagation of cyclonic anomalies along the Caribbean coast of Mexico and the marked eastward displacement of the Loop Current at 23°N latitude, just before several anticyclonic eddy shedding events. After entering the Gulf of Mexico, these cyclonic anomalies might initiate or enhance existing Campeche Bank cyclonic eddies, which are related to many of the Loop Current detachment events. Sixteen of the twenty-one detachments that occurred during the study period (76%) are related to the cyclonic eddies in the Western Caribbean Sea; six of them were not reattached again to the Loop Current. Observations, thus, clearly indicate that cyclonic eddies in the Western Cayman Sea contribute significantly to the Loop Current eddy-shedding process, which is complex and in principle not unique.

  8. Design of Stairmand-type sampling cyclones

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, M.E.; McFarland, A.R. )

    1990-03-01

    An empirical, nondimensional correlation of cut-point Stokes number (Stk0.5) and flow Reynolds number (Re) has been established for small Stairmand-type sampling cyclones. Four cyclones with body diameters of 38, 57, 89, and 140 mm were constructed and tested with monodisperse aerosols over a range of flow rates. The flow rates were chosen to provide preselected increments of particle Froude numbers. These flow rates for the four cyclones spanned the range of 9.4 to 1080 L/min and provided Froude numbers of 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 6.0. The resulting Reynolds numbers (based upon cyclone body diameter and inlet flow rate) covered the range of 2.1 x 10(3) to 6.4 x 10(4). Sizes of monodisperse aerosols used in this study were from 3.0- to 17.4-microns aerodynamic diameter. The graphical correlation between cut-point Stokes number and Reynolds number showed there to be no effect of Froude number (for the range of Froude numbers tested). The data have been fit by a least squares procedure to a quadratic logarithmic function. In addition to development of the empirical correlation, the results of this study also provide data pertinent to the regional deposition of liquid particles within the cyclone and to the transmission of solid particles through the cyclone. The carryover of solid, 19-microns diameter particles is only 0.5% greater than that of liquid particles of the same size.

  9. Advanced Signal Processing Methods Applied to Digital Mammography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stauduhar, Richard P.

    1997-01-01

    The work reported here is on the extension of the earlier proposal of the same title, August 1994-June 1996. The report for that work is also being submitted. The work reported there forms the foundation for this work from January 1997 to September 1997. After the earlier work was completed there were a few items that needed to be completed prior to submission of a new and more comprehensive proposal for further research. Those tasks have been completed and two new proposals have been submitted, one to NASA, and one to Health & Human Services WS). The main purpose of this extension was to refine some of the techniques that lead to automatic large scale evaluation of full mammograms. Progress on each of the proposed tasks follows. Task 1: A multiresolution segmentation of background from breast has been developed and tested. The method is based on the different noise characteristics of the two different fields. The breast field has more power in the lower octaves and the off-breast field behaves similar to a wideband process, where more power is in the high frequency octaves. After the two fields are separated by lowpass filtering, a region labeling routine is used to find the largest contiguous region, the breast. Task 2: A wavelet expansion that can decompose the image without zero padding has been developed. The method preserves all properties of the power-of-two wavelet transform and does not add appreciably to computation time or storage. This work is essential for analysis of the full mammogram, as opposed to selecting sections from the full mammogram. Task 3: A clustering method has been developed based on a simple counting mechanism. No ROC analysis has been performed (and was not proposed), so we cannot finally evaluate this work without further support. Task 4: Further testing of the filter reveals that different wavelet bases do yield slightly different qualitative results. We cannot provide quantitative conclusions about this for all possible bases

  10. Technology tradeoffs related to advanced mission waste processing.

    PubMed

    Slavin, T J; Oleson, M W

    1991-10-01

    Manned missions to the Moon and Mars will produce waste, both in liquid and solid form, from the day-to-day life-support functions of the mission--even considering a "closed" physico-chemical life support approach. An "open" life support system configuration, even one reliant on in situ resources, would result in even more waste being produced. The solution for short term missions appears to be either to store these wastes on-site or to convert them to useful products needed by other systems such as methane, water and gases which could be used for propulsion. The solution for longer term missions appears to be to incorporate their use within the life support system itself by making them a part of a closed ecological life-support system where nearly all materials are recycled. This paper discusses briefly the extent and impact of the life-support system waste production problem for a lunar base for different life support system configurations, including the impact of using in situ resources to meet life support requirements. It then discusses in more detail trade-offs among six of the currently funded physico-chemical waste processing technologies being considered for use in space.

  11. Frothing in flotation. Volume 2: Recent advances in coal processing

    SciTech Connect

    Laskowski, J.S.; Woodburn, E.T.

    1998-11-01

    This volume summarizes the achievements on various aspects of flotation froth properties and behavior, and relationship between froth appearance and flotation performance. Flotation kinetics involves a number of mass transfer processes with some of them being critically determined by the behavior of froth. Since froth is complex, and controlled experimentation is difficult, the froth phase was, until recently, either ignored or treated entirely empirically. With wide applications of flotation columns, the behavior of the froth is now often recognized as being dominant in determining flotation performance, and the research in this area is one of the most actively pursued. Contents include: Frothers and frothing; Effect of particle and bubble size on flotation kinetics; Water content and distribution in flotation froths; Mechanisms operating in flotation froths; Characterization of flotation froth; Simultaneous determination of collection zone rate constant and froth zone recovery factor; Modelling of froth dynamics with implications for feed-back control; The interrelationship between flotation variables and froth appearance; Froth image analysis in a flotation control system; Kinetic flotation modelling using froth imaging data; and Dependence of froth behavior on galvanic interactions.

  12. Development of Processing Techniques for Advanced Thermal Protection Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selvaduray, Guna; Cox, Michael; Srinivasan, Vijayakumar

    1997-01-01

    Thermal Protection Materials Branch (TPMB) has been involved in various research programs to improve the properties and structural integrity of the existing aerospace high temperature materials. Specimens from various research programs were brought into the analytical laboratory for the purpose of obtaining and refining the material characterization. The analytical laboratory in TPMB has many different instruments which were utilized to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of materials. Some of the instruments that were utilized by the SJSU students are: Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray Diffraction Spectrometer (XRD), Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Ultra Violet Spectroscopy/Visible Spectroscopy (UV/VIS), Particle Size Analyzer (PSA), and Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICP-AES). The above mentioned analytical instruments were utilized in the material characterization process of the specimens from research programs such as: aerogel ceramics (I) and (II), X-33 Blankets, ARC-Jet specimens, QUICFIX specimens and gas permeability of lightweight ceramic ablators. In addition to analytical instruments in the analytical laboratory at TPMB, there are several on-going experiments. One particular experiment allows the measurement of permeability of ceramic ablators. From these measurements, physical characteristics of the ceramic ablators can be derived.

  13. On the dynamics of synoptic scale cyclones associated with flood events in Crete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flocas, Helena; Katavoutas, George; Tsanis, Ioannis; Iordanidou, Vasiliki

    2015-04-01

    that baroclinicity is one of the most important driving mechanisms for the cyclonic deepening over the examined region. The upper level dynamics acting well before the event and the low level diabatic processes over the Aegean or the Levantine sea contribute to the large amounts of precipitation. The research reported in this paper was fully supported by the "ARISTEIA II" Action ("REINFORCE" program) of the "Operational Education and Life Long Learning programme" and is co-funded by the European Social Fund (ESF) and National Resources.

  14. An investigation of wide-angle dense-medium cycloning for the recovery of metal and aggregate from fine slag.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Eric R; Klima, Mark S

    2006-01-01

    An investigation was carried out to evaluate the feasibility of using wide-angle dense-medium cycloning to process a fine (-600 microm) stainless-steel slag. The slag was characterized by size and density using a combination of sieving and pycnometer measurements. Separation testing was carried out using a laboratory dense-medium cyclone to concentrate the stainless-steel fraction and produce a low-metal aggregate material. The effects of cyclone geometry (cone angle, underflow diameter, overflow diameter, cylinder length, and vortex finder length) and medium density on cyclone performance were evaluated. A Plackett-Burman statistical design was used to determine the significant variables as related to recovery and purity of the metal and aggregate products. Based on these results, full-factorial designs were performed at two different medium densities. Regression models relating the significant variables to product recovery and purity were developed for both the metal and aggregate fractions.

  15. Process control integration requirements for advanced life support systems applicable to manned space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spurlock, Paul; Spurlock, Jack M.; Evanich, Peggy L.

    1991-01-01

    An overview of recent developments in process-control technology which might have applications in future advanced life support systems for long-duration space operations is presented. Consideration is given to design criteria related to control system selection and optimization, and process-control interfacing methodology. Attention is also given to current life support system process control strategies, innovative sensors, instrumentation and control, and innovations in process supervision.

  16. Toluene vapor capture by activated carbon particles in a dual gas-solid cyclone system.

    PubMed

    Lim, Yun Hui; Ngo, Khanh Quoc; Park, Young Koo; Jo, Young Min

    2012-08-01

    Capturing of odorous compounds such as toluene vapor by a particulate-activated carbon adsorbent was investigated in a gas-solid cyclone, which is one type of mobile beds. The test cyclone was early modified with the post cyclone (PoC) and a spiral flow guide to the vortex finder. The proposed process may contribute to the reduction of gases and dust from industrial exhausts, especially when dealing with a low concentration of odorous elements and a large volume ofdust flow. In this device, the toluene capturing efficiency at a 400 ppm concentration rose up to 77.4% when using activated carbon (AC) particles with a median size of 27.03 microm. A maximum 96% of AC particles could be collected for reuse depending on the size and flow rate. The AC regenerated via thermal treatment showed an adsorption potential up to 66.7% throughout repeated tests.

  17. CWS co-firing on two cyclone-fired electric utility boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Ashworth, R.A.; Carson, W.R.; DeSollar, R.; Brown, R.A.

    1997-07-01

    Coal water slurry (CWS) Co-firing is of interest to electric utilities for several reasons. Studies have shown that there are some two billion tons of coal in coal pond impoundments throughout the Eastern/Midwestern United States with an additional 50 million tons being added each year. The use of such coal pond fines can provide utilities with a fuel that is potentially lower in cost than currently contracted supply coal. A CWS fuel used for co-firing in a cyclone-fired unit requires only minimal processing for this type of unit can handle high ash coals. CWS Co-firing in a cyclone might also be done in such a way to reduce NO{sub x} emissions. Further, certain utilities operate their own coal preparation plants. By removing coal fines from preparation plant impoundments, more landfill volume becomes available. This paper describes a demonstration of CWS combustion on a 33 MWe cyclone-fired unit.

  18. Numerical study of particle deposition and scaling in dust exhaust of cyclone separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, W. W.; Li, Q.; Zhao, Y. L.; Wang, J. J.; Jin, Y. H.

    2016-05-01

    The solid particles accumulation in the dust exhaust cone area of the cyclone separator can cause the wall wear. This undoubtedly prevents the flue gas turbine from long period and safe operation. So it is important to study the mechanism how the particles deposited and scale on dust exhaust cone area of the cyclone separator. Numerical simulations of gas-solid flow field have been carried out in a single tube in the third cyclone separator. The three-dimensionally coupled computational fluid dynamic (CFD) technology and the modified Discrete Phase Model (DPM) are adopted to model the gas-solid two-phase flow. The results show that with the increase of the operating temperature and processing capacity, the particle sticking possibility near the cone area will rise. The sticking rates will decrease when the particle diameter becomes bigger.

  19. Evolution of the Tropical Cyclone Integrated Data Exchange And Analysis System (TC-IDEAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turk, J.; Chao, Y.; Haddad, Z.; Hristova-Veleva, S.; Knosp, B.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Li, P.; Licata, S.; Poulsen, W.; Su, H.; Tanelli, S.; Vane, D.; Vu, Q.; Goodman, H. M.; Blakeslee, R.; Conover, H.; Hall, J.; He, Y.; Regner, K.; Knapp, Ken

    2010-01-01

    The Tropical Cyclone Integrated Data Exchange and Analysis System (TC-IDEAS) is being jointly developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) as part of NASA's Hurricane Science Research Program. The long-term goal is to create a comprehensive tropical cyclone database of satellite and airborne observations, in-situ measurements and model simulations containing parameters that pertain to the thermodynamic and microphysical structure of the storms; the air-sea interaction processes; and the large-scale environment.

  20. Designing Advanced Ceramic Waste Forms for Electrochemical Processing Salt Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Ebert, W. L.; Snyder, C. T.; Frank, Steven; Riley, Brian

    2016-03-01

    This report describes the scientific basis underlying the approach being followed to design and develop “advanced” glass-bonded sodalite ceramic waste form (ACWF) materials that can (1) accommodate higher salt waste loadings than the waste form developed in the 1990s for EBR-II waste salt and (2) provide greater flexibility for immobilizing extreme waste salt compositions. This is accomplished by using a binder glass having a much higher Na2O content than glass compositions used previously to provide enough Na+ to react with all of the Cl– in the waste salt and generate the maximum amount of sodalite. The phase compositions and degradation behaviors of prototype ACWF products that were made using five new binder glass formulations and with 11-14 mass% representative LiCl/KCl-based salt waste were evaluated and compared with results of similar tests run with CWF products made using the original binder glass with 8 mass% of the same salt to demonstrate the approach and select a composition for further studies. About twice the amount of sodalite was generated in all ACWF materials and the microstructures and degradation behaviors confirmed our understanding of the reactions occurring during waste form production and the efficacy of the approach. However, the porosities of the resulting ACWF materials were higher than is desired. These results indicate the capacity of these ACWF waste forms to accommodate LiCl/KCl-based salt wastes becomes limited by porosity due to the low glass-to-sodalite volume ratio. Three of the new binder glass compositions were acceptable and there is no benefit to further increasing the Na content as initially planned. Instead, further studies are needed to develop and evaluate alternative production methods to decrease the porosity, such as by increasing the amount of binder glass in the formulation or by processing waste forms in a hot isostatic press. Increasing the amount of binder glass to eliminate porosity will decrease

  1. Application of advanced on-board processing concepts to future satellite communications systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, J. L.; Hoffman, M.; Kota, S. L.; Ruddy, J. M.; White, B. F.

    1979-01-01

    An initial definition of on-board processing requirements for an advanced satellite communications system to service domestic markets in the 1990's is presented. An exemplar system architecture with both RF on-board switching and demodulation/remodulation baseband processing was used to identify important issues related to system implementation, cost, and technology development.

  2. Advanced Information Processing. Volume II. Instructor's Materials. Curriculum Improvement Project. Region II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford, Linda

    This course curriculum is intended for use by community college insructors and administrators in implementing an advanced information processing course. It builds on the skills developed in the previous information processing course but goes one step further by requiring students to perform in a simulated office environment and improve their…

  3. Advanced Information Processing. Volume I. Student's Materials. Curriculum Improvement Project. Region II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford, Linda

    This course curriculum is intended for use in an advanced information processing course. It builds on the skills developed in the previous information processing course but goes one step further by requiring students to perform in a simulated office environment and improve their decision-making skills. This volume contains two parts of the…

  4. Inspecting Composite Ceramic Armor Using Advanced Signal Processing Together with Phased Array Ultrasound

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-08

    processing techniques have been developed to help improve phased array ultrasonic inspection and analysis of multi-layered ceramic armor panels. The...INSPECTING COMPOSITE CERAMIC ARMOR USING ADVANCED SIGNAL PROCESSING TOGETHER WITH PHASED ARRAY ULTRASOUND J. S. Steckenrider Illinois College...immersion phased array ultrasound system. Some of these specimens had intentional design defects inserted interior to the specimens. Because of the very

  5. Advances in remote sensing and modeling of terrestrial hydro-meteorological processes and extremes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing is an indispensable tool for monitoring and detecting the evolution of the Earth’s hydro-meteorological processes. Fast-growing remote sensing observations and technologies have been a primary impetus to advancing our knowledge of hydro-meteorological processes and their extremes ove...

  6. Software Systems 2--Compiler and Operating Systems Lab--Advanced, Data Processing Technology: 8025.33.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The course outline has been prepared as a guide to help the student develop the skills and knowledge necessary to succeed in the field of data processing. By learning the purpose and principles of compiler programs and operating systems, the student will become familiar with advanced data processing procedures that are representative of computer…

  7. Advanced Bio-Based Nanocomposites and Manufacturing Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinella, Stephen Matthew

    The aim of the PhD thesis concerns with the modification of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) via esterification or a radical grafting "from" approach to achieve polymeric nanocomposites of exceptional properties (Chapters 1 to 4). In addition to CNCs modification, other green routes have been introduced in this thesis in order to environmentally friendly polyester-based materials, i.e. Chapters five and six. The second chapter focuses on expanding on a one-pot cellulose acid hydrolysis/Fischer esterification to produce highly compatible CNCs without any organic solvent. It consists of modifying CNCs with acetic- and lactic- acid and exploring how such surface chemistry has an effect of dispersion in the case of polylactide (PLA)-based nanocomposites. The degree of substitution for AA-CNCs and LA-CNCs, determined by FTIR, are 0.12 and 0.13, respectively. PLA-based materials represent the best bioplastics relating to its high stiffness and biodegradability, but suffer from its poor thermal performances, namely its Heat Deflection Temperature (HDT). To improve the HDT of PLA, nanocomposites have been therefore prepared with modified cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) by melt blending. After blending at 5 wt-% loading of CNCs, LA-CNCs gives superior reinforcement below and above the glass temperature of PLA. An increase in PLA's heat deflection temperature by 10°C and 20°C is achieved by melt-blending PLA with 5 and 20 wt-% LA-CNCs, respectively. Chapter three concerns with expanding this process to a series of hydrophilic and hydrophobic acids yielding functional CNCs for electronic and biomedical applications. Hydrophilic acids include citric-, malonic- and malic acid. Modification with the abovementioned organic acids allows for the introduction of free acids onto the surface of CNCs. Modification with citric-, malonic- and malic- acid is verified by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and 13C solid state magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR experiments. The degree of

  8. Assessment of an ensemble of ocean-atmosphere coupled and uncoupled regional climate models to reproduce the climatology of Mediterranean cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flaounas, Emmanouil; Kelemen, Fanni Dora; Wernli, Heini; Gaertner, Miguel Angel; Reale, Marco; Sanchez-Gomez, Emilia; Lionello, Piero; Calmanti, Sandro; Podrascanin, Zorica; Somot, Samuel; Akhtar, Naveed; Romera, Raquel; Conte, Dario

    2016-11-01

    This study aims to assess the skill of regional climate models (RCMs) at reproducing the climatology of Mediterranean cyclones. Seven RCMs are considered, five of which were also coupled with an oceanic model. All simulations were forced at the lateral boundaries by the ERA-Interim reanalysis for a common 20-year period (1989-2008). Six different cyclone tracking methods have been applied to all twelve RCM simulations and to the ERA-Interim reanalysis in order to assess the RCMs from the perspective of different cyclone definitions. All RCMs reproduce the main areas of high cyclone occurrence in the region south of the Alps, in the Adriatic, Ionian and Aegean Seas, as well as in the areas close to Cyprus and to Atlas mountains. The RCMs tend to underestimate intense cyclone occurrences over the Mediterranean Sea and reproduce 24-40 % of these systems, as identified in the reanalysis. The use of grid nudging in one of the RCMs is shown to be beneficial, reproducing about 60 % of the intense cyclones and keeping a better track of the seasonal cycle of intense cyclogenesis. Finally, the most intense cyclones tend to be similarly reproduced in coupled and uncoupled model simulations, suggesting that modeling atmosphere-ocean coupled processes has only a weak impact on the climatology and intensity of Mediterranean cyclones.

  9. Modifications to a cyclone oil shale retorting concept

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, H.C.; Harak, A.E.

    1989-10-01

    A system for utilizing oil shale fines, in which the fines, instead of being rejected as wastes, are crushed even finer and then are used in a cyclone retort is described. This patented process uses high combustion temperature that removes all of the organic material from the spent shale and converts it into an inert, granulated slag. The primary advantages of this retorting system over more conventional aboveground retorting processes are the ability to use finely divided oil shales as charge stock and the production of an essentially inert slag from the retorted shale. A series of calculations were made to evaluate variations of the original concept. The original process design was based on a cyclone furnace temperature of 2800{degree}F and the use of hot combustion gases as the retorting medium. A recent study of retorted and burned oil shale properties showed that molten slag could be produced at temperatures lower than 2800{degree}F; therefore, additional calculations were made using a furnace temperature of 2300{degree}F. 11 refs., 6 figs., 11 tabs.

  10. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products

    SciTech Connect

    Ness, R.O. Jr.; Li, Y.; Heidt, M.

    1992-09-01

    Prior to disassembly of the CFBR, accumulated tar residue must be removed from the reactor, piping and tubing lines, and the condenser vessels. Based on experience from the CFBR mild gasification tests, lacquer thinner must be pumped through the unit for at least one hour to remove the residual tar. The lacquer thinner wash may be followed by a water wash. The CFBR will be disassembled after the system has been thoroughly flushed out. The following equipment must be disassembled and removed for storage: Superheater; Water supply pump; Coal feed system (hopper, auger, ball feeder, valves); Reactor; Cyclone and fines catch pot; Condensers (water lines, glycol bath, condenser pots, valves); and Gas meter. After the process piping and reactor have been disassembled, the equipment will be inspected for tar residues and flushed again with acetone or lacquer thinner, if necessary. All solvent used for cleaning the system will be collected for recycle or proper disposal. Handling and disposal of the solvent will be properly documented. The equipment will be removed and stored for future use. Equipment contaminated externally with tar (Level 4) will be washed piece by piece with lacquer thinner after disassembly of the PRU. Proper health and safety practices must be followed by the personnel involved in the cleanup operation. Care must be taken to avoid ingestion, inhalation, or prolonged skin contact of the coal tars and lacquer thinner. Equipment contaminated internally by accumulation of residual tar or oil (Level 5) will be flushed section by section with lacquer thinner. The equipment will be washed with solvent both before and after disassembly to ensure that all tar has been removed from the piping, pumps, gas quench condensers, light tar condensers, and drain lines. The coal tars wig be separated from the solvent and incinerated.

  11. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology jointly sponsored research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Accomplishments for the quarter are presented for the following areas of research: oil shale, tar sand, coal, advanced exploratory process technology, and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research includes; oil shale process studies, environmental base studies for oil shale, and miscellaneous basic concept studies. Tar sand research covers process development. Coal research includes; underground coal gasification, coal combustion, integrated coal processing concepts, and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes; advanced process concepts, advanced mitigation concepts, and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesa Verde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced recovery techniques; and menu driven access to the WDEQ Hydrologic Data Management Systems.

  12. Relation between tropical cyclone heat potential and cyclone intensity in the North Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jangir, B.; Swain, D.; Udaya Bhaskar, T. V. S.

    2016-05-01

    Ocean Heat Content (OHC) plays a significant role in modulating the intensity of Tropical Cyclones (TC) in terms of the oceanic energy available to TCs. TC Heat Potential (TCHP), an estimate of OHC, is thus known to be a useful indicator of TC genesis and intensification. In the present study, we analyze the role of TCHP in intensification of TCs in the North Indian Ocean (NIO) through statistical comparisons between TCHP and Cyclone Intensities (CI). A total of 27 TCs (20 in the Bay of Bengal, and 7 in the Arabian Sea) during the period 2005-2012 have been analyzed using TCHP data from Global Ocean Data Assimilation System (GODAS) model of Indian National Center for Ocean Information Services and cyclone best track data from India Meteorological Department. Out of the 27 cyclones analyzed, 58% (86%) in the Bay (Arabian Sea) have negative correlation and 42% (14%) cyclones have positive correlation between CI and TCHP. On the whole, more than 60% cyclones in the NIO show negative correlations between CI and TCHP. The negative percentage further increases for TCHP leading CI by 24 and 48 hours. Similar trend is also seen with satellite derived TCHP data obtained from National Remote Sensing Center and TC best track data from Joint Typhoon Warming Centre. Hence, it is postulated that TCHP alone need not be the only significant oceanographic parameter, apart from sea surface temperature, responsible for intensification and propagation of TCs in the NIO.

  13. Cyclone separator having boundary layer turbulence control

    DOEpatents

    Krishna, Coimbatore R.; Milau, Julius S.

    1985-01-01

    A cyclone separator including boundary layer turbulence control that is operable to prevent undue build-up of particulate material at selected critical areas on the separator walls, by selectively varying the fluid pressure at those areas to maintain the momentum of the vortex, thereby preventing particulate material from inducing turbulence in the boundary layer of the vortical fluid flow through the separator.

  14. Reanalyzing Tropical Cyclone Intensities with Citizen Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreck, C. J.; Hennon, C. C.; Knapp, K.; Stevens, S. E.

    2012-12-01

    Tropical cyclones are among the most destructive weather phenomena. Whenever possible, the intensities of these storms have been determined from in situ data or aircraft reconnaissance. More often, however, they are estimated subjectively from satellite data using the Dvorak technique. Heterogeneities are introduced into the historical record with the evolution of operational procedures, personnel, and observing platforms. In some cases, multiple agencies even arrive at different estimates for the same storm. These uncertainties impede our ability to identify the relationship between tropical cyclone intensities and climate change. NOAA's NCDC has produced a 30-year (1979-2008) homogeneous dataset (HURSAT) of tropical cyclone imagery from geostationary satellites. This dataset has the potential to address some of the uncertainties in the recent tropical cyclone record. However, it would take nearly 40 years for a trained expert, working nonstop, to apply the Dvorak technique to all 200,000 images. Harnessing the power of thousands of Citizen Scientists, the same task can be completed in a matter of months. This presentation will explain how the Dvorak technique was adapted for Citizen Scientists, and how their skill will be evaluated relative to the operational analyses by trained experts.

  15. A Simplified Model of Tropical Cyclone Intensification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, W. H.

    2015-12-01

    An axisymmetric model of tropical cyclone intensification is presented. The model is based on Salmon's wave-vortex approximation, which can describe flows with high Rossby number and low Froude number. After introducing an additional approximation designed to filter propagating inertia-gravity waves, the problem is reduced to the prediction of potential vorticity (PV) and the inversion of this PV to obtain the balanced wind and mass fields. This PV prediction/inversion problem is solved analytically for two types of forcing: a two-region model in which there is nonzero forcing in the cyclone core and zero forcing in the far-field; a three-region model in which there is non-zero forcing in both the cyclone core and the eyewall, with zero forcing in the far-field. The solutions of the two-region model provide insight into why tropical cyclones can have long incubation times before rapid intensification and how the size of the mature vortex can be influenced by the size of the initial vortex. The solutions of the three-region model provide insight into the formation of hollow PV structures and the inward movement of angular momentum surfaces across the radius of maximum wind.

  16. Economic evaluation of advanced limestone, Davy S-H, and Dowa Gypsum-producing FGD processes

    SciTech Connect

    Dotson, R.L.; Maxwell, J.D.; Burnett, T.A.

    1984-02-01

    Economic evaluations were made of three gypsum-producing FGD processes: advanced limestone (in-loop forced oxidation with adipic acid additive), Davy S-H (lime), and Dowa (aluminum sulfate, limestone). For a 500-MW power unit burning 3.5% sulfur coal and meeting the 1979 NSPS, capital investments in 1982 costs are 93 M$ (186 $/kW) for the advanced limestone process, 116 M$ (231 $/kW) for the Davy S-H process, and 121 M$ (243 $/kW) for the Dowa process. First-year annual revenue requirements in 1984 costs for these processes are 26, 33, and 32 M$ (9.4, 11.9, and 11.7 mills/kWh), respectively. The lower capital investment and annual revenue requirements of the advanced limestone process is due in part to the use of adipic acid, which allows partial scrubbing at 95% removal. The Davy S-H has slightly higher annual revenue requirements than the Dowa process because lime rather than limestone is used. Changes in power unit size and coal sulfur content affect the costs of all three processes similarly. The Davy S-H process is more sensitive to raw material costs because lime is used. Landfill waste disposal is a minor cost element in all three processes. 103 references, 26 figures, 30 tables.

  17. Cell line development for biomanufacturing processes: recent advances and an outlook.

    PubMed

    Le, Huong; Vishwanathan, Nandita; Jacob, Nitya M; Gadgil, Mugdha; Hu, Wei-Shou

    2015-08-01

    At the core of a biomanufacturing process for recombinant proteins is the production cell line. It influences the productivity and product quality. Its characteristics also dictate process development, as the process is optimized to complement the producing cell to achieve the target productivity and quality. Advances in the past decade, from vector design to cell line screening, have greatly expanded our capability to attain producing cell lines with certain desired traits. Increasing availability of genomic and transcriptomic resources for industrially important cell lines coupled with advances in genome editing technology have opened new avenues for cell line development. These developments are poised to help biosimilar manufacturing, which requires targeting pre-defined product quality attributes, e.g., glycoform, to match the innovator's range. This review summarizes recent advances and discusses future possibilities in this area.

  18. Western North Pacific Tropical Cyclone Formation and Structure Change in TCS08

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    define the final extratropical stage of the extratropical transition process (Quinting et al. 2013). In this case, the warm conveyor belt, cold... conveyor belt, and dry air stream were identified in relation to air that originated in the tropical cyclone or air that originated at upper levels and

  19. Geotechnical/geochemical characterization of advanced coal process waste streams: Task 2

    SciTech Connect

    Moretti, C.J.; Olson, E.S.

    1992-09-01

    Successful disposal practices for solid wastes produced from advanced coal combustion and coal conversion processes must provide for efficient management of relatively large volumes of wastes in a cost-effective and environmentally safe manner. At present, most coal-utilization solid wastes are disposed of using various types of land-based systems, and it is probable that this disposal mode will continue to be widely used in the future for advanced process wastes. Proper design and operation of land-based disposal systems for coal combustion wastes normally require appropriate waste transfer, storage, and conditioning subsystems at the plant to prepare the waste for transport to an ultimate disposal site. Further, the overall waste management plan should include a by-product marketing program to minimize the amount of waste that will require disposal. In order to properly design and operate waste management systems for advanced coal-utilization processes, a fundamental understanding of the physical properties, chemical and mineral compositions, and leaching behaviors of the wastes is required. In order to gain information about the wastes produced by advanced coal-utilization processes, 55 waste samples from 16 different coal gasification, fluidized-bed coal combustion (FBC), and advanced flue gas scrubbing processes were collected. Thirty-four of these wastes were analyzed for their bulk chemical and mineral compositions and tested for a detailed set of disposal-related physical properties. The results of these waste characterizations are presented in this report. In addition to the waste characterization data, this report contains a discussion of potentially useful waste management practices for advanced coal utilization processes.

  20. Loop Current Ring Shedding: the Formation of Cyclones and the Effect of Topography.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherubin, L. M.; Morel, Y.; Chassignet, E. P.

    2005-05-01

    The formation of cyclones in the vicinity of the LC ring during the shedding process is analyzed in terms of vortex instability. Using a high resolution ECMWF-daily wind forced MICOM simulation, we show that cyclones are the products of a mixed barotropic-baroclinic vortex instability, which grows around the rim of the LC ring while it is attached to the LC. Cyclones contributes to the separation of the ring from the LC as they grow between them. The QG instability of the LC-like type `R` vortex shows that a mode 4 baroclinic instability is intensified in the deep layers of the ring while barotropic instability is surface intensified. The nonlinear state shows that a LC-like vortex is indeed a pentapole on an f-plane. On the β-plane, the northern cyclone is separated from the anticyclone by the β-effect and both drift westward. When the topography of the GOM is taken into account, namely the Campeche Bank, the southward slope north of the LC and the Florida shelf east of the LC, several effects are observed: (1) the northern corner of the Campeche Bank erodes the LC ring and its cyclones, and interacts with the vortex most unstable mode; (2) the northern southward slope scatters the northern cyclone while the anticyclone remain coherent and propagate to the west; (3) realistic westward propagation speeds are obtained in the presence of the northern Campeche shelf, which acts as a mirror effect on the LC ring as opposed to the Florida shelf, which tends to block the ring.

  1. Inlet Particle-Sorting Cyclone for the Enhancement of PM2.5 Separation.

    PubMed

    Fu, Peng-Bo; Wang, Fei; Yang, Xue-Jing; Ma, Liang; Cui, Xin; Wang, Hua-Lin

    2017-02-07

    Many cities are suffering from severe air pollution from fine particulate matter. Cyclone is an effective separator for particulate pollutant but has low efficiency for those with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM2.5). In this research, four novel inlet particle-sorting cyclones were first developed to enhance the separation of PM2.5. The energy consumption, overall separation efficiency, particle grade efficiency,outlet particle concentration and size distribution were compared with common cyclone (CM-C). It was found that the vertical reverse rotation cyclone (VRR-C), which made the smaller particles enter cyclone from radially outer side and axially lower side at the rectangular inlet, had the best separation performance, especially for PM2.5 separation. The mean diameter of inlet particles was 15.7 μm and the particle concentration was 2000 mg/m(3), the overall separation efficiency of the VRR-C reached 98.3%, which was 6.4% higher than that of CM-C. PM2.5 grade efficiency of the VRR-C exceeded 80%, which was 15∼20% higher than that of CM-C. The PM2.5 content at the VRR-C outlet was 30.8 mg/m(3), while that of CM-C was still 118.4 mg/m(3). The novel inlet particle-sorting cyclone is an effective separation enhancement for PM2.5 source control in the process of industrial production and environment protection.

  2. Genesis of Twin Tropical Cyclones as Revealed by a Global Mesoscale Model: The Role of Mixed Rossby Gravity Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Bo-Wen; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Lin, Yuh-Lang; Laing, Arlene

    2012-01-01

    In this study, it is proposed that twin tropical cyclones (TCs), Kesiny and 01A, in May 2002 formed in association with the scale interactions of three gyres that appeared as a convectively-coupled mixed Rossby gravity (ccMRG) wave during an active phase of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). This is shown by analyzing observational data and performing simulations using a global mesoscale model. A 10-day control run is initialized at 0000 UTC 1 May 2002 with grid-scale condensation but no cumulus parameterizations. The ccMRG wave was identified as encompassing two developing and one non-developing gyres, the first two of which intensified and evolved into the twin TCs. The control run is able to reproduce the evolution of the ccMRG wave and the formation of the twin TCs about two and five days in advance as well as their subsequent intensity evolution and movement within an 8-10 day period. Five additional 10-day sensitivity experiments with different model configurations are conducted to help understand the interaction of the three gyres. These experiments suggest the improved lead time in the control run may be attributed to the realistic simulation of the ccMRG wave with the following processes: (I) wave deepening associated with wave shortening and/or the intensification of individual gyres, (2) poleward movement of gyres that may be associated with bOlll1dary layer processes, (3) realistic simulation of moist processes at regional scales in association with each of the gyres, and (4) the vertical phasing of low- and mid-level cyclonic circulations associated with a specific gyre.

  3. Genesis of Twin Tropical Cyclones as Revealed by a Global Mesoscale Model: The Role of Mixed Rossby Gravity Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Bo-Wen; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Lin, Yuh-Lang; Laing, Arlene

    2012-01-01

    In this study, it is proposed that twin tropical cyclones (TCs), Kesiny and 01A, in May 2002 formed in association with the scale interactions of three gyres that appeared as a convectively coupled mixed Rossby gravity (ccMRG) wave during an active phase of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). This is shown by analyzing observational data, including NCEP reanalysis data and METEOSAT 7 IR satellite imagery, and performing numerical simulations using a global mesoscale model. A 10-day control run is initialized at 0000 UTC 1 May 2002 with grid-scale condensation but no sub-grid cumulus parameterizations. The ccMRG wave was identified as encompassing two developing and one non-developing gyres, the first two of which intensified and evolved into the twin TCs. The control run is able to reproduce the evolution of the ccMRG wave and thus the formation of the twin TCs about two and five days in advance as well as their subsequent intensity evolution and movement within an 8-10 day period. Five additional 10-day sensitivity experiments with different model configurations are conducted to help understand the interaction of the three gyres, leading to the formation of the TCs. These experiments suggest the improved lead time in the control run may be attributed to the realistic simulation of the ccMRG wave with the following processes: (1) wave deepening (intensification) associated with a reduction in wavelength and/or the intensification of individual gyres, (2) poleward movement of gyres that may be associated with boundary layer processes, (3) realistic simulation of moist processes at regional scales in association with each of the gyres, and (4) the vertical phasing of low- and mid-level cyclonic circulations associated with a specific gyre.

  4. Disaster triggers disaster: Earthquake triggering by tropical cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wdowinski, S.; Tsukanov, I.

    2011-12-01

    erosion induced by very wet cyclones increased the failure stresses at the hypocenters' depth by 300-1500 Pa, which ultimately triggered these earthquakes. Our findings are supported by a statistical analysis indicating a very low probability (1-5%) for a random earthquake occurrence process to form the observed typhoon-earthquake temporal distribution.

  5. Advances in multi-scale modeling of solidification and casting processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Baicheng; Xu, Qingyan; Jing, Tao; Shen, Houfa; Han, Zhiqiang

    2011-04-01

    The development of the aviation, energy and automobile industries requires an advanced integrated product/process R&D systems which could optimize the product and the process design as well. Integrated computational materials engineering (ICME) is a promising approach to fulfill this requirement and make the product and process development efficient, economic, and environmentally friendly. Advances in multi-scale modeling of solidification and casting processes, including mathematical models as well as engineering applications are presented in the paper. Dendrite morphology of magnesium and aluminum alloy of solidification process by using phase field and cellular automaton methods, mathematical models of segregation of large steel ingot, and microstructure models of unidirectionally solidified turbine blade casting are studied and discussed. In addition, some engineering case studies, including microstructure simulation of aluminum casting for automobile industry, segregation of large steel ingot for energy industry, and microstructure simulation of unidirectionally solidified turbine blade castings for aviation industry are discussed.

  6. Arctic cyclone water vapor isotopes support past sea ice retreat recorded in Greenland ice.

    PubMed

    Klein, Eric S; Cherry, J E; Young, J; Noone, D; Leffler, A J; Welker, J M

    2015-05-29

    Rapid Arctic warming is associated with important water cycle changes: sea ice loss, increasing atmospheric humidity, permafrost thaw, and water-induced ecosystem changes. Understanding these complex modern processes is critical to interpreting past hydrologic changes preserved in paleoclimate records and predicting future Arctic changes. Cyclones are a prevalent Arctic feature and water vapor isotope ratios during these events provide insights into modern hydrologic processes that help explain past changes to the Arctic water cycle. Here we present continuous measurements of water vapor isotope ratios (δ(18)O, δ(2)H, d-excess) in Arctic Alaska from a 2013 cyclone. This cyclone resulted in a sharp d-excess decrease and disproportional δ(18)O enrichment, indicative of a higher humidity open Arctic Ocean water vapor source. Past transitions to warmer climates inferred from Greenland ice core records also reveal sharp decreases in d-excess, hypothesized to represent reduced sea ice extent and an increase in oceanic moisture source to Greenland Ice Sheet precipitation. Thus, measurements of water vapor isotope ratios during an Arctic cyclone provide a critical processed-based explanation, and the first direct confirmation, of relationships previously assumed to govern water isotope ratios during sea ice retreat and increased input of northern ocean moisture into the Arctic water cycle.

  7. Arctic cyclone water vapor isotopes support past sea ice retreat recorded in Greenland ice

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Eric S.; Cherry, J. E.; Young, J.; Noone, D.; Leffler, A. J.; Welker, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid Arctic warming is associated with important water cycle changes: sea ice loss, increasing atmospheric humidity, permafrost thaw, and water-induced ecosystem changes. Understanding these complex modern processes is critical to interpreting past hydrologic changes preserved in paleoclimate records and predicting future Arctic changes. Cyclones are a prevalent Arctic feature and water vapor isotope ratios during these events provide insights into modern hydrologic processes that help explain past changes to the Arctic water cycle. Here we present continuous measurements of water vapor isotope ratios (δ18O, δ2H, d-excess) in Arctic Alaska from a 2013 cyclone. This cyclone resulted in a sharp d-excess decrease and disproportional δ18O enrichment, indicative of a higher humidity open Arctic Ocean water vapor source. Past transitions to warmer climates inferred from Greenland ice core records also reveal sharp decreases in d-excess, hypothesized to represent reduced sea ice extent and an increase in oceanic moisture source to Greenland Ice Sheet precipitation. Thus, measurements of water vapor isotope ratios during an Arctic cyclone provide a critical processed-based explanation, and the first direct confirmation, of relationships previously assumed to govern water isotope ratios during sea ice retreat and increased input of northern ocean moisture into the Arctic water cycle. PMID:26023728

  8. Challenges and Opportunities in Reactive Processing and Applications of Advanced Ceramic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Mrityunjay

    2003-01-01

    Recently, there has been a great deal of interest in the research, development, and commercialization of innovative synthesis and processing technologies for advanced ceramics and composite materials. Reactive processing approaches have been actively considered due to their robustness, flexibility, and affordability. A wide variety of silicon carbide-based advanced ceramics and composites are currently being fabricated using the processing approaches involving reactive infiltration of liquid and gaseous species into engineered fibrous or microporous carbon performs. The microporous carbon performs have been fabricated using the temperature induced phase separation and pyrolysis of two phase organic (resin-pore former) mixtures and fiber reinforcement of carbon and ceramic particulate bodies. In addition, pyrolyzed native plant cellulose tissues also provide unique carbon templates for manufacturing of non-oxide and oxide ceramics. In spite of great interest in this technology due to their affordability and robustness, there is a lack of scientific basis for process understanding and many technical challenges still remain. The influence of perform properties and other parameters on the resulting microstructure and properties of final material is not well understood. In this presentation, mechanism of silicon-carbon reaction in various systems and the effect of perform microstructure on the mechanical properties of advanced silicon carbide based materials will be discussed. Various examples of applications of reactively processed advanced silicon carbide ceramics and composite materials will be presented.

  9. Case studies of EUV cyclones and their associated magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xin-Ting; Zhang, Jun; Li, Ting; Yang, Shu-Hong

    2015-09-01

    EUV cyclones are rotating structures in the solar corona, and they are usually rooted in the underlying rotating network magnetic fields in the photosphere. However, their connection with the surrounding magnetic fields remains unknown. Here we report an observational study of four typical cyclones which are rooted in different kinds of magnetic fields. We use Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly data to investigate the rotation of EUV features in cyclones and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager data to study the associated magnetic fields. The results show that, (1) an EUV cyclone rooted in a sunspot rotates with the photospheric magnetic field; (2) two EUV cyclones in two faculae of an active region are connected to the same sunspot of the active region but rotate oppositely; (3) an EUV cyclone is rooted in a coronal hole with weak open magnetic fields; (4) a pair of conjugated cyclones is rooted in magnetic fields that have opposite polarity with opposite directions of rotation. The differences in the spatial extent of a cyclone, characteristics of its rotation and underlying fields indicate that cyclones are ubiquitous over the solar atmosphere and that the magnetic structures relevant to the cyclones are more complicated than expected.

  10. Fabrication of advanced electrochemical energy materials using sol-gel processing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, C. T.; Chu, Jay; Zheng, Haixing

    1995-01-01

    Advanced materials play an important role in electrochemical energy devices such as batteries, fuel cells, and electrochemical capacitors. They are being used as both electrodes and electrolytes. Sol-gel processing is a versatile solution technique used in fabrication of ceramic materials with tailored stoichiometry, microstructure, and properties. The application of sol-gel processing in the fabrication of advanced electrochemical energy materials will be presented. The potentials of sol-gel derived materials for electrochemical energy applications will be discussed along with some examples of successful applications. Sol-gel derived metal oxide electrode materials such as V2O5 cathodes have been demonstrated in solid-slate thin film batteries; solid electrolytes materials such as beta-alumina for advanced secondary batteries had been prepared by the sol-gel technique long time ago; and high surface area transition metal compounds for capacitive energy storage applications can also be synthesized with this method.

  11. Remote, real-time monitoring of cyclones with microseisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, B. G.; Lee, W. D.; Schwab, F. A.

    2014-12-01

    Giving proper care to selecting microseisms from well isolated cyclones, these great oceanic storms can be monitored in real time by seismic recordings at stations 1200-4100 km distant from the cyclone's center. We treat ocean depths of 3.4-5.5 km. For the theoretically-computed microseism, which our procedure compares with the experimental data, we use a Green's-function approach in the frequency domain. Relating recorded displacement F and theoretical Green's function G, We have F(ω,r)=S(ω)G(ω,r) in which our only unknown is the generalized source function S(ω) and r is the distance to the center at any specific time. The basic result of this report is that the form of this function is A SN(ω), where A is a real constant increasing with the strength of the cyclone and SN(ω), is a positive real function of frequency, independent of cyclone-receiver separation and of cyclone strength. That is, for a given ocean basin, and a given receiver-region geology, at our current level of accuracy SN(ω) is the same for all cyclone strengths and cyclone-receiver separations. Using the multimode approach, we've developed the numerical method for computing the Green's function for multilayered oceanic structures. For each of the 4 selected cyclones, the source functions for all locations along the path show a consistency which demonstrates that the recorded microseisms are radiated from the cyclone. The extracted source function exhibits spectra that are characteristic of ocean waves generated by cyclonic winds. With knowledge of distance between the source and receiver, cyclone A is therefore trivial to monitor in real time from remote recordings. At the current time, the cyclone's strength—generalized source function—must be related empirically to the cyclone's maximum wind speed, areal extent, and lateral velocity.

  12. Tropical Cyclone Interactions Within Central American Gyres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papin, P. P.; Bosart, L. F.; Torn, R. D.

    2014-12-01

    Central American gyres (CAGs) are broad (~1000 km diameter) low-level cyclonic circulations that organize over Central America during the tropical cyclone (TC) season. While CAGs have rarely been studied, prior work on similar circulations has been conducted on monsoon depressions (MDs) and monsoon gyres (MGs), which possess spatial scales of 1000 - 2500 km in the west Pacific basin. A key difference between MDs and MGs is related to the organization of vorticity around the low-level circulation. MDs possess a symmetrical vorticity pattern where vorticity accumulates near the circulation center over time, occasionally developing into a large TC. In contrast, MGs possess asymmetrical vorticity, organized in mesovorticies, which rotate cyclonically along the periphery of the MG circulation. Small tropical cyclones (TCs) occasionally develop from these mesovorticies. Interaction and development of TCs within CAGs are also common, as noted by a CAG identified during the 2010 PREDICT field project, which involved the interaction of TC Matthew and the development of TC Nicole within the larger CAG. This project is motivated by the lack of prior research on CAGs, as well as the complex scale interactions that occasionally occur between TCs and CAGs. This presentation focuses on the mutual interaction of vortices embedded in the larger-scale cyclonic flow comprising the CAG circulation. Case studies will be presented using a circulation framework to illustrate the relationship between different scale vorticity elements within the CAG. Some of these case studies resemble a MD-like evolution, where a large TC develops through the accumulation of symmetrical vorticity around the CAG (e.g. TC Opal 1995, TC Frances 1998). Other instances resemble a MG-like evolution, where smaller mesovorticies rotate around a common circulation center (e.g. TC Florence 1988). The circulation analysis framework aids in the diagnosis of interaction between different scale cyclonic vortices, and

  13. Cyclonic activity in high latitudes as simulated by a regional atmospheric climate model: added value and uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkolnik, I. M.; Efimov, S. V.

    2013-12-01

    Decadal long simulations of atmospheric circulation in the high latitudes have been carried out using a multiscale atmospheric modeling system that consists of MGO global and regional atmospheric models with respective resolutions of 200, 50 and 25 km in the horizontal. The detailed analysis of extratropical cyclone activity including activity of polar mesocyclones has been conducted for the winter season using an advanced cyclone identification and tracking scheme. To enhance the applicability of high-resolution regional atmospheric modeling in the context of detailed general atmospheric circulation analysis, an end-to-end approach for cyclone trajectory calculation on a unified global and regional grid has been proposed. It has been shown that increasing modeling resolution in the high latitudes allows one to more realistically simulate the activity of baroclinic waves and the thermal regime of the Arctic troposphere. The statistical structure of cyclonic activity has been investigated depending on the spatial resolution of the modeling system and compared with that in the reanalyses and satellite-derived analyses. The performance of the atmospheric models in the simulation of extreme cyclones is evaluated.

  14. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project. Technical progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    This detailed report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Project demonstrates an advanced thermal coal upgrading process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to high-quality, low-sulfur fuel. During this reporting period, the primary focus for the project was to expand market awareness and acceptability for the products and the technology. The use of covered hopper cars has been successful and marketing efforts have focused on this technique. Operational improvements are currently aimed at developing fines marketing systems, increasing throughput capacity, decreasing operation costs, and developing standardized continuous operator training. Testburns at industrial user sites were also conducted. A detailed process description; technical progress report including facility operations/plant production, facility testing, product testing, and testburn product; and process stability report are included. 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  15. Controlling & understanding the variables: Key to commercializing micowave processing of advanced materials

    SciTech Connect

    Garard, R.S.

    1995-12-31

    Commercial use of microwave energy for processing advanced materials has been a {open_quotes}promising new development{close_quotes} for over a decade. However, the realization of actual commercial use in most advanced material cases has not yet been achieved. As with any new processing technique, the control and application of process conditions must be reliable, repeatable, and thoroughly understood. This paper will discuss the variables associated with both economic analysis and material properties when determining the potential of microwave processing for a given application. The importance of having a microwave system capable of controlling those variables and distributing the microwave energy uniformly over large volumes within a microwave oven is reviewed. The need for a production equipment supplier to combine materials science expertise with strong microwave engineering background is also discussed with emphasis on ensuring that a good understanding of the material/microwave interaction exists for each specific application.

  16. Use of IBM's Advanced Control System in Undergraduate Process Control Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koppel, Lowell B.; Sullivan, Gerald R.

    1986-01-01

    This article: (1) traces some of the history behind the International Business Machines (IBM) and academic arrangement; (2) describes the Advanced Control System and how it is used in undergraduate process control courses; (3) discusses benefits to students and teachers; and (4) summarizes future plans. (JN)

  17. DESTRUCTION OF PAHS AND PCBS IN WATER USING SULFATE RADICAL-BASED CATALYTIC ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new class of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) based on sulfate radicals is being tested for the degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in aqueous solution. These AOPs are based on the generation of sulfate radicals through...

  18. Design of GA thermochemical water-splitting process for the Mirror Advanced Reactor System

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, L.C.

    1983-04-01

    GA interfaced the sulfur-iodine thermochemical water-splitting cycle to the Mirror Advanced Reactor System (MARS). The results of this effort follow as one section and part of a second section to be included in the MARS final report. This section describes the process and its interface to the reactor. The capital and operating costs for the hydrogen plant are described.

  19. 20 CFR 627.706 - Process for advance approval of a recipient's contemplated corrective actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the Act, or did not constitute fraud; or (iii) If fraud did exist, it was perpetrated against the... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GENERAL PROVISIONS GOVERNING PROGRAMS UNDER TITLES I, II, AND III OF THE ACT Sanctions for Violations of the Act § 627.706 Process for advance approval of a recipient's...

  20. Air Vehicle Technology Integration Program (AVTIP). Delivery Order 0004: Advanced Sol-Gel Adhesion Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-04-01

    AFRL-ML-WP-TR-2003-4173 AIR VEHICLE TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION PROGRAM (AVTIP) Delivery Order 0004: Advanced Sol-Gel Adhesion Processes Kay Y...2001 – 03/31/2002 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER F33615-00-D-3052 5b. GRANT NUMBER 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE AIR VEHICLE TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION PROGRAM

  1. The Diurnal Cycle of Precipitation in Tropical Cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, K. P.; Fowler, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    Position and intensity data from the International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship (IBTrACS) are combined with global, gridded precipitation estimates from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-Satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) for the period 1998 to 2013 to study diurnal variability of precipitation in tropical cyclones. The comprehensive global coverage and large sample size afforded by the two data sets allow robust statistical analysis of storm-averaged diurnal variations and permit stratification of the data in various ways. There is a clearly detectable diurnal variation of precipitation in tropical cyclones with peak rainfall occurring near 0600 local time. For storms of all intensities the amplitude of the diurnal harmonic, which dominates the diurnal cycle, is approximately 7% of the mean rain rate. This corresponds to a peak-to-peak variation of about 15% over the course of the day. The diurnal cycle is similar in all ocean basins. There is evidence that the amplitude of the diurnal cycle increases with increasing storm intensity, but the results are not statistically significant. The results have implications for hurricane forecasting and for our understanding of the processes that regulate oceanic convection.

  2. Economic-Oriented Stochastic Optimization in Advanced Process Control of Chemical Processes

    PubMed Central

    Dobos, László; Király, András; Abonyi, János

    2012-01-01

    Finding the optimal operating region of chemical processes is an inevitable step toward improving economic performance. Usually the optimal operating region is situated close to process constraints related to product quality or process safety requirements. Higher profit can be realized only by assuring a relatively low frequency of violation of these constraints. A multilevel stochastic optimization framework is proposed to determine the optimal setpoint values of control loops with respect to predetermined risk levels, uncertainties, and costs of violation of process constraints. The proposed framework is realized as direct search-type optimization of Monte-Carlo simulation of the controlled process. The concept is illustrated throughout by a well-known benchmark problem related to the control of a linear dynamical system and the model predictive control of a more complex nonlinear polymerization process. PMID:23213298

  3. The use of safeguards data for process monitoring in the Advanced Test Line for Actinide Separations

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, J.W.; Yarbro, S.L.

    1987-01-01

    Los Alamos is constructing an integrated process monitoring/materials control and accounting (PM/MC and A) system in the Advanced Testing Line for Actinide Separations (ATLAS) at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility. The ATLAS will test and demonstrate new methods for aqueous processing of plutonium. The ATLAS will also develop, test, and demonstrate the concepts for integrated process monitoring/materials control and accounting. We describe how this integrated PM/MC and A system will function and provide benefits to both process research and materials accounting personnel.

  4. Upper-tropospheric precursors associated with subtropical cyclone formation in the North Atlantic basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, Alicia M.

    Oceanic cyclones exhibiting properties of both tropical and extratropical systems have been categorized as subtropical cyclones (STCs) since the early 1950s. The opportunity to investigate the roles of baroclinic and diabatic processes during the evolution of STCs from a potential vorticity (PV) perspective motivates this study. This study investigates the roles of baroclinic and diabatic processes during the evolution of STCs by calculating three PV metrics from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction Climate Forecast System Reanalysis 0.5° gridded dataset. The three PV metrics quantify the relative contributions of lower-tropospheric baroclinic processes, midtropospheric diabatic heating, and upper-tropospheric dynamical processes during the evolution of individual cyclones. Quantification of these three contributions reveals the changing PV structure of an individual cyclone, indicates fluctuations in the dominant energy source of the cyclone, and aids in categorizing the cyclone. A cyclone-relative composite analysis performed on subjectively constructed clusters of North Atlantic STCs identified from a 1979--2010 climatology is presented to document the structure, motion, and evolution of upper-tropospheric features linked to STC formation. The STCs included in the climatology are separated into five clusters representing the most common upper-tropospheric features linked to STC formation: PV Streamers, Cutoffs, Midlatitude Troughs, Subtropical Disturbances, and PV Debris. STCs forming in association with PV streamers and cutoffs have a well-defined midlatitude connection, developing near a region of upper-tropospheric PV injected into the subtropics during an upstream anticyclonic wave breaking (AWB) event. STCs forming in association with midlatitude troughs also have a well-defined midlatitude connection, but are not associated with an upstream AWB event. In contrast, STCs forming in association with subtropical disturbances do not have a well

  5. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Progress made in five research programs is described. The subtasks in oil shale study include oil shale process studies and unconventional applications and markets for western oil shale.The tar sand study is on recycle oil pyrolysis and extraction (ROPE) process. Four tasks are described in coal research: underground coal gasification; coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and sold waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts; advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research covers: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; NMR analysis of sample from the ocean drilling program; and menu driven access to the WDEQ hydrologic data management system.

  6. Advancing MEMS Technology Usage through the MUMPS (Multi-User MEMS Processes) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koester, D. A.; Markus, K. W.; Dhuler, V.; Mahadevan, R.; Cowen, A.

    1995-01-01

    In order to help provide access to advanced micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technologies and lower the barriers for both industry and academia, the Microelectronic Center of North Carolina (MCNC) and ARPA have developed a program which provides users with access to both MEMS processes and advanced electronic integration techniques. The four distinct aspects of this program, the multi-user MEMS processes (MUMP's), the consolidated micro-mechanical element library, smart MEMS, and the MEMS technology network are described in this paper. MUMP's is an ARPA-supported program created to provide inexpensive access to MEMS technology in a multi-user environment. It is both a proof-of-concept and educational tool that aids in the development of MEMS in the domestic community. MUMP's technologies currently include a 3-layer poly-silicon surface micromachining process and LIGA (lithography, electroforming, and injection molding) processes that provide reasonable design flexibility within set guidelines. The consolidated micromechanical element library (CaMEL) is a library of active and passive MEMS structures that can be downloaded by the MEMS community via the internet. Smart MEMS is the development of advanced electronics integration techniques for MEMS through the application of flip chip technology. The MEMS technology network (TechNet) is a menu of standard substrates and MEMS fabrication processes that can be purchased and combined to create unique process flows. TechNet provides the MEMS community greater flexibility and enhanced technology accessibility.

  7. Advanced Oxyfuel Boilers and Process Heaters for Cost Effective CO2 Capture and Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Max Christie; Rick Victor; Bart van Hassel; Nagendra Nagabushana; Juan Li; Joseph Corpus; Jamie Wilson

    2007-03-31

    The purpose of the advanced boilers and process heaters program is to assess the feasibility of integrating Oxygen Transport Membranes (OTM) into combustion processes for cost effective CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration. Introducing CO{sub 2} capture into traditional combustion processes can be expensive, and the pursuit of alternative methods, like the advanced boiler/process heater system, may yield a simple and cost effective solution. In order to assess the integration of an advanced boiler/process heater process, this program addressed the following tasks: Task 1--Conceptual Design; Task 2--Laboratory Scale Evaluation; Task 3--OTM Development; Task 4--Economic Evaluation and Commercialization Planning; and Task 5--Program Management. This Final report documents and summarizes all of the work performed for the DOE award DE-FC26-01NT41147 during the period from January 2002-March 2007. This report outlines accomplishments for the following tasks: conceptual design and economic analysis, oxygen transport membrane (OTM) development, laboratory scale evaluations, and program management.

  8. Space options for tropical cyclone hazard mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dicaire, Isabelle; Nakamura, Ryoko; Arikawa, Yoshihisa; Okada, Kazuyuki; Itahashi, Takamasa; Summerer, Leopold

    2015-02-01

    This paper investigates potential space options for mitigating the impact of tropical cyclones on cities and civilians. Ground-based techniques combined with space-based remote sensing instrumentation are presented together with space-borne concepts employing space solar power technology. Two space-borne mitigation options are considered: atmospheric warming based on microwave irradiation and laser-induced cloud seeding based on laser power transfer. Finally technology roadmaps dedicated to the space-borne options are presented, including a detailed discussion on the technological viability and technology readiness level of our proposed systems. Based on these assessments, the space-borne cyclone mitigation options presented in this paper may be established in a quarter of a century.

  9. 1987 Annual Tropical Cyclone Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    intensity is 4.5 (equivaht to 77 ~ (40 m/see) ). % cliwd system has wea&ed by 1.5 “T- numbers’ since tfi.eprevious evahution co?u.hcted 24- hours eurl ?er...WARNING CENTER Joint Typhoon Warning Center Automation Project (JTWC- AP ) LT Brian J. Williams, USN, Typoon Duty Officer, JTWC Automation Officer. A...implementation of the more comprehensive JTWC- AP in FY 89. The JTWC- AP will integrate features of the ATCF with a more complete advanced data base archival

  10. Tropical cyclone rainfall area controlled by relative sea surface temperature

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yanluan; Zhao, Ming; Zhang, Minghua

    2015-01-01

    Tropical cyclone rainfall rates have been projected to increase in a warmer climate. The area coverage of tropical cyclones influences their impact on human lives, yet little is known about how tropical cyclone rainfall area will change in the future. Here, using satellite data and global atmospheric model simulations, we show that tropical cyclone rainfall area is controlled primarily by its environmental sea surface temperature (SST) relative to the tropical mean SST (that is, the relative SST), while rainfall rate increases with increasing absolute SST. Our result is consistent with previous numerical simulations that indicated tight relationships between tropical cyclone size and mid-tropospheric relative humidity. Global statistics of tropical cyclone rainfall area are not expected to change markedly under a warmer climate provided that SST change is relatively uniform, implying that increases in total rainfall will be confined to similar size domains with higher rainfall rates. PMID:25761457

  11. Associating extreme precipitation events to parent cyclones in gridded data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, Ruari; Shaffrey, Len; Gray, Sue

    2015-04-01

    When analysing the relationship of regional precipitation to its parent cyclone, it is insufficient to consider the cyclone's region of influence as a fixed radius from the centre due to the irregular shape of rain bands. A new method is therefore presented which allows the use of objective feature tracking data in the analysis of regional precipitation. Utilising the spatial extent of precipitation in gridded datasets, the most appropriate cyclone(s) may be associated with regional precipitation events. This method is applied in the context of an analysis of the influence of clustering and stalling of extra-tropical cyclones in the North Atlantic on total precipitation accumulations over England and Wales. Cyclone counts and residence times are presented for historical records (ERA-Interim) and future projections (HadGEM2-ES) of extreme (> 98th percentile) precipitation accumulations over England and Wales, for accumulation periods ranging from one day to one month.

  12. Advanced instrumentation for the collection, retrieval, and processing of urban stormwater data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, Jerald B.; Bales, Jerad D.; Young, Wendi S.; ,

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Charlotte and Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, has developed a data-collection network that uses advanced instrumentation to automatically collect, retrieve, and process urban stormwater data. Precipitation measurement and water-quality networks provide data for (1) planned watershed simulation models, (2) early warning of possible flooding, (3) computation of material export, and (4) characterization of water quality in relation to basin conditions. Advantages of advanced instrumentation include remote access to real-time data, reduced demands on and more efficient use of limited human resources, and direct importation of data into a geographical information system for display and graphic analysis.

  13. Advanced Materials and Processing for Drug Delivery: The Past and the Future

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Chan, Hon Fai; Leong, Kam W.

    2012-01-01

    Design and synthesis of efficient drug delivery systems are of vital importance for medicine and healthcare. Materials innovation and nanotechnology have synergistically fueled the advancement of drug delivery. Innovation in material chemistry allows the generation of biodegradable, biocompatible, environment-responsive, and targeted delivery systems. Nanotechnology enables control over size, shape and multi-functionality of particulate drug delivery systems. In this review, we focus on the materials innovation and processing of drug delivery systems and how these advances have shaped the past and may influence the future of drug delivery. PMID:23088863

  14. Advanced materials and processing for drug delivery: the past and the future.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Chan, Hon Fai; Leong, Kam W

    2013-01-01

    Design and synthesis of efficient drug delivery systems are of vital importance for medicine and healthcare. Materials innovation and nanotechnology have synergistically fueled the advancement of drug delivery. Innovation in material chemistry allows the generation of biodegradable, biocompatible, environment-responsive, and targeted delivery systems. Nanotechnology enables control over size, shape and multi-functionality of particulate drug delivery systems. In this review, we focus on the materials innovation and processing of drug delivery systems and how these advances have shaped the past and may influence the future of drug delivery.

  15. Recent advances in computational methods for nuclear magnetic resonance data processing.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xin

    2013-02-01

    Although three-dimensional protein structure determination using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a computationally costly and tedious process that would benefit from advanced computational techniques, it has not garnered much research attention from specialists in bioinformatics and computational biology. In this paper, we review recent advances in computational methods for NMR protein structure determination. We summarize the advantages of and bottlenecks in the existing methods and outline some open problems in the field. We also discuss current trends in NMR technology development and suggest directions for research on future computational methods for NMR.

  16. Internal Influences on Tropical Cyclone Formation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    scales. This is evident in Fig. 2. Another hypothesis in the top-down category is what we call the “ shower - head” theory by Bister and Emanuel...extra-tropical precursors. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor . Soc. (coming soon). Dickinson, M.J., and J. Molinari, 2002: Mixed Rossby-gravity waves and...1998: The formation of Tropical Cyclones. Meteor . Atmos. Phys. 67, 37—69. Harr, P. A., M. S. Kalafsky and R. L. Elsberry, 1996a: Environmental

  17. Objective classification of historical tropical cyclone intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenoweth, Michael

    2007-03-01

    Preinstrumental records of historical tropical cyclone activity require objective methods for accurately categorizing tropical cyclone intensity. Here wind force terms and damage reports from newspaper accounts in the Lesser Antilles and Jamaica for the period 1795-1879 are compared with wind speed estimates calculated from barometric pressure data. A total of 95 separate barometric pressure readings and colocated simultaneous wind force descriptors and wind-induced damage reports are compared. The wind speed estimates from barometric pressure data are taken as the most reliable and serve as a standard to compare against other data. Wind-induced damage reports are used to produce an estimated wind speed range using a modified Fujita scale. Wind force terms are compared with the barometric pressure data to determine if a gale, as used in the contemporary newspapers, is consistent with the modern definition of a gale. Results indicate that the modern definition of a gale (the threshold point separating the classification of a tropical depression from a tropical storm) is equivalent to that in contemporary newspaper accounts. Barometric pressure values are consistent with both reported wind force terms and wind damage on land when the location, speed and direction of movement of the tropical cyclone are determined. Damage reports and derived wind force estimates are consistent with other published results. Biases in ships' logbooks are confirmed and wind force terms of gale strength or greater are identified. These results offer a bridge between the earlier noninstrumental records of tropical cyclones and modern records thereby offering a method of consistently classifying storms in the Caribbean region into tropical depressions, tropical storms, nonmajor and major hurricanes.

  18. Next-Generation Tropical Cyclone Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    goal of this project is to develop a robust and hardened high-resolution air- ocean coupled tropical cyclone (TC) data assimilation and prediction...mechanical interchanges with the underlying ocean and land surfaces, shallow and deep atmospheric convection in the convectively unstable tropical...shown to be able to reproduce rapid intensification in case studies involving complex upper tropospheric and oceanic conditions in a carefully

  19. Advanced information processing system - Status report. [for fault tolerant and damage tolerant data processing for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brock, L. D.; Lala, J.

    1986-01-01

    The Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) is designed to provide a fault tolerant and damage tolerant data processing architecture for a broad range of aerospace vehicles. The AIPS architecture also has attributes to enhance system effectiveness such as graceful degradation, growth and change tolerance, integrability, etc. Two key building blocks being developed by the AIPS program are a fault and damage tolerant processor and communication network. A proof-of-concept system is now being built and will be tested to demonstrate the validity and performance of the AIPS concepts.

  20. Sensitivity of the simulation of tropical cyclone size to microphysics schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Kelvin T. F.; Chan, Johnny C. L.

    2016-09-01

    The sensitivity of the simulation of tropical cyclone (TC) size to microphysics schemes is studied using the Advanced Hurricane Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF). Six TCs during the 2013 western North Pacific typhoon season and three mainstream microphysics schemes-Ferrier (FER), WRF Single-Moment 5-class (WSM5) and WRF Single-Moment 6-class (WSM6)-are investigated. The results consistently show that the simulated TC track is not sensitive to the choice of microphysics scheme in the early simulation, especially in the open ocean. However, the sensitivity is much greater for TC intensity and inner-core size. The TC intensity and size simulated using the WSM5 and WSM6 schemes are respectively higher and larger than those using the FER scheme in general, which likely results from more diabatic heating being generated outside the eyewall in rainbands. More diabatic heating in rainbands gives higher inflow in the lower troposphere and higher outflow in the upper troposphere, with higher upward motion outside the eyewall. The lower-tropospheric inflow would transport absolute angular momentum inward to spin up tangential wind predominantly near the eyewall, leading to the increment in TC intensity and size (the inner-core size, especially). In addition, the inclusion of graupel microphysics processes (as in WSM6) may not have a significant impact on the simulation of TC track, intensity and size.

  1. Les cyclones tropicaux et le changement climatique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, Jean-Claude; Royer, Jean-François; Chauvin, Fabrice

    2008-09-01

    Results from observations and modelling studies, a number of which having been used to support the conclusions of the IPCC fourth assessment report, are presented. For the past and present-day (since 1970) periods, the increase of strong cyclonic activity over the North Atlantic Ocean appears to be in good correlation with increasing temperature of the ocean surface. For regions where observational data are of lesser quality, the increasing trend is less clear. In fact, assessing long-term changes is made difficult due to both the multi-decennial natural variability and the lesser coverage of observations before satellites were made available. Indirect observational data, such as those derived from quantitative estimations of damage caused by tropical cyclones, suffer from many artefacts and do not allow the resolving of the issue either. For the future, only numerical three-dimensional climate models can be used. They nevertheless run presently with too-large grid-sizes, so that their results are still not converging. Various simulations lead indeed to different results, and it is very often difficult to find the physical reasons for these differences. One concludes by indicating some ways through which numerical simulations could be improved, leading to a decrease of uncertainties affecting the prediction of cyclonic activity over the next decades.

  2. DETAIL OF CYCLONE CLASSIFIER, WITH MARCY NO. 86 BALL MILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF CYCLONE CLASSIFIER, WITH MARCY NO. 86 BALL MILL BELOW AND BEHIND IT. STRAIGHT HORIZONTAL PIPE IS SLIME FEED FROM ROD MILL. PIPE OUT TOP OF CYCLONE AND CURVING AT LOWER RIGHT CARRIED FINELY GROUND SLIME TO FLOTATION CONDITIONER TANK. PIPE NOT VISIBLE OUT BOTTOM OF CYCLONE CONVEYED COARSER SLIME TO BALL MILL. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  3. Precipitation of suspended particles in wet-film cyclones

    SciTech Connect

    Val'dberg, A.Y.; Kirsanova, N.S.

    1986-07-01

    The fact that wet and dry mechanical centrifugal dust collectors operate on the same principle allowed the authors to make the calculations for wet cyclones with an equation similar to one used previously. A figure shows that the efficiency of wet cyclones is much higher (20% higher on the average) than that of dry cyclones under the same operating conditions. This improvement is due to a decrease in the secondary discharge of dust particles from the wet wall of the device.

  4. Incorporation of Tropical Cyclone Avoidance Into Automated Ship Scheduling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    TROPICAL CYCLONE AVOIDANCE INTO AUTOMATED SHIP SCHEDULING by Stephen W. Lantz June 2014 Thesis Advisor: Walter DeGrange Co-Advisor: Eva...COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE INCORPORATION OF TROPICAL CYCLONE AVOIDANCE INTO AUTOMATED SHIP SCHEDULING 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6... cyclones (TCs) frequently disrupt these plans, requiring diversions and inefficient steaming speeds. We evaluate the impact of adding anticipated TC

  5. Evolution of Tropical Cyclone Characteristics and Forecast Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    structure, which is important to understanding the motion of the tropical cyclone, is dependent on the growth, evolution, and decay of mesoscale convective ...MCS structural characteristics such as convective and stratiform cloud amounts, percent coverage, and rain rates. Furthermore, co- located microwave...tropical cyclone features (e.g., convective activity, inner-core structure), midlatitude circulation into which the tropical cyclone is moving, and

  6. Remediation of phenol, lignin and paper effluents by advanced oxidative processes.

    PubMed

    Peralta-Zamora, P; Wypych, F; Carneiro, L M; Vaz, S R

    2004-12-01

    The tremendous environmental impact of pulping and bleaching effluents and the relatively low efficiency of the current biological remediation processes represent one of the most important problems of the paper industry. In this work the efficiency of heterogeneous and homogeneous advanced oxidative processes was evaluated toward the degradation of model substrates (phenol and lignin) and the remediation of paper effluents. Best results were found by application of the UV-H2O2 system, with almost total discoloration of both pulping and bleaching effluents and typical COD removal higher than 60%, at reaction times of 120 min. In view of the reported results, and mainly on account of the simplicity of the UV-H2O2 system, shows good potential for the advanced process to remediation of recalcitrant effluents like those studied in this present work.

  7. Analysis of edible oil processing options for the BIO-Plex advanced life support system.

    PubMed

    Greenwalt, C J; Hunter, J

    2000-01-01

    Edible oil is a critical component of the proposed plant-based Advanced Life Support (ALS) diet. Soybean, peanut, and single-cell oil are the oil source options to date. In terrestrial manufacture, oil is ordinarily extracted with hexane, an organic solvent. However, exposed solvents are not permitted in the spacecraft environment or in enclosed human tests by National Aeronautics and Space Administration due to their potential danger and handling difficulty. As a result, alternative oil-processing methods will need to be utilized. Preparation and recovery options include traditional dehulling, crushing, conditioning, and flaking, extrusion, pressing, water extraction, and supercritical extraction. These processing options were evaluated on criteria appropriate to the Advanced Life Support System and BIO-Plex application including: product quality, product stability, waste production, risk, energy needs, labor requirements, utilization of nonrenewable resources, usefulness of by-products, and versatility and mass of equipment to determine the most appropriate ALS edible oil-processing operation.

  8. Analysis of edible oil processing options for the BIO-Plex advanced life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwalt, C. J.; Hunter, J.

    2000-01-01

    Edible oil is a critical component of the proposed plant-based Advanced Life Support (ALS) diet. Soybean, peanut, and single-cell oil are the oil source options to date. In terrestrial manufacture, oil is ordinarily extracted with hexane, an organic solvent. However, exposed solvents are not permitted in the spacecraft environment or in enclosed human tests by National Aeronautics and Space Administration due to their potential danger and handling difficulty. As a result, alternative oil-processing methods will need to be utilized. Preparation and recovery options include traditional dehulling, crushing, conditioning, and flaking, extrusion, pressing, water extraction, and supercritical extraction. These processing options were evaluated on criteria appropriate to the Advanced Life Support System and BIO-Plex application including: product quality, product stability, waste production, risk, energy needs, labor requirements, utilization of nonrenewable resources, usefulness of by-products, and versatility and mass of equipment to determine the most appropriate ALS edible oil-processing operation.

  9. Cyclone Nargis in Myanmar: lessons for public health preparedness for cyclones.

    PubMed

    Guha-Sapir, Debarati; Vogt, Florian

    2009-01-01

    Recent natural disasters such as the 2004 tsunami, 2008 Sichuan earthquake, and the 2008 Myanmar cyclone have killed more than 100,000 people each. Mortality and morbidity associated with natural disasters are a growing concern, especially because extreme climate events are likely to get increasingly frequent. The authors comment on Cyclone Nargis, claiming an extraordinarily high death toll during its devastating track through the Irrawaddy delta in Myanmar on May 2, 2008 and analyze how and why its mortality pattern differs from other typical postdisaster situations. Underlying factors and preconditions are described and the specificity of the Myanmese context is presented. This leads to lessons how excess mortality can be reduced in future high-ranked cyclones, whose recurrence in this region will only be a matter of time.

  10. Differential leaflet mortality may influence biogeochemical cycling following tropical cyclones.

    PubMed

    Marler, Thomas E; Ferreras, Ulysses

    2014-01-01

    Intensity of tropical cyclones is expected to increase in the coming century, and an improved understanding of their influence on biogeochemical cycles would benefit ecologists and conservationists. We studied the November 2013 Typhoon Haiyan damage to observe that numerous examples of partial leaf necrosis on intact leaves of trees in the Cycadaceae and Arecaceae families resulted, leaving behind a copious amount of arboreal dead leaf material attached to live leaves. The decay process of this form of arboreal litter has not been previously studied. When compared with decay of ground litter or detached litter suspended in the canopy, we predict the decay process of this form of arboreal litter will include increased photooxidation, leaching, and comminution by detritivorous insects and mites; but decreased catabolism of organic molecules by saprophytic organisms.

  11. The influence of an atmospheric Two-Way coupled model system on the predictability of extratropical cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Mareike; Thürkow, Markus; Weiher, Stefan; Kirchner, Ingo; Ulbrich, Uwe; Will, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    A general bias of global atmosphere ocean models, and also of the MPI-ESM, is an under-representation of the high latitude cyclone activity and an overestimation of the mid latitude cyclone activity in the North Atlantic, thus representing the extra-tropical storm track too zonal. We will show, that this effect can be antagonized by applying an atmospheric Two-Way Coupling (TWC). In this study we present a newly developed Two-Way Coupled model system, which is based on the MPI-ESM, and show that it is able to capture the mean storm track location more accurate. It also influences the sub-decadal deterministic predictability of extra-tropical cyclones and shows significantly enhanced skill compared to the "uncoupled" MPI-ESM standalone system. This study evaluates a set of hindcast experiments performed with said Two-Way Coupled model system. The regional model COSMO CLM is Two-Way Coupled to the atmosphere of the global Max-Plack-Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) and therefore integrates and exchanges the state of the atmosphere every 10 minutes (MPI-TWC-ESM). In the coupled source region (North Atlantic), mesoscale processes which are relevant for the formation and early-stage development of cyclones are expected to be better represented, and therefore influence the large scale dynamics of the target region (Europe). The database covers 102 "uncoupled" years and 102 Two-Way Coupled years of the recent climate (1960-2010). Results are validated against the ERA-Interim reanalysis. Besides the climatological point of view, the design of this single model ensemble allows for an analysis of the predictability of the first and second leadyears of the hindcasts. As a first step to understand the improved predictability of cyclones, we will show a detailed analysis of climatologies for specific cyclone categories, sorted by season and region. Especially for cyclones affecting Europe, the TWC is capable to counteract the AOGCM's biases in the North Atlantic. Also

  12. Relationship between acid precipitation and three-dimensional transport associated with synoptic-scale cyclones

    SciTech Connect

    Haagenson, P.L.; Lazrus, A.L.; Kuo, Y.H.; Caldwell, G.A.

    1985-09-01

    Field data collected during APEX (Acid Precipitation Experiment) are used in combination with an isentropic trajectory model to analyze the relationship between acid precipitation and three-dimensional transport associated with cyclonic storms. Data are presented which indicate that high acidity in precipitation is often associated with slow transport speed and elevated SO2 concentrations in the dry air feeding into the precipitating regions. Conversely, low acidity is usually related to rapid transit, descending motion, and transport above the atmospheric boundary layer. The results also show that precipitation in the cold sector of a cyclone (in advance of the surface warm front) is often more acidic than that in other sectors of the storm. Four case studies are included to detail some of these meteorological effects. 19 references.

  13. Animation of Flood Potential from Two Australian Tropical Cyclones

    NASA Video Gallery

    Merged precipitation data from NASA-JAXA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and other satellites was used to calculate flood potential withrainfall from Tropical Cyclone Lam and Tropical ...

  14. Hydration of the upper troposphere by tropical cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Eric A.; Rosenlof, Karen H.

    2007-06-01

    Tropical cyclones in the Atlantic and Pacific ocean basins are found to have a significant impact on the amount of water vapor in the tropical and subtropical upper troposphere. Measurements from AIRS on Aqua and MLS on Aura are used to reveal details of the water vapor and temperature structure of the upper troposphere in the vicinity of tropical cyclones that have been unavailable from previous satellite observations. These measurements show that the most intense tropical cyclones (categories 4 and 5) increase average water vapor mixing ratios between 300 and 150 hPa in a roughly 1500 km2 area around the cyclones by 10-50% over their lifetimes. Category 3 and weaker tropical cyclones hydrate the upper troposphere on average roughly half as effectively as the most intense cyclones. The most intense cyclones also increase average water vapor in the upper troposphere by 2-10% in the entire ocean basin in which they occur. This amount of hydration of the tropical upper troposphere suggests that tropical cyclones play a role in the water vapor budget, and associated climate feedbacks, in a region much larger than the cyclone vicinity.

  15. Post Cyclone (PoC): An innovative way to reduce the emission of fines from industrial cyclones

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, M.B.; Luning, P.E.; Hoffmann, A.C.; Plomp, A.; Beumer, M.I.L.

    1997-07-01

    A novel approach for reducing the emission of industrial-scale cyclones of particles smaller than 10 {micro}m is presented. Utilizing the strong swirl already present in the vortex finder of a conventional cyclone, the escaped dust from the cyclone is collected in a so-called Post Cyclone (PoC), which is a cylindrical annular shell located on top of the vortex finder. Experiments were conducted in a cyclone larger than the usual laboratory range (diameter = 0.4 m) with different configurations of the PoC and spanning a range of operating conditions. Flow patterns and collection efficiencies for the cyclone and the PoC, both individually and in combination, were calculated and compared with experimental data. Both the experiments and simulations indicate a decrease in emission of particles of 1--3 {micro}m by around 30%, rising with particle size to around 50% for 5 {micro}m particles.

  16. Beyond Homophily: A Decade of Advances in Understanding Peer Influence Processes

    PubMed Central

    Brechwald, Whitney A.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews empirical and theoretical contributions to a multidisciplinary understanding of peer influence processes in adolescence over the past decade. Five themes of peer influence research from this decade were identified, including a broadening of the range of behaviors for which peer influence occurs, distinguishing the sources of influence, probing the conditions under which influence is amplified/attenuated (moderators), testing theoretically based models of peer influence processes (mechanisms), and preliminary exploration of behavioral neuroscience perspectives on peer influence. This review highlights advances in each of these areas, underscores gaps in current knowledge of peer influence processes, and outlines important challenges for future research. PMID:23730122

  17. Appraisal of recent theories to understand cyclogenesis pathways of tropical cyclone Madi (2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajasree, V. P. M.; Kesarkar, Amit P.; Bhate, Jyoti N.; Umakanth, U.; Singh, Vikas; Harish Varma, T.

    2016-08-01

    The present study aims to examine the new understanding of cyclogenesis by analyzing the genesis sequence of formation of a very severe cyclonic storm Madi (6-13 December 2013) that occurred over the Bay of Bengal. We have generated a high-resolution (18 km, 6 km, and 2 km) analysis using three-dimensional variational data assimilation technique and Weather Research and Forecasting model. The genesis sequence of Madi cyclone is analyzed using the concepts in the marsupial theory and other theories of tropical cyclone formation. Major results are as follows: the developed analysis is found useful for tracking the movement of westward moving parent disturbance from 15 days prior to the genesis; identifying developed pouch region in the Lagrangian frame of reference; understanding the evolution of the pouch and convection within the pouch region and for the study of intensification inside the pouch region. Also, large-scale priming of environment concurs with the hypotheses of the marsupial theory of tropical cyclogenesis. The analysis of dynamical and thermodynamical processes within the pouch region showed gradual moistening, uplifting of moisture, diabatic heating causing buoyant convection in the vorticity-rich environment followed by vortex tube stretching, development of convection, heavy precipitation, strengthening of lower level convergence, and hence spin-up during a day or two preceding the genesis of Madi cyclone. In general, it is concluded that intensification within pouch region during the cyclogenesis phase followed the marsupial paradigm and bottom-up mechanism.

  18. Advanced oxidation process using hydrogen peroxide/microwave system for solubilization of phosphate.

    PubMed

    Liao, Ping Huang; Wong, Wayne T; Lo, Kwang Victor

    2005-01-01

    An advanced oxidation process (AOP) combining hydrogen peroxide and microwave heating was used for the solubilization of phosphate from secondary municipal sludge from an enhanced biological phosphorus removal process. The microwave irradiation is used as a generator agent of oxidizing radicals as well as a heating source in the process. This AOP process could facilitate the release of a large amount of the sludge-bound phosphorus from the sewage sludge. More than 84% of the total phosphorous could be released at a microwave heating time of 5 min at 170 degrees C. This innovative process has the potential of being applied to simple sludge treatment processes in domestic wastewater treatment and to the recovery of phosphorus from the wastewater.

  19. Pretreatment of whole blood using hydrogen peroxide and UV irradiation. Design of the advanced oxidation process.

    PubMed

    Bragg, Stefanie A; Armstrong, Kristie C; Xue, Zi-Ling

    2012-08-15

    A new process to pretreat blood samples has been developed. This process combines the Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) treatment (using H(2)O(2) and UV irradiation) with acid deactivation of the enzyme catalase in blood. A four-cell reactor has been designed and built in house. The effect of pH on the AOP process has been investigated. The kinetics of the pretreatment process shows that at high C(H(2)O(2),t=0), the reaction is zeroth order with respect to C(H(2)O(2)) and first order with respect to C(blood). The rate limiting process is photon flux from the UV lamp. Degradation of whole blood has been compared with that of pure hemoglobin samples. The AOP pretreatment of the blood samples has led to the subsequent determination of chromium and zinc concentrations in the samples using electrochemical methods.

  20. Advanced Amine Solvent Formulations and Process Integration for Near-Term CO2 Capture Success

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Kevin S.; Searcy, Katherine; Rochelle, Gary T.; Ziaii, Sepideh; Schubert, Craig

    2007-06-28

    This Phase I SBIR project investigated the economic and technical feasibility of advanced amine scrubbing systems for post-combustion CO2 capture at coal-fired power plants. Numerous combinations of advanced solvent formulations and process configurations were screened for energy requirements, and three cases were selected for detailed analysis: a monoethanolamine (MEA) base case and two “advanced” cases: an MEA/Piperazine (PZ) case, and a methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) / PZ case. The MEA/PZ and MDEA/PZ cases employed an advanced “double matrix” stripper configuration. The basis for calculations was a model plant with a gross capacity of 500 MWe. Results indicated that CO2 capture increased the base cost of electricity from 5 cents/kWh to 10.7 c/kWh for the MEA base case, 10.1 c/kWh for the MEA / PZ double matrix, and 9.7 c/kWh for the MDEA / PZ double matrix. The corresponding cost per metric tonne CO2 avoided was 67.20 $/tonne CO2, 60.19 $/tonne CO2, and 55.05 $/tonne CO2, respectively. Derated capacities, including base plant auxiliary load of 29 MWe, were 339 MWe for the base case, 356 MWe for the MEA/PZ double matrix, and 378 MWe for the MDEA / PZ double matrix. When compared to the base case, systems employing advanced solvent formulations and process configurations were estimated to reduce reboiler steam requirements by 20 to 44%, to reduce derating due to CO2 capture by 13 to 30%, and to reduce the cost of CO2 avoided by 10 to 18%. These results demonstrate the potential for significant improvements in the overall economics of CO2 capture via advanced solvent formulations and process configurations.